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Sample records for aloe

  1. Aloe vera

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, A.D.; Penneys, N.S.

    1988-04-01

    We review the scientific literature regarding the aloe vera plant and its products. Aloe vera is known to contain several pharmacologically active ingredients, including a carboxypeptidase that inactivates bradykinin in vitro, salicylates, and a substance(s) that inhibits thromboxane formation in vivo. Scientific studies exist that support an antibacterial and antifungal effect for substance(s) in aloe vera. Studies and case reports provide support for the use of aloe vera in the treatment of radiation ulcers and stasis ulcers in man and burn and frostbite injuries in animals. The evidence for a potential beneficial effect associated with the use of aloe vera is sufficient to warrant the design and implementation of well-controlled clinical trials. 27 references.

  2. Aloe vera in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, G; Kumar, G Senthil; Muruganandan, J; Prasad, T Srinivasa

    2014-10-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has been used for thousands of years. The health benefits of aloe vera is well known and the dental uses of this plant is multiple. Interest is gathering among researchers regarding the use of this plant. Studies have proved the antiseptic, anti inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal properties of aloe vera and the use of this plant is proved beneficial. This plant is proved to be non allergic and very good in building up the immune system. Aloe vera is gaining popularity in dentistry as it is completely natural and there is no side effects being reported with its use. This paper gives an overview of the uses of this miracle plant and its uses in dentistry. PMID:25478478

  3. Aloe Vera in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, G Senthil; Muruganandan, J; Prasad, T Srinivasa

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant which has been used for thousands of years. The health benefits of aloe vera is well known and the dental uses of this plant is multiple. Interest is gathering among researchers regarding the use of this plant. Studies have proved the antiseptic, anti inflammatory, antiviral and antifungal properties of aloe vera and the use of this plant is proved beneficial. This plant is proved to be non allergic and very good in building up the immune system. Aloe vera is gaining popularity in dentistry as it is completely natural and there is no side effects being reported with its use. This paper gives an overview of the uses of this miracle plant and its uses in dentistry. PMID:25478478

  4. ALOS-2 initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankaku, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) was launched from Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket successfully on 24th May 2014. ALOS-2 carries the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) as the state-of-the-art L-band SAR system which succeeds to PALSAR onboard ALOS. PALSAR-2 uses almost whole bandwidth allocated for L-band active sensor of Earth Exploration Satellites Service specified by the Radio Regulation in order to realize the high resolution observation, and also, it transmits more than 6 kW power for lower Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero using 180 TRMs driven by Gallium Nitride (GaN) amplifier which is the first use in space. Furthermore, because ALOS-2 carries the SAR system only, PALSAR-2 antenna can be mounted under the satellite body. It enables to observe right-/left-looking observation by satellite maneuvering. And the high accuracy orbit control to maintain the satellite within 500 m radius tube against the reference orbit enables high coherence for the InSAR processing. Using these new technologies, ALOS-2 has been operating to fulfill the mission requirements such as disaster monitoring and so on. This document introduces the initial result of ALOS-2 from the first year operation.

  5. ALOE VERA: A SHORT REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Surjushe, Amar; Vasani, Resham; Saple, D G

    2008-01-01

    Aloe vera is a natural product that is now a day frequently used in the field of cosmetology. Though there are various indications for its use, controlled trials are needed to determine its real efficacy. The aloe vera plant, its properties, mechanism of action and clinical uses are briefly reviewed in this article. PMID:19882025

  6. Precise Orbit Determination for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Ryo; Nakamura, Shinichi; Kudo, Nobuo; Katagiri, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has been developed to contribute to the fields of mapping, precise regional land coverage observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Because the mounted sensors need high geometrical accuracy, precise orbit determination for ALOS is essential for satisfying the mission objectives. So ALOS mounts a GPS receiver and a Laser Reflector (LR) for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). This paper deals with the precise orbit determination experiments for ALOS using Global and High Accuracy Trajectory determination System (GUTS) and the evaluation of the orbit determination accuracy by SLR data. The results show that, even though the GPS receiver loses lock of GPS signals more frequently than expected, GPS-based orbit is consistent with SLR-based orbit. And considering the 1 sigma error, orbit determination accuracy of a few decimeters (peak-to-peak) was achieved.

  7. Benefits of Aloe vera in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Mangaiyarkarasi, S. P.; Manigandan, T.; Elumalai, M.; Cholan, Priyanka K.; Kaur, Roopam Pal

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) is a plant that belongs to Liliaceae family. The name Aloe derives from the Arabic word “Alloeh” meaning shining bitter substance while “vera” in Latin means true. It contains various minerals and vitamins. It has got various properties such as immunomodulatory, antiviral and antiinflammatory in nature. A. vera can play a significant role in dentistry in treatment of lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, alveolar osteitis, periodontitis, etc. PMID:26015726

  8. [Mechanisms of therapeutic action of aloe].

    PubMed

    Anuszewska, Elżbieta L

    2015-01-01

    Genus Aloe was traditionally applied for the medicinal practice over thousands of years and used for treatment of wide range of medical indication from stomach disorders to cancer. Fresh leaves of aloe contain various groups of chemical compounds such as: glycoproteins, polysaccharides, anthraquinone derivatives, vitamins, minerals, aminoacids and many others, which show multidirectional therapeutic action. These active components are responsible for immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory and antimicrobial effects of aloe Recent data confirmed that aloe possess a unique therapeutic profile and has positive potential for medical application. PMID:26181152

  9. EDOS Data Capture for ALOS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLemore, Bruce; Cordier, Guy R.; Wood, Terri; Gamst, Harek

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, NASA's Earth Sciences Missions Operations (ESMO) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) directed the Earth Observing System Data Operations System (EDOS) project to provide a prototype system to assess the feasibility of high rate data capture for the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) spacecraft via NASA's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). The key objective of this collaborative effort between NASA and JAXA was to share science data collected over North and South America previously unavailable due to limitations in ALOS downlink capacity. EDOS provided a single system proof-of-concept in 4 months at White Sands TDRS Ground Terminal The system captured 6 ALOS events error-free at 277 Mbps and delivered the data to the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) within 3 hours (May/June '08). This paper describes the successful rapid prototyping approach which led to a successful demonstration and agreement between NASA and JAXA for operational support. The design of the operational system will be discussed with emphasis on concurrent high-rate data capture, Level-O processing, real-time display and high-rate delivery with stringent latency requirements. A similar solution was successfully deployed at Svalbard, Norway to support the Suomi NPP launch (October 2011) and capture all X-band data and provide a 30-day backup archive.

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yun; Xu, Juan; Hu, Qiuhui

    2003-12-17

    The polysaccharide and flavonoid concentrations of two-, three-, and four-year-old Aloe vera were determined, and their antioxidant activities were evaluated compared to BHT and alpha-tocopherol by the DPPH radical scavenging method and the linoleic acid system at 100 microg of soluble solids per mL of ethanol. The results showed that three-year-old Aloe vera contained significantly higher levels of polysaccharides and flavonoids than two- and four-year-old Aloe vera, and no significant differences in flavonoid levels were found between three- and four-year-old Aloe vera. All the aloe extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of Aloe vera extracts and reference compounds followed the order: three-year-old Aloe vera > BHT > four-year-old Aloe vera > alpha-tocopherol > two-year-old Aloe vera. The three-year-old extract exhibited the strongest radical scavenging activity of 72.19%, which is significantly higher than that of BHT at 70.52% and alpha-tocopherol at 65.20%. These data suggest that the growth stage plays a vital role in the composition and antioxidant activity of Aloe vera. PMID:14664546

  11. ALOS-2 current status and operation plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Shinichi; Kankaku, Yukihiro; Osawa, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) carries the state-of-the-art L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) called PALSAR-2 which succeeds to the ALOS / PALSAR. PALSAR-2 will have enhanced performance in both high resolution and wide swath compared to PALSAR. It will allow comprehensive monitoring of disasters. Wider bandwidth and shorter revisit time will give better conference for INSAR data analysis such as crustal deformation and deforestation. The Proto Flight Test (PFT) of ALOS-2 has been conducted since June 2012. In parallel, the PFT of PALSAR-2 has been conducted since March 2012. As of August 2013, ALOS-2 system has completed the interface test with ground system and is preparing for the Vibration test, Acoustic test and Electromagnetic Compatibility test. After completing these tests, ALOS-2 will be transported to JAXA Tanegashima Space Center for launch. The initial commissioning phase of ALOS-2 is planned for six months which are comprised of LEOP (Launch and Early Orbit Phase) and initial Cal/Val phase. During the LEOP, all components will be checked with direct downlink via Xband and with data relay communication via JAXA's DRTS (Data Relay Test Satellite). During the initial Cal/Val phase, the PALSAR-2 data will be verified and calibrated by using Corner Reflectors and Geometric Calibrator at ground. The data acquisition during the commissioning phase will be consistent with the systematic acquisition strategy prepared for the routine operation. This paper describes the current status and operation plan of ALOS-2.

  12. Anticancer potential of aloes: antioxidant, antiproliferative, and immunostimulatory attributes.

    PubMed

    Harlev, Eli; Nevo, Eviatar; Lansky, Ephraim P; Ofir, Rivka; Bishayee, Anupam

    2012-06-01

    Aloe is a genus of medicinal plants with a notable history of medical use. Basic research over the past couple of decades has begun to reveal the extent of Aloe's pharmaceutical potential, particularly against neoplastic disease. This review looks at Aloe, both the genus and the folk medicine, often being called informally "aloes", and delineates their chemistry and anticancer pharmacognosy. Structures of key compounds are provided, and their pharmacological activities reviewed. Particular attention is given to their free radical scavenging, antiproliferative, and immunostimulatory properties. This review highlights major research directions on aloes, reflecting the enormous potential of natural sources, and of the genus Aloe in particular, in preventing and treating cancer. PMID:22516934

  13. Aloe vera leaf gel: a review update.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, T; Dweck, A C

    1999-12-15

    Research since the 1986 review has largely upheld the therapeutic claims made in the earlier papers and indeed extended them into other areas. Treatment of inflammation is still the key effect for most types of healing but it is now realized that this is a complex process and that many of its constituent processes may be addressed in different ways by different gel components. A common theme running though much recent research is the immunomodulatory properties of the gel polysaccharides, especially the acetylated mannans from Aloe vera, which are now a proprietary substance covered by many patents. There have also been, however, persistent reports of active glycoprotein fractions from both Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens. There are also cautionary investigations warning of possible allergic effects on some patients. Reports also describe antidiabetic, anticancer and antibiotic activities, so we may expect to see a widening use of aloe gel. Several reputable suppliers produce a stabilized aloe gel for use as itself or in formulations and there may be moves towards isolating and eventually providing verified active ingredients in dosable quantities PMID:10624859

  14. Gamma irradiation improves the antioxidant activity of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi Lee, Eun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Sik Lee, Seung; Hyun Hong, Sung; Cho, Jae-Young; Yeoup Chung, Byung

    2012-08-01

    Aloe has been widely used in food products, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics because of its aromatic and therapeutic properties. In the present study, the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel were gamma-irradiated from 10 to 100 kGy. After gamma irradiation, the color of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel changed to red; this color persisted up to 40 kGy but disappeared above 50 kGy. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated the production of a new, unknown compound (m/z=132) after gamma irradiation of the ethanolic extracts of aloe gel. The amount of this unknown compound increased with increasing irradiation up to 80 kGy, and it was degraded at 100 kGy. Interestingly, it was found that gamma irradiation significantly increased the antioxidant activity, as measured by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-radical scavenging capacity. The antioxidant activity of aloe extract was dramatically increased from 53.9% in the non-irradiated sample to 92.8% in the sample irradiated at 40 kGy. This strong antioxidant activity was retained even at 100 kGy. These results indicate that gamma irradiation of aloe extract can enhance its antioxidant activity through the formation of a new compound. Based on these results, increased antioxidant activity of aloe extracts by gamma rays can be applied to various industries, especially cosmetics, foodstuffs, and pharmaceuticals.

  15. Aloe vera: It's effect on gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Ajmera, Neha; Chatterjee, Anirban; Goyal, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant that has maintained its popularity over the course of time. It is widely known for its medicinal uses in wound healing, as an analgesic, and for its anti-inflammatory properties. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of aloe vera mouthwash on plaque-induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients who were diagnosed with plaque-induced gingivitis were included in the study. They were divided into three groups with fifteen patients in each group. Group 1 was asked to rinse with 10 ml of aloe vera mouthwash twice daily for three months. Group 2 were treated with scaling only. Group 3 patients were asked to rinse with aloe vera mouthwash and scaling was done. The clinical changes were evaluated with Loe and Silness gingival index (1963) and Muhlemann and Son's Sulcus bleeding index (1971) at baseline, after one month and three months, respectively. Results: The data obtained was compared statistically. The paired ‘t’ test was done for intragroup comparison and one-way analysis of variance with a post hoc Tukey test was used for intergroup comparison. The data was obtained at the baseline, end of first month, and end of the third month. The result suggested reduction in gingival inflammation in all the three groups, but it was more in the aloe vera mouthwash and scaling group. Hence, it was concluded that aloe vera had a significant anti-inflammatory property. Thus, it can be used as an adjunct to mechanical therapy for treating plaque-induced gingivitis. PMID:24174720

  16. Technology of eye drops containing aloe (Aloe arborescens Mill.--Liliaceae) and eye drops containing both aloe and neomycin sulphate.

    PubMed

    Kodym, A; Marcinkowski, A; Kukuła, H

    2003-01-01

    Eye drops made of aloe are a sterile, aqueous extract of fresh leaves of Aloe arborescens Mill., containing necessary additives and neomycin sulphate. The aim of the studies was to establish the technology of eye drops containing biologically active aloe substances and those containing both chemical constituents of aloe and neomycin sulphate. Within the studies, the formulary content and the way of preparing eye drops were determined, criteria were defined and methods of qualitative assessment of drops were proposed. On the basis of the proposed analytical methods, the physicochemical and microbiological stability of the eye drops stored at a temperature of 20-25 degrees C was studied. As the criteria of qualitative assessment of the eye drops, the following analyses were considered: sterility, appearance of the eye drops (clarity), pH, osmotic pressure, density, viscosity, TLC analysis, content of aloenin and aloin, studies of anti-microbial activity of neomycin in the drops, and preservative efficiency of thiomersal in the eye drops. The studies showed that the additives such as: sodium chloride, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine diacetate and digluconate, phenylmercuric borate and Nipagins M and P could not be used to prepare the eye drops because they were involved in pharmaceutical interactions with chemical constituents of aloe in the eye drops. The eye drops containing: aqueous extract of fresh leaves of aloe, boric acid, thiomersal, sodium pyrosulphite, disodium EDTA, beta-phenylethyl alcohol and neomycin sulphate, both freshly prepared and after two years of storage, met the requirements of the Polish Pharmacopoeia (PPh V) mentioned in the monograph Guttae ophthalmicae. They were sterile, clear, their osmotic pressure approximated the osmotic pressure of lacrimal fluid and they were characterized by appropriate pH. Aloenin in the drops was much more stable than aloin. Neomycin after two years of storage retained almost 98% of its starting antimicrobial

  17. The effects of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) coating on the quality of shrimp during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Mousavinejad, Mohsen S

    2015-10-01

    Green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) is an important aquaculture species worldwide. Its perishable nature, however, needs preservation methods to ensure its quality and shelf life. In this study, the effects of Aloe vera coating on the quality and shelf life of shrimps during cold storage were investigated. Shrimp samples were dipped in aqueous solutions containing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% Aloe vera gel before storage at 4 °C for 7 days. Drip loss, pH, TBA, TVB-N, and texture of both the control and treated shrimp samples were analyzed periodically. There were significant differences between coated shrimps and the control group in all parameters evaluated. Aloe vera at 75% and 100% concentrations was able to prevent lipid oxidation and drip loss properly; however, coatings containing 25% Aloe vera did not have the desired effects on these characteristics. Shrimps coated with higher concentrations of Aloe vera had better textural properties during cold storage. Results also indicated the positive effects of Aloe vera coating on the sensory quality of shrimp. PMID:26396412

  18. Meeting report: First National Meeting on Aloe, April 20-21, 2013, Isernia, Italy. New perspectives in Aloe research: from basic science to clinical application.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Raffaele; Laudato, Massimiliano; Borrelli, Francesca

    2013-09-01

    Aloe preparations have maintaining their popularity over the of course time. Aloe latex is used for its laxative effects; aloe gel is used topically for skin ailments and internally for variety of disturbances; aloe extract is potentially useful for cancer. PMID:24273879

  19. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations. PMID:26997709

  20. Simultaneous Estimation of Aloe Emodin and Emodin from Rheum emodi, Cassia alata and Aloes by HPTLC

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P.

    2015-01-01

    A simple, precise, specific, accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method was developed for simultaneous estimation of aloe emodin and emodin from medicinal plants like Rheum emodi (Rhubarb), Barbados aloes (dried juice of Aloe barbadensis leaf) and Cassia alata (Candle bush). Thin layer chromatographic aluminum plates pre-coated with silica gel 60 F254 was used as the stationary phase for chromatographic separation of the drugs. Toluene:ethyl acetate:formic acid (10:2:1 v/v/v) was selected as mobile phase and analysis was carried out in absorbance mode at iso-absorptive wavelength of 263 nm. This method shows good resolution for both drugs with retention factor 0.37±0.03 and 0.55±0.03 for aloe emodin and emodin, respectively. The regression analysis data indicated good linear relationship for the calibration plots for aloe emodin and emodin in the range of 300 - 800 ng/spot and 150 - 400 ng/spot and regression coefficient was 0.9993 and 0.9994, respectively. Validation of the method was performed according to International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines for following parameters: Accuracy, precision, limit of detection, linearity, limit of quantification, robustness and specificity. In conclusion, the developed method was found to be rapid, simple, reliable and specific for the identification and quantitation of these anthraquinones in medicinal plants and marketed formulations. PMID:26997709

  1. Topical Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Extract Does Not Accelerate the Oral Wound Healing in Rats.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Fernanda Hack; Salvadori, Gabriela; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Magnusson, Alessandra; Danilevicz, Chris Krebs; Meurer, Luise; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-07-01

    The effect of topical application of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) extract was assessed on the healing of rat oral wounds in an in vivo model using 72 male Wistar rats divided into three groups (n = 24): control, placebo and Aloe Vera (0.5% extract hydroalcoholic). Traumatic ulcers were caused in the dorsum of the tongue using a 3-mm punch tool. The Aloe Vera and placebo group received two daily applications. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 5, 10 and 14 days. Clinical analysis (ulcer area and percentage of repair) and histopathological analysis (degree of re-epithelialization and inflammation) were performed. The comparison of the differences between scores based on group and experimental period, both in quantitative and semi-quantitative analyses, was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The significance level was 5%. On day 1, all groups showed predominantly acute inflammatory infiltrate. On day 5, there was partial epithelialization and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. On the days 10 and 14 total repair of ulcers was observed. There was no significant difference between groups in the repair of mouth ulcers. It is concluded that treatment using Aloe Vera as an herbal formulation did not accelerate oral wound healing in rats. PMID:25891093

  2. Aloe vera as cure for lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Patil, Bharati A; Bhaskar, Hebbar Pragati; Pol, Jyoti S; Sodhi, Amandeep; Madhu, Asha V

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a difficult condition to treat because of its chronic nature. Various treatment modalities have resulted in partial regression of symptoms but not a complete cure. Aloe vera, a product with minimal adverse effects, can be tried to treat this disorder. A 38-year-old male patient diagnosed with lichen planus of the skin and the oral mucosa was suffering from severe pain and a burning sensation intraorally and pruritus of the skin lesions. Considering the extensive involvement, an herbal alternative was considered. The patient was prescribed aloe vera juice and gel application for two months. At the nine-month follow-up, the patient was symptom-free and totally cured of the intraoral and skin lesions. PMID:24245466

  3. Aloe vera as a functional ingredient in foods.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Darias Martín, Jacinto; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2010-04-01

    The main scientific discoveries on Aloe vera published mainly in the last three decades are presented in this work. After describing Aloe from a botanical point of view, the papers related with the chemical composition of different parts of the leaf of Aloe, particularly those in which the gel is described and are presented in a synthetic manner. The chemical analyses reveal that Aloe gel contains mannose polymers with some glucose and other sugars, among which the most important is Acemannan. Besides these, other components such as glycoproteins, enzymes, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals are described. Different factors also affecting the chemical composition of the gel, such as species and variety, climatic and soil conditions, cultivation methods, processing and preservation, are enumerated and discussed. On the other hand, the main therapeutic applications have been revised and the possible damaging effects of Aloe are also commented upon. A special emphasis is placed on the biologically active compounds or groups of compounds responsible for the therapeutic applications and which are their action mechanisms. The paper concludes that more research is needed to confirm the therapeutic and beneficial effects and to definitively clarify the myth surrounding Aloe vera. A general view on the problem of the commercialization and establishment of the quality and safety of Aloe products in the food industry has been offered here. The main points and European regulations that need to be considered regarding the quality control of prepared Aloe products are presented in this paper. PMID:20301017

  4. Arizona Lesson Observation and Evaluation (ALOE): Design Test Edition, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fargo, J. Steven; And Others

    The Arizona Lesson Observation and Evaluation (ALOE) system of evaluating teaching is presented. ALOE was developed from Arizona adaptations of the Georgia Teacher Performance Assessment Instruments and, with G. Taylor's "Functional Elements Analysis of Teaching Skills" (FEATS), forms an integrated observation package which allows teaching to be…

  5. Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mei, Nan

    2016-04-01

    The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions. Recently, Aloe vera whole leaf extract showed clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats, and was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects, including the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse clinical effects of Aloe vera whole leaf extract, gel, and latex. PMID:26986231

  6. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers. PMID:25282702

  7. Forced Degradation Studies of Aloe Emodin and Emodin by HPTLC.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sindhu; Jadhav, Aruna P; Kadam, V J

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinones are natural phenolic compounds, which are reported to act as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-cancer, laxative and antitumor agents. They are abudant in plants like candle bush, aloes, cascara bark and rhubarb. The present work was to observe the effect of different forced degradation conditions by high-performance thin layer chromatography on potential markers i.e. aloe emodin and emodin. Both aloe emodin and emodin were subjected to various forced degradation studies such as oxidation, acid and alkaline hydrolysis, photolysis, hydrolytic and thermal degradation. Aloe emodin, was more susceptible to acid hydrolysis and degradation was found to a lesser extent under thermal degradation whereas significant degradation was observed under acid hydrolysis, lesser extent was observed under alkali hydrolysis for emodin. Forced degradation studies on aloe emodin and emodin gives information about its storage and intrinsic stability conditions considering the advanced pharmaceutical aspects of formulation. PMID:26997712

  8. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Carlos; Handford, Michael; Pauly, Markus; Dupree, Paul; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported. PMID:27454873

  9. Structural Modifications of Fructans in Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe Vera) Grown under Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Carlos; Cardemil, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) has a Crassulaceae acid metabolism which grants the plant great tolerance to water restrictions. Carbohydrates such as acemannans and fructans are among the molecules responsible for tolerating water deficit in other plant species. Nevertheless, fructans, which are prebiotic compounds, have not been described nor studied in Aloe vera, whose leaf gel is known to possess beneficial pharmaceutical, nutritional and cosmetic properties. As Aloe vera is frequently cultivated in semi-arid conditions, like those found in northern Chile, we investigated the effect of water deficit on fructan composition and structure. For this, plants were subjected to different irrigation regimes of 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% field capacity (FC). There was a significant increase in the total sugars, soluble sugars and oligo and polyfructans in plants subjected to water deficit, compared to the control condition (100% FC) in both leaf tips and bases. The amounts of fructans were also greater in the bases compared to the leaf tips in all water treatments. Fructans also increase in degree of polymerization with increasing water deficit. Glycosidic linkage analyses by GC-MS, led to the conclusion that there are structural differences between the fructans present in the leaves of control plants with respect to plants irrigated with 50% and 25% FC. Therefore, in non-stressed plants, the inulin, neo-inulin and neo-levan type of fructans predominate, while in the most stressful conditions for the plant, Aloe vera also synthesizes fructans with a more branched structure, the neofructans. To our knowledge, the synthesis and the protective role of neo-fructans under extreme water deficit has not been previously reported. PMID:27454873

  10. Precise Global DEM Generation by ALOS PRISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadono, T.; Ishida, H.; Oda, F.; Naito, S.; Minakawa, K.; Iwamoto, H.

    2014-04-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) generated the global digital elevation/surface model (DEM/DSM) and orthorectified image (ORI) using the archived data of the Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, nicknamed "Daichi"), which was operated from 2006 to 2011. PRISM consisted of three panchromatic radiometers that acquired along-track stereo images. It had a spatial resolution of 2.5 m in the nadir-looking radiometer and achieved global coverage, making it a suitable potential candidate for precise global DSM and ORI generation. In the past 10 years or so, JAXA has conducted the calibration of the system corrected standard products of PRISM in order to improve absolute accuracies as well as to validate the high-level products such as DSM and ORI. In this paper, we introduce an overview of the global DEM/DSM dataset generation project, including a summary of ALOS and PRISM, in addition to the global data archive status. It is also necessary to consider data processing strategies, since the processing capabilities of the level 1 standard product and the high-level products must be developed in terms of both hardware and software to achieve the project aims. The automatic DSM/ORI processing software and its test processing results are also described.

  11. Design, formulation and evaluation of Aloe vera chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. Results: One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. Conclusion: After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected. PMID:26605214

  12. Aloe-emodin-induced apoptosis in human gastric carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Hsuan; Lin, Kai-Yuan; Chang, Chun-Chao; Fang, Chia-Lang; Lin, Chih-Ping

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anticancer effect of aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone compound present in the leaves of Aloe vera, on two distinct human gastric carcinoma cell lines, AGS and NCI-N87. We demonstrate that aloe-emodin induced cell death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Noteworthy is that the AGS cells were generally more sensitive than the NCI-N87 cells. Aloe-emodin caused the release of apoptosis-inducing factor and cytochrome c from mitochondria, followed by the activation of caspase-3, leading to nuclear shrinkage and apoptosis. In addition, exposure to aloe-emodin suppressed the casein kinase II activity in a time-dependent manner and was accompanied by a reduced phosphorylation of Bid, a downstream substrate of casein kinase II and a pro-apoptotic molecule. These preclinical studies suggest that aloe-emodin represents a suitable and novel chemotherapeutic drug candidate for the treatment of human gastric carcinoma. PMID:17637488

  13. Protective effect of Aloe vera on polymicrobial sepsis in mice.

    PubMed

    Yun, Nari; Lee, Chan-Ho; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2009-06-01

    Sepsis is an acute life-threatening clinical condition and remains the major cause of death in intensive care units. The primary pathophysiologic event central to the septic response is an overwhelming activation of the inflammatory system and countervailing response from the anti-inflammatory system. However, the cause of this perturbation has yet to be elucidated. In this study, we report that Aloe vera therapeutically reverses the lethality induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a clinically relevant model of sepsis. The administration of Aloe vera ameliorated the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, as evidenced by the serum levels of biochemical parameters and histological changes. In order to investigate the pharmacological mechanism of Aloe vera, the levels of the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6 were determined by ELISA at various time points. The increases in the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 were attenuated by Aloe vera.In vivo administration of Aloe vera also markedly enhanced bacterial clearance. Our findings suggest that Aloe vera could be a potential therapeutic agent for the clinical treatment of sepsis. PMID:19298839

  14. Formulation and Characterization of Aceclofenac -Aloe vera Transemulgel.

    PubMed

    Raju, Y Prasanna; Haritha, K; Satyanarayana, Rao P; Vandana, K R; Bindu, D Thushara; Vinesha, V; Chowdary, V Harini

    2015-01-01

    The present research was aimed to formulate aceclofenac transemulgel using Aloe vera as gel base. The prepared formulations were subjected to physical characterization, in-vitro and in-vivo assessment. Aceclofenac, a hydrophobic potential non steroidal anti inflammatory drug, causes ulceration upon chronic oral administration, could be formulated into transemulgel to enhance therapeutic efficacy and to lower the unwanted side effects. The transemulgel was prepared from aqueous Aloe vera gel and aceclofenac emulsion. The prepared transemulgel was evaluated for its pH, viscosity, drug content, skin irritation, in-vitro diffusion and accelerated stability studies. The prepared aceclofenac-Aloe vera tranemulgel and commercial aceclofenac gel were subjected to pharmacodynamic studies in albino rats of Wistar strain employing carrageenan induced left hind paw edema method to assess the anti-inflammatory effect. The transemulgel showed a pH of 6.78 and viscosity of 18 cps. In-vitro diffusion data revealed better permeation characteristics. Topical application of formulation found no skin irritation. Stability study has proved the integrity of the formulation. The prepared aceclofenac Aloe vera transemulgel showed better in-vitro drug release when compared with the commercial aceclofenac gel formulation. Anti-inflammatory activity in treated rats showed the significant paw volume reduction at p<0.05 compared with that of control. Thus, it is concluded that aceclofenac, a potential non steroidal anti inflammatory drug, showed high therapeutic efficiency when formulated into transemulgel using aqueous Aloe vera as gel base. PMID:25751659

  15. Aloe vera: a systematic review of its clinical effectiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Vogler, B K; Ernst, E

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of aloe vera is being promoted for a large variety of conditions. Often general practitioners seem to know less than their patients about its alleged benefits. AIM: To define the clinical effectiveness of aloe vera, a popular herbal remedy in the United Kingdom. METHOD: Four independent literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, and the Cochrane Library. Only controlled clinical trials (on any indication) were included. There were no restrictions on the language of publication. All trials were read by both authors and data were extracted in a standardized, pre-defined manner. RESULTS: Ten studies were located. They suggest that oral administration of aloe vera might be a useful adjunct for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients as well as for reducing blood lipid levels in patients with hyperlipidaemia. Topical application of aloe vera is not an effective preventative for radiation-induced injuries. It might be effective for genital herpes and psoriasis. Whether it promotes wound healing is unclear. There are major caveats associated with all of these statements. CONCLUSION: Even though there are some promising results, clinical effectiveness of oral or topical aloe vera is not sufficiently defined at present. PMID:10885091

  16. Comparative performance of ALOS PALSAR polarization bands and its combination with ALOS AVNIR-2 data for land cover classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, C. K.; Abdullah, K.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.

    2014-02-01

    Microwave Remote Sensing data have been widely used for land cover classification in our environment. In this study, ALOS PALSAR polarization bands were used to identify land cover features in three study areas in Malaysia. The study area consists of Penang, Perak and Kedah. The aims of this research are to investigate the performance of ALOS PALSAR datasets which are assessed independently and combination of these data with ALOS AVNIR-2 for land cover classification. Standard supervised classification method Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) was applied. Various land cover classes were identified and assessed using the Transformed Divergence (TD) separability measures. The PALSAR data training areas were chosen based on the information obtained from ALOS AVNIR-2 datasets. The original data gave very poor results in identifying land cover classes due to the presence of immense speckle. The extraction and use of mean texture measures was found to be very advantageous when evaluating the separability among the different land covers. Hence, mean texture was capable to provide higher classification accuracies as compared to the original radar. The highest overall accuracy was achieved by combining the radar mean texture with ALOS AVNIR-2 data. This study proved that the land cover of Penang, Perak, and Kedah can be mapped accurately using combination of optical and radar data.

  17. Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling and antioxidant activity of Aloe vera ( Aloe barbadensis Miller) in different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sarah; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Sun Yeou; Kim, Jinwan; Jin, Yoojeong; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2012-11-14

    Metabolite profiling of four different-sized Aloe vera plants was performed using gas chromatography-ion trap-mass spectrometry (GC-IT-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with multivariate analysis. Amino acids, sugars, and organic acids related to growth and development were identified by sizes. In particular, the relative contents of glucose, fructose, alanine, valine, and aspartic acid increased gradually as the size of the aloe increased. Anthraquinone derivatives such as 7-hydroxy-8-O-methylaloin, 7-hydroxyaloin A, and 6'-malonylnataloins A and B increased gradually, whereas chromone derivatives decreased continuously as the size of the aloe increased. The A30 aloe (size = 20-30 cm) with relatively high contents of aloins A and B, was suggested to have antioxidant components showing the highest antioxidant activity among the four different sizes of aloe. These data suggested that MS-based metabolomic approaches can illuminate metabolite changes associated with growth and development and can explain their change of antioxidant activity. PMID:23050594

  18. Synthesis and antitumor activity of natural compound aloe emodin derivatives.

    PubMed

    Thimmegowda, Naraganahalli R; Park, Chanmi; Shwetha, Bettaswamigowda; Sakchaisri, Krisada; Liu, Kangdong; Hwang, Joonsung; Lee, Sangku; Jeong, Sook J; Soung, Nak K; Jang, Jae H; Ryoo, In-Ja; Ahn, Jong S; Erikson, Raymond L; Kim, Bo Y

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we have synthesized novel water soluble derivatives of natural compound aloe emodin 4(a-j) by coupling with various amino acid esters and substituted aromatic amines, in an attempt to improve the anticancer activity and to explore the structure-activity relationships. The structures of the compounds were determined by (1) H NMR and mass spectroscopy. Cell growth inhibition assays revealed that the aloe emodin derivatives 4d, 4f, and 4i effectively decreased the growth of HepG2 (human liver cancer cells) and NCI-H460 (human lung cancer cells) and some of the derivatives exhibited comparable antitumor activity against HeLa (Human epithelial carcinoma cells) and PC3 (prostate cancer cells) cell lines compared to that of the parent aloe emodin at low micromolar concentrations. PMID:25323822

  19. Disaster monitoring by ALOS and follow-on mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Takashi

    2006-12-01

    Advanced Land Observing Satellite(ALOS) was successfuly launched on January 24th 2006 at Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket. The Satellite mass is about 4 tons of weight, Sun synchronous sub-recurrent orbit, repetation cycle is 46 days (sub cycle 2days) and 5 years mission operation. ALOS has four missions such as Cartography, Regional Observation, Resource Survey and Diasater monitoring. After the satelllite launch, there were several opportunities to observe natural disasters in the world.. ALOS will be distribute disaster information through international framework such as Sentinel Asia and International Charter on Disaster Monitoring. The 'Sentinel Asia' initiative was established by space agencies and disaster authorities in the Asia and Oceania, to use Remote Sensing information and Web-GIS data-delivery technologies in support of disaster management in the Asia-Pacific region. Sentinel Asia is 'voluntary and best-efforts-basis initiatives' led by the Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) to share the disaster information in the region using the 'Digital Asia' (Web-GIS) platform. International Charter is the membership framework to operate the satellite in case of disaster occurs. and distribute the data and information free of charge. ALOS is nominated both activities to contribute disaster monitoring and mitigation. This paper describes the introduction of ALOS and acquired disaster images to indicate its potential use for disaster monitoring. The design of follow on mission is indispensable to promise continuous monitoring of natural disaster. This paper also describes the initial idea of ALOS follow on mission.

  20. ALOS PALSAR and UAVSAR Soil Moisture in Field Campaigns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of our ongoing analysis of L-band radar mapping of soil moisture we are evaluating the role that ALOS PALSAR data can play in the development of radar retrieval algorithms for the future NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite. Differences in configurations must be assessed to det...

  1. Oral Aloe vera as a treatment for osteoarthritis: a summary.

    PubMed

    Cowan, David

    2010-06-01

    While pain relief is a basic tenet of health care, pain is under-treated in the UK (Davies and Mcvicar, 2000) and this issue remains unresolved. This paper suggests that oral Aloe vera could be used in the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP), particularly that caused by osteoarthritis (OA). Despite being used as arthritis treatment for centuries (Yoo et al, 2008), evidence of effectiveness of Aloe vera is anecdotal or from small studies. The perceived benefits of prescribing Aloe vera for OA may be twofold: it has utility as an anti-inflammatory agent and also as a prophylactic against the gastrointestinal irritant effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Long-term, randomized, controlled studies are still needed to address the lack of evidence informing optimum prescribing of pain medication for people with OA (Cowan, 2007). There is no reason that so called 'nutraceutical' agents should not be subjected to the same rigorous randomized, controlled, double-blind trials as other 'mainstream' drugs. Therefore, it is appropriate to ask whether NSAID treatment and side effects can be improved by the addition of oral Aloe vera. Thus, we may then be in a more informed position to resolve the ongoing 'Pandemonium over Painkillers' (Cowan, 2007). PMID:20679979

  2. Osmo-air drying of aloe vera gel cubes.

    PubMed

    Pisalkar, P S; Jain, N K; Jain, S K

    2011-04-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) cubes of 12.5 × 12.5 × 12.5 mm thick were osmosed for 4 h in sugar syrup of 30, 40 and 50°Brix concentration and temperatures of 30 and 50°C at constant syrup to fruit ratio of 5:1. Osmosed and unosmosed aloe vera samples were hot air dried at 50, 60, 70 and 80°C with constant air velocity of 1.5 m/s. The water loss, solid gain and convective drying behaviour were recorded during experiments. It was observed that water loss and solid gain ranged from 39.2 to 71.3 and 2.7 to 6.3%, respectively during osmo-drying. The moisture diffusivity varied from 2.9 to 8.0 × 10(-9) m²/s and 2.7 to 4.6 × 10(-9) m²/s during air drying of osmosed and unosmosed aloe vera samples, respectively. Drying air temperature and osmosis as pre-treatment affected the water loss, solid gain, diffusivity at -p ≤ 0.01. PMID:21350589

  3. The Genus Aloe: Phytochemistry and Therapeutic Uses Including Treatments for Gastrointestinal Conditions and Chronic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cock, I E

    2015-01-01

    Plants of the genus Aloe have perhaps the longest recorded history of medicinal usage and are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Aloe vera, Aloe ferox, Aloe arborescens and Aloe perryi are the best known and most widely used, but many other species are also used for their therapeutic properties. The Aloes have been used since ancient times, particularly for the treatment of microbial infections, gastrointestinal disorders and inflammatory conditions. In addition to their myriad uses in traditional therapeutics, the Aloes have also been used as components of cosmetic formulations, and in the food and beverage industries. Despite their wide acceptance, studies from different laboratories often report wide variations in the therapeutic bioactivities from within the same Aloe species, even when the same extraction procedures are used. Furthermore, leaves from individual Aloe plants within the same species may have widely varying levels of the bioactive phytochemicals. Phytochemical analyses have shown that many Aloe species contain various carbohydrate polymers (notably glucomannans) and a range of other low molecular weight phenolic compounds including alkaloids, anthraquinones, anthrones, benzene and furan derivatives, chromones, coumarins, flavonoids, phytosterols, pyrans and pyrones. There has been a wealth of information published about the phytochemistry and therapeutic potential of the Aloes (especially Aloe vera). Much of this has been contradictory. Intra- and interspecies differences in the redox state of the individual Aloe components and in the ratios of these components may occur between individual plants. These factors may all affect the physiological properties of Aloe extracts. Due to the structure and chemical nature of many of the Aloe phytochemicals, it is likely that many of the reported medicinal properties are due to antioxidant or prooxidant effects. The antioxidant/prooxidant activities of many Aloe

  4. Microbiological stabilization of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) gel by high hydrostatic pressure treatment.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Juan E; Guanoquiza, Manuel I; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Vega-Galvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Pérez-Won, Mario

    2012-09-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (300, 400 and 500 MPa for 1 and 3 min at 20 °C) on the microbiological shelf-life and microbiota composition of Aloe vera gel during 90 days of storage at 4 °C was investigated. Aerobic mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, as well as moulds and yeasts, were enumerated after HHP treatment and through cold storage. Randomly selected isolates from the count plates were identified by standard methods and the API identification system. Results showed that HHP treatment at or over 400 MPa for 3 min were effective to keep the microbial counts to undetectable levels during the whole storage period, and consequently the microbiological shelf-life of A. vera gel was extended for more than 90 days at 4 °C. The microbiota in the untreated A. vera gel was dominated by Gram-negative bacteria (mostly Rahnella aquatilis) and yeasts (mostly Rhodotorula mucilaginosa). In contrast, Gram-positive bacteria tentatively identified as Arthrobacter spp. and Micrococcus/Kocuria spp. were the predominant microorganisms in samples pressurized at 300 MPa for 1 and 3 min, while Bacillus megaterium predominating in samples treated at 400 MPa for 1 min. At 400 MPa for 3 min and above, the microbial growth was completely suppressed during at least 90 days; however, viable spore-formers were detected by enrichment. PMID:22884172

  5. Development of Aloe vera based edible coating for tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Athmaselvi, K. A.; Sumitha, P.; Revathy, B.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of formulated Aloe vera based edible coating on mass loss, colour, firmness, pH, acidity, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid and lycopene on the coated tomato was investigated. The tomato in control showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 19 days, based on the mass loss, colour changes, accelerated softening and ripening. On the contrary, the coating on tomatoes delayed the ripening and extended the shelf life up to 39 days. The physiological loss in weight was 7.6 and 15.1%, firmness was 36 and 46.2 N on 20th day for control and coated tomatoes, respectively. From the results, it was concluded that the use of Aloe vera based edible coating leads to increased tomato shelf-life.

  6. Memristors in the electrical network of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tucket, Clayton; Forde-Tuckett, Victoria; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    A memristor is a resistor with memory, which is a non-linear passive two-terminal electrical element relating magnetic flux linkage and electrical charge. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Aloe vera by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Aloe vera is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the K+ channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants. PMID:25763487

  7. Memristors in the electrical network of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tucket, Clayton; Forde-Tuckett, Victoria; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-05-01

    A memristor is a resistor with memory, which is a non-linear passive two-terminal electrical element relating magnetic flux linkage and electrical charge. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Aloe vera by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Aloe vera is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the K(+) channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K(+) channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants. PMID:24806097

  8. Processing, food applications and safety of aloe vera products: a review.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, Kulveer Singh; Khatkar, Bhupender Singh

    2011-10-01

    Aloe vera is used for vigor, wellness and medicinal purposes since rigvedic times. Health benefits of aloe vera include its application in wound healing, treating burns, minimizing frost bite damage, protection against skin damage from x-rays, lung cancer, intestinal problems, increasing high density lipoprotein (HDL), reducing low density lipoprotein (LDL), reducing blood sugar in diabetics, fighting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), allergies and improving immune system. Phytochemistry of aloe vera gel has revealed the presence of more than 200 bioactive chemicals. Aloe vera gel is extracted from its leaves and appropriate processing techniques are needed for stabilization as well as preparation of the end products. The industries involved in processing of aloe vera need Government surveillance to ensure that the aloe vera products have beneficial bio-active chemicals as per claims of the manufacturers. Regulatory bodies also need to look into the safety and toxicological aspects of aloe vera products for food applications. The claims made for medicinal value of aloe products should be supported by authentic and approved clinical trial data. It is presumptive to mention that nutraceutical claims of aloe products made by the manufacturers are numerous. However, approved clinical evidences are available only for lowering LDL, increasing HDL, decreasing blood glucose level, treating genital herpes and psoriases. PMID:23572784

  9. Gaia16alo is a Type II SN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, M.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Mattila, S.; Harrison, D.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Blagorodnova, N.

    2016-05-01

    Gaia16alo (aka PS16cct) was observed using the robotic Liverpool Telescope + SPRAT (R~350; 400-800 nm) on the night of 2016 May 6. The spectrum was compared to a set of templates using SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024), and we find a best match to a range of Type II SNe at z=0.03.

  10. Physicochemical characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesize using Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuponiyi, Abiola; Kassama, Lamin; Kukhtareva, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using different biological methods is gaining recognition due to their multiple applications. Although, several physical and chemical methods have been used for the synthesis and stabilizing of AgNPs, yet, a green chemistry method is preferable because it is cost effective and environmentally friendly. The synthesis was done using Aloe Vera (AV) extract because it has chemical compounds such as "Antrokinon" that are known for its antibacterial, antivirus and anticancer properties. We hypothesize that AV extract can produce a stable nanoparticles within the 100 nm range and be biologically active. The biological compounds were extracted from AV skin with water and ethanol which was used as the reduction agent for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The biological extract and AgNO3 were blended and heated to synthesize AgNPs. The reaction process was monitored using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Fourier Transfer Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the characterization of biological compounds and their substituent groups before and after the reaction process. Dynamic Light scattering (DLS) method was used to characterize particle size of AgNPs and their biomolecular stability. Results showed that biological compounds such as aliphatic amines, alkenes (=C-H), alkanes (C-H), alcohol (O-H) and unsaturated esters(C-O), which has an average particle size of 109 and 215.8 nm and polydispersity index of 0.451 and 0.375 for ethanol and water extract, respectively. According to TEM measurements the size of AgNPs are in the range 5-20 nm The results suggested that ethanol derived AgNPs contained higher yield of organic compounds, thus has better solubility power than water. Ag NPs can be used to control salmonella in poultry industry.

  11. [Effect of biogenic stimulators--aloe extract and biotrite--on lipid peroxidation processes in saliva in inflammatory periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    volik, N A; Beloklitskaia, G F; Stefanov, A V; Makarenko

    1999-01-01

    The influence of biostimulators of vegetative origin, such as aloes and biotritis, on the process of lipid peroxidation in parodontium tissues, was studied. Biotritis has a more considerable parodontoprotective effect than aloes. PMID:10726317

  12. Composite wound dressings of pectin and gelatin with aloe vera and curcumin as bioactive agents.

    PubMed

    Tummalapalli, Mythili; Berthet, Morgane; Verrier, Bernard; Deopura, B L; Alam, M S; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera and curcumin loaded oxidized pectin-gelatin (OP-Gel) matrices were used as antimicrobial finishes on nonwoven cotton fabrics to produce composite wound care devices. The drug release characteristics of the biocomposite dressings indicated that curcumin is released through a biphasic mechanism - erosion of the polymeric matrix, followed by diffusion, while aloe vera is released upon leaching of the polymeric matrix. A 50/50 composition of aloe vera/curcumin was used to fabricate OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin dressings. However, contrary to our expectations, OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin dressings exhibited lesser antimicrobial activity compared to OP-Gel-Aloe and OP-Gel-Curcumin dressings. The cytocompatibility of the fabricated dressings was evaluated using NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast cells. OP-Gel-Aloe treated fibroblasts had the highest viability, with the matrices providing a substrate for good cell attachment and proliferation. On the other hand, OP-Gel-Curcumin and OP-Gel-Aloe Curcumin seemed to have induced apoptosis in NIH3T3 cells. In vivo wound healing analysis was carried out using an excisional splint wound model on C57BL/6J mice. OP-Gel-Aloe treated wounds exhibited very rapid healing with 80% of the wound healing in just 8 days. Furthermore, aloe vera exerted a strong anti-inflammatory effect and prominent scar prevention. Histological examination revealed that an ordered collagen formation and neovascularization could be observed along with migration of nuclei. Therefore, OP-Gel-Aloe biocomposite dressings are proposed as viable materials for effective wound management. PMID:26529192

  13. Emodin and Aloe-Emodin Suppress Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation through ER α Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pao-Hsuan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chen, Mei-Chih; Lee, Yueh-Tsung; Yue, Chia-Herng; Wang, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Ho

    2013-01-01

    The anthraquinones emodin and aloe-emodin are abundant in rhubarb. Several lines of evidence indicate that emodin and aloe-emodin have estrogenic activity as phytoestrogens. However, their effects on estrogen receptor α (ER α ) activation and breast cancer cell growth remain controversial. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects and molecular mechanisms of emodin and aloe-emodin on breast cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that both emodin and aloe-emodin are capable of inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation by downregulating ER α protein levels, thereby suppressing ER α transcriptional activation. Furthermore, aloe-emodin treatment led to the dissociation of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and ER α and increased ER α ubiquitination. Although emodin had similar effects to aloe-emodin, it was not capable of promoting HSP90/ER α dissociation and ER α ubiquitination. Protein fractionation results suggest that aloe-emodin tended to induce cytosolic ER α degradation. Although emodin might induce cytosolic ER α degradation, it primarily affected nuclear ER α distribution similar to the action of estrogen when protein degradation was blocked. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that emodin and aloe-emodin specifically suppress breast cancer cell proliferation by targeting ER α protein stability through distinct mechanisms. These findings suggest a possible application of anthraquinones in preventing or treating breast cancer in the future. PMID:23864887

  14. Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Radha, Maharjan H.; Laxmipriya, Nampoothiri P.

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (蘆薈 lú huì) is well known for its considerable medicinal properties. This plant is one of the richest natural sources of health for human beings coming. The chemistry of the plant has revealed the presence of more than 200 different biologically active substances. Many biological properties associated with Aloe species are contributed by inner gel of the leaves. Most research has been centralized on the biological activities of the various species of Aloe, which include antibacterial and antimicrobial activities of the nonvolatile constituents of the leaf gel. Aloe species are widely distributed in the African and the eastern European continents, and are spread almost throughout the world. The genus Aloe has more than 400 species but few, such as A. vera, Aloe ferox, and Aloe arborescens, are globally used for trade. A. vera has various medicinal properties such as antitumor, antiarthritic, antirheumatoid, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. In addition, A. vera has also been promoted for constipation, gastrointestinal disorders, and for immune system deficiencies. However, not much convincing information is available on properties of the gel. The present review focuses on the detailed composition of Aloe gel, its various phytocomponents having various biological properties that help to improve health and prevent disease conditions. PMID:26151005

  15. Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Radha, Maharjan H; Laxmipriya, Nampoothiri P

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera ( lú huì) is well known for its considerable medicinal properties. This plant is one of the richest natural sources of health for human beings coming. The chemistry of the plant has revealed the presence of more than 200 different biologically active substances. Many biological properties associated with Aloe species are contributed by inner gel of the leaves. Most research has been centralized on the biological activities of the various species of Aloe, which include antibacterial and antimicrobial activities of the nonvolatile constituents of the leaf gel. Aloe species are widely distributed in the African and the eastern European continents, and are spread almost throughout the world. The genus Aloe has more than 400 species but few, such as A. vera, Aloe ferox, and Aloe arborescens, are globally used for trade. A. vera has various medicinal properties such as antitumor, antiarthritic, antirheumatoid, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. In addition, A. vera has also been promoted for constipation, gastrointestinal disorders, and for immune system deficiencies. However, not much convincing information is available on properties of the gel. The present review focuses on the detailed composition of Aloe gel, its various phytocomponents having various biological properties that help to improve health and prevent disease conditions. PMID:26151005

  16. Efficacy of dietary aloe vera supplementation on hepatic cholesterol and oxidative status in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Beong Ou; Seong, Nak Sul; Choue, Ryo Won; Kim, Jong Dai; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Kim, Sun Yeou; Yu, Byung Pal; Jeon, Tae Il; Park, Dong Ki

    2003-08-01

    In the current study, we show the anti-oxidative and hypocholesterol effects of aloe vera in the liver. Male specific pathogen-free (SPF) Fischer 344 rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: Group A (control) was fed test chow without aloe supplementation; Group B was fed a diet containing a 1% (per weight basis) freeze-dried aloe filet; Group C was fed a diet containing a 1% (per weight basis) charcoal-processed, freeze-dried aloe filet; and Group D was fed a diet containing a charcoal-processed freeze-dried, whole leaf aloe (0.02% per weight basis) in the drinking water. Our results show that a life-long intake of aloe had superior anti-oxidative action against lipid peroxidation in vivo, as indicated by reduced levels of hepatic phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide. Additional anti-oxidative action was evidenced by enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity in groups B and C. Furthermore, our study revealed that hepatic cholesterol significantly increased in the control group during aging in contrast to the aloe-supplemented groups, which showed approximately 30% lower cholesterol levels, thereby an effective hypocholesteremic efficacy. In this report, we suggest that life-long dietary aloe supplementation suppresses free radical-induced oxidative damage and age-related increases in hepatic cholesterol. PMID:14598919

  17. [Identification of Aloe species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis].

    PubMed

    Shioda, Hiroko; Satoh, Kanako; Nagai, Fumiko; Okubo, Tomoko; Seto, Takako; Hamano, Tomoko; Kamimura, Hisashi; Kano, Itsu

    2003-08-01

    Juice and integument of leaves of 3 Aloe species, Aloe vera, A. ferox and A. africana, are not allowed to be used as food according to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law in Japan. On the other hand, whole leaves of A. arborescens can be used as food. The present study was designed to distinguish Aloe species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. DNA was isolated from fresh and dried leaves of the 4 Aloe species. Five out of 32 different 10-mer primers examined were useful for analysis. By comparison of the characteristic bands of PCR products on agarose gel, it was possible to distinguish the 4 species. Thus, the botanical species of Aloe in commercial food products can be identified by RAPD analysis. PMID:14606430

  18. Biocontrol potential of Trichoderma harzianum isolate T-aloe against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuli; Ge, Honglian; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Ning; Wang, Yucheng; Chen, Long; Ji, Xiue; Li, Chengwei

    2016-03-01

    Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is a major disease of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). At present, we revealed the three-way interaction between Trichoderma harzianum T-aloe, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants in order to demonstrate biocontrol mechanism and evaluate biocontrol potential of T-aloe against S. sclerotiorum in soybean. In our experiments, T-aloe inhibited the growth of S. sclerotiorum with an efficiency of 56.3% in dual culture tests. T-aloe hyphae grew in parallel or intertwined with S. sclerotiorum hyphae and produced hooked contact branches, indicating mycoparasitism. Plate tests showed that T-aloe culture filtrate inhibited S. sclerotiorum growth with an inhibition efficiency of 51.2% and sclerotia production. T-aloe pretreatment showed growth-promoting effect on soybean plants. The activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase increased, and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as the superoxide radical (O2(-)) content in soybean leaves decreased after T-aloe pretreatment in response to S. sclerotiorum pathogen challenge. T-aloe treatment diminished damage caused by pathogen stress on soybean leaf cell membrane, and increased chlorophyll as well as total phenol contents. The defense-related genes PR1, PR2, and PR3 were expressed in the leaves of T-aloe-treated plants. In summary, T-aloe displayed biocontrol potential against S. sclerotiorum. This is the first report of unraveling biocontrol potential of Trichoderma Spp. to soybean sclerotinia stem rot from the three-way interaction between the biocontrol agent, pathogen S. sclerotiorum and soybean plants. PMID:26774866

  19. Assessment of Anti HSV-1 Activity of Aloe Vera Gel Extract: an In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Moshaverinia, Maryam; Motamedifar, Mohammad; Alyaseri, Montazer

    2016-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection is one of the most common and debilitating oral diseases; yet, there is no standard topical treatment to control it. The extract of Aloe vera leaves has been previously reported to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and also antiviral effects. There is no data on anti-Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity of Aloe vera gel. Purpose This study aimed to evaluate the anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in Vero cell line. Materials and Method In this study, gel extraction and cytotoxicity of various increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel (0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5%) was evaluated in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) containing 2% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Having been washed with phosphate buffered saline, 50 plaque-forming units (PFU) of HSV-1 was added to each well. After 1 hour of incubation at 37°C, cell monolayers in 24 well plates were exposed to different increasing concentrations of Aloe vera gel. The anti-HSV-1 activity of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations was assessed by plaque reduction assays. Data were analyzed by using One-way ANOVA. Results The cytotoxicity assay showed that Aloe vera in prearranged concentrations was cell-compatible. The inhibitory effect of various concentrations of Aloe vera was observed one hour after the Vero cell was infected with HSV-1. However, there was no significant difference between two serial concentrations (p> 0.05). One-way ANOVA also revealed no significant difference between the groups. The findings indicated a dose-dependent antiviral effect of Aloe vera. Conclusion The findings showed significant inhibitory effect of 0.2-5% Aloe vera gel on HSV-1 growth in Vero cell line. Therefore, this gel could be a useful topical treatment for oral HSV-1 infections without any significant toxicity. PMID:26966709

  20. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle using Aloe barbadensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thappily, Praveen; Shiju, K.

    2014-10-01

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by simple visible light irradiation using aloe barbadensis leaf extract as reducing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis was used for confirmation of the successful formation of nanoparticles. Investigated the effect of light irradiation time on the light absorption of the nanoparticles. It is observed that upto 25 minutes of light irradiation, the absorption is linearly increasing with time and after that it becomes saturated. Finally, theoretically fitted the time-absorption graph and modeled a relation between them with the help of simulation software.

  1. Image Quality Evalutation on ALOS/PRISM and AVNIR-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukaida, Akira; Imoto, Naritoshi; Tadono, Takeo; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kawamoto, Sachi

    2008-11-01

    Image quality evaluation on ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) / PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) and AVNIR-2 (Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer 2) has been carried out during operational phase. This is a report on result of evaluation for image quality in terms of MTF (Modulation Transfer Function) and SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) for both PRISM and AVNIR-2. SNR of PRISM image has been increased following the up dating of radiometric correction and implementation of JPEG noise reduction filter. The result was in range of specification for both sensors.

  2. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticle using Aloe barbadensis

    SciTech Connect

    Thappily, Praveen E-mail: shiiuvenus@gmail.com; Shiju, K. E-mail: shiiuvenus@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by simple visible light irradiation using aloe barbadensis leaf extract as reducing agent. UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis was used for confirmation of the successful formation of nanoparticles. Investigated the effect of light irradiation time on the light absorption of the nanoparticles. It is observed that upto 25 minutes of light irradiation, the absorption is linearly increasing with time and after that it becomes saturated. Finally, theoretically fitted the time-absorption graph and modeled a relation between them with the help of simulation software.

  3. A biochemical and cellular approach to explore the antiproliferative and prodifferentiative activity of Aloe arborescens leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Di Luccia, Blanda; Manzo, Nicola; Vivo, Maria; Galano, Eugenio; Amoresano, Angela; Crescenzi, Elvira; Pollice, Alessandra; Tudisco, Raffaella; Infascelli, Federico; Calabrò, Viola

    2013-12-01

    Aloe arborescens Miller, belonging to the Aloe genus (Liliaceae family), is one of the main varieties of Aloe used worldwide. Although less characterized than the commonest Aloe vera, Aloe arborescens is known to be richer in beneficial phytotherapeutic, anticancer, and radio-protective properties. It is commonly used as a pharmaceutical ingredient for its effect in burn treatment and ability to increase skin wound healing properties. However, very few studies have addressed the biological effects of Aloe at molecular level. The aim of the research is to provide evidences for the antiproliferative properties of Aloe arborescens crude leaf extract using an integrated proteomic and cellular biological approach. We analysed the composition of an Aloe arborescens leaf extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. We found it rich in Aloe-emodin, a hydroxylanthraquinone with known antitumoral activity and in several compounds with anti-oxidant properties. Accordingly, we show that the Aloe extract has antiproliferative effects on several human transformed cell lines and exhibits prodifferentiative effects on both primary and immortalized human keratinocyte. Proteomic analysis of whole cell extracts revealed the presence of proteins with a strong antiproliferative and antimicrobial activity specifically induced in human keratinocytes by Aloe treatment supporting its application as a therapeutical agent. PMID:23418125

  4. Potential antineoplastic effects of Aloe-emodin: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruie; Zhang, Jinming; Hu, Yangyang; Wang, Shengpeng; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2014-01-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE), a bioactive anthraquinone derived from both Aloe vera and Rheum officinale, has recently been demonstrated to have various pharmacological activities. With the widespread popularity of natural products, such as antineoplastic drugs, AE has attracted much attention due to its remarkable antineoplastic activity on multiple tumor cells involving multi-channel mechanisms, including the disruption of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, anti-metastasis, antiangiogenic, and strengthening of immune function. Experimental data have revealed AE as a potentially potent anti-cancer candidate. Despite this, the pharmaceutical application of AE is still in a fledging period as most research has concentrated on the elucidation of the molecular mechanism of action of existing treatments, rather than the development of novel formulations. Therefore, the present review summarizes the potential toxicity, molecular mechanism, pharmacokinetic characteristics, and pharmaceutical development of AE as an antineoplastic agent. This is based on its physicochemical properties, in an attempt to encourage further research on AE as a potential anti-cancer agent. PMID:24707862

  5. Acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Sierra-García, Gerardo Daniel; Castro-Ríos, Rocío; González-Horta, Azucena; Lara-Arias, Jorge; Chávez-Montes, Abelardo

    2014-08-01

    In this review, the composition, actions, and clinical applications of acemannan in medicine and its effectiveness as an adjunct in the treatment of diseases are presented. An electronic literature search was performed up to January 2014 for studies and research presenting data to validate the efficacy of acemannan. A total of 50 titles, abstracts and full-text studies were selected and reviewed. Acemannan has various medicinal properties like osteogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial, which accelerate healing of lesions. Also, acemannan is known to have antiviral and antitumor activities in vivo through activation of immune responses. It was concluded that Aloe vera has immense potential as a therapeutic agent. Even though the plant is a promising herb with various clinical applications in medicine and dentistry, more clinical research needs to be undertaken to validate and explain the action of acemannan in healing, so that it can be established in the field of medicine and a more precise understanding of the biological activities of these is required to develop Aloe vera as a pharmaceutical source. PMID:25233608

  6. Aloe vera Induced Biomimetic Assemblage of Nucleobase into Nanosized Particles

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Arun; Zubair, Swaleha; Sherwani, Asif; Owais, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biomimetic nano-assembly formation offers a convenient and bio friendly approach to fabricate complex structures from simple components with sub-nanometer precision. Recently, biomimetic (employing microorganism/plants) synthesis of metal and inorganic materials nano-particles has emerged as a simple and viable strategy. In the present study, we have extended biological synthesis of nano-particles to organic molecules, namely the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), using Aloe vera leaf extract. Methodology The 5-FU nano- particles synthesized by using Aloe vera leaf extract were characterized by UV, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The size and shape of the synthesized nanoparticles were determined by TEM, while crystalline nature of 5-FU particles was established by X-ray diffraction study. The cytotoxic effects of 5-FU nanoparticles were assessed against HT-29 and Caco-2 (human adenocarcinoma colorectal) cell lines. Results Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopic techniques confirmed nano-size of the synthesized particles. Importantly, the nano-assembled 5-FU retained its anticancer action against various cancerous cell lines. Conclusion In the present study, we have explored the potential of biomimetic synthesis of nanoparticles employing organic molecules with the hope that such developments will be helpful to introduce novel nano-particle formulations that will not only be more effective but would also be devoid of nano-particle associated putative toxicity constraints. PMID:22403622

  7. Binding of the bioactive component Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Feng; Xie, Ling; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Tang, Ya-Lin

    2008-11-01

    Aloe dihydroisocoumarin, one of new components isolated from Aloe vera, can scavenge reactive oxygen species. In order to explore the mechanism of drug action at a molecular level, the binding of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by using fluorescence, ultraviolet (UV), circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, and molecular dynamic docking for the first time. We observed a quenching of fluorescence of HSA in the presence of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin and also analyzed the quenching results using the Stern-Volmer equation and obtained high affinity binding to HSA. An isoemissive point at 414 nm is seen, indicating that the quenching of HSA fluorescence depends on the formation of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin-HSA complex, which is further confirmed by fluorescence dynamic result. From the CD and FT-IR results, it is apparent that the interaction of Aloe dihydroisocoumarin with HSA causes a conformational change of the protein, with the gain of α-helix, β-sheet and random coil stability and the loss of β-turn content. Data obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, CD, and FTIR experiments along with the docking studies suggest that Aloe dihydroisocoumarin binds to residues located in subdomain IIA of HSA.

  8. Quality change of apple slices coated with Aloe vera gel during storage.

    PubMed

    Song, Hye-Yeon; Jo, Wan-Shin; Song, Nak-Bum; Min, Sea C; Song, Kyung Bin

    2013-06-01

    Fresh-cut apples are easily susceptible to browning and microbial spoilage. In this study, an edible coating prepared from Aloe vera gel containing antibrowning solution was applied to preserve the quality of fresh-cut apples during storage. Fresh-cut apples were treated with both an Aloe vera gel and an Aloe vera gel containing 0.5% cysteine and then stored at 4 °C for 16 d. The color, firmness, weight loss, soluble solid content, titratable acidity, microbial analysis, and sensory evaluation were analyzed during storage. Fresh-cut apples coated with the Aloe vera gel showed delayed browning and reduced weight loss and softening compared to the control. The Aloe vera gel coating was also effective in reducing the populations of the total aerobic bacteria and yeast and molds. In particular, Aloe vera gel containing 0.5% cysteine was most effective in delaying browning and the reduction of microbial populations among the treatments. These results suggest that an Aloe vera gel coating can be used for maintaining the quality of fresh-cut apples. PMID:23647574

  9. The stimulation of postdermabrasion wound healing with stabilized aloe vera gel-polyethylene oxide dressing.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E

    1990-05-01

    Full-face dermabrasion provided an ideal opportunity to document the effects of dressings on wound healing management. Following the procedure, the abraded face was divided in half. One side was treated with the standard polyethylene oxide gel wound dressings. The other side was treated with a polyethylene oxide gel dressing saturated with stabilized aloe vera. The polyethylene oxide dressing provided an excellent matrix for the release of aloe vera gel during the initial 5 days of wound healing. By 24-48 hours there was dramatic vasoconstriction and accompanying reduction in edema on the aloe-treated side. By the third to fourth day there was less exudate and crusting at the aloe site, and by the fifth to sixth day the reepithelialization at the aloe site was complete. Overall, wound healing was approximately 72 hours faster at the aloe site. This acceleration in wound healing is important to reduce bacterial contamination, subsequent keloid formation, and/or pigmentary changes. The exact mechanism of acceleration of wound healing by aloe vera is unknown. PMID:2341661

  10. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dongjean; Kang, Sang S; Kim, Dong W; Kim, Sang H; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Min, Wongi

    2011-01-01

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains, alternative control strategies are needed. In this study, the protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets were assessed in broiler chickens following oral infection with Eimeria maxima. Chickens were fed a regular diet supplemented with ground Aloe vera throughout the duration of the experiment beginning 2 days prior to infection with 1 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. maxima. No significant differences were found in body weight gain or loss between the Aloe vera-supplemented and unsupplemented groups with or without E. maxima infections. Fecal oocyst shedding decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in all of the treatment groups that were supplemented with Aloe vera as compared to the unsupplemented group. Furthermore, the Aloe vera-supplemented group showed significantly fewer intestinal lesions (p < 0.05) than the unsupplemented group following infection. The findings of this study suggest that Aloe vera could be used an alternative treatment for controlling avian coccidiosis. PMID:20723543

  11. In vitro studies on the photobiological properties of aloe emodin and aloin A.

    PubMed

    Wamer, Wayne G; Vath, Peter; Falvey, Daniel E

    2003-01-15

    Plants containing aloin A, aloe emodin, and structurally related anthraquinones have long been used as traditional medicines and in the formulation of retail products such as laxatives, dietary supplements, and cosmetics. Since a recent study indicated that topically applied aloe emodin increases the sensitivity of skin to UV light, we examined the events following photoexcitation of aloin A and aloe emodin. We determined that incubation of human skin fibroblasts with 20 microM aloe emodin for 18 h followed by irradiation with UV or visible light resulted in significant photocytotoxicity. This photocytotoxicity was accompanied by oxidative damage in both cellular DNA and RNA. In contrast, no photocytotoxicity was observed following incubation with up to 500 microM aloin A and irradiation with UVA light. In an attempt to explain the different photobiological properties of aloin A and aloe emodin, laser flash photolysis experiments were performed. We determined that the triplet state of aloe emodin was readily formed following photoexcitation. However, no transient intermediates were formed following photoexcitation of aloin A. Therefore, generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage after irradiation of aloin A is unlikely. Although aloin A was not directly photocytotoxic, we found that human skin fibroblasts can metabolize aloin A to aloe emodin. PMID:12521605

  12. In vitro evaluation of the cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of aloe whole leaf and gel materials.

    PubMed

    du Plessis, Lissinda H; Hamman, Josias H

    2014-04-01

    Aloe gel and whole-leaf materials have shown biological effects with potential therapeutic applications, and recently, their drug-absorption enhancement properties have been discovered. It is important to establish a safety profile for these materials before they can be used in pharmaceutical products. The aim of the study was to investigate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Aloe vera, Aloe marlothii, Aloe speciosa and Aloe ferox against human hepatocellular (HepG2), human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) and human adenocarcinoma epithelial cells (HeLa). Flow cytometry was used to measure cell viability, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aloe gel materials investigated only decreased cell viability at concentrations of >10 mg/mL and exhibited half-maximal cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) values above 1000 mg/mL, except for A. vera gel in HepG2 cells (CC(50) = 269.3 mg/mL). A. speciosa whole-leaf material showed a significant decrease in viability of Hela cells, whereas the other whole-leaf materials did not show a similar effect. The aloe gel materials in general showed low levels of apoptosis, whereas A. vera and A. speciosa whole-leaf materials caused a dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in HeLa cells. None of the aloe materials investigated exhibited a significant increase in ROS. It can be concluded that the selected aloe materials caused only limited reduction in cell viability with limited in vitro cytotoxicity effects. Further, neither significant apoptosis effects were observed nor induction of ROS. PMID:24111784

  13. Antiviral activity of aloe-emodin against influenza A virus via galectin-3 up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shih-Wen; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Lai, Chien-Chen; Huang, Su-Hua; Liao, Jun-Ming; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2014-09-01

    Novel influenza A H7N9 virus, which emerged in 2013, and highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, identified since 2003, pose challenges to public health and necessitate quest for new anti-influenza compounds. Anthraquinone derivatives like aloe-emodin, emodin and chrysophanol, reportedly exhibit antiviral activity. This study probes their inhibitory mechanism and effect against influenza A virus. Of three anthraquinone derivatives, aloe-emodin, with a lower cytotoxicity showed concentration-dependently reducing virus-induced cytopathic effect and inhibiting replication of influenza A in MDCK cells. 50% inhibitory concentration value of aloe-emodin on virus yield was less than 0.05 μg/ml. Proteomics and Western blot of MDCK cells indicated aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3, and thioredoxin as well as down-regulating nucleoside diphosphate kinase A. Western blot and quantitative PCR confirmed aloe-emodin up-regulating galectin-3 expression; recombinant galectin-3 augmented expression of antiviral genes IFN-β, IFN-γ, PKR and 2'5',-OAS in infected cells, agreeing with expression pattern of those treated with aloe-emodin. Galectin-3 also inhibited influenza A virus replication. Proteomic analysis of treated cells indicated galectin-3 up-regulation as one anti-influenza A virus action by aloe-emodin. Since galectin-3 exhibited cytokine-like regulatory actions via JAK/STAT pathways, aloe-emodin also restored NS1-inhibited STAT1-mediated antiviral responses in transfected cells: e.g., STAT1 phosphorylation of interferon (IFN) stimulation response element (ISRE)-driven promoter, RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) and 2'5',-oligoadenylate synthetase (2'5',-OAS) expression. Treatment with aloe-emodin could control influenza infection in humans. PMID:24877694

  14. Effectiveness of Aloe Vera Gel in Chronic Ulcers in Comparison with Conventional Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Avijgan, Majid; Kamran, Asghar; Abedini, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aloe Vera is one of the endemic plants in southern Iran, which has been mentioned in the textbooks of Persian medicine since 2500 years ago. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and cost of Aloe Vera gel with conventional treatments in patients with chronic ulcers. Methods: This comparative study was conducted on 60 patients with chronic ulcers (more than 3 weeks) in Al-Zahra hospital (Isfahan, Iran) in 2015. The participants were divided into two groups of 30 patients per group. In one group, we used conventional treatment plus Aloe Vera gel and in the other group, only the conventional treatment was used. In the Aloe Vera group, we used Aloe Vera gel twice a day. The patients were followed-up a week after the treatment and then monthly for 3 months. Results: The male: female ratio was 1:1 in each group. The mean age of the Aloe Vera and control groups were 62.3±11.2 and 63.1±9.6, respectively. After three months follow-up, wound healing occurred in 28 (93.3%) patients in the Aloe Vera group and 14 (46.7%) patients in the control group (P<0.05). The overall mean time of wound healing was 31.25±11.2 and 63.2±20.4 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The mean hospitalization time was 35.2±6.4 and 67.4±8.9 in the Aloe Vera and control groups, respectively (P<0.05). The average cost of Aloe Vera gel and conventional treatment per patient was $2 and $10 daily, respectively (P<0.05). Conclusion: Aloe Vera gel is a beneficial treatment and cost effective for patients with chronic ulcers. The use of Aloe Vera gel in chronic ulcer is recommended in developing countries to lessen the financial burden. PMID:27516663

  15. Peroxidase activity in Aloe barbadensis commercial gel: probable role in skin protection.

    PubMed

    Esteban, A; Zapata, J M; Casano, L; Martín, M; Sabater, B

    2000-12-01

    A basic peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) (pl around 9.0) has been identified in commercial gel of Aloe barbadensis. In vivo, the activity is localised in the vascular system of inner aqueous leaf parenchyma. Some relevant properties of this basic peroxidase of Aloe have been investigated in leaf extract and in commercial gel where it is notably stable. The acid optimum pH (5.0) for activity and the low KM for H2O2 (0.14 mM) suggest that, when topically applied, Aloe peroxidase may scavenge H2O2 in skin surface. PMID:11199129

  16. The Review on Properties of Aloe Vera in Healing of Cutaneous Wounds.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Seyyed Abbas; Madani, Seyyed Abdollah; Abediankenari, Saied

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of wounds is very important and was subject of different investigations. In this regard, natural substance plays crucial role as complementary medicine. Various studies reported that aloe vera has useful effects on wounds especially cutaneous wounds healing. Therefore in the current review, we examined the effect of aloe vera on cutaneous wound healing and concluded that although aloe vera improves the wound healing as well as other procedures both clinically and experimentally, more studies are still needed to approve the outcomes. PMID:26090436

  17. The Review on Properties of Aloe Vera in Healing of Cutaneous Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Seyyed Abbas; Madani, Seyyed Abdollah; Abediankenari, Saied

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of wounds is very important and was subject of different investigations. In this regard, natural substance plays crucial role as complementary medicine. Various studies reported that aloe vera has useful effects on wounds especially cutaneous wounds healing. Therefore in the current review, we examined the effect of aloe vera on cutaneous wound healing and concluded that although aloe vera improves the wound healing as well as other procedures both clinically and experimentally, more studies are still needed to approve the outcomes. PMID:26090436

  18. An investigation of the potential application of chitosan/aloe-based membranes for regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Popa, E G; Gomes, M E; Cerqueira, M; Marques, A P; Caridade, S G; Teixeira, P; Sousa, C; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2013-06-01

    A significant number of therapeutics derived from natural polymers and plants have been developed to replace or to be used in conjunction with existing dressing products. The use of the therapeutic properties of aloe vera could be very useful in the creation of active wound dressing materials. The present work was undertaken to examine issues concerning structural features, topography, enzymatic degradation behavior, antibacterial activity and cellular response of chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes. The chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes that were developed displayed satisfactory degradation, roughness, wettability and mechanical properties. A higher antibacterial potency was displayed by the blended membranes. Moreover, in vitro assays demonstrated that these blended membranes have good cell compatibility with primary human dermal fibroblasts. The chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes might be promising wound dressing materials. PMID:23462554

  19. Aloe vera: a valuable ingredient for the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries--a review.

    PubMed

    Eshun, Kojo; He, Qian

    2004-01-01

    Scientific investigations on Aloe vera have gained more attention over the last several decades due to its reputable medicinal properties. Some publications have appeared in reputable Scientific Journals that have made appreciable contributions to the discovery of the functions and utilizations of Aloe--"nature's gift." Chemical analysis reveals that Aloe vera contains various carbohydrate polymers, notably glucomannans, along with a range of other organic and inorganic components. Although many physiological properties of Aloe vera have been described, it still remains uncertain as to which of the component(s) is responsible for these physiological properties. Further research needs to be done to unravel the myth surrounding the biological activities and the functional properties of A. vera. Appropriate processing techniques should be employed during the stabilization of the gel in order to affect and extend its field of utilization. PMID:15116756

  20. Cytotoxic quinones from the roots of Aloe dawei.

    PubMed

    Abdissa, Negera; Induli, Martha; Fitzpatrick, Paul; Alao, John Patrick; Sunnerhagen, Per; Landberg, Göran; Yenesew, Abiy; Erdélyi, Máté

    2014-01-01

    Seven naphthoquinones and nine anthraquinones were isolated from the roots of Aloe dawei by chromatographic separation. The purified metabolites were identified by NMR and MS analyses. Out of the sixteen quinones, 6-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone is a new compound. Two of the isolates, 5,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-2-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione and 1-hydroxy-8-methoxy-3-methylanthraquinone showed high cytotoxic activity (IC₅₀ 1.15 and 4.85 µM) on MCF-7 breast cancer cells, whereas the others showed moderate to low cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (ER Negative) and MCF-7 (ER Positive) cancer cells. PMID:24642911

  1. TSS mapping using ALOS and THEOS imageries over Penang island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, C. K.; Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.

    2013-05-01

    Environmental monitoring through the method of traditional ship sampling is time consuming and requires a high survey cost. This study uses an empirical model, based on actual water quality of total suspended solids (TSS) measurements from the Penang Strait, Malaysia to predict TSS based on optical properties of satellite digital imagery using advanced land observing satellite imagery (ALOS) and Thai earth observation system (THEOS) satellite imageries. The proposed algorithm is based on the reflectance model that is a function of the inherent optical properties of water, which can be related to its constituent's concentrations. Water samples were collected simultaneously with the airborne image acquisition and later analyzed in the laboratory. Water sample's locations were determined by using a handheld GPS. The digital numbers for each band corresponding to the sea-truth locations were extracted and then converted into radiance values and reflectance values. The reflectance values were used for calibration of the water quality algorithm. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was investigated based on the observations of correlation coefficient (R) and root-mean-square deviations (RMS) with the sea-truth data. This algorithm was then used to map the TSS concentration over Penang, Malaysia. The TSS map was color-coded and geometrically corrected for visual interpretation. The calibrated algorithm had the R and RMS values of 0.9012 and 5.3651 mg/l respectively for ALOS data. The R and RMS values were 0.8515 and 6.2635 mg/l respectively for THEOS data. This study indicates that TSS mapping can be carried out using remote sensing technique of the satellite digital photography system over Penang, Malaysia.

  2. Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera improve wound healing in an in vivo rat burn wound model.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Xin; Wang, Peng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Yong; Jiang, Lei; Wang, Xue-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Aloe vera and Vitis vinifera have been traditionally used as wound healing agents. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of aloe emodin and resveratrol in the burn wound healing procedure. Burn wounds are common in developed and developing countries, however, in developing countries, the incidence of severe complications is higher and financial resources are limited. The results of the present study demonstrated that neither aloe emodin or resveratrol were cytotoxic to THP-1 macrophages at concentrations of 1, 100 and 500 ng/ml. A significant increase in wound-healing activity was observed in mice treated with the aloe emodin and resveratrol, compared with those which received control treatments. The levels of IL-1β in the exudates of the burn wound area of the treated mice increased in a time-dependent manner over 7 days following burn wound injury. At 10 days post-injury, steady and progressive wound healing was observed in the control animals. The present study confirmed that increased wound healing occurs following treatment with aloe emodin,, compared with resveratrol, providing support for the use of Aloe vera plants to improve burn wound healing. PMID:26677006

  3. Molecular interaction and energy transfer between human serum albumin and bioactive component Aloe dihydrocoumarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiu-Feng; Xie, Ling; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Jun-Feng; Li, Lin; Tang, Ya-Lin

    2008-10-01

    Aloe dihydrocoumarin is an antioxidant and a candidate of immunomodulatory drug on the immune system and can balance physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels which may be useful to maintain homeostasis. In order to explore the mechanism of drug action at a molecular level, the binding of Aloe dihydrocoumarin with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by fluorescence, ultraviolet (UV), circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, and molecular dynamic docking for the first time. We observed a quenching of fluorescence of HSA in the presence of Aloe dihydrocoumarin and also analyzed the quenching results using the Stern-Volmer equation and obtained high affinity binding to HSA. A Förster type fluorescence resonance energy transfer mechanism is involved in this quenching of Trp fluorescence by Aloe dihydrocoumarin. From the CD and FT-IR results, it is apparent that the interaction of Aloe dihydrocoumarin with HSA causes a conformational change of the protein, with the loss of α-helix stability and the gain of β-sheet and β-turn content. Data obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence dynamics, CD, and FT-IR experiments along with the docking studies suggest that Aloe dihydrocoumarin binds to residues located in subdomain IIA of HSA.

  4. Synthesis and anti-tumor activity evaluation of rhein-aloe emodin hybrid molecule.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ye-Fei; Hu, Xiang-Yu; He, Ying; Deng, Jia-Gang

    2012-02-01

    To improve the anti-tumor effects of rhein and aloe-emodin, a rhein-aloe-emodin hybrid molecule (RH-AE) was synthesized from rhein and aloe-emodin in the presence of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP). Chemical and spectroscopic methods, such as 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and HR-ESIMS were used for the structure identification of RH-AE. Using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, the in vitro anti-tumor effects were compared between RH-AE, rhein and aloe-emodin on human hepatoma HepG2, human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE, human lung cancer NCI-H460, human ovarian cancer SK-OV-3, and human cervical cancer Hela cells. The results showed that the half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of RH-AE on HepG2, CNE, NCI-H460, SK-OV-3, and Hela cells were significantly lower than those of rhein and aloe-emodin. This showed that RH-AE has a better in vitro anti-tumor effect than rhein and aloe-emodin. PMID:22474959

  5. Aloe-emodin suppresses prostate cancer by targeting the mTOR complex 2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kangdong; Park, Chanmi; Li, Shengqing; Lee, Ki Won; Liu, Haidan; He, Long; Soung, Nak Kyun; Ahn, Jong Seog; Bode, Ann M; Dong, Ziming; Kim, Bo Yeon; Dong, Zigang

    2012-07-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) amplification and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deletion-caused Akt activation contribute to the development of prostate cancer. Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) is a kinase complex comprised of mTOR, Rictor, mSin1, mLST8/GβL and PRR5 and functions in the phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473. Herein, we report that mTORC2 plays an important role in PC3 androgen refractory prostate cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. Aloe-emodin, a natural compound found in aloe, inhibited both proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of PC3 cells. Protein content analysis suggested that activation of the downstream substrates of mTORC2, Akt and PKCα, was inhibited by aloe-emodin treatment. Pull-down assay and in vitro kinase assay results indicated that aloe-emodin could bind with mTORC2 in cells and inhibit its kinase activity. Aloe-emodin also exhibited tumor suppression effects in vivo in an athymic nude mouse model. Collectively, our data suggest that mTORC2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development and aloe-emodin suppresses prostate cancer progression by targeting mTORC2. PMID:22532249

  6. [Bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal extract of Aloe vera gel on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Mérida, Luis Guillermo; Morón de Salim, Alba; Catinella, Rosangela; Castillo, Luis

    2012-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacteria responsible for food borne diseases (FBD). The effect of Aloe vera gel extract as a possible bacteriostatic and/or bactericidal against Listeria monocytogenes, was checked by determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the time of minimum inhibition (TMI) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) solutions extract of Aloe vera gel in different concentrations on cultures of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635. We applied the agar diffusion method, using solutions of extract of Aloe vera gel at concentrations of 0 to 100% for the MIC. The TMI was determined by growth curves in trypticase soy broth with an initial inoculum of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7635 of 108 CFU/mL in each solution. It was determined that the MIC was 10% extract of Aloe vera gel and TMI was 5 hours at concentrations of 10%, 20% and 30% of Aloe vera, while concentrations of 50, 80, 90 and 100%, the time was 8 hours. It was found that indeed the Aloe vera gel is bacteriostatic power on Listeria monocytogenes (p < 0.001), but yet, no bactericidal effect was obtained in our study. PMID:23477211

  7. Aloe-Emodin Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation of ATDC5 Cells via MAP Kinases and BMP-2 Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Li, Liang; Heo, Seok-Mo; Soh, Yunjo

    2016-07-01

    Endochondral bone formation is the process by which mesenchymal cells condense into chondrocytes, which are ultimately responsible for new bone formation. The processes of chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy are critical for bone formation and are therefore highly regulated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aloe-emodin on chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Aloe-emodin treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. ATDC5 cells were treated with aloe-emodin and stained with alcian blue. Compared with the control cells, the ATDC5 cells showed more intense alcian blue staining. This finding suggested that aloe-emodin induced the synthesis of matrix proteoglycans and increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Aloe-emodin also enhanced the expressions of chondrogenic marker genes such as collagen II, collagen X, BSP and RunX2 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, examination of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that aloe-emodin increased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but had no effect on p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Aloe-emodin also enhanced the protein expression of BMP-2 in a time-dependent manner. Thus, these results showed that aloe-emodin exhibited chodromodulating effects via the BMP-2 or ERK signaling pathway. Aloe-emodin may have potential future applications for the treatment of growth disorders. PMID:27350340

  8. Aloe-Emodin Induces Chondrogenic Differentiation of ATDC5 Cells via MAP Kinases and BMP-2 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Li, Liang; Heo, Seok-Mo; Soh, Yunjo

    2016-01-01

    Endochondral bone formation is the process by which mesenchymal cells condense into chondrocytes, which are ultimately responsible for new bone formation. The processes of chondrogenic differentiation and hypertrophy are critical for bone formation and are therefore highly regulated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of aloe-emodin on chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Aloe-emodin treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. ATDC5 cells were treated with aloe-emodin and stained with alcian blue. Compared with the control cells, the ATDC5 cells showed more intense alcian blue staining. This finding suggested that aloe-emodin induced the synthesis of matrix proteoglycans and increased the activity of alkaline phosphatase. Aloe-emodin also enhanced the expressions of chondrogenic marker genes such as collagen II, collagen X, BSP and RunX2 in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, examination of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that aloe-emodin increased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but had no effect on p38 and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Aloe-emodin also enhanced the protein expression of BMP-2 in a time-dependent manner. Thus, these results showed that aloe-emodin exhibited chodromodulating effects via the BMP-2 or ERK signaling pathway. Aloe-emodin may have potential future applications for the treatment of growth disorders. PMID:27350340

  9. Effects of drying temperature and ethanol concentration on bipolar switching characteristics of natural Aloe vera-based memory devices.

    PubMed

    Lim, Zhe Xi; Cheong, Kuan Yew

    2015-10-28

    Extracted, formulated, and processed natural Aloe vera has been used as an active layer for memory applications. The functional memory device is realized by a bottom-up structure of ITO/Aloe vera/Al in which the Aloe vera is spin-coated after mixing with different concentrations of ethanol (0-80 wt%) and subsequently dried at different temperatures (50-120 °C). From the current density-voltage measurements, the device can exhibit a reproducible bipolar switching characteristic with pure Aloe vera dried at 50 °C. It is proposed that charges are transported across the Aloe vera layer via space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC), and clusters of interstitial space formed by the functional groups of acemannans and de-esterified pectins in the dried Aloe vera contribute to the memory effect. The formation of charge traps in the Aloe vera layer is dependent on the drying temperature. The drying temperature of a memory-switching Aloe vera layer can be extended to 120 °C with the addition of appropriate amounts of ethanol. The concept of using natural Aloe vera as an active material for memory applications has been demonstrated, and the read memory window, ON/OFF ratio, and retention time are approximately 5.0 V, 10(3), and >10(4) s, respectively. PMID:26400096

  10. A comparison of the leaf gel extracts of Aloe ferox and Aloe vera in the topical treatment of atopic dermatitis in Balb/c mice.

    PubMed

    Finberg, M J; Muntingh, G L; van Rensburg, C E J

    2015-12-01

    Aloe vera gel is widely used in the treatment of an array of disturbances, especially skin disorders. The wound-healing effects have been attributed to its moisturizing and anti-inflammatory effects as well as its beneficial effect on the maturation of collagen. The aim of the present study is to compare the effects of topically applied extracts of Aloe ferox with that of Aloe vera on the symptoms as well as IgE levels of a mouse model of atopic dermatitis (AD). Mice were sensitized and challenged with 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene and treated afterwards for 10 consecutive days with the gels of either A. ferox or A. vera applied topically to the affected areas. A placebo gel was used for the control mice. Blood was collected at the beginning and end of the treatment period to measure serum IgE levels. Although the gels of both the Aloe species inhibited the cutaneous inflammatory response as well as serum IgE levels in the rats, the extracts of A. ferox were superior to that of A. vera in reducing IgE levels. The gels of A. ferox and A. vera, applied topically, may be a safe and useful alternative to antihistamines and topical corticosteroids, for the treatment of patients suffering from recurring chronic AD. PMID:26510768

  11. Detection of glacier lake using ALOS PALSAR data at Bhutan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanokuchi, T.; Tadono, T.; Tomiyama, N.

    2010-12-01

    The retreat of mountain glaciers and expansion of glacial lakes are the common issue related to global warming and it sometimes causes a sudden flood, which is called as Glacier Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF). GLOF event occurs frequently in 1960s at Himalayan glaciers. Satellite data is a sophisticated tool for this research because it is difficult to operate frequent field survey due to severe weather condition and hard accessibility. However, the optical sensor equipped on satellite has one serious problem, which is weather condition of target area. It is very difficult to acquire cloud-free data at Himalayan region on a regular schedule. Therefore, it is necessary to find another way to avoid this problem. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is one possible way because SAR can observe under all weather condition and SAR image is able to distinguish water surface and other landcovers because water surface is smoother than the other landcovers, especially in the case of L-band wavelength scale. On the other hand, SAR image has geometric and radiometric distortion due to its observation mechanism and topographic feature. Geometric distortion is able to correct by applying systematic orthorectification using DEM data. However, radiometric distortion is still remained. Recently, several radiometric terrain correction (RTC) methods are proposed. This method corrects the radiometric distortion due to local topographic slope. After RTC, radiometric distortion due to topographic relief is suppressed and backscatter brightness of the image after RTC almost depend on landcovers. In this study, we used L-band ALOS/PALSAR (SAR) data after applying RTC, ALOS/AVNIR-2 (Optical Sensor) data and SRTM-3 (DEM) data. PALSAR data is used for detection of glacier lake to set threshold of radar brightness. AVNIR-2 data is used for making glacier mask area because radar brightness of smooth glacier or icecap area is as dark as water surface on the PALSAR image. To avoid this misdetection, we

  12. Clear evidence of carcinogenic activity by a whole-leaf extract of Aloe barbadensis miller (aloe vera) in F344/N rats.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Mary D; Mellick, Paul W; Olson, Greg R; Felton, Robert P; Thorn, Brett T; Beland, Frederick A

    2013-01-01

    Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) is an herbal remedy promoted to treat a variety of illnesses; however, only limited data are available on the safety of this dietary supplement. Drinking water exposure of F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice to an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract (1, 2, and 3%) for 13 weeks resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine in both species. Based upon this observation, 2-year drinking water studies were conducted to assess the carcinogenic potential of an Aloe vera whole-leaf extract when administered to F344/N rats (48 per sex per group) at 0.5, 1, and 1.5%, and B6C3F1 mice (48 per sex per group) at 1, 2, and 3%. Compared with controls, survival was decreased in the 1.5% dose group of female rats. Treatment-related neoplasms and nonneoplastic lesions in both species were confined primarily to the large intestine. Incidences of adenomas and/or carcinomas of the ileo-cecal and cecal-colic junction, cecum, and ascending and transverse colon were significantly higher than controls in male and female rats in the 1 and 1.5% dose groups. There were no neoplasms of the large intestine in mice or in the 0 or 0.5% dose groups of rats. Increased incidences of mucosa hyperplasia of the large intestine were observed in F344/N rats, and increased incidences of goblet cell hyperplasia of the large intestine occurred in B6C3F1 mice. These results indicate that Aloe vera whole-leaf extract is an intestinal irritant in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice and a carcinogen of the large intestine in F344/N rats. PMID:22968693

  13. Mechanism of Aloe Vera extract protection against UVA: shelter of lysosomal membrane avoids photodamage.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Daniela; Viotto, Ana Cláudia; Checchia, Robert; Gomide, Andreza; Severino, Divinomar; Itri, Rosangela; Baptista, Maurício S; Martins, Waleska Kerllen

    2016-03-01

    The premature aging (photoaging) of skin characterized by wrinkles, a leathery texture and mottled pigmentation is a well-documented consequence of exposure to sunlight. UVA is an important risk factor for human cancer also associated with induction of inflammation, immunosuppression, photoaging and melanogenesis. Although herbal compounds are commonly used as photoprotectants against the harmful effects of UVA, the mechanisms involved in the photodamage are not precisely known. In this study, we investigated the effects of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis mil) on the protection against UVA-modulated cell killing of HaCaT keratinocytes. Aloe Vera exhibited the remarkable ability of reducing both in vitro and in vivo photodamage, even though it does not have anti-radical properties. Interestingly, the protection conferred by Aloe Vera was associated with the maintenance of membrane integrity in both mimetic membranes and intracellular organelles. The increased lysosomal stability led to a decrease in lipofuscinogenesis and cell death. This study explains why Aloe Vera extracts offer protection against photodamage at a cellular level in both the UV and visible spectra, leading to its beneficial use as a supplement in protective dermatological formulations. PMID:26815913

  14. Review of Clinical Pharmacology of Aloe vera L. in the Treatment of Psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, Marco; Navarra, Michele; Calapai, Fabrizio; Mancari, Ferdinando; Giofrè, Salvatore Vincenzo; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Calapai, Gioacchino

    2015-05-01

    Aloe vera L., is a plant used worldwide as folk remedy for the treatment of various ailments, including skin disorders. Its gel is present in cosmetics, medicinal products and food supplements. Psoriasis, an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease, involving mainly the skin, affects about the 2-3% of general population. Conventional pharmacological treatments for psoriasis can have limited effectiveness and can cause adverse reactions. For this reason often psoriatic patients look for alternative treatments based on natural products containing Aloe vera. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials assessing effectiveness and safety of aloe for the treatment of psoriasis. Clinical studies published in English were considered; a total of four clinical trials met inclusion criteria. Studies were also evaluated by using the Jadad scale and Consort Statement in Reporting Clinical trials of Herbal Medicine Intervention. Quality and methodological accuracy of considered studies varied considerably, and some crucial information to reproduce clinical results was missing. We conclude that administration of aloe as cutaneous treatment is generally well tolerated, as no serious side effects were reported. Results on the effectiveness of Aloe vera are contradictory; our analysis reveals the presence of methodological gaps preventing to reach final conclusions. PMID:25756474

  15. The Use of Aloe Vera Extract as a Novel Storage Media for the Avulsed Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Badakhsh, Samaneh; Eskandarian, Tahereh; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tooth avulsion is one of the most severe dental traumas which most often occur in children. When immediate replantation is not possible, storage in a proper media may lead to a prolonged survival rate. Aloe Vera is a cactus like plant with green, tapered leaves that are filled with a transparent viscous gel. This medicinal plant has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and antifungal effects. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of different concentrations of Aloe Vera extract compared to DMEM (cell culture medium) and egg white. Methods: The periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were cultured and certain number of cells were treated with Aloe Vera extract (in four different concentrations), egg white and culture media for 1, 3, 6, and 9 hours. Cell viability was determined by using the (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Moreover, One-way ANOVA and post hoc (LSD) test were used for analyzing the study groups. Results: The results indicate that culture media and Aloe Vera extract (10, 30, and 50% concentration) were statistically similar and significantly preserved more PDL cells compared to other experimental storage media. Conclusion: Aloe Vera 10, 30, and 50% may be recommended as a suitable storage media for avulsed teeth. PMID:25031484

  16. Effect of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Golestan, Ghazale; Salati, Amir Parviz; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Zakeri, Mohammad; Moradian, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of biological activities of its constituents. This study was done to evaluate the effects of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A total number of 480 O. mykiss (mean weight 9.50 ± 0.85 g) were randomized into four experimental groups including one control and three experimental groups that aloe vera was incorporated in their diet at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg-1. Trial was done for eight weeks. Then biometry and blood sampling were done. Plasma malondialdehyde, ferric reducing ability of plasma and growth index were estimated at the end of study. The results showed that aloe vera extract did not affect growth indices. Malondialdehyde was increased in the experimental group compared to the control group but ferric reducing ability of plasma showed a decrease in experimental groups (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Our findings showed that dietary aloe vera have adverse effects on antioxidant defense system in O. mykiss. PMID:25992253

  17. Effect of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Golestan, Ghazale; Salati, Amir Parviz; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Zakeri, Mohammad; Moradian, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of biological activities of its constituents. This study was done to evaluate the effects of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A total number of 480 O. mykiss (mean weight 9.50 ± 0.85 g) were randomized into four experimental groups including one control and three experimental groups that aloe vera was incorporated in their diet at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1). Trial was done for eight weeks. Then biometry and blood sampling were done. Plasma malondialdehyde, ferric reducing ability of plasma and growth index were estimated at the end of study. The results showed that aloe vera extract did not affect growth indices. Malondialdehyde was increased in the experimental group compared to the control group but ferric reducing ability of plasma showed a decrease in experimental groups (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Our findings showed that dietary aloe vera have adverse effects on antioxidant defense system in O. mykiss. PMID:25992253

  18. Aloe-emodin suppresses esophageal cancer cell TE1 proliferation by inhibiting AKT and ERK phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jimin; Tian, Fang; Jiang, Yanan; Lu, Jing; Ma, Junfen; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jin, Guoguo; Huang, Youtian; Dong, Zigang; Liu, Kangdong; Dong, Ziming

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is often observed in various human cancers. Both AKT and ERK are important in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/ERK signaling pathways, which play vital roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. Compounds that are able to block these pathways have therefore a promising use in cancer treatment and prevention. The present study revealed that AKT and ERK are activated in esophageal cancer TE1 cells. Aloe-emodin, an anthraquinone present in aloe latex, can suppress TE1 cell proliferation and anchor-independent cell growth. Aloe-emodin can also reduce the number of TE1 cells in S phase. Protein analysis indicated that aloe-emodin inhibits the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK in a dose-dependent manner. Overall, the present data indicate that aloe-emodin can suppress TE1 cell growth by inhibiting AKT and ERK phosphorylation, and suggest its clinical use for cancer therapy. PMID:27602169

  19. Substitutional and Interstitial Diffusion in alpha2-Ti3Al(O)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan; Young, David J.; Gleeson, Brian; Jacobson, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    The reaction between Al2O3 and alpha2-Ti3Al was studied with a series of Al2O3/alpha2-Ti3Al multiphase diffusion couples annealed at 900, 1000 and 1100 C. The diffusion-paths were found to strongly depend on alpha2- Ti3Al(O) composition. For alloys with low oxygen concentrations the reaction involved the reduction of Al2O3, the formation of a gamma-TiAl reaction-layer and diffusion of Al and O into the alpha2-Ti3Al substrate. Measured concentration profiles across the interaction-zone showed "up-hill" diffusion of O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) indicating a significant thermodynamic interaction between O and Al, Ti or both. Diffusion coefficients for the interstitial O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) were determined independently from the interdiffusion of Ti and Al on the substitutional lattice. Diffusion coefficients are reported for alpha2-Ti3Al(O) as well as gamma-TiAl. Interpretation of the results were aided with the subsequent measurement of the activities of Al, Ti and O in alpha 2-Ti3Al(O) by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry.

  20. Processed Aloe vera Gel Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sun-A; Kim, Ki-Hyang; Kim, Hee-Suk; Lee, Ki-Hwa; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Jo, Tae Hyung; Park, Young In; Lee, Chong-Kil

    2014-01-01

    The effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) on cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced immunotoxicity were examined in mice. Intraperitoneal injection of CP significantly reduced the total number of lymphocytes and erythrocytes in the blood. Oral administration of PAG quickly restored CP-induced lymphopenia and erythropenia in a dose-dependent manner. The reversal of CP-induced hematotoxicity by PAG was mediated by the functional preservation of Peyer’s patch cells. Peyer’s patch cells isolated from CP-treated mice, which were administered PAG, produced higher levels of T helper 1 cytokines and colony-stimulating factors (CSF) in response to concanavalin A stimulation as compared with those isolated from CP-treated control mice. PAG-derived polysaccharides directly activated Peyer’s patch cells isolated from normal mice to produce cytokines including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, interferon-γ, granulocyte-CSF, and granulocyte-macrophage-CSF. The cytokines produced by polysaccharide-stimulated Peyer’s patch cells had potent proliferation-inducing activity on mouse bone marrow cells. In addition, oral administration of PAG restored IgA secretion in the intestine after CP treatment. These results indicated that PAG could be an effective immunomodulator and that it could prevent CP-induced immunotoxic side effects. PMID:25347273

  1. Estimation of vegetation fraction in arid areas using ALOS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matkan, A. A.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Hosseiniasl, A.; Ebrahimi, M.

    2010-10-01

    Fraction of vegetation (Fv) plays an important role in ecosystems. Estimation of Fv is essential for drought monitoring, natural resources studies, estimation of soil erosion volume etc. The aim of this study is to estimate Fv in an arid area in Iran using ALOS Imagery (June 2008). In order to find the best index for estimation of Fv, Seventeen vegetation indices (ARVI, DVI, EVI, GEMI, IPVI, MSAVI1, MSAVI2, NDVI, PVI, SAVI, SARVI, SARVI2, SR, TSAVI, WDVI) were used. The canopy cover percentage of 52 sample plots (50m by 50m) was measured in the field in June 2009. Regression models were used to assess the relationships between the field data and the calculated Fv. The 52 sample plots were randomly divided two times to 30 calibrations and 22 validations, and to 35 and 17 samples. Results revealed that selecting the calibration and validation data randomly leads to different results. Therefore, cross-validation method was used to reduce random division effect. Results indicated that, among all indices, vegetation indices such as MSAVI1, PVI, WDVI and TSAVI which are based on soil line have higher R2 and lower RMSE (R2 > 0.63, RMSE ~ 3%). The results confirm the dominant effect of soil reflectance in arid areas.

  2. Bio-inspired Aloe vera sponges for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Oliveira, M B; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2014-11-01

    Chemical composition and biological properties of Aloe vera (AV), a tropical plant, explain its potential use for cosmetic, nutritional and biomedical applications. AV gel present in AV leaves is rich in several compounds, nutrients and polysaccharides. This work proposes using AV gel complex structure and chemical composition, associated with freeze-drying, to produce sponges. To increase the structures stability in aqueous media, a thin coating of gellan gum (GG), was applied onto AV gel. AV-based sponges showed a heterogeneous porous formation, interconnected pores and good porosity (72-77%). The coating with a GG layer onto AV influenced the stability, swelling behavior and mechanical properties of the resulting sponges. Moreover, sponges provided the sustained release of BSA-FTIC, used as a model protein, over 3 weeks. Also, in vitro cell culture studies evidenced that sponges are not cytotoxic for a mouse fibroblast-like cell line. Therefore, developed AV-based sponges have potential use in biomedical applications. PMID:25129743

  3. Preliminary radiometric calibration assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouvet, M.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Saunier, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes the activities carried out in the frame of the data quality activities of the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2) sensor onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS). Assessment of the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 multi-spectral imager is achieved via three intercomparisons to currently flying sensors over the Libyan desert, during the first year of operation. AU three methodologies indicate a slight underestimation of AVNIR-2 in band 1 by 4 to 7% with respect to other sensors radiometric scale. Band 2 does not show any obvious bias. Results for band 3 are affected by saturation due to inappropriate gain setting. Two methodologies indicate no significant bias in band 4. Preliminary results indicate possible degradations of the AVNIR-2 channels, which, when modeled as an exponentially decreasing functions, have time constants of respectively 13.2 %.year-1, 8.8%.year-1 and 0.1%.year-1 in band 1, 2 and 4 (with respect to the radiometric scale of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer, MERIS). Longer time series of AVNIR-2 data are needed to draw final conclusions. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  4. Isolation, Purification and Evaluation of Antibacterial Agents from Aloe vera

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Rubina; Tripathi, Priyanka; Jeyakumar, Ebenezer

    2009-01-01

    The ethanol, methanol and acetone extracts of Aloe vera gel were studied for their antimicrobial activity against four Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using agar well diffusion method. The extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogens. The ethanol and methanol extracts showed higher activity while acetone extract, showed least or no activity against most of the tested pathogens. Fractions obtained from the extracts by Thin Layer and Column Chromatography were studied for their antagonistic properties using Spot Assay Technique. Compounds with maximum antibacterial activity isolated from the ethanol and methanol extracts were identified as p – coumaric acid (Mol. wt.165), ascorbic acid (Mol. wt.177 ), pyrocatechol (Mol. wt.110 ) and cinnamic acid (Mol. wt.148), on the basis of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry. The study suggests the antimicrobial activity of the A. vera gel extract to be dependant on the synergistic effect of different compounds. With the broad spectral antimicrobial effect of A. vera gel, it could be further recommended in the treatment of various bacterial diseases. PMID:24031440

  5. Generation of High Resolution Global DSM from ALOS PRISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaku, J.; Tadono, T.; Tsutsui, K.

    2014-04-01

    Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM), one of onboard sensors carried on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), was designed to generate worldwide topographic data with its optical stereoscopic observation. The sensor consists of three independent panchromatic radiometers for viewing forward, nadir, and backward in 2.5 m ground resolution producing a triplet stereoscopic image along its track. The sensor had observed huge amount of stereo images all over the world during the mission life of the satellite from 2006 through 2011. We have semi-automatically processed Digital Surface Model (DSM) data with the image archives in some limited areas. The height accuracy of the dataset was estimated at less than 5 m (rms) from the evaluation with ground control points (GCPs) or reference DSMs derived from the Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). Then, we decided to process the global DSM datasets from all available archives of PRISM stereo images by the end of March 2016. This paper briefly reports on the latest processing algorithms for the global DSM datasets as well as their preliminary results on some test sites. The accuracies and error characteristics of datasets are analyzed and discussed on various fields by the comparison with existing global datasets such as Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) data and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, as well as the GCPs and the reference airborne LiDAR/DSM.

  6. Kinematic Slip Model for 12 May 2008 Wenchuan-Beichuan Mw 7.9 Earthquake from Joint Inversion of ALOS, Envisat, and Teleseismic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, Eric; Sladen, Anthony; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Li, Zhenhong; Ryder, Isabelle; Burgmann, Roland

    2008-01-01

    The presentations explores kinematics of the Wenchaun-Beichuan earthquake using data from ALOS, Envisat, and teleseismic recordings. Topics include geomorphic mapping, ALOS PALSAR range offsets, ALOS PALSAR interferometry, Envisat IM interferometry, Envisat ScanSAR, Joint GPS-InSAR inversion, and joint GPS-teleseismic inversion (static and kinematic).

  7. Feeding mice with Aloe vera gel diminishes L-1 sarcoma-induced early neovascular response and tumor growth

    PubMed Central

    Kocik, Janusz; Bałan, Barbara Joanna; Zdanowski, Robert; Jung, Leszek; Skopiński, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera (Aloe arborescens, aloe barbadensis) is a medicinal plant belonging to the Liliaceae family. Aloe vera gel prepared from the inner part of Aloe leaves is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. Some data suggest its tumor growth modulatory properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in Balb/c mice the in vivo influence of orally administered Aloe vera drinking gel on the syngeneic L-1 sarcoma tumor growth and its vascularization: early cutaneous neovascular response, tumor-induced angiogenesis (TIA test read after 3 days), and tumor hemoglobin content measured 14 days after L-1 sarcoma cell grafting. Feeding mice for 3 days after tumor cell grafting with 150 μl daily dose of Aloe vera gel significantly diminished the number of newly-formed blood vessels in comparison to the controls. The difference between the groups of control and Aloe-fed mice (150 μl daily dose for 14 days) with respect to the 14 days’ tumor volume was on the border of statistical significance. No difference was observed in tumor hemoglobin content. PMID:26155093

  8. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity. PMID:22878390

  9. Influence of high hydrostatic pressure on quality parameters and structural properties of aloe vera gel (Aloe barbadensis Miller).

    PubMed

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Nuñez-Mancilla, Yissleen; Garcia-Segovia, Purificación; Ah-Hen, Kong; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on colour, dietary fibre, vitamin C content, polysaccharides content, physico-chemical and structural properties of aloe vera gel at three pressure levels (300, 400 and 500 MPa for 3 min) after 35 days of storage at 4 ± 1 °C. The results showed that HHP exerted a clear influence on most of the quality parameters studied. Moisture, protein and fat contents did not show changes with an increasing pressure. Ash, crude fibre and carbohydrates content increased with increasing pressure. Vitamin C content did not show significant differences after 35 days of storage. The variation of colour in the samples increased at 500 MPa. Total dietary fibre, water holding capacity and firmness increased with pressure. However, all HHP-treated samples presented a decrease in hydration ratio and polysaccharides content; and also minor alterations in the structural properties were produced at HHP of 300-500 MPa, resulting in a high quality gel. PMID:25328187

  10. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on functional properties and quality characteristics of Aloe vera gel (Aloe barbadensis Miller).

    PubMed

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Aranda, Mario; Henriquez, Karem; Vergara, Judith; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of high hydrostatic pressure treatment at three pressure levels (300, 400 and 500Mpa) on the functional and quality characteristics of Aloe vera gel including vitamin C and E, aloin, minerals, phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The results show that HHP exerted a clear influence on minerals content, vitamin C and E content, antioxidant activity, total phenolic and aloin content. After 35days of storage all treated samples presented a decrease in mineral content, except for phosphorus. Total phenolic content and vitamin C and E content decreased at high pressures (500MPa), while all pressurised samples showed a higher antioxidant activity and aloin content than untreated sample after 35days of storage. The maximum values of antioxidant activity and aloin were 6.55±1.26μg/ml at 300MPa and 24.23±2.27mg/100g d.m. at 400MPa. PMID:25212337

  11. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and <1.5Hz at frequency in Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  12. Effect of crosslinking in chitosan/aloe vera-based membranes for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Silva, S S; Caridade, S G; Mano, J F; Reis, R L

    2013-10-15

    The positive interaction between polysaccharides with active phytochemicals found in medicinal plants may represent a strategy to create active wound dressing materials useful for skin repair. In the present work, blended membranes composed of chitosan (Cht) and aloe vera gel were prepared through the solvent casting, and were crosslinked with genipin to improve their properties. Topography, swelling, wettability, mechanical properties and in vitro cellular response of the membranes were investigated. With the incorporation of aloe vera gel into chitosan solution, the developed chitosan/aloe-based membranes displayed increased roughness and wettability; while the genipin crosslinking promoted the formation of stiffer membranes in comparison to those of the non-modified membranes. Moreover, in vitro cell culture studies evidenced that the L929 cells have high cell viability, confirmed by MTS test and calcein-AM staining. The findings suggested that both blend compositions and crosslinking affected the physico-chemical properties and cellular behavior of the developed membranes. PMID:23987385

  13. [Isolation and characterization of active compounds from Aloe vera with a possible role in skin protection].

    PubMed

    Kostálová, D; Bezáková, L; Oblozinský, M; Kardosová, A

    2004-09-01

    Aloe vera is widely used in food supplements, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. It has been long recognized as an effective natural remedy for its wound-healing properties and its positive influence on other inflammatory skin disorders. Major proteins and mono- and polysaccharides were identified and analysed from Aloe vera commercial extract. Molecular weight of proteins calculated from the sets of molecular weight reference standards, ranged from 70 kDa for the largest to 14 kDa for the smallest ones. IR spectral analysis of the carbohydrate fraction shows that the main carbohydrate copound is acetylated (1 --> 4)-beta-D-mannan substituated with D-galactose and D-glucose. The results have shown that proteins and polysaccharides are a necessary component in the study of biological activity of Aloe vera leaf extract. PMID:15506709

  14. [Antilipoxygenase activity and the trace elements content of Aloe vera in relation to the therapeutical effect].

    PubMed

    Bezáková, L; Oblozinský, M; Sýkorová, M; Paulíková, I; Kostálová, D

    2005-01-01

    Aloe vera is a rich source of many natural-health-promoting substances. The results of contemporary research on animal models indicate that the extracts have an antiinflammatory property. In this work the results of some in vitro experiments are shown: determination of the inhibitory effect of the Aloe vera extracts on the activity of partially purified lipoxygenase from the rat lung cytosol fraction, and quantitative determination of the trace elements presented in the extract (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) carried out by using the x-ray fluorescence analysis. The findings could explain the inhibitory effect (antilipoxygenase activity) of the Aloe vera extract in the acute inflammation process, expecially in the topical application for healing of minor burns and skin ulcers. PMID:15751795

  15. Effect of Aloe vera juice on growth and activities of Lactobacilli in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Ravinder; Kaur, Varinder; Kumar, Manoj; Marotta, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    In present investigation, different concentrations of Aloe vera juice incorporated into the growth media of Lactobacilli were tested to observe the effect on growth and activities of these bacteria. From the results obtained, it was observed that aloe vera juice at a concentration of 5% v/v was effective in promoting the growth of L. acidophilus, L. plantarum and L. casei, as evident from the fall in pH and increased acidity, as well as from the improved generation time. At 15 to 25% concentration, growth was unaffected as compared to the controls; however, concentration higher than 25%v/v discouraged the growth. Overall, it was concluded that Aloe vera juice or gel at a particular concentration could possibly be used in combination with probiotic Lactobacillus strain(s) as a combinational therapy for gastrointestinal disorders and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23762993

  16. Use of Aloe vera gel coating preserves the functional properties of table grapes.

    PubMed

    Serrano, María; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Guillén, Fabian; Castillo, Salvador; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Valero, Daniel

    2006-05-31

    Table grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Crimson Seedless) were coated with Aloe vera gel according to our developed patent (SP Patent P200302937) and then stored for 35 days at 1 degrees C, and the subsequent shelf life (SL) was monitored at 20 degrees C. Uncoated clusters showed a rapid loss of functional compounds, such as total phenolics and ascorbic acid. These changes were accompanied by reduction of the total antioxidant activity (TAA) and increases in total anthocyanins, showing an accelerated ripening process. On the contrary, table grapes coated with Aloe vera gel significantly delayed the above changes, such as the retention of ascorbic acid during cold storage or SL. Consequently, Aloe vera gel coating, a simple and noncontaminating treatment, maintained the functional properties during postharvest storage of table grapes. PMID:16719510

  17. Spectroscopic Constants of the X1Σ+ and 13Π states of AlO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sghaier, Onsi; Linguerri, Roberto; Mogren, Muneerah Mogren Al; Francisco, Joseph S.; Hochlaf, Majdi

    2016-08-01

    Using both standard and explicitly correlated ab initio methods in conjunction with several atomic basis sets, the ground state of AlO(X2Σ+) and the two lowest electronic states of AlO+ (1Σ+ and 3Π) are investigated. Potential energy curves for these species are mapped, which are incorporated later to solve the nuclear motion problem. Benchmark computations on AlO(X2Σ+) are used to determine the reliability of the theoretical methods and basis sets used for an accurate description of aluminum oxide compounds. The electronic ground state of AlO+ is X1Σ+, followed by the low-lying 13Π state. For both cationic electronic states, a set of spectroscopic parameters are recommended that may help in the identification of this ion in laboratory and astrophysical media. An accurate estimation of the adiabatic ionization energy of AlO, AIE = 9.70 eV, is also reported.

  18. Protective value of Aloe vera against some toxic effects of arsenic in rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Richa; Flora, Swaran J S

    2005-01-01

    Concomitant oral supplementation of Aloe vera, (1, 2 or 5% w[sol ]v in drinking water) during arsenic exposure (0.2 mg[sol ]kg, intraperitoneally, once daily for 3 weeks) was investigated in rats for its protective value. Animals exposed to arsenic (III) showed a significant inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, a marginal decrease in glutathione (GSH) and an increase in zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level in blood. White blood corpuscles (WBC) level decreased while most of the other clinical blood parameters like red blood cells count, haemoglobin, MCV, MCH, MCHC ratio and platelet number, etc. remained unaltered on arsenic exposure. Hepatic reduced GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) level remained unaltered, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) level increased significantly while the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and catalase decreased on arsenic exposure. Renal GSH contents decreased while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity decreased significantly on arsenic exposure. Concomitant administration of Aloe vera had remarkable protective action on inhibited blood ALAD activity and restored blood GSH level while most of the other blood biochemical parameters remained unchanged on Aloe vera supplementation. Interestingly, most of hepatic biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress showed protection; no effect of Aloe vera on blood and liver arsenic concentration was noted. Also, no effect of Aloe vera on most of the altered renal biochemical parameters were noticed. The results thus lead us to conclude that simultaneous supplementation of Aloe vera protects against arsenic induced oxidative stress but does not influence the arsenic concentration in these organs. PMID:15799004

  19. Modification of emodin and aloe-emodin by glycosylation in engineered Escherihia coli.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Gopal Prasad; Koirala, Niranjan; Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Jung, Hye Jin; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2015-04-01

    Glycosyltransferase from Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 (YjiC) was used for enzymatic modification of emodin and aloe-emodin in vitro and in vivo. In order to increase the availability of UDP-glucose, three genes involved in the production of precursors of NDP-sugar in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) viz. D-glucose phosphate isomerase (pgi), D-glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (zwf), and UDP-sugar hydrolase (ushA) were deleted and glucose-1-phosphate urididyltransferase (galU) gene was over expressed. To improve the yield of the products; substrate, time and media parameters were optimized, and the production was scaled up using a 3 L fermentor. The maximum yield of glycosylated products of emodin (emodin-O-β-D-glucoside) and aloe-emodin (aloe-emodin-O-β-D-glucoside) were approximately 144 µM (38 mg/L) and 168 µM (45 mg/L) respectively, representing almost 72 % and 84 % bioconversion of emodin and aloe-emodin when 200 µM of emodin and aloe-emodin were supplemented in the culture. Additionally, the emodin and aloe emodin major glycosylated products exhibited the highest stability at pH 8.0 and the stability of products was up to 70 °C and 60 °C respectively. Furthermore, the biological activities of emodin and its major glucoside (P1) were compared and their anti-cancer activities were assayed in several cancer cell lines. The results demonstrate that YjiC has the capacity to catalyze the glycosylation of these aromatic compounds and that glycosylation of anthraquinones enhances their aqueous solubility while retaining their biological activities. PMID:25663173

  20. Pharmacological attribute of Aloe vera: Revalidation through experimental and clinical studies

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vinay K.; Malhotra, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Aloe vera has long been used as a traditional medicine for inducing wound healing. It is a natural product that now a days is used in cosmetic industry. Benefits associated with Aloe vera have been attributed to the polysaccharides contained in the gel of the leaves though there are various indications for its use. Biological activities include promotion of wound healing, antifungal activity, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and immunomodulatory. Gingival fibroblasts play an important role in oral wound healing. Double blind-controlled trials are needed to determine its real efficacy in oral health. PMID:23559789

  1. [Study on application of arbuscular-mycorrhizas in growing seedings of Aloe vera].

    PubMed

    Gong, Mingqin; Wang, Fengzhen; Chen, Yu

    2002-01-01

    Tissue culture seedlings of Aloe vera L. inoculated with 7 AMF(arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi) in a greenhouse in Guangzhou showed that the percentage of infection was 99.67%-100%, the index of infected was 73.3%-86.67%. After being inoculated 13 months, the seedling high raised 19.88%-51.91%, the leaves length raised 13.13%-150.96%. After being inoculated 15 months, the leaves juice of Aloe vera raised 60.87%-233.8% and the dried of leaves juice raised 217%-724%. PMID:12583231

  2. Identification and discrimination of three common Aloe species by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Sun, Ya Nan; Lee, Min Jung; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Wonjae; Kim, Kyeong Ho; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kang, Jong Seong

    2016-09-15

    Aloe arborescens, Aloe barbadensis and Aloe ferox are the most widely cultivated and used among 500 aloe species due to their potent bioactivity. However, the difference of aloe species is neglected and labeled only one name Aloe in the market without specifying aloe species discrimination in general. Furthermore, differences in bioactivity and side effects from different aloe species have not been well investigated. This study develops an effective method for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of three common aloe species using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The extraction conditions were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) based on methanol concentration, extraction time and solvent-to-material ratio. A partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to identify the three aloe species. The developed HPLC-MS/MS method coupled with multivariate analysis can be applied to discriminate three aloe species successfully. PMID:27494280

  3. Optimality in Microwave-Assisted Drying of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Gel using Response Surface Methodology and Artificial Neural Network Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Chandan; Das, Arijit; Kumar Golder, Animes

    2016-07-01

    The present work illustrates the Microwave-Assisted Drying (MWAD) characteristic of aloe vera gel combined with process optimization and artificial neural network modeling. The influence of microwave power (160-480 W), gel quantity (4-8 g) and drying time (1-9 min) on the moisture ratio was investigated. The drying of aloe gel exhibited typical diffusion-controlled characteristics with a predominant interaction between input power and drying time. Falling rate period was observed for the entire MWAD of aloe gel. Face-centered Central Composite Design (FCCD) developed a regression model to evaluate their effects on moisture ratio. The optimal MWAD conditions were established as microwave power of 227.9 W, sample amount of 4.47 g and 5.78 min drying time corresponding to the moisture ratio of 0.15. A computer-stimulated Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model was generated for mapping between process variables and the desired response. `Levenberg-Marquardt Back Propagation' algorithm with 3-5-1 architect gave the best prediction, and it showed a clear superiority over FCCD.

  4. A comparative study of baby immature and adult shoots of Aloe vera on UVB-induced skin photoaging in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Kim, Su Hyeon; Lee, Sarah; Lee, Choong Hwan; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Jinwan; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2013-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induces photo-damage of the skin, which in turn causes depletion of the dermal extracellular matrix and chronic alterations in skin structure. Skin wrinkle formations are associated with collagen synthesis and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. The production of type I procollagen is regulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression; the activation of MMP is also correlated with an increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Aloe barbadensis M. (Aloe vera) is widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In this study, we examined whether baby aloe shoot extract (BAE, immature aloe extract), which is from the one-month-old shoots of Aloe vera, and adult aloe shoot extract (AE), which is from the four-month-old shoots of Aloe vera, have a protective effect on UVB-induced skin photoaging in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). The effects of BAE and AE on UVB-induced photoaging were tested by measuring the levels of reactive oxygen species, MMP-1, MMP-3, IL-6, type I procollagen, and TGF-β1 after UVB irradiation. We found that NHDF cells treated with BAE after UVB-irradiation suppressed MMP-1, MMP-3, and IL-6 levels compared to the AE-treated cells. Furthermore, BAE treatment elevated type I procollagen and TGF-β1 levels. Our results suggest that BAE may potentially protect the skin from UVB-induced damage more than AE. PMID:23505091

  5. An in vitro and in vivo toxicologic evaluation of a stabilized aloe vera gel supplement drink in mice.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Inder; Winters, Wallace D; Scott, Michael; Kousoulas, Konstantine

    2013-05-01

    Aloe vera gel is increasingly consumed as a beverage dietary supplement. The purpose of this study was to determine potential toxicity of a stabilized aloe vera gel derived from the inner gel fillet and marketed as a drink. The gel juice was assessed through assays of genotoxicity in vivo and acute and subchronic toxicity in B6C3F1 mice. Aloe vera did not increase the SOS DNA repair response in Escherichia coli and at 1× and 0.25× it did not increase mutagenesis of Salmonella TA100 resulting in histidine biosynthesis. At 3 and 14days following acute exposure, male and female mice gavaged with the stabilized aloe gel had daily appearances, total body weight gain, selected organ weights, necropsy and hematology tests similar to control mice gavaged with water. After a 13-week aloe gel feed study, male and female mice evaluated by the same criteria as the acute study plus feed consumption and serum chemistry tests were found to be equivalent to control groups. These data indicate that a commercial stabilized aloe gel consumed as a beverage was not genotoxic or toxic in vivo. These results contrast with those obtained using preparations containing aloe latex phenolic compounds such as anthraquinones. PMID:23376510

  6. Millimeter Detection Of AlO (X2Σ+) In The Oxygen-rich Envelope Of VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenenbaum, Emily D.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2009-05-01

    A new circumstellar molecule, the radical AlO (X 2Σ+), has been detected toward the envelope of the oxygen-rich supergiant star VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) via three rotational emission lines. The N = 7 → 6 and 6 → 5 features of AlO were observed at 1 mm using the Arizona Radio Observatory Submillimeter Telescope (ARO SMT) and the N = 4 → 3 line was detected at 2 mm using the ARO 12 m dish. All lines exhibit noticeable hyperfine broadening due to the I = 5/2 spin of the aluminum nucleus. Based on simulations of the line profiles, AlO most likely arises from the dust-acceleration zone in the spherical outflow of VY CMa, with a source size of θs 0.5''. Given this source size, the column density of AlO was found to be Ntot 2 × 1015 cm-2 for Trot 230 K, with a fractional abundance, relative to H2, of 10-8. Gas-phase thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry is the likely formation mechanism for AlO in VY CMa, but shocks may disrupt the condensation process into Al2O3, allowing AlO to survive 20 stellar radii. The detection of AlO in VY CMa is additional evidence of an active gas-phase refractory chemistry in oxygen-rich envelopes, and suggests such objects may be fruitful sources for other new oxide identifications.

  7. Facile fabrication of aloe vera containing PCL nanofibers for barrier membrane application.

    PubMed

    Carter, Princeton; Rahman, Shekh M; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a widely used method in dental surgical procedures that utilizes a barrier membrane to exclude migration of epithelium and ensure repopulation of periodontal ligament cells at the sites having insufficient gingiva. Commercial GTR membranes are typically composed of synthetic polymers that have had mild clinical success mostly because of their lack of proper bioactivity and appropriate degradation profile. In this study, a natural polymer, aloe vera was blended with polycaprolactone (PCL) to create nanofibrous GTR membranes by electrospinning. Aloe vera has proven anti-inflammatory properties and enhances the regeneration of periodontium tissues. PCL, a synthetic polymer, is well known to produce miscible polyblends nanofibers with natural polymers. Nanofibrous membranes with varying composition of PCL to aloe vera were fabricated, and several physicochemical and biological properties, such as fiber morphology, wettability, chemical structure, mechanical strength, and cellular compatibility of the membranes were analyzed. PCL/aloe vera membranes with ratios from 100/00 to 70/30 showed good uniformity in fiber morphology and suitable mechanical properties, and retained the integrity of their fibrous structure in aqueous solutions. Experimental results, using cell viability assay and cell attachment observation, showed that the nanofibrous membranes support 3T3 cell viability and could be a potential candidate for GTR therapy. PMID:26878323

  8. Expression of biologically active human interferon alpha 2 in aloe vera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed a system for transgenic expression of proteins in Aloe Vera. Using this approach we have generated plants expressing the human gene interferon alpha 2, IFNa2. IFNa2 is a small secreted cytokine that plays a vital role in regulating the body’s immune response to viral infections a...

  9. Protective effects of Aloe vera-based diets in Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aloes have been widely used for a broad range of pharmacological activities, including parasitic problems. Avian coccidiosis is the most costly and wide-spread parasitic disease in the poultry industry, and has been mainly controlled by the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Due to the emergence of dru...

  10. Aloe vera gel and thyroid hormone cream may improve wound healing in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-Dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Mohsenifar, Jaleh; Gazor, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in surgical science. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effects of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine cream onsutured incisions in Wistar rats. In a randomized controlled trial, thirty-six Wistar male rats, 250 to 300 g, received surgical incisions followed by topical application of Aloe vera gel, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine 1%. To assess the efficacy of each treatment technique, a histological approach was used to evaluate the mean number of fibroblasts, macrophages, neutrophils, blood vessel sections and thickness of the regenerating epithelium and dermis on days 4, 7 and 14. Re-epithelialization and angiogenesis were significantly improved in Aloe vera gel group compared with the other treatments while thyroid hormone cream had positive effects on day 4 (P≤0.05). Topical administration of Aloe vera gel is recommended as the treatment of choice for surgical incisions. PMID:23094205

  11. The effect of a toothpaste containing aloe vera on established gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Namiranian, Homa; Serino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a toothpaste containing high concentrations of Aloe vera on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis in patients attending regular dental care by a dental hygienist. Fifteen subjects participated in this randomized, double-blind, intra-individual and controlled clinical study. Participants were non-smokers, with signs of gingivitis (bleeding index 30%) and no signs of periodontitis. Subjects were followed for three 6-month periods during which they used either their own toothpaste, or an Aloe vera or a control toothpaste. Plaque and gingival indices were recorded atthe start and end of each period. There was a statistically and clinically significant reduction of about 20% of the plaque and gingivitis indices at the end of the clinical trial compared to baseline values, but no differences between the Aloe vera and the control toothpaste. It may be concluded that in patients motivated to improve their oral hygiene habits, the use of a toothpaste containing Aloe Vera showed no additional effect on plaque and gingivitis compared to a control toothpaste. PMID:23421308

  12. Comparative evaluation of natural antioxidants spirulina and aloe vera for the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Santosh; Al-Zarea, Bader Kureyem; Maheshwari, Sneha; Sahu, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Aim Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a high risk premalignant condition predominantly seen in the Indian subcontinent. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of spirulina and aloe vera in the management of OSMF. Material and methods 42 subjects with clinico-pathologically diagnosed OSMF were included in the study and divided equally in 2 groups, Group A (spirulina group) and Group B (aloe vera group). Group A was administered 500 mg spirulina in 2 divided doses for 3 months and Group B was given 5 mg aloe vera gel to be applied topically thrice daily for 3 months. Evaluation for different clinical parameters was done at regular intervals and data was analyzed using the Chi-square test. P-value <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The patients in Group A showed significant clinical improvement in mouth opening and ulcers/erosions/vesicles (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant improvement in burning sensation (p = 0.06) and pain associated with the lesion (p = 0.04) among the 2 groups. Conclusion Both the drugs showed improvement in the condition; however spirulina can bring about significant clinical improvements in the symptoms like mouth opening and ulcers/erosion/vesicles. Thus, spirulina appears to be more promising when compared to aloe vera for the treatment of OSMF. PMID:25853042

  13. Characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, S.; Takeuchi, W.; Vetrita, Y.; Winarso, G.; Wikantika, K.; Sari, D. K.

    2014-06-01

    Indonesia has largest mangrove forest in the world, total area around 3.5 million ha or 17% - 23% from mangrove forest in the world. Mangrove forest provides products and services, such as carbon balance of the coastal zone. Mapping and monitoring biomass of mangrove is very important but field survey of mangrove biomass and productivity in overall Indonesia is very difficult. Global-scale mosaics with HH and HV backscatter of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) which is 50-m spatial resolution has been generated. This image available for identification and monitoring mangrove forest. The Objective of this research to investigate characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR in overall Indonesian archipelago. Methodology consists of collecting ALOS-PALSAR image for overall Indonesian archipelago, preprocessing and mosaicking, collecting region of interest of mangrove forest, plotting, ground survey, characterization and classification. The result of this research has showed characterization of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR. Indonesian mangrove forest types has HH value around -10 dB until -7 dB and HV value around -17 dB until -13 dB. Higher of HH and HV backscatters value indicated higher of level biomass. Based on scatter plot of HH and HV, Indonesian mangrove forest can be classified in three level biomass. Generally level biomass of mangrove forest in Indonesia archipelago is moderate.

  14. Disinfection of Dental Unit Water Line Using Aloe Vera: In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Pareek, Sonia; Nagaraj, Anup; Sharma, Prateek; Walia, Satinder; Naidu, Shravani; Yousuf, Asif

    2013-01-01

    Context. Dental unit waterlines may be heavily contaminated with microorganisms and are a potential source of infection for both practicing staff and immunocompromised patients particularly. Contamination of dental unit water lines could be inhibited with the use of disinfectants. The present study investigates the effect of aloe-vera-based disinfectant in reducing the microbial growth in dental unit water lines (DUWLs). Aims. To compare the efficacy of aloe vera, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in controlling microbial contamination of DUWLs. Materials and Methods. After obtaining baseline water samples, the dental unit waterlines were treated with aloe vera, 10% hydrogen peroxide, and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Each of the three disinfectants was used in increasing concentrations and their inhibiting effect was compared. Water samples were analyzed for microbiological quality by the total viable count (TVC) method. Statistical Analysis Used. SPSS 16. Results. There was significant reduction in mean CFU/ml when treated with disinfectants each for a period of one week. Aloe-vera solution was found to be the most effective in reducing the microbial colonies. Conclusions. Improving the water quality from dental unit water lines is of considerable importance; chemical-based disinfectants can be replaced with herbal disinfectants for treating microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines. PMID:24089615

  15. A Systemic Review on Aloe arborescens Pharmacological Profile: Biological Activities and Pilot Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Singab, Abdel-Naser B; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Esmat, Ahmed; Gad, Haidy A; Nazeam, Jilan A

    2015-12-01

    Since ancient times, plants and herbal preparations have been used as medicine. Research carried out in the last few decades has verified several such claims. Aloe arborescens Miller, belonging to the Aloe genus (Family Asphodelaceae), is one of the main varieties of Aloe used worldwide. The popularity of the plant in traditional medicine for several ailments (antitumor, immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial and antifungal activity) focused the investigator's interest on this plant. Most importantly, the reported studies have shown the plant effectiveness on various cancer types such as liver, colon, duodenal, skin, pancreatic, intestinal, lung and kidney types. These multiple biological actions make Aloe an important resource for developing new natural therapies. However, the biological activities of isolated compounds such as glycoprotein, polysaccharides, enzyme and phenolics were insufficient. Considering all these, this contribution provides a systematic review outlining the evidence on the biological efficacy of the plant including the pharmacology and the related mechanisms of action, with specific attention to the various safety precautions, and preclinical and clinical studies, indicating the future research prospects of this plant. PMID:26768148

  16. Aloe vera Aqueous Extract Effect on Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Dependent Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Mirshekari, Hamideh; Sabri, Azame

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera is a medicinal herb used as an anti-inflammatory and sedative agent. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera aqueous extract on morphine withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent female rats. Patients and Methods: The current research was performed on 40 female Wista-Albino rats which were made dependent on morphine using Houshyar protocol and were randomly divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E). Group A did not receive any agent in the period of handling but other groups (B, C, D and E) received 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of Aloe vera aqueous extract by gavage, three times daily for a week, respectively. Withdrawal symptoms, stool form, agitation, disparity, floppy eyelids, and body mass variations were checked for 10 days. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS v.11 software, and Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Statistical difference was considered significant (P < 0.05). Results: The results of the present study showed that agitation, disparity, and floppy eyelids in group E were significantly higher than those of others groups; however, these symptoms in group C were significantly lower than those of the other groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that the Aloe vera aqueous extract had various effects on morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent female rats . PMID:25593890

  17. Expression of biologically active human interferon alpha 2 in Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Lowther, William; Lorick, Kevin; Lawrence, Susan D; Yeow, Wen-Shuz

    2012-12-01

    Methods necessary for the successful transformation and regeneration of Aloe vera were developed and used to express the human protein, interferon alpha 2 (IFNα2). IFNα2 is a secreted cytokine that plays a vital role in regulating the cellular response to viral infection. Transgenic plants were regenerated from callus cultures initiated from zygotic embryos. Expression of the IFNA2 transgene in transformed plants was confirmed by RT-PCR and IFNα2 protein was detected by immunoblot analysis. Human A549 cells treated with transgenic aloe extracts for 6 h induced expression of the interferon stimulated gene 54, indicating activation of the IFN signaling pathway. The biological activity of the aloe produced IFNα2 was assessed using an antiviral assay with A549 cells treated with extracts from both the rind and pulp fractions of the shoot and subsequently infected with the lytic encephalomyocarditis virus. The highest level of activity attributable to recombinant IFNα2 was determined to be 625 IU/mg of total soluble protein (TSP) in the rind and 2,108 IU/mg TSP in the pulp. Two daughter plants that vegetatively budded during the course of this study were also confirmed to express IFNα2. These results confirm that Aloe vera is capable of expressing a human protein with biological activity, and that a secreted protein targeting the apoplast can be detected in the pulp fraction of the plant. PMID:22528466

  18. Study on the Land Cover/Use Features by Using ALOS-PALSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abullah, K.; Saleh, N. Mohd.

    2008-11-01

    Remote sensing technique gives a very useful tool for detecting and analyzing land cover/use features in our environment. This study was carried out to identity the land cover/use features over Penang Island, Malaysia. This research is an investigation to the multi polarized data of ALOS-PALSAR data for land cover/use mapping. The ALOS-PALSAR data used in this study was acquired on 1 November 2007. The ALOS-PALSAR images of the study area were chosen for land cover mapping using the standard supervised classification techniques (Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Distance-to-mean and Parallelepiped). Some filtering and enhancement methods had to be applied in order to reduce speckle noise and to contrast the images. Composite color images were produced for visual interpretation and field surveys. After investigation of the ground truth, representative areas of each land cover type were identified and allocated to the images. The PALSAR data of training areas were choose and selected based on the high resolution optical satellite imagery and were classified using supervised classification methods. The land cover information was extracted from the digital spectral bands using PCI Geomatica 10.1 software package. The accuracies of all classifications will be analyzed to evaluate the best performing combination. The results show that accurate land cover/use distribution maps can be produced from ALOS-PALSAR data.

  19. Aloe Vera Gel and Cesarean Wound Healing; A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Molazem, Zahra; Mohseni, Fatemeh; Younesi, Masoumeh; Keshavarzi, Sareh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Failure in complete healing of the wound is one of the probable complications of cesarean. The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of dressing with aloe vera gel in healing of cesarean wound. Methods: This prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 90 women who had undergone cesarean operation in Amir-al-Momenin hospital (Gerash, Iran). The participants were randomly divided into two groups each containing 45 patients. In one group, the wound was dressed with aloe vera gel, while simple dressing was used in the control group. Wound healing was assessed 24 hours and 8 days after the cesarean operation using REEDA scale. The data were analyzed through Chi-square and t-test. Results: The participants’ mean age was 27.56±4.20 in the aloe vera group and 26.62±4.88 in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, a significant difference was found between the two groups concerning body mass index, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure (P<0.05). Also, a significant difference was observed between the two groups with respect to the wound healing score 24 hours after the operation (P=0.003). After 8 days, however, the difference in the wound healing score was not significant (P=0.283). Overall, 45 participants in the aloe vera group and 35 ones in the control group had obtained a zero score 24 hours after the operation. These measures were respectively obtained as 42 and 41eight days after the operation. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, the women are recommended to be informed regarding the positive effects of dressing with aloe vera gel. PMID:25560349

  20. Mapping Sargassum beds off, ChonBuri Province, Thailand, using ALOS AVNI2 image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noiraksar, Thidarat; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Sawayama, Shuhei; Phauk, Sophany; Hayashizaki, Ken-ichi

    2012-10-01

    Sargassum species grow on rocks and dead corals and form dense seaweed beds. Sargassum beds play ecological roles such as CO2 uptake and O2 production through photosynthesis, spawning and nursery grounds of fish, feeding ground for sea urchins and abalones, and substrates for attached animals and plants on leaves and holdfasts. However, increasing human impacts and climate change decrease or degrade Sargassum beds in ASEAN countries. It is necessary to grasp present spatial distributions of this habitat. Thailand, especially its coastal zone along the Gulf of Thailand, is facing degradation of Sargassum beds due to increase in industries and population. JAXA launched non-commercial satellite, ALOS, providing multiband images with ultra-high spatial resolution optical sensors (10 m), AVNIR2. Unfortunately, ALOS has terminated its mission in April 2011. However, JAXA has archived ALOS AVNIR2 images over the world. They are still useful for mapping coastal ecosystems. We examined capability of remote sensing with ALOS AVNIR2 to map Sargassum beds in waters off Sattahip protected area as a natural park in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, threatened by degradation of water quality due to above-mentioned impacts. Ground truth data were obtained in February 2012 by using continual pictures taken by manta tow. Supervised classification could detect Sargassum beds off Sattahip at about 70% user accuracy. It is estimated that error is caused by mixel effect of bottom substrates in a pixel with 10 x 10 m. Our results indicate that ALOS AVNIR2 images are useful for mapping Sargassum beds in Southeast Asia.

  1. In-vitro assessment and pharmacodynamics of nimesulide incorporated Aloe vera transemulgel.

    PubMed

    Vandana, K R; Yalavarthi, Prasanna R; Sundaresan, C R; Sriramaneni, Raghava N; Vadlamudi, Harini C

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the investigation was to prepare nimesulide emulsion for incorporation in Aloe vera gel base to formulate 'nimesulide - Aloe vera transemulgel' (NAE) and to carryout in-vitro assessment and in-vivo anti-inflammatory studies of the product. Although the use of nimesulide is banned for oral administration, due to its potential for inducing hepatotoxicity and thrombocytopenia, the use of nimesulide for topical delivery is prominent in the treatment of many inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis. The drug loading capacity of transdermal gels is low for hydrophobic drugs such as nimesulide. Nimesulide can be effectively incorporated into emulgels (a combination of emulsion and gel). Aloe vera has a mild anti-inflammatory effect and in the present study Aloe vera gel was formulated and used as a gel base to prepare NAE. The emulgels thus prepared were evaluated for viscosity, pH, in-vitro permeation, stability and skin irritation test. In-vivo anti-inflammatory studies were performed using carrageenan induced hind paw edema method in Wistar rats. The results were compared with that of commercial nimesulide gel (CNG). From the in-vitro studies, effective permeation of nimesulide from NAE (53.04 %) was observed compared to CNG (44.72 %) at 30 min indicating better drug release from NAE. Topical application of the emulgel found no skin irritation. Stability studies proved the integrity of the formulation. The percentage of inhibition of edema was highest for the prepared NAE (67.4 % inhibition after 240 min) compared to CNG (59.6 %). From our results, it was concluded that the Aloe vera gel acts as an effective gel base to prepare nimesulide emulgel with high drug loading capacity (86.4 % drug content) compared to CNG (70.5 % drug content) with significant anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:24295369

  2. [Intestinal absorption of aloe-emodin using single-passintestinal perfusion method in rat].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinrong; Wang, Ping; Yang, Yongmao; Meng, Xianli; Zhang, Yan

    2011-09-01

    The intestinal absorption of aloe-emodin was investigated using the single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP) technique in S/D rats. SPIP was performed in each isolated segment of the intestine (i.e., duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon) and the different concentrations inhibitor group of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP2) with the concentrations of aloe-emodin (0.238 mg x L(-1)) at a flow rate of 0.28 mL x min(-1). The effective absorption rate constant (Ka) and apparent absorption coefficient (Papp) of aloe-emodin for each segment were determined before and after treated with different concentrations of inhibitors of P-gp and MRP2 respectively. Aloe-emodin exhibits a high intestinal permeability except the the ileum, indicative that the compounds are well absorbed. Decreases of Ka and Papp values in the duodenum, jejunum, colon and ileum, furthermore, the duodenum has significant increased compared with the ileum, there are have no significant difference in other isolated region of the intestine. Compared with the group which have no inhibitor of P-gp, the Ka and Papp were significantly increased in inhibitor of P-gp groups. Compared with the group of no inhibitor of MRP2, the Ka and Papp were significantly increased in inhibitor of MRP2 groups with the highest and the middle concentration. The results suggested that the inhibitors of P-gp and MRP2 all can promote the intestinal absorption of aloe-emodin. PMID:22121810

  3. Single- and repeated-dose toxicities of aloe fermentation products in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Baik, Soon-Ok; Choi, Soo-Young; Lee, Jae-Young

    2011-01-01

    In this study, aloe fermentation products were derived from mycelia from 3 mushrooms: Ganoderma lucidum (AG), Hericium erinaceum (AH), and Phellinus linteus (AP). Levels of aloin A and B increased with fermentation time. The highest levels were measured on the fifth day of fermentation. β-Glucan levels decreased with fermentation time. The safety of aloe fermentation products were examined in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were orally administered the three aloe fermentation products at dose levels of 1, 2 or 5 g/kg for single-dose toxicity test and 0.5, 1, or 2 g/kg for repeated-dose toxicity test. There were no significant differences in body weight gain between vehicle control and AG-, AH- or AP-treated rats. Also, significant changes in daily feed intake and water consumption were not observed. In hematological analysis, none of the parameters were affected by aloe fermentation products with mushroom mycelia. This suggests that there are no negative effects on homeostasis and immunity. In blood biochemistry analysis, none of the markers were affected by feeding rats with AG, AH or AP. Similarly, there were no significant effects on markers for liver, kidney, skeletal and heart muscle functions. No remarkable lesions were observed in these organs at histopathology. Since there were no adverse effects of AG, AH and AP in single- or repeated-dose toxicity tests, even at higher doses than normal, we conclude that the aloe fermentation products with mushroom mycelia possess long-term safety and could be candidates as multifunctional nutrients for the improvement of intestinal function and immunity. PMID:21998613

  4. Standwise Change Detection for Growing STOCK Using Repeat-Pass Alos Palsar / PALSAR-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, M.-G.; Kim, C.

    2016-06-01

    This study demonstrates the possibility of detecting the changes of growing stocks in mountainous forest stands derived from ALOS PALSAR and PALSAR-2 images. The ALOS PALSAR were obtained over the Kwangneung Experiment Forest (KEF, Korea) during the period of nineteen and a half months from the April 26, 2009 to December 12, 2010, whereas the PALSAR-2 data were acquired on the April 7, 2015. The KEF test site comprises 58 stands, which cover approximately 1,000ha and have steep slope topography. Owing to topographic effects of SAR data in mountainous areas, the DEM-assisted topographic normalized backscattering coefficient γ0 was applied to the evaluation of the relationships between the ALOS PALSAR / PALSAR-2 HV backscatter and the field inventory-based stand stock volume. The results indicate that: 1) the γ0 values for the volume obtained from ALOS PALSAR data on December 12, 2010 show a gradual increase higher than those computed from the data on April 26, 2009, here the γ0 value increases in accordance with an increase in the volume: 2) the γ0 values determined from the PALSAR-2 data increase with the same inventory-based volume, when compared with those computed from both ALOS PALSAR data. They also increase substantially as the values of the volume rise, with the exception of the volume interval from 130 m3 ha-1 to 160 m3 ha-1. This is understandable because the volume of the aforementioned interval has been reduced through clearing. Consequently, the γ0-based relationship between PALSAR-2 HV backscatter and growing stock can lead to detecting the stand growth changes in the KEF of Korea.

  5. In vitro and in vivo antileishmanial effects of aloe-emodin on Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Delavari, Mahdi; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Sadraei, Javid

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a common parasitic disease that is endemic in some parts of Iran. The drugs of choice used for leishmaniasis therapy are associated with a risk of recurrence and serious adverse effects. Therefore, finding a safe and effective treatment is of great importance. In the present study, the effect of aloe-emodin on the growth of Leishmania major amastigotes was evaluated under in vitro conditions. In addition, the efficacy of a topical of aloe-emodin ointment was investigated in BALB/c mice with cutaneous leishmanial ulcers. Different concentrations (40 μg/mL, 80 μg/mL, 120 μg/mL, and 160 μg/mL) of aloe-emodin were tested on Leishmania amastigotes twice: 24 hours and 48 hours. The induced apoptosis and necrotic effects of two concentrations (40 μg/mL and 120 μg/mL) of aloe-emodin on promastigotes were investigated by flow cytometry. Under the in vivo condition, aloe-emodin ointment efficacy was evaluated at two concentrations (i.e., 0.1% and 1%). Serum indicator factors of the test and control groups were tested to evaluate the toxic effects of this compound on the liver and kidney. Results showed that aloe-emodin inhibited the growth of Leishmania amastigotes and induced apoptosis in promastigotes. Topical application of aloe-emodin ointment likewise reduced the ulcer size. No significant differences in biochemical analysis were observed between the control and treated groups. In conclusion, aloe-emodin showed antileishmanial effects under in vitro and in vivo conditions and may be used in clinical trials. PMID:26151018

  6. A novel method for air drying aloe leaf slices by covering with filter papers as a shrink-proof layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, S A; Baek, J H; Lee, S J; Choi, S Y; Hur, W; Lee, S Y

    2009-01-01

    To prevent the shrinkage of aloe vera slices during air drying, a method utilizing a shrink-proof layer was developed. The sample was configured of whole leaf aloe slices, where 1 side or both sides were covered with filter papers as shrink-proof layers. After air drying by varying the air temperature and the slice thickness, the drying characteristics, as well as several quality factors of the dried aloe vera leaf slices, were analyzed. In the simulation of the drying curves, the modified Page model showed the best fitness, representing a diffusion-controlled drying mechanism. Nonetheless, there was a trace of a constant-rate drying period in the samples dried by the method. Shrinkage was greatly reduced, and the rehydration ratios increased by approximately 50%. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed that the surface structure of original fibrous form was well sustained. FT-IR characteristics showed that the dried samples could sustain aloe polysaccharide acetylation. Furthermore, the functional properties of the dried slices including water holding capacity, swelling, and fat absorption capability were improved, and polysaccharide retention levels increased by 20% to 30%. Therefore, we concluded that application of shrink-proof layers on aloe slices provides a novel way to overcome the shrinkage problems commonly found in air drying, thereby improving their functional properties with less cost. Practical Application: This research article demonstrates a novel air drying method using shrink-proof layers to prevent the shrinkage of aloe slices. We analyzed extensively the characteristics of shrinkage mechanism and physical properties of aloe flesh gels in this drying system. We concluded that this method can be a beneficial means to retain the functional properties of dried aloe, and a potential alternative to freeze drying, which is still costly. PMID:20492108

  7. Intestinal absorption of aloin, aloe-emodin, and aloesin; A comparative study using two in vitro absorption models

    PubMed Central

    Park, Mi-Young; Kwon, Hoon-Jeong

    2009-01-01

    Aloe products are one of the top selling health-functional foods in Korea, however the adequate level of intake to achieve desirable effects are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the intestinal uptake and metabolism of physiologically active aloe components using in vitro intestinal absorption model. The Caco-2 cell monolayer and the everted gut sac were incubated with 5-50 µM of aloin, aloe-emodin, and aloesin. The basolateral appearance of test compounds and their glucuronosyl or sulfated forms were quantified using HPLC. The % absorption of aloin, aloe-emodin, and aloesin was ranged from 5.51% to 6.60%, 6.60% to 11.32%, and 7.61% to 13.64%, respectively. Up to 18.15%, 18.18%, and 38.86% of aloin, aloe-emodin, and aloesin, respectively, was absorbed as glucuronidated or sulfated form. These results suggest that a significant amount is transformed during absorption. The absorption rate of test compounds except aloesin was similar in two models; more aloesin was absorbed in the everted gut sac than in the Caco-2 monolayer. These results provide information to establish adequate intake level of aloe supplements to maintain effective plasma level. PMID:20016696

  8. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/Aloe Vera composite nanofibers generated by electrostatic spinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Illani; Sekak, Khairunnadim Ahmad; Hasbullah, Norazurean

    2015-08-01

    Researches on the fabrication of nanostructured based membrane have attracted great attention amongst scientists due to their wide potential applications on medical application. In this work, Chitosan and Aloe Vera sol-gel solution were electrospun using 20 kV DC supply at room temperature. Morphological structure and functional group of nanofibers were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) respectively. The optimum parameter obtained at 90% concentration of acetic acid, 0.3 ml/h of solution flow rate and 10 cm distance of nozzle to collector. The fiber diameters were analyzed using the ImageJ software. Average diameters of the Chitosan/Aloe Vera composite nanofibers is 183nm in ranges of 140-260nm.

  9. Impedance studies of a green blend polymer electrolyte based on PVA and Aloe-vera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvalakshmi, S.; Mathavan, T.; Vijaya, N.; Selvasekarapandian, Premalatha, M.; Monisha, S.

    2016-05-01

    The development of polymer electrolyte materials for energy generating and energy storage devices is a challenge today. A new type of blended green electrolyte based on Poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA) and Aloe-vera has been prepared by solution casting technique. The blending of polymers may lead to the increase in stability due to one polymer portraying itself as a mechanical stiffener and the other as a gelled matrix supported by the other. The prepared blend electrolytes were subjected to Ac impedance studies. It has been found out that the polymer film in which 1 gm of PVA was dissolved in 40 ml of Aloe-vera extract exhibits highest conductivity and its value is 3.08 × 10-4 S cm-1.

  10. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/Aloe Vera composite nanofibers generated by electrostatic spinning

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, Illani; Sekak, Khairunnadim Ahmad; Hasbullah, Norazurean

    2015-08-28

    Researches on the fabrication of nanostructured based membrane have attracted great attention amongst scientists due to their wide potential applications on medical application. In this work, Chitosan and Aloe Vera sol-gel solution were electrospun using 20 kV DC supply at room temperature. Morphological structure and functional group of nanofibers were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) respectively. The optimum parameter obtained at 90% concentration of acetic acid, 0.3 ml/h of solution flow rate and 10 cm distance of nozzle to collector. The fiber diameters were analyzed using the ImageJ software. Average diameters of the Chitosan/Aloe Vera composite nanofibers is 183nm in ranges of 140–260nm.

  11. Aloe vera: Potential candidate in health management via modulation of biological activities

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Arshad H.; Aldebasi, Yousef H.; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A.; Aly, Salah M.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment based on natural products is rapidly increasing worldwide due to the affordability and fewer side effects of such treatment. Various plants and the products derived from them are commonly used in primary health treatment, and they play a pivotal role in the treatment of diseases via modulation of biochemical and molecular pathways. Aloe vera, a succulent species, produces gel and latex, plays a therapeutic role in health management through antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities, and also offers a suitable alternative approach for the treatment of various types of diseases. In this review, we summarize the possible mechanism of action and the therapeutic implications of Aloe vera in health maintenance based on its modulation of various biological activities. PMID:26392709

  12. Investigation on the Ancient Site Location in the Mesopotamian Region Based on ALOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Ken; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Ushiki, Hisao; Goto, Tomoya

    2008-11-01

    This project aims to investigate the location of ancient Mesopotamian sites in Iraq and to create a distribution map using ALOS data. Iraq is a centre of the ancient Mesopotamian civilization. A distribution map is essential to conduct a prompt investigation and preservation of ancient sites and cultural heritage in Iraq which are at risk of looting and robbery due to the recent Iraqi condition. Firstly this project enables to create Satellite Image Map of Iraq, where the acquisition of detailed map is not possible, based on ALOS Data. The ancient site of Mesopotamia is called "Tell" which is swelled up from the alluvial plain and forms like a hill with the bare land on the surface. Secondly, the estimation of locating ancient site has been undertaken by using the Satellite Image Interpretation method. Finally the locations of the ancient sites and the Satellite Image map are layered to produce the Distribution Map.

  13. Aloe vera: Potential candidate in health management via modulation of biological activities.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Aldebasi, Yousef H; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A; Aly, Salah M

    2015-01-01

    Treatment based on natural products is rapidly increasing worldwide due to the affordability and fewer side effects of such treatment. Various plants and the products derived from them are commonly used in primary health treatment, and they play a pivotal role in the treatment of diseases via modulation of biochemical and molecular pathways. Aloe vera, a succulent species, produces gel and latex, plays a therapeutic role in health management through antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities, and also offers a suitable alternative approach for the treatment of various types of diseases. In this review, we summarize the possible mechanism of action and the therapeutic implications of Aloe vera in health maintenance based on its modulation of various biological activities. PMID:26392709

  14. Radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment of ALOS AVNIR-2 and PRISM sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saunier, S.; Goryl, P.; Chander, G.; Santer, R.; Bouvet, M.; Collet, B.; Mambimba, A.; Kocaman, Aksakal S.

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was launched on January 24, 2006, by a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) H-IIA launcher. It carries three remote-sensing sensors: 1) the Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2); 2) the Panchromatic Remote-Sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM); and 3) the Phased-Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Within the framework of ALOS Data European Node, as part of the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Space Research Institute worked alongside JAXA to provide contributions to the ALOS commissioning phase plan. This paper summarizes the strategy that was adopted by ESA to define and implement a data verification plan for missions operated by external agencies; these missions are classified by the ESA as third-party missions. The ESA was supported in the design and execution of this plan by GAEL Consultant. The verification of ALOS optical data from PRISM and AVNIR-2 sensors was initiated 4 months after satellite launch, and a team of principal investigators assembled to provide technical expertise. This paper includes a description of the verification plan and summarizes the methodologies that were used for radiometric, geometric, and image quality assessment. The successful completion of the commissioning phase has led to the sensors being declared fit for operations. The consolidated measurements indicate that the radiometric calibration of the AVNIR-2 sensor is stable and agrees with the Landsat-7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus and the Envisat MEdium-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer calibration. The geometrical accuracy of PRISM and AVNIR-2 products improved significantly and remains under control. The PRISM modulation transfer function is monitored for improved characterization. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  15. Expression profile of genes modulated by Aloe emodin in human U87 glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Haris, Khalilah; Ismail, Samhani; Idris, Zamzuri; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Yusoff, Abdul Aziz Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive and malignant form of glioma, appears to be resistant to various chemotherapeutic agents. Hence, approaches have been intensively investigated to targeti specific molecular pathways involved in glioblastoma development and progression. Aloe emodin is believed to modulate the expression of several genes in cancer cells. We aimed to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effect of Aloe emodin on gene expression profiles in the human U87 glioblastoma cell line utilizing microarray technology. The gene expression analysis revealed that a total of 8,226 gene alterations out of 28,869 genes were detected after treatment with 58.6 μg/ml for 24 hours. Out of this total, 34 genes demonstrated statistically significant change (p<0.05) ranging from 1.07 to 1.87 fold. The results revealed that 22 genes were up-regulated and 12 genes were down-regulated in response to Aloe emodin treatment. These genes were then grouped into several clusters based on their biological functions, revealing induction of expression of genes involved in apoptosis (programmed cell death) and tissue remodelling in U87 cells (p<0.01). Several genes with significant changes of the expression level e.g. SHARPIN, BCAP31, FIS1, RAC1 and TGM2 from the apoptotic cluster were confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These results could serve as guidance for further studies in order to discover molecular targets for the cancer therapy based on Aloe emodin treatment. PMID:24969876

  16. Aloe vera for prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis: a self-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Haddad, P; Amouzgar-Hashemi, F; Samsami, S; Chinichian, S; Oghabian, M A

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate an Aloe vera lotion for prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis, all patients with a prescription of radiotherapy to a minimum dose of 40 Gy were eligible provided that their treatment area could be divided into two symmetrical halves. Patients were given a lotion of Aloe vera to use on one half of the irradiated area, with no medication to be used on the other half. The grade of dermatitis in each half was recorded weekly until 4 weeks after the end of radiotherapy. The trial enrolled 60 patients (mean age: 52 years; 67% women). Most patients had breast cancer (38%), followed by pelvic (32%), head-and-neck (22%), and other cancers (8%). Field size was 80-320 cm(2) (mean: 177 cm(2)), and the dose of radiotherapy was 40-70 Gy (mean: 54 Gy). Concurrent chemotherapy was administered in 20 patients. From week 4 to week 6 of radiotherapy and then at weeks 2 and 4 after radiotherapy, the mean grade of dermatitis with and without Aloe vera was 0.81 and 1.10 (p < 0.001), 0.96 and 1.28 (p < 0.001), 1.00 and 1.57 (p = 0.006), 0.59 and 0.79 (p = 0.003), and 0.05 and 0.21 (p = 0.002) respectively. Age and radiation field size had a significant effect on the grade of dermatitis. Based on these results, we conclude that the prophylactic use of Aloe vera reduces the intensity of radiationinduced dermatitis. PMID:23904773

  17. The Effects of Different Media on Shoot Proliferation From the Shoot Tip of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed Central

    Daneshvar, Mohammad Hosein; Moallemi, Noorolah; Abdolah Zadeh, Nazanin

    2013-01-01

    Background Aloe vera L. is an important pharmaceutical plant from which several medicinal and cosmetic compounds are extracted. Aloe is naturally propagated through offset, which is a slow and expensive labor cost method with low economical income. Objectives In this study, the effect of different media on shoot proliferation of the shoot tip of Aloe vera L. was investigated. Materials and Methods In vitro techniques are some of the suggested methods for rapid propagation of Aloe. In this experiment, the shoot tips of mother plants were grown in a greenhouse. After surface sterilization of the explants, they were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) (MS) medium containing different concentrations of kinetin and naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The experiment was carried out in the form of a randomized complete design with three replications. Results The results showed that MS media containing 1.5 mg/L kinetin along with 0.15 or 0.3 mg/L NAA produced the highest percentage of proliferated shoots. In addition, the percentage of proliferated shoots in MS medium containing 2.0 or 2.5 mg/L benzylaminopurine (BAP) + 0.15 mg/L NAA was significantly higher than the other treatments. Conclusions Analysis of the interactive effects of NAA, kinetin and BAP on shoot proliferation showed that most of the proliferated shoots produced in MS medium containing 1.0 mg/L BAP + 1.0 mg/L kinetin + 0.15 mg/L NAA were significantly different from other treatments. Rooting quality was greater in MS media containing 1.0 mg/L IBA than a 1.0 mg/L NAA treatment. PMID:24624195

  18. Screening for novel plant sources of prenyloxyanthraquinones: Senna alexandrina Mill. and Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Fiorito, Serena; Locatelli, Marcello; Taddeo, Vito Alessandro; Genovese, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    As a continuation of our ongoing studies aimed to reveal the presence of oxyprenylated anthraquinones in plants claimed to have a laxative effect, in this article, we describe the extraction and HPLC separation of madagascin (3-isopentenyloxyemodin) and 3-geranyloxyemodine from dried leaves and fruits of Senna alexandrina Mill. (Leguminosae) and leaves and gel of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Xanthorrhoeaceae). Both compounds are described herein for the first time as components of extracts of the title plants. PMID:25342202

  19. Preparation and characterization of aloe vera blended collagen-chitosan composite scaffold for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Jithendra, Panneerselvam; Rajam, Abraham Merlin; Kalaivani, Thambiran; Mandal, Asit Baran; Rose, Chellan

    2013-08-14

    Collagen-Chitosan (COL-CS) scaffolds supplemented with different concentrations (0.1-0.5%) of aloe vera (AV) were prepared and tested in vitro for their possible application in tissue engineering. After studying the microstructure and mechanical properties of all the composite preparations, a 0.2% AV blended COL-CS scaffold was chosen for further studies. Scaffolds were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) to understand the intermolecular interactions and their influence on the thermal property of the complex composite. Swelling property in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) and in vitro biodegradability by collagenase digestion method were monitored to assess the stability of the scaffold in a physiological medium in a hydrated condition, and to assay its resistance against enzymatic forces. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the scaffold samples showed porous architecture with gradual change in their morphology and reduced tensile properties with increasing aloe vera concentration. The FTIR spectrum revealed the overlap of the AV absorption peak with the absorption peak of COL-CS. The inclusion of AV to COL-CS increased the thermal stability as well as hydrophilicity of the scaffolds. Cell culture studies on the scaffold showed enhanced growth and proliferation of fibroblasts (3T3L1) without exhibiting any toxicity. Also, normal cell morphology and proliferation were observed by fluorescence microscopy and SEM. The rate of cell growth in the presence/absence of aloe vera in the scaffolds was in the order: COL-CS-AV > COL-CS > TCP (tissue culture polystyrene plate). These results suggested that the aloe vera gel-blended COL-CS scaffolds could be a promising candidate for tissue engineering applications. PMID:23838342

  20. Measuring Crustal Deformation Caused by the Nepal (Gorkha) Earthquake Using ALOS-2 SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Yarai, H.

    2015-12-01

    A huge earthquake (Mw 7.8, USGS) occurred on 25 April, 2015 in Nepal, followed by the largest aftershock (Mw 7.3, USGS) on 12 May. We applied an InSAR technique to detect crustal deformation caused by the earthquakes using L-band SAR data acquired by ALOS-2. One of the advantages of ALOS-2 over ALOS is ScanSAR interferometry. Beam synchronization, which is a critical factor for ScanSAR interferometry, is always tuned among ALOS-2 observations. While a width of 350 km is covered by a ScanSAR acquisition, the provided data is divided into five swaths with each width of 70 km. Adjacent swaths have an overlapping area with a width of several kilometers, where interferometric phases for two swaths are basically comparable. We processed each swath independently. Preliminary interferograms are contaminated by noises with long wavelength, which makes it difficult to measure the amount of the crustal deformation accurately. We reduce the noises by following steps. First, pseudo reference points with no displacement are put at intervals of 40-100 km outside of the possible deforming area. The differential phase at the points are assumed to be due to the noises. The curved surface of the noises is estimated by smoothly interpolating the differential phase at the points. Note that the pseudo reference points should be located in a high coherence area where the phases can be unwrapped. Furthermore the points in the overlapping area between adjacent swaths allow to preserve consistency of the phases between adjacent swaths. The interferograms show the clear and detailed crustal deformation (published on http://www.gsi.go.jp/cais/topic150429-index-e.html). The maximum of a quasi up-down component of the deformation estimated from the interferograms with different beam directions reaches over 1.4 m uplift at 20 km northeast from Kathmandu and 0.6 m subsidence at a northern part of the deforming area.

  1. Detection of seagrass beds in Khunk Graben Bay, Thailand, using ALOS AVNI2 image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Teruhisa; Noiraksar, Thidarat; Sakamoto, Shingo X.; Sawayama, Shuhei; Miyamoto, Hiroomi; Phauk, Sophany; Thongdee, Pornthep; Jualaong, Suthep; Nishida, Shuhei

    2012-11-01

    Coastal habitats having high productivity provide numerous ecological services such as foods, protection from strong waves through buffering effect, fixation of CO2 through photosynthesis, fostering biodiversity etc. However, increasing human impacts and climate change decrease or degrade coastal habitats. ASEAN region is developing most rapidly in the world. In the developing region, it is necessary to grasp present spatial distributions of habitats as a baseline data with standardized mapping methods. Remote sensing is one of the most effective methods for mapping. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) provides non-commercial satellite images with ultra-high spatial resolution optical sensors (10 m), AVNIR2, similar to LANDSAT TM. Using ALOS AVNIR2 images it may be possible to make habitat map in the region. In Thailand, shrimp ponds cause degradation of coastal ecosystem through cutting mangroves and eutrophicated discharge from ponds. We examined capability of remote sesing with ALOS AVNIR2 to map seagrass beds in Khung Kraben Bay, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand, surrounded by shrimp ponds. We analyzed ALOS AVNIR2 taken on 25 January 2008. Ground truth survey was conducted in October 2010 using side scan sonar and scuba diving. The survey revealed that there were broad seagrass beds consisting of Enhalus acroides. We used a decision tree to detect seagrass beds in the bay with quite turbid seawater coupled with Depth-Invariant Index proposed by Lyzenga (1985) and bottom reflectances. We could succeed to detect seagrass beds. Thus it is concluded that ALOS AVNIR2 is practical to map seagrass beds in this region.

  2. High-performance nanothermite composites based on aloe-vera-directed CuO nanorods.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vinay Kumar; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2013-12-26

    In this work, we demonstrate the development of high-performance nanothermite composites derived from super-reactive CuO nanorods oxidizers fabricated by simple biogenic routes using Aloe vera plant extracts. Nanorods of various length scales have been realized via simple sonoemulsion and solid-state biosynthesis routes using Aloe vera gel as a green surfactant promoting the directional growth of CuO nanorods in both solid and emulsion phase. The biosynthesized CuO nanorods (oxidizers)/fuel (nanoaluminum) composites ignited vigorously with abundant gas generation, developing high heat of reaction of 1.66 kJ g(-1) and very high pressurization rate of around 1.09 MPa μs(-1) and peak pressure of 65.4 MPa when blasted inside a constant volume pressure cell with a charge density of 0.2 g cm(-3). The pressurization rates so obtained are four times higher with twice the peak pressure in comparison to such nanothermites formulated via other available state of the art wet-chemical techniques, which reflects the catalytic role of Aloe vera surface functional groups (A. vera-sfg) enhancing the reactivity of CuO oxidizers with excess gas release rate during exothermic reaction with nanoaluminum. Through this work, Aloe vera gel has for the first time been identified as a novel biotemplate for green synthesis of nanorod structures of metal oxides, and we have also studied the utility of A. vera-sfg in the creation of super-reactive CuO oxidizers producing excellent heat of reaction and dynamic pressure characteristics as demanded in propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics. PMID:24283714

  3. Hypoglycemic effect of Aloe vera gel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Sivagnanam, K; Ravi, K; Subramanian, S

    2004-01-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate the presence of hypoglycemic activity in the alcoholic extract of Aloe vera gel. Effects of oral administration of A. vera extract at a concentration of 200 and 300 mg/kg of body weight on (a) normal fasted rats, (b) oral glucose-loaded rats, and (c) streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats have been studied. A. vera extract maintain the glucose homeostasis by controlling the carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes. PMID:15117555

  4. Aloe vera for prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis: a self-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, P.; Amouzgar–Hashemi, F.; Samsami, S.; Chinichian, S.; Oghabian, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate an Aloe vera lotion for prevention of radiation-induced dermatitis, all patients with a prescription of radiotherapy to a minimum dose of 40 Gy were eligible provided that their treatment area could be divided into two symmetrical halves. Patients were given a lotion of Aloe vera to use on one half of the irradiated area, with no medication to be used on the other half. The grade of dermatitis in each half was recorded weekly until 4 weeks after the end of radiotherapy. The trial enrolled 60 patients (mean age: 52 years; 67% women). Most patients had breast cancer (38%), followed by pelvic (32%), head-and-neck (22%), and other cancers (8%). Field size was 80–320 cm2 (mean: 177 cm2), and the dose of radiotherapy was 40–70 Gy (mean: 54 Gy). Concurrent chemotherapy was administered in 20 patients. From week 4 to week 6 of radiotherapy and then at weeks 2 and 4 after radiotherapy, the mean grade of dermatitis with and without Aloe vera was 0.81 and 1.10 (p < 0.001), 0.96 and 1.28 (p < 0.001), 1.00 and 1.57 (p = 0.006), 0.59 and 0.79 (p = 0.003), and 0.05 and 0.21 (p = 0.002) respectively. Age and radiation field size had a significant effect on the grade of dermatitis. Based on these results, we conclude that the prophylactic use of Aloe vera reduces the intensity of radiationinduced dermatitis. PMID:23904773

  5. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life. PMID:26904652

  6. Preliminary results of calibration for ALOS optical sensors and validation of generated PRISM DSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadono, Takeo; Shimada, Masanobu; Murakami, Hiroshi; Mukaida, Akira; Takaku, Junichi; Kawamoto, Sachi

    2006-09-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) was successfully launched on January 24 th, 2006. This paper introduces the preliminary results of calibration and validation for two optical sensors of ALOS i.e., the Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) and the Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type-2 (AVNIR-2). PRISM consists of three independent panchromatic radiometers, and is used to derive a digital surface model (DSM) with high spatial resolution, which is also an objective of the ALOS mission. So, the geometric calibration is important in generating a highly accurate DSM by stereo pair image of PRISM. The radiometric calibration is also important for AVNIR-2 as well as PRISM. The relative radiometric calibration is carrying out using acquired images over homogeneous targets such as ocean, deserts, ice and snow areas and the nighttime observation. The absolute radiometric calibration is applied the cross calibration method using calibrated satellite images i.e., MODIS onboard Terra/Aqua satellites, ASTER, SPOT-5 etc. In this paper, results of the first images acquisition and preliminary analysis for calibration and validation are described.

  7. Aloe vera phenomenon: a review of the properties and modern uses of the leaf parenchyma gel

    SciTech Connect

    Grindlay, D.; Reynolds, T.

    1986-06-01

    The mucilaginous gel from the parenchymatous cells in the leaf pulp of Aloe vera has been used since early times for a host of curative purposes. This gel should be distinguished clearly from the bitter yellow exudate originating from the bundle sheath cells, which is used for its purgative effects. Aloe vera gel has come to play a prominent role as a contemporary folk remedy, and numerous optimistic, and in some cases extravagant, claims have been made for its medicinal properties. Modern clinical use of the gel began in the 1930s, with reports of successful treatment of X-ray and radium burns, which led to further experimental studies using laboratory animals in the following decades. The reports of these experiments and the numerous favourable case histories did not give conclusive evidence, since although positive results were usually described, much of the work suffered from poor experimental design and insufficiently large test samples. In addition some conflicting or inconsistent results were obtained. With the recent resurgence of interest in Aloe vera gel, however, new experimental work has indicated the possibility of distinct physiological effects. Chemical analysis has shown the gel to contain various carbohydrate polymers, notably either glucomannans or pectic acid, along with a range of other organic and inorganic components. Although many physiological properties of the gel have been described, there is no certain correlation between these and the identified gel components. 154 references.

  8. Comparison of Plaque Inhibiting Efficacies of Aloe Vera and Propolis Tooth Gels: A Randomized PCR Study

    PubMed Central

    Sunkara, Musalaiah Svv; Pantareddy, Indeevar; Sudhakar, Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    Backgound and Aim Allopathic medications used for periodontal disease are known to be associated with various side effects. Hence a search for naturotherapies are on the rise. Among the natural pharmacons available aloevera and propolis are considered to be effective and free from adverse effects. Taking this into account, the present study was done to compare the plaque inhibiting efficacies of Aloe vera and Propolis tooth gels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods Forty patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were randomly allocated to groups A and B containing 20 patients each. Patients in group A were advised to use Aloe vera tooth gel while those in group B were advised to use Propolis tooth gel. Clinical and microbiologic parameters using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were recorded at baseline and after 3 months. Results Student t-test was performed for all the obtained results. In the Aloe vera group, comparison of baseline PCR and after 3 month results showed reduction only in P. gingivalis (p=0.001), where as statistically significant reduction in all the three red complex microorganisms was seen in propolis group. All the clinical parameters (Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Bleeding on Probing, Probing pocket Depth, and Clinical Attachment Level) in both the groups showed statistically significant reductions after 3 months. Conclusion Propolis showed a statistically significant reduction in plaque, microbiologic and clinical parameters. However, clinical trials of longer durations with larger sample sizes are required to evaluate the efficacy. PMID:26501001

  9. Quality Characteristics, Nutraceutical Profile, and Storage Stability of Aloe Gel-Papaya Functional Beverage Blend.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Pushkala; Nagarajan, Srividya

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera gel, well known for its nutraceutical potential, is being explored as a functional ingredient in a wide array of health foods and drinks. Processing of exotic fruits and herbal botanicals into functional beverage is an emerging sector in food industry. The present study was undertaken to develop a spiced functional RTS beverage blend using Aloe gel (AG) and papaya. Aloe gel (30%), papaya pulp (15%), spice extract (5%), and citric acid (0.1%) were mixed in given proportion to prepare the blend with TSS of 15 °Brix. The product was bottled, pasteurized, and stored at room temperature. The quality characteristics and storage stability of the spiced beverage blend (SAGPB) were compared with spiced papaya RTS beverage (SPB). Periodic analysis was carried out up to five months for various physicochemical parameters, sugar profile, bioactive compounds, microbial quality, instrumental color, and sensory acceptability. The SAGPB exhibited superior quality characteristics compared to SPB both in fresh and in stored samples. The SPB was acceptable up to four months and SAGPB for five months. The results indicate that nutraceutical rich AG could be successfully utilized to develop functional fruit beverages with improved quality and shelf life. PMID:26904652

  10. In vitro evaluation of UV opacity potential of Aloe vera L. gel from different germplasms.

    PubMed

    Kumar, M Shyam; Datta, P K; Dutta Gupta, S

    2009-04-01

    In this study, lyophilized crude and methanolic extracts of aloe gel from different germplasms (S24, RM, TN, OR, and RJN) of Aloe vera L. were tested for their ultraviolet (UV) opacity potential. UV absorption profiles, sun protection factor (SPF), and percentage blocking of UVA and UVB were considered to test UV opacity potential. Both the extracts showed UV absorption and followed the same path in the wavelength range of 250-400 nm in all the germplasms. Methanolic extract showed a stronger absorptivity than the crude lyophilized extract. Among the tested germplasms, maximum UV opacity property with a SPF of 9.97% and 79.12% UVB blocking was obtained with RJN, whereas a poor response was evident in TN with a SPF of 1.37% and 28.5% UVB blocking at 4 mg/ml methanolic extract. To our knowledge the present work for the first time documents UV opacity properties of A. vera L. gel and opens up new vistas in Aloe gel characterization. PMID:19034609

  11. In vivo tracing of organophosphorus pesticides in cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Junlang; Chen, Guosheng; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jianqiao; Wang, Fuxin; Zhu, Fang; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2016-04-15

    In vivo solid-phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was employed to trace the uptake and elimination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in two kinds of edible plants, cabbage (Brassica parachinensis) and aloe (Barbadensis). The metabolism of fenthion in aloe was also investigated by the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) to understand the fate of OPPs in living plants better. Transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) and depuration rate constants of the OPPs in living plants were obtained therein. The health risk of the OPPs treated aloe was estimated by the maximum residue limit (MRL) approach, and it revealed that the OPPs were rather safe for their fast degradable property. However, peak concentration of fenthion-sulfoxide was found to exceed the MRL and was higher than that of the parent fenthion, which indicated the potential risk of pesticide metabolites. This study highlighted the application of in vivo SPME for contaminant tracing in different living edible plants. The in vivo tracing method is very convenient and can provide more data to evaluate the risk of different pesticides, which are very important for the safety of agriculture production. PMID:26878720

  12. Microwave-assisted fibrous decoration of mPE surface utilizing Aloe vera extract for tissue engineering applications

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Arunpandian; Jaganathan, Saravana Kumar; Supriyanto, Eko; Muhamad, Ida Idayu; Khudzari, Ahmad Zahran Md

    2015-01-01

    Developing multifaceted, biocompatible, artificial implants for tissue engineering is a growing field of research. In recent times, several works have been reported about the utilization of biomolecules in combination with synthetic materials to achieve this process. Accordingly, in this study, the ability of an extract obtained from Aloe vera, a commonly used medicinal plant in influencing the biocompatibility of artificial material, is scrutinized using metallocene polyethylene (mPE). The process of coating dense fibrous Aloe vera extract on the surface of mPE was carried out using microwaves. Then, several physicochemical and blood compatibility characterization experiments were performed to disclose the effects of corresponding surface modification. The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed characteristic vibrations of several active constituents available in Aloe vera and exhibited peak shifts at far infrared regions due to aloe-based mineral deposition. Meanwhile, the contact angle analysis demonstrated a drastic increase in wettability of coated samples, which confirmed the presence of active components on glazed mPE surface. Moreover, the bio-mimic structure of Aloe vera fibers and the influence of microwaves in enhancing the coating characteristics were also meticulously displayed through scanning electron microscopy micrographs and Hirox 3D images. The existence of nanoscale roughness was interpreted through high-resolution profiles obtained from atomic force microscopy. And the extent of variations in irregularities was delineated by measuring average roughness. Aloe vera-induced enrichment in the hemocompatible properties of mPE was established by carrying out in vitro tests such as activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis assay. In conclusion, the Aloe vera-glazed mPE substrate was inferred to attain desirable properties required for multifaceted biomedical implants. PMID:26425089

  13. Aloe vera attenuated gastric injury on indomethacin-induced gastropathy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Werawatganon, Duangporn; Rakananurak, Narisorn; Sallapant, Sasipim; Prueksapanich, Piyapan; Somanawat, Kanjana; Klaikeaw, Naruemon; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the protective effects of Aloe vera on gastric injury in rats with indomethacin (IMN)-induced gastropathy. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (control, n = 6) was given distilled water (DW) orally. Group 2 (IMN, n = 6) was given oral IMN (150 mg/kg) dissolved in 5% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3-) at time 0 and 4 h. Group 3 (Aloe vera-treated, n = 6) was given oral Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) dissolved in DW and IMN at time 0 and 4 h. Eight hours later, the stomach was removed to determine gastric malondialdehyde (MDA), the number of interleukin (IL)-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry, and for histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1 by sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. RESULTS: In the IMN group, serum TNF-α, CINC-1 and gastric MDA were significantly increased when compared to the control group (27.78 ± 1.52 pg/mL vs 85.07 ± 49.11 pg/mL, P = 0.009; 104.55 ± 45.80 pg/mL vs 1054.70 ± 20.38 pg/mL, and 1.74 ± 0.21 nmol/mg vs 9.36 ± 1.07 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). The mean level of TNF-α, CINC-1 and gastric MDA in the Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with the IMN group (85.07 ± 49.11 pg/mL vs 35.19 ± 1.61 pg/mL, P = 0.021; 1054.70 ± 20.38 pg/mL vs 813.56 ± 239.04 pg/mL, P = 0.025; and 9.36 ± 1.07 nmol/mg vs 2.67 ± 0.64 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). The number of IL-18 positive stained cells (%) in the gastric epithelial cells of the IMN group was significantly higher than the control group (5.01% ± 3.73% vs 30.67% ± 2.03%, P = 0.000, respectively). In contrast, Aloe vera treatment decreased the number of IL-18 positive stained cells (%) significantly when compared with the IMN group (30.67% ± 2.03% vs 13.21% ± 1.10%, P = 0.000, respectively). Most rats in the IMN group developed moderate to severe

  14. Comparison of Healing Effect of Aloe Vera Extract and Silver Sulfadiazine in Burn Injuries in Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Akhoondinasab, Mohammad Reza; Akhoondinasab, Motahhare; Saberi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Wound healing is widely discussed in the medical literature. This study compared the healing effect of aloe vera extract and silver sulfadiazine in burn injuries in experimental rat model. METHODS Sixteen rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups, each group 8 rats. A deep second-degree burn on the lower back and 3rd degree burn on upper back of each rat were created with a standard burning procedure. Burns were dressed daily with aloe vera extract in group 2 and silver sulfadiazine in group 1. Response to treatment was assessed by digital photography during treatment until day 32. Histological parameters (PMN, epithelialization, fibrosis and angiogenesis) were assessed after biopsy of scar at the end of research. RESULTS Wound healing was more visible in aloe vera group. Also the speed of healing in aloe vera group was better than silver sulfadiazine group. CONCLUSIONS Based on our findings, aloe vera can be a therapy of choice for burn injuries. PMID:25489521

  15. Photo-irradiation of Aloe vera by UVA--formation of free radicals, singlet oxygen, superoxide, and induction of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Qingsu; Yin, Jun Jie; Fu, Peter P; Boudreau, Mary D

    2007-01-30

    Aloe vera whole leaf extracts are incorporated into a wide variety of topically applied commercial products. Aloe vera whole leaf extracts may contain anthraquinones, which have been shown to generate reactive oxygen species in the presence of ultraviolet A (UVA) light. Exposure to UVA light alone can also generate reactive oxygen species and is associated with photo-damaged and photo-aged skin in humans. This paper examines the photochemical properties of two Aloe vera whole leaf extracts that differed in their anthraquinone content. In the presence of methyl linoleate, the UVA irradiation of Aloe vera leaf extracts induced lipid peroxidation. The amounts of lipid peroxides formed were higher in the Aloe vera leaf extract that contained lower amounts of anthraquinones. Superoxide dismutase and sodium azide inhibited and deuterium oxide enhanced the formation of lipid peroxides, suggesting that singlet oxygen and superoxide were involved in the mechanism. Spin trapping electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the generation of free radicals by the UVA photo-irradiated Aloe vera plant extracts. ESR measurements indicated that the UVA photo-irradiation of Aloe vera plant extracts produced carbon-centered free radicals. These results suggest that humans exposed to products that contain Aloe vera whole leaf extracts may have enhanced sensitivity to ultraviolet light. PMID:17197137

  16. Toxicologic Assessment of a Commercial Decolorized Whole Leaf Aloe Vera Juice, Lily of the Desert Filtered Whole Leaf Juice with Aloesorb

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Wallace D.; Scott, Michael; David, Andrew; Gillis, Glenn; Stoufflet, Thaya; Nair, Anand; Kousoulas, Konstantine

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera, a common ingredient in cosmetics, is increasingly being consumed as a beverage supplement. Although consumer interest in aloe likely stems from its association with several health benefits, a concern has also been raised by a National Toxicology Program Report that a nondecolorized whole leaf aloe vera extract taken internally by rats was associated with intestinal mucosal hyperplasia and ultimately malignancy. We tested a decolorized whole leaf (DCWL) aloe vera, treated with activated charcoal to remove the latex portion of the plant, for genotoxicity in bacteria, acute/subacute toxicity in B6C3F1 mice, and subchronic toxicity in F344 rats. We found this DCWL aloe vera juice to be nongenotoxic in histidine reversion and DNA repair assays. Following acute administration, mice exhibited no adverse signs at 3- or 14-day evaluation periods. When fed to male and female F344 rats over 13 weeks, DCWL aloe led to no toxicity as assessed by behavior, stools, weight gain, feed consumption, organ weights, and hematologic or clinical chemistry profiles. These rats had intestinal mucosal morphologies—examined grossly and microscopically—that were similar to controls. Our studies show that oral administration of this DCWL aloe juice has a different toxicology profile than that of the untreated aloe juice at exposures up to 13 weeks. PMID:23554812

  17. The effect of Aloe vera A. Berger (Liliaceae) on gastric acid secretion and acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Sadiq; Agunu, Abdulkarim; Diana, Mshelia

    2004-07-01

    The effect of varying doses of ethanol extract of Aloe vera (Liliaceae) on acute gastric mucosal lesions induced by 0.6 M HCl and acid output was studied in the pylorus ligated and lumen perfuse rats, respectively. Acid secretion was determined by titration of the collected gastric juice to pH 7.0. Intraperitoneal injection of Aloe vera, dose dependently inhibited gastric acid secretion. The plant was more active as a gastroprotective agent at lower concentration against mucosal injury induced by 0.6 M HCl. In conclusion, Aloe vera is endowed with gastric acid anti-secretory activity and could protect the gastric mucosa at low concentrations against injurious agents. PMID:15182901

  18. Enhanced biocompatibility of ZnS:Mn quantum dots encapsulated with Aloe vera extract for therapeutic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anilkumar, M.; Bindu, K. R.; Sneha Saj, A.; Anila, E. I.

    2016-08-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles remains to be a major issue in their application to the biomedical field. Aloe vera (AV) is one of the most widely exploited medicinal plants that have a multitude of amazing properties in the field of medicine. Methanol extract of Aloe vera can be used as a novel stabilising agent for quantum dots to reduce toxicity. We report the synthesis, structural characterization, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity studies of ZnS:Mn quantum dots synthesized by the colloidal precipitation method, using methanol extract of Aloe vera (AVME) as the capping agent. The ZnS:Mn quantum dots capped with AVME exhibit superior performances in biocompatibility and antibacterial activity compared with ZnS:Mn quantum dots without encapsulation. Project supported by the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India.

  19. EFFECT OF A DENTIFRICE CONTAINING ALOE VERA ON PLAQUE AND GINGIVITIS CONTROL. A DOUBLE-BLIND CLINICAL STUDY IN HUMANS

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Sílvia Morgana Araújo; Torres, Ticiana Carneiro; Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva; Mota, Olívia Morais de Lima; Carlos, Márlio Ximenes

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Aloe vera on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis was evaluated in a randomized, parallel and double-blind clinical trial. Subjects were randomly allocated to the test group (n=15) – dentifrice containing Aloe vera - or the control group (n=15) – fluoridated dentifrice. Plaque index (PI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) were assessed at days 0 and 30. Subjects were asked to brush their teeth with the control or test dentifrice, three times a day, during a 30-day period. There was a significant reduction on plaque and gingivitis in both groups, but no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p>0.01). The dentifrice containing Aloe vera did not show any additional effect on plaque and gingivitis control compared to the fluoridated dentifrice. PMID:19089263

  20. In vitro assessment of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage and its impact on the human microbiota.

    PubMed

    Gullón, Beatriz; Gullón, Patricia; Tavaria, Freni; Alonso, José Luis; Pintado, Manuela

    2015-02-01

    Aloe vera mucilage is reported to be rich in acemannan that is a polysaccharide with a backbone of β-(1→4)-D-mannose residues acetylated at the C-2 and C-3 positions and contains some side chains of galactose and arabinose attached to the C-6 carbon. The evaluation of the prebiotic potential of Aloe vera mucilage was carried out by in vitro fermentation using intestinal microbiota from six healthy donors as the inoculum. The prebiotic activity was assessed through the quantification of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and the evaluation of dynamic bacterial population in mixed faecal cultures by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our findings support the possible incorporation of the Aloe vera mucilage in the development of a variety of food products known as prebiotics aimed at improving gastrointestinal health. PMID:25504136

  1. Extent of Use of Aloe vera Locally Extracted Products for Management of Ailments in Communities of Kitagata Sub-county in Sheema District, Western Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Kamukama; Eliot, Twineomujuni; Gerald, Agaba

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera is widely used locally in communities in Uganda as a medicinal plant. It is said to contain various nutrient substances and vitamins that have curative properties. It is said to heal a variety of diseases in various communities. However the extent of use of this potential medicinal plant in Uganda and the various ailments for which it is used and the treatment outcomes are not clearly established and documented. In this cross-sectional study, carried out in August 2012 in Kitagata sub-county in Sheema district in western Uganda, data was collected from 131 randomly selected adult respondents using an interviewer administered semi-structured questionnaire. Key informants interviews and focused group discussions were also carried out with purposively selected participants. Data were collected on social demographic characteristics, practices and beliefs about Aloe vera. The data were analyzed using Excel version 2007 and Epi_Info software. To get the proportion of the community that use Aloe vera, the number of respondents that use aloe vera was expressed as a percentage of the total number of respondents. It was found out that all the respondents (100%) know aloe vera plant, 96.1% think that it can cure and 84.7% have ever used it. 90.9% of the respondents believe that Aloe vera is effective in curing ailments. 82.9% of these strongly believe in Aloe vera’s effectiveness. The diseases reported included malaria (31%), wounds (23%), abdominal pains (16%) and skin diseases (9%) among others. It was significantly noted that all the participants who had ever used Aloe vera still believe in it. 92.0% respondents reported that they can recommend aloe vera to a friend or relative. Only one participant strongly disagrees that Aloe vera has any curative properties and has never used it. PMID:26855960

  2. Aloe vera attenuated liver injury in mice with acetaminophen-induced hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An overdose of the acetaminophen causes liver injury. This study aims to examine the anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory effects of Aloe vera in mice with acetaminophen induced hepatitis. Methods Male mice were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 each). Control group were given orally distilled water (DW). APAP group were given orally N-acetyl-P-aminophenol (APAP) 400 mg/kg suspended in DW. Aloe vera-treated group were given orally APAP and Aloe vera (150 mg/kg) suspended in DW. Twenty-four hours later, the liver was removed to determine hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), hepatic glutathione (GSH), the number of interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells (%) by immunohistochemistry method, and histopathological examination. Then, the serum was collected to determine transaminase (ALT). Results In APAP group, ALT, hepatic MDA and the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells were significantly increased when compared to control group (1210.50 ± 533.86 vs 85.28 ± 28.27 U/L, 3.60 ± 1.50 vs 1.38 ± 0.15 nmol/mg protein, 12.18 ± 1.10 vs 1.84 ± 1.29%, and 13.26 ± 0.90 vs 2.54 ± 1.29%, P = 0.000, respectively), whereas hepatic GSH was significantly decreased when compared to control group (5.98 ± 0.30 vs 11.65 ± 0.43 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000). The mean level of ALT, hepatic MDA, the number of IL-12 and IL-18 positive stained cells, and hepatic GSH in Aloe vera-treated group were improved as compared with APAP group (606.38 ± 495.45 vs 1210.50 ± 533.86 U/L, P = 0.024; 1.49 ± 0.64 vs 3.60 ± 1.50 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.001; 5.56 ± 1.25 vs 12.18 ± 1.10%, P = 0.000; 6.23 ± 0.94 vs 13.26 ± 0.90%, P = 0.000; and 10.02 ± 0.20 vs 5.98 ± 0.30 nmol/mg protein, P = 0.000, respectively). Moreover, in the APAP group, the liver showed extensive hemorrhagic hepatic necrosis at all zones while in Aloe vera-treated group, the liver architecture was improved histopathology. Conclusions APAP overdose can cause liver injury. Our result indicate

  3. Effect of a polyphenol-rich extract from Aloe vera gel on experimentally induced insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Yolanda Y; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J; Tortoriello, Jaime; Román-Ramos, Rubén

    2007-01-01

    Insulin resistance, which precedes type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), is a widespread pathology associated with the metabolic syndrome, myocardial ischemia, and hypertension. Finding an adequate treatment for this pathology is an important goal in medicine. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effect of an extract from Aloe vera gel containing a high concentration of polyphenols on experimentally induced insulin resistance in mice. A polyphenol-rich Aloe vera extract (350 mg/kg) with known concentrations of aloin (181.7 mg/g) and aloe-emodin (3.6 mg/g) was administered orally for a period of 4 weeks to insulin resistant ICR mice. Pioglitazone (50 mg/kg) and bi-distilled water were used as positive and negative controls respectively. Body weight, food intake, and plasma concentrations of insulin and glucose were measured and insulin tolerance tests were performed. The insulin resistance value was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) formula. Results showed that the polyphenol-rich extract from Aloe vera was able to decrease significantly both body weight (p < 0.008) and blood glucose levels (p < 0.005) and to protect animals against unfavorable results on HOMA-IR, which was observed in the negative control group. The highest glucose levels during the insulin tolerance curve test were in the negative control group when compared to the Aloe vera extract and pioglitazone treated mice (p < 0.05). In conclusion, Aloe vera gel could be effective for the control of insulin resistance. PMID:18186589

  4. Aloe vera inhibits proliferation of human breast and cervical cancer cells and acts synergistically with cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Arif; Sharma, Chhavi; Khan, Saniyah; Shah, Kruti; Haque, Shafiul

    2015-01-01

    Many of the anti-cancer agents currently used have an origin in natural sources including plants. Aloe vera is one such plant being studied extensively for its diverse health benefits, including cancer prevention. In this study, the cytotoxic potential of Aloe vera crude extract (ACE) alone or in combination with cisplatin in human breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells was studied by cell viability assay, nuclear morphological examination and cell cycle analysis. Effects were correlated with modulation of expression of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and drug metabolism by RT-PCR. Exposure of cells to ACE resulted in considerable loss of cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, which was found to be mediated by through the apoptotic pathway as evidenced by changes in the nuclear morphology and the distribution of cells in the different phases of the cell cycle. Interestingly, ACE did not have any significant cytotoxicity towards normal cells, thus placing it in the category of safe chemopreventive agent. Further, the effects were correlated with the downregulation of cyclin D1, CYP 1A1, CYP 1A2 and increased expression of bax and p21 in MCF-7 and HeLa cells. In addition, low dose combination of ACE and cisplatin showed a combination index less than 1, indicating synergistic growth inhibition compared to the agents applied individually. In conclusion, these results signify that Aloe vera may be an effective anti-neoplastic agent to inhibit cancer cell growth and increase the therapeutic efficacy of conventional drugs like cispolatin. Thus promoting the development of plant-derived therapeutic agents appears warranted for novel cancer treatment strategies. PMID:25854386

  5. Floral traits mediate the vulnerability of aloes to pollen theft and inefficient pollination by bees

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Anna L.; Harder, Lawrence D.; Johnson, Steven D.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Pollen-collecting bees are among the most important pollinators globally, but are also the most common pollen thieves and can significantly reduce plant reproduction. The pollination efficiency of pollen collectors depends on the frequency of their visits to female(-phase) flowers, contact with stigmas and deposition of pollen of sufficient quantity and quality to fertilize ovules. Here we investigate the relative importance of these components, and the hypothesis that floral and inflorescence characteristics mediate the pollination role of pollen collection by bees. Methods For ten Aloe species that differ extensively in floral and inflorescence traits, we experimentally excluded potential bird pollinators to quantify the contributions of insect visitors to pollen removal, pollen deposition and seed production. We measured corolla width and depth to determine nectar accessibility, and the phenology of anther dehiscence and stigma receptivity to quantify herkogamy and dichogamy. Further, we compiled all published bird-exclusion studies of aloes, and compared insect pollination success with floral morphology. Key Results Species varied from exclusively insect pollinated, to exclusively bird pollinated but subject to extensive pollen theft by insects. Nectar inaccessibility and strong dichogamy inhibited pollination by pollen-collecting bees by discouraging visits to female-phase (i.e. pollenless) flowers. For species with large inflorescences of pollen-rich flowers, pollen collectors successfully deposited pollen, but of such low quality (probably self-pollen) that they made almost no contribution to seed set. Indeed, considering all published bird-exclusion studies (17 species in total), insect pollination efficiency varied significantly with floral shape. Conclusions Species-specific floral and inflorescence characteristics, especially nectar accessibility and dichogamy, control the efficiency of pollen-collecting bees as pollinators of aloes

  6. Mineral content and biochemical variables of Aloe vera L. under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study. PMID:24736276

  7. On-orbit performance of the Compact Infrared Camera (CIRC) onboard ALOS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Michito; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kato, Eri; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Toshiyoshi; Nakau, Koji

    2015-10-01

    Compact Infrared Camera (CIRC) is a technology demonstration instrument equipped with an uncooled infrared array detector (microbolometer) for space application. Microbolometers have an advantage of not requiring cooling system such as a mechanical cooler and are suitable for resource-limited sensor systems. Another characteristic of the CIRC is its use of an athermal optical system and a shutterless system. The CIRC is small in size (approximately 200 mm), is light weight (approximately 3 kg), and has low electrical power consumption (<20 W) owing to these characteristics. The main objective of CIRC is to detect wildfires, which are major and chronic disasters affecting various countries of Southeast Asia, particularly considering the effects of global warming and climate change. One of the CIRCs was launched in May 24, 2014 as a technology demonstration payload of the Advanced Land Observation Satellite-2 (ALOS- 2). Since the initial functional verification phase (July 4-14, 2014), the CIRC has demonstrated functions according to its intended design. We also confirmed that the noise equivalent differential temperature of the CIRC observation data is less than 0.2 K, the temperature accuracy is within ±4 K, and the spatial resolution is less than 210 m in the calibration validation phase after the initial functional verification phase. The CIRC also detects wildfires in various areas and observes volcano activities and urban heat islands in the operational phase. The other CIRC will be launched in 2015 onboard the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) of the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of the International Space Station. Installation of the CIRCs on the ALOS-2 and on the JEM/CALET is expected to increase the observation frequency. In this study, we present the on-orbit performance including observational results of the CIRC onboard the ALOS-2 and the current status of the CIRC onboard the JEM/CALET.

  8. Exploiting ALOS observations as a guide to what will be possible with DESDynI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, M.; Agram, P. S.; Philibosian, B.; Lin, Y. N.; Hetland, E. A.; Fielding, E. J.; Yun, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over the last several years, L-band radar observations from the Japanese ALOS satellite has allowed a variety of crustal deformation studies that give us a taste of what will be possible with a dedicated L-band InSAR mission such as that currently being planned by NASA. Here we illustrate the success (and sometimes failure) of ALOS PALSAR data to measure ground deformation associated with large earthquakes (2010 Mw 8.8, Maule, Chile and 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki, Japan), volcano deformation in forested or jungled areas (Java), small earthquakes (aftershocks of the Tohoku-oki earthquake), interseismic deformation (the San Andreas and Hayward faults in California), and glacier flow on a temperate ice cap (Hofsjokull, Iceland). In several of these cases, we use time series methods, primarily the MInTS approach, to detect smaller amplitude signals and to separate out the effects of seasonal and tectonic deformation while also mitigating the effects of propagation delays accrued in the atmosphere. All data for these studies were made available through USGRC acquired through the Americas ALOS Data Node (AADN) located at the ASF. In addition to deformation analysis, we look at the behavior of interferometric correlation at L-band as a function of orbital and temporal baselines. In vegetated areas such as Java, we find that observations need to be consistently made at shortest time intervals possible (45-90 days) if correlation is to be reliably maintained. Short time intervals are also required to increase sensitivity to small amplitude signals, minimize trade-offs between the estimates of coseismic, post-seismic and seasonal processes, and to reduce the potential impact of transient decorrelation events (e.g., rainfall). We also highlight the importance of short repeat times to enable the use of decorrelation for rapid damage assessment after catastrophic events.

  9. Generation of the 30 M-Mesh Global Digital Surface Model by Alos Prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadono, T.; Nagai, H.; Ishida, H.; Oda, F.; Naito, S.; Minakawa, K.; Iwamoto, H.

    2016-06-01

    Topographical information is fundamental to many geo-spatial related information and applications on Earth. Remote sensing satellites have the advantage in such fields because they are capable of global observation and repeatedly. Several satellite-based digital elevation datasets were provided to examine global terrains with medium resolutions e.g. the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the global digital elevation model by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER GDEM). A new global digital surface model (DSM) dataset using the archived data of the Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, nicknamed "Daichi") has been completed on March 2016 by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) collaborating with NTT DATA Corp. and Remote Sensing Technology Center, Japan. This project is called "ALOS World 3D" (AW3D), and its dataset consists of the global DSM dataset with 0.15 arcsec. pixel spacing (approx. 5 m mesh) and ortho-rectified PRISM image with 2.5 m resolution. JAXA is also processing the global DSM with 1 arcsec. spacing (approx. 30 m mesh) based on the AW3D DSM dataset, and partially releasing it free of charge, which calls "ALOS World 3D 30 m mesh" (AW3D30). The global AW3D30 dataset will be released on May 2016. This paper describes the processing status, a preliminary validation result of the AW3D30 DSM dataset, and its public release status. As a summary of the preliminary validation of AW3D30 DSM, 4.40 m (RMSE) of the height accuracy of the dataset was confirmed using 5,121 independent check points distributed in the world.

  10. Continental Scale Vegetation Structure Mapping Using Field Calibrated Landsat, ALOS Palsar And GLAS ICESat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarth, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Armston, J.; Lucas, R.

    2015-12-01

    Vertical plant profiles are important descriptors of canopy structure and are used to inform models of biomass, biodiversity and fire risk. In Australia, an approach has been developed to produce large area maps of vertical plant profiles by extrapolating waveform lidar estimates of vertical plant profiles from ICESat/GLAS using large area segmentation of ALOS PALSAR and Landsat satellite image products. The main assumption of this approach is that the vegetation height profiles are consistent across the segments defined from ALOS PALSAR and Landsat image products. More than 1500 field sites were used to develop an index of fractional cover using Landsat data. A time series of the green fraction was used to calculate the persistent green fraction continuously across the landscape. This was fused with ALOS PALSAR L-band Fine Beam Dual polarisation 25m data and used to segment the Australian landscapes. K-means clustering then grouped the segments with similar cover and backscatter into approximately 1000 clusters. Where GLAS-ICESat footprints intersected these clusters, canopy profiles were extracted and aggregated to produce a mean vertical vegetation profile for each cluster that was used to derive mean canopy and understorey height, depth and density. Due to the large number of returns, these retrievals are near continuous across the landscape, enabling them to be used for inventory and modelling applications. To validate this product, a radiative transfer model was adapted to map directional gap probability from airborne waveform lidar datasets to retrieve vertical plant profiles Comparison over several test sites show excellent agreement and work is underway to extend the analysis to improve national biomass mapping. The integration of the three datasets provide options for future operational monitoring of structure and AGB across large areas for quantifying carbon dynamics, structural change and biodiversity.

  11. Mineral Content and Biochemical Variables of Aloe vera L. under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study. PMID:24736276

  12. Recent Evolution of the Mont Saint-Michel Bay as seen by ALOS AVNIR-2 Data (ADEN AO 3643)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deroin, Jean-Paul; Bilaudeau, Clelia; Deffontaines, Benoit

    2008-11-01

    The ALOS AVNIR-2 scene acquired on October 24, 2007 has been used for drawing a new map of the Mont Saint-Michel Bay. This area is characterised by a large dry-fallen tidal flat, one of the largest in the world. The tidal records indicate that the ALOS datatake was acquired in favorable conditions, the elevation of the sea at 2.56 m being very close to the theoretical minimum value (about 2.30 m). In these conditions, the largest tidal flat observed by a sun-synchronous satellite on the Mont Saint-Michel Bay is exposed.

  13. Observation of the Gorkha, Nepal earthquake of April 25, 2015 with ALOS-2/PALSAR-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Gorkha, Nepal earthquake (Mw7.8) of April 25, 2015 is the first event in the Himalaya region that occurred after the development of modern space geodetic technology. Since the epicenter of this earthquake is located in a mountainous and rural area where few continuous GNSS observation is made, satellite remote sensing is required to reveal crustal deformation and damage. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency conducted emergent observations of ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 that has been in operation since summer in 2014. We analyzed acquired images including ScanSAR images whose swath width is about 350 km using Gamma software with a digital ellipsoidal height model based on SRTM DEM. Coherence of all interferograms is very high. However, we found two spots of low coherence in Kathmandu, including the Durbar Square. These spots indicate structural damages or liquefaction. ScanSAR-ScanSAR interferograms contain large phase ramp, possibly due to ionospheric disturbance or inaccurate orbit. We corrected phase ramp using quadratic function of latitude, longitude and altitude. Corrected interferograms show an elliptic zone of LOS decrease extending from the epicenter ESE-ward with a peak of > 1 m. North of the uplift zone, we found LOS increase of ~0.8 m. This result is consistent with thrust motion on a low-angled fault plane. We inverted corrected interferogram to estimate slip distribution and dip angle of fault. Preliminary results imply that the thrust motion is concentrated at depth between 10 and 20 km and the maximum slip is ~ 4.4 m. Geodetic moment is estimated to be 1.47 x 10^21 Nm (Mw8.0). We also processed a postseismic pair and detected coseismic deformation of the May 12 aftershock (Mw7.3). Area of uplift with a diameter of 30 km is found and that of subsidence on its north. It also is consistent with low-angled thrust. It is hard to recognize postseismic deformation of the mainshock possibly due to the correction of phase ramp. ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 images were provided

  14. Phytobezoar by aloe vera as long term complication after oesophagectomy resolved using cellulase

    PubMed Central

    Pinos, Nathalie; Moreno-Merino, Sergio; Congregado, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Bezoars are uncommon diseases caused by the presence of indigestible mass of strange material in the gastrointestinal tract. Gold-standard treatment remains unclear and there are not clinical guidelines to follow. We present a very rare case of 53-year-old man suffering phytobezoar in a gastroplasty after oesophagectomy due to aloe vera ingestion as natural medicine. Finally it was solved with cellulase. Therefore, this is a scarcely complication after esophagectomy. Cellulase is a very good option to treat phytobezoar avoiding reintervention in this kind of patient. PMID:26094056

  15. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Aloe vera Gel.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, V; Verma, Arun K; Patra, G; Pradhan, S; Biswas, S; Chauhan, P; Das, Arun K

    2016-05-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values. PMID:26954177

  16. Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Aloe vera Extract Preparations: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Onteru, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Satvinder; Hussain, Shaik Abdul

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is considered to be an epidemic disease, and it is associated with several metabolic disorders. Pharmacological treatments currently available are not effective for prolonged treatment duration. So, people are looking toward new therapeutic approach such as herbal ingredients. Since ancient periods, different herbs have been used for remedy purposes such as anti-obesity, antidiabetes, and antiinflammatory. Among the several herbal ingredients, Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) is widely used to curb the metabolic complications. Till date, reports are not available for the side effects of A. vera. Several researchers are used to different solvents such as aqueous solution, alcohol, ethanol, and chloroform for the A. vera extract preparations and studied their hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in animal and human studies. Furthermore, little information was recorded with the active compounds extracted from the A. vera and their anti-obesity and antidiabetic effects in clinical studies. In this review, we made an attempt to compile all the available literature by using different search engines (PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar) on the A. vera extract preparations and the possible mechanism of action involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. PMID:26666199

  17. Polymer fraction of Aloe vera exhibits a protective activity on ethanol-induced gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Hong; Nam, Dong-Yoon; Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Si-Rim; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Heo, Jin-Chul; Cha, Tae-Yang; Baek, Jin-Hong; Lee, Sang-Han

    2011-04-01

    For centuries, Aloe has been used as a herbal plant remedy against skin disorders, diabetes, and for its cardiac stimulatory activity. Here, we examined the gastroprotective effects of an Aloe vera polymer fraction (Avpf; molecular weight cut-off ≥50 kDa; 150 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) on an ethanol-induced gastric lesion mouse model. Mice pre-treated with Avpf had significantly fewer gastric lesions than their respective controls. To further examine the potential mechanism underlying this effect, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)mRNA expression on tissues from gastric lesions. Our results revealed that the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were each reduced by ~50% in Avpf-treated mice vs. the controls, whereas, the mRNA expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase remained unchanged. MMP-9, an index for gastric lesions, also alleviated the ethanol-treated gastric ulceration during Avpf treatment. These findings collectively suggest that Avpf significantly protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced gastric damage, at least in part, by decreasing mRNA expression levels of not only iNOS and nNOS, but also MMP-9. PMID:21286662

  18. Quality and Acceptability of Meat Nuggets with Fresh Aloe vera Gel

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, V.; Verma, Arun K.; Patra, G.; Pradhan, S.; Biswas, S.; Chauhan, P.; Das, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide for pharmaceutical, food, and cosmetic industries due to its wide biological activities. However, quality improvement of low fat meat products and their acceptability with added Aloe vera gel (AVG) is scanty. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of using fresh AVG on physicochemical, textural, sensory and nutritive qualities of goat meat nuggets. The products were prepared with 0%, 2.5%, and 5% fresh AVG replacing goat meat and were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and textural properties, fatty acid profile and sensory parameters. Changes in lipid oxidation and microbial growth of nuggets were also evaluated over 9 days of refrigerated storage. The results showed that AVG significantly (p<0.05) decreased the pH value and protein content of meat emulsion and nuggets. Product yield was affected at 5% level of gel. Addition of AVG in the formulation significantly affected the values of texture profile analysis. The AVG reduced the lipid oxidation and microbial growth in nuggets during storage. Sensory panelists preferred nuggets with 2.5% AVG over nuggets with 5% AVG. Therefore, AVG up to 2.5% level could be used for quality improvement in goat meat nuggets without affecting its sensorial, textural and nutritive values. PMID:26954177

  19. Using ERS-2 and ALOS PALSAR images for soil moisture and inundation mapping in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Agapiou, Athos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Retalis, Adrianos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2013-08-01

    Floods are among the most frequent and costly natural disasters in terms of human and economic loss and are considered to be a weather-related natural disaster. This study strives to highlight the potential of active remote sensing imagery in flood inundation monitoring and mapping in a catchment area in Cyprus (Yialias river). GeoEye-1 and ASTER images were employed to create updated Land use /Land cover maps of the study area. Following, the application of fully polarimetric (ALOS PALSAR) and dual polarimetric (ERS - 2) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for soil moisture and inundation mapping is presented. For this purpose 2 ALOS PALSAR images and 3 ERS-2 images were acquired. This study offers an integrated methodology by the use of multi-angle radar images to estimate roughness and soil moisture without the use of ancillary field data such as field measurements. The relationship between soil moisture and backscattering coefficient was thoroughly studied and linear regression models were developed to predict future flood inundation events. Multi-temporal FCC images, classification, image fusion, moisture indices, texture and PCA analysis were employed to assist soil moisture mapping. Certain land cover classes were characterized as flood prone areas according to statistics of their signal response. The results will be incorporated in an integrated flood risk assessment model of Yialias catchment area.

  20. Estimating Soil Moisture Distributions across Small Farm Fields with ALOS/PALSAR

    PubMed Central

    Oki, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The ALOS (advanced land observing satellite) has an active microwave sensor, PALSAR (phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar), which has a fine resolution of 6.5 m. Because of the fine resolution, PALSAR provides the possibility of estimating soil moisture distributions in small farmlands. Making such small-scale estimates has not been available with traditional satellite remote sensing techniques. In this study, the relationship between microwave backscattering coefficient (σ) measured with PALSAR and ground-based soil moisture was determined to investigate the performance of PALSAR for estimating soil moisture distribution in a small-scale farmland. On the ground at a cabbage field in Japan in 2008, the soil moisture distribution of multiple soil layers was measured using time domain reflectometry when the ALOS flew over the field. Soil moisture in the 0–20 cm soil layer showed the largest correlation coefficient with σ (r = 0.403). The σ values also showed a strong correlation with the ground surface coverage ratio by cabbage plants. Our results suggested that PALSAR could estimate soil moisture distribution of the 0–20 cm soil layer across a bare field and a crop coverage ratio when crops were planted. PMID:27529080

  1. Estimating Soil Moisture Distributions across Small Farm Fields with ALOS/PALSAR.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Yuki; Oki, Kazuo; Noborio, Kosuke; Mizoguchi, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    The ALOS (advanced land observing satellite) has an active microwave sensor, PALSAR (phased array L-band synthetic aperture radar), which has a fine resolution of 6.5 m. Because of the fine resolution, PALSAR provides the possibility of estimating soil moisture distributions in small farmlands. Making such small-scale estimates has not been available with traditional satellite remote sensing techniques. In this study, the relationship between microwave backscattering coefficient (σ) measured with PALSAR and ground-based soil moisture was determined to investigate the performance of PALSAR for estimating soil moisture distribution in a small-scale farmland. On the ground at a cabbage field in Japan in 2008, the soil moisture distribution of multiple soil layers was measured using time domain reflectometry when the ALOS flew over the field. Soil moisture in the 0-20 cm soil layer showed the largest correlation coefficient with σ (r = 0.403). The σ values also showed a strong correlation with the ground surface coverage ratio by cabbage plants. Our results suggested that PALSAR could estimate soil moisture distribution of the 0-20 cm soil layer across a bare field and a crop coverage ratio when crops were planted. PMID:27529080

  2. Lactobacillus brevis Strains from Fermented Aloe vera Survive Gastroduodenal Environment and Suppress Common Food Borne Enteropathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Ah-Young; Son, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Jong-Am; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Kim, Chae-Hyun; Kim, Jaeman

    2014-01-01

    Five novel Lactobacillus brevis strains were isolated from naturally fermented Aloe vera leaf flesh. Each strain was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. These strains were highly tolerant to acid, surviving in pH2.5 for up to 4 hours, and resistant to 5% bile salts at 37°C for 18 hours. Due to its tolerance to acid and bile salts, one strain passed through the gastric barrier and colonised the intestine after oral administration. All five strains inhibited the growth of many harmful enteropathogens without restraining most of normal commensals in the gut and hence named POAL (Probiotics Originating from Aloe Leaf) strains. Additionally, each strain exhibited discriminative resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The L. brevis POAL strains, moreover, expressed high levels of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene which produces a beneficial neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These characteristics in all suggest that the novel L. brevis strains should be considered as potential food additives and resources for pharmaceutical research. PMID:24598940

  3. A simple and simultaneous identification method for aloe, catechu and gambir by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Wonjae; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Kyung Tae; Kang, Jong Seong

    2016-01-01

    An effective and rapid method was developed for the simultaneous identification of aloe, catechu and gambir by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Identification of three maker compounds presented in three medicinal materials was performed on high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Under the optimal HPLC chromatographic conditions, sixty-two samples were processed on an Optimapak C18 column using a solvent system of acetonitrile (from 10% to 35%) and 0.1% phosphoric acid solution (from 90% to 65%) at a total flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and detected at 270 nm. All calibration curves exhibited good linear relationship (r(2)>0.9992). The relative standard deviation values of intra-day and inter-day precision were less than 1% and 2%, respectively. The recoveries of three analytes ranged from 99.48 to 100.97% with low RSDs (<2%). For the first time, this study demonstrates that the processed aloe, catechu and gambir are sold in local material markets in China and Korea without their correct identification. It indicates the existent of high potential medicinal risk by misuse of three medicinal materials. The developed HPLC method can be applied to prevent unexpected biological activity due to misapplication of medicinal materials. PMID:26342878

  4. Native pollen thieves reduce the reproductive success of a hermaphroditic plant, Aloe maculata.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Anna L; Harder, Lawrence D; Johnson, Steven D

    2010-06-01

    Pollen is unique among floral rewards in functioning as both a carrier of gametes and an attractant and nutritious resource for floral visitors. Animals that collect pollen without pollinating (pollen thieves) could reduce siring success of thieved plants and cause pollen limitation of seed set at the population level; however, such impacts on plant reproduction have not been demonstrated experimentally. To test these effects we added hives of native honey bees (Apis mellifera scutellata) to populations of a primarily bird-pollinated plant, Aloe maculata, in eastern South Africa. In field and aviary trials, bee addition increased pollen removal from anthers but decreased pollen deposition on stigmas, and so reduced both male and female pollination components. Further, total seed production decreased with hive addition in the aviary experiment and in three of four field populations, indicating that population-level pollen theft can also compromise reproductive success. In the field, naturally occurring allodapine bees also seemed to act as pollen thieves, outweighing the effect of honey bee hive addition at one of the four aloe populations. Our results highlight the importance of social bees as pollen thieves, even of plants that have evolved in their presence, and the role of dichogamy in promoting pollen theft. Given the commonness of both social bees and dichogamy, pollen theft is likely a much more common influence on floral ecology and evolution than suggested by the sparse literature. PMID:20583711

  5. Observations and Mitigation of RFI in ALOS PALSAR SAR Data; Implications for the Desdyni Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosen, Paul A.; Hensley, Scott; Le, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Initial examination of ALOS PALSAR synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data has indicated significant radio frequency interference (RFI) in several geographic locations around the world. RFI causes significant reduction in image contrast, introduces periodic and quasi-periodic image artifacts, and introduces significant phase noise in repeat pass interferometric data reduction. The US National Research Council Decadal Survey of Earth Science has recommended DESDynI, a Deformation, Ecosystems, and Dynamics of Ice satellite mission comprising an L-band polarimetric radar configured for repeat pass interferometry. There is considerable interest internationally in other future L-band and lower frequency systems as well. Therefore the issues of prevalence and possibilities of mitigation of RFI in these crowded frequency bands is of considerable interest. RFI is observed in ALOS PALSAR in California, USA, and in southern Egypt in data examined to date. Application of several techniques for removing it from the data prior to SAR image formation, ranging from straightforward spectral normalization to time-domain, multi-phase filtering techniques are considered. Considerable experience has been gained from the removal of RFI from P-band acquired by the GeoSAR system. These techniques applied to the PALSAR data are most successful when the bandwidth of any particular spectral component of the RFI is narrow. Performance impacts for SAR imagery and interferograms are considered in the context of DESDynI measurement requirements.

  6. Integrating ALOS-2 and Sentinel-1 InSAR data for systematic volcano deformation monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, James; Biggs, Juliet; Ebmeier, Susanna; Parker, Amy

    2016-04-01

    The recent launches of the Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 satellites provide a wealth of new Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data for Earth observation purposes. We exploit these data for volcano deformation monitoring with a particular focus on Latin America, which is nominated as a priority target area under the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites volcano pilot program. By conducting an integrated survey that employs both Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 we are able to achieve previously unprecedented levels of spatial and temporal resolution and combat decorrelation arising from vegetation cover. Latin America is an ideal target region as it has a diversity of geographic volcano locations (e.g., dense rainforest to high-altitude deserts), as well as abundant and varied volcanic activity. The numerous local volcano observatories can also directly benefit from this additional InSAR data when integrating it alongside ground-based observations. To further facilitate this impact we are directing our data outputs to a global volcano deformation database in near-real-time to provide a first-order access point for observatory staff and research scientists in need of satellite-derived ground-deformation results. We will draw upon a selection of case studies within Latin America to demonstrate our approach and how it can enhance volcano monitoring and eruption forecasting efforts.

  7. Lactobacillus brevis strains from fermented aloe vera survive gastroduodenal environment and suppress common food borne enteropathogens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Wook; Jeong, Young-Ju; Kim, Ah-Young; Son, Hyun-Hee; Lee, Jong-Am; Jung, Cheong-Hwan; Kim, Chae-Hyun; Kim, Jaeman

    2014-01-01

    Five novel Lactobacillus brevis strains were isolated from naturally fermented Aloe vera leaf flesh. Each strain was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison. These strains were highly tolerant to acid, surviving in pH2.5 for up to 4 hours, and resistant to 5% bile salts at 37°C for 18 hours. Due to its tolerance to acid and bile salts, one strain passed through the gastric barrier and colonised the intestine after oral administration. All five strains inhibited the growth of many harmful enteropathogens without restraining most of normal commensals in the gut and hence named POAL (Probiotics Originating from Aloe Leaf) strains. Additionally, each strain exhibited discriminative resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. The L. brevis POAL strains, moreover, expressed high levels of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene which produces a beneficial neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). These characteristics in all suggest that the novel L. brevis strains should be considered as potential food additives and resources for pharmaceutical research. PMID:24598940

  8. Investigation of the effects of Aloe barbadensis on rat ovaries: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kosif, Rengin; Aktas, R Gülhan

    2009-12-01

    Effects of Aloe barbadensis, a type of Aloe vera, on ovaries were investigated during pregnancy. A. vera gel, a commercial and nontherapeutic form of A. barbadensis, was used for this purpose. Three groups (one control and two test groups) of female Wistar albino rats with no prior births were studied. Group I was administered 25 mg (140 mg/kg) of A. barbadensis/day both orally and through gavage. A. barbadensis was contained in capsules with 500 mg of soybean oil; therefore Group II was administered 500 mg of soybean oil. Group III was the control group. All three groups were given normal food and water ad libitum. The substance had been administered for 20 days until birth. Ovaries were examined histologically. Vascular increase and the hyperemic form of ovary in the group administered A. barbadensis were notable. Decrease in primary follicle numbers, increase in secondary follicle numbers, and diminishment of secondary follicle diameters occurred in ovaries. The histological changes imply an angiogenesis effect of A. barbadensis and an effect like that of follicle-stimulating hormone in ovaries. PMID:20041799

  9. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibition activity of Aloe vera L. gel from different germplasms.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S Dutta; Masakapalli, S K

    2013-11-01

    In this study, lyophilized and methanolic extracts of aloe gel from different germplasms were evaluated for their potential to inhibit mushroom tyrosinase activity. The results showed potent inhibitory effect of Aloe vera gel extracts on L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) oxidation catalyzed by tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner. Significant differences in % inhibition of tyrosinase among the extraction methods and the germplasms were observed. The relative performance of the germplasms was evaluated with the help of posthoc multicomparison test. The methanolic extract was more effective than the lyophilized crude gel in all the germplasms. The inhibitory effect of the lyophilized gel and methanolic extract tested from five germplasms followed the order: RM > TN > S24 > OR > RJN. The germplasm RM showed the highest tyrosinase inhibition, and the maximum % inhibition noted was 26.04% and 41.18%, respectively for the lyophilized and methanolic extracts at 6 mg · mL(-1) concentration. Lineweaver-Burk plots of the different concentrations of L-DOPA in the absence and presence of lyophilized gel extract showed competitive inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase in all the germplasms. This study suggests that the germplasm RM could potentially be used for the isolation and identification of the effective tyrosinase inhibitory component, and ascertains the critical role of selecting the best source of germplasm for natural product isolation and characterization. PMID:24345502

  10. Aloe vera gel protects liver from oxidative stress-induced damage in experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Taslima; Uddin, Borhan; Hossain, Shahdat; Sikder, Abdul Mannan; Ahmed, Sohel

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera is a semi-tropical plant of Liliaceae family which has a wide range of applications in traditional medicine. In the present study, we sought to investigate the heptaoprotective potential of Aloe vera gel as a diet supplement. To achieve this goal, we have designed in vitro and in vivo experimental models of chemical-induced liver damage using male Sprague-Dawley rat. In the in vitro model, its effect was evaluated on Fenton's reaction-induced liver lipid peroxidation. Co-incubation with gel significantly reduced the generation of liver lipid peroxide (LPO). Next, to see the similar effect in vivo, gel was orally administered to rats once daily for 21 successive days. Following 1 hour of the last administration of gel, rats were treated with intra-peritoneal injection of CCl4. Dietary gel showed significant hepatoprotection against CCl4-induced damage as evident by restoration of liver LPO, serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin towards near normal. The beneficial effects were pronounced with the doses used (400 and 800 mg/kg body weight). Besides, we did not observe any significant drop in serum albumin, globulin as well as total protein levels of gel-administered rats. Histopathology of the liver tissue further supported the biochemical findings confirming the hepatoprotective potential of dietary gel. PMID:23652643

  11. Safety studies conducted on a proprietary high-purity aloe vera inner leaf fillet preparation, Qmatrix.

    PubMed

    Williams, Lonnie D; Burdock, George A; Shin, Eunju; Kim, Seunghyun; Jo, T H; Jones, Kenneth N; Matulka, Ray A

    2010-06-01

    The aloe vera plant has a long history of safe use for oral and topical applications. This publication describes safety studies conducted on a proprietary high-purity aloe vera inner leaf fillet preparation, Qmatrix. In a 13-week study in rats, Qmatrix was administered via gavage at 0, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day. There were no significant changes in food or water consumption, body weight, serum biochemistry or hematology at any of the doses tested. Sporadic, significant increases were observed in some of the measured urinalysis parameters; however, these variations were not treatment-related, as most were observed only in one sex, not dose-dependent and within historical control values. Organ weights were unaffected, except for a statistically significant, though not dose-dependent, increase in absolute and relative weights of the right kidney in males at 500 and 2000 mg/kg bw/day, respectively. Histopathological analysis revealed no abnormal signs. Qmatrix was non-mutagenic in an Ames test and a chromosomal aberration test at concentrations up to 10,000 microg/plate, and in an in vivo bone marrow micronucleus test at doses up to 5000 mg/kg bw/day. Based on these results, Qmatrix is not genotoxic in vitro or in vivo and; has an oral NOAEL greater than 2000 mg/kg bw/day following 90 days of oral exposure. PMID:20096744

  12. Monitoring Indicators for Mediterranean Wetland and Agricultural Area Using ALOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandridis, T. K.; Topaloglou, C. A.; Pardalis, I.; Tsakoumis, G.; Vogiatzis, M.; Andrianopoulos, A.; Takavakoglou, V.; Vougioukas, S.; Bochtis, D.; Zalidis, G. C.; Silleos, N. G.

    2008-11-01

    Agricultural and other human activities are a pressure to several Mediterranean wetland ecosystems. Monitoring the pressures and the state of the ecosystem is an important input to management activities. The aim of this work was to select and implement indicators for monitoring the natural and agricultural environment of a Mediterranean wetland using Earth Observation (EO), and specifically the recently launched ALOS satellite images. Multiple levels of data were collected and integrated: remote sensing data (ALOS AVNIR-2 and PALSAR), unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images, and observations during field surveys. EO and GIS methods used during monitoring of the study area involved preprocessing of the satellite images, enhancement of information, information extraction, and derivation of indicators. Geographic overlay comparison with results derived from the area in 2003 using a Terra/ASTER image was used to identify the changes that occurred during the last years. The methodology was applied in the wetland and surrounding agricultural area of Ramsar Convention site "lakes Koronia-Volvi" (Greece). Resulting thematic maps revealed and quantified the intensity of pressures in the vicinity of the protected wetland, the state of the wetland ecosystem, as well as the seasonal and long term temporal trends.

  13. Clinicopathological Studies on Vitamin D3 Toxicity and Therapeutic Evaluation of Aloe vera in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chavhan, Sambhaji G.; Brar, R. S.; Banga, H. S.; Sandhu, H. S.; Sodhi, S.; Gadhave, P. D.; Kothule, V. R.; Kammon, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the clinical signs, hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes in vitamin D3 toxicity at a dose rate 2 mg/kg b.wt. of vitamin D3 and to assess the protective effect of Aloe vera in vitamin D3 toxicity. The clinical signs observed were anorexia, progressive weight loss, difficulty in movement and respiration, diarrhea, epistaxis, subnormal body temperature and nervous signs before death. Mortality was observed in treated rats between day 10 and day 19 of treatment. The gross postmortem changes observed were severe emaciation, white chalky deposits on epicardial surface of heart, pin point white deposits on cortical surface of kidneys with pale yellow discoloration and diffused white deposits on serosal surface of stomach and intestine with bloody ingesta in lumen. The hematological changes included non-significant increase in hemoglobin and total leukocyte count and significant increase in relative neutrophil count. The biochemical changes observed were significant increase in plasma concentration of calcium, phosphorus and blood urea nitrogen, whereas a significant decrease in the concentration of albumin and total plasma protein was observed. The histopathological lesions included calcification of various organs, viz., tongue, stomach, intestines, kidney, heart, aorta, larynx, trachea, lungs, spleen, choroid plexus arteries of brain and vas deferens. The Aloe vera juice (2.5% in drinking water) has no protective effect on vitamin D3 toxicity (2 mg/kg b.wt.). PMID:21430919

  14. A Study toward the Evaluation of ALOS Images for LAI Estimation in Rice Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi Hashjin, Sh.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Khandan, R.

    2013-10-01

    For expanding and managing agricultural sources, satellite data have a key role in determining required information about different factors in plants Including Leaf Area Index (LAI).This paper has studied the potential of spectral indices in estimating rice canopy LAI in Amol city as one of the main sources of rice production in Iran. Due to its importance in provision of food and calorie of a major portion of population, rice product was chosen for study. A field campaign was conducted when rice was in the max growth stage (late of June). Also, two satellite images from ALOS-AVNIR-2 were used (simultaneous with conducted field works) to extract and determine vegetation indices. Then the Regression between measured data and vegetation indices, derived from combination of different bands, was evaluated and after that suitable vegetation indices were realized. Finally, statistics and calculations for introduction of a suitable model were presented. After examination of models, the results showed that RDVI and SAVI2, by determination coefficient and RMSE of 0.12-0.59 and 0.24-0.62, have more accuracy in LAI estimation. Results of present study demonstrated the potential of ALOS images, for LAI estimation and their significant role in monitoring and managing the rice plant.

  15. First-principles study of the structural, electronic, dynamical, and thermodynamic properties of Li5AlO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Qiushi; Chen, Xiaojun; Gao, Tao; Xiao, Chengjian; Zhao, Linjie; He, Jianchao; Long, Xinggui

    2015-10-01

    Pentalithium aluminate, Li5AlO4, has attracted increasing attention for its high lithium density and potential uses in tritium breeding materials and thermal batteries. In this work, the structural, electronic, lattice dynamical, and thermodynamic properties of α- and β-phase Li5AlO4 were investigated using first-principles density functional theory. The optimized structural parameters were consistent with the experimental values, with the absolute deviation being less than 2.5%. The indirect band gaps of α- and β-Li5AlO4 were 4.82 and 5.16 eV, respectively, showing that they are insulators. In addition, the vibrational properties of α- and β-Li5AlO4 were computed using density functional perturbation theory. By adding Born effective charges into the phonon calculations, the longitudinal optical-transverse optical (LO-TO) splittings were calculated. The optical modes at the Γ point were categorized as Raman- and IR-active modes. Our results show that β-Li5AlO4 is more polar and anisotropic than α-Li5AlO4. Furthermore, their thermodynamic functions were determined using the calculated phonon density of states. The results were in good agreement with those of previous theoretical studies. The data presented in this work will help in the further characterization of Li5AlO4, which may be valuable for future experimental studies.

  16. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for toxicity to 3rd instar Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti. Median lethal concentrations (LC50) were, respectively, 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68%. Cynodon dactylon...

  17. Potential prevention: Aloe vera mouthwash may reduce radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Amirhossein

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, more head and neck cancer patients have been treated with radiotherapy. Radiation-induced mucositis is a common and dose limiting toxicity of radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancers. Patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are also at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. A number of new agents applied locally or systemically to prevent or treat radiation-induced mucositis have been investigated, but there is no widely accepted prophylactic or effective treatment for mucositis. Topical Aloe vera is widely used for mild sunburn, frostbites, and scalding burns. Studies have reported the beneficial effects of Aloe gel for wound healing, mucous membrane protection, and treatment of oral ulcers, in addition to antiinflammatory, immunomudulation, antifungal, scavenging free radicals, increasing collagen formation and inhibiting collagenase. Herein the author postulates that oral Aloe vera mouthwash may not only prevent radiation-induced mucositis by its wound healing and antiinflammatory mechanism, but also may reduce oral candidiasis of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy due to its antifungal and immunomodulatory properties. Hence, Aloe vera mouthwash may provide an alternative agent for treating radiation-induced oral mucositis and candidiasis in patients with head and neck cancers. PMID:22855041

  18. Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Aloe succotrina in Rats: Possibly Mediated by Inhibition of HMG-CoA Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Lamba, Deepak; Kumar, Ramesh; Nath, Pashupati; Gauttam, Satyaprakash

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate antihyperlipidemic activity of dried pulp of Aloe succotrina leaves in Wistar albino rats. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rats by feeding them high fat diet (HFD) or D-fructose (25% w/v) for 4 successive weeks. From 15th to 28th day, dried pulp (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o) and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) per se were administered 2 h prior to feeding rats with HFD or fructose. Aloe succotrina did not significantly decrease the body weight of rats. The dried pulp and atorvastatin per se significantly decreased relative liver weight but did not significantly affect relative heart weight. HFD or fructose significantly increased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, and VLDL, and decreased HDL-c; significantly increased liver MDA and decreased GSH levels. The dried pulp (200 mg/kg p.o.) significantly reversed high fat diet-induced and fructose-induced hyperlipidemia and atherogenic index. Aloe succotrina significantly decreased HMG Co-A reductase activity. Antihyperlipidemic effect of the dried pulp was comparable to atorvastatin. Thus, Aloe succotrina produced significant antihyperlipidemic activity in both HFD and fructose-induced hyperlipidemic rats, possibly through normalization of serum lipid profile, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity, and amelioration of oxidative stress in liver. PMID:24693447

  19. Magnetic nanoporous carbon as an adsorbent for the extraction of phthalate esters in environmental water and aloe juice samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Hao, Yunhui; Ren, Yiqian; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    In this work, magnetic nanoporous carbon with high surface area and ordered structure was synthesized using cheap commercial silica gel as template and sucrose as the carbon source. The prepared magnetic nanoporous carbon was firstly used as an adsorbent for the extraction of phthalate esters, including diethyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl-phthalate, from lake water and aloe juice samples. Several parameters that could affect the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the limit of detection of the method (S/N = 3) was 0.10 ng/mL for water sample and 0.20 ng/mL for aloe juice sample. The linearity was observed over the concentration range of 0.50-150.0 and 1.0-200.0 ng/mL for water and aloe juice samples, respectively. The results showed that the magnetic nanoporous carbon has a high adsorptive capability toward the target phthalate esters in water and aloe juice samples. PMID:25677269

  20. Characterization of Aloeride, a new high-molecular-weight polysaccharide from Aloe vera with potent immunostimulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Pugh, N; Ross, S A; ElSohly, M A; Pasco, D S

    2001-02-01

    We have characterized a new immunostimulatory polysaccharide called Aloeride from commercial aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) juice. Aloeride is between 4 and 7 million Da, and its glycosyl components include glucose (37.2%), galactose (23.9%), mannose (19.5%), and arabinose (10.3%). At 0.5 microg/mL Aloeride increased NF-kappa B directed luciferase expression in THP-1 human monocytic cells to levels 50% of those achieved by maximal concentrations (10 microg/mL) of LPS. Aloeride induced the expression of the mRNAs encoding IL-1beta and TNF-alpha to levels equal to those observed in cells maximally activated by LPS. Acemannan, the major carbohydrate component from aloe, used at 200 microg/mL in the macrophage assay resulted in negligible NF-kappa B activation. Analysis of acemannan and Aloeride using size-exclusion chromatography suggests that the low activity of acemannan is due to trace amounts of Aloeride. Although Aloeride comprises only 0.015% of the aloe juice dry weight, its potency for macrophage activation accounts fully for the activity of the crude juice. PMID:11262067

  1. Single-laboratory validation of an NMR method for the determination of aloe vera polysaccharide in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Davis, Bryce; Goux, Warren J

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a single-laboratory-validated NMR method for determining the quantity of aloe vera polysaccharide in product formulations. The ratio of signal intensities of the acetyl methyl protons to methyl protons of an internal reference varied linearly with concentration (r2 > 0.99) with a lower LOQ of 0.2 g/100 mL for two commercial aloe polysaccharide standards, Acemannan Hydrogel (AH) and Immuno-10 (I-10). The assay was used to quantify these standards in two nonacetylated polysaccharide matrices, dextrin and arabinogalactan, and in a pharmaceutical product. The concentrations of AH in samples containing the polysaccharide matrices agreed within 7% of values determined on the basis of weight and showed within- and between-run RSD values of < 3.5%. The assay of I-10 in the pharmaceutical product was within 7% of the expected values over a range from 50 to 125% of the targeted I-10 concentration, with a between-run RSD of < 7%. The assay showed no interference from other added polysaccharides or from other components of the pharmaceutical formulation and was independent of the molecular size distribution of the aloe polysaccharide present. The NMR assay can be used to validate aloe polysaccharide contained in a product and to follow any chemical degradation that may occur over time. PMID:20166576

  2. Evaluation of Isolated Fractions of Aloe vera Gel Materials on Indinavir Pharmacokinetics: In vitro and in vivo Studies.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Lonette; Malan, Maides; Gouws, Chrisna; Steyn, Dewald; Ellis, Suria; Abay, Efrem; Wiesner, Lubbe; Otto, Daniel P; Hamman, Josias

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera is a plant with a long history of traditional medicinal use and is consumed in different products, sometimes in conjunction with prescribed medicines. A. vera gel has shown the ability to modulate drug absorption in vitro. The aim of this study was to fractionate the precipitated polysaccharide component of A. vera gel based on molecular weight and to compare their interactions with indinavir pharmacokinetics. Crude polysaccharides were precipitated from a solution of A. vera gel and was fractionated by means of centrifugal filtration through membranes with different molecular weight cut-off values (i.e. 300 KDa, 100 KDa and 30 KDa). Marker molecules were quantified in the aloe leaf materials by means of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the average molecular weight was determined by means of gel filtration chromatography linked to multi-angle-laser-light scattering and refractive index detection. The effect of the aloe leaf materials on the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cell monolayers as well as indinavir metabolism in LS180 cells was measured. The bioavailability of indinavir in the presence and absence of the aloe leaf materials was determined in Sprague-Dawley rats. All the aloe leaf materials investigated in this study reduced the TEER of Caco-2 cell monolayers, inhibited indinavir metabolism in LS 180 cells to different extents and changed the bioavailability parameters of indinavir in rats compared to that of indinavir alone. These indinavir pharmacokinetic modulation effects were not dependent on the presence of aloverose and also not on the average molecular weight of the isolated fractions. PMID:26568138

  3. The effects of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid- induced gastric ulcer in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Rezapour, Taha Mohammad; Vatanchian, Mehran; Zare Hesari, Mohammad; Nabizade Haghighi, Hadi; Izanlu, Mostafa; Sabaghian, Maryam; Shahveisi, Kaveh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gut–brain axis (GBA) is very important in creation and modulation of gastrointestinal problems. Aloe vera gel has gastroprotective properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid gastric ulcer induction. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcer was induced by injection of 20% acetic acid into the subserosal layer in male rats. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups: intact group, gastric ulcer group and Aloe vera group (treatment with Aloe vera following gastric ulcer induction). The acid levels and brain and intestinal water content of each sample were measured eight days after the gastric ulcer induction. Results: Gastric acid levels were significantly decreased in Aloe vera group when compared with gastric ulcer group (p<0.05). However, there were no differences in acid output between gastric ulcer and Aloe vera groups with intact group. After Aloe vera administration, the amount of brain water content had no difference with intact and gastric ulcer groups (p<0.05). The duodenal water content in Aloe vera group was significantly reduced compared with intact group (p<0.05) but gastric ulcer group had no significant difference with intact and Aloe vera group. Conclusions: The administration of Aloe vera has an inhibitory effect on the gastric acid output. PMID:25050311

  4. Effect of packaging methods and crude aloe vera gel (Aloe vera barbadensis miller) on the storage quality of enrobed goat meat bites.

    PubMed

    Jairath, Gauri; Chatli, Manish K; Sahoo, Jhari; Biswas, Ashim K

    2015-06-01

    The storage stability of enrobed goat meat bites (EGMB) incorporated with 3 % crude aloe vera (AV) gel was evaluated under aerobic (T-1; unenrobed control product, T-2; enrobed AV treated product) and modified atmospheric packaging (MAP, 50:50, CO2 and N2) (T-3; unenrobed control product, T-4; enrobed AV treated product) at 4 ± 1 °C for 42 days on the basis of physico-chemical, microbiological and sensory attributes. The pH value was higher, whereas water activity (aW) was lower in enrobed and MAP product. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) and free fatty acid (FFA) values were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in MAP packaged (T-3) and AV treated products (T-2 and T-4) products than aerobic packaged (T-1), however it followed an increasing trend in all the products throughout storage. Instrumental colour and textural profile attributes were better maintained in MAP products than others. The sensory panellists graded T-4 'good to very good' even on Day 42, whereas T-1 was acceptable only up to 28 days. Standard Plate Count (SPC) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in MAP products than aerobic packaged products. Results concluded that EGMB treated with AV gel can be successfully stored more than 42 days under MAP conditions without affecting its physico-chemical, textural, microbiological and sensory attributes. PMID:26028757

  5. Multifrequency polarimetric ALOS PALSAR and RADARSAT-2 analysis over the archaeological area of Djebel Barkal (Sudan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patruno, Jolanda; Dore, Nicole; Pottier, Eric; Crespi, Mattia

    2013-04-01

    Differences in vegetation growth and in soil moisture content generate ground anomalies which can be linked to the presence of subsurface anthropic structures. Such evidences have been studied and observed for a long time by means of aerial photographs, thanks to planned campaigns or through the observation of historical II World War acquisitions first, and thanks to the very high spatial resolution of optical satellites later. The present research constitutes a contribution to the non-invasive archaeological investigation methodology carried out in the last years by several institutions and cultural organizations. The work aims to exploit the technique of SAR Polarimetry for the detection of surface and subsurface archaeological structures, comparing ALOS PALSAR L-band, with a central frequency of 1.27 GHz, with RADARSAT-2 C-band sensor, whose central frequency is 5.405 GHz. The choice to analyze satellite radar sensors capabilities is based on their 24-hour observations, as they are independent from Sun illumination and meteorological conditions. Moreover, they could provide additional information concerning electromagnetic properties of the target, qualities not derivable from optical images. A multi frequency comparison between the two SAR sensors has been performed over the Napatan (900-270 BC) Meroitic (270 BC-350 AD) area of Djebel Barkal, located in Sudan and inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List since 2003. It constitutes one of the five Napatan and Meroitic archaeological sites stretching over more than 60 km in the Nile valley, in an arid area part of Nubia. The area, not completely excavated, presents thombs, pyramids and sacred palaces. The dataset we disposed of is composed of two archived ALOS PALSAR polarimetric images and four RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data specifically acquired in the same year (2012). All the products have been then processed and integrated with the available optical data and the cartographic documentation derivable from

  6. Coseismic Deformation From the Haiti Earthquake of January 12, 2010, Detected by ALOS/PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Manabu

    2010-05-01

    On January 12, 2010, a Mw7.0 earthquake hit southern Haiti and caused severe damages in and around Prot au Prince. This region has not suffered from strong earthquakes since 18th century, but rather high seismic risk is inferred from GPS observation (Mannaker et al., 2008). This earthquake is considered to have occurred on the Enriquillo fault. It is essential to reveal coseismic deformation from this earthquake and estimate fault parameters for the understanding of earthquake generation process and future seismic hazard evaluation. Unfortunately, no continous GPS data are available at present. Therefore we utilize synthetic aperture radar images. PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band SAR) is a L-band synthetic aperture radar onboard the Japanese satellite named Advanced Land Observation Satellite (hereafter ALOS). ALOS made an urgent observation of PALSAR on January 16 from the Path 138 with the off-nadir angle of 34.3 degree. Performing interferometry with the image acquired on October 11, 2007, we obtained an interferogram with CGIAR hole-filled SRTM DEM. The eastern edge of the obtained image is about 30km west of the epicenter. This area corresponds to an about 30km wide peninsula which extends westward from Port au Prince. However, we found at least three cycles of fringes (~40cm), which show increase of range toward the center of fringes, on the south side of the Enriquillo fault. We also recognized three cycles of fringes on the north side of the fault, but their gradient is much steeper than the south side. This observation implies eastward and/or subsidence of the southern block of the fault, which is consistent with left lateral strike-slip motion on a nearly vertical fault. Very preliminary analysis of fault model suggests that the western edge of the source fault is located about 30km west of the epicenter and slip may reach the surface and be as large as 2m, though there must be a trade off between slip and depth of fault. Observation of ALOS/PALSAR from

  7. Evaluation of Land Cover Features over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Using ALOS AVNIR-2 Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, M. R.; Lim, H. S.; Hassan, Faez M.; Jafri, M. Z. Mat

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to classify the land cover mapping over Jeddah, Saudi Arabia using ALOS AVNIR-2 satellite image and to determine which classifier is suitable for that area which surrounded by desert terrain. The image was captured on 27 June 2008. Standard supervised classification method which is Maximum Likelihood Classifier was applied to the imageries to extract the spectral information from acquired scene. Besides, the advance classification method which is Neural Network Classification also conducted in this study. Then, the results from both classifiers will be compared and the discussion about it will be done. Training sites were selected using polygon and land cover classes were assigned to each classifier. Accuracy assessment was carried out to compute the probability of error for the classified map. A total of 250 random samples were chosen for accuracy assessment. Finally, land cover map over Jeddah was generated and the best classifier was determined.

  8. Helmand river hydrologic studies using ALOS PALSAR InSAR and ENVISAT altimetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Kim, J.-W.; Lee, H.; Shum, C.K.; Duan, J.; Ibaraki, M.; Akyilmaz, O.; Read, C.-H.

    2009-01-01

    The Helmand River wetland represents the only fresh-water resource in southern Afghanistan and one of the least mapped water basins in the world. The relatively narrow wetland consists of mostly marshes surrounded by dry lands. In this study, we demonstrate the use of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) Interferometric SAR (InSAR) to detect the changes of the Helmand River wetland water level. InSAR images are combined with the geocentric water level measurements from the retracked high-rate (18-Hz) Environmental Satellite (Envisat) radar altimetry to construct absolute water level changes over the marshes. It is demonstrated that the integration of the altimeter and InSAR can provide spatio-temporal measurements of water level variation over the Helmand River marshes where in situ measurements are absent. ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  9. Energetic-particle synthesis of high-strength Al(O) alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Follstaedt, D.M.; Knapp, J.A.; Barbour, J.C.; Myers, S.M.; Dugger, M.T.

    1995-09-28

    High-strength Al(O) alloys, initially discovered by ion implantation, have now been produced with electron-cyclotron resonance plasma deposition and pulsed-laser deposition. The mechanical properties of these deposited alloy layers were examined with nanoindentation, and finite element modeling of the indented layer on Si substrates was used to determine yield stresses for the alloys of {approximately} 1--5 GPa. The key to these high strengths is the high density of nanometer-size {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} precipitates formed when high concentrations (5--30 at.%) of oxygen are introduced into aluminum as individual atoms or molecules. The strongest alloys have precipitates as small as 1 nm, implying that such small precipitates block dislocation motion. Based upon previous studies with oxygen-implanted aluminum, improved tribological properties are expected for layers made by the two new deposition methods.

  10. Aloe barbadensis Miller mediated green synthesis of mono-disperse copper oxide nanoparticles: Optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunalan, Sangeetha; Sivaraj, Rajeshwari; Venckatesh, Rajendran

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we report on the synthesis of nanostructured copper oxide particles by both chemical and biological method. A facile and efficient synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles was carried out with controlled surface properties via green chemistry approach. The CuO nanoparticles synthesized are monodisperse and versatile and were characterized with the help of UV-Vis, PL, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, and TEM techniques. The particles are crystalline in nature and average sizes were between 15 and 30 nm. The morphology of the nanoparticles can be controlled by tuning the amount of Aloe vera extract. This new eco-friendly approach of synthesis is a novel, cheap, and convenient technique suitable for large scale commercial production and health related applications of CuO nanoparticles.

  11. Targeting anthracycline-resistant tumor cells with synthetic aloe-emodin glycosides.

    PubMed

    Breiner-Goldstein, Elinor; Evron, Zoharia; Frenkel, Michael; Cohen, Keren; Meiron, Keren Nir; Peer, Dan; Roichman, Yael; Flescher, Eliezer; Fridman, Micha

    2011-07-14

    The cytotoxic activity of aloe-emodin (AE), a natural anthranoid that readily permeates anthracycline-resistant tumor cells, was improved by the attachment of an amino-sugar unit to its anthraquinone core. The new class of AE glycosides (AEGs) showed a significant improvement in cytotoxicity-up to more than 2 orders of magnitude greater than those of AE and the clinically used anthracycline doxorubicin (DOX)-against several cancer cell lines with different levels of DOX resistance. Incubation with the synthetic AEGs induced cell death in less than one cell cycle, indicating that these compounds do not directly target the cell division mechanism. Confocal microscopy provided evidence that unlike DOX, AEGs accumulated in anthracycline-resistant tumor cells in which resistance is conferred by P-glycoprotein efflux pumps. The results of this study demonstrate that AEGs may serve as a promising scaffold for the development of cytotoxic agents capable of overcoming anthracycline resistance in tumor cells. PMID:24900344

  12. Source Model from ALOS-2 ScanSAR of the 2015 Nepal Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Youtian; Ge, Linlin; Ng, Alex Hay-Man

    2016-06-01

    The 2015 Gorkha Nepal Earthquake sequence started with a magnitude Mw 7.8 main shock and continued with several large aftershocks, particularly the second major shock of Mw 7.3. Both earthquake events were captured using ALOS-2 ScanSAR images to determine the coseismic surface deformation and the source models. In this paper, the displacement maps were produced and the corresponding modelling results were discussed. The single fault model of the main shock suggests that there was nearly 6 m of right-lateral oblique slip motion with fault struck of 292° and dipped gently Northeast at 7°, indicating that the main shock was on a thrust fault. Moreover, a single fault model for the Mw 7.3 quake with striking of 312° and dipping of 11° was derived from observed result. Both results showed the fault planes struck generally to South and dipped northeast, which depicted the risks since the main shock occurred.

  13. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the determination of Aloe Emodin in mouse plasma.

    PubMed

    Zaffaroni, M; Mucignat, C; Pecere, T; Zagotto, G; Frapolli, R; D'Incalci, M; Zucchetti, M

    2003-10-25

    An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated to determine Aloe Emodin (AE) in mouse plasma. The analysis required 0.3 ml of plasma and involves extraction with dichloromethane. The HPLC separation was carried out on Symmetry Shield RP18, a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (65:35:0.2) and fluorescence detection at lambda(ex)=410 nm and lambda(em)=510 nm. The retention time of AE was 11.7 min. The assay was linear from 10 to 1,000 ng/ml (r2 > or = 0.999), showed intra- and inter-day precision within 7.8 and 4.7%, and accuracy of 87.3-105.7%. Detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit (LOQ) were 4.5 and 5 ng/ml, respectively. The method was applied to determine for the first time the pharmacokinetic of AE in mice. PMID:14552822

  14. Al-O complex formation in ion implanted Czochralski and floating-zone Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Ferla, A.; Torrisi, L.; Galvagno, G.; Rimini, E.; Ciavola, G.; Carnera, A.; Gasparotto, A.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum ions at 100 MeV were implanted into floating-zone (FZ) and Czochralski (CZ) grown Si substrates. At this energy the influence of the surface on the subsequent thermal treatment is negligible. In FZ samples the electrical active dose, as measured by spreading resistance profilometry, is independent of the annealing time at 1200 °C. In the CZ samples instead it considerably decreases with time. Secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis in CZ samples have revealed the presence of a multipeak structure around the projected range region for both Al and O signals. In FZ the structure is just detectable. The results imply that the Al-O complex formation is enhanced by the presence of oxygen but that it is catalyzed by the damage created during the implant. The carrier profiles coincide in both CZ and FZ diffused substrates by predeposition of Al from a solid source, i.e., in damage-free samples.

  15. Mineral contents of aloe vera leaf gel and their role on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, S; Sivagnanam, K; Subramanian, S

    2005-01-01

    The role of some inorganic elements like vanadium, zinc, sodium, potassium, calcium, copper, manganese, and traces of chromium in the improvement of impaired glucose tolerance and their indirect role in the management of diabetes mellitus are being increasingly recognized. In traditional methods, medicinal plants are being used, which contain both organic and inorganic constituents. In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyze the inorganic elements present in Aloe vera leaf gel and their role on diabetes-related biochemical alterations in experimental rats. Special emphasis was given to the inorganic parts by carefully preparing ash of the leaf gel. The results clearly indicate the presence of several hypoglycemic-activity-possessing elements in the gel. The ash treatment also resulted in hypoglycemic action. In conclusion, the presence of various inorganic trace elements in the gel might account for the hypoglycemic nature of the plant. PMID:16327071

  16. Use of ALOS/PALSAR imagery for monitoring areas damaged due to recent natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Masashi

    2006-12-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has the remarkable ability to examine the Earth's surface, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. A SAR-based remote sensing system can assess the damage to areas affected by large-scale disasters at an early stage. This can aid in recovery planning. On May 27, 2006 an earthquake struck Yogyakarta, Central Java, Indonesia, causing human suffering and severe building damage. PALSAR (Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) onboard the Japanese ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) imaged the affected areas on the morning following the earthquake. The European satellite, Envisat, also imaged a wider area of central Java two days after the event. This paper applies a damage detection technique based on three time-series images from the SAR dataset covering the Mid Java earthquake. From a macroscopic point of view, the estimated damage distribution closely matched damage assessment derived from high-resolution satellite images and field surveys.

  17. Dietary aloe vera gel powder and extract inhibit azoxymethane- induced colorectal aberrant crypt foci in mice fed a high- fat diet.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Kaneko, Takaaki; Beppu, Hidehiko; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Sonoda, Shigeru; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera gel exhibits protective effects against insulin resistance as well as lipid-lowering and anti-diabetic effects. The anti-diabetic compounds in this gel were identified as Aloe-sterols. Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) containing Aloe-sterols has recently been produced using a new procedure. We previously reported that AVGE reduced large-sized intestinal polyps in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high fat diet (HFD), suggesting that Aloe vera gel may protect against colorectal cancer. In the present study, we examined the effects of Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) and AVGE on azoxymethane-induced colorectal preneoplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in mice fed a HFD. Male C57BL/6J mice were given a normal diet (ND), HFD, HFD containing 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, which was used as a solvent for AVGE (HFDC), HFD containing 3% or 1% AVGP, and HFDC containing 0.0125% (H-) or 0.00375% (L-) AVGE. The number of ACF was significantly lower in mice given 3% AVGP and H-AVGE than in those given HFD or HFDC alone. Moreover, 3% AVGP, H-AVGE and L-AVGE significantly decreased the mean Ki-67 labeling index, assessed as a measure of cell proliferation in the colonic mucosa. In addition, hepatic phase II enzyme glutathione S-transferase mRNA levels were higher in the H-AVGE group than in the HFDC group. These results suggest that both AVGP and AVGE may have chemopreventive effects on colorectal carcinogenesis under the HFD condition. Furthermore, the concentration of Aloe-sterols was similar between 3% AVGP and H-AVGE, suggesting that Aloe-sterols were the main active ingredients in this experiment. PMID:25684508

  18. Co-expression of NCED and ALO improves vitamin C level and tolerance to drought and chilling in transgenic tobacco and stylo plants.

    PubMed

    Bao, Gegen; Zhuo, Chunliu; Qian, Chunmei; Xiao, Ting; Guo, Zhenfei; Lu, Shaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant adaptive responses to various environmental stresses, while L-ascorbic acid (AsA) that is also named vitamin C is an important antioxidant and involves in plant stress tolerance and the immune system in domestic animals. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and stylo [Stylosanthes guianensis (Aublet) Swartz], a forage legume, plants co-expressing stylo 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (SgNCED1) and yeast D-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase (ALO) genes were generated in this study, and tolerance to drought and chilling was analysed in comparison with transgenic tobacco overexpressing SgNCED1 or ALO and the wild-type plants. Compared to the SgNCED1 or ALO transgenic plants, in which only ABA or AsA levels were increased, both ABA and AsA levels were increased in transgenic tobacco and stylo plants co-expressing SgNCED1 and ALO genes. Compared to the wild type, an enhanced drought tolerance was observed in SgNCED1 transgenic tobacco plants with induced expression of drought-responsive genes, but not in ALO plants, while an enhanced chilling tolerance was observed in ALO transgenic tobaccos with induced expression of cold-responsive genes, but not in SgNCED1 plants. Co-expression of SgNCED1 and ALO genes resulted in elevated tolerance to both drought and chilling in transgenic tobacco and stylo plants with induced expression of both drought and cold-responsive genes. Our result suggests that co-expression of SgNCED1 and ALO genes is an effective way for use in forage plant improvement for increased tolerance to drought and chilling and nutrition quality. PMID:25865630

  19. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aloe vera Adventitious Root Extracts through the Alteration of Primary and Secondary Metabolites via Salicylic Acid Elicitation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yun Sun; Ju, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Lim, Tae-Gyu; Uddin, Md Romij; Kim, Yeon Bok; Baek, Jin Hong; Kwon, Sung Won; Lee, Ki Won; Seo, Hak Soo; Park, Sang Un; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera (Asphodeloideae) is a medicinal plant in which useful secondary metabolites are plentiful. Among the representative secondary metabolites of Aloe vera are the anthraquinones including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, which are tricyclic aromatic quinones synthesized via a plant-specific type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway. However, it is not yet clear which cellular responses can induce the pathway, leading to production of tricyclic aromatic quinones. In this study, we examined the effect of endogenous elicitors on the type III polyketide biosynthesis pathway and identified the metabolic changes induced in elicitor-treated Aloe vera adventitious roots. Salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethephon were used to treat Aloe vera adventitious roots cultured on MS liquid media with 0.3 mg/L IBA for 35 days. Aloe emodin and chrysophanol were remarkably increased by the SA treatment, more than 10–11 and 5–13 fold as compared with untreated control, respectively. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified a total of 37 SA-induced compounds, including aloe emodin and chrysophanol, and 3 of the compounds were tentatively identified as tricyclic aromatic quinones. Transcript accumulation analysis of polyketide synthase genes and gas chromatography mass spectrometry showed that these secondary metabolic changes resulted from increased expression of octaketide synthase genes and decreases in malonyl-CoA, which is the precursor for the tricyclic aromatic quinone biosynthesis pathway. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was enhanced in extracts of SA-treated adventitious roots. Our results suggest that SA has an important role in activation of the plant specific-type III polyketide biosynthetic pathway, and therefore that the efficacy of Aloe vera as medicinal agent can be improved through SA treatment. PMID:24358188

  20. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P < 0.05) in those fed 0.5, 2, and 4 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks. PMID:26109009

  1. Description of Micrococcus aloeverae sp. nov., an endophytic actinobacterium isolated from Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Om; Nimonkar, Yogesh; Munot, Hitendra; Sharma, Avinash; Vemuluri, Venkata Ramana; Chavadar, Mahesh S; Shouche, Yogesh S

    2014-10-01

    A yellow Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, non-endospore -forming, spherical endophytic actinobacterium, designated strain AE-6(T), was isolated from the inner fleshy leaf tissues of Aloe barbadensis (Aloe vera) collected from Pune, Maharashtra, India. Strain AE-6(T) grew at high salt concentrations [10% (w/v) NaCl], temperatures of 15-41 °C and a pH range of 5-12. It showed highest (99.7%) 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Micrococcus yunnanensis YIM 65004(T) followed by Micrococcus luteus NCTC 2665(T) (99.6%) and Micrococcus endophyticus YIM 56238(T) (99.0%). Ribosomal protein profiling by MALDI-TOF/MS also showed it was most closely related to M. yunnanensis YIM 65004(T) and M. luteus NCTC 2665(T). Like other members of the genus Micrococcus, strain AE-6(T) had a high content of branched chain fatty acids (iso-C15:0 and anteiso-C15:0). MK-8(H2) and MK-8 were the predominant isoprenoid quinones. Cell wall analysis showed an 'A2 L-Lys-peptide subunit' type of peptidoglycan and ribose to be the major cell wall sugar. The DNA G+C content was 70 mol%. Results of DNA-DNA hybridization of AE-6(T) with its closest relatives from the genus Micrococcus produced a value of less than 70%. Based on the results of this study, strain AE-6(T) could be clearly differentiated from other members of the genus Micrococcus. We propose that it represents a novel species of the genus Micrococcus and suggest the name Micrococcus aloeverae sp. nov., with strain AE-6(T) ( = MCC 2184(T) = DSM 27472(T)) as the type strain of the species. PMID:25048212

  2. A Modified Hopfield Neural Network Algorithm (MHNNA) Using ALOS Image for Water Quality Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Kzar, Ahmed Asal; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Mutter, Kussay N.; Syahreza, Saumi

    2015-01-01

    Decreasing water pollution is a big problem in coastal waters. Coastal health of ecosystems can be affected by high concentrations of suspended sediment. In this work, a Modified Hopfield Neural Network Algorithm (MHNNA) was used with remote sensing imagery to classify the total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations in the waters of coastal Langkawi Island, Malaysia. The adopted remote sensing image is the Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) image acquired on 18 January 2010. Our modification allows the Hopfield neural network to convert and classify color satellite images. The samples were collected from the study area simultaneously with the acquiring of satellite imagery. The sample locations were determined using a handheld global positioning system (GPS). The TSS concentration measurements were conducted in a lab and used for validation (real data), classification, and accuracy assessments. Mapping was achieved by using the MHNNA to classify the concentrations according to their reflectance values in band 1, band 2, and band 3. The TSS map was color-coded for visual interpretation. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was investigated by dividing the validation data into two groups. The first group was used as source samples for supervisor classification via the MHNNA. The second group was used to test the MHNNA efficiency. After mapping, the locations of the second group in the produced classes were detected. Next, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated between the two groups, according to their corresponding locations in the classes. The MHNNA exhibited a higher R (0.977) and lower RMSE (2.887). In addition, we test the MHNNA with noise, where it proves its accuracy with noisy images over a range of noise levels. All results have been compared with a minimum distance classifier (Min-Dis). Therefore, TSS mapping of polluted water in the coastal Langkawi Island, Malaysia can be performed using the adopted

  3. Characterization of mangrove species using ALOS-2 PALSAR in Hai Phong city, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dat Pham, Tien; Yoshino, Kunihiko

    2016-06-01

    Hai Phong city is located in the Northern coast of Vietnam where the mangroves are distributed between zone I and zone II among the four mangrove zones in Vietnam. This city is vulnerable to rising sea levels associated with climate change and tropical cyclones, which are forecasted to become more severe due to the impact of climate change. In the past, mangrove forests in this city have decreased markedly because of over expansion of shrimp farming. Thus, identification of mangrove forests is important to monitor and support mangrove conservation and management in the coastal zone. The objectives of this research were to identify the locations of mangrove and characterize mangrove species in Hai Phong using HH and HV backscatters of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2 (ALOS-2) with enhanced Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). Image segmentation was used to identify the locations of mangrove forests. Moreover, Geographic Information System (GIS) was applied to update current status of mangrove species in 2015. The results showed that the means of HH and HV backscatter coefficients of K. obovata are lower than S. caseolaris. K. obovata has HH value around -13.9 dB until -10.3 dB and HV value around -20.6 dB until -16.2 dB. Higher HH values between about -14.9 dB and -6.8 dB and HV values between roughly -20.6 dB and -14.3 dB have observed by S. caseolaris. The total area of mangrove forest in Hai Phong in the year 2015 was around 4084 hectares, of which S. caseolaris occupied over 68% and mixed mangrove species was approximately 25.6%. This research indicates the potential for the use of L-band ALOS-2 PALSAR in characterizing mangrove forest species in the coastal zone.

  4. A Modified Hopfield Neural Network Algorithm (MHNNA) Using ALOS Image for Water Quality Mapping.

    PubMed

    Kzar, Ahmed Asal; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Mutter, Kussay N; Syahreza, Saumi

    2016-01-01

    Decreasing water pollution is a big problem in coastal waters. Coastal health of ecosystems can be affected by high concentrations of suspended sediment. In this work, a Modified Hopfield Neural Network Algorithm (MHNNA) was used with remote sensing imagery to classify the total suspended solids (TSS) concentrations in the waters of coastal Langkawi Island, Malaysia. The adopted remote sensing image is the Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) image acquired on 18 January 2010. Our modification allows the Hopfield neural network to convert and classify color satellite images. The samples were collected from the study area simultaneously with the acquiring of satellite imagery. The sample locations were determined using a handheld global positioning system (GPS). The TSS concentration measurements were conducted in a lab and used for validation (real data), classification, and accuracy assessments. Mapping was achieved by using the MHNNA to classify the concentrations according to their reflectance values in band 1, band 2, and band 3. The TSS map was color-coded for visual interpretation. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm was investigated by dividing the validation data into two groups. The first group was used as source samples for supervisor classification via the MHNNA. The second group was used to test the MHNNA efficiency. After mapping, the locations of the second group in the produced classes were detected. Next, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated between the two groups, according to their corresponding locations in the classes. The MHNNA exhibited a higher R (0.977) and lower RMSE (2.887). In addition, we test the MHNNA with noise, where it proves its accuracy with noisy images over a range of noise levels. All results have been compared with a minimum distance classifier (Min-Dis). Therefore, TSS mapping of polluted water in the coastal Langkawi Island, Malaysia can be performed using the adopted

  5. Aloe Vera

    MedlinePlus

    63053 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/aloevera ... us ... 63053 ... https://nccih.nih.gov/health/aloevera ... Herbal Medicine ... Herbal Medicine/Specifics ... us ... 63053 ... https://nccih.nih. ...

  6. Effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric microcirculatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing in rats

    PubMed Central

    Eamlamnam, Kallaya; Patumraj, Suthiluk; Visedopas, Naruemon; Thong-Ngam, Duangporn

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effects of Aloe vera and sucralfate on gastric microcirculatory changes, cytokine levels and gastric ulcer healing. METHODS: Male Spraque-Dawley rats (n= 48) were divided into four groups. Group1 served as control group, group 2 as gastric ulcer group without treatment, groups 3 and 4 as gastric ulcer treatment groups with sucralfate and Aloe vera. The rats from each group were divided into 2 subgroups for study of leukocyte adherence, TNF-α and IL-10 levels and gastric ulcer healing on days 1 and 8 after induction of gastric ulcer by 20 % acetic acid. RESULTS: On day 1 after induction of gastric ulcer, the leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule was significantly (P< 0.05) increased in the ulcer groups when compared to the control group. The level of TNF-α was elevated and the level of IL-10 was reduced. In the ulcer groups treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera, leukocyte adherence was reduced in postcapillary venule. The level of IL-10 was elevated, but the level of TNF-α had no significant difference. On day 8, the leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and the level of TNF-α were still increased and the level of IL-10 was reduced in the ulcer group without treatment. The ulcer treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera had lower leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule and TNF-α level. The level of IL-10 was still elevated compared to the ulcer group without treatment. Furthermore, histopathological examination of stomach on days 1 and 8 after induction of gastric ulcer showed that gastric tissue was damaged with inflammation. In the ulcer groups treated with sucralfate and Aloe vera on days 1 and 8, gastric inflammation was reduced, epithelial cell proliferation was enhanced and gastric glands became elongated. The ulcer sizes were also reduced compared to the ulcer group without treatment. CONCLUSION: Administration of 20 % acetic acid can induce gastric inflammation, increase leukocyte adherence in postcapillary venule

  7. Protein kinase C delta-mediated cytoskeleton remodeling is involved in aloe-emodin-induced photokilling of human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Te; You, Bang-Jau; Yang, Wen-Hui; Wu, Chi-Yu; Bau, Da-Tian; Lee, Hong-Zin

    2012-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy is becoming a widely accepted form of cancer treatment using a photosensitizing agent and light. Our previous study has demonstrated that photoactivated aloe-emodin induced anoikis and changes in cell morphology, which were in part mediated through its effect on cytoskeleton in lung carcinoma H460 cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of these photoactivated aloe-emodin-induced changes remain unknown. The present study demonstrated that the expression of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) was triggered by aloe-emodin and irradiation in H460 cells. Furthermore, the photoactivated aloe-emodin-induced cell death and translocation of PKCδ from the cytosol to the nucleus was found to be significantly inhibited by rottlerin, a PKCδ-selective inhibitor. Western blot analysis demonstrated that rottlerin also reversed the decrease in protein expression of cytoskeleton-related proteins, such as rat sarcoma (RAS), ras homolog gene family member A (RHO), p38, heat shock protein 27 (HSP27), focal adhesion kinase (FAK), α-actinin and tubulin, induced by photoactivated aloe-emodin. Our findings suggest that the regulation of cytoskeleton-related proteins mediated by PKCδ may be the mechanisms for the protective effects of rottlerin against the photoactivated aloe-emodin induced H460 cell death. PMID:22993309

  8. Photoconductivity of Graphene in Proximity to La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 Heterostructures: Phenomenon and Photosensor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Long; Fan, Xiaodong; Wei, Laiming; Lu, Juanjuan; Liang, Haixing; Qi, Ji; Zeng, Changgan

    2016-07-01

    The proximal coupling between graphene and transition-metal-oxide heterostructures may integrate their unique features and further generate emergent states. Using the photoconductivity of graphene as an effective probe, we demonstrate the existence of a built-in polar field within the La AlO3 layer of the La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 heterostructures for both conducting and insulating La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 interfaces. Such a polar field is a prerequisite for the validity of the electronic reconstruction mechanism for the interfacial conductivity. The built-in polar field is reflected by the hole doping in the graphene in proximity to the La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 induced by pulsed deep-ultraviolet illumination regardless of the graphene's carrier type. These photoresponse characteristics also render the graphene /La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 hybrid system a convenient deep-ultraviolet sensor. Moreover, we design an efficient broad-spectrum photodetector benefiting from the large in-plane electric field in graphene across the boundary between the graphene/La AlO3 /Sr TiO3 and graphene/Sr TiO3 . Our findings may provide clues to the design of photosensors based on the hybrid structures of graphene and oxide heterostructures.

  9. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory herbal remedy, stimulates cell-mediated immunity and antibody production in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Bałan, Barbara Joanna; Niemcewicz, Marcin; Kocik, Janusz; Jung, Leszek; Skopiński, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Aloe barbadensis Mill) Liliaceae, succulent plant native to northern Africa, is presently cultivated in many regions of the world. Traditionally, its inner part of parenchyma, which contains aloe gel, was used for the treatment of minor wounds, inflammatory skin disorders, thermal and radiation burns and to alleviate chronic osteoarthritis pain. It also possesses some antimicrobial activity. Now, aloe gel is also increasingly consumed as a dietary supplement. Some data suggest its immunomodulatory properties. The aim of the study The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of orally administered aloe gel on some parameters of cellular and humoral immunity viz. mitogen-induced proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and their chemokinetic activity, and anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC) antibody production in Balb/c mice. Results Daily treatment of mice for 14 and 21 days with 50 µl or 150 µl of aloe gel dose resulted in enhanced chemokinetic activity and stronger response of their splenic lymphocytes to mitogen PHA and enhancement of anti-SRBC antibody production. PMID:26155113

  10. The Online System for Lidar Data Handling and Real Time Monitoring of Lidar Operations at ALO-USU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Luis A.; Wickwar, Vincent B.; Gamboa, Jose; Milla, Marco

    2016-06-01

    It is no longer sufficient to use lidar, such as the Rayleigh lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO) at Utah State University (USU), to observe the middle atmosphere and reduce the data to geophysical parameters. Extended operations, with inevitable equipment, data reduction, and analysis improvements, require us to keep careful track of all these changes and how they affect the scientific products. Furthermore, many of the funding agencies and the journals now require us to do, at least, some of this. We have built three interconnected data structures to organize and manage the different hardware and software setups from the Internet as well as to keep track of the products generated by these. These structures were implemented as a database, which is particularly important for groups with a large volume of information like the Rayleigh Group at ALO-USU.

  11. Design and synthesis of aloe-emodin derivatives as potent anti-tyrosinase, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinbing; Wu, Fengyan; Chen, Changhong

    2015-11-15

    Twenty aloe-emodin derivatives were designed, synthesized, and their biological activities were evaluated. Some compounds displayed potent tyrosinase inhibitory activities, especially, compounds with thiosemicarbazide moiety showed more potent inhibitory effects than the other compounds. The structure-activity relationships (SARs) were preliminarily discussed. The inhibition mechanism of selected compounds 1 and 13 were investigated. The results showed compound 1 was reversible inhibitor, however, compound 13 was irreversible. Kinetic analysis indicated that compound 1 was competitive tyrosinase inhibitor. Furthermore, the antibacterial activities and anti-inflammatory activities of some selected compounds were also screened. The results showed that compound 3 exhibited more potent antibacterial activity than the aloe-emodin, compounds 5 and 6 possessed more potent anti-inflammatory activities than the diacerein. PMID:26471089

  12. Effect of Aloe vera gel extract on antioxidant enzymes and azoxymethane-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Anilakumar, K R; Sudarshanakrishna, K R; Chandramohan, G; Ilaiyaraja, N; Khanum, Farhath; Bawa, A S

    2010-08-01

    The present work was undertaken with a view to study the effect of oral feeding of 2% Aloe vera gel extract (AGE) for 30 days on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced oxidative stress in rats. It was observed that AOM administration resulted in a significant increase in malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes, with reduction in hepatic glutathione (GSH), vitamin A and uric acid contents. AOM-induced reduction in hepatic GSH and uric acid was brought back to normal by AGE. There was a significant raise in hepatic catalase, superoxide dismutase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) activities as a result of feeding of the extract. Ingestion of the extract effected reduction in AOM-induced colonic GSH-peroxidase, G-6-PD and glutathione S-transferase and femur bone marrow micronuclei formation. Hence, it is suggested that Aloe vera gel extract possess the ability to reduce AOM- induced oxidative stress and toxicity in liver. PMID:21341543

  13. Study of Sedative-Hypnotic Effects of Aloe vera L. Aqueous Extract through Behavioral Evaluations and EEG Recording in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Nasoohi, Sanaz; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extract of Aloe vera on rats. In order to evaluate the overall hypnotic effects of the Aloe vera extract, open field and loss of righting reflex tests were primarily used. The sedative and hypnotic effects of the extract were then confirmed by detection of remarkable raise in the total sleeping time through analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of animals. Analysis of the EEG recordings showed that there is concomitant change in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and None Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in parallel with the prolonged total sleeping time. Results of the current research show that the extract has sedative-hypnotic effects on both functional and electrical activities of the brain. PMID:27610170

  14. Study of Sedative-Hypnotic Effects of Aloe vera L. Aqueous Extract through Behavioral Evaluations and EEG Recording in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abdollahnejad, Fatemeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud; Nasoohi, Sanaz; Mirnajafi-Zadeh, Javad; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Faizi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the sedative and hypnotic effects of the aqueous extract of Aloe vera on rats. In order to evaluate the overall hypnotic effects of the Aloe vera extract, open field and loss of righting reflex tests were primarily used. The sedative and hypnotic effects of the extract were then confirmed by detection of remarkable raise in the total sleeping time through analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings of animals. Analysis of the EEG recordings showed that there is concomitant change in Rapid Eye Movement (REM) and None Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep in parallel with the prolonged total sleeping time. Results of the current research show that the extract has sedative-hypnotic effects on both functional and electrical activities of the brain. PMID:27610170

  15. Polymeric films loaded with vitamin E and aloe vera for topical application in the treatment of burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gabriela Garrastazu; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaki; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Colombo, Paolo; Sonvico, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Burns are serious traumas related to skin damage, causing extreme pain and possibly death. Natural drugs such as Aloe vera and vitamin E have been demonstrated to be beneficial in formulations for wound healing. The aim of this work is to develop and evaluate polymeric films containing Aloe vera and vitamin E to treat wounds caused by burns. Polymeric films containing different quantities of sodium alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were characterized for their mechanical properties and drug release. The polymeric films, which were produced, were thin, flexible, resistant, and suitable for application on damaged skin, such as in burn wounds. Around 30% of vitamin E acetate was released from the polymeric films within 12 hours. The in vivo experiments with tape stripping indicated an effective accumulation in the stratum corneum when compared to a commercial cream containing the same quantity of vitamin E acetate. Vitamin E acetate was found in higher quantities in the deep layers of the stratum corneum when the film formulation was applied. The results obtained show that the bioadhesive films containing vitamin E acetate and Aloe vera could be an innovative therapeutic system for the treatment of burns. PMID:24524083

  16. Polymeric Films Loaded with Vitamin E and Aloe vera for Topical Application in the Treatment of Burn Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Gabriela Garrastazu; Guterres, Sílvia Stanisçuaki; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Colombo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Burns are serious traumas related to skin damage, causing extreme pain and possibly death. Natural drugs such as Aloe vera and vitamin E have been demonstrated to be beneficial in formulations for wound healing. The aim of this work is to develop and evaluate polymeric films containing Aloe vera and vitamin E to treat wounds caused by burns. Polymeric films containing different quantities of sodium alginate and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were characterized for their mechanical properties and drug release. The polymeric films, which were produced, were thin, flexible, resistant, and suitable for application on damaged skin, such as in burn wounds. Around 30% of vitamin E acetate was released from the polymeric films within 12 hours. The in vivo experiments with tape stripping indicated an effective accumulation in the stratum corneum when compared to a commercial cream containing the same quantity of vitamin E acetate. Vitamin E acetate was found in higher quantities in the deep layers of the stratum corneum when the film formulation was applied. The results obtained show that the bioadhesive films containing vitamin E acetate and Aloe vera could be an innovative therapeutic system for the treatment of burns. PMID:24524083

  17. Integration of ALOS/PALSAR backscatter with a LiDAR-derived canopy height map to quantify forest fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, N.; Dubayah, R.; Simard, M.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.

    2011-12-01

    Habitat loss is the main predictor of species extinctions and must be characterized in high-biodiversity ecosystems where land cover change is pervasive. Forests' ability to support viable animal populations is typically modeled as a function of the presence of linkages or corridors, and quantified with fragmentation metrics. In this scenario, small forest patches and linear (e.g. riparian) zones can act as keystone structures. Fine-resolution, all-weather Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from ALOS/PALSAR is well-suited to resolve forest fragments in tropical sites. This study summarizes a technique for integrating fragmentation metrics from ALOS/PALSAR with vertical structure data from ICESat/GLAS to produce fine-resolution (30 m) forest habitat metrics that capture both local quality (canopy height) as well as spatial context and multi-scale connectivity. We illustrate our approach with backscatter images acquired over the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a biodiversity hotspot. ALOS/PALSAR 1.1 images acquired over the dry season were calibrated to calculate gamma naught and map forest cover via tresholding. We employ network algorithms to locate dispersal bottlenecks between conservation units. The location of keystone structures is compared against a model that uses coarse (500m) percent tree cover as an input.

  18. Chemical constituents of cape aloe and their synergistic growth-inhibiting effect on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Kametani, Saeda; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Kennedy, David Opare; Honzawa, Mayumi; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao

    2007-05-01

    The constituents of cape aloe were investigated after a preliminary screening of the growth-inhibiting effect on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC) of several extracts of this plant. Ten compounds were isolated from the dichloromethane (CH(2)Cl(2)) extract that showed the strongest activity, and their structures were elucidated as aloe-emodin (1), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (2), p-hydroxyacetophenone (3), pyrocatechol (4), 10-oxooctadecanoic acid (5), 10-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid (6), methyl 10-hydroxyoctadecanoate (7), 7-hydroxy-2,5-dimethylchromone (8), furoaloesone (9), and 2-acetonyl-8-(2-furoylmethyl)-7-hydroxy-5-methylchromone (10) based on MS and various NMR spectroscopic techniques. Compounds 2-7 were isolated for the first time from cape aloe. Compounds 4-7 and 10 showed a significant growth-inhibiting effect, and compound 1 exhibited a remarkable synergistic effect on compounds 8-10, which was not observed with the treatment by each compound alone on EATC. These results suggest that the strong growth-inhibiting effect of the CH(2)Cl(2) extract was dependent not on one compound alone, but on the synergistic effect from the combination of compound 1 and the other compounds. PMID:17485848

  19. Effect of Aloe vera, chlorine dioxide, and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingivitis: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Yeturu, Sravan Kumar; Acharya, Shashidhar; Urala, Arun Sreenivas; Pentapati, Kalyana Chakravarthy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of Aloe vera, chlorine dioxide, and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingivitis in orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods A randomized single-center, single-blind, parallel group, controlled trial was conducted among 90 subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. The subjects were randomly divided into one of the three study groups (Aloe vera, chlorhexidine, chlorine dioxide). Plaque and gingivitis were assessed using modified Silness and Loe Plaque Index and Gingival Index at baseline and at follow-up after 15 days. Paired t-test and ANOVA with post hoc Dunnett test were used. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 85 participants completed the study; among them, 40 were male and 45 were female. There was significant reduction in mean plaque and gingival scores in all the 3 groups at follow-up when compared to baseline. A significantly higher reduction (plaque and gingival scores) was found in chlorhexidine when compared with the Aloe vera group. However, no significant difference was seen between chlorhexidine and chlorine dioxide with respect to mean reduction in plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion Chlorine dioxide can be a suitable and economical alternative for chlorhexidine. Further long-term studies are recommended for evaluating their effectiveness. PMID:26937371

  20. An investigation of age and yield of fresh fruit bunches of oil palm based on ALOS PALSAR 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, S.; Takeuchi, W.; Haryati, A.; M, R. Najib A.; Na'aim, M.

    2016-06-01

    The objective on this study is to investigate age and yield of FFB of oil palms based on ALOS PALSAR 2. Study areas in oil palm plantations areas of Jerantut, Pahang Malaysia. Methodology consists collecting of ALOS PALSAR 2 and tabular data on the study area, processing of ALOS PALSAR 2 including of converting digital numbers to normalize radar cross sections (NRCS), topography correction and filtering, making of regions of interest according to areas of age and yield of FFB of oil palms and making of relationship analysis between backscatter value of HH, HV and age and yield of FFB of oil palm. The results have showed relationship between HH, HV and age of oil palm which R2 of 0.63 for HH and 0.42 for HV that indicated increasing of age of oil palm as increasing of HH and HV value. Also relationship between HH, HV and yield of FFB of oil palm which R2 of 0.26 for HH and 0.15 for HV, that indicated increasing of yield of FFB as decreasing of HH and HV value.

  1. Shelf-life and colour change kinetics of Aloe vera gel powder under accelerated storage in three different packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra, C T; Rao, P Srinivasa

    2013-08-01

    Aloe vera gel powder was produced through dehumidified air drying of Aloe vere gel at optimized conditions of temperature, relative humidity and air velocity of 64 °C, 18% and 0.8 m.s(-1), respectively. The powder was packed in three different packaging materials viz., laminated aluminum foil (AF), biaxially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) and polypropylene (PP). The shelf-life of the powder was predicted on the basis of free flowness of product under accelerated storage condition (38 ± 1 °C, 90 ± 1% relative humidity) and was calculated to be 33.87, 42.58 and 51.05 days in BOPP, PP and AF, respectively. The storage stability of powder in terms of colour change was studied. The magnitude of colour change of Aloe vera gel powder during storage suggests that AF was better than BOPP and PP. The colour change of powder during storage followed first order reaction kinetics with a rate constant of 0.0444 per day for AF, 0.075 per day for BOPP and 0.0498 per day for PP. PMID:24425977

  2. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies on magnetic tunnel junctions with AlO and AlN tunnel barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Mun, B. S.; Moon, J. C.; Hong, S. W.; Kang, K. S.; Kim, K.; Kim, T. W.; Ju, H. L.

    2006-04-15

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements of the optimized magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with AlO and AlN barriers have been performed to study the chemical structures of the barrier and the underlying layer. These MTJs with AlO and AlN barriers exhibited increased tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) after annealing at 200 deg. C from 27% to 45% and from 25% to 33%, respectively. Surprisingly, the XPS and XAS measurements confirmed that both the as-grown and the annealed MTJs had metallic Co and Fe at the interface between the barrier and the underlying CoFe layer. After annealing, under-stoichiometric AlO{sub x} and AlN{sub x} phases in MTJs with AlO and AlN barriers partially transformed into stoichiometric Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and AlN phases, respectively. Thus the increase in TMR after annealing for MTJs with clean interface between the barrier and the underlying layer is believed due to the anion redistribution inside the barrier layer, not from back diffusion from pinned magnetic layer to barrier layer.

  3. Antimicrobial capacity of Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice against Streptococcus mutans strains in toothbrushes: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    BERTOLINI, Patrícia Fernanda Roesler; BIONDI FILHO, Oswaldo; POMILIO, Arnaldo; PINHEIRO, Sérgio Luiz; de CARVALHO, Meghi Silva

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated in vitro the efficiency of Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice on reducing the contamination of toothbrush bristles by a standard strain of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175; SM), after toothbrushing. Material and Methods Fifteen sterile toothbrushes were randomly divided into 5 toothbrushing groups: I (negative control): without dentifrice; II: with fluoridated dentifrice; III: with triclosan and gantrez dentifrice; IV (positive control): without dentifrice and irrigation with 10 mL of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate; V: with Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice. In each group, 1 sterile bovine tooth was brushed for 1 min, where the toothbrush bristles were contaminated with 25 µL of SM. After toothbrushing, the bristles were stored in individual test tubes with 3 mL of BHI under anaerobiosis of 37ºC for 48 h. Then, they were seeded with sterile swab in triplicate in the Mitis salivarius - Bacitracin culture medium. The samples were kept under anaerobiosis of 37ºC for 48 h. Scores were used to count the number of colony forming units (cfu). The results were submitted to the Mann-Whitney statistical test at 5% significance level. Results There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05) for the reduction of bristle contamination comparing groups II, III, IV and V to group I. Conclusions It may be stated that after toothbrushing, the Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice reduced the contamination of toothbrush bristles by SM, without differentiation from the other chemical agents used. PMID:22437675

  4. Comparison of ALOS-PALSAR and TERRASAR-X Data in Terms of Detecting Settlements- First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esch, T.; Roth, A.; Thiel, M.; Schmidt, M.; Dech, S.

    2008-11-01

    The rapid increase of urban population in the last decades has been attended by a constantly accelerating urban sprawl. In order to cope with the dynamics of urban agglomerations resource managers, environmentalists and politicians require up-to-date information on the characteristics and changes of urban environments. Spaceborne earth observation (EO) has become a promising tool to provide such geo-information. In previous studies we could demonstrate the applicability of TerraSAR-X (TSX) data for an accurate detection of built-up areas. The according methodology includes a specific pre-processing and an object-oriented classification of the SAR images. The pre-processing - comprising an enhanced analysis and suppression of SAR speckle - provides an intensity image with minimized speckle and a texture layer accentuating urban areas. Based on the filtered intensity data and the textural information the classification process starts with the generation of segments. The resulting image objects are used for the extraction of temporally and spatially robust hierarchical and contextual features that afford an accurate delineation of urban footprints. This paper presents first results of a transfer of this methodology to ALOS-PALSAR images. We could show that the basic procedure is applicable to ALOS L-band images. However, so far the accuracy of an according analysis based on ALOS data is lower compared to the use of X-band images. Hence, further modifications are required in order to improve the presented methodology for L-band data.

  5. Making SAR Data Accessible - ASF's ALOS PALSAR Radiometric Terrain Correction Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, F. J.; Arko, S. A.; Gens, R.

    2015-12-01

    While SAR data have proven valuable for a wide range of geophysical research questions, so far, largely only the SAR-educated science communities have been able to fully exploit the information content of internationally available SAR archives. The main issues that have been preventing a more widespread utilization of SAR are related to (1) the diversity and complexity of SAR data formats, (2) the complexity of the processing flows needed to extract geophysical information from SAR, (3) the lack of standardization and automation of these processing flows, and (4) the often ignored geocoding procedures, leaving the data in image coordinate space. In order to improve upon this situation, ASF's radiometric terrain-correction (RTC) project is generating uniformly formatted and easily accessible value-added products from the ASF Distributed Active Archive Center's (DAAC) five-year archive of JAXA's ALOS PALSAR sensor. Specifically, the project applies geometric and radiometric corrections to SAR data to allow for an easy and direct combination of obliquely acquired SAR data with remote sensing imagery acquired in nadir observation geometries. Finally, the value-added data is provided to the user in the broadly accepted Geotiff format, in order to support the easy integration of SAR data into GIS environments. The goal of ASF's RTC project is to make SAR data more accessible and more attractive to the broader SAR applications community, especially to those users that currently have limited SAR expertise. Production of RTC products commenced October 2014 and will conclude late in 2015. As of July 2015, processing of 71% of ASF's ALOS PALSAR archive was completed. Adding to the utility of this dataset are recent changes to the data access policy that allow the full-resolution RTC products to be provided to the public, without restriction. In this paper we will introduce the processing flow that was developed for the RTC project and summarize the calibration and validation

  6. Measuring Mangrove Type, Structure And Carbon Storage With UAVSAR And ALOS/PALSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Cornforth, W.; Pinto, N.; Simard, M.; Pettorelli, N.

    2011-12-01

    Mangrove forests provide a great number of ecosystem services ranging from shoreline protection (e.g. against erosion, tsunamis and storms), nutrient cycling, fisheries production, building materials and habitat. Mangrove forests have been shown to store very large amounts of Carbon, both above and belowground, with storage capacities even greater than tropical rainforests. But as a result of their location and economic value, they are among the most rapidly changing landscapes in the World. Mangrove extent is limited 1) in total extent to tidally influenced coastal areas and 2) to tropical and subtropical regions. This can lead to difficulties mapping mangrove type (such as degraded vs non degraded, scrub vs tall, dense vs sparse) because of cloud cover and limited access to high-resolution optical data. To accurately quantify the effect of land use and climate change on tropical wetland ecosystems, we must develop effective mapping methodologies that take into account not only extent, but also the structure and health of the ecosystem. This must be done by including Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. In this research, we used L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar data from the ALOS/PALSAR and UAVSAR instruments over selected sites in the Americas (Sierpe, Costa Rica and Everglades, Florida)and Asia (Sundarbans). In particular, we used the SAR data in combination with other remotely sensed data and field data to 1) map mangrove extent 2) determine mangrove type, health and adjascent land use, and 3) estimate aboveground biomass and carbon storage for entire mangrove systems. We used different classification methodologies such as polarimetric decomposition, unsupervised classification and image segmentation to map mangrove type. Because of the high resolution of the radar data, and its ability to interact with forest volume, we are able to identify mangrove zones and differentiate between mangroves and other forests/land uses. We also integrated InSAR data (SRTM

  7. Antifibrotic effect of aloe vera in viral infection-induced hepatic periportal fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Hegazy, Sahar K; El-Bedewy, Mohamed; Yagi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-oxidative and anti-fibrotic effects of aloe vera in patients with liver fibrosis. METHODS: Aloe vera high molecular weight fractions (AHM) were processed by patented hyper-dry system in combination of freeze-dry technique with microwave and far infrared-ray radiation. Fifteen healthy volunteers as the control group and 40 patients were included. The patients were randomly subdivided into two equal groups: the conventional group was treated with placebo (starch), and AHM group was treated with 0.15 gm/d AHM, both for 12 consecutive weeks. The patients were investigated before and after treatment. Serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), hyaluronic acid (HA), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and matrixmetalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were determined. The reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver were assayed and the expression of hepatic α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was identified by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: At the start of the study, the hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed fibro-proliferated bile ductules, thick fibrous septa and dense inflammatory cellular infiltration in the patients before treatment. The use of AHM for 12 wk significantly ameliorated the fibrosis, inhibited the inflammation, and resulted in minimal infiltration and minimal fibrosis compared to the conventional group. The enzyme activities of the liver (ALT, AST and ALP) were attenuated after treatment in both groups, and the decrease in the AHM group was more significant as compared with the conventional group. Similar to the AST, the MDA levels were significantly higher before treatment, and were attenuated after treatment in both groups. In contrast, the hepatic glutathione content in the patients were decreased significantly in the AHM group compared to the controls. The serum levels of the fibrosis markers (HA, TGF-β and MMP-2) were also reduced

  8. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of Aloe vera L. in non-insulin dependent diabetics.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Monika; Kochhar, Anita; Sangha, Jaswinder

    2014-01-01

    Ninety non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects were selected from Punjab Agricultural University and Civil hospitals of Ludhiana. The selected subjects were divided into three groups viz. Group I, II and III having thirty subjects each. The subjects of group I were not given any treatment. The subjects of group II and III were supplemented with 100 mg and 200 mg of Aloe vera L. gel powder respectively for a period of 3 months and supplementation was continued along with nutrition counselling for the next 3 months. The nutrition education was given for 3 months after 15 days interval to the subjects of group II and III through individual and group contact. The blood glucose and lipid profile were analyzed. The blood pressure of the subjects was also measured. It was seen that there was a significant (p ≤ 0.01) reduction in fasting blood glucose level by 11.4% and 15.4% and post prandial glucose level 18.5% and 27.8% in the subjects of group II and III respectively after the study. Significant (p ≤ 0.01) reduction in total cholesterol 8.6% and 10.1%, triglycerides 9.6% and 12.2%, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) 12.8% and 14.6%, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) 9.6% and 12.2% and an increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) 7.3% and 9.4% was observed in the subjects of group II and III respectively. The ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C reduced from 5.6 to 4.8 and 6.1 to 5.0 and LDL-C to HDL-C from 3.7 to 3.0 and 4.1 to 3.1 in the subjects of group II and III respectively after the study. There was also a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.01) in the blood pressure of the subjects of group II and III and a non significant decrease (p ≤ 0.01) was seen in the subjects of group I. With the intervention of Aloe vera L., significant reduction was observed in blood glucose, lipid profile and blood pressure of the diabetic patients. PMID:24426052

  9. Detecting and Mapping Invasive Phragmites australis in the coastal Great Lakes with ALOS PALSAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeau-chavez, L. L.; Scarbrough, K.; Jenkins, L. K.; Riordan, K.; Powell, R. B.; Brooks, C.; Kowalski, K.; Carlson Mazur, M.; Huberty, B.

    2011-12-01

    Phragmites australis is a non-native invasive plant that can form dense monocultures, causing negative impacts on coastal Great Lakes wetlands by reducing ecosystem services including habitat and therefore, biological diversity. Through Great Lakes Restoration Initiative funding, ALOS PALSAR imagery is being used to map the invasive plant as it occurs in monoculture stands of the U.S. coastal Great Lakes wetlands. These invasive Phragmites maps are being used as part of a USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) and US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) program to identify major environmental drivers of invasive Phragmites distribution, to assess areas vulnerable to new invasion, and to provide this information to regional stakeholders through a decision support tool. The invasive Phragmites map is the first U.S. basin-wide map to be produced on the distribution of this species. Methods include maximum likelihood classification of multi-season ALOS PALSAR HH and HV polarization data. PALSAR is an L-band (23 cm wavelength) imaging radar sensor which is sensitive to differences in plant biomass and inundation patterns, allowing for the extraction of these tall (up to 15 m), high-density, high-biomass Phragmites wetland stands. To improve discrimination of Phragmites australis, the three date (spring, summer, fall) dataset is being used, which takes advantage of phenological changes in vegetation and inundation patterns over the seasons. Field collections of training and randomly selected validation data were conducted in spring summer and fall of 2010-11 to aid in the mapping and for accuracy assessment. The minimum mapping unit is 1/2 acre and thus all field sites were sampled at 1/2 acre units. All map products and field validation data will be complete by December 2011. Maps are being completed on a Lake basin basis. The first final map product was delivered for Lake Erie coastal wetlands to 10 km inland, with an overall map accuracy

  10. ALOS DEM quality assessment in a rugged topography, A Lebanese watershed as a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Chadi; El Hage, Mohamad; Termos, Samah; Abboud, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    Deriving the morphometric descriptors of the Earth's surface from satellite images is a continuing application in remote sensing, which has been distinctly pushed with the increasing availability of DEMs at different scales, specifically those derived from high to very high-resolution stereoscopic and triscopic image data. The extraction of the morphometric descriptors is affected by the errors of the DEM. This study presents a procedure for assessing the quality of ALOS DEM in terms of position and morphometric indices. It involves evaluating the impact of the production parameters on the altimetric accuracy through checking height differences between Ground Control Points (GCP) and the corresponding DEM points, on the planimetric accuracy by comparing extracted drainage lines with topographic maps, and on the morphometric indices by comparing profiles extracted from the DEM with those measured on the field. A twenty set of triplet-stereo imagery from the PRISM instrument on the ALOS satellite has been processed to acquire a 5 m DEM covering the whole Lebanese territories. The Lebanese topography is characterized by its ruggedness with two parallel mountainous chains embedding a depression (The Bekaa Valley). The DEM was extracted via PCI Geomatica 2013. Each of the images required 15 GCPs and around 50 tie points. Field measurements was carried out using differential GPS (Trimble GeoXH6000, ProXRT receiver and the LaserACE 1000 Rangefinder) on Al Awali watershed (482 km2, about 5% of the Lebanese terrain). 3545 GPS points were collected at all ranges of elevation specifying the Lebanese terrain diversity, ranging from cliffy, to steep and gently undulating terrain along with narrow and wide flood plains and including predetermined profiles. Moreover, definite points such as road intersections and river beds were also measured in order to assess the extracted streams from the DEM. ArcGIS 10.1 was also utilized to extract the drainage network. Preliminary results

  11. Blood glucose lowering activity of aloe based composition, UP780, in alloxan induced insulin dependent mouse diabetes model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are a few nutritional approaches to address the increased needs of managing diabetic conditions. Previously it has been reported that UP780, a standardized composition of aloe chromone formulated with an aloe polysaccharide, has a significant impact in reducing HbA1C, fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and plasma insulin level in humans and improved impaired glucose and insulin resistance in high-fat diet-induced and db/db non-insulin dependent diabetic mouse models. Here we describe activity of UP780 and its constituents to improve insulin sensitivity in alloxan induced insulin dependent diabetic mouse model. Materials and method Insulin dependent diabetes was induced by administering a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate at a dose of 150 mg/kg to CD-1 mice. Aloesin (UP394) was formulated with an Aloe vera inner leaf gel powder polysaccharide (Qmatrix) to yield a composition designated UP780. Efficacy of oral administration of UP780 at 2000 mg/kg and its constituents (aloesin at 80 mg/kg and Qmatrix at 1920 mg/kg) were evaluated in this model. Glyburide, a sulfonylurea drug used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, was used at 5 mg/kg as a positive control. Effect of UP780 on non-diabetic normal mice was also addressed. Results Mice administered intraperitoneal alloxan monohydrate developed progressive type-1 diabetes like symptom. After 4 weeks of daily oral administration, reductions of 35.9%, 17.2% and 11.6% in fasting blood glucose levels were observed for UP780, the UP780 Aloe vera inner leaf gel polysaccharide preparation without chromone (Qmatrix), and Aloesin (UP394), treated animals respectively, compared to vehicle treated animals. UP780 has no impact on blood glucose level of non-diabetic healthy mice. UP780 showed statistically significant improvement for blood glucose clearance in oral glucose tolerance tests. Similarly, enhanced improvement in plasma insulin level and statistically significant reduction in

  12. Evaluation of the Antioxidative, Antibacterial, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Aloe Fermentation Supernatant Containing Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Meixiu; Deng, Kan; Jiang, Chunling; Fu, Mingui; Guo, Chunlan; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Xin; Meng, Fanjing; Yang, Shaoguo; Deng, Keyu; Chen, Tingtao; Xin, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Little work is done to develop Aloe vera (AV) using probiotics. To explore the potential benefits, the antioxidant effects and the antibacterial effects on foodborne pathogens of Aloe fermentation supernatant were evaluated in vitro. Our results indicated that the Aloe fermentation supernatant fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1 had very strong scavenging capacities of the DPPH (86%), O2 (•-) (85%), (•)OH (76%), and Fe(2+) chelation (82%) and reducing powers (242.5 mg/L), and the inhibition zones for Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, S. dysenteriae 301, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan1, and Propionibacterium acnes were 16, 15, 19, 20, 21, 20, and 27 mm. Moreover, the low concentration of Aloe fermentation supernatant had significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in both mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.01). Therefore, the Aloe fermentation supernatant can be used as functional beverage or cosmetic ingredients to guard human intestinal health, delaying senescence, and prevent chronic diseases. PMID:27493450

  13. Enhanced induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the mitochondrial membrane potential disruption in human U87 malignant glioma cells by aloe emodin.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Samhani; Haris, Khalilah; Abdul Ghani, Abdul Rahman Izaini; Abdullah, Jafri Malin; Johan, Muhammad Farid; Mohamed Yusoff, Abdul Aziz

    2013-09-01

    Aloe emodin, one of the active compounds found in Aloe vera leaves, plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth and death. It has been reported to promote the anti-cancer effects in various cancer cells by inducing apoptosis. However, the mechanism of inducing apoptosis by this agent is poorly understood in glioma cells. This research is to investigate the apoptosis and cell cycle arrest inducing by aloe emodin on U87 human malignant glioma cells. Aloe emodin showed a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of U87 cells proliferation and decreased the percentage of viable U87 cells via the induction of apoptosis. Characteristic morphological changes, such as the formation of apoptotic bodies, were observed with confocal microscope by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, supporting our viability study and flow cytometry analysis results. Our data also demonstrated that aloe emodin arrested the cell cycle in the S phase and promoted the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in U87 cells that indicated the early event of the mitochondria-induced apoptotic pathway. PMID:23869465

  14. A comparative study of the effects of topical application of Aloe vera, thyroid hormone and silver sulfadiazine on skin wounds in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Norouzian, Mohsen; Zarein-Dolab, Saeed; Dadpay, Masoomeh; Gazor, Roohollah

    2012-01-01

    Many research studies report the healing effects of Aloe Vera, thyroid hormone cream and silver sulfadiazine. However, the effects of these therapeutic agents are not well understood and have not been compared in one study. This study aimed at investigating the effects of topical application of an Aloe vera gel, a thyroid hormone cream and a silver sulfadiazine cream on the healing of skin wounds surgically induced in Wistar rats for determining the treatment of choice. In a randomized controlled trial, twelve male rats, aged 120 days and with a mean weight of 250 to 300 g, were divided randomly into 5 groups based on drug treatments: Aloe vera gel (AV), thyroid hormone cream (TC), silver sulfadiazine 1% (S), vehicle (V) and control. To evaluate the efficacy of each treatment technique, a biomechanical approach was used to assess tensile stress after 14 days of treatment. Tensile stress was significantly improved in the Aloe vera gel group as compared with the other four groups (P≤0.05). While the other treatment options resulted in better healing than the control group, this difference was not significant. We conclude that Aloe vera topical application accelerated the healing process more than thyroid hormone, silver sulfadiazine and vehicle in surgically induced incisions in rats. PMID:22474470

  15. EVALUATION OF FREEZE DRIED ALOE VERA AND NOPAL CACTUS FOR POSSIBLE HEALTH TREATMENTS BY COMPARISON OF ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES AND FREE RADICAL INHIBITION

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anthony E.; Belmont, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project was to characterize the antioxidant powers of lyophilized Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) and Nopal Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) by quantifying the phenolics content and radical scavenging abilities of preparations derived from these plants. Extracts of these lyophylized succulents were assayed for phenolic compounds by the Folin Ciocalteau method and compared for free radical scavenging capability by the DPPH method. We found that even though the Aloe lyophilizate extract contained more phenolic content, the Nopal lyophilizate exhibited better free radical scavenging ability. Aloe Vera extract contained 0.278 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 11.1% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.177±0.015 min−1. Nopal Cactus extract contained 0.174 g/L of phenolic content and exhibited 13.2% free radical inhibition, with a free radical scavenging rate constant of 0.155±0.009 min−1. These results showed Nopal to have greater antioxidant potency than Aloe. PMID:27284273

  16. Evaluation of the Antioxidative, Antibacterial, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Aloe Fermentation Supernatant Containing Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Kan; Jiang, Chunling; Fu, Mingui; Guo, Chunlan; Wang, Xiaolei; Wang, Xin; Meng, Fanjing; Yang, Shaoguo; Deng, Keyu

    2016-01-01

    Little work is done to develop Aloe vera (AV) using probiotics. To explore the potential benefits, the antioxidant effects and the antibacterial effects on foodborne pathogens of Aloe fermentation supernatant were evaluated in vitro. Our results indicated that the Aloe fermentation supernatant fermented by Lactobacillus plantarum HM218749.1 had very strong scavenging capacities of the DPPH (86%), O2•− (85%), •OH (76%), and Fe2+ chelation (82%) and reducing powers (242.5 mg/L), and the inhibition zones for Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, S. dysenteriae 301, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan1, and Propionibacterium acnes were 16, 15, 19, 20, 21, 20, and 27 mm. Moreover, the low concentration of Aloe fermentation supernatant had significantly reduced the production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 in both mRNA and protein levels (P < 0.01). Therefore, the Aloe fermentation supernatant can be used as functional beverage or cosmetic ingredients to guard human intestinal health, delaying senescence, and prevent chronic diseases. PMID:27493450

  17. Oral administration of Aloe vera and honey reduces Walker tumour growth by decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis in tumour tissue.

    PubMed

    Tomasin, Rebeka; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2011-04-01

    Cancer is diagnosed in approximately 11 million people and is responsible for almost 8 million deaths worldwide every year. Research in cancer control has shown the importance of co-adjuvant therapies. Aloe vera may reduce tumour mass and metastasis rates, while honey may inhibit tumour growth. This study verified the influence of Aloe vera and honey on tumour growth and in the apoptosis process by assessing tumour size, the cell proliferation rate (Ki67-LI) and Bax/Bcl-2 expression at 7, 14 and 20 days after Walker 256 carcinoma implant in Wistar rats distributed into two groups: the WA group - tumour-bearing rats that received a gavage with a 670 µL/kg dose of Aloe vera and honey solution daily, and the CW group - tumour-bearing rats which received only a 0.9% NaCl solution. The effect of Aloe vera and honey against tumour growth was observed through a decrease in relative weight (%) and Ki67-LI in tumours from the WA group compared with those from the CW group. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased in tumours from the WA group at all tested timepoints. These data suggest Aloe vera and honey can modulate tumour growth by reducing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis susceptibility. PMID:20839215

  18. Metagenomics study of endophytic bacteria in Aloe vera using next-generation technology.

    PubMed

    Akinsanya, Mushafau Adewale; Goh, Joo Kheng; Lim, Siew Ping; Ting, Adeline Su Yien

    2015-12-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) enables rapid analysis of the composition and diversity of microbial communities in several habitats. We applied the high throughput techniques of NGS to the metagenomics study of endophytic bacteria in Aloe vera plant, by assessing its PCR amplicon of 16S rDNA sequences (V3-V4 regions) with the Illumina metagenomics technique used to generate a total of 5,199,102 reads from the samples. The analyses revealed Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteriodetes as the predominant genera. The roots have the largest composition with 23% not present in other tissues. The stems have more of the genus-Pseudomonas and the unclassified Pseudomonadaceae. The α-diversity analysis indicated the richness and inverse Simpson diversity index of the bacterial endophyte communities for the leaf, root and stem tissues to be 2.221, 6.603 and 1.491 respectively. In a similar study on culturable endophytic bacteria in the same A. vera plants (unpublished work), the dominance of Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera was similar, with equal proportion of four species each in root, stem and leaf tissues. It is evident that NGS technology captured effectively the metagenomics of microbiota in plant tissues and this can improve our understanding of the microbial-plant host interactions. PMID:26697361

  19. Use of Aloe vera-based extender for chilling and freezing collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) semen.

    PubMed

    Souza, A L P; Lima, G L; Peixoto, G C X; Silva, A M; Oliveira, M F; Silva, A R

    2016-05-01

    As an alternative for the conservation of collared peccary semen, this research aims at evaluating the use of Aloe vera (AV) extract as a cryoprotectant for semen chilling and freezing. Five ejaculates were divided in two aliquots that were diluted in Tris plus egg yolk (EY; 20%) or AV extract (20%) and chilled at 5 °C. In both treatments, an adequate semen conservation was achieved and values closer to 40% motile sperm with viability and osmotic response ranging from 20% to 40%, and normal morphology of 80% were found after 36 hours of storage. Moreover, 12 other ejaculates were diluted in Tris plus EY (20%) or AV extract (5, 10, or 20%) and glycerol (3%). Samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen and thawed after 1 week. After thawing, all the treatments containing EY or AV provided similar values for sperm morphology, viability, osmotic response, membrane integrity, sperm motility, amplitude of lateral head, beat cross frequency, and rapid, low, and static subpopulations, but the highest values for straightness and the lowest values for curvilinear velocity were found using 20% AV (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we found that AV extract at a 20% concentration could be used as an alternative substitute to EY in the formulation of Tris extenders for collared peccaries' semen chilling or freezing. PMID:26830302

  20. In vitro activity of Aloe vera inner gel against microorganisms grown in planktonic and sessile phases.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, V; Di Bartolomeo, S; Di Campli, E; Nostro, A; Cellini, L; Di Giulio, M

    2015-12-01

    The failure of traditional antimicrobial treatments is becoming a worldwide problem. The use of Aloe vera is of particular interest for its role as curative agent and its efficacy in complementary therapies for a variety of illnesses. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of A. vera inner gel against a panel of microorganisms, Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, and Candida albicans. In addition to A. vera inner gel being used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, in dermatological treatments, and wound healing, it was also tested on the sessile phase of clinical Helicobacter pylori strains (including multi-drug-resistant strains) and on planktonic and sessile phase of Staphylococcus aureus/Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates from venous leg ulcers.A. vera inner gel expresses its prevalent activity against Gram-negative bacteria and C. albicans in respect to Gram-positive bacteria. The results of the A. vera antibiofilm activity showed a decrease of the produced biomass in a concentration-dependent-way, in each analyzed microorganism. The data obtained show that A. vera inner gel has both an antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity suggesting its potential use for the treatment of microbial infections, in particular for H. pylori gastric infection, especially in case of multi-drug-resistance, as well as for an effective wound dressing. PMID:26526205

  1. Crude Aloe vera Gel Shows Antioxidant Propensities and Inhibits Pancreatic Lipase and Glucose Movement In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Taukoorah, Urmeela; Mahomoodally, M Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera gel (AVG) is traditionally used in the management of diabetes, obesity, and infectious diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory potential of AVG against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten (K m ) and Lineweaver-Burk equations were used to establish the type of inhibition. The antioxidant capacity of AVG was evaluated for its ferric reducing power, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate scavenging ability, nitric oxide scavenging power, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. The glucose entrapment ability, antimicrobial activity, and total phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, and anthocyanin content were also determined. AVG showed a significantly higher percentage inhibition (85.56 ± 0.91) of pancreatic lipase compared to Orlistat. AVG was found to increase the Michaelis-Menten constant and decreased the maximal velocity (V max) of lipase, indicating mixed inhibition. AVG considerably inhibits glucose movement across dialysis tubes and was comparable to Arabic gum. AVG was ineffective against the tested microorganisms. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 66.06 ± 1.14 (GAE)/mg and 60.95 ± 0.97 (RE)/mg, respectively. AVG also showed interesting antioxidant properties. The biological activity observed in this study tends to validate some of the traditional claims of AVG as a functional food. PMID:26880905

  2. Cell-type dependent response of melanoma cells to aloe emodin.

    PubMed

    Radovic, J; Maksimovic-Ivanic, D; Timotijevic, G; Popadic, S; Ramic, Z; Trajkovic, V; Miljkovic, D; Stosic-Grujicic, S; Mijatovic, S

    2012-09-01

    Intrinsic characteristics of melanoma cells such as expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), redox status, and activity of signaling pathways involved in proliferation, differentiation and cell death define the response of the cells to the diverse treatments. In this context we compared the effectiveness of herbal antaquinone aloe emodin (AE) against mouse B16 melanoma and human A375, different in initial activity of ERK1/2, constitutive iNOS expression and basal level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both cell lines are sensitive to AE treatment. However, while the agent induces differentiation of B16 cells toward melanocytes, in A375 cells promoted massive apoptosis. Differentiation of B16 cells, characterized by enhanced melanin production and tyrosinase activity, was mediated by H(2)O(2) production synchronized with rapid p53 accumulation and enhanced expression of cyclins D1 and D3. Caspase mediated apoptosis triggered in A375 cells was accompanied with Bcl-2 but not iNOS down-regulation. In addition, opposite regulation of Akt-ERK1/2 axis in AE treated B16 and A375 cells correlated with different outcome of the treatment. However, AE in a dose-dependent manner rescued both B16 and A375 cells from doxorubicin- or paclitaxel-induced killing. These data indicate that caution is warranted when AE is administrated to the patients with conventional chemotherapy. PMID:22683487

  3. Aloe vera affects changes induced in pulmonary tissue of mice caused by cigarette smoke inhalation.

    PubMed

    Koul, Ashwani; Bala, Shashi; Yasmeen; Arora, Neha

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the influence of Aloe vera (AV) on changes induced in pulmonary tissue of cigarette smoke (CS) inhaling mice. CS inhalation for 4 weeks caused pulmonary damage as evident by histoarchitectural alterations and enhanced serum and tissue lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities. CS inhalation also led to increased mucin production as revealed by mucicarmine and Alcian Blue-Periodic Acid Schiff (AB-PAS) staining. Studies on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (balf) of CS exposed animals revealed structural changes in phospholipids and increase in surface tension when compared with control counterparts. These changes were accompanied by enhanced nitric oxide (NO) levels, citrulline levels, peroxidative damage, and differential modulation of antioxidant defense system. AV administration (seven weeks, 500 mg/kg b.w. daily) to CS inhaling mice led to modulation of CS induced pulmonary changes as revealed by lesser degree of histoarchitectural alterations, lesser mucin production, decreased NO levels, citrulline levels, peroxidative damage, and serum LDH activity. AV treatment to CS inhaling mice was associated with varying response to antioxidant defense system, however balf of CS + AV treated animals did not exhibit appreciable changes when compared with that of CS exposed animals. These observations suggest that AV has the potential to modulate CS induced changes in the pulmonary tissue which could have implications in management of CS associated pulmonary diseases, however, further investigations are required to explore its complete mechanism of action. PMID:24615921

  4. Forest mapping with multi-temporal dual polarization ALOS PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Feilong; Li, Zengyuan; Chen, Erxue; Wang, Qinmin

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study is to exploit the new features of ALOS PALSAR dual polarization mode data and to develop novel classification method for forest mapping in heterogeneous areas. A test site was selected in Fujian province in southeast of China. Traditionally, forest is detected by its low coherence, low temporal variability of the backscattering intensity and mediate backscattering intensity. However, the analyses in this paper indicate that it is not possible to discriminate forest from nonforest by any single PALSAR feature in this test site. After examination the dependences of the multitemporal backscatter intensity, the polarimetric parameters and the interferometric coherence on different land cover types, a hierarchical classification method is proposed for coastal forest and hilly forest mapping. The forest maps are validated by forest inventory data and SPOPT-5 images. The results show that multitemporal PALSAR dual polarization data can accurate maps for coastal forest in flat areas using the proposed method. The capability to map forest in hilly regions is still limited.

  5. Toxicological investigations of Aloe ferox Mill. extracts using Brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) assay.

    PubMed

    Abosede, Wintola Olubunmi; Sunday, Arowosegbe; Jide, Afolayan Anthony

    2015-03-01

    Cytotoxicity of the extracts of Aloe ferox using brine shrimp was evaluated. Effects of the extracts on hatchability and lethality of brine shrimps were reported in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration and LD(50) respectively. The hatching success was in the order: aqueous root extract (39.8%) >aqueous leaf (26.5%) >acetone leaf (13.7%) > ethanol leaf extracts (2.5%). Hatchability in incubations of ethanol and acetone extracts was found to be dose - dependent, with hatching success decreasing as the concentration of the extracts increased. The lethality of extracts was in the order: aqueous leaf extract (4.7%) >aqueous root extract (4.2%) >acetone leaf extract (3.5%) >ethanol root extract (2.6%) > ethanol leaf extract (1.8%) >acetone root extract (0.7%). Mean mortality of nauplii in the control was higher (6.7%) than that of all the extracts. Based on Meyer's index of toxicity, the acetone leaf extract with LD(50) >1.0mg/mL could be considered as non toxic, while the ethanol root extract (LD(50) <1.0mg/mL was significantly toxic to the brine shrimp. Since the extracts of A. ferox have consistently exhibited significant pharmaceutical properties in-vitro, the non-toxic extracts could further be exploited for the development of plant-based pharmaceuticals. PMID:25730795

  6. Diversity, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of culturable bacterial endophyte communities in Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Akinsanya, Mushafau Adewale; Goh, Joo Kheng; Lim, Siew Ping; Ting, Adeline Su Yien

    2015-12-01

    Twenty-nine culturable bacterial endophytes were isolated from surface-sterilized tissues (root, stem and leaf) of Aloe vera and molecularly characterized to 13 genera: Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Pantoea, Chryseobacterium, Sphingobacterium, Aeromonas, Providencia, Cedecea, Klebsiella, Cronobacter, Macrococcus and Shigella. The dominant genera include Bacillus (20.7%), Pseudomonas (20.7%) and Enterobacter (13.8%). The crude and ethyl acetate fractions of the metabolites of six isolates, species of Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Chryseobacterium and Shigella, have broad spectral antimicrobial activities against pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella Typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes and Candida albicans, with inhibition zones ranging from 6.0 ± 0.57 to 16.6 ± 0.57 mm. In addition, 80% of the bacterial endophytes produced 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) with scavenging properties of over 75% when their crude metabolites were compared with ascorbic acid (92%). In conclusion, this study revealed for the first time the endophytic bacteria communities from A. vera (Pseudomonas hibiscicola, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Enterobacter ludwigii, Bacillus anthracis) that produce bioactive compounds with high DPPH scavenging properties (75-88%) and (Bacillus tequilensis, Pseudomonas entomophila, Chryseobacterium indologenes, Bacillus aerophilus) that produce bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activities against bacterial pathogens. Hence, we suggest further investigation and characterization of their bioactive compounds. PMID:26454221

  7. Validation of "AW3D" Global Dsm Generated from Alos Prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaku, Junichi; Tadono, Takeo; Tsutsui, Ken; Ichikawa, Mayumi

    2016-06-01

    Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM), one of onboard sensors carried by Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), was designed to generate worldwide topographic data with its optical stereoscopic observation. It has an exclusive ability to perform a triplet stereo observation which views forward, nadir, and backward along the satellite track in 2.5 m ground resolution, and collected its derived images all over the world during the mission life of the satellite from 2006 through 2011. A new project, which generates global elevation datasets with the image archives, was started in 2014. The data is processed in unprecedented 5 m grid spacing utilizing the original triplet stereo images in 2.5 m resolution. As the number of processed data is growing steadily so that the global land areas are almost covered, a trend of global data qualities became apparent. This paper reports on up-to-date results of the validations for the accuracy of data products as well as the status of data coverage in global areas. The accuracies and error characteristics of datasets are analyzed by the comparison with existing global datasets such as Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) data, as well as ground control points (GCPs) and the reference Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived from the airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR).

  8. Toxicological evaluation of aqueous extract of Aloe ferox Mill. in loperamide-induced constipated rats.

    PubMed

    Wintola, O A; Sunmonu, T O; Afolayan, A J

    2011-05-01

    Aloe ferox Mill. is a widely used medicinal plant in South Africa for the treatment of many ailments including constipation. The present study evaluated the toxicological effect of aqueous leaf extract of the herb at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 7 days on the haematological parameters as well as liver and kidney function indices in loperamide-induced constipated rats. The extract did not cause any significant (p > 0.05) effect on the kidney and liver-body weight ratio as well as the kidney function indices including serum levels of creatinine, uric acid, urea, calcium and potassium ions at all the dosages investigated. Whereas the serum levels of total protein, albumin, bilirubin and gamma glutamyl trasferase (GGT) were not affected, the elevated activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in the untreated constipated animals were normalized following treatment with extract. The data obtained with respect to the haematological analysis indicated that the extracts had no significant (p > 0.05) effect on the haematological parameters with the exception of lymphocyte count which was increased in the untreated constipated rats. This was however attenuated after administering the herb. The available evidence in this study suggests that A. ferox may be safe as an oral remedy for constipation. Generally, the effect of the extract compared favourably well with senokot, a recommended drug for the treatment of constipation. PMID:20498033

  9. Liposomal Aloe vera trans-emulgel drug delivery of naproxen and nimesulide: A study

    PubMed Central

    Venkataharsha, Panuganti; Maheshwara, Ellutla; Raju, Y Prasanna; Reddy, Vayalpati Ashok; Rayadu, Bandugalla Sanjeev; Karisetty, Basappa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The present aim of this study was to formulate naproxen and nimesulide liposomal formulation for incorporation in Aloe vera transemulgel and to carry out in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the formulation. Material and Methods: A. vera gel was prepared and used as a gel base for formulation. Carbopol 934 is used as a gelling agent and Methyl paraben was used as a preservative for the formulation of the gel. Liposomes was formulated by using hydration method. The formulated naproxen and nimesulide liposomal formulation using A. vera trans-emul gel were evaluated for in vitro studies such as drug release, permeation study, and drug content and entrapment efficiency. Paw edema method in Wistar rats induced by carrageenan is used to study in vivo anti-inflammatory action. Result: From the in vitro studies such permeability drug release naproxen 65% (69.6), Nimesulide 65% (61.1), and commercial Nimsulide gel (60.82) at 240 min. In vivo data shows that formulated liposomal transemulgel formulation are superior in their efficacy compared to commercial and A. vera gel. The results are compared with the commercial formulations. Conclusion: From our results, it is concluded that the A. vera trans emul gel using nimesulide and naproxen liposomal formulation is stable and prepared gel base is effective for formulation with high drug release and drug content compared with commercial formulation with significant anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:25599030

  10. Mapping forests in Monsoon Asia with ALOS PALSAR and MODIS imagery in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of forests are important to climate change, carbon cycle, and biodiversity. An accurate forest map is required in monsoon Asia where extensive forest changes occurred. An algorithm was developed to map the distribution of forests in Monsoon Asia in 2010, with the integration of structure information from the Advanced Land Observation System (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic dataset, and phenology information from MOD13Q1 NDVI, and MOD09A1 land surface reflectance products. The PALSAR-based forest map was generated based on a decision tree classification, and assessed with the randomly selected ground truth samples from high spatial resolution images in Google Earth. The spatial and area comparison were performed between our forest map (OU/Fudan F/NF) and other forest maps generated by Japanese Space Exploration Agency (JAXA F/NF), European Space Agency (ESA F/NF), Boston University (MCD12Q1 F/NF), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO FRA), and University of Maryland (Landsat forests). Then we investigate the reasons for the large uncertainties among these typical forest maps in 2010. This study could provide a way to monitor the dynamics of forests using the Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and optical satellite images, and the resultant F/NF datasets can be used to analyze the impacts of changes in forests on climate and ecosystems.

  11. Crude Aloe vera Gel Shows Antioxidant Propensities and Inhibits Pancreatic Lipase and Glucose Movement In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Taukoorah, Urmeela; Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera gel (AVG) is traditionally used in the management of diabetes, obesity, and infectious diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory potential of AVG against α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten (Km) and Lineweaver-Burk equations were used to establish the type of inhibition. The antioxidant capacity of AVG was evaluated for its ferric reducing power, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate scavenging ability, nitric oxide scavenging power, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. The glucose entrapment ability, antimicrobial activity, and total phenolic, flavonoid, tannin, and anthocyanin content were also determined. AVG showed a significantly higher percentage inhibition (85.56 ± 0.91) of pancreatic lipase compared to Orlistat. AVG was found to increase the Michaelis-Menten constant and decreased the maximal velocity (Vmax) of lipase, indicating mixed inhibition. AVG considerably inhibits glucose movement across dialysis tubes and was comparable to Arabic gum. AVG was ineffective against the tested microorganisms. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 66.06 ± 1.14 (GAE)/mg and 60.95 ± 0.97 (RE)/mg, respectively. AVG also showed interesting antioxidant properties. The biological activity observed in this study tends to validate some of the traditional claims of AVG as a functional food. PMID:26880905

  12. Deacetylation affects the physical properties and bioactivity of acemannan, an extracted polysaccharide from Aloe vera.

    PubMed

    Chokboribal, Jaroenporn; Tachaboonyakiat, Wanpen; Sangvanich, Polkit; Ruangpornvisuti, Vithaya; Jettanacheawchankit, Suwimon; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2015-11-20

    Acemannan, an acetylated polymannose from Aloe vera, induces tissue repair. We investigated the role of acemannan's acetyl-groups on its physical and biological properties. Deacetylated acemannan (DeAcAM) was prepared and characterized. The physical properties and microscopic structure of DeAcAM were evaluated using water solubility, contact angle, X-ray diffraction, and scanning-electron microscopy. The activity of DeAcAM on cell proliferation and gene expression were assessed. Acemannan and DeAcAM structures were simulated and the acemannan tetramer diad and its completely deacetylated structure were also determined. Increased acemannan deacetylation reduced its water solubility and hydrophilicity. Complete deacetylation altered acemannan's conformation to a partial crystal structure. The bioactivity of acemannan was reduced corresponding to its deacetylation. Acemannan induced cell proliferation, and VEGF and Collagen I expression; however, 100% DeAcAM did not. The simulated structures of the acemannan diad and the completely deacetylated diad were different. We conclude acetyl-groups affect acemannan's structure and physical/biological properties. PMID:26344314

  13. Novel edible coating based on aloe vera gel to maintain table grape quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Guillén, Fabián; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2005-10-01

    A novel edible coating based on Aloe vera gel obtained according to SP Patent Filed 200302937 has been used as a means of preservation to maintain the quality and safety of cv. Crimson Seedless table grapes during cold storage and subsequent shelf life. Table grapes have a crucial economic value as a dessert fruit, but once harvested show a reduction of shelf life due to a rapid loss of quality. Uncoated clusters showed a rapid deterioration with an estimated shelf life period of 7 days at 1 degrees C plus 4 days at 20 degrees C, based on the fast weight loss, color changes, accelerated softening and ripening, rachis browning, and high incidence of berry decay. On the contrary, those clusters treated with A. vera gel significantly delayed the above parameters related to postharvest quality losses, and storability could be extended up to 35 days at 1 degrees C. Interestingly, this edible coating was able to reduce the initial microbial counts for both mesophillic aerobic and yeast and molds, which significantly increased in uncoated berries over storage. Moreover, the sensory analyses revealed beneficial effects in terms of delaying rachis browning and dehydration and maintenance of the visual aspect of the berry without any detrimental effect on taste, aroma, or flavors. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first time A. vera gel has been used as an edible coating in fruits, which would be an innovative and interesting means for commercial application and an alternative to the use of postharvest chemical treatments. PMID:16190634

  14. Shellac and Aloe vera gel based surface coating for shelf life extension of tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, O P; Nanjappa, C; Ashok, N; Ravi, N; Roopa, N; Raju, P S

    2015-02-01

    Shellac (S) and Aloe vera gel (AG) were used to develop edible surface coatings for shelf-life extension of tomato fruits. The coating was prepared by dissolving de-waxed and bleached shellac in an alkaline aqueous medium as such as well as in combination with AG. Incorporation of AG in shellac coating improved permeability characteristics of the coating film towards oxygen and carbon dioxide and water vapours. The coatings when applied to tomatoes delayed senescence which was characterized by restricted changes in respiration and ethylene synthesis rates during storage. Texture of the fruits when measured in terms of firmness showed restricted changes as compared to untreated control. Similar observations were also recorded in the case of instrumental colour (L*, a* and b* values). The developed coatings extended shelf-life of tomatoes by 10, 8 and 12 days in case of shellac (S), AG and composite coating (S + AG) coated fruits, respectively; when kept at ambient storage conditions (28 ± 2 °C). PMID:25694740

  15. Metagenomics study of endophytic bacteria in Aloe vera using next-generation technology

    PubMed Central

    Akinsanya, Mushafau Adewale; Goh, Joo Kheng; Lim, Siew Ping; Ting, Adeline Su Yien

    2015-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) enables rapid analysis of the composition and diversity of microbial communities in several habitats. We applied the high throughput techniques of NGS to the metagenomics study of endophytic bacteria in Aloe vera plant, by assessing its PCR amplicon of 16S rDNA sequences (V3–V4 regions) with the Illumina metagenomics technique used to generate a total of 5,199,102 reads from the samples. The analyses revealed Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteriodetes as the predominant genera. The roots have the largest composition with 23% not present in other tissues. The stems have more of the genus—Pseudomonas and the unclassified Pseudomonadaceae. The α-diversity analysis indicated the richness and inverse Simpson diversity index of the bacterial endophyte communities for the leaf, root and stem tissues to be 2.221, 6.603 and 1.491 respectively. In a similar study on culturable endophytic bacteria in the same A. vera plants (unpublished work), the dominance of Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera was similar, with equal proportion of four species each in root, stem and leaf tissues. It is evident that NGS technology captured effectively the metagenomics of microbiota in plant tissues and this can improve our understanding of the microbial–plant host interactions. PMID:26697361

  16. Preparation of polyamide nanocapsules of Aloe vera L. delivery with in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Ebrahimzadeh, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    Aloe vera is the oldest medicinal plant ever known and the most applied medicinal plant worldwide. The purpose of this study was to prepare polyamide nanocapsules containing A. vera L. by an emulsion diffusion technique with in vivo studies. Diethyletriamine (DETA) was used as the encapsulating polymer with acetone ethyl acetate and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the organic solvents and Tween and gelatin in water as the stabilizers. Sebacoyl chloride (SC) monomer, A. vera L. extract, and olive oil were mixed with the acetone and then water containing DETA monomer was added to the solution using a magnetic stirrer. Finally, the acetone was removed under vacuum, and nanocapsules were obtained using a freeze drier. This study showed that the size of the nanocapsule depends on a variety of factors such as the ratio of polymer to oil, the concentration of polymers, and the plant extract. The first sample is without surfactant and the size of nanocapsules in the sample is 115 nm. By adding surfactant, nanocapsules size was reduced to 96 nm. Nanocapsules containing A. vera were administered to rats and the effects were compared with a normal control group. The results showed that in the A. vera group, the effect is higher. The nanocapsules were identified by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta potential sizer (ZPS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). PMID:25273024

  17. Comparison of the Spectral Properties of Pansharpened Images Generated from AVNIR-2 and Prism Onboard Alos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, M.

    2012-07-01

    A considerable number of methods for pansharpening remote-sensing images have been developed to generate higher spatial resolution multispectral images by the fusion of lower resolution multispectral images and higher resolution panchromatic images. Because pansharpening alters the spectral properties of multispectral images, method selection is one of the key factors influencing the accuracy of subsequent analyses such as land-cover classification or change detection. In this study, seven pixel-based pansharpening methods (additive wavelet intensity, additive wavelet principal component, generalized Laplacian pyramid with spectral distortion minimization, generalized intensity-hue-saturation (GIHS) transform, GIHS adaptive, Gram-Schmidt spectral sharpening, and block-based synthetic variable ratio) were compared using AVNIR-2 and PRISM onboard ALOS from the viewpoint of the preservation of spectral properties of AVNIR-2. A visual comparison was made between pansharpened images generated from spatially degraded AVNIR-2 and original images over urban, agricultural, and forest areas. The similarity of the images was evaluated in terms of the image contrast, the color distinction, and the brightness of the ground objects. In the quantitative assessment, three kinds of statistical indices, correlation coefficient, ERGAS, and Q index, were calculated by band and land-cover type. These scores were relatively superior in bands 2 and 3 compared with the other two bands, especially over urban and agricultural areas. Band 4 showed a strong dependency on the land-cover type. This was attributable to the differences in the observing spectral wavelengths of the sensors and local scene variances.

  18. Reduction of nectarine decay caused by Rhizopus stolonifer, Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium digitatum with Aloe vera gel alone or with the addition of thymol.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Diana; Díaz-Mula, Huertas M; Guillén, Fabián; Zapata, Pedro J; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María; Valero, Daniel; Martínez-Romero, Domingo

    2011-12-01

    Two nectarine cultivars ('Flavela' and 'Flanoba') were treated with Aloe vera gel alone, or with the addition of thymol, and then inoculated with Rhizopus stolonifer, Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium digitatum. Both treatments were effective in reducing the decay incidence caused by the 3 fungi species, although the addition of thymol did not generally improve the efficacy of Aloe vera gel on reducing the infection damage. The coatings were clearly effective in reducing the postharvest ripening process of both nectarine cultivars manifested by a delay in ethylene production and respiration rate, weight loss and softening. Interestingly, these coatings showed effectiveness on reducing decay development in inoculated fruits and thus Aloe vera could be considered as natural antifungal compound and might serve as alternative of synthetic fungicides. PMID:21974979

  19. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study of ALO-02 (extended-release oxycodone surrounding sequestered naltrexone) for moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain treatment.

    PubMed

    Rauck, Richard L; Hale, Martin E; Bass, Almasa; Bramson, Candace; Pixton, Glenn; Wilson, Jacquelyn G; Setnik, Beatrice; Meisner, Paul; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Malhotra, Bimal K; Wolfram, Gernot

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ALO-02, an abuse-deterrent formulation containing pellets of extended-release oxycodone hydrochloride (HCl) surrounding sequestered naltrexone HCl, compared with placebo in the treatment of moderate-to-severe chronic low back pain. An open-label titration period in which all patients received ALO-02 was followed by a double-blind treatment period where patients meeting treatment response criteria were randomized to either a fixed dose of ALO-02 or placebo. Daily average low back pain was assessed using an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS)-Pain. Of the 663 patients screened, 410 received ALO-02 during the open-label conversion and titration period and 281 patients were randomized to the double-blind treatment period (n = 134, placebo; n = 147, ALO-02). Change in the mean NRS-Pain score from randomization baseline to the final 2 weeks of the treatment period was significantly different favoring ALO-02 compared with placebo (P = 0.0114). Forty-four percent of patients treated with placebo and 57.5% of patients treated with ALO-02 reported ≥30% improvement in weekly average NRS-Pain scores from screening to the final 2 weeks of the treatment period (P = 0.0248). In the double-blind treatment period, 56.8% of patients in the ALO-02 group and 56.0% of patients in the placebo group experienced a treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE). The most common treatment-related TEAEs for ALO-02 during the treatment period were nausea, vomiting, and constipation, consistent with opioid therapy. ALO-02 has been demonstrated to provide significant reduction of pain in patients with chronic low back pain and has a safety profile similar to other opioids. PMID:25993547

  20. Examination of an aloe vera galacturonate polysaccharide capable of in situ gelation for the controlled release of protein therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConaughy, Shawn David

    A therapeutic delivery platform has been investigated with the ultimate goal of designing a sustained protein release matrix utilizing an in-situ gelling, acidic polysaccharide derived from the Aloe vera plant. The Aloe vera polysaccharide (AvP) has been examined in order to determine how chemical composition, structure, molecular weight and solution behavior affect gelation and protein/peptide delivery. Correlations are drawn between structural characteristics and solution behavior in order to determine the impact of polymer conformation and solvation on gel formation under conditions designed to simulate nasal applications. Steady state and dynamic rheology, classic and dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, pulse field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy have been employed to gain insight into the effects of galacturonic acid content, degree of methylation, entanglement and ionic strength on both solution behavior and the hydrogel state which ultimately governs protein/peptide release. This dissertation is divided into two sections. In the first section, a series of Aloe vera polysaccharides (AvP), from the pectin family have been structurally characterized indicating high galacturonic acid (GalA) content, low degree of methylester substitution (DM), low numbers of rhamnose residues and high molecular weight with respect to pectins extracted from traditional sources. The behavior of AvP was examined utilizing dilute solution, low-shear rheological techniques for specific molecular weight samples at selected conditions of ionic strength. From these dilute aqueous solution studies, the Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) constants (K and alpha), persistence length (Lp) and inherent chain stiffness (B parameter) were determined, indicating an expanded random coil in aqueous salt solutions. The critical concentration for transition from dilute to concentrated solution, C e, was determined by measuring both the zero shear viscosity and

  1. [Anti-inflammatory constituents, aloesin and aloemannan in Aloe species and effects of tanshinon VI in Salvia miltiorrhiza on heart].

    PubMed

    Yagi, Akira; Takeo, Satoshi

    2003-07-01

    Cinnamoyl, p-coumaroyl, feruloyl, caffeoyl aloesin, and related compounds were isolated from Aloe species. The antiinflammatory and antioxidative activities of these compounds were examined based on the structure-activity relationship. It was suggested that the bioactivities may link to acyl ester groups in aloesin, together with those of aloesin-related compounds. However, investigations using the contact hypersensitivity response indicated a preventive effect of aloesin on the UV-B-induced immune suppression. Furthermore, aloesin inhibited tyrosine hydroxylase and dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) oxidase activities of tyrosinase from normal human melanocyte cell lysates. These results show that aloesin prevents not only UV-B-induced immune suppression, but also could be a positive pigment-altering agent for cosmetic application. In preclinical study, aloe extract was investigated using phagocytosis and nitroblue tetrazolium chloride (NBT) reduction in adult bronchial asthma, and high molecular-weight materials, such as polysaccharide and glycoprotein fractions, were identified as active ingredients. The neutral polysaccharides, aloemannan and acemannan showed antitumor, antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, and glycoprotein fractions with bradykinindegrading and cell proliferation-stimulating activities were identified from the nondialysate fraction of the gel part of Aloe species. Verectin fractionated from Aloe vera gel was examined biochemically and immunochemically, and verectin antibody was used in the appraisal of commercial Aloe vera gel products. It was reported that aloesin stimulates the proliferation of cultured human hepatoma SK-Hep 1 cells. Thus aloesin, related compounds, and high molecular-weight materials, such as aloemannan and verectin, may act in concert to exert therapeutic properties for wounds, burns and inflammation. The biodisposition of fluoresceinylisothiocyanate (FITC)--labeled aloemannan (FITC-AM) with the homogenate from

  2. Complex Ruptures of Large Earthquakes Imaged by ALOS L-band SAR with Other Geodetic and Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Sladen, A.; Wei, S.; Simons, M.; Avouac, J.; Burgmann, R.

    2011-12-01

    Large earthquakes can have devastating effects if they are located in areas of dense population or cause tsunamis. Understanding which faults have ruptured and how much the faults slipped in major quakes is important for assessing likely damage and estimating the change in the risk of future events on nearby faults. We have studied the fault ruptures of several recent large continental earthquakes, including the 2008 Mw 7.9 in China (Wenchuan earthquake), 2010 Mw 7.0 in Haiti and 2010 Mw 7.2 in Baja California (El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake), using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite) PALSAR (phased-array L-band synthetic aperture radar) data from the USGRC Data Pool combined with SAR data from other satellites, GPS data and teleseismic waveforms. Joint inversion of geodetic and seismic data resolves both the spatial and temporal distribution of slip on the faults, providing an estimate of the slip evolution during the earthquake. For each of these major earthquakes, we extracted key information with interferometric (InSAR) and pixel tracking analysis of the ALOS L-band SAR data, and we determined that the fault ruptures were more complex than initially assumed. The 12 May 2008 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured several faults, including two sub-parallel faults, with a total length of about 300 km. Surface ruptures were mapped with pixel tracking from the ALOS fine-beam image pairs, later confirmed by field geologists. Interferograms from ALOS fine-beam and wide-beam images provided both ascending and descending coverage of the full deformation field, with additional coverage by Envisat interferograms that were limited by poor coherence in the vegetated mountains. For the 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake, the L-band interferograms were the main constraints on the location of the main fault that ruptured at depth, a north-dipping oblique-slip fault called the Leogane Fault and not the expected previously mapped Enriquillo Fault. Interferograms from shorter wavelength

  3. Comparison of the Effect of Aloe Vera Gel and Nitrofurazone 2% on Epithelialization and Granulation Tissue Formation Regarding Superficial Second-Degree Burns

    PubMed Central

    Irani, Parichehr Sabaghzade; Varaie, Shokoh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Therapeutic effects of various treatment options in burn wound healing have been one of the most controversial issues in wound care. Aloe Vera is an herbal medicine, which has wound healing effects on chronic wound. The present study was carried out to examine and compare the effect of Aloe Vera gel and nitrofurazone 2% on epithelialization and granulation tissue formation with respect to superficial second-degree burns. Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial and the sampling method was used based on pre-defined inclusion criteria. The sample size was 30 patients that were admitted to Kerman burn center, including patients that had superficial burn in the symmetry limb, who were chosen based on depth burn and the qualifications needed for the study. One part of the burned area was dressed using ointment nitrofurazone 2% (according to routine care in the hospital) and the symmetry part was dressed using Aloe Vera gel. The tools for data collection included a demographic questionnaire, tools of bats-joints for checking epithelialization and granulation tissue. The burn wound epithelialization and granulation at the beginning of patient’s admission and the first, second and third weeks after dressing were assessed and recorded. Results: In patients treated with Aloe Vera gel, epithelialization and granulation tissue of burn wounds were remarkably earlier than those patients treated with nitrofurazone 2% (P<0.05). Conclusion: In conclusion, Aloe Vera gel enhanced epithelialization and granulation tissue of burn wounds in superficial second-degree burn patients better than nitrofurazone 2%. The mechanism of the remarkable efficacy of Aloe Vera gel in the epithelialization and granulation tissue of burn injuries may be explained by its hydrocolloid and moisturizing and anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:27516662

  4. Intranasal administration of crushed ALO-02 (extended-release oxycodone with sequestered naltrexone): A randomized, controlled abuse-potential study in nondependent recreational opioid users.

    PubMed

    Setnik, Beatrice; Bramson, Candace; Bass, Almasa; Levy-Cooperman, Naama; Malhotra, Bimal; Matschke, Kyle; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Wolfram, Gernot; Geoffroy, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    ALO-02 is an abuse-deterrent formulation consisting of capsules filled with pellets of extended-release oxycodone surrounding sequestered naltrexone. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-/active-controlled, 4-way crossover study examined the abuse potential of crushed ALO-02 administered intranasally to healthy, nondependent, recreational opioid users. Following drug discrimination and naloxone challenge, eligible participants (n = 32) entered a 4-way crossover treatment phase: crushed single dose of 1 of 2 placebos, ALO-02 30 mg/3.6 mg (oxycodone/naltrexone) or oxycodone immediate-release (IR) 30 mg. Primary end points were Drug Liking and High, measured on visual analog scales (VAS) summarized as maximum effect (Emax ) and effect occurring over 2 hours postdose (AUE0-2  h ). Crushed ALO-02 resulted in significantly lower scores versus oxycodone IR on Drug Liking (Emax , 60.5 vs 92.8; AUE0-2  h , 105.4 vs 160.0, respectively) and High (Emax , 25.2 vs 86.9; AUE0-2  h , 27.1 vs 136.4, respectively; n = 28; P < .0001). Adverse events occurred most frequently with oxycodone IR, followed by ALO-02, then placebo, and were considered mild and consistent with opioid therapy. Crushed ALO-02 administered intranasally to nondependent recreational opioid users resulted in significantly lower scores on Drug Liking/High VAS and other positive subjective measures versus crushed oxycodone IR, suggesting less abuse potential. Demonstration of actual abuse deterrence in the real world requires further research. PMID:26011742

  5. Application and Evaluation of ALOS PALSAR Data for Monitoring of Mining Induced Surface Deformations Using Interferometric Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Diana; Wegmuller, Urs; Spreckels, Volker; Busch, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of the projects "Determination of ground motions in mining areas by interferometric analyses of ALOS data" (ALOS ADEN 3576, ESA) and "Monitoring of mining induced surface deformation" (ALOS-RA-094, JAXA) is to evaluate PALSAR data for surface deformation monitoring, using interferometric techniques. We present monitoring results of surface movements for an active hard coal colliery of the German hard coal mining company RAG Deutsche Steinkohle (RAG). Underground mining activities lead to ground movements at the surface with maximum subsidence rates of about 10cm per month for the test site. In these projects the L-band sensor clearly demonstrates the good potential for deformation monitoring in active mining areas, especially in rural areas. In comparison to C-band sensors we clearly observe advantages in resolving the high deformation gradients that are present in this area and we achieve a more complete spatial coverage than with C-band. Extensive validation data based on levelling data and GPS measurements are available within RAǴs GIS based database "GeoMon" and thus enable an adequate analysis of the quality of the interferometric results. Previous analyses confirm the good accuracy of PALSAR data for deformation monitoring in mining areas. Furthermore, we present results of special investigations like precision geocoding of PALSAR data and corner reflector analysis. At present only DInSAR results are obtained due to the currently available number of PALSAR scenes. For the future we plan to also apply Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) using longer series of PALSAR data.

  6. An Attempt to Detect Secular Deformation Associated with the Subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate with ALOS/PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Fukushima, Y.

    2009-12-01

    There are several reports on the detection of secular deformation during interseismic periods, including several mm/yr slip of strike-slip faults, with time series analyses of space-borne SAR data. We try to detect interseismic deformation due to the subduction of plates with a similar approach. The southwestern Japan arc has a strike perpendicular to the track of ALOS and gradient of deformation is parallel to the azimuth direction of ALOS/PALSAR data. Displacements observed by GPS have a large NNW-ward component (~5cm/yr) in the southern part of Shikoku w.r.t the northern coast of Honshu. Therefore the southwestern Japan is one of the most suitable sites to study the applicability of SAR to the detection of secular deformation. We collected all the ALOS/PALSAR images since May, 2006: 19 images from the path 417 (Cape Muroto, southern tip of Shikoku island, to Okayama, western part of Honshu) and 12 images from the path 414 (Cape Shionomisaki, southernmost tip of Honshu, to Tango peninsula). As a first step, we examined interferograms to identify error factors for these target areas and stacked the interferograms having high coherence. We used the Gamma software for the interferometry and stacking processings. We can recognize decrease of range around Cape Muroto relative to the northern Shikoku in a stacked interferogram. This pattern is consistent with the LOS velocity field converted from that obtained from the GEONET, but the magnitude is about twice as large. If we look at interferograms in more detail, several kinds of errors such as orbital fringe, tropospheric disturbance etc. are recognized. Especially orbital fringes are not easy to be eliminated, since target deformation may have as a long wavelength as orbital fringes. Furthermore unwrapping is difficult in some interferograms since steep topography of Shikoku ranges decrease coherence with long base lines. We will present several problems we found in this analysis and examine necessary conditions for

  7. Physico-chemical evaluation of bitter and non-bitter Aloe and their raw juice for human consumption.

    PubMed

    Azam, M M; Kumar, S; Pancholy, A; Patidar, M

    2014-11-01

    In addition to Aloe vera which is bitter in taste, a non-bitter Aloe is also found in arid part of Rajasthan. This non-bitter Aloe (NBA) is sporadically cultivated as vegetable and for health drink. In spite of its cultivation and various uses, very little information is available about its detailed botanical parameters and chemical characters. This study aims to evaluate the physico-chemical characters of NBA through employing floral morphology, leaf characters and leaf gel and to compare them with those of A. vera. Of eleven floral characters studied, eight characters of NBA were significantly different from that of A. vera. Most visible difference was observed in their reproductive shoots which are highly branched in NBA (5.21 inflorescence/shoot) as compared to A. vera (1.5 inflorescence/shoot). NBA produces less leaf-biomass (-29.32 %) with less leaf-thickness (-31.44 %) but higher leaf length, width, and no. of spine/side by 17.56 %, 21.34 % and 16.11 %, respectively, with significant difference as compared to A. vera. But its polysaccharide content (0.259 %) is at par with that of A. vera. The raw juice from the leaf of NBA has very low aloin content (4.1 ppm) compared to that from A. vera (427.3 ppm) making it a safer health drink compared to the one obtained from A. vera. Thus, NBA raw juice emerged as suitable alternative to A. vera juice for human consumption. PMID:26396351

  8. AlO x /LiF composite protection layer for Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 quantum anomalous Hall films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Yunbo; Feng, Yang; Feng, Xiao; Hao, Zhenqi; Zhang, Liguo; Liu, Chang; Wang, Yayu; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qikun

    2016-08-01

    We have realized robust quantum anomalous Hall samples by protecting Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 topological insulator films with a combination of LiF and AlO x capping layers. The AlO x /LiF composite capping layer well keeps the quantum anomalous Hall states of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 films and effectively prevent them from degradation induced by ambient conditions. The progress is a key step towards the realization of the quantum phenomena in heterostructures and devices based on quantum anomalous Hall system. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11325421).

  9. [Karyological instability during pollen mother cells formation in Aloe vera (Aloaceae)].

    PubMed

    Imery-Buiza, José

    2007-01-01

    In order to clarify possible cytogenetic anomalies that reduce pollen fertility, premeiotic mitosis was studied in Aloe vera plants from a naturalized population in the northeast of Venezuela (10 degrees 34' 15" N and 64 degrees 12' 08" W). Karyological configurations were evaluated during the stage of cell proliferation leading to the formation of pollen mother cells (PMCs). The sampling was carried out in March 2005, choosing inflorescences without mechanical or biological damage from 25 plants selected at random. Flower buds (FB) 2 to 6 mm in length were collected from 7:00 AM through 6:00 PM, their perianths removed, and fixed in Carnoy I (3:1 ethanol/glacial acetic acid) for 24 h and stored in ethanol (70% v/v) until observation. Light microscope observations were done on temporary preparations obtained by overflowing anther content suspended in acetic orcein (1.5% w/v) for 5 min and softly squashing with the cover slip. A total of 9 411 cells were analyzed. Upper mitotic activity was observed in FB from 3.8 +/- 0.09 mm long, collected at 11:00 AM through 1:00 PM; 17% of PMCs showed one to eight sister chromatid bridges from anaphase to telophase; 13%, one to seven micronucleus of variable diameter (0.9 to 4.8 microm); 8.1% were united by thin chromatin filaments, and 0.1% lacked a nucleus. Other evaluated cells (61.8%) had apparently normal mitotic configurations, without considerable morphometric variations. The evident irregular proliferation of a PMCs fraction (39.2%) suggests that environmental stress conditions (day temperatures ranging 32.7 to 39.8 degrees C, high solar radiation and low humidity) induce chromosome instability and physiologic changes that affect the normal development during premeiotic mitosis. As a consequence, loss or addition of chromosome fragments can occur in association with deficiencies and gene duplications. PMID:19086386

  10. Aloe-emodin loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: formulation design and in vitro anti-cancer study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruie; Wang, Shengpeng; Zhang, Jinming; Chen, Meiwan; Wang, Yitao

    2015-01-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE) is a promising anti-tumor candidate for its significant activity against various tumors such as lung cancer, hepatic cancer, breast cancer and so on. Nevertheless, AE is clinically limited due to its poor water solubility and low bioavailability. This study was designed to prepare AE-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (AE-SLNs) in an attempt to improve the anti-cancer efficacy of AE. The AE-SLNs were prepared with optimized prescription using high pressure homogenization (HPH) technique. Ultimately, the AE-SLNs showed stable particle size at 88.9 ± 5.2 nm, ideal drug entrapment efficiency (EE) of 97.71 ± 0.5% and good stability with regard to zeta-potential as high as -42.8 mV. The in vitro release profiles revealed that AE achieved sustained release by loading into SLNs. Moreover, AE-SLNs showed significantly higher in vitro cytotoxicity against human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and human hepatoma HepG2 cells as compared to the AE solution, while they showed no significant toxicity on human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells. Hoechst 33342 staining and Annexin V/PI double staining indicated that AE-SLNs induced higher apoptotic rates in MCF-7 cells. Further study elucidated that the improved anti-cancer efficacy may be attributed to the increased cellular uptake of AE. Based on these findings, we believe that the development of AE-SLNs is an effective way for improving the anti-cancer efficacy of AE. PMID:24512431

  11. Sensitivity of ALOS/PALSAR imagery to forest degradation by fire in northern Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Flora da Silva Ramos Vieira; dos Santos, João Roberto; Galvão, Lênio Soares; Xaud, Haron Abrahim Magalhães

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the full polarimetric Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR), onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS), to forest degradation caused by fires in northern Amazon, Brazil. We searched for changes in PALSAR signal and tri-dimensional polarimetric responses for different classes of fire disturbance defined by fire frequency and severity. Since the aboveground biomass (AGB) is affected by fire, multiple regression models to estimate AGB were obtained for the whole set of coherent and incoherent attributes (general model) and for each set separately (specific models). The results showed that the polarimetric L-band PALSAR attributes were sensitive to variations in canopy structure and AGB caused by forest fire. However, except for the unburned and thrice burned classes, no single PALSAR attribute was able to discriminate between the intermediate classes of forest degradation by fire. Both the coherent and incoherent polarimetric attributes were important to explain AGB variations in tropical forests affected by fire. The HV backscattering coefficient, anisotropy, double-bounce component, orientation angle, volume index and HH-VV phase difference were PALSAR attributes selected from multiple regression analysis to estimate AGB. The general regression model, combining phase and power radar metrics, presented better results than specific models using coherent or incoherent attributes. The polarimetric responses indicated the dominance of VV-oriented backscattering in primary forest and lightly burned forests. The HH-oriented backscattering predominated in heavily and frequently burned forests. The results suggested a greater contribution of horizontally arranged constituents such as fallen trunks or branches in areas severely affected by fire.

  12. Detection and characterizacion of Colombian wetlands using Alos Palsar and MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estupinan-Suarez, L. M.; Florez-Ayala, C.; Quinones, M. J.; Pacheco, A. M.; Santos, A. C.

    2015-04-01

    Wetlands regulate the flow of water and play a key role in risk management of extreme flooding and drought. In Colombia, wetland conservation has been a priority for the government. However, there is an information gap neither an inventory nor a national baseline map exists. In this paper, we present a method that combines a wetlands thematic map with remote sensing derived data, and hydrometeorological stations data in order to characterize the Colombian wetlands. Following the adopted definition of wetlands, available spatial data on land forms, soils and vegetation was integrated in order to characterize spatially the occurrence of wetlands. This data was then complemented with remote sensing derived data from active and passive sensors. A flood frequency map derived from dense time series analysis of the ALOS PALSAR FBD /FBS data (2007-2010) at 50m resolution was used to analyse the recurrence of flooding. In this map, flooding under the canopy and open water classes could be mapped due to the capabilities of the L-band radar. In addition, MODIS NDVI profiles (2007-2012) were used to characterize temporally water mirrors and vegetation, founding different patterns at basin levels. Moreover, the Colombian main basins were analysed and typified based on hydroperiods, highlighting different hydrological regimes within each basin. The combination of thematic maps, SAR data, optical imagery and hydrological data provided information on the spatial and temporal dynamics of wetlands at regional scales. Our results provide the first validated baseline wetland map for Colombia, this way providing valuable information for ecosystem management.

  13. Radiometrically Terrain Corrected ALOS PALSAR Data Available from the Alaska Satellite Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, T. A.; Nicoll, J.; Laurencelle, J.; Hogenson, K.; Gens, R.; Buechler, B.; Barton, B.; Shreve, W.; Stern, T.; Drew, L.; Guritz, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Alaska Satellite Facility Distributed Active Archive Data Center (ASF DAAC) now offers a suite of geometrically and radiometrically terrain corrected data products derived from ALOS PALSAR, processed using the Gamma Remote Sensing software package. Radiometric terrain correction (RTC) addresses two aspects of the effects of side-looking geometry of SAR imagery. First, the geometric distortions are corrected using the best digital elevation model available for a given region. Second, the radiometry is adjusted in the affected foreshortening and layover regions using the pixel-area integration approach for radiometric normalization. The RTC process provides improved backscatter estimates that can be used as input for applications such as the monitoring of deforestation, land-cover classification, and delineation of wet snow covered areas. RTC products are distributed at two resolutions. RT1 products with a pixel size of 12.5 m are generated from high-resolution and mid-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). RT2 products are generated at a 30 m level for all available DEMs. Layover and shadow masks as well as incidence angle maps are available for both product resolutions. Products cover landmasses generally from 60 degrees northern latitude to 59 degrees southern latitude. An exception to the rule is the inclusion of all of North America. Excluded landmasses are Greenland, Iceland, Antarctica, and northern Eurasia. Since scientists are generally interested in quantitative measurements that are referenced to the ground, products are distributed in σ0 power. All RTC products are geocoded to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection, provided in GIS ready GeoTIFF format and downloadable from the ASF DAAC.

  14. Aloe vera gel facilitates re-epithelialization of corneal alkali burn in normal and diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Atiba, Ayman; Wasfy, Tamer; Abdo, Walied; Ghoneim, Ahmed; Kamal, Tarek; Shukry, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the efficacy of topical applied aloe vera (AV) and to facilitate the repair of the standardized alkaline corneal ulcer in normal and diabetic rats. Materials and methods The corneal alkali-burn injury model was established unilaterally in Wistar rats by filter paper saturated with 0.01 M NaOH contacting the eyes for 45 seconds. Rats were divided into four groups: normal control (NC), normal AV (NAV), diabetic control (DC), and diabetic AV (DAV). NAV and DAV groups were treated with AV gel eye drops four times daily, and NC and DC groups were treated with normal saline for 3 days. Corneal epithelial wound closure and degree of edema were recorded using slit lamp and optical coherence tomography at 0, 24, 48, and 72 hours postwounding. Histological examination was conducted to evaluate the degree of inflammation and the healing effect. Results Corneal epithelial wound healing was better in the NAV group than in the NC group, and it was significantly higher in the DAV group than in the DC group (P<0.05). In comparison to the DC group, DAV treated with AV demonstrated a marked reduction in edema at 48 and 72 hours. Histologically, corneal re-epithelialization was complete and higher in DAV group than that in DC group; moreover, the inflammatory cells were increased in DC group than DAV group (P<0.05). Conclusion This study demonstrated the efficacy of AV for enhanced corneal re-epithelialization, as well as reduced inflammatory response after alkali burn in rats; therefore, it could be useful as a therapy for diabetic keratopathy. PMID:26604672

  15. Development of novel wound care systems based on nanosilver nanohydrogels of polymethacrylic acid with Aloe vera and curcumin.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Sadiya; Gupta, Amlan; Sharma, Deepika; Gautam, Deepti; Bhan, Surya; Sharma, Anupama; Kapil, Arti; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2016-07-01

    This study is aimed at the development of a composite material for wound dressing containing nanosilver nanohydrogels (nSnH) along with Aloe vera and curcumin that promote antimicrobial nature, wound healing and infection control. Nanosliver nanohydrogels were synthesized by nanoemulsion polymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) followed by subsequent crosslinking and silver reduction under irradiation. Both the polymerization and irradiation time had significant influence on the nanoparticle shape, size and its formation. Polyvinyl alcohol/polyethylene oxide/carboxymethyl cellulose matrix was used as gel system to blend with nSnH, A. vera, curcumin and coat it on the hydrolysed PET fabric to develop antimicrobial dressings. The cumulative release of silver from the dressing was found to be ~42% of the total loading after 48h. The antimicrobial activity of the dressings was studied against both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In vivo wound healing studies were carried out over a period of 16d on full-thickness skin wounds created on Swiss albino mice. Fast healing was observed in Gel/nSnH/Aloe treated wounds with minimum scarring, as compared to other groups. The histological studies showed A. vera based dressings to be the most optimum one. These results suggest that nSnH along with A. vera based dressing material could be promising candidates for wound dressings. PMID:27127040

  16. On the potentials of using multisensor ALOS data for the analyses of forest stand structure and biomass retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeling, S.; Stellmes, M.; Buddenbaum, H.

    2009-04-01

    The Japanese satellite ALOS, launched in spring 2006, is equipped with a panchromatic and multiangle remote sensing instrument (PRISM), a visible and near infrared radiometer (AVNIR-2) and a fullpoliametric L-Band radar sensor (PalSAR). In case of acquisition dates within a short time periode, this instrumentation offers the opportunity for investigations focused on both, the fusion of data from different sensor types and even on the comparison of retrieval results from single instruments. For June 2007 we acquired satisfactory imagery from all three sensors types, covering our study site "Idarwald", situated in the western part of the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) in the Hunsrück mountains. Only multitemporal microwave data for interferometric investigations is still missing. Within our study we tried to derived LAI, vegetation density, canopy height and tree types from the different ALOS instruments and investigated the added value concerning the results provided by data fusion. To assess our findings we used data from field surveys and additionally compared them with former results of studies based on LIDAR, very high spatial resolution (Quickbird) and hyperspectral data (Hymap). Although some of the results, especially the LAI and canopy surface estimations, are promising the derivation of other values is still vague or variables can be registered more precise by other sensors. Further achievements are expected from the acquisition of multitemporal SAR data for interferometric analyses.

  17. Mapping invasive Phragmites australis in the coastal Great Lakes with ALOS PALSAR satellite imagery for decision support

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Scarbrough, Kirk A.; Powell, Richard B.; Brooks, Colin N.; Huberty, Brian; Jenkins, Liza K.; Banda, Elizabeth C.; Galbraith, David M.; Laubach, Zachary M.; Riordan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The invasive variety of Phragmites australis (common reed) forms dense stands that can cause negative impacts on coastal Great Lakes wetlands including habitat degradation and reduced biological diversity. Early treatment is key to controlling Phragmites, therefore a map of the current distribution is needed. ALOS PALSAR imagery was used to produce the first basin-wide distribution map showing the extent of large, dense invasive Phragmites-dominated habitats in wetlands and other coastal ecosystems along the U.S. shore of the Great Lakes. PALSAR is a satellite imaging radar sensor that is sensitive to differences in plant biomass and inundation patterns, allowing for the detection and delineation of these tall (up to 5 m), high density, high biomass invasive Phragmites stands. Classification was based on multi-season ALOS PALSAR L-band (23 cm wavelength) HH and HV polarization data. Seasonal (spring, summer, and fall) datasets were used to improve discrimination of Phragmites by taking advantage of phenological changes in vegetation and inundation patterns over the seasons. Extensive field collections of training and randomly selected validation data were conducted in 2010–2011 to aid in mapping and for accuracy assessments. Overall basin-wide map accuracy was 87%, with 86% producer's accuracy and 43% user's accuracy for invasive Phragmites. The invasive Phragmites maps are being used to identify major environmental drivers of this invader's distribution, to assess areas vulnerable to new invasion, and to provide information to regional stakeholders through a decision support tool.

  18. Postharvest sour cherry quality and safety maintenance by exposure to Hot- water or treatment with fresh Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Ravanfar, Rahele; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Maftoonazad, Neda

    2014-10-01

    Iranian sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were coated with fresh Aloe vera gel or treated with hot water (40 ± 2 °C) for 2 min and stored for 17 days at 4 ± 1 °C. The physicochemical characteristics of gel coated and hot water treated samples were compared with untreated fruit during the cold storage period. Untreated fruit showed increased respiration rate, rapid weight loss and colour change, accelerated aging and ripening. On the contrary, sour cherries, particularly those coated with gel significantly delayed the above mentioned parameters allowing a fruit storability extension. The sensory analysis in both treatments revealed beneficial effects in terms of delaying dehydration, maintenance of fruit visual aspect without any detrimental effect on taste, aroma or flavours. Consequently, Aloe vera gel coating and immersion in hot water maintained the properties during postharvest storage of sour cherries and could be introduced as two valuable, simple and non-contaminating treatments. PMID:25328241

  19. Estimation of Damaged Areas due to the 2010 Chile Earthquake and Tsunami Using SAR Imagery of Alos/palsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Made, Pertiwi Jaya Ni; Miura, Fusanori; Besse Rimba, A.

    2016-06-01

    A large-scale earthquake and tsunami affect thousands of people and cause serious damages worldwide every year. Quick observation of the disaster damage is extremely important for planning effective rescue operations. In the past, acquiring damage information was limited to only field surveys or using aerial photographs. In the last decade, space-borne images were used in many disaster researches, such as tsunami damage detection. In this study, SAR data of ALOS/PALSAR satellite images were used to estimate tsunami damage in the form of inundation areas in Talcahuano, the area near the epicentre of the 2010 Chile earthquake. The image processing consisted of three stages, i.e. pre-processing, analysis processing, and post-processing. It was conducted using multi-temporal images before and after the disaster. In the analysis processing, inundation areas were extracted through the masking processing. It consisted of water masking using a high-resolution optical image of ALOS/AVNIR-2 and elevation masking which built upon the inundation height using DEM image of ASTER-GDEM. The area result was 8.77 Km2. It showed a good result and corresponded to the inundation map of Talcahuano. Future study in another area is needed in order to strengthen the estimation processing method.

  20. Aloe vera gel extract attenuates ethanol-induced hepatic lipid accumulation by suppressing the expression of lipogenic genes in mice.

    PubMed

    Saito, Marie; Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yamada, Muneo; Yamauchi, Kouji; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that Aloe vera gel had hypoglycemic activity and anti-obesity effects, although the effect on alcoholic fatty liver was unclear. We examined in this present study the effect of an Aloe vera gel extract (AVGE) on hepatic lipid metabolism by using an ethanol-induced transient fatty liver mouse model. Ethanol (3 g/kg of mouse weight) was orally administered to induce an accumulation of triglyceride (TG) and increase the mRNA expression of such lipogenic genes as sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) in the liver. Although ethanol ingestion caused a 5.4-fold increase in liver TG, pre-treating with AVGE (1 mg/kg/d) for 1 week significantly suppressed this elevation of the ethanol-induced liver TG level. The expression of lipogenic genes was also lower in the AVGE pre-treatment group than in the control group. This inhibitory effect on the ethanol-induced accumulation of TG was attributed to a reduction in the expression of lipogenic genes that were increased by ethanol. PMID:23132591

  1. Investigation on the upconversion luminescence of Sr3AlO4F:Yb3+, Er3+, Ho3+ phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jia; Zhai, Zhangyin

    2015-12-01

    To develop new emission-tunable upconversion (UC) phosphors, the Sr3AlO4F:5%Yb3+, xEr3+, yHo3+ (0 ≤ x ≤ 1%, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1%) samples were prepared by conversional solid-state reaction method, and their luminescence properties upon 980 nm excitation were studied. Upon 980 nm excitation, Yb3+-Er3+ codoped Sr3AlO4F shows a predominant emission peak between 645 and 700 nm which is attributed to the 4F9/2-4I15/2 transition of Er3+, and the Er3+ green emissions have been almost quenched. In this case, the yellowish green emitting light is obtained. The possible reason was interpreted by the energy level diagram and the proposed UC mechanism. For Yb3+-Ho3+ codoped Sr3AlO4F, three emissions are observed obviously which are all derived from the Ho3+ ion. The corresponding chromaticity coordinates indicate a red emission has been gained. To realize the tunable emission, the typical Sr3AlO4F:5%Yb3+, 0.2%Er3+, 1%Ho3+ phosphor was developed, and its emission spectrum includes the emission peaks of both Er3+ and Ho3+. Correspondingly, the sample gives a yellow emission.

  2. Effects of Aloe vera cream on chronic anal fissure pain, wound healing and hemorrhaging upon defection: a prospective double blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, N; Khademloo, M; Vosoughi, K; Assadpour, S

    2014-01-01

    Aloe vera is a medicinal plant that promotes wound healing in burn injuries. A prospective clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of a topical cream containing 0.5% Aloe vera juice powder in the treatment of chronic anal fissures. The aloe cream was applied by the patients to the wound site 3 times per day for 6 weeks following the instructions of a physician. Pain was assessed with a visual analog scale before treatment and at the end of each week of treatment. Wound healing and the amount and severity of bleeding were examined and evaluated before and at the end of each week of treatment. There were statistically significant differences in chronic anal fissure pain, hemorrhaging upon defection and wound healing before and at the end of the first week of treatment also in comparison with control group (p < 0.0001). In this study, a topical cream containing aloe vera juice was an effective treatment for chronic anal fissures. This is a promising result indicating that further comparative studies are justified. PMID:24763890

  3. Oral ingestion of aloe vera phytosterols alters hepatic gene expression profiles and ameliorates obesity-associated metabolic disorders in zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-03-21

    We investigated the effects of the oral administration of lophenol (Lo) and cycloartanol (Cy), two kinds of antidiabetic phytosterol isolated from Aloe vera , on glucose and lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. We demonstrated that the administrations of Lo and Cy suppressed random and fasting glucose levels and reduced visceral fat weights significantly. It was also observed that treatments with Lo and Cy decreased serum and hepatic lipid concentrations (triglyceride, nonesterified fatty acid, and total cholesterol). Additionally, Lo and Cy treatments resulted in a tendency for reduction in serum monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) level and an elevation in serum adiponectin level. Furthermore, the expression levels of hepatic genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes (G6 Pase, PEPCK), lipogenic enzymes (ACC, FAS), and SREBP-1 were decreased significantly by the administrations of aloe sterols. In contrast, Lo and Cy administration increased mRNA levels of glycolysis enzyme (GK) in the liver. It was also observed that the hepatic β-oxidation enzymes (ACO, CPT1) and PPARα expressions tended to increase in the livers of the Lo- and Cy-treated rats compared with those in ZDF-control rats. We therefore conclude that orally ingested aloe sterols altered the expressions of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism, and ameliorated obesity-associated metabolic disorders in ZDF rats. These findings suggest that aloe sterols could be beneficial in preventing and improving metabolic disorders with obesity and diabetes in rats. PMID:22352711

  4. Analysis of Land Covers over Northern Peninsular Malaysia by Using ALOS-PALSAR Data Based on Frequency-Based Contextual and Neural Network Classification Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, H. S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.; Saleh, N. Mohd.

    2008-11-01

    Optical and microwave remote sensing data have been widely used in land cover and land use classification. Optical satellite remote sensing methods are more appropriate but require cloud-free conditions for data to be useful especially at Equatorial region. In Equatorial region cloud free acquisitions can be rare reducing these sensors' applicability to such studies. ALOS-PALSAR data can be acquired day and night irrespective of weather conditions. This paper presents a comparison between frequency-based contextual and neural network classification technique by using ALOS-PALSAR data for land cover assessment in Northern Peninsular Malaysia. The ALOS-PALSAR data acquired on 10 November 2006 were converted to vegetation, urban, water and other land features. The PALSAR data of training areas were choose and selected based on the optical satellite imagery and were classified using supervised classification methods. Supervised classification techniques were used in the classification analysis. The best supervised classifier was chosen based on the highest overall accuracy and Kappa statistic. Based on the result produced by this study, it can be pointed out the utility of ALOS-PALSAR data as an alternative data source for land cover classification in the Peninsular Malaysia.

  5. Blow me down: A new perspective on Aloe dichotoma mortality from windthrow

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Windthrow, the uprooting of trees during storms associated with strong winds, is a well-established cause of mortality in temperate regions of the world, often with large ecological consequences. However, this phenomenon has received little attention within arid regions and is not well documented in southern Africa. Slow rates of post-disturbance recovery and projected increases in extreme weather events in arid areas mean that windthrow could be more common and have bigger impacts on these ecosystems in the future. This is of concern due to slow rates of post-disturbance recovery in arid systems and projected increases in extreme weather events in these areas. This study investigated the spatial pattern, magnitude and likely causes of windthrown mortality in relation to other forms of mortality in Aloe dichotoma, an iconic arid-adapted arborescent succulent and southern Africa climate change indicator species. Results We found that windthrown mortality was greatest within the equatorward summer rainfall zone (SRZ) of its distribution (mean = 31%, n = 11), and was derived almost exclusively from the larger adult age class. A logistic modelling exercise indicated that windthrown mortality was strongly associated with greater amounts of warm season (summer) rainfall in the SRZ, higher wind speeds, and leptosols. A statistically significant interaction term between higher summer rainfall and wind speeds further increased the odds of being windthrown. While these results would benefit from improvements in the resolution of wind and substrate data, they do support the hypothesised mechanism for windthrow in A. dichotoma. This involves powerful storm gusts associated with either the current or subsequent rainfall event, heavy convective rainfall, and an associated increase in soil malleability. Shallow rooting depths in gravel-rich soils and an inflexible, top-heavy canopy structure make individuals especially prone to windthrown mortality during

  6. Scattering Properties of Greenland Ice Sheets Inferred from ALOS L-band InSAR Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. C.; Zebker, H. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Greenland ice sheet is 2000 kilometers long and has a maximum thickness of over 3000 meters. It contains around ten percent of the fresh water on Earth. As both a reservoir of water and a heat sink for the Gulf Stream, it plays an important role in the Earth's climate and sea level. Therefore accurate assessments of the Greenland ice sheet's mass balance are essential for understanding global climate change and sea level. Measurements of ice scattering properties in the dry snow zone can contribute to our understanding of accumulation rates, which tend to be harder to measure than loss rates. In this study we examine data acquired by the PALSAR L-band (23.61 centimeter carrier wavelength) InSAR instrument aboard the ALOS satellite. We generate polarimetric InSAR images of two long strips of the Greenland ice sheet extending from the inner dry snow zone through the percolation and wet snow zones to the northern coastline, a total distance of about 700 kilometers. The single-look resolution is around 10 meters, and there is a temporal baseline of 46 days, and spatial baselines range from about 150 to 350 meters. We have demonstrated that the resulting geocoded differential interferograms can have high coherence (0.5 up to 0.9) in large regions of the dry snow zone, and that corrections can be made to recover coherence that is lost due to ionospheric inhomogeneity. We have also estimated radar penetration depths of 50 to 90 meters in the dry snow zone, though estimated penetration depth also depends on polarization. We apply phase and radiometric calibration to the data products generated by our SAR processor, incorporating calibration results published by JAXA. This allows us to estimate radar backscatter brightness (sigma0) and to make an estimated correction for ionospheric Faraday rotation effects in order to accurately measure polarimetric parameters. In general, the backscatter brightness in co-polarized SLC images is about 5 dB higher than in cross

  7. Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of the whole leaf extract of Aloe ferox Mill

    PubMed Central

    Wintola, Olubunmi Abosebe; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aloe ferox Mill. (Asphodelaceae) is used in South Africa for the treatment of constipation among various ailments. Despite the extensive studies conducted on the antioxidant activities of the leaf gel and pulp extract of the plant, there is no information on the antioxidant properties of the whole leaf extract of the species. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activities of ethanol, acetone, methanol and aqueous extracts of A. ferox were investigated spectrophotometrically against 1,1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) diammonium salt, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitric oxide (NO), lipid peroxidation and ferric reducing power. Total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, tannins, alkaloids and saponins were also determined using the standard methods. Results: The percentage compositions of phenols (70.33), flavonols (35.2), proanthocyanidins (171.06) and alkaloids (60.9) were significantly high in the acetone extract, followed by the ethanol extract with values of 70.24, 12.53, 76.7 and 23.76 respectively, while the least composition was found in the aqueous extract. Moreover, both flavonoids and saponins contents were appreciably high in both methanol and ethanol extracts, while others were very low. Tannins levels were, however, not significantly different (P > 0.05) in all the solvent extracts. At 0.5 mg/ml, the free radical scavenging activity of the methanol, acetone and ethanol extracts showed higher inhibition against ABTS, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide radicals. Whereas, scavenging activity of the extracts against DPPH* and lipid peroxidation were observed at a concentration of 0.016 and 0.118 mg/ml respectively in comparison to the butylated hydroxyltoluene (BHT), gallic acid and rutin. The ferric reducing potential of the extracts was concentration dependent and significantly different from that of vitamin C and BHT. Conclusion: The present study showed high

  8. Efficacy of Aloe Vera Supplementation on Prediabetes and Early Non-Treated Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyi; Liu, Wen; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Tieyun; Tian, Haoming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate evidence for the efficacy of aloe vera on managing prediabetes and early non-treated diabetes mellitus. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until 28 January 2016. A total of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 415 participants were included. Compared with the controls, aloe vera supplementation significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose (FBG) (p = 0.02; weighed mean difference [WMD]: −30.05 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −54.87 to −5.23 mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (p < 0.00001; WMD: −0.41%; 95% CI: −0.55% to −0.27%), triglyceride (p = 0.0001), total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.00001), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (p < 0.00001). Aloe vera was superior to placebo in increasing serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (p = 0.04). Only one adverse event was reported. The evidence from RCTs showed that aloe vera might effectively reduce the levels of FBG, HbA1c, triglyceride, TC and LDL-C, and increase the levels of HDL-C on prediabetes and early non-treated diabetic patients. Limited evidence exists about the safety of aloe vera. Given the small number and poor quality of RCTs included in the meta-analysis, these results are inconclusive. A large-scale, well-designed RCT is needed to further address this issue. PMID:27347994

  9. Efficacy of Aloe Vera Supplementation on Prediabetes and Early Non-Treated Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiyi; Liu, Wen; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Tieyun; Tian, Haoming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate evidence for the efficacy of aloe vera on managing prediabetes and early non-treated diabetes mellitus. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until 28 January 2016. A total of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 415 participants were included. Compared with the controls, aloe vera supplementation significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose (FBG) (p = 0.02; weighed mean difference [WMD]: -30.05 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -54.87 to -5.23 mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (p < 0.00001; WMD: -0.41%; 95% CI: -0.55% to -0.27%), triglyceride (p = 0.0001), total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.00001), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (p < 0.00001). Aloe vera was superior to placebo in increasing serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (p = 0.04). Only one adverse event was reported. The evidence from RCTs showed that aloe vera might effectively reduce the levels of FBG, HbA1c, triglyceride, TC and LDL-C, and increase the levels of HDL-C on prediabetes and early non-treated diabetic patients. Limited evidence exists about the safety of aloe vera. Given the small number and poor quality of RCTs included in the meta-analysis, these results are inconclusive. A large-scale, well-designed RCT is needed to further address this issue. PMID:27347994

  10. Exploring a Novel Target Treatment on Breast Cancer: Aloe-emodin Mediated Photodynamic Therapy Induced Cell Apoptosis and Inhibited Cell Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Tian, Si; Zhu, Jing; Li, Kai-Ting; Yu, Ting-He; Yu, Le-Hua; Bai, Ding-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) as a clinical cancer therapy, is a mild therapy, which involves application of photosensitizers (PSs) located in target cells and then irradiated by corresponding wavelength. The activation of PSs generates radical oxygen species (ROS) to exert a selective cytotoxic activity for the target cells. Aloe-emodin (AE) has been found to be an anti-tumor agent in many studies, and has also been demonstrated as a photosensitizer, in the recent years. In order to study the mechanisms of aloe-emodin as a photosensitizer, we investigated the mechanisms of photo-cytotoxicity induced by aloe-emodin in breast cancer MCF-7 cells in the present study. Analysis of cell proliferation evidenced that there was a drastic depression after photodynamic treatment with a series of aloe-emodin concentrations and light doses. We observed changes in apoptosis and demonstrated that the mechanisms of apoptosis were involved in mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum death pathways. The capacity of adhesion, migration and invasion of breast cells was measured using WST8 and transwell assay and demonstrated that AE-PDT significantly inhibited adhesion, migration and invasion of MCF-7cells. The expression of MMP2, MMP9, VEGF and Nrf2 demonstrated that the metastasis was related to oxidative stress. Analysis of changes in cytoskeleton components (F-actin) evidenced cytoskeleton disorganization after treatment with AE-PDT. Taken together, the present results indicated that PDT with aloe-emodin effectively suppressed cancer development in MCF-7cells, suggesting the potential of AE as a new photosensitizer in PDT which can provide a new modility for treating cancer. PMID:26295333

  11. Volcano Deformation and Modeling on Active Volcanoes in the Philippines from ALOS InSAR Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Rivera, Anieri M.; Amelung, Falk; Eco, Rodrigo

    2015-05-01

    Bulusan, Kanlaon, and Mayon volcanoes have erupted over the last decade, and Taal caldera showed signs of volcanic unrest within the same time range. Eruptions at these volcanoes are a threat to human life and infrastructure, having over 1,000,000 people living within 10 km from just these 4 volcanic centers. For this reason, volcano monitoring in the Philippines is of extreme importance. We use the ALOS-1 satellite from the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to make an InSAR time series analysis over Bulusan, Kanlaon, Mayon, and Taal volcanoes for the 2007-2011 period. Time-dependent deformation was detected at all of the volcanoes. Deformation related to changes in pressurization of the volcanic systems was found on Taal caldera and Bulusan volcanoes, with best fitting Mogi sources located at half-space depths of 3.07 km and 0.5 km respectively.

  12. Aloe vera plant-extracted solution hydrothermal synthesis and magnetic properties of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phumying, Santi; Labuayai, Sarawuth; Thomas, Chunpen; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Swatsitang, Ekaphan; Maensiri, Santi

    2013-06-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a novel hydrothermal method using ferric acetylacetonate (Fe(C5H8O2)3) and aloe vera plant-extracted solution. The influences of different reaction temperatures and times on the structure and magnetic properties of the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles were investigated. The synthesized nanoparticles are crystalline and have particle sizes of ˜6-30 nm, as revealed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution TEM (HRTEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) indicate that the synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles have the inverse cubic spinel structure without the presence of any other phase impurities. The hysteresis loops of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles at room temperature show superparamagnetic behavior and the saturation magnetization of the Fe3O4 samples increases with increasing reaction temperature and time.

  13. Design and evaluation of new chemotherapeutics of aloe-emodin (AE) against the deadly cancer disease: an in silico study.

    PubMed

    Mulakayala, Chaitanya; Banaganapalli, Babajan; Mulakayala, Naveen; Pulaganti, Madhusudana; C M, Anuradha; Chitta, Suresh Kumar

    2013-05-23

    The Bcl-2 family proteins include pro- and antiapoptotic factors acting as critical arbiters of apoptotic cell death decisions in most circumstances. Evasion of apoptosis is one of the hallmarks of cancer, relevant to tumorigenesis as well as resistance to cytotoxic drugs, and deregulation of Bcl-2 proteins was observed in many cancers. Since Bax-mediated induction of apoptosis is a crucial mechanism in cancerous cells, we aimed at conducting in silico analysis on Bax in order to predict the possible interactions for anticancer agents. The present report depicts the binding mode of aloe-emodin and its structurally modified derivatives onto Bax. The structural information about the binding site of Bax for docked compounds obtained from this study could aid in screening and designing new anticancer agents or selective inhibitors for chemotherapy against Bax. PMID:24432130

  14. Theoretical study of the AlO blue-green (B2Sigma + - X2Sigma +) band system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, H.; Langhoff, S. R.; Lengsfield, B. H., III; Liu, B.

    1983-01-01

    Two independent, extensive theoretical calculations are reported for the relative band strengths of the AlO (B2Sigma + - X2Sigma +) blue-green system and for the radiative lifetimes of the lowest few vibrational levels of the B2Sigma(+) state. The theoretical lifetimes, which include a small (less than -.5 percent) contribution from bound-bound transitions into the A2Pi state, are in excellent agreement with laser fluorescence studies. The theoretical lifetimes increase monotonically and very slowly with increasing vibrational quantum number. The relative band strengths for the blue-green system derived from the two theoretical calculations are in excellent agreement, but differ systematically from the relative band strengths of Linton and Nicholls (1969). The present results suggest that their self-absorption corrections are not large enough, resulting in relative intensities that are too large, especially for the weak bands with r centroids less than 1.5 A.

  15. Quantum chemical study of the reactions of Al, AlO and AlOH with H2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharipov, Alexander S.; Starik, Alexander M.

    2016-02-01

    Quantum chemical calculations with the use of hybrid density functional with perturbative second-order correlation and dispersion correction are carried out to study the reactions of Al, AlO and AlOH with the H2O2 molecule. The values of energy barriers are estimated by means of extrapolation to the basis set limit. The energetically favorable reaction pathways have been revealed during the examination of the potential energy surfaces. Complex character of the processes under study has been established. It has been found that the initial stages of the considered processes are barrierless. Appropriate rate constants for principal channels of the reactions under study have been estimated by using capture model and canonical variational theory. The Arrhenius approximations for these channels have been proposed for the temperature range T = 300-4000 K.

  16. An Approach to Monitoring Mangrove Extents Through Time-Series Comparison of JERS-1 SAR and ALOS PALSAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Nathan; Lucas, Richard; Itoh, Takuya; Simard, Marc; Fatoyinbo, Lucas; Bunting, Peter; Rosenqvist, Ake

    2014-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2010, Japan's Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Arrayed L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) captured dual polarization HH and HV data across the tropics and sub-tropics. A pan tropical dataset of Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS-1) SAR (HH) data was also acquired between 1995 and 1998. The provision of these comparable cloud-free datasets provided an opportunity for observing changes in the extent of coastal mangroves over more than a decade. Focusing on nine sites distributed through the tropics, this paper demonstrates how these data can be used to backdate and update existing baseline maps of mangrove extent. The benefits of integrating dense timeseries of Landsat sensor data for both validating assessments of change and determining the causes of change are outlined. The approach is evaluated for wider application across the geographical range of mangroves in order to advance the development of JAXA's Global Mangrove Watch (GMW) program.

  17. Is it possible to increase the aloin content of Aloe vera by the use of ultraviolet light?

    PubMed

    Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Guillén, Fabián; Pérez-Aguilar, Henoc; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María; Zapata, Pedro J; Valero, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the effects of ultraviolet (UV) treatments on the aloin content of Aloe vera L. gel have been analyzed. UV-A treatment to A. vera plants for 36 days led to an increase in the aloin concentration in gel, rind tissue, and latex, while a decrease in chlorophylls a and b occurred in the photosynthetic tissue as a consequence of UV treatment. The growth of Penicillium digitatum and Botrytis cinerea (artificially inoculated on the leaf surface) was drastically decreased in UV-A-treated leaves, which could be attributed to the increase in the aloin concentration by the UV-A treatment. In addition, UV-C treatment to detached leaves also led to an increase in the gel aloin concentration, at higher levels than occurred with UV-A treatment, although leaves showed severe lesions after 48 h of treatment. PMID:23406252

  18. Aloe arborescens Extract Protects IMR-32 Cells against Alzheimer Amyloid Beta Peptide via Inhibition of Radical Peroxide Production.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Maria Elisabetta; Tringali, Giuseppe; Triggiani, Doriana; Giardina, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Aloe arborescens is commonly used as a pharmaceutical ingredient for its effect in burn treatment and ability to increase skin wound healing properties. Besides, it is well known to have beneficial phytotherapeutic, anticancer, and radio-protective properties. In this study, we first provided evidence that A. arborescens extract protects IMR32, a neuroblastoma human cellular line, from toxicity induced by beta amyloid, the peptide responsible for Alzheimer's disease. In particular, pretreatment with A. arborescens maintains an elevated cell viability and exerts a protective effect on mitochondrial functionality, as evidenced by oxygen consumption experiments. The protective mechanism exerted by A. arborescens seems be related to lowering of oxidative potential of the cells, as demonstrated by the ROS measurement compared with the results obtained in the presence of amyloid beta (1-42) peptide alone. Based on these preliminary observations we suggest that use ofA. arborescens extract could be developed as agents for the management of AD. PMID:26749845

  19. Investigating the creeping section of the San Andreas Fault using ALOS PALSAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agram, P. S.; Wortham, C.; Zebker, H. A.

    2010-12-01

    In recent years, time-series InSAR techniques have been used to study the temporal characteristics of various geophysical phenomena that produce surface deformation including earthquakes and magma migration in volcanoes. Conventional InSAR and time-series InSAR techniques have also been successfully used to study aseismic creep across faults in urban areas like the Northern Hayward Fault in California [1-3]. However, application of these methods to studying the time-dependent creep across the Central San Andreas Fault using C-band ERS and Envisat radar satellites has resulted in limited success. While these techniques estimate the average long-term far-field deformation rates reliably, creep measurement close to the fault (< 3-4 Km) is virtually impossible due to heavy decorrelation at C-band (6cm wavelength). Shanker and Zebker (2009) [4] used the Persistent Scatterer (PS) time-series InSAR technique to estimate a time-dependent non-uniform creep signal across a section of the creeping segment of the San Andreas Fault. However, the identified PS network was spatially very sparse (1 per sq. km) to study temporal characteristics of deformation of areas close to the fault. In this work, we use L-band (24cm wavelength) SAR data from the PALSAR instrument on-board the ALOS satellite, launched by Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) in 2006, to study the temporal characteristics of creep across the Central San Andreas Fault. The longer wavelength at L-band improves observed correlation over the entire scene which significantly increased the ground area coverage of estimated deformation in each interferogram but at the cost of decreased sensitivity of interferometric phase to surface deformation. However, noise levels in our deformation estimates can be decreased by combining information from multiple SAR acquisitions using time-series InSAR techniques. We analyze 13 SAR acquisitions spanning the time-period from March 2007 to Dec 2009 using the Short Baseline

  20. Growth Period Effects on the Protective Properties of Aloe vera Against t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chang Cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin-Woo; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Yon-Suk; Lee, Jae Woong; Lee, Jeong-Jun; Pyo, Han-Jong; Moon, Sang-Ho; Jeon, Byong-Tae; Park, Pyo-Jam

    2015-12-28

    Aloe vera has been used in traditional medicine for the therapy of a variety of disorders, such as wounds and burns. However, few studies have examined the antioxidant capacities of A. vera plants during different growth periods. In order to investigate the effects of growth on antioxidant activity, A. vera was prepared from 2-, 4-, 6-, 8-, and 12-month-old aloe. The extracts from 6-month-old A. vera showed the highest contents of flavonoids (9.750 mg catechin equivalent/g extract) and polyphenols (23.375 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract) and the highest ferric reducing antioxidant power (0.047 mM ferrous sulfate equivalent/mg extract). The extract from 6-month-old A. vera exhibited the highest free radical scavenging potential, and the lowest IC50 values were found for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (0.26 mg/ml) and alkyl radicals (0.50 mg/ml). In addition, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera showed the greatest effects on cell viability in normal liver cells. Based on these findings, the extract from 6-month-old A. vera was examined further in order to determine its protective potential against tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative stress. The extract from 6-monthold A. vera at a concentration of 0.25 mg/ml showed the highest protective activity against t-BHP-induced reactive oxygen species production. These findings suggested that harvesting regimens were critical in the regulation of effects of the bioactive potential of A. vera on antioxidant activity. PMID:26370795

  1. Comparison of multiple glacier inventories with a new inventory derived from high-resolution ALOS imagery in the Bhutan Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, H.; Fujita, K.; Sakai, A.; Nuimura, T.; Tadono, T.

    2016-01-01

    Digital glacier inventories are invaluable data sets for revealing the characteristics of glacier distribution and for upscaling measurements from selected locations to entire mountain ranges. Here, we present a new inventory of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) imagery and compare it with existing inventories for the Bhutan Himalaya. The new inventory contains 1583 glaciers (1487 ± 235 km2), thereof 219 debris-covered glaciers (951 ± 193 km2) and 1364 debris-free glaciers (536 ± 42 km2). Moreover, we propose an index for quantifying consistency between two glacier outlines. Comparison of the overlap ratio demonstrates that the ALOS-derived glacier inventory contains delineation uncertainties of 10-20 % which depend on glacier size, that the shapes and geographical locations of glacier outlines derived from the fourth version of the Randolph Glacier Inventory have been improved in the fifth version, and that the latter is consistent with other inventories. In terms of whole glacier distribution, each data set is dominated by glaciers of 1.0-5.0 km2 area (31-34 % of the total area), situated at approximately 5400 m elevation (nearly 10 % in 100 m bin) with either north or south aspects (22 and 15 %). However, individual glacier outlines and their area exhibit clear differences among inventories. Furthermore, consistent separation of glaciers with inconspicuous termini remains difficult, which, in some cases, results in different values for glacier number. High-resolution imagery from Google Earth can be used to improve the interpretation of glacier outlines, particularly for debris-covered areas and steep adjacent slopes.

  2. Review of the efficacy of green tea, isoflavones and aloe vera supplements based on randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Gary; Coppens, Patrick; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Dew, Tristan

    2011-12-01

    We assess the evidence for health benefits of three commonly consumed plant food supplements (PFS), green tea, isoflavone and aloe vera, based on published systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Whilst the potential benefits of green tea have been reported in a wide range of health areas, it is only in the area of the metabolic syndrome that the number of RCTs is approaching sufficient to judge such efficacy. Isoflavone supplements are widely used, and RCTs indicate that they affect bone resorption at lower doses in postmenopausal women undergoing estrogen-related bone loss, but this is only translated to attenuation of bone loss at higher doses of isoflavones. A systematic review on RCTs concluded that the effects of isoflavones on hot flashes in postmenopausal women were highly variable and no conclusions could be drawn. Despite the popularity of aloe vera as a PFS, the evaluation of its efficacy as a coadjuvant therapy for certain metabolic or digestive pathologies remains scarce; it constitutes a typical example of a naturally occurring ingredient whose efficacy in topical applications presupposes its efficacy in systemic applications. Nevertheless, its possible toxic effects on oral consumption call for caution in its utility as a PFS. Since 2007, efficacy evaluation of PFS in Europe has been covered by European Union Nutrition and Health Claims legislation. The European Food Safety Authority has adopted an approach relying on RCTs, while medicinal effects are accepted based on traditional use. In general, there are insufficient RCTs for claims to be made, and conclusive results on PFS should be obtained in the future by conducting studies with more homogeneous populations, by using supplements with optimised and measured bioavailability, and by conducting larger RCTs. PMID:21927741

  3. Shallow Hydrothermal Pressurization before the 2010 Eruption of Mount Sinabung Volcano, Indonesia, Observed by use of ALOS Satellite Radar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Pablo J.; Singh, Keshav D.; Tiampo, Kristy F.

    2015-11-01

    Ground deformation in volcanic regions can be a precursor to resumption of activity. Volcanic eruptions are typically brief periods of activity punctuating very long inter-eruptive periods. This makes hazard evaluation a difficult task for volcanoes with low-recurrence eruptive activity, which often are poorly monitored. As a result, analysis of inter-eruptive periods by use of remote sensing techniques can provide important information on precursory activity and improve volcano hazard assessment. In August-September 2010 Mt Sinabung, Indonesia, reawakened after at least 400 years of dormancy. The ground deformation before this eruption was investigated by use of differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar data obtained from Japanese ALOS-PALSAR radar imagery between 05 January 2007 and 31 August 2010. Results from InSAR time series processing detected significant ground deformation (subsidence) at several locations on the Karo plateau, and uplift in the summit area of Mt Sinabung. The persistent scatterers density obtained by use of ALOS data is sufficient to enable extraction of temporal and spatial patterns of the deformation. The surface deformation at the summit can be modeled by using a spherical point-source model. Source data are consistent with a very shallow (hydrothermal) reservoir, with a linear increase in overpressure before the 2010 Mt Sinabung eruption. Hydrothermal origin is consistent with seismicity, tiltmeters, and analysis of ash products collected during and after the 2010 eruption. These results support the potential of L-band interferometry for hazard assessment in poorly monitored and highly vegetated volcanic areas and also indicate that hazard assessment for Indonesian volcanoes could potentially be improved by identification of precursory (inter-eruptive) uplift periods.

  4. Examination of an aloe vera galacturonate polysaccharide capable of in situ gelation for the controlled release of protein therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConaughy, Shawn David

    A therapeutic delivery platform has been investigated with the ultimate goal of designing a sustained protein release matrix utilizing an in-situ gelling, acidic polysaccharide derived from the Aloe vera plant. The Aloe vera polysaccharide (AvP) has been examined in order to determine how chemical composition, structure, molecular weight and solution behavior affect gelation and protein/peptide delivery. Correlations are drawn between structural characteristics and solution behavior in order to determine the impact of polymer conformation and solvation on gel formation under conditions designed to simulate nasal applications. Steady state and dynamic rheology, classic and dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, pulse field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy have been employed to gain insight into the effects of galacturonic acid content, degree of methylation, entanglement and ionic strength on both solution behavior and the hydrogel state which ultimately governs protein/peptide release. This dissertation is divided into two sections. In the first section, a series of Aloe vera polysaccharides (AvP), from the pectin family have been structurally characterized indicating high galacturonic acid (GalA) content, low degree of methylester substitution (DM), low numbers of rhamnose residues and high molecular weight with respect to pectins extracted from traditional sources. The behavior of AvP was examined utilizing dilute solution, low-shear rheological techniques for specific molecular weight samples at selected conditions of ionic strength. From these dilute aqueous solution studies, the Mark-Houwink-Sakurada (MHS) constants (K and alpha), persistence length (Lp) and inherent chain stiffness (B parameter) were determined, indicating an expanded random coil in aqueous salt solutions. The critical concentration for transition from dilute to concentrated solution, C e, was determined by measuring both the zero shear viscosity and

  5. Studies on Sea Ice and Polynya off the Cape Darnley in East Antarctica, Using the ALOS PALSAR and Passive Microwave Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohshima, Kay I.; Tamura, Takeshi

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and validate the sea ice thickness algorithm from the combination of the ALOS PALSAR data and other satellite data, and to clarify the formation process of an Antarctic coastal polynya and its variability. The Cape Darnley polynya, which is suggested to be the second largest ice production area, is chosen as the test site. The PALSAR images suggest that the iceberg tongue (fast ice) is formed east of the polynya from the coast (south) to offshore (north) for about 100 km length. Blocking of sea ice by this tongue is considered to be very important on the polynya formation. We discuss the relationship between ALOS PALSAR data, passive microwave data, and sea ice thickness derived from the MODIS data and heat flux calculation.

  6. Combining ALOS and ERS-2 SAR data for the characterization of tidal flats. Case study from the Baie des Veys, Normandy, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deroin, Jean-Paul

    2012-08-01

    To better understand the SAR backscattering of tidal flats' sediments, a study was conducted in the framework of the ALOS Data European Node. The approach is mainly based on the analysis of a time series of ALOS data acquired from April to June 2008. The emphasis is on the spatial statistics of the underlying random surface of the tidal flat. Three ALOS cycles with interesting adjacent swath configurations were considered. The study comprised field work to establish the ground truth, and then the analysis of radar data. For this purpose combined PALSAR L-band HH and ERS-2 C-band VV data were explored, because dual-frequency data acquisition is needed for geophysical parameters retrieval. Co-polarized data are more relevant for the study of the tidal flat itself, whereas the HV polarization is suitable for identifying the presence of halophytic plants growing in the upper part of the tidal flat. Quad-polarization L-band data could be of great interest, but experiments could not be set up due to lack of suitable acquisitions. The C-band is more accurate for sensing the roughness of the finer sediments, whereas the L-band is more relevant for drawing the instantaneous limit of the sea. This paper briefly discusses the role of the local mean time for the study of areas experiencing high tidal range. For the test site located in Normandy, the ALOS acquisition time does not allow more than 55 per cent of the tidal flat to be exposed.

  7. The Effect of Aloe Vera Solution on Chemotherapy-Induced Stomatitis in Clients with Lymphoma and Leukemia: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Parisa; Haghighi, Maryam; Beheshtipour, Noushin; Ramzi, Mani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stomatitis is the most common complication of chemotherapy. This study aimed to assess the effect of aloe vera solution on stomatitis and its pain intensity in patients undergoing chemotherapeutic procedures. Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 64 patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia undergoing chemotherapy were randomly divided into a control and an intervention group. The intervention group patients were asked to wash their mouths with 5 ml of aloe vera solution for two minutes three times a day for 14 days. The control group patients, however, used only the ordinary mouthwashes recommended in hematologic centers. The patients’ mouths were examined by two assistants on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14. The intensity of stomatitis was recorded according to WHO stomatitis intensity checklists and pain was evaluated using Visual Analog Scale. The data were analyzed by SPSS statistical software, version 18. Results: The results showed that aloe vera solution mouthwash significantly reduced the intensity of stomatitis and its pain in the intervention group compared to the control group. On the first day, no significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the mean intensity of stomatitis (P=0.178) and pain (P=0.154). However, a significant difference was observed between the two groups in this regard on other days (days 3-14: P=0.001 for stomatitis intensity, P=0.001 for pain). Conclusions: Aloe vera solution can improve the patients’ nutritional status, reduce stomatitis and its pain intensity, and increase the patients’ satisfaction. Trial Registration Number IRCT2014092819318N1 PMID:27218109

  8. A phase III trial comparing an anionic phospholipid-based cream and aloe vera-based gel in the prevention of radiation dermatitis in pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Thomas E; Bosley, Christina; Smith, Julie; Baratti, Pam; Pritchard, David; Davis, Tina; Li, Chenghong; Xiong, Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Radiation dermatitis is a common side effect of radiation therapy (RT). In severe cases, RT must be interrupted until the skin heals, which can compromise treatment. The purpose of the study was to compare an anionic polar phospholipid (APP)-based cream and an aloe vera-based gel to determine their effectiveness in preventing and treating radiation dermatitis. Patients and methods Forty-five pediatric patients (median age, 11 years) with various diagnoses who received at least 23.4 Gy participated. APP cream and aloe vera gel were symmetrically applied within the irradiated field after each treatment. Three measures were collected before, during and after completion of treatment: subject's skin comfort, dermatologic assessment, and common toxicity criteria (CTC). Results Significant differences in specific variables favoring APP cream use were noted in some patients including skin comfort variables, dry (p = 0.002), soft (p = 0.057), feels good (p = 0.002), rough (p = 0.065), smooth (p = 0.012) and dermatologic variables, dryness (p = 0.013), erythema (p = 0.002) and peely (p = 0.008). Grouped CTC scores were supportive of APP cream (p = 0.004). In comparing the first and last assessments, two dermatologic variables, dryness (p = 0.035) and peely (p = 0.016), favored APP cream. Conclusion APP cream is more effective than aloe vera-based gel for prevention and treatment of radiation dermatitis. PMID:18093332

  9. A randomized clinical study for comparative evaluation of Aloe Vera and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash efficacy on de-novo plaque formation

    PubMed Central

    Chhina, Shivjot; Singh, Avnish; Menon, Ipseeta; Singh, Rickypal; Sharma, Anubhav; Aggarwal, Vartika

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To comparatively assess the antiplaque efficacy of Aloe vera mouthwash and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash on de novo plaque formation. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, single blind, parallel, controlled clinical study with 90 healthy participants, with mean age of 27.19 ± 12.08 years. After thorough oral prophylaxis, participants were instructed to discontinue mechanical plaque control. Participants were divided randomly into three groups; pure Aloe vera mouthwash was dispensed to the test group; control group received 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash; in Placebo group, flavored distilled water was used as oral rinse twice daily. Effect on 4-day de novo plaque formation was assessed by comparing pre-rinsing Quigley Hein Modified Plaque Scores were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Results: Post-rinsing control group showed the least plaque score which was comparable to the test group. Both the control group and test group showed significant difference with the placebo group. Conclusions: Herbal mouthwash containing Aloe vera mouthwash has comparable antiplaque efficacy as the gold standard 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate with fewer side effects and can be considered as an alternative. PMID:27382543

  10. Safety of purified decolorized (low anthraquinone) whole leaf Aloe vera (L) Burm. f. juice in a 3-month drinking water toxicity study in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, A; Broadmeadow, A; Goddard, G; Bejar, E; Frankos, V

    2013-07-01

    Decolorized (purified, low anthraquinone) whole leaf Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. juice was administered at concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% in the drinking water of F344Du rats for 3 months without any adverse effect. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) in this study was considered to be >2%w/v (>1845 mg/kg bodyweight/day for males and >2920 mg/kg bodyweight for females). The test material contained total anthraquinones at <0.1 parts per million. In the present study there was a complete absence of any histological alteration in samples from the cecum, colon (proximal, mid and distal regions). Similar concentrations of non-decolorized (unpurified, high anthraquinone) Aloe vera extracts tested in other studies have resulted in an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea and colon adenomas and carcinomas. The results of this study supports the assertion that the high levels of anthraquinone present in orally administered, non-purified whole leaf Aloe vera extract may be responsible for the adverse effects observed on the colon. PMID:23500775

  11. Characterization and spatial distribution of mangrove forest types based on ALOS-PALSAR mosaic 25m-resolution in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darmawan, S.; Takeuchi, W.; Nakazono, E.; Parwati, E.; Dien, V. T.; Oo, K. S.; Wikantika, K.; Sari, D. K.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate characteristics of mangrove forest types and to identify spatial distribution of mangrove forest based on ALOS PALSAR mosaic 25m- resolution in Southeast Asia. Methodology consists of collecting of ALOS PALSAR image for overall Southeast Asia region, preprocessing include converting DN to NRCS and filtering, collecting regions of interest of mangrove forest in Southeast Asia, plotting, characterization and classification. Result on this research we found characteristics of mangrove forest on HH values around -10.88 dB to -6.65 dB and on HV value around -16.49 dB to -13.26 dB. On polarization of HH which the highest backscattering value is mangrove forest in Preak Piphot River Cambodia, Thái Thủy Thai Binh Vietnam, and Vạn Ninh tp. Móng Cái Quảng Ninh Vietnam whereas the lowest backscattering value is mangrove forest in Thailand area. On polarization of HV which the highest backscattering value is mangrove forest in Preak Piphot River Cambodia, Sorong and Teluk Bintuni Indonesia whereas the lowest backscattering value is mangrove forest in Subang Indonesia, Giao Thiện Giao Thuỷ Nam Định, Vietnam and Puyu Mueng Satun Thailand. Based on characterization, we create a rule criteria for classification of mangrove areas and non mangrove area. Finally we found spatial distribution of mangrove forest based on ALOS PALSAR 25m-resolution in Southeast Asia.

  12. Interferograms of Coseismic Deformation from the May 12, 2008, Sichuan, China, Earthquake obtained by ALOS/PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Enomoto, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Fukahata, Y.

    2008-12-01

    A devastating earthquake hit southern China on May 12, 2008, and claimed more than 80,000 casualties. This event is the first M8 earthquake in history in and around the Sichuan basin. The epicenter is located near the Sichuan basin, and aftershocks are aligned in the NE-SW direction parallel to the Longmen Shan fault zone, which suggests that this active fault zone bounding the basin and mountain ranges is the source of this event. It is important to reveal the fault movement from the viewpoints of future earthquake hazard evaluation and tectonics of collision zone. Japan's Advanced Land Observing Satellite (hereafter ALOS) has been conducting observation of the earth's surface since its launch on Jan. 24, 2006. ALOS is equipped with an L-band synthetic aperture radar, Phased Array L-band SAR (hereafter PALSAR), which is suitable for the observation of heavily vegetated areas. We analyzed ALOS/PALSAR images along 8 paths acquired before and after the mainshock and revealed entire features of coseismic deformation using the Gamma software and hole-filled SRTM DEM by Jarvis et al.(2008). We observe fringes around the Longmen Shan fault zone. In spite of different period and timing of acquisition of SAR images, several fringes can be traced across the interferograms. These continuous fringes can be recognized in an about 100km wide region surrounding the fault zone and regarded as coseismic deformations. We can count 8-9 fringes, i.e. 90-100cm LOS displacements, between the fault zone and Chengdu located about 50km away from the Pengguan fault, southern most trace of the Longmen Shan fault zone. On the other hand, we could not obtain correlation high enough in the source region due to large displacements. This low correlation zone can be traced nearly 240km along the surface faults. It is worth noting that numbers of fringes are almost the same on the both sides of the source region. This pattern suggests right-lateral motion on a steeply dipping fault plane. On the

  13. High spatial resolution water level time series in the Florida Everglades wetlands using multi-track ALOS PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S.; Wdowinski, S.

    2013-05-01

    Wetland InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) observations provide very high-resolution maps of water level changes that cannot be obtained by any terrestrial technique. We recently developed the Small Temporal Baseline Subset (STBAS) approach, which combines single-track InSAR and stage (water level) observations to generate high-resolution absolute water level time series maps. However, the temporal resolution of produced time series is coarse compared with in-situ stage observation and, hence, the usefulness of these maps is rather limited. To compensate for the low temporal resolution weakness of space-based water level time series, we propose using a multi-track STBAS technique, which utilizes all available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) observations acquired over a certain wetland area. We use a four-year long L-band ALOS PALSAR dataset acquired during 2007-2011 to test the proposed method over the Water Conservation Area 1 (WCA1) in the Everglades wetlands, south Florida (USA). A total of 37 images acquired with four tracks were collected. Daily water level data at 12 stage stations, which are monitored by the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) in WCA1 area, were used to calibrate the InSAR-derived water level data. The proposed multi-track approach yielded a significant improvement of temporal resolution, which is dependent on the SAR satellite revisit cycle. Instead of the 46-day repeat orbit of ALOS, the multi-track method produces water level maps with temporal resolution of only 7 days. A quality control analysis of the methods indicates that the average root mean square error (RMSE) of the differences between stage water level and retrieved water level by InSAR technique is 4.0 cm. The end products of absolute water level time series with improved temporal and very high spatial resolutions can be used as excellent constraints for high-resolution wetland flow models. Furthermore, the next generation of SAR satellites has been designed

  14. Regional extent of permafrost and boreal forest degradations in the central Yakutia by ALOS-PALSAR and AVNIR2 images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Yoshihiro; Fedorov, Alexander; Abe, Konomi; Ise, Hajime; Masuzawa, Tadashi

    2013-04-01

    Wet climate with largely increased in precipitation during summer and snow accumulation during winter had continued 4 years since 2004 winter in eastern Siberia. Soil moisture in the active layer had been significantly increased corresponding with thawing of permafrost near the surface during following years. The perennially water-logged active layer furthermore exacerbated the boreal forest habitat, namely withered and dead forests widely extended in this region. In the present study, we have attempted to extract the region of degraded boreal forest based on the analysis of satellite data in the left and right banks of Lena River near Yakutsk, along with expansion of the water surface area in relation to permafrost degradation. We utilized ALOS-PALSAR and AVNIR2 images taken during 2006 through 2009. After geocoding and noise reduction of PALSAR images, classification of water surface area including water-logged ground was performed with supervised classification using the threshold of a microwave backscattering coefficient. Then, we compared the distribution of the water-logged area between multi-years. In addition, during the same period, supervised classification of grassland and boreal forest was conducted using AVNIR2 images. Then, both classifications were overlaid and the multi-years change in degraded boreal forest due to water-logged conditions was extracted as well. Boreal forest in the left bank of the Lena River distributes on river terrace where density of alas lakes is quite low due to consisting of sandy loam soil with underlying permafrost with less ground ice content. In this area, water surface area expanded in concaved terrain and along the valley year by year in conjunction with change from forest to grassland. On the other hand, forest in the right bank of the Lena River distributed in the region with very high density of alas lakes due to underlying ice rich permafrost. During the same period, alas lakes expanded and boreal forest on the

  15. Crustal Deformation Caused by an M8.1 Earthquake in the Solomon Islands, Detected by ALOS/PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Y.; Ozawa, T.; Shimada, M.

    2009-12-01

    On April 1, 2007 (UTC), a large Mw 8.1 interplate earthquake occurred in the Solomon Islands subduction zone where Pacific, Australian, Solomon Sea, and Woodlark Plates produce complicated tectonics. This earthquake was accompanied by a large tsunami and caused considerable damage in the epicentral area. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) performed emergency observations using the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS). A remote-sensing technique has the advantage of being able to observe and monitor a disaster in a remote location like the Solomon Islands that is difficult to access and receives few geophysical observations. Especially the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Rader (PALSAR) can observe the target and get high coherence even under cloudy conditions in heavily-vegetated tropical region. We applied Differential Interferometric SAR (DInSAR) technique using data from the PALSAR installed on ALOS, and detected significant crustal deformation over wide area associated with the earthquake. Then we inverted the geodetic information from DInSAR result jointly with the field investigation data (Tomita et al., 2008), and estimated a slip distribution on the inferred seismic fault (Miyagi et al., 2009). The modeling result shows large slip areas around the hypocenter and the centroid, and the estimated slip pattern was corresponding to those deduced from teleseismic data (e.g. Yagi, 2007). It can be interpreted that the large slip area around the centroid is consistent with a strong coupling area due to a subduction of the plate boundary between the Woodlark and Australian plates, and that the small slip area is consistent with the weak coupling area under the Simbo Island caused by thermal activities related to volcanic activity of Simbo Island. The 2007 earthquake occurred in the area where has occurred no M7- or larger-sized earthquake since 1970. Although a part of the seismic gap was filled in the 2007 events, small seismic gap

  16. Magnitude and extent of land subsidence in central Mexico revealed by regional InSAR ALOS time-series survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaussard, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Amelung, F.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    2013-05-01

    Massive groundwater extraction is very common in Mexico and is well known to result in land subsidence. However, most surveys dedicated to land subsidence focus on one single city, mainly Mexico City, and thus fail to provide a comprehensive picture of the problem. Here we use a space-based radar remote sensing technique, known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to detect land subsidence in the entire central Mexico area. We used data from the Japanese satellite ALOS, processed over 600 SAR images acquired between 2007-2011 and produced over 3000 interferograms to cover and area of 200,000 km2 in central Mexico. We identify land subsidence in twenty-one areas, including seventeen cities, namely from east to west, Puebla, Mexico city, Toluca de Lerdo, Queretaro, San Luis de la Paz, south of San Luis de la Paz, Celaya, south of Villa de Reyes, San Luis Potosi, west of Villa de Arista, Morelia, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon, Aguascalientes, north of Aguascalientes, Zamora de Hidalgo, Guadalajara, Ahuacatlan, and Tepic. Subsidence rates of 30 cm/yr are observed in Mexico City, while in the other locations typical rates of 5-10 cm/yr are noticed. Regional surveys of this type are necessary for the development of hazard mitigation plans and efficient use of ground-based monitoring. We additionally correlate subsidence with land use, surface geology, and faults distribution and suggest that groundwater extraction for agricultural, urban, and industrial uses are the main causes of land subsidence. We also reveal that the limits of the subsiding areas often correlate with existing faults, motion on these faults being driven by water extraction rather than by tectonic activity. In all the subsiding locations we observe high ground velocity gradients emphasizing the significant risks associated with land subsidence in central Mexico. Averaged 2007-2011 ground velocity map from ALOS InSAR time-series in central Mexico, revealing land subsidence in 21

  17. Transient Surface Deformation of Northern Taiwan, 2007-2011, Using Persistent Scattered InSAR with ALOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Chang, W.; Chang, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Taipei basin, triangular in shape and located in the northern Taiwan, is now developed into the most densely populated area and also the capital of politics and economics in Taiwan. North of the Taipei basin, the Tatun volcano group was proposed to be the cause of extensional collapse during the Pleistocene following the collision between the Luzon volcanic arc and the Eurasian continental margin at about 5 Ma. We investigated the contemporary surface deformation of the northern Taiwan using ALOS images that cover the Taipei basin and its surrounding mountainous area. The Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) technique has been widely used in the past ten years. However, the mountainous areas surrounding the basin are mostly covered with densely various vegetations that reduce signal-to-noise ratio in the interferograms. Therefore, the DInSAR technique is not effective for measuring the surface deformation in and around the Taipei basin, including the Tatun volcano area, and consequently the Persistent Scatterer (PS) and small baseline (SB) InSAR techniques have been employed to extract phase signals of the chosen PS points. In this study, we aim to measure the ground deformation of northern Taiwan by processing the spaceborne radar interferometry data of ALOS acquired from 2007 to 2011 using PSInSAR and SBInSAR techniques. Compared with the Envisat and ERS images used by previous studies, L-band PALSAR images can produce more PS points in the region covered by dense vegetation so that our results reveal a higher resolution of ground deformation. The mean Line of Sight (LOS) velocity field of up to 8 mm/yr in the central Tatun volcanic area, and up to 5 mm/yr in the Taipei basin with higher rate at the hanging wall of the Sanchiao fault than the footwall. (See the Figure.) While previous studies indicated that the Taipei basin had experienced ground uplift from 1993 to 2001 and subsidence from 2003 to 2008, our results show a return to

  18. Effects of fresh Aloe vera gel coating on browning alleviation of fresh cut wax apple (Syzygium samarangenese) fruit cv. Taaptimjaan.

    PubMed

    Supapvanich, S; Mitrsang, P; Srinorkham, P; Boonyaritthongchai, P; Wongs-Aree, C

    2016-06-01

    The effect of natural coating by using fresh Aloe vera (A. vera) gel alleviating browning of fresh-cut wax apple fruits cv. Taaptimjaan was investigated. The fresh-cut fruits were dipped in fresh A. vera gel at various concentrations of 0, 25, 75 or 100 % (v/v) for 2 min at 4 ± 1 °C for 6 days. Lightness (L*), whiteness index (WI), browning index (BI), total color difference (ΔE*), sensorial quality attributes, total phenolic (TP) content, antioxidant activity and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities were determined. During storage, L* and WI of the fresh-cut fruits surface decreased whilst their BI and ΔE* increased. A. vera coating maintained the L* and WI and delayed the increase in BI and ΔE*, especially at 75 % A. vera dip. The fresh-cut fruits dipped in 75 % A. vera had the lowest browning score, the highest acceptance score and delayed the increase in TP content and PPO activity. However POD activity was induced by A. vera coating. Antioxidant activity had no effect on browning incidence of the fresh-cut fruits. Consequently, A. vera gel coating could maintain quality and retarded browning of fresh-cut wax apple fruits during storage. PMID:27478241

  19. Aloe vera extract functionalized zinc oxide nanoparticles as nanoantibiotics against multi-drug resistant clinical bacterial isolates.

    PubMed

    Ali, Khursheed; Dwivedi, Sourabh; Azam, Ameer; Saquib, Quaiser; Al-Said, Mansour S; Alkhedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Musarrat, Javed

    2016-06-15

    ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs) were synthesised through a simple and efficient biogenic synthesis approach, exploiting the reducing and capping potential of Aloe barbadensis Miller (A. vera) leaf extract (ALE). ALE-capped ZnO nanoparticles (ALE-ZnONPs) were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. XRD analysis provided the average size of ZnONPs as 15 nm. FTIR spectral analysis suggested the role of phenolic compounds, terpenoids and proteins present in ALE, in nucleation and stability of ZnONPs. Flow cytometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) data analyses revealed the surface binding and internalization of ZnONPs in Gram +ve (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram -ve (Escherichia coli) cells, respectively. Significant antibacterial activity of ALE-ZnONPs was observed against extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) positive E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates exhibiting the MIC and MBC values of 2200, 2400 μg/ml and 2300, 2700 μg/ml, respectively. Substantial inhibitory effects of ALE-ZnONPs on bacterial growth kinetics, exopolysaccharides and biofilm formation, unequivocally suggested the antibiotic and anti-biofilm potential. Overall, the results elucidated a rapid, environmentally benign, cost-effective, and convenient method for ALE-ZnONPs synthesis, for possible applications as nanoantibiotics or drug carriers. PMID:27031596

  20. Nature-Derived Aloe Vera Gel Blended Silk Fibroin Film Scaffolds for Cornea Endothelial Cell Regeneration and Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Kyung; Sim, Bo Ra; Khang, Gilson

    2016-06-22

    The goal of this study was to fabricate an appropriate replacement for cadaveric corneas to overcome a shortage of cadaveric corneas for transplantation. In this study, we fabricated transparent ultrathin film scaffolds with nature-derived aloe vera (AV) gel and silk fibroin (SF) for corneal endothelial cells (CECs). The scaffolds were subjected to analysis of transparency and contact angle using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to determine their physical and chemical properties. FESEM images revealed that the critical morphology of CECs was formed on the AV gel in the blend with SF rather than in the scaffold with SF alone. The cell proliferation, phenotype, and specific gene marker expressions for CECs were determined by MTT assays, immunofluorescence, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions. Incorporation of a small amount of AV gel increased the cell viability and maintained its functions well. The scaffolds were easily handled for transplantation into rabbit eyes with small incisions and examined by their transparency after transplantation and histological staining. The scaffolds attached to the surface of the corneal stroma and integrated with surrounding corneal tissue without a significant inflammatory reaction. These results indicate that AV blended SF film scaffolds might be a suitable substitute for alternative corneal grafts for transplantation. PMID:27243449

  1. Aloe vera mediated hydrothermal synthesis of reduced graphene oxide decorated ZnO nanocomposite: Luminescence and antioxidant properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavyashree, D.; Nagabhushana, H.; Ananda Kumari, R.; Basavaraj, R. B.; Suresh, D.; Daruka Prasad, B.; Sharma, S. C.

    2016-05-01

    A zinc oxide/reduced graphene oxide (ZnO/rGO) nanocomposite was fabricated by facile hydrothermal route using Aloe vera gel as surfactant. The PL emission spectrum of the ZnO/rGO composite consists of four peaks at around 380, 394, 449 and 465nm. The PL intensity is found to diminish in ZnO-rGO composites rather than in pure ZnO, which was attributed to electron transfer from ZnO to rGO. A single intense glow curve was recorded in rGo-ZnO for a dose range of 1-8kGy. The TL response curve of rGO-ZnO is found to be a simple glow curve structure, linear dependence over a dose range of 1-8kGy. The obtained ZnO/rGO composite could provide a facile and eco-friendly method for the development of graphene-based nanocomposites with promising applications in radiation dosimetry and antioxidant activities.

  2. Development of bilayer floating tablet of amoxicillin and Aloe vera gel powder for treatment of gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Arati N; Wankhede, Sonali S; Ranpise, Nisharani S; Mundada, Mayur S

    2012-12-01

    Usual treatment for Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer includes a 'triple therapy' consisting of two antibiotics (amoxicillin and clarithromycin) and a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole). The objective of this project work was defined with a view to retain the drug in stomach for better antiulcer activity and substituting one of the synthetic drugs in this therapy with a herbal alternative. Hence, aim of the present work was to design and develop a bilayer floating tablet of amoxicillin and Aloe vera gel powder for the treatment of peptic ulcer. A. vera gel powder is used for its cytoprotective action. Bilayer floating tablets were prepared by applying direct compression technique. The proportion of sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was adjusted to get the least possible lag time with good matrix integrity and total floating time. Polymer concentration was adjusted to get the maximum release in 8 h. The formulation was developed using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) K4M and HPMC K100M in a ratio of 85:15 along with 1:4 ratio of effervescent agents was found to give floating lag time of less than 1 min with total floating time of more than 8 h and 97.0% drug release in 8 h. In vivo study in rats meets the requirement of antiulcer activity for bilayer tablet in comparison to single amoxicillin as standard. PMID:23135966

  3. Aloe vera juice: IC₅₀ and dual mechanistic inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6.

    PubMed

    Djuv, Ane; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory potency (IC₅₀ values) of ethanol extracts of two commercially available aloe vera juice (AVJ) products, on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 activities in vitro and to determine if such inhibitions could be mechanism-based. Recombinant human CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 enzymes were used and the activities were expressed by the metabolism of testosterone and dextromethorphan with ketoconazole and quinidine as positive inhibitor controls, respectively. The formed metabolites were quantified by validated HPLC techniques. Time- and NADPH- dependent inhibition assays were performed to evaluate a possible mechanism-based inhibition. One of the AVJ extracts showed about twice the inhibitory potency towards both CYP enzymes over the other with IC₅₀ values of 8.35 ± 0.72 and 12.5 ± 2.1 mg/mL for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6, respectively. The AVJ was found to exert both CYP mediated and non-CYP mediated inhibition of both CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. This dual mechanistic inhibition, however, seems to be governed by different mechanisms for CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Estimated IC₅₀ inhibition values indicate no major interference of AVJ with drug metabolism in man, but the dual mechanistic inhibition of both enzymes might be of clinical significance. PMID:21842479

  4. Aloe-emodin exerts a potent anticancer and immunomodulatory activity on BRAF-mutated human melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Tabolacci, Claudio; Cordella, Martina; Turcano, Lorenzo; Rossi, Stefania; Lentini, Alessandro; Mariotti, Sabrina; Nisini, Roberto; Sette, Giovanni; Eramo, Adriana; Piredda, Lucia; De Maria, Ruggero; Facchiano, Francesco; Beninati, Simone

    2015-09-01

    Aim of this study was to extend the knowledge on the antineoplastic effect of aloe-emodin (AE), a natural hydroxyanthraquinone compound, both in metastatic human melanoma cell lines and in primary stem-like cells (melanospheres). Treatment with AE caused reduction of cell proliferation and induction of SK-MEL-28 and A375 cells differentiation, characterized by a marked increase of transamidating activity of transglutaminase whose expression remained unmodified. In vitro antimetastatic property of AE was evaluated by adhesion and Boyden chamber invasion assays. The effect of AE on melanoma cytokines/chemokines production was determined by a multiplex assay: interestingly AE showed an immunomodulatory activity through GM-CSF and IFN-γ production. We report also that AE significantly reduced the proliferation, stemness and invasive potential of melanospheres. Moreover, AE treatment significantly enhanced dabrafenib (a BRAF inhibitor) antiproliferative activity in BRAF mutant cell lines. Our results confirm that AE possesses remarkable antineoplastic properties against melanoma cells, indicating this anthraquinone as a promising agent for differentiation therapy of cancer, or as adjuvant in chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Further, its mechanisms of action support a potential efficacy of AE treatment to counteract resistance of BRAF-mutated melanoma cells to target therapy. PMID:26048310

  5. Combination of aloe-emodin with radiation enhances radiation effects and improves differentiation in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinghua; Yuan, Yong; Chang, Pengyu; Li, Dawei; Liu, Zhiqiang; Qu, Yaqin

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of aloe-emodin (AE) on the radiosensitivity and differentiation of HeLa human cervical cancer cells. Cell proliferation was assessed in the HeLa cervical cancer cell line by a methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay. Radiosensitivity was determined by a colony‑forming assay. Flow cytometry was used for analysis of cell cycle distribution and apoptosis. The expression of γ-H2AX and cyclin B was assessed by western blotting. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured by an ALP activity kit. It was demonstrated that AE inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, induced G2/M and S phase cell cycle arrest and enhanced the radiosensitivity of HeLa cells. The combination of AE and radiation induced apoptosis, upregulated cyclin B and γ-H2AX expression and further improved ALP activity compared with treatment with AE or radiation alone. AE enhanced the radiosensitivity of HeLa human cervical cancer cells in vitro, inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells, induced G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and, in combination with radiation, induced the apoptosis and improved the differentiation of HeLa cells. PMID:24920336

  6. Inhibitory effects of low-dose aloe-emodin on the development of colorectal tumors in min mice.

    PubMed

    Shimpo, Kan; Chihara, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takaaki; Beppu, Hidehiko; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Shinzato, Masanori; Yukitake, Jun; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE), a natural anthraquinone compound, has been reported to exhibit anticancer activity in various cancer cell lines and anti-inflammatory effects in murine macrophages. In the present study, we investigated the cancer chemopreventive effects of AE in an Apc-deficient Min mouse model. In the first experiment, male Min mice were fed a basal diet or diets containing 5 ppm AE and 10 ppm AE for 12 weeks. The dietary administration of 5 ppm AE significantly reduced the number of colorectal tumors. In a second experiment, we investigated the effects of AE on colitis-related colon carcinogenesis in Min mouse treated with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Female Min mice were administered 1% DSS in their drinking water for 7 days. AE was given to mice in their diet at a dose of 5 or 50 ppm for 5 weeks. Feeding with AE significantly reduced the number of colorectal tumors. When proliferation of cells in normal-appearing colonic mucosa was assessed by monoclonal anti-rat Ki-67 antibody (MIB-5) immunohistochemistry in experiments 1 and 2, the AE treatment significantly decreased the mean MIB-5-labeling index. These results suggest that the dietary administration of low-dose AE may have chemopreventive effects against development of colorectal tumors in Min mice, possibly in part by reducing cell proliferation in colorectal mucosa. PMID:25081669

  7. Effects of Aloe-emodin and Emodin on Proliferation of the MKN45 Human Gastric Cancer Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Beppu, Hidehiko; Yamamoto, Naoki; Kaneko, Takaaki; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Aloe-emodin (1, 8-dihydroxy-3-hydroxyl-methylanthraquinone; AE) and emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6- methylanthraquinone; EM) are anthraquinone derivatives that have been detected in some medical plants and share similar anthraquinone structures. AE and EM have been shown to exhibit anticancer activities in various cancer cell lines; however, the inhibitory effects of these derivatives on the growth of cancer cells were previously reported to be different. Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer cell death worldwide. In the present study, we examined the inhibitory effects of 0.05 mM AE and 0.05 mM EM on the proliferation of the MKN45 human gastric cancer cell line. The proliferation of MKN45 cells was significantly inhibited in AE- and EM-treated groups 24 h and 48 h after treatment. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of EM were stronger than those of AE. The cell cycle of MKN45 cells were arrested in G0/G1 phase or G0/G1 and G2/M phases by AE and EM, respectively. However, an analysis of intracellular polyamine levels and DNA fragmentation revealed that the mechanisms underlying cell death following cell arrest induced by AE and EM differed. PMID:25987055

  8. Slip model of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake from inversions of ALOS-2 and GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kang; Fialko, Yuri

    2015-09-01

    We use surface deformation measurements including Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar data acquired by the ALOS-2 mission of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency and Global Positioning System (GPS) data to invert for the fault geometry and coseismic slip distribution of the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal. Assuming that the ruptured fault connects to the surface trace of the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) fault between 84.34°E and 86.19°E, the best fitting model suggests a dip angle of 7°. The moment calculated from the slip model is 6.08 × 1020 Nm, corresponding to the moment magnitude of 7.79. The rupture of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake was dominated by thrust motion that was primarily concentrated in a 150 km long zone 50 to 100 km northward from the surface trace of the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT), with maximum slip of ˜ 5.8 m at a depth of ˜8 km. Data thus indicate that the 2015 Gorkha earthquake ruptured a deep part of the seismogenic zone, in contrast to the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake, which had ruptured a shallow part of the adjacent fault segment to the east.

  9. Mapping forests in monsoon Asia with ALOS PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and MODIS imagery in 2010.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yuanwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Roy, Partha Sarathi; Joshi, Pawan Kumar; Gilani, Hammad; Murthy, Manchiraju Sri Ramachandra; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Bangqian; Menarguez, Michael Angelo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M; Bajgain, Rajen; Li, Xiangping; Dai, Shengqi; Hou, Ying; Xin, Fengfei; Moore, Berrien

    2016-01-01

    Extensive forest changes have occurred in monsoon Asia, substantially affecting climate, carbon cycle and biodiversity. Accurate forest cover maps at fine spatial resolutions are required to qualify and quantify these effects. In this study, an algorithm was developed to map forests in 2010, with the use of structure and biomass information from the Advanced Land Observation System (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic dataset and the phenological information from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MOD13Q1 and MOD09A1) products. Our forest map (PALSARMOD50 m F/NF) was assessed through randomly selected ground truth samples from high spatial resolution images and had an overall accuracy of 95%. Total area of forests in monsoon Asia in 2010 was estimated to be ~6.3 × 10(6 )km(2). The distribution of evergreen and deciduous forests agreed reasonably well with the median Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in winter. PALSARMOD50 m F/NF map showed good spatial and areal agreements with selected forest maps generated by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA F/NF), European Space Agency (ESA F/NF), Boston University (MCD12Q1 F/NF), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO FRA), and University of Maryland (Landsat forests), but relatively large differences and uncertainties in tropical forests and evergreen and deciduous forests. PMID:26864143

  10. Mapping forests in monsoon Asia with ALOS PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and MODIS imagery in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yuanwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Roy, Partha Sarathi; Joshi, Pawan Kumar; Gilani, Hammad; Murthy, Manchiraju Sri Ramachandra; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Bangqian; Menarguez, Michael Angelo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M.; Bajgain, Rajen; Li, Xiangping; Dai, Shengqi; Hou, Ying; Xin, Fengfei; Moore III, Berrien

    2016-01-01

    Extensive forest changes have occurred in monsoon Asia, substantially affecting climate, carbon cycle and biodiversity. Accurate forest cover maps at fine spatial resolutions are required to qualify and quantify these effects. In this study, an algorithm was developed to map forests in 2010, with the use of structure and biomass information from the Advanced Land Observation System (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic dataset and the phenological information from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MOD13Q1 and MOD09A1) products. Our forest map (PALSARMOD50 m F/NF) was assessed through randomly selected ground truth samples from high spatial resolution images and had an overall accuracy of 95%. Total area of forests in monsoon Asia in 2010 was estimated to be ~6.3 × 106 km2. The distribution of evergreen and deciduous forests agreed reasonably well with the median Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in winter. PALSARMOD50 m F/NF map showed good spatial and areal agreements with selected forest maps generated by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA F/NF), European Space Agency (ESA F/NF), Boston University (MCD12Q1 F/NF), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO FRA), and University of Maryland (Landsat forests), but relatively large differences and uncertainties in tropical forests and evergreen and deciduous forests. PMID:26864143

  11. Coseismic Deformation and Landslides Assosiated with Cinchona Earthquake, Mw 6.1, Costa Rica, Detected by ALOS/PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umemura, S.; Furuya, M.

    2014-12-01

    A shallow earthquake with magnitude 6.1 (Mw) occurred in Costa Rica, Central America, on 8 January 2009. This earthquake, called Cinchona earthquake, caused many landslides and around 20 fatalities. Alvarado (2009) reported that the area of landslides was concentrated in the northwestern part of the epicenter. To simulate the relationships between the location of landslides and acceleration, we detected landslides and coseismic deformation by using the ALOS/PALSAR radar image analyses. We first detected the coseismic deformation for ascending and descending tracks by InSAR analysis. The maximum coseismic Line of Sight (LOS) changes were around 20cm for both tracks. We derived the fault source model to explain the LOS changes, using elastic dislocation sources; the optimum geometry was inferred by trial-and-errors. The location of the fault model indicated that the source fault of this earthquake was the northern part of the Angel fault. We also detected the signal of landslides by pixel-offset techniques. The signal had larger amplitude in narrower area than coseismic deformation. The signal was placed on the same area reported by Alvarado (2009). As following the attenuation relationships for peak ground acceleration (Si and Midorikawa, 1999), we calculated the horizontal peak ground acceleration. The signal of landslides was concentrated in the area where the value of peak ground acceleration had larger than 450 gal.

  12. In vitro study of the PLA2 inhibition and antioxidant activities of Aloe vera leaf skin extracts

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the present work we determined the total phenolic content of Aloe vera leaf skin (AVLS) extracts by using various solvents (hexane, chloroform-ethanol (1/1), ethyl acetate, butanol and water). We have also evaluated the antioxidant and the anti-PLA2 properties of these extracts by measuring their inhibition potency on the human pro-inflammatory phospholipase A2 (group IIA). Results The water extract exhibits the highest inhibitory effect with an IC50 = 0.22 mg/ml and interestingly no effect was observed on the digestive phospholipase A2 (group IB) even at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. Antioxidant activities were also analyzed and the most active extracts were observed when using chloroform ethanol (1/1) and ethyl acetate (IC50 = 0.274 and 0.326 mg/ml, respectively). Analysis of the total phenolic content reveals that the water extract, with the best anti-PLA2 effect, was poor in phenolic molecules (2 mg GAE/g). This latter value has to be compared with the chloroform-ethanol and the ethyl acetate extracts (40 and 23.8 mg GAE/g, respectively), mostly responsible for the antioxidant activity. Conclusion A significant correlation was established between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity but not with the anti PLA2 activity. Results from phytochemical screening suggest that the anti PLA2 molecules were probably catechin tannins compounds. PMID:21310091

  13. Developing synergy regression models with space-borne ALOS PALSAR and Landsat TM sensors for retrieving tropical forest biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Suman; Jeganathan, C.; Sharma, L. K.; Nathawat, M. S.; Das, Anup K.; Mohan, Shiv

    2016-06-01

    Forest stand biomass serves as an effective indicator for monitoring REDD (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation). Optical remote sensing data have been widely used to derive forest biophysical parameters inspite of their poor sensitivity towards the forest properties. Microwave remote sensing provides a better alternative owing to its inherent ability to penetrate the forest vegetation. This study aims at developing optimal regression models for retrieving forest above-ground bole biomass (AGBB) utilising optical data from Landsat TM and microwave data from L-band of ALOS PALSAR data over Indian subcontinental tropical deciduous mixed forests located in Munger (Bihar, India). Spatial biomass models were developed. The results using Landsat TM showed poor correlation (R 2 = 0.295 and RMSE = 35 t/ha) when compared to HH polarized L-band SAR (R 2 = 0.868 and RMSE = 16.06 t/ha). However, the prediction model performed even better when both the optical and SAR were used simultaneously (R 2 = 0.892 and RMSE = 14.08 t/ha). The addition of TM metrics has positively contributed in improving PALSAR estimates of forest biomass. Hence, the study recommends the combined use of both optical and SAR sensors for better assessment of stand biomass with significant contribution towards operational forestry.

  14. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Moore, Breanna; Hong, Mei; Cleveland, Sabrina; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon Gil

    2016-01-01

    Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of "SAL," a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p = 0.004) to 34.6% (p = 0.05) in the APAP and 46.3% (p < 0.001) to 29.9% (p = 0.02) in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400-250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage. PMID:27066270

  15. Capability of Integrated MODIS Imagery and ALOS for Oil Palm, Rubber and Forest Areas Mapping in Tropical Forest Regions

    PubMed Central

    Razali, Sheriza Mohd; Marin, Arnaldo; Nuruddin, Ahmad Ainuddin; Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd; Hamid, Hazandy Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Various classification methods have been applied for low resolution of the entire Earth's surface from recorded satellite images, but insufficient study has determined which method, for which satellite data, is economically viable for tropical forest land use mapping. This study employed Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis Techniques (ISODATA) and K-Means classification techniques to classified Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Surface Reflectance satellite image into forests, oil palm groves, rubber plantations, mixed horticulture, mixed oil palm and rubber and mixed forest and rubber. Even though frequent cloud cover has been a challenge for mapping tropical forests, our MODIS land use classification map found that 2008 ISODATA-1 performed well with overall accuracy of 94%, with the highest Producer's Accuracy of Forest with 86%, and were consistent with MODIS Land Cover 2008 (MOD12Q1), respectively. The MODIS land use classification was able to distinguish young oil palm groves from open areas, rubber and mature oil palm plantations, on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) map, whereas rubber was more easily distinguished from an open area than from mixed rubber and forest. This study provides insight on the potential for integrating regional databases and temporal MODIS data, in order to map land use in tropical forest regions. PMID:24811079

  16. Crustal deformation associated with an M8.1 earthquake in the Solomon Islands, detected by ALOS/PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Yousuke; Ozawa, Taku; Shimada, Masanobu

    2009-10-01

    On April 1, 2007 (UTC), a large Mw 8.1 interplate earthquake struck the Solomon Islands subduction zone where complicated tectonics result from the subduction of four plates. Extensive ground movements and a large tsunami occurred in the epicentral area causing severe damage over a wide area. Using ALOS/PALSAR data and the DInSAR technique, we detected crustal deformation exceeding 2 m in islands close to the epicenter. A slip distribution of the inferred seismic fault was estimated using geodetic information derived from DInSAR processing and field investigations. The result indicates large slip areas around the hypocenter and the centroid. It is possible that the largest slip area is related to subduction of the plate boundary between the Woodlark and Australian plates. A small slip area between those large slip areas may indicate weak coupling due to thermal activity related to volcanic activity on Simbo Island. The 2007 earthquake struck an area where large earthquake has not occurred since 1970. Most of this seismic gap was filled by the 2007 events, however a small seismic gap still remains in the southeastern region of the 2007 earthquake.

  17. SAR interferometry using ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 data for the Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natsuaki, Ryo; Nagai, Hiroto; Motohka, Takeshi; Ohki, Masato; Watanabe, Manabu; Thapa, Rajesh B.; Tadono, Takeo; Shimada, Masanobu; Suzuki, Shinichi

    2016-02-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2, "DAICHI-2") has been observing Nepal with the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) in response to an emergency request from Sentinel Asia related to the Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake on April 25, 2015. PALSAR-2 successfully detected not only avalanches and local crustal displacements but also continental-scale deformation. Especially, by the use of the ScanSAR mode, we are able to make interferograms that cover the entire displacement area of the earthquake. However, we did encounter some fundamental problems with the ScanSAR and incorrect settings of PALSAR-2 operation that have now been fixed. They include (1) burst overlap misalignment between two ScanSAR observations, which limits the number of pairs available and the quality of the interferogram, (2) non-crustal fringes which are derived from co-registration error and/or ionospheric effect and, (3) incorrect setting of the center frequency in the Stripmap beam F2-6. In this paper, we describe their problems and solutions. The number of interferometric pairs are limited by (1) and (3). The accuracy of the interferograms are limited by (2) and (3). The experimental results showed that current solutions for (2) and (3) work appropriately.

  18. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of Aloe vera and Meswak containing dentifrices with fluoridated dentifrice: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Bhati, Neha; Jaidka, Shipra; Somani, Rani

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To comparatively evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of fluoridated and herbal dentifrices. Materials and Methods: Sixty students in the age group 6–12 years with DMF/def score 0 were selected from an orphanage center. The participants were divided into four groups. In group A, no dentifrice was used; in group B, fluoride containing dentifrice was used; group C subjects used Aloe vera containing dentifrice; and in group D, Meswak containing dentifrice was used. The salivary samples were collected at the washout period of 2 days, 15 days, and 30 days and cultured on Mitis Salivarius Agar for determining Streptococcus mutans count. Results obtained were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test. Results: There was an increase in bacterial count in group A where no dentifrices were used, while the bacterial count steadily decreased in groups B, C, and D by 83.7%, 80.94%, and 83.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Herbal dentifrices containing A. vera and Meswak can be safely recommended as an alternative to fluoridated dentifrices in terms of antimicrobial efficacy. PMID:26539392

  19. Aloe vera bathing improved physical and humoral protection in breeding stock after induced spawning in matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus).

    PubMed

    Zanuzzo, Fábio S; Zaiden, Sérgio F; Senhorini, José A; Marzocchi-Machado, Cleni M; Urbinati, Elisabeth C

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we show that induced spawning causes stress, an intense loss of epithelia and immunosuppression, decreasing physical and humoral protection in fish, effects that were prevented or improved in fish bathed with Aloe vera. A. vera has several medicinal properties, including wound healing and immunostimulatory effects, which we observed in this study. Fish bathed with A. vera had a higher number of epidermal goblet cells and, in general, an improved wound healing rate compared with the control after induced spawning. These effects might be related to (1) the stimulation of leukocyte activity, represented here by the increased leukocyte respiratory activity triggered by A. vera (leukocytes are recognized as playing an important role in wound repair); (2) the antimicrobial properties of A. vera, which decrease wound infection and accelerate the healing process; and (3) several mechanisms that explain the healing effect of A. vera (increased collagen synthesis, rate of epithelialization, and anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects). Our results also suggest that caution is necessary during the induced spawning process, especially during stripping, and A. vera bathing is recommended after intensive aquaculture operations. PMID:25703714

  20. The relationship between growth and soluble sugar concentration of Aloe vera plants grown under three levels of irradiance

    SciTech Connect

    Paez, A.; Gebre, G.M.; Tschaplinski, T.J. )

    1994-06-01

    The CAM plant Aloe vera was vegetatively propagated and grown under three irradiances: full sun, partial and deep shade (30% and 10% of ambient light, respectively) to determine the effect on growth, biomass allocation, and sugar concentration. After one year, the plants were harvested to determine final dry weight and the sugar concentration of the leaf mucilaginous gel. Plants grown under full sun produced twice the total dry weight of those grown under partial shade, with the difference equally partitioned between the shoot and root. Plants grown under full sun also produced thicker leaves, and more numerous and large auxiliary shoots. The dry weight of plants grown under deep shade was 8.6% that of plants grown under full sun, which was directly proportional to the irradiance received. Partial shade increased the number and length of leaves produced on the primary shoot, but the allocation of carbon to roots was the lowest of all treatments. Partial shade reduced the total sugar concentration of the leaf gel matrix to 34% that of plants under full sun, due to reductions in all sugars measured. Glucose was the most abundant soluble sugar, with its relative contribution to the total pool increasing under shade. In summary, the proportional effects of partial shading were greater on soluble sugar concentrations than on the total plant biomass produced.

  1. Random Forest Classification of Sediments on Exposed Intertidal Flats Using ALOS-2 Quad-Polarimetric SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.; Yang, X.; Liu, G.; Zhou, H.; Ma, W.; Yu, Y.; Li, Z.

    2016-06-01

    Coastal zones are one of the world's most densely populated areas and it is necessary to propose an accurate, cost effective, frequent, and synoptic method of monitoring these complex ecosystems. However, misclassification of sediments on exposed intertidal flats restricts the development of coastal zones surveillance. With the advent of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) satellites, polarimetric SAR satellite imagery plays an increasingly important role in monitoring changes in coastal wetland. This research investigated the necessity of combining SAR polarimetric features with optical data, and their contribution in accurately sediment classification. Three experimental groups were set to make assessment of the most appropriate descriptors. (i) Several SAR polarimetric descriptors were extracted from scattering matrix using Cloude-Pottier, Freeman-Durden and Yamaguchi methods; (ii) Optical remote sensing (RS) data with R, G and B channels formed the second feature combinations; (iii) The chosen SAR and optical RS indicators were both added into classifier. Classification was carried out using Random Forest (RF) classifiers and a general result mapping of intertidal flats was generated. Experiments were implemented using ALOS-2 L-band satellite imagery and GF-1 optical multi-spectral data acquired in the same period. The weights of descriptors were evaluated by VI (RF Variable Importance). Results suggested that optical data source has few advantages on sediment classification, and even reduce the effect of SAR indicators. Polarimetric SAR feature sets show great potentials in intertidal flats classification and are promising in classifying mud flats, sand flats, bare farmland and tidal water.

  2. Aloe vera Gel: Effective Therapeutic Agent against Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates Recovered from Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Goudarzi, Mehdi; Fazeli, Maryam; Azad, Mehdi; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat; Mousavi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Aloe vera is an herbal medicinal plant with biological activities, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic ones, and immunomodulatory properties. The purpose of this study was investigation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of A. vera gel against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from patients with burn wound infections. Methods. During a 6-month study, 140 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from patients admitted to the burn wards of a hospital in Tehran, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out against the pathogens using the A. vera gel and antibiotics (imipenem, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin). Results. The antibiogram revealed that 47 (33.6%) of all isolates were MDR P. aeruginosa. The extract isolated from A. vera has antibacterial activity against all of isolates. Also, 42 (89.4%) isolates were inhibited by A. vera gel extract at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤ 200 µg/mL. MIC value of A. vera gel for other isolates (10.6%) was 800 µg/mL. All of MDR P. aeruginosa strains were inhibited by A. vera at similar MIC50 and MIC90 200 µg/mL. Conclusion. Based on our results, A. vera gel at various concentrations can be used as an effective antibacterial agent in order to prevent wound infection caused by P. aeruginosa. PMID:26266047

  3. The effect of Aloe ferox Mill. in the treatment of loperamide-induced constipation in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Constipation is the most common gastrointestinal complaint all over the world and it is a risk factor of colorectal cancer. In this study, the efficacy of aqueous leaf extract of Aloe ferox Mill. was studied against loperamide-induced constipation in Wistar rats. Methods Constipation was induced by oral administration of loperamide (3 mg/kg body weight) while the control rats received normal saline. The constipated rats were treated with 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day of the extract for 7 days during which the feeding characteristics, body weight, fecal properties and gastrointestinal transit ratio were monitored. Results The extract improved intestinal motility, increased fecal volume and normalized body weight in the constipated rats, which are indications of laxative property of the herb with the 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract showing the best efficacy. Conclusion The effect of the extract compares favourably well with senokot, a standard laxative drug. These findings have therefore, lent scientific credence to the folkloric use of the herb as a laxative agent by the people of the Eastern Cape of South Africa. PMID:20723249

  4. Mapping forests in monsoon Asia with ALOS PALSAR 50-m mosaic images and MODIS imagery in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuanwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Roy, Partha Sarathi; Joshi, Pawan Kumar; Gilani, Hammad; Murthy, Manchiraju Sri Ramachandra; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Bangqian; Menarguez, Michael Angelo; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M.; Bajgain, Rajen; Li, Xiangping; Dai, Shengqi; Hou, Ying; Xin, Fengfei; Moore, Berrien, III

    2016-02-01

    Extensive forest changes have occurred in monsoon Asia, substantially affecting climate, carbon cycle and biodiversity. Accurate forest cover maps at fine spatial resolutions are required to qualify and quantify these effects. In this study, an algorithm was developed to map forests in 2010, with the use of structure and biomass information from the Advanced Land Observation System (ALOS) Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic dataset and the phenological information from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MOD13Q1 and MOD09A1) products. Our forest map (PALSARMOD50 m F/NF) was assessed through randomly selected ground truth samples from high spatial resolution images and had an overall accuracy of 95%. Total area of forests in monsoon Asia in 2010 was estimated to be ~6.3 × 106 km2. The distribution of evergreen and deciduous forests agreed reasonably well with the median Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in winter. PALSARMOD50 m F/NF map showed good spatial and areal agreements with selected forest maps generated by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA F/NF), European Space Agency (ESA F/NF), Boston University (MCD12Q1 F/NF), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO FRA), and University of Maryland (Landsat forests), but relatively large differences and uncertainties in tropical forests and evergreen and deciduous forests.

  5. Developing synergy regression models with space-borne ALOS PALSAR and Landsat TM sensors for retrieving tropical forest biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Suman; Jeganathan, C.; Sharma, L. K.; Nathawat, M. S.; Das, Anup K.; Mohan, Shiv

    2016-06-01

    Forest stand biomass serves as an effective indicator for monitoring REDD (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation). Optical remote sensing data have been widely used to derive forest biophysical parameters inspite of their poor sensitivity towards the forest properties. Microwave remote sensing provides a better alternative owing to its inherent ability to penetrate the forest vegetation. This study aims at developing optimal regression models for retrieving forest above-ground bole biomass (AGBB) utilising optical data from Landsat TM and microwave data from L-band of ALOS PALSAR data over Indian subcontinental tropical deciduous mixed forests located in Munger (Bihar, India). Spatial biomass models were developed. The results using Landsat TM showed poor correlation ( R 2 = 0.295 and RMSE = 35 t/ha) when compared to HH polarized L-band SAR ( R 2 = 0.868 and RMSE = 16.06 t/ha). However, the prediction model performed even better when both the optical and SAR were used simultaneously ( R 2 = 0.892 and RMSE = 14.08 t/ha). The addition of TM metrics has positively contributed in improving PALSAR estimates of forest biomass. Hence, the study recommends the combined use of both optical and SAR sensors for better assessment of stand biomass with significant contribution towards operational forestry.

  6. Capability of integrated MODIS imagery and ALOS for oil palm, rubber and forest areas mapping in tropical forest regions.

    PubMed

    Razali, Sheriza Mohd; Marin, Arnaldo; Nuruddin, Ahmad Ainuddin; Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd; Hamid, Hazandy Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Various classification methods have been applied for low resolution of the entire Earth's surface from recorded satellite images, but insufficient study has determined which method, for which satellite data, is economically viable for tropical forest land use mapping. This study employed Iterative Self Organizing Data Analysis Techniques (ISODATA) and K-Means classification techniques to classified Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Surface Reflectance satellite image into forests, oil palm groves, rubber plantations, mixed horticulture, mixed oil palm and rubber and mixed forest and rubber. Even though frequent cloud cover has been a challenge for mapping tropical forests, our MODIS land use classification map found that 2008 ISODATA-1 performed well with overall accuracy of 94%, with the highest Producer's Accuracy of Forest with 86%, and were consistent with MODIS Land Cover 2008 (MOD12Q1), respectively. The MODIS land use classification was able to distinguish young oil palm groves from open areas, rubber and mature oil palm plantations, on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) map, whereas rubber was more easily distinguished from an open area than from mixed rubber and forest. This study provides insight on the potential for integrating regional databases and temporal MODIS data, in order to map land use in tropical forest regions. PMID:24811079

  7. Effect of high pressure and thermal processing on quality changes of aloe vera-litchi mixed beverage (ALMB) during storage.

    PubMed

    Swami Hulle, Nishant R; Srinivasa Rao, P

    2016-01-01

    The effect of high pressure processing (HPP) (600 MPa/15 min/56 °C) and thermal processing (TP) (95 °C/5 min) on the quality characteristics of aloe vera-litchi mixed beverage samples (ALMB) stored at 4, 15 and 25 °C were studied. The total color difference and browning index of ALMB samples increased with the storage period for both HPP and TP treated samples under all storage conditions. HPP of ALMB resulted in inactivation of pectinmethylesterase (PME), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) to 34, 65 and 62 %, respectively after immediate processing, whereas, TP treatment lead to 83, 79 and 78 %, respectively. The residual activity of all the studied enzymes decreased with storage period. The ascorbic acid loss of up to 22 % was observed after HPP treatment and up to 31 % for thermally treated samples. Minimal changes were noted for phenolics content after HPP as well as thermal processing. The natural microbiota present in samples was below the detection limit (1 log CFU/mL) throughout the storage period. The shelf life of HPP and TP treated samples stored at 4 °C was estimated to be 100 and 80 days, respectively, based on the sensory quality, ascorbic acid degradation and instrumental color difference. PMID:26787955

  8. Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Composition SAL, a Standardize Blend Comprised of Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Moore, Breanna; Hong, Mei; Cleveland, Sabrina; Chu, Min; Jia, Qi; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Jung, Gayoung; Do, Seon Gil

    2016-01-01

    Some botanicals have been reported to possess antioxidative activities acting as scavengers of free radicals rendering their usage in herbal medicine. Here we describe the potential use of “SAL,” a standardized blend comprised of three extracts from Schisandra chinensis, Artemisia capillaris, and Aloe barbadensis, in mitigating chemically induced acute liver toxicities. Acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver toxicity models in mice were utilized. Hepatic functional tests from serum collected at T24 and hepatic glutathione and superoxide dismutases from liver homogenates were evaluated. Histopathology analysis and merit of blending 3 standardized extracts were also confirmed. Statistically significant and dose-correlated inhibitions in serum ALT ranging from 52.5% (p = 0.004) to 34.6% (p = 0.05) in the APAP and 46.3% (p < 0.001) to 29.9% (p = 0.02) in the CCl4 models were observed for SAL administered at doses of 400–250 mg/kg. Moreover, SAL resulted in up to 60.6% and 80.2% reductions in serums AST and bile acid, respectively. The composition replenished depleted hepatic glutathione in association with an increase of hepatic superoxide dismutase. Unexpected synergistic protection from liver damage was also observed. Therefore, the composition SAL could be potentially utilized as an effective hepatic-detoxification agent for the protection from liver damage. PMID:27066270

  9. Improving the Accuracy of Estimated 3d Positions Using Multi-Temporal Alos/prism Triplet Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susaki, J.; Kishimoto, H.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present a method to improve the accuracy of a digital surface model (DSM) by utilizing multi-temporal triplet images. The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) / Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping (PRISM) measures triplet images in the forward, nadir, and backward view directions, and a DSM is generated from the obtained set of triplet images. To generate a certain period of DSM, multiple DSMs generated from individual triplet images are compared, and outliers are removed. Our proposed method uses a traditional surveying approach to increase observations and solves multiple observation equations from all triplet images via the bias-corrected rational polynomial coefficient (RPC) model. Experimental results from using five sets of PRISM triplet images taken of the area around Saitama, north of Tokyo, Japan, showed that the average planimetric and height errors in the coordinates estimated from multi-temporal triplet images were 3.26 m and 2.71 m, respectively, and that they were smaller than those generated by using each set of triplet images individually. As a result, we conclude that the proposed method is effective for stably generating accurate DSMs from multi-temporal triplet images.

  10. Aloe vera non-decolorized whole leaf extract-induced large intestinal tumors in F344 rats share similar molecular pathways with human sporadic colorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Pandiri, Arun R; Sills, Robert C; Hoenerhoff, Mark J; Peddada, Shyamal D; Ton, Thai-Vu T; Hong, Hue-Hua L; Flake, Gordon P; Malarkey, David E; Olson, Greg R; Pogribny, Igor P; Walker, Nigel J; Boudreau, Mary D

    2011-12-01

    Aloe vera is one of the most commonly used botanicals for various prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Recently, NTP/NCTR has demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in large intestinal tumors in F344 rats chronically exposed to Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) non-decolorized whole leaf extract (AVNWLE) in drinking water. The morphological and molecular pathways of AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in the F344 rats were compared to human colorectal cancer (hCRC) literature. Defined histological criteria were used to compare AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors with hCRC. The commonly mutated genes (Kras, Ctnnb1, and Tp53) and altered signaling pathways (MAPK, WNT, and TGF-β) important in hCRC were evaluated within AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors. Histological evaluation of the large intestinal tumors indicated eight of twelve adenomas (Ads) and four of twelve carcinomas (Cas). Mutation analysis of eight Ads and four Cas identified point mutations in exons 1 and 2 of the Kras gene (two of eight Ads, two of four Cas), and in exon 2 of the Ctnnb1 gene (three of eight Ads, one of four Cas). No Tp53 (exons 5-8) mutations were found in Ads or Cas. Molecular pathways important in hCRC such as MAPK, WNT, and TGF-β signaling were also altered in AVNWLE-induced Ads and Cas. In conclusion, the AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in F344 rats share several similarities with hCRC at the morphological and molecular levels. PMID:21937742

  11. ICESat GLAS Elevation Changes and ALOS PALSAR InSAR Line-Of-Sight Changes on the Continuous Permafrost Zone of the North Slope, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muskett, Reginald

    2016-04-01

    Measuring centimeter-scale and smaller surface changes by satellite-based systems on the periglacial terrains and permafrost zones of the northern hemisphere is an ongoing challenge. We are investigating this challenge by using data from the NASA Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (ICESat GLAS) and the JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS PALSAR) on the continuous permafrost zone of the North Slope, Alaska. Using the ICESat GLAS exact-repeat profiles in the analysis of ALOS PALSAR InSAR Line-Of-Sight (LOS) changes we find evidence of volume scattering over much of the tundra vegetation covered active-layer and surface scattering from river channel/banks (deposition and erosion), from rock outcropping bluffs and ridges. Pingos, ice-cored mounds common to permafrost terrains can be used as benchmarks for assessment of LOS changes. For successful InSAR processing, topographic and tropospheric phase cannot be assumed negligible and must be removed. The presence of significant troposphere phase in short-period repeat interferograms renders stacking ill suited for the task of deriving verifiable centimeter-scale surface deformation phase and reliable LOS changes. Ref.: Muskett, R.R. (2015), ICESat GLAS Elevation Changes and ALOS PALSAR InSAR Line-Of-Sight Changes on the Continuous Permafrost Zone of the North Slope, Alaska. International Journal of Geosciences, 6 (10), 1101-1115. doi:10.4236/ijg.2015.610086 http://www.scirp.org/Journal/PaperDownload.aspx?paperID=60406

  12. Humoral responses of broiler chickens challenged with NDV following supplemental treatment with extracts of Aloe vera, Alma millsoni, Ganoderma lucidum and Archachatina marginata

    PubMed Central

    Eghafona, Nosahkare'Odeh

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study The significance of nutritional supplements for immunity has been documented. Locally sourced extracts used in alternative medicine were studied to determine their potential effects on antibody production and humoral responses in viral challenged birds. Method Three hundred and eighty birds were distributed into 19 groups of 20 birds each. Following acclimatization for 16 days, they were fed with standard broilers feed and water ad libitum. Group A was supplemented with Aloe vera (AV) extract, group B was given Alma millsoni (AM) extract, group C was given Archachatina marginata (AMS) extract and group D was given Ganoderma lucidum (GL) extract, and group E was the control group. Extract concentrations of 50 mg, 100 mg and 150 mg were given to three subsets of each treatment group for 30 days. Birds were then challenged with intramuscular administration of 0.2 ml of 50% Embryo Lethal Dose of saline suspension of the challenge strain of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) on the 30th day, and were examined for clinical signs and symptoms. Serum from venous blood was used for antibody and immunological assay. Results Aloe vera at 50 µg and A. millsoni extracts supplementations yielded a significant antibody titre (p < 0.001). The difference within the AMS, GL and AV groups and the control group was not statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion Unlike the extract of Ganoderma and A. marginata, pretreatment with A. millsoni extract and a lower dosage of Aloe vera enhanced the ability to mount humoral responses against viral infection in broiler chickens. PMID:26648773

  13. Landslide-dammed lakes detection via ALOS/PALSAR InSAR DEM: A case study of the Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaka, Tomohito; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Iwashita, Keishi; Kudou, Katsuteru; Fujii, Hisao; Nishikawa, Hajime; Sensing Specialist Yukihiro Suzuoki, Remote

    On 14th June 2008, the Japan Meteorological Agency recorded a 7.2 magnitude (Richter scale) earthquake with an epicenter depth of 8 km in the southern Iwate prefecture of the Tohoku region of Japan. In the hardest hit prefectures of Iwate and Miyagi, the earthquake produced 15 new landslide-dammed lakes; a phenomenon common when the earthquake hypocenter is within inland areas. In our last study, we demonstrated that interferometric SAR (InSAR) technique can detect surface displacements within centimeter accuracy and create detailed three-dimensional terrain information. In this study, we developed a new methodology to detect landslide-dammed lakes using Digital Drainage Models (DDMs) generated from the DEM's cre-ated with InSAR data. Using our technique, small scale topographical change was detected by comparing pre-earthquake DEM's such as created from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data and post-earthquake DEM's created from the Advanced Land Observing System (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data. Pre-and post-earthquake changes in the drainage networks were detected by comparing DDM features derived from an existing DEM to DDM features derived from a post-earthquake DEM created from ALOS InSAR data. It was verified that landslide-dammed lakes were detected specifically in the area where drainage network with more than three of the river-order computed from DDM's shifted before and after the earthquake. Thus, InSAR DEM generated from ALOS/PALSAR can provide timely and useful spatial information for detecting landslide-dammed lakes.

  14. Assessment of genetic stability and instability of tissue culture-propagated plantlets of Aloe vera L. by RAPD and ISSR markers.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Mangal Singh; Chikara, J; Mastan, Shaik G; Rahman, H; Anand, K G V; Shekhawat, N S

    2011-11-01

    Efficient plantlet regeneration with and without intermediate callus phase was achieved for a selected genotype of Aloe vera L. which is sweet in test and used as a vegetable and source of food. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) marker assays were employed to evaluate genetic stability of plantlets and validate the most reliable method for true-to-type propagation of sweet aloe, among two regeneration systems developed so far. Despite phenotypic similarities in plantlets produced through both regeneration systems, the differences in genomic constituents of plantlets produced through intermediate callus phase using soft base of inflorescence have been effectively distinguished by RAPD and ISSR markers. No polymorphism was observed in regenerants produced following direct regeneration of axillary buds, whereas 80% and 73.3% of polymorphism were observed in RAPD and ISSR, respectively, in the regenerants produced indirectly from base of the inflorescence axis via an intermediate callus phase. Overall, 86.6% of variations were observed in the plantlets produced via an intermediate callus phase. The occurrence of genetic polymorphism is associated with choice of explants and method used for plantlet regeneration. This confirms that clonal propagation of sweet aloe using axillary shoot buds can be used for commercial exploitation of the selected genotype where a high degree of fidelity is an essential prerequisite. On the other hand, a high degree of variations were observed in plantlets obtained through indirect regeneration and thus cannot be used for the mass multiplication of the genotype; however, it can be used for crop improvement through induction of somaclonal variations and genetic manipulations. PMID:21887522

  15. Aloe vera Non-Decolorized Whole Leaf Extract-Induced Large Intestinal Tumors in F344 Rats Share Similar Molecular Pathways with Human Sporadic Colorectal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Pandiri, Arun R.; Sills, Robert C.; Hoenerhoff, Mark J.; Peddada, Shyamal D.; Ton, Thai-Vu T.; Hong, Hue-Hua L.; Flake, Gordon P.; Malarkey, David E.; Olson, Greg R.; Pogribny, Igor P.; Walker, Nigel J.; Boudreau, Mary D.

    2016-01-01

    Aloe vera is one of the most commonly used botanicals for various prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Recently, NTP/NCTR has demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in large intestinal tumors in F344 rats chronically exposed to Aloe barbadensis Miller (Aloe vera) non-decolorized whole leaf extract (AVNWLE) in drinking water. The morphological and molecular pathways of AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in the F344 rats were compared to human colorectal cancer (hCRC) literature. Defined histological criteria were used to compare AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors with hCRC. The commonly mutated genes (Kras, Ctnnb1, and Tp53) and altered signaling pathways (MAPK, WNT, and TGF-β) important in hCRC were evaluated within AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors. Histological evaluation of the large intestinal tumors indicated eight of twelve adenomas (Ads) and four of twelve carcinomas (Cas). Mutation analysis of eight Ads and four Cas identified point mutations in exons 1 and 2 of the Kras gene (two of eight Ads, two of four Cas), and in exon 2 of the Ctnnb1 gene (three of eight Ads, one of four Cas). No Tp53 (exons 5–8) mutations were found in Ads or Cas. Molecular pathways important in hCRC such as MAPK, WNT, and TGF-β signaling were also altered in AVNWLE-induced Ads and Cas. In conclusion, the AVNWLE-induced large intestinal tumors in F344 rats share several similarities with hCRC at the morphological and molecular levels. PMID:21937742

  16. Excavating the Role of Aloe Vera Wrapped Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite Frame Ornamentation in Newly Architectured Polyurethane Scaffolds for Osteogenesis and Guided Bone Regeneration with Microbial Protection.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, M; Pawar, Harpreet Singh; Francis, Nimmy K; Das, Bodhisatwa; Dhara, Santanu; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-03-01

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) scaffolds are unsuccessful in many clinical applications due to a high incidence of postoperative infection. The objective of this work is to fabricate GBR with an anti-infective electrospun scaffold by ornamenting segmented polyurethane (SPU) with two-dimensional Aloe vera wrapped mesoporous hydroxyapatite (Al-mHA) nanorods. The antimicrobial characteristic of the scaffold has been retrieved from the prepared Al-mHA frame with high aspect ratio (∼14.2) via biosynthesis route using Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extract. The Al-mHA frame was introduced into an unprecedented SPU matrix (solution polymerized) based on combinatorial soft segments of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), by an in situ technique followed by electrospinning to fabricate scaffolds. For comparison, pristine mHA nanorods are also ornamented into it. An enzymatic ring-opening polymerization technique was adapted to synthesize soft segment of (PCL-PEC-b-PDMS). Structure elucidation of the synthesized polymers is established by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sparingly, Al-mHA ornamented scaffolds exhibit tremendous improvement (175%) in the mechanical properties with promising antimicrobial activity against various human pathogens. After confirmation of high osteoconductivity, improved biodegradation, and excellent biocompatibility against osteoblast-like MG63 cells (in vitro), the scaffolds were implanted in rabbits as an animal model by subcutaneous and intraosseous (tibial) sites. Improved in vivo biocompatibilities, biodegradation, osteoconductivity, and the ability to provide an adequate biomimetic environment for biomineralization for GBR of the scaffolds (SPU and ornamented SPUs) have been found from the various histological sections. Early cartilage formation, endochondral ossification, and rapid bone healing at 4 weeks were found in the defects filled with Al-mHA ornamented

  17. Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array Type L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) mosaic for the Kahiltna terrane, Alaska, 2007-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, Christopher J.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Graham, Garth E.

    2015-01-01

    The USGS has compiled a continuous, cloud-free 12.5-meter resolution radar mosaic of SAR data of approximately 212,000 square kilometers to examine the suitability of this technology for geologic mapping. This mosaic was created from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data collected from 2007 to 2010 spanning the Kahiltna terrane and the surrounding area. Interpretation of these data may help geologists understand past geologic processes and identify areas with potential for near-surface mineral resources for further ground-based geological and geochemical investigations.

  18. Sensitivity of Backscatter Intensity of ALOS/PALSAR to Above-ground Biomass and Other Biophysical Parameters of Boreal Forests in Alaska and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, R.; Hayashi, M.; Kim, Y.; Ishii, R.; Kobayashi, H.; Shoyama, K.; Adachi, M.; Takahashi, A.; Saigusa, N.; Ito, A.

    2012-12-01

    For the better understanding of the carbon cycle in the global environment, investigations on the spatio-temporal variation of the carbon stock which is stored as vegetation biomass is important. The backscatter intensity of "Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR)" onboard the satellite "Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS)" provides us the information which is applicable to estimate the forest above-ground biomass (AGB). This study examines the sensitivity of the backscatter intensity of ALOS/PALSAR to the forest AGB and other biophysical parameters (tree height, tree diameter at breast height (DBH), and tree stand density) for boreal forests in two geographical regions of Alaska and Kushiro, northern Japan, and compares the sensitivities in two regions. In Alaska, a forest survey was executed in the south-north transect (about 300 km long) along a trans-Alaska pipeline which profiles the ecotone from the boreal forest to tundra in 2007. Forest AGBs and other biophysical parameters at 29 forests along the transect were measured by Bitterlich method. In Kushiro, a forest survey was carried out at 42 forests in 2011 and those parameters were similarly obtained by Bitterlich method. 20 and 2 scenes of ALOS/PALSAR FBD Level 1.5 data that cover the regions in Alaska and Kushiro, respectively, were collected and mosaicked. Backscatter intensities of ALOS/PALSAR in HH (horizontally polarized transmitted and horizontally polarized received) and HV (horizontally polarized transmitted and vertically polarized received) modes were compared with the forest AGB and other biophysical parameters. The intensity generally increased with the increase of those biophysical parameters in both HV and HH modes, but the intensity in HV mode generally had a stronger correlation to those parameters than in HH mode in both Alaska and Kushiro. The HV intensity had strong correlation to the forest AGB and DBH, while weak correlation to the tree stand density in Alaska

  19. InSAR Detection and Field Evidence for Thermokarst after a Tundra Wildfire, Using ALOS-PALSAR

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Iwahana, Go; Uchida, Masao; Liu, Lin; Gong, Wenyu; Meyer, Franz; Guritz, Richard; Yamanokuchi, Tsutomu; Hinzman, Larry

    2016-03-08

    Thermokarst is the process of ground subsidence caused by either the thawing of ice-rich permafrost or the melting of massive ground ice. The consequences of permafrost degradation associated with thermokarst for surface ecology, landscape evolution, and hydrological processes have been of great scientific interest and social concern. Part of a tundra patch affected by wildfire in northern Alaska (27.5 km2) was investigated here, using remote sensing and in situ surveys to quantify and understand permafrost thaw dynamics after surface disturbances. A two-pass differential InSAR technique using L-band ALOS-PALSAR has been shown capable of capturing thermokarst subsidence triggered by a tundramore » fire at a spatial resolution of tens of meters, with supporting evidence from field data and optical satellite images. We have introduced a calibration procedure, comparing burned and unburned areas for InSAR subsidence signals, to remove the noise due to seasonal surface movement. In the first year after the fire, an average subsidence rate of 6.2 cm/year (vertical) was measured. Subsidence in the burned area continued over the following two years, with decreased rates. The mean rate of subsidence observed in our interferograms (from 24 July 2008 to 14 September 2010) was 3.3 cm/year, a value comparable to that estimated from field surveys at two plots on average (2.2 cm/year) for the six years after the fire. These results suggest that this InSAR-measured ground subsidence is caused by the development of thermokarst, a thawing process supported by surface change observations from high-resolution optical images and in situ ground level surveys.« less

  20. Effects of water stress and light intensity on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and pigments of Aloe vera L.

    PubMed

    Hazrati, Saeid; Tahmasebi-Sarvestani, Zeinolabedin; Modarres-Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, Ali; Nicola, Silvana

    2016-09-01

    Aloe vera L. is one of the most important medicinal plants in the world. In order to determine the effects of light intensity and water deficit stress on chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence and pigments of A. vera, a split-plot in time experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a research greenhouse. The factorial combination of three light intensities (50, 75 and 100% of sunlight) and four irrigation regimes (irrigation after depleting 20, 40, 60 and 80% of soil water content) were considered as main factors. Sampling time was considered as sub factor. The first, second and third samplings were performed 90, 180 and 270 days after imposing the treatments, respectively. The results demonstrated that the highest light intensity and the severe water stress decreased maximum fluorescence (Fm), variable fluorescence (Fv)/Fm, quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ФPSII), Chl and photochemical quenching (qP) but increased non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), minimum fluorescence (F0) and Anthocyanin (Anth). Additionally, the highest Fm, Fv/Fm, ФPSII and qP and the lowest NPQ and F0 were observed when 50% of sunlight was blocked and irrigation was done after 40% soil water depletion. Irradiance of full sunlight and water deficit stress let to the photoinhibition of photosynthesis, as indicated by a reduced quantum yield of PSII, ФPSII, and qP, as well as higher NPQ. Thus, chlorophyll florescence measurements provide valuable physiological data. Close to half of total solar radiation and irrigation after depleting 40% of soil water content were selected as the most efficient treatments. PMID:27161580

  1. Reflectance interpretation of ALOS AVNIR-2 satellite data for ocean monitoring by means of principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syahreza, Saumi; Chun, Beh Boon; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; San, Lim Hwee; Abdullah, Khiruddin

    2015-04-01

    Physical sea surface parameters such as irradiance reflectance are most commonly used in ocean color remote sensing. Algorithms are developed to relate irradiance reflectance (R) and quantities such as chlorophyll and suspended sediment concentration. The study interpreted how many independent parameters of ALOS satellite data collected can be found to assess the sediment concentration in Langkawi Island, Malaysia by using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA is a technique designed for reducing the dimensionality of multivariate set of data. This method can reduce the variables which are highly correlated with one another without losing any information. In order to extract the reflectance quantities, all satellite data sets have been atmospherically corrected using ATCOR-2. PCA and band ratios were applied on the four independent bands (band 1-4). The result from independent band show that the PC1 and PC2 composed mostly of band 2(RAV2) and band 3 (RAV3) reflectances, while the band ratios show that the PC1, PC2 and PC3 composed mostly of all band ratios. In this study, the both components PC1 and PC2 can be considered strong in interpreted the structure of the data of independent band, due to it can explain 98.45 percent of the diversity of data. On the other hand, PC1, PC2 and PC3 can be considered strong in interpreted the structure of the data of band ratios. As a result, multivariate model from band ratios gives adequate relationship between the PC1, PC2 and PC3 against suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) with equation: SSC [mg.L-1] = 89.4 -1.78PC1 - 7.33 PC2 - 90.6PC3 (SE=6.6, R2=0.94.6).

  2. A Temporal Dimension to the Influence of Pollen Rewards on Bee Behaviour and Fecundity in Aloe tenuior

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Karl J.; Johnson, Steven D.; Peter, Craig I.

    2014-01-01

    The net effect of pollen production on fecundity in plants can range from negative – when self-pollen interferes with fecundity due to incompatibility mechanisms, to positive – when pollen availability is associated with increased pollinator visitation and fecundity due to its utilization as a reward. We investigated the responses of bees to pollen and nectar rewards, and the effects of these rewards on pollen deposition and fecundity in the hermaphroditic succulent shrub Aloe tenuior. Self-pollinated plants failed to set fruit, but their ovules were regularly penetrated by self-pollen tubes, which uniformly failed to develop into seeds as expected from ovarian self-incompatibility (or strong early inbreeding depression). Bees consistently foraged for pollen during the morning and early afternoon, but switched to nectar in the late afternoon. As a consequence of this differential foraging, we were able to test the relative contribution to fecundity of pollen- versus nectar-collecting flower visitors. We exposed emasculated and intact flowers in either the morning or late afternoon to foraging bees and showed that emasculation reduced pollen deposition by insects in the morning, but had little effect in the afternoon. Despite the potential for self-pollination to result in ovule discounting due to late-acting self-sterility, fecundity was severely reduced in artificially emasculated plants. Although there were temporal fluctuations in reward preference, most bee visits were for pollen rewards. Therefore the benefit of providing pollen that is accessible to bee foragers outweighs any potential costs to fitness in terms of gender interference in this species. PMID:24755611

  3. Recent land subsidence caused by the rapid urban development in the Hanoi region (Vietnam) using ALOS InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, V. K.; Doubre, C.; Weber, C.; Gourmelen, N.; Masson, F.

    2014-03-01

    Since the 1990s the land subsidence due to the rapid urbanization has been considered a severely destructive hazard in the center of Hanoi City. Although previous studies and measurements have quantified the subsiding deformation in Hanoi center, no data exist for the newly established districts in the south and the west, where construction development has been most significant and where groundwater pumping has been very intensive over the last decade. With a multi-temporal InSAR approach, we quantify the spatial distribution of the land subsidence in the entire Hanoi urban region using ALOS images over the 2007-2011 period. The map of the mean subsidence velocity reveals that the northern bank of the Red River appears stable, whereas some areas in southern bank are subsiding with a mean vertical rate up to 68.0 mm yr-1, especially within the three new urban districts of Hoang Mai, Ha Dong - Thanh Xuan and Hoai Duc - Tu Liem. We interpret the spatial distribution of the surface deformation as the combination of the nature of the unsaturated layer, the lowering of groundwater in the aquifers due to pumping withdrawal capacity, the increase of built-up surfaces and the type of building foundation. The piezometric level in Qp aquifer lowers particularly after 2008, whereas the groundwater level in Qh aquifer remains steady, even if it loses its seasonal fluctuation in urban areas and drawdowns in neighboring water production plants. The time evolution deduced from the InSAR time series is consistent with previous leveling data and shows that the lowering rate of the surface slightly decreases till 2008. The analysis of groundwater levels in instrumented wells shows a correlation between the behavior of groundwater with the urban development and the acceleration of groundwater withdrawal. Also, the time variations suggest that the deformation became non-stationary, with upward and downward transient displacements related to the charge and discharge of the aquifers.

  4. A 50-m Forest Cover Map in Southeast Asia from ALOS/PALSAR and Its Application on Forest Fragmentation Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Sheldon, Sage; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Zhang, Geli; Dinh Duong, Nguyen; Hazarika, Manzul; Wikantika, Ketut; Takeuhci, Wataru; Moore, Berrien

    2014-01-01

    Southeast Asia experienced higher rates of deforestation than other continents in the 1990s and still was a hotspot of forest change in the 2000s. Biodiversity conservation planning and accurate estimation of forest carbon fluxes and pools need more accurate information about forest area, spatial distribution and fragmentation. However, the recent forest maps of Southeast Asia were generated from optical images at spatial resolutions of several hundreds of meters, and they do not capture well the exceptionally complex and dynamic environments in Southeast Asia. The forest area estimates from those maps vary substantially, ranging from 1.73×106 km2 (GlobCover) to 2.69×106 km2 (MCD12Q1) in 2009; and their uncertainty is constrained by frequent cloud cover and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, cloud-free imagery from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) became available. We used the PALSAR 50-m orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 to generate a forest cover map of Southeast Asia at 50-m spatial resolution. The validation, using ground-reference data collected from the Geo-Referenced Field Photo Library and high-resolution images in Google Earth, showed that our forest map has a reasonably high accuracy (producer's accuracy 86% and user's accuracy 93%). The PALSAR-based forest area estimates in 2009 are significantly correlated with those from GlobCover and MCD12Q1 at national and subnational scales but differ in some regions at the pixel scale due to different spatial resolutions, forest definitions, and algorithms. The resultant 50-m forest map was used to quantify forest fragmentation and it revealed substantial details of forest fragmentation. This new 50-m map of tropical forests could serve as a baseline map for forest resource inventory, deforestation monitoring, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) implementation, and biodiversity. PMID:24465714

  5. In vivo anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa in village chickens naturally infected with Heterakis gallinarum.

    PubMed

    Mwale, Marizvikuru; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the anthelmintic efficacy of Aloe ferox, Agave sisalana, and Gunnera perpensa against Heterakis gallinarum in village chickens. The chickens naturally infected with H. gallinarum were randomly divided into 14 groups of eight chickens and orally administered distilled water (negative control), mebendazole (positive control), and graded levels (50-, 100-, 200-, and 400-mg/kg doses) of the three plant extracts. At days 0, 7, and 14, the floatation technique was used to determine fecal egg counts and H. gallinarum worms from chicken ceca were counted at days 0 and 14. Egg count reduction percentage (ECR%) was high at day 7 for all the test materials except for A. sisalana (100 mg/kg) that had 33%. At day 14, ECR% was high for all the other test materials save for A. ferox (200 mg/kg), mebendazole, and distilled water which was 50, 32, and 50%, respectively. A. ferox (200 mg/kg), G. perpensa (200 and 400 mg/kg), and A. sisalana (50 and 100 mg/kg) had the highest (85, 78, 74, 86, and 73%, respectively) worm count reduction percentage. The plants had anthelmintic properties. Advocacy and utilization of these plants in improving the health of village chickens could lead to increased productivity, boosting profits for the poultry industry thereby enabling it to meet the supply of animal protein and enhance livelihoods. It is imperative to determine compounds in the crude extracts of these medicinal plants which are responsible for the anthelmintic activities and their mechanism of action. PMID:25311442

  6. Cavity disinfection in minimally invasive dentistry - comparative evaluation of Aloe vera and propolis: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, A. R.; Karuna, Y. M.; Yavagal, C.; Deepak, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The survival of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) restorations would probably increase if near total elimination of cariogenic microorganisms could be done in the process of cavity cleaning before going ahead with the restoration. Thus, use of naturally occurring disinfecting agents for achieving this goal could herald a new beginning in the field of contemporary minimum intervention dentistry. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of hand instruments in excavating dental caries and comparatively evaluate the roles of Aloe vera and propolis as potential cavity disinfecting agents after minimally invasive hand excavation of dental caries. Settings and Designs: Experimental, in vivo intergroup split mouth, randomized clinical trial. Subjects and Methods: The study included Group I (Control), Group II (A. vera) and Group III (propolis). Ten patients with three teeth each have occlusal/occlusoproximal lesions suitable for ART were selected. Dentinal samples were collected three times from each tooth viz., preexcavation, postexcavation and postdisinfection of the cavities. These dentinal samples were subjected to microbiological analyses for total viable count. Statistical Analysis Used: Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni post-hoc test and one-way ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc test. Results: In all the three groups, significant amount of bacteria were left behind after hand excavation. Group II and Group III, in which cavities were treated with A. vera and propolis extracts respectively, showed a significant reduction in the bacterial counts when compared to control the group. Conclusions: Hand excavation alone does not completely eliminate bacteria, which may predispose treated teeth to secondary caries. Both propolis and A. vera extracts can be used as potential natural disinfecting agents, thereby embracing the concept of phytotherapy in minimum intervention dentistry. PMID:25821369

  7. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Aloe vera (Family: Liliaceae) leaf extract and Bacillus sphaericus, against Chikungunya vector, Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Walton, William

    2012-01-01

    The bio-efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus larvicidal activity was assessed against the first to fourth instars larvae of Aedes aegypti, under the laboratory conditions. The plant material was shade dried at room temperature and powdered coarsely. A. vera and B. sphaericus show varied degrees of larvicidal activity against various instars larvae of A. aegypti. The LC50 of A. vera against the first to fourth instars larvae were 162.74, 201.43, 253.30 and 300.05 ppm and the LC90 442.98, 518.86, 563.18 and 612.96 ppm, respectively. B. sphaericus against the first to fourth instars larvae the LC50 values were 68.21, 79.13, 93.48, and 107.05 ppm and the LC90 values 149.15, 164.67, 183.84, and 201.09 ppm, respectively. However, the combined treatment of A. vera + B. sphaericus (1:2) material shows highest larvicidal activity of the LC50 values 54.80, 63.11, 74.66 and 95.10 ppm; The LC90 values of 145.29, 160.14, 179.74 and 209.98 ppm, against A. aegypti in all the tested concentrations than the individuals and clearly established that there is a substantial amount of synergist act. The present investigation clearly exhibits that both A. vera and B. sphaericus materials could serve as a potential larvicidal agent. Since, A. aegypti is a container breeder vector mosquito this user and eco-friendly and low-cost vector control strategy could be a viable solution to the existing dengue disease burden. Therefore, this study provides first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity the combined effect of A. vera leaf extract and B. sphaericus against as target species of A. aegypti. PMID:23961212

  8. Effect of Aloe vera and clove powder supplementation on carcass characteristics, composition and serum enzymes of Japanese quails

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Hujaz; Rao, P. V. Raman; Raghuvanshi, Rita S.; Mondal, B. C.; Singh, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to study the effect of Aloe vera and clove powder supplementation on carcass characteristics, composition and serum enzymes of Japanese quails. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 120-day-old Japanese quails, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups viz. T1-control, T2-0.5% A. vera, T3-0.5% clove, and T4-(0.25% A. vera + 0.25% clove) powder, each having three replications consisting of ten Japanese quails. The birds in control group (T1) were fed no supplement whereas in treatments T2-T4 birds were supplemented with A. vera leaf powder, clove, and mixture of both (powdered form) at 0.5, 0.5, and 0.25+0.25% of feed, respectively. After 7 days of brooding, a feeding trial of 35 days was conducted. On 35th day of trial birds were sacrificed and dressing percentage, cut up parts, organ weight, processing losses and carcass meat composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick were recorded. Blood samples were collected on the same day and serum was separated to evaluate serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Results: It showed significantly (p<0.05) higher values of dressing percentage with and without giblet and breast weight in the T2-T4 group as compared to the T1 group. No significant (p>0.05) differences were observed in giblet weight, other cut up parts and composition of the breast, thigh, and drumstick muscles in all the treatment groups. Serum ALT and AST did not vary significantly among different treatment groups. Conclusion: A. vera and clove supplementation improved the dressing percentage and breast weight without adversely affecting the meat composition and serum enzymes. Thus, these can be used as a growth promoter in Japanese quails. PMID:27047153

  9. Benefit of Aloe vera and Matricaria recutita mixture in rat irritable bowel syndrome: Combination of antioxidant and spasmolytic effects.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Shahmirzadi, Azar; Mozaffari, Shilan; Sanei, Yara; Baeeri, Maryam; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid Reza; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-12-21

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the beneficial effects of a mixture of Aloe vera (AV) and Matricaria recutita (German chamomile, GC) in an experimental model of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: IBS was induced by a 5-day restraint stress in rats including the groups of control (water), GC (300 mg/kg), loperamide (10 mg/kg), mixed AV and GC (50: 50 at doses of 150, 300 or 450 mg/kg assigned as Mix-150, Mix-300 and Mix-450, respectively) and the sham group which did not receive any restraint stress and was fed with saline. All medications were administered intragastrically by gavage for 7 days, 2 days as pre-treatment followed by 5 days during induction of IBS every day before restraining. RESULTS: The increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in colonic cells in the control group were significantly decreased in the treatment groups. GC inhibited only small bowel transit while the AV/GC mixture delayed gastric emptying at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg. The AV/GC mixture also reduced colonic transit and small bowel transit at the dose of 150 mg/kg. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of stress-induced IBS was diminished by the AV/GC mixture at all doses used but not dose-dependently, via inhibiting colonic MPO activity and improving oxidative stress status. The effect of the mixture was more effective than GC alone. The present results support effectiveness of the AV and GC combination in IBS. PMID:23263994

  10. A 50-m forest cover map in Southeast Asia from ALOS/PALSAR and its application on forest fragmentation assessment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Sheldon, Sage; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Zhang, Geli; Duong, Nguyen Dinh; Hazarika, Manzul; Wikantika, Ketut; Takeuhci, Wataru; Moore, Berrien

    2014-01-01

    Southeast Asia experienced higher rates of deforestation than other continents in the 1990s and still was a hotspot of forest change in the 2000s. Biodiversity conservation planning and accurate estimation of forest carbon fluxes and pools need more accurate information about forest area, spatial distribution and fragmentation. However, the recent forest maps of Southeast Asia were generated from optical images at spatial resolutions of several hundreds of meters, and they do not capture well the exceptionally complex and dynamic environments in Southeast Asia. The forest area estimates from those maps vary substantially, ranging from 1.73×10(6) km(2) (GlobCover) to 2.69×10(6) km(2) (MCD12Q1) in 2009; and their uncertainty is constrained by frequent cloud cover and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, cloud-free imagery from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) became available. We used the PALSAR 50-m orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 to generate a forest cover map of Southeast Asia at 50-m spatial resolution. The validation, using ground-reference data collected from the Geo-Referenced Field Photo Library and high-resolution images in Google Earth, showed that our forest map has a reasonably high accuracy (producer's accuracy 86% and user's accuracy 93%). The PALSAR-based forest area estimates in 2009 are significantly correlated with those from GlobCover and MCD12Q1 at national and subnational scales but differ in some regions at the pixel scale due to different spatial resolutions, forest definitions, and algorithms. The resultant 50-m forest map was used to quantify forest fragmentation and it revealed substantial details of forest fragmentation. This new 50-m map of tropical forests could serve as a baseline map for forest resource inventory, deforestation monitoring, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) implementation, and biodiversity. PMID

  11. Aloe vera toxic effects: expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in testis of Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Asgharzade, Samira; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud; Mirzaeian, Amin; Reiisi, Somaye; Salimzadeh, Loghman

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Nitric oxide (NO), a product of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), contributes in germ cell apoptosis. This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Aloe vera gel (AVG) on male Wistar rat reproductive organ, serum NO level, and expression of iNOS gene in leydig cells. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (n=36) were used for experiments in three groups. The experimental groups were orally administered with the AVG extract solution once-daily as follow: 150 mg.kg-1; group A, 300 mg.kg-1; group B, and only normal saline; group C (control group). They were mated with untreated females and the reproductive and chemical parameters were assessed for each group, including semen quality, serum testosterone, sperm fertility, gonad and body weight, serum NO concentration (by the Griess method), and iNOS gene expression (using RT-PCR). Results: The testes weight, serum testosterone, as well as sperm count and fertility of the AVG treated groups were significantly reduced when compared to the control (P<0.001). Concentration of serum NO was significantly increased (37.1±4.63 µM) in the administrated group with higher AVG concentration, compared to the control group (P<0.001; 10.19±0.87 µM); however, iNOS mRNA expression was increased in the treated animals (P<0.001). Conclusion: iNOS may play a functional role in spermatogenesis via apoptosis, reducing sperm count, but further studies are needed to illustrate the mechanisms by which AVG exerts its negative effects on spermatogenesis and sperm quality. PMID:26730330

  12. Enriched adhesion of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on cotton fabric assisted by aloe-vera for bio-medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, D.; Thenammai, A. N.; Yogamalar, N. R.; Hemamalini, R.; Jayavel, R.

    2015-06-01

    Synthesis and characterization of talc/ZnO nanocomposites with the assistance of aloe-vera are investigated by structural and morphological studies. The crystal structure and the phase analysis of ZnO and talc are characterized and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The average crystallite size estimation from the Scherrer formula and the particle size analysis clearly predicts that the size of the ZnO declines when aloe-vera is used as a capping molecule in comparison to the commercially available ZnO. The reduced crystallite size of ZnO renders a stable cohesion with the talc composition and the presence of distinct functional group pyridines/ammonia in the synthesized nanocomposites enriches the good adhesion between the as-synthesized material and cotton fabric. The adhesion and homogeneous distribution of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on the cotton fabric are inferred from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. The basic studies and characterizations would pave way for futuristic bio-medical application.

  13. Crop Species Recognition and Discrimination Paddy-Rice from Reaped-Fields by the Radar Vegetation Index (rvi) of ALOS-2/PALSAR2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The Japanese ALOS-2 satellite was launched on May 24th, 2014. It has the L-band SAR, PALSAR-2. Kim,Y. and van Zyl, J.J. proposed a kind of Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) as RVI = 8 * σ0hv / (σ0hh + σ0vv + 2* σ0hv) by L-band full-polarimetric radar data. Kim, Y. and Jackson, T.J., et al. applied the equation into rice and soybean by multi-frequency polarimetric scatterometer above 4.16 meters from the ground. Their report showed the L-band was the most promising wave length for estimating LAI and NDVI from RVI. The author tried to apply the analysis to the actual paddy field areas, both Inashiki region and Miyagi region in the eastern main island, "Honshu", areas of Japan by ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 full-polarimetry data in the summer season, the main crop growing time, of 2015. Judging from conventional methods, it will be possible to discriminate paddy rice growing fields from reaped fields or the other crops growing fields by the PALSAR-2 data. But the RVI value is vaguely related to such land use or biomass at the present preliminary experiment. The continuous research by the additional PALSAR-2 full-polarimetry data should be desired.

  14. Exploring the potential of gastro retentive dosage form in delivery of ellagic acid and aloe vera gel powder for treatment of gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Arati N; Ranpise, Nisharani S; Ramesh, C

    2014-01-01

    Approach of novel drug delivery system (NDDS) overcomes the limitations of conventional dosage forms. However, this concept is still not practiced to a large extent in delivery of herbal drugs in Ayurveda. Thus, the potential of herbal drugs has not been explored to its fullest. Hence, there is a growing need to amalgamate the concept of NDDS in delivery of herbal constituents. The present investigation is designed to deliver and retain two herbal constituents in stomach for better action against Helicobacter pylori induced gastric ulcers. The objective was to develop a bilayer floating tablet of ellagic acid and Aloe vera gel powder through rational combination of excipients to give the lowest possible lag time with maximum drug release in the period of 4 h. Formulation F9 containing 100 mg of HPMC K15M, 27 mg of crospovidone, 80 mg of mannitol and effervescent agents in the ratio 1:2 gave 92% drug release and desired floating properties. In vivo studies showed that combination of ellagic acid and Aloe vera gave 75 % ulcer inhibition in comparison to 57% ulcer inhibition in the group which was administered with ellagic acid alone. This suggests the use of bilayer floating tablet in gastric ulcer treatment. PMID:24261674

  15. Oral administration of Aloe vera gel powder prevents UVB-induced decrease in skin elasticity via suppression of overexpression of MMPs in hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Saito, Marie; Tanaka, Miyuki; Misawa, Eriko; Yao, Ruiquing; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Yamauchi, Kouji; Abe, Fumiaki; Yamamoto, Yuki; Furukawa, Fukumi

    2016-07-01

    This study reports the effects of oral Aloe vera gel powder (AVGP) containing Aloe sterols on skin elasticity and the extracellular matrix in ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated hairless mice. Ten-week-old hairless mice were fed diets containing 0.3% AVGP for 8 weeks and irradiated UVB for 6 weeks. Mice treated with AVGP showed significant prevention of the UVB-induced decrease in skin elasticity. To investigate the mechanism underlying this suppression of skin elasticity loss, we measured the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -9, and -13. AVGP prevented both the UVB-induced increases in MMPs expressions. Moreover, we investigated hyaluronic acid (HA) content of mice dorsal skin and gene expression of HA synthase-2 (Has2). In the results, AVGP oral administration prevented UVB-induced decreasing in skin HA content and Has2 expression and attenuates the UVB-induced decrease in serum adiponectin, which promotes Has2 expression. These results suggested that AVGP has the ability to prevent the skin photoaging. PMID:27045316

  16. In vitro anti-proliferative activities of Aloe perryi flowers extract on human liver, colon, breast, lung, prostate and epithelial cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Al-Oqail, Mai Mohammad; El-Shaibany, Amina; Al-Jassas, Ebtesam; Al-Sheddi, Ebtesam Saad; Al-Massarani, Shaza Mohamed; Farshori, Nida Nayyar

    2016-03-01

    Natural products, especially plant extracts have offered vast opportunities in the field of drug development due to its chemical diversity. The genus Aloe has for long been used for medicinal purposes in different parts of the world. The present study was designed to investigate the phytochemicals and anti-cancer potential of Aloe perryi flowers. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, phytosterols, phenols, flavonoids and proteins. While alkaloids and saponins were absent. The percentage inhibition of various extracts (viz. petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous) of A. perryi flowers on seven human cancer cell lines (HepG2, HCT-116, MCF-7, A549, PC-3, HEp-2 and HeLa) has been evaluated using MTT assay. All the extracts significantly inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The petroleum ether extract was most active, where the inhibition was recorded as 92.6%, 93.9%, 92%, 90.9%, 88.9%, 82% and 85.7% for HepG2, HCT-116, MCF-7, A-549, PC-3, HEp-2 and HeLa cells, respectively. The results also revealed that HCT-116 cells were more sensitive among all the cell lines studied. PMID:27113311

  17. Enriched adhesion of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on cotton fabric assisted by aloe-vera for bio-medical application

    SciTech Connect

    Selvakumar, D.; Yogamalar, N. R.; Jayavel, R.; Thenammai, A. N.; Hemamalini, R.

    2015-06-24

    Synthesis and characterization of talc/ZnO nanocomposites with the assistance of aloe-vera are investigated by structural and morphological studies. The crystal structure and the phase analysis of ZnO and talc are characterized and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The average crystallite size estimation from the Scherrer formula and the particle size analysis clearly predicts that the size of the ZnO declines when aloe-vera is used as a capping molecule in comparison to the commercially available ZnO. The reduced crystallite size of ZnO renders a stable cohesion with the talc composition and the presence of distinct functional group pyridines/ammonia in the synthesized nanocomposites enriches the good adhesion between the as-synthesized material and cotton fabric. The adhesion and homogeneous distribution of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on the cotton fabric are inferred from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. The basic studies and characterizations would pave way for futuristic bio-medical application.

  18. Comparative hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of sodium arsenite and three petroleum products in experimental Swiss Albino Mice: the modulatory effects of Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Akinwumi, Kazeem A; Osifeso, Olabode O

    2009-10-01

    Petroleum products (PPs) consist of complex chemical mixtures, mainly hydrocarbons. Their composition varies considerably with source and use. Inappropriate manual handling and use of PPs, in countries like Nigeria, results in excessive skin contact with the possibility of hazard to health. There has been inadequate evidence to classify diesel, kerosene and hydraulic oil as human carcinogens and there is limited evidence for their toxicity and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. We compared the hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of diesel, petrol or hydraulic oil with that of sodium arsenite (Na(2)AsO(2)) in mice. Our findings showed that these PPs are capable of inducing gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT) activity in the serum and liver to levels comparable with that induced by Na(2)AsO(2). Mice treated with individual PPs have elevated mean liver and serum gammaGT at levels that are significantly different from the values observed for the negative control group. Also, the individual PPs alone have micronuclei formation induction activity similar to Na(2)AsO(2). We found that treatment with Aloe vera gel before the PPs significantly reduced mean liver and serum gammaGT, and the mean number of micronuclei scored when compared with groups administered each of the PPs alone, supporting the presence of hepatoprotective components in Aloe vera. PMID:19583991

  19. Identification, evaluation and change detection of highly sensitive wetlands in South-Eastern Sri Lanka using ALOS (AVNIR2, PALSAR) and Landsat ETM+ data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawardena, Ajith; Fernando, Tamasha; Takeuchi, Wataru; Wickramasinghe, Chathura H.; Samarakoon, Lal

    2014-06-01

    Sri Lanka is an island consists of numerous wetlands and many of these ecosystems have been indiscriminately exploited for a commercial, agricultural, residential and industrial development and waste dumping. Eastern River Basin Region in Sri Lanka is rapidly urbanizing, which leads more threats to the surrounding wetland ecosystems considerably. Therefore, it is important to identify and designated them as reserved areas where necessary in order to protect them under the National Environmental Act of Sri Lanka. Mapping and change detection of wetlands in the selected region is a key requirement to fulfill the above task. GIS and Remote Sensing techniques were used to identify and analyze the wetland eco systems. In this study Landsat ETM+, ALOS-AVNIR2, ALOS-PALSAR images were analyzed for identifying and change detection of wetlands. The secondary information and data were collected through a questionnaire survey to recognize the possible threats and benefits. The collected data and information were incorporated in identification, analyzing and ranking the wetlands. The final outcome of the project is to correlate the satellite data with the field observations to quantify the highly sensitive wetlands to declare as Environmental Protection Areas under the National Environment Act of Sri Lanka.

  20. Combining ALOS-PALSAR imagery with field water level measurements for flood mapping of a tropical floodplain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, Hidayat; Hoekman, D. H.; Vissers, M. A. M.; Hoitink, A. J. F.

    2011-10-01

    Radar imagery is potentially useful for the identification, mapping, and measurement of streams, lakes, and wetlands. Many studies showed that comparison of two consecutive radar images is useful for determining flood extent. However, the use of radar data series for flood mapping is still rarely reported. The purpose of this study is to explore the use of ALOS-PALSAR imagery for observing the dynamics of the Mahakam River floodplain in Kalimantan, Indonesia, by incorporating field water level measurements. Water level measurements were carried out along the river, lakes and at two peatland locations, using arrays of pressure transducers. The first peatland (P1) is part of the Mahakam floodplain, representing open peat area dominated by shrub and reed. The second peatland (P2) represents a forest covered peatland. A series of PALSAR imagery (polarity: HH; pixel spacing: 50 m) covering the middle and lower Mahakam area in the years 2007 and 2008 was collected. A land use/land cover map was available from a previous analysis of PALSAR imagery. To analyze Radar backscatter behavior for different land cover types, several regions of interest were selected, based on the land cover classes. A number of land cover classes (medium shrub, high shrub, fern/grass, and secondary forest) were found to be sensitive to flooding, whereas in some other classes (peat forest, riverine forest and tree plantation) backscatter signatures remained almost unchanged with flood inundation. Correlations between water level and radar backscatter of the regions of interest were used to distinguish between three types of flooding signal, viz. flooding of low vegetation, flooding of high vegetation, and the boundary shift of lakes. An analysis of the relationship between radar backscatter and water levels was carried out in each of the regions of interest. For lakes and shrub covered peatland in P1, where the range of water level variation was high, a good water level-backscatter correlation was

  1. Reduction of intestinal polyp formation in min mice fed a high-fat diet with aloe vera gel extract.

    PubMed

    Chihara, Takeshi; Shimpo, Kan; Beppu, Hidehiko; Tomatsu, Akiko; Kaneko, Takaaki; Tanaka, Miyuki; Yamada, Muneo; Abe, Fumiaki; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera gel supercritical CO2 extract (AVGE) has been shown to contain five phytosterols, reduce visceral fat accumulation, and influence the metabolism of glucose and lipids in animal model experiments. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that obesity is an established risk factor for several cancers including colorectal cancer. Therefore, we examined the effects of AVGE on intestinal polyp formation in Apc-deficient Min mice fed a high-fat diet. Male Min mice were divided into normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD), low dose AVGE (HFD+LAVGE) and high dose AVGE (HFD+HAVGE) groups. The ND group received AIN-93G diet and the latter 3 groups were given modified high-fat AIN-93G diet (HFD) for 7 weeks. AVGE was suspended in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and administered orally to mice in HFD+LAVGE and HFD+HAVGE groups every day (except on Sunday) for 7 weeks at a dose of 3.75 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight, respectively. ND and HFD groups received 0.5% CMC alone. Between weeks 4 and 7, body weights in the HFD and HFD+LAVGE groups were reduced more than those in the ND group. However, body weights were not reduced in the HFD+HAVGE group. Mice were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and their intestines were scored for polyps. No significant differences were observed in either the incidence and multiplicity of intestinal polyps (≥0.5 mm in a diameter) among the three groups fed HFD. However, when intestinal polyps were categorized by their size into 0.5-1.4, 1.5-2.4, or ≥2.5 mm, the incidence and multiplicity of large polyps (≥2.5 mm) in the intestine in the HFD+HAVGE group were significantly lower than those in the HFD group. We measured plasma lipid (triglycerides and total cholesterol) and adipocytokine [interleukin-6 and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin] levels as possible indicators of mechanisms of inhibition. The results showed that HMW adiponectin levels in the HFD group were significantly lower than those in the ND group. However, the

  2. Detection of Area Changes in River Mouthbars at the Mekong River Delta using ALOS/PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, A.; Uehara, K.; Tamura, T.; Saito, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Projected sea-level rise by the year 2100 would be ~1m recently and its negative impact on the coastal zone has been pointed out, particularly for mega-deltas in Asia by the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007). The relative sea-level rise varies with specific conditions and processes over broad spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, long-term monitoring of geomorphological changes in coastal areas over wide areas is of highly interest and importance for coastal management. However, due to limited data availability and accessibility in developing countries, there is not enough systematic coastal monitoring. The Mekong River Delta is one of typical mega-deltas in Asia, which has a low-lying wide delta-plain located in Cambodia to South Vietnam. Sediment and water discharges of the Mekong River are controlled by the monsoon with high and low discharge in summer (wet season) and winter (dry season), respectively. Therefore, technologies such as SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) not affected by the cloud conditions offer potential for monitoring in the monsoon Asia region. In this study, ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR (Phased Array type L-band SAR) data acquired over a period from December 2006 to January 2011 are analyzed to investigate the relation between the sea level and the shape of mouthbars in the Mekong River. Level-1.0 PALSAR data were processed, coregistered, and geocoded to make SAR backscatter intensity images. River mouthbars with strong backscatter, which is surrounded by the water with weak backscatter, are successfully extracted using a histogram thresholding algorithm. Estimated areas of river mouthbars, which are located at the central part of the delta and openly faced to the South China Sea, gradually increase on an annual time scale. These river mouthbars are growing to the seaward. Besides this overall increasing trend, seasonal variations of areas are observed; these correlate with

  3. Coseismic and Postseismic Deformation Due to the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake Detected by ALOS/PALSAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, J.; Hashimoto, M.; Fukushima, Y.

    2011-12-01

    On April 4th, 2010, the Mw 7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake occurred in northeast Baja California, near the US-Mexico border. Since then, ALOS/PALSAR observed this region twenty times, which provides a rich data set to study the co- and post-seismic deformation. We first estimated the slip distribution and dip angle of the fault plane by inverting InSAR data with the method developed by Fukahata and Wright (2008). With this method, we can obtain the slip distribution on a plane fault and its dip angle simultaneously by minimizing the ABIC (Akaike's Bayesian Information Criterion). In southeastern area near the Gulf of California, we could recognize effects of liquefaction, so we did not use the data in such areas in the inversion. We assumed one sufficiently large rectangular plane fault and the strike is assumed to be 313 degrees from the north. After trials and errors, we restricted the search of the dip angle in a range of 30-90 degrees, dipping northeastward. The optimal dip angle was estimated 68 degrees, which is smaller than 82 degrees of the CMT solution (USGS). Right lateral strike slips with slight normal component were estimated, and the maximum slip of about 3m was obtained in the northwestern vicinity of the hypocenter. The total geodetic moment of our best-fitting model was in a good agreement with the seismic moment. In the postseismic period, we detected signals at two locations that can be attributed to postseismic deformation. First, we recognize some signals near the northwestern edge of the source fault in all the early postseismic interferograms (46 days after the earthquake) of both ascending and descending directions. In this area, the coseismic slip was estimated to be about 2m. We performed some forward calculations to confirm that this signal is not likely to be due to aftershocks. We computed the poroelastic deformation based on our coseismic slip model and found that the observed signal has the opposite sense. Moreover, a 2.5 dimensional

  4. Application of ALOS PALSAR ScanSAR Data for Determining the Freeze/Thaw Surface State over Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarderakhsh, M.; McDonald, K. C.; Schroeder, R.; Chapman, B. D.; Steiner, N.; Podest, E.; Colliander, A.; Kimball, J. S.; Pinales, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    Land surface freeze/thaw state is a key state variable governing water, carbon and energy cycles across the high latitudes. Spatially comprehensive ground observation networks suitable for characterizing regional-scale freeze/thaw patterns require large fiscal, technological and human resources to implement. Satellite microwave remote sensing thus offers the unique opportunity for a complete synoptic view of the surface freeze/thaw state that otherwise could not be assessed. A primary goal of NASA's Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission is characterization of land surface freeze/thaw state for northern latitudes. In this study, multi-temporal imagery from calibrated and terrain-corrected 100 m resolution L-band HH-polarized ALOS PALSAR ScanSAR, with coverage over the State of Alaska are employed to investigate backscatter variability in response to land cover and freeze/thaw state. Despite better temporal resolution, ScanSAR lacks constant incidence angle backscatter observations when compared to higher-resolution (6 - 12.5 m) PALSAR fine beam mode data. Thus a method for the normalization (to an incidence angle of 40 degree) of the ScanSAR backscatter responses to incidence angle variations, land cover and freeze/thaw state is proposed. Our incidence angle correction algorithm relies on ancillary data from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite (JERS) based wetlands map over Alaska [Whitecomb et. al., 2009] as well as land cover information from the Boston University MOD12Q1 V004 Land Cover product (BU-MODIS) supporting identification of non-inundated vegetated upland regions. Mosaics of concurrent PALSAR fine beam data are utilized to evaluate the accuracy of our backscatter normalization procedure. Moreover, ALECTRA (Alaska Ecological Transect) biophysical monitoring sites, which provide unique information about the thermal (i.e. freeze/thaw) state of the various land cover components (e.g. canopy, stem, snow and soil) are employed to examine linkages

  5. Magnitude and extent of land subsidence in central Mexico revealed by regional InSAR ALOS time-series survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaussard, Estelle; Amelung, Falk; Wdowinski, Shimon; Cabral-Cano, Enrique

    2013-04-01

    The societal impacts of land subsidence are colossal, both in terms of decrease in water resources and in threat to human life due to buildings damages and increase in flood risk from rivers. Most subsidence surveys in Mexico focus on Mexico City, known to subside since the 1950s, while a few studies have documented the occurrence of land subsidence in other medium to large-seized cities of central Mexico. However, because most works target one single city, they fail to reveal the bigger picture. Here we use Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) time-series analysis of ALOS L-band SAR data to resolve land subsidence in an area of 200,000 km2 in central Mexico. We processed over 600 SAR images acquired between 2007-2011 and produced over 3000 interferograms. The data reveal significant subsidence in seventeen cities, including sixteen with over 100, 000 inhabitants and allow mapping of subsidence with high spatial and temporal resolutions. Land subsidence is detected, from east to west, in Puebla (population of 2.5 million), Mexico city (population of 21 million), Toluca de Lerdo (population of 427K), Queretaro (population of 825K), San Luis de la Paz (population of 101K), Celaya (population of 266K), San Luis Potosi (population of 936K), Morelia (population of 537K), Salamanca (population of 144K), Irapuato (population of 317K), Silao (population of 147K), Leon (population of 1.4 million), Aguascalientes (population of 735K), Zamora de Hidalgo (population of 186K), Guadalajara (population of 3.8 million), Ahuacatlan (population of 6.5K), and Tepic (population of 261K). We additionally identify subsidence in 3 agricultural areas outside major urban centers: 20 km southwest of the city of San Luis de la Paz, south of Villa de Reyes (40 km south of San Luis Potosi), and west of villa de Arista (50 km north of San Luis Potosi). The time-series suggest nearly constant rates of subsidence at most the locations over the 2-years period spanned by the SAR

  6. An observational study of dust nucleation in Mira (o Ceti). I. Variable features of AlO and other Al-bearing species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, T.; Wong, K. T.; Schmidt, M. R.; Müller, H. S. P.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Cherchneff, I.; Menten, K. M.; Keller, D.; Brünken, S.; Winters, J. M.; Patel, N. A.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Dust is efficiently produced by cool giant stars, but the condensation of inorganic dust is poorly understood. Observations of key aluminum bearing molecules around evolved stars has enabled us to investigate the nucleation of alumina (Al2O3) dust in the gas. Aims: We aim to identify and characterize aluminum bearing species in the circumstellar gas of Mira (o Ceti) in order to elucidate their role in the production of Al2O3 dust. Methods: We used multiepoch spectral line observations at (sub-)millimeter, far-infrared, and optical wavelengths including: maps with ALMA that probe the gas distribution in the immediate vicinity of the star at ~30 mas; observations with ALMA, APEX, and Herschel in 2013-2015 for studying cycle and inter-cycle variability of the rotational lines of Al-bearing molecules; optical records as far back as 1965 to examine variations in electronic transitions over time spans of days to decades; and velocity measurements and excitation analysis of the spectral features that constrain the physical parameters of the gas. Results: Three diatomic molecules AlO, AlOH, and AlH, and atomic Al i are the main observable aluminum species in Mira, although a significant fraction of aluminum might reside in other species that have not yet been identified. Strong irregular variability in the (sub-)millimeter and optical features of AlO (possibly the direct precursor of Al2O3) indicates substantial changes in the excitation conditions, or varying abundance that is likely related to shocks in the star. The inhomogeneous distribution of AlO might influence the spatial and temporal characteristics of dust production. Conclusions: We are unable to quantitatively trace aluminum depletion from the gas, but the rich observational material constrains time-dependent chemical networks. Future improvements should include spectroscopic characterization of higher aluminum oxides, coordinated observations of dust and gas species at different variability phases

  7. Dietary Aloe vera supplementation on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT).

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; He, Jie; Ma, Xin Yu; Kpundeh, Mathew D; Xu, Pao

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated effects of dietary Aloe vera on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT). Five groups were designed including a basal diet (control) and 100% A. vera powder incorporated in fish feed at 0.5% 1%, 2%, and 4%/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera supplemented diet significantly improved (p < 0.05) weight gain, absolute growth rate and specific growth rate. Feed intake significantly increased in fish fed with A. vera diet at 1% and 2%/kg feed. Feed efficiency ratio, feed conversion ratio, and hepatosomatic index were significantly enhanced in 4% A. vera supplemented fish over unsupplemented ones (p < 0.05). Several haemato-biochemical indices were examined before and after fish were challenged with S. iniae pathogen containing 7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells mL(-1). A. vera supplemented fish showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in red blood cells, hematocrits (Hb), hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, serum total protein, glucose and cortisol after challenge when compared to unsupplemented ones. Meanwhile, 4% A. vera supplemented fish showed a decrease (p < 0.05) in RBC, Hb, Ht, WBC, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) after challenge compared to unsupplemented ones and other supplemented ones. In addition, lower mean corpuscular volume values (MCV) (p < 0.05) were observed in fish fed with A. vera diet at 2% and 4% A. vera/kg feed than those fed unsupplemented diet. Unchallenged fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera showed significantly higher values (p < 0.05) of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) than those fed unsupplemented diet and 4% A. vera supplemented diet. There was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (N/L) within experimental groups after challenge; N/L ratio in A. vera unsupplemented fish and those supplemented with A. vera

  8. Aloe emodin induces G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via activation of caspase-6 in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Suboj, Priya; Babykutty, Suboj; Srinivas, Priya; Gopala, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    Aloe emodin (AE), a natural anthraquinone, is reported to have antiproliferative activity in various cancer cell lines. In this study, we analyzed the molecular mechanisms involved in the growth-inhibitory activity of this hydroxyanthraquinone in colon cancer cell, WiDr. In our observation AE inhibited cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G2/M phase and inhibiting cyclin B1. AE appreciably induced cell death specifically through the induction of apoptosis and by activating caspases 9/6. Apoptotic execution was found to be solely dependent on caspase-6 rather than caspase-3 or caspase-7. This is the first study indicating that the AE induces apoptosis specifically through the activation of caspase-6. PMID:22343391

  9. Microparticles of Aloe vera/vitamin E/chitosan: microscopic, a nuclear imaging and an in vivo test analysis for burn treatment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gabriela Garrastazu; Santos-Oliveira, Ralph; Albernaz, Martha S; Canema, Daniel; Weismüller, Gilberto; Barros, Eduardo Bede; Magalhães, Luciana; Lima-Ribeiro, Maria Helena Madruga; Pohlmann, Adriana Raffin; Guterres, Silvia S

    2014-02-01

    The use of drug-loaded nanoparticles and microparticles has been increasing, especially for cosmetic and drug delivery purposes. In this work, a new microparticle formulation was developed for use in the healing process of skin burns in a composition of Aloe vera/vitamin E/chitosan. In order to observe the morphological properties, Raman and atomic force microscopy evaluation were performed. The biodistribution studies were analyzed by using a nuclear methodology, labeling the microparticles with Technetium-99m and in vivo test was procedure to analyzed the cicatrization process. The results of AFM analysis show the formation and the adherence property of the microparticles. Raman analyses show the distribution of each component in the microparticle. The nuclear method used shows that the biodistribution of the microparticles remained in the skin. The in vivo cicatrization test showed that the poloxamer gel containing the microparticles make a better cicatrization in relation to the other formulations tested. PMID:24211657

  10. On the novel action of melanolysis by a leaf extract of Aloe vera and its active ingredient aloin, potent skin depigmenting agents.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sharique A; Galgut, Jyoti M; Choudhary, Ram K

    2012-05-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of an Aloe vera leaf extract, along with its standard active ingredient aloin, on the isolated tail melanophores of Bufo melanostictus tadpoles, which are a type of disguised smooth muscle cells offering excellent in vitro opportunities for studying the effects of pharmacological and pharmaceutical agents. It was found that the leaf extract of A. vera and its active ingredient aloin induced powerful, dose-dependent, physiologically significant melanin aggregating effects in the isolated tail melanophores of B. melanostictus similar to those of adrenaline per se. These preliminary findings clearly demonstrate that the extract of A. vera and its active ingredient aloin cause melanin aggregation leading to skin lightening via alpha adrenergic receptor stimulation. The present study opens new vistas for the use of A. vera regarding its clinical application as a new nontoxic melanolytic agent for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. PMID:22495441

  11. Monitoring of Western Corn Rootworm Damage in Maize Fields by Using Integrated Radar (ALOS PALSAR) and Optical (IRS LISS, AWiFS) Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nador, Gizella; Fenyes, Diana; Surek, Gyorgy; Vasas, Laszlo

    2008-11-01

    The gradual dispersion of western corn rootworm (WCR) is becoming a serious maize pest in Europe, and all over the world. In 2008 using remote sensing data, the Remote Sensing Centre of Institute of Geodesy, Cartography and Remote Sensing (FÖMI RSC) carried out this project to identify WCR larval damage. Our goal with the present project is to assess and identify the disorder and structural changes caused by WCR larvae using optical (IRS-P6 AWiFS, IRS-P6 LISS, SPOT4 and SPOT5) and polarimetic radar (ALOS PALSAR) satellite images. The project aims to identify the extent of WCR damaged cornfields using both polarimetic radar images and optical satellite data time series. Findings were tested against on-the-spot ground assessments. Using radar polarimetry increased the accuracy significantly. The final results have implications for plant protection strategy, farming practices, pesticide producers, state authorities and research institutes.

  12. Factors of Susceptibility of Human Myiasis Caused by the New World Screw-Worm, Cochliomyia hominivorax in São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Batista-da-Silva, José A.; Moya-Borja, Gonzalo E.; Queiroz, Margareth M.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out between July 2007 and June 2008 and reports on the occurrence of human myiasis caused by the New World screwworm, Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in São Gonçalo in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Liquid or solid vaseline was used to suffocate the larvae, which were then preserved in 70% ethanol and sent to the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz for identification. C. hominivorax were identified in all 22 cases of myiasis. There were 12 male and 10 female patients with ages ranging from 03 to 71. Ethnically the highest incidence was among black people, with 17 cases. Open wounds were the main cause of the parasitosis, whereas poor personal hygiene, the low educational level, alcoholism, bedridden patients, and physical or mental disability were possibly secondary factors; in addition to all these factors the income of the patients was very low. PMID:21526934

  13. Vertical Accuracy Assessment of 30-M Resolution Alos, Aster, and Srtm Global Dems Over Northeastern Mindanao, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santillan, J. R.; Makinano-Santillan, M.

    2016-06-01

    The ALOS World 3D - 30 m (AW3D30), ASTER Global DEM Version 2 (GDEM2), and SRTM-30 m are Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) that have been made available to the general public free of charge. An important feature of these DEMs is their unprecedented horizontal resolution of 30-m and almost global coverage. The very recent release of these DEMs, particularly AW3D30 and SRTM- 30 m, calls for opportunities for the conduct of localized assessment of the DEM's quality and accuracy to verify their suitability for a wide range of applications in hydrology, geomorphology, archaelogy, and many others. In this study, we conducted a vertical accuracy assessment of these DEMs by comparing the elevation of 274 control points scattered over various sites in northeastern Mindanao, Philippines. The elevations of these control points (referred to the Mean Sea Level, MSL) were obtained through 3rd order differential levelling using a high precision digital level, and their horizontal positions measured using a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. These control points are representative of five (5) land-cover classes namely brushland (45 points), built-up (32), cultivated areas (97), dense vegetation (74), and grassland (26). Results showed that AW3D30 has the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 5.68 m, followed by SRTM-30 m (RMSE = 8.28 m), and ASTER GDEM2 (RMSE = 11.98 m). While all the three DEMs overestimated the true ground elevations, the mean and standard deviations of the differences in elevations were found to be lower in AW3D30 compared to SRTM-30 m and ASTER GDEM2. The superiority of AW3D30 over the other two DEMS was also found to be consistent even under different landcover types, with AW3D30's RMSEs ranging from 4.29 m (built-up) to 6.75 m (dense vegetation). For SRTM-30 m, the RMSE ranges from 5.91 m (built-up) to 10.42 m (brushland); for ASTER

  14. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of inundation and Freeze /Thaw states in Alaska Using High Resolution ALOS PALSAR Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azarderakhsh, M.; McDonald, K. C.; Schroeder, R.; Steiner, N.; Podest, E.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring freeze -thaw transitions and mapping the extent and dynamics of wetlands in high latitudes are critical to enhancing our knowledge about the biogeochemical transitions, carbon dynamics and prediction of boreal-arctic ecosystem. The upcoming Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission, scheduled for launch in October 2014, will have an L-band active / passive sensor package which will allow determination of soil moisture and the timing of landscape seasonal freeze/thaw states across the globe. In line with these ongoing efforts, this study aims to monitor inundation and Freeze and Thaw states in Alaska using Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array L-Band SAR (ALOS PALSAR) ScanSAR observations. Four years of PALSAR measurements from 2007 to 2010 were acquired over the state of Alaska. Although wide-swath ScanSAR products, offer increased temporal coverage relative to standard narrow-beam SAR datasets, , they have a high variation of radar backscatter in across track because of the large swath width. We investigate the effect of incidence angle on radiometrically calibrated and terrain corrected ScanSAR data as a function of land surface (vegetation and roughness) and moisture content. These effects and their seasonal variation are used in classifiying inundated areas. The wetlands extent and inundation dynamics are crucial as they are an important component of the carbon cycle in Arctic regions. We apply pixel-based and object oriented-based classification methods to derive inundation maps during the thaw season. The dynamic inundation maps then are developed at 100m resolution. JERS and PALSAR Fine Beam mode based static wetlands map and Landsat Based land cover data (NLCD) are used to train and assess the classification at high resolution along with other ancillary data sets. The inundated areas obtained from wetland classification are then used to separate from other land cover types in F/T algorithm. We use a model based on Lambert's cosine

  15. Steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss metabolic rate is affected by dietary Aloe vera inclusion but not by mounting an immune response against formalin-killed Aeromonas salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Zanuzzo, F S; Urbinati, E C; Nash, G W; Gamperl, A K

    2015-07-01

    The oxygen consumption (MO2) of two groups of 10° C acclimated steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was measured for 72 h after they were given a 100 µl kg(-1) intraperitoneal injection of formalin-killed Aeromonas salmonicida (ASAL) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In addition, plasma cortisol levels were measured in fish from both groups prior to, and 1 and 3 h after, they were given a 30 s net stress. The first group was fed an unaltered commercial diet for 4 weeks, whereas the second group was fed the same diet but with 0·5% (5 g kg(-1) ) Aloe vera powder added; A. vera has potential as an immunostimulant for use in aquaculture, but its effects on basal and acute phase response (APR)-related metabolic expenditures and stress physiology, are unknown. Injection of ASAL v. PBS had no measurable effect on the MO2 of O. mykiss indicating that the APR in this species is not associated with any net increase in energy expenditure. In contrast, incorporating 0·5% A. vera powder into the feed decreased routine metabolic rate by c. 8% in both injection groups and standard metabolic rate in the ASAL-injected group (by c. 4 mg O2 kg(-1) h(-1) ; 5%). Aloe vera fed fish had resting cortisol levels that were approximately half of those in fish on the commercial diet (c. 2·5 v. 5·0 ng ml(-1) ), but neither this difference nor those post-stress reached statistical significance (P > 0·05). PMID:26010230

  16. Preliminary Study on the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) Application to Actual Paddy Fields by ALOS/PALSAR Full-polarimetry SAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.

    2015-04-01

    Kim and van Zyl (2001) proposed a kind of radar vegetation index (RVI). RVI = 4*min(λ1, λ2, λ3) / (λ1 + λ2 + λ3) They modified the equation as follows. (2009) RVI = 8 * σ0hv / (σ0hh + σ0vv +σ0hv ) by L-band full-polarimetric SAR data. They applied it into rice crop and soybean. (Y.Kim, T.Jackson et al., 2012) They compared RVI for L-, C- and X-bands to crop growth data, LAI and NDVI. They found L-band RVI was well correlated with Vegetation Water Content, LAI and NDVI. But the field data were collected by the multifrequency polarimetric scatterometer. The platform height was 4.16 meters from the ground. The author tried to apply the method to actual paddy fields near Tsukuba science city in Japan using ALOS/PALSAR, full-polarimetry L-band SAR data. The staple crop in Eastern Asia is rice and paddy fields are dominant land use. A rice-planting machine comes into wide use in this areas. The young rice plants were bedded regularly ridged line in the paddy fields by the machine. The space between two ridges of rice plants is about 30 cm and the wave length of PALSAR sensor is about 23 cm. Hence the Bragg scattering will appear depending upon the direction of the ridges of paddy fields. Once the Bragg scattering occurs, the backscattering values from the pixels should be very high comparing the surrounding region. Therefore the radar vegetation index (RVI) would be saturated. The RVI did not follow the increasing of vegetation anymore. Japan has launched ALOS-2 satellite and it has PALSAR-2, L-band SAR. Therefore RVI application product by PALSAR-2 will be watched with deep interest.

  17. Reaction dynamics of Al + O₂ → AlO + O studied by a crossed-beam velocity map imaging technique: vib-rotational state selected angular-kinetic energy distribution.

    PubMed

    Honma, Kenji; Miyashita, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Yoshiteru

    2014-06-01

    Oxidation reaction of a gas-phase aluminum atom by a molecular oxygen was studied by a crossed-beam condition at 12.4 kJ/mol of collision energy. A (1+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) via the D(2)Σ(+)-X(2)Σ(+) transition of AlO was applied to ionize the product. The REMPI spectrum was analyzed to determine rotational state distributions for v = 0-2 of AlO. For several vib-rotational states of AlO, state selected angular and kinetic energy distributions were determined by a time-sliced ion imaging technique for the first time. Kinetic energy distributions were well represented by that taken into account initial energy spreads of collision energy and the population of the spin-orbit levels of the counter product O((3)P(J)) determined previously. All angular distributions showed forward and backward peaks, and the forward peaks were more pronounced than the backward one for the states of low internal energy. The backward peak intensity became comparable to the forward one for the states of high internal energy. These results and the rotational state distributions suggested that the reaction proceeds via an intermediate which has a lifetime comparable to or shorter than its rotational period. PMID:24908005

  18. Reaction dynamics of Al + O2 → AlO + O studied by a crossed-beam velocity map imaging technique: Vib-rotational state selected angular-kinetic energy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Kenji; Miyashita, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Yoshiteru

    2014-06-01

    Oxidation reaction of a gas-phase aluminum atom by a molecular oxygen was studied by a crossed-beam condition at 12.4 kJ/mol of collision energy. A (1+1) resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) via the D2Σ+-X2Σ+ transition of AlO was applied to ionize the product. The REMPI spectrum was analyzed to determine rotational state distributions for v = 0-2 of AlO. For several vib-rotational states of AlO, state selected angular and kinetic energy distributions were determined by a time-sliced ion imaging technique for the first time. Kinetic energy distributions were well represented by that taken into account initial energy spreads of collision energy and the population of the spin-orbit levels of the counter product O(3PJ) determined previously. All angular distributions showed forward and backward peaks, and the forward peaks were more pronounced than the backward one for the states of low internal energy. The backward peak intensity became comparable to the forward one for the states of high internal energy. These results and the rotational state distributions suggested that the reaction proceeds via an intermediate which has a lifetime comparable to or shorter than its rotational period.

  19. Oral Administration of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) and Honey Improves the Host Body Composition and Modulates Proteolysis Through Reduction of Tumor Progression and Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tomasin, Rebeka; de Andrade, Rafael Siqueira; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2015-10-01

    Oxidative stress has a dual role in cancer; it is linked with tumorigenic events and host wasting, as well as senescence and apoptosis. Researchers have demonstrated the importance of coadjuvant therapies in cancer treatment, and Aloe vera and honey have immunomodulatory, anticancer, and antioxidant properties. The preventive and therapeutic effects of Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) and honey in tumor progression and host wasting were analyzed in Walker 256 carcinoma-bearing rats. The animals were distributed into the following groups: C=control-untreated, W=tumor-untreated, WA=treated after tumor induction, A=control-treated, AW=treated before tumor induction, and AWA=treated before and after tumor induction. Proteolysis and oxidative stress were analyzed in the tumor, liver, muscle, and myocardial tissues. The results suggest that the Aloe vera and honey treatment affect the tumor and host by different mechanisms; the treatment-modulated host wasting and cachexia, whereas it promoted oxidative stress and damage in tumor tissues, particularly in a therapeutic context (WA). PMID:25856497

  20. The ethnocategory ''insect'' in the conception of the inhabitants of Tapera County, São Gonçalo dos Campos, Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa-Neto, Eraldo M; Magalhães, Henrique F

    2007-06-01

    This article deals with the construction of the "insect" ethnozoological dominium by the inhabitants of Tapera County, which is located in the municipality of São Gonçalo dos Campos, Bahia State. Data were obtained from March to May 2005 through open-ended interviews carried out with 23 men and 8 women, whose ages ranged from 6 to 66 years old. Interviewees were asked about how they perceived and defined the animals considered as "insects", which types they knew, and if they used them as food resource. Most of the interviews were tape-recorded, and semi-literal transcriptions are kept at the Ethnobiology Laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana. Considering the ethnozoological classification system of the inhabitants of Tapera, the term "insect" is a broad semantic category that brings together animals of different and not systematically related taxonomic groups. Apparently, these animals are culturally perceived and categorized as "insects" because they are usually considered as noxious, disgusting, and disease carrier creatures. True insects can be excluded from this ethnocategory due to the perception people have that such animals do not cause "injuries" or because they are useful. Perceptions toward these animals imply ambiguous behavior and feelings, which range from more positive attitudes (conservative) to more negative (destructive). PMID:17625679

  1. Anti-inflammatory and Wound Healing Activities of Aloe vera, Honey and Milk Ointment on Second-Degree Burns in Rats.

    PubMed

    Farzadinia, Parviz; Jofreh, Niloofar; Khatamsaz, Saeed; Movahed, Ali; Akbarzadeh, Samad; Mohammadi, Mostafa; Bargahi, Afshar

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was morphological and morphometric investigation of burn healing impacts of an honey, milk, and Aloe vera (HMA) ointment on experimentally induced second-degree burns, to approve the medicinal basis of its use in Iranian traditional medicine. A total of 21 male Albino rats weighing 200 to 300 g were divided into 3 groups of 7, including (1) control group, (2) positive control group, and (3) the treatment group that were treated with eucerin, silver sulfadiazine 3% and HMA ointment 5% respectively.After anesthetizing, the second-degree burns (1 cm(2) areas) were made on the back of the animals using a digital controlled hot plaque, and each group was treated topically, based on the time scheduled. Then, skin punch biopsies were obtained on the 1st, 14th, and 28th days of post-burn induction; processed; and stained using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome methods. The results showed that HMA ointment induces cell proliferation, increasing the wound closure rate, blood vessel counts, and collagen fiber density in treated animals. It also reduced the wound secretions, inflammation, and scar formation. According to the obtained morphological, morphometric results, we concluded that the traditional HMA ointment, which is rich in therapeutic biomaterials and minerals, has multiple healing effects on burn wounds in rats. PMID:27217089

  2. Evaluation of in-vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake efficiency of zidovudine-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles modified with Aloe Vera in glioma cells.

    PubMed

    K S, Joshy; Sharma, Chandra P; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Sandeep, K; Thomas, Sabu; Pothen, Laly A

    2016-09-01

    Zidovudine loaded solid lipid nanoparticles of stearic acid modified with Aloe Vera (AV) have been prepared via simple emulsion solvent evaporation method which showed excellent stability at room temperature and refrigerated condition. The nanoparticles were examined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), which revealed the overlap of the AV absorption peak with the absorption peak of modified stearic acid nanoparticles. The inclusion of AV to stearic acid decreased the crystallinity and improved the hydrophilicity of lipid nanoparticles and thereby improved the drug loading efficacy of lipid nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging revealed that, the average particle size of unmodified (bare) nanoparticles was 45.66±12.22nm and modified solid lipid nanoparticles showed an average size of 265.61±80.44nm. Solid lipid nanoparticles with well-defined morphology were tested in vitro for their possible application in drug delivery. Cell culture studies using C6 glioma cells on the nanoparticles showed enhanced growth and proliferation of cells without exhibiting any toxicity. In addition, normal cell morphology and improved uptake were observed by fluorescence microscopy images of rhodamine labeled modified solid lipid nanoparticles compared with unmodified nanoparticles. The cellular uptake study suggested that these nanoparticles could be a promising drug delivery system to enhance the uptake of antiviral drug by brain cells and it could be a suitable drug carrier system for the treatment of HIV. PMID:27207037

  3. Green route for preparing extra-small TiO2 nanoparticles using aloe extracts and their application in degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Fang; Jiang, Bo; Chen, Chunfeng; Fu, Yunzhi; Chen, Yongjun; Xue, Xinghua; Mazidi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with high-photocatalysis properties both in ultraviolet and visible-light regions were synthesized via a simple sol-gel method, and an aloe leaf extract (ALE) was used as the cap. When the Ti)∶)CHOH∶ALE volume ratio was equal to 0.5∶8∶40, the reaction time was 6 h, and crystallization occurred at 80°C for 2 h, the TiO2NPs had been synthesized. XRD analysis showed that the structure of TiO2NPs without thermal treatment was anatase. Transmission electron microscopy images confirmed their average size, which was around 5 nm. The products showed an excellent photocatalytic property for methyl orange in the presence of UV and sunlight with the characterization of UV-vis. The photocatalytic activity was optimized by adjusting the amount of TiO2, the pH value, and the calcination temperature. Results indicated that ALE acted as a cap and nano-TiO2 could be synthesized without calcination.

  4. Chlorophyll and suspended sediment mapping to the Caribbean Sea from rivers in the capital city of the Dominican Republic using ALOS AVNIR-2 data.

    PubMed

    Sakuno, Yuji; Miño, Esteban R; Nakai, Satoshi; Mutsuda, Hidemi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Castro, Rolando; García, Amarillis; Peña, Rosanna; Rodríguez, Marcos; Depratt, G Conrado

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to study the distribution of contaminants in rivers that flow into the Caribbean Sea using chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and suspended sediment (SS) as markers and ALOS AVNIR-2 satellite sensor data. The Haina River (HN) and Ozama and Isabela Rivers (OZ-IS) that flow through the city of Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic, were chosen. First, in situ spectral reflectance/Chl-a and SS datasets obtained from these rivers were acquired in March 2011 (case A: with no rain influence) and June 2011 (case B: with rain influence), and the estimation algorithm of Chl-a and SS using AVNIR-2 data was developed from the datasets. Moreover, the developed algorithm was applied to AVNIR-2 data in November 2010 for case A and August 2010 for case B. Results revealed that for Chl-a and SS estimations under cases A and B conditions, the reflectance ratio of AVNIR-2 band 4 and band 3 (AV4/AV3) and the reflectance of AVNIR-2 band 4 (AV4) were effective. The Chl-a and SS mapping results obtained using AVNIR-2 data corresponded with the field survey results. Finally, an outline of the distribution of contaminants at the mouth of the river that flows into the Caribbean Sea was obtained for both rivers in cases A and B. PMID:24659416

  5. Apoptosis by aloe-emodin is mediated through down-regulation of calpain-2 and ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Won; Jeon, Young Keul; Nam, Myeong Jin

    2012-02-01

    Natural flavonoids are associated with anti-proliferation of cancer growth. However, the antioxidant and anti-proliferation effects of AE (aloe-emodin) have not been well studied. We have investigated how AE affects the proliferation of hepatic hepatocellular carcinoma cells and exerts an anti-cancer effect. The cytotoxic effect of AE was demonstrated using an MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] assay and Huh-7 cells were inhibited by AE treatment in both dose- and time-dependent manners. The IC(50) level of AE was ∼75 μM. AE also has anti-proliferative effects via induction of DNA damage and apoptosis. 2-DE (two-dimensional electrophoresis) revealed that several proteins were related to the anti-cancer effects of AE. CAPN2 (calpain-2) and UBE3A (ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A), which are associated with the apoptosis signalling pathway, were verified by Western blotting. AE exhibited potent anti-proliferative effects on Huh-7 cells via down-regulation of CAPN2 and UBE3A. The findings support the possibility of AE being a chemopreventative agent. PMID:21861846

  6. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S.; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and Methods: The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller–Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Results: Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Conclusion: Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions. PMID:27382533

  7. High-temperature fast-flow-reactor kinetics study of the reaction AlO + CO/sub 2/. -->. AlO/sub 2/ + CO. Thermochemical implications

    SciTech Connect

    Rogowski, D.F.; English, A.J.; Fontijn, A.

    1986-04-10

    The title reaction has been studied in a high-temperature fast-flow reactor (HTFFR) at temperatures from 500 to 1300 K. Laser-induced fluorescence was used to monitor relative (AlO). k(T) was determined to be (2.5 +/- 1.3) x 10/sup -14/ exp((400 +/- 280)/T) cm/sup 3/ molecule/sup -1/ s/sup -1/ (confidence level > 95%). The reaction probably proceeds via an intermediate complex which preferentially dissociates to the reactants. The negative activation energy implies D(O-AlO) greater than or equal to D(O-CO) = 127 kcal mol/sup -1/, which is incompatible with the O-AlO dissociation energy obtained for AlO/sub 2/ from Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ evaporation-mass spectrometry studies. It is argued that the latter AlO/sub 2/ may have a different structure from that of the present work. 19 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  8. Aloe-emodin prevents cytokine-induced tumor cell death: the inhibition of auto-toxic nitric oxide release as a potential mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mijatovic, S; Maksimovic-Ivanic, D; Radovic, J; Popadic, D; Momcilovic, M; Harhaji, L; Miljkovic, D; Trajkovic, V

    2004-07-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE) is a plant-derived hydroxyanthraquinone with potential anticancer activity. We investigated the ability of AE to modulate survival of mouse L929 fibrosarcoma and rat C6 astrocytoma cells through interference with the activation of inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) and subsequent production of tumoricidal free radical NO. Somewhat surprisingly, AE in a dose-dependent manner rescued interferon-gamma + interleukin-1-stimulated L929 cells from NO-dependent killing by reducing their autotoxic NO release. The observed protective effect was less pronounced in C6 cells, due to their higher sensitivity to a direct toxic action of the drug. AE-mediated inhibition of tumor cell NO release coincided with a reduction in cytokine-induced accumulation of transcription and translation products of genes encoding inducible NOS and its transcription factor IRF-1, while activation of NF-kappaB remained unaltered. These data indicate that the influence of AE on tumor growth might be more complex that previously recognized, the net effect being determined by the balance between the two opposing actions of the drug: its capacity to directly kill tumor cells, but also to protect them from NO-mediated toxicity. PMID:15241556

  9. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Aloe saponaria Haw in a model of UVB-induced paw sunburn in rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Mariane Arnoldi; Trevisan, Gabriela; Hoffmeister, Carin; Rossato, Mateus Fortes; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Walker, Cristiani Isabel Banderò; Klafke, Jonatas Zeni; Oliveira, Sara Marchesan; Silva, Cássia Regina; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Ferreira, Juliano

    2014-04-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation mainly affects biological tissues by inducing an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production which leads to deleterious outcomes for the skin, including pain and inflammation. As a protective strategy, many studies have focused on the use of natural products. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Aloe saponaria on nociceptive, inflammatory, and oxidative parameters in a model of UVB-induced sunburn in adult male Wistar rats. Sunburned animals were topically treated with vehicle (base cream), 1% silver sulfadiazine (positive control) or A. saponaria (10%) once a day for 6days. UVB-induced nociception (allodynia and hyperalgesia), inflammation (edema and leukocyte infiltration) and oxidative stress (increases in H2O2, protein carbonyl levels and lipid peroxidation and a decrease in non protein thiol content) were reduced by both A. saponaria and sulfadiazine topical treatment. Furthermore, A. saponaria or its constituents aloin and rutin reduced the oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in skin homogenates in vitro. Our results demonstrate that topical A. saponaria treatment displayed anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in a UVB-induced sunburn model, and these effects seem to be related to its antioxidant components. PMID:24681774

  10. Scintillation response of YAlO3:Ce and Lu0.7Y0.3AlO3:Ce single crystal scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phunpueok, A.; Chewpraditkul, W.; Limsuwan, P.; Wanarak, C.

    2012-09-01

    The scintillation response of YAlO3:Ce (YAP:Ce) and Lu0.7Y0.3AlO3:Ce (LuYAP:Ce) crystals with same size of 10 × 10 × 5 mm3 were studied for gamma ray energies ranging from 22.1 to 1274.5 keV. The light yield, its non-proportionality and the energy resolution were measured with the photomultiplier tube (PMT). The intrinsic resolution of the crystals versus energy of gamma rays has been determined after correcting the measured energy resolution for photomultiplier tube statistics. For 662 keV gamma rays (137Cs source), the YAP:Ce showed the light yield of 32,000 ph/MeV,which is much higher than that of 9800 ph/MeV obtained for LuYAP:Ce. The energy resolution of 4.4% obtained for YAP:Ce is much better than that of 7.9% obtained for LuYAP:Ce, due to its much higher light yield and better intrinsic resolution. The scintillation light loss of tested crystals at 511 keV gamma rays (22Na source) was also presented. The estimated photofraction was determined for both crystals and compared with the cross-sections ratio calculated using WinXCom program. The experimental results of the total mass attenuation coefficients for both crystals are in good agreement with the theoretical values, within the experimental uncertainty.

  11. Aloe-Emodin Protects RIN-5F (Pancreatic β-cell) Cell from Glucotoxicity via Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine and Downregulation of Bax and Caspase 3.

    PubMed

    Alshatwi, Ali A; Subash-Babu, P

    2016-01-01

    To determine the protective effect of aloe-emodin (AE) from high glucose induced toxicity in RIN-5F (pancreatic β-cell) cell and restoration of its function was analyzed. RIN-5F cells have been cultured in high glucose (25 mM glucose) condition, with and without AE treatment. RIN-5F cells cultured in high glucose decreased cell viability and increased ROS levels after 48 hr compared with standard medium (5.5 mM glucose). Glucotoxicity was confirmed by significantly increased ROS production, increased pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ, IL-1β,) & decreased anti-inflammatory (IL-6&IL-10) cytokine levels, increased DNA fragmentation. In addition, we found increased Bax, caspase 3, Fadd, and Fas and significantly reduced Bcl-2 expression after 48 hr. RIN-5F treated with both high glucose and AE (20 μM) decreased ROS generation and prevent RIN-5F cell from glucotoxicity. In addition, AE treated cells cultured in high glucose were transferred to standard medium, normal responsiveness to glucose was restored within 8hr and normal basal insulin release within 24 hr was achieved when compared to high glucose. PMID:26759701

  12. Shoreline changes and vertical displacement of the 2 April 2007 Solomon Islands earthquake Mw 8.1 revealed by ALOS PALSAR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubis, Ashar Muda; Isezaki, Nobuhiro

    The Solomon Islands earthquake with magnitude Mw = 8.1 occurred on 2 April 2007 at 7:39 local time. We used six L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images acquired by the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data to roughly estimate the shoreline and vertical displacements associated with this earthquake. We processed the raw SAR data with the SIGMA-SAR software package, produced by Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Our measurements showed good agreement with field observations performed by Japanese scientists just a few weeks after the earthquake. We estimated the dislocation related to this earthquake between Ranongga Island and Simbo Island. Moreover, we compared the radar imagery analysis data with Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and found that the SAR images were more efficient for investigating vertical displacements than similar techniques based on data from optical sensors. Measurements of offset cross-correlation intensities in SAR images indicated about 1.4 m of uplift on southwestern New Georgia Island.

  13. Three-dimensional deformation mapping of a dike intrusion event in Sakurajima in 2015 by exploiting the right- and left-looking ALOS-2 InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Yu; Kobayashi, Tomokazu; Yarai, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    One of the limitations of the interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is its one-dimensional measurement capability. Although three-dimensional (3-D) deformation can be studied if there are three or more measurements with different viewing geometries, it has not been executed because almost all SAR data are acquired using a right-looking geometry. For the Sakurajima volcanic activity on 15 August 2015, ALOS-2 conducted SAR observations from four different viewing directions, ascending/descending and right-/left-looking, enabling the retrieval of 3-D deformation data only from the InSAR results. We have retrieved 3-D deformation with high precision and resolution by a weighted least squares approach. Expansive deformation of over 10 cm has been observed with standard errors of 0.8, 3.4, and 0.7 cm for east-west, north-south, and up-down components, respectively. It is inferred that a dike of 1.7 × 106m3 volume intruded beneath the Showa crater at a depth of 0.4-1.2 km.

  14. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of aloe peel waste with dairy manure in the batch digester: Focusing on mixing ratios and digestate stability.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinlei; Yun, Sining; Zhu, Jiang; Du, Tingting; Zhang, Chen; Li, Xue

    2016-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of aloe peel waste (APW) with dairy manure (DM) was evaluated in terms of biogas and methane yield, volatile solids (VS) removal rate, and the stability of digestate. Batch experiments were performed under mesophilic condition (36±1°C) at five different APW/DM wet weight ratios (1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3, and 0:1). Experimental methane yield from the mixtures was higher than the yield from APW or DM alone, indicating the synergistic effect and benefits of co-digestion of APW with DM. The optimal mixing ratio of APW/DM was found to be 3:1. The cumulative methane yield was 195.1mL/g VS and the VS removal rate was 59.91%. The characteristics of the digestate were investigated by the thermal analysis which indicated the high stability in the samples of the co-digestion. The co-digestion can be an efficient way to improve the degradation efficiency of the bio-wastes and increase the energy output. PMID:27347799

  15. Above-ground biomass and carbon estimates of Shorea robusta and Tectona grandis forests using QuadPOL ALOS PALSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, M. D.; Tripathi, P.; Mishra, B.; Kumar, Shashi; Chitale, V. S.; Behera, Soumit K.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms to mitigate climate change in tropical countries such as India require information on forest structural components i.e., biomass and carbon for conservation steps to be implemented successfully. The present study focuses on investigating the potential use of a one time, QuadPOL ALOS PALSAR L-band 25 m data to estimate above-ground biomass (AGB) using a water cloud model (WCM) in a wildlife sanctuary in India. A significant correlation was obtained between the SAR-derived backscatter coefficient (σ°) and the field measured AGB, with the maximum coefficient of determination for cross-polarized (HV) σ° for Shorea robusta, and the weakest correlation was observed with co-polarized (HH) σ° for Tectona grandis forests. The biomass of S. robusta and that of T. grandis were estimated on the basis of field-measured data at 444.7 ± 170.4 Mg/ha and 451 ± 179.4 Mg/ha respectively. The mean biomass values estimated using the WCM varied between 562 and 660 Mg/ha for S. robusta; between 590 and 710 Mg/ha for T. grandis using various polarized data. Our results highlighted the efficacy of one time, fully polarized PALSAR data for biomass and carbon estimate in a dense forest.

  16. EXAFS analysis of cations distribution in structure of Co1-xNixFe2O4 nanoparticles obtained by hydrothermal method in aloe vera extract solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongpratat, Unchista; Maensiri, Santi; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2016-09-01

    Effect of cations distribution upon EXAFS analysis on magnetic properties of Co1-xNixFe2O4 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0) nanoparticles prepared by the hydrothermal method in aloe vera extract solution were studied. XRD analysis confirmed a pure phase of cubic spinel ferrite of all samples. Changes in lattice parameter and particle size depended on the Ni content with partial substitution and site distributions of Co2+, Ni2+ ions of different ionic radii at both tetrahedral and octahedral sites in the crystal structure. Particle sizes of samples estimated by TEM images were found to be in the range of 10.87-62.50 nm. The VSM results at room temperature indicated the ferrimagnetic behavior of all samples. Superparamagnetic behavior was observed in NiFe2O4 sample. The coercivity (Hc) and remanance (Mr) values were related to the particle sizes of samples. The saturation magnetization (Ms) was increased by a factor of 1.4 to a value of 57.57 emu/g, whereas the coercivity (Hc) was decreased by a factor of 20 to a value of 63.15 Oe for a sample with x = 0.75. In addition to the cations distribution, the increase of aspect ratio (surface to volume ratio) due to the decrease of particle size could significantly affect the magnetic properties of the materials.

  17. Family and community violence of schoolchildren from the city of São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Gonçalves de Assis, Simone

    2013-06-01

    This descriptive study aimed to investigate the association between violence in the family, school and community experienced by school children/adolescents of the city of São Gonçalo (RJ), Brazil. Questionnaires were administered to the mothers/guardians to assess violence in the family and school and to children to check their perceptions of community violence. Multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis, two exploratory descriptive techniques, were employed. Data from 280 schoolchildren were analyzed. A total of 43.9% of mothers reported that their children had been physically abused in their homes. With regard to children's/adolescents' perception of community violence, 93.2% said they had experienced or witnessed these events in their communities. For both sexes there was the formation of a cluster of categories with the presence of violence among siblings, presence of severe physical assault and verbal assault committed by parents. Among girls, the presence of violence in the school formed a cluster with the highest category of violence in the community. In conclusion, it should be emphasized that public policies aimed at dealing with violence should expand their scope to the various forms of violence affecting children. PMID:24142002

  18. Aloe-Emodin Protects RIN-5F (Pancreatic β-cell) Cell from Glucotoxicity via Regulation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine and Downregulation of Bax and Caspase 3

    PubMed Central

    Alshatwi, Ali A; Subash-Babu, P.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the protective effect of aloe-emodin (AE) from high glucose induced toxicity in RIN-5F (pancreatic β-cell) cell and restoration of its function was analyzed. RIN-5F cells have been cultured in high glucose (25 mM glucose) condition, with and without AE treatment. RIN-5F cells cultured in high glucose decreased cell viability and increased ROS levels after 48 hr compared with standard medium (5.5 mM glucose). Glucotoxicity was confirmed by significantly increased ROS production, increased pro-inflammatory (IFN-γ, IL-1β,) & decreased anti-inflammatory (IL-6&IL-10) cytokine levels, increased DNA fragmentation. In addition, we found increased Bax, caspase 3, Fadd, and Fas and significantly reduced Bcl-2 expression after 48 hr. RIN-5F treated with both high glucose and AE (20 μM) decreased ROS generation and prevent RIN-5F cell from glucotoxicity. In addition, AE treated cells cultured in high glucose were transferred to standard medium, normal responsiveness to glucose was restored within 8hr and normal basal insulin release within 24 hr was achieved when compared to high glucose. PMID:26759701

  19. Determination and quantification of the in vitro activity of Aloe marlothii (A. Berger) subsp. marlothii and Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) skeels acetone extracts against Ehrlichia ruminantium.

    PubMed

    Naidoo, V; Zweygarth, E; Swan, G E

    2006-09-01

    An Ehrlichia ruminantium culture system was utilized for the anti-rickettsial evaluation of two ethnoveterinary plants, Elephantorrhiza elephantina and Aloe marlothii. Well-established E. ruminantium cultures were incubated with the plant leaf acetone extracts and compared to oxytetracycline and untreated controls. Effectivity was established by comparing the percentage parasitised cells and the calculation of both EC50 and extrapolated EC90 in microg/ml. The plant extracts were also screened for antibacterial activity using bioautography. Elephantorrhiza elephantina and A. marlothii demonstrated anti-ehrlichial activity with an EC50 of 111.4 and 64.5 microg/ml and EC90 of 228.9 and 129.9 microg/ml, respectively. The corresponding EC50 and EC90 for oxytetracycline was 0.29 and 0.08 microg/ml. Both plants appeared to produce their inhibitory activity by a similar mechanism, unrelated to that of the tetracyclines. Both the plant acetone extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC strains). PMID:17058439

  20. Measurement and Analysis of Atomic Hydrogen and Diatomic Molecular AlO, C2, CN, and TiO Spectra Following Laser-induced Optical Breakdown

    PubMed Central

    Parigger, Christian G.; Woods, Alexander C.; Witte, Michael J.; Swafford, Lauren D.; Surmick, David M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present time-resolved measurements of atomic and diatomic spectra following laser-induced optical breakdown. A typical LIBS arrangement is used. Here we operate a Nd:YAG laser at a frequency of 10 Hz at the fundamental wavelength of 1,064 nm. The 14 nsec pulses with anenergy of 190 mJ/pulse are focused to a 50 µm spot size to generate a plasma from optical breakdown or laser ablation in air. The microplasma is imaged onto the entrance slit of a 0.6 m spectrometer, and spectra are recorded using an 1,800 grooves/mm grating an intensified linear diode array and optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) or an ICCD. Of interest are Stark-broadened atomic lines of the hydrogen Balmer series to infer electron density. We also elaborate on temperature measurements from diatomic emission spectra of aluminum monoxide (AlO), carbon (C2), cyanogen (CN), and titanium monoxide (TiO). The experimental procedures include wavelength and sensitivity calibrations. Analysis of the recorded molecular spectra is accomplished by the fitting of data with tabulated line strengths. Furthermore, Monte-Carlo type simulations are performed to estimate the error margins. Time-resolved measurements are essential for the transient plasma commonly encountered in LIBS. PMID:24561875

  1. Land deformation in Saint Louis, Missouri measured by ALOS InSAR and PolINSAR validated with DGPS base stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghulam, A.

    2011-12-01

    DInSAR is a solid technique to estimate land subsidence and rebound using phase information from multiple SAR acquisitions over the same location from the same orbits, but from a slightly different observing geometry. However, temporal decorrelation and atmospheric effects are often a challenge to the accuracy of the DInSAR measurements. Such uncertainties may be overcome using time series interferogram stacking, e.g., permanent scatterer interferometry (Ferretti, et al., 2000, 2001). However, it requires large number of image collections. In this paper, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data pairs from the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) sensor onboard Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) are used to measure seasonal and annual land surface deformation over Saint Louis, Missouri. The datasets cover four years of time period spanning from 2006 to 2010. With the limited data coverage that is not suitable for permanent scatterer interferometry, the paper demonstrates the efficacy of dual pair interferometry from both fine-beam single polarization mode and dual-pol polarimetric images and short baseline interferometry (SBAS) approach (Berardino, et al., 2002) with an estimation accuracy comparable to differential global position systems (DGPS). We also present the impact of using assumed phase-stable ground control points versus GPS base stations for orbital refinement and phase unwrapping on overall measurement accuracy by comparing the deformation results from DInSAR and Polarimetric InSAR with DGPS base stations and ground truthing.

  2. Monitoring deforestation trend and future outlooks of the aboveground forest carbon stocks in Central Sumatra using ALOS-PALSAR mosaic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Rajesh B.; Watanabe, Manabu; Motohka, Takeshi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2014-10-01

    In this research, we present methods for monitoring deforestation and examining implication of the forest policies in forest carbon stocks in the future utilizing ALOS-PALSAR data. Riau Province of central Sumatra is selected for the study as it has received worldwide attention due to high forest-related carbon emissions. An aboveground forest carbon stocks (AFCS) model was calibrated with field measurement data and L-band backscatters from high-resolution slope corrected PALSAR mosaic data of 2009 and 2010. A total of 87 plots of field measured AFCS data ranging 1 - 340 t/ha was used. This AFCS model provides the AFCS map with RMSE of +/-45 t/ha. The AFCS modeling results was extrapolated across the province using the mosaic data. The model estimated 315 million tons of AFCS in the province in 2010. A spatial model was used to spatialize three forest policy scenarios. These scenario maps were overlaid with AFCS map for deriving future perspective on AFCS. The future spatial patterns of the AFCS between the policy scenarios are apparent. If the historical trend continues, the forest cover will be consistently disappeared leaving very few small forest patches and releasing 77% of the current AFCS in to the atmosphere by 2030. However, one of the governance scenarios in the province indicates that almost half of the carbon emission can be reduced in the same period.

  3. Potential plant biomass estimation through field measurement and vegetation cover mapping using ALOS satellite imagery: Case study of Fujiyoshida City, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doko, T.; Chen, W.; Qazi, O.; Okabayashi, S.; Meguro, D.; Kanamori, T.; Jones, M.; Kawata, C.; Yagasaki, T.; Ichinose, T.; Sasaki, K.

    2014-03-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy source that is produced from living or recently living biological material. Vegetation type and biomass are considered important components that affect biosphere-atmosphere interactions. The ground assessment of biomass, however, has been found to be insufficient due to the limited spatial extent of surveys. This study aims to integrate field measurements with satellite remote sensing data for regional biomass mapping in Fujiyoshida City, Japan. Fujiyoshida City is situated on the northern slope of Mt. Fuji and includes a large area of forest land, named "Onshirin Forest". From 2011 to 2012, a field survey was conducted to calculate the biomass potential in situ as ground-truthed data. After fieldwork, ortho-rectified ALOS data with an AVNIR-2 scene (22 May 2008) was used to map the vegetation cover types. Japanese larch, Japanese red pine, mixed forest, other forest, grass, bare soil and roads, and buildings were identified using supervised classification. The total plant biomass was 163,252 tons. The biomass potential estimate from field measurements was extrapolated to the large forest area in Fujiyoshida City to estimate the potential plant biomass of specific vegetation cover types.

  4. Band-gap engineering of La1‑x Nd x AlO3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1) perovskite using density functional theory: A modified Becke Johnson potential study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandeep; D, P. Rai; A, Shankar; M, P. Ghimire; Anup Pradhan, Sakhya; T, P. Sinha; R, Khenata; S, Bin Omran; R, K. Thapa

    2016-06-01

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of the Nd-doped Rare earth aluminate, La1‑x Nd x AlO3 (x = 0% to 100%) alloys are studied using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the density functional theory. The effects of the Nd substitution in LaAlO3 are studied using the supercell calculations. The computed electronic structure with the modified Becke–Johnson (mBJ) potential based approximation indicates that the La1‑x Nd x AlO3 alloys may possess half-metallic (HM) behaviors when doped with Nd of a finite density of states at the Fermi level (E F). The direct and indirect band gaps are studied each as a function of x which is the concentration of Nd-doped LaAlO3. The calculated magnetic moments in the La1‑x Nd x AlO3 alloys are found to arise mainly from the Nd-4f state. A probable half-metallic nature is suggested for each of these systems with supportive integral magnetic moments and highly spin-polarized electronic structures in these doped systems at E F. The observed decrease of the band gap with the increase in the concentration of Nd doping in LaAlO3 is a suitable technique for harnessing useful spintronic and magnetic devices. Project supported by the DST-SERB, Dy (Grant No. SERB/3586/2013-14), the UGCBSR, FRPS (Grant No. F.30-52/2014), the UGC (New Delhi, India) Inspire Fellowship DST (India), and the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University (Grant No. RPG-VPP-088). M P Ghimire thanks the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany for the financial support.

  5. Aloe vera Plant Extracted Green Synthesis, Structural and Opto-Magnetic Characterizations of Spinel Co(x)Zn₁₋xAl₂O₄Nano-Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, A; Durka, M; Selvi, M Amutha; Antony, S Arul

    2016-01-01

    Spinel Co(x)Zn₁₋xAl₂O₄ (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) nano-catalysts were synthesized by a simple Aloe vera plant extracted green synthesis route. Powder XRD patterns and Rietveld analysis confirmed the formation of single phase, cubic spinel gahnite structure without other impurities. The lattice parameter increased from 8.089 to 8.125 A with increasing CO²⁺ content. The average crystallite sizes were estimated using Scherrer's method, and it was found to be in the range of 15.72 nm to 26.53 nm. FT-IR spectra showed vibrational stretching frequencies corresponding to the spinel structure. HR-SEM and HR-TEM images showed the features of well particle shaped crystals with nano-sized grains. The elemental compositions of Co, Zn, Al and O were quantitatively obtained from EDX analysis. The band gap energy estimated using Kubelka-Munk method by UV-Visible DRS method, and the values are decreased with increasing the Co²⁺ content (4.12 eV to 3.67 eV), due to the formation of sub bands in between the energy gap. PL spectra showed emission bands in UV as well as in the visible regions for ZnAl₂O₄ and Co-doped ZnAl₂O4, due to the defect centers acting as the trap levels. VSM measurements revealed that pure ZnAl₂O₄ has diamagnetic, while Co doped ZnAl₂O₄ samples (x = 0.2 to 0.8) have superparamagnetism, whereas the sample CoAl₂O₄ has ferromagnetic in nature. Catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde was found that the sample Co₀.₆Zn₀.₄Al₂O₄ showed 93.25% conversion with 99.56% selectivity, whereas for pure ZnAl₂O₄, the conversion was only 86.31% with 92.85% selectivity. PMID:27398465

  6. A simple aloe vera plant-extracted microwave and conventional combustion synthesis: Morphological, optical, magnetic and catalytic properties of CoFe2O4 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, A.; Sridhar, R.; Arul Antony, S.; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-11-01

    Nanocrystalline magnetic spinel CoFe2O4 was synthesized by a simple microwave combustion method (MCM) using ferric nitrate, cobalt nitrate and Aloe vera plant extracted solution. For the comparative study, it was also prepared by a conventional combustion method (CCM). Powder X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray and selected-area electron diffraction results indicate that the as-synthesized samples have only single-phase spinel structure with high crystallinity and without the presence of other phase impurities. The crystal structure and morphology of the powders were revealed by high resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, show that the MCM products of CoFe2O4 samples contain sphere-like nanoparticles (SNPs), whereas the CCM method of samples consist of flake-like nanoplatelets (FNPs). The band gap of the samples was determined by UV-Visible diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The magnetization (Ms) results showed a ferromagnetic behavior of the CoFe2O4 nanostructures. The Ms value of CoFe2O4-SNPs is higher i.e. 77.62 emu/g than CoFe2O4-FNPs (25.46 emu/g). The higher Ms value of the sample suggest that the MCM technique is suitable for preparing high quality nanostructures for magnetic applications. Both the samples were successfully tested as catalysts for the conversion of benzyl alcohol. The resulting spinel ferrites were highly selective for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol and exhibit important difference among their activities. It was found that CoFe2O4-SNPs catalyst show the best performance, whereby 99.5% selectivity of benzaldehyde was achieved at close to 93.2% conversion.

  7. Determination of Aloin A and Aloin B in Aloe vera Raw Materials and Finished Products by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: Single-Laboratory Validation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paula N; Yu, Ronan; Kuan, Chiow Hui; Finley, Jamie; Mudge, Elizabeth M; Dentali, Steven

    2014-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation (SLV) was conducted on an HPLC method for the detection and quantification of aloin A and aloin B in Aloe vera raw materials and finished products. An extraction procedure using sonication with an acidified solvent was used for solid test materials while liquid test materials only required dilution, if necessary, prior to filtration and analysis. Separation was achieved using a fused core C18 column in 18 min under isocratic elution conditions allowing for a single analyte (aloin A) calibration curve to quantify both aloins. Adequate chromatographic resolution (Rs ≥ 1) was achieved for aloin A and aloin B. The calibration curves for aloin A exhibited coefficients of determination (r(2)) of ≥ 99.9% over the linear range of 0.3-50 μg/mL. The LOD values were 0.092 and 0.087 μg/mL, and LOQ 0.23 and 0.21 μg/mL for aloin A and aloin B, respectively. Repeatability studies were performed on nine test materials on each of 3 separate days, with five of the test materials determined to be above the LOQ having repeatability RSD (RSDr) values ranging from 0.61 to 6.30%. Method accuracy was determined through a spike recovery study on both liquid and solid matrixes at three different levels: low, medium, and high. For both aloins, the recovery in the liquid matrix ranged from 92.7 to 106.3% with an RSDr of 0.15 to 4.30%, while for the solid matrix, the recovery ranged from 84.4 to 108.9% with an RSDr of 0.23 to 3.84%. Based on the results of the SLV study, it is recommended that this method be evaluated for reproducibility through a collaborative study. PMID:25902982

  8. Critical role of oxidative stress and sustained JNK activation in aloe-emodin-mediated apoptotic cell death in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guo Dong; Shen, Han-Ming; Chung, Maxey C M; Ong, Choon Nam

    2007-09-01

    Aloe-emodin (AE), one of the main bioactive anthraquinones of Rheum palmatum, possesses potent antitumor properties. Our previous proteomic study revealed that AE-induced apoptosis was associated with oxidative stress and oxidation of many redox-sensitive proteins. In this study, we aimed to further dissect the cell death-signaling pathways in AE-induced apoptosis. AE was found to cause redox imbalance and deplete the intracellular-reduced glutathione (GSH). Manipulation of the intracellular GSH with buthionine-L-sulfoximine (a GSH synthesis inhibitor) sensitized, and with glutathione monomethyl ester (a GSH donor) protected the AE-induced apoptosis, respectively. More importantly, AE treatment led to evident and sustained activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), an important stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Over-expression of antioxidant gene sod1 significantly reduced AE-induced JNK activation and cell death, suggesting that oxidative stress-mediated JNK is the effector molecule in AE-induced apoptosis. Such a notion was clearly supported by subsequent studies in which JNK activation was inhibited by JNK inhibitor, JNK small interfering RNA knockdown or over-expression of dominant-negative JNK. In addition, we provided evidence demonstrating the critical role of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, a well-established MAPK kinase kinase, in AE-induced JNK activation and apoptotic cell death. Finally, we showed that dissociation of inactive JNK-Glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-pi) complex was also involved in JNK activation through GST-pi oxidation. Taken together, these results suggest that AE-induced apoptotic cell death is mediated via oxidative stress and sustained JNK activation. PMID:17698970

  9. Complex faulting in the Quetta Syntaxis: fault source modeling of the October 28, 2008 earthquake sequence in Baluchistan, Pakistan, based on ALOS/PALSAR InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Furuya, Masato

    2015-09-01

    The Quetta Syntaxis in western Baluchistan, Pakistan, is the result of an oroclinal bend of the western mountain belt and serves as a junction for different faults. As this area also lies close to the left-lateral strike-slip Chaman fault, which marks the boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates, the resulting seismological behavior of this regime is very complex. In the region of the Quetta Syntaxis, close to the fold and thrust belt of the Sulaiman and Kirthar Ranges, an earthquake with a magnitude of 6.4 (Mw) occurred on October 28, 2008, which was followed by a doublet on the very next day. Six more shocks associated with these major events then occurred (one foreshock and five aftershocks), with moment magnitudes greater than 4. Numerous researchers have tried to explain the source of this sequence based on seismological, GPS, and Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT)/Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR) data. Here, we used Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS)/Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) InSAR data sets from both ascending and descending orbits that allow us to more completely detect the deformation signals around the epicentral region. The results indicated that the shock sequence can be explained by two right-lateral and two left-lateral strike-slip faults that also included reverse slip. The right-lateral faults have a curved geometry. Moreover, whereas previous studies have explained the aftershock crustal deformation with a different fault source, we found that the same left-lateral segment of the conjugate fault was responsible for the aftershocks. We thus confirmed the complex surface deformation signals from the moderate-sized earthquake. Intra-plate crustal bending and shortening often seem to be accommodated as conjugate faulting, without any single preferred fault orientation. We also detected two possible landslide areas along with the crustal deformation pattern.

  10. Line of Sight Displacement from ALOS-2 ScanSAR Interferometry: Burst Alignment and the Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, E. O.; Natsuaki, R.; Xu, X.; Shimada, M.; Hashimoto, M.; Melgar, D.; Sandwell, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    A challenge for traditional InSAR has been its limited spatial and temporal coverage especially for very large events, whose dimensions exceed the typical swath width of 70 - 100 km. This problem is addressed by the ScanSAR mode of the ALOS-2 satellite's PALSAR-2 instrument, which enables a repeat time of 2 weeks and a swath width of 350 km. We present InSAR line-of-sight displacement observations from ScanSAR images acquired within one week of both the Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake and its Mw 7.3 aftershock. The Mw 7.3 aftershock extended the rupture area of the main shock toward the east, but also left a 20 km gap where the fault has little or no co-seismic slip. We estimate this un-slipped fault patch has the potential to generate a Mw 6.9 event. Our results are freely available online at http://topex.ucsd.edu/nepal, and we encourage their use in models of the fault slip and associated stress changes. We also discuss burst alignment of the PALSAR-2 ScanSAR images and show that while images acquired after February 8, 2015 are burst-aligned with each other, prior to that date the alignment drifted according to a sinusoidal function. We present an accurate formula for determining the burst offset between two scenes; the date ranges for burst alignment with post-February 8 images are July 22 - July 31, November 8 - November 17, December 16 - December 23 2014, and January 20 - January 29 2015.

  11. Aloe-emodin-mediated photodynamic therapy induces autophagy and apoptosis in human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 through the ROS/JNK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    TU, PINGHUA; HUANG, QIU; OU, YUNSHENG; DU, XING; LI, KAITING; TAO, YONG; YIN, HANG

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect and mechanisms of aloe-emodin (AE)-mediated photodynamic therapy (AE-PDT) on the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63. After treatment with AE-PDT, the human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 was tested for levels of viability, autophagy, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis and changes in cell morphology with the Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8), monodansylcadaverine (MDC) and Hoechst staining and transmission electron microscopy. The expression of proteins including LC-3, cleaved caspase-3, Beclin-1, Bcl-2, p-JNK, t-JNK and β-actin was examined with western blotting. AE-PDT significantly inhibited the viability of the MG-63 cells in an AE-concentration- and PDT energy density-dependent manner. Autophagy and apoptosis of MG-63 cells was substantially promoted in the AE-PDT group compared to the control group, the AE alone group and the light emitting diode (LED) alone group. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-meth-yladenine (3-MA) (5 mM) and chloroquine (CQ) (15 µM) significantly promoted the apoptosis rate and improved the sensitivity of the MG-63 cells to AE-PDT. AE-PDT was found to induce the expression of ROS and p-JNK. ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, 5 mM), was able to hinder the autophagy, apoptosis and phosphorylation of JNK, and JNK inhibitor (SP600125, 10 µM) significantly inhibited the autophagy and apoptosis, and attenuated the sensitivity of MG63 cells to AE-PDT. In conclusion, AE-PDT induced the autophagy and apoptosis of human osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 through the activation of the ROS-JNK signaling pathway. Autophagy may play a protective role during the early stage following treatment of AE-PDT. PMID:27035222

  12. Detailed crustal deformation and fault rupture of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake, Nepal, revealed from ScanSAR-based interferograms of ALOS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tomokazu; Morishita, Yu; Yarai, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    We have successfully detected widely distributed ground displacements for the 2015 Gorkha earthquake by applying a ScanSAR-based interferometry analysis of Advanced Land Observing Satellite 2 (ALOS-2) L-band data. A major displacement area extends with a length of about 160 km in the east-west direction, and the most concentrated crustal deformation with ground displacement exceeding 1 m is located 20-30 km east from Kathmandu. A quasi-vertical displacement estimated by combining the ascending and the descending data indicates upheaval of about 1.4 m at maximum. We inverted the synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) data including both of the main shock (moment magnitude (Mw) 7.8) and the largest aftershock (Mw 7.3) to construct a slip distribution model. Our model shows a nearly pure reverse fault motion with a slip amount of approximately 6 m at maximum, and the spatial extent is zonally distributed within a distance of 50 to 100 km from the surface along downdip direction. The downdip end of the slip is quite consistent with that of the interseismic coupling area geodetically inferred in previous studies. On the other hand, there is no significant slip at shallow depth in spite of the fact that the plate interface is thought to be fully locked there, may be suggesting that there still remains a potential of fault slip. The slip distribution unnaturally bifurcates in the east, and we can identify a clear-cut slip deficit area with a radius of ~10 km just west side of the Mw 7.3 event, where the slip amount reaches only 20 cm at most. This area is presumably subjected to a strong shear stress which should promote a reverse fault slip. There is a possibility to produce a fault slip equivalent to Mw ~7.0 in the future although we do not know if the slip heterogeneity would be smoothed out by a seismic event or an aseismic event.

  13. The effect of aloe emodin-encapsulated nanoliposome-mediated r-caspase-3 gene transfection and photodynamic therapy on human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai-Ting; Duan, Qin-Qin; Chen, Qing; He, Juan-Wen; Tian, Si; Lin, Hai-Dan; Gao, Qing; Bai, Ding-Qun

    2016-02-01

    Gastric carcinoma (GC) has high incidence and mortality rates in China. Surgery and chemotherapy are the main treatments. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become a new treatment modality, appearing in recent experimental studies and clinical trials in various tumors. This study explores the combined effect of gene transfection with PDT on GC cells using aloe emodin (AE)-encapsulated nanoliposomes, which acted as gene carrier as well as one photosensitizer (PS). AE-encapsulated nanoliposomes (nano-AE) were prepared by reverse evaporation method. Electron microscopy and nano-ZS90 analyzer were used to detect its morphology, size, and wavelength. Western blot was used to detect the expression of the caspase-3 after transfection. MTT assay and flow cytometry were employed to determine the cytotoxic and apoptotic rates, respectively. Hoechst 33342 staining was adopted to detect the morphological changes in death gastric cancer cells. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents were measured by DCFH-DA staining. Outcomes demonstrated that the nano-AE has good properties as gene delivery carriers as well as a PS. The group in which the recombinant plasmid of r-caspase-3 was transfected had higher protein expression of the caspase-3 than controls, meanwhile the proliferation rates of the transfected cells were inhibited by the nano-AE-mediated PDT in an energy-dependent manner. In addition, in the transfected cells, the death rate increased to 77.3% as assessed 12 h after PDT (6.4 J/cm(2) ). Hochest 33342 staining also revealed that the death rate increased significantly in the transfected group compared with other groups. Compared to control groups, the production of ROS in nano-AE PDT group had quadrupled in SGC-7901 cells as early as 1 h after PDT, while it is similar to the group of nano-AE transfection and PDT. Nano-AE-mediated r-caspase-3 gene transfection coupled with PDT could inhibit the proliferation rate and increase the apoptotic rate remarkably in human

  14. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  15. Mosquitocidal and water purification properties of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus leaf extracts against the mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Nareshkumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Prasannakumar, Kanagarajan; Thangamani, Sundaram; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon, Aloe vera, Hemidesmus indicus and Coleus amboinicus were tested for their toxicity effect on the third-instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. The leaves of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus were collected from natural habitats (forests) in Western Ghats, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 250 g of fresh, mature leaves were rinsed with distilled water and dried in shade. The dried leaves were put in Soxhlet apparatus and extract prepared using 100% ethanol for 72 h at 30-40°C. Dried residues were obtained from 100 g of extract evaporated to dryness in rotary vacuum evaporator. Larvicidal properties of ethanolic leaf extracts showed that the extracts are effective as mosquito control agents. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. No mortality was observed in the control. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values observed for the larvicidal activities are 0.44%, 0.51%, 0.59% and 0.68% for extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus, respectively. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. C. dactylon showed the highest mortality rate against the three species of mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The selected plants were shown to exhibit water purification properties. Water quality parameters such as turbidity, pH and water clarity were analyzed in the water samples (pre-treatment and post-treatment of plant extracts) taken from the different breeding sites of mosquitoes. Water colour, turbidity and pH were reduced significantly after treatment with C. dactylon (13 HU, 31.5 mg/l and 6.9), H. indicus (13.8 HU, 33 mg/l and 7.1), A. vera (16 HU, 33.8 mg/l and 7.4) and C. amboinicus (21 HU, 35 mg/l and 7.5) extracts. The study proved that the extracts of C. dactylon, A. vera, H. indicus and C. amboinicus have both mosquitocidal and water sedimentation properties. PMID:21947308

  16. Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Devakumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Jiang, Wei; Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes represent an important threat for lives of millions of people worldwide, acting as vectors for devastating pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile. In addition, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. Here, we investigated the mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Aloe vera leaf extract and silver nanoparticles synthesized using A. vera extract. Mosquitocidal properties were assessed in laboratory against larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against An. stephensi also in field conditions. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In laboratory conditions, the A. vera extract was toxic against An. stephensi larvae and pupae, even at low dosages. LC50 were 48.79 ppm (I instar), 59.09 ppm (II instar), 70.88 ppm (III instar), 83.58 ppm (IV instar), and 152.55 ppm (pupae). Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were highly toxic against An. stephensi. LC50 were 3.825 ppm (I instar), 4.119 ppm (II instar), 4.982 ppm (III instar), 5.711 ppm (IV instar), and 6.113 ppm (pupae). In field conditions, the application of A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) leads to An. stephensi larval reduction of 74.5, 86.6, and 97.7%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Nanoparticles also showed antibacterial properties, and the maximum concentration tested (150 mg/L) evoked an inhibition zone wider than 80 mm in all tested bacterium species. This study adds knowledge about the use of green synthesis of nanoparticles in

  17. 3D displacements maps of the L'Aquila earthquake by applying SISTEM method to GPS and ENVISAT and ALOS DInSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmino, Francesco; Anzidei, Marco; Briole, Pierre; de Michele, Marcello; Elias, Panagiotis; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spata, Alessandro

    2010-05-01

    ). We also analyzed ALOS PALSAR interferograms produced with images acquired along two different ascending tracks and relevant to the 3/7/2008 - 21/5/2009 time interval (track 638; tbline = 322 days; Bperp = 665 m ) and 2/3/2007 - 22/4/2009 time interval (track 639; tbline = 782 days; Bperp = 466 m ). In order to derive 3D surface motion maps, we apply the SISTEM method to the available geodetic dataset (both GPS and DInSAR). The SISTEM method performs an integration of GPS and DInSAR data for computing displacements on each point of the studied area. The SISTEM is based on elastic theory, and provides the complete 3D strain and the rigid body rotation tensors in the same solution. To achieve higher accuracy and get better the constraint of the 3D components of the displacements, we improved the standard formulation of SISTEM approach, based on a single DInSAR data, in order to take into account both ascending and descending interferograms and the DInSAR data acquired by different sensors(ALOS and ENVISAT). The SISTEM integration results show a complex kinematics, where the main movements (max westward movement of 165 mm associated with a max lowering of 260 mm) are recorded in the area between the surface evidence of the Paganica fault and Monticchio-fossa fault. These results, which provide both accurate and fine spatial characterization of ground deformation, are hence promising for future studies aimed at improving the knowledge of the kinematic of the Paganica fault and identification of additional faults responsible of the seismic sequence and that have contributed to the observed ground deformation. References. Anzidei, M., P. Baldi, A. Pesci, A. Esposito, A. Galvani, F. Loddo, P. Cristofoletti, A. Massucci, and S. Del Mese (2005), Geodetic deformation across the Central Apennines from GPS data in the time span 1999-2003, Ann. Geophys., 48(2), 259-271. Boschi, E., E. Guidoboni, G. Ferrrari, D. Mariotti, G. Valensise, and P. Gasperini (2000), Catalogue of strong

  18. 3D displacements maps of the L'Aquila earthquake by applying SISTEM method to GPS and ENVISAT and ALOS DInSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmino, Francesco; Anzidei, Marco; Briole, Pierre; de Michele, Marcello; Elias, Panagiotis; Nunnari, Giuseppe; Puglisi, Giuseppe; Spata, Alessandro

    2010-05-01

    ). We also analyzed ALOS PALSAR interferograms produced with images acquired along two different ascending tracks and relevant to the 3/7/2008 - 21/5/2009 time interval (track 638; tbline = 322 days; Bperp = 665 m ) and 2/3/2007 - 22/4/2009 time interval (track 639; tbline = 782 days; Bperp = 466 m ). In order to derive 3D surface motion maps, we apply the SISTEM method to the available geodetic dataset (both GPS and DInSAR). The SISTEM method performs an integration of GPS and DInSAR data for computing displacements on each point of the studied area. The SISTEM is based on elastic theory, and provides the complete 3D strain and the rigid body rotation tensors in the same solution. To achieve higher accuracy and get better the constraint of the 3D components of the displacements, we improved the standard formulation of SISTEM approach, based on a single DInSAR data, in order to take into account both ascending and descending interferograms and the DInSAR data acquired by different sensors(ALOS and ENVISAT). The SISTEM integration results show a complex kinematics, where the main movements (max westward movement of 165 mm associated with a max lowering of 260 mm) are recorded in the area between the surface evidence of the Paganica fault and Monticchio-fossa fault. These results, which provide both accurate and fine spatial characterization of ground deformation, are hence promising for future studies aimed at improving the knowledge of the kinematic of the Paganica fault and identification of additional faults responsible of the seismic sequence and that have contributed to the observed ground deformation. References. Anzidei, M., P. Baldi, A. Pesci, A. Esposito, A. Galvani, F. Loddo, P. Cristofoletti, A. Massucci, and S. Del Mese (2005), Geodetic deformation across the Central Apennines from GPS data in the time span 1999-2003, Ann. Geophys., 48(2), 259-271. Boschi, E., E. Guidoboni, G. Ferrrari, D. Mariotti, G. Valensise, and P. Gasperini (2000), Catalogue of strong

  19. Pol(In)SAR Soil Moisture Study by using Pi-SAR 2L and GB-SAR Data in Preparation of the upcoming ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, C.; Sato, M.

    2013-12-01

    Recently Earth Observation by means of active microwave is advancing rapidly. The evolution started from first-generation classical single-channel systems like JERS (JAXA), ERS (ESA) or Radarsat-1 (CSA). With the launch of ALOS-1 (JAXA), the first fully polarimetric SAR measurements became available followed by Radarsat-2 (CSA) and TerraSAR-X (DLR), making polarimetric L-, C-, and X-band data available. In Japanese fiscal year 2013, the third generation of SAR satellites will begin with the launch of ALOS-2. The JAXA cutting-edge follow-on mission to the highly acclaimed ALOS-1 will carry the state-of-the-art PALSAR-2 sensor aboard. Due to its much better orbital revisit cycle of only 14 days and its very high spatial resolution (3 m) the system will be highly suitable for interferometric analysis of polarimetric data obtained from repeat-pass acquisitions. The combination of polarimetry and interferometry is probably the most promising approach for a better estimation of geophysical parameters from SAR data acquired over natural terrain and thus will greatly improve the capabilities to estimate soil moisture under all kinds of vegetation with high accuracy and with high temporal and spatial resolutions. In advent of the 3rd generation of Japanese SAR EO satellites, our group conducts a variety of fundamental research on low-frequency SAR surface scattering/interactions. Here, we present first results from soil moisture experiments based on fully polarimetric GB-SAR (Tohoku University) and Pi-SAR 2L (JAXA) measurements. These experiments comprise investigations of the effective soil moisture measuring depth of L-band SAR. The experimental set-up consists of an array of receiving di-pole antennas installed in different depths to quantify the penetration (and reflection) capabilities of the incoming EM waves. We use a fully polarimetric GB-SAR system based on a high-end VNA capable of coherent measurement of the [S2] scattering matrix. It uses 2 large horn antennas

  20. Near-infrared photoluminescence in La0.98AlO3: 0.02Ln3+(Ln = Nd/Yb) for sensitization of c-Si solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawala, N. S.; Koparkar, K. A.; Bajaj, N. S.; Omanwar, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    The host matrix LaAlO3 was synthesized by conventional solid state reaction method in which the Nd3+ ions and Yb3+ ions successfully doped at 2mol% concentrations. The phase purity was confirmed by X ray powder diffraction (XRD) method. The photoluminescence (PL) properties were studied by spectrophotometer in near infra red (NIR) and ultra violet visible (UV-VIS) region. The Nd3+ ion doped LaAlO3 converts a visible (VIS) green photon (587 nm) into near infrared (NIR) photon (1070 nm) while Yb3+ ion doped converts ultra violet (UV) photon (221 nm) into NIR photon (980 nm). The La0.98AlO3: 0.02Ln3+(Ln = Nd / Yb) can be potentiality used for betterment of photovoltaic (PV) technology. This result further indicates its potential application as a luminescence converter layer for enhancing solar cells performance.

  1. Calculation of the structural and NMR properties of the tridecameric AlO 4Al 12(OH) 24(H 2O) 127+ polycation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tossell, J. A.

    2001-09-01

    The aluminum tridecameric polyoxocation, AlO 4Al 12(OH) 24(H 2O) 127+ is a major component in partially hydrolyzed Al +3(aq) solutions and has been extensively studied experimentally, mainly using NMR techniques. I have calculated the equilbrium geometry of this cation using the Hartree-Fock method and a polarized double-zeta effective core potential basis set, obtaining bond distances which agree well with X-ray crystallographic studies of selenate and sulfate salts of the polycation (Al[4]: 4 × 1.85 Å calc, 4 × 1.84 Å exp: Al[6]: 4 × 1.85, 2 × 2.05 Å calc, 2 × 1.84, 2 × 1.88, 1.91, 2.04 Å exp [where the numbers in brackets indicate the coordination numbers]). I have also calculated electric field gradients and NMR shielding constants at all the atoms using the standard 6-31G∗ basis set and Hartree-Fock and hybrid Hartree-Fock-density functional (B3LYP) techniques. Using the Hartree-Fock method, the central four-coordinate Al is calculated to be deshielded by ˜56 ppm, and the six-coordinate Al atoms by ˜16 ppm, vs. the Al(OH 2) 6+3 reference, compared to experimental shifts of 63 and 12 ppm, respectively. The central Al[4] is thus shielded by ˜20 ppm with respect to the tetrahedral monomer Al(OH) 4-1. Al-NMR shifts obtained from the B3LYP calculations are very similar. The calculated O-NMR shifts, vs. free gas-phase H 2O, are 17 ppm for the η-OH 2 groups, 30 ppm for the μ-OH and μOH' groups, and 55 ppm for the μ 4-O group, which match well with the experimentally assigned shifts of 20, 30, and 55 ppm, respectively (vs. liquid H 2O). The B3LYP method yields O shifts, which are systematically about 40 to 50% larger. It is not clear whether the discrepancies in the calculated O shifts vs. liquid water are a result of deficiencies in the model (neglect of the aqueous environment) or in the method (lack of correlation in the Hartree-Fock method). Studies on the Al 2(OH) 2(OH 2) 8+4 cation with small numbers of explicit waters hydrogen-bonded to it

  2. Relationship between two Solomon Islands Earthquakes in 2007 (M8.1), 2010 (M7.1), and Seismic Gap along the Subduction Zone, Revealed by ALOS/PALSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Y.; Ozawa, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Solomon Islands are located in the southwest of the Pacific Ocean. The Australian, Woodlark, and Solomon Sea plates subduct toward the northeast beneath the Pacific plate. Interaction among these four plates cause complicated tectonics around the Solomon Islands, and have caused interplate earthquakes in the subduction zone (e.g. Lay and Kanamori, 1980; Xu and Schwarts, 1993). On April 1, 2007 (UTC), an M8.1 interplate earthquake occurred in the subduction zone between the Pacific Plate and