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Sample records for alpaca vicugna pacos

  1. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A near full term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn two days before expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within six hours of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta,...

  2. Pagetoid reticulosis (epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) in an adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Hasbach, Andrea E; Stern, Adam W

    2016-07-01

    A 9-year-old, intact female alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was presented for a second opinion with a 1-year history of nonpruritic, multifocal scaling and crusted cutaneous lesions, mainly involving skin on the face, axillae, and ventral abdomen. Clinical abnormalities were limited to the skin, and the alpaca was otherwise healthy. The initial veterinarian had examined the alpaca, found no evidence of ectoparasites with laboratory testing, and had tried several trial therapies including oral antibiotics, ivermectin, and topical use of betadine solution. At the time of presentation, the lesions had neither improved nor worsened with any attempted therapy, and multiple skin biopsies were collected. Histopathology and immunohistochemical staining findings were consistent with the pagetoid reticulosis type of cutaneous epitheliotropic T-cell lymphoma. Our report describes the clinical, histopathologic, and immunophenotypic features of pagetoid reticulosis epitheliotropic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in an alpaca. PMID:27154316

  3. A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hyuga, Ayako; Matsumoto, Jun

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in alpacas raised in Japan. From December 2010 to October 2011, 53 alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised at a farm in the Kanto region, Japan, were examined for gastrointestinal parasites by 3 fecal tests: direct smear, centrifuged flotation and formalin-ether sedimentation. Eggs of Nematodirus sp. were found in 13.2%, Trichuris sp. in 11.3%, Capillaria spp. in 5.7%, strongyle-type in 50.9% and Moniezia sp. in 1.9%. Oocysts of Eimeria punoensis and/or E. alpacae were found in 69.8%, E. lamae in 1.9% and E. macusaniensis in 7.5%. We found that alpacas raised in Japan have gastrointestinal parasitic fauna similar to those in other countries. PMID:26725443

  4. A survey of gastrointestinal parasites of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised in Japan

    PubMed Central

    HYUGA, Ayako; MATSUMOTO, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in alpacas raised in Japan. From December 2010 to October 2011, 53 alpacas (Vicugna pacos) raised at a farm in the Kanto region, Japan, were examined for gastrointestinal parasites by 3 fecal tests: direct smear, centrifuged flotation and formalin-ether sedimentation. Eggs of Nematodirus sp. were found in 13.2%, Trichuris sp. in 11.3%, Capillaria spp. in 5.7%, strongyle-type in 50.9% and Moniezia sp. in 1.9%. Oocysts of Eimeria punoensis and/or E. alpacae were found in 69.8%, E. lamae in 1.9% and E. macusaniensis in 7.5%. We found that alpacas raised in Japan have gastrointestinal parasitic fauna similar to those in other countries. PMID:26725443

  5. Characterization of paneth cells in alpacas (Vicugna pacos, Mammalia, Camelidae).

    PubMed

    Vásquez, María; Lira, Boris; Rodríguez, José; Falcón, Néstor; Ocampo, Jorge; Nishida, Fabián; Barbeito, Claudio; Zanuzzi, Carolina

    2016-08-01

    Paneth cells are secretory epithelial cells of the innate immune system of the intestine of several mammals, including alpacas. Little is known about the latter; thus, in the present study we described the morphology and histochemical characteristics of Paneth cells in healthy fetuses, and young and adult alpacas. For this purpose, samples of duodenum, jejunum and ileum were taken from 6 fetuses at different days of pregnancy (between days 221-330), 66 offsprings (between 0 and 45-days-old) and 5 adult alpacas (>2-years-old). Samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and processed for histological and morphometrical analysis using HE and Masson Trichomićs technique. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify Paneth cells using anti-lysozyme antibody. In addition, the lectinhistochemichal binding-pattern of Paneth celĺs granules was evaluated. Lyzozyme was immunohistochemically detected in the granules of Paneth cells from day 283 of pregnancy in all the small intestinal sections of the studied fetuses. In newborn alpacas Paneth cells were initially found in the duodenum, but the following days (days 18-21 after birth) they were also found in the ileum. Their size gradually increased after birth, but then no significant differences were found. In adult alpacas the number was lower than offsprings. We suggest that Paneth cells early differentiate in the small intestine of alpacas, and the increase in their number during the first two weeks of life strongly support their possible involvement in the intestinal defensive functions against the enteric diseases that occur during the lactancy stage. PMID:27233914

  6. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant melanoma in a 7-year old, intact male alpaca with a chronic, non-healing wound on the left nares, weight loss and inappetance is described. Malignant melanoma was diagnosed in punch biopsy specimens from a mass on the maxilla associated with the non-healing wound and from a mass in the su...

  7. Double ovulation and occurrence of twinning in alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Campbell, A J; Pearson, L K; Spencer, T E; Tibary, A

    2015-08-01

    Twin births are rare in alpacas despite the high incidence of double ovulation and are undesirable because they contribute to early and late pregnancy loss, abortion, and birth of nonviable neonates. The objective of the present study was to determine the incidence and outcome of twin pregnancy in double-ovulating alpacas by retrospective and prospective analysis. Data from double-ovulating females (N = 41) presented for pregnancy diagnosis were analyzed to determine pregnancy status at three stages after mating (14-16, 25-30, and 45-53 days). In a prospective study, adult reproductively sound alpacas (n = 21) were examined by ultrasonography to determine the incidence of multiple ovulations. A subset of those alpacas (n = 10) were euthanized either at 9 days (n = 5) or 14 days (n = 5) after a single mating and administration of GnRH to determine presence and number of embryos. A total of 31 cycles were included in the study to determine the incidence of multiple ovulations. In the retrospective study, twin pregnancies were identified between 25 and 30 days in 47.1% of double-ovulating females. There were more twins from bilateral ovulations (62.5%) than from unilateral ovulations (37.5%). Twin pregnancies were either reduced to a singleton (62.5%) or lost completely (37.5%). One set of twins remained viable until Day 52. In the prospective study, double ovulation occurred in 18.8% of the cycles. Two embryos were collected from two of the four double-ovulating females. In conclusion, twin conception is not rare in alpacas. A high rate of spontaneous reduction of twin pregnancies occurs before Day 45. However, a significant proportion of twin pregnancy may result in loss of both embryos. Determination of the number of ovulations (CL) at the time of early pregnancy diagnosis (14-16 days) should be an integral part of any pregnancy evaluation. PMID:25963129

  8. The Genetic Inheritance of the Blue-eyed White Phenotype in Alpacas (Vicugna pacos)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Warren E.; Appleton, Belinda R.

    2014-01-01

    White-spotting patterns in mammals can be caused by mutations in the gene KIT, whose protein is necessary for the normal migration and survival of melanocytes from the neural crest. The alpaca (Vicugna pacos) blue-eyed white (BEW) phenotype is characterized by 2 blue eyes and a solid white coat over the whole body. Breeders hypothesize that the BEW phenotype in alpacas is caused by the combination of the gene causing gray fleece and a white-spotting gene. We performed an association study using KIT flanking and intragenic markers with 40 unrelated alpacas, of which 17 were BEW. Two microsatellite alleles at KIT-related markers were significantly associated (P < 0.0001) with the BEW phenotype (bew1 and bew2). In a larger cohort of 171 related individuals, we identify an abundance of an allele (bew1) in gray animals and the occurrence of bew2 homozygotes that are solid white with pigmented eyes. Association tests accounting for population structure and familial relatedness are consistent with a proposed model where these alleles are in linkage disequilibrium with a mutation or mutations that contribute to the BEW phenotype and to individual differences in fleece color. PMID:23144493

  9. Morphology of the Lingual and Buccal Papillae in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos) - Light and Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Goździewska-Harłajczuk, K; Klećkowska-Nawrot, J; Janeczek, M; Zawadzki, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was the description of the lingual and buccal papillae in adult alpaca (Vicugna pacos) by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The tongue consisted of apex, body and root. Four types of lingual papillae (filiform, fungiform, conical and circumvallate) in addition to two types of buccal papillae were observed. The filiform papillae, some with secondary papillae, were distributed on both the corpus and apex of the tongue, with stratified epithelium, and layer of keratin coat were recognized. The short (small) cone papillae had pointed top, while bunoform papillae were wide with smooth apex. The much less numerous circumvallate papillae with pseudopapillae on the each rim of the caudal lingual body were present with weak layer of keratin and intra-epithelial taste buds. The small fungiform papillae were found on the dorsal lingual surface, while the large fungiform papillae were situated on the ventral surface of the tongue, especially, in rostral part and were round in shape with numerous gustatory pores and very thin keratin coat. Pseudopapillae were present on the buccal conical 'bunoform' papillae surface, while 'elongate' buccal papillae surface was rather softly folded with thin coat of keratin. Microridges were observed in the less keratinized parts of each type of papillae. The orientation of either lingual or buccal papillae into the throat side facilitates the emptying of oral cavity from nutrient and swallowing of food. In conclusion, the anatomical features of the alpaca tongue are an adaptation to the feeding habits. PMID:25223623

  10. Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) crias with diarrhea in the Andean Region of Cusco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Garmendia, Antonio E; Lopez, Wellington; Ortega, Nastassja; Chamorro, Marycris J

    2015-10-22

    Alpacas (Vicugna pacos), a species of South American camelids (SAC), suffer high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of alpaca cria mortality in Peru and elsewhere. In order to develop appropriate control and/or treatment, it is necessary to identify infectious pathogens that cause diarrhea in crias. Rotavirus was isolated in cell culture from feces collected from crias with acute diarrhea that tested positive to rotaviral antigen by rapid immunochromatographic methods in an earlier study. The isolates were identified as rotaviruses by RT-PCR run with specific primers for human rotavirus VP7 coding sequences using total RNA extracted from cells displaying cytopathic effects as template. These alpaca isolates were further identified as group A rotaviruses by means of a VP6-specific PCR and were designated as ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3368-10 and ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3386-10. Molecular G and P typing, placed the former as G3/P11 and the latter as G3/P?. Sequence analysis of two genome segments (coding for VP4 and VP7) from the alpaca isolates revealed partial homologies to swine and human rotaviruses, respectively. These results demonstrate that rotaviruses are associated with a proportion of cases of diarrhea in crias, although prevalence and impact remain to be determined. The isolation of rotaviruses from alpaca crias with diarrhea will contribute positively to further understand the pathogen and its role in the diarrhea complex. PMID:26243695

  11. Expression and tissue distribution of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor (c-Met) in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) skins associated with white and brown coat colors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiuju; He, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Junbing; He, Junping; Fan, Ruiwen; Wang, Haidong; Geng, Jianjun; Dong, Changsheng

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met signaling has been considered as a key pathway in both melanocyte development and melanogenesis. To understand better the expression patterns and tissue distribution characterization of HGF and its receptor c-Met in skin of white versus brown alpaca (Vicugna pacos), we detected the tissue distribution of HGF and c-Met using immunohistochemistry and analyzed the expression patterns by using Western blot and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that HGF staining robustly increased in the dermal papilla and mesenchymal cells of white alpaca skin compared with that of brown. However, c-Met staining showed strongly positive result, particularly inhair matrix and root sheath in brown alpaca skin. Western blot and qPCR results suggested that HGF and c-Met were expressed at significantly high levels in white and brown alpaca skins, respectively, and protein and transcripts possessed the same expression pattern in white and brown alpaca skins. The results suggested that HGF/c-Met signaling functions in alpaca coat color formation offer essential theoretical basis for further exploration of the role of HGF/c-Met signaling in pigment formation. PMID:26099836

  12. Outbreak of sarcoptic mange in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and control with repeated subcutaneous ivermectin injections.

    PubMed

    Twomey, D F; Birch, E S; Schock, A

    2009-02-01

    An outbreak of sarcoptic mange was investigated in an alpaca herd. Clinical disease occurred 2 months after the introduction of four alpacas with dry seborrhoeic skin lesions, the cause of which was not investigated. Initially a group of females was affected, despite repeated topical treatment with ivermectin at a dose of 0.5mg/kg bodyweight. One female died and post-mortem examination indicated sarcoptic mange as the cause of death. Infection with Sarcoptes scabiei was also demonstrated on microscopic examination of skin scrapes taken from clinically affected cohorts. Later in the outbreak, a separate group of male alpacas was also affected. Treatment using subcutaneous ivermectin injections at a dose of 0.2mg/kg, administered at 14-day intervals, was evaluated. During this course of treatment, another female died. A successful response in the other alpacas was eventually reached following 12 treatments of the female group and 8 treatments of the male group. PMID:19019545

  13. Effect of electrical stimulation and ageing period on alpaca (Vicugna pacos) meat and eating quality.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; van de Ven, R J; Hopkins, D L

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of using medium voltage (~300 V) electrical stimulation (ES) and ageing on alpaca meat. A total of 50 huacaya alpacas were distributed across three age groups (18, 24 and 36 months) and two genders (females and castrated males). At 24h post mortem the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) and m. semimembranosus (SM) muscles were removed and aged for either 5 or 10 days. In comparison to non-ES samples, ES significantly reduced: LL purge values by 3.0% and LL shear force (SF) at 5 and 10 days (by 21.6N and ageing further reduced tenderness by 6.6N), and SM SF by 5.8 N with significant age effects observed in both ES and non-ES SM samples, such that SF increased by 0.53 N with each month increase in animal age. Consumers rated ES samples higher on tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall rating. ES and ageing of alpaca carcasses are recommended. PMID:26331964

  14. Quality parameters for alpaca (Vicugna pacos) semen are affected by semen collection procedure.

    PubMed

    Morton, K M; Thomson, P C; Bailey, K; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2010-08-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) is poorly developed in camelids owing to the difficulty in collecting high quality semen and the highly viscous nature of the semen. Semen collected by artificial vagina (AV) is often of low quality and must be improved before any further development of AI technology can occur. The present study investigated the effects of adding a cervix-like stricture to the AV, presence of females, collecting semen into Androhep, skim-milk or Tris diluents, and catalase supplementation (0, 100, 200 or 600 units/ml) of Tris diluent on alpaca semen quality parameters. The addition of a cervix-like stricture increased mating length (p < 0.05), whilst the presence of females during semen collection did not improve semen quality parameters (p > 0.05). Collection of semen into Tris diluent improved sperm motility (58.0 +/- 11.9%) compared with the control (34.0 +/- 10.8%; p < 0.05), Androhep (33.5 +/- 10.7%) and skim-milk diluents (28.2 +/- 10.4%). Semen viscosity was reduced by collection into Androhep (4.6 +/- 1.7 mm) and skim-milk diluents (3.6 +/- 1.3 mm) compared with Tris diluent (5.7 +/- 2.1 mm) and no collection medium (9.3 +/- 3.5 mm; p < 0.05). Tris diluent supplemented with 100, 200 or 600 units/ml catalase increased semen viscosity (5.0 +/- 3.2 and 4.9 +/- 3.2 mm). Collection of alpaca semen by AV into Tris diluent increased semen quality facilitating further development of AI technology in alpacas. PMID:19144029

  15. Identification of a novel microRNA important for melanogenesis in alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Fan, R; Shi, Z; Ji, K; Zhang, J; Wang, H; Herrid, M; Zhang, Q; Yao, J; Smith, G W; Dong, C

    2015-04-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying the formation of coat colors in animals are poorly understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that microRNA play important roles in the control of melanogenesis and coat color in mammals. In a previous study, we characterized the miRNA expression profiles in alpaca skin with brown and white coat color and identified a novel miRNA (named lpa-miR-nov-66) that is expressed significantly higher in white skin compared to brown skin. The present study was conducted to determine the functional roles of this novel miRNA in the regulation of melanogenesis in alpaca melanocytes. lpa-miR-nov-66 is predicted to target the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) gene based on presence of a binding site in the sGC coding sequence (CDS). Overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 in alpaca melanocyes upregulated the expression of sGC both at the mRNA and protein level. Overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 in melanocyes also resulted in decreased expression of key melanogenic genes including tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase related protein 1 (TYRP1), and microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF). Our ELISA assays showed increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) but decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production in melanocytes overexpressing lpa-miR-nov-66. In addition, overexpression of lpa-miR-nov-66 also reduced melanin production in cultured melanocytes. Results support a role of lpa-miR-nov-66 in melanocytes by directly or indirectly targeting , which regulates melanogenesis via the cAMP pathway. PMID:26020184

  16. Carcass traits and saleable meat yield of alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Bush, R D; Thomson, P C; Hopkins, D L

    2015-09-01

    Carcass traits and saleable meat yield (SMY) of female and castrated male alpacas in Australia at 18, 24 and 36 months of age were investigated. Fifty huacaya alpacas, evenly distributed across 14, 20, 32 month ages and two genders, were grazed on coastal summer pastures for four months. Dressing percentage and carcass length were collected at slaughter. At 24h post-mortem the carcasses were prepared into four SMY combinations. Thirty six month animals had heavier hot carcass weights (33.7 ± 1 kg) and longer carcasses (81.2 ± 0.7 cm) as expected. The percentage of total carcass bone (17.5 ± 0.2%), fat trim (1.4 ± 0.1%) and meat trim (7.8 ± 0.4%) was assessed as a proportion of cold carcass weight. The proportion of fat increased and bone decreased with age. Females had more trim than males. SMY decreased in females and increased in males with age across all combinations suggesting that males are preferable for meat production. PMID:25917946

  17. Biochemical composition and protein profile of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) oviductal fluid.

    PubMed

    Apichela, S A; Argañaraz, M E; Zampini, R; Vencato, J; Miceli, D C; Stelletta, C

    2015-03-01

    Knowledge and assessment of the constituents of the oviductal fluid (OF) in camelids is necessary for a correct formulation of specific culture media for the development of reproductive biotechnology. This study is the first describing the biochemical composition and SDS-PAGE protein profile of alpaca oviductal fluid in non-pregnant animals and animals that have completed the first month and second month of gestation. Samples were also classified into oviducts that were ipsilateral or contralateral to the ovary with corpus luteum. No differences were found between both oviducts, whereas pregnant and non-pregnant females displayed significant differences in the biochemical composition and protein profile of the oviductal fluid. Relative albumin content was higher in non-pregnant females. Relative creatinine content in OF from females that have completed the second month of gestation was lower than non-pregnant females and females that have completed the first month of gestation. Ion Na(+) concentration was higher in OF from non-pregnant females when compared with pregnant ones. The protein profile of non-pregnant females showed five protein bands of 70, 42, 25, 24 and 19kDa that were significantly more intense compared with pregnant animals. Bands were identified as moesin, actin cytoplasmic 2, hydroxypyruvate isomerase, ferritin light chain and peroxiredoxin-6 with MALDI/MS. Our results encourage more thorough future studies, in order to unravel the complex reproductive processes of the South American camelid oviduct. PMID:25592861

  18. Development of the Liver in Alpaca (Vicugna pacos): A Microscopic and Macroscopic Description.

    PubMed

    Castro, A N C; Domínguez, M T; Gómez, S A; Mendoza Torres, G J; Llerena Zavala, C A; Ghezzi, M D; Barbeito, C G

    2016-06-01

    South American camelids have several biological, morphological and behavioural adaptations that allow them to live in geographical areas dominated by high altitudes. The liver has hematopoietic functions during the prenatal life, which could be modified in response to the unfavorable habitat. However, there are no previous data on the prenatal development of the liver in these species. In the present work, a study on the macroscopic and microscopic morphology of the liver of the alpaca during ontogeny was performed. Forty-one animals ranging in age from 20 days of embryonic development to adults were studied. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were performed on samples subjected to different techniques. Less than 7-g specimens were studied with stereoscopic magnifying glass. The general characteristics of the prenatal liver are similar to those of other mammals, and the structures related to hematopoietic function follow an ontogenic pattern similar to that of previously studied precocial species. However, there are differences in morphology when compared to descriptions for the Old World camelids, including the absence of relation between the caudate lobe and the right kidney and the lack of interlobular connective tissue. PMID:25981447

  19. Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Moré, Gastón; Regensburger, Cristian; Gos, M Laura; Pardini, Lais; Verma, Shiv K; Ctibor, Juliana; Serrano-Martínez, Marcos Enrique; Dubey, Jitender P; Venturini, M Cecilia

    2016-04-01

    There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used; however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper, we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and propose a new name, Sarcocystis masoni for the microscopic sarcocyst forming species. Muscles samples were obtained from llamas (Lama glama) and guanacos (Lama guanicoe) from Argentina and from alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and llamas from Peru. Individual sarcocysts were processed by optical and electron microscopy, and molecular studies. Microscopic sarcocysts of S. masoni were up to 800 µm long and 35-95 µm wide, the sarcocyst wall was 2·5-3·5 µm thick, and had conical to cylindrical villar protrusions (vp) with several microtubules. Each vp had 11 or more rows of knob-like projections. Seven 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from sarcocysts revealed 95-96% identity with other Sarcocystis spp. sequences reported in the GenBank. Sarcocysts of S. aucheniae were macroscopic, up to 1·2 cm long and surrounded by a dense and laminar 50 µm thick secondary cyst wall. The sarcocyst wall was up to 10 µm thick, and had branched vp, appearing like cauliflower. Comparison of the 11 sequences obtained from individual macroscopic cysts evidenced a 98-99% of sequence homology with other S. aucheniae sequences. In conclusion, 2 morphologically and molecularly different Sarcocystis species, S. masoni (microscopic cysts) and S. aucheniae (macroscopic cysts), were identified affecting different SAC from Argentina and Peru. PMID:26932444

  20. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Krzysztof M.; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2015-01-01

    Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca. PMID:25694661

  1. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) and sheep (Ovis aries) grazed on pasture in Virginia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscles (heart, skeletal muscle) of nine alpacas with MAT titers of 1:25 were fed to T. gondii-free cats; the cats did not shed oocysts. Viable T. gondii was isolated from tissues of two of six seropositive alpacas by bioassay in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from three of three seropositive s...

  2. Prevalence and risk factors associated to Eimeria spp. infection in unweaned alpacas (Vicugna pacos) from Southern Peru.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Pablo; Panadero, Rosario; López, Rosalía; Cordero, Aida; Pérez-Creo, Ana; López, Ceferino M; Fernández, Gonzalo; Díez-Baños, Pablo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2016-01-01

    A total of 350 faecal samples from unweaned alpacas over 3 months of age were collected from 23 herds in order to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in Southern Peru and to identify the risk factors associated to Eimeria infection in young alpacas. Samples were examined by a flotation technique and the identification of risk factors was assessed by a logistic regression analysis. Sixty four percent of the examined animals shed Eimeria oocysts; herd prevalence was 96%, with an intra-herd prevalence of 60% (range 5.9-100%). Five different Eimeria species were identified, being E. lamae (91%), E. alpacae (87%) and E. punoensis (78%) the most prevalent; E. macusaniensis (35%) and E. ivitaensis (13%) were less common. Mixed-species infections were more frequent (78%) than single infections (22%). E. lamae was the most common monospecific infection and E. lamae/E. alpacae the most frequent association. The geographical area has a significant effect on Eimeria infection rates (74.9% wet Puna vs 37.4% dry Puna) as well as the breeding system (65.1% traditional vs 63.8% modern). In contrast, the sex of the animals (64.6% males vs 64.0% females) showed no influence on the prevalence of infection by Eimeria. The high prevalence found at both individual and herd level and the common presence of highly pathogenic Eimeria species may lead to important economic losses for alpaca breeders and could require the implementation of suitable control measures. PMID:26751874

  3. Antigenic variability in bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolates from alpaca (Vicugna pacos), llama (Lama glama) and bovines in Chile.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, I M; Quezada, M P; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities where they have been introduced worldwide. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus and mainly to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Seventeen Chilean BVDV isolates were analyzed by serum cross neutralization with samples obtained from five llama, six alpacas, three bovines, plus three reference strains belonging to different subgroups and genotypes. The objective was to describe antigenic differences and similarities among them. Antigenic comparison showed significant differences between different subgroups. Consequently, antigenic similarities were observed among isolates belonging to the same subgroup and also between isolates from different animal species belonging the same subgroup. Among the analyzed samples, one pair of 1b subgroup isolates showed significant antigenic differences. On the other hand, one pair of isolates from different subgroups (1b and 1j) shared antigenic similarities indicating antigenic relatedness. This study shows for the first time the presence of antigenic differences within BVDV 1b subgroup and antigenic similarities within 1j subgroup isolates, demonstrating that genetic differences within BVDV subgroups do not necessary corresponds to differences on antigenicity. PMID:24388627

  4. Cross-sectional observational survey of serum biochemistry values in a population of 69 adult female alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Cockcroft, P D; Mackie, I; Perry, J; Caraguel, C; Townsend, K; Reichel, M P

    2016-04-01

    Blood samples were collected from 69 'healthy' female alpacas aged ≥12 months from 11 properties in South Australia. The 10-90 percentile ranges of the 16/19 analytes measured in this sample population were within the published ranges of four healthy alpaca populations from other geographic locations. Marginal exceptions were glutamate dehydrogenase and bicarbonate. Potassium was notably elevated, probably because of haemolysis of some samples. The sample size was insufficient to provide the appropriate statistical power to define diagnostic references ranges according to international standards. The health status of the sample population of alpacas was presumptive based on a physical examination. PMID:27021895

  5. Skin diseases in the alpaca (Vicugna pacos): a literature review and retrospective analysis of 68 cases (Cornell University 1997-2006).

    PubMed

    Scott, Danny W; Vogel, Jeff W; Fleis, Rebekah I; Miller, William H; Smith, Mary C

    2011-02-01

    This retrospective study describes 68 alpacas with skin diseases investigated from 1997 through 2006 at Cornell University. During this time period, 40 of 715 (5.6%) alpacas presented to the university hospital had dermatological diseases. In addition, skin-biopsy specimens accounted for 86 of 353 (24.4%) of alpaca biopsy specimens submitted to the diagnostic laboratory, and of these 86 specimens, follow-up was available for 28 cases. The following diseases were most common: bacterial infections (22%); neoplasms, cysts and hamartomas (19%); presumed immunological disorders (12%); and ectoparasitisms (10%). Conditions described for the first time included intertrigo, collagen and hair follicle hamartomas, lymphoma, hybrid follicular cysts, melanocytoma, anagen defluxion, telogen defluxion, presumed insect-bite hypersensitivity, ichthyosis, and possible hereditary bilateral aural haematomas and chondritis. The results of the retrospective study are compared and contrasted with the results of a literature review. PMID:20825592

  6. Effects of varying doses of β-nerve growth factor on the timing of ovulation, plasma progesterone concentration and corpus luteum size in female alpacas (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Stuart, C C; Vaughan, J L; Kershaw-Young, C M; Wilkinson, J; Bathgate, R; de Graaf, S P

    2015-11-01

    Ovulation in camelids is induced by the seminal plasma protein ovulation-inducing factor (OIF), recently identified as β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF). The present study measured the total protein concentration in alpaca seminal plasma using a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein quantification assay and found it to be 22.2±2.0mgmL(-1). To measure the effects of varying doses of β-NGF on the incidence and timing of ovulation, corpus luteum (CL) size and plasma progesterone concentration, 24 female alpacas were synchronised and treated with either: (1) 1mL 0.9% saline (n=5); (2) 4µg buserelin (n=5); (3) 1mg β-NGF protein (n=5); (4) 0.1mg β-NGF (n=5); or (5) 0.01mg β-NGF (n=4). Females were examined by transrectal ultrasonography at 1-2-h intervals between 20 and 45h after treatment or until ovulation occurred, as well as on Day 8 to observe the size of the CL, at which time blood was collected to measure plasma progesterone concentrations. Ovulation was detected in 0/5, 5/5, 5/5, 3/5 and 0/4 female alpacas treated with saline, buserelin, 1, 0.1 and 0.01mg β-NGF, respectively. Mean ovulation interval (P=0.76), CL diameter (P=0.96) and plasma progesterone concentration (P=0.96) did not differ between treatments. Mean ovulation interval overall was 26.2±1.0h. In conclusion, buserelin and 1mg β-NGF are equally effective at inducing ovulation in female alpacas, but at doses ≤0.1mg, β-NGF is not a reliable method for the induction of ovulation. PMID:24965784

  7. Placentation in the alpaca Lama pacos.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Luis; Zago, Douglas; Leiser, Rudolf; Jones, Carolyn; Bevilacqua, Estela

    2003-07-01

    Reproduction in South American camelids is poorly studied. To extend our knowledge of the development and cellular physiology of the placenta in the alpaca Lama pacos, we have examined specimens from day 150 of pregnancy to term. Morphological investigations using light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, the histochemical localization of iron, alkaline and acid phosphatase activity, and the immunodetection of placental lactogen hormone were performed. Throughout pregnancy there was a progressive increase in the depths of folds on the uterine mucosa surface together with a thickening of the endometrium. Glandular cells exhibited PAS and acid phosphatase (AcP) positive secretion granules. In the chorion, giant trophoblast polyploid cells gradually became more numerous and larger. Non-giant cells exhibited positive granules for PAS, alkaline phosphatase (AkP) reaction and immunostaining for bovine placental lactogen hormone (PLH). SDS -PAGE electrophoresis and Western blotting procedures also confirmed the presence of a bovine PLH-like glycoprotein in the fetal alpaca placenta. Over the glandular openings, the chorion formed typical areolae, where the trophoblast exhibited AcP and PAS positive reactions. At these sites, the fetal endothelial cells contained iron-storage granules in their cytoplasm. The trophoblast-epithelial interface exhibited a complex microvillous interdigitation, in which an AkP reaction was very prominent. The chorionic capillaries progressively indented adjacent trophoblast cells. These data suggest that although the epitheliochorial alpaca placenta is diffuse, various trophoblast cell types and specialized areas of the maternofetal interface give the placenta micro-regional functions where histiotrophic nutrition, hormone production and molecular exchange are prevalent. PMID:12802689

  8. Successful treatment of atlantooccipital luxation in an alpaca (Lama pacos).

    PubMed

    Baitchman, Eric J; Aiken, Sean W; Calle, Paul P

    2006-03-01

    A 7-mo-old male alpaca (Lama pacos) presented with an abnormal lowered posture of the head and neck and reluctance to walk. Cervical radiographs demonstrated atlantooccipital luxation. Successful manual closed reduction was achieved while the animal was anesthetized, resulting in complete return to normal gait and posture. PMID:17312819

  9. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis liver abscess in a mature alpaca (Lama pacos)

    PubMed Central

    Sprake, Philippa; Gold, Jenifer R.

    2012-01-01

    A mature female alpaca was evaluated for weight loss and a 10-day history of anorexia, diarrhea, abdominal distension, and ventral edema. Ultrasonography revealed a hepatic mass, culture of which identified Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. This is the first reported case of an internal caseous lymphadenitis lesion resulting in clinical disease in a camelid. PMID:23024384

  10. A comprehensive whole-genome integrated cytogenetic map for the alpaca (Lama pacos).

    PubMed

    Avila, Felipe; Baily, Malorie P; Perelman, Polina; Das, Pranab J; Pontius, Joan; Chowdhary, Renuka; Owens, Elaine; Johnson, Warren E; Merriwether, David A; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Genome analysis of the alpaca (Lama pacos, LPA) has progressed slowly compared to other domestic species. Here, we report the development of the first comprehensive whole-genome integrated cytogenetic map for the alpaca using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and CHORI-246 BAC library clones. The map is comprised of 230 linearly ordered markers distributed among all 36 alpaca autosomes and the sex chromosomes. For the first time, markers were assigned to LPA14, 21, 22, 28, and 36. Additionally, 86 genes from 15 alpaca chromosomes were mapped in the dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius, CDR), demonstrating exceptional synteny and linkage conservation between the 2 camelid genomes. Cytogenetic mapping of 191 protein-coding genes improved and refined the known Zoo-FISH homologies between camelids and humans: we discovered new homologous synteny blocks (HSBs) corresponding to HSA1-LPA/CDR11, HSA4-LPA/CDR31 and HSA7-LPA/CDR36, and revised the location of breakpoints for others. Overall, gene mapping was in good agreement with the Zoo-FISH and revealed remarkable evolutionary conservation of gene order within many human-camelid HSBs. Most importantly, 91 FISH-mapped markers effectively integrated the alpaca whole-genome sequence and the radiation hybrid maps with physical chromosomes, thus facilitating the improvement of the sequence assembly and the discovery of genes of biological importance. PMID:25662411

  11. Genetic variation of the prion protein gene (PRNP) in alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) are caused by accumulation of a misfolded form of the prion protein (PrP). The normal cellular isoform of PrP is produced by the prion gene (PRNP) and is highly expressed in the central nervous system. Currently, there is an absence of information rega...

  12. Molecular cloning, mRNA expression and tissue distribution analysis of Slc7a11 gene in alpaca (Lama paco) skins associated with different coat colors.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xue; Meng, Xiaolin; Wang, Liangyan; Song, Yunfei; Zhang, Danli; Ji, Yuankai; Li, Xuejun; Dong, Changsheng

    2015-01-25

    Slc7a11 encoding solute carrier family 7 member 11 (amionic amino acid transporter light chain, xCT), has been identified to be a critical genetic regulator of pheomelanin synthesis in hair and melanocytes. To better understand the molecular characterization of Slc7a11 and the expression patterns in skin of white versus brown alpaca (lama paco), we cloned the full length coding sequence (CDS) of alpaca Slc7a11 gene and analyzed the expression patterns using Real Time PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The full length CDS of 1512bp encodes a 503 amino acid polypeptide. Sequence analysis showed that alpaca xCT contains 12 transmembrane regions consistent with the highly conserved amino acid permease (AA_permease_2) domain similar to other vertebrates. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that alpaca xCT had the highest identity and shared the same branch with Camelus ferus. Real Time PCR and Western blotting suggested that xCT was expressed at significantly high levels in brown alpaca skin, and transcripts and protein possessed the same expression pattern in white and brown alpaca skins. Additionally, immunohistochemical analysis further demonstrated that xCT staining was robustly increased in the matrix and root sheath of brown alpaca skin compared with that of white. These results suggest that Slc7a11 functions in alpaca coat color regulation and offer essential information for further exploration on the role of Slc7a11 in melanogenesis. PMID:25455099

  13. Alpaca (Lama pacos) as a convenient source of recombinant camelid heavy chain antibodies (VHHs).

    PubMed

    Maass, David R; Sepulveda, Jorge; Pernthaner, Anton; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2007-07-31

    Recombinant single domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that derive from the unusual camelid heavy chain only IgG class (HCAbs) have many favourable properties compared with single-chain antibodies prepared from conventional IgG. As a result, VHHs have become widely used as binding reagents and are beginning to show potential as therapeutic agents. To date, the source of VHH genetic material has been camels and llamas despite their large size and limited availability. Here we demonstrate that the smaller, more tractable and widely available alpaca is an excellent source of VHH coding DNA. Alpaca sera IgG consists of about 50% HCAbs, mostly of the short-hinge variety. Sequencing of DNA encoding more than 50 random VHH and hinge domains permitted the design of PCR primers that will amplify virtually all alpaca VHH coding DNAs for phage display library construction. Alpacas were immunized with ovine tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and a VHH phage display library was prepared from a lymph node that drains the sites of immunizations and successfully employed in the isolation of VHHs that bind and neutralize ovine TNFalpha. PMID:17568607

  14. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises. PMID:27010259

  15. Mapping of somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca (Lama pacos) brainstem.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Eliana; Sánchez, Manuel Lisardo; Aguilar, Luís Ángel; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Narváez, José Ángel; Coveñas, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, we studied the distribution of cell bodies and fibers containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) in the alpaca brainstem. Immunoreactive fibers were widely distributed throughout the whole brainstem: 34 brainstem nuclei/regions showed a high or a moderate density of these fibers. Perikarya containing the peptide were widely distributed throughout the mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata. Cell bodies containing somatostatin-28 (1-12) were observed in the lateral and medial divisions of the marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, reticular formation (mesencephalon, pons and medulla oblongata), inferior colliculus, periaqueductal gray, superior colliculus, pericentral division of the dorsal tegmental nucleus, interpeduncular nucleus, nucleus of the trapezoid body, vestibular nucleus, motor dorsal nucleus of the vagus, nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus praepositus hypoglossi, and in the substantia nigra. This widespread distribution indicates that somatostatin-28 (1-12) is involved in multiple physiological actions in the alpaca brainstem. PMID:25754727

  16. Effects of vasectomy on seminal plasma alkaline phosphatase in male alpacas (Vicugña pacos).

    PubMed

    Pearson, L K; Campbell, A J; Sandoval, S; Tibary, A

    2013-12-01

    Azoospermia is a common finding in male alpacas which present for infertility. The challenge is to differentiate azoospermia of testicular origin from non-testicular origin. In several species, alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentrations in seminal plasma have been used as a diagnostic marker of contributions of the testis and epididymis to the ejaculate. The purpose of this study was to determine whether AP assay could differentiate testicular from non-testicular azoospermia in male alpacas. An experimental model of bilateral outflow obstruction (pre-scrotal vasectomy) was used in 22 male alpacas, aged 2-9 years. No reproductive history was available. Animals were submitted for electroejaculation (EE) under general anaesthesia and vasectomy performed. Five weeks later, animals were submitted for EE. Vasectomy was not successful in one animal, which was removed from analysis. AP levels were compared in seminal plasma in the pre- and post-vasectomy samples. The mean ± SEM concentration of AP in pre-vasectomy seminal plasma was 504.29 ± 166.45 U/l (range 10-2910); the post-vasectomy levels were 252.48 ± 81.77 U/l (range 0-1640; p = 0.06). In 71.4% of animals, AP levels decreased, varying from 18% to 100% reduction. Results of this study suggest that AP is not produced exclusively by the testis and epididymis in alpacas and that AP assay is not a valid diagnostic test for determination of origin of azoospermia; the gold standard for diagnosis of origin of azoospermia remains testicular biopsy. PMID:23790090

  17. Eimeria macusaniensis associated lesions in neonate alpacas dying from enterotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Rosadio, R; Londoñe, P; Pérez, D; Castillo, H; Véliz, A; Llanco, L; Yaya, K; Maturrano, L

    2010-02-26

    Histopathological analysis of 108 intestine samples (103 grossly affected ileum and 5 jejunum) taken from Clostridium-induced neonatal alpaca (Vicugna pacos) enterotoxemia mortalities collected in the Departments of Arequipa, Puno and Cusco of southern Peru during the 2005-2008 birth seasons (January-March), revealed the presence of large numbers of both asexual and sexual stages of Eimeria macusaniensis in 33/108 (30.55%) of the samples with moderate to severe necrotized and/or hemorrhagic enteritis. It is proposed that damage to the mucosa produced by coccidial infections may facilitate overgrowth of Clostridium perfringens with toxin production leading to fatal enterotoxemia. PMID:19926224

  18. Isolation and characterization of antigen-specific alpaca (Lama pacos) VHH antibodies by biopanning followed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Nobuo; Kiyose, Norihiko; Akazawa, Yoko; Takashima, Mizuki; Hagihara, Yosihisa; Inoue, Naokazu; Matsuda, Tomonari; Ogawa, Ryu; Inoue, Seiya; Ito, Yuji

    2015-09-01

    The antigen-binding domain of camelid dimeric heavy chain antibodies, known as VHH or Nanobody, has much potential in pharmaceutical and industrial applications. To establish the isolation process of antigen-specific VHH, a VHH phage library was constructed with a diversity of 8.4 × 10(7) from cDNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of an alpaca (Lama pacos) immunized with a fragment of IZUMO1 (IZUMO1PFF) as a model antigen. By conventional biopanning, 13 antigen-specific VHHs were isolated. The amino acid sequences of these VHHs, designated as N-group VHHs, were very similar to each other (>93% identity). To find more diverse antibodies, we performed high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of VHH genes. By comparing the frequencies of each sequence between before and after biopanning, we found the sequences whose frequencies were increased by biopanning. The top 100 sequences of them were supplied for phylogenic tree analysis. In total 75% of them belonged to N-group VHHs, but the other were phylogenically apart from N-group VHHs (Non N-group). Two of three VHHs selected from non N-group VHHs showed sufficient antigen binding ability. These results suggested that biopanning followed by HTS provided a useful method for finding minor and diverse antigen-specific clones that could not be identified by conventional biopanning. PMID:25888581

  19. Genetic analysis reveals the wild ancestors of the llama and the alpaca.

    PubMed Central

    Kadwell, M.; Fernandez, M.; Stanley, H. F.; Baldi, R.; Wheeler, J. C.; Rosadio, R.; Bruford, M. W.

    2001-01-01

    The origins of South America's domestic alpaca and llama remain controversial due to hybridization, near extirpation during the Spanish conquest and difficulties in archaeological interpretation. Traditionally, the ancestry of both forms is attributed to the guanaco, while the vicuña is assumed never to have been domesticated. Recent research has, however, linked the alpaca to the vicuña, dating domestication to 6000-7000 years before present in the Peruvian Andes. Here, we examine in detail the genetic relationships between the South American camelids in order to determine the origins of the domestic forms, using mitochondrial (mt) and microsatellite DNA. MtDNA analysis places 80% of llama and alpaca sequences in the guanaco lineage, with those possessing vicuña mtDNA being nearly all alpaca or alpaca-vicuña hybrids. We also examined four microsatellites in wild known-provenance vicuña and guanaco, including two loci with non-overlapping allele size ranges in the wild species. In contrast to the mtDNA, these markers show high genetic similarity between alpaca and vicuña, and between llama and guanaco, although bidirectional hybridization is also revealed. Finally, combined marker analysis on a subset of samples confirms the microsatellite interpretation and suggests that the alpaca is descended from the vicuña, and should be reclassified as Vicugna pacos. This result has major implications for the future management of wild and domestic camelids in South America. PMID:11749713

  20. Sarcocystis masoni, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae), and redescription of Sarcocystis aucheniae from llama (Lama glama), guanaco (Lama guanicoe) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is considerable confusion concerning the species of Sarcocystis in South American camelids (SAC). Several species names have been used, however, proper descriptions are lacking. In the present paper we redescribe the macroscopic sarcocyst forming Sarcocystis aucheniae and describe and name the...

  1. Lymphosarcoma in an alpaca.

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, J A

    2001-01-01

    A 16-month-old, female alpaca presented with a 24-hour history of anorexia and depression. On necropsy, it was found that the liver was grossly enlarged and the cortices of both kidneys contained multifocal lesions. Histologic examination of these lesions and other tissues revealed infiltration with lymphocytic cells, a finding consistent with lymphosarcoma. PMID:11665431

  2. Cantharidin toxicosis in 2 alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Katharine M.; Streeter, Robert N.; De Souza, Patricia; Genova, Suzanne G.; Morgan, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Two adult alpacas were presented for recumbency and reluctance to rise. Cantharidin toxicosis was suspected based on clinical and ancillary diagnostic findings. The diagnosis was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of gastric contents and urine. Despite medical treatment, neither alpaca survived. Blister beetle toxicosis has not been previously described in camelids. Challenges in treatment of affected ruminants or pseudoruminants are noted. PMID:24155427

  3. Successful use of camelid (alpaca) antivenom to treat a potentially lethal tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a dog.

    PubMed

    Padula, Andrew M; Winkel, Kenneth D

    2016-05-01

    This report describes a confirmed clinical case of tiger snake (Notechis scutatus) envenomation in a domestic dog that was successfully treated with a novel polyvalent camelid (alpaca; Llama pacos) antivenom. Samples collected from the dog were assayed for tiger snake venom (TSV) using a highly sensitive and specific ELISA. The TSV concentration in serum and urine at initial presentation was 365 ng/mL and 11,640 ng/mL respectively. At the time of initial presentation whole blood collected from the dog did not clot and the Prothrombin Time was abnormally increased (>300 s). Serum was also visibly hemolysed. The dog was administered antihistamine, dexamethasone and 4000 Units (sufficient to neutralise 40 mg of TSV) of a novel polyvalent alpaca antivenom diluted in 0.9% NaCl. At 4 h post-antivenom treatment the dog's clinical condition had improved markedly with serum TSV concentrations below the limit of detection (<0.015 ng/mL), consistent with complete binding of venom antigens by the alpaca antivenom. Coagulation parameters had begun to improve by 4 h and had fully normalised by 16 h post-antivenom. Venom concentrations in both serum and urine remained undetectable at 16 h post-antivenom. The dog made a complete recovery, without complications, suggesting that the alpaca-based antivenom is both clinically safe and effective. PMID:26930223

  4. Thermoregulation of alpacas bred in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiello, Silvana; Formis, Elena; Barbieri, Sara

    2011-03-01

    The present study monitored daily and seasonal variations of rectal temperature in response to different environmental temperatures in alpacas bred in the Italian Apennines at 300 m a.s.l. In each season, the rectal temperature of 33 clinically healthy alpacas was measured three times/day (morning, midday, afternoon). Ambient temperatures were also recorded. Rectal temperatures ranged from a minimum value of 35.1 to a maximum of 39.4°C, with a maximum daily thermal excursion (ΔTrec) of 3.2°C. Temperatures increased throughout the day, with highly significant differences recorded in both young and adult animals between all the time bands ( P < 0.001). These differences were particularly dramatic for adults in summer, when the mean rectal temperature in the morning was 36.3 ± 0.13°C, probably as a consequence of recent shearing. Significant ΔTrec differences were recorded depending on the season in both young and adult animals ( P < 0.001), with the highest ΔTrec values recorded in summer (although the highest daily ambient excursion value was recorded in winter). In conclusion, similarly to alpacas bred in their natural environment, alpacas bred in Italy show a wide thermal neutrality zone, which is probably an adaptive response, that allows the animals to save energy. In the Italian Apennines, in order to prevent situations of hypothermia, with possible detrimental effects on alpacas' health and welfare, shearing should be carried out only in warm seasons.

  5. Discovery of a Bovine Enterovirus in Alpaca

    PubMed Central

    McClenahan, Shasta D.; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L.; Krause, Philip R.; Uhlenhaut, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen. PMID:23950875

  6. The effects of exposure of susceptible alpacas to alpacas persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections in alpacas have been increasing over the past several years but much is still unknown about the mechanisms of disease in this species. This report describes research performed to characterize the transmission of BVDV from persistently infected...

  7. ALPACA: An Inexpensive but Uniquely Powerful Imaging Survey Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotts, Arlin P.; ALPACA Consortium

    2006-12-01

    ALPACA (Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe of Astrophysics, Cosmology and Asteroids) is an 8-meter optical telescope destined for Cerro Tololo and designed to scan a strip of sky passing overhead and extending over 1000 square degrees. The imaging survey will be conducted in five photometric bands covering the optical waveband and allow for photometric descrimination of many source types, including supernova types and asteroid categories, and allow photometric redshift determination for both galaxies and supernovae. The ALPACA is intended to extend over at least a three years and reach a cumulative point-source detection of about 28th magnitude AB at 10-sigma. ALPACA will deliver nightly photometry for many classes of variable and moving objects. Most crucial, perhaps, will be the exquisitely deep, numerous and well-sampled multiband lightcurve sample for supernova, particularly SNe Ia to redshifts z 0.8. This is an excellent redshift range for dark energy model descrimination, but also can be used for unprecedentedly sensitive tests and improvements of the SN Ia standard candle relation. There are many other superlative projects that will be conducted with ALPACA data, including studies of high redshift galaxies, quasars and AGN, large scale structure, novae, variable stars, Galactic Bulge microlensing, Galactic structure, stellar populations, extrasolar planets, Kuiper Belt objects, Near-Earth objects and many other classes of targets. ALPACA is based on the 6-meter LZT (Large Zenith Telescope), which is currently operating in British Columbia and producing largely seeing-limited imaging. ALPACA has undergone conceptual design review and is now under design. Seeing tests are underway at sites on Cerro Tololo. We hope to achieve first light on ALPACA by late 2009. Proto-ALPACA is a stage of the project with the full-sized telescope with a smaller field of view, and will be first operational. ALPACA might eventually add instrumentation; a multiobject spectrograph is

  8. PACo: A Novel Procrustes Application to Cophylogenetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Míguez-Lozano, Raúl; Blasco-Costa, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    We present Procrustean Approach to Cophylogeny (PACo), a novel statistical tool to test for congruence between phylogenetic trees, or between phylogenetic distance matrices of associated taxa. Unlike previous tests, PACo evaluates the dependence of one phylogeny upon the other. This makes it especially appropriate to test the classical coevolutionary model that assumes that parasites that spend part of their life in or on their hosts track the phylogeny of their hosts. The new method does not require fully resolved phylogenies and allows for multiple host-parasite associations. PACo produces a Procrustes superimposition plot enabling a graphical assessment of the fit of the parasite phylogeny onto the host phylogeny and a goodness-of-fit statistic, whose significance is established by randomization of the host-parasite association data. The contribution of each individual host-parasite association to the global fit is measured by means of jackknife estimation of their respective squared residuals and confidence intervals associated to each host-parasite link. We carried out different simulations to evaluate the performance of PACo in terms of Type I and Type II errors with respect to two similar published tests. In most instances, PACo performed at least as well as the other tests and showed higher overall statistical power. In addition, the jackknife estimation of squared residuals enabled more elaborate validations about the nature of individual links than the ParaFitLink1 test of the program ParaFit. In order to demonstrate how it can be used in real biological situations, we applied PACo to two published studies using a script written in the public-domain statistical software R. PMID:23580325

  9. Experimental Infection and Response to Rechallenge of Alpacas with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Crameri, Gary; Klein, Reuben; Foord, Adam; Yu, Meng; Riddell, Sarah; Haining, Jessica; Johnson, Dayna; Hemida, Maged G.; Barr, Jennifer; Peiris, Malik; Middleton, Deborah; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a challenge/rechallenge trial in which 3 alpacas were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The alpacas shed virus at challenge but were refractory to further shedding at rechallenge on day 21. The trial indicates that alpacas may be suitable models for infection and shedding dynamics of this virus. PMID:27070733

  10. Experimental Infection and Response to Rechallenge of Alpacas with Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Crameri, Gary; Durr, Peter A; Klein, Reuben; Foord, Adam; Yu, Meng; Riddell, Sarah; Haining, Jessica; Johnson, Dayna; Hemida, Maged G; Barr, Jennifer; Peiris, Malik; Middleton, Deborah; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a challenge/rechallenge trial in which 3 alpacas were infected with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The alpacas shed virus at challenge but were refractory to further shedding at rechallenge on day 21. The trial indicates that alpacas may be suitable models for infection and shedding dynamics of this virus. PMID:27070733

  11. A three-step approach to minimise the impact of a mining site on vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) and to restore landscape connectivity.

    PubMed

    Mata, Cristina; Malo, Juan E; Galaz, José Luis; Cadorzo, César; Lagunas, Héctor

    2016-07-01

    Resource extraction projects generate a diversity of negative effects on the environment that are difficult to predict and mitigate. Consequently, adaptive management approaches have been advocated to develop effective responses to impacts that were not predicted. Mammal populations living in or around mine sites are frequently of management concern; yet, there is a dearth of published information on how to minimise the negative effects of different phases of mining operations on them. Here, we present the case study of a copper mine in the Chilean Altiplano, which caused roadkills of the protected vicuña (Vicugna vicugna). This issue led to a three-step solution being implemented: (1) the initial identification of the problem and implementation of an emergency response, (2) the scientific analysis for decision making and (3) the planning and informed implementation of responses for different future scenarios and timescales. The measures taken under each of these steps provide examples of environmental management approaches that make use of scientific information to develop integrated management responses. In brief, our case study showed how (1) the timescale and the necessity/urgency of the case were addressed, (2) the various stakeholders involved were taken into account and (3) changes were included into the physical, human and organisational elements of the company to achieve the stated objectives. PMID:27300165

  12. The expression of KRT2 and its effect on melanogenesis in alpaca skins.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yucong; Song, Yajun; Geng, Qingling; Ding, Zengfeng; Qin, Yilong; Fan, Ruiwen; Dong, Changsheng; Geng, Jianjun

    2016-06-01

    In order to investigate the effects of the keratin 2 (KRT2) on alpaca melanocyte in vivo and vitro, the immunohistochemistry (IHC), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), Western blot, and alpaca melanocytes transfection methods were used. The results showed that mRNA and protein expression of KRT2 was highly expressed in brown skin in comparison with that in white skin. Moreover, we found that KRT2 was expressed in alpaca melanocytes in vitro by immunocytochemistry. After transfection with KRT2 in alpaca melanocytes, the relative mRNA and protein expression of KRT2, microphthalmia-associtated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase (TYR) and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) in alpaca skin melanocytes was increased with significant differences; a further result was the increase of melanin production. The results suggested that KRT2 functions in alpaca hair color formation, which offered an essential theoretical basis for further exploration of the role of melanogenesis. PMID:27265811

  13. Detection of an Antigenic Group 2 Coronavirus in an Adult Alpaca with Enteritis▿

    PubMed Central

    Genova, Suzanne G.; Streeter, Robert N.; Simpson, Katharine M.; Kapil, Sanjay

    2008-01-01

    Antigenic group 2 coronavirus was detected in a fecal sample of an adult alpaca by reverse transcription-PCR. The presence of alpaca coronavirus (ApCoV) in the small intestine was demonstrated by immune histochemistry with an antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibody that reacts with group 2 coronaviruses. Other common causes of diarrhea in adult camelids were not detected. We conclude that nutritional stress may have predisposed the alpaca to severe ApCoV infection. PMID:18716008

  14. Evaluation of gamma interferon and antibody tuberculosis tests in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Shelley; Holder, Tom; Clifford, Derek; Dexter, Ian; Brewer, Jacky; Smith, Noel; Waring, Laura; Crawshaw, Tim; Gillgan, Steve; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lawrence, John; Clarke, John; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Vordermeier, Martin

    2012-10-01

    We describe the performance of cell-based and antibody blood tests for the antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC). The sensitivity and specificity of the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay, two lateral flow rapid antibody tests (Stat-Pak and Dual Path Platform [DPP]), and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based antibody tests (Idexx and Enferplex) were determined using diseased alpacas from Mycobacterium bovis culture-confirmed breakdown herds and TB-free alpacas from geographical areas with no history of bovine TB, respectively. Our results show that while the sensitivities of the IFN-γ and antibody tests were similar (range of 57.7% to 66.7%), the specificity of the IFN-γ test (89.1%) was lower than those of any of the antibody tests (range of 96.4% to 97.4%). This lower specificity of the IFN-γ test was at least in part due to undisclosed Mycobacterium microti infection in the TB-free cohort, which stimulates a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) response. The sensitivity of infection detection could be increased by combining two antibody tests, but even the use of all four antibody tests failed to detect all diseased alpacas. These antibody-negative alpacas were IFN-γ positive. We found that the maximum sensitivity could be achieved only by the combination of the IFN-γ test with two antibody tests in a "test package," although this resulted in decreased specificity. The data from this evaluation of tests with defined sensitivity and specificity provide potential options for antemortem screening of SAC for TB in herd breakdown situations and could also find application in movement testing and tracing investigations. PMID:22914362

  15. Evaluation of Gamma Interferon and Antibody Tuberculosis Tests in Alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Tom; Clifford, Derek; Dexter, Ian; Brewer, Jacky; Smith, Noel; Waring, Laura; Crawshaw, Tim; Gillgan, Steve; Lyashchenko, Konstantin; Lawrence, John; Clarke, John; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Vordermeier, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We describe the performance of cell-based and antibody blood tests for the antemortem diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC). The sensitivity and specificity of the gamma interferon (IFN-γ) release assay, two lateral flow rapid antibody tests (Stat-Pak and Dual Path Platform [DPP]), and two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based antibody tests (Idexx and Enferplex) were determined using diseased alpacas from Mycobacterium bovis culture-confirmed breakdown herds and TB-free alpacas from geographical areas with no history of bovine TB, respectively. Our results show that while the sensitivities of the IFN-γ and antibody tests were similar (range of 57.7% to 66.7%), the specificity of the IFN-γ test (89.1%) was lower than those of any of the antibody tests (range of 96.4% to 97.4%). This lower specificity of the IFN-γ test was at least in part due to undisclosed Mycobacterium microti infection in the TB-free cohort, which stimulates a positive purified protein derivative (PPD) response. The sensitivity of infection detection could be increased by combining two antibody tests, but even the use of all four antibody tests failed to detect all diseased alpacas. These antibody-negative alpacas were IFN-γ positive. We found that the maximum sensitivity could be achieved only by the combination of the IFN-γ test with two antibody tests in a “test package,” although this resulted in decreased specificity. The data from this evaluation of tests with defined sensitivity and specificity provide potential options for antemortem screening of SAC for TB in herd breakdown situations and could also find application in movement testing and tracing investigations. PMID:22914362

  16. Generation and Characterization of the First Immortalized Alpaca Cell Line Suitable for Diagnostic and Immunization Studies

    PubMed Central

    Franceschi, Valentina; Jacca, Sarah; Sassu, Elena L.; Stellari, Fabio F.; van Santen, Vicky L.; Donofrio, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the United States, Europe and Australia. Furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. Nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. In fact the biotech companies involved in nanobody production and application continue to grow in number and size. Hence, the development of reagents and tools to assist in the further growth of this new scientific and entrepreneurial reality is becoming a necessity. These are needed mainly to address alpaca disease diagnosis and prophylaxis, and to develop alpaca immunization strategies for nanobody generation. For instance an immortalized alpaca cell line would be extremely valuable. In the present work the first stabilized alpaca cell line from alpaca skin stromal cells (ASSCs) was generated and characterized. This cell line was shown to be suitable for replication of viruses bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus and caprine herpesvirus-1 and the endocellular parasite Neospora caninum. Moreover ASSCs were easy to transfect and transduce by several methods. These two latter characteristics are extremely useful when recombinant antigens need to be produced in a host homologous system. This work could be considered as a starting point for the expansion of the biotechnologies linked to alpaca farming and industry. PMID:25140515

  17. Long-term clincopathological characteristics of alpacas naturally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus type Ib

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Substantial bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-related production losses in North American alpaca herds have been associated with BVDV type Ib infection. Objectives: To classify and differentiate the long-term clinicopathological characteristics of BVDV type Ib infection of alpaca crias,...

  18. Alpaca semen quality in relation to different diets.

    PubMed

    Juyena, N S; Vencato, J; Pasini, G; Vazzana, I; Stelletta, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical composition of seminal plasma, along with semen quality, of alpacas maintained on different diets (hay; hay+pasture grazing; pasture grazing+sheep concentrate; pasture grazing+horse concentrate; Periods 1-4, respectively). Alpacas (n=5) were fed the four different diets for a period of 6 weeks each. During the period of feeding of each diet, semen was collected using an artificial vagina to determine its volume, viscosity, sperm concentration and sperm motility. Moreover, testicular volume and body condition score were evaluated. Seminal plasma was analysed biochemically to measure total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol, γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase levels. Protein profiles were investigated using one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. There was high variability in semen parameters between different males maintained on the same diet. Semen volume increased significantly (P<0.05) when alpacas were fed diets containing commercial sheep and horse concentrates. In contrast, sperm concentration and motility decreased significantly (P<0.05) from Period 1 to Period 4. Dietary changes had no effect on viscosity. Significant reductions were seen in triglyceride and cholesterol content, as well as γ-glutamyl transferase, ALT and alkaline phosphatase concentrations, from Period 1 to Period 4. Regardless of experimental period, a wide variation was seen in seminal plasma enzyme concentrations between alpacas, whereas diet had no effect on glucose and total protein concentrations in the seminal plasma. Eight protein bands, with molecular weights ranging from 200 to 14kDa, were considered in electrophoresis gel after image analysis. Proteins fractions of the 14-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 14-kDa, TP8) and 21-kDa (total protein express in mddL(-1) with a molecular weight of 21-kDa, TP7) bands

  19. MRI evaluation of spontaneous intervertebral disc degeneration in the alpaca cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Stolworthy, Dean K; Bowden, Anton E; Roeder, Beverly L; Robinson, Todd F; Holland, Jacob G; Christensen, S Loyd; Beatty, Amanda M; Bridgewater, Laura C; Eggett, Dennis L; Wendel, John D; Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M; Taylor, Meredith D

    2015-12-01

    Animal models have historically provided an appropriate benchmark for understanding human pathology, treatment, and healing, but few animals are known to naturally develop intervertebral disc degeneration. The study of degenerative disc disease and its treatment would greatly benefit from a more comprehensive, and comparable animal model. Alpacas have recently been presented as a potential large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration due to similarities in spinal posture, disc size, biomechanical flexibility, and natural disc pathology. This research further investigated alpacas by determining the prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration among an aging alpaca population. Twenty healthy female alpacas comprised two age subgroups (5 young: 2-6 years; and 15 older: 10+ years) and were rated according to the Pfirrmann-grade for degeneration of the cervical intervertebral discs. Incidence rates of degeneration showed strong correlations with age and spinal level: younger alpacas were nearly immune to developing disc degeneration, and in older animals, disc degeneration had an increased incidence rate and severity at lower cervical levels. Advanced disc degeneration was present in at least one of the cervical intervertebral discs of 47% of the older alpacas, and it was most common at the two lowest cervical intervertebral discs. The prevalence of intervertebral disc degeneration encourages further investigation and application of the lower cervical spine of alpacas and similar camelids as a large animal model of intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:26135031

  20. PaCO2 in Surfactant, Positive Pressure, and Oxygenation Randomized Trial (SUPPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Wrage, Lisa A.; Das, Abhik; Laughon, Matthew; Cotten, C. Michael; Kennedy, Kathleen A.; Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of PaCO2 with severe intraventricular hemorrhage (sIVH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18–22 months in premature infants. Design Secondary exploratory data analysis of SUPPORT. Setting Multiple referral NICUs. Patients 1316 infants 24 0/7 to 27 6/7 weeks gestation randomized to different oxygenation (SpO2 target 85–89% vs 91–95%) and ventilation strategies. Main Outcome Measures Blood gases from postnatal days 0–14 were analyzed. Five PaCO2 variables were defined: minimum [Min], maximum [Max], standard deviation, average (time-weighted), and a 4 level categorical variable (hypercapnic [highest quartile of Max PaCO2], hypocapnic [lowest quartile of Min PaCO2], fluctuators [both hypercapnia and hypocapnia], and normocapnic [middle two quartiles of Max and Min PaCO2]). PaCO2 variables were compared for infants with and without sIVH, BPD, and NDI (+/− death). Multivariable logistic regression models were developed for adjusted results. Results sIVH, BPD, and NDI (+/− death) were associated with hypercapnic infants and fluctuators. Association of Max PaCO2 and outcomes persisted after adjustment (Per 10 mmHg increase: sIVH/death: OR 1.27 [1.13–1.41]; BPD/death: OR 1.27 [1.12–1.44]; NDI/death: OR 1.23 [1.10–1.38], Death: OR 1.27 [1.12–1.44], all p <0.001). No interaction was found between PaCO2 category and SpO2 treatment group for sIVH/death, NDI/death, or death. Max PaCO2 was positively correlated with maximum FiO2 (rs0.55, p<0.0001) & ventilator days (rs0.61, p<0.0001). Conclusions Higher PaCO2 was an independent predictor of sIVH/death, BPD/death, and NDI/death. Further trials are needed to evaluate optimal PaCO2 targets for high risk infants. PMID:25425651

  1. Camelid genomes reveal evolution and adaptation to desert environments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huiguang; Guang, Xuanmin; Al-Fageeh, Mohamed B; Cao, Junwei; Pan, Shengkai; Zhou, Huanmin; Zhang, Li; Abutarboush, Mohammed H; Xing, Yanping; Xie, Zhiyuan; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Zhang, Yanru; Yao, Qiulin; Al-Shomrani, Badr M; Zhang, Dong; Li, Jiang; Manee, Manee M; Yang, Zili; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Yiyi; Zhang, Jilin; Altammami, Musaad A; Wang, Shenyuan; Yu, Lili; Zhang, Wenbin; Liu, Sanyang; Ba, La; Liu, Chunxia; Yang, Xukui; Meng, Fanhua; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Lu; Li, Erli; Li, Xueqiong; Wu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Yang, Huanming; Al-Swailem, Abdulaziz M; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are economically important livestock. Although the Bactrian camel and dromedary are large, typically arid-desert-adapted mammals, alpacas are adapted to plateaus. Here we present high-quality genome sequences of these three species. Our analysis reveals the demographic history of these species since the Tortonian Stage of the Miocene and uncovers a striking correlation between large fluctuations in population size and geological time boundaries. Comparative genomic analysis reveals complex features related to desert adaptations, including fat and water metabolism, stress responses to heat, aridity, intense ultraviolet radiation and choking dust. Transcriptomic analysis of Bactrian camels further reveals unique osmoregulation, osmoprotection and compensatory mechanisms for water reservation underpinned by high blood glucose levels. We hypothesize that these physiological mechanisms represent kidney evolutionary adaptations to the desert environment. This study advances our understanding of camelid evolution and the adaptation of camels to arid-desert environments. PMID:25333821

  2. Serologic response in eight alpacas vaccinated by extralabel use of a large animal rabies vaccine during a public health response to a rabid alpaca in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ryan M; Niezgoda, Michael; Waggoner, Emily A; Blanton, Jesse Dean; Radcliffe, Rachel A

    2016-09-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A female alpaca, kept at pasture with 12 other female alpacas, 2 crias, and 5 goats, was evaluated because of clinical signs of aggression. CLINICAL FINDINGS The clinical signs of aggression progressed to include biting at other animals as well as disorientation. Three days later, the alpaca was euthanized because of suspicion of rabies virus infection. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME No physical injuries were found at necropsy. Brain tissue specimens were confirmed positive for rabies on the basis of direct fluorescent antibody test results. Molecular typing identified the rabies virus variant as one that is enzootic in raccoons. The farm was placed under quarantine, restricting movement of animals on and off the property for 6 months. To prevent further rabies cases, 14 alpacas (12 adults and 2 crias) were vaccinated by extralabel use of a large animal rabies vaccine. Of the 14 vaccinated alpacas, 8 had paired serum samples obtained immediately before and 21 days after vaccination; all 8 alpacas had adequate serum antirabies antibody production in response to rabies vaccination. As a result of an adequate serologic response, the quarantine was reduced to 3 months. In the year after the index rabies case, no other animals on the farm developed rabies. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Extralabel use of rabies vaccines in camelids was used in the face of a public health investigation. This report provides an example of handling of a rabies case for future public health investigations, which will undoubtedly need to develop ad-hoc rabies vaccination recommendations on the basis of the unique characteristics of the event. PMID:27585106

  3. Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Cruz, A; Cervantes, I; Burgos, A; Morante, R; Gutiérrez, J P

    2015-12-01

    One of the main deficiencies affecting animal breeding programs in Peruvian alpacas is the low reproductive performance leading to low number of animals available to select from, decreasing strongly the selection intensity. Some reproductive traits could be improved by artificial selection, but very few information about genetic parameters exists for these traits in this specie. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for six reproductive traits in alpacas both in Suri (SU) and Huacaya (HU) ecotypes, as well as their genetic relationship with fiber and morphological traits. Dataset belonging to Pacomarca experimental farm collected between 2000 and 2014 was used. Number of records for age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), copulation time (CT), pregnancy diagnosis (PD), gestation length (GL), and calving interval (CI) were, respectively, 1704, 854, 19,770, 5874, 4290 and 934. Pedigree consisted of 7742 animals. Regarding reproductive traits, model of analysis included additive and residual random effects for all traits, and also permanent environmental effect for CT, PD, GL and CI traits, with color and year of recording as fixed effects for all the reproductive traits and also age at mating and sex of calf for GL trait. Estimated heritabilities, respectively for HU and SU were 0.19 and 0.09 for AFS, 0.45 and 0.59 for AFC, 0.04 and 0.05 for CT, 0.07 and 0.05 for PD, 0.12 and 0.20 for GL, and 0.14 and 0.09 for CI. Genetic correlations between them ranged from -0.96 to 0.70. No important genetic correlations were found between reproductive traits and fiber or morphological traits in HU. However, some moderate favorable genetic correlations were found between reproductive and either fiber and morphological traits in SU. According to estimated genetic correlations, some reproductive traits might be included as additional selection criteria in HU. PMID:26490188

  4. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and subcutaneous cefovecin in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Cox, S; Sommardahl, C; Seddighi, R; Videla, R; Hayes, J; Pistole, N; Hamill, M; Doherty, T

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of cefovecin after intravenous and subcutaneous dose of 8 mg/kg to alpacas. Bacterial infections requiring long-term antibiotic therapy such as neonatal bacteremia, pneumonia, peritonitis, dental, and uterine infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in this species. However, few antimicrobials have been evaluated and proven to have favorable pharmacokinetics for therapeutic use. Most antimicrobials that are currently used require daily injections for many days. Cefovecin is a long-acting cephalosporin that is formulated for subcutaneous administration, and its long-elimination half-life allows for 14-day dosing intervals in dogs and cats. The properties of cefovecin may be advantageous for medical treatment of camelids due to its broad spectrum, route of administration, and long duration of activity. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of antimicrobial drugs in camelids is essential for the proper treatment and prevention of bacterial disease, and to minimize development of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains due to inadequate antibiotic concentrations. Cefovecin mean half-life, volume of distribution at steady-state, and clearance after intravenous administration were 10.3 h, 86 mL/kg, and 7.07 mL·h/kg. The bioavailability was 143%, while half-life, C(max), and T(max) were 16.9 h, 108 μg/mL, and 2.8 h following subcutaneous administration. In the absence of additional microbial susceptibility data for alpaca pathogens, the current cefovecin dosage regimen prescribed for dogs (8 mg/kg SC every 14 days) may need to be optimized for the treatment of infections in this species. PMID:25407784

  5. A cytogenetic and comparative map of camelid chromosome 36 and the minute in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Avila, Felipe; Baily, Malorie P; Merriwether, David A; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Rubes, Jiři; Kutzler, Michelle A; Chowdhary, Renuka; Janečka, Jan; Raudsepp, Terje

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in camelid genomics have provided draft sequence assemblies and the first comparative and gene maps for the dromedary (CDR) and the alpaca (LPA). However, no map information is currently available for the smallest camelid autosome-chr36. The chromosome is also of clinical interest because of its involvement in the minute chromosome syndrome (MCS) in infertile alpacas. Here, we developed molecular markers for camelid chr36 by direct sequencing CDR36 and LPA minute and by bioinformatics analysis of alpaca unplaced sequence scaffolds. We constructed a cytogenetic map for chr36 in the alpaca, llama, and dromedary and showed its homology to human chromosome 7 (HSA7) at 49.8-55.5 Mb. The chr36 map comprised seven markers, including two genes-ZPBP and WVC2. Comparative status of HSA7 was further refined by cytogenetic mapping of 16 HSA7 orthologs in camelid chromosomes 7 and 18 and by the analysis of HSA7-conserved synteny blocks across 11 vertebrate species. Finally, mapping chr36 markers in infertile alpacas confirmed that the minute chromosome was a derivative of chr36, but the small size was not a result of a large deletion or a translocation. Instead, cytogenetic mapping of 5.8S, 18S, and 28S rRNA genes (nucleolus organizer region (NOR)) revealed that the size difference between chr36 homologs in infertile alpacas was due to a heterozygous presence of NOR, whereas chr36 in fertile alpacas had no NOR. We theorized that the heterozygous NOR might affect chr36 pairing, recombination, and segregation in meiosis and, thus fertility. PMID:25634498

  6. Glycosaminoglycans in the accessory sex glands, testes and seminal plasma of alpaca and ram.

    PubMed

    Kershaw-Young, Claire M; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2012-01-01

    The viscous nature of alpaca semen limits its use in cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies. The cause and source of this viscosity is unknown although it has been postulated, but never proven, that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) secreted by the bulbourethral gland are responsible. The present study investigated the concentration and composition of GAGs in alpaca seminal plasma, testes, bulbourethral gland and prostate gland and compared them to those in the ram to determine the relationship between seminal plasma GAGs and viscosity and to identify the source of seminal plasma GAGs. Alpaca seminal plasma contained more GAGs than ram (P<0.001) and the predominant GAG, keratan sulfate, was correlated with viscosity (P=0.05, R(2)=0.2635). The alpaca bulbourethral gland contained most GAGs compared with prostate or testis (P<0.001). In the ram, the prostate contained most GAGs. These findings suggest that GAGs, particularly keratan sulfate, may be the cause of seminal plasma viscosity in alpacas, and that the seminal plasma GAGs originate from the bulbourethral gland. PMID:22281083

  7. Infection, Replication, and Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Adney, Danielle R.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a recently emerged pathogen associated with severe human disease. Zoonotic spillover from camels appears to play a major role in transmission. Because of logistic difficulties in working with dromedaries in containment, a more manageable animal model would be desirable. We report shedding and transmission of this virus in experimentally infected alpacas (n = 3) or those infected by contact (n = 3). Infectious virus was detected in all infected animals and in 2 of 3 in-contact animals. All alpacas seroconverted and were rechallenged 70 days after the original infection. Experimentally infected animals were protected against reinfection, and those infected by contact were partially protected. Necropsy specimens from immunologically naive animals (n = 3) obtained on day 5 postinfection showed virus in the upper respiratory tract. These data demonstrate efficient virus replication and animal-to-animal transmission and indicate that alpacas might be useful surrogates for camels in laboratory studies. PMID:27070385

  8. Infection, Replication, and Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Alpacas.

    PubMed

    Adney, Danielle R; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a recently emerged pathogen associated with severe human disease. Zoonotic spillover from camels appears to play a major role in transmission. Because of logistic difficulties in working with dromedaries in containment, a more manageable animal model would be desirable. We report shedding and transmission of this virus in experimentally infected alpacas (n = 3) or those infected by contact (n = 3). Infectious virus was detected in all infected animals and in 2 of 3 in-contact animals. All alpacas seroconverted and were rechallenged 70 days after the original infection. Experimentally infected animals were protected against reinfection, and those infected by contact were partially protected. Necropsy specimens from immunologically naive animals (n = 3) obtained on day 5 postinfection showed virus in the upper respiratory tract. These data demonstrate efficient virus replication and animal-to-animal transmission and indicate that alpacas might be useful surrogates for camels in laboratory studies. PMID:27070385

  9. Retrospective Evaluation of Parenteral Nutrition in Alpacas: 22 Cases (2002–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Clore, E.R.S.; Freeman, L.M.; Bedenice, D.; Buffington, C.A. Tony; Anderson, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Parenteral nutrition is an important method of nutritional support in hospitalized animals, but minimal information has been published on its use in camelids. Hypothesis/Objectives The purpose of this study was to characterize the use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in alpacas, evaluate the formulations used, and determine potential complications. Animals Twenty-two alpacas hospitalized at the Tufts Cummings School for Veterinary Medicine (site 1: n = 8) and the Ohio State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital (site 2: n = 14). Methods A retrospective analysis of all alpacas that received TPN between 2002 and 2008 was performed to assess clinical indications, clinical and clinicopathologic data, and outcome. Results The most common underlying diseases in animals receiving TPN were gastrointestinal dysfunction (n = 16), hepatic disease (n = 2), and neoplasia (n = 2). Several metabolic abnormalities were identified in animals (n = 20/22) before TPN was initiated, including lipemia (n = 12/22), hyperglycemia (11/22), and hypokalemia (n = 11/22). Median age was significantly lower for site 1 cases (0.1 years; range, 0.01–11.0) compared with those from site 2 (4.9 years; range, 0.1–13.7; P = .03). Animals at site 2 also had a longer duration of hospitalization (P = .01) and TPN administration (P = .004), as well as higher survival rate (P < .02). Twenty-one of 22 alpacas developed at least 1 complication during TPN administration. Metabolic complications were most prevalent (n = 21/22) and included hyperglycemia (n = 8/21), lipemia (n = 7/21), hypokalemia (n = 3/21), and refeeding syndrome (n = 3/21). Conclusions and Clinical Importance TPN is a feasible method of nutritional support for alpacas when enteral feeding is not possible. Prospective studies are warranted to determine optimal TPN formulations for alpacas. PMID:21418323

  10. Efficacy of anthelmintics on South American camelid (llama and alpaca) farms in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Rose-Ann M; Williamson, Lisa H; Terrill, Thomas H; Kaplan, Ray M

    2010-08-27

    The number of South American camelid (SAC; llama and alpaca) farms is growing in the southeastern United States, and infection with gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) is a major health concern in this region. There is widespread resistance to anthelmintic remedies in small ruminants (sheep and goats), but a paucity of information on llamas and alpacas. Anthelmintic resistance was evaluated on three SAC farms (two llama; one alpaca) in Georgia in the southern United States using fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. For each farm, animals were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups based on initial fecal egg count (FEC) and number of animals available (2-5 groups, n=9-11 per treatment). Ivermectin (IVM, subcutaneous injection; 0.3mg/kg body weight (BW)) and a control group were tested on an alpaca farm, and fenbendazole (FBZ, oral; 10mg/kg BW; two farms), moxidectin (MOX oral; 0.2mg/kg BW; two farms), and levamisole (LEV, oral; 8 mg/kg BW; one farm) were added for the llama farms. Anthelmintic efficacy was determined by comparing FEC of treatment and control animals 14 days post-treatment, with resistance evaluated using the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) guidelines. Based upon these guidelines, there was GIN resistance to IVM in both llamas and alpacas in Georgia and to FBZ on both llama farms where this drug was tested. There was MOX resistance on one llama farm using the FECR test, while there was no resistance to LEV detected in this study. These data demonstrate a serious emerging problem in the United States of llama and alpaca GIN resistant to drugs from two of the three major anthelmintic classes. PMID:20462700

  11. Pathology of Haemonchus contortus in New World camelids in the southeastern United States: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Erin E; Garner, Bridget C; Williamson, Lisa H; Storey, Bob E; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2016-03-01

    Most small ruminant farms in tropical climates are plagued by Haemonchus contortus, a hematophagous, abomasal parasite. Heavy burdens of this parasite can cause anemia, hypoproteinemia, weight loss, and mortality in susceptible animals. Haemonchus contortus is becoming a major health concern in New World camelids as well, namely llamas (Llama glama) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos), yet little research has been conducted regarding its prevalence or pathology in these species. Herein, we present a retrospective review of llamas and alpacas that were admitted to The University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Athens Diagnostic Laboratory between the years 2002 and 2013. Antemortem fecal egg count (FEC) estimates performed on 30 alpacas were negatively correlated with hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count. Total protein was not significantly correlated with FEC. On postmortem examination, 55 of 198 camelids, including 2 from the aforementioned antemortem review, were infected with H. contortus, with llamas (42.6%) having a significantly higher infection rate than alpacas (22.2%). In 15.7% of the total cases, the parasite was the major cause of death. Common gross lesions included peritoneal, thoracic, and pericardial effusions, visceral pallor, subcutaneous edema, and serous atrophy of fat. Histologic lesions included centrilobular hepatic necrosis, hepatic atrophy, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the mucosa of the third gastric compartment (C3), extramedullary hematopoiesis in both the liver and spleen, and the presence of nematodes in C3. Our study emphasizes the importance of H. contortus diagnosis and herd monitoring in New World camelids, particularly llamas. PMID:26965230

  12. Ventricular septal defect and double-chambered right ventricle in an alpaca.

    PubMed

    Poser, Helen; Dalla Pria, Angela; De Benedictis, Giulia M; Stelletta, Calogero; Berlanda, Michele; Guglielmini, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    A 20-month-old male alpaca was referred for evaluation of a cardiac murmur evident since birth. Echocardiography identified a ventricular septal defect (VSD) and a fibro-muscular band causing a stenosis of the right ventricular outflow tract. Right ventricular catheterization and selective angiography confirmed the diagnosis of VSD and double-chambered right ventricle with bidirectional shunting. PMID:25595611

  13. Detection of Assemblage A, Giardia duodenalis and Eimeria spp. in Alpacas on Two Maryland Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty one fecal samples were collected from adult alpacas and crias (ages 10 wk to 10 yr) on two farms in central Maryland. The farms raised both suri (silky-haired) and huacaya (crimpy-haired) breeds. Females and crias were housed together on pasture, whereas older/breeding males were maintained o...

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca.

    PubMed

    Miller, William G; Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H; Parker, Craig T

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  15. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  16. Complete genome sequence of the Campylobacter iguaniorum strain RM11343, isolated from an alpaca.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample....

  17. Successful resolution of a preputial prolapse in an alpaca using medical therapy

    PubMed Central

    Koziol, Jennifer H.; Edmondson, Misty A.; Wolfe, Dwight F.; Bayne, Jenna E.

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year-old intact male alpaca was presented for a post-breeding preputial prolapse of 5 days duration. The internal lamina of the prepuce was prolapsed approximately 6 cm and the exposed preputial epithelium was edematous and necrotic. Following 7 days of medical treatment, resolution of the preputial prolapse was achieved. PMID:26130840

  18. Successful resolution of a preputial prolapse in an alpaca using medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Koziol, Jennifer H; Edmondson, Misty A; Wolfe, Dwight F; Bayne, Jenna E

    2015-07-01

    A 2-year-old intact male alpaca was presented for a post-breeding preputial prolapse of 5 days duration. The internal lamina of the prepuce was prolapsed approximately 6 cm and the exposed preputial epithelium was edematous and necrotic. Following 7 days of medical treatment, resolution of the preputial prolapse was achieved. PMID:26130840

  19. Let-7b promotes alpaca hair growth via transcriptional repression of TGFβR I.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shen; Yu, Zhang; Ning, Liu; Hai-Dong, Wang; Jian-Shan, Xie; Shu-Yuan, Gao; Jia-Qi, Cheng; Xiu-Ju, Yu; Ting, Wang; Chang-Sheng, Dong; Xiao-Yan, He

    2016-02-10

    The young male alpaca ear and the back skins were used to investigate the effect of transforming growth factor receptor-β I (TGFβR I) on alpaca hair follicles and hair growth. The expression level and location of TGFβR I in alpaca ear and dorsal skin were detected through real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and paraffin section immunohistochemical technique (ICC-P). The results shown TGFβR I was lower expression in back skin compared to ear skin and the mean density of the positive reaction in ear skin was significantly higher than back skin. The targeted relationship with let-7b was detected using the dual-luciferase reporter vector of TGFβR I, which showed a significant target relationship between let-7b and TGFβR I. After transfection with let-7b eukaryotic expression vector, the relative mRNA expression of TGFβR I in alpaca skin fibroblasts did not differ, while the relative protein level was significantly decreased. In summary, a higher TGFβR I expression level in the ear skin suggests that TGFβR I may inhibit coat hair elongation. Further studies showed TGFβR I protein was downregulated by let-7b through transcriptional repression. PMID:26611528

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Campylobacter iguaniorum Strain RM11343, Isolated from an Alpaca

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Emma; Huynh, Stephen; Chapman, Mary H.; Parker, Craig T.

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter iguaniorum is a member of the C. fetus group of campylobacters and is one of two Campylobacter taxa isolated from reptiles. This study describes the whole-genome sequence of the C. iguaniorum strain RM11343, which was isolated from a California alpaca fecal sample. PMID:27365359

  1. Mange in alpacas, llamas and goats in the UK: incidence and risk.

    PubMed

    Lusat, J; Morgan, E R; Wall, R

    2009-07-01

    A retrospective postal questionnaire was used to obtain information about the prevalence of mange and its association with husbandry-related risk factors, in alpaca, llama and goat herds in the UK. In total 1797 questionnaires were sent out to members of the British Alpaca Society, the British Llama Society and the British Goat Society, giving response rates of 40.4%, 29.3% and 22.8% from the three groups, respectively. Between January and December 2007, mange was reported in 52.2% (151 of 292), 14% (9 of 66) and 21% (41 of 194) alpaca, llama and goat herds, respectively. However, these figures must be treated with some caution as only 37-51% of the farmers had their diagnosis of mange confirmed by a veterinarian or animal health laboratory. In herds where the causal agent was confirmed: psoroptic, sarcoptic, chorioptic and mixed infections were all reported, with chorioptic mange reported most frequently. Risk analysis showed that the prevalence of reported cases mange in alpacas was significantly associated with herd size and the country from which the animals were imported. Alpaca farmers who had larger herds were more likely to report mange and farmers who imported their animals from Peru were 1.5 times more likely to report mange than farmers who imported animals from elsewhere or who did not import. There was no significant confounding between these two risk factors. The results show that mange continues to be a major problem for camelids and goats in the UK, and suggests that inadequate control on farms and lack of control when in quarantine are two factors that contribute to ongoing problems with mange. However, given the relatively low contribution of imported animals to the national herd each year, it is likely that poor on-farm control may be of greatest importance. PMID:19446959

  2. Goniometrie evaluation of standing extension and maximum flexion joint angles of llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Walters, Amy L; Semevolos, Stacy A; Baker, Rose E

    2016-09-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine and compare mean standing extension and maximum flexion angles of various joints in healthy adult alpacas and llamas, and determine the reliability of goniometric data within and between 2 observers for each joint of interest. SAMPLE 6 healthy adult llamas and 6 healthy adult alpacas. PROCEDURES The shoulder joint, elbow joint, carpal, and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of the forelimbs and the hip joint, stifle joint, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints of the hind limbs were investigated. Each articulation was measured with a universal goniometer by 2 observers, who each obtained 2 measurements when each joint was maintained in standing extension and in maximal passive flexion. Two sample (unpaired) t tests were performed for comparisons of mean standing extension and maximum passive flexion angles between alpacas and llamas. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for each articulation to assess interobserver and intra-observer reliability of measurements. RESULTS Llamas had larger mean standing extension angles than alpacas for the tarsal and elbow joint, but there were no significant differences between species for all other joints. For all joints, flexion measurements did not differ significantly between the 2 species. For most joints, the reliability of goniometric data between observers was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.6 to 0.95) CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Except for the elbow joint and tarsus in extension, the angle of limb articulations during flexion and extension can be considered similar for alpacas and llamas. These measurements have relevance for veterinary surgeons when assessing joint mobility and conformation and determining appropriate angles for arthrodesis. PMID:27580112

  3. The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia

    PubMed Central

    Tinkler, Stacy H.; Mathews, Lindsey A.; Firshman, Anna M.; Quandt, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    A 5-hour-old, premature alpaca cria was presented with failure to nurse, weakness, hypoglycemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory distress. The cria was treated with 3 doses of fresh, crude equine surfactant, positive pressure ventilation, and supplemental intranasal oxygen. Recovery to discharge was uneventful, and the cria regained apparently normal respiratory function. Three years after hospital discharge, the alpaca was a healthy adult. PMID:25829556

  4. The use of equine surfactant and positive pressure ventilation to treat a premature alpaca cria with severe hypoventilation and hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Tinkler, Stacy H; Mathews, Lindsey A; Firshman, Anna M; Quandt, Jane E

    2015-04-01

    A 5-hour-old, premature alpaca cria was presented with failure to nurse, weakness, hypoglycemia, hypercapnia, and respiratory distress. The cria was treated with 3 doses of fresh, crude equine surfactant, positive pressure ventilation, and supplemental intranasal oxygen. Recovery to discharge was uneventful, and the cria regained apparently normal respiratory function. Three years after hospital discharge, the alpaca was a healthy adult. PMID:25829556

  5. The alpaca melanocortin 1 receptor: gene mutations, transcripts, and relative levels of expression in ventral skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Bathrachalam; Renieri, Carlo; La Manna, Vincenzo; La Terza, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to characterize the MC1R gene, its transcripts and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coat color in alpaca. Full length cDNA amplification revealed the presence of two transcripts, named as F1 and F2, differing only in the length of their 5'-terminal untranslated region (UTR) sequences and presenting a color specific expression. Whereas the F1 transcript was common to white and colored (black and brown) alpaca phenotypes, the shorter F2 transcript was specific to white alpaca. Further sequencing of the MC1R gene in white and colored alpaca identified a total of twelve SNPs; among those nine (four silent mutations (c.126C>A, c.354T>C, c.618G>A, and c.933G>A); five missense mutations (c.82A>G, c.92C>T, c.259A>G, c.376A>G, and c.901C>T)) were observed in coding region and three in the 3'UTR. A 4 bp deletion (c.224 227del) was also identified in the coding region. Molecular segregation analysis uncovered that the combinatory mutations in the MC1R locus could cause eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis in alpaca. Overall, our data refine what is known about the MC1R gene and provides additional information on its role in alpaca pigmentation. PMID:25685836

  6. The Alpaca Melanocortin 1 Receptor: Gene Mutations, Transcripts, and Relative Levels of Expression in Ventral Skin Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Renieri, Carlo; La Terza, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to characterize the MC1R gene, its transcripts and the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coat color in alpaca. Full length cDNA amplification revealed the presence of two transcripts, named as F1 and F2, differing only in the length of their 5′-terminal untranslated region (UTR) sequences and presenting a color specific expression. Whereas the F1 transcript was common to white and colored (black and brown) alpaca phenotypes, the shorter F2 transcript was specific to white alpaca. Further sequencing of the MC1R gene in white and colored alpaca identified a total of twelve SNPs; among those nine (four silent mutations (c.126C>A, c.354T>C, c.618G>A, and c.933G>A); five missense mutations (c.82A>G, c.92C>T, c.259A>G, c.376A>G, and c.901C>T)) were observed in coding region and three in the 3′UTR. A 4 bp deletion (c.224 227del) was also identified in the coding region. Molecular segregation analysis uncovered that the combinatory mutations in the MC1R locus could cause eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis in alpaca. Overall, our data refine what is known about the MC1R gene and provides additional information on its role in alpaca pigmentation. PMID:25685836

  7. An overview of selected diseases and drug needs in the llama and alpaca industries.

    PubMed

    Smith, B B

    1998-01-01

    The North American llama and alpaca industries will probably continue to expand at a rate of 20-25% per year for at least the next one to two decades. As a result, while the total population will always be small relative to the cattle and swine industries, the total numbers of alpacas and llamas will be substantial. Accordingly, it is appropriate and timely to begin the process of getting drugs approved for usage in these species. Four drugs that warrant consideration for NRSP-7 evaluation and approval are: Ivermectin for the prevention of P. tenuis infections. Chlorsulon for the treatment of Fasciola hepatica infections. Ceftiofur sodium for the treatment of various bacterial infections. Omeprazole for the management and prevention of third compartment ulcers. PMID:9706687

  8. Llamas and alpacas in Europe: Endoparasites of the digestive tract and their pharmacotherapeutic control.

    PubMed

    Franz, Sonja; Wittek, Thomas; Joachim, Anja; Hinney, Barbara; Dadak, Agnes M

    2015-06-01

    There are distinctive specifications for veterinary medical care of South American camelids (SACs), namely, llamas, alpacas, vicunas and guanacos. Camelids are classified as food-producing animals, but as veterinary medicinal products are often only licensed for domestic food-producing species such as horses, goats, sheep and cattle, treatment of SACs generally requires off-label use of drugs. Endoparasitism is a major health concern in camelids and can result in severe clinical diseases and economic losses. There is still a lack of work on the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy for most antiparasitic drugs used in SACs. Even when choosing an appropriate route of administration, several aspects must be considered such as the fact that pour-on formulations are largely ineffective in camelids due to the unique features of llama and alpaca skin and hair that result in extremely low drug bioavailability. This review focuses on the main endoparasites of the digestive tract in llamas and alpacas in Europe and pharmacotherapeutic options based on current knowledge. PMID:25933827

  9. Effects of ketamine and lidocaine in combination on the sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Queiroz-Williams, Patricia; Doherty, Thomas J; da Cunha, Anderson F; Leonardi, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of ketamine and lidocaine in combination on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane (MACSEVO) in alpacas. Eight healthy, intact male, adult alpacas were studied on 2 separate occasions. Anesthesia was induced with SEVO, and baseline MAC (MACB) determination began 45 min after induction. After MACB determination, alpacas were randomly given either an intravenous (IV) loading dose (LD) and infusion of saline or a loading dose [ketamine = 0.5 mg/kg body weight (BW); lidocaine = 2 mg/kg BW] and an infusion of ketamine (25 μg/kg BW per minute) in combination with lidocaine (50 μg/kg BW per minute), and MACSEVO was re-determined (MACT). Quality of recovery, time-to-extubation, and time-to-standing, were also evaluated. Mean MACB was 1.88% ± 0.13% and 1.89% ± 0.14% for the saline and ketamine + lidocaine groups, respectively. Ketamine and lidocaine administration decreased (P < 0.05) MACB by 57% and mean MACT was 0.83% ± 0.10%. Saline administration did not change MACB. Time to determine MACB and MACT was not significantly different between the treatments. The quality of recovery, time-to-extubation, and time-to-standing, were not different between groups. The infusion of ketamine combined with lidocaine significantly decreased MACSEVO by 57% and did not adversely affect time-to-standing or quality of recovery. PMID:27127341

  10. Morphofunctional structure of the lingual papillae in three species of South American Camelids: Alpaca, guanaco, and llama.

    PubMed

    Erdoğan, Serkan; Villar Arias, Silvia; Pérez, William

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the anatomical and functional characteristics of the lingual papilla among the Camelidae. For this purpose, tongues of alpaca, guanaco, and llama were used. Numerous long and thin filiform papillae were located in the median groove and none were detected on the rest of the dorsal surface of the lingual apex in alpaca. Secondary papillae originated from the base of some filiform papillae on the ventral surface of alpaca tongue. The bases of some filiform papillae of the lateral surface of the lingual apex were inserted into conspicuous grooves in guanaco and tips of filiform papillae on the dorsal surface of the lingual body were ended by bifurcated apex. On the dorsal surface of the lingual apex of llama, there were no filiform papillae but there were numerous filiform papillae on both the lateral margins of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. Fungiform papillae were distributed randomly on dorsal lingual surface and ventral margins of the tongues of all camelid species. Lenticular papillae were located on the lingual torus and varied in size and topographical distribution for each species. Circumvallate papillae had irregular surfaces in llama and alpaca, and smooth surface in guanaco. In conclusion, llama and alpaca tongues were more similar to each other, and tongues of all camelid species displayed more similarities to those of Bactrian and dromedary camels in comparison with other herbivores and ruminants. PMID:26572928

  11. New toxics, new poverty: a social understanding of the freebase cocaine/Paco in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Epele, María E

    2011-01-01

    Included within the field of research on changes in drug use patterns and vulnerability are conditions of emergency related to economic crisis, wars, and political conflict. This study addresses the complex connections between the rapid propagation of freebase cocaine (FBC)-locally known as "pasta base" or "Paco" in Argentina and the normalization of the consequences of Argentina's 2001-2002 political-economic crisis. On the basis of the results of an ethnographic study carried out in three neighborhoods of the Greater Buenos Aires area between 2001 and 2005, this article aims to analyze how changes in the material and social living conditions are interrelated with the high toxicity of FBC/Paco and engender the emerging compulsion of its consumption and deterioration to the bodies, subjectivities, and social activities of active drug users from these shantytowns. By analyzing the changes in transactions directly or indirectly involving drugs-specifically those ranging from cocaine to FBC/Paco-we can argue how structural poverty, "new poverty," is not only associated with the expansion of FBC/Paco but is also shaped by its use, modes of consumption, associated health problems, and sufferings. PMID:21707470

  12. Multivariate analysis of the volumetric capnograph for PaCO2 estimation

    PubMed Central

    Belenkiy, Slava M; Baker, William L; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Mittal, Sumit; Watkins, Taylor; Salinas, Jose; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: End-tidal CO2 (eTCO2) can be used to estimate the arterial CO2 (PaCO2) under steady-state conditions, but that relationship deteriorates during hemodynamic or respiratory instability. We developed a multivariate method to improve our ability to estimate the PaCO2, by using additional information contained in the volumetric capnograph (Vcap) waveform. We tested this approach using data from a porcine model of chest trauma/hemorrhage. Methods: This experiment consisted of 3 stages: pre-injury, injury/resuscitation, and post-injury. In stage I, anesthetized pigs (n=26) underwent ventilator maneuvers (tidal volume and respiratory rate) to induce hypo-or hyper-ventilation. In stage II, pigs underwent either (A) unilateral pulmonary contusion, hemorrhage, and resuscitation (n=13); or (B) bilateral pulmonary contusion (n=13) followed by 30 min of monitoring. In stage III, the ventilator maneuvers were repeated. The following Vcap features were measured: eTCO2, phase 2 slope (p2m), phase 3 slope (p3m), and inter-breath interval. The data were fit to 2 models: (1) multivariate linear regression and (2) a machine-learning model (M5P). Results: 1750 10-breath sets were analyzed. Univariate models employing eTCO2 alone were adequate during stages I and III. During stage II, mean error for the linear model was -8.44 mmHg (R2=0.14, P<0.001) and for M5P it was -5.98 mmHg (R2=0.13, P<0.01). By adding Vcap features, all models exhibited improvement. In stage II, the mean error of the linear model improved to -4.64 mmHg (R2=0.11, P<0.01), and that of the M5P model improved to -1.62 mmHg (R2=0.25, P<0.01). Conclusions: By incorporating Vcap waveform features, multivariate methods modestly improved PaCO2 estimation, especially during periods of hemodynamic and respiratory instability. Further work would be needed to produce a clinically useful CO2 monitoring system under these challenging conditions. PMID:26550531

  13. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation.

    PubMed

    Neill, John D; Dubovi, Edward J; Ridpath, Julia F

    2015-09-30

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV are often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected. The complete nucleotide sequence of the open reading frame of eleven alpaca-adapted BVDV isolates and the region encoding the envelope glycoproteins of an additional three isolates were determined. With the exception of one, all alpaca isolates were >99.2% similar at the nucleotide level. The Hercules isolate was more divergent, with 95.7% sequence identity to the other viruses. Sequence similarity of the 14 viruses indicated they were isolates of a single BVDV strain that had adapted to and were circulating through alpaca herds. Hercules was a more distantly related strain that has been isolated only once in Canada and represented a separate adaptation event that possessed the same adaptive changes. Comparison of amino acid sequences of alpaca and bovine-derived BVDV strains revealed three regions with amino acid sequences unique to all alpaca isolates. The first contained two small in-frame deletions near the N-terminus of the E2 glycoprotein. The second was found near the C-terminus of the E2 protein where four altered amino acids were located within a 30 amino acid domain that participates in E2 homodimerization. The third region contained three variable amino acids in the C-terminus of the E(rns) within the amphipathic helix membrane anchor. These changes were found in the polar side of the amphipathic helix and resulted in an increased charge within the polar face. Titration of bovine and alpaca viruses in both bovine and alpaca cells indicated that with increased charge in the amphipathic helix, the ability to infect alpaca cells also increased. PMID:26072370

  14. Analysis of Heavy-Chain Antibody Responses and Resistance to Parelaphostrongylus tenuis in Experimentally Infected Alpacas

    PubMed Central

    Purdy, S. R.; Gagliardo, L. F.; Lefman, S.; Hamel, P. J. S.; Ku, S.; Mainini, T.; Hoyt, G.; Justus, K.; Daley-Bauer, L. P.; Duffy, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    The parasitic nematode Parelaphostrongylus tenuis is an important cause of neurologic disease of camelids in central and eastern North America. The aim of this study was to determine whether alpacas develop resistance to disease caused by P. tenuis in response to a previous infection or a combination of controlled infection and immunization. Alpacas were immunized with a homogenate of third-stage larvae (L3) and simultaneously implanted subcutaneously with diffusion chambers containing 20 live L3. Sham-treated animals received adjuvant alone and empty chambers. The protocol was not effective in inducing resistance to oral challenge with 10 L3, and disease developed between 60 and 71 days following infection. Immediately following the onset of neurologic disease, affected animals were treated with a regimen of anthelmintic and anti-inflammatory drugs, and all recovered. One year later, a subset of alpacas from this experiment was challenged with 20 L3 and the results showed that prior infection induced resistance to disease. Primary and secondary infections induced production of conventional and heavy-chain IgGs that reacted with soluble antigens in L3 homogenates but did not consistently recognize a recombinant form of a parasite-derived aspartyl protease inhibitor. Thus, the latter antigen may not be a good candidate for serology-based diagnostic tests. Antibody responses to parasite antigens occurred in the absence of overt disease, demonstrating that P. tenuis infection can be subclinical in a host that has been considered to be highly susceptible to disease. The potential for immunoprophylaxis to be effective in preventing disease caused by P. tenuis was supported by evidence of resistance to reinfection. PMID:22593238

  15. Absorption and disposition of florfenicol after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous dosing in alpacas.

    PubMed

    Pentecost, Rebecca L; Niehaus, Andrew J; Werle, Nicholas; Lakritz, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to define disposition and systemic availability of florfenicol in alpacas. Administration of 20 mg/kg doses to 8 male alpacas by i.v., i.m. and s.c. routes was performed by randomized, 3-way crossover design. Clearance and steady state volumes (Vdss) after i.v. injection were 5 ml/min/kg and 775 ml/kg respectively. Mean residence time (MRT) and terminal phase half-life (T1/2λz) were 2.8 h and 2 h respectively. Maximum serum concentrations (Cmax) after i.m. were higher than s.c. administration (p = 0.034). After s.c. dosing, T1/2λz and MRT were greater than after i.m. injection (p < 0.001; p = 0.006 respectively). Mean absorption time (MAT) after s.c. dosing was also prolonged (p = 0.006). Fractional absorption of florfenicol after i.m. and s.c. was not different (p > 0.05). Serum florfenicol concentrations remained >1.0 µg/ml for 20 h after i.m. dosing. Differences in rate and extent of florfenicol absorption after extravascular dosing could influence therapeutic outcomes. PMID:25744433

  16. Pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in alpacas following administration of an oral or subcutaneous formulation.

    PubMed

    Cocquyt, Christine M; Van Amstel, Sarel; Cox, Sherry; Rohrbach, Barton; Martín-Jiménez, Tomás

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of moxidectin in alpacas after single subcutaneous injection of a non-aqueous formulation or oral administration of an aqueous drench at 0.2 mg∗kg(-1). Plasma moxidectin concentrations were measured with reverse phase HPLC, and data analyzed using non-compartmental methods. Half-life was longer (p=0.02) after subcutaneous administration than oral (292+/-170 vs 33+/-39 h). The area under the concentration-time curve was greater (p=0.04) following subcutaneous administration (1484.8+/-1049.5 h∗ng∗ml(-1)) than oral (157.6+/-85.9 h∗ng∗ml(-1)). The peak concentration (Cmax) was higher and the after subcutaneous administration, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.18). The relative bioavailability of the oral moxidectin to the subcutaneous moxidectin was 11%. The data suggest a higher relative bioavailability following subcutaneous compared to oral administration. Further studies are needed to determine the therapeutic concentrations of moxidectin in alpacas. PMID:27033926

  17. Degradation parameters of amaranth, barley and quinoa in alpacas fed grass hay.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, B; Johnston, N P; Stevens, N; Robinson, T F

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the compartment 1 (C1) characteristics of alpacas (fistulated male, 7 ± 1.5 years old, 61 ± 5 kg BW) fed grass hay (GH) supplemented with amaranth (AM), quinoa (Q) and barley (B) grains. Alpacas were provided water ad libitum while housed in metabolism crates. The GH and GH plus treatments were fed at 0700 every day. Treatment periods were for 14 days in which GH or GH plus one of the grain treatments were randomly allocated. On day 14, volatile fatty acids (VFA), pH and ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N) were determined at 1, 3, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 h post-feeding. C1 degradation of each feed component was also determined with the alpacas being fed GH only and the samples incubated for 0, 2, 4, 8, 14, 24, 48 and 72 h. Dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and crude protein (CP) were determined and were divided into three categories: a = immediately soluble; b = the non-soluble but degradable; and u = non-degradable/unavailable, potential extent of degradation (PE), degradation rate (c) and effective degradation (ED). C1 passage rate was determined using acid detergent insoluble ash as a marker and was calculated to be 5.5%∙h-1. Total DM intake was highest (p < 0.05) for B and resulted in a higher (p < 0.05) CP intake. GH and AM were different in mean pH (6.81 and 6.66, respectively). B NH3 -N was greater (p < 0.05) than the other treatments. Total VFA was greatest (p < 0.05) for AM, with the greatest composition differences being a shift form acetate percentage to butyrate. DM, NDF and CP degradation was different across the treatments, where PE and ED were higher (p < 0.05) for the grain treatments. The pseudo-grains AM and Q had similar C1 degradation characteristics to B. PMID:25683297

  18. Prediction of alpaca fibre quality by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Canaza-Cayo, A W; Alomar, D; Quispe, E

    2013-07-01

    Rapid and efficient methods to evaluate variables associated with fibre quality are essential in animal breeding programs and fibre trade. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) combined with multivariate analysis was evaluated to predict textile quality attributes of alpaca fibre. Raw samples of fibres taken from male and female Huacaya alpacas (n = 291) of different ages and colours were scanned and their visible-near-infrared (NIR; 400 to 2500 nm) reflectance spectra were collected and analysed. Reference analysis of the samples included mean fibre diameter (MFD), standard deviation of fibre diameter (SDFD), coefficient of variation of fibre diameter (CVFD), mean fibre curvature (MFC), standard deviation of fibre curvature (SDFC), comfort factor (CF), spinning fineness (SF) and staple length (SL). Patterns of spectral variation (loadings) were explored by principal component analysis (PCA), where the first four PC's explained 99.97% and the first PC alone 95.58% of spectral variability. Calibration models were developed by modified partial least squares regression, testing different mathematical treatments (derivative order, subtraction gap, smoothing segment) of the spectra, with or without applying spectral correction algorithms (standard normal variate and detrend). Equations were selected through one-out cross-validation according to the proportion of explained variance (R 2CV), root mean square error in cross-validation (RMSECV) and the residual predictive deviation (RPD), which relates the standard deviation of the reference data to RMSECV. The best calibration models were accomplished when using the NIR region (1100 to 2500 nm) for the prediction of MFD and SF, with R 2CV = 0.90 and 0.87; RMSECV = 1.01 and 1.08 μm and RPD = 3.13 and 2.73, respectively. Models for SDFD, CVFD, MFC, SDFC, CF and SL had lower predictive quality with R 2CV < 0.65 and RPD < 1.5. External validation performed for MFD and SF on 91 samples was slightly poorer than cross

  19. Generation of an alpaca-derived nanobody recognizing γ-H2AX

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Malini; Mortusewicz, Oliver; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Hastert, Florian D.; Schmidthals, Katrin; Rapp, Alexander; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Cardoso, M. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications are difficult to visualize in living cells and are conveniently analyzed using antibodies. Single-chain antibody fragments derived from alpacas and called nanobodies can be expressed and bind to the target antigenic sites in living cells. As a proof of concept, we generated and characterized nanobodies against the commonly used biomarker for DNA double strand breaks γ-H2AX. In vitro and in vivo characterization showed the specificity of the γ-H2AX nanobody. Mammalian cells were transfected with fluorescent fusions called chromobodies and DNA breaks induced by laser microirradiation. We found that alternative epitope recognition and masking of the epitope in living cells compromised the chromobody function. These pitfalls should be considered in the future development and screening of intracellular antibody biomarkers. PMID:26500838

  20. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Alpaca Respiratory Coronavirus Most Closely Related to the Human Coronavirus 229E

    PubMed Central

    Crossley, Beate M.; Mock, Richard E.; Callison, Scott A.; Hietala, Sharon K.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, a novel coronavirus associated with an acute respiratory disease in alpacas (Alpaca Coronavirus, ACoV) was isolated. Full-length genomic sequencing of the ACoV demonstrated the genome to be consistent with other Alphacoronaviruses. A putative additional open-reading frame was identified between the nucleocapsid gene and 3'UTR. The ACoV was genetically most similar to the common human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E with 92.2% nucleotide identity over the entire genome. A comparison of spike gene sequences from ACoV and from HCoV-229E isolates recovered over a span of five decades showed the ACoV to be most similar to viruses isolated in the 1960’s to early 1980’s. The true origin of the ACoV is unknown, however a common ancestor between the ACoV and HCoV-229E appears to have existed prior to the 1960’s, suggesting virus transmission, either as a zoonosis or anthroponosis, has occurred between alpacas and humans. PMID:23235471

  1. Doxycycline as an inhibitor of p-glycoprotein in the alpaca for the purpose of maintaining avermectins in the CNS during treatment for parelaphostrongylosis.

    PubMed

    Agbedanu, Prince N; Anderson, Kristi L; Brewer, Matthew T; Carlson, Steve A

    2015-09-15

    Meningeal worms (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) are a common malady of alpacas, often refractory to conventional treatments. Ivermectin is a very effective anthelmintic used against a variety of parasites but this drug is not consistently effective against alpaca meningeal worms once the parasite has gained access to the CNS, even if used in a protracted treatment protocol. Ivermectin is not effective against clinical cases of P. tenuis, raising the possibility that the drug is not sustained at therapeutic concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). A specific protein (designated as p-glycoprotein (PGP)) effluxes ivermectin from the brain at the blood-brain barrier, thus hampering the maintenance of therapeutic concentrations of the drug in the CNS. Minocycline is a synthetic tetracycline antibiotic with an excellent safety profile in all animals tested to date. Minocycline has three unique characteristics that could be useful for treating meningeal worms in conjunction with ivermectin. First, minocycline is an inhibitor of PGP at the blood-brain barrier and this inhibition could maintain effective concentrations of ivermectin in the brain and meninges. Second, minocycline protects neurons in vivo through a number of different mechanisms and this neuroprotection could alleviate the potential untoward neurologic effects of meningeal worms. Third, minocycline is a highly lipid-soluble drug, thus facilitating efficient brain penetration. We thus hypothesized that minocycline will maintain ivermectin, or a related avermectin approved in ruminants (abamectin, doramectin, or eprinomectin), in the alpaca CNS. To test this hypothesis, we cloned the gene encoding the alpaca PGP, expressed the alpaca PGP in a heterologous expression system involving MDCK cells, and measured the ability of minocycline to inhibit the efflux of avermectins from the MDCK cells; doxycycline was used as a putative negative control (based on studies in other species). Our in vitro studies

  2. Identification of amino acid changes in the envelope glycoproteins of bovine viral diarrhea viruses isolated from alpaca that may be involved in host adaptation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are most commonly associated with infections of cattle. However, BVDV is often isolated from closely related ruminants with a number of BVDV-1b viruses being isolated from alpacas that were both acutely and persistently infected (PI). The complete nucleotide se...

  3. Weighting fibre and morphological traits in a genetic index for an alpaca breeding programme.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, J P; Cervantes, I; Pérez-Cabal, M A; Burgos, A; Morante, R

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays, the fibre diameter (FD) is considered the main selection objective in alpaca populations all over the world. International Committee for Animal Recording recommendations define the FD and its CV as the first two traits to be considered in breeding programmes for this specie. In addition to these main criteria, other selection criteria of economic value used are comfort factor (CF) or standard deviation (s.d.); also other less important traits being used as selection objectives are these morphological traits: density (DE), crimp (CR) or lock structure (LS) for, respectively, Huacaya (HU) and Suri (SU) ecotypes, head (HE), coverage (CO) and balance (BA). The goal of this study was to establish how to implement a combined selection index starting from genetic parameters and to study the expected correlation between genetic trends by considering different alternative procedures of weighting all the involved traits, and the consequences of a wrongly proceeding way. Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from the data set belonging to the PACOMARCA experimental farm for SU and HU. Two approaches were used to check the consequences of a set of subjective weights essayed. The coefficients of selection indexes were obtained for two sets of reference weights. In addition, equivalent weights were drawn if applied those reference values as coefficients of hypothetical selection indexes directly on phenotypes; relative expected genetic responses were computed in different cases. Results showed that almost in all cases for both ecotypes, the weight applied to CF should be surprisingly negative. Concerning genetic responses, only CO was compromised in some cases for the HU ecotype. The essayed methodology allowed explaining the differences between ecotypes in the genetic trends. The proposed methodology was shown to be effective to study the relative importance of the traits granted by the manager of a breeding scheme. PMID:24423382

  4. The effect of glycosaminoglycan enzymes and proteases on the viscosity of alpaca seminal plasma and sperm function.

    PubMed

    Kershaw-Young, C M; Stuart, C; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M C

    2013-05-01

    In order to advance the development of cryopreservation and other assisted reproductive technologies in camelids it is necessary to eliminate the viscous component of the seminal plasma without impairing sperm function. It has been postulated that glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or proteoglycans are responsible for this viscosity. This study investigated the effect of the GAG enzymes hyaluronidase, chondroitinase ABC and keratanase and the proteases papain and proteinase K on seminal plasma viscosity and sperm function in order to aid identification of the cause of seminal plasma viscosity and propose methods for the reduction of viscosity. Sperm motility, DNA integrity, acrosome integrity and viability were assessed during 2h incubation. All enzymes reduced seminal plasma viscosity compared to control (P<0.001) although papain was most effective, completely eliminating viscosity within 30 min of treatment. Sperm motility and DNA integrity was not affected by enzyme treatment. The proportion of viable, acrosome intact sperm was reduced in all enzyme treated samples except those treated with papain (P<0.001). These findings suggest that proteins, not GAGs are the main cause of alpaca seminal plasma viscosity. Papain treatment of alpaca semen may be a suitable technique for reduction of seminal plasma viscosity prior to sperm cryopreservation. PMID:23537479

  5. Development and utilization of camelid VHH antibodies from alpaca for 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether detection.

    PubMed

    Bever, Candace R S; Majkova, Zuzana; Radhakrishnan, Rajeswaran; Suni, Ian; McCoy, Mark; Wang, Yanru; Dechant, Julie; Gee, Shirley; Hammock, Bruce D

    2014-08-01

    An antibody-based analytical method for the detection of a chemical flame retardant using antibody fragments isolated from an alpaca has been developed. One specific chemical flame retardant congener, 2,2',4,4'-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47), is often the major poly-BDE (PBDE) congener present in human and environmental samples and that which is the most frequently detected. An alpaca was immunized with a surrogate of BDE-47 covalently attached to a carrier protein. The resulting mRNA coding for the variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) were isolated, transcribed to cDNA, and cloned into a phagemid vector for phage display library construction. Selection of VHHs recognizing BDE-47 was achieved by panning under carefully modified conditions. The assay sensitivity for detecting BDE-47 was down to the part-per-billion (microgram per liter) level. Cross-reactivity analyses confirmed that this method was highly selective for BDE-47 and selected hydroxylated metabolites. When exposed to elevated temperatures, the camelid VHH antibodies retained more reactivity than a polyclonal antibody developed to the same target analyte. The use of this VHH antibody reagent immobilized onto a Au electrode for impedance biosensing demonstrates the increased versatility of VHH antibodies. PMID:25005746

  6. Nitric oxide enhances the sensitivity of alpaca melanocytes to respond to {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone by up-regulating melanocortin-1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yanjun; Cao, Jing; Wang, Haidong; Zhang, Jie; Zhu, Zhiwei; Bai, Rui; Hao, HuanQing; He, Xiaoyan; Fan, Ruiwen; Dong, Changsheng

    2010-06-11

    Nitric oxide (NO) and {alpha}-melanocyte-stimulating hormone ({alpha}-MSH) have been correlated with the synthesis of melanin. The NO-dependent signaling of cellular response to activate the hypothalamopituitary proopiomelanocortin system, thereby enhances the hypophysial secretion of {alpha}-MSH to stimulate {alpha}-MSH-receptor responsive cells. In this study we investigated whether an NO-induced pathway can enhance the ability of the melanocyte to respond to {alpha}-MSH on melanogenesis in alpaca skin melanocytes in vitro. It is important for us to know how to enhance the coat color of alpaca. We set up three groups for experiments using the third passage number of alpaca melanocytes: the control cultures were allowed a total of 5 days growth; the UV group cultures like the control group but the melanocytes were then irradiated everyday (once) with 312 mJ/cm{sup 2} of UVB; the UV + L-NAME group is the same as group UV but has the addition of 300 {mu}M L-NAME (every 6 h). To determine the inhibited effect of NO produce, NO produces were measured. To determine the effect of the NO to the key protein and gene of {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis, the key gene and protein of the {alpha}-MSH pathway were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western immunoblotting. The results provide exciting new evidence that NO can enhance {alpha}-MSH pathway in alpaca skin melanocytes by elevated MC1R. And we suggest that the NO pathway may more rapidly cause the synthesis of melanin in alpaca skin under UV, which at that time elevates the expression of MC1R and stimulates the keratinocytes to secrete {alpha}-MSH to enhance the {alpha}-MSH pathway on melanogenesis. This process will be of considerable interest in future studies.

  7. Functional Response of Tumor Vasculature to PaCO2: Determination of Total and Microvascular Blood Volume by MRI

    PubMed Central

    Packard, Scott D; Mandeville, Joseph B; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Ikeda, Keiro; Terada, Kinya; Niloff, Stephanie; Chiocca, E Antonio; Rosen, Bruce R; Marota, John J A

    2003-01-01

    Abstract In order to identify differences in functional activity, we compared the reactivity of glioma vasculature and the native cerebral vasculature to both dilate and constrict in response to altered PaCO2. Gliomas were generated by unilateral implantation of U87MGdEGFR human glioma tumor cells into the striatum of adult female athymic rats. Relative changes in total and microvascular cerebral blood volume were determined by steady state contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for transitions from normocarbia to hypercarbia and hypocarbia. Although hypercarbia induced a significant increase in both total and microvascular blood volume in normal brain and glioma, reactivity of glioma vasculature was significantly blunted in comparison to normal striatum; glioma total CBV increased by 0.6±0.1% / mm Hg CO2 whereas normal striatum increased by 1.5±0.2%/ mm Hg CO2, (P < .0001, group t-test). Reactivity of microvascular blood volume was also significantly blunted. In contrast, hypocarbia decreased both total and microvascular blood volumes more in glioma than in normal striatum. These results indicate that cerebral blood vessels derived by tumor-directed angiogenesis do retain reactivity to CO2. Furthermore, reduced reactivity of tumor vessels to a single physiological perturbation, such as hypercarbia, should not be construed as a generalized reduction of functional activity of the tumor vascular bed. PMID:14511404

  8. Recovery of Arcobacter spp. from nonlivestock species.

    PubMed

    Wesley, Irene V; Schroeder-Tucker, Linda

    2011-09-01

    The genus Arcobacter encompasses campylobacter-like organisms that grow in air at 25 degrees C. Arcobacter has been detected or isolated from clinically healthy livestock as well as aborted fetuses and has been presumptively identified as either Campylobacter or Leptospira, based on its growth in selective semisolid media. Because reports from nonlivestock species are limited, this study examined nine presumptive isolates of Arcobacter spp. from an alpaca (Vicugna pacos), black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), gorilla (Troglodytes gorilla), gazelle (Eudorcas thomsoni), rhea (Rhea americana), and aborted equine fetuses. Seven of these nine phenotypically identified isolates of Arcobacter were confirmed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. The remaining two isolates were subsequently identified as Arcobacter skirrowii (Case 5) and Campylobacter jejuni (Case 6) by sequence analysis of a 527-base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Together, these cases underscore the challenges to a clinical laboratory of identifying Arcobacter in cases which mimic vibrionic abortion or leptospirosis. PMID:22950328

  9. Isolation of alpaca anti-idiotypic heavy-chain single-domain antibody for the aflatoxin immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanru; Li, Peiwu; Majkova, Zuzana; Bever, Candace R S; Kim, Hee Joo; Zhang, Qi; Dechant, Julie E; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2013-09-01

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies recognize the antigenic determinants of an antibody, thus they can be used as surrogate antigens. Single-domain antibodies from camlid heavy-chain antibodies with the benefit features of small size, thermostability, and ease in expression, are leading candidates to produce anti-idiotypic antibodies. In this work, we constructed an antibody phage library from the mRNA of an alpaca immunized with an antiaflatoxin monoclonal antibody (mAb) 1C11. Three anti-idiotypic VHH antibodies were isolated and applied to immunoassay toward aflatoxin as a coating antigen. The best immunoassay developed with one of these VHH antibodies shows an IC50 of 0.16 ng/mL toward aflatoxin B1 and cross-reactivity toward aflatoxin B2, G1, and G2 of 90.4%, 54.4%, and 37.7%, respectively. The VHH-based immunoassay was successfully applied to the analysis of peanuts, corn, and rice, which are the predominant commodities regularly contaminated by aflatoxins. A good correlation (r(2) = 0.89) was found between the data obtained from the conventional ELISA and the ELISA based on a VHH coating antigen for the analysis of aflatoxins in peanuts and feedstuff. The use of biotechnology in developing the surrogate, the absence of standard aflatoxin and organic solvents in the synthesis procedures, and the reproducibility of the VHH antibody makes it an ideal strategy for replacing conventional synthesized antigens. PMID:23965250

  10. Anti-idiotypic nanobody as citrinin mimotope from a naive alpaca heavy chain single domain antibody library.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Xiong, Liang; Li, Yanping; Xiong, Yonghua; Tu, Zhui; Fu, Jinheng; Chen, Bo

    2015-07-01

    Compared with peptide-based mimotope, anti-idiotypic antibodies (AIds) are considered as promising biosynthetic surrogate antigen because these antibodies display stable protein conformation. Nevertheless, conventional AIds are generated by immunizing animals with heterologous idiotypic antibody in vivo; isolated AIds commonly exhibit a higher affinity to primary antibodies than target analytes because AIds undergo an affinity-matured process during immune responses, resulting in low sensitivity in competitive immunoassay. In the present study, an anti-citrinin monoclonal antibody (anti-CIT McAb) was designed as primary antibody; one β-type AI alpaca heavy chain single domain antibody (β-AI VHH) was selected as a citrinin (CIT) surrogate from a naive phage-displayed VHH library. The affinity constant (K D) of obtained β-AI VHH to anti-CIT McAb (160 nM) is 2.35 times lower than that of CIT and ovalbumin conjugates (CIT-OVA) to anti-CIT McAb (68 nM). The developed VHH-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (V-ELISA) can be used to perform dynamic linear detection of CIT in 10% (v/v) methanol/PBS from 5.0 to 300.0 ng/mL, with a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 44.6 ng/mL (n = 3); this result was twice as good as that of indirect competitive ELISA (ic-ELISA, IC50 = 96.2 ng/mL) with CIT-OVA as a coating antigen. Moreover, the precision of V-ELISA was evaluated by analyzing average recoveries and coefficient of variations of CIT-spiked cereal sample; the reliability of V-ELISA was also validated with a conventional ic-ELISA. In summary, the proposed strategy has a great potential for panning other β-AI VHH toward small organic molecules from a naive VHH library. PMID:25910884

  11. Development and Utilization of Camelid VHH Antibodies from Alpaca for 2,2′,4,4′-Tetrabrominated Diphenyl Ether Detection

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An antibody-based analytical method for the detection of a chemical flame retardant using antibody fragments isolated from an alpaca has been developed. One specific chemical flame retardant congener, 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-47), is often the major poly-BDE (PBDE) congener present in human and environmental samples and that which is the most frequently detected. An alpaca was immunized with a surrogate of BDE-47 covalently attached to a carrier protein. The resulting mRNA coding for the variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) were isolated, transcribed to cDNA, and cloned into a phagemid vector for phage display library construction. Selection of VHHs recognizing BDE-47 was achieved by panning under carefully modified conditions. The assay sensitivity for detecting BDE-47 was down to the part-per-billion (microgram per liter) level. Cross-reactivity analyses confirmed that this method was highly selective for BDE-47 and selected hydroxylated metabolites. When exposed to elevated temperatures, the camelid VHH antibodies retained more reactivity than a polyclonal antibody developed to the same target analyte. The use of this VHH antibody reagent immobilized onto a Au electrode for impedance biosensing demonstrates the increased versatility of VHH antibodies. PMID:25005746

  12. Characterization and Selection of 3-(1-Naphthoyl)-Indole Derivative-Specific Alpaca VHH Antibodies Using a Phage Display Library.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hiroshi; Murakami, Akikazu; Yoshida, Maiko; Muraoka, Jin; Wakai, Junko; Kenjyou, Noriko; Ito, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    A new alpaca VHH antibody library against 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivatives was developed from alpaca immunized with 7-(3-(1-naphthoyl)-1H-indol-1-yl)-heptanoic acid-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (Hep-KLH) protein conjugates as the immunogen. From this library, two 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivative-specific clones, named NN01 and NN02, were isolated using biopanning technology. The binding specificity of these clones was confirmed using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). Based on the results of c-ELISA, a median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of these two VHH antibodies, NN01 and NN02, in the case of 7-(3-(1-naphthoyl)-1H-indol-1-yl)-heptanoic acid (Hep; one of 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivatives) as an inhibitor exhibited an approximate 3 × 10(-7) M and 6 × 10(-7) M, respectively. Thus, VHH antibodies produced in this study could be considered a useful tool for the detection of 3-(1-naphthoyl)-indole derivatives. PMID:27556911

  13. Alpaca fiber growth is mediated by microRNA let-7b via down-regulation of target gene FGF5.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Zhang, Y; Wang, H D; Shen, Y; Liu, N; Cao, J; Yu, X J; Dong, C S; He, X Y

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs are very small endogenous RNA molecules that play a crucial role in an array of biological processes, including regulation of skin morphogenesis. The microRNA let-7b is thought to modulate animal hair growth, by binding target genes that encode growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) has been previously reported to be involved in the initiation of the catagen phase of hair growth. In this study, we combined previous reports with bioinformatic analysis techniques to identify and validate FGF5 and, using lucerifase assay, confirmed targeted binding of let-7b to FGF5. To investigate the interaction between let-7b and FGF5, alpaca skin fibroblasts were transfected with let-7b over-expression vectors, and then mRNA and protein expression levels of FGF5 and the gene encoding its receptor, FGFR1, were evaluated. Levels of FGF5 mRNA and protein were remarkably lower in transfected groups, as compared to controls. In summary, this study confirmed that let-7b acts as a regulator of skin morphogenesis, by directly targeting FGF5 and down-regulating its expression. It provides the evidence of hair growth regulated by miRNAs in animals and may have important applications in wool production. PMID:26535691

  14. Carbon mineralization and soil fertility at high altitude grasslands in the Bolivian Andean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, R.; Muñoz, M. A.; Faz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The high grasslands of Apolobamba provide a natural habitat for a high number of wild and domestic camelids such as vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) and alpaca (Lama pacos) in Bolivia. Because of the importance of the camelid raising for the Apolobambás inhabitant economy, it is fundamental to determine the natural resources condition and their availability for the camelid support. The soil organic matter plays a crucial role in the maintenance of the soil fertility at high grasslands. On the other hand, soil respiration is the primary pathway for CO2 fixed by plants returning to the atmosphere and its study is essential to evaluate the soil organic matter mineralization and the global C cycle. Based on this, the objectives of this research were to: (i) evaluate the soil fertility and (ii) determine soil organic matter mineralization on the basis of CO2 releases in Apolobamba. Regarding the lastly vicuna censuses carried out in the studied area, eight representative zones with dissimilar vicuna densities were selected. Other characteristics were also considered to select the study zones: (1) alpaca densities, (2) vegetation communities (3) plant cover and (4) landscape and geo-morphological description. Soil samples from different samplings were collected. Soil respiration was determined at two temperatures: 15 °C (based on the highest atmosphere temperature that was registered in the area) and 25 °C, in order to monitor the increase in soil respiration (Q10). The physico-chemical soil results pointed out the good soil fertility. However, erosive processes could be taken place likely caused by the alpaca grazing. High total organic carbon contents were observed corresponding to the highest soil respiration at 15 °C. This observation was supported by the relationship found between the total organic carbon and the soil respiration. A noticeable increase of the soil respiration when the temperature increased 10 °C was reported (from 1083 ± 47 g C m-2 yr-1 at 15 °C to

  15. Pastoralism in Northern Peru during Pre-Hispanic Times: Insights from the Mochica Period (100–800 AD) Based on Stable Isotopic Analysis of Domestic Camelids

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Elise; Goepfert, Nicolas; Gutiérrez Léon, Belkys; Chauchat, Claude; Franco Jordán, Régulo; Sánchez, Segundo Vásquez

    2014-01-01

    Llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD) by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol) and bone structural carbonate (δ13Cbone and δ18Obone) and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ13Cenamel and δ18Oenamel). Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ18Obone and δ18Oenamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic life of the Mochicas is also

  16. Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Ortmann, Sylvia; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    The mean retention times (MRT) of solute or particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the forestomach (FS) are crucial determinants of digestive physiology in herbivores. Besides ruminants, camelids are the only herbivores that have evolved rumination as an obligatory physiological process consisting of repeated mastication of large food particles, which requires a particle sorting mechanism in the FS. Differences between camelids and ruminants have hardly been investigated so far. In this study we measured MRTs of solute and differently sized particles (2, 10, and 20 mm) and the ratio of large-to-small particle MRT, i.e. the selectivity factors (SF(10/2mm), SF(20/2mm), SF(20/10mm)), in three camelid species: alpacas (Vicugna pacos), llamas (Llama glama), and Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). The camelid data were compared with literature data from ruminants and non-ruminant foregut fermenters (NRFF). Camelids and ruminants both had higher SF(10/2mm)FS than NRFF, suggesting convergence in the function of the FS sorting mechanism in contrast to NRFF, in which such a sorting mechanism is absent. The SF(20/10mm)FS did not differ between ruminants and camelids, indicating that there is a particle size threshold of about 1 cm in both suborders above which particle retention is not increased. Camelids did not differ from ruminants in MRT(2mm)FS, MRTsoluteFS, and the ratio MRT(2mm)FS/MRTsoluteFS, but they were more similar to 'cattle-' than to 'moose-type' ruminants. Camelids had higher SF(10/2mm)FS and higher SF(20/2mm)FS than ruminants, indicating a potentially slower particle sorting in camelids than in ruminants, with larger particles being retained longer in relation to small particles. PMID:25921796

  17. Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Pluripotency Factor Sex-Determining Region Y box2 Gene of Camelus dromedarius (cSox2)

    PubMed Central

    Alawad, Abdullah; Alharbi, Sultan; Alhazzaa, Othman; Alagrafi, Faisal; Alkhrayef, Mohammed; Alhamdan, Ziyad; Alenazi, Abdullah; Al-Johi, Hasan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.; Hammad, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Although the sequencing information of Sox2 cDNA for many mammalian is available, the Sox2 cDNA of Camelus dromedaries has not yet been characterized. The objective of this study was to sequence and characterize Sox2 cDNA from the brain of C. dromedarius (also known as Arabian camel). A full coding sequence of the Sox2 gene from the brain of C. dromedarius was amplified by reverse transcription PCRjmc and then sequenced using the 3730XL series platform Sequencer (Applied Biosystem) for the first time. The cDNA sequence displayed an open reading frame of 822 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 273 amino acids. The molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the translated protein were calculated as 29.825 kDa and 10.11, respectively, using bioinformatics analysis. The predicted cSox2 protein sequence exhibited high identity: 99% for Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Bos taurus, and Vicugna pacos; 98% for Sus scrofa and 93% for Camelus ferus. A 3D structure was built based on the available crystal structure of the HMG-box domain of human stem cell transcription factor Sox2 (PDB: 2 LE4) with 81 residues and predicting bioinformatics software for 273 amino acid residues. The comparison confirms the presence of the HMG-box domain in the cSox2 protein. The orthologous phylogenetic analysis showed that the Sox2 isoform from C. dromedarius was grouped with humans, alpacas, cattle, and pigs. We believe that this genetic and structural information will be a helpful source for the annotation. Furthermore, Sox2 is one of the transcription factors that contributes to the generation-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which in turn will probably help generate camel induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs). PMID:27486314

  18. Soil organic carbon in Apolobamba (Bolivia): Quantity and quality of the reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, M. Á.; Faz, A.

    2009-04-01

    Global carbon cycle mainly depends on the soil organic matter (SOM). Some reducction of climatic impact techiques are related to the increase of the soil organic carbon (SOC) contents in order to elevate atmospherical carbon inputs. Kinetic mechanisms of the SOC are differents due to the complex interation between biological, physical and chemical processes in the soil. For a full understanding of the SOM contribution to the carbon cycle in the soil, the SOC contents should be addressed. The vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) is an endangered species which belongs to camelid family. Its natural habitat is located in highland grasses in the Andes Montain Range, above 4,000 m.a.s.l. In Bolivia the vicuna is distributed around some andean regions such as Apolobamba. It is a protected area located in the Northwest of Bolivia where native inhabitants carry out a sustainable management of the vicuna. This activity is considered within a programme to improve economical conditions in the area. The vicuna lives in the same habitat than other cattle camelid like alpaca (Lama pacos). The soil is an essential natural resource in the vicuna development and the biodiversity conservation due to its role to support the native vegetation in Apolobamba. The objectives of this research were: (i) the quantification of SOC contents, (ii) the study of the SOC quality and (iii) the determination of the soil degradation degree in some zones in Apolobamba. Eight zones or census places, separated areas with geographic accidents, with different vicuna and alpaca densities were selected: Ulla-Ulla and Killu (low density), Ucha-Ucha and Wakampata (medium density), Sucondori and Caballchiñuni (high density) and Puyo-Puyo and Japu (very high density). One soil profile was taken and three sampling plots were determined in each zone. Three sampling points were selected in each plot and surface (0-5 cm) and subsurface samples (5-15 cm) were collected. Total carbon, total organic carbon (TOC) and water

  19. Economic benefits of controlling internal and external parasites in South American camelids.

    PubMed

    Windsor, R S; Windsor, R H; Teran, M

    1992-06-16

    A trial was carried out in alpacas (Lama pacos) and llamas (Lama glama) to determine the economic benefits of controlling both external and internal parasites by the use of ivermectin ("Ivomec," Merck Sharp & Dohme). After four months the treated male alpacas gained on average 3.1 kg more than the untreated males, and their fleece weighed 0.36 kg more. The treated female alpacas gained 1.9 kg more than the controls, but their fleece weighed 0.03 kg less. This treatment gave a net financial benefit to the farmer of U.S. $3.54 for each of his male alpacas and U.S. $1.36 for each of his female alpacas. The results for the llamas were not significant because there was great variation in the weight gains (and losses). Because the value of llama fleece is less, the economic benefits were also less. PMID:1626890

  20. Limitations of Spoligotyping and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing for Molecular Tracing of Mycobacterium bovis in a High-Diversity Setting▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Campos, Sabrina; Aranaz, Alicia; de Juan, Lucía; Sáez-Llorente, José Luis; Romero, Beatriz; Bezos, Javier; Jiménez, Antonio; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the attempt to trace the first Mycobacterium bovis outbreak in alpacas (Lama pacos) in Spain by spoligotyping and variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis. Due to high genotype diversity, no matching source was identified, but local expansion of a clonal group was found and its significance for molecular tracing is discussed. PMID:21752973

  1. The Vγ9Vδ2 T Cell Antigen Receptor and Butyrophilin-3 A1: Models of Interaction, the Possibility of Co-Evolution, and the Case of Dendritic Epidermal T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Karunakaran, Mohindar M.; Herrmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Most circulating human gamma delta T cells are Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Their hallmark is the expression of T cell antigen receptors (TCR) whose γ-chains show a Vγ9-JP (Vγ2-Jγ1.2) rearrangement and are paired with Vδ2-containing δ-chains, a dominant TCR configuration, which until recently seemed to occur in primates only. Vγ9Vδ2 T cells respond to phosphoantigens (PAg) such as (E)-4-Hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP), which is produced by many pathogens and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), which accumulates in certain tumors or cells treated with aminobisphosphonates such as zoledronate. A prerequisite for PAg-induced activation is the contact of Vγ9Vδ2 T cells with cells expressing butyrophilin-3 A1 (BTN3A1). We will first critically review models of how BTN3 might act in PAg-mediated Vγ9Vδ2 T cell activation and then address putative co-evolution of Vγ9, Vδ2, and BTN3 genes. In those rodent and lagomorphs used as animal models, all three genes are lost but a data-base analysis showed that they emerged together with placental mammals. A strong concomitant conservation of functional Vγ9, Vδ2, and BTN3 genes in other species suggests co-evolution of these three genes. A detailed analysis was performed for the new world camelid alpaca (Vicugna pacos). It provides an excellent candidate for a non-primate species with presumably functional Vγ9Vδ2 T cells since TCR rearrangements share features characteristic for PAg-reactive primate Vγ9Vδ2 TCR and proposed PAg-binding sites of BTN3A1 have been conserved. Finally, we analyze the possible functional relationship between the butyrophilin-family member Skint1 and the γδ TCR-V genes used by murine dendritic epithelial T cells (DETC). Among placental mammals, we identify five rodents, the cow, a bat, and the cape golden mole as the only species concomitantly possessing potentially functional homologs of murine Vγ3, Vδ4 genes, and Skint1 gene and suggest to search for DETC like cells in these

  2. 50 CFR 23.75 - How can I trade internationally in vicuña (Vicugna vicugna)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... United States of raw wool sheared from live vicuña, see the labeling requirements in 50 CFR 17.40(m). ... ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) International Trade in Certain Specimens § 23.75 How can...

  3. Soil organic matter stabilization in grazing highland soils from the Andean Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, M. A.; Faz, A.; Zornoza, R.

    2012-04-01

    Grasslands comprise approximately 40% of the earth's land area and play a critical role in the global carbon cycle. Apolobamba is a grazing highland located in the Andean Plateau where sustainable vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) management programme is carried out. Understanding the soil properties and the organic matter dynamics is fundamental to determine the grazing impacts in the carbon reservoirs. However, the labile and recalcitrant fractions of C have not been widely studied under field conditions, especially in high grasslands. The objectives of this survey were to: (i) achieve a soil characterization through general physico-chemical properties and (ii) study soil organic matter stabilization through recalcitrant and labile carbon budgets in Apolobamba. Regarding the lastly vicuna censuses carried out in the studied area, eight representative zones with different vicuna densities were selected and soil samples were collected. Other characteristics were also considered to select the study zones: (1) alpaca densities, (2) vegetation communities (3) plant cover and (4) landscape and geo-morphological description. Recalcitrant and water soluble organic carbon were determined as well as recalcitrant index. General soil characterization showed strongly acid and no saline soils with high cation exchange capacity and sandy-loam and loam textures. Total nitrogen contents indicated no limitation for the native vegetation growth. In general, no relationships were found among general soil properties, vicuna and alpaca densities; however, zones with highest alpaca density could be prone to soil erosion based on the available P distribution and the texture results. Additionally, a negative alpaca grazing influence in the soil organic carbon stocks was observed. On the other hand, high soil recalcitrant carbon contents (3.7 ± 0.3 kg m-2) and recalcitrance index (0.8 ± 0.1) were found. Likewise, labile C exhibited similar values to those obtained from researchers conducted in

  4. Development and application of camelid molecular cytogenetic tools.

    PubMed

    Avila, Felipe; Das, Pranab J; Kutzler, Michelle; Owens, Elaine; Perelman, Polina; Rubes, Jiri; Hornak, Miroslav; Johnson, Warren E; Raudsepp, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic chromosome maps offer molecular tools for genome analysis and clinical cytogenetics and are of particular importance for species with difficult karyotypes, such as camelids (2n = 74). Building on the available human-camel zoo-fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) data, we developed the first cytogenetic map for the alpaca (Lama pacos, LPA) genome by isolating and identifying 151 alpaca bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones corresponding to 44 specific genes. The genes were mapped by FISH to 31 alpaca autosomes and the sex chromosomes; 11 chromosomes had 2 markers, which were ordered by dual-color FISH. The STS gene mapped to Xpter/Ypter, demarcating the pseudoautosomal region, whereas no markers were assigned to chromosomes 14, 21, 22, 28, and 36. The chromosome-specific markers were applied in clinical cytogenetics to identify LPA20, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-carrying chromosome, as a part of an autosomal translocation in a sterile male llama (Lama glama, LGL; 2n = 73,XY). FISH with LPAX BACs and LPA36 paints, as well as comparative genomic hybridization, were also used to investigate the origin of the minute chromosome, an abnormally small LPA36 in infertile female alpacas. This collection of cytogenetically mapped markers represents a new tool for camelid clinical cytogenetics and has applications for the improvement of the alpaca genome map and sequence assembly. PMID:23109720

  5. Vigilance behaviour of the year-round territorial vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) outside the breeding season: influence of group size, social factors and distance to a water source.

    PubMed

    Torres, M Eugenia Mosca; Puig, Silvia; Novillo, Agustina; Ovejero, Ramiro

    2015-04-01

    We conducted focal observations of vicuña, a year-around territorial mammal, to compare vigilance behaviour between territorial and bachelor males outside the reproductive season. We hypothesized that the time spent vigilant would depend on male social status, considering the potential effects of several variables: sampling year, group size, distances to the nearest neighbour and to a vega (mountain wetland). We fit GLM models to assess how these variables, and their interactions, affected time allocation of territorial and bachelor males. We found non significant differences between territorial and bachelor males in the time devoted to vigilance behaviour. Vigilance of territorial males was influenced by the sampling year and the distance to the vega. In turn, vigilance in bachelor males was influenced mainly by the sampling year, the group size and the distance to the vega. Our results suggest that sampling year and distance to the vega are more important than social factors in conditioning the behaviour of male vicuñas, during the non-reproductive season. Future studies of behaviour in water-dependant ungulates, should consider the influence of water and forage availabilities, and the interactions between group size and other variables. PMID:25680329

  6. ["Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" infections in clinically asymptomatic Austrian South American Camelids].

    PubMed

    Franz, Sonja; Spergser, Joachim; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Stanitznig, Anna; Lambacher, Bianca; Tichy, Alexander; Wittek, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Reports of CMhl infections in South American Camelids in Europe are only available from the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Knowing that CMhl infections can lead to severe disease resulting in death if combined with other diseases or stress, it was the aim of this study to assess prevalence data from camelids in Austria. In comparison to the previous studies a representative number of camelids was investigated nationwide. Data were assessed due to differences in geographical region, age, sex, species, and origin. A relatively high prevalence of 25.8% was recorded. CMhl was detected significantly more often in alpacas (Vicunja pacos) than in llamas (Lama glama) and more frequently in animals younger than 2 years. Additionally regional differences have been observed, which might be due to climatic differences and/or variations in insect vectors. In this study apperantly clinical healthy animals were shown to be infected with CMhl. Camelids infected with CMhl are a pathogen reservoir. The results of this study indicate different risk levels of infection between llamas and alpacas and between younger and older animals. The data presented underline the necessity of further studies on CMhlI infections in South American Camelids. PMID:27529994

  7. Isolation of lactoferrin from milk of different species: calorimetric and antimicrobial studies.

    PubMed

    Conesa, Celia; Sánchez, Lourdes; Rota, Carmen; Pérez, María-Dolores; Calvo, Miguel; Farnaud, Sebastien; Evans, Robert W

    2008-05-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein found in different biological fluids of mammals and in neutrophils. It has been proposed to be involved in many functions, including protection from pathogens. In this work, purification of lactoferrin using an ion-exchange chromatography (SP-Sepharose) was attempted for the milk of the following animals: sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), camel (Camelus bactrianus), alpaca (Lama pacos), elephant (Elephas maximus) and grey seal (Halichoerus grypus), as well as human (Homo sapiens). Lactoferrin was identified in all the milks apart from that from grey seal. The thermal stability of the purified lactoferrins, in their native and iron-saturated forms, was studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Maximum temperature, onset temperature and enthalpy change of denaturation were higher when lactoferrins were saturated with iron than in their native form, indicating an increase in the stability of the protein structure upon iron-binding. Human lactoferrin was found to be the most heat-resistant and the other lactoferrins presented different degrees of thermoresistance, that of elephant being the least resistant. The antimicrobial activity of the different isolated lactoferrins was investigated against Escherichia coli 0157:H7. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by measuring the absorbance at 620 nm. The minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were also measured and it was found that camel lactoferrin was the most active lactoferrin against E. coli 0157:H7, whereas alpaca and human lactoferrins were the least active. PMID:18387837

  8. Wildlife sequences of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) identify critical species variants for fibrillization.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Jessica S; Benoit-Biancamano, Marie-Odile

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid can be detected in the islets of Langerhans in a majority of type 2 diabetic patients. These deposits have been associated with β-cell death, thereby furthering diabetes progression. Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) amyloidogenicity is quite variable among animal species, and studying this variability could further our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the aggregation process. Thus, the general aim of this study was to identify IAPP isoforms in different animal species and characterize their propensity to form fibrillar aggregates. A library of 23 peptides (fragment 8-32) was designed to study the amyloid formation using in silico analysis and in vitro assays. Amyloid formation was impeded when the NFLVH motif found in segment 8-20 was substituted by DFLGR or KFLIR segments. A 29P, 14K and 18R substitution were often present in non-amyloidogenic sequences. Non-amyloidogenic sequences were obtained from Leontopithecus rosalia, Tursiops truncatus and Vicugna pacos. Fragment peptides from 34 species were amyloidogenic. To conclude, this project advances our knowledge on the comparative pathogenesis of amyloidosis in type II diabetes. It is conceivable that the additional information gained may help point towards new therapeutic strategies for diabetes patients. PMID:26300107

  9. Methane Emission by Camelids

    PubMed Central

    Dittmann, Marie T.; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A.; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg−1 d−1) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg−1 d−1). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg−1 in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg−1 in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels. PMID:24718604

  10. Methane emission by camelids.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg⁻¹ in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg⁻¹ in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels. PMID:24718604

  11. A new equation to estimate temperature-corrected PaCO2 from PET CO2 during exercise in normoxia and hypoxia.

    PubMed

    González Henríquez, J J; Losa-Reyna, J; Torres-Peralta, R; Rådegran, G; Koskolou, M; Calbet, J A L

    2016-09-01

    End-tidal PCO2 (PET CO2 ) has been used to estimate arterial pressure CO2 (Pa CO2 ). However, the influence of blood temperature on the Pa CO2 has not been taken into account. Moreover, there is no equation validated to predict Pa CO2 during exercise in severe acute hypoxia. To develop a new equation to predict temperature-corrected Pa CO2 values during exercise in normoxia and severe acute hypoxia, 11 volunteers (21.2 ± 2.1 years) performed incremental exercise to exhaustion in normoxia (Nox, PI O2 : 143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PI O2 : 73 mmHg), while arterial blood gases and temperature (ABT) were simultaneously measured together with end-tidal PCO2 (PET CO2 ). The Jones et al. equation tended to underestimate the temperature corrected (tc) Pa CO2 during exercise in hypoxia, with greater deviation the lower the Pa CO2 tc (r = 0.39, P < 0.05). The new equation has been developed using a random-effects regression analysis model, which allows predicting Pa CO2 tc both in normoxia and hypoxia: Pa CO2 tc = 8.607 + 0.716 × PET CO2 [R(2)  = 0.91; intercept SE = 1.022 (P < 0.001) and slope SE = 0.027 (P < 0.001)]. This equation may prove useful in noninvasive studies of brain hemodynamics, where an accurate estimation of Pa CO2 is needed to calculate the end-tidal-to-arterial PCO2 difference, which can be used as an index of pulmonary gas exchange efficiency. PMID:26314285

  12. Enteractinococcus lamae sp. nov. and Enteractinococcus viverrae sp. nov., isolated from animal faeces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu; Li, Gui-Ding; Li, Qin-Yuan; Hu, Cai-Juan; Qiu, Shu-Mei; Jiang, Yi; Jiang, Cheng-Lin; Han, Li; Huang, Xue-Shi

    2015-12-01

    Two novel actinobacteria, designated strains YIM 101617(T) and YIM 101632(T), were isolated from Lama pacos (alpaca) and Viverra zibetha (civet) faeces in Yunnan Wild Animal Park in Yunnan province, southwestern China. Both strains should be placed in genus Enteractinococcus based on phylogenetic analysis. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain YIM 101617(T) exhibits high similarity to Enteractinococcus fodinae DSM 22966(T) (97.70 %) and Enteractinococcus coprophilus YIM 100590(T) (97.45 %), whilst YIM 101632(T) exhibits high similarity to Enteractinococcus coprophilus YIM 100590(T) (97.25 %), and the similarity between YIM 101617(T) and YIM 101632(T) is 95.90 %. However, DNA-DNA hybridization values of the two strains with the type strains in the genus Enteractinococcus were low (<70 %). Most morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the two strains were found to be similar to those of species in the genus Enteractinococcus but also some differences were observed. The DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 101617(T) and YIM 101632(T) were determined to be 55.9 and 56.4 mol%, respectively. Based on these data, the two strains are concluded to represent two different novel species in the genus Enteractinococcus. The names Enteractinococcus lamae sp. nov. (type strain YIM 101617(T)=DSM 27612(T)=CCTCC AB 2013230(T)) and Enteractinococcus viverrae sp. nov. (type strain YIM 101632(T)=KCTC 39552(T)=CCTCC AB 2013280(T)) are proposed, respectively. PMID:26423082

  13. Modification of a bovine ELISA to detect camelid antibodies to Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kramsky, J A; Miller, D S; Hope, A; Collins, M T

    2000-12-20

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection, or Johne's disease, reportedly has a low prevalence in South American camelid populations. Recently, however, single cases in the United States as well as an outbreak of the disease in Australian alpacas (Lama pacos) have been described. To provide a rapid and cost-effective method of diagnosing Johne's disease in this species, the bovine Parachek((R)) Johne's Absorbed EIA (CSL, Vic., Australia) was modified to create a camelid-specific serum antibody assay. An anti-llama IgG conjugated to horseradish peroxidase replaced the anti-bovine immunoglobulin. Checkerboard titration of principal reagents was performed using serum from nine tissue and/or fecal culture-positive camelids. Optimal dilutions of key components were determined in order to provide clear discrimination between positive and negative controls. Completion of a kinetic assay determined the optical density at which the enzyme-substrate reaction should be stopped. A herd of 100 camelids with no history of disease or exposure to M. a. paratuberculosis, a subset of which were tissue and/or fecal culture-negative, was tested to establish a cut-off value. Sample results were expressed as a percentage of the results for control sera by transforming optical density values to ELISA values (EV%). A preliminary EV% cut-off of 20 was established. Using this prototype assay, culture-positive animals showed significantly different antibody responses from culture-negative animals. These results indicate that this camelid-specific ELISA, once refined, may be a useful tool for screening camelid herds for M. a. paratuberculosis infection. PMID:11118718

  14. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUS IN CAMELIDS: AN EMERGING PATHOGEN AND WAYS TO MONITOR HERD INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The subject of this report will attempt to tie in several aspects of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and its most recent incursion into the camelid family, namely llamas and alpacas. We have known that both llamas and alpacas are susceptible to BVDV infections for over 20 years. In some cases, ...

  15. 7 CFR 760.304 - Covered livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., adult or non-adult dairy cattle, alpacas, deer, elk, emus, equine, goats, llamas, poultry, reindeer...-adult buffalo or beefalo, (13) Non-adult dairy cattle, (14) Poultry, (15) Reindeer, (16) Sheep, and...

  16. 7 CFR 760.304 - Covered livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., adult or non-adult dairy cattle, alpacas, deer, elk, emus, equine, goats, llamas, poultry, reindeer...-adult buffalo or beefalo, (13) Non-adult dairy cattle, (14) Poultry, (15) Reindeer, (16) Sheep, and...

  17. 7 CFR 760.304 - Covered livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., adult or non-adult dairy cattle, alpacas, deer, elk, emus, equine, goats, llamas, poultry, reindeer... cattle, (14) Poultry, (15) Reindeer, (16) Sheep, and (17) Swine. (c) Livestock that are not...

  18. 7 CFR 760.304 - Covered livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., adult or non-adult dairy cattle, alpacas, deer, elk, emus, equine, goats, llamas, poultry, reindeer...-adult buffalo or beefalo, (13) Non-adult dairy cattle, (14) Poultry, (15) Reindeer, (16) Sheep, and...

  19. 7 CFR 760.304 - Covered livestock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., adult or non-adult dairy cattle, alpacas, deer, elk, emus, equine, goats, llamas, poultry, reindeer...-adult buffalo or beefalo, (13) Non-adult dairy cattle, (14) Poultry, (15) Reindeer, (16) Sheep, and...

  20. South American camelid illegal traffic detection by means of molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Di Rocco, F; Posik, D M; Ripoli, M V; Díaz, S; Maté, M L; Giovambattista, G; Vidal-Rioja, L

    2011-11-01

    South American camelids comprise the wild species guanaco and vicuña and their respective domestic relatives llama and alpaca. The aim of the present study was to determine by DNA analysis to which of these species belong a herd of camelids confiscated from a llama breeder but alleged to be alpacas by the prosecution, and to evaluate the usefulness of mitochondrial and autosomal DNA markers to solve judicial cases involving camelid taxa. Cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial genes and 7 STR were analyzed in 25 confiscated samples. Mitochondrial results were inconclusive because 18 of the sequestered samples presented haplotypes that corresponded to the guanaco haplogroup and the remaining seven belonged to a vicuña linage. Microsatellite data of casework samples and llama reference samples revealed different genetic profiles by the presence of private alleles at two microsatellites suggesting that the confiscated animals could be alpaca, or at least alpaca hybrids instead of pure llama. PMID:21982877

  1. The application of transcutaneous CO2 pressure monitoring in the anesthesia of obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shijiang; Sun, Jie; Chen, Xing; Yu, Yingying; Liu, Xuan; Liu, Cunming

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the correlation and accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PTCCO2) with regard to arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) in severe obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Twenty-one patients with BMI>35 kg/m(2) were enrolled in our study. Their PaCO2, end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO2), as well as PTCCO2 values were measured at before pneumoperitoneum and 30 min, 60 min, 120 min after pneumoperitoneum respectively. Then the differences between each pair of values (PetCO2-PaCO2) and. (PTCCO2-PaCO2) were calculated. Bland-Altman method, correlation and regression analysis, as well as exact probability method and two way contingency table were employed for the data analysis. 21 adults (aged 19-54 yr, mean 29, SD 9 yr; weight 86-160 kg, mean 119.3, SD 22.1 kg; BMI 35.3-51.1 kg/m(2), mean 42.1,SD 5.4 kg/m(2)) were finally included in this study. One patient was eliminated due to the use of vaso-excitor material phenylephrine during anesthesia induction. Eighty-four sample sets were obtained. The average PaCO2-PTCCO2 difference was 0.9 ± 1.3 mmHg (mean ± SD). And the average PaCO2-PetCO2 difference was 10.3 ± 2.3 mmHg (mean ± SD). The linear regression equation of PaCO2-PetCO2 is PetCO2 = 11.58+0.57 × PaCO2 (r(2) = 0.64, P<0.01), whereas the one of PaCO2-PTCCO2 is PTCCO2 = 0.60 + 0.97 × PaCO2 (r(2) = 0.89). The LOA (limits of agreement) of 95% average PaCO2-PetCO2 difference is 10.3 ± 4.6 mmHg (mean ± 1.96 SD), while the LOA of 95% average PaCO2-PTCCO2 difference is 0.9 ± 2.6 mmHg (mean ± 1.96 SD). In conclusion, transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring provides a better estimate of PaCO2 than PetCO2 in severe obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. PMID:24699267

  2. Noninvasive Measurement of Carbon Dioxide during One-Lung Ventilation with Low Tidal Volume for Two Hours: End-Tidal versus Transcutaneous Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Dong-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background There may be significant difference between measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO2) and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) during one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for thoracic surgeries. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PtcCO2) monitoring can be used continuously to evaluate PaCO2 in a noninvasive fashion. In this study, we compared the accuracy between PetCO2 and PtcCO2 in predicting PaCO2 during prolonged one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for thoracic surgeries. Methods Eighteen adult patients who underwent thoracic surgeries with one-lung ventilation longer than two hours were included in this study. Their PetCO2, PtcCO2, and PaCO2 values were collected at five time points before and during one-lung ventilation. Agreement among measures was evaluated by Bland-Altman analysis. Results Ninety sample sets were obtained. The bias and precision when PtcCO2 and PaCO2 were compared were 4.1 ± 6.5 mmHg during two-lung ventilation and 2.9 ± 6.1 mmHg during one-lung ventilation. Those when PetCO2 and PaCO2 were compared were -11.8 ± 6.4 mmHg during two-lung ventilation and -11.8 ± 4.9 mmHg during one-lung ventilation. The differences between PtcCO2 and PaCO2 were significantly lower than those between PetCO2 and PaCO2 at all five time-points (p < 0.05). Conclusions PtcCO2 monitoring was more accurate for predicting PaCO2 levels during prolonged one-lung ventilation with low tidal volume for patients undergoing thoracic surgeries. PMID:26466140

  3. Carbon dioxide monitoring during laparoscopic-assisted bariatric surgery in severely obese patients: transcutaneous versus end-tidal techniques.

    PubMed

    Dion, Joanna M; McKee, Chris; Tobias, Joseph D; Herz, Daniel; Sohner, Paul; Teich, Steven; Michalsky, Marc

    2015-02-01

    Various factors including severe obesity or increases in intra-abdominal pressure during laparoscopy can lead to inaccuracies in end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) monitoring. The current study prospectively compares ET and transcutaneous (TC) CO2 monitoring in severely obese adolescents and young adults during laparoscopic-assisted bariatric surgery. Carbon dioxide was measured with both ET and TC devices during insufflation and laparoscopic bariatric surgery. The differences between each measure (PETCO2 and TC-CO2) and the PaCO2 were compared using a non-paired t test, Fisher's exact test, and a Bland-Altman analysis. The study cohort included 25 adolescents with a mean body mass index of 50.2 kg/m2 undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. There was no difference in the absolute difference between the TC-CO2 and PaCO2 (3.2±3.0 mmHg) and the absolute difference between the PETCO2 and PaCO2 (3.7±2.5 mmHg). The bias and precision were 0.3 and 4.3 mmHg for TC monitoring versus PaCO2 and 3.2 and 3.2 mmHg for ET monitoring versus PaCO2. In the young severely obese population both TC and PETCO2 monitoring can be used to effectively estimate PaCO2. The correlation of PaCO2 to TC-CO2 is good, and similar to the correlation of PaCO2 to PETCO2. In this population, both of these non-invasive measures of PaCO2 can be used to monitor ventilation and minimize arterial blood gas sampling. PMID:24916514

  4. Alveolar partial pressures of carbon dioxide and oxygen measured by a helium washout technique.

    PubMed Central

    Jordanoglou, J; Tatsis, G; Danos, J; Gougoulakis, S; Orfanidou, D; Gaga, M

    1990-01-01

    A non-invasive technique was developed for measuring alveolar carbon dioxide and oxygen tension during tidal breathing. This was achieved by solving the Bohr equations for mean alveolar carbon dioxide and oxygen tensions (PACO2, PAO2) from known values of the dead-space:tidal volume ratio measured by helium washout, and from the mixed expired partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen. The derived values of wPACO2 and wPAO2 were compared with PaCO2 obtained from arterial gas analysis and PAO2 calculated from the ideal air equation. Four normal subjects and 58 patients were studied. Calculated and measured PCO2 values agreed closely with a difference in mean values (wPACO2 - PaCO2) of 0.01 kPa; the SD of the differences was 0.7 kPa. The difference in mean values between wPAO2 and PAO2 was 0.02 kPa; the SD of the differences was 0.93 kPa. The method is simple and not time consuming, and requires no special cooperation from the patients. It can be applied in the laboratory or at the bedside to any subject breathing tidally. Physiological deadspace:tidal volume ratio, PAO2 and PACO2, static lung volumes, respiratory exchange ratio, carbon dioxide production, oxygen uptake, tidal volume, and total ventilation can be measured with acceptable accuracy and reproducibility in one test. An arterial blood sample is needed initially to provide an independent measure of PaCO2 and for measurement of the alveolar-arterial PO2 difference. Subsequently, PaCO2 can be estimated from wPACO2 sufficiently well for clinical purposes and PaO2 or SaO2 can be monitored by non-invasive methods. Images PMID:2118690

  5. Arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide difference in pediatric intensive care

    PubMed Central

    Goonasekera, Chulananda Dias; Goodwin, Alison; Wang, Yanzhong; Goodman, James; Deep, Akash

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) is considered the gold standard for scrupulous monitoring in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), but it is invasive, laborious, expensive, and intermittent. The study aims to explore when we can use end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PETCO2) as a reliable, continuous, and noninvasive monitor of arterial CO2 Materials and Methods: Concurrent PETCO2, fraction of inspired oxygen, PaCO2, and arterial oxygen tension values of clinically stable children on mechanical ventilation were recorded. Children with extra-pulmonary ventriculoatrial shunts were excluded. The PETCO2 and PaCO2 difference and its variability and reproducibility were studied. Results: A total of 624 concurrent readings were obtained from 105 children (mean age [SD] 5.53 [5.43] years) requiring invasive bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation in the PICU. All had continuous PETCO2 monitoring and an arterial line for blood gas measurement. The mean (SD) number of concurrent readings obtained from each child, 4-6 h apart was 6.0 (4.05). The PETCO2 values were higher than PaCO2 in 142 observations (22.7%). The PaCO2–PETCO2 difference was individual admission specific (ANOVA, P < 0.001). The PaCO2–PETCO2 difference correlated positively with the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension [P(A-a)O2] difference (ρ = 0.381 P < 0.0001). There was a fixed bias between the PETCO2 and PaCO2 measuring methods, difference +0.66 KPa (95% confidence interval: +0.57 to +0.76). Conclusions: The PaCO2–PETCO2 difference was individual specific. It was not affected by the primary disorder leading to the ventilation. PMID:25425837

  6. Diagnostic Value of Animal-Side Antibody Assays for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti Infection in South American Camelids▿

    PubMed Central

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Rhodes, Shelley; Dean, Gillian; de la Rua-Domenech, Ricardo; Meylan, Mireille; Vordermeier, HMartin; Zanolari, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in South American camelids (SAC) is caused by Mycobacterium bovis or Mycobacterium microti. Two serological methods, rapid testing (RT) and the dual-path platform (DPP) assay, were evaluated using naturally infected SAC. The study population included 156 alpacas and 175 llamas in Great Britain, Switzerland, and the United States. TB due to M. bovis (n = 44) or M. microti (n = 8) in 35 alpacas and 17 llamas was diagnosed by gross pathology examination and culture. Control animals were from herds with no TB history. The RT and the DPP assay showed sensitivities of 71% and 74%, respectively, for alpacas, while the sensitivity for llamas was 77% for both assays. The specificity of the DPP assay (98%) was higher than that of RT (94%) for llamas; the specificities of the two assays were identical (98%) for alpacas. When the two antibody tests were combined, the parallel-testing interpretation (applied when either assay produced a positive result) enhanced the sensitivities of antibody detection to 89% for alpacas and 88% for llamas but at the cost of lower specificities (97% and 93%, respectively), whereas the serial-testing interpretation (applied when both assays produced a positive result) maximized the specificity to 100% for both SAC species, although the sensitivities were 57% for alpacas and 65% for llamas. Over 95% of the animals with evidence of TB failed to produce skin test reactions, thus confirming concerns about the validity of this method for testing SAC. The findings suggest that serological assays may offer a more accurate and practical alternative for antemortem detection of camelid TB. PMID:22012976

  7. Acid-base balance in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) during involuntary submergence.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, M; Jones, D R

    1987-02-01

    Measurements of all the major independent variables [arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2); strong-ion difference ([SID]), and total protein content, which approximate total weak acid concentration in plasma] are essential for understanding changes in acid-base balance in plasma. During involuntary submergence of 1, 2, or 4 min, PaCO2 in ducks increased and arterial pH (pHa) decreased. During 1-min dives there were no significant changes in any strong ions. In both 2- and 4-min dives, there was a significant increase in [lactate-], but because of an increase in equal magnitude of [Na+], [SID] did not change. During recovery from all dives the plasma remained acidotic for several minutes, although PaCO2 fell below predive levels in less than 1 min. [Lactate-] increased in the recovery period. There were no changes in total protein content during submergence or recovery. Breathing 100% O2 before 2-min dives caused a reduction in [lactate-] production and release during and after the dive, although due to a marked increased in PaCO2, pHa fell as low as in 4-min dives after breathing air. After 1 min of recovery, pHa returned to normal along with the restoration of the predive level of PaCO2. We conclude that the acidosis during involuntary submergence is due solely to an increase in PaCO2, whereas in recovery it is caused by decreased [SID]. PMID:3101522

  8. CO2 rebreathing during BiPAP ventilatory assistance.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, G T; Gilmartin, M

    1995-04-01

    BiPAP ventilatory assistance can increase minute ventilation and reduce respiratory effort, but does not always reduce PaCO2. We studied the effects of BiPAP ventilatory assistance on PaCO2 and examined specific mechanisms whereby BiPAP ventilatory assistance may not lower PaCO2. BiPAP ventilatory assistance using a non-rebreather valve and volume cycled ventilation at similar settings produced significantly lower PaCO2 than BiPAP ventilatory assistance using a standard exhalation device. The failure of PaCO2 to fall with the standard exhalation device was due to exhalation past the exhalation device into the ventilator tubing, subsequent rebreathing of the exhaled gases, and an increase in dead space ventilation. Use of other fixed-resistance exhalation devices also resulted in exhalation back into the ventilator tubing. Use of a new plateau exhalation device or a non-rebreather valve eliminated CO2 rebreathing and its effect on dead space ventilation. Changing exhalation devices had no significant effect on BiPAP pressure generation or sensing capabilities. Our results indicate that the use of a standard exhalation device during BiPAP ventilatory assistance causes CO2 rebreathing, which can blunt any effect of BiPAP on PaCO2. Use of an appropriate alternative exhalation device can eliminate this problem. PMID:7697242

  9. Acetylated Chitosan Oligosaccharides Act as Antagonists against Glutamate-Induced PC12 Cell Death via Bcl-2/Bax Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Cui; Gao, Lixia; Zhang, Yiran; Wang, Wei; Yu, Guangli; Guan, Huashi; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Chunxia

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs), depolymerized products of chitosan composed of β-(1→4) d-glucosamine units, have broad range of biological activities such as antitumour, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. In this study, peracetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (PACOs) and N-acetylated chitosan oligosaccharides (NACOs) were prepared from the COSs by chemcal modification. The structures of these monomers were identified using NMR and ESI-MS spectra. Their antagonist effects against glutamate-induced PC12 cell death were investigated. The results showed that pretreatment of PC12 cells with the PACOs markedly inhibited glutamate-induced cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. The PACOs were better glutamate antagonists compared to the COSs and the NACOs, suggesting the peracetylation is essential for the neuroprotective effects of chitosan oligosaccharides. In addition, the PACOs pretreatment significantly reduced lactate dehydrogenase release and reactive oxygen species production. It also attenuated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Further studies indicated that the PACOs inhibited glutamate-induced cell death by preventing apoptosis through depressing the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-3 activation. These results suggest that PACOs might be promising antagonists against glutamate-induced neural cell death. PMID:25775423

  10. Cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation changes induced by inner and heard speech: a study combining functional near-infrared spectroscopy and capnography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholkmann, Felix; Klein, Sabine D.; Gerber, Ursina; Wolf, Martin; Wolf, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inner and heard speech on cerebral hemodynamics and oxygenation in the anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC) using functional near-infrared spectroscopy and to test whether potential effects were caused by alterations in the arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2). Twenty-nine healthy adult volunteers performed six different tasks of inner and heard speech according to a randomized crossover design. During the tasks, we generally found a decrease in PaCO (only for inner speech), tissue oxygen saturation (StO), oxyhemoglobin ([O2Hb]), total hemoglobin ([tHb]) concentration and an increase in deoxyhemoglobin concentration ([HHb]). Furthermore, we found significant relations between changes in [OHb], [HHb], [tHb], or StO and the participants' age, the baseline PETCO2, or certain speech tasks. We conclude that changes in breathing during the tasks led to lower PaCO (hypocapnia) for inner speech. During heard speech, no significant changes in PaCO occurred, but the decreases in StO, [OHb], and [tHb] suggest that changes in PaCO were also involved here. Different verse types (hexameter and alliteration) led to different changes in [tHb], implying different brain activations. In conclusion, StO, [OHb], [HHb], and [tHb] are affected by interplay of both PaCO reactivity and functional brain activity.

  11. Noninvasive carbon dioxide monitoring in a porcine model of acute lung injury due to smoke inhalation and burns.

    PubMed

    Belenkiy, Slava; Ivey, Katherine M; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Langer, Thomas; Necsoiu, Corina; Baker, William; Salinas, José; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2013-06-01

    In critically ill intubated patients, assessment of adequacy of ventilation relies on measuring partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2), which requires invasive arterial blood gas analysis. Alternative noninvasive technologies include transcutaneous CO2 (tPCO2) and end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) monitoring. We evaluated accuracy of tPCO2 and EtCO2 monitoring in a porcine model of acute lung injury (ALI) due to smoke inhalation and burns. Eight anesthetized Yorkshire pigs underwent mechanical ventilation, wood-bark smoke inhalation injury, and 40% total body surface area thermal injury. tPCO2 was measured with a SenTec system (SenTec AG, Therwil, Switzerland) and EtCO2 with a Capnostream-20 (Oridion Medical, Jerusalem, Israel). These values were compared with PaCO2 measurements from an arterial blood gas analyzer. Paired measurements of EtCO2-PaCO2 (n = 276) and tPCO2-PaCO2 (n = 250) were recorded in the PaCO2 range of 25 to 85 mmHg. Overlapping data sets were analyzed based on respiratory and hemodynamic status of animals. Acute lung injury was defined as PaO2/FIO2 ≤ 300 mmHg; hemodynamic instability was defined as mean arterial pressure ≤ 60 mmHg. Before ALI, EtCO2 demonstrated moderate correlation with PaCO2 (R = 0.45; P < 0.0001), which deteriorated after onset of ALI (R = 0.12; P < 0.0001). Before ALI, tPCO2 demonstrated moderate correlation (R = 0.51, P < 0.0001), which was sustained after onset of ALI (R = 0.78; P < 0.0001). During hemodynamic stability, EtCO2 demonstrated moderate correlation with PaCO2 (R = 0.44; P < 0.0001). During hemodynamic instability, EtCO2 did not correlate with PaCO2 (R = 0.03; P = 0.29). tPCO2 monitoring demonstrated strong correlation with PaCO2 during hemodynamic stability (R = 0.80, P < 0.0001), which deteriorated under hemodynamically unstable conditions (R = 0.39; P < 0.0001). Noninvasive carbon dioxide monitors are acceptable for monitoring trends in PaCO2 under conditions of hemodynamic and pulmonary stability. Under

  12. [Gasometric values reported in healthy subjects from the Mexican population: review and analysis].

    PubMed

    Pérez Martínez, S O; Pérez-Padilla, J R

    1992-01-01

    We do not know the normal relationship between altitude and PaCO2 in Mexico. We collected and analyzed the reports of reference values for gasometry in Mexico City (2240 m above sea level and a mean barometric pressure of 585 Torr) and other places in the country. The reports include arterial, capillary and expired gases in children and adults, with measurements done in resting and exercising subjects, breathing room air and 100% oxygen. In Mexico City we found 18 studies in normal subjects reporting a mean PaCO2 ranging from 25.5 to 38.4 Torr. Averaging arterial studies from children and adults, adjusting for the number of subjects studied, and discarding data with mean pH below 7.37 or above 7.43 (suggesting non steady state), 10 studies with a total of 581 subjects have the following average values (Torr, means and SD): PaCO2 = 31.1 +/- 2.6, PaO2 = 67.7 +/- 2.6, calculated PAO2 and P(A-a)O2 73.6 +/- 3.3 y 6.1 +/- 3.7 respectively. The PaCO2 found was much lower than that reported for native Peruvians in the Andes who have a mean PaCO2 of 37.8 Torr at an altitude of 2390 m, and a mean PaCO2 of 33.0 Torr only at 4860 m above the sea level. On the other hand, the average values in Mexico are similar to those found in North Americans who have a mean PACO2 of 33.1 Torr at 2131 m of altitude, a mean PACO2 of 30.7 at 2371 m and a mean PaCO2 of 31 Torr at 2238 m. Normal values for gasometry in Mexico are scarce and some of the existing ones are erroneous probably due to lack of adequate calibrations and to poor quality control. Values of PaCO2 in Mexico are more similar to those found in the USA than to those found in Peruvian natives. PMID:1488580

  13. Cardiopulmonary effects of hypercapnia during controlled intermittent positive pressure ventilation in the horse.

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, A K; McDonell, W N; Dyson, D H; Taylor, P M

    1995-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary effects of eucapnia (arterial CO2 tension [PaCO2] 40.4 +/- 2.9 mm Hg, mean +/- SD), mild hypercapnia (PaCO2, 59.1 +/- 3.5 mm Hg), moderate hypercapnia (PaCO2, 82.6 +/- 4.9 mm Hg), and severe hypercapnia (PaCO2, 110.3 +/- 12.2 mm Hg) were studied in 8 horses during isoflurane anesthesia with volume controlled intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) and neuromuscular blockade. The sequence of changes in PaCO2 was randomized. Mild hypercapnia produced bradycardia resulting in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in cardiac index (CI) and oxygen delivery (DO2), while hemoglobin concentration (Hb), the hematocrit (Hct), systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean blood pressure (MBP), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), and venous admixture (QS/QT) increased significantly. Moderate hypercapnia resulted in a significant rise in CI, stroke index (SI), SBP, MBP, mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), Hct, Hb, arterial oxygen content (CaO2), mixed venous oxygen content (CvO2), and DO2, with heart rate (HR) staying below eucapnic levels. Severe hypercapnia resulted in a marked rise in HR, CI, SI, SBP, PAP, Hct, Hb, CaO2, CvO2, and DO2. Systemic vascular resistance was significantly decreased, while MBP levels were not different from those during moderate hypercapnia. No cardiac arrhythmias were recorded with any of the ranges of PaCO2. Norepinephrine levels increased progressively with each increase in PaCO2, whereas plasma cortisol levels remained unchanged. It was concluded that hypercapnia in isoflurane-anesthetized horses elicits a biphasic cardiopulmonary response, with mild hypercapnia producing a fall in CI and DO2 despite an increase in MBP, while moderate and severe hypercapnia produce an augmentation of the cardiopulmonary performance and DO2. PMID:8521355

  14. Heterogeneity of cerebral vasoreactivity in preterm infants supported by mechanical ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Pryds, O.; Greisen, G.; Lou, H.; Friis-Hansen, B. )

    1989-10-01

    The reaction of cerebral blood flow to acute changes in arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) and mean arterial blood pressure was determined in 57 preterm infants supported by mechanical ventilation (mean gestational age 30.1 weeks) during the first 48 hours of life. All infants had normal brain sonograms at the time of the investigation. In each infant, global cerebral blood flow was determined by xenon-133 clearance two to five times within a few hours at different levels of PaCO2. Changes in PaCO2 followed adjustments of the ventilator settings. Arterial oxygen pressure was intended to be kept constant, and mean arterial blood pressure fluctuated spontaneously between measurements. The data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression, with changes in global cerebral blood flow, PaCO2, mean arterial blood pressure, and postnatal age or intracranial hemorrhage used as variables. In infants with persistently normal brain sonograms, the global cerebral blood flow-carbon dioxide reactivity was markedly lower during the first day of life (mean 11.2% to 11.8%/kPa PaCO2) compared with the second day of life (mean 32.6/kPa PaCO2), and pressure-flow autoregulation was preserved. Similarly, global cerebral blood flow-carbon dioxide reactivity and pressure-flow autoregulation were present in infants in whom mild intracranial hemorrhage developed after the study. In contrast, global cerebral blood flow reactivity to changes in PaCO2 and mean arterial blood pressure was absent in infants in whom ultrasonographic signs of severe intracranial hemorrhage subsequently developed. These infants also had about 20% lower global cerebral blood flow before hemorrhage, in comparison with infants whose sonograms were normal, a finding that suggests functional disturbances of cerebral blood flow regulation.

  15. Take Your Child to Work Day Helps Lure a Future Generation of Scientists | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Young children often enjoy playing with dogs or cuddling with cats at home, but at Take Your Child to Work Day, kids of all ages had the opportunity to brush horses, pet alpacas, and observe laboratory mice, fish, and frogs. On June 29, the annual event provided 187 children of NCI at Frederick staff a variety of hands-on learning opportunities.

  16. The Application of Transcutaneous CO2 Pressure Monitoring in the Anesthesia of Obese Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shijiang; Sun, Jie; Chen, Xing; Yu, Yingying; Liu, Xuan; Liu, Cunming

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the correlation and accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide partial pressure (PTCCO2) with regard to arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) in severe obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Twenty-one patients with BMI>35 kg/m2 were enrolled in our study. Their PaCO2, end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO2), as well as PTCCO2 values were measured at before pneumoperitoneum and 30 min, 60 min, 120 min after pneumoperitoneum respectively. Then the differences between each pair of values (PetCO2–PaCO2) and. (PTCCO2–PaCO2) were calculated. Bland–Altman method, correlation and regression analysis, as well as exact probability method and two way contingency table were employed for the data analysis. 21 adults (aged 19–54 yr, mean 29, SD 9 yr; weight 86–160 kg, mean119.3, SD 22.1 kg; BMI 35.3–51.1 kg/m2, mean 42.1,SD 5.4 kg/m2) were finally included in this study. One patient was eliminated due to the use of vaso-excitor material phenylephrine during anesthesia induction. Eighty-four sample sets were obtained. The average PaCO2–PTCCO2 difference was 0.9±1.3 mmHg (mean±SD). And the average PaCO2–PetCO2 difference was 10.3±2.3 mmHg (mean±SD). The linear regression equation of PaCO2–PetCO2 is PetCO2 = 11.58+0.57×PaCO2 (r2 = 0.64, P<0.01), whereas the one of PaCO2–PTCCO2 is PTCCO2 = 0.60+0.97×PaCO2 (r2 = 0.89). The LOA (limits of agreement) of 95% average PaCO2–PetCO2 difference is 10.3±4.6 mmHg (mean±1.96 SD), while the LOA of 95% average PaCO2–PTCCO2 difference is 0.9±2.6 mmHg (mean±1.96 SD). In conclusion, transcutaneous carbon dioxide monitoring provides a better estimate of PaCO2 than PetCO2 in severe obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. PMID:24699267

  17. Pulmonary Arterial Lesions in New World Camelids in Association With Dicrocoelium dendriticum and Fasciola hepatica Infection.

    PubMed

    Hilbe, M; Robert, N; Pospischil, A; Gerspach, C

    2015-11-01

    In Switzerland, dicrocoeliasis is regarded as the most significant parasitic infection of llamas and alpacas. Fasciola hepatica infestation is also a problem but less common. The aim of the present retrospective study was to evaluate the lungs of New World camelids (NWCs) for evidence of arterial hypertension in association with liver changes due to liver fluke infestation. The lungs of 20 llamas and 20 alpacas with liver fluke infestation were histologically evaluated. The hematoxylin and eosin and van Gieson (VG)-elastica stains as well as immunohistology for the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) were used to visualize the structures of arterial walls. Parasitology of fecal matter (11 llamas and 17 alpacas) confirmed that most of these animals were infested with both Dicrocoelium dendriticum and other gastrointestinal parasites. In most cases (10/12 llamas, 4/6 alpacas), liver enzyme activity in serum was elevated. Histologically, arteries in the lungs of 9 of 20 llamas (45%) and 3 of 20 alpacas (15%) showed severe intimal and adventitial and slight to moderate medial thickening, which was confirmed with α-SMA and VG-elastica staining. All animals exhibited typical liver changes, such as fibrosis and biliary hyperplasia, in association with the presence of liver flukes. This study shows that liver flukes can induce proliferative changes in lung arteries in NWCs that resemble those seen with pulmonary arterial hypertension due to liver parasites in humans. However, the degree of liver fluke infestation was not correlated with the extent of liver damage, or with the amount of thoracic or abdominal effusion or pulmonary arterial changes. PMID:25637085

  18. Effect of work intensity on time delay in mediation of ventilation by arterial carbon dioxide during recovery from impulse exercise.

    PubMed

    Afroundeh, R; Arimitsu, T; Yamanaka, R; Lian, C S; Shirakawa, K; Yunoki, T; Yano, T

    2014-01-01

    Time delay in the mediation of ventilation (V(.)E) by arterial CO(2) pressure (PaCO(2)) was studied during recovery from short impulse-like exercises with different work loads of recovery. Subjects performed two tests including 10-s impulse like exercise with work load of 200 watts and 15-min recovery with 25 watts in test one and 50 watts in test two. V(.)E, end tidal CO(2) pressure (PETCO(2)) and heart rate (HR) were measured continuously during rest, warming up, exercise and recovery. PaCO(2) was estimated from PETCO(2) and tidal volume (V(T)). Results showed that predicted arterial CO(2) pressure (PaCO(2 pre)) increased during recovery in both tests. In both tests, V(.)E increased and peaked at the end of exercise. V(.)E decreased in the first few seconds of recovery but started to increase again. The highest correlation coefficient between PaCO(2 pre) and V(.)E was obtained in the time delay of 7 s (r=0.854) in test one and in time delays of 6 s (r=0.451) and 31 s (r=0.567) in test two. HR was significantly higher in test two than in test one. These results indicate that PaCO(2 pre) drives V(.)E with a time delay and that higher work intensity induces a shorter time delay. PMID:24702492

  19. Correlation Between Partial Pressure of Arterial Carbon Dioxide and End Tidal Carbon Dioxide in Patients with Severe Alcohol Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Yousuf, Tariq; Brinton, Taylor; Kramer, Jason; Khan, Basharath; Ziffra, Jeffrey; Villines, Dana; Shah, Poorvi; Hanif, Tabassum

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory depression is a common adverse effect of benzodiazepine administration to patients with severe alcoholic withdrawal. This study was conducted to assess the value of end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) levels compared to partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) levels in monitoring respiratory depression secondary to benzodiazepine treatment in patients with severe alcohol withdrawal. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 36 patients admitted to the intensive care unit for severe alcohol withdrawal who had been administered sedative agents. Results We observed a statistically significant correlation between PaCO2 and ETCO2 at time 1 (r=0.74, P<0.01) and time 3 (r=0.52, P=0.02) but not at time 2 (r=0.22, P=0.31). Conclusion Our study confirms a positive correlation between PaCO2 and ETCO2 levels in patients experiencing severe alcohol withdrawal. PMID:26730226

  20. Influence of CO2 on cardiovascular response to hypoxia in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Koehler, R C; McDonald, B W; Krasney, J A

    1980-10-01

    The modulating effect of CO2 on the circulatory response to hypoxia in chronically instrumented conscious dogs was examined over a wide range of arterial partial pressure of O2 [PaO2 (from 80 to 25 Torr)] during a 41-min rebreathing period at three CO2 levels: hypocapnia (from PaCO2 of 32 to 18 Torr), eucapnia (32 Torr), and mild hypercapnia (40 Torr). Eucapnic and hypercapnic hypoxic responses were also measured after sinoaortic denervation (SAD) to assess the arterial chemoreceptor and baroreceptor reflex contributions. Elevating PaCO2 attenuated the tachycardia during hypoxia and produced progressively greater systemic, renal, and splanchnic vasoconstriction before but not after SAD. Vagal block converted the rises in renal and splanchnic flows observed during hypocapnic hypoxia to declines. The increase in left ventricular dP/dtmax was not affected by varying PaCO2 either before or after SAD. Coronary flow increased an additional onefold during hypoxia when PaCO2 was elevated both before and after SAD, but the tension-time indices did not differ significantly. These results indicate that: a) cardiopulmonary vagal afferents effectively counteract chemoreflex-induced vasoconstriction during hypocapnic hypoxia; b) chemoreflex vasoconstriction predominates in the renal and splanchnic beds when PaCO2 is elevated; c) the sinoaortic reflexes restrain the heart rate, but not the contractility response to hypoxia when PaCO2 is increased; and d) the augmented coronary vasodilation produced by CO2 is probably mediated by local CO2-hypoxic interactions. PMID:6775543

  1. [Use of microstream capnography and alveolar recruitment during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting].

    PubMed

    Suborov, E V; Postnikova, E A; Kapinos, A A; Kuz'kov, V V; Smetkin, A A; Kirov, M Iu

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate changes in EtCO2 and its correlation with PaCO2, and cardiac function during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) and to evaluate whether the recruitment maneuver was effective in improving gas exchange after OPCAB. Twenty adult patients scheduled for elective OPCAB were enrolled in a prospective randomized study. Anesthesia was maintained with midazolam, propofol, and fentanyl. After OPCAB the patients were randomized to a control group receiving conventional ventilation (n=10) or to a RM group (n=10) having ventilation and RM. RM was performed at min 15 after transfer to an ICU, by increasing airway pressure to 40 cm H2O for 40 sec subsequently adjusting PEEP to a level of 2 cm H2O above the lower inflection point of the pressure-volume curve. The measurements included hemodynamics, microstream capnography, respiratory parameters, and blood gasses. The baseline EtCO2 correlated with PaCO2 and cardiac index in both group (r = 0.7 and 0.81, respectively; p < 0.05). In the control group, OPCAB was followed by a rise in PaCO2 and worsening of arterial oxygenation (p < 0.05). After recruitment, EtCO, increased transiently whereas PaO2/FiO2 return to the baseline level. There was a moderate correlation between EtCO2 and PaCO2 before and after RM (r = 0.7 and 0.8, respectively; p < 0.05). The Bland-Altman analysis has shown that the difference between PaCO2 an EtCO2 was 1.9 +/- 11.4 mm Hg (M +/- 2SD). Thus, during OPCAB, EtCO2 measured by microstream capnography cor related well with PaCO2 and cardiac function. The use of RM after OPCAB increases CO2 elimination and improve arterial oxygenation. PMID:19824412

  2. Cerebral blood flow during orthostasis: role of arterial CO2.

    PubMed

    Serrador, J M; Hughson, R L; Kowalchuk, J M; Bondar, R L; Gelb, A W

    2006-04-01

    Reductions in end-tidal Pco(2) (Pet(CO(2))) during upright posture have been suggested to be the result of hyperventilation and the cause of decreases in cerebral blood flow (CBF). The goal of this study was to determine whether decreases in Pet(CO(2)) reflected decreases in arterial Pco(2) (Pa(CO(2))) and their relation to increases in alveolar ventilation (Va) and decreases in CBF. Fifteen healthy subjects (10 women and 5 men) were subjected to a 10-min head-up tilt (HUT) protocol. Pa(CO(2)), Va, and cerebral flow velocity (CFV) in the middle and anterior cerebral arteries were examined. In 12 subjects who completed the protocol, reductions in Pet(CO(2)) and Pa(CO(2)) (-1.7 +/- 0.5 and -1.1 +/- 0.4 mmHg, P < 0.05) during minute 1 of HUT were associated with a significant increase in Va (+0.7 +/- 0.3 l/min, P < 0.05). However, further decreases in Pa(CO(2)) (-0.5 +/- 0.5 mmHg, P < 0.05), from minute 1 to the last minute of HUT, occurred even though Va did not change significantly (-0.2 +/- 0.3 l/min, P = not significant). Similarly, CFV in the middle and anterior cerebral arteries decreased (-7 +/- 2 and -8 +/- 2%, P < 0.05) from minute 1 to the last minute of HUT, despite minimal changes in Pa(CO(2)). These data suggest that decreases in Pet(CO(2)) and Pa(CO(2)) during upright posture are not solely due to increased Va but could be due to ventilation-perfusion mismatch or a redistribution of CO(2) stores. Furthermore, the reduction in Pa(CO(2)) did not fully explain the decrease in CFV throughout HUT. These data suggest that factors in addition to a reduction in Pa(CO(2)) play a role in the CBF response to orthostatic stress. PMID:16306163

  3. Effect of Acute Hypercapnia on Outcomes and Predictive Risk Factors for Complications among Patients Receiving Bronchoscopic Interventions under General Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongwu; Zhang, Rujin; Yue, Yun; Li, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of acute hypercapnia on surgery outcomes among patients receiving bronchoscopic interventions under general anesthesia. Furthermore, independent predictive factors for surgery complications were analyzed. Method A total of 323 patients with airway stenosis were enrolled in this retrospective study. Each patient underwent interventional rigid bronchoscopy under general anesthesia. Arterial blood gas (ABG) was measured intraoperatively. In light of PaCO2 levels in ABG, patients were divided into three groups: Group C (control) (PaCO2:≤ 60 mmHg), Group M (moderate) (PaCO2:61–100 mmHg), and Group S (severe) (PaCO2: >100 mmHg). Parameters, including PaO2 levels and recovery delays, were compared across three groups. Complications among patients receiving bronchoscopic interventions were evaluated as well. Independent predictive factors for surgery related complications were analyzed by multivariable regression method. Results Significant differences in weight (p=0.04), ASA IV (p=0.008), dyspnea index (p=0.003),COPD (p=0.02), dynamic airway collapse (p=0.002), severe stenosis severity (p=0.02), and stenosis locations among three groups were observed. Mild (PaCO2:~60 mmHg) to moderate (PaCO2:60–100 mmHg) hypercapnia was not associated with delayed recovery, whereas severe hypercapnia (PaCO2:>100 mmHg) was associated with delayed recovery, as well as declined PaO2 (p=0.00) and elevated blood glucose levels (p=0.00). The complications of bronchoscopic interventions included postoperative congestive heart failure (14 cases, 4.3%), tracheorrhagia (8 cases, 2.5%), delayed recovery (19 cases, 5.9%), and transfers to ICU after surgery (10 cases, 3.1%). The multivariable regression analysis showed that procedure duration (p=0.003), lobectomy (p=0.007), dynamic airway collapse (p=0.01), severe bronchial stenosis (p=0.01) and hypercapnia (p=0.02) were independent predictive factors for surgery related complications

  4. The ventilatory responses of conscious dogs to isocapnic oxygen tests. a method of exploring the central component of respiratory drive and its dependence on O2 and CO2.

    PubMed

    Ungar, A; Bouverot, P

    1980-02-01

    Conscious unrestrained dogs trained to breathe through a respiratory mask or, after chronic tracheostomy, through a cuffed endotracheal tube were studied in an altitude chamber operated in such a way that end-tidal PO2 was maintained at 100, 75 or 60 Torr. Each hypoxic experiment was completed within 1 h of the onset of hypoxia. At all levels of oxygenation, resting pulmonary ventilation (V), obtained from the tidal volume (VT) and ventilatory period (T), and alveolar gas tensions (PAO2, PACO2) were measured cycle-by-cycle before and during isocapnic O2-tests (IOT) at various steady levels of alveolar PCO2 ranging from 30 to 48 Torr. For this, PCO2 in the inspired gas before and during IOT was adjusted so that PACO2 remained unchanged in the course of the first few breaths which followed the switch to hyperoxia. In analysing the transient changes of V in the course IOT, it was considered that an apnoea occurred when there was no measurable deflection on the integrated pneumotachogram past a duration twice the control T from the beginning of the last recorded ventilatory cycle. (1) Control V vs. PACO2 relationships showed classic positive interaction between hypercapnia and hypoxia; (2) during IOT at PAO2 of 100, 75 or 60 Torr, an apnoea occurred, V invariably falling to zero, provided that PACO2 was below 38-35 Torr according to the level of oxygenation; (3) above that threshold PACO2 value, the residual minimum ventilation (Vres) observed during IOT was linearly related to PACO2; (4) Vres vs. PACO2 relationships showed negative interaction between hypercapnia and hypoxia. It is concluded that (a) through isocapnic O2-tests, both the peripheral and central components of the ventilatory drive can be quantitatively estimated; (b) in conscious dogs, the pulmonary ventilation appears to be entirely driven by afferent activity from the arterial chemoreceptors, even in eucapnic normoxia; (c) the lower minimum ventilation seen in the course of O2-tests from a hypoxic

  5. Microspectroscopic soft X-ray analysis of keratin based biofibers.

    PubMed

    Späth, Andreas; Meyer, Markus; Semmler, Sonja; Fink, Rainer H

    2015-03-01

    Scanning soft X-ray transmission microspectroscopy (STXM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been employed for a high-resolution morphological and chemical analysis of hair fibers from human, sheep and alpaca. STXM allows optimum contrast imaging of the main hair building blocks due to tuneable photon energy. Chemical similarities and deviations for the human hair building blocks as well as for the three investigated species are discussed on the basis of the local near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). The spectra of melanosomes corroborate the state-of-the-art model for the chemical structure of eumelanin. Complementary TEM micrographs reveal the occurrence of cortex sectioning in alpaca hair to some extent. A spectroscopic analysis for human hair cortex indicates low mass loss upon soft X-ray irradiation, but transformation of chemical species with decreasing amount of peptide bonds and increasing NEXAFS signal for unsaturated carbon-carbon bonds. PMID:25553413

  6. Automated mechanical ventilation: adapting decision making to different disease states.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Zahonero, S; Gottlieb, D; Haberthür, C; Guttmann, J; Möller, K

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to introduce a novel methodology for adapting and upgrading decision-making strategies concerning mechanical ventilation with respect to different disease states into our fuzzy-based expert system, AUTOPILOT-BT. The special features are: (1) Extraction of clinical knowledge in analogy to the daily routine. (2) An automated process to obtain the required information and to create fuzzy sets. (3) The controller employs the derived fuzzy rules to achieve the desired ventilation status. For demonstration this study focuses exclusively on the control of arterial CO(2) partial pressure (p(a)CO(2)). Clinical knowledge from 61 anesthesiologists was acquired using a questionnaire from which different disease-specific fuzzy sets were generated to control p(a)CO(2). For both, patients with healthy lung and with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the fuzzy sets show different shapes. The fuzzy set "normal", i.e., "target p(a)CO(2) area", ranges from 35 to 39 mmHg for healthy lungs and from 39 to 43 mmHg for ARDS lungs. With the new fuzzy sets our AUTOPILOT-BT reaches the target p(a)CO(2) within maximal three consecutive changes of ventilator settings. Thus, clinical knowledge can be extended, updated, and the resulting mechanical ventilation therapies can be individually adapted, analyzed, and evaluated. PMID:21069471

  7. Designing for Culturally Contextualized Learning Activity Planning: Matching Learning Theories and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti; Anacleto, Junia Coutinho; de Almeida Neris, Vania Paula

    Helping teachers in their activities has been an issue more and more explored in Computer Science. However, in order to support teachers effectively, it is necessary to understand their needs and to design tools that they can easily manage. One of those needs is undoubtedly to put in practice pedagogical principles. This paper presents the design of PACO-T, a tool for helping teachers in planning learning activities (LAs) supported by common sense knowledge, based on PACO, a seven-step textual framework for planning pedagogically suitable LAs. The design was based on the results of a case study carried out to investigate how teachers can plan LAs following PACO steps, using common sense knowledge from a common sense knowledge base collaboratively built through the web. Moreover, the interface design was ruled by a Web Design Pattern Language, attempting to improve the usability of the tool. PACO-T aims to help teachers to put in practice the recommendation for contextualizing LAs to the target group, found in several learning theories.

  8. Simbolos Nacionales. National Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toro, Leonor

    Written in Spanish and English, this booklet contains information on Puerto Rico's national symbols, including its anthem, emblem, and flag. Verses to "La Borinquena," the national anthem, are given , as well as the song's historical background and musical evolution, covering contributions of Felix Astol Artes, Paco Ramirez Ortiz, Lola Rodriques…

  9. Human respiration at rest in rapid compression and at high pressures and gas densities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelfand, R.; Lambertsen, C. J.; Strauss, R.; Clark, J. M.; Puglia, C. D.

    1983-01-01

    The ventilation (V), end-tidal PCO2 (PACO2), and CO2 elimination rate were determined in men at rest breathing CO2-free gas over the pressure range 1-50 ATA and the gas density range 0.4-25 g/l, during slow and rapid compressions, at stable elevated ambient pressures and during slow decompressions. Progressive increase in pulmonary gas flow resistance due to elevation of ambient pressure and inspired gas density to the He-O2 equivalent of 5000 feet of seawater was found to produce a complex pattern of change in PACO2. It was found that as both ambient pressure and pulmonary gas flow resistance were progressively raised, PACO2 at first increased, went through a maximum, and then declined towards values near the 1 ATA level. It is concluded that this pattern of PACO2 change results from the interaction on ventilation of the increase in pulmonary resistance due to the elevation of gas density with the increase in respiratory drive postulated as due to generalized central nervous system excitation associated with exposure to high hydrostatic pressure. It is suggested that a similar interaction exists between increased gas flow resistance and the increase in respiratory drive related to nitrogen partial pressure and the resulting narcosis.

  10. Blood gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... are a measurement of how much oxygen and carbon dioxide are in your blood. They also determine the ... oxygen (PaO2): 75 - 100 mmHg Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2): 38 - 42 mmHg Arterial blood pH: 7. ...

  11. Avian mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium in four ornamental birds and in vitro drug sensitivity testing of isolates.

    PubMed

    Stepień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Puk, Krzysztof; Guz, Leszek; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Marek, Agnieszka; Kosikowska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Avian tuberculosis, one of the most important diseases affecting various species of birds, is most often caused by Mycobacterium (M.) avium. This report describes cases of M. avium subsp. avium (MAA) infection in a white-crested Holland dwarf rooster, a male and a female golden pheasant and a male peacock. We also investigated the prevalence of mycobacteria in 60 other birds and 40 alpacas. Tissue samples of necropsied birds were cultured for mycobacteria. From non-necropsied 60 other birds and alpacas only faecal samples were collected. Clinical signs in the affected white-crested Holland cock included gradual loss of body weight and hoarse attempts at crowing during its last 3 weeks, with a dramatic loss of body condition and depression over the final week. Only slight weakening was observed in the peacock just before its death, and the golden pheasants died suddenly. Diagnosis was confirmed by microbiological, molecular and pathological results. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium strains were isolated from the internal organs of the affected birds. Only one faecal sample from 60 other birds was culture- and PCR-positive for M. avium subsp. avium, while another one was only PCR-positive for M. chelonae. We did not isolate any Mycobacterium spp. from faecal samples of alpacas and all of them were PCR-negative. All 18 isolated M. avium strains were resistant to rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, ethionamide, capreomycin and ofloxacin, and susceptible to cycloserine and streptomycin. PMID:26904899

  12. The effect of PCO2 on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Noble, W H; Kay, J C; Fisher, J A

    1981-09-01

    Lung areas with a low V/Q ratio cause hypoxaemia. The low alveolar oxygen concentration may cause local hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) which reduces perfusion, raises the V/Q ratio, and hence reduces the tendency to a low PaO2. By changing PCO2, the HPV response can be altered. We examined this relationship in anaesthetized dogs by using a tracheal divider to separate hypoxic (nitrogen ventilated) from oxygenated (100 per cent oxygen ventilated) lung. Relative perfusion was assessed from total 133Xe exhaled from each lung area after intravenous infusions. When PaCO2 was changed by changing ventilation, we found that an increasing PaCO2 increased HPV and also PaO2. At a PaCO2 of 3.3 kPa, HPV was abolished and PaO2 fell. We also changed PaCO2 by altering PICO2 to one or both lung areas while ventilation remained constant throughout the experiment. Again as PaCO2 increased, HPV and PaCO2 increased. When PaCO2 fell and end tidal carbon dioxide in the hypoxic lung (PETCO2) remained elevated by maintaining PICO2 in the hypoxic lung and removing CO2 from the oxygenated lung) HPV was maintained. Thus it is the alveolar concentration of CO2 in the hypoxic lung which is important in modifying HPV. We conclude that in this model a low PETCO2 (3.3 kPa) in hypoxic lung will reduce HPV, and will result in more severe hypoxaemia. This may have relevance in both anaesthetized and intensive care unit patients when a higher PaO2 may be obtained by increasing hypoxic lung PETCO2. The effect of PETCO2 on PaO2 will be influenced by other variables, but when hypoventilated or hypoxic exist, increasing PETCO2 may reinforce hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and thus may increase PaO2. PMID:6793220

  13. Transcutaneous continuous carbon dioxide tension monitoring reduced incidence, degree and duration of hypercapnia during combined regional anaesthesia and monitored anaesthesia care in shoulder surgery patients.

    PubMed

    Baulig, Werner; Keselj, Marija; Baulig, Barbara; Guzzella, Sandra; Borgeat, Alain; Aguirre, José

    2015-08-01

    We studied the impact of transcutaneous continuous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO2) monitoring on ventilation and oxygenation during monitored anaesthesia care (MAC) in patients scheduled for shoulder surgery with continuous interscalene block. 50 patients were randomised either to the intervention (I-group) or the control (C-group) group. In both groups MAC was performed using target controlled infusion of propofol and remifentanil. MAC regimen was adapted to PtcCO2 values in the I-group, whereas the C-group was blinded for these values. Primary outcome was the incidence, degree and duration of hypoventilation stages. In the I-group and the C-group the mean ± SD [range] of PtcCO2 and PaCO2 was 5.79 ± 0.84 [4.37] and 5.44 ± 0.59 [2.78] kPa, as well as 6.41 ± 1.17 [6.29] and 6.01 ± 0.96 [7.15] kPa. Periods of PtcCO2/PaCO2 > 6.5 kPa were 21.0 ± 35.7/1.2 ± 4.2 min in the I-group and 45.6 ± 40.0/18.6 ± 26.8 min in the C-group. Severe hypercapnia (PtcCO2 and/or PaCO2 > 7.5 kPa) was dected in 3/0 patients of the I-group and in 10/3 patients of the C-group. PtcCO2 and PaCO2 showed a strong correlation (r = 0.78), but only moderate agreement with a mean bias (LOA) of -0.37 (-1.69; +0.95) kPa showing an overestimation of the PaCO2. Sensitivity and specificity of PtcCO2 to detect changes of PaCO2 was 0.94 and 0.56, respectively. In no patient SpO2 or SaO2 values lower than 90% were measured. Despite a moderate agreement between PaCO2 and PtcCO2 the PtcCO2 monitoring significantly reduced incidence, degree and duration of hypercapnia in shoulder surgery patients with MAC. PMID:25312782

  14. Liolaemus lizards (Squamata: Liolaemidae) as hosts for the nymph of Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae), with notes on Rickettsia infection.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Tarragona, Evelina L; Martins, Thiago F; Martín, Claudia M; Burgos-Gallardo, Freddy; Nava, Santiago; Labruna, Marcelo B; González-Acuña, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Adults of Amblyomma parvitarsum are common ectoparasites of South American camelids of the genera Lama and Vicugna, occuring in highlands of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru and also in Argentinean Patagonia. Whereas larval stages of this tick are known to feed on small lizards, host records for the nymphal instar have remained unreported. Supported by morphological and molecular analyses, herein we report A. parvitarsum nymphs parasitizing two Liolaemus species (Reptilia: Squamata) in the Andean Plateau of Argentina and Chile. Additionally, by a PCR screening targetting gltA and ompA genes, DNA of Rickettsia was detected in one of the collected nymphs. Obtained sequences of this agent were identical to a recent Rickettsia sp. described infecting adults of this tick species in Chile and Argentina. PMID:27406395

  15. Hyperventilation-induced reduction in cerebral blood flow: Assessment by positron emission tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bednarczyk, E.M.; Rutherford, W.F.; Leisure, G.P.; Munger, M.A.; Panacek, E.A.; Miraldi, F.D.; Green, J.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The use of positron emission tomography (PET) has been well documented as a relatively noninvasive method of measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF), both globally and regionally. The utility of readily detecting alterations in CBF is apparent, particularly when applied to the evaluation of therapeutic interventions thought to influence CBF. We report the effects of hypocapnia, an experimental condition of known cerebral vasoconstriction, in ten normal volunteers. Subjects had brain blood flow evaluated utilizing H215O as the positron emitter before and after approximately five minutes of hyperventilation. Baseline CBF was measured as a mean +/- SD of 61.2 +/- 16.3 mL/min/100 g of tissue. Mean baseline arterial blood gas values were PaO2 107.4 +/- 14 mm Hg, PaCO2 37.7 +/- 0.89 mm Hg, and pH 7.39 (calculated from mean (H+)). Post hyperventilation, global CBF was measured as 31.1 +/- 10.8 mL/min/100 g. Mean arterial blood gas values were PaO2 141.7 +/- 21 mm Hg, PaCO2 19.7 +/- 5 mm Hg, and pH 7.63 (calculated from mean (H+)). CBF decreased by a mean of 49.5 +/- 11 percent. Data analysis using the Student's t-test showed a significant change over baseline in PaCO2 (p less than 0.001) and CBF (p less than 0.001), in the hyperventilated state. Correlations were noted between the decrease in CBF and change in PaCO2 (r = 0.81) as well as between hyperventilation PaCO2 and the change in CBF (r = 0.97). We conclude that, as measured by PET, CBF decreases significantly during a state of artificial hyperventilation to a degree consistent with results seen using other methods. PET appears to be a valuable tool in the assessment of interventions that could influence CBF.

  16. Voluntary suppression of hyperthermia-induced hyperventilation mitigates the reduction in cerebral blood flow velocity during exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Bun; Honda, Yasushi; Ikebe, Yusuke; Fujii, Naoto; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2015-04-15

    Hyperthermia during prolonged exercise leads to hyperventilation, which can reduce arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 ) and, in turn, cerebral blood flow (CBF) and thermoregulatory response. We investigated 1) whether humans can voluntarily suppress hyperthermic hyperventilation during prolonged exercise and 2) the effects of voluntary breathing control on PaCO2 , CBF, sweating, and skin blood flow. Twelve male subjects performed two exercise trials at 50% of peak oxygen uptake in the heat (37°C, 50% relative humidity) for up to 60 min. Throughout the exercise, subjects breathed normally (normal-breathing trial) or they tried to control their minute ventilation (respiratory frequency was timed with a metronome, and target tidal volumes were displayed on a monitor) to the level reached after 5 min of exercise (controlled-breathing trial). Plotting ventilatory and cerebrovascular responses against esophageal temperature (Tes) showed that minute ventilation increased linearly with rising Tes during normal breathing, whereas controlled breathing attenuated the increased ventilation (increase in minute ventilation from the onset of controlled breathing: 7.4 vs. 1.6 l/min at +1.1°C Tes; P < 0.001). Normal breathing led to decreases in estimated PaCO2 and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAV) with rising Tes, but controlled breathing attenuated those reductions (estimated PaCO2 -3.4 vs. -0.8 mmHg; MCAV -10.4 vs. -3.9 cm/s at +1.1°C Tes; P = 0.002 and 0.011, respectively). Controlled breathing had no significant effect on chest sweating or forearm vascular conductance (P = 0.67 and 0.91, respectively). Our results indicate that humans can voluntarily suppress hyperthermic hyperventilation during prolonged exercise, and this suppression mitigates changes in PaCO2 and CBF. PMID:25632021

  17. Biological sustainability of live shearing of vicuña in Peru.

    PubMed

    Sahley, Catherine Teresa; Vargas, Jorge Torres; Valdivia, Jesus Sanchez

    2007-02-01

    The vicuña's (Vicugna vicugna) fiber is highly valued as an export product that is made into luxury fabric and clothing. The price of fiber in 2004 was 566/kg dollars, which makes the fiber a potentially important source of income for Andean agropastoral communities and serves as an incentive to allow vicuña grazing on high-elevation Andean landscapes. It is presumed that a shorn vicuña has little value for poachers, so shearing vicuñas could serve as a disincentive to poaching. Thus, the supply of vicuña fiber may be sustainable if it is procured through live shearing, which should serve as a powerful conservation tool. We evaluated the effects of capture and shearing on the demography of vicuña in one site located in the Salinas Aguada Blanca Reserve, Arequipa, Peru, where vicuñas were captured and shorn in spring and then returned to the wild. We conducted fixed-width line-transect censuses from 1997 to 2003 of this population. We compared the proportion of young born to females that were shorn versus females that were unshorn for the 3 years in which shearing occurred. We evaluated the effect of capture and shearing on proportion of young born to shorn and unshorn females at a second site, Picotani, Puno. The wild population in Arequipa that underwent capture and shearing showed a steady increase in total population and average density between 1997 and 2003. No significant difference was found between the proportion of young per female for shorn and unshorn females at either site. We conclude that in spring, capture and live shearing of vicuñas can be biologically sustainable. Further research is needed to determine whether shearing during winter months is biologically sustainable. PMID:17298515

  18. Low habitat overlap at landscape scale between wild camelids and feral donkeys in the Chilean desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malo, Juan E.; González, Benito A.; Mata, Cristina; Vielma, André; Donoso, Denise S.; Fuentes, Nicolás; Estades, Cristián F.

    2016-01-01

    Feral domestic ungulates may compete with the populations of wild herbivores with which they coexist, particularly so in arid regions. The potential competition between wild camelids and feral donkeys at the eastern sector of the Atacama Desert is evaluated in terms of their coincidence or segregation in habitat use and complemented with a comparison of reproductive output (yearling/adult ratio) of vicuña family groups in the proximity vs. distant from donkey observations. Habitat use of wild camelids and donkeys was sampled driving some 1250 km of roads and tracks at the dry and wet seasons. There were 221 vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna) sightings, 77 for donkeys (Equus asinus), 25 for guanacos (Lama guanicoe) and 8 for hybrids between guanacos and domestic llamas (Lama glama), as well as 174 randomly selected control locations. By means of Generalised Discriminant Analysis and Analysis of Variance we show that all ungulates actively select their habitat, with significant differences between use and availability in the area. Donkeys are relatively abundant in comparison with camelids and coincide broadly with both of them across the altitudinal gradient, but they fall between them in local scale habitat selection and do not seem to force their displacement from their preferred habitats. Thus donkeys occur preferentially on slopes with a high cover of tall shrubs, whereas vicuñas use valley bottoms with grass and guanacos the upper slope zones with grass. The potential for competition between donkeys and wild camelids is thus limited and it does not affect the reproductive output of vicuña in this region. Therefore, with the present knowledge we suggest that population control is not currently merited for feral donkeys.

  19. The noninvasive carbon dioxide gradient (NICO2G) during hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Belenkiy, Slava M; Berry, John S; Batchinsky, Andriy I; Kendrick, Chonna; Necsoiu, Corina; Jordan, Bryan S; Salinas, José; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2014-07-01

    Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is a setting in which both pulmonary and cutaneous perfusion may be impaired. The goals of this study were to evaluate the relationship between end-tidal (etCO2), transcutaneous (tPCO2), arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and lactate during lethal HS and to assess the effect of progressive HS on those variables and on a new variable, the noninvasive CO2 gradient ([NICO2G] or the difference between tPCO2 and etCO2). Ten consciously sedated swine were hemorrhaged, by means of a computerized exponential protocol, of up to 80% estimated blood volume for 20 min. End-tidal carbon dioxide, tPCO2, PaCO2, and lactate measurements were taken at baseline and every 5 min thereafter, that is, after 25%, 44%, and 62% total blood volume hemorrhage (TBVH) and at cardiac arrest. Cardiac arrest occurred on average at 67% TBVH. Data were analyzed by linear regression and one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and are presented as means ± SD. Forty-nine paired measurements were made. There was no overall relationship between NICO2 variables and PaCO2: PaCO2 vs. tPCO2 (r2 = 0.002, P = 0.78); PaCO2 vs. etCO2 (r2 = 0.0002, P = 0.93). Rather, NICO2G increased at each level of blood loss: 4.0 ± 24.9 at baseline, 6.3 ± 35.7 at 25% TBVH, 25.0 ± 37.6 at 44% TBVH, 55.0 ± 33.9 at 62% TBVH, and 70.0 ± 33.2 at cardiac arrest (P < 0.05). Similarly, tPCO2 increased and etCO2 decreased at each level. Linear regression of NICO2G and lactate showed a better correlation than was observed for the other two variables: NICO2G, r2 = 0.58; tPCO2, r2 = 0.46; etCO2, r2 = 0.26. During HS, NICO2 monitors lose accuracy for approximating the PaCO2 but gain usefulness as hemodynamic monitors. Also, by combining data from two different organ systems, NICO2G demonstrated improved correlation with lactate than did either etCO2 or tPCO2 alone. PMID:24667626

  20. [Long-term effects of home mechanical ventilation with positive pressure using a nasal mask].

    PubMed

    Escarrabill, J; Estopà, R; Robert, D; Casolivé, V; Manresa, F

    1991-10-01

    Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is an efficient alternative in the treatment of patients with chronic respiratory failure secondary to restrictive mechanical disorders (neuromuscular disease, such as Duchenne's disease, thorax deformities due to kyphoscoliosis or tuberculosis sequelae). The case of a patient with severe kyphoscoliosis in the phase of chronic respiratory failure (PaO2 34 mmHg and PaCO2 61 mmHg, breathing ambient air) is presented in which, following the failure of negative pressure mechanical ventilation ("poncho"), positive pressure ventilation was tested with a silicon made-to-measure nasal mask as the access via. Adaptation to HMV was good with the patient using the ventilation nightly. Following 12 months of treatment the patient is able to carry out everyday activities and arterial gasometry breathing ambient air is PaO2 77 mmHg and PaCO2 43 mmHg. PMID:1961049

  1. Capnography.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, B D; Shapiro, B A

    1995-09-01

    Capnography measures exhaled carbon dioxide and is most useful when applied directly to patient care. This is in circumstances of detecting misplacement of the tracheal tube, dysfunction of respiratory apparatuses, detection of abnormal lung function, successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and trending of deadspace changes. The least reliable application is to reflect alveolar ventilation (PaCO2). This application is most common during general anesthesia and weaning from mechanical ventilation. Provided the patient has a stable cardiac status, stable body temperature, absence of lung disease, and normal capnogram, PETCO2 monitoring may assist in estimating PaCO2. The use of capnography in patients with severe respiratory failure should be applied with careful reflection. The increased V/Q mismatch that is consistent with a widened P(a-ET) gradient, as well as worsening hypercapnea with increased peripheral carbon dioxide production, can lead to erroneous PETCO2 values. Capnography may be least useful in the sickest patients. PMID:9390853

  2. Influence of pneumoperitoneum and postural change on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in dogs.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Tae; Okano, Shozo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the influence of pneumoperitoneum#(PP) and postural change under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane, which is routinely used in dogs, on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. As test animals, 6 adult beagles were used. To induce anesthesia, atropine, butorphanol and propofol were intravenously injected. Anesthesia was maintained with 1.3 MAC (1.7%) isoflurane. The following were the experiment conditions: I:E ratio, 1:1.9; tidal air exchange, 20 ml/kg; and ventilation frequency, 14 times/min. Respiration was regulated so that the PaCO2 was approximately 35 to 40 mmHg before the start of the experiment. PP with CO2 (intraperitoneal pressure 15 mmHg) and a postural change (15°C) was performed during the experiment. As parameters of circulatory kinetics, heart rate (HR), mean aortic pressure (MAP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP), central venous pressure (CVP), femoral venous pressure (FVP) and cardiac output (CO) were measured. As parameters of respiratory kinetics, airway pressure (PAW) and blood gas (BG) were measured. There were significant increases in HR, MAP, MPAP, CVP, FVP, CO, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the horizontal position. There were significant increases in CVP, FVP, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the Trendelenburg position. There were significant increases in the MPAP, CVP, FVP, PAW and PaCO2 after PP in the inverse Trendelenburg position. There was a significant difference in FVP after PP between the Trendelenburg position and inverse Trendelenburg position. The results of this experiment suggest that appropriate anesthesia control, such as changing the ventilation conditions after PP, is required for laparoscopic surgery under inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane. PMID:26027843

  3. Breathing pattern and carbon dioxide retention in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gorini, M.; Misuri, G.; Corrado, A.; Duranti, R.; Iandelli, I.; De Paola, E.; Scano, G.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The factors leading to chronic hypercapnia and rapid shallow breathing in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are not completely understood. In this study the interrelations between chronic carbon dioxide retention, breathing pattern, dyspnoea, and the pressure required for breathing relative to inspiratory muscle strength in stable COPD patients with severe airflow obstruction were studied. METHODS: Thirty patients with COPD in a clinically stable condition with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of < 1 litre were studied. In each patient the following parameters were assessed: (1) dyspnoea scale rating, (2) inspiratory muscle strength by measuring minimal pleural pressure (PPLmin), and (3) tidal volume (VT), flow, pleural pressure swing (PPLsw), total lung resistance (RL), dynamic lung elastance (ELdyn), and positive end expiratory alveolar pressure (PEEPi) during resting breathing. RESULTS: Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) related directly to RL/PPLmin, and ELdyn/PPLmin, and inversely to VT and PPLmin. There was no relationship between PaCO2 and functional residual capacity (FRC), total lung capacity (TLC), or minute ventilation. PEEPi was similar in eucapnic and hypercapnic patients. Expressing PaCO2 as a combined function of VT and PPLmin (stepwise multiple regression analysis) explained 71% of the variance in PaCO2. Tidal volume was directly related to inspiratory time (TI), and TI was inversely related to the pressure required for breathing relative to inspiratory muscle strength (PPLsw, %PPLmin). There was an association between the severity of dyspnoea and both the increase in PPLsw (%PPLmin) and the shortening in TI. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that, in stable patients with COPD with severe airflow obstruction, hypercapnia is associated with shallow breathing and inspiratory muscle weakness, and rapid and shallow breathing appears to be linked to both a marked increase in the pressure

  4. End-tidal CO2 in some aquatic mammals of large size.

    PubMed

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Seguin, Julie

    2009-01-01

    While resting on land or at the water surface, the breathing frequency (f) of aquatic mammals of medium and large size is lower than in terrestrial mammals of similar body weight (W), the difference widening with the increase in W. The allometric function for aquatic mammals is f proportional to W(-0.42) (f, breaths/min, W, kg) and that of terrestrial species is f proportional to W(-0.25). We asked whether or not resting breathing at such low f would entail high values of alveolar CO2. End-tidal alveolar CO2 pressure, taken as representative of alveolar CO2 pressure, PaCO2, was measured from the expired gas during resting breathing in captive specimens of aquatic species trained to rest in proximity of their keepers, either on land (walrus and sea lion) or at the water surface (dolphin, orca, beluga and hippopotamus). Their f during the recordings ranged from less than 1 (orca) to 6 (walrus) breaths/min. The average PaCO2 values ranged from 32 to 42 mm Hg, the peaks being a few mm Hg higher. These values were similar or slightly higher than literature data of many terrestrial species, with no relation to the animal f or W. The quasi-normality of PaCO2 in large aquatic species breathing at rest, despite their exceptionally low f and normal metabolism, can be explained mainly by two factors, their large tidal volume/W, about three times the average terrestrial value, and their peculiar breathing pattern with sustained high lung volume during the expiratory pause. This latter is key in avoiding a substantial rise in PaCO2 during the inter-breath pause. PMID:19026528

  5. Re-inspiration of CO2 from ventilator circuit: effects of circuit flushing and aspiration of dead space up to high respiratory rate

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Dead space negatively influences carbon dioxide (CO2) elimination, particularly at high respiratory rates (RR) used at low tidal volume ventilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Aspiration of dead space (ASPIDS), a known method for dead space reduction, comprises two mechanisms activated during late expiration: aspiration of gas from the tip of the tracheal tube and gas injection through the inspiratory line - circuit flushing. The objective was to study the efficiency of circuit flushing alone and of ASPIDS at wide combinations of RR and tidal volume (VT) in anaesthetized pigs. The hypothesis was tested that circuit flushing and ASPIDS are particularly efficient at high RR. Methods In Part 1 of the study, RR and VT were, with a computer-controlled ventilator, modified for one breath at a time without changing minute ventilation. Proximal dead space in a y-piece and ventilator tubing (VDaw, prox) was measured. In part two, changes in CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) during prolonged periods of circuit flushing and ASPIDS were studied at RR 20, 40 and 60 minutes-1. Results In Part 1, VDaw, prox was 7.6 ± 0.5% of VT at RR 10 minutes-1 and 16 ± 2.5% at RR 60 minutes-1. In Part 2, circuit flushing reduced PaCO2 by 20% at RR 40 minutes-1 and by 26% at RR 60 minutes-1. ASPIDS reduced PaCO2 by 33% at RR 40 minutes-1 and by 41% at RR 60 minutes-1. Conclusions At high RR, re-breathing of CO2 from the y-piece and tubing becomes important. Circuit flushing and ASPIDS, which significantly reduce tubing dead space and PaCO2, merit further clinical studies. PMID:20420671

  6. [Effects of oxygen and nikethamide on central drive, ventilation and blood gases of patients with obstructive lung disease in acute exacerbation of respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Ren, X H; Ding, D J; Chen, E Z

    1993-12-01

    Twelve subjects with COPD in acute exacerbation of respiratory failure were studied. The experiment of each subject was divided into three steps: room air breathing, 35% O2 inhalation for one hour, and then intravenous drip of nikethamide (1.875g) for two hours with 35% oxygen inhalation at the same time. At the end of each step, mouth occlusion pressure (P0.1), VT, VE, VA, VCO2, VD and PaO2, PaCO2 were measured respectively. The results showed that, when breathing air, all the patients presented significant higher P0.1 than normal subjects, indicated higher central drive. After oxygen inhalation, P0.1 decreased markedly, but still higher than normal. No correlation was found between delta P0.1 and delta PaO2. VE declined with the drop of P0.1, but this was due to a decrease of respiratory frequency, while VA remained unchanged (P > 0.05). The increase of PaCO2 was unremarkable. Neither correlation was found between delta VA and delta P0.1, nor between delta VA and delta PaCO2. However, a close correlation existed between delta VCO2/VCO2 and delta VE/VE. The result of our study is not consistent with the postulation, the removal of the hypoxic stimulate after oxygen administration results in a decrease of ventilation and CO2 retention. After nikethamide administration, P0.1 increased as well as VE while VA and PaCO2 remained unchanged. The increase of VE was caused by the increase of respiratory rate. Furthermore, PaO2 decreased in some patients. All of the changes demonstrated that nothing is worthwhile with the treatment of nikethamide, but a side effect from increasing work of breathing and consumption of oxygen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8033228

  7. Diagnostic value of gas exchange tests in patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Prediletto, Renato; Miniati, Massimo; Tonelli, Lucia; Formichi, Bruno; Di Ricco, Giorgio; Marini, Carlo; Bauleo, Carolina; Allescia, Germana; Cocci, Franca; Monti, Simonetta; Pistolesi, Massimo; Giuntini, Carlo

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the value of parameters derived from arterial blood gas tests in the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. Method: We measured alveolar-arterial partial pressure of oxygen [P(A–a)O2] gradient, PaO2 and arterial partial pressure of carbon diaxide (PaCO2) in 773 consecutive patients with suspected pulmonary embolism who were enrolled in the Prospective Investigative Study of Acute Pulmonary Embolism. Diagnosis: The study design required pulmonary angiography in all patients with abnormal perfusion scans. Results: Of 773 scans, 270 were classified as normal/near-normal and 503 as abnormal. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed by pulmonary angiography in 312 of 503 patients with abnormal scans. Of 312 patients with pulmonary embolism, 12, 14 and 35% had normal P(A–a)O2, PaO2 and PaCO2, respectively. Of 191 patients with abnormal scans and negative angiograms, 11, 13 and 55% had normal P(A–a)O2, PaO2 and PaCO2, respectively. The proportions of patients with normal/near-normal scans who had normal P(A–a)O2, PaO2 and PaCO2 were 20, 25 and 37%, respectively. No differences were observed in the mean values of arterial blood gas data between patients with pulmonary embolism and those who had abnormal scans and negative angiograms. Among the 773 patients with suspected pulmonary embolism, 364 (47%) had prior cardiopulmonary disease. Pulmonary embolism was diagnosed in 151 (41%) of 364 patients with prior cardiopulmonary disease, and in 161 (39%) of 409 patients without prior cardiopulmonary disease. Among patients with pulmonary embolism, there was no difference in arterial blood gas data between patients with and those without prior CPD. Conclusion: These data indicate that arterial blood gas tests are of limited value in the diagnostic work-up of pulmonary embolism if they are not interpreted in conjunction with clinical and other laboratory tests. PMID:11056733

  8. Effects of Noninvasive Positive-Pressure Ventilation with Different Interfaces in Patients with Hypoxemia after Surgery for Stanford Type A Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Sun, Lizhong; Liu, Nan; Hou, Xiaotong; Wang, Hong; Jia, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypoxemia is a severe perioperative complication that can substantially increase intensive care unit and hospital stay and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in patients with hypoxemia after surgery for Stanford type A aortic dissection, and to compare the effects of helmet and mask NIPPV. Material/Methods We recruited 40 patients who developed hypoxemia within 24 h after extubation after surgery for Stanford type A aortic dissection in the Beijing Anzhen Hospital. The patients were randomly divided into the helmet and mask NIPPV groups. The primary endpoints were blood oxygenation levels at 1 and 6 h after initiation and at the end of the treatment. The secondary endpoint was patient outcome, including mortality; incidence of pulmonary atelectasis, pneumonia, re-intubation, and sepsis; and length of ICU and hospital stays. Results NIPPV improved oxygenation in both groups. Compared with pretreatment levels, the oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2), PaO2, PaCO2, and respiratory rate (RR) improved in the initial (0–1 h), maintenance (1–6 h), and end stages of the treatment (P<0.05). Compared with mask ventilation, helmet ventilation better improved pH, PaO2, SpO2, PaO2/FiO2, and decreased PaCO2 in the 3 stages (P<0.05). The incidence of major complications, including flatulence, intolerance, and facial pressure sores, was significantly lower with helmet ventilation. Conclusions NIPPV effectively improved oxygenation and reduced PaCO2 in patients who developed hypoxemia soon after extubation following surgery for Stanford type A aortic dissection. Compared with mask NIPPV, helmet NIPPV more rapidly increased PaO2 and reduced PaCO2, increased patient tolerance and comfort, and reduced complications. PMID:26250834

  9. Physiological evaluation of free-ranging moose (Alces alces) immobilized with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Evaluation of physiology during capture and anesthesia of free-ranging wildlife is useful for determining the effect that capture methods have on both ecological research results and animal welfare. This study evaluates capture and anesthesia of moose (Alces alces) with etorphine-xylazine-acepromazine in Northern Sweden. Methods Fifteen adult moose aged 3–15 years were darted from a helicopter with a combination of 3.37 mg etorphine, 75 mg xylazine, and 15 mg acepromazine. Paired arterial blood samples were collected 15 minutes apart with the first sample at 15–23 minutes after darting and were analyzed immediately with an i-STAT®1 Portable Clinical Analyzer. Results All animals developed hypoxemia (PaO2 <10 kPa) with nine animals having marked hypoxemia (PaO2 5.5-8 kPa). All moose were acidemic (ph<7.35) with nine moose having marked acidemia (pH<7.20). For PaCO2, 14 moose had mild hypercapnia (PaCO2 6-8 kPa) and two had marked hypercapnia (PaCO2>8 kPa). Pulse, respiratory rate, pH and HCO3 increased significantly over time from darting whereas lactate decreased. Conclusions The hypoxemia found in this study is a strong indication for investigating alternative drug doses or combinations or treatment with supplemental oxygen. PMID:23276208

  10. Predictive Factors for the Effect of Treatment by Noninvasive Ventilation in Patients with Respiratory Failure as a Result of Acute Exacerbation of the Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pejkovska, Sava; Kaeva, Biserka Jovkovska; Goseva, Zlatica; Arsovski, Zoran; Janeva, Jelena Jovanovska; Zeynel, Sead

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) applies ventilator support through the patient’s upper airway using a mask. AIM: The aim of the study is to define factors that will point out an increased risk of NIV failure in patients with exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients over the age of 40, treated with NIV, were prospectively recruited. After data processing, the patients were divided into two groups: 1) successful NIV treatment group; 2) failed NIV treatment group. RESULTS: On admission arterial pH and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) levels were lower (pH: p < 0.05, GCS: p < 0.05), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE) score and PaCO2 were higher (p < 0.05) in the NIV failure group. Arterial pH was lower (p < 0.05) and PaCO2 and respiratory rate were higher (p < 0.05) after 1h, and arterial pH was lower (p < 0.05) and PaCO2 (p < 0.05), respiratory and heart rate were higher (p < 0.05) after 4h in the NIV failure group. CONCLUSION: Measurement and monitoring of certain parameters may be of value in terms of predicting the effectiveness of NIV treatment. PMID:27275303

  11. Carbon dioxide sensitivity during hypoglycaemia-induced, elevated metabolism in the anaesthetized rat.

    PubMed

    Bin-Jaliah, I; Maskell, P D; Kumar, P

    2005-03-15

    We have utilized an anaesthetized rat model of insulin-induced hypoglycaemia to test the hypothesis that peripheral chemoreceptor gain is augmented during hypermetabolism. Insulin infusion at 0.4 U kg (-1)min(-1) decreased blood glucose concentration significantly to 3.37 +/- 0.12 mmol l(-1). Whole-body metabolism and basal ventilation were elevated without increase in P(a,CO(2)) (altered non-significantly from the control level, to 37.3 +/- 2.6 mmHg). Chemoreceptor gain, measured either as spontaneous ventilatory airflow sensitivity to P(a,CO(2)) during rebreathing, or by phrenic minute activity responses to altered P(a,CO(2)) induced by varying the level of artificial ventilation, was doubled during the period of hypermetabolism. This stimulatory effect was primarily upon the mean inspiratory flow rate, or phrenic ramp component of breathing and was reduced by 75% following bilateral carotid sinus nerve section. In vitro recordings of single carotid body chemoafferents showed that reducing superfusate glucose concentration from 10 mM to 2 mM reduced CO(2) chemosensitivity significantly from 0.007 +/- 0.002 Hz mmHg(-1) to 0.001 +/- 0.002 Hz mmHg(-1). Taken together, these data suggest that the hyperpnoea observed during hypermetabolism might be mediated by an increase in the CO(2) sensitivity of the carotid body, and this effect is not due to the insulin-induced fall in blood glucose concentration. PMID:15661819

  12. [Pulmonary function in patients with focal pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2008-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), Raw, Rin, Rcx, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS/VA, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 40 patients with focal pulmonary tuberculosis. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 75%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 57.5 and 25%, respectively. The lung volume and capacity changes appeared mainly as increased TGV and PRV; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased MEF50, MEF75, and FEV1/VC%; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, PaO2, and PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. TGV and PRL increased up to 148-187 and 142-223% of the normal values, respectively; MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC%, and DLCO decreased to 59-24, 58-26, 78-57, and 78-67% of the normal values and PaO2 and PaCO2 did to 79-69 and 34-30 cm Hg. PMID:18450075

  13. Respiratory and cardiovascular effects in relation to plasma levels of midazolam and diazepam.

    PubMed Central

    Sunzel, M; Paalzow, L; Berggren, L; Eriksson, I

    1988-01-01

    1. In the present study possible relationships between cardiovascular and respiratory effects and plasma concentrations were investigated after administration of midazolam and diazepam. Eight healthy volunteers were given three injections at 20 min intervals of equipotent sedative doses of midazolam (0.05 mg kg-1) and diazepam (0.15 mg kg-1) in a randomized double-blind cross-over design. Blood pressure, blood-gases and respiration measured nonivasively, were monitored throughout the experimental session of 160 min, and frequent blood samples were collected during the session. 2. Correlations between the blood pressure reduction, the increase of PaCO2 in blood, and plasma concentrations were found for both drugs. A maximal reduction of blood pressure and PaCO2 was produced after sedative doses of midazolam and diazepam. 3. A possible acute tolerance development towards the blood pressure reduction was found after the repeated administration of diazepam but not after the midazolam administration. 4. The plasma concentrations producing half the maximal effects after administration of midazolam was 50-60 ng ml-1, indicating that the influence on blood pressure and PaCO2 after drug administration is evoked at lower plasma concentrations than sedation. 5. No correlation between the respiratory effects and plasma concentrations was found for either drug. PMID:3136789

  14. Ventilating Patient with Refractory Hypercarbia: Use of APRV Mode.

    PubMed

    Arshad, Zia; Prakash, Ravi; Aggarwal, Swati; Yadav, Sapna

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old patient referred to our critical care unit with the diagnosis of type II respiratory failure with shock. Patient was a known case of COPD for last 20 years. His chest radiology revealed bilateral infiltrates. Patient was managed conservatively in the form of antibiotics, vasopressor and ventilatory support with SIMV/VC mode. After ventilation with SIMV/VC mode for half an hour his blood gases revealed increasing PaCO2 levels. The same result was obtained with PC mode and ASV and his PaCO2 level reached above 170 mmHg. Then APRV mode was tried with modified settings. The results obtained were satisfactory and in next 24 hours PaCO2 decreased to <66mmHg along with an increasing P/F ratio. APRV is the not recommended as primary mode of ventilation in COPD but in resistant cases it can be helpful as it improves alveolar recruitment and pressure support is added to reduce hypercapnia. PMID:26894156

  15. Population Pharmacodynamic Modeling and Simulation of the Respiratory Effect of Acetazolamide in Decompensated COPD Patients

    PubMed Central

    Heming, Nicholas; Urien, Saïk; Fulda, Virginie; Meziani, Ferhat; Gacouin, Arnaud; Clavel, Marc; Planquette, Benjamin; Faisy, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients may develop metabolic alkalosis during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Acetazolamide is one of the treatments used to reverse metabolic alkalosis. Methods 619 time-respiratory (minute ventilation, tidal volume and respiratory rate) and 207 time-PaCO2 observations were obtained from 68 invasively ventilated COPD patients. We modeled respiratory responses to acetazolamide in mechanically ventilated COPD patients and then simulated the effect of increased amounts of the drug. Results The effect of acetazolamide on minute ventilation and PaCO2 levels was analyzed using a nonlinear mixed effect model. The effect of different ventilatory modes was assessed on the model. Only slightly increased minute ventilation without decreased PaCO2 levels were observed in response to 250 to 500 mg of acetazolamide administered twice daily. Simulations indicated that higher acetazolamide dosage (>1000 mg daily) was required to significantly increase minute ventilation (P<.001 vs pre-acetazolamide administration). Based on our model, 1000 mg per day of acetazolamide would increase minute ventilation by >0.75 L min−1 in 60% of the population. The model also predicts that 45% of patients would have a decrease of PaCO2>5 mmHg with doses of 1000 mg per day. Conclusions Simulations suggest that COPD patients might benefit from the respiratory stimulant effect after the administration of higher doses of acetazolamide. PMID:24466018

  16. Acidemia versus hypercapnia and risk for severe intraventricular hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zayek, Michael Maurice; Alrifai, Wael; Whitehurst, Richard Marion; Kua, Kok Lim; Martino, Anthony; Eyal, Fabien Gabriel

    2014-04-01

    In extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants, levels of hypercapnia (Paco 2) > 60 mm Hg are considered a risk factor for severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Since cerebral vasoreactivity depends on arterial pH (apH) rather than Paco 2, we hypothesize that the role of mild-to-moderate hypercapnia (45-60 mm Hg) in the occurrence of severe IVH is modulated by the metabolic component of acid-base status. ELBW infants (n = 580, born < 28 wk gestation, and BW < 1,000 g) were separated into "high-base deficit (BD)" (n = 291) and "low-BD" (n = 289) groups if infants' median BD were > 4 mEq/L or ≤4 mEq/L, respectively. Rates of severe IVH were higher in "high-BD" (16%) than "low-BD" (9%) group. Although adjusted risk for severe IVH increased with higher Paco 2 and higher BD, apH was the sole predictor of severe IVH. In ELBW infants, higher degree of acidemia, rather than hypercapnia per se, during the first 48 hours of life, is associated with higher occurrences of severe IVH. PMID:23873117

  17. [Efficacy and safety of the use of levodropropizine in patients with chronic interstitial lung diseases].

    PubMed

    Gunella, G; Zanasi, A; Massimo Vanasia, C B

    1991-02-28

    Efficacy and tolerability of an antitussive drug, levodropropizine, in 21 adult patients with interstitial lung disorders was evaluated in this study. Levodropropizine dosage was 60 mg t.i.d. for four days of therapy. The authors evaluated the effectiveness of the antitussive therapy and, on the other hand, the tolerability of levodropropizine in these patients, monitoring PaO2, PaCO2 and pH values. The changes in cough frequency (34.1 +/- 5.6 20.4 +/- 5.4 mean +/- d.s. before and after treatment) and the overall efficacy judgment as reported by the doctor indicate a decrease in cough as confirmed by the significance of Kruskal-Wallis test (p less than 0.05). Furthermore the tolerability has been excellent, because the PaO2, PaCo2 ad pH values before and after treatment were unchanged (PaO2 mmHg: basal 71 +/- 16.6, after treatment 73.8 +/- 14.2; PaCO2 mmHg: basal 36.6 +/- 5, after treatment 36.6 +/- 4.6; pH basal 7.4 +/- 0.03, after treatment 7.4 +/- 0.02). PMID:1827388

  18. CO2 measurement for the early differential diagnosis of pulmonary embolism-related shock at the emergency department: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Van Marcke, Cédric; Daoudia, Anas; Penaloza, Andrea; Verschuren, Franck

    2015-01-01

    Objective An early differential diagnosis is mandatory when facing a patient with clinical shock of unclear aetiology, in order to guide proper treatment. We assessed if the expired CO2 measurement and alveolar-arterial CO2 calculation could improve the differential diagnosis of shock during its initial presentation, particularly in separating pulmonary embolism from other causes of shock. Methods We analysed the charts of 12 patients who presented with clinical shock and had end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) and arterial CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) measurements. Results In cases with pulmonary embolism-related shock (n = 3), the gradient between PaCO2 and EtCO2 was increased (37 vs 0.2 mmHg). There was a similar trend for a higher PaCO2 value (60 vs 32.2 mmHg) and a lower EtCO2 value (23 vs 32 mmHg). Conclusion An initial CO2 measurement might be an easily available tool for the early diagnostic work-up of clinical shock. PMID:26744671

  19. Ventilating Patient with Refractory Hypercarbia: Use of APRV Mode

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ravi; Aggarwal, Swati; Yadav, Sapna

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old patient referred to our critical care unit with the diagnosis of type II respiratory failure with shock. Patient was a known case of COPD for last 20 years. His chest radiology revealed bilateral infiltrates. Patient was managed conservatively in the form of antibiotics, vasopressor and ventilatory support with SIMV/VC mode. After ventilation with SIMV/VC mode for half an hour his blood gases revealed increasing PaCO2 levels. The same result was obtained with PC mode and ASV and his PaCO2 level reached above 170 mmHg. Then APRV mode was tried with modified settings. The results obtained were satisfactory and in next 24 hours PaCO2 decreased to <66mmHg along with an increasing P/F ratio. APRV is the not recommended as primary mode of ventilation in COPD but in resistant cases it can be helpful as it improves alveolar recruitment and pressure support is added to reduce hypercapnia. PMID:26894156

  20. Intraspecific scaling of chewing cycle duration in three species of domestic ungulates.

    PubMed

    Stover, Kristin K; Williams, Susan H

    2011-01-01

    In mammals, chewing cycle duration (CCD) increases with various measures of size, scaling with body mass(0.13-0.28) and jaw length(0.55). Proposed explanations for these scaling relationships include the allometry of body size, basal metabolic rate and tooth size, on the one hand, and pendular mechanics treating the jaw as a gravity-driven pendulum, on the other. Little is known, however, about the relationship between CCD and size within species. Recent research in dogs demonstrates altogether different scaling exponents and weaker correlations. This research suggests that breed-specific growth rates influence the maturation of the neural networks generating chewing rhythm, which may be altered because of changes in jaw mass during early postnatal growth. Here, we explored the intraspecific scaling of CCD within a sample of adult horses ranging from miniatures to draft breeds and an ontogenetic sample of goats and alpacas from infants to adults. In horses, CCD scales with body mass(0.19) and jaw length(0.57), although in neither case is the correlation significant. In the ontogenetic samples of goats and alpacas, CCD is significantly correlated with body mass, scaling as CCD∝body mass(0.37) in both species. In goats, but not alpacas, CCD is also significantly correlated with jaw length, scaling as jaw length(1.032). As in dogs, the scaling of CCD in horses may reflect the influence of selective breeding on growth trajectories of different breeds, resulting in reduced body and jaw size differences among infants, when CCD is established, compared with adults. However, the allometric scaling of tooth size in horses of different breeds may be a potential influence on the scaling of CCD. The scaling of CCD with body and jaw size in goats, and to a lesser extent in alpacas, also suggests that the development of peripheral masticatory structures such as the teeth and occlusal relations may play a role in changes in CCD during the earliest stages of postnatal ontogeny

  1. Blocking of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum lectins by diverse mammalian milks.

    PubMed

    Zinger-Yosovich, K D; Iluz, D; Sudakevitz, D; Gilboa-Garber, N

    2010-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chromobacterium violaceum morbid and mortal infections are initiated by bacterial adherence to host-cell receptors via their adhesins, including lectins (which also contribute to bacterial biofilm formation). Pseudomonas aeruginosa produces a galactophilic lectin, PA-IL (LecA), and a fucophilic (Lewis-specific) lectin, PA-IIL (LecB), and C. violaceum produces a fucophilic (H-specific) lectin, CV-IIL. The antibiotic resistance of these bacteria prompted the search for glycosylated receptor-mimicking compounds that would function as glycodecoys for blocking lectin attachment to human cell receptors. Lectins PA-IL and PA-IIL have been shown to be useful for such glycodecoy probing, clearly differentiating between human and cow milks. This article describes their usage, together with CV-IIL and the plant lectin concanavalin A, for comparing the anti-lectin-dependent adhesion potential of diverse mammalian milks. The results show that the diverse milks differ in blocking (hemagglutination inhibition) and differential binding (Western blots) of these lectins. Human milk most strongly inhibited the 3 bacterial lectins (with PA-IIL superiority), followed by alpaca, giraffe, and monkey milks, whereas cow milk was a weak inhibitor. Lectin PA-IL was inhibited strongly by human, followed by alpaca, mare, giraffe, buffalo, and monkey milks, weakly by camel milk, and not at all by rabbit milk. Lectins PA-IIL and CV-IIL were also most sensitive to human milk, followed by alpaca, monkey, giraffe, rabbit, and camel milks but negligibly sensitive to buffalo and mare milks. Plant lectin concanavalinA, which was used as the reference, differed from them in that it was much less sensitive to human milk and was equally as sensitive to cow milk. These results have provided important information on the anti-lectin-dependent adhesion potential of the diverse milks examined. They showed that human followed by alpaca, giraffe, and Rhesus monkey milks efficiently

  2. Expiratory washout versus optimization of mechanical ventilation during permissive hypercapnia in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Richecoeur, J; Lu, Q; Vieira, S R; Puybasset, L; Kalfon, P; Coriat, P; Rouby, J J

    1999-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare three ventilatory techniques for reducing PaCO2 in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome treated with permissive hypercapnia: (1) expiratory washout alone at a flow of 15 L/min, (2) optimized mechanical ventilation defined as an increase in the respiratory frequency to the maximal rate possible without development of intrinsic positive end- expiratory pressure (PEEP) combined with a reduction of the instrumental dead space, and (3) the combination of both methods. Tidal volume was set according to the pressure-volume curve in order to obtain an inspiratory plateau airway pressure equal to the upper inflection point minus 2 cm H2O after setting the PEEP at 2 cm H2O above the lower inflection point and was kept constant throughout the study. The three modalities were compared at the same inspiratory plateau airway pressure through an adjustment of the extrinsic PEEP. During conventional mechanical ventilation using a respiratory frequency of 18 breaths/min, respiratory acidosis (PaCO2 = 84 +/- 24 mm Hg and pH = 7.21 +/- 0.12) was observed. Expiratory washout and optimized mechanical ventilation (respiratory frequency of 30 +/- 4 breaths/min) had similar effects on CO2 elimination (DeltaPaCO2 = -28 +/- 11% versus -27 +/- 12%). A further decrease in PaCO2 was observed when both methods were combined (DeltaPaCO2 = -46 +/- 7%). Extrinsic PEEP had to be reduced by 5.3 +/- 2.1 cm H2O during expiratory washout and by 7.3 +/- 1.3 cm H2O during the combination of the two modes, whereas it remained unchanged during optimized mechanical ventilation alone. In conclusion, increasing respiratory rate and reducing instrumental dead space during conventional mechanical ventilation is as efficient as expiratory washout to reduce PaCO2 in patients with severe ARDS and permissive hypercapnia. When used in combination, both techniques have additive effects and result in PaCO2 levels close to normal values. PMID:10390383

  3. Comparison of fluid types for resuscitation in acute hemorrhagic shock and evaluation of gastric luminal and transcutaneous Pco2 in Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed

    Wernick, Morena B; Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Martin-Jurado, Olga; Howard, Judith; Vogler, Barbara; Vogt, Rainer; Codron, Daryl; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 3 different fluid types for resuscitation after experimentally induced hemorrhagic shock in anesthetized chickens and to evaluate partial pressures of carbon dioxide measured in arterial blood (Paco2), with a transcutaneous monitor (TcPco2), with a gastric intraluminal monitor (GiPco2), and by end tidal measurements (Etco2) under stable conditions and after induced hemorrhagic shock. Hemorrhagic shock was induced in 40 white leghorn chickens by removing 50% of blood volume by phlebotomy under general anesthesia. Birds were divided into 4 groups: untreated (control group) and treated with intravenous hetastarch (haes group), with a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (hemospan group), or by autotransfusion (blood group). Respiratory rates, heart rates, and systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) were compared at 8 time points (baseline [T0]; at the loss of 10% [T10%], 20% [T20%], 30% [T30%], 40% [T40%], and 50% [T50%] of blood volume; at the end of resuscitation [RES]; and at the end of anesthesia [END]). Packed cell volume (PCV) and blood hemoglobin content were compared at 6 time points (T0, T50%, RES, and 1, 3, and 7 days after induced hemorrhagic shock). Measurements of Paco2, TcPco2, GiPco2, and Etco2 were evaluated at 2 time points (T0 and T50%), and venous lactic acid concentrations were evaluated at 3 time points (T0, T50%, and END). No significant differences were found in mortality, respiratory rate, heart rate, PCV, or hemoglobin values among the 4 groups. Birds given fluid resuscitation had significantly higher SAPs after fluid administration than did birds in the control group. In all groups, PCV and hemoglobin concentrations began to rise by day 3 after phlebotomy, and baseline values were reached 7 days after blood removal. At T0, TcPco2 did not differ significantly from Paco2, but GiPco2 and Etco2 differed significantly from Paco2. After hemorrhagic shock, GiPco2 and TcPco2 differed significantly

  4. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    PubMed

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada. PMID:25680921

  5. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    PubMed

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas. PMID:23153624

  6. Testing Dark Energy with the Advanced Liquid-Mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LoVerde, M.; Corasaniti, P. S.; Crotts, A.; Blake, C.

    2006-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid-Mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics (ALPACA) is a proposed 8-meter liquid mirror telescope surveying ˜ 1000 deg2 of the southern-hemisphere sky. It will be a remarkably simple and inexpensive telescope that will nonetheless deliver a powerful sample of optical data for studying dark energy. The bulk of the cosmological data consists of nightly, high signal-to-noise, multiband light curves of SN Ia. At the end of the three-year run ALPACA is expected to collect ˜ 100,000 SN Ia up to z ˜ 1. This will allow accurate calibration of the standard-candle relation and reduce the systematic uncertainties. The survey will also provide several other datasets such as the detection of baryon acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum and shear weak lensing measurements. In this preliminary analysis we forecast constraints on dark energy parameters from SN Ia and baryon acoustic oscillations. The combination of these two datasets will provide competitive constraints on the dark energy parameters with minimal prior assumptions. Further studies are needed to address the accuracy of weak lensing measurements.

  7. Testing dark energy with the Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corasaniti, Pier Stefano; LoVerde, Marilena; Crotts, Arlin; Blake, Chris

    2006-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe of Asteroids, Cosmology and Astrophysics (ALPACA) is a proposed 8-m liquid-mirror telescope surveying ~1000deg2 of the Southern hemisphere sky. It will be a remarkably simple and inexpensive telescope that none the less will deliver a powerful sample of optical data for studying dark energy. The bulk of the cosmological data consist of nightly, high signal-to-noise ratio, multiband light curves of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). At the end of the 3-yr run, ALPACA is expected to collect >~100000 SNe Ia up to z ~ 1. This will allow us to reduce present systematic uncertainties affecting the standard-candle relation. The survey will also provide several other data sets such as the detection of baryon acoustic oscillations in the matter power spectrum and shear weak-lensing measurements. In this preliminary analysis, we forecast constraints on dark energy parameters from SNe Ia and baryon acoustic oscillations. The combination of these two data sets will provide competitive constraints on the dark energy parameters under minimal prior assumptions. Further studies are needed to address the accuracy of weak-lensing measurements.

  8. Evidence for an Ancestral Association of Human Coronavirus 229E with Bats

    PubMed Central

    Corman, Victor Max; Baldwin, Heather J.; Tateno, Adriana Fumie; Zerbinati, Rodrigo Melim; Annan, Augustina; Owusu, Michael; Nkrumah, Evans Ewald; Maganga, Gael Darren; Oppong, Samuel; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Vallo, Peter; da Silva Filho, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira; Leroy, Eric M.; Thiel, Volker; van der Hoek, Lia; Poon, Leo L. M.; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We previously showed that close relatives of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) exist in African bats. The small sample and limited genomic characterizations have prevented further analyses so far. Here, we tested 2,087 fecal specimens from 11 bat species sampled in Ghana for HCoV-229E-related viruses by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Only hipposiderid bats tested positive. To compare the genetic diversity of bat viruses and HCoV-229E, we tested historical isolates and diagnostic specimens sampled globally over 10 years. Bat viruses were 5- and 6-fold more diversified than HCoV-229E in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and spike genes. In phylogenetic analyses, HCoV-229E strains were monophyletic and not intermixed with animal viruses. Bat viruses formed three large clades in close and more distant sister relationships. A recently described 229E-related alpaca virus occupied an intermediate phylogenetic position between bat and human viruses. According to taxonomic criteria, human, alpaca, and bat viruses form a single CoV species showing evidence for multiple recombination events. HCoV-229E and the alpaca virus showed a major deletion in the spike S1 region compared to all bat viruses. Analyses of four full genomes from 229E-related bat CoVs revealed an eighth open reading frame (ORF8) located at the genomic 3′ end. ORF8 also existed in the 229E-related alpaca virus. Reanalysis of HCoV-229E sequences showed a conserved transcription regulatory sequence preceding remnants of this ORF, suggesting its loss after acquisition of a 229E-related CoV by humans. These data suggested an evolutionary origin of 229E-related CoVs in hipposiderid bats, hypothetically with camelids as intermediate hosts preceding the establishment of HCoV-229E. IMPORTANCE The ancestral origins of major human coronaviruses (HCoVs) likely involve bat hosts. Here, we provide conclusive genetic evidence for an evolutionary origin of the common cold virus HCoV-229E in

  9. Porcine MAP3K5 analysis: molecular cloning, characterization, tissue expression pattern, and copy number variations associated with residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Pu, L; Zhang, L C; Zhang, J S; Song, X; Wang, L G; Liang, J; Zhang, Y B; Liu, X; Yan, H; Zhang, T; Yue, J W; Li, N; Wu, Q Q; Wang, L X

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 (MAP3K5) is essential for apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation, and immune responses, and is a candidate marker for residual feed intake (RFI) in pig. We cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of porcine MAP3K5 by rapid-amplification of cDNA ends. The 5451-bp gene contains a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) (718 bp), a coding region (3738 bp), and a 3'-UTR (995 bp), and encodes a peptide of 1245 amino acids, which shares 97, 99, 97, 93, 91, and 84% sequence identity with cattle, sheep, human, mouse, chicken, and zebrafish MAP3K5, respectively. The deduced MAP3K5 protein sequence contains two conserved domains: a DUF4071 domain and a protein kinase domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that porcine MAP3K5 forms a separate branch to vicugna and camel MAP3K5. Tissue expression analysis using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) revealed that MAP3K5 was expressed in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, muscle, fat, pancrea, ileum, and stomach tissues. Copy number variation was detected for porcine MAP3K5 and validated by qRT-PCR. Furthermore, a significant increase in average copy number was detected in the low RFI group when compared to the high RFI group in a Duroc pig population. These results provide useful information regarding the influence of MAP3K5 on RFI in pigs. PMID:27525933

  10. Mechanism of augmented exercise hyperpnea in chronic heart failure and dead space loading

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Chi-Sang; Tin, Chung

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) suffer increased alveolar VD/VT (dead-space-to-tidal-volume ratio), yet they demonstrate augmented pulmonary ventilation such that arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) remains remarkably normal from rest to moderate exercise. This paradoxical effect suggests that the control law governing exercise hyperpnea is not merely determined by metabolic CO2 production (V̇CO2) per se but is responsive to an apparent (real-feel) metabolic CO2 load (V˙CO2o) that also incorporates the adverse effect of physiological VD/VT on pulmonary CO2 elimination. By contrast, healthy individuals subjected to dead space loading also experience augmented ventilation at rest and during exercise as with increased alveolar VD/VT in CHF, but the resultant response is hypercapnic instead of eucapnic, as with CO2 breathing. The ventilatory effects of dead space loading are therefore similar to those of increased alveolar VD/VT and CO2 breathing combined. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the increased series VD/VT in dead space loading adds to V˙CO2o as with increased alveolar VD/VT in CHF, but this is through rebreathing of CO2 in dead space gas thus creating a virtual (illusory) airway CO2 load within each inspiration, as opposed to a true airway CO2 load during CO2 breathing that clogs the mechanism for CO2 elimination through pulmonary ventilation. Thus, the chemosensing mechanism at the respiratory controller may be responsive to putative drive signals mediated by within-breath PaCO2 oscillations independent of breath-to-breath fluctuations of the mean PaCO2 level. Skeletal muscle afferents feedback, while important for early-phase exercise cardioventilatory dynamics, appears inconsequential for late-phase exercise hyperpnea. PMID:23274121

  11. High-frequency oscillatory ventilation and an interventional lung assist device to treat hypoxaemia and hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    David, M; Heinrichs, W

    2004-10-01

    A male patient accidentally aspirated paraffin oil when performing as a fire-eater. Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (Pa(o(2))/Fi(o(2)) ratio 10.7 kPa) developed within 24 h. Conventional pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) with high airway pressures and low tidal volumes failed to improve oxygenation. Hypercapnia (Pa(co(2)) 12 kPa) with severe acidosis (pH<7.20) ensued. Treatment with high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) and a higher adjusted airway pressure (35 cm H(2)O) improved the Pa(o(2))/Fi(o(2)) ratio within 1 h from 10.7 to 22.9 kPa, but the hypercapnia and acidosis continued. Stepwise reduction of the mean airway pressure (26 cm H(2)O), and oscillating frequencies (3.5 Hz), as well as increasing the oscillating amplitudes (95 cm H(2)O) resulted in an unchanged Pa(co(2)), but oxygenation worsened. The new pumpless extracorporeal interventional lung assist device (ILA, NovaLung, Hechingen, Germany) was therefore used for carbon dioxide elimination to enable a less aggressive ventilation strategy. Pa(co(2)) normalized after initiation of ILA. HFOV with a mean airway pressure of 32 cm H(2)O was maintained, but with a higher oscillatory frequency (9 Hz) and very low oscillatory amplitude (25 cm H(2)O). After 6 days, the patient was transferred to a conventional ventilator, and ILA was discontinued after 13 days without complications. PMID:15277297

  12. Respiratory patterns in anesthetised rats before and after anemic decerebration.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, F; Sinclair, J D

    1991-04-01

    Experiments were undertaken to test the comparability of changes in respiratory frequency and tidal volume during hypoxia and hypercapnia in rats with and without intact peripheral chemoreceptors and with intact vagi. Neural organisation of respiratory control was perturbed by anemic decerebration, achieved by ligation of the common carotid and basilar arteries. Ischemia of the brain was produced as far candal as the rostral pontine nuclei involved in respiratory control but left the medulla well perfused. The dominant respiratory effect in animals breathing air or oxygen was polypnea with hypocapnia (mean PaCO2 when breathing air 24.7 mmHg, when breathing oxygen 29.6 mmHg). After decerebration the increase of ventilation produced by breathing 10% O2 in N2 was reduced compared with responses in the intact state but levels of ventilation (V1) in hypoxia were similar to those before decerebration. After decerebration, the increase of ventilation produced by breathing 5% CO2 was greatly reduced and the level of V1 in animals breathing CO2 was significantly less than in the intact state. Intermediate changes were seen in animals breathing 2-3% CO2 which converted the hypocapnia (PaCO2 30.9 mmHg) to eucapnia (PaCO2 46.4 mmHg). In the intact state, hypoxia dominantly caused increased frequency (f) and hypercapnia caused increased tidal volume (VT); after decerebration, hypoxia produced reduction of VT while hypercapnia produced reduction of f. Bilateral carotid sinus nerve section in decerebrate animals eliminated the ventilatory response to hypoxia but left the responses to hypercapnia unaltered. The results point to differences in the mechanisms by which hypoxia and hypercapnia influence respiration in both intact and decerebrate animals with carotid sinus and vagus nerves functional. The differences can now be interpreted in terms of specific neural features of respiratory control. PMID:1852990

  13. Evaluation of a nasal/oral discriminate sampling system for capnographic respiratory monitoring.

    PubMed

    Derrick, S J; Waters, H; Kang, S W; Cwalina, T F; Simmons, W

    1993-10-01

    Although continuous end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2 mmHg) measurements permit the earliest detection of alveolar hypoventilation, apnea and/or obstruction, technical difficulties have thus far precluded its reliable implementation in the spontaneously breathing patient with a natural (e.g., nonartificially secured) airway. Among the technical difficulties is the fact that conventional sampling devices do not take into account the possibility that breathing may take place primarily through either the nose or the mouth. As a result, the efficacy of a new nasal/oral discriminate sampling system (NODSS) was examined for capnographic observation of respiratory adequacy. NODSS is unique because it provides the opportunity to select simultaneous or discriminate collection of carbon dioxide exhaled through the nose and/or mouth. Twenty-four American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I to IV patients (ages 30-88 years) were capnographically monitored in the postanesthesia care unit following general anesthesia for various surgical procedures. All patients were extubated and breathing spontaneously. Simultaneously, direct arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2 mmHg) determinations were made using an indwelling radial artery catheter to determine their correlation with PETCO2 obtained by NODSS. A comparison between PaCO2 values and noninvasive nasal and/or oral PETCO2 obtained by NODSS showed a positive correlation (r value) of 0.602 to 0.849 when statistically analyzed by Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. There was no significant difference between the mean (PaCO2-PETCO2) gradient derived through nasal sampling, as compared to the mean gradient derived by oral sampling with this device (P > 0.05). Noninvasive capnographic monitoring by NODSS is a convenient, reliable, effective, and accurate alternative to direct arterial blood gas determination that may be used for the early detection of respiratory inadequacy in the spontaneously breathing patient who

  14. Large Animal Model of Pumpless Arteriovenous Extracorporeal CO₂ Removal Using Room Air via Subclavian Vessels.

    PubMed

    Witer, Lucas J; Howard, Ryan A; Trahanas, John M; Bryner, Benjamin S; Alghanem, Fares; Hoffman, Hayley R; Cornell, Marie S; Bartlett, Robert H; Rojas-Peña, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    End-stage lung disease (ESLD) causes progressive hypercapnia and dyspnea and impacts quality of life. Many extracorporeal support (ECS) configurations for CO2 removal resolve symptoms but limit ambulation. An ovine model of pumpless ECS using subclavian vessels was developed to allow for ambulatory support. Vascular grafts were anastomosed to the left subclavian vessels in four healthy sheep. A low-resistance membrane oxygenator was attached in an arteriovenous (AV) configuration. Device function was evaluated in each animal while awake and spontaneously breathing and while mechanically ventilated with hypercapnia induced. Sweep gas (FiO2 = 0.21) to the device was increased from 0 to 15 L/min, and arterial and postdevice blood gases, as well as postdevice air, were sampled. Hemodynamics remained stable with average AV shunt flows of 1.34 ± 0.14 L/min. In awake animals, CO2 removal was 3.4 ± 1.0 ml/kg/min at maximum sweep gas flow. Respiratory rate decreased from 60 ± 25 at baseline to 30 ± 11 breaths per minute. In animals with induced hypercapnia, PaCO2 increased to 73.9 ± 15.1. At maximum sweep gas flow, CO2 removal was 3.4 ± 0.4 ml/kg/min and PaCO2 decreased to 49.1 ± 6.7 mm Hg. Subclavian AV access is effective in lowering PaCO2 and respiratory rate and is potentially an effective ambulatory destination therapy for ESLD patients. PMID:26461241

  15. Clinical predictors of a low central venous oxygen saturation after major surgery: a prospective prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Litton, E; Silbert, B; Ho, K M

    2015-01-01

    Optimising perioperative haemodynamic status may reduce postoperative complications. In this prospective prevalence study, we investigated the associations between standard haemodynamic parameters and a low central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) in patients after major surgery. A total of 201 patients requiring continuous arterial and central venous pressure monitoring after major surgery were recruited. Simultaneous arterial and central venous blood gases, haemodynamic and biochemical data and perfusion index were obtained from patients at a single time-point within 24 hours of surgery. A low ScvO2 (<70%) was observed in 109 patients (54%). Use of mechanical ventilation, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, haemoglobin concentrations, arterial pH and lactate concentrations, arterial oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide tensions (PaCO2) were all associated with a low ScvO2 in the univariate analyses. In the multivariate analysis, only a higher perfusion index (odds ratio [OR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78 to 0.98), PaO2 (OR 0.98 per mmHg increment, 95% CI 0.97 to 0.99) and PaCO2 (OR 0.88 per mmHg increment, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.95) and a lower central venous pressure (OR 1.14 per mmHg increment, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.25) were significantly associated with a reduced risk of a low ScvO2, all in a linear fashion. In conclusion, PaO2, PaCO2, perfusion index and central venous pressure were significant predictors of a low ScvO2 in patients after major surgery including cardiac surgery. PMID:25579290

  16. Effects of various combinations of benzodiazepines with buprenorphine on arterial blood gases in rats.

    PubMed

    Pirnay, Stéphane O; Mégarbane, Bruno; Borron, Stephen W; Risède, Patricia; Monier, Claire; Ricordel, Ivan; Baud, Frédéric J

    2008-09-01

    Fatalities have been attributed to combinations of high-dose buprenorphine with benzodiazepines. In rats, high-dose buprenorphine combined with midazolam was shown to induce sustained respiratory acidosis, while buprenorphine alone did not. However, the effects of buprenorphine combined with pharmacological doses of benzodiazepines remain unknown. Our objective was to compare the acute effects of four selected benzodiazepines used intravenously at equi-efficacious doses in rats, alone and in combination with buprenorphine on sedation, respiratory rate and arterial blood gases. Buprenorphine (30 mg/kg) did not significantly modify sedation level or respiratory rate, but induced mild and transient effects on pH and PaCO(2) (P < 0.05). Similarly, despite having no effects on respiratory rate, nordiazepam (10 mg/kg), bromazepam (1 mg/kg) and oxazepam (12 mg/kg) mildly and transiently altered pH and PaCO(2) (P < 0.05), whereas clonazepam (5 mg/kg) did not. Buprenorphine combined with each benzodiazepine induced no significant effects on respiratory rate or blood gases, in comparison with buprenorphine alone. However, combinations of oxazepam or nordiazepam with buprenorphine significantly deepened sedation. While both combinations reduced respiratory rate, buprenorphine + 30 mg/kg clonazepam significantly increased PaCO(2) and buprenorphine + 30 mg/kg nordiazepam decreased PaO(2). In conclusion, not all benzodiazepines induce significant respiratory depression at therapeutic doses. We were unable to demonstrate significant effects on rat ventilatory parameters of buprenorphine combined with equi-efficacious pharmacological doses of benzodiazepines in comparison with buprenorphine alone. Our results may suggest that effects of these combinations are rather mild. Respiratory failure may, however, result from the association of buprenorphine with elevated doses of benzodiazepines. PMID:18684226

  17. Lack of importance of respiratory muscle load in ventilatory regulation during heavy exercise in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, B; Zintel, T; McParland, C; Gallagher, C G

    1996-01-01

    1. Seven active subjects (24 +/- 1 years; maximal oxygen uptake (VO2,max), 3.77 +/- 0.2 l min-1; mean +/- S.E.M.) performed constant work rate heavy exercise (CWHE, approximately 80% of maximal incremental work rate) to exhaustion on 2 days, one with (unload) and one without (control) respiratory muscle unloading. 2. With unloading, a special device applied flow-proportional mouth pressure assist (positive with inspiratory (I), negative with expiratory (E) flows) throughout each breath. No pressure assist occurred during control CWHE. To confirm unloading, respiratory muscle pressures (Pmus) were derived (n = 5) from measured pleural pressure and chest wall elastic and resistive pressures. 3. Other than minor differences in early exercise, the temporal course of minute ventilation (VE) was similar in both tests as exercise progressed. The fall in estimated mean alveolar CO2 (PA,CO2) throughout CWHE was identical in both tests. There were no significant differences (ANOVA) in VE, tidal volume, frequency, oxygen consumption rate (VO2), heart rate or PA,CO2, between unload and control CWHE, at matched times (at 50% of control duration and at the end of exercise). Unloading reduced Pmus significantly throughout CWHE; at 50% control duration, peak Pmus,I and Pmus,E fell by 24 and 41%, respectively, with unloading, as did mean Pmus,I and Pmus,E (21 and 44%). 4. The lack of any significant changes in VE, PA,CO2 or breathing pattern, despite a marked reduction in respiratory muscle load throughout CWHE, indicates that the load on the respiratory muscles has only a minor role in the regulation of ventilation during heavy exercise. 5. The absence of improvement in CWHE duration (control, 11.4 +/- 1.2 min; unload, 12.6 +/- 2.1 min, n.s.) with unloading implies that respiratory muscle function does not limit endurance exercise performance during cycling in healthy humans. PMID:8821150

  18. [Experimental evaluation of respiratory assist and hemodynamic changes by veno-venous bypass].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, A

    1989-06-01

    The veno-venous bypass (VVB) with a membrane lung is one of the effective procedures to provide respiratory assistance even in patients with a high mortality rate when assisted only with mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this experimental study was to reveal the efficacy of respiratory assistance and the hemodynamic changes by VVB in acute respiratory failure. VVB was carried out in 22 mongrel dogs with acute respiratory failure induced by intratracheal seawater infusion. The ventilation-perfusion ratio (V/Q) of a membrane lung was changed to 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 for each of the bypass flow rates of 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of pre-perfusion cardiac output. For each condition variables indicating blood gas status and hemodynamic parameters were measured. As the indicator evaluating the efficiency of CO2 removal by VVB, the index of VVBCO2R was used, indicating the blood CO2 tension differences between IVC and the pulmonary artery. Arterial oxygen saturation was increased with bypass flow rates greater than 60% compared with pre-VVB, but the change was not marked. VVB was considered to be inadequate as a method of oxygenation. Besides, oxygenation was not able to be controlled by changing V/Q. However, significant reduction of arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) could be obtained even with a bypass flow rate of 20%. As the blood flow rate increased, PaCO2 was lowered. But no more significant reductions of PaCO2 were obtained even with the flow rate of 60% and 80%. VVBCO2R was increased by changing the bypass flow rate from 20% to 40%, while no further increases were observed even with changes from 40% to 60% and 80%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2509600

  19. Rumbling Orchids: How To Assess Divergent Evolution Between Chloroplast Endosymbionts and the Nuclear Host.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escobar, Oscar Alejandro; Balbuena, Juan Antonio; Gottschling, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships inferred from multilocus organellar and nuclear DNA data are often difficult to resolve because of evolutionary conflicts among gene trees. However, conflicting or "outlier" associations (i.e., linked pairs of "operational terminal units" in two phylogenies) among these data sets often provide valuable information on evolutionary processes such as chloroplast capture following hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting, and horizontal gene transfer. Statistical tools that to date have been used in cophylogenetic studies only also have the potential to test for the degree of topological congruence between organellar and nuclear data sets and reliably detect outlier associations. Two distance-based methods, namely ParaFit and Procrustean Approach to Cophylogeny (PACo), were used in conjunction to detect those outliers contributing to conflicting phylogenies independently derived from chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. We explored their efficiency of retrieving outlier associations, and the impact of input data (unit branch length and additive trees) between data sets, by using several simulation approaches. To test their performance using real data sets, we additionally inferred the phylogenetic relationships within Neotropical Catasetinae (Epidendroideae, Orchidaceae), which is a suitable group to investigate phylogenetic incongruence because of hybridization processes between some of its constituent species. A comparison between trees derived from chloroplast and nuclear sequence data reflected strong, well-supported incongruence within Catasetum, Cycnoches, and Mormodes. As a result, outliers among chloroplast and nuclear data sets, and in experimental simulations, were successfully detected by PACo when using patristic distance matrices obtained from phylograms, but not from unit branch length trees. The performance of ParaFit was overall inferior compared to PACo, using either phylograms or unit branch lengths as input data. Because

  20. BiPAP in acute respiratory failure due to myasthenic crisis may prevent intubation.

    PubMed

    Rabinstein, Alejandro; Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2002-11-26

    Noninvasive mechanical ventilation using bilevel positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) has not been studied in acute respiratory failure caused by MG. Eleven episodes in nine patients were initially managed with BiPAP, and endotracheal intubation was avoided in seven of these trials. Presence of hypercapnia (PaCO2 greater than 50 mm Hg) at onset predicted BiPAP failure and subsequent intubation. Results of this preliminary study suggest that a trial of BiPAP may prevent intubation in patients with myasthenic crisis without overt hypercapnia. PMID:12451217

  1. Relationship between volume flow and velocity in the cerebral circulation1

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, J. O.; Harper, A. M.; Miller, J. D.; Tedeschi, G. M.; Jennett, W. B.

    1970-01-01

    The relationship between the velocity of the cerebral circulation and the cerebral blood flow was explored at varying levels of PaCO2, systemic arterial pressure, intracranial pressure, and perfusion pressure, using radioisotope techniques in baboons. Only at low flow rates did velocity increase with flow, and then non-linearly; at high rates velocity increased progressively less. Changes in flow are reflected by changes in velocity in such restricted circumstances that mean circulation time is a very unreliable indication of cerebral blood flow. PMID:5497874

  2. A comparative study of early and late extubation following transoral odontoidectomy and posterior fixation

    PubMed Central

    Marda, Manish; Pandia, Mihir Prakash; Rath, Girija Prasad; Kale, Shashank Sharad; Dash, Harihara

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Elective ventilation is the usual practice after transoral odontoidectomy (TOO) and posterior fixation. This practice of elective ventilation is not based on any evidence. The primary objective of our study was to find out the difference in oxygenation and ventilation in patients extubated early compared to those extubated late after TOO and posterior fixation. The secondary objectives were to compare the length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU)/hospital stay and pulmonary complications between the two groups. Material and Methods: After TOO and posterior fixation, patients were either extubated in the operating room (Group E) or extubated next day (Group D). The oxygenation (PaO2:FiO2 ratio) and ventilation (PaCO2) of the two groups before surgery, at 30 min and at 6/12/24 and 48 h after extubation were compared. Complications, durations of ICU and hospital stay were noted. Results: The base-line PaO2:FiO2 and PaCO2 was comparable between the groups. No significant change in the PaO2:FiO2 was noted in the postoperative period in either group as compared to the preoperative values. Except for at 12 h after surgery, there was no significant difference between the two groups at various time intervals. No significant change in the PaCO2 level was seen during the study period in either group. PaCO2 measured at 30 min after surgery was more in Group E (37.5 ± 3.2 mmHg in Group E vs. 34.6 ± 2.9 mmHg in Group D), otherwise there was no significant difference between the two groups at various time intervals. One patient in Group E (7.1%) and two patients in Group D (13%) developed postoperative respiratory complication, but the difference was not statistically significant. The mean ICU stay (Group D = 42 ± 25 h vs. Group E = 25.1 ± 16.9 h) and mean hospital stay (Group D = 9.9 ± 4 days vs. Group E = 7.6 ± 2.2 days) were longer in Group D patients. Conclusion: Ventilation and oxygenation in the postoperative period in patients undergoing TOO and

  3. Sleep hypoventilation and daytime hypercapnia in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Holmedahl, Nils Henrik; Øverland, Britt; Fondenes, Ove; Ellingsen, Ivar; Hardie, Jon Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To explore the associations between sleep hypoventilation (SH) and daytime arterial pressures of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), sleep stages, and sleep apneas/hypopneas (AHI) in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SH has previously been found in COPD-subjects with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure (CHRF) using supplementary oxygen (LTOT), and has been proposed as a possible predictor for CHRF. Patients and methods A prospectively designed observational study in a pulmonary rehabilitation hospital of 100 (39 male) stable COPD inpatients with a mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) of 1.1 L (42% of predicted) and a mean age of 64 years, using polysomnography with transcutaneous measurement of carbon dioxide pressure increase (ΔPtcCO2). Results SH as defined by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) was found in 15 of the subjects, seven of whom used LTOT. However, six had SH despite being normocapnic during the daytime (only one on LTOT). Subjects with SH had a greater ΔPtcCO2 increase from nonrapid eye movement (NREM) to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stages compared to non-SH subjects (mean [standard deviation] between-groups difference =0.23(0.20) kPa, P<0.0005). Subjects with apnea/hypopnea index ≥15 (overlap, N=27) did not differ from those with COPD alone (AHI <5, N=25) in sleep ΔPtcCO2 or daytime PaCO2. A regression model with the variables FEV1, LTOT, and sleep maximum ΔPtcCO2 explained 56% of the variance in daytime PaCO2 (F(3, 94) =40.37, P<0.001). Conclusion In stable COPD, SH as defined by the AASM was found both in normocapnic, non-LTOT subjects and in hypercapnic, LTOT-using subjects. Between-sleep-stage increase in ΔPtcCO2 was higher in subjects with SH. Overlap subjects did not differ from simple COPD subjects in sleep ΔPtcCO2 or daytime PaCO2. PMID:24600219

  4. [Value of jet ventilation during otorhinolaryngologic endoscopies practiced under general anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Klein, J P; Sauvage, J P; Desmonts, J M

    1976-01-01

    A technique of jet ventilation under general anesthesia (Alfaterinse suxamethonium) was used in 67 patients, in 55 cases for multiple endoscopic examinations in a single stage, usually laryngoscopy in suspension followed by oesophagoscopy, and in 12 cases, for an operation on the larynx. Arterial gasometry (PaO2 and PaCO2) proved the efficacy of the method, the major risk remaining, in the opinion of the authors, the possibility of excessive pressure which may be avoided by strict supervision. PMID:12690

  5. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) origin and animal reservoir.

    PubMed

    Mohd, Hamzah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans. Though not confirmed yet, multiple surveillance and phylogenetic studies suggest a bat origin. The disease is heavily endemic in dromedary camel populations of East Africa and the Middle East. It is unclear as to when the virus was introduced to dromedary camels, but data from studies that investigated stored dromedary camel sera and geographical distribution of involved dromedary camel populations suggested that the virus was present in dromedary camels several decades ago. Though bats and alpacas can serve as potential reservoirs for MERS-CoV, dromedary camels seem to be the only animal host responsible for the spill over human infections. PMID:27255185

  6. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Horse: Zoonotic Concerns and Limitations of Antemortem Testing

    PubMed Central

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Lecu, Alexis; Waters, W. Ray; Posthaus, Horst; Bodmer, Thomas; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Aloisio, Fabio; Graubner, Claudia; Grosclaude, Eléonore; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Schiller, Irene

    2012-01-01

    A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of mycobacteriosis. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid granulomas communicating with the bronchiolar lumen, pleural effusion, and a granulomatous lymphadenitis involving mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were found. Serologic response to M. tuberculosis antigens was detected in the infected horse, but not in the group of 42 potentially exposed animals (18 horses, 14 alpacas, 6 donkeys, and 4 dogs) which showed no signs of disease. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in live horses remains extremely difficult. Four of 20 animal handlers at the farm were positive for tuberculous infection upon follow-up testing by interferon-gamma release assay, indicating a possibility of interspecies transmission of M. tuberculosis. PMID:22567544

  7. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Danielle D.; Duprau, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Evermann, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). PMID:26779126

  8. Pulmonary Disease due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Horse: Zoonotic Concerns and Limitations of Antemortem Testing.

    PubMed

    Lyashchenko, Konstantin P; Greenwald, Rena; Esfandiari, Javan; Lecu, Alexis; Waters, W Ray; Posthaus, Horst; Bodmer, Thomas; Janssens, Jean-Paul; Aloisio, Fabio; Graubner, Claudia; Grosclaude, Eléonore; Piersigilli, Alessandra; Schiller, Irene

    2012-01-01

    A case of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in a horse. Clinical evaluation performed prior to euthanasia did not suggest tuberculosis, but postmortem examination provided pathological and bacteriological evidence of mycobacteriosis. In the lungs, multiple tuberculoid granulomas communicating with the bronchiolar lumen, pleural effusion, and a granulomatous lymphadenitis involving mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes were found. Serologic response to M. tuberculosis antigens was detected in the infected horse, but not in the group of 42 potentially exposed animals (18 horses, 14 alpacas, 6 donkeys, and 4 dogs) which showed no signs of disease. Diagnosis of tuberculosis in live horses remains extremely difficult. Four of 20 animal handlers at the farm were positive for tuberculous infection upon follow-up testing by interferon-gamma release assay, indicating a possibility of interspecies transmission of M. tuberculosis. PMID:22567544

  9. Model selection as a science driver for dark energy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David; Corasaniti, Pier Stefano; Liddle, Andrew R.; Kunz, Martin

    2006-07-01

    A key science goal of upcoming dark energy surveys is to seek time-evolution of the dark energy. This problem is one of model selection, where the aim is to differentiate between cosmological models with different numbers of parameters. However, the power of these surveys is traditionally assessed by estimating their ability to constrain parameters, which is a different statistical problem. In this paper, we use Bayesian model selection techniques, specifically forecasting of the Bayes factors, to compare the abilities of different proposed surveys in discovering dark energy evolution. We consider six experiments - supernova luminosity measurements by the Supernova Legacy Survey, SNAP, JEDI and ALPACA, and baryon acoustic oscillation measurements by WFMOS and JEDI - and use Bayes factor plots to compare their statistical constraining power. The concept of Bayes factor forecasting has much broader applicability than dark energy surveys.

  10. Construction of radiation hybrid panels.

    PubMed

    Page, John E; Murphy, William J

    2008-01-01

    Whole-genome radiation hybrid (RH) mapping has proven to be a powerful tool for mapping genes and comparing genome architecture. We describe a protocol for constructing RH panels by rescuing irradiated fibroblast donor cells of any mammalian species by polyethylene glycol fusion to a thymidine kinase-deficient hamster cell line. Characterization and expansion of a panel of 90-100 cell lines can be used to map virtually any PCR-based marker that can be distinguished from the recipient hamster genome. The described procedure has been used successfully to create RH panels from diverse mammalian species such as macaques, elephants, alpacas, and armadillos, and may be applicable to nonmammalian vertebrates as well. PMID:18629660

  11. Comparisons of mammalian Giardia duodenalis assemblages based on the β-giardin, glutamate dehydrogenase and triose phosphate isomerase genes.

    PubMed

    Scorza, Andrea V; Ballweber, Lora R; Tangtrongsup, Sahatchai; Panuska, Carla; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-10-26

    The objective of this study was to determine and compare the assemblages of Giardia duodenalis isolated from mammalian fecal samples using the β-giardin (bg), glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triosephosphate isomerase (tpi) genes. A total of 202 samples, either submitted to the Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (Parasitology) at Colorado State University or part of ongoing research studies, were typed. A subset of 50 dog samples were also assessed by the tpi-D-specific primers. Of these, 183 were from dogs, 13 were from cats, two were from llamas, and one each was from a calf, an alpaca, a sheep, and a horse. The majority of the dogs (171 of 183 isolates) in this study were infected with only dog-adapted Assemblage C or D. The tpi-D-specific primers confirmed that 28 of the samples that typed as Assemblage D by the bg and gdh genes were also Assemblage D by the tpi-D-specific primers. Only 12 isolates were Assemblage A alone or Assemblage A and Assemblage C or D. Of the 13 cat isolates, seven were Assemblage F, two were Assemblage D, three were Assemblage A and 1 contained both Assemblages C and D. The calf isolate was Assemblage E (gdh, tpi) and the alpaca (bg, gdh), llamas (gdh), sheep (bg, gdh, tpi) and horse (tpi) isolates were all Assemblage A. When the assemblage could be determined for more than one gene, 91 of 117 dog isolates gave consistent results and 8 of 9 cat isolates gave consistent results. PMID:22652427

  12. Comparative studies of water permeability of red blood cells from humans and over 30 animal species: an overview of 20 years of collaboration with Philip Kuchel.

    PubMed

    Benga, Gheorghe

    2013-01-01

    NMR measurements of the diffusional permeability of the human adult red blood cell (RBC) membrane to water (P(d)) and of the activation energy (E(a,d)) of the process furnished values of P(d) ~ 4 × 10(-3) cm/s at 25 °C and ~6.1 × 10(-3) cm/s at 37 °C, and E(a,d) ~ 26 kJ/mol. Comparative NMR measurements for other species showed: (1) monotremes (echidna and platypus), chicken, little penguin, and saltwater crocodile have the lowest P(d) values; (2) sheep, cow, and elephant have P(d) values lower than human P(d) values; (3) cat, horse, alpaca, and camel have P(d) values close to those of humans; (4) guinea pig, dog, dingo, agile wallaby, red-necked wallaby, Eastern grey kangaroo, and red kangaroo have P(d) values higher than those of humans; (5) mouse, rat, rabbit, and "small and medium size" marsupials have the highest values of P(d) (>8.0 × 10(-3) cm/s at 25 °C and >10.0 × 10(-3) cm/s at 37 °C). There are peculiarities of E(a,d) values for the RBCs from different species. The maximum inhibition of diffusional permeability of RBCs induced by incubation with p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonate varied between 0% (for the chicken and little penguin) to ~50% (for human, mouse, cat, sheep, horse, camel, and Indian elephant), and ~60-75% (for rat, guinea pig, rabbit, dog, alpaca, and all marsupials). These results indicate that no water channel proteins (WCPs) or aquaporins are present in the membrane of RBCs from monotremes (echidna, platypus), chicken, little penguin and saltwater crocodile whereas WCPs from the membranes of RBCs from marsupials have peculiarities. PMID:23104624

  13. Generation of a Nanobody Targeting the Paraflagellar Rod Protein of Trypanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Obishakin, Emmanuel; Stijlemans, Benoit; Santi-Rocca, Julien; Vandenberghe, Isabel; Devreese, Bart; Muldermans, Serge; Bastin, Philippe; Magez, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosomes are protozoan parasites that cause diseases in humans and livestock for which no vaccines are available. Disease eradication requires sensitive diagnostic tools and efficient treatment strategies. Immunodiagnostics based on antigen detection are preferable to antibody detection because the latter cannot differentiate between active infection and cure. Classical monoclonal antibodies are inaccessible to cryptic epitopes (based on their size-150 kDa), costly to produce and require cold chain maintenance, a condition that is difficult to achieve in trypanosomiasis endemic regions, which are mostly rural. Nanobodies are recombinant, heat-stable, small-sized (15 kDa), antigen-specific, single-domain, variable fragments derived from heavy chain-only antibodies in camelids. Because of numerous advantages over classical antibodies, we investigated the use of nanobodies for the targeting of trypanosome-specific antigens and diagnostic potential. An alpaca was immunized using lysates of Trypanosoma evansi. Using phage display and bio-panning techniques, a cross-reactive nanobody (Nb392) targeting all trypanosome species and isolates tested was selected. Imunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry assays were combined to identify the target recognized. Nb392 targets paraflagellar rod protein (PFR1) of T. evansi, T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax. Two different RNAi mutants with defective PFR assembly (PFR2RNAi and KIF9BRNAi) were used to confirm its specificity. In conclusion, using a complex protein mixture for alpaca immunization, we generated a highly specific nanobody (Nb392) that targets a conserved trypanosome protein, i.e., PFR1 in the flagella of trypanosomes. Nb392 is an excellent marker for the PFR and can be useful in the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis. In addition, as demonstrated, Nb392 can be a useful research or PFR protein isolation tool. PMID:25551637

  14. Estimating venous admixture using a physiological simulator.

    PubMed

    Hardman, J G; Bedforth, N M

    1999-03-01

    Estimation of venous admixture in patients with impaired gas exchange allows monitoring of disease progression, efficacy of interventions and assessment of the optimal inspired oxygen fraction. A pulmonary artery catheter allows accurate measurement, although the associated risks preclude its use solely for estimation of venous admixture. Non-invasive methods require assumed values for physiological variables. Many of the required data (e.g. haemoglobin concentration (Hb), base excess, inspired oxygen fraction, arterial oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2) tensions, temperature) are available routinely in the intensive therapy unit. We have compared a typical iso-shunt-style estimation of venous admixture (assuming Hb, base excess, PaCO2 and temperature), and estimation using the Nottingham physiology simulator (NPS), with measured data. When the arteriovenous oxygen content difference (CaO2-CvO2) was assumed to be 50 ml litre-1, the 95% limits of agreement (LA95%) for venous admixture using the NPS were -3.9 +/- 8.5% and using an iso-shunt-style calculation, -6.4 +/- 10.6%. CaO2-CvO2 was 41.1 ml litre-1 in the patients studied, consistent with previous studies in the critically ill. When CaO2-CvO2 was assumed to be 40 ml litre-1, LA95% values were 0.5 +/- 8.2% and -2.1 +/- 10.1%, respectively. PMID:10434813

  15. Cardiovascular response during severe acute asthma and its treatment in children.

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, A T; Godfrey, S

    1981-01-01

    Heart rate, blood pressure, pulsus paradoxus, and cardiac output measured by means of transthoracic electrical impedance cardiography have been recorded in 29 children mean age 10 years +/- 2 SD during status asthmaticus. Changes were recorded over the first two hours of treatment during which all patients received oxygen, intravenous fluid, and hydrocortisone, and were randomly assigned to receive aminophylline, salbutamol, or both. Admission values showed significant correlation of pulsus paradoxus with PaCO2 (r = 0.66). Pulsus paradoxus was greater than 20 mmHg for all patients with PaCO2 above 5.5 kPa. Mean stroke volume and cardiac output were 89% and 131% of the resting convalescent values in the same children. Stroke volume cardiac output and heart rate did not correlate with peak expiratory flow rate or blood gas measurements. Aminophylline and salbutamol together were associated with significantly greater increase in PEF than aminophylline alone (P less than 0.05). Nebulised salbutamol was just as effective as intravenous salbutamol. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure declined significantly after nebulised salbutamol and aminophylline, but not after intravenous salbutamol and aminophylline. Stroke volume and cardiac output did not change significantly in any treatment group. PMID:7314025

  16. A genetic biosensor for identification of transcriptional repressors of target promoters

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weishan; Li, Xiao; Li, Yue; Li, Shanshan; Fan, Keqiang; Yang, Keqian

    2015-01-01

    Transcriptional repressors provide widespread biological significance in the regulation of gene expression. However, in prokaryotes, it is particularly difficult to find transcriptional repressors that recognize specific target promoters on genome-scale. To address this need, a genetic biosensor for identifying repressors of target promoters was developed in Escherichia coli from a de novo designed genetic circuit. This circuit can convert the negative input of repressors into positive output of reporters, thereby facilitating the selection and identification of repressors. After evaluating the sensitivity and bias, the biosensor was used to identify the repressors of scbA and aco promoters (PscbA and Paco), which control the transcription of signalling molecule synthase genes in Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces avermitilis, respectively. Two previously unknown repressors of PscbA were identified from a library of TetR family regulators in S. coelicolor, and three novel repressors of Paco were identified from a genomic library of S. avermitilis. Further in vivo and in vitro experiments confirmed that these newly identified repressors attenuated the transcription of their target promoters by direct binding. Overall, the genetic biosensor developed here presents an innovative and powerful strategy that could be applied for identifying genome-wide unknown repressors of promoters in bacteria. PMID:26510468

  17. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in children with severe head injuries. Part 2: Cerebrovascular resistance and its determinants.

    PubMed Central

    Sharples, P M; Matthews, D S; Eyre, J A

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed that in children with severe head injuries the cerebral circulation does not respond appropriately to normal physiological control mechanisms, making children more susceptible than adults to low cerebrovascular resistance, increased cerebral blood flow (cerebral hyperaemia), and raised intracranial pressure. To investigate this issue, 122 serial measurements of cerebrovascular resistance in 17 children with severe head injuries have been performed and related to cerebral perfusion pressure, arterial CO2 (PaCO2), arterial oxygen content (AO2), and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2). Cerebrovascular resistance values (mean (SD) 1.54 (0.61) mm Hg.ml-1.100 g.min) were normal or raised in most cases; 71 values (58%) were within the normal range, 39 (32%) above the upper limit, and only 12 (10%) below the lower limit. There was a significant correlation between cerebral perfusion pressure and cerebrovascular resistance (r = 0.32, p = 0.0003), suggesting preservation of pressure autoregulation. This correlation was absent in four of the five children who died or survived with severe handicap. Analysis by multilevel modelling indicated that, as in normal subjects, CMRO2, CPP, AO2, PaCO2, and cerebrovenous pH were important independent determinants of cerebrovascular resistance. The results indicate that normal cerebrovascular reactivity is often preserved in children with severe head injuries but may be impaired in the most severely injured patients. PMID:7876844

  18. Meclofenamate increases ventilation in lambs.

    PubMed

    Guerra, F A; Savich, R D; Clyman, R I; Kitterman, J A

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the effects of the prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, meclofenamate, on postnatal ventilation, we studied 11 unanaesthetised, spontaneously-breathing lambs at an average age of 7.9 +/- 1.1 days (SEM; range 5-14 days) and an average weight of 4.9 +/- 0.5 kg (range 3.0-7.0 kg). After a 30-min control period we infused 4.23 mg/kg meclofenamate over 10 min and then gave 0.23 mg/h per kg for the remainder of the 4 h. Ventilation increased progressively from a control value of 515 +/- 72 ml/min per kg to a maximum of 753 +/- 100 ml/min per kg after 3h of infusion (P less than 0.05) due to an increased breathing rate; the effects were similar during both high- and low-voltage electrocortical activity. There were no significant changes in tidal volume, heart rate, blood pressure, arterial pH or PaCO2, the increased ventilation resulted from either an increase in dead space ventilation or an increase in CO2 production. This study indicates that meclofenamate causes an increase in ventilation in lambs but no changes in pH of PaCO2. The mechanism and site of action remain to be defined. PMID:2507622

  19. SPINAL SEROTONIN RECEPTOR ACTIVATION MODULATES THE EXERCISE VENTILATORY RESPONSE WITH INCREASED DEAD SPACE IN GOATS

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, G. S.; Turner, D. L.; Henderson, D. R.; Foley, K. T.

    2008-01-01

    Small increases in respiratory dead space (VD) augment the exercise ventilatory response by a serotonin-dependent mechanism known as short-term modulation (STM). We tested the hypotheses that the relevant serotonin receptors for STM are in the spinal cord, and are of the 5-HT2-receptor subtype. After preparing adult female goats with a mid-thoracic (T6–T8) subarachnoid catheter, ventilation and arterial blood gases were measured at rest and during treadmill exercise (4.8 km/h; 5% grade) with and without an increased VD (0.2–0.3 L). Measurements were made before and after spinal or intravenous administration of a broad-spectrum serotonin receptor antagonist (methysergide, 1–2 mg total) and a selective 5-HT2-receptor antagonist (ketanserin, 5–12 mg total). Although spinal methysergide had no effect on the exercise ventilatory response in control conditions, the augmented response with increased VD was impaired, allowing PaCO2 to increase from rest to exercise. Spinal methysergide diminished both mean inspiratory flow and frequency responses to exercise with increased VD. Spinal ketanserin impaired PaCO2 regulation with increased VD, although its ventilatory effects were less clear. Intrathecal dye injections indicated CSF drug distribution was caudal to the upper cervical spinal cord and intravenous drugs at the same total dose did not affect STM. We conclude that spinal 5-HT2 receptors modulate the exercise ventilatory response with increased VD in goats. PMID:18396470

  20. Monitoring of brain and systemic oxygenation in neurocritical care patients.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Mauro; Bösel, Julian

    2014-12-01

    Maintenance of adequate oxygenation is a mainstay of intensive care, however, recommendations on the safety, accuracy, and the potential clinical utility of invasive and non-invasive tools to monitor brain and systemic oxygenation in neurocritical care are lacking. A literature search was conducted for English language articles describing bedside brain and systemic oxygen monitoring in neurocritical care patients from 1980 to August 2013. Imaging techniques e.g., PET are not considered. A total of 281 studies were included, the majority described patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). All tools for oxygen monitoring are safe. Parenchymal brain oxygen (PbtO2) monitoring is accurate to detect brain hypoxia, and it is recommended to titrate individual targets of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), ventilator parameters (PaCO2, PaO2), and transfusion, and to manage intracranial hypertension, in combination with ICP monitoring. SjvO2 is less accurate than PbtO2. Given limited data, NIRS is not recommended at present for adult patients who require neurocritical care. Systemic monitoring of oxygen (PaO2, SaO2, SpO2) and CO2 (PaCO2, end-tidal CO2) is recommended in patients who require neurocritical care. PMID:25208670

  1. Does early use of bilevel positive airway pressure (bipap) in cardiothoracic intensive care unit prevent reintubation?

    PubMed Central

    Sağıroğlu, G; Baysal, A; Çopuroğlu, E; Gül, YG; Karamustafaoğlu, YA; Dogukan, M

    2014-01-01

    Introductıon: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a preferred treatment in acute respiratory failure after operations. Our aim is to investigate the success of early use of bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP) after cardiac or thoracic surgeries to prevent reintubation. Methods: In a prospective randomized study, 254 patients were divided into two groups depending on the time period between extubation and the application of BIPAP. In Group 1 BIPAP was applied after extubation within 48 hours after surgery following fulfilling of acute respiratory failure criterias whereas, in Group 2, BIPAP was applied one hour after extubation for two episodes of 20 minute duration and 3 hours apart. Arterial blood gas values (pH, PaO2, PaCO2) at first and fourth hour after BIPAP were collected. Results: In comparison between groups, no significant differences were observed for arterial blood gas values of pH and PaCO2 at baseline, one and four hours after BIPAP (p > 0.05) however, the PaO2 values at one and four hours after BIPAP were significantly better in Group 1 in comparison to Group 2 (p < 0.001, p < 0.001; respectively). Reintubation rate was 14 patients (11%) in Group 1 and 7 patients (5.5%) in Group 2 (p = 0.103). Conclusıons: The early and prophylactic use of BIPAP after cardiac or thoracic operations did not provide diminished rates in the postoperative complications such as reintubation. PMID:25419380

  2. [Use of BiPAP during weaning from mechanical ventilation in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Sakai, T; Shimada, M; Ishizaki, T; Nakai, T

    1997-08-01

    In a 65-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory failure, bi-level positive airway pressure device (BiPAP) was used as part of weaning from mechanical ventilation. As an outpatient, he had had dyspnea of grade V (Hugh-Jones) and was hypercapnic (PaCO2 of 70 torr) and hypoxemic (PaO2 of 60 torr), while he was receiving oxygen at 2 L/min via nasal cannula. Acute respiratory failure developed due to pneumonia, and mechanical ventilation was begun. However, he could not be weaned with a standard weaning technique (T-piece). On the fifth day of mechanical ventilation, he was extubated and treatment with BiPAP was begun. He did not complain of dyspnea even though PaCO2 did not decrease, which indicates that BiPAP reduced the work of breathing. Use of BiPAP might make reintubation unnecessary when acute ventilatory failure develops soon after extubation in patients with COPD. PMID:9366166

  3. [Impaired lung function in patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2004-01-01

    VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, RV, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SS, paO2 and paCO2 were determined in 22 patients with moderate chronic obstructive bronchitis (FEV1, 79-50% of the normal value). All the patients were found to have impaired bronchial patency, 90.9% of the patients had lung volume and capacity changes; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction was present in 72.7%. Bronchial patency impairments were manifested by a decrease in FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, and an increase in Raw, Rin, Rex. Changes in the lung volumes and capacities appeared as higher RV, TGV, TLC, lower VC and FVC. Pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction showed up as a reduction in pO2 and DLCO-SS a reduction and an increase in paCO2. The magnitude of the functional changes observed in most patients was low. Significant and pronounced disorders were seen in one third of the patients. PMID:15719666

  4. [Lung dysfunction in patients with severe chronic obstructive bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2005-01-01

    VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TCL, TGV, RV, Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 36 patients with severe chronic obstructive lung disease (FEV1 < 50% of the normal value). All the patients were found to have impaired bronchial patency and changes in lung volumes and capacities; 83.3% of the patients had pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction. Impaired bronchial patency mainly appeared as decreased FEV1, FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, Raw, Rin, Rex; altered lung volumes and capacities manifested by increased RV, TGV, and TLC, and by decreased VC and FVC; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction showed up as lowered PaO2 and DLCO-SS, as decreased or increased PaCO2. The observed bronchial patency disorders varied from significant to severe; functional changes in lung volumes and capacities were mild to severe. PMID:15938497

  5. [Pulmonary function in patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Shergina, E A; Popova, L A

    2007-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25%, MEF50%, MEF75%, TLS, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), Raw, Rin, Rex, DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 29 patients with disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 93.1% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 65.5%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 79.3 and 37.9%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC, FVC, and TLS, decreased and increased TGV; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25%, MEF50%, MEF75%, and FEV1/VC% and increased Raw, Rin, and Rex; pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SS and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The observed functional changes varied from slight to significant and pronounced with a preponderance of small disorders, a lower detection rate of significant disorders, and rare detection of very pronounced ones. PMID:18041129

  6. [Pulmonary function in patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2007-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, pulmonary residual volume (PRV), R(aw), R(in),, R(ex), DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 103 patients with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Pulmonary dysfunction was detected in 83.5% of the patients. Changes were found in lung volumes and capacities in 63.1%, impaired bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction were in 60.2 and 41.7%, respectively. The changes in pulmonary volumes and capacities appeared as increased PRV, decreased VC and FVC, and decreased and increased TGV and TLC; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, FEV1/VC% and increased R(aw) R(in), and R(ex); pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, and PaO2 and decreased and increased PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes was generally slight. Significant disorders were observed rarely and very pronounced ones were exceptional. PMID:17915466

  7. [Function in patients with chronic fibrocavernous tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Nefedov, V B; Popova, L A; Shergina, E A

    2008-01-01

    Vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/VC%, PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, TLC, TGV, residual volume (RV), R(aw), R(in), R(ex), DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and PaCO2 were determined in 62 patients with chronic fibrocavernous tuberculosis. Lung dysfunctions were detected in 96.8% of the patients. Changes in lung volumes and capacities were found in 90.3%, impaired bronchial patency was in 90.3%, and pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction was in 79.0%. The lung volume and capacity changes appeared as decreased VC and FVC, decreased and increased TLC, TGV, RV; impaired bronchial patency presented as decreased PEF, MEF25, MEF50, MEF75, and FEV1/VC%; and increased R(aw), R(in), R(ex); pulmonary gas exchange dysfunction manifested itself as reduced DLCO-SB, DLCO-SS, PaO2, and decreased and increased PaCO2. The magnitude of the observed functional changes ranges from slight to significant and drastic with a predominance of considerable and drastic changes in lung volumes and capacities and mild impairments of bronchial patency and pulmonary gas exchange function. PMID:18507144

  8. The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations project: analysis of radio source properties between 5 and 217 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massardi, Marcella; Bonaldi, Anna; Bonavera, Laura; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Galluzzi, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The Planck-ATCA Co-eval Observations (PACO) project has yielded observations of 464 sources with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) between 4.5 and 40 GHz. The main purpose of the project was to investigate the spectral properties of mm-selected radio sources at frequencies below and overlapping with the ESA's Planck satellite frequency bands, minimizing the variability effects by observing almost simultaneously with the first two Planck all-sky surveys. In this paper we present the whole catalogue of observations in total intensity. By comparing PACO with the various measures of Planck Catalog of Compact Sources (PCCS) flux densities we found the best consistency with the PCCS `detection pipeline' photometry (DETFLUX) that we used to investigate the spectral properties of sources from 5 to 217 GHz. Of our sources, 91 per cent have remarkably smooth spectrum, well described by a double power-law over the full range. This suggests a single emitting region, at variance with the notion that `flat' spectra result from the superposition of the emissions from different compact regions, self-absorbed up to different frequencies. Most of the objects show a spectral steepening above ≃30 GHz, consistent with synchrotron emission becoming optically thin. Thus, the classical dichotomy between flat-spectrum/compact and steep-spectrum/extended radio sources, well established at cm wavelengths, breaks down at mm wavelengths. The mm-wave spectra do not show indications of the spectral break expected as the effect of `electron ageing', suggesting young source ages.

  9. Pico2 Monitoring of Transferred Jejunum Perfusion Using an Air Tonometry Technique After Hypopharyngeal Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ozawa, Hiroyuki; Imanishi, Yorihisa; Ito, Fumihiro; Watanabe, Yoshihiro; Kato, Takashi; Nameki, Hideo; Isobe, Kiyoshi; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of intraluminal Pco2 (Pico2) monitoring by air tonometry for the assessment of the vascular condition of the transferred jejunum after surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer. Pico2 in the transplanted jejunum of 24 patients was monitored using air tonometry after radical surgery for hypopharyngeal cancer from 2003 to 2010. All but 1 patient, who removed the catheter before monitoring began, were monitored safely. Pico2 in the transferred jejunum correlated with arterial Pco2 (Paco2) that was measured concurrently, and dissociation of Pico2 from Paco2 was observed in cases with vascular complication. In those cases without postoperative vascular complication, the Pico2 value gradually increased for 3 hours but then decreased by 12 hours after surgery. Three patients experienced major vascular complication. All 3 patients had continuous elevation of Pico2 >100 mm Hg, although vascular flow in 1 patient recovered by removal of a venous thrombosis and reanastomosis of the vein 7.5 hours after surgery. Four other patients who experienced elevation of Pico2 had their skin suture released for decompression of their neck wound, resulting in a decrease in Pico2 after treatment. The current results demonstrated that continuous monitoring of Pico2 by air tonometry accurately reflects the vascular condition of the transferred jejunum, and this method is one of the best options for postoperative monitoring of jejunum blood perfusion. PMID:25789955

  10. Physiological response to increasing levels of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA).

    PubMed

    Lecomte, François; Brander, Lukas; Jalde, Fredrick; Beck, Jennifer; Qui, Haibo; Elie, Caroline; Slutsky, Arthur S; Brunet, Fabrice; Sinderby, Christer

    2009-04-30

    This study evaluated the response to increasing levels of neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA), a mode converting electrical activity of the diaphragm (EAdi) into pressure, regulated by a proportionality constant called the NAVA level. Fourteen rabbits were studied during baseline, resistive loading and ramp increases of the NAVA level. EAdi, airway (Paw) and esophageal pressure (Pes), Pes pressure time product (PTPes), breathing pattern, and blood gases were measured. Resistive loading increased PTPes and EAdi. P(a)(CO)(2) increased with high load but not during low load. Increasing NAVA levels increased Paw until a breakpoint where the Paw increase was reduced despite increasing NAVA level. At this breakpoint, Pes, PTPes, EAdi, and P(a)(CO)(2) were similar to baseline. Further increase of the NAVA level reduced Pes, PTPes and EAdi without changes in ventilation. In conclusion, observing the trend in Paw during a ramp increase of the NAVA level allows determination of a level where the inspiratory effort matches unloaded conditions. PMID:19429528

  11. Cerebral oxygenation and hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Anthony R.; Morrison, Shawnda A.; Ainslie, Philip N.

    2014-01-01

    Hyperthermia is associated with marked reductions in cerebral blood flow (CBF). Increased distribution of cardiac output to the periphery, increases in alveolar ventilation and resultant hypocapnia each contribute to the fall in CBF during passive hyperthermia; however, their relative contribution remains a point of contention, and probably depends on the experimental condition (e.g., posture and degree of hyperthermia). The hyperthermia-induced hyperventilatory response reduces arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2) causing cerebral vasoconstriction and subsequent reductions in flow. During supine passive hyperthermia, the majority of recent data indicate that reductions in PaCO2 may be the primary, if not sole, culprit for reduced CBF. On the other hand, during more dynamic conditions (e.g., hemorrhage or orthostatic challenges), an inability to appropriately decrease peripheral vascular conductance presents a condition whereby adequate cerebral perfusion pressure may be compromised secondary to reductions in systemic blood pressure. Although studies have reported maintenance of pre-frontal cortex oxygenation (assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy) during exercise and severe heat stress, the influence of cutaneous blood flow is known to contaminate this measure. This review discusses the governing mechanisms associated with changes in CBF and oxygenation during moderate to severe (i.e., 1.0°C to 2.0°C increase in body core temperature) levels of hyperthermia. Future research directions are provided. PMID:24624095

  12. Treatment of life-threatening hypercapnia with isoflurane in an infant with status asthmaticus.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yoshiki; Tatsumi, Hiroomi; Goto, Kyoko; Imaizumi, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Shin-ichiro; Kimijima, Tomohiko; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2014-08-01

    We encountered a 2-year-old child with life-threatening hypercapnia, with a PaCO(2) of 238 mm Hg and severe respiratory and metabolic acidosis, due to status asthmaticus that was refractory to steroid and bronchodilator therapy. Suspecting ventilatory failure and excessive ventilation-induced obstructive shock, we started respiratory physiotherapy in synchrony with her respiration, to facilitate exhalation from her over-inflated lungs. Isoflurane inhalation was commenced in preparation for extracorporeal circulation, to reduce the hypercapnia. The combination of respiratory physiotherapy and isoflurane inhalation resulted in a rapid decrease in ventilatory resistance and PaCO(2) levels within a few minutes, with recovery of consciousness within 60 min. Isoflurane inhalation was gradually discontinued and steroid and aminophylline therapy were commenced. The patient recovered completely without any recurrence of her bronchospasm and without any residual neurological deficits. In our patient with a severe asthmatic attack, decreased exhalation secondary to asthma and overventilation during artificial ventilation resulted in overinflation of the lungs, which in turn led to cerebral edema and obstructive cardiac failure. The favorable outcome in this case was due to the short duration of hypercapnia. Hence, we conclude that the duration of hypercapnia is an important determinant of the morbidity and mortality of status asthmaticus-induced severe hypercapnia. PMID:24310852

  13. Use of helium-oxygen mixture in adult patients presenting with exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Colebourn, C L; Barber, V; Young, J D

    2007-01-01

    We examined systematically all controlled and cross-over randomised trials in patients with acute exacerbations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease comparing Heliox against air-oxygen mixtures. Fourteen studies were identified. In asthma studies, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was increased by an average of 29.6% (95% CI 16.6-42.6) by Heliox-driven nebulisers, or by 13.3 l.min(-1) (95% CI 3.71-22.81) absolute. In studies of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease receiving non-invasive ventilation the arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(a)co(2)) and respiratory rate were unchanged: weighted mean difference for P(a)co(2)-0.29kPa (95% CI - 0.64-0.07) favoured Heliox, and for respiratory rate 1.6 breaths.min(-1) (95% CI - 0.93, 4.14) favoured control. Heliox minimally reduced the work of breathing in intubated patients, and reduced intrinsic positive end expiratory pressure (iPEEP). The use of Heliox to drive nebulisers in patients with acute asthma slightly improves airflow measures. We were unable to determine whether this improved recovery. PMID:17156225

  14. Reduced oxygen diffusion across the shell of Gray gull (Larus modestus) eggs.

    PubMed

    Monge, C C; Ostojic, H; Aguilar, R; Cifuentes, V

    2000-01-01

    Gray gulls, Larus modestus, nest 1500 m above sea level in northern Chile's Atacama Desert, one of the driest in the world. Their eggshell gas permeability, one third of that found in other Larus species, is an adaptation that reduces water loss, but at the expense of oxygen diffusion into the air cell with resultant hypoxia and reduced metabolic rate. This contrasts with characteristics found in birds nesting at very high altitudes where oxygen diffusion across the egg shell is maximized at the expense of water conservation. The oxygen consumption (MO2) of Larus modestus is 66% that of Larus argentatus; the oxygen conductance (GO2) is equivalent to 48% of that obtained in 5 other bird species. The oxygen partial pressure (PAO2) in the air chamber of Larus modestus (84 Torr) is lower than that of 10 other bird species whose average (PAO2) is 106 Torr. The CO2 partial pressure (PACO2) in the air chamber of Larus modestus is 68 Torr, a higher value than that found in 9 other bird species whose average (PACO2) is 39 Torr. PMID:15696681

  15. Effects of acute hypercapnia with and without acidosis on lung inflammation and apoptosis in experimental acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Nardelli, L M; Rzezinski, A; Silva, J D; Maron-Gutierrez, T; Ornellas, D S; Henriques, I; Capelozzi, V L; Teodoro, W; Morales, M M; Silva, P L; Pelosi, P; Garcia, C S N B; Rocco, P R M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of acute hypercapnic acidosis and buffered hypercapnia on lung inflammation and apoptosis in experimental acute lung injury (ALI). Twenty-four hours after paraquat injection, 28 Wistar rats were randomized into four groups (n=7/group): (1) normocapnia (NC, PaCO2=35-45 mmHg), ventilated with 0.03%CO2+21%O2+balancedN2; (2) hypercapnic acidosis (HC, PaCO2=60-70 mmHg), ventilated with 5%CO2+21%O2+balancedN2; and (3) buffered hypercapnic acidosis (BHC), ventilated with 5%CO2+21%O2+balancedN2 and treated with sodium bicarbonate (8.4%). The remaining seven animals were not mechanically ventilated (NV). The mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-6 (p=0.003), IL-1β (p<0.001), and type III procollagen (PCIII) (p=0.001) in lung tissue was more reduced in the HC group in comparison with NC, with no significant differences between HC and BHC. Lung and kidney cell apoptosis was reduced in HC and BHC in comparison with NC and NV. In conclusion, in this experimental ALI model, hypercapnia, regardless of acidosis, reduced lung inflammation and lung and kidney cell apoptosis. PMID:25246186

  16. Effect of ketamine on control of breathing in cats.

    PubMed

    Jaspar, N; Mazzarelli, M; Tessier, C; Milic-Emili, J

    1983-09-01

    We studied minute ventilation, breathing pattern, end-tidal CO2 partial pressure (PACO2), and tracheal occlusion pressure in cats anesthetized with ketamine (40 and 80 mg/kg) before and after CO2 inhalation. Before CO2 administration ventilation was reduced and PACO2 increased relative to unanesthetized cats at both ketamine doses. Breathing pattern was of the "apneustic" type, being characterized by 1) prolonged inspiratory duration and relatively short expiratory time and 2) markedly curvilinear (convex upward) inspiratory volume-time profile. The latter reflected a similar curvilinearity in the tracheal occlusion pressure waveform. During CO2 inhalation, the ventilatory response to CO2 was similar to that in unanesthetized cats in spite of a depressed tracheal occlusion pressure response. This discrepancy was due to the fact that in the presence of a convex upward inspiratory volume-time profile, the shortening of inspiratory duration with increasing CO2 results in a marked increase of mean inspiratory flow, and hence the ventilatory response to CO2 remains high. PMID:6415013

  17. The role of noninvasive ventilation in the management and mitigation of exacerbations and hospital admissions/readmissions for the patient with moderate to severe COPD (multimedia activity).

    PubMed

    White, David P; Criner, Gerard J; Dreher, Michael; Hart, Nicholas; Peyerl, Fred W; Wolfe, Lisa F; Chin, Suzette A

    2015-06-01

    As seen in this CME online activity (available at http://journal.cme.chestnet.org/home-niv-copd), COPD is a common and debilitating disease and is currently the third leading cause of death in the United States. The role of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in the management of severe, hypercapnic COPD has been controversial. However, it was concluded that current data would support the following recommendations. Patients with COPD with a waking Paco2 > 50 to 52 mm Hg, an overnight Paco2 > 55 mm Hg, or both who are symptomatic and compliant with other therapies should be eligible for NIV. In addition, multiple previous hospital admissions for COPD exacerbation, requiring noninvasive/invasive mechanical ventilation, strongly suggest a need for chronic NIV. Patients with COPD with a BMI > 30 kg/m2 respond particularly well to this therapy. When the decision is made to start NIV, this treatment is probably best initiated during a short hospitalization, although this can be accomplished in the clinic, home, or sleep laboratory if well-trained clinicians are available. Newer modes of NIV such as volume-assured pressure support, particularly with autotitrating expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP), may create the opportunity for home NIV initiation easier for less experienced physicians. Regardless of the mode selected, inspiratory pressures must be in the 20 to 25 cm H2O range to meaningfully increase tidal volume, reduce work of breathing, and, importantly, reduce waking arterial Paco2. EPAP is currently set at 4 to 5 cm H2O, although future technologies may allow this to be individualized to maximally reduce auto-positive end expiratory pressure. The NIV device should have a backup rate although it is controversial as to whether this should be set at a high (18-20 breaths/min) vs a low (8-10 breaths/min) rate. The proper use of NIV in appropriately chosen patients with COPD can improve quality of life and increase survival. Ongoing studies are assessing

  18. Is distal sampling of end-tidal CO2 necessary in small subjects?

    PubMed

    Rich, G F; Sullivan, M P; Adams, J M

    1990-08-01

    The authors compared PaCO2 with end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) sampled at multiple sites along the endotracheal tube (ETT) in seven anesthetized rabbits (weight, 2.7-3.6 kg) to determine the most convenient, yet accurate, sampling location. Comparisons were made during spontaneous and controlled ventilation with fresh gas flows (FGF) of two and ten times the minute ventilation using a Mapleson D circuit. An Engstrom Eliza analyzer with a continuous sampling rate of 100 ml/min was used to measure ETCO2. A 0.75-mm ID polyethylene tube inserted in the side of the ETT sampled ETCO2 at the distal tip and at the 6-, 12-, and 15-cm marks on the ETT. ETCO2 was also measured at the standard proximal connector. The differences (P less than 0.05) between PaCO2 and ETCO2 at the distal, 6-, 12-, and 15-cm marks were 2.9 +/- 0.4, 3.1 +/- 0.4, 3.6 +/- 0.4, and 4.6 +/- 0.5 mmHg (mean +/- SEM), respectively, and did not change with FGF or mode of ventilation. The difference between PaCO2 and ETCO2 measured at the proximal connector was always large but significantly (P less than 0.05) greater during spontaneous than controlled ventilation (24.2 +/- 1.5 versus 15.0 +/- 1.4 mmHg) and at higher FGF (19.4 +/- 1.3 versus 16.8 +/- 1.6 mmHg). The differences (P less than 0.05) between ETCO2 at the distal tip and ETCO2 at the 6-, 12-, and 15-cm marks were 0.24 +/- 0.07, 0.73 +/- 0.11, and, 1.77 +/- 0.20 mmHg, respectively. This demonstrates that the change in ETCO2 between the distal tip and the 12-cm mark on the ETT is less than 1 mmHg, and that this clinically insignificant difference is independent of FGF and mode of ventilation. The 12 cm-mark is outside of the mouth on a newborn, and sampling ETCO2 at that point, which may be accomplished simply by inserting a small needle in the side of the ETT, may be the most appropriate sampling location. PMID:2116744

  19. Safety and efficacy of carbon dioxide insufflation during gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Jun; Araki, Hiroshi; Onogi, Fumito; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kubota, Masaya; Ibuka, Takashi; Shimizu, Masahito; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the safety and efficacy of carbon dioxide (CO2) and air insufflation during gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). METHODS: This study involved 116 patients who underwent gastric ESD between January and December 2009. After eliminating 29 patients who fit the exclusion criteria, 87 patients, without known pulmonary dysfunction, were randomized into the CO2 insufflation (n = 36) or air insufflation (n = 51) groups. Standard ESD was performed with a CO2 regulation unit (constant rate of 1.4 L/min) used for patients undergoing CO2 insufflation. Patients received diazepam for conscious sedation and pentazocine for analgesia. Transcutaneous CO2 tension (PtcCO2) was recorded 15 min before, during, and after ESD with insufflation. PtcCO2, the correlation between PtcCO2 and procedure time, and ESD-related complications were compared between the two groups. Arterial blood gases were analyzed after ESD in the first 30 patients (12 with CO2 and 18 with air insufflation) to assess the correlation between arterial blood CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) and PtcCO2. RESULTS: There were no differences in respiratory functions, median sedative doses, or median procedure times between the groups. Similarly, there was no significant difference in post-ESD blood gas parameters, including PaCO2, between the CO2 and air groups (44.6 mmHg vs 45 mmHg). Both groups demonstrated median pH values of 7.36, and none of the patients exhibited acidemia. No significant differences were observed between the CO2 and air groups with respect to baseline PtcCO2 (39 mmHg vs 40 mmHg), peak PtcCO2 during ESD (52 mmHg vs 51 mmHg), or median PtcCO2 after ESD (50 mmHg vs 50 mmHg). There was a strong correlation between PaCO2 and PtcCO2 (r = 0.66; P < 0.001). The incidence of Mallory-Weiss tears was significantly lower with CO2 insufflation than with air insufflation (0% vs 15.6%, P = 0.013). CO2 insufflation did not cause any adverse events, such as CO2 narcosis or gas embolisms

  20. Predictors of nocturnal oxyhemoglobin desaturation in COPD.

    PubMed

    Corda, Luciano; Novali, Mauro; Montemurro, Luigi Taranto; La Piana, Giuseppe Emanuele; Redolfi, Stefania; Braghini, Alessia; Modina, Denise; Pini, Laura; Tantucci, Claudio

    2011-12-15

    It would be useful to detect predictors of marked nocturnal oxyhemoglobin desaturation (NOD) among COPD patients, who do not have respiratory failure when awake and sleep apnea (SA). Stable COPD patients with awake Pa(O2) ≥ 60 mmHg and Pa(CO2) ≤ 45 mmHg underwent cardio-respiratory polysomnography to exclude SA and to assess NOD. The patients that spent more than 30% of night time with Sp(O2) < 90%, were defined desaturators (D), and the others non desaturators (ND). Pulmonary function testing was performed to determine lung volumes, maximal flow rates, lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure (P(Imax) and P(Emax)). Negative expiratory pressure test was performed to assess tidal expiratory flow limitation. Supine pharyngometry was performed to determine upper airway size, shuttle walking test to assess exercise desaturation. Twenty-one patients were included in the study (18 male, age 66.0±7.2 years, Body Mass Index 25.9±4.4 kg/m(2), FEV(1) 47.2±16.4% pred., Pa(O2) 74.7±6.9 mmHg, Pa(CO2) 40.3±3.4 mmHg): 10 were D and 11 ND. Significant differences between the two groups were found in diurnal Pa(CO2) (D: 42.4±3.0 vs. ND: 38.3±2.6mmHg; p<0.01), diurnal Sp(O2) (D: 94.0±1.5 vs. ND: 95.9±0.9%; p<0.01), inspiratory capacity (IC) (D: 69.6±11.9 vs. ND: 87.0±17.7% pred.; p<0.05), and oro-pharyngeal junction area (OPJ) (D: 0.8±0.2 vs. ND: 1.2±0.3 cm(2); p<0.01). Among parameters related to marked NOD at the univariate analysis, [Formula: see text] and OPJ remained as independent predictors after stepwise multiple regression analysis. These findings indicate that previously unrecognized factors such as smaller upper airway caliber and lung dynamic hyperinflation are associated with marked NOD in stable COPD patients without daytime respiratory failure and SA. PMID:21864725

  1. The Effects of Lung Protective Ventilation or Hypercapnic Acidosis on Gas Exchange and Lung Injury in Surfactant Deficient Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Hummler, Helmut D.; Banke, Katharina; Wolfson, Marla R.; Buonocore, Giuseppe; Ebsen, Michael; Bernhard, Wolfgang; Tsikas, Dimitrios; Fuchs, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background Permissive hypercapnia has been shown to reduce lung injury in subjects with surfactant deficiency. Experimental studies suggest that hypercapnic acidosis by itself rather than decreased tidal volume may be a key protective factor. Objectives To study the differential effects of a lung protective ventilatory strategy or hypercapnic acidosis on gas exchange, hemodynamics and lung injury in an animal model of surfactant deficiency. Methods 30 anesthetized, surfactant-depleted rabbits were mechanically ventilated (FiO2 = 0.8, PEEP = 7cmH2O) and randomized into three groups: Normoventilation-Normocapnia (NN)-group: tidal volume (Vt) = 7.5 ml/kg, target PaCO2 = 40 mmHg; Normoventilation-Hypercapnia (NH)-group: Vt = 7.5 ml/kg, target PaCO2 = 80 mmHg by increasing FiCO2; and a Hypoventilation-Hypercapnia (HH)-group: Vt = 4.5 ml/kg, target PaCO2 = 80 mmHg. Plasma lactate and interleukin (IL)-8 were measured every 2 h. Animals were sacrificed after 6 h to perform bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), to measure lung wet-to-dry weight, lung tissue IL-8, and to obtain lung histology. Results PaO2 was significantly higher in the HH-group compared to the NN-group (p<0.05), with values of the NH-group between the HH- and NN-groups. Other markers of lung injury (wet-dry-weight, BAL-Protein, histology-score, plasma-IL-8 and lung tissue IL-8) resulted in significantly lower values for the HH-group compared to the NN-group and trends for the NH-group towards lower values compared to the NN-group. Lactate was significantly lower in both hypercapnia groups compared to the NN-group. Conclusion Whereas hypercapnic acidosis may have some beneficial effects, a significant effect on lung injury and systemic inflammatory response is dependent upon a lower tidal volume rather than resultant arterial CO2 tensions and pH alone. PMID:26840779

  2. Regulation of acid-base equilibrium in chronic hypocapnia. Evidence that the response of the kidney is not geared to the defense of extracellular (H+).

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, J J; Madias, N E; Wolf, C J; Schwartz, W B

    1976-01-01

    It is generally believed that the reduction in plasma [HCO3] characteristic of chronic hypocapnia results from renal homeostatic mechanisms designed to minimize the alkalemia produced by.the hypocapneic state. To test this hypothesis, we have induced chronic hypocapnia in dogs in which plasma [HCO3] had previously been markedly reduced (from 21 to 15 meq/liter) by the prolonged feeding of HCl. The PaCO2 of chronically acid-fed animals was reduced from 32 to 15 mm Hg by placing the animials in a large environmental chamber containing 9% oxygen. In response to this reduction in PaCO2, mean plasma [HCO3] fell by 8.6 meq/liter, reaching a new steady-state level of 6.4 meq/liter. This decrement in plasma [HCO3] is almost identical to the 8.1 meq/liter decrement previously observed in normal (nonacid-fed) animals in which the same degree of chronic hypocapnia had been induced. Thus, in both normal and HCl-fed animals, the renal response to chronic hypocapnia causes plasma [HCO3] to fall by approximately 0.5 meq/liter for each millimeter of Hg reduction in CO2 tension. By contrast, the response of plasma [H+] in the two groups was markedly different. Instead of the fall in [H+] which is seen during chronic hypocapnia in normal animals, [H+] in HCl-fed animals rose significantly from 53 to 59 neq/liter (pH 7.28-7.23). This seemingly paradoxical response is, of course, an expression of the constraints imposed by the Henderson equation and reflects the fact that the percent fall in [HCO3] in the HCl-fed animals was greater than the percent fall in PaCO2. These findings clearly indicate that in chronic hypocapnia the kidney cannot be regarded as the effector limb in a homeostatic feedback system geared to the defense of systemic acidity. Images PMID:6488

  3. Improved packing of protein side chains with parallel ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The accurate packing of protein side chains is important for many computational biology problems, such as ab initio protein structure prediction, homology modelling, and protein design and ligand docking applications. Many of existing solutions are modelled as a computational optimisation problem. As well as the design of search algorithms, most solutions suffer from an inaccurate energy function for judging whether a prediction is good or bad. Even if the search has found the lowest energy, there is no certainty of obtaining the protein structures with correct side chains. Methods We present a side-chain modelling method, pacoPacker, which uses a parallel ant colony optimisation strategy based on sharing a single pheromone matrix. This parallel approach combines different sources of energy functions and generates protein side-chain conformations with the lowest energies jointly determined by the various energy functions. We further optimised the selected rotamers to construct subrotamer by rotamer minimisation, which reasonably improved the discreteness of the rotamer library. Results We focused on improving the accuracy of side-chain conformation prediction. For a testing set of 442 proteins, 87.19% of X1 and 77.11% of X12 angles were predicted correctly within 40° of the X-ray positions. We compared the accuracy of pacoPacker with state-of-the-art methods, such as CIS-RR and SCWRL4. We analysed the results from different perspectives, in terms of protein chain and individual residues. In this comprehensive benchmark testing, 51.5% of proteins within a length of 400 amino acids predicted by pacoPacker were superior to the results of CIS-RR and SCWRL4 simultaneously. Finally, we also showed the advantage of using the subrotamers strategy. All results confirmed that our parallel approach is competitive to state-of-the-art solutions for packing side chains. Conclusions This parallel approach combines various sources of searching intelligence and energy

  4. The Changes of Arterial Blood Gases in COPD During Four-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible and that can lead to respiratory failure. Objective: to show the changes of arterial blood gases in COPD during the 4 -year evolution of illness. Material and Methods: The research was done on patients suffering from COPD treated at the Clinic “Podhrastovi” during 2006 and 2007 year. The tested parameters were examined from the date of receiving patient with COPD to hospital treatment in 2006 and 2007 and then followed prospectively until 2010 or 2011 year (the follow-up period was 4 years). There were total 199 treated patients who were chosen at random and regularly attended the control examinations. The study was conducted on adult patients of both sexes, different age group. In each patient the duration of illness was recorded so is sex, age, data of smoking habits, information about the regularity of taking bronchodilator therapy during remissions of disease, about the treatment of disease exacerbations, results of blood gases analysis as follows : pH value, PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood), PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood). All these parameters were measured at the beginning and at the end of each hospital treatment. We took in elaboration data obtained in the beginning of the first hospitalization and at the end of the last hospitalization or at the last control in outpatient department when patient was in stable state. Patients were divided into three groups according to the number of exacerbations per year. Results: there is the statistically significant decrease of PaO2 (p<0.01) and pH, (p<0.05) and an increase of PaCO2 (p<0.01) during follow-up period. But in patients regularly treated in phases of remission and exacerbations of illness the course of illness is slower. The decrease of pH and PaO2 and increase of PaCO2 is statistically significantly smaller in those

  5. Changes of Arterial Blood Gases After Different Ranges of Surgical Lung Resection

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna; Lovre, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years there has been increase in the number of patients who need thoracic surgery – first of all different types of pulmonary resection because of primary bronchial cancer, and very often among patients whose lung function is impaired due to different degree of bronchial obstruction so it is necessary to assess functional status before and after lung surgery to avoid the development of respiratory insufficiency. Objective: To show the changes in the level of arterial blood gases after various ranges of lung resection. Material and methods: The study was done on 71 patients surgically treated at the Clinic for Thoracic Surgery KCU Sarajevo, who were previously treated at the Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases “Podhrastovi” in the period from 01. 06. 2009. to 01. 09. 2011. Different types of lung resection were made. Patients whose percentage of ppoFEV1 was (prognosed postoperative FEV1) was less than 30% of normal values of FEV1 for that patients were not given a permission for lung resection. We monitored the changes in levels-partial pressures of blood gases (PaO2, PaCO2 and SaO2) one and two months after resection and compared them to preoperative values. As there were no significant differences between the values obtained one and two months after surgery, in the results we showed arterial blood gas analysis obtained two months after surgical resection. Results were statistically analyzed by SPSS and Microsoft Office Excel. Statistical significance was determined at an interval of 95%. Results: In 59 patients (83%) there was an increase, and in 12 patients (17%) there was a decrease of PaO2, compared to preoperative values. In 58 patients (82%) there was a decrease, and in 13 patients (18%) there was an increase in PaCO2, compared to preoperative values. For all subjects (group as whole): The value of the PaO2 was significantly increased after lung surgery compared to preoperative values (p <0.05) so is the value of the SaO2%. The value

  6. Breathing pattern--gas exchange relation and acute effect of almitrine in severe chronic airflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Damato, S; Bellone, A; Castelli, T; Mendoza, M; Daniele, R

    1988-01-01

    Using a double-blind cross-over design, a single oral dose of 100 mg almitrine bismethylate and placebo were administered to 7 patients with chronic airflow limitation. In all patients, arterial blood gases at rest, ventilation and breathing pattern at rest and on exercise were measured before and 3 h after administration. Ventilation increased and PaCO2 decreased after almitrine; the mean PaO2 increase was statistically significant after active drug but the value increased more when tidal volume increased. It is concluded that in man the well-documented improvement in the V/Q relationship after almitrine is in part related to a pure ventilatory effect though the possibility of increasing ventilation by mainly increasing tidal volume. PMID:2907669

  7. Retransfusion acidosis after brief haemorrhagic hypotension in the dog.

    PubMed

    Takács, L; Szántó, G; Vándor, E

    1976-01-01

    Dogs under chloralose anasthesia were bled at a rate of 50 ml/min to a total of 25 ml/kg body weight and 2 minutes later a quick reinfusion of adequate volumes of blood, dextran, or Locke's solution was done. Within 2 minutes after reinfusion, the pH of arterial blood fell by 0.074--0.127; concurrently, PaCO2 rose by 9.2-12.9 mm Hg. A close correlation was demonstrated between these changes. After retransfusion, PaO2 and the arterial lactic acid level did not change significantly. Thus retransfusion acidosis in the dog appears after a brief hypotensive period, too, but cannot be attributed to a "washout" of lactate from the tissues. PMID:11626

  8. Respiratory muscle and pulmonary function in polymyositis and other proximal myopathies.

    PubMed Central

    Braun, N M; Arora, N S; Rochester, D F

    1983-01-01

    We studied 53 patients with proximal myopathy to determine at what level of muscle weakness hypercapnic respiratory failure is likely, and which tests of pulmonary function or respiratory muscle strength would best suggest this development. Respiratory muscle strength was determined from maximal static efforts and in half the patients, both inspiratory and expiratory muscle strengths were less than 50% of normal. In the 37 patients without lung disease respiratory muscle weakness was accompanied by significant decreases in vital capacity, total lung capacity, and maximum voluntary ventilation; by significant increases in residual volume and arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2); and greater likelihood of dependence on ventilators, atelectasis, and pneumonia. Hypercapnia was particularly likely when respiratory muscle strength was less than 30% of normal in uncomplicated myopathy, and when vital capacity was less than 55% of the predicted value in any patient. PMID:6412385

  9. Unusual case of acute tracheal injury complicated by application of positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP).

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Asif Masroor; Mbarushimana, Simon; Faheem, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Blunt neck trauma can be caused by a variety of injuries such as deceleration, road traffic accidents and crush injuries. The worst scenario is airway rupture. We report an unusual case of acute tracheal injury in a 34-year-old Irish man who presented with a history of strangulation while working with a tractor. On arrival, he had one episode of mild haemoptysis and reported pain around the base of the neck and voice hoarseness. His chest X-ray revealed pneumopericardium and CT of thorax showed airway oedema. After elective intubation, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cm H2O caused deterioration in his clinical condition with increasing surgical emphysema and rise of carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2), which was completely reversed after stopping PEEP. This case shows how PEEP and intermittent positive pressure ventilation can worsen air leak and compromise stability in patients with acute tracheal injury. PMID:25398917

  10. The upper airway in sleep-disordered breathing: UA in SDB.

    PubMed

    Taranto Montemurro, L; Kasai, T

    2014-02-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a common condition and could be a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the pathogenesis of SDB remains to be elucidated. In general, SDB is divided into two forms, obstructive and central sleep apnea (OSA and CSA, respectively). OSA results from the sleep-related collapse of the upper airway (UA) in association with multiple factors like race, gender, obesity and UA dimensions. CSA primarily results from a fall in PaCO2 to a level below the apnea threshold during sleep through the reflex inhibition of central respiratory drive. It has been reported that UA alterations (i.e., collapse or dilation) can be observed in CSA. This review highlights the roles of the UA in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of SDB. PMID:24572450

  11. Pneumonia caused by diesel fuel aspiration.

    PubMed

    Haciomeroglu, Osman; Ekinci, Gulbanu Horzum; Ongel, Esra Akkutuk; Kavas, Murat; Burunsuzoglu, Bunyamin; Ozel, Yasemin; Yilmaz, Adnan

    2014-11-01

    An 18 years old Turkish boy was admitted to hospital due to cough, chest pain and shortness of breath for 4 days. Twentyfour hours before the onset of symptoms, the patient had accidentally aspirated diesel while siphoning from the fuel tank of a car. On admission, he was febrile and tachypnoeic. There were fine crackles on auscultation of the lungs. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral infiltration in the lower lung zones. Arterial blood gas analysis showed pH of 7.42, PaO2 of 45.6 mmHg, PaCO2 of 41.3 mmHg and oxygen saturation of 85.2%. He was treated with course of corticosteroid, antibiotic and oxygen supplementation. Chest X-ray showed near-complete resolution 2 weeks after discharge. PMID:25518800

  12. Capnography During Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Boulos S; Schmidt, Gregory A

    2016-02-01

    Capnography has made steady inroads in the ICU and is increasingly used for all patients who are mechanically ventilated. There is growing recognition that capnography is rich in information about lung and circulatory physiology and provides insight into many diseases and treatments. These include conditions of impaired matching of ventilation and perfusion, such as pulmonary embolism and obstructive lung diseases; circulatory questions, such as the adequacy of chest compressions during cardiac arrest or fluid responsiveness in patients in shock; and the safety of procedural sedation. In this review, we emphasize analysis of the entire capnographic waveform as a way to glean additional useful information. We also discuss important limitations of capnography, especially when it is considered to be a surrogate for Paco2. PMID:26447854

  13. Initial mechanical ventilator settings for pediatric patients: clinical judgement in selection of tidal volume.

    PubMed

    Kanter, R K; Blatt, S D; Zimmerman, J J

    1987-03-01

    Guidelines for selection of initial mechanical ventilator settings for pediatric patients were evaluated. Protocols specifying tidal volume or peak inspiratory pressure are difficult to apply for infants and children because of leaks at uncuffed endotracheal tubes, compression loss in ventilators, and inaccuracy of settings for intended tidal volume. To avoid these difficulties, the selection of tidal volume was based on subjective clinical observations: visible chest excursion and audible air entry at least simulating normal breathing. In 76 consecutive patients, use of the guidelines resulted in satisfactory PaCO2 for 97% and PaO2 for 89% of infants and children with a wide variety of respiratory disorders. Adequacy of gas exchange was not related to the patient's age, type of ventilator, tightness of fit of the endotracheal tube, or presence of spontaneous breathing. These results support a simple, versatile method of teaching selection of initial mechanical ventilator settings, relying on clinical judgment for regulation of tidal volume. PMID:3470010

  14. Observations of the dynamics of ionic potassium-38 in brain.

    PubMed

    Duncan, C C; Lambrecht, R M; Bennett, G W; Rescigno, A; Ment, L R

    1984-01-01

    Short time course potassium dynamics in brain were investigated in the cat. 38K (T1/2 = 7.6m) was prepared on the BNL 60" cyclotron by the 40Ar(p, 3n)38K reaction. Positron decay in brain was measured by the limited angle of view positron camera (LAPC). Radioactivity corrected for physical decay following intravenous bolus injection of 38K showed an initial peak followed by a washout phase with a subsequent monotonic increase. The slope of the washout phase was linearly related to PaCO2 and the subsequent monotonic increase paralleled the arterial concentration of the tracer. No significant changes in 38K radioactivity were determined following coma producing levels of phenobarbital or seizure producing doses of potassium penicillin as compared to control. PMID:6420945

  15. Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 as a Predictor of Outcome During General Ward-Based Noninvasive Ventilation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jinbo; Wan, Qunfang; Wu, Xiaoling; Zeng, Yihua; Jiang, Li; Ao, Dongmei; Wang, Feng; Chen, Ting; Li, Yanli

    2015-01-01

    Background Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) may reduce the need for intubation and mortality associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with type II respiratory failure. Early and simple predictors of NIV outcome could improve clinical management. This study aimed to assess whether nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS2002) is a useful outcome predictor in COPD patients with type II respiratory failure treated by noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). Material/Methods This prospective observational study enrolled COPD patients with type II respiratory failure who accepted NIPPV. Patients were submitted to NRS2002 evaluation upon admission. Biochemical tests were performed the next day and blood gas analysis was carried out prior to NIPPV treatment and 4 hours thereafter. Patients were divided into NRS2002 score ≥3 and NRS2002 score <3 groups and NIV failure rates were compared between both groups. Results Of the 233 patients, 71 (30.5%) were not successfully treated by NIPPV. The failure rate was significantly higher in the NRS2002 score ≥3 group (35.23%) in comparison with patients with NRS2002 score <3 (15.79%) (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that PaCO2 (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.172–1.671, p<0.05) prior to NIPPV treatment and NRS2002 score ≥3 (OR 1.76, 95%CI 1.303–2.374, p<0.05) were independent predictive factors for NIPPV treatment failure. Conclusions NRS2002 score ≥3 and PaCO2 values at admission may predict unsuccessful NIPPV treatment of COPD patients with type II respiratory failure and help to adjust therapeutic strategies. NRS2002 is a noninvasive and simple method for predicting NIPPV treatment outcome. PMID:26386778

  16. Nonpulmonary influences on gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Roisin, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    There are several determinants governing arterial and mixed venous blood PO2 and PCO2. Ventilation-perfusion imbalance, increased intrapulmonary shunt, and diffusion limitation to oxygen encompass the pulmonary factors. Alternatively, inspired oxygen concentration, overall ventilation, cardiac output, and oxygen consumption (uptake) are contemplated as the four most influential nonpulmonary determinants. All three pulmonary factors plus oxygen uptake cannot be directly modulated, but all the other remaining nonpulmonary determinants are. Inspired oxygen concentration, the amount and pattern of total ventilation, and cardiac output may be, at least in part, relatively well clinically controlled. Arterial PO2 (PaO2) may fall if inspired PO2, overall ventilation, and/or cardiac output decrease, and/or oxygen consumption increases, even though the pulmonary factors remain unchanged. Conversely, if inspired oxygen fraction, ventilation, and/or cardiac output increase, and/or oxygen consumption decreases, PaO2 may improve regardless of the changes operated at the level of the pulmonary determinants. Several pathophysiologic features deserve to be underlined. First, the importance of understanding the role played by mixed venous PO2 as a vital nonpulmonary determinant governing PaO2. Second, the response to 100% oxygen breathing repeatedly exhibits a consistent amount of agreement in the main findings. Third, there is always an interactive interplay between pulmonary and nonpulmonary determinants of PaO2 and arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) in any respiratory disease state following the use of pharmacologic or nonpharmacologic approaches. All in all both PaO2 and PaCO2 become the end-point outcomes of the complex interaction of pulmonary and nonpulmonary factors modulating pulmonary gas exchange. This needs to be unraveled to improve the understanding and management of most acute and chronic respiratory disease states. PMID:25428851

  17. Safety and effectiveness of bubble continuous positive airway pressure in preterm neonates with respiratory distress

    PubMed Central

    Mathai, S.S.; Rajeev, A.; Adhikari, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies on Bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (B-CPAP) as respiratory support for neonates are few. The aim of our study was to determine the efficacy and safety of B-CPAP in preterm neonates requiring respiratory support. Methods A prospective observation study was done on 50 preterm babies requiring respiratory support for mild to moderate respiratory distress. Support was given with short, nasal cannulae. Surfactant was administered when indicated. Monitoring was done clinically, with pulse oximeter, radiologically and with blood gases. Staff members were also asked their views. Follow-up was done for 3 months. Results The mean gestational age was 32.46 (+3.23) weeks and mean birth weight 1454.4 (+487.42) g. Respiratory Distress Syndrome was the commonest indication (30/50). The mean maximum pressure was 6.04 cm H2O and mean maximum FiO2 was 72.16%. Mean maximum paO2, paCO2 and mean minimum paCO2 were 92.93 mm Hg (+16.97), 52.36 mm Hg (+ 7.78) and 36.46 mm Hg (+ 4.95) respectively. Early initiation resulted in lesser duration of support. Failure rate was 30%. Apnoea, >1 dose surfactant and late initiation had a statistically higher incidence of failure. Main complications were skin abrasions (30%), feed intolerance (26%) and gastric distension (26%). Survival rate was 94%. 68% of staff felt that it was as easy to use and 88% felt it was more reliable than standard CPAP. Conclusions Bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure is safe, efficacious and easy to use in preterm neonates with mild to moderate respiratory distress. PMID:25382905

  18. Effects of Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation on Cardiopulmonary Function in Horses Anesthetized with Total Intravenous Anesthesia Using Combination of Medetomidine, Lidocaine, Butorphanol and Propofol (MLBP-TIVA)

    PubMed Central

    ISHIZUKA, Tomohito; TAMURA, Jun; NAGARO, Tsukasa; SUDO, Kanako; ITAMI, Takaharu; UMAR, Mohammed Ahamed; MIYOSHI, Kenjirou; SANO, Tadashi; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) on cardiopulmonary function were evaluated in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using constant rate infusions of medetomidine (3.5 µg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr), butorphanol (24 µg/kg/hr) and propofol (0.1 mg/kg/min) (MLBP-TIVA). Five horses were anesthetized twice using MLBP-TIVA with or without IPPV at 4-week interval (crossover study). In each occasion, the horses breathed 100% oxygen with spontaneous ventilation (SB-group, n=5) or with IPPV (CV-group, n=5), and changes in cardiopulmonary parameters were observed for 120 min. In the SB-group, cardiovascular parameters were maintained within acceptable ranges (heart rate: 33–35 beats/min, cardiac output: 27–30 l/min, mean arterial blood pressure [MABP]: 114–123 mmHg, mean pulmonary arterial pressure [MPAP]: 28–29 mmHg and mean right atrial pressure [MRAP]: 19–21 mmHg), but severe hypercapnea and insufficient oxygenation were observed (arterial CO2 pressure [PaCO2]: 84–103 mmHg and arterial O2 pressure [PaO2]: 155–172 mmHg). In the CV-group, normocapnea (PaCO2: 42–50 mmHg) and good oxygenation (PaO2: 395–419 mmHg) were achieved by the IPPV without apparent cardiovascular depression (heart rate: 29–31 beats/min, cardiac output: 17–21 l /min, MABP: 111–123 mmHg, MPAP: 27–30 mmHg and MRAP: 15–16 mmHg). MLBP-TIVA preserved cardiovascular function even in horses artificially ventilated. PMID:25649938

  19. Acute but not chronic metabolic acidosis potentiates the acetylcholine-induced reduction in blood pressure: an endothelium-dependent effect.

    PubMed

    Celotto, A C; Ferreira, L G; Capellini, V K; Albuquerque, A A S; Rodrigues, A J; Evora, P R B

    2016-02-01

    Metabolic acidosis has profound effects on vascular tone. This study investigated the in vivo effects of acute metabolic acidosis (AMA) and chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) on hemodynamic parameters and endothelial function. CMA was induced by ad libitum intake of 1% NH4Cl for 7 days, and AMA was induced by a 3-h infusion of 6 M NH4Cl (1 mL/kg, diluted 1:10). Phenylephrine (Phe) and acetylcholine (Ach) dose-response curves were performed by venous infusion with simultaneous venous and arterial blood pressure monitoring. Plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) was measured by chemiluminescence. The CMA group had a blood pH of 7.15±0.03, which was associated with reduced bicarbonate (13.8±0.98 mmol/L) and no change in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). The AMA group had a pH of 7.20±0.01, which was associated with decreases in bicarbonate (10.8±0.54 mmol/L) and PaCO2 (47.8±2.54 to 23.2±0.74 mmHg) and accompanied by hyperventilation. Phe or ACh infusion did not affect arterial or venous blood pressure in the CMA group. However, the ACh infusion decreased the arterial blood pressure (ΔBP: -28.0±2.35 mm Hg [AMA] to -4.5±2.89 mmHg [control]) in the AMA group. Plasma NOx was normal after CMA but increased after AMA (25.3±0.88 to 31.3±0.54 μM). These results indicate that AMA, but not CMA, potentiated the Ach-induced decrease in blood pressure and led to an increase in plasma NOx, reinforcing the effect of pH imbalance on vascular tone and blood pressure control. PMID:26648089

  20. Influence of cerebrovascular resistance on the dynamic relationship between blood pressure and cerebral blood flow in humans.

    PubMed

    Smirl, J D; Tzeng, Y C; Monteleone, B J; Ainslie, P N

    2014-06-15

    We examined the hypothesis that changes in the cerebrovascular resistance index (CVRi), independent of blood pressure (BP), will influence the dynamic relationship between BP and cerebral blood flow in humans. We altered CVRi with (via controlled hyperventilation) and without [via indomethacin (INDO, 1.2 mg/kg)] changes in PaCO2. Sixteen subjects (12 men, 27 ± 7 yr) were tested on two occasions (INDO and hypocapnia) separated by >48 h. Each test incorporated seated rest (5 min), followed by squat-stand maneuvers to increase BP variability and improve assessment of the pressure-flow dynamics using linear transfer function analysis (TFA). Beat-to-beat BP, middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv), posterior cerebral artery velocity (PCAv), and end-tidal Pco2 were monitored. Dynamic pressure-flow relations were quantified using TFA between BP and MCAv/PCAv in the very low and low frequencies through the driven squat-stand maneuvers at 0.05 and 0.10 Hz. MCAv and PCAv reductions by INDO and hypocapnia were well matched, and CVRi was comparably elevated (P < 0.001). During the squat-stand maneuvers (0.05 and 0.10 Hz), the point estimates of absolute gain were universally reduced, and phase was increased under both conditions. In addition to an absence of regional differences, our findings indicate that alterations in CVRi independent of PaCO2 can alter cerebral pressure-flow dynamics. These findings are consistent with the concept of CVRi being a key factor that should be considered in the correct interpretation of cerebral pressure-flow dynamics as indexed using TFA metrics. PMID:24744385

  1. Effects of short-term mechanical hyperventilation on cerebral blood flow and dynamic cerebral autoregulation in critically ill patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R

    2016-05-01

    In sepsis, higher PaCO2 levels are associated with impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA), which may expose the brain to hypo- and hyperperfusion during acute fluctuations in blood pressure. We hypothesised that short-term mechanical hyperventilation would dCA in critically ill patients with sepsis. Seven mechanically ventilated septic patients were included. We assessed dCA before and after 30 min of mechanical hyperventilation. Transfer function analysis of spontaneous oscillations in transcranial Doppler-based middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv) and invasive mean arterial blood pressure was used to assess dCA. Mechanical enhance hyperventilation reduced the median PaCO2 from 5.3 (IQR, 5.0-6.5) to 4.7 (IQR, 4.2-5.1) kPa (p < 0.05). This was associated with a reduction in the median MCAv from 57 (IQR, 33-68) to 32 (IQR, 21-40) cm sec(-1) (p < 0.05). Apart from a small increase in gain in the low frequency range (2.32 [IQR 1.80-2.41] vs. 2.59 (2.40-4.64) cm mmHg(-1) sec(-1); p < 0.05), this was not associated with any enhancement in dCA. In conclusion, cerebral CO2 vasoreactivity was found to be preserved in septic patients; nevertheless, and in contrast to our working hypothesis, short-term mechanical hyperventilation did not enhance dCA. PMID:26935607

  2. Low-intensity noninvasive ventilation: Lower pressure, more exacerbations of chronic respiratory failure

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Toru; Wakabayashi, Kiryo; Kimura, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kanako; Ikeda, Toshikazu; Yano, Shuichi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For patients with chronic respiratory failure (CRF) who are treated with noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV), a little is known regarding the effects of low-intensity NPPV (LI-NPPV) on the clinical course of CRF and the frequency of adjustments in these patients. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effects of LI-NPPV on the clinical course of patients with CRF as compared with patients who were treated with conventional NPPV (C-NPPV) and determined how frequently NPPV was adjusted during therapy. METHODS: Clinical data from 21 patients who received long-term NPPV were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were categorized into two groups based on the level of initial pressure support (PS): C-NPPV group (PS ≥ 10 cm H2O) and LI-NPPV group (PS < 10 cm H2O). RESULTS: Patients in the LI-NPPV group had significantly more exacerbations of CRF (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the number of patients who required adjustments of NPPV settings between the two groups. There was no significant difference in PaCO2 levels 1 month after the start of NPPV between the two groups; however, PaCO2 levels were significantly lower after 1 year in the C-group (P < 0.001). Seventy-one percent of LI-NPPV patients and 43% of C-NPPV patients needed NPPV adjustments. CONCLUSIONS: Attention should be paid to CRF patients who are initially administered LI-NPPV; they should be carefully observed because they can develop more exacerbations of CRF than patients undergoing C-NPPV. If possible, higher initial PS should be administered to prevent CRF exacerbations. PMID:27168863

  3. Prediction of life expectancy in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. A retrospective nationwide survey from 1980-1990.

    PubMed

    Okada, O; Tanabe, N; Yasuda, J; Yoshida, Y; Katoh, K; Yamamoto, T; Kuriyama, T

    1999-01-01

    Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a progressive disease of unknown etiology usually followed by death within 5 years after diagnosis. Although heart-lung or lung transplantation is now offered to patients with advanced PPH, adequate criteria assessing an accurate prediction of life expectancy in PPH has been difficult to establish. The aims of this study were to identify the characteristic features associated with a poor prognosis in patients with PPH, and to attempt to establish an individual prognostic index that predicts with great accuracy survival or death of PPH after one year, thereby helping to define criteria for patient selection for transplantation. In 1991, a retrospective nation-wide survey on PPH was conducted in Japan, and the clinical and cardiorespiratory variables of 223 PPH cases (female; 144, male; 79) in the period from 1980-1990 were obtained. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA) was 57.5+/-17.2 mm Hg (mean+/-SD), and the overall median survival time was 32.5 months since the first diagnostic catheterization. The characteristic features of 61 patients who died within one year of catheterization (Nonsurvivors group) were compared to 141 patients who survived one year or more from the time of catheterization (Survivors group). Among several clinical and cardiorespiratory variables, heart rate, PPA, right atrial pressure (PRA), stroke volume index (SI), pulmonary vascular resistance, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) were significantly different between the two groups. As the independent factors, PPA, PRA, SI, and PaCO2 were selected for the multiple logistic analysis. Using a 0.7 probability cut-point to separate Nonsurvivors from Survivors, 84.6% of Nonsurvivors and Survivors could be correctly predicted from this logistic regression equation. Predictive equations like the present preliminary one can be used in the future to better assess life expectancy in patients with PPH in whom transplantation will be considered

  4. Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation on cardiopulmonary function in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using combination of medetomidine, lidocaine, butorphanol and propofol (MLBP-TIVA).

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tomohito; Tamura, Jun; Nagaro, Tsukasa; Sudo, Kanako; Itami, Takaharu; Umar, Mohammed Ahamed; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Sano, Tadashi; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2014-12-01

    Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) on cardiopulmonary function were evaluated in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using constant rate infusions of medetomidine (3.5 µg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr), butorphanol (24 µg/kg/hr) and propofol (0.1 mg/kg/min) (MLBP-TIVA). Five horses were anesthetized twice using MLBP-TIVA with or without IPPV at 4-week interval (crossover study). In each occasion, the horses breathed 100% oxygen with spontaneous ventilation (SB-group, n=5) or with IPPV (CV-group, n=5), and changes in cardiopulmonary parameters were observed for 120 min. In the SB-group, cardiovascular parameters were maintained within acceptable ranges (heart rate: 33-35 beats/min, cardiac output: 27-30 l/min, mean arterial blood pressure [MABP]: 114-123 mmHg, mean pulmonary arterial pressure [MPAP]: 28-29 mmHg and mean right atrial pressure [MRAP]: 19-21 mmHg), but severe hypercapnea and insufficient oxygenation were observed (arterial CO(2) pressure [PaCO(2)]: 84-103 mmHg and arterial O(2) pressure [PaO(2)]: 155-172 mmHg). In the CV-group, normocapnea (PaCO(2): 42-50 mmHg) and good oxygenation (PaO(2): 395-419 mmHg) were achieved by the IPPV without apparent cardiovascular depression (heart rate: 29-31 beats/min, cardiac output: 17-21 l /min, MABP: 111-123 mmHg, MPAP: 27-30 mmHg and MRAP: 15-16 mmHg). MLBP-TIVA preserved cardiovascular function even in horses artificially ventilated. PMID:25649938

  5. Influence of prenatal adrenaline infusion on arterial blood gases after Caesarean delivery in the lamb

    PubMed Central

    Berger, P J; Kyriakides, M A; Smolich, J J; Ramsden, C A; Walker, A M

    2000-01-01

    The efficacy of pulmonary gas exchange immediately after delivery is inversely related to the volume of liquid in the lung at birth, but aspiration of as much liquid as possible from the lung before Caesarean delivery fails to improve postnatal oxygenation (Pa,O2) to the level achieved after spontaneous term delivery. We hypothesised that the differing respiratory benefit of aspiration and vaginal delivery results from the differing volume of lung liquid remaining after aspiration (17 ml (kg body weight)−1) and labour (7 ml kg−1). We addressed this hypothesis by reducing lung liquid volume to an estimated 7 ml kg−1 by infusing adrenaline to seven fetal lambs at 140 days gestation (term is 147 days) before performing Caesarean delivery and obtaining postnatal blood gases for comparison with samples from lambs delivered vaginally. Infusion of adrenaline to fetuses caused a progressive decline in arterial O2 saturation (Sa,O2), pH and base excess, but no change in arterial partial pressure of O2 (Pa,O2) or CO2 (Pa,CO2). After birth, Pa,O2 rapidly rose to the same level in adrenaline-treated and vaginal-delivery groups. A severe acidosis occurred in the adrenaline-treated group and this appeared to be related to a higher Pa,CO2 and a transiently lower Sa,O2 in this group. We conclude that adrenaline infusion can enhance postnatal Pa,O2 levels in the newborn lamb, but this beneficial effect may be outweighed by the severe acidosis that develops after prolonged prenatal adrenaline treatment. PMID:10970438

  6. Chronic effort dyspnea explained by lung function tests and by HRCT and CRX radiographic patterns in COPD: a post-hoc analysis in 51 patients.

    PubMed

    Giuntini, Carlo; Camiciottoli, Gianna; Maluccio, Nazzarena Maria; Mariani, Laura; Lavorini, Federico; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2007-09-01

    This paper is a post-hoc analysis of a previous study performed to investigate the relationship between computerized tomography (CT) and lung function in 51 outpatients with mild-to-moderate COPD. We studied whether changes in lung function and radiographic patterns may help to explain dyspnea, the most disturbing symptom in patients with COPD. The Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale shows, by univariate analysis, a similar strength of association to CT expiratory lung density and to DL(CO), a functional index of lung parenchymal loss. The MRC dyspnea scale shows a somewhat less strength of association with a small vertical heart on plain chest films. In multivariate analysis, the model with the strongest association to the MRC dyspnea scale (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001) contains 4 explanatory variables (DL(CO), FRC, PaCO(2), and radiographic pattern of pulmonary hypertension). We suggest that diffusing capacity reflects the emphysematous component of hyperinflation, associated by definition with destruction of terminal airspace walls, as distinct from the air trapping component, which is ascribed to airway obstruction and associated with FRC. PaCO(2) mainly reflects the ventilatory components, i.e., ventilatory drive and ventilatory constraints, of pulmonary gas exchange in COPD, while radiographic pattern of pulmonary hypertension likely reflects hypoxic vascular changes, which depend mainly on ventilation/perfusion mismatch and give rise to pulmonary arterial hypertension that may contribute per se to dyspnea. In conclusion, our analysis points out that chronic effort dyspnea variance may account for up to 58% (r(2) = 0.58) by lung function tests and radiographic patterns. Thus, about 42% of the MRC dyspnea variance remains unexplained by this model. On the other hand, dyspnea ascertainment is dependent on subjective behavior and evaluation and in tests is influenced by individual performance and perception. For example in the 6-minute walk test, a similar or

  7. Developmental changes in regional cerebral blood flow in fetal and newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Szymonowicz, W; Walker, A M; Cussen, L; Cannata, J; Yu, V Y

    1988-01-01

    Developmental changes in regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) were determined using radioactively labeled microspheres to measure flow to the cortex, brain stem, cerebellum, white matter, caudate nucleus, and choroid plexus in three groups of chronically catheterized lambs under physiological conditions: 90- to 100-day preterm fetal lambs (n = 14), 125- to 136-day near-term fetal lambs (n = 11), and newborn lambs 5-44 days old (n = 10). We continually monitored heart rate, central venous pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and periodically measured arterial blood O2 and CO2 tensions (PaO2, PaCO2, respectively), pH, hemoglobin, and oxygen saturation (SaO2). The regional CBF measurements (ml.100 g-1.min-1) revealed that in all three age groups the high flow areas are the choroid plexus and caudate nucleus, whereas the lowest flow area is the white matter. There is, however, a different hierarchy of regional CBF in utero (cortex less than cerebellum and brain stem) compared with extrauterine life in the newborn lamb (cortex and cerebellum greater than brain stem). Analysis of regional cerebral oxygen delivery [CBF times arterial oxygen content (CaO2)] demonstrated a progressively increasing oxygen transport to the cortex with increasing gestational maturity and after birth. Oxygen transport to the brain stem, cerebellum, and white matter increased with gestational age, but did not increase after birth. Relationships between regional CBF and natural physiological variations of cardiorespiratory parameters (PaO2, SaO2, CaO2, pH, PaCO2, and MAP) were assessed using regression analysis. Correlations of regional CBF with PaO2 and SaO2 suggest that cerebral perfusion is not primarily determined by CaO2 when variations occur within the physiological range.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3337259

  8. Camelid Ig V genes reveal significant human homology not seen in therapeutic target genes, providing for a powerful therapeutic antibody platform

    PubMed Central

    Klarenbeek, Alex; Mazouari, Khalil El; Desmyter, Aline; Blanchetot, Christophe; Hultberg, Anna; de Jonge, Natalie; Roovers, Rob C; Cambillau, Christian; Spinelli, Sylvia; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Verrips, Theo; de Haard, Hans J; Achour, Ikbel

    2015-01-01

    Camelid immunoglobulin variable (IGV) regions were found homologous to their human counterparts; however, the germline V repertoires of camelid heavy and light chains are still incomplete and their therapeutic potential is only beginning to be appreciated. We therefore leveraged the publicly available HTG and WGS databases of Lama pacos and Camelus ferus to retrieve the germline repertoire of V genes using human IGV genes as reference. In addition, we amplified IGKV and IGLV genes to uncover the V germline repertoire of Lama glama and sequenced BAC clones covering part of the Lama pacos IGK and IGL loci. Our in silico analysis showed that camelid counterparts of all human IGKV and IGLV families and most IGHV families could be identified, based on canonical structure and sequence homology. Interestingly, this sequence homology seemed largely restricted to the Ig V genes and was far less apparent in other genes: 6 therapeutically relevant target genes differed significantly from their human orthologs. This contributed to efficient immunization of llamas with the human proteins CD70, MET, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, resulting in large panels of functional antibodies. The in silico predicted human-homologous canonical folds of camelid-derived antibodies were confirmed by X-ray crystallography solving the structure of 2 selected camelid anti-CD70 and anti-MET antibodies. These antibodies showed identical fold combinations as found in the corresponding human germline V families, yielding binding site structures closely similar to those occurring in human antibodies. In conclusion, our results indicate that active immunization of camelids can be a powerful therapeutic antibody platform. PMID:26018625

  9. Camelid Ig V genes reveal significant human homology not seen in therapeutic target genes, providing for a powerful therapeutic antibody platform.

    PubMed

    Klarenbeek, Alex; El Mazouari, Khalil; Desmyter, Aline; Blanchetot, Christophe; Hultberg, Anna; de Jonge, Natalie; Roovers, Rob C; Cambillau, Christian; Spinelli, Sylvia; Del-Favero, Jurgen; Verrips, Theo; de Haard, Hans J; Achour, Ikbel

    2015-01-01

    Camelid immunoglobulin variable (IGV) regions were found homologous to their human counterparts; however, the germline V repertoires of camelid heavy and light chains are still incomplete and their therapeutic potential is only beginning to be appreciated. We therefore leveraged the publicly available HTG and WGS databases of Lama pacos and Camelus ferus to retrieve the germline repertoire of V genes using human IGV genes as reference. In addition, we amplified IGKV and IGLV genes to uncover the V germline repertoire of Lama glama and sequenced BAC clones covering part of the Lama pacos IGK and IGL loci. Our in silico analysis showed that camelid counterparts of all human IGKV and IGLV families and most IGHV families could be identified, based on canonical structure and sequence homology. Interestingly, this sequence homology seemed largely restricted to the Ig V genes and was far less apparent in other genes: 6 therapeutically relevant target genes differed significantly from their human orthologs. This contributed to efficient immunization of llamas with the human proteins CD70, MET, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, resulting in large panels of functional antibodies. The in silico predicted human-homologous canonical folds of camelid-derived antibodies were confirmed by X-ray crystallography solving the structure of 2 selected camelid anti-CD70 and anti-MET antibodies. These antibodies showed identical fold combinations as found in the corresponding human germline V families, yielding binding site structures closely similar to those occurring in human antibodies. In conclusion, our results indicate that active immunization of camelids can be a powerful therapeutic antibody platform. PMID:26018625

  10. Inhibition of breathing after surfactant depletion is achieved at a higher arterial PCO2 during ventilation with liquid than with gas

    PubMed Central

    Rieger-Fackeldey, Esther; Sindelar, Richard; Jonzon, Anders; Schulze, Andreas; Sedin, Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    Background Inhibition of phrenic nerve activity (PNA) can be achieved when alveolar ventilation is adequate and when stretching of lung tissue stimulates mechanoreceptors to inhibit inspiratory activity. During mechanical ventilation under different lung conditions, inhibition of PNA can provide a physiological setting at which ventilatory parameters can be compared and related to arterial blood gases and pH. Objective To study lung mechanics and gas exchange at inhibition of PNA during controlled gas ventilation (GV) and during partial liquid ventilation (PLV) before and after lung lavage. Methods Nine anaesthetised, mechanically ventilated young cats (age 3.8 ± 0.5 months, weight 2.3 ± 0.1 kg) (mean ± SD) were studied with stepwise increases in peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) until total inhibition of PNA was attained before lavage (with GV) and after lavage (GV and PLV). Tidal volume (Vt), PIP, oesophageal pressure and arterial blood gases were measured at inhibition of PNA. One way repeated measures analysis of variance and Student Newman Keuls-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results During GV, inhibition of PNA occurred at lower PIP, transpulmonary pressure (Ptp) and Vt before than after lung lavage. After lavage, inhibition of inspiratory activity was achieved at the same PIP, Ptp and Vt during GV and PLV, but occurred at a higher PaCO2 during PLV. After lavage compliance at inhibition was almost the same during GV and PLV and resistance was lower during GV than during PLV. Conclusion Inhibition of inspiratory activity occurs at a higher PaCO2 during PLV than during GV in cats with surfactant-depleted lungs. This could indicate that PLV induces better recruitment of mechanoreceptors than GV. PMID:15748281

  11. Evaluation of a new weaning index based on ventilatory endurance and the efficiency of gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Jabour, E R; Rabil, D M; Truwit, J D; Rochester, D F

    1991-09-01

    We hypothesized that the ventilatory capacity needed to wean from mechanical ventilation (mv) depends on two variables: ventilatory endurance and the efficiency of gas exchange. We also hypothesized that these variables could be assessed from data readily available at the bedside, including tidal volume (VT) on mv and during spontaneous breathing (sb), ventilator peak inspiratory pressure (Ppk), and patient negative inspiratory pressure (NIP). Ventilatory endurance was evaluated using a modified pressure-time index: PTI = TI/Ttot x Pbreath/NIP, where Pbreath = Ppk x VTsb/VTmv. Defining VE40 as the minute ventilation needed to bring PaCO2 to 40 mm Hg, the efficiency of gas exchange was evaluated by calculating VE40/VTsb = (VE x PaCO2)mv/VTsb x 40. Because high levels of inspiratory effort might cause patients to reduce VTsb and thereby compromise CO2 elimination, we devised a weaning index (WI) that combines ventilatory endurance and the efficiency of gas exchange: WI = PTI x (VE40/VTsb). The study population comprised 38 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, adult respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, neuromuscular disease, and miscellaneous other conditions. They had been mechanically ventilated more than 3 days and were considered by clinical criteria to be ready for weaning. Of 46 weaning trials, 19 were successful, 2 were partially successful, and 25 failed. PTI and VE40/VTsb were higher in patients who failed (p less than 0.05), but neither variable alone had sufficient sensitivity or specificity to predict the outcome of weaning trials accurately.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1892291

  12. Salvia miltiorrhiza injection on pulmonary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Huang, Yuhong; Zhao, Caiyan; Qin, Xiude; Zhu, Qinghua; Chen, Sheng; Qu, Jinglai

    2014-01-01

    Cor pulmonale (pulmonary heart disease) is a chronic progressive complicated disease for which treatment needs to be sustained all the time, creating a great financial burden on individuals and society. In order to improve the life quality of cor pulmonale patients and decrease the dosage and quantity of the routine treatment, in China, TCM is often administered to patients with cor pulmonale. The results of many clinical trials have indicated that Salvia miltiorrhiza and complex Salvia miltiorrhiza injection may be an alternative medicine for cor pulmonale. With the purpose to prove whether Salvia miltiorrhiza and complex Salvia miltiorrhiza benefit the cor pulmonale patients, respectively, we carried out a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Salvia miltiorrhiza and complex Salvia miltiorrhiza injection in cor pulmonale patients. Overall, 2,715 patients were identified from 35 randomized controlled trials. The meta-analysis used I(2) test for heterogeneity and chose random or fixed model according to heterogeneity of included studies. Clinical outcomes were evaluated by total effectiveness rate, partial pressure of oxygen ( PaO 2) and carbon dioxide ( PaCO 2), hemorheology, mPAP and adverse effects. Compared with routine medicine treatment alone, routine medicine treatment plus Salvia miltiorrhiza or complex Salvia miltiorrhiza injection showed better outcomes: A significantly higher clinical effectiveness rate ratio (p < 0.001), increase in PaO 2 (p < 0.001) and decrease in PaCO 2 (p < 0.001), improvement in hemorheology (p < 0.001), and alleviation in mPAP (p < 0.05). There is no obvious adverse effect reported. In summary, there are some evidences suggesting that Salvia miltiorrhiza or complex Salvia miltiorrhiza injection are active in cor pulmonale, however, the results were limited by the methodological flaws of the included studies. Long-term and high quality clinical trials are needed to provide more conclusive evidence for the future

  13. Optimization of ventilator setting by flow and pressure waveforms analysis during noninvasive ventilation for acute exacerbations of COPD: a multicentric randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The analysis of flow and pressure waveforms generated by ventilators can be useful in the optimization of patient-ventilator interactions, notably in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. To date, however, a real clinical benefit of this approach has not been proven. Methods The aim of the present randomized, multi-centric, controlled study was to compare optimized ventilation, driven by the analysis of flow and pressure waveforms, to standard ventilation (same physician, same initial ventilator setting, same time spent at the bedside while the ventilator screen was obscured with numerical data always available). The primary aim was the rate of pH normalization at two hours, while secondary aims were changes in PaCO2, respiratory rate and the patient's tolerance to ventilation (all parameters evaluated at baseline, 30, 120, 360 minutes and 24 hours after the beginning of ventilation). Seventy patients (35 for each group) with acute exacerbation of COPD were enrolled. Results Optimized ventilation led to a more rapid normalization of pH at two hours (51 vs. 26% of patients), to a significant improvement of the patient's tolerance to ventilation at two hours, and to a higher decrease of PaCO2 at two and six hours. Optimized ventilation induced physicians to use higher levels of external positive end-expiratory pressure, more sensitive inspiratory triggers and a faster speed of pressurization. Conclusions The analysis of the waveforms generated by ventilators has a significant positive effect on physiological and patient-centered outcomes during acute exacerbation of COPD. The acquisition of specific skills in this field should be encouraged. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01291303. PMID:22115190

  14. Does ammonia trigger hyperventilation in the elasmobranch, Squalus acanthias suckleyi?

    PubMed

    De Boeck, Gudrun; Wood, Chris M

    2015-01-15

    We examined the ventilatory response of the spiny dogfish, to elevated internal or environmental ammonia. Sharks were injected via arterial catheters with ammonia solutions or their Na salt equivalents sufficient to increase plasma total ammonia concentration [TAmm]a by 3-5 fold from 145±21μM to 447±150μM using NH4HCO3 and a maximum of 766±100μM using (NH4)2SO4. (NH4)2SO4 caused a small increase in ventilation frequency (+14%) and a large increase in amplitude (+69%), while Na2SO4 did not. However, CO2 partial pressure (PaCO2) also increased and arterial pHa and plasma bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3(-)]a) decreased. NH4HCO3 caused a smaller increase in plasma ammonia resulting in a smaller but significant, short lived increases in ventilation frequency (+6%) and amplitude (36%), together with a rise in PaCO2 and [HCO3(-)]a. Injection with NaHCO3 which increased pHa and [HCO3(-)]a did not change ventilation. Plasma ammonia concentration correlated significantly with ventilation amplitude, while ventilation frequency showed a (negative) correlation with pHa. Exposure to high environmental ammonia (1500μM NH4HCO3) did not induce changes in ventilation until plasma [TAmm]a increased and ventilation amplitude (but not frequency) increased in parallel. We conclude that internal ammonia stimulates ventilation in spiny dogfish, especially amplitude or stroke volume, while environmental ammonia only stimulates ventilation after ammonia diffuses into the bloodstream. PMID:25462837

  15. Comparison and Evaluation of the Effects of Administration of Postoperative Non-Invasive Mechanical Ventilation Methods (CPAP and BIPAP) on Respiratory Mechanics and Gas Exchange in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yağlıoğlu, Hatice; Köksal, Güniz Meyancı; Erbabacan, Emre; Ekici, Birsel

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of two different methods of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and bilevel positive airway pressure (BIPAP) and oxygen support under spontaneous ventilation on respiration mechanics, gas exchange, dry mouth and face mask lesion during an early postoperative period in patients undergoing upper abdominal surgery. Methods Eighty patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery with laparotomy, between the age of 25 and 75 years and American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status score (ASA) II–III with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis were included to the study. Subjects were randomly allocated in to four groups. During the first postoperative hour, the first group received BIPAP, second group received high-flow CPAP, third group received low-flow CPAP and fourth group received deep breathing exercises, respiratory physiotherapy and O2 therapy. Preoperative, postoperative before and after treatment PaO2, PaCO2, SpO2, tidal volume (TV), respiratory rate (RR) levels were recorded. Subjects with dry mouth or face mask lesion were recorded. Results In all groups, PaO2 and TV measurements were higher at the postoperative first hour than the postoperative zero hour. We found that low-flow CPAP increased PaO2 and SpO2 values more, and TV levels were higher in the postoperative period than the preoperative period. PaCO2 levels were elevated at the zero hour postoperatively and at the end of the first hour; they decreased approximately to preoperative values, except in the fourth group. Conclusion Administration of prophylactic respiratory support can prevent the deterioration of pulmonary functions and hypoxia in patients with COPD undergoing upper abdominal surgery. In addition, we found that low-flow CPAP had better effects on PaO2, SpO2, TV compared to other techniques. PMID:27366506

  16. Nocturnal hypoxaemia and hypercapnia in children with neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    Bersanini, Chiara; Khirani, Sonia; Ramirez, Adriana; Lofaso, Frédéric; Aubertin, Guillaume; Beydon, Nicole; Mayer, Michèle; Maincent, Kim; Boulé, Michèle; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to identify daytime predictors of nocturnal gas exchange anomalies in children with neuromuscular disease (NMD) and normal daytime gas exchange. Lung function tests, respiratory muscle evaluation and nocturnal gas exchange were obtained as part of routine evaluation. We included 52 consecutive children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (n = 20), spinal muscular atrophy (n = 10) and other NMD (n = 22). 20 patients had nocturnal hypoxaemia, defined as minimal arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (S(p,O(2))) <90% for ≥ 2% of night time, and 22 had nocturnal hypercapnia, defined as maximal transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (P(tc,CO(2))) >50 mmHg for ≥ 2% of night time. Forced vital capacity and helium functional residual capacity correlated with minimal nocturnal S(p,O(2)) (p = 0.009 and p = 0.01, respectively). Daytime pH correlated negatively with maximal nocturnal P(tc,CO(2)) (p=0.005) and daytime arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(a,CO(2))) correlated with the percentage of time with a P(tc,CO(2)) >50 mmHg (p = 0.02). Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure correlated with minimal nocturnal S(p,O(2)) (p = 0.02). Daytime P(a,CO(2)) was a weak predictor of nocturnal hypercapnia (sensitivity 80%; specificity 57%). Daytime lung function and respiratory muscle parameters correlate poorly with nocturnal hypoxaemia and hypercapnia in children with NMD and normal daytime gas exchange, which necessitates more systematic sleep studies in these children. PMID:22135279

  17. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Caulkett, N A; Cribb, P H; Haigh, J C

    2000-01-01

    Three mule deer and 4 mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids were immobilized in a crossover study with carfentanil (10 microg/kg) + xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) (CX), and medetomidine (100 microg/kg) + ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) (MK). The deer were maintained in left lateral recumbency for 1 h with each combination. Deer were immobilized with MK in 230+/-68 s (mean +/- SD) and with CX in 282+/-83 seconds. Systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressure were significantly higher with MK. Heart rate, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, and base excess were not significantly different between treatments. Base excess and pH increased significantly over time with both treatments. Both treatments produced hypoventilation (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg) and hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm Hg). PaO2 increased significantly over time with CX. Body temperature was significantly (P<0.05) higher with CX compared to MK. Ventricular premature contractions, atrial premature contractions, and a junctional escape rhythm were noted during CX immobilization. No arrhythmias were noted during MK immobilization. Quality of immobilization was superior with MK, with no observed movement present for the 60 min of immobilization. Movement of the head and limbs occurred in 4 animals immobilized with CX. The major complication observed with both of these treatments was hypoxemia, and supplemental inspired oxygen is recommended during immobilization. Hyperthermia can further complicate immobilization with CX, reinforcing the need for supplemental oxygen. PMID:10680659

  18. Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 as a Predictor of Outcome During General Ward-Based Noninvasive Ventilation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease with Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jinbo; Wan, Qunfang; Wu, Xiaoling; Zeng, Yihua; Jiang, Li; Ao, Dongmei; Wang, Feng; Chen, Ting; Li, Yanli

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) may reduce the need for intubation and mortality associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with type II respiratory failure. Early and simple predictors of NIV outcome could improve clinical management. This study aimed to assess whether nutritional risk screening 2002 (NRS2002) is a useful outcome predictor in COPD patients with type II respiratory failure treated by noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV). MATERIAL AND METHODS This prospective observational study enrolled COPD patients with type II respiratory failure who accepted NIPPV. Patients were submitted to NRS2002 evaluation upon admission. Biochemical tests were performed the next day and blood gas analysis was carried out prior to NIPPV treatment and 4 hours thereafter. Patients were divided into NRS2002 score ≥3 and NRS2002 score <3 groups and NIV failure rates were compared between both groups. RESULTS Of the 233 patients, 71 (30.5%) were not successfully treated by NIPPV. The failure rate was significantly higher in the NRS2002 score ≥3 group (35.23%) in comparison with patients with NRS2002 score <3 (15.79%) (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that PaCO2 (OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.172-1.671, p<0.05) prior to NIPPV treatment and NRS2002 score ≥3 (OR 1.76, 95%CI 1.303-2.374, p<0.05) were independent predictive factors for NIPPV treatment failure. CONCLUSIONS NRS2002 score ≥3 and PaCO2 values at admission may predict unsuccessful NIPPV treatment of COPD patients with type II respiratory failure and help to adjust therapeutic strategies. NRS2002 is a noninvasive and simple method for predicting NIPPV treatment outcome. PMID:26386778

  19. Acute but not chronic metabolic acidosis potentiates the acetylcholine-induced reduction in blood pressure: an endothelium-dependent effect

    PubMed Central

    Celotto, A.C.; Ferreira, L.G.; Capellini, V.K.; Albuquerque, A.A.S.; Rodrigues, A.J.; Evora, P.R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis has profound effects on vascular tone. This study investigated the in vivo effects of acute metabolic acidosis (AMA) and chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) on hemodynamic parameters and endothelial function. CMA was induced by ad libitum intake of 1% NH4Cl for 7 days, and AMA was induced by a 3-h infusion of 6 M NH4Cl (1 mL/kg, diluted 1:10). Phenylephrine (Phe) and acetylcholine (Ach) dose-response curves were performed by venous infusion with simultaneous venous and arterial blood pressure monitoring. Plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) was measured by chemiluminescence. The CMA group had a blood pH of 7.15±0.03, which was associated with reduced bicarbonate (13.8±0.98 mmol/L) and no change in the partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2). The AMA group had a pH of 7.20±0.01, which was associated with decreases in bicarbonate (10.8±0.54 mmol/L) and PaCO2 (47.8±2.54 to 23.2±0.74 mmHg) and accompanied by hyperventilation. Phe or ACh infusion did not affect arterial or venous blood pressure in the CMA group. However, the ACh infusion decreased the arterial blood pressure (ΔBP: -28.0±2.35 mm Hg [AMA] to -4.5±2.89 mmHg [control]) in the AMA group. Plasma NOx was normal after CMA but increased after AMA (25.3±0.88 to 31.3±0.54 μM). These results indicate that AMA, but not CMA, potentiated the Ach-induced decrease in blood pressure and led to an increase in plasma NOx, reinforcing the effect of pH imbalance on vascular tone and blood pressure control. PMID:26648089

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantification of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow and Cerebrovascular Reactivity to Carbon Dioxide in Normotensive and Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Renata F.; Paiva, Fernando F.; Henning, Erica C.; Nascimento, George C.; Tannús, Alberto; de Araujo, Draulio B.; Silva, Afonso C.

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension afflicts 25% of the general population and over 50% of the elderly. In the present work, arterial spin labeling MRI was used to non-invasively quantify regional cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebrovascular resistance and CO2 reactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), at two different ages (3 months and 10 months) and under the effects of two anesthetics, α-chloralose and 2% isoflurane (1.5 MAC). Repeated CBF measurements were highly consistent, differing by less than 10% and 18% within and across animals, respectively. Under α-chloralose, whole brain CBF at normocapnia did not differ between groups (young WKY: 61±3ml/100g/min; adult WKY: 62±4ml/100g/min; young SHR: 70±9ml/100g/min; adult SHR: 69±8ml/100g/min), indicating normal cerebral autoregulation in SHR. At hypercapnia, CBF values increased significantly, and a linear relationship between CBF and PaCO2 levels was observed. In contrast, 2% isoflurane impaired cerebral autoregulation. Whole brain CBF in SHR was significantly higher than in WKY rats at normocapnia (young SHR: 139±25ml/100g/min; adult SHR: 104±23ml/100g/min; young WKY: 55±9ml/100g/min; adult WKY: 71±19ml/100g/min). CBF values increased significantly with increasing CO2; however, there was a clear saturation of CBF at PaCO2 levels greater than 70 mmHg in both young and adult rats, regardless of absolute CBF values, suggesting that isoflurane interferes with the vasodilatory mechanisms of CO2. This behavior was observed for both cortical and subcortical structures. Under either anesthetic, CO2 reactivity values in adult SHR were decreased, confirming that hypertension, when combined with age, increases cerebrovascular resistance and reduces cerebrovascular compliance. PMID:21708273

  1. Ventilation by high-frequency chest wall compression in dogs with normal lungs.

    PubMed

    Zidulka, A; Gross, D; Minami, H; Vartian, V; Chang, H K

    1983-06-01

    In 6 anesthetized and paralyzed supine dogs, ventilation by high-frequency chest wall compression (HFCWC) was accomplished by a piston pump rapidly oscillating the pressure in a modified double blood pressure cuff wrapped around the lower thorax. Testing applied frequencies at 3, 5, 8, and 11 Hz, applied peak cuff pressures ranged from 30 to 230 cmH2O. This produced swings of esophageal pressure as high as 18 cmH2O and peak oscillatory air flow ranging from 0.7 to 1.6 L/s. Oscillatory tidal volume declined with increasing frequency and ranged from a mean of 61 to 45 ml. After 30 min of applied HFCWC, arterial blood gas determinations revealed a mean PaCO2 of 29.3 mmHg at 5 Hz, 35 mmHg at 3 Hz, 36 mmHg at 8 Hz, and 51 mmHg at 11 Hz. Mean PaO2 improved from ventilator control values at 3 Hz, remained unchanged at 5 and 8 Hz, and declined at 11 Hz. In 2 dogs breathing spontaneously, HFCWC applied at 5 and 11 Hz resulted in a reduction in spontaneous minute ventilation, mainly by a reduction in spontaneous tidal volume, whereas arterial blood gas values changed slightly. One dog ceased to breath spontaneously within 5 min of application of HFCWC as the PaCO2 fell below control values. We conclude that in dogs with normal lungs, HFCWC may assist spontaneous ventilation. In paralyzed dogs, HFCWC may be of sufficient magnitude to cause hyperventilation. PMID:6407373

  2. Constant-flow ventilation in canine experimental pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Hachenberg, T; Wendt, M; Meyer, J; Struckmeier, O; Lawin, P

    1989-07-01

    The efficacy of constant-flow ventilation (CFV) was investigated in eight mongrel dogs before (control-phase) and after development of papain-induced panlobular emphysema (PLE-phase). For CFV, heated, humidified and oxygen-enriched air was continuously delivered via two catheters positioned within each mainstem bronchus at flow rates (V) of 0.33, 0.5 and 0.66 l/s. Data obtained during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) served as reference. In the control-phase, Pao2 was lower (P less than or equal to 0.05) and alveolo-arterial O2 difference (P(A-a)O2) was higher (P less than or equal to 0.01) during CFV at all flow rates when compared with IPPV. This may be due to inhomogeneities of intrapulmonary gas distribution and increased ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) mismatching. Paco2 and V showed a hyperbolic relationship; constant normocapnia (5.3 kPa) was achieved at 0.48 +/- 0.21 l/s (V53). Development of PLE resulted in an increase of functional residual capacity (FRC), residual volume (RV) and static compliance (Cstat) (P less than or equal to 0.05). PaO2 had decreased and P(A-a)O2 had increased (P less than or equal to 0.05), indicating moderate pulmonary dysfunction. Oxygenation during CFV was not significantly different in the PLE-phase when compared with the control-phase. Paco2 and V showed a hyperbolic relationship and V5.3 was even lower than in the control-group (0.42 +/- 0.13 l/s). In dogs with emphysematous lungs CFV maintains sufficient gas exchange. This may be due to preferential ventilation of basal lung units, thereby counterbalancing the effects of impaired lung morphometry and increased airtrapping. Conventional mechanical ventilation is more effective in terms of oxygenation and CO2-elimination. PMID:2800979

  3. Rescue Ventilation Through a Small-Bore Transtracheal Cannula in Severe Hypoxic Pigs Using Expiratory Ventilation Assistance

    PubMed Central

    Hamaekers, Ankie E.; van der Beek, Tim; Theunissen, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suction-generated expiratory ventilation assistance (EVA) has been proposed as a way to facilitate bidirectional ventilation through a small-bore transtracheal cannula (TC). In this study, we investigated the efficiency of ventilation with EVA for restoring oxygenation and ventilation in a pig model of acute hypoxia. METHODS: Six pigs (61–76 kg) were anesthetized and ventilated (intermittent positive pressure ventilation) via a cuffed endotracheal tube (ETT). Monitoring lines were placed, and a 75-mm long, 2-mm inner diameter TC was inserted. After the baseline recordings, the ventilator was disconnected. After 2 minutes of apnea, reoxygenation with EVA was initiated through the TC and continued for 15 minutes with the ETT occluded. In the second part of the study, the experiment was repeated with the ETT either partially obstructed or left open. Airway pressures and hemodynamic data were recorded, and arterial blood gases were measured. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: With a completely or partially obstructed upper airway, ventilation with EVA restored oxygenation to baseline levels in all animals within 20 seconds. In a completely obstructed airway, Paco2 remained stable for 15 minutes. At lesser degrees of airway obstruction, the time to reoxygenation was delayed. Efficacy probably was limited when the airway was completely unobstructed, with 2 of 6 animals having a Pao2 <85 mm Hg even after 15 minutes of ventilation with EVA and a mean Paco2 increased up to 90 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: In severe hypoxic pigs, ventilation with EVA restored oxygenation quickly in case of a completely or partially obstructed upper airway. Reoxygenation and ventilation were less efficient when the upper airway was completely unobstructed. PMID:25565319

  4. The effect of changes in cardiac output on middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity at rest and during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Brothers, R Matthew; Barnes, Quinton; Eubank, Wendy L; Hawkins, Megan N; Purkayastha, Sushmita; O-Yurvati, Albert; Raven, Peter B

    2005-01-01

    We examined the relationship between changes in cardiac output and middle cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCA Vmean) in seven healthy volunteer men at rest and during 50% maximal oxygen uptake steady-state submaximal cycling exercise. Reductions in were accomplished using lower body negative pressure (LBNP), while increases in were accomplished using infusions of 25% human serum albumin. Heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure and MCA Vmean were continuously recorded. At each stage of LBNP and albumin infusion was measured using an acetylene rebreathing technique. Arterial blood samples were analysed for partial pressure of carbon dioxide tension (Pa,CO2. During exercise HR and were increased above rest (P < 0.001), while neither MCA Vmean nor Pa,CO2 was altered (P > 0.05). The MCA Vmean and were linearly related at rest (P < 0.001) and during exercise (P = 0.035). The slope of the regression relationship between MCA Vmean and at rest was greater (P = 0.035) than during exercise. In addition, the phase and gain between MCA Vmean and mean arterial pressure in the low frequency range were not altered from rest to exercise indicating that the cerebral autoregulation was maintained. These data suggest that the associated with the changes in central blood volume influence the MCA Vmean at rest and during exercise and its regulation is independent of cerebral autoregulation. It appears that the exercise induced sympathoexcitation and the change in the distribution of between the cerebral and the systemic circulation modifies the relationship between MCA Vmean and . PMID:16210355

  5. Gas exchange by intratracheal insufflation in a ventilatory failure dog model.

    PubMed Central

    Gavriely, N; Eckmann, D; Grotberg, J B

    1992-01-01

    Respiratory insufficiency patients who need only partial ventilatory support are, nevertheless, intubated and connected to a respirator. In search of a partial respiratory assistance method we evaluated the gas exchange, mechanisms, and hemodynamic effects of intratracheal insufflation (ITI) via a narrow (0.2-cm) catheter. The effects of flow rate (0.05-0.2 liter/min per kg), catheter tip position (carina, bronchus, and trachea), and superimposed chest vibration at 22 Hz were studied in seven anesthetized and partially paralyzed dogs. ITI in the carina induced CO2 removal (VCO2) of 48 +/- 16 ml/min in the periods between breaths, which was 39% of the control VCO2. CO2 removal rates between breaths with ITI in a bronchus and in the trachea were 63 and 28% of control, respectively (P < 0.05). ITI at 0.15-0.2 liter/min per kg augmented total VCO2 by > 50% over control (P < 0.05) and decreased PaCO2 by 10% (P < 0.05) despite a 28% fall in VE and 32% lower work of breathing (P < 0.05). Adding vibration to ITI at 0.15 liter/min per kg induced VCO2 of 162 +/- 34 ml/min, which was significantly greater than control, while PaCO2 fell from 69 +/- 24 to 47 +/- 6 mmHg (P < 0.05), despite complete cessation of spontaneous breathing. ITI with or without vibration did not cause any hemodynamic changes, except for a fall in the shunt fraction from 14.6 +/- 9.9% to 5.8 +/- 2.8% with vibration. Thus, ITI at low flow rates can support respiration with no hemodynamic side effects. Adding chest vibration further enhances gas exchange and can provide total ventilation. Images PMID:1469093

  6. Response characteristics of a dual transcutaneous oxygen/carbon dioxide monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Kesten, S; Chapman, K R; Rebuck, A S

    1991-05-01

    We tested the response characteristics of a dual transcutaneous (tc) PO2/PCO2 monitoring system in healthy subjects who breathed various gas mixtures, and we compared steady-state tc readings to simultaneous arterial blood gas analysis in 20 stable respiratory outpatients. The electrodes were simple to apply, required very little skin preparation, and had trivial signal drift. In healthy subjects, tcPCO2 lag time during CO2 rebreathing was 16.8 seconds, with a 90 percent response time of 77.9 seconds after CO2 breathing was discontinued. The 90 percent response times of the O2 electrode when subjects breathed a hypoxic mixture was 257 seconds after a lag of 31 seconds. When inhaled gas mixtures were changed from hypoxia to room air, the lag time was shorter (12.5 seconds), but 90 percent response time exceeded 5 minutes. In stable patients with respiratory disease, tcPCO2 and tcPO2 were linearly related to PaCO2 (range, 19 to 53 mm Hg) and PaO2 (range, 45 to 99 mm Hg), respectively (tcPCO2 = 1.4 PaCO2-9.44, with r = 0.90 and SEE = 5.35 mm Hg; tcPO2 = 0.56 PaO2 + 20.4, with r = 0.53 and SEE = 11.7 mm Hg). We conclude that the response of the dual transcutaneous monitoring system is more rapid for the CO2 than the O2 electrode and may be rapid enough to be useful in some clinical settings; however, the O2 system fails to offer the response characteristics and accuracy that would allow it to be substituted for arterial gas tensions in unstable clinical situations. PMID:2019180

  7. Cerebral blood flow and CO/sub 2/ reactivity in transient ischemic attacks: comparison between TIAs due to the ICA occlusion and ICA mild stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuda, Y.; Kimura, K.; Yoneda, S.; Etani, H.; Asai, T.; Nakamura, M.; Abe, H.

    1983-01-01

    Hemispheric mean cerebral blood flow (CBF), together with its CO2 reactivity in response to hyperventilation, was investigated in 18 patients with transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) by intraarterial 133Xe injection method in a subacute-chronic stage of the clinical course. In 8 patients, the lesion responsible for symptoms was regarded as unilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion, and in 10 patients, it was regarded as unilateral ICA mild stenosis (less than 50% stenosis in diameter). Resting flow values were significantly decreased in the affected hemisphere of TIA due to the ICA occlusion as compared with the unaffected hemisphere of the same patient, regarded as the relative control. It was not decreased in the affected hemisphere of TIA due to the ICA mild stenosis as compared with the control. With respect to the responsiveness of CBF to changes in PaCO2, it was preserved in both TIAs, due to the ICA occlusion and ICA mild stenosis. Vasoparalysis was not observed in either types of TIAs in the subacute-chronic stage. However, in the relationship of blood pressure and CO2 reactivity, expressed as delta CBF(%)/delta PaCO2, pressure-dependent CO2 reactivity as a group was observed with significance in 8 cases of TIA due to the ICA occlusion, while no such relationship was noted in 10 cases of TIA due to the ICA mild stenosis. Moreover, clinical features were different between TIAs due to the ICA occlusion and ICA mild stenosis, i.e., more typical, repeatable TIA (6.3 +/- 3.7 times) with shorter duration (less than 30 minutes) was observed in TIAs due to the ICA mild stenosis, while more prolonged, less repeatable TIA (2.4 +/- 1.4 times) was observed in TIAs due to fixed obstruction of the ICA. From these observations, two different possible mechanisms as to the pathogenesis of TIA might be expected.

  8. Intramedullary nailing and pulmonary embolism: does unreamed nailing prevent embolization? An in vivo study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Heim, D; Regazzoni, P; Tsakiris, D A; Aebi, T; Schlegel, U; Marbet, G A; Perren, S M

    1995-06-01

    Pulmonary embolism in reamed femoral nailing has been reported and discussed over recent years. Does an unreamed nailing technique with a solid nail prevent this rare but serious complication of intramedullary fixation? In an animal model in rabbits, we studied the pathophysiologic impact on pulmonary function and the impact on hemostasis of reamed and unreamed nailing of intact femora and tibiae, and of femoral fracture in relation to intramedullary pressure. No statistical difference of PaO2, PaCO2, and PCO2et was found in the femur whether a reamed or unreamed procedure was performed. Two of six animals with unreamed femoral nailing, one of six animal with reamed femoral nailing, and one of five animals with a femoral fracture fulfilled four of four or three of four criteria for embolization (increase of the difference of PaCO2 and PCO2et, decrease of PaO2, increase of blast cells in central-venous blood and bone marrow/fat in histologic section of the lungs and bone). Tibial nailing did not alter pulmonary function in either group. Intramedullary pressure was increased in all animals with perioperative impairment of pulmonary function (375 to 676 mbar). Analysis of the hemostatic results showed a significant difference of platelet activation in reamed versus unreamed nailing of the femur 1 hour after nailing (p < 0.01) and a significant decrease of fibrinogen and antithrombin III (p < 0.001/p < 0.01) in reamed femoral nailing. We conclude that unreamed nailing of the femur with a solid rod may also cause bone marrow embolization with alteration of pulmonary function as long as an important increase of the intramedullary pressure is generated during the nailing procedure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7602632

  9. Tissue Oxygenation Response to Mild Hypercapnia during Cardiopulmonary Bypass with Constant Pump Output

    PubMed Central

    Akça, Ozan; Sessler, Daniel I; DeLong, Diane; Keijner, Raymond; Ganzel, Brian; Doufas, Anthony G

    2006-01-01

    Background Tissue oxygenation is the primary determinant of wound infection risk. Mild hypercapnia markedly improves cutaneous, subcutaneous, and muscular tissue oxygenation in volunteers and patients. However, relative contributions of increased cardiac output and peripheral vasodilation to this response remains unknown. We thus tested the hypothesis that increased cardiac output is the dominant mechanism. Methods We recruited 10 ASA III patients, aged 40–65 years, undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for this crossover trial. After induction of anaesthesia, a Silastic tonometer was inserted subcutaneously in the upper arm. Subcutaneous tissue oxygen tension was measured with both polarographic electrode and fluorescence-based systems. Oximeter probes were placed bilaterally on the forehead to monitor cerebral oxygenation. After initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass, in random order patients were exposed to two arterial CO2 partial pressures for 30 minutes each: 35 (normocapnia) or 50 mmHg (hypercapnia). Bypass pump flow was kept constant throughout the measurement periods. Results Hypercapnia during bypass had essentially no effect on PaO2, mean arterial pressure, or tissue temperature. PaCO2 and pH differed significantly. Subcutaneous tissue oxygenation was virtually identical during the two PaCO2 periods (139 [50,163] vs. 145 [38,158], P=0.335) (median [range]). In contrast, cerebral oxygen saturation (our positive control measurement) was significantly less during normocapnia (57 [28,67]%) than hypercapnia (64 [37,89]%, P=0.025). Conclusions Mild hypercapnia, which normally markedly increases tissue oxygenation, did not do so during cardiopulmonary bypass with fixed pump output. This suggests that hypercapnia normally increases tissue oxygenation by increasing cardiac output rather than direct dilation of peripheral vessels. PMID:16675511

  10. Peripheral chemoreflex inhibition with low-dose dopamine: new insight into mechanisms of extreme apnea.

    PubMed

    Bain, Anthony R; Dujic, Zeljko; Hoiland, Ryan L; Barak, Otto F; Madden, Dennis; Drvis, Ivan; Stembridge, Mike; MacLeod, David B; MacLeod, Douglas M; Ainslie, Philip N

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of peripheral chemoreflex inhibition with low-dose dopamine on maximal apnea time, and the related hemodynamic and cerebrovascular responses in elite apnea divers. In a randomized order, participants performed a maximal apnea while receiving either intravenous 2 μg·kg(-1)·min(-1) dopamine or volume-matched saline (placebo). The chemoreflex and hemodynamic response to dopamine was also assessed during hypoxia [arterial O2 tension, (PaO2 ) ∼35 mmHg] and mild hypercapnia [arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2 ) ∼46 mmHg] that mimicked the latter parts of apnea. Outcome measures included apnea duration, arterial blood gases (radial), heart rate (HR, ECG), mean arterial pressure (MAP, intra-arterial), middle (MCAv) and posterior (PCAv) cerebral artery blood velocity (transcranial ultrasound), internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral (VA) artery blood flow (ultrasound), and the chemoreflex responses. Although dopamine depressed the ventilatory response by 27 ± 41% (vs. placebo; P = 0.01), the maximal apnea duration was increased by only 5 ± 8% (P = 0.02). The PaCO2 and PaO2 at apnea breakpoint were similar (P > 0.05). When compared with placebo, dopamine increased HR and decreased MAP during both apnea and chemoreflex test (P all <0.05). At rest, dopamine compared with placebo dilated the ICA (3.0 ± 4.1%, P = 0.05) and VA (6.6 ± 5.0%, P < 0.01). During apnea and chemoreflex test, conductance of the cerebral vessels (ICA, VA, MCAv, PCAv) was increased with dopamine; however, flow (ICA and VA) was similar. At least in elite apnea divers, the small increase in apnea time and similar PaO2 at breakpoint (∼31 mmHg) suggest the apnea breakpoint is more related to PaO2 , rather than peripheral chemoreflex drive to breathe. PMID:26290106

  11. Positive End-expiratory Pressure Titration after Alveolar Recruitment Directed by Electrical Impedance Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yun; Liu, Da-Wei; He, Huai-Wu; Zhao, Zhan-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a real-time bedside monitoring tool, which can reflect dynamic regional lung ventilation. The aim of the present study was to monitor regional gas distribution in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) during positive-end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) titration using EIT. Methods: Eighteen ARDS patients under mechanical ventilation in Department of Critical Care Medicine of Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January to April in 2014 were included in this prospective observational study. After recruitment maneuvers (RMs), decremental PEEP titration was performed from 20 cmH2O to 5 cmH2O in steps of 3 cmH2O every 5–10 min. Regional over-distension and recruitment were monitored with EIT. Results: After RMs, patient with arterial blood oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) + carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) >400 mmHg with 100% of fractional inspired oxygen concentration were defined as RM responders. Thirteen ARDS patients was diagnosed as responders whose PaO2 + PaCO2 were higher than nonresponders (419 ± 44 mmHg vs. 170 ± 73 mmHg, P < 0.0001). In responders, PEEP mainly increased recruited pixels in dependent regions and over-distended pixels in nondependent regions. PEEP alleviated global inhomogeneity of tidal volume and end-expiratory lung volume. PEEP levels without significant alveolar derecruitment and over-distension were identified individually. Conclusions: After RMs, PEEP titration significantly affected regional gas distribution in lung, which could be monitored with EIT. EIT has the potential to optimize PEEP titration. PMID:26021494

  12. Comparison of the Sensormedics 3100A and Bronchotron transporter in a neonatal piglet ARDS model.

    PubMed

    Messier, Stephen E; Digeronimo, Robert J; Gillette, Robert K

    2009-07-01

    The Sensormedics 3100A (Cardinal Health, Dublin, OH) (HFOV) and the Bronchotron (Percussionaire, Sandpoint, ID) (HFPV) are high-frequency ventilation devices used to support neonatal respiratory failure; however, a comparison of the devices, with respect to gas exchange at similar ventilator settings, has not been previously studied. Thus, we compared the ability of HFOV to that of HFPV to provide oxygenation and ventilation during acute lung injury in a newborn animal model. Using a saline lung lavage model, 12 neonatal piglets were randomized to initial support with either the HFOV or HFPV with settings adjusted to achieve PaCO2 of 45-60 mmHg. After stabilization, ventilator settings and arterial blood gases were serially recorded for 30 min. Animals were then crossed over to the alternative device set to deliver the same V(t), MAP, and F for an additional 30 min with the same parameters recorded. We found that the DeltaP needed to generate adequate V(t) on HFPV (35 +/- 7 cm H2O) trended higher versus HFOV (31 +/- 7 cm H2O P = 0.09) when the devices were matched for V(t), F, and MAP. No significant differences in ventilation (PaCO(2) = 50 +/- 10.7 mmHg vs. 46 +/- 10 mmHg, P = 0.22) or oxygenation (PaO2 = 150 +/- 76 mmHg vs. 149 +/- 107 mmHg, P = 0.57) between the devices were found. We conclude that HFPV ventilates and oxygenates as well as HFOV at equivalent ventilator settings. HFPV may require larger DeltaP's to generate equivalent V(t). PMID:19499589

  13. Hypoxic apnea and gasping.

    PubMed Central

    Guntheroth, W G; Kawabori, I

    1975-01-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that severe lypoxia causes apnea, regardless of the arterial CO2 and pH, and that extreme hypoxia causes gasping. Acute experiments with airway occlusion and with low inspired oxygen (FIo2) were performed on anesthetized adult dogs and monkeys. Arterial oxygen saturation was recorded continuously with fiberoptic oximetry, and Pco2 by an electrode catheter. In addition, blood samples were obtained for Po2, Pco2, and pH. Apnea was induced regularly when the Pao2 fell below 10 torr, whether the Paco2 was high with asphyxia (63 torr) or low (26 torr) with low FIo2. Similarly, the Pao2 at apnea was the same whether the pH was 7.17 with asphyxic hypoxia or 7.46 with hypoxic hypoxia. Gasping occurred at even lower Pao2 (below 5 torr) after 1 or 2 min of apnea. Gasping promptly restored the Pao2 to levels of moderate hypoxia (over 30 torr) which permitted resumption of regular respiration, with gradual elimination of the gasping. Fetal monkeys at term were studied in a similar manner from the moment of cord clamping. Their blood gases with apnea were quite similar to adult values in the narrow range of Pao2 and the wide range of Paco2 and pH. In the fetus, gasping was less immediately effective in improving arterial oxygen, but more persistent than in the adult. Regular respirations would not develop in the absence of oxygen in either the fetus or adult animal. Images PMID:811688

  14. Comparative Effects of Dexmedetomidine and Propofol on US-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatic Neoplasm Under Monitored Anesthesia Care

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Kyoung-Woon; Choi, Seong-Soo; Jang, Dong-Min; Kong, Yu-Gyeong; Lee, Hwa-Mi; Shim, Ji-Hoon; Won, Hyung-Jin; Shin, Yong-Moon; Kim, Pyo-Nyun; Song, Myung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a useful and safe procedure for treating hepatic neoplasm. However, liver RFA causes severe pain, which thereby increases the demand for monitored anesthesia care (MAC). Here, we compared the efficacy and safety of propofol and dexmedetomidine, which are commonly administered during MAC when performing RFA to assess hepatic neoplasm. In this randomized controlled trial, 40 patients were randomly allocated to 2 groups for elective RFA. Patients received either dexmedetomidine (group D) or propofol (group P). Both groups received the continuous infusion of remifentanil for pain control. The primary outcomes were opioid consumption and differences in partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) between pre- and postprocedure RFA. In addition, hemodynamic parameters, patient satisfaction, and interventional radiologist satisfaction were determined. There were significant differences in opioid consumption (50.1 ± 16.8 ng/kg/min [group D] vs 71.2 ± 18.7 ng/kg/min [group P]; P = 0.001) and delta PaCO2 (10.4 ± 6.4 mm Hg vs 17.2 ± 9.2 mm Hg, respectively; P = 0.016). Moreover, respiratory rates were significantly different between groups during RFA (P < 0.001). However, blood pressure and heart rate did not significantly change during RFA. Neither patient nor interventional radiologist satisfaction was significantly different between groups. Dexmedetomidine provides better respiratory stability and reduces opioid consumption in comparison with propofol when administered under MAC when performing RFA for hepatic neoplasm. PMID:26266387

  15. Variability of Transcutaneous Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Pressure Measurements Associated with Sensor Location.

    PubMed

    Górska, K; Korczyński, P; Maskey-Warzęchowska, M; Chazan, R; Krenke, R

    2015-01-01

    Transcutaneous measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide pressure (PtcO2 and PtcCO2) is useful in gas exchange monitoring. However, the relationship between PtcO2, pulse oximetry (SaO2) and arterial blood gases (ABG) is unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare PtcO2 and PtcCO2 with SaO2 and ABG, to evaluate the effect of sensor location on the results and stability of PtcO2 and PtcCO2, and to assess the impact of body composition on PtcO2 and PtcCO2. PtcO2 and PtcCO2 were measured in 20 healthy volunteers at three locations: right second intercostal space, lateral surface of the abdomen, and the inner surface of the left arm. The results were recorded 10, 15, and 20 min after sensor fixation and compared with SaO2 and ABG measured 20 min after electrode placement on the chest. Body composition was evaluated by bioimpedance. The findings were that PtcO2 was stable on the chest; but on the arm and abdomen it increased and reached maximum at 20 min. Transcutaneous PCO2 stabilized at 10 min in all the three locations. No significant correlations between PtcO2 and SaO2 or PaO2 were found. Transcutaneous PCO2 correlated with PaCO2. Both PtcO2 and PtcCO2 were not influenced by body composition. We conclude that the value of PtcO2 in monitoring of blood oxygenation was not unequivocally confirmed; PtcCO2 reliably reflects PaCO2, irrespective of sensor location. Body composition does not affect PtcO2 and PtcCO2. PMID:25820668

  16. Addressing Assumptions for the Use of Non-invasive Cardiac Output Measurement Techniques During Exercise in COPD.

    PubMed

    Perrault, Hélène; Richard, Ruddy; Kapchinsky, Sophia; Baril, Jacinthe; Bourbeau, Jean; Taivassalo, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    The multifactorial functional limitation of COPD increasingly demonstrates the need for an integrated circulatory assessment. In this study cardiac output (Qc) derived from non-inert (CO2-RB), inert (N2O-RB) gas rebreathing approaches and bioimpedance were compared to examine the limitations of currently available non-invasive techniques for exercise Qc determination in patients with chronic lung disease. Thirteen COPD patients (GOLD II-III) completed three constant cycling bouts at 20, 35, and 50% of peak work on two occasions to assess Qc with bioimpedance as well as using CO2-RB and N2O-RB for all exercise tests. Results showed significantly lower Qc using the N2O-RB or end-tidal CO2-derived Qc compared to the PaCO2-derived CO2-RB or the bioimpedance at rest and for all exercise intensities. End-tidal CO2-derived values are however not statistically different from those obtained using inert-gas rebreathing. This study show that in COPD patients, CO2-rebreathing Qc values obtained using PaCO2 contents which account for any gas exchange impairment or inadequate gas mixing are similar to those obtained using thoracic bioimpedance. Alternately, the lower values for N2O rebreathing derived Qc indicates the inability of this technique to account for gas exchange impairment in the computation of Qc. These findings indicate that the choice of a gas rebreathing technique to measure Qc in patients must be dictated by the ability to include in the derived computations a correction for either gas exchange inadequacies and/or a vascular shunt. PMID:26408087

  17. Comparing the effect of open and closed endotracheal suctioning on pain and oxygenation in post CABG patients under mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadpour, Ali; Amini, Shahram; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Mirzaei, Sahereh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare changes in pain, oxygenation, and ventilation following endotracheal suctioning with open and closed suctioning systems in post coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients. Materials and Methods: 130 post CABG mechanically ventilated patients were randomly allocated to undergo either open (n = 75) or closed (n = 55) endotracheal suctioning for 15 s. The patients received 100% oxygen for 1 min before and after suctioning. Pain score using critical-care pain objective tool (CPOT) was compared during suctioning between the two groups. Arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2), PaO2 to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (PF) ratio, and arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) were compared at baseline and 5 min after suctioning. Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) was compared at baseline, during suctioning, and at 1 min interval after suctioning for 5 min between the two groups. Results: The patients were the same with regard to CPOT scores, i.e. 3.21 (1.89) and 2.94 (1.56) in the open and closed suctioning systems, respectively. SpO2 did not change significantly between the two groups. Changes in PaO2 and PF ratio was more significant in the open than in the closed system (P = 0.007). Patients in the open group had a higher PaCO2 than those in the closed group, i.e. 40.54 (6.56) versus 38.02 (6.10), and the P value was 0.027. Conclusions: Our study revealed that patients’ pain and SpO2 changes are similar following endotracheal suctioning in both suctioning systems. However, oxygenation and ventilation are better preserved with closed suctioning system. PMID:25878695

  18. Clinical characteristics and risk factors of pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic respiratory diseases: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yonghua; Liu, Chunli; Lu, Wenju; Li, Mengxi; Hadadi, Cyrus; Wang, Elizabeth Wenqian; Yang, Kai; Lai, Ning; Huang, Junyi; Li, Shiyue; Zhong, Nanshan

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic respiratory disease-associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important subtype of PH, which lacks clinical epidemiological data in China. Methods Six hundred and ninety three patients hospitalized from 2010 to 2013 were classified by echocardiography according to pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP): mild (36≤ PASP <50 mmHg); moderate (50≤ PASP <70 mmHg) and severe (PASP ≥70 mmHg). Results Dyspnea (93.51%) was the most common symptom. Hemoptysis observed in the severe group (6.42%) was significantly higher than the other two groups (P<0.05). COPD (78.35%), lung bullae (44.16%), tuberculosis (including obsolete pulmonary tuberculosis) (38.82%), and bronchiectasis (30.45%) were frequently present. Mild group occupied the highest proportion (84.7%) in COPD, while severe group occupied the highest proportion (19.3%) in pulmonary embolism (P<0.01). Age, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), hematocrit (HCT), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), increase of N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and right ventricular (RV) diameter (>20 mm) were associated with moderate-to-severe PH, while RV [odds ratio (OR) =3.53, 95% CI, 2.17–5.74], NT-proBNP (OR=2.44, 95% CI, 1.51–3.95), HCT (OR=1.03, 95% CI, 1.00–1.07) and PaCO2 (OR=1.01, 95% CI, 1.00–1.03) were independent risk factors. Conclusions PH related to respiratory diseases is mostly mild to moderate, and the severity is associated with the category of respiratory disease. Increased HCT can be an independent risk factor for PH related to chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:27076929

  19. Detection of beta2 and major toxin genes by PCR in Clostridium perfringens field isolates of domestic animals suffering from enteritis or enterotoxaemia.

    PubMed

    Sting, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The production of Clostridium (C.) perfringens toxins in the intestine is an important cause of enteritis and enterotoxaemia in livestock. In the present study, the alpha toxin and the genes encoding beta2 and epsilon toxin could be frequently detected by means of phenotypical and PCR examinations in these bacteria. The C. perfringens isolates originated from 1213 field samples taken from diseased or perished livestock located in the north-eastern administrative districts of Baden-Württemberg (Germany) from 2005 to 2008. The beta2 toxin gene of C perfringens was detected in all animal species examined, comprising pigs, the small ruminants sheep and goats, cattle, horses, rabbits, alpacas and lamas, and fallow deer. Among all the animal species included in this study, pigs attracted attention by a high quota of 74.2% (610 of 822) cpb2-positive C. perfringens isolates in comparison to the other animal species tested, revealing a quota of 20.8% (72 of 346). Beta2 toxigenic isolates could be predominantly cultivated from the faeces of young piglets. The beta toxin gene was detected in isolates from piglets and small ruminants only, amounting to 82.5% (33 of 40) in piglets in combination with the cpb2 gene. In this context, cpb2/cpb-positive C. perfringens isolates of piglets could be clearly detected more often in the intestine of perished animals (18 of 158) than in faeces (15 of 629). Furthermore, cpb2-bearing C. perfringens isolates were detected in cattle, horses, rabbits, alpacas and lamas, and fallow deer to a notable degree. The detection of C. perfringens isolates carrying the epsilon toxin gene was restricted to sheep and goats. Of a total of 242 small ruminants that succumbed to sudden death, 71 (29.3%) harboured epsilon toxin-positive C. perfringens isolates in their intestines. These cases clustered seasonally in the second quarter (April, May, and June) of the year. Neither the isolates bearing the beta2 nor beta toxin gene nor those carrying the epsilon

  20. A novel nanobody specific for respiratory surfactant protein A has potential for lung targeting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shan-Mei; He, Xian; Li, Nan; Yu, Feng; Hu, Yang; Wang, Liu-Sheng; Zhang, Peng; Du, Yu-Kui; Du, Shan-Shan; Yin, Zhao-Fang; Wei, Ya-Ru; Mulet, Xavier; Coia, Greg; Weng, Dong; He, Jian-Hua; Wu, Min; Li, Hui-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Lung-targeting drugs are thought to be potential therapies of refractory lung diseases by maximizing local drug concentrations in the lung to avoid systemic circulation. However, a major limitation in developing lung-targeted drugs is the acquirement of lung-specific ligands. Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SPA) is predominantly synthesized by type II alveolar epithelial cells, and may serve as a potential lung-targeting ligand. Here, we generated recombinant rat pulmonary SPA (rSPA) as an antigen and immunized an alpaca to produce two nanobodies (the smallest naturally occurring antibodies) specific for rSPA, designated Nb6 and Nb17. To assess these nanobodies’ potential for lung targeting, we evaluated their specificity to lung tissue and toxicity in mice. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that these anti-rSPA nanobodies selectively bound to rat lungs with high affinity. Furthermore, we intravenously injected fluorescein isothiocyanate-Nb17 in nude mice and observed its preferential accumulation in the lung to other tissues, suggesting high affinity of the nanobody for the lung. Studying acute and chronic toxicity of Nb17 revealed its safety in rats without causing apparent histological alterations. Collectively, we have generated and characterized lung-specific nanobodies, which may be applicable for lung drug delivery. PMID:25926731

  1. Endoparasites of exotic ungulates from the Giraffidae and Camelidae families kept ex situ.

    PubMed

    Nosal, Paweł; Kowal, Jerzy; Kornaś, Sławomir; Wyrobisz, Anna; Skotnicki, Józef; Basiaga, Marta; Plucińska, Natalia E

    2016-01-01

    Giraffes and camels are popular attractions at zoological gardens. In order to present the diversity of parasites infecting exotic ungulates from zoos, faecal samples from three giraffes and six camels from both the Silesian Zoological Garden in Chorzów, and Kraków Zoological Garden, were examined. The research was carried out over a ten-month period in 2013 and 2014. In total, 100 faecal samples from 18 animals were analysed with the use of the McMaster method. Moreover, coccidian oocysts were incubated to investigate their development and larvoscopic examination was conducted to detect the presence of nematode species. Giraffes were infected with coccidia from the genus Eimeria, and gastrointestinal nematodes from the Strongylida order, and Trichuris and Aonhotheca genera. One male giraffe was uninfected. The level of infection in giraffes was low when compared to camels kept in both of the zoos. Limited contact with other animal species contributed greatly to the lower level of infection in camels from Kraków Zoo than those from Chorzów, which were kept in the same enclosure as alpacas and Shetland ponies. PMID:27262960

  2. MicroRNA-21a-5p Functions on the Regulation of Melanogenesis by Targeting Sox5 in Mouse Skin Melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengchao; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Fan, Ruiwen; Chen, Tianzhi; Dong, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating almost all biological processes. miRNAs bind to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs by sequence matching. In a previous study, we demonstrated that miR-21 was differently expressed in alpaca skin with different hair color. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for miR-21 to regulate the coat color are not yet completely understood. In this study, we transfected miR-21a-5p into mouse melanocytes and demonstrated its function on melanogenesis of miR-21a-5p by targeting Sox5, which inhibits melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. The results suggested that miR-21a-5p targeted Sox5 gene based on the binding site in 3' UTR of Sox5 and overexpression of miR-21a-5p significantly down-regulated Sox5 mRNA and protein expression. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and Tyrosinase (TYR) were up-regulated, which subsequently make the melanin production in melanocytes increased. The results suggest that miR-21a-5p regulates melanogenesis via MITF by targeting Sox5. PMID:27347933

  3. Western analyses of pregnancy-associated glycoprotein family (PAG) in placental extracts of various mammals.

    PubMed

    Bella, A; Sousa, N M; Dehimi, M L; Watts, J; Beckers, J F

    2007-10-15

    The present study was conducted in order to analyze the immunoreactivity of placental extracts of several animal species and humans against the following three groups of PAG antisera: anti-boPAG-I (R#497), -boPAG-II (R#435), and -caPAG (R#706). Placental proteins were obtained after extraction at neutral pH, followed by ammonium sulfate (A.S.) precipitation, dialysis, and lyophilization. The immunoreactivity of different placental extracts was revealed by the use of monodimensional SDS-PAGE, followed by blotting on nitrocellulose membrane and the identification of immunoreactive proteins after incubation with PAG antisera (Western blot technique). A strong immunoreactivity of proteins from synepitheliochorial placenta (cattle, sheep, goat, bison, buffalo, and deer) was demonstrated in both 20-50% and 50-80% A.S. fractions using the three antisera. Proteins from species with epitheliochorial placenta presented variable profiles of detected PAG-like proteins: in the sow, many immunoreactive forms were revealed by antisera boPAG-I and boPAG-II, whereas in the dromedary, only two forms were revealed by anti-boPAG-II. Concerning other species, our protocols showed for the first time a cross-reaction between PAG antisera with proteins extracted from dog, alpaca, dromedary, sea lion, and human placenta. PMID:17850858

  4. [First detection of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" in South American Camelids of Switzerland and evaluation of prevalence].

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Christine; Meli, Marina L; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Zanolari, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Haemotrophic mycoplasmas (also known as haemoplasmas), small bacterias which parasite the surface of erythrocytes, have been described in several species. Recently, molecular methods were developed for the diagnosis of haemoplasma infection. The presented study describes the first detection and the investigation of prevalence of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" in South American Camelids in Switzerland. A random sample of the latter population was tested for haemoplasma infections using real-time PCR. The infection was detected in 18.6% of the animals and was found both in indigenous and in imported camelids. Of the tested herds 39,1% harboured at least one animal positive for haemoplasmas in PCR. There was no difference in prevalence between male and female animals and llamas and alpacas, respectively. Furthermore, the prevalence of infection was not significantly different in diseased animals compared to healthy camelids. From the latter observation and the fact that the high prevalence was accompanied by an undetectable incidence, we concluded that the pathogenicity of "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemolamae" may be low. PMID:21141277

  5. A single domain antibody fragment that recognizes the adaptor ASC defines the role of ASC domains in inflammasome assembly.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Florian I; Lu, Alvin; Chen, Jeff W; Ruan, Jianbin; Tang, Catherine; Wu, Hao; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2016-05-01

    Myeloid cells assemble inflammasomes in response to infection or cell damage; cytosolic sensors activate pro-caspase-1, indirectly for the most part, via the adaptors ASC and NLRC4. This leads to secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and pyroptosis. To explore complex formation under physiological conditions, we generated an alpaca single domain antibody, VHHASC, which specifically recognizes the CARD of human ASC via its type II interface. VHHASC not only impairs ASC(CARD) interactions in vitro, but also inhibits inflammasome activation in response to NLRP3, AIM2, and NAIP triggers when expressed in living cells, highlighting a role of ASC in all three types of inflammasomes. VHHASC leaves the Pyrin domain of ASC functional and stabilizes a filamentous intermediate of inflammasome activation. Incorporation of VHHASC-EGFP into these structures allowed the visualization of endogenous ASC(PYD) filaments for the first time. These data revealed that cross-linking of ASC(PYD) filaments via ASC(CARD) mediates the assembly of ASC foci. PMID:27069117

  6. Wrench tectonics control on Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogacsas, Gyorgy; Juhász, Györgyi; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Simon, Szilvia; Lukács, Szilveszter; Csizmeg, János

    2010-05-01

    The Neogene Pannonian basin is underlain by a large orogenic collage which is built up by several tectonostratigraphic terrains. The basement of the Pannonian Basin became imbricate nappes during the Cretaceous Alpine collision. Nappes of Late Cretaceous in age have been proven below the Great Hungarian Plain (Grow et al 1994). The boundary of the two main terrains, the northwestern ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) and the southeastern TISZA, is the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. It is the most significant neotectonic zone of the Pannonian Basin. The structural analysis of the middle section of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt was carried out on a 120km x 50km area, between the Danube and the Tisza river, on the basis of interpretation of seismic data. The structural analysis of the Neogene-Quaternary sediments was supported by sequence stratigraphic interpretation of seismic, well log and core-sample data. Regional seismic profiles were both oriented in the dip direction, which highlights sediment supply routes into the basin, and strike-oriented. The studied segment of the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt consists of several long (some ten kilometres long) strike slip fault zones. The offset lengths of the individual strike slipe faults varies between a few and a dozens of kilometres. Activity along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt can be characterised by four periods, the size and shape of facies zones of each development period were controlled by tectonics: 1. During the early Miocene, the ALPACA moved eastward, bounded by sinistral strike-slipe system along its northern side and dextral strike-slipe fault system along its contact with the Southern Alps and the TISZA terrain. The largest movement took part during the Ottnangian-Karpatian (19-16.5 Ma). The TISZA unit moved northeastward over the remnant Carpathian Flysch Basin (Nemcok et al 2006). These terrains movements resulted in right lateral, convergent wide wrench along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt. The ALPACA

  7. Genomic Data from Extinct North American Camelops Revise Camel Evolutionary History.

    PubMed

    Heintzman, Peter D; Zazula, Grant D; Cahill, James A; Reyes, Alberto V; MacPhee, Ross D E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in paleogenomic technologies have enabled an increasingly detailed understanding of the evolutionary relationships of now-extinct mammalian taxa. However, a number of enigmatic Quaternary species have never been characterized with molecular data, often because available fossils are rare or are found in environments that are not optimal for DNA preservation. Here, we analyze paleogenomic data extracted from bones attributed to the late Pleistocene western camel, Camelops cf. hesternus, a species that was distributed across central and western North America until its extinction approximately 13,000 years ago. Despite a modal sequence length of only around 35 base pairs, we reconstructed high-coverage complete mitochondrial genomes and low-coverage partial nuclear genomes for each specimen. We find that Camelops is sister to African and Asian bactrian and dromedary camels, to the exclusion of South American camelids (llamas, guanacos, alpacas, and vicuñas). These results contradict previous morphology-based phylogenetic models for Camelops, which suggest instead a closer relationship between Camelops and the South American camelids. The molecular data imply a Late Miocene divergence of the Camelops clade from lineages that separately gave rise to the extant camels of Eurasia. Our results demonstrate the increasing capacity of modern paleogenomic methods to resolve evolutionary relationships among distantly related lineages. PMID:26037535

  8. A Model-independent Photometric Redshift Estimator for Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun

    2007-01-01

    The use of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) as cosmological standard candles is fundamental in modern observational cosmology. In this Letter, we derive a simple empirical photometric redshift estimator for SNe Ia using a training set of SNe Ia with multiband (griz) light curves and spectroscopic redshifts obtained by the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS). This estimator is analytical and model-independent it does not use spectral templates. We use all the available SNe Ia from SNLS with near-maximum photometry in griz (a total of 40 SNe Ia) to train and test our photometric redshift estimator. The difference between the estimated redshifts zphot and the spectroscopic redshifts zspec, (zphot-zspec)/(1+zspec), has rms dispersions of 0.031 for 20 SNe Ia used in the training set, and 0.050 for 20 SNe Ia not used in the training set. The dispersion is of the same order of magnitude as the flux uncertainties at peak brightness for the SNe Ia. There are no outliers. This photometric redshift estimator should significantly enhance the ability of observers to accurately target high-redshift SNe Ia for spectroscopy in ongoing surveys. It will also dramatically boost the cosmological impact of very large future supernova surveys, such as those planned for the Advanced Liquid-mirror Probe for Astrophysics, Cosmology, and Asteroids (ALPACA) and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST).

  9. Citrinin detection using phage-displayed anti-idiotypic single-domain antibody for antigen mimicry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Xiong, Liang; Li, Yanping; Xiong, Yonghua; Tu, Zhui; Fu, Jinheng; Tang, Xiao

    2015-06-15

    Anti-idiotypic antibodies (AIds) can mimic antigen molecules and can thus offer an alternative to conventional antigens in immunoassays. In this study, citrinin (CIT) was chosen as a target analyte, and an anti-idiotypic single-domain antibody (VHH) was selected from a naïve alpaca VHHs library to serve as a surrogate for CIT hapten. The phage-displayed VHH was used as a signal-amplification carrier to develop an indirect competitive phage enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (P-ELISA) for the sensitive detection of CIT. The half-inhibition concentration (IC50) of P-ELISA was 10.9 μg/kg, which was 9-fold better than that of conventional ELISA (IC50=102.1 μg/kg). Results on P-ELISA analysis of naturally contaminated samples were also consistent with those obtained by conventional ELISA. In conclusion, the proposed P-ELISA demonstrates the potential use of phage-displayed anti-idiotypic VHH as surrogate for small molecules and signal-amplification carrier to improve assay performance for more sensitive analyte detection in food safety monitoring. PMID:25660863

  10. Changing Hydrology in Glacier-fed High Altitude Andean Peatbogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slayback, D. A.; Yager, K.; Baraer, M.; Mohr, K. I.; Argollo, J.; Wigmore, O.; Meneses, R. I.; Mark, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    Montane peatbogs in the glacierized Andean highlands of Peru and Bolivia provide critical forage for camelids (llama and alpaca) in regionally extensive pastoral agriculture systems. During the long dry season, these wetlands often provide the only available green forage. A key question for the future of these peatbog systems, and the livelihoods they support, is the impact of climate change and glacier recession on their hydrology, and thus forage production. We have already documented substantial regional glacier recession, of, on average, approximately 30% of surface area over the past two decades. As glaciers begin to retreat under climate change, there is initially a period of increased meltwater outflow, culminating in a period of "peak water", and followed by a continual decline in outflows. Based on previous work, we know that some glaciers in the region have already passed peak water conditions, and are now declining. To better understand the impacts of these processes on peatbog hydrology and productivity, we have begun collecting a variety of surface data at several study sites in both Bolivia and Peru. These include precipitation, stream flow, water levels, water chemistry and isotope analyses, and peatbog biodiversity and biomass. These measurements will be used in conjunction with a regional model driven by satellite data to predict likely future impacts. We will present the results from these initial surface measurements, and an overview of satellite datasets to be used in the regional model.

  11. MicroRNA-21a-5p Functions on the Regulation of Melanogenesis by Targeting Sox5 in Mouse Skin Melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pengchao; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Fan, Ruiwen; Chen, Tianzhi; Dong, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in regulating almost all biological processes. miRNAs bind to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs by sequence matching. In a previous study, we demonstrated that miR-21 was differently expressed in alpaca skin with different hair color. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms for miR-21 to regulate the coat color are not yet completely understood. In this study, we transfected miR-21a-5p into mouse melanocytes and demonstrated its function on melanogenesis of miR-21a-5p by targeting Sox5, which inhibits melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. The results suggested that miR-21a-5p targeted Sox5 gene based on the binding site in 3′ UTR of Sox5 and overexpression of miR-21a-5p significantly down-regulated Sox5 mRNA and protein expression. Meanwhile, mRNA and protein expression of microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF) and Tyrosinase (TYR) were up-regulated, which subsequently make the melanin production in melanocytes increased. The results suggest that miR-21a-5p regulates melanogenesis via MITF by targeting Sox5. PMID:27347933

  12. Effects of eye-glasses, hair, headgear, and clothing on measured head-related transfer functions Part Ib

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riederer, Klaus A. J.

    2003-10-01

    Extensive head-related transfer function (HRTF) measurements show high HRTF repeatability, consequences of different measurement methods, and conditions covering the whole three-dimensional space [Riederer, J. Audio Eng. Soc. (Abstracts) 46, 1036 (1998), preprint 4846]. This study concentrates on specific effects on HRTFs carefully re-measured on the same Cortex dummy head applying Sennheiser KE4-211-2 microphones at its silicone putty blocked ear-canal entrances, employing 252 sound incidents including seven elevations. The effects of five different wigs (synthetic, natural, thick, thin, long and short hair) with varied hairstyles, four hats (cap, bicycle helmet, mens and womens trilby), clothes (alpaca pullover, bicycling drymax-jacket) and spectacles were investigated under 28 combinations. The influences are highly dependent on direction, frequency, and case. Clothes and eye-glasses affect minimally HRTF; hair has a stronger effect, depending on the actual hairdo (typically above 7 kHz). Hats alter intensively HRTFs (typically above 5 kHz), depending on the model. The measurements give deeper insight to the development of idiosyncratic features in binaural localization cues. The second part of the study addresses their perceptual effects [Riederer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., this issue]. [Work supported by Graduate School of Electronics, Telecommunication and Automation; thanks to Finnish Broadcasting Company, Mr. Hellstrom; Mrs. Chen.

  13. Heterologous Antigen Selection of Camelid Heavy Chain Single Domain Antibodies against Tetrabromobisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is a ubiquitous flame retardant. A high-throughput immunoassay would allow for monitoring of human and environmental exposures as a part of risk assessment. Naturally occurring antibodies in camelids that are devoid of light chain, show great promise as an efficient tool in monitoring environmental contaminants, but they have been rarely used for small molecules. An alpaca was immunized with a TBBPA hapten coupled to thyroglobulin and a variable domain of heavy chain antibody (VHH) T3–15 highly selective for TBBPA was isolated from a phage displayed VHH library using heterologous coating antigens. Compared to the VHHs isolated using homologous antigens, VHH T3–15 had about a 10-fold improvement in sensitivity in an immunoassay. This assay, under the optimized conditions of 10% methanol in the assay buffer (pH 7.4), had an IC50 for TBBPA of 0.40 ng mL–1 and negligible cross reactivity (<0.1%) with other tested analogues. After heating the VHH at 90 °C for 90 min about 20% of the affinity for coating antigen T3-BSA remained. The recoveries of TBBPA from spiked soil and fetal bovine serum samples ranged from 90.3% to 110.7% by ELISA and agreed well with a liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. We conclude the many advantages of VHH make them attractive for the development of immunoassays to small molecules. PMID:25068372

  14. Identification and characterization of species-specific nanobodies for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in milk.

    PubMed

    Tu, Zhui; Chen, Qi; Li, Yanping; Xiong, Yonghua; Xu, Yang; Hu, Na; Tao, Yong

    2016-01-15

    Listeria monocytogenes (LM), one of the eight species belonging to the genus Listeria, is pathogenic for both humans and animals. In this study, two novel LM-specific clones, designated L5-78 and L5-79, were isolated from a phage display antibody library that was derived from the variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHHs) of non-immunized alpaca. These two clones were expressed, purified, and characterized. Results showed that both isolated VHHs recognize three serotypes (1/2a, 1/2b, and 4b), which are responsible for more than 95% of documented human listeriosis cases. The recombinant VHHs possess high thermal stability, pH tolerance, and urea resistance. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the VHH clone L5-79 and a monoclonal antibody was developed to detect LM in pasteurized milk, with a detection limit of 1 × 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml. These findings indicated that the species-specific VHHs could be directly isolated from the non-immunized library with a properly designed panning strategy and VHH could be a new source for possible diagnosis/detection of foodborne pathogens in food because it was shown to be highly specific and stable. PMID:26456330

  15. A new survivin tracer tracks, delocalizes and captures endogenous survivin at different subcellular locations and in distinct organelles.

    PubMed

    Beghein, Els; Van Audenhove, Isabel; Zwaenepoel, Olivier; Verhelle, Adriaan; De Ganck, Ariane; Gettemans, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Survivin, the smallest member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, plays a central role during mitosis and exerts a cytoprotective function. Survivin is highly expressed in most cancer types and contributes to multiple facets of carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanisms underlying its highly diverse functions need to be extensively explored, which is crucial for rational design of future personalized therapeutics. In this study, we have generated an alpaca survivin nanobody (SVVNb8) that binds with low nanomolar affinity to its target. When expressed as an intrabody in HeLa cells, SVVNb8 faithfully tracks survivin during different phases of mitosis without interfering with survivin function. Furthermore, coupling SVVNb8 with a subcellular delocalization tag efficiently redirects endogenous survivin towards the nucleus, the cytoplasm, peroxisomes and even to the intermembrane space of mitochondria where it presumably interacts with resident mitochondrial survivin. Based on our findings, we believe that SVVNb8 is an excellent instrument to further elucidate survivin biology and topography, and can serve as a model system to investigate mitochondrial and peroxisomal (survivin) protein import. PMID:27514728

  16. Noninvasive imaging of immune responses

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Keliher, Edmund J.; Bilate, Angelina M.; Duarte, Joao N.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R.; Jacobsen, Johanne Tracey; Cragnolini, Juanjo; Swee, Lee Kim; Victora, Gabriel D.; Weissleder, Ralph; Ploegh, Hidde L.

    2015-01-01

    At their margins, tumors often contain neutrophils, dendritic cells, and activated macrophages, which express class II MHC and CD11b products. The interplay between stromal cells, tumor cells, and migratory cells such as lymphocytes creates opportunities for noninvasive imaging of immune responses. We developed alpaca-derived antibody fragments specific for mouse class II MHC and CD11b products, expressed on the surface of a variety of myeloid cells. We validated these reagents by flow cytometry and two-photon microscopy to obtain images at cellular resolution. To enable noninvasive imaging of the targeted cell populations, we developed a method to site-specifically label VHHs [the variable domain (VH) of a camelid heavy-chain only antibody] with 18F or 64Cu. Radiolabeled VHHs rapidly cleared the circulation (t1/2 ≈ 20 min) and clearly visualized lymphoid organs. We used VHHs to explore the possibility of imaging inflammation in both xenogeneic and syngeneic tumor models, which resulted in detection of tumors with remarkable specificity. We also imaged the infiltration of myeloid cells upon injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant. Both anti-class II MHC and anti-CD11b VHHs detected inflammation with excellent specificity. Given the ease of manufacture and labeling of VHHs, we believe that this method could transform the manner in which antitumor responses and/or infectious events may be tracked. PMID:25902531

  17. Noninvasive imaging of immune responses.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Keliher, Edmund J; Bilate, Angelina M; Duarte, Joao N; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Jacobsen, Johanne Tracey; Cragnolini, Juanjo; Swee, Lee Kim; Victora, Gabriel D; Weissleder, Ralph; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2015-05-12

    At their margins, tumors often contain neutrophils, dendritic cells, and activated macrophages, which express class II MHC and CD11b products. The interplay between stromal cells, tumor cells, and migratory cells such as lymphocytes creates opportunities for noninvasive imaging of immune responses. We developed alpaca-derived antibody fragments specific for mouse class II MHC and CD11b products, expressed on the surface of a variety of myeloid cells. We validated these reagents by flow cytometry and two-photon microscopy to obtain images at cellular resolution. To enable noninvasive imaging of the targeted cell populations, we developed a method to site-specifically label VHHs [the variable domain (VH) of a camelid heavy-chain only antibody] with (18)F or (64)Cu. Radiolabeled VHHs rapidly cleared the circulation (t1/2 ≈ 20 min) and clearly visualized lymphoid organs. We used VHHs to explore the possibility of imaging inflammation in both xenogeneic and syngeneic tumor models, which resulted in detection of tumors with remarkable specificity. We also imaged the infiltration of myeloid cells upon injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. Both anti-class II MHC and anti-CD11b VHHs detected inflammation with excellent specificity. Given the ease of manufacture and labeling of VHHs, we believe that this method could transform the manner in which antitumor responses and/or infectious events may be tracked. PMID:25902531

  18. From single nucleotide substitutions up to chromosomal deletions: genetic pause of leucism-associated disorders in animals.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Katharina; Erhardt, Georg; Lühken, Gesine

    2016-01-01

    Leucism is characterized by a complete or partial white skin and hair in combination with pigmented irides, which can be vivid blue or heterochromatic. This is due to a complete or partial lack of melanocytes. The underlying pathogenesis is a disturbed emigration or differentiation of neural crest-derived cells. Therefore, leucistic phenotypes can be associated with defects, which mainly impair sensory organs and nerves. In humans, a well-known example is the Waardenburg syndrome. Leucism-associated disorders were also described in mouse, rat, hamster, rabbit, mink, cat, dog, pig, sheep, llama, alpaca, cattle and horse. In some of these species already identified causal mutations affect the genes EDN3, EDNRB, KIT, MITF, PAX3, SILV and SOX10. Defect alleles represent different types of genetic variation, ranging from single nucleotide substitutions up to larger chromosomal deletions. Some of the defect alleles produce desired coat color patterns. In some but not all cases, available genetic tests enable breeders to avoid production of animals affected by a leucism-associated disorder. PMID:27529988

  19. A new survivin tracer tracks, delocalizes and captures endogenous survivin at different subcellular locations and in distinct organelles

    PubMed Central

    Beghein, Els; Van Audenhove, Isabel; Zwaenepoel, Olivier; Verhelle, Adriaan; De Ganck, Ariane; Gettemans, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Survivin, the smallest member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein family, plays a central role during mitosis and exerts a cytoprotective function. Survivin is highly expressed in most cancer types and contributes to multiple facets of carcinogenesis. The molecular mechanisms underlying its highly diverse functions need to be extensively explored, which is crucial for rational design of future personalized therapeutics. In this study, we have generated an alpaca survivin nanobody (SVVNb8) that binds with low nanomolar affinity to its target. When expressed as an intrabody in HeLa cells, SVVNb8 faithfully tracks survivin during different phases of mitosis without interfering with survivin function. Furthermore, coupling SVVNb8 with a subcellular delocalization tag efficiently redirects endogenous survivin towards the nucleus, the cytoplasm, peroxisomes and even to the intermembrane space of mitochondria where it presumably interacts with resident mitochondrial survivin. Based on our findings, we believe that SVVNb8 is an excellent instrument to further elucidate survivin biology and topography, and can serve as a model system to investigate mitochondrial and peroxisomal (survivin) protein import. PMID:27514728

  20. Mycobacterium bovis infections in domesticated non-bovine mammalian species. Part 1: Review of epidemiology and laboratory submissions in Great Britain 2004-2010.

    PubMed

    Broughan, J M; Downs, S H; Crawshaw, T R; Upton, P A; Brewer, J; Clifton-Hadley, R S

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), can infect a broad range of mammalian species in addition to domestic and feral cattle and badgers. Since legislation introduced in 2006 in Great Britain requires animal keepers, meat inspectors and veterinarians to notify the authorities of suspect bTB lesions or the isolation of M. bovis in any mammal excluding humans, the organism has been increasingly identified in domestic species other than cattle. Although in most cases 'spill-over' hosts, these remain a potential source of infection for cattle, wildlife, and possibly humans. In this first part of a two-part review of M. bovis infections in non-bovine domestic species, current knowledge of the epidemiology of such infections is presented along with novel data relating to diagnostic submissions for mycobacterial culture between 2004 and 2010. Over this period M. bovis infection was identified in 116 cats, 7 dogs, 34 llamas, 133 alpacas, 35 goats, 24 sheep and 85 pigs and wild boar. The risk that such infections pose to the control of bTB, and as zoonoses, is discussed. In part two, the options available to diagnose bTB in these species, as well as the challenges posed to disease detection and control will be discussed in depth. PMID:24268485

  1. A toxin-free enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the analysis of aflatoxins based on a VHH surrogate standard.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanru; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Wen

    2016-09-01

    A toxin-free enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for aflatoxins was developed using an anti-idiotype nanobody VHH 2-5 as surrogate standard. Anti-idiotype nanobody VHH 2-5 was generated by immunizing an alpaca with anti-aflatoxin monoclonal antibody 1C11. This assay was used to detect aflatoxins in agro-products after a simple extraction with 75 % methanol/H2O. Aflatoxin concentration was calculated by a two-step approach: the concentration of VHH 2-5 was first obtained by a four-parameter logistic regression from the detected absorbance value at 450 nm, and then converted to aflatoxin concentration by a linear equation. The assay exhibits a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.015 ng mL(-1), which is better than or comparable with conventional immunoassays. The performance of our VHH surrogate-based ELISA was further validated with a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for total aflatoxins determination in 20 naturally contaminated peanut samples, displaying a good correlation (R (2) = 0.988). In conclusion, the proposed assay represents a first example applying an anti-idiotype VHH antibody as a standard surrogate in ELISA. With the advantages of high stability and ease of production, the VHH antibody-based standard surrogate can be extended in the future to immunoassays for other highly toxic compounds. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27002610

  2. Peptide Profiling Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry for Identification of Animal Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Izuchi, Yukari; Tokuhara, Mutsumi; Takashima, Tsuneo; Kuramoto, Kanya

    2013-01-01

    Identification of fibers for verification of their specific animal origin is necessary for maintaining quality and value in the clothing industry. In order to examine adulteration in animal fibers, there is a commercially accepted method of microscopy analysis. However, this method is subjective and time-consuming due to its reliance on an operator identifying magnified fibers from their scale image and other features. Therefore, alternative reliable identification methods are required. In this study, peptide analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) is presented and used to distinguish between cashmere, wool, mohair, yak, camel, angora, and alpaca in untreated and treated fibers (dyed, chlorinated wool). Typical m/z values for each specific type of animal fiber were identified. Predictive models that could identify seven types of animal fibers as well as 50% blended samples were successfully constructed using multivariate analyses such as PCA and PLS regression. This technique is therefore extremely useful for complementing the conventional tests for detecting adulteration in animal fiber fabrics and clothing. PMID:24860713

  3. A Broad Set of Different Llama Antibodies Specific for a 16 kDa Heat Shock Protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Trilling, Anke K.; de Ronde, Hans; Noteboom, Linda; van Houwelingen, Adèle; Roelse, Margriet; Srivastava, Saurabh K.; Haasnoot, Willem; Jongsma, Maarten A.; Kolk, Arend; Zuilhof, Han; Beekwilder, Jules

    2011-01-01

    Background Recombinant antibodies are powerful tools in engineering of novel diagnostics. Due to the small size and stable nature of llama antibody domains selected antibodies can serve as a detection reagent in multiplexed and sensitive assays for M. tuberculosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Antibodies for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) recognition were raised in Alpaca, and, by phage display, recombinant variable domains of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) binding to M. tuberculosis antigens were isolated. Two phage display selection strategies were followed: one direct selection using semi-purified protein antigen, and a depletion strategy with lysates, aiming to avoid cross-reaction to other mycobacteria. Both panning methods selected a set of binders with widely differing complementarity determining regions. Selected recombinant VHHs were produced in E. coli and shown to bind immobilized lysate in direct Enzymelinked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) tests and soluble antigen by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. All tested VHHs were specific for tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria (M. tuberculosis, M. bovis) and exclusively recognized an immunodominant 16 kDa heat shock protein (hsp). The highest affinity VHH had a dissociation constant (KD) of 4×10−10 M. Conclusions/Significance A broad set of different llama antibodies specific for 16 kDa heat shock protein of M. tuberculosis is available. This protein is highly stable and abundant in M. tuberculosis. The VHH that detect this protein are applied in a robust SPR sensor for identification of tuberculosis-causing mycobacteria. PMID:22046343

  4. The effects of long-term noninvasive ventilation in hypercapnic COPD patients: a randomized controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    De Backer, L; Vos, W; Dieriks, B; Daems, D; Verhulst, S; Vinchurkar, S; Ides, K; De Backer, J; Germonpre, P; De Backer, W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a well-established treatment for acute-on- chronic respiratory failure in hypercapnic COPD patients. Less is known about the effects of a long-term treatment with NIV in hypercapnic COPD patients and about the factors that may predict response in terms of improved oxygenation and lowered CO2 retention. Methods In this study, we randomized 15 patients to a routine pharmacological treatment (n = 5, age 66 [standard deviation ± 6] years, FEV1 30.5 [±5.1] %pred, PaO2 65 [±6] mmHg, PaCO2 52.4 [±6.0] mmHg) or to a routine treatment and NIV (using the Synchrony BiPAP device [Respironics, Inc, Murrsville, PA]) (n = 10, age 65 [±7] years, FEV1 29.5 [±9.0] %pred, PaO2 59 [±13] mmHg, PaCO2 55.4 [±7.7] mmHg) for 6 months. We looked at arterial blood gasses, lung function parameters and performed a low-dose computed tomography of the thorax, which was later used for segmentation (providing lobe and airway volumes, iVlobe and iVaw) and post-processing with computer methods (providing airway resistance, iRaw) giving overall a functional image of the separate airways and lobes. Results In both groups there was a nonsignificant change in FEV1 (NIV group 29.5 [9.0] to 38.5 [14.6] %pred, control group 30.5 [5.1] to 36.8 [8.7] mmHg). PaCO2 dropped significantly only in the NIV group (NIV: 55.4 [7.7] → 44.5 [4.70], P = 0.0076; control: 52.4 [6.0] → 47.6 [8.2], NS). Patients actively treated with NIV developed a more inhomogeneous redistribution of mass flow than control patients. Subsequent analysis indicated that in NIV-treated patients that improve their blood gases, mass flow was also redistributed towards areas with higher vessel density and less emphysema, indicating that flow was redistributed towards areas with better perfusion. There was a highly significant correlation between the % increase in mass flow towards lobes with a blood vessel density of >9% and the increase in PaO2. Improved ventilation–perfusion match and

  5. Different meal, same flavor: cospeciation and host switching of haemosporidian parasites in some non-passerine birds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that haemosporidian parasites (Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) and Plasmodium) infecting passerine birds have an evolutionary history of host switching with little cospeciation, in particular at low taxonomic levels (e.g., below the family level), which is suggested as the main speciation mechanism of this group of parasites. Recent studies have characterized diverse clades of haemosporidian parasites (H. (Haemoproteus) and H. (Parahaemoproteus)) infecting non-passerine birds (e.g., Columbiformes, Pelecaniiformes). Here, we explore the cospeciation history of H. (Haemoproteus) and H. (Parahaemoproteus) parasites with their non-passerine hosts. Methods We sequenced the mtDNA cyt b gene of both haemosporidian parasites and their avian non-passerine hosts. We built Bayesian phylogenetic hypotheses and created concensus phylograms that were subsequently used to conduct cospeciation analyses. We used both a global cospeciation test, PACo, and an event-cost algorithm implemented in CoRe-PA. Results The global test suggests that H. (Haemoproteus) and H. (Parahaemoproteus) parasites have a diversification history dominated by cospeciation events particularly at the family level. Host-parasite links from the PACo analysis show that host switching events are common within families (i.e., among genera and among species within genera), and occasionally across different orders (e.g., Columbiformes to Pelecaniiformes). Event-cost analyses show that haemosporidian coevolutionary history is dominated by host switching and some codivergence, but with duplication events also present. Genetic lineages unique to raptor species (e.g., FALC11) commonly switch between Falconiformes and Strigiformes. Conclusions Our results corroborate previous findings that have detected a global cospeciation signal at the family taxonomic level, and they also support a history of frequent switching closer to the tips of the host phylogeny, which seems to be the

  6. Effects of Different Tidal Volume Ventilation on Paraquat-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Chao; Wang, Jinzhu; Li, Li; Li, Haina; Li, Lu; Su, Qianqian; Che, Lu; Liu, Lanping; Di, Min

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to explore the effects of different tidal volume (VT) ventilation on paraquat-induced acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) in piglets. Material/Methods We developed ALI/ARDS models in piglets by intraperitoneal injection of paraquat (PQ). The piglets were randomly divided into three groups: small VT group (VT=6 ml/kg, n=6), middle VT group (VT=10 ml/kg, n=6), and large VT group (VT=15 ml/kg, n=6), with the positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) set as 10 cmH2O. The hemodynamics were monitored by pulse-indicated continuous cardiac output (PiCCO) and the airway pressure changes and blood gas analysis indexes were recorded at different time points. The pathological changes were observed by lung puncture. Results The piglets showed ALI/ARDS in 4.5±0.8 hours after PQ intraperitoneal injection. PH, PaO2 and oxygenation indexes in the three groups all decreased after modeling success compared with baseline, and PaCO2 increased significantly. PH in the small VT group decreased most obviously after ventilation for 6 hours. PaO2 and oxygenation indexes in the small VT group showed the most obvious increase after ventilation for 2 hours and were much higher than the other two groups after ventilation for 6 hours. PaCO2 increased gradually after mechanical ventilation and the small VT group showed most obvious increase. The ELWI increased obviously after ventilation for 2 hours and then the small VT group clearly decreased. PIP and plateau pressure (Pplat) in the small VT group decreased gradually and in the middle and large VT group they increased after ventilation. The lung histopathology showed that the large VT group had the most severe damage and the small VT group had only minimal damage. Conclusions Small tidal volume ventilation combined with PEEP could alleviate the acute lung injury induced by paraquat and improve oxygenation. PMID:25671690

  7. Cardiorespiratory and antinociceptive effects of two different doses of lidocaine administered to horses during a constant intravenous infusion of xylazine and ketamine

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of a constant rate infusion (CRI) of lidocaine during xylazine and ketamine anesthesia in horses and aimed to correlate these effects with cardiorespiratory variables, bispectral index (BIS) and plasma lidocaine concentrations. Six adult crossbred mares weighing 320–400 kg were anesthetized on three different occasions. Sedation was performed with xylazine (0.75 mg/kg IV) and anesthetic induction with guaifenesin (75 mg/kg IV) and ketamine (2 mg/kg IV). Anesthesia was maintained with 37.5 μg/kg/min of xylazine and 87.5 μg/kg/min of ketamine both administered intravenously for 75 min. The three treatments consisted of: lidocaine (loading dose: 5 mg/kg, CRI: 100 μg/kg/min; THL); lidocaine (loading dose: 2.5 mg/kg; CRI: 50 μg/kg/min: TLL); and saline (TS); all given 15 min after induction and maintained for 1 h. Antinociception was measured by response to electrical stimulation and bispectral index (BIS) was recorded during anesthesia. Parametric and non-parametric data were compared using ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls and Friedman tests, respectively. Results Plasma lidocaine concentrations peaked at the end of lidocaine loading dose and was greater in THL (9.61 ± 2.75 μg/mL) vs TLL (4.50 ± 3.34 μg/mL). Electrical noxious stimulation caused purposeful movement in all horses from TS, but no response in THL. The BIS was decreased in THL only and was less when compared to the other treatments throughout anesthesia. Blood pressure, PaO2 and PaCO2 increased and heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), pH, total plasma protein and temperature decreased during anesthesia in all treatments. PaCO2 and HR were greater and RR and pH less in THL compared to TLL and TS at 30 min during anesthesia. All recoveries were considered excellent. Time to standing was longer after THL (60 ± 20 min) than following TLL and TS (32 ± 17 and 30 ± 15 min, respectively

  8. Acidosis, hypoxia and stress hormone release in response to one-minute inhalation of 80% CO2 in swine.

    PubMed

    Forslid, A; Augustinsson, O

    1988-02-01

    The study pertains to a series of investigations on the effects of CO2 inhalation as used for pre-slaughter anaesthesia in swine. Acid/base parameters, blood oxygen tension, plasma Na, K, Ca and stress hormone concentrations were monitored in Yorkshire swine before, during, and for 10 min after the animals were descended for 1 min into 80% CO2 in air. Severe respiratory acidosis (PaCO2 approximately 50 kPa, arterial pH approximately 6.6) and hypoxia (PaO2 approximately 4kPa) had developed after 45 s of the CO2 inhalation. The corresponding changes in venous blood were less drastic (PvCO2 approximately 17 kPa, pH 7.1, PvO2 approximately 4 kPa). Readjustment to PaCO2 approximately II kPa, arterial pH 7.2, and PaO2 approximately 13 kPa had occurred at 1 min post CO2. Four minutes later the respiratory acidosis had become converted into metabolic acidosis subjected to partial respiratory compensation (arterial pH 7.3 in the presence of moderate hypocapnia and hyperoxaemia). The cause of this metabolic acidosis (present also at 10 min post CO2) was apparently hypoxia-induced anaerobic metabolism (= lactic acid production). Apparently due to hydrogen ion transport into the cells in exchange for other cations, hyperkalaemia (K approximately 6.6 mmol l-1), and a 7 mmol l-1 increase in plasma Na had developed at 1.5 min later. The CO2 inhalation did not change the total plasma Ca significantly. The transport of the swine from the stable to the immediate pre-experimental situation induced a 3-fold increase in plasma cortisol concentration (PC, to approximately 130 mmol l-1). No further increase in PC occurred in response to the CO2 inhalation. It indicates that no additional emotional strain was imposed upon the animals during the CO2 exposure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3147571

  9. Arterial to end-tidal Pco2 difference during exercise in normoxia and severe acute hypoxia: importance of blood temperature correction

    PubMed Central

    Losa-Reyna, José; Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Henriquez, Juan José González; Calbet, José A L

    2015-01-01

    Negative arterial to end-tidal Pco2 differences ((a-ET)Pco2) have been reported in normoxia. To determine the influence of blood temperature on (a-ET)Pco2, 11 volunteers (21 ± 2 years) performed incremental exercise to exhaustion in normoxia (Nx, PIo2: 143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PIo2: 73 mmHg), while arterial blood gases and temperature (ABT) were simultaneously measured together with end-tidal Pco2 (PETco2). After accounting for blood temperature, the (a-ET) Pco2 was reduced (in absolute values) from −4.2 ± 1.6 to −1.1 ± 1.5 mmHg in normoxia and from −1.7 ± 1.6 to 0.9 ± 0.9 mmHg in hypoxia (both P < 0.05). The temperature corrected (a-ET)Pco2 was linearly related with absolute and relative exercise intensity, VO2, VCO2, and respiratory rate (RR) in normoxia and hypoxia (R2: 0.52–0.59). Exercise CO2 production and PETco2 values were lower in hypoxia than normoxia, likely explaining the greater (less negative) (a-ET)Pco2 difference in hypoxia than normoxia (P < 0.05). At near-maximal exercise intensity the (a-ET)Pco2 lies close to 0 mmHg, that is, the mean Paco2 and the mean PETco2 are similar. The mean exercise (a-ET)Pco2 difference is closely related to the mean A-aDO2 difference (r = 0.90, P < 0.001), as would be expected if similar mechanisms perturb the gas exchange of O2 and CO2 during exercise. In summary, most of the negative (a-ET)Pco2 values observed in previous studies are due to lack of correction of Paco2 for blood temperature. The absolute magnitude of the (a-ET)Pco2 difference is lower during exercise in hypoxia than normoxia. PMID:26508736

  10. Anesthetic management in atrial fibrillation ablation procedure: Adding non-invasive ventilation to deep sedation.

    PubMed

    Sbrana, Francesco; Ripoli, Andrea; Formichi, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Anesthetic management of patients undergoing pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation has specific requirements. The feasibility of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) added to deep sedation procedure was evaluated. Seventy-two patients who underwent ablation procedure were retrospectively revised, performed with (57%) or without (43%) application of NIV (Respironic(®) latex-free total face mask connected to Garbin ventilator-Linde Inc.) during deep sedation (Midazolam 0.01-0.02 mg/kg, fentanyl 2.5-5 μg/kg and propofol: bolus dose 1-1.5 mg/kg, maintenance 2-4 mg/kg/h). In the two groups (NIV vs deep sedation), differences were detected in intraprocedural (pH 7.37 ± 0.05 vs 7.32 ± 0.05, p = 0.001; PaO2 117.10 ± 27.25 vs 148.17 ± 45.29, p = 0.004; PaCO2 43.37 ± 6.91 vs 49.33 ± 7.34, p = 0.002) and in percentage variation with respect to basal values (pH -0.52 ± 0.83 vs -1.44 ± 0.87, p = 0.002; PaCO2 7.21 ± 15.55 vs 34.91 ± 25.76, p = 0.001) of arterial blood gas parameters. Two episodes of respiratory complications, treated with application of NIV, were reported in deep sedation procedure. Endotracheal intubation was not necessary in any case. Adverse events related to electrophysiological procedures and recurrence of atrial fibrillation were recorded, respectively, in 36% and 29% of cases. NIV proved to be feasible in this context and maintained better respiratory homeostasis and better arterial blood gas balance when added to deep sedation. PMID:26937093

  11. End tidal-to-arterial CO2 and O2 gas gradients at low- and high-altitude during dynamic end-tidal forcing.

    PubMed

    Tymko, Michael M; Ainslie, Philip N; MacLeod, David B; Willie, Chris K; Foster, Glen E

    2015-06-01

    We sought to characterize and quantify the performance of a portable dynamic end-tidal forcing (DEF) system in controlling the partial pressure of arterial CO2 (Pa(CO2)) and O2 (Pa(O2)) at low (LA; 344 m) and high altitude (HA; 5,050 m) during an isooxic CO2 test and an isocapnic O2 test, which is commonly used to measure ventilatory and vascular reactivity in humans (n = 9). The isooxic CO2 tests involved step changes in the partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PET(CO2)) of -10, -5, 0, +5, and +10 mmHg from baseline. The isocapnic O2 test consisted of a 10-min hypoxic step (PET(O2) = 47 mmHg) from baseline at LA and a 5-min euoxic step (PET(O2) = 100 mmHg) from baseline at HA. At both altitudes, PET(O2) and PET(CO2) were controlled within narrow limits (<1 mmHg from target) during each protocol. During the isooxic CO2 test at LA, PET(CO2) consistently overestimated Pa(CO2) (P < 0.01) at both baseline (2.1 ± 0.5 mmHg) and hypercapnia (+5 mmHg: 2.1 ± 0.7 mmHg; +10 mmHg: 1.9 ± 0.5 mmHg). This P(a)-PET(CO2) gradient was approximately twofold greater at HA (P < 0.05). At baseline at both altitudes, PET(O2) overestimated Pa(O2) by a similar extent (LA: 6.9 ± 2.1 mmHg; HA: 4.5 ± 0.9 mmHg; both P < 0.001). This overestimation persisted during isocapnic hypoxia at LA (6.9 ± 0.6 mmHg) and during isocapnic euoxia at HA (3.8 ± 1.2 mmHg). Step-wise multiple regression analysis, on the basis of the collected data, revealed that it may be possible to predict an individual's arterial blood gases during DEF. Future research is needed to validate these prediction algorithms and determine the implications of end-tidal-to-arterial gradients in the assessment of ventilatory and/or vascular reactivity. PMID:25810386

  12. A comparison of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and pressure-regulated volume control ventilation in elderly patients with acute exacerbations of COPD and respiratory failure

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Suchi; Shi, Jindong; Fu, Cuiping; Wu, Xu; Li, Shanqun

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Acute exacerbations of COPD may cause respiratory failure, requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation. Intensive care unit patients with acute exacerbations of COPD requiring mechanical ventilation have higher mortality rates than other hospitalized patients. Although mechanical ventilation is the most effective intervention for these conditions, invasive ventilation techniques have yielded variable effects. Objective We evaluated pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC) ventilation treatment efficacy and preventive effects on pulmonary barotrauma in elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure. Patients and methods Thirty-nine intubated patients were divided into experimental and control groups and treated with the PRVC and synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation – volume control methods, respectively. Vital signs, respiratory mechanics, and arterial blood gas analyses were monitored for 2–4 hours and 48 hours. Results Both groups showed rapidly improved pH, partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2), and PaO2 per fraction of inspired O2 levels and lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) levels. The pH and PaCO2 levels at 2–4 hours were lower and higher, respectively, in the test group than those in the control group (P<0.05 for both); after 48 hours, blood gas analyses showed no statistical difference in any marker (P>0.05). Vital signs during 2–4 hours and 48 hours of treatment showed no statistical difference in either group (P>0.05). The level of peak inspiratory pressure in the experimental group after mechanical ventilation for 2–4 hours and 48 hours was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05), while other variables were not significantly different between groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Among elderly COPD patients with respiratory failure, application of PRVC resulted in rapid improvement in arterial blood gas analyses while maintaining

  13. Elective decompression of the left ventricle in pediatric patients may reduce the duration of venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Hacking, Douglas F; Best, Derek; d'Udekem, Yves; Brizard, Christian P; Konstantinov, Igor E; Millar, Johnny; Butt, Warwick

    2015-04-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of elective left heart decompression at the time of initiation of central venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) on VA ECMO duration and clinical outcomes in children in a single tertiary ECMO referral center with a large pediatric population from a national referral center for pediatric cardiac surgery. We studied 51 episodes of VA ECMO in a historical cohort of 49 pediatric patients treated between the years 1990 and 2013 in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) of the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne. The cases had a variety of diagnoses including congenital cardiac abnormalities, sepsis, myocarditis, and cardiomyopathy. Left heart decompression as an elective treatment or an emergency intervention for left heart distension was effectively achieved by a number of methods, including left atrial venting, blade atrial septostomy, and left ventricular cannulation. Elective left heart decompression was associated with a reduction in time on ECMO (128 h) when compared with emergency decompression (236 h) (P = 0.013). Subgroup analysis showed that ECMO duration was greatest in noncardiac patients (elective 138 h, emergency 295 h; P = 0.02) and in patients who died despite both emergency decompression and ECMO (elective 133 h, emergency 354 h; P = 0.002). As the emergency cases had a lower pH, a higher PaCO2 , and a lower oxygenation index and were treated with a higher mean airway pressure, positive end-expiratory pressure, and respiratory rate prior to receiving VA ECMO, we undertook multivariate linear regression modeling to show that only PaCO2 and the timing of left heart decompression were associated with ECMO duration. However, elective left heart decompression was not associated with a reduction in length of PICU stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, or duration of oxygen therapy. Elective left heart decompression was not associated with improved ECMO survival or survival to PICU discharge

  14. AltitudeOmics: Resetting of Cerebrovascular CO2 Reactivity Following Acclimatization to High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jui-Lin; Subudhi, Andrew W.; Duffin, James; Lovering, Andrew T.; Roach, Robert C.; Kayser, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported enhanced cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity upon ascent to high altitude using linear models. However, there is evidence that this response may be sigmoidal in nature. Moreover, it was speculated that these changes at high altitude are mediated by alterations in acid-base buffering. Accordingly, we reanalyzed previously published data to assess middle cerebral blood flow velocity (MCAv) responses to modified rebreathing at sea level (SL), upon ascent (ALT1) and following 16 days of acclimatization (ALT16) to 5260 m in 21 lowlanders. Using sigmoid curve fitting of the MCAv responses to CO2, we found the amplitude (95 vs. 129%, SL vs. ALT1, 95% confidence intervals (CI) [77, 112], [111, 145], respectively, P = 0.024) and the slope of the sigmoid response (4.5 vs. 7.5%/mmHg, SL vs. ALT1, 95% CIs [3.1, 5.9], [6.0, 9.0], respectively, P = 0.026) to be enhanced at ALT1, which persisted with acclimatization at ALT16 (amplitude: 177, 95% CI [139, 215], P < 0.001; slope: 10.3%/mmHg, 95% CI [8.2, 12.5], P = 0.003) compared to SL. Meanwhile, the sigmoidal response midpoint was unchanged at ALT1 (SL: 36.5 mmHg; ALT1: 35.4 mmHg, 95% CIs [34.0, 39.0], [33.1, 37.7], respectively, P = 0.982), while it was reduced by ~7 mmHg at ALT16 (28.6 mmHg, 95% CI [26.4, 30.8], P = 0.001 vs. SL), indicating leftward shift of the cerebrovascular CO2 response to a lower arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) following acclimatization to altitude. Sigmoid fitting revealed a leftward shift in the midpoint of the cerebrovascular response curve which could not be observed with linear fitting. These findings demonstrate that there is resetting of the cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity operating point to a lower PaCO2 following acclimatization to high altitude. This cerebrovascular resetting is likely the result of an altered acid-base buffer status resulting from prolonged exposure to the severe hypocapnia associated with ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude. PMID:26779030

  15. Protective effect of Xuebijing injection against acute lung injury induced by left ventricular ischemia/reperfusion in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    JI, MINGLI; WANG, YUXIA; WANG, LEI; CHEN, LIPING; LI, JING

    2016-01-01

    Xuebijing (XBJ) is a Chinese herbal preparation. Previous studies have demonstrated that XBJ injection is able to inhibit the uncontrolled release of endogenous inflammatory mediators, attenuate inflammation, and alleviate organ damage. However, there are no relevant reports on the protective effect of XBJ against left ventricular ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of XBJ on ALI induced by left ventricular I/R, and provide evidence for the clinical application of XBJ. In the present study, 120 healthy rabbits of mixed gender were randomly assigned to a normal control group, ischemia group, I/R group (I/RG) and XBJ-injection treatment group (TG). In addition, each group was further divided into three subgroups (n=10/subgroup), namely, 30 min pre-ischemia, 30 min post-ischemia and 30 min post-reperfusion subgroups. Blood samples (5 ml) were collected from the jugularis externa and carotis communis of the rabbits at the three time points, and a blood gas analyzer was used to measure the arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2). Following sacrifice, the lungs of the rabbits were removed and a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was immediately performed. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the BAL fluid (BALF) and peripheral blood. In addition, the lower lobe of the right lung was removed in order to measure the protein expression levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and TNF-α. The results demonstrated that in the rabbits of the TG PaO2 was increased, PaCO2 was decreased, the lung tissue congestion edema was attenuated, the expression levels of TNF-α in the peripheral blood and BALF were reduced and the protein expression levels of ICAM-1 and TNF-α in the lung tissue samples were decreased, as compared with those in the I/RG rabbits. These

  16. Up-regulation of ICAM-1mRNA and IL-1βmRNA in lung tissues of a rat model of COPD.

    PubMed

    Ji, Mingli; Wang, Yuxia; Li, Xiaopeng; Qian, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory disease characterized by airflow obstruction that is usually progressive and not fully reversible. It is accompanied by the abnormal inflammatory response of lung to toxic particles or gas. Studies indicate that chronic inflammatory injuries of airway, pulmonary parenchyma and pulmonary vessels are the characteristic changes of COPD. Adhesion of inflammatory cells is the important link of pulmonary infection. Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is a glycoprotein involved in binding with mediated cells or with the extracellular matrix in the process called cell adhesion. IL-1β is an important inflammatory mediator as well as the promoter and critical inducer of cytokine cascade reaction. In this study, the rat model of COPD was established by smoking + intratracheal instillation of LPS (the experimental group). PaO2 and PaCO2 were measured. ICAM-1mRNA and IL-1βmRNA level in lung homogenate were detected by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR and were compared with those of the rats treated by smoke exposure (the control group) and the healthy rats (the blank group) in order to investigate the effect of ICAM-1 and IL-1β in lung injury of COPD. This study showed that the respiratory function of rats with COPD was decreased. PaO2 of rats in the experimental group, the control group and the blank group decreased successively, and the comparison between any two groups had significant difference. PaCO2 increased successively, and the comparison between any two groups had significant difference. Immunohistochemistry results showed that protein expression of ICAM-1 and IL-1β in lung tissues of rats in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group and the blank group, and the comparison between any two groups had significant difference. RT-PCR results showed that ICAM-1mRNA and IL-1βmRNA level of rats in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group and the

  17. Validity of transcutaneous oxygen/carbon dioxide pressure measurement in the monitoring of mechanical ventilation in stable chronic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Rosner, V; Hannhart, B; Chabot, F; Polu, J M

    1999-05-01

    The accuracy and precision of transcutaneous pressure measurements of oxygen (Ptc,O2) and carbon dioxide (Ptc,CO2) in the monitoring of nocturnal assisted ventilation in adult patients were evaluated. Transcutaneous measurements obtained with two analysers, Radiometer TINATCM3 (R) and Kontron MicroGas-7650 (K), were compared with arterial blood gases analysed in blood samples withdrawn simultaneously in 10 patients. Sensors were heated to 43 degrees C. Measurements of transcutaneous blood gases and arterial blood gases were collected six times at 1-h intervals. The data obtained with both instruments were similar and did not significantly change over the 5 h test period. Measurement of Ptc,O2 underestimated arterial oxygen tension (Pa,O2) and this underestimation increased with the level of Pa,O2 (p<0.01). Measurements of Ptc,CO2 overestimated arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa,CO2) and this overestimation increased with the level of Pa,CO2 (p<0.05). These errors suggested an instrumental bias. Mathematical correction of this bias neutralized the error in accuracy and improved the precision (SD of the differences transcutaneous blood gases - arterial blood gases). An additional correction, suppressing the between-subject scattering, improved the actual precision: precision was reduced from 1.9 to 0.8 kPa (14.4 to 5.7 mmHg) (R) and from 1.7 to 0.5 kPa (13.1 to 3.7 mmHg) (K) for oxygen, and from 1.0 kPa (7.8 mmHg) (R) and 0.7 kPa (5.6 mmHg) (K) to 0.4 kPa (3.2 mmHg) for carbon dioxide (R and K). In conclusion, with these two successive corrections, transcutaneous oxygen and carbon dioxide provide a reliable estimation of blood gases to monitor nocturnal ventilation in adults with chronic respiratory failure. PMID:10414402

  18. Influence of Cerebral Blood Flow on Central Sleep Apnea at High Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Keith R.; Lucas, Samuel J.E.; Shepherd, Kelly; Dawson, Andrew; Swart, Marianne; Thomas, Kate N.; Lucas, Rebekah A.I.; Donnelly, Joseph; Peebles, Karen C.; Basnyat, Rishi; Ainslie, Philip N.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To further our understanding of central sleep apnea (CSA) at high altitude during acclimatization, we tested the hypothesis that pharmacologically altering cerebral blood flow (CBF) would alter the severity of CSA at high altitude. Design: The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled single-blind study. Setting: A field study at 5,050 m in Nepal. Patients or Participants: We studied 12 normal volunteers. Interventions: Between days 5 to10 at high altitude, CBF velocity (CBFv) was increased by intravenous (IV) acetazolamide (10 mg/kg) and reduced by oral indomethacin (100 mg). Measurements and Results: Arterial blood gases, hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses, and CBFv and its reactivity to carbon dioxide were measured awake. Overnight polysomnography was performed. The central apnea-hypopnea index was elevated following administration of indomethacin (89.2 ± 43.7 to 112.5 ± 32.9 events/h; mean ± standard deviation; P < 0.05) and was reduced following IV acetazolamide (89.2 ± 43.7 to 47.1 ± 48.1 events/h; P < 0.001). Intravenous acetazolamide elevated CBFv at high altitude by 28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22-34%) but did not affect ventilatory responses. The elevation in CBFv was partly mediated via a selective rise in partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) (28 ± 4 to 31 ± 3 mm Hg) and an associated fall in pH (P < 0.01). Oral indomethacin reduced CBFv by 23% (95% CI: 16-30%), blunted CBFv reactivity, and increased the hypercapnic ventilatory response by 66% (95% CI: 30-102%) but had no effect on PaCO2 or pH. Conclusion: Our findings indicate an important role for cerebral blood flow regulation in the pathophysiology of central sleep apnea at high altitude. Citation: Burgess KR, Lucas SJE, Shepherd K, Dawson A, Swart M, Thomas KN, Lucas RAI, Donnelly J, Peebles KC, Basnyat R, Ainslie PN. Influence of cerebral blood flow on central sleep apnea at high altitude. SLEEP 2014;37(10):1679-1687. PMID:25197804

  19. The effect of low-dose acetazolamide on the ventilatory CO2 response curve in the anaesthetized cat.

    PubMed Central

    Wagenaar, M; Teppema, L; Berkenbosch, A; Olievier, C; Folgering, H

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of 4 mg kg-1 acetazolamide (I.V.) on the slope (S) and intercept on the Pa,CO2 axis (B) of the ventilatory CO2 response curve of anaesthetized cats with intact or denervated carotid bodies was studied using the technique of dynamic end-tidal forcing. 2. This dose did not induce an arterial-to-end-tidal PCO2 (P(a-ET),CO2) gradient, indicating that erythrocytic carbonic anhydrase was not completely inhibited. Within the first 2 h after administration, this small dose caused only a slight decrease in mean standard bicarbonate of 1.8 and 1.7 mmol l-1 in intact (n = 7) and denervated animals (n = 7), respectively. Doses of acetazolamide larger than 4 mg kg-1 (up to 32 mg kg-1) caused a significant increase in the P(a-ET),CO2 gradient. 3. In carotid body-denervated cats, 4 mg kg-1 acetazolamide caused a decrease in the CO2 sensitivity of the central chemoreflex loop (Sc) from 1.52 +/- 0.42 to 0.96 +/- 0.32 l min-1 kPa-1 (mean +/- S.D.) while the intercept on the Pa,CO2 axis (B) decreased from 4.5 +/- 0.5 to 4.2 +/- 0.7 kPa. 4. In carotid body-intact animals, 4 mg kg-1 acetazolamide caused a decrease in the CO2 sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex loop (Sp) from 0.28 +/- 0.18 to 0.19 +/- 0.12 l min-1 kPa-1. Se and B decreased from 1.52 +/- 0.55 to 0.84 +/- 0.21 l min-1 kPa-1, and from 4.0 +/- 0.5 to 3.0 +/- 0.6 kPa, respectively, not significantly different from the changes encountered in the denervated animals. 5. It is argued that the effect of acetazolamide on the CO2 sensitivity of the peripheral chemoreflex loop in intact cats may be caused by a direct effect on the carotid bodies. Both in intact and in denervated animals the effects of the drug on Sc and B may not be due to a direct action on the central nervous system, but rather to an effect on cerebral vessels resulting in an altered relationship between brain blood flow and brain tissue PCO2. PMID:8866365

  20. Effects of Lung Volume Reduction Surgery on Gas Exchange and Breathing Pattern During Maximum Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Criner, Gerard J.; Belt, Patricia; Sternberg, Alice L.; Mosenifar, Zab; Make, Barry J.; Utz, James P.; Sciurba, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Background: The National Emphysema Treatment Trial studied lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) for its effects on gas exchange, breathing pattern, and dyspnea during exercise in severe emphysema. Methods: Exercise testing was performed at baseline, and 6, 12, and 24 months. Minute ventilation (V̇e), tidal volume (Vt), carbon dioxide output (V̇co2), dyspnea rating, and workload were recorded at rest, 3 min of unloaded pedaling, and maximum exercise. Pao2, Paco2, pH, fraction of expired carbon dioxide, and bicarbonate were also collected in some subjects at these time points and each minute of testing. There were 1,218 patients enrolled in the study (mean [± SD] age, 66.6 ± 6.1 years; mean, 61%; mean FEV1, 0.77 ± 0.24 L), with 238 patients participating in this substudy (mean age, 66.1 ± 6.8 years; mean, 67%; mean FEV1, 0.78 ± 0.25 L). Results: At 6 months, LVRS patients had higher maximum V̇e (32.8 vs 29.6 L/min, respectively; p = 0.001), V̇co2, (0.923 vs 0.820 L/min, respectively; p = 0.0003), Vt (1.18 vs 1.07 L, respectively; p = 0.001), heart rate (124 vs 121 beats/min, respectively; p = 0.02), and workload (49.3 vs 45.1 W, respectively; p = 0.04), but less breathlessness (as measured by Borg dyspnea scale score) [4.4 vs 5.2, respectively; p = 0.0001] and exercise ventilatory limitation (49.5% vs 71.9%, respectively; p = 0.001) than medical patients. LVRS patients with upper-lobe emphysema showed a downward shift in Paco2 vs V̇co2 (p = 0.001). During exercise, LVRS patients breathed slower and deeper at 6 months (p = 0.01) and 12 months (p = 0.006), with reduced dead space at 6 months (p = 0.007) and 24 months (p = 0.006). Twelve months after patients underwent LVRS, dyspnea was less in patients with upper-lobe emphysema (p = 0.001) and non–upper-lobe emphysema (p = 0.007). Conclusion: During exercise following LVRS, patients with severe emphysema improve carbon dioxide elimination and dead space, breathe slower and deeper, and report less dyspnea

  1. A heterodimer of a VHH (variable domains of camelid heavy chain-only) antibody that inhibits anthrax toxin cell binding linked to a VHH antibody that blocks oligomer formation is highly protective in an anthrax spore challenge model.

    PubMed

    Moayeri, Mahtab; Leysath, Clinton E; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Vrentas, Catherine; Crown, Devorah; Leppla, Stephen H; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2015-03-01

    Anthrax disease is caused by a toxin consisting of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor, and edema factor. Antibodies against PA have been shown to be protective against the disease. Variable domains of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies (VHHs) with affinity for PA were obtained from immunized alpacas and screened for anthrax neutralizing activity in macrophage toxicity assays. Two classes of neutralizing VHHs were identified recognizing distinct, non-overlapping epitopes. One class recognizes domain 4 of PA at a well characterized neutralizing site through which PA binds to its cellular receptor. A second neutralizing VHH (JKH-C7) recognizes a novel epitope. This antibody inhibits conversion of the PA oligomer from "pre-pore" to its SDS and heat-resistant "pore" conformation while not preventing cleavage of full-length 83-kDa PA (PA83) by cell surface proteases to its oligomer-competent 63-kDa form (PA63). The antibody prevents endocytosis of the cell surface-generated PA63 subunit but not preformed PA63 oligomers formed in solution. JKH-C7 and the receptor-blocking VHH class (JIK-B8) were expressed as a heterodimeric VHH-based neutralizing agent (VNA2-PA). This VNA displayed improved neutralizing potency in cell assays and protected mice from anthrax toxin challenge with much better efficacy than the separate component VHHs. The VNA protected virtually all mice when separately administered at a 1:1 ratio to toxin and protected mice against Bacillus anthracis spore infection. Thus, our studies show the potential of VNAs as anthrax therapeutics. Due to their simple and stable nature, VNAs should be amenable to genetic delivery or administration via respiratory routes. PMID:25564615

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; Wong, Emily Y. M.; Joseph, Sunitha; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Wernery, Renate; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23) from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5′-UCUAAAC-3′ as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3%) and 59 (100%) of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001). Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1. PMID:27164099

  3. Monoclonal And Single Domain Antibodies Targeting β-Integrin Subunits Block Sexual Transmission of HIV-1 in in vitro and in vivo Model Systems

    PubMed Central

    Guedon, Janet Tai; Luo, Kun; Zhang, Hong; Markham, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor adherence to prevention regimens for gel-based anti-HIV-1 microbicides has been a major obstacle to more effective pre-exposure prophylaxis. Concern persists that the antiretroviral drug containing microbicides might promote development of antiretroviral resistance. Methods Using in vitro transwell systems and a humanized mouse model of HIV-1 sexual transmission, we examined, as candidate microbicides, antibodies targeting the heterodimeric leukocyte function associated antigen 1 (LFA-1), a non-virally encoded protein acquired by the virus that also plays a critical role cell movement across endothelial and epithelial barriers. LFA-1 specific single domain variable regions from alpaca heavy-chain only antibodies (VHH) were identified and evaluated for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 transmission in the in vitro transwell system. Results Monoclonal antibodies targeting the CD11a and CD18 components of LFA-1 significantly reduced cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1 transmission in the in vitro transwell culture system and prevented virus transmission in the humanized mouse model of vaginal transmission. The broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody b12 was unable to block transmission of cell-free virus. CD11a-specific VHH were isolated and expressed and the purified variable region protein domains reduced in vitro transepithelial transmission with an efficacy comparable to that of the CD11a monoclonal antibody. Conclusions Targeting integrins acquired by HIV-1 during budding and which are critical to interactions between epithelial cells and lymphocytes can reduce viral movement across epithelial barriers and prevent transmission in a humanized mouse model of sexual transmission. VHH capable of being produced by transformed bacteria can significantly reduce transepithelial virus transmission in in vitro model systems. PMID:25828964

  4. A Heterodimer of a VHH (Variable Domains of Camelid Heavy Chain-only) Antibody That Inhibits Anthrax Toxin Cell Binding Linked to a VHH Antibody That Blocks Oligomer Formation Is Highly Protective in an Anthrax Spore Challenge Model*

    PubMed Central

    Moayeri, Mahtab; Leysath, Clinton E.; Tremblay, Jacqueline M.; Vrentas, Catherine; Crown, Devorah; Leppla, Stephen H.; Shoemaker, Charles B.

    2015-01-01

    Anthrax disease is caused by a toxin consisting of protective antigen (PA), lethal factor, and edema factor. Antibodies against PA have been shown to be protective against the disease. Variable domains of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies (VHHs) with affinity for PA were obtained from immunized alpacas and screened for anthrax neutralizing activity in macrophage toxicity assays. Two classes of neutralizing VHHs were identified recognizing distinct, non-overlapping epitopes. One class recognizes domain 4 of PA at a well characterized neutralizing site through which PA binds to its cellular receptor. A second neutralizing VHH (JKH-C7) recognizes a novel epitope. This antibody inhibits conversion of the PA oligomer from “pre-pore” to its SDS and heat-resistant “pore” conformation while not preventing cleavage of full-length 83-kDa PA (PA83) by cell surface proteases to its oligomer-competent 63-kDa form (PA63). The antibody prevents endocytosis of the cell surface-generated PA63 subunit but not preformed PA63 oligomers formed in solution. JKH-C7 and the receptor-blocking VHH class (JIK-B8) were expressed as a heterodimeric VHH-based neutralizing agent (VNA2-PA). This VNA displayed improved neutralizing potency in cell assays and protected mice from anthrax toxin challenge with much better efficacy than the separate component VHHs. The VNA protected virtually all mice when separately administered at a 1:1 ratio to toxin and protected mice against Bacillus anthracis spore infection. Thus, our studies show the potential of VNAs as anthrax therapeutics. Due to their simple and stable nature, VNAs should be amenable to genetic delivery or administration via respiratory routes. PMID:25564615

  5. The Breadth of Cross Sub-Type Neutralisation Activity of a Single Domain Antibody to Influenza Hemagglutinin Can Be Increased by Antibody Valency

    PubMed Central

    Hufton, Simon E.; Risley, Paul; Ball, Christina R.; Major, Diane; Engelhardt, Othmar G.; Poole, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The response to the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic has highlighted the need for additional strategies for intervention which preclude the prior availability of the influenza strain. Here, 18 single domain VHH antibodies against the 2009 A(H1N1) hemagglutinin (HA) have been isolated from a immune alpaca phage displayed library. These antibodies have been grouped as having either (i) non-neutralising, (ii) H1N1 restricted neutralising or (iii) broad cross-subtype neutralising activity. The ability to neutralise different viral subtypes, including highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1), correlated with the absence of hemagglutination inhibition activity, loss of binding to HA at acid pH and the absence of binding to the head domain containing the receptor binding site. This data supports their binding to epitopes in the HA stem region and a mechanism of action other than blocking viral attachment to cell surface receptors. After conversion of cross-neutralising antibodies R1a-B6 and R1a-A5 into a bivalent format, no significant enhancement in neutralisation activity was seen against A(H1N1) and A(H5N1) viruses. However, bivalent R1a-B6 showed an 18 fold enhancement in potency against A(H9N2) virus and, surprisingly, gained the ability to neutralise an A(H2N2) virus. This demonstrates that cross-neutralising antibodies, which make lower affinity interactions with the membrane proximal stem region of more divergent HA sub-types, can be optimised by bivalency so increasing their breadth of anti-viral activity. The broad neutralising activity and favourable characteristics, such as high stability, simple engineering into bivalent molecules and low cost production make these single domain antibodies attractive candidates for diagnostics and immunotherapy of pandemic influenza. PMID:25084445

  6. Anti-idiotypic nanobody: A strategy for development of sensitive and green immunoassay for Fumonisin B₁.

    PubMed

    Shu, Mei; Xu, Yang; Wang, Dan; Liu, Xing; Li, Yanping; He, Qinghua; Tu, Zhui; Qiu, Yulou; Ji, Yanwei; Wang, Xianxian

    2015-10-01

    Nanobodies that are small and thermally stable, as well as have high expression level, are leading alternative to produce anti-idiotypic antibodies. These antibodies have the advantage of replacing mycotoxins and their conjugates for immunoassays. In this work, anti-fumonisin B1 (FB1) monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used as the target for biopanning from a naïve alpaca nanobody (Nb) phage display library. After three cycles of panning, one anti-idiotypic nanobody (Ab2β Nb) was isolated and subjected to a Nb-ELISA for the detection of FB1. Surface plasmon resonance was used to analyze the reaction kinetics between the Ab2β Nb and anti-FB1 mAb. The developed assay showed a half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.95±0.12 ng/mL, a limit of detection of 0.15 ng/mL, a linear range of 0.27-5.92 ng/mL, and a low cross-reactivity toward FB2 of 4.93%. The sensitivity was enhanced approximately 20-fold compared with that of the chemosynthetic FB1-BSA conjugates. The equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) measured for Ab2β Nb: anti-FB1 mAb was 164.6 nM. The assay was compared with conventional ELISA (the commercial ELISA kit), and the results indicated the reliability of Ab2β Nb replacing the antigen-carrier protein conjugates. The use of biotechnology in developing the surrogate is an ideal strategy for replacing conventional synthesized antigens. PMID:26078175

  7. Speciation of arsenic in bulk and rhizosphere soils from artisanal cooperative mines in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Jose A; Arocena, Joselito M; Faz, Angel

    2015-11-01

    Soils near artisanal and small-scale gold mines (ASGM) have high arsenic (As) contents due to the presence of arsenopyrite in gold ores and accelerated accumulations due to mine wastes disposal practices and other mining activities. We determined the content and speciation to understand the fate and environmental risks of As accumulations in 24 bulk and 12 rhizosphere soil samples collected in the Virgen Del Rosario and the Rayo Rojo cooperative mines in the highlands of Bolivia. Mean total As contents in bulk and rhizosphere soils ranged from 13 to 64 mg kg(-1) and exceeded the soil environmental quality guidelines of Canada. Rhizosphere soils always contained at least twice the As contents in the bulk soil. Elemental mapping using 4×5 μm synchrotron-generated X-ray micro-beam revealed As accumulations in areas enriched with Fe. Results of As-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (As-XANES) showed that only As(V) species was detectable in all samples regardless of As contents, size fractions and types of vegetation. Although the toxicity of As(V) is less than As(III), we suggest that As uptake of commonly-grazed vegetation by alpaca and llama must be determined to fully understand the environmental risks of high As in soils near ASGM in Bolivia. In addition, knowledge on the speciation of the As bio-accessible fraction will provide another useful information to better understand the fate and transfer of As from soils into the food chain in environments associated with the ASGM in Bolivia and other parts of the world. PMID:25577694

  8. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Lau, Candy C Y; Wong, Emily Y M; Joseph, Sunitha; Tsang, Alan K L; Wernery, Renate; Yip, Cyril C Y; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23) from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5'-UCUAAAC-3' as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3%) and 59 (100%) of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001). Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1. PMID:27164099

  9. Effects of hair, clothing, and headgear on localization of three-dimensional sounds Part IIb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riederer, Klaus A. J.

    2003-10-01

    Seven 20-25-year-old normal hearing (<=20 dBHL) native male-undergraduates listened twice to treatments of 85 virtual source locations in a large dark anechoic chamber. The 3-D-stimuli were anew-calculated white noise bursts, amplitude modulated (40-Hz sine), repeated after a pause (total duration 3×275=825 ms), HRTF-convolved and headphone-equalized (Sennheiser HD580). The HRTFs were measured from a Cortex dummy head wearing different garments: 1=alpaca pullover only; 2=1+curly pony-tailed thick-hair+eye-glasses 3=1+long thin-hair (ear-covering) 4=1+mens trilby; 5=2+bicycle helmet+jacket [Riederer, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., this issue]. Perceived directions were signified by placing a tailored digitizer-stylus over an illuminated ball darkened after the response. Subjects did the experiments during three days, each consisting of a 2-h session of several randomized sets with multiple breaks. Azimuth and elevation errors were investigated separately in factorial within-subjects ANOVA showing strong dependence p(<=0.004) on all main effects and interactions (garment, elevation, azimuth). The grand mean errors were approximately 16°-19°. Confused angles were retained around the +/-90°-interaural axis and cos(elev)-weighting was applied to azimuth errors. The total front-back/back-front confusion rate was 18.38% and up-down/down-up 12.21%. The confusions (except left-right/right-left, 2.07%) and reaction times depended strongly on azimuth (main effect) and garment (interaction). [Work supported by Graduate School of Electronics, Telecommunication and Automation.

  10. Schmallenberg virus infection in South American camelids: Field and experimental investigations.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Claudia; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2015-11-18

    During the first epizootic wave of the novel, teratogenic Schmallenberg virus (SBV, Orthobunyavirus) in ruminants in Northern Europe, serological evidence of a previous SBV-infection demonstrated that South American camelids (SAC) are also susceptible to SBV. However, their potential role in SBV spread remains unknown. To investigate the prevalence and course of SBV-infection in SAC, a German field study and an animal trial with three llamas and three alpacas were conducted. From September 2012 to December 2013, 313 of 502 SAC (62.35%) were found SBV seropositive, but negative for SBV-RNA. The estimated between-district (94.23% of 52) and median within-district (71.43%) and herd (73.13%) SBV seroprevalence in German SAC was similar to the seroprevalence reported in cattle herds and sheep flocks at the time. An age of >1 year was found a statistically significant risk factor for SBV-infection, which could be explained by the spatio-temporal spread of SBV in Germany during the study period. No clinical signs or an increase of abortion and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection in SAC were reported by the study participants. Similar to SBV-infected ruminants, SBV-RNAemia in experimentally SBV-infected SAC was detected for a short time between days 3 and 7 after infection (dpi), and seroconversion occurred between 9 and 21 dpi. Despite the similar virological and serological results, the lack of clinical signs and congenital malformation associated with SBV-infection suggests that SBV causes subclinical infection in SAC. However, their role as reservoirs in the spread of SBV has to be further investigated. PMID:26361966

  11. Anti-idiotypic VHH phage display-mediated immuno-PCR for ultrasensitive determination of mycotoxin zearalenone in cereals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianxian; He, Qinghua; Xu, Yang; Liu, Xing; Shu, Mei; Tu, Zhui; Li, Yanping; Wang, Wei; Cao, Dongmei

    2016-01-15

    Immunoassay is frequently used to analyze mycotoxin contamination. However, the introduction of mycotoxins or their conjugates in conventional immunoassay threatens the safety of individuals and the environment. The variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHHs) can be used as alternative compounds to produce anti-idiotypic antibodies, which work as non-toxic surrogate reagents in immunoassay. In this work, anti-zearalenone (ZEN) monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used as the target for biopanning anti-idiotypic VHH from a naïve alpaca VHH phage display library. After four panning cycles, one anti-idiotypic VHH phage clone (Z1) was isolated and the Z1 based phage ELISA for ZEN showed a half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 0.25±0.02ng/mL, a linear range of 0.11-0.55ng/mL, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.08ng/mL. Furthermore, the phage particles of Z1 were also applied to immuno-polymerase chain reaction (PD-IPCR), which supplied both the detection antigens and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) templates. Compared with that of phage ELISA, the LOD of Z1 based PD-IPCR was 12-fold improved, with a detection limit of 6.5pg/mL and a linear range of 0.01-100ng/mL. The proposed method was then validated with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Results showed the reliability of PD-IPCR for the determination of ZEN in cereal samples. The use of anti-idiotypic VHH phage as non-toxic surrogate and signal-amplification function of PCR make it a promising method for actual ZEN analysis in cereals. PMID:26592626

  12. Generalists at the interface: Nematode transmission between wild and domestic ungulates

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Josephine G.; Morgan, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Many parasitic nematode species are generalists capable of infecting multiple host species. The complex life cycle of nematodes, involving partial development outside of the host, facilitates transmission of these parasites between host species even when there is no direct contact between hosts. Infective nematode larvae persist in the environment, and where grazing or water sources are shared ingestion of parasite larvae deposited by different host species is likely. In this paper we examine the extent to which nematode parasite species have been observed in sympatric wild and domestic ungulates. First, using existing host–parasite databases, we describe expected overlap of 412 nematode species between 76 wild and 8 domestic ungulate host species. Our results indicate that host-specific parasites make up less than half of the nematode parasites infecting any particular ungulate host species. For wild host species, between 14% (for common warthog) and 76% (for mouflon) of parasitic nematode species are shared with domestic species. For domestic host species, between 42% (for horse) and 77% (for llamas/alpacas) of parasitic nematode species are shared with wild species. We also present an index of liability to describe the risk of cross-boundary parasites to each host species. We then examine specific examples from the literature in which transmission of nematode parasites between domestic and wild ungulates is described. However, there are many limitations in the existing data due to geographical bias and certain host species being studied more frequently than others. Although we demonstrate that many species of parasitic nematode are found in both wild and domestic hosts, little work has been done to demonstrate whether transmission is occurring between species or whether similar strains circulate separately. Additional research on cross-species transmission, including the use of models and of genetic methods to define strains, will provide evidence to answer

  13. [Testing for BTV, BVDV and BHV-1 in blood samples of new world camelids kept in middle Germany].

    PubMed

    Locher, Lena; Nieper, Hermann; Volkery, Janine; Fürll, Manfred; Wittek, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibility of camelids for infectious agents which may result in severe economic losses or which are strictly regulated for epidemiological reasons in farm animals potentially causes a mutual risk of transmission. This study aimed to investigate the presence of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as the presence of pestivirus antigen in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore 107 serum samples from 93 alpacas and lamas from this region which had been obtained from 2007 to 2009 were examined using ELISA, serum neutralisation test, RT-PCR and a pestivirus specific gene probe. All sample were negative for BHV-1 antibodies. Antibodies against BVDV-1 could be detected in four animals, titres reaching from 1:64 to > 1:256. One animal was positive for BTV antibodies in the year 2008. This animal had been tested negative for BTV antibodies in 2007. It can be concluded that up to now, these viruses seem to be of minor importance as pathogens in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore the risk of infection originating from new world camelids for production animals could be considered to be rather low in this region at the moment. However, it must be taken into consideration that these animals due to lack of antibodies are fully susceptible in case of occurrence of one of these viruses. For maintenance and improvement of the present status, general hygienic precautions should be applied; direct and indirect contact between animals from different herds must be avoided and virological diagnostic and quarantine should be required trading these animals. PMID:21141278

  14. An Anti-proteome Nanobody Library Approach Yields a Specific Immunoassay for Trypanosoma congolense Diagnosis Targeting Glycosomal Aldolase

    PubMed Central

    Odongo, Steven; Sterckx, Yann G. J.; Stijlemans, Benoît; Pillay, Davita; Baltz, Théo; Muyldermans, Serge; Magez, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases pose a severe worldwide threat to human and livestock health. While early diagnosis could enable prompt preventive interventions, the majority of diseases are found in rural settings where basic laboratory facilities are scarce. Under such field conditions, point-of-care immunoassays provide an appropriate solution for rapid and reliable diagnosis. The limiting steps in the development of the assay are the identification of a suitable target antigen and the selection of appropriate high affinity capture and detection antibodies. To meet these challenges, we describe the development of a Nanobody (Nb)-based antigen detection assay generated from a Nb library directed against the soluble proteome of an infectious agent. In this study, Trypanosoma congolense was chosen as a model system. Methodology/Principal Findings An alpaca was vaccinated with whole-parasite soluble proteome to generate a Nb library from which the most potent T. congolense specific Nb sandwich immunoassay (Nb474H-Nb474B) was selected. First, the Nb474-homologous sandwich ELISA (Nb474-ELISA) was shown to detect experimental infections with high Positive Predictive Value (98%), Sensitivity (87%) and Specificity (94%). Second, it was demonstrated under experimental conditions that the assay serves as test-of-cure after Berenil treatment. Finally, this assay allowed target antigen identification. The latter was independently purified through immuno-capturing from (i) T. congolense soluble proteome, (ii) T. congolense secretome preparation and (iii) sera of T. congolense infected mice. Subsequent mass spectrometry analysis identified the target as T. congolense glycosomal aldolase. Conclusions/Significance The results show that glycosomal aldolase is a candidate biomarker for active T. congolense infections. In addition, and by proof-of-principle, the data demonstrate that the Nb strategy devised here offers a unique approach to both diagnostic development and target

  15. Glacier Retreat in the Southern Peruvian Andes: Climate Change, Environmental Impacts, Human Perception and Social Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlove, B.

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents results from recent environmental and anthropological research near glacierized areas in the department of Cusco, Peru, home to the well-known Quelccaya Ice Cap and to the peak of Ausangate (6384 m). Glaciers in the region are in negative mass balance, losing volume and area, with upslope movement of the glacier fronts. Somewhat paradoxically, flows in many streams close to the glaciers are reduced, particularly in the dry season, due to a shift in the seasonal distribution of melting, to increased evaporation and to increased percolation into newly-exposed sands and gravels. Associated with this reduction in flow is a desiccation of some anthropogenic and natural wetlands, reducing the availability of dry season forage to wild (vicuna) and domesticated (alpaca, llama) ruminants. Interviews and ethnographic observations with local populations of Quechua-speaking herders at elevations of 4500-5200 meters provide detailed comments on these changes. They have an extensive vocabulary of terms for glacial features associated with retreat. They link this treat with environmental factors (higher temperatures, greater winds that deposit dust on lower portions of glaciers) and with religious factors (divine punishment for human wrong-doing, failure of humans to respect mountain spirits). They describe a variety of economic and extra-economic impacts of this retreat on different spatial, social and temporal scales. Though they face other issues as well (threats of pollution from new mining projects, inadequacy of government services), glacier retreat is their principal concern. Many herders express extreme distress over this unprecedented threat to their livelihoods and communities, though a few propose responses - out-migration, the formation of an association of neighboring communities, development of irrigation works - that could serve as adaptations.

  16. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus species from gut microbiota of Chilean Altiplano camelids

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Olmos, Katheryne; Báez, John; Valenzuela, Nicomédes; Gahona, Joselyne; del Campo, Rosa; Silva, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Background Enterococcus is one of the major human pathogens able to acquire multiple antibiotic-resistant markers as well as virulence factors which also colonize remote ecosystems, including wild animals. In this work, we characterized the Enterococcus population colonizing the gut of Chilean Altiplano camelids without foreign human contact. Material and methods Rectal swabs from 40 llamas and 10 alpacas were seeded in M-Enterococcus agar, and we selected a total of 57 isolates. Species identification was performed by biochemical classical tests, semi-automated WIDER system, mass spectrometry analysis by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer), and, finally, nucleotide sequence of internal fragments of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, pheS, and aac(6)-I genes. Genetic diversity was measured by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-SmaI, whereas the antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the WIDER system. Carriage of virulence factors was explored by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Our results demonstrated that the most prevalent specie was Enterococcus hirae (82%), followed by other non–Enterococcus faecalis and non–Enterococcus faecium species. Some discrepancies were detected among the identification methods used, and the most reliable were the rpoB, pheS, and aac(6)-I nucleotide sequencing. Selected isolates exhibited susceptibility to almost all studied antibiotics, and virulence factors were not detected by PCR. Finally, some predominant clones were characterized by PFGE into a diverse genetic background. Conclusion Enterococcus species from the Chilean camelids’ gut microbiota were different from those adapted to humans, and they remained free of antibiotic resistance mechanisms as well as virulence factors. PMID:25405007

  17. Surra Sero K-SeT, a new immunochromatographic test for serodiagnosis of Trypanosoma evansi infection in domestic animals.

    PubMed

    Birhanu, Hadush; Rogé, Stijn; Simon, Thomas; Baelmans, Rudy; Gebrehiwot, Tadesse; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Büscher, Philippe

    2015-07-30

    Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of surra, infects different domestic and wild animals and has a wide geographical distribution. It is mechanically transmitted mainly by haematophagous flies. Parasitological techniques are commonly used for the diagnosis of surra but have limited sensitivity. Therefore, serodiagnosis based on the detection of T. evansi specific antibodies is recommended by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Recently, we developed a new antibody detection test for the serodiagnosis of T. evansi infection, the Surra Sero K-SeT. Surra Sero K-SeT is an immunochromatographic test (ICT) that makes use of recombinant variant surface glycoprotein rVSG RoTat 1.2, produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. In this study, we compared the diagnostic accuracy of the Surra Sero K-SeT and the Card Agglutination Test for T. evansi Trypanosomososis (CATT/T. evansi) with immune trypanolysis (TL) as reference test on a total of 806 sera from camels, water buffaloes, horses, bovines, sheep, dogs and alpacas. Test agreement was highest between Surra Sero K-SeT and TL (κ=0.91, 95% CI 0.841-0.979) and somewhat lower between CATT/T. evansi and TL (κ=0.85, 95% CI 0.785-0.922) and Surra Sero K-SeT and CATT/T. evansi (κ=0.81, 95% CI 0.742-0.878). The Surra Sero K-SeT displayed a somewhat lower overall specificity than CATT/T. evansi (94.8% versus 98.3%, χ(2)=13.37, p<0.001) but a considerably higher sensitivity (98.1% versus 84.4%, χ(2)=33.39, p<0.001). We conclude that the Surra Sero K-SeT may become an alternative for the CATT/T. evansi for sensitive detection of antibodies against T. evansi in domestic animals. PMID:26012857

  18. Student training in large-animal handling at the School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Helen M; Taylor, Eric G; Buddle, J Ross; Murphy, David J

    2007-01-01

    The ability to handle animals safely, competently, and with confidence is an essential skill for veterinarians. Poor animal-handling skills are likely to compromise credibility, occupational health and safety, and animal welfare. In the five-year veterinary science degree at Murdoch University, animal handling is taught in a prerequisite unit in the second semester of the second year. From 2008, however, this unit will be taught in the first year of the five-year course. Students are taught to handle sheep, cattle, pigs, and horses safely and competently. Each student receives 30 hours of formal practical instruction. Animal-to-student ratios are 2:1, and staff-to-student ratios vary from 1:8 (sheep, cattle, horses) to 1:17 (pigs). Students must pass the practical exam to proceed into third year. Additional experience with animals is gained during third year (14 hours of practical instruction with sheep, goats, pigs, and cattle) and during the 5 weeks and 2 days of vacation farm experience during the second and third years. In the fourth and fifth years, students consolidate their handling experience with sheep (including rams), goats, pigs, cattle (including bulls), horses (including stallions), and alpacas. As a result, students are able to handle and restrain client animals with confidence. There is no formal course in small-animal handling at Murdoch University. Factors that have enhanced the success of the large-animal handling program include purpose-built on-campus facilities. Inadequate resources (time, facilities, and animals) remain the main impediment to effective learning, further compounded by the increasing tendency of university administrators to make decisions based on economic expediency rather than educational benefit. PMID:18326766

  19. Composition of milk from minor dairy animals and buffalo breeds: a biodiversity perspective.

    PubMed

    Medhammar, Elinor; Wijesinha-Bettoni, Ramani; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Nilsson, Emma; Charrondiere, Ute Ruth; Burlingame, Barbara

    2012-02-01

    A comprehensive review is presented of the nutrient composition for buffalo, mare, and dromedary camel milks at the level of breed, and species-level data for yak, mithun, musk ox, donkey, Bactrian camel, llama, alpaca, reindeer and moose milks. Average values of nutrients were calculated and compared. Interspecies values (g 100 g⁻¹) were 0.7-16.1 for total fat, 1.6-10.5 for protein, 2.6-6.6 for lactose, and 67.9-90.8 for water. Reindeer and moose milks had the highest fat and protein concentrations and the lowest lactose contents. Mare and donkey milks had the lowest protein and fat contents, in addition to showing the most appropriate fatty acid profile for human nutrition. Dromedary camel milk was most similar to cow milk in proximate composition. Moose milk was the richest in minerals, having values as high as 358 mg 100 g⁻¹ for calcium, 158 mg 100 g⁻¹ for sodium and 150 mg 100 g⁻¹ for phosphorus. Interbreed differences of 4 g 100 g⁻¹ were observed in total fat in buffalo, yak, mare and dromedary camel milks. Large interbreed differences were also present in the mineral contents in mare, buffalo and dromedary camel milks. By bringing together these compositional data, we hope to usefully widen the biodiversity knowledge base, which may contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of milk from underutilized dairy breeds and species, and to improved food and nutrition security, particularly in developing countries. PMID:22083874

  20. Computed tomographic and radiographic examination of dental structures in South American camelid specimen of different ages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tooth root problems and periodontal diseases are common in South American camelids (SAC). The objective was to evaluate and optimize the imaging technique for dental radiography in SAC and to describe the radiographic and computed tomographic (CT) anatomy of normal teeth at different ages. In this study, the heads of 20 healthy SAC slaughtered for meat production or euthanized for reasons not related to dental problems included 7 female and 10 male llamas and 3 male alpacas. Using a standardized protocol, radiographs and CT scans of the 20 specimen were performed. Results The most useful radiographic projections for mandibular and maxillary cheek teeth evaluation turned out to be lateral30°ventral - laterodorsal and lateral30°dorsal - lateroventral with slight separation of the dental arcades respectively. Digital radiographic and CT appearance of the mandibular and maxillary teeth were described from the beginning of mineralization till maturity. In addition the normal range of the CT radio density of different cheek teeth and different dental tissues were measured. Hounsfield units of different dental tissues of SAC turned out to be similar to equids. Deviation, shortening and partial destruction of the distal tooth root of mandibular 09′s and 10′s and of maxillary 09′s was observed and the existence of a common pulp chamber in younger teeth was revealed. Conclusions The present study provides information about the dental imaging morphology in clinically healthy SAC. This basic information provides fundamental knowledge for evaluating images and planning treatments in clinically affected animals. PMID:24393365

  1. MicroRNA-27a-3p Inhibits Melanogenesis in Mouse Skin Melanocytes by Targeting Wnt3a.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Pengchao; Meng, Jinzhu; Ji, Yuankai; Xu, Dongmei; Chen, Tianzhi; Fan, Ruiwen; Yu, Xiuju; Yao, Jianbo; Dong, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in the regulation of almost all the biological processes, including melanogenesis. MiR-27a-3p is nearly six times higher in white alpaca skin compared to brown skin, which indicates that miR-27a-3p may be a candidate regulator for melanogenesis. Wnt3a plays an important role in promoting melanoblasts to differentiate into melanocytes and melanogenesis. To confirm the function of miR-27a-3p to melanogenesis in mammals, miR-27a-3p mimic, inhibitor and their negative control were transfected into mouse melanocytes. As a result, miR-27a-3p inhibits melanogenesis by repressing Wnt3a at post-transcriptional level. A significant decrease in Wnt3a luciferase activity was observed in 293T cells co-transfected with the matched luciferase reporter vector and pre-miR-27a. Furthermore, the presence of exogenous miR-27a-3p significantly decreased Wnt3a protein expression rather than mRNA and reduced β-catenin mRNA levels in melanocytes. The over-expression of miR-27a-3p significantly increased the melanin content of melanocytes. However, miR-27a-3p inhibitor performs an opposite effect on melanogenesis. Wnt3a is one target of miR-27a-3p. MiR-27a-3p could inhibit Wnt3a protein amount by post-transcriptional regulation and melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. Previous studies reported that Wnt3a promoted melanogenensis in mouse melanocytes. Thus, miR-27-3p inhibits melanogenesis by repressing Wnt3a protein expression. PMID:26006230

  2. MicroRNA-27a-3p Inhibits Melanogenesis in Mouse Skin Melanocytes by Targeting Wnt3a

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Pengchao; Meng, Jinzhu; Ji, Yuankai; Xu, Dongmei; Chen, Tianzhi; Fan, Ruiwen; Yu, Xiuju; Yao, Jianbo; Dong, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in the regulation of almost all the biological processes, including melanogenesis. MiR-27a-3p is nearly six times higher in white alpaca skin compared to brown skin, which indicates that miR-27a-3p may be a candidate regulator for melanogenesis. Wnt3a plays an important role in promoting melanoblasts to differentiate into melanocytes and melanogenesis. To confirm the function of miR-27a-3p to melanogenesis in mammals, miR-27a-3p mimic, inhibitor and their negative control were transfected into mouse melanocytes. As a result, miR-27a-3p inhibits melanogenesis by repressing Wnt3a at post-transcriptional level. A significant decrease in Wnt3a luciferase activity was observed in 293T cells co-transfected with the matched luciferase reporter vector and pre-miR-27a. Furthermore, the presence of exogenous miR-27a-3p significantly decreased Wnt3a protein expression rather than mRNA and reduced β-catenin mRNA levels in melanocytes. The over-expression of miR-27a-3p significantly increased the melanin content of melanocytes. However, miR-27a-3p inhibitor performs an opposite effect on melanogenesis. Wnt3a is one target of miR-27a-3p. MiR-27a-3p could inhibit Wnt3a protein amount by post-transcriptional regulation and melanogenesis in mouse melanocytes. Previous studies reported that Wnt3a promoted melanogenensis in mouse melanocytes. Thus, miR-27-3p inhibits melanogenesis by repressing Wnt3a protein expression. PMID:26006230

  3. The adaptive evolution of the mammalian mitochondrial genome

    PubMed Central

    da Fonseca, Rute R; Johnson, Warren E; O'Brien, Stephen J; Ramos, Maria João; Antunes, Agostinho

    2008-01-01

    Background The mitochondria produce up to 95% of a eukaryotic cell's energy through oxidative phosphorylation. The proteins involved in this vital process are under high functional constraints. However, metabolic requirements vary across species, potentially modifying selective pressures. We evaluate the adaptive evolution of 12 protein-coding mitochondrial genes in 41 placental mammalian species by assessing amino acid sequence variation and exploring the functional implications of observed variation in secondary and tertiary protein structures. Results Wide variation in the properties of amino acids were observed at functionally important regions of cytochrome b in species with more-specialized metabolic requirements (such as adaptation to low energy diet or large body size, such as in elephant, dugong, sloth, and pangolin, and adaptation to unusual oxygen requirements, for example diving in cetaceans, flying in bats, and living at high altitudes in alpacas). Signatures of adaptive variation in the NADH dehydrogenase complex were restricted to the loop regions of the transmembrane units which likely function as protons pumps. Evidence of adaptive variation in the cytochrome c oxidase complex was observed mostly at the interface between the mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded subunits, perhaps evidence of co-evolution. The ATP8 subunit, which has an important role in the assembly of F0, exhibited the highest signal of adaptive variation. ATP6, which has an essential role in rotor performance, showed a high adaptive variation in predicted loop areas. Conclusion Our study provides insight into the adaptive evolution of the mtDNA genome in mammals and its implications for the molecular mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation. We present a framework for future experimental characterization of the impact of specific mutations in the function, physiology, and interactions of the mtDNA encoded proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:18318906

  4. Preventing cerebral oedema in acute liver failure: the case for quadruple-H therapy.

    PubMed

    Warrillow, S J; Bellomo, R

    2014-01-01

    Severe cerebral oedema is a life-threatening complication of acute liver failure. Hyperammonaemia and cerebral hyperaemia are major contributing factors. A multimodal approach, which incorporates hyperventilation, haemodiafiltration, hypernatraemia and hypothermia (quadruple-H therapy), may prevent or attenuate severe cerebral oedema. This approach is readily administered by critical care clinicians and is likely to be more effective than the use of single therapies. Targeting of PaCO2 in the mild hyperventilation range, as seen in acute liver failure patients before intubation, aims to minimise hyperaemic cerebral oedema. Haemodiafiltration aims to achieve the rapid control of elevated blood ammonia concentrations by its removal and to reduce production via the lowering of core temperature. The administration of concentrated saline increases serum tonicity and further reduces cerebral swelling. In addition, the pathologically increased cerebral blood-flow is further attenuated by therapeutic hypothermia. The combination of all four treatments in a multimodal approach may be a safe and effective means of attenuating or treating the cerebral oedema of acute liver failure and preventing death from neurological complications. PMID:24471667

  5. Influence of diaphragmatic mobility on hypercapnia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Wook; Kim, Tae Ok; Lee, Bo Ram; Yu, Jin Yeong; Chi, Su Young; Ban, Hee Jung; Oh, In Jae; Kim, Kyu Sik; Kwon, Yong Soo; Kim, Yu Il; Kim, Young Chul; Lim, Sung Chul

    2011-09-01

    A reduction in diaphragm mobility has been identified in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and has been associated with a decline in pulmonary function parameters. However, little information exists regarding the potential role of diaphragm mobility on hypercapnia in COPD. A new method of assessing the mobility of the diaphragm, using ultrasound, has recently been validated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between diaphragm mobility and pulmonary function parameters, as well as that between arterial blood gas values and diaphragm mobility, in COPD patients. Thirty seven COPD patients were recruited for pulmonary function test, arterial blood gas analysis and diaphragm mobility using ultrasound to measure the craniocaudal displacement of the left branch of the portal vein. There were significant negative correlations between diaphragmatic mobility and P(a)CO(2) (r = -0.373, P = 0.030). Diaphragmatic mobility correlated with airway obstruction (FEV(1), r = 0.415, P = 0.011) and with ventilatory capacity (FVC, r = 0.302, P = 0.029; MVV, r = 0.481, P = 0.003). Diaphragmatic mobility also correlated significantly with pulmonary hyperinflation. No relationship was observed between diaphragm mobility and P(a)O(2) (r = -0.028, P = 0.873). These findings support a possibility that the reduction in diaphragm mobility relates to hypercapnia in COPD patients. PMID:21935278

  6. The contribution of arterial blood gases in cerebral blood flow regulation and fuel utilization in man at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Willie, Christopher K; MacLeod, David B; Smith, Kurt J; Lewis, Nia C; Foster, Glen E; Ikeda, Keita; Hoiland, Ryan L; Ainslie, Philip N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of partial acclimatization to high altitude (HA; 5,050 m) on cerebral metabolism and cerebrovascular function have not been characterized. We hypothesized (1) increased cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) at HA; and (2) that CO2 would affect cerebral metabolism more than hypoxia. PaO2 and PaCO2 were manipulated at sea level (SL) to simulate HA exposure, and at HA, SL blood gases were simulated; CVR was assessed at both altitudes. Arterial-jugular venous differences were measured to calculate cerebral metabolic rates and cerebral blood flow (CBF). We observed that (1) partial acclimatization yields a steeper CO2-H(+) relation in both arterial and jugular venous blood; yet (2) CVR did not change, despite (3) mean arterial pressure (MAP)-CO2 reactivity being doubled at HA, thus indicating effective cerebral autoregulation. (4) At SL hypoxia increased CBF, and restoration of oxygen at HA reduced CBF, but neither had any effect on cerebral metabolism. Acclimatization resets the cerebrovasculature to chronic hypocapnia. PMID:25690474

  7. Habituation of the cardiac response to involuntary diving in diving and dabbling ducks.

    PubMed

    Gabbott, G R; Jones, D R

    1987-09-01

    1. Bradycardia in response to forced submergence was habituated in dabbling (Anas platyrhynchos, Linnaeus) and diving (Aythya americana, Eyton) ducks by repetitively submerging the animals, each day for several days, for periods of 40 and 20 s, respectively. The onset of pronounced bradycardia was delayed with each successive trial, until little or no bradycardia occurred during submergence. Diving bradycardia is driven by chemoreceptors in the dabbler and caused by stimulation of narial receptors in the diver. 2. Mean arterial blood pressure in dives was unchanged from pre-dive levels in both naive and trained dabbling ducks. PaO2, PaCO2 and pHa at the end of a dive were similar before and after habituation training. 3. Bradycardia occurred in dives by habituated dabbling ducks if the animal breathed 15% O2 before submergence. The ventilatory responses to breathing high and low levels of oxygen were unaffected by habituation training. 4. The changes in blood gases during dives by naive and habituated dabbling ducks were the same: therefore, in the absence of a demonstrated decrement in receptor chemosensitivity or efferent potency, the locus of habituation must reside in the central nervous system. PMID:3694117

  8. Square-wave endurance exercise test (SWEET) for training and assessment in trained and untrained subjects. II. Blood gases and acid-base balance.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, M; Servera, E; Saunier, C; Lacoste, J

    1982-01-01

    In order to obtain information about physiological and homeostasic responses at the maximal Intensity of Endurance of the 45 min "Square-Wave Endurance Exercise Test" (MIE45), three arterial blood samples were taken: (a) at rest; (b) at the 45th min of the SWEET; (c) after 15 min of recovery, to measure paO2, paCO2, [H+], [Hb], and [lactate] in 14 normal male subjects: four trained (T) six well trained (WT) and four others untrained (U). Total mechanical work (TMW) corresponding to MIE45 was significantly higher (mean +/- SEM) respectively in WT (9.22 +/- 0.65 kJ . kg-1, p less than 0.001), than in T (7.17 +/- 0.18 kJ . kg-1, p less than 0.01) and U subjects (4.44 +/- 0.36, p less than 0.001). Because of this the lactate level, which rose significantly during exercise, differed between U and WT subjects (p less than 0.05). In spite of the exhaustive character of the MIE45, [H+] and paO2 remained within the range of normal values. These results suggest that trained and untrained subjects can be trained with the exhausting MIE45 exercise while maintaining a constant [H+] and paO2 at the 45th min of exercise. PMID:6814907

  9. High Frequency Nasal Ventilation for 21 Days Maintains Gas Exchange with Lower Respiratory Pressures and Promotes Alveolarization in Preterm Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Null, Donald M.; Alvord, Jeremy; Leavitt, Wendy; Wint, Albert; Dahl, Mar Janna; Presson, Angela P.; Lane, Robert H.; DiGeronimo, Robert J.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Albertine, Kurt H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Short-term high-frequency nasal ventilation (HFNV) of preterm neonates provides acceptable gas exchange compared to endotracheal intubation and intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV). Whether long-term HFNV will provide acceptable gas exchange is unknown. We hypothesized that HFNV for up to 21d would lead to acceptable gas exchange at lower inspired oxygen (O2) levels and airway pressures compared to intubation and IMV. Methods Preterm lambs were exposed to antenatal steroids, and treated with perinatal surfactant and postnatal caffeine. Lambs were intubated and resuscitated by IMV. At ~3h of age, half of the lambs were switched to non-invasive HFNV. Support was for 3d or 21d. By design, PaO2 and PaCO2 were not different between groups. Results At 3d (n=5) and 21d (n=4) of HFNV, fractional inspired O2 (FiO2), peak inspiratory pressure, mean airway, intra-tracheal, and positive end-expiratory pressures, oxygenation index, and Alveolar-arterial gradient were significantly lower than matched periods of intubation and IMV. PaO2/FiO2 ratio was significantly higher at 3d and 21d of HFNV compared to matched intubation and IMV. HFNV led to better alveolarization at 3d and 21d. Conclusion Long-term HFNV provides acceptable gas exchange at lower inspired O2 levels and respiratory pressures compared to intubation and IMV. PMID:24378898

  10. Pulmonary gas exchange during dialysis in patients with obstructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, W D; Diamond, S M; Henrich, W L

    1989-11-01

    Hypoxemia occurs during routine hemodialysis and may contribute to morbidity, but its cause is not well understood. We reasoned that patients with COPD would be more vulnerable to abnormalities in gas exchange with dialysis. Thus, to investigate the cause of dialysis-related hypoxemia, we measured gas exchange in a group of stable dialysis patients with normal pulmonary function (n = 6) and a group of dialysis patients with COPD (n = 6). Measurements were made predialysis, at 1 h, and postdialysis with both acetate and bicarbonate dialysates. Acetate dialysis decreased PaO2 in normal and COPD patients at 1 h and postdialysis. Acetate-induced hypoxemia was associated with reduced respiratory CO2 excretion and hypoventilation but PaCO2 did not change. This decrease in CO2 excretion resulted from CO2 fixation during acetate metabolism and modest CO2 loss across the dialyzer. Hypoxemia occurred only postdialysis with bicarbonate dialysate in normal and COPD patients. An increased P(A-a)O2 occurred postdialysis with both dialysates, and was most consistently observed in the COPD patients. In summary, at least two mechanisms contribute to dialysis hypoxemia. With acetate dialysate, alveolar hypoventilation from CO2 unloading occurs at 1 h and postdialysis due to acetate metabolism. However, abnormalities in ventilation/perfusion contribute to postdialysis hypoxemia observed with both dialysates. In addition, the decrement in PaO2 associated with dialysis is similar in normal and COPD patients, although preexisting COPD makes postdialysis changes more apparent. PMID:2805844

  11. Regulation of brain blood flow and oxygen delivery in elite breath-hold divers.

    PubMed

    Willie, Christopher K; Ainslie, Philip N; Drvis, Ivan; MacLeod, David B; Bain, Anthony R; Madden, Dennis; Maslov, Petra Zubin; Dujic, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    The roles of involuntary breathing movements (IBMs) and cerebral oxygen delivery in the tolerance to extreme hypoxemia displayed by elite breath-hold divers are unknown. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), arterial blood gases (ABGs), and cardiorespiratory metrics were measured during maximum dry apneas in elite breath-hold divers (n=17). To isolate the effects of apnea and IBM from the concurrent changes on ABG, end-tidal forcing ('clamp') was then used to replicate an identical temporal pattern of decreasing arterial PO2 (PaO2) and increasing arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) while breathing. End-apnea PaO2 ranged from 23 to 37 mm Hg (30 ± 7 mm Hg). Elevation in mean arterial pressure was greater during apnea than during clamp reaching +54 ± 24% versus 34 ± 26%, respectively; however, CBF increased similarly between apnea and clamp (93.6 ± 28% and 83.4 ± 38%, respectively). This latter observation indicates that during the overall apnea period IBM per se do not augment CBF and that the brain remains sufficiently protected against hypertension. Termination of apnea was not determined by reduced cerebral oxygen delivery; despite 40% to 50% reductions in arterial oxygen content, oxygen delivery was maintained by commensurately increased CBF. PMID:25370857

  12. The management of cystic fibrosis with carbocysteine lysine salt: single-blind comparative study with ambroxol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Caramia, G; Gagliardini, R; Ruffini, E; Osimani, P; Nobilini, A

    1995-01-01

    The effectiveness of carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate (SCMC-Lys) and ambroxol hydrochloride (ABX) in the management of respiratory impairment was compared in a single-blind, randomized study of 26 cystic fibrosis patients with similar baseline characteristics. Adults received either SCMC-Lys 900 mg or ABX 33 mg three times a day and children under 14 years of age either SCMC-Lys 270 mg three times a day or ABX 10 mg four times a day. All treatments were given orally for 80 days and at the end of this control period both groups showed significant improvement in chest sound score but improvement in cough score was observed only in those receiving SCMC-Lys. Expectorate viscosity and elasticity decreased significantly in both groups. In SCMC-Lys-treated patients paCO2 decreased and paO2 and Hb O2 saturation increased while only paO2 increased significantly in those treated with ABX. An increase in tidal volume, peak expiratory flow values and forced expiratory volume were evident in those receiving SCMC-Lys while significant increases in forced expiratory flow were recorded in those receiving ABX. SCMC-Lys patient's Shwachmann index improved significantly and conversely to the ABX patients. No adverse events were recorded in either treatment group. The study concluded that SCMC-Lys is at least as effective as ABX in improving respiratory function in patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:7589772

  13. Four-year experience with bronchial asthma in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Osundwa, V M; Dawod, S

    1992-12-01

    Charts of all children with severe acute asthma admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care unit (PICU) of this hospital between January 1987 and December 1990 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 47 admissions for life threatening asthma to the PICU over this period, representing about 2% of all acute asthma admissions to our hospital. The mean duration of symptoms in these patients before admission was 54 hours. Only 55% of the PICU admissions had received bronchodilators before coming to our hospital emergency room from where they were admitted. From arterial blood gas analysis, 57% of the patients had hypercapnia (PaCO2 > 45 mmHg). All the patients received nebulized salbutamol frequently as well as intravenous aminophylline and hydrocortisone. Mechanical ventilation was used in only 8.5% of the patients. Only two patients developed pneumothorax, neither of whom had been mechanically ventilated, but they did not require surgical intervention for drainage. There was only one death in a patient who was known to have sickle cell anemia and developed sagittal sinus thrombosis. We conclude from our series that the mortality for children with life threatening asthma admitted to PICU is very low if bronchodilators and steroids are used optimally in their management, along with judicious selection of those requiring mechanical ventilation. PMID:1471785

  14. Continuous blood gas monitoring in femoral arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlain, Les A.; Spar, Steven M.; Dellinger, Bart

    1995-05-01

    Continuous intra-arterial blood gas monitoring is a potentially valuable tool in the surgical and intensive care arenas. Patient oxygenation and acid base status can change rapidly and without warning. The ability to monitor pHa, PaCO2 and PaO2 in arterial blood will be a major medical advance for the anesthesiologist and intensivist. Intra-arterial blood gas sensors are typically placed in radial arteries. In certain patient populations accurate monitoring is not possible in radial arteries due to arterial environmental factors such as hypotension, vasoconstriction and atherosclerotic disease. These same factors can make radial cannulation difficult resulting in traumatic catheter insertion, thereby further compromising flow conditions. In situations where radial artery flow is expected to be compromised, selecting a large vessel for sensor placement is desirable. We report an initial feasibility study of our blood gas monitoring system using the femoral artery as the sensing site. Clinical results are presented as well as potential advantages and disadvantages associated with monitoring in the femoral artery.

  15. A new type of low blood flow ECCO2R using a hemodialysis system in apneic states.

    PubMed

    Isobe, J; Mizuno, H; Matsunobe, S; Shimizu, Y; Ikada, Y; Kishida, A

    1989-01-01

    To perform low blood flow extracorporeal CO2 removal (ECCO2R), the authors developed a device for extracorporeal circulation (ECC) equipped with a dialyzer for the elimination of CO2 as bicarbonate. The major problem with this method was the decrease in blood pH. To control blood pH and clarify the limit of CO2 elimination using this method, a study with apneic dogs was performed. Six anesthetized mongrel dogs were intubated and paralyzed with a muscle relaxant. Vascular access was achieved with a venovenous bypass. ECC was initiated under apneic oxygenation (100% O2, 10 cm H2O continuous airway pressure), and the CO2 concentration in the airway outlet was measured. The CO2 was converted to bicarbonate using systemic infusion of trihydroxy-methylamino methane (THAM), and the generated bicarbonate was removed by hemodialysis. Blood flow rate in the ECC was 15 ml/kg/min, and the duration of ECC was 5 hr. During ECC, the hemodynamic parameters of the dogs were stable, and the PaCO2 remained at about 90 mmHg with a PaO2 above 350 mmHg; CO2 elimination from the airway was negligible. PMID:2512974

  16. The safety of the open lung approach in neurosurgical patients.

    PubMed

    Wolf, S; Schürer, L; Trost, H A; Lumenta, C B

    2002-01-01

    A recent randomized controlled trial in patients with ARDS showed the beneficial effect of mechanical ventilation according to the so called Open Lung Approach, consisting of low tidal volumes and elevated PEEP settings after performing recruiting maneuvers. However, neurosurgical patients were excluded from this and other ARDS trials due to concerns of intracranial deterioration. In this report, we present the clinical data of eleven patients with known intracranial pathology and concomitant ARDS which was treated according to the Open Lung concept. The mean oxygenation index (paO2/FiO2) increased from 132 +/- 88 to 325 +/- 64 measured 24 hours after initiation of Open Lung ventilation (p < 0.001). Mean PEEP level after the first recruiting maneuver was 14.9 +/- 3.2 mmHg. Comparison of mean and peak ICP values over 24 hours of time before and after the first recruitment maneuver revealed a non-significant decline in ICP despite a moderate increase in mean paCO2. Although two patients needed additional ICP treatment, no patient had to be withdrawn from Open Lung ventilation. In our series, Open Lung ventilation in neurosurgical patients with ARDS was a safe method to improve oxygenation. Careful ICP monitoring provided, there is no reason to withhold this modern ARDS treatment in the neurosurgical intensive care unit. PMID:12168369

  17. Off-pump versus on-pump coronary artery revascularization: effects on pulmonary function.

    PubMed

    e Silva, Ana M R P; Saad, Roberto; Stirbulov, Roberto; Rivetti, Luiz A

    2010-07-01

    Many studies have shown important changes in lung function tests after coronary artery surgeries. It is controversial if off-pump surgery can give a better and shorter recovery than the on-pump. A prospective study was conducted on 42 patients submitted to coronary artery surgery and divided into two groups: 21 off-pump using intraluminal shunt (G (I)) and 21 on-pump (G (II)), matched by the anatomical location of the coronary arteries lesions. All patients had spirometric evaluation, blood gas measurements and alveolo-arterial oxygen gradient (A-aDO(2)), at the fourth and 10th postoperative days (PO(4) and PO(10)). Preoperatively, G(I) and G(II) had similar results (P>0.372). Spirometry showed decreases at PO(4) and remained decreased until PO(10) for both groups, with significant differences between the groups. The blood gas measurements showed reduction in arterial oxygen pressure (PaO(2)) and carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO(2)), while there was an increase in A-aDO(2) at PO(4) and PO(10) in both groups. The results suggest that different changes occur in pulmonary function when the surgery is performed with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. The off-pump patients showed significantly greater improvement than the on-pump group. PMID:20403972

  18. Fatal respiratory failure during a "technical" rebreather dive at extreme pressure.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Simon J; Cronjé, Frans J; Meintjes, W A Jack; Britz, Hermie C

    2007-02-01

    A diving fatality at the extreme depth of 264 m fresh water is described. The diver was equipped with an underwater video camera which recorded events leading to his death. These events corroborated predictions about respiratory complications at extreme pressure made by early researchers. Review of the video and relevant literature resulted in the following physiological interpretation: an increase in respired gas density during descent caused a progressive increase in resistance to flow in both the airways and the breathing circuit. Initially, this was associated with a shift to ventilation at higher lung volumes, a relative degree of hypoventilation, and mild permissive hypercapnia. The promotion of turbulent airway flow by increasing gas density resulted in effort-independent expiratory flow at lower flow rates than usual. The consequent inability to match ventilation to the demands of physical work at the bottom precipitated a spiraling crisis of dyspnea, increasing PaCO2, and wasted respiratory effort, thus producing more CO2. Extreme hypercapnia eventually led to unconsciousness. This tragic case provides a timely and salient lesson to a growing population of deep "technical" divers that there are physiological limitations that must be understood and considered when planning extreme dives. PMID:17310877

  19. [Comparison of respiratory control responses in bronchial and external airway stenosis].

    PubMed

    Marek, W; Rasche, K; Mailänder, A; Hoffarth, H P; Ulmer, W T

    1989-11-01

    Respiratory responses during allergen-induced airway obstruction and external airway stenosis were investigated in anaesthetised sheep. The results were compared to those obtained from healthy subjects during external airway stenosis. Allergen-induced increase in airway resistance results in an increased respiratory frequency, mainly due to a shortening of expiration (TE) and only partially due to a shortening of inspiration (TI). Tidal volume is diminished while respiratory changes in oesophageal pressure (delta Poes) are increased. Both results in an increase of dynamic elastance (Edyn) representing airway resistance. Based on the increase in the slope and amplitude of inspiratory pressure (delta Poes/TI), the mean inspiratory airflow (VT/TI) remains almost unchanged. In spite of an increased ventilation PaO2 decreases, whereas PaCO2 increases only slightly. External airway stenosis, however, results in a decrease of respiratory frequency, mainly depending on a prolongation of inspiration. Changes in Poes and VT are similar to those of allergen-induced airway obstruction. delta Poes/TI, however, increases less than during allergen application and results in a decrease of mean inspiratory airflow, tidal volume and ventilation. Respiratory responses of healthy subjects during external airway stenosis were similar to those described in experimental animals. The results of our investigation show a different pattern in the control of breathing during bronchial and external stenosis-induced airway obstruction and thus indicate different vagal reflex mechanisms. PMID:2608647

  20. The simultaneous use of electrocochleogram, brainstem auditory evoked potential and facial muscle EMG in cerebellopontine angle tumor removal.

    PubMed

    Hsu, J C; Lui, T N; Yu, C L; Chen, Y C; Chang, C N; Tan, P P

    1992-06-01

    In six cases of acoustic neurilemmoma, electrocochleogram (ECOchG), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) and facial muscle electromyograms (EMG) were recorded to monitor facial nerve and brainstem function. Under isoflurane and nitrous oxide anesthesia, we recorded ECOchG from the tympanic membrane, BAEP from the scalp needle, and facial muscle EMG from the mentalis muscle. During surgery, the body temperature was kept above 36.5 degrees C, and PaCO2 above 30 mmHg. In all cases, the peak N1 of ECOchG and wave I of BAEP had identical latencies throughout the monitoring period. The response was faster and the amplitude was higher in the ECOchG recordings. For calculation of the I-III or I-V interpeak latency of BAEP, the wave I of BAEP could be confirmed more quickly and precisely by the peak N1 of ECOchG. During tumor removal, the embedded facial nerve pathway in the tumor was identified by electric stimulation of the intracranial facial nerve, followed by evoked facial muscle EMG. Facial nerve function was confirmed by nerve traction or direct electric stimulation after total removal of the tumor. No facial palsy or other neurologic sequelae was found after the operations. PMID:1358342

  1. To-and-for extracorporeal lung assist (ECLA) through a single catheter-in premature goats as an experimental model of infant respiratory Insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, T; Terasaki, H; Sadanaga, M A; Tsuno, K; Morioka, T

    1988-09-01

    A new to-and-fro V-V bypass extracorporeal lung assist (ECLA) through a single catheter as a blood access was investigated for its efficacy on six premature goats delivered by Cesarean section at a gestational age of 118 approximately 139 days as an experimental model of infant respiratory insufficiency, then applied to a human premature infant suffering from life threatening barotrauma that had developed from mechanical pulmonary ventilation. The extracorporeal bypass flow and the gas flow to the artificial membrane lung were controlled to keep Pa(O)(2) above 40 mmHg and Pa(CO)(2) within normal limits. The neonate's own lungs were treated with a continuous positive airway pressure of 5 approximately 12 cmH(2)O, apneic oxygenation or IMV. Two goats weighing 1250 g and 700 g died 2 approximately 2.5 hours after birth from severe circulatory distress. However, the other four neonates which were heavier than 2000 g, were successfully weaned from ECLA, and three of these could be weaned from mechanical ventilation as well. A human infant also survived and was weaned from ECLA on the third day.(Tanoue T, Terasaki H, Sadanaga M et al.: To-and-fro extracorporeal lung assist (ECLA) through a single catheter-in premature goats as an experimental model of infant respiratory insufficiency. PMID:15236069

  2. Intratracheal pulmonary ventilation and congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J M; Thompson, J R; Schnitzer, J J; Bower, L K; Lillehei, C W; Perlman, N D; Kolobow, T

    1993-03-01

    Previous studies from our institution have shown that neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), whose best postductal PaO2 (BPDPO2) was less than 100 mm Hg while on maximal conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV), had a mortality exceeding 90%. When combined with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), the mortality rose to 100% in those infants who developed hypercarbia following decannulation. Historically, those patients have required increasing ventilator support, leading to iatrogenic lung damage, and eventual death. Intratracheal pulmonary ventilation (ITPV) using the reverse thrust catheter (RTC) developed by Kolobow incorporates a continuous flow of humidified gas through a reverse Venturi catheter positioned at the distal end of the endotracheal tube. In animal studies, ITPV was shown to result in a reduced physiological dead-space (VD), to facilitate expiration, and to enhance CO2 elimination. In our current study, we have applied ITPV in two neonates with CDH who could not be weaned from ECMO because of uncontrollable hypercapnia, and who met above criteria for 100% mortality. In both cases, ITPV restored normal PaCO2 at low peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) with a substantial decrease in VD. We believe ITPV is suited to ventilating newborns with CDH in whom barotrauma is known to be common. Beyond its present use, ITPV may be useful to ventilate children with other forms of respiratory failure, and should be so considered along with other now available methods of mechanical pulmonary ventilation. PMID:8468666

  3. Effect of Pressurized Cement Insertion on Cardiopulmonary Parameters during Cemented Hip Hemiarthroplasty: A Randomized Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo Suk; Kim, Tae Hyun; Oh, Sang Hoon; Park, Sub Ri; Park, Byoung Hark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate the cardiopulmonary effects of pressurized cement insertion in elderly patients undergoing cemented hip hemiarthroplasty. Materials and Methods We conducted a randomized prospective study on elderly patients undergoing cemented hip hemiarthroplasty. Patients were divided into pressurized and non-pressurized groups based on the pressure application during cement insertion. We measured mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), arterial blood gases and serotonin concentration in blood. These variables were measured before bone cement insertion, and 3 and 5 minute after insertion. They were also measured immediately and 15 minutes after reduction. Results In cemented hip hemiarthroplasty, there were no significant change in MAP (P=0.92), SBP (P=0.85), DBP (P=0.98), HR (P=0.97) and serotonin concentration over time. There were no statistically significant difference between the two groups in MAP, SBP, DBP, HR, PO2, PaCO2, SaO2 and serotonin concentration, though three minutes after cement insertion, both groups showed decreases in SBP, DBP and MBP. Conclusion The pressurization method in cemented hip hemiarthroplasty was not found to be related with development of bone cement syndromes in elderly patients.

  4. Epidemiology of central sleep apnoea in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Matthew T

    2016-03-01

    Central sleep apnoea occurs in about a third of patients with reduced systolic heart failure and is a marker of increased mortality. Such patients usually are older males with advanced heart failure (i.e., high pulmonary wedge pressure), often in atrial fibrillation, with evidence of hyperventilation (i.e., low PaCO2) in the absence of hypoxemia. Characteristically, ventilation waxes and wanes in a sinusoidal pattern, with mild hypoxemia, occurring in the lighter levels of sleep usually when supine. Snoring may also occur in central sleep apnoea, often at the peak of hyperventilation, sometimes contributing to the confusion or overlap with obstructive sleep apnoea. Central sleep apnoea is associated with orthopnoea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea and an oscillatory respiratory pattern with an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise study. Importantly, heart failure therapies (e.g., afterload reduction, diuresis, pacemakers, transplantation) attenuate central sleep apnoea. Night to night variability in severity of central sleep apnoea may occur with changes in patients' posture during sleep (less severe when sleeping on-side or upright). PMID:26948168

  5. Evaluation of the 11CO2 positron emission tomographic method for measuring brain pH. I. pH changes measured in states of altered PCO2.

    PubMed

    Buxton, R B; Alpert, N M; Babikian, V; Weise, S; Correia, J A; Ackerman, R H

    1987-12-01

    The 11CO2 method for measuring local brain pH with positron emission tomography (PET) has been experimentally evaluated, testing the adequacy of the kinetic model and the ability of the method to measure changes in brain pH. Plasma and tissue time/activity curves measured during and following continuous inhalation of 11CO2 were fit with a kinetic model that includes effects of tissue pH, blood flow, and fixation of CO2 into compounds other than dissolved gas and bicarbonate ions. For each of ten dogs, brain pH was measured with PET at two values of PaCO2 (range 21-67 mm Hg). The kinetic model fit the data well during both inhalation and washout of the label, with residual root mean square (RMS) deviations of the model from the measurements consistent with the statistical quality of the PET data. Brain pH calculated from the PET data shows a linear variation with log(PaCO2). These results were in good agreement with previously reported measurements of brain pH, both in absolute value and in variation with PCO2. The interpretation of these pH values in normal and pathological states is discussed. PMID:3121647

  6. Group B streptococcus has no effect on piglet diaphragmatic force generation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, T D; Mayock, D E; Standaert, T A; Gibson, R L; Woodrum, D E

    1992-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that diaphragmatic contractility is adversely affected by bacterial infection. Using transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) with phrenic nerve stimulation, the effect of continuous Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infusion on diaphragmatic force output was studied in seven anesthetized, spontaneously breathing 1-month old piglets. Pdi was measured under baseline condition (50% O2/50% N2) and at 1, 2, and 4 h of GBS infusion. The GBS was infused at a level that caused a doubling of the pulmonary artery pressure and a 32% decrease in cardiac output but which avoided hypotension or acidosis--both of which can decrease diaphragmatic contractility. In addition, the piglets were kept hyperoxic (PaO2 greater than 100) and no piglet with hypercapnia (PaCO2 greater than 65) was studied, as hypoxia and hypercapnia also can cause respiratory muscle dysfunction. Pdi in response to phrenic nerve stimulation did not change during GBS infusion. We conclude that GBS infusion, in the absence of hypotension, hypercapnia, hypoxia, or acidosis, has no effect on diaphragmatic force generation in the piglet. PMID:1736760

  7. Abnormal pancreatic enzymes and their prognostic role after acute paraquat poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Wang, Meng; Gao, Yanxia; Yang, Wen; Xu, Qun; Eddleston, Michael; Li, Li; Yu, Xuezhong

    2015-01-01

    Ingestion of paraquat causes multi-organ failure. Prognosis is best estimated through measurement of blood paraquat concentrations but this facility is not available in most hospitals. We studied the prognostic significance of abnormal pancreatic enzymes for survival. Patients with acute paraquat poisoning were recruited. An extensive series of blood tests including serum amylase were serially checked. Patients were sorted according to their serum amylase activity (normal [<220 U/L], mildly elevated [220 to 660 U/L], elevated [>660 U/L]), and survival compared between groups. 177 patients were enrolled to the study, of whom 67 died and 110 survived. 122 (70.62%), 27 (15.25%) and 25 (14.13%) patients were in the normal, mildly elevated and elevated amylase activity groups, respectively. The case fatality in the elevated group was 100% compared to 17% in the normal group (P < 0.001). We found four independent factors for paraquat death prediction: amylase, PaCO2, leukocyte number, and neutrophil percentage. Models using pancreatic enzyme activity showed good prediction power. We have found that abnormal pancreatic enzymes are useful prognostic marker of death after acute paraquat poisoning. Including serum amylase activity into a prognostic model provides a good prognostication. PMID:26603772

  8. Short-term exposure to high-pressure ventilation leads to pulmonary biotrauma and systemic inflammation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hoegl, Sandra; Boost, Kim A; Flondor, Michael; Scheiermann, Patrick; Muhl, Heiko; Pfeilschifter, Josef; Zwissler, Bernhard; Hofstetter, Christian

    2008-04-01

    Though often lifesaving, mechanical ventilation itself bears the risk of lung damage [ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI)]. The underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, but stress-induced mediators seem to play an important role in biotrauma related to VILI. Our purpose was to evaluate an animal model of VILI that allows the observation of pathophysiologic changes along with parameters of biotrauma. For VILI induction, rats (n=16) were ventilated with a peak airway pressure (pmax) of 45 cm H2O and end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 0 for 20 min, followed by an observation time of 4 h. In the control group (n=8) the animals were ventilated with a pmax of 20 cm H2O and PEEP of 4. High-pressure ventilation resulted in an increase in paCO2 and a decrease in paO2 and mean arterial pressure. Only 4 animals out of 16 survived 4 h and VILI lungs showed severe macroscopic and microscopic damage, oedema and neutrophil influx. High-pressure ventilation increased the cytokine levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and IL-1beta in bronchoalveolar lavage and plasma. VILI also induced pulmonary heat shock protein-70 expression and the activity of matrix metalloproteinases. The animal model used enabled us to observe the effect of high-pressure ventilation on mortality, lung damage/function and biotrauma. Thus, by combining barotrauma with biotrauma, this animal model may be suitable for studying therapeutical approaches to VILI. PMID:18360698

  9. Behavioral, Ventilatory and Thermoregulatory Responses to Hypercapnia and Hypoxia in the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) Strain

    PubMed Central

    Giusti, Humberto; Oliveira, José Antonio; Glass, Mogens Lesner; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We investigated the behavioral, respiratory, and thermoregulatory responses elicited by acute exposure to both hypercapnic and hypoxic environments in Wistar audiogenic rats (WARs). The WAR strain represents a genetic animal model of epilepsy. Methods Behavioral analyses were performed using neuroethological methods, and flowcharts were constructed to illustrate behavioral findings. The body plethysmography method was used to obtain pulmonary ventilation (VE) measurements, and body temperature (Tb) measurements were taken via temperature sensors implanted in the abdominal cavities of the animals. Results No significant difference was observed between the WAR and Wistar control group with respect to the thermoregulatory response elicited by exposure to both acute hypercapnia and acute hypoxia (p>0.05). However, we found that the VE of WARs was attenuated relative to that of Wistar control animals during exposure to both hypercapnic (WAR: 133 ± 11% vs. Wistar: 243 ± 23%, p<0.01) and hypoxic conditions (WAR: 138 ± 8% vs. Wistar: 177 ± 8%; p<0.01). In addition, we noted that this ventilatory attenuation was followed by alterations in the behavioral responses of these animals. Conclusions Our results indicate that WARs, a genetic model of epilepsy, have important alterations in their ability to compensate for changes in levels of various arterial blood gasses. WARs present an attenuated ventilatory response to an increased PaCO2 or decreased PaO2, coupled to behavioral changes, which make them a suitable model to further study respiratory risks associated to epilepsy. PMID:27149672

  10. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Herbal Medicine on Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hai Yong; Ma, Chun Ho; Cao, Ke-Jian; Chung-Man Ho, James; Ziea, Eric; Wong, Vivian Taam; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicine (HM) as an adjunct therapy has been shown to be promising for the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the role of herbs in COPD remains largely unexplored. In this present study, we conducted the systematic review to evaluate the efficacy of herbs in COPD. 176 clinical studies with reporting pulmonary function were retrieved from English and Chinese database. Commonly used herbs for acute exacerbations stage (AECOPD) and stable COPD stage (SCOPD) were identified. A meta-analysis conducted from 15 high quality studies (18 publications) showed that HM as an adjunct therapy had no significant improvement in pulmonary function (FEV1, FEV%, FVC, and FEV1/FVC) compared to conventional medicine. The efficacy of the adjunct HM on improving the arterial blood gas (PaCO2 and PaO2) for AECOPD and SCOPD remains inconclusive due to the heterogeneity among the studies. However, HM as an adjunct therapy improved clinical symptoms and quality of life (total score, activity score, and impact score of St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Studies with large-scale and double-blind randomized controlled trials are required to confirm the role of the adjunct HM in the management of COPD. PMID:24795773

  11. Cutaneous O2 and CO2 exchanges in the dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula.

    PubMed

    Toulmond, A; Dejours, P; Truchot, J P

    1982-05-01

    Total and cutaneous O2 and CO2 exchanges were studied in the unanesthetized, spinalectomized dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula. Total oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were measured with an open flow respirometer. Cutaneous fluxes of O2 and CO2 were determined on the tail, confined in the posterior compartment of a two-chambered respirometer, in normoxic conditions but under three different values of the transcutaneous Pco2 difference. Oxygen consumption and CO2 production were measured on excised skin patches confined in known volumes of normoxic, normocapnic sea water. The cutaneous CO2 flux varied almost linearly with the transcutaneous Pco2 difference. In dogfish kept in normoxic, normocapnic sea water, extrabranchial exchanges of O2 and CO2 across the body surface amounted to less than 5% (O2) and 4% (CO2) of the total exchanges, and practically represented the intrinsic O2 consumption and CO2 production of the skin itself. Consequently, the net transcutaneous fluxes of O2 and CO2 can be considered as negligible in the normoxic, normocapnic dogfish. Transcutaneous CO2 losses do not explain low values of Paco2 and gill exchange ratios previously observed in hyperoxic dogfish. PMID:6812188

  12. Physiological responses of dogs on exposure to hot, arid conditions. Acid-base status.

    PubMed

    Krausz, S; Marder, J

    1977-09-16

    Acid-base parameters were determined in chronically cannulated dogs exposed to ambient temperatures increasing from 25-47 degrees C (with relative humidity below 30%). pH increased from 7.409 +/- 0.004 (S.E.M.) to 7.538 +/- 0.017, PaCO2 decreased from 33.0 +/- 0.5 to 20.9 +/- 1.2 torr, and [HCO3-] decreased from 20.9 +/- 0.3 to 17.2 +/- 0.4 mEq/l. Minimal base excess change, together with a rapid return to normal parameters upon recooling to 25 degrees C, suggests that the stress is almost exclusively respiratory, with little metabolic involvement. Analysis of serial exposures shows no acclimatization effect in acid-base status. This suggests the possible existence of natural acclimation to heat in dogs maintained in a warm climate, permitting excellent tolerance of hot, arid conditions with limited acid-base disturbance. PMID:563058

  13. Maternal and fetal arterial blood gas data during general anaesthesia for caesarean delivery of preterm twin lambs.

    PubMed

    Musk, G C; Kemp, M W

    2016-06-01

    Much remains to be understood with regards the effects of prolonged anaesthesia on maternal and fetal haemodynamics and oxygenation. With the aim of improving anaesthetic management of pregnant sheep undergoing recovery surgery under anaesthesia, paired maternal and fetal arterial blood samples were collected during caesarean delivery of twin preterm lambs to document the blood gas status of the ewe and fetus. Twenty-one Merino twin pregnant ewes at 126 (±1) days of gestation were anaesthetized for caesarean delivery of their fetuses. Arterial blood samples were collected from the radial artery of the ewe and umbilical artery of the fetus at the point of delivery. There was a significant difference between maternal PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2 and alveolar and arterial PaO2, indicating ventilation perfusion mismatch. Interestingly, the ewes were anaemic but the fetuses were not. These data underscore the need to undertake further work to determine the optimal anaesthetic regimen for twin pregnant ewes at different gestational ages in a biomedical research setting. PMID:26219550

  14. [Anesthetic management of posterior lumbar spinal fusion in a patient suspected of having acute exacerbation of chronic interstitial pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Sakai, Mayuko; Takenami, Tamie; Otsuka, Tomohisa; Hayashi, Norito; Yoshino, Kazuhisa; Matsumoto, Shigehiro; Okamoto, Hirotsugu

    2014-02-01

    A patient complicated with interstitial pneumonia required emergency posterior lumbar spinal fusion. The blood gas analysis showed relatively benign values (PaO2 81 torr, PaCO2 44 torr, under room air), but the honeycombing lungs were noted in the bilateral lung fields on CT, and the KL-6 level was high (1,000 U x ml(-1)), for which the acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia was suspected. Sivelestat sodium administration was initiated during the surgery and continued postoperatively. During surgery, setting the FIO2 at 0.34, the P/F ratio and intra-airway pressure could be maintained at 500 and 25 mmHg, respectively. To reduce postoperative respiratory complication, anesthesia was maintained with desflurane, which is dissipated easily, and 0.5% ropivacaine 15 ml was subcutaneously injected to the surgical field at the time of wound closure to reduce the total doses of intraoperative fentanyl and postoperative analgesics. After the completion of surgery, the endotracheal tube was removed with head elevated position, and the patient was transported back to the ward. No acute exacerbation occurred thereafter, and the patient was discharged 67 days after surgery. The prediction of acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia is difficult. Moreover, there is no established preventive method, although the mortality is high. Therefore, physicians should be thoroughly informed about the currently available evidence, including developmental factors. PMID:24601111

  15. Temporal lobe CO2 vasoreactivity in patients with complex partial seizures.

    PubMed

    Katayama, S; Momose, T; Sano, I; Nakashima, Y; Nakajima, T; Niwa, S; Matsushita, M

    1992-06-01

    The topography of CO2 vasoreactivity during hyperventilation in 8 patients with complex partial seizure (CPS) was visualized using the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) as measured by H(2)15O-PET (positron emission tomography) and compared with that of 10 normal volunteers. In the normal volunteers, the vascular response to CO2 (VrCO2 = delta CBF%/delta PaCO2) in the temporal lobe was 2.46 +/- 0.56 (%/mmHg). In the patients with CPS, VrCO2 in the temporal lobe of the affected side was 2.08 +/- 0.40 (%/mmHg), while VrCO2 on the contralateral side was 2.30 +/- 0.46 (%/mmHg). There was a significant difference in VrCO2 between the affected side of the temporal lobes and the temporal lobes of the normal volunteers. Furthermore, there was a tendency for VrCO2 to be lower in the affected than in the contralateral side of the temporal lobe in patients with CPS. As CO2 is the main regulator of CBF, this impaired vasoreactivity may reflect the brain dysfunction in the seizure focus and adjacent areas. PMID:1434164

  16. A miniaturized extracorporeal membrane oxygenator with integrated rotary blood pump: preclinical in vivo testing.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Ruedger; Bensberg, Ralf; Arens, Jutta; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Rossaint, Rolf; Henzler, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can achieve sufficient gas exchange in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. A highly integrated extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (HEXMO) was developed to reduce filling volume and simplify management. Six female pigs were connected to venovenous HEXMO with a total priming volume of 125 ml for 4 hours during hypoxemia induced by a hypoxic inspired gas mixture. Animals were anticoagulated with intravenous heparin. Gas exchange, hemodynamics, hemolysis, and coagulation activation were examined. One device failed at the magnetic motor coupling of the integrated diagonal pump. In the remaining five experiments, the oxygenation increased significantly (arterial oxygen saturation [SaO2] from 79 ± 5% before HEXMO to 92% ± 11% after 4 hours) facilitated by a mean oxygen transfer of 66 ± 29 ml/dl through the oxygenator. The CO2 elimination by the HEXMO reduced arterial PaCO2 only marginal. Extracorporeal blood flow was maintained at 32% ± 6% of cardiac output. Hemodynamic instability or hemolysis was not observed. The plasmatic coagulation was only mildly activated without significant platelet consumption. The HEXMO prototype provided sufficient gas exchange to prevent hypoxemia. This proof of concept study supports further development and design modifications to increase performance and to reduce coagulation activation for potential long-term application. PMID:21317635

  17. Effects of azaperone on cardiovascular and respiratory functions in the horse.

    PubMed Central

    Lees, P; Serrano, L

    1976-01-01

    1 The butyrophenone tranquilizer, azaperone, was administered intramuscularly, at dose levels of 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg, to ponies and its effects on cardiovascular and respiratory functions assessed. 2 Arterial blood pH, CO2 tension (PaCO2) and O2 tension (PaO2) remained relatively constant throughout the course of action of azaperone. 3 Azaperone did not modify plasma protein concentration but venous blood packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration were reduced by 5 to 10% for at least 4 hours. These changes were probably caused by uptake of erythrocytes into the splenic reservoir. 4 Small increases in heart rate occurred for up to 60 min after administration of the drug, and this was followed by a slight bradycardia in some ponies. 5 Azaperone reduced mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) for at least 4 h, by which time its ataractic action was generally no longer apparent. The hypotension was caused, during the early phase of action at least, by a reduction in peripheral resistance, since cardiac output was increased slightly 20 min after its administration. Possible mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular changes are discussed. 6 In spite of reductions in arterial blood O2 content and MAP produced by azaperone, it is likely that tissue oxygenation was adequate, since arterial blood lactate concentrations were not increased. PMID:1260170

  18. Hypoxic ventilatory drive in dogs during thiopental, ketamine, or pentobarbital anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hirshman, C A; McCullough, R E; Cohen, P J; Weil, J V

    1975-12-01

    The ventilatory responses to isocapnic hypoxia and hypercapnia were studied in seven chronically tracheostomized dogs awake and during anesthesia with pentobarbital (30 mg/kg, iv), ketamine, or thiopental (10 and 15 mg/kg, respectively, followed by infusion). Isocapnic hypoxic ventilatory drive (HVD) was expressed as the parameter A such that the higher the A, the greater the hypoxic drive. HVD(A) was significantly reduced from 259 +/- 28 (mean +/- SEM) in awake dogs, to 96 +/- 14 after pentobarbital, 161 +/- 27 after thiopental, and 213 +/- 23 after ketamine. Hypercapnic ventilatory drive (HCVD) as measured by S (slope of the VE-PACO2 response curve) was significantly reduced from 1.3 +/- .32 in awake dogs to 0.4 +/- .13 after pentobarbital, 0.5 +/- .12 after thiopental, and 0.6 +/- .11 after ketamine. In addition, hypercapnia-induced augmentation of hypoxic drive was markedly diminished by the two barbiturates but was unaffected by ketamine. Therefore, ketamine at this dose level afforded greater protection during exposure to hypoxia than did barbiturates. (Key words: Ventilation, hypoxic response; Hypoxia, ventilation; Oxygen, ventilatory response; Carbon dioxide, ventilatory response; Anesthetics, intravenous, ketamine; Anesthetics, intravenous, thiopental; Hypnotics, barbiturates, pentobarbital.) PMID:1190538

  19. Conundrum in an asthma exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Barney Thomas Jesudason; McLellan, Thomas; Samuel, Johnson; Yung, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    A 66-year-old man, an asthmatic, presented with symptoms suggestive of an acute exacerbation of asthma. His arterial blood gas revealed type 1 respiratory failure (PaO2 <8 kPa or 60 mm Hg with normal or low PaCO2) with a compensated lactic acidosis. He was treated for an asthma exacerbation and sepsis. Despite treatment, his respiratory rate remained elevated although his hypoxaemia improved. There was progressive worsening of the lactic acidosis. Treatment for sepsis was augmented. Peak flow measurements were not used to assess the severity of his exacerbation nor his response to treatment. An alternate diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome with acute pulmonary oedema was made and his asthma treatment was stopped. This coincided with a decline in his serum lactate. A diagnosis of salbutamol-induced lactic acidosis (SILA) was made. SILA is a relatively common complication of salbutamol therapy in moderate/severe asthma exacerbations. It is caused by a mechanism different from the lactataemia that is associated with septic shock and life-threatening asthma. PMID:27166007

  20. A clinical trial of the Buteyko Breathing Technique in asthma as taught by a video.

    PubMed

    Opat, A J; Cohen, M M; Bailey, M J; Abramson, M J

    2000-01-01

    The Buteyko Breathing Technique (BBT) is promoted as a drug-free asthma therapy. It is based on the premise that raising blood PaCO2 through hypoventilation can treat asthma. Our study was designed to examine whether the Buteyko Breathing Technique, as taught by a video, is an efficacious asthma therapy. Thirty-six adult subjects with mild to moderate asthma were randomized to receive either a BBT or placebo video to watch at home twice per day for 4 weeks. Asthma-related quality of life, peak expiratory flow (PEF), symptoms, and asthma medication intake were assessed both before and after intervention. Our results demonstrated a significant improvement in quality of life among those assigned to the BBT compared with placebo (p = 0.043), as well as a significant reduction in inhaled bronchodilator intake (p = 0.008). We conclude that the BBT may be effective in improving the quality of life and reducing the intake of inhaled reliever medication in patients with asthma. These results warrant further investigation. PMID:11059522

  1. The Role of Noninvasive Ventilation in the Hospital and Outpatient Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Hoo, Guy W Soo

    2015-08-01

    Positive pressure noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has become widely accepted in the treatment of both hospitalized and outpatient subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The support has evolved over the past two decades to be part of first-line management in acute exacerbations of COPD and is also instrumental in discontinuing mechanical ventilation in COPD patients with acute respiratory failure. It is also suitable for treatment of COPD with other associated conditions including pneumonia, following lung resectional surgery, with concomitant obstructive sleep apnea and as part of end-of-life care. Short-term application can also facilitate some endoscopic procedures that may otherwise require endotracheal intubation. Outpatient use of NIV in COPD has garnered much attention, but the support has not been as robust as with NIV in hospitalized patients. However, an approach with higher pressures with a goal of significant reduction in daytime PaCO2 may be an effective strategy. NIV can also facilitate exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation. A portable device which can augment tidal volume during ambulation and other activities of daily living may further expand the use of NIV in COPD patients. PMID:26238646

  2. Breathing patterns during eccentric exercise.

    PubMed

    Lechauve, J B; Perrault, H; Aguilaniu, B; Isner-Horobeti, M E; Martin, V; Coudeyre, E; Richard, R

    2014-10-01

    Eccentric (ECC) work is interesting for rehabilitation purposes because it is more efficient than concentric (CON). This study assessed respiratory patterns and electromyographic activity (EMG) during ECC and CON cycling, both at similar power outputs and VO2 in eight healthy male subjects. Measurements include ventilation (VE), tidal volume (Vt), breathing frequency (Fb), arterial blood gases, and vastus lateralis (VL) and biceps brachii (BB) EMG. At the same mechanical power, VO2 and VE were fivefold lower in ECC as was VL EMG while BB EMG, Vd/Vt, PaO2 and PaCO2, were not different between modalities. At the same VO2, there was no difference in VE but Vt was lower and Fb higher in ECC. VL EMG was not different between modalities while BB EMG was higher in ECC. The latter observation suggests that ECC cycling may result in arm bracing and restricted chest expansion. Since hyperpnea is a known trigger of exaggerated dynamic hyperinflation, the prescription of ECC cycling for patient rehabilitation requires further assessment. PMID:25083913

  3. Ventilatory regulation of arterial H(+) (pH) during exercise.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Karlman; Cox, Timothy A; Sietsema, Kathy E

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that exercise ventilation and arterial H(+) ([H(+)]a) are mutually interactive, [H(+)]a stimulating V(E) and V(E) regulating [H(+)]a increase. Fifty-five patients were studied, 10 normal and 45 with cardio-respiratory disorders. Each patient underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing with simultaneous serial arterial blood gas and pH measurements. Subsequently, they were classified into one of 7 clinical groups: (1) normal, (2) exercise-induced hypoxemia (PaO2<50mmHg), (3) exercise-induced myocardial ischemia, (4) heart failure, (5) COPD, (6) interstitial lung disease, and (7) pulmonary vasculopathy. The average resting pHa was 7.42 or 7.43 for each group. At anaerobic (lactic acidosis) threshold (AT), [H(+)]a increased due to PaCO2 increase (+2mmHg), primarily. At peak exercise, [H(+)]a increased further due to arterial HCO3(-) decrease. In summary, [H(+)]a appears to be closely regulated at rest to AT and further to peak exercise by CO2 elimination from the venous return. No evidence was observed for over-ventilation of CO2, causing the arterial blood to become more alkaline during exercise in the patient groups studied. PMID:24369924

  4. Evaluation of Dogs with Border Collie Collapse, Including Response to Two Standardized Strenuous Exercise Protocols.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Susan; Shmon, Cindy; Su, Lillian; Epp, Tasha; Minor, Katie; Mickelson, James; Patterson, Edward; Shelton, G Diane

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and metabolic variables were evaluated in 13 dogs with border collie collapse (BCC) before, during, and following completion of standardized strenuous exercise protocols. Six dogs participated in a ball-retrieving protocol, and seven dogs participated in a sheep-herding protocol. Findings were compared with 16 normal border collies participating in the same exercise protocols (11 retrieving, five herding). Twelve dogs with BCC developed abnormal mentation and/or an abnormal gait during evaluation. All dogs had post-exercise elevations in rectal temperature, pulse rate, arterial blood pH, PaO2, and lactate, and decreased PaCO2 and bicarbonate, as expected with strenuous exercise, but there were no significant differences between BCC dogs and normal dogs. Electrocardiography demonstrated sinus tachycardia in all dogs following exercise. Needle electromyography was normal, and evaluation of muscle biopsy cryosections using a standard panel of histochemical stains and reactions did not reveal a reason for collapse in 10 dogs with BCC in which these tests were performed. Genetic testing excluded the dynamin-1 related exercise-induced collapse mutation and the V547A malignant hyperthermia mutation as the cause of BCC. Common reasons for exercise intolerance were eliminated. Although a genetic basis is suspected, the cause of collapse in BCC was not determined. PMID:27487345

  5. Scheduling of multiple in-line steppers for semiconductor wafer fabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiou, Chie-Wun; Wu, Muh-Cherng

    2014-03-01

    A few prior studies noticed that an in-line stepper (a bottleneck machine in a semiconductor fab) may have a capacity loss while operated in a low-yield scenario. To alleviate such a capacity loss, some meta-heuristic algorithms for scheduling a single in-line stepper were proposed. Yet, in practice, there are multiple in-line steppers to be scheduled in a fab. This article aims to enhance prior algorithms so as to deal with the scheduling for multiple in-line steppers. Compared to prior studies, this research has to additionally consider how to appropriately allocate jobs to various machines. We enhance prior algorithms by developing a chromosome-decoding scheme which can yield a job-allocation decision for any given chromosome (or job sequence). Seven enhanced versions of meta-heuristic algorithms (genetic algorithm, Tabu, GA-Tabu, simulated annealing, M-MMAX, PACO and particle swarm optimisation) were then proposed and tested. Numerical experiments indicate that the GA-Tabu method outperforms the others. In addition, the lower the process yield, the better is the performance of the GA-Tabu algorithm.

  6. Bubble Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Enhances Lung Volume and Gas Exchange in Preterm Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Pillow, J. Jane; Hillman, Noah; Moss, Timothy J. M.; Polglase, Graeme; Bold, Geoff; Beaumont, Chris; Ikegami, Machiko; Jobe, Alan H.

    2007-01-01

    Rationale: The technique used to provide continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to the newborn may influence lung function and breathing efficiency. Objectives: To compare differences in gas exchange physiology and lung injury resulting from treatment of respiratory distress with either bubble or constant pressure CPAP and to determine if the applied flow influences short-term outcomes. Methods: Lambs (133 d gestation; term is 150 d) born via cesarean section were weighed, intubated, and treated with CPAP for 3 hours. Two groups were treated with 8 L/minute applied flow using the bubble (n = 12) or the constant pressure (n = 12) technique. A third group (n = 10) received the bubble method with 12 L/minute bias flow. Measurements at study completion included arterial blood gases, oxygraphy, capnography, tidal flow, multiple breath washout, lung mechanics, static pressure–volume curves, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid protein. Measurements and Main Results: Birth weight and arterial gas variables at 15 minutes were comparable. Flow (8 or 12 L/min) did not influence the 3-hour outcomes in the bubble group. Bubble technique was associated with a higher pH, PaO2, oxygen uptake, and area under the flow–volume curve, and a decreased alveolar protein, respiratory quotient, PaCO2, and ventilation inhomogeneity compared with the constant pressure group. Conclusions: Compared with constant pressure technique, bubble CPAP promotes enhanced airway patency during treatment of acute postnatal respiratory disease in preterm lambs and may offer protection against lung injury. PMID:17431223

  7. [The two components of carbon monoxide global exchange: CO intake and ductance. Relations with hematosis in invalidating chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathy (COBP) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Breant, J; Fleury, M F

    1980-01-01

    In lasting rest, V'COs (or CO intake standardized for FICO = 0.0001) measures for this gas the activity of the exchange and its yield by DuCO. When V'COs (ml) is expressed for one litre of CO2 reject measured simultaneously, that is for a given metabolic activity, a constant standard is obtained in a healthy non smoking subject independent of its age and of ventilatory or morphometric data. Its lower limit (-2 standard deviations) is 12. V'COs/v'co2 and DuCO express 2 complementary data of the global CO exchange: the specific capacity of CO exchange (relatively to the exchange of the respiratory gas) and its quality. They are linked by ERCO2 indicating the degree of ventilatory compensation. In 65 cases of invalidating chronic obstructive bronchopneumopathy (COBP), the proposed test and the classic CO criteria were measured. A sample was taken simultaneously for arterial gasometry. Among all criteria of CO exchange, V'COs/V'CO2 appears as the most closely related to blood gases. The relationships of PaCO2 with the elements of the CO global exchange reflect and explain in the exchanges the clinical diversities of COBP. PMID:6770356

  8. Physiologic Responses to Infrarenal Aortic Cross-Clamping during Laparoscopic or Conventional Vascular Surgery in Experimental Animal Model: Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Cancho, María F.; Crisóstomo, Verónica; Soria, Federico; Calles, Carmen; Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M.; Díaz-Güemes, Idoia; Usón-Gargallo, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic and ventilatory effects of prolonged infrarenal aortic cross-clamping in pigs undergoing either laparotomy or laparoscopy. 18 pigs were used for this study. Infrarenal aortic crossclamping was performed for 60 minutes in groups I (laparotomy, n = 6) and II (laparoscopy, n = 6). Group III (laparoscopy, n = 6) underwent a 120-minute long pneumoperitoneum in absence of aortic clamping (sham group). Ventilatory and hemodynamic parameters and renal function were serially determined in all groups. A significant decrease in pH and significant increase in PaCO2 were observed in group II, whereas no changes in these parameters were seen in group I and III. All variables returned to values similar to baseline in groups I and II 60 minutes after declamping. A significant increase in renal resistive index was evidenced during laparoscopy, with significantly higher values seen in Group II. Thus a synergic effect of pneumoperitoneum and aortic cross-clamping was seen in this study. These two factors together cause decreased renal perfusion and acidosis, thus negatively affecting the patient's general state during this type of surgery. PMID:21197458

  9. Supralaryngeal tubeless combined high-frequency jet ventilation for laser surgery of the larynx and trachea.

    PubMed

    Ihra, G; Hieber, C; Schabernig, C; Kraincuk, P; Adel, S; Plöchl, W; Aloy, A

    1999-12-01

    We have developed a new technique of combined high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV), characterized by simultaneous application of a low-frequency (LF) and a high-frequency (HF) jet stream. Tubeless supralaryngeal jet ventilation was delivered via a modified Kleinsasser laryngoscope. We studied 44 adults undergoing 45 elective surgical procedures of the larynx and trachea using a carbon dioxide laser during HFJV. Applied inspiratory oxygen ratios ranged from 0.4 to 1.0. Mean driving pressures of the HF and LF jet streams were 1.5 bar and 1.8 bar in adults, respectively. Mean duration of HFJV was 41 (range 10-180) min. HFJV resulted in mean PaO2 and PaCO2 values of 16.6 (range 9.8-26.9) kPa and 5.7 (3.0-7.6) kPa, respectively. Tubeless supralaryngeal HFJV was safe and effective in maintaining gas exchange in the presence of laryngeal or tracheal stenoses, providing optimal visibility of anatomical structures, offering maximum space for surgical manipulation, and avoiding the use of combustible material inside the larynx or trachea. PMID:10700796

  10. Modified ventilatory response characteristics to exercise in breath-hold divers.

    PubMed

    Roecker, Kai; Metzger, Jule; Scholz, Tobias; Tetzlaff, Kay; Sorichter, Stephan; Walterspacher, Stephan

    2014-09-01

    Specific adjustments to repeated extreme apnea are not fully known and understood. While a blunted ventilatory chemosensitivity to CO2 is described for elite breath-hold divers (BHDs) at rest, it is unclear whether specific adaptations affect their response to dynamic exercise. Eight elite BHDs with a previously validated decrease in CO2 chemosensitivity, 8 scuba divers (SCDs), and 8 matched control subjects were included in a study where markers of ventilatory response, Fowler's dead space, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), and blood lactate concentrations during cycle exercise were measured. Maximal power output did not differ between the groups, but lactate threshold (θL) appeared at a significantly lowered respiratory compensation point (RCP) and at a higher VO2 for the BHDs. End-tidal (petCO2) and estimated arterial pCO2 (paCO2) were significantly higher in BHDs at θL, the RCP, and maximum exhaustion. BHDs showed a significantly (P < .01) slower breathing pattern in relation to a given tidal volume at a specific work rate. In summary, BHDs presented signs of a metabolic shift from aerobic to anaerobic energy supply, decreased chemosensitivity during exercise, and a distinct ventilatory-response pattern during cycle exercise that differs from SCDs and controls. PMID:24231513

  11. Applying a low-flow CO2 removal device in severe acute hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ajay S; Weerwind, Patrick W; Strauch, Uli; van Belle, Arne; Maessen, Jos G; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2016-03-01

    A novel and portable extracorporeal CO2-removal device was evaluated to provide additional gas transfer, auxiliary to standard therapy in severe acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. A dual-lumen catheter was inserted percutaneously in five subjects (mean age 55 ± 0.4 years) and, subsequently, connected to the CO2-removal device. The median duration on support was 45 hours (interquartile range 26-156), with a blood flow rate of approximately 500 mL/min. The mean PaCO2 decreased from 95.8 ± 21.9 mmHg to 63.9 ± 19.6 mmHg with the pH improving from 7.11 ± 0.1 to 7.26 ± 0.1 in the initial 4 hours of support. Three subjects were directly weaned from the CO2-removal device and mechanical ventilation, one subject was converted to ECMO and one subject died following withdrawal of support. No systemic bleeding or device complications were observed. Low-flow CO2 removal adjuvant to standard therapy was effective in steadily removing CO2, limiting the progression of acidosis in subjects with severe acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. PMID:26040584

  12. Common High Altitudes Illnesses a Primer for Healthcare Provider

    PubMed Central

    Mohsenin, Vahid

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high altitude imposes significant strain on cardiopulmonary system and the brain. As a consequence, sojourners to high altitude frequently experience sleep disturbances, often reporting restless and sleepless nights. At altitudes above 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) almost all healthy subjects develop periodic breathing especially during NREM sleep. Sleep architecture gradually improves with increased NREM and REM sleep despite persistence of periodic breathing. The primary reason for periodic breathing at high altitude is a hypoxic-induced increase in chemoreceptor sensitivity to changes in PaCO2 – both above and below eupnea, leading to periods of apnea and hyperpnea. Acetazolamide improves sleep by reducing the periodic breathing through development of metabolic acidosis and induced hyperventilation decreasing the plant gain and widening the PCO2 reserve. This widening of the PCO2 reserve impedes development of central apneas during sleep. Benzodiazepines and GABA receptor antagonist such as zolpidem improve sleep without affecting breathing pattern or cognitive functions. PMID:27057512

  13. Regional neurohypophysial and hypothalamic blood flow in rats during hypercapnia

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, R.M. Jr.; Myers, C.L.; Page, R.B.

    1988-08-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in the neurohypophysis and hypothalamus in normocapnic and hypercapnic rats using (/sup 14/C)isopropyliodoamphetamine. Rats were surgically prepared using nitrous oxide and halothane and placed in plaster restraining casts. Hypercapnia was produced by increasing the fractional concentration of inspired CO/sub 2/ (FICO/sub 2/). rCBF in normocapnic rats was higher in the paraventricular nucleus, supraoptic nucleus, median eminence, and neural lobe than rates previously measured by use of diffusible tracers. During hypercapnia blood flow increased linearly with arterial PCO/sub 2/ (PACO/sub 2/) in all regions except the median eminence and neural lobe, which were not affected by hypercapnia. When rats were pretreated with phentolamine (1 mg/kg) to block the alpha-adrenergic receptors, blood flow in the median eminence and neural lobe increased significantly during hypercapnia. We conclude that blood flow in the cell bodies of the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus is regulated differently during hypercapnia than blood flow in the nerve terminals in the median eminence and neural lobe. Furthermore, vasodilation produced by increased CO/sub 2/ is offset by alpha-receptor stimulation in the median eminence and neural lobe.

  14. Ventilatory chemosensory drive is blunted in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD).

    PubMed

    Mosqueira, Matias; Baby, Santhosh M; Lahiri, Sukhamay; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the DMD gene resulting in an absence of dystrophin in neurons and muscle. Respiratory failure is the most common cause of mortality and previous studies have largely concentrated on diaphragmatic muscle necrosis and respiratory failure component. Here, we investigated the integrity of respiratory control mechanisms in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Whole body plethysmograph in parallel with phrenic nerve activity recordings revealed a lower respiratory rate and minute ventilation during normoxia and a blunting of the hypoxic ventilatory reflex in response to mild levels of hypoxia together with a poor performance on a hypoxic stress test in mdx mice. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed low PaO2 and pH and high PaCO2 in mdx mice. To investigate chemosensory respiratory drive, we analyzed the carotid body by molecular and functional means. Dystrophin mRNA and protein was expressed in normal mice carotid bodies however, they are absent in mdx mice. Functional analysis revealed abnormalities in Dejours test and the early component of the hypercapnic ventilatory reflex in mdx mice. Together, these results demonstrate a malfunction in the peripheral chemosensory drive that would be predicted to contribute to the respiratory failure in mdx mice. These data suggest that investigating and monitoring peripheral chemosensory drive function may be useful for improving the management of DMD patients with respiratory failure. PMID:23922741

  15. Ventilatory Chemosensory Drive Is Blunted in the mdx Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD)

    PubMed Central

    Mosqueira, Matias; Baby, Santhosh M.; Khurana, Tejvir S.

    2013-01-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations in the DMD gene resulting in an absence of dystrophin in neurons and muscle. Respiratory failure is the most common cause of mortality and previous studies have largely concentrated on diaphragmatic muscle necrosis and respiratory failure component. Here, we investigated the integrity of respiratory control mechanisms in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Whole body plethysmograph in parallel with phrenic nerve activity recordings revealed a lower respiratory rate and minute ventilation during normoxia and a blunting of the hypoxic ventilatory reflex in response to mild levels of hypoxia together with a poor performance on a hypoxic stress test in mdx mice. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed low PaO2 and pH and high PaCO2 in mdx mice. To investigate chemosensory respiratory drive, we analyzed the carotid body by molecular and functional means. Dystrophin mRNA and protein was expressed in normal mice carotid bodies however, they are absent in mdx mice. Functional analysis revealed abnormalities in Dejours test and the early component of the hypercapnic ventilatory reflex in mdx mice. Together, these results demonstrate a malfunction in the peripheral chemosensory drive that would be predicted to contribute to the respiratory failure in mdx mice. These data suggest that investigating and monitoring peripheral chemosensory drive function may be useful for improving the management of DMD patients with respiratory failure. PMID:23922741

  16. Cardiorespiratory effects of prolonged angiotensin II block in resting conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Jennings, D B

    2001-09-01

    Intravenous (iv) infusion of the angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor blocker saralasin in resting conscious dogs during physiological pertubations, such as hypotension and prolonged hypoxia, indicates the presence of an ANG II drive to increase respiration and decrease the arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2). In contrast, in eupneic resting dogs on a regular chow diet, iv infusion of saralasin for short periods (up to 30 min) provides no evidence of a tonic effect of circulating levels of ANG II on acid-base balance, respiration, metabolism, or circulation. However, ANG II influences physiological processes involving salt, water, and acid-base balances, which are potentially expressed beyond a 30 min time period, and could secondarily affect respiration. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that blocking ANG II with iv saralasin would affect respiration and circulation over a 4-h period. Contrary to the hypothesis, iv infusion of saralasin in resting conscious eupneic dogs on a regular chow diet over a 4-h period had no effects on plasma strong ions, osmolality, acid-base balance, respiration, metabolism, or circulation when compared with similar control studies in the same animals. Thus, ANG II does not play a tonic modulatory role in respiratory control under "normal" physiological conditions. PMID:11599785

  17. Effect of lung liquid volume on respiratory performance after caesarean delivery in the lamb.

    PubMed Central

    Berger, P J; Smolich, J J; Ramsden, C A; Walker, A M

    1996-01-01

    1. The volume of liquid in the lungs of the fetal lamb is reported to fall in the final days of gestation and during labour itself. We aimed to test the hypothesis that this fall in liquid volume adapts the lungs for air breathing and pulmonary gas exchange. 2. In twelve chronically catheterized fetal lambs we measured lung liquid volume at 140 days gestation (term is 147 days) and then delivered the fetuses by Caesarean section under maternal spinal anaesthesia. In five fetuses we removed approximately half the liquid contained in the lungs just before delivery (experimental group) while the remaining seven fetuses were delivered without change to their lung liquid (control group). 3. Lambs born with reduced lung liquid volume improved their arterial blood gas and acid-base status more quickly than lambs born without alteration to lung liquid. 4. Carotid arterial blood gas values in the first 60 min of postnatal life were significantly related to the volume of liquid present in the lungs at birth, with higher arterial partial pressure of oxygen (Pa,02) and arterial oxygen saturation (Sa,02) and lower arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pa,CO2) levels being associated with lower lung liquid volumes. 5. We conclude that postnatal gas exchange is enhanced by a reduction in the volume of liquid remaining in the lungs when breathing starts. PMID:8735000

  18. The contribution of arterial blood gases in cerebral blood flow regulation and fuel utilization in man at high altitude

    PubMed Central

    Willie, Christopher K; MacLeod, David B; Smith, Kurt J; Lewis, Nia C; Foster, Glen E; Ikeda, Keita; Hoiland, Ryan L; Ainslie, Philip N

    2015-01-01

    The effects of partial acclimatization to high altitude (HA; 5,050 m) on cerebral metabolism and cerebrovascular function have not been characterized. We hypothesized (1) increased cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) at HA; and (2) that CO2 would affect cerebral metabolism more than hypoxia. PaO2 and PaCO2 were manipulated at sea level (SL) to simulate HA exposure, and at HA, SL blood gases were simulated; CVR was assessed at both altitudes. Arterial–jugular venous differences were measured to calculate cerebral metabolic rates and cerebral blood flow (CBF). We observed that (1) partial acclimatization yields a steeper CO2-H+ relation in both arterial and jugular venous blood; yet (2) CVR did not change, despite (3) mean arterial pressure (MAP)-CO2 reactivity being doubled at HA, thus indicating effective cerebral autoregulation. (4) At SL hypoxia increased CBF, and restoration of oxygen at HA reduced CBF, but neither had any effect on cerebral metabolism. Acclimatization resets the cerebrovasculature to chronic hypocapnia. PMID:25690474

  19. [Bowel obstruction-induced cholinergic crisis with progressive respiratory failure following distigmine bromide treatment].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuki; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Hirose, Yasuo

    2016-03-01

    A 54-year-old female experienced rapid respiratory failure while being transported in an ambulance to our emergency department for evaluation and management of constipation and abdominal pain. The patient was on treatment with distigmine bromide for postoperative urination disorder and magnesium oxide for constipation. Increased salivary secretions, diminished respiratory excursion, type 2 respiratory failure (PaCO2 : 65 mmHg), low serum cholinesterase, and hypermagnesemia were detected. Imaging studies revealed that the patient had bilateral aspiration pneumonia, fecal impaction in the rectum, and a distended colon causing ileus. The patient was mechanically ventilated and was weaned off the ventilator on day 3. Therapeutic drug monitoring after discharge revealed that the serum level of distigmine bromide on admission was markedly elevated (377.8 ng/mL vs. the normal therapeutic level of 5-10 ng/mL). Distigmine bromide induced a cholinergic crisis with a resultant increase in airway secretions and respiratory failure. In this particular case, orally administered distigmine bromide was excessively absorbed because of prolonged intestinal transit time secondary to fecal impaction and sluggish bowel movement; this caused a cholinergic crisis and hypermagnesemia contributing to respiratory failure. Clinicians should be aware that bowel obstruction in a patient treated with distigmine bromide can increase the risk of a cholinergic crisis. PMID:27255021

  20. The effects of open and closed endotracheal suctioning on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure: a crossover, single-blind clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Uğraş, Gülay Altun; Aksoy, Güler

    2012-12-01

    Although endotracheal suctioning is a routine nursing intervention, this procedure can lead to an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). This study was planned to determine the appropriate suctioning technique (open system suctioning [OS] and closed system suctioning [CS]) to minimize variability of ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in neurologically impaired patients. The study, which was designed as a crossover, single-blind clinical trial, consisted of 32 neurosurgical patients who underwent ICP monitoring, intra-arterial blood pressure monitoring, and endotracheal intubation in the intensive care unit. According to the need for suctioning, each patient in the experimental and control groups underwent suctioning with both closed and open systems. Recordings were composed of the patients' ICP, mean arterial blood pressure, CPP, heart rate (HR), and arterial blood gases during suctioning. It was observed that both suctioning techniques significantly increased ICP, mean arterial blood pressure, CPP, and HR; ICP was found to be significantly higher in OS compared with CS, whereas there were no significant differences in CPP and HR between the two techniques. The patients suctioned using OS had significantly lower mean PaO(2) than those suctioned using CS; however, the comparison of the two techniques revealed no significant differences in PaCO(2). The data obtained indicate that CS, compared with OS, can be used safely on this patient group. PMID:23124126

  1. A Retrospective Observational Case Series of Low-Flow Venovenous Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal Use in Patients with Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Moss, Caroline E; Galtrey, Eleanor J; Camporota, Luigi; Meadows, Chris; Gillon, Stuart; Ioannou, Nicholas; Barrett, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to describe the use of venovenous extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) in patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure. We performed a retrospective case note review of patients admitted to our tertiary regional intensive care unit and commenced on ECCO2R from August 2013 to February 2015. Fourteen patients received ECCO2R. Demographic data, physiologic data (including pH and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood [PaCO2]) when starting ECCO2R (t = 0), at 4 hourly intervals for the first 24 hours, then at 24 hour intervals until cessation of ECCO2R, and overall outcome were recorded. Patients are reported separately depending on whether the indication for ECCO2R was an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n = 5), or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and persisting hypercapnoea (n = 9). Patients were managed with ECCO2R (Hemolung, ALung Inc, Pittsburgh, PA). Median duration of ECCO2R was 5 days. Four complications related to ECCO2R were reported, none resulting in serious adverse outcomes. Ten patients were discharged from intensive care unit (ICU) alive. A statistically significant improvement in pH (p = 0.012) was demonstrated. Our observational series of ECCO2R shows that this technique can be safely used to achieve therapeutic goals in patients requiring lung protection, and in COPD, in line with current publications in this area. PMID:27195746

  2. Ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia occurs in serotonin-depleted rats.

    PubMed

    Olson, E B

    1987-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that serotonin mediated respiratory activity is involved in ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia, rats were treated with parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA), a potent, long-acting inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin. In normoxia, a single, intraperitoneal injection of 300 mg PCPA/kg body weight decreased the Paco2 from a control level at 39.1 +/- 0.6 Torr (mean +/- 95% confidence limits) to 34.0 +/- 0.6 Torr measured during a period from 1 to 48 h following PCPA treatment. This PCPA-produced hyperventilation corresponds to an increase of 3.7 +/- 0.5 in the VA (BTPS)/Vco2 (STPD) ratio. Hyperventilation during ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia (PIO2 approximately equal to 90 Torr) was superimposed in an additive fashion on the underlying hyperventilation due to PCPA pretreatment. Specifically, PCPA pretreatment caused an average 3.5 +/- 1.2 increase in the VA/VCO2 ratio determined in acute (1 h) hypoxia, chronic (24 h) hypoxia and acute return to normoxia following chronic hypoxia. Since ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia occurred in rats treated with PCPA, the prolonged, serotonin mediated respiratory activity described by Millhorn et al. (1980b) is probably not important in ventilatory acclimatization to - or deacclimatization from - hypoxia. PMID:2957766

  3. Comparison of near-infrared spectroscopy with CT cerebral blood flow measurements in newborn piglets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Derek W.; Picot, Paul A.; Springett, Roger; Delpy, David T.; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2001-05-01

    Severely premature infants are often at high risk of cerebral hemorrhage or ischemic injury due to their inability to properly regulate blood flow to the brain. If blood flow is too high, the infant is at risk of cerebral hemorrhage, while too little blood flow can result in ischemic injury. The purpose of this research is to design and develop a means of non-invasively measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF) with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Such a device would greatly aid the diagnosis and monitoring of afflicted infants. Previous attempts to measure CBF with NIRS have achieved limited success. In this study we acquired high signal-to-noise NIR spectrum from 600 to 980 nm with a cooled CCD spectrometer. This spectrometer enables the differential path length factor (DPF) to be estimated with accuracy using a second derivative technique described by Matcher et al. The validity of our new approach is determined via direct comparison with a previously validated computed tomography (CT) method. Three newborn piglets were studied. CBF measurements were performed at various partial arterial CO2 tensions (PaCO2) using both the NIRS and CT methods. The results of the two methods correlate well with a relationship of CBFCT equals -4.30 + 1.05 CBFNIRS (r2 equals 0.96).

  4. [Anesthesia Management of a Patient with Pulmonary Atresia, Intact Ventricular Septum, Major Aortopulmonary Collateral Artery and Tetralogy of Fallot].

    PubMed

    Hitosugi, Takashi; Tsukamoto, Masanori; Ishii, Kentaro; Kadowaki, Masanori; Fujiwara, Shigeki; Yokoyama, Takeshi

    2016-03-01

    The patient was a 6-year-old girl with pulmonary atresia, intact ventricular septum and major aortopulmonary collateral artery with tetralogy of Fallot Her Sp(O2) was around 60% under room air, and she could not walk long. She underwent dental treatment under general anesthesia. Invasive monitoring using pulmonary artery catheter should have been avoided, since the risk of monitoring greatly exceeds that of the treatment. The patient entered the operating room with her mother, and anesthesia was induced with intravenous midazolam, propofol and vecuronium. She was intubated orally first and impedance cardiography monitoring was started. FI(O2) was maintained at 0.5-1.0. Increases in airway pressure and Pa(CO2) were appropriately avoided. Dental treatment is important for infants with cardiac disease not only to reduce their pain, but also to reduce the risk of infection. It often requires general anesthesia. We have to conduct it with less invasiveness and less stress. PMID:27097511

  5. Chinese Herbal Medicine (Weijing Decoction) Combined with Pharmacotherapy for the Treatment of Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuhua; Guo, Xinfeng; Xue, Charlie Changli

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Weijing decoction combined with routine pharmacotherapy (RP) for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating Weijing decoction for AECOPD were included. English, Chinese, and Japanese databases were searched from their respective inceptions to June 2013. The methodological quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. All data were analyzed and synthesized using RevMan 5.2 software. Results. Fifteen (15) studies involving 986 participants were included. Participants were diagnosed with COPD in the acute exacerbation stage. In addition, most of studies reported that they included participants with the Chinese medicine syndrome, phlegm-heat obstructing the Lung. Weijing decoction combined with RP improved lung function (forced expiratory volume in one second; FEV1), arterial blood gases (PaO2 and PaCO2), clinical effective rate, and reduced inflammatory biomarkers (TNF-α and IL-8) when compared with RP alone. No severe adverse events were reported in these studies. Conclusions. Weijing decoction appeared to be beneficial for AECOPD and well-tolerated when taken concurrently with RP, such as antibiotics, bronchodilators (oral and inhaled), and mucolytics. PMID:25165477

  6. Effects of carbon dioxide insufflation in balloon-assisted enteroscopy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Toshihiro; Fujimoto, Ai; Ochiai, Yasutoshi; Kanai, Takanori; Naohisa, Yahagi

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim The efficacy of CO2 insufflation during balloon-assisted enteroscopy remains controversial. This study aimed to perform a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which CO2 insufflation was compared with air insufflation in balloon-assisted enteroscopy. Methods PubMed, the Cochrane library, and the Igaku-Chuo-Zasshi database were searched to identify RCTs eligible for inclusion in the systematic review. Data from the eligible studies were combined to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) or weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results Four RCTs (461 patients) were identified. Compared with air insufflation, CO2 insufflation significantly increased intubation depth of oral enteroscopy (WMD: 55.2, 95% CI: 10.77–99.65, p = 0.015). However, there was significant heterogeneity. The intubation depth of anal enteroscopy showed no significant difference between the CO2 group and the air group. CO2 insufflation significantly reduced abdominal pain compared with air insufflation (WMD: −2.463, 95% CI: −4.452 to −0.474, p = 0.015), without significant heterogeneity. The PaCO2 or end-tidal CO2 level showed no significant difference between the CO2 group and air group. Conclusions Compared with air insufflation, CO2 insufflation during balloon-assisted enteroscopy caused less post-procedural pain without CO2 retention. PMID:26966518

  7. Dialysis induced hypoxemia.

    PubMed

    Habte, B; Carter, R; Shamebo, M; Veicht, J; Boulton Jones, J M

    1982-09-01

    We investigated the mechanism by which hypoxemia is produced in patients on dialysis by studying changes in neutrophil count, blood gases and pulmonary function in a patient with only trace amounts of circulating C3 associated with Type II mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis and a control group of 6 patients with normal C3 levels during a 4 hour hemodialysis. Fifteen minutes after the start of dialysis the neutrophil count fell to 13% of pre-dialysis values in the control group while it only fell to 71% in the study patient. A further fall to 47% occurred in the patient at 30 minutes. A drop in PaO2 by 15% of initial values occurred at 15 and 30 minutes in the controls and the patient respectively matching the trend of fall in the neutrophil count. PaCO2 fell sharply across the dialysis membrane with reciprocol changes in the dialysis bath. Alveolar oxygen tension showed a significant reduction starting at 15 minutes correlating with the reduction in PaO2. The A-a O2 gradient was not altered significantly. These data strongly suggest that the principal mechanism leading to hypoxemia during dialysis is hypoventilation resulting from CO2 loss into the dialysis bath. Complement mediated pulmonary leucostasis may play a secondary role in inducing a quicker fall in PaO2 in the early part of dialysis. PMID:7140022

  8. Exercise-induced airways constriction 1

    PubMed Central

    Simonsson, Bo G.; Skoogh, B-E.; Ekström-Jodal, B.

    1972-01-01

    Airway conductance was measured in a body plethysmograph at different lung volumes before and after graded exercise. In 14 out of 19 patients, mostly asthmatics, airway conductance fell significantly after exercise. These subjects also showed other signs of an increased bronchial reactivity to different stimuli, including forced breathing, hyperventilation, and cold air, but they had no exogenous allergy. The exercise-induced bronchoconstriction could be blocked by atropine in six of the nine patients tested. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with clinical and physiological evidence of increased airway reactivity thus seems to be primarily mediated via a vagal reflex, probably from hyperresponsive airway mechanoreceptors reacting to increased ventilatory flow or lung distension. No relation was found between PaCO2 or pH and the severity of airways constriction. Cromoglycic acid failed to block the exercise reaction in five of the six hyperreactive patients tested. In addition to or following the vagal reflex a disturbed relation between beta and alpha receptors in bronchial muscles or a release of humoral spasmogens may contribute to the progression of post-exercise airways constriction. PMID:4624586

  9. Beneficial synergistic effects of concurrent treatment with theanine and caffeine against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lingyan; Tian, Xia; Gou, Lingshan; Ling, Xin; Wang, Ling; Feng, Yan; Yin, Xiaoxing; Liu, Yi

    2013-07-01

    Theanine and caffeine, 2 naturally occurring components in tea, have repeatedly been shown to deliver unique cognitive benefits when consumed in combination. In this study, we assessed the beneficial synergistic effects of concurrent treatment with theanine and caffeine against cerebral damage in rats. Theanine and caffeine had no effect on physiological variables, including pH, partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2), mean arterial blood pressure, plasma glucose, or regional cerebral blood flow. Treatment with theanine (1 mg/kg body mass, intraperitoneal injection) alone significantly reduced cerebral infarction induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, but caffeine (10 mg/kg, intravenous administration) alone only had a marginal effect. However, the combination of theanine plus caffeine resulted in a significant reduction of cerebral infarction and brain edema compared with theanine monotherapy. Meanwhile, increased malondialdehyde levels as well as decreased superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione peroxidase activity, and glutathione levels observed in the cerebral cortex after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion were significantly ameliorated by the combination therapy. Furthermore, the elevated inflammatory response levels observed in the cortex after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion were markedly attenuated by the combined treatment. Thus, it is suggested that the neuroprotective potential of a combination therapy with theanine and caffeine against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion is partly ascribed to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:23826680

  10. The perioperative management of morbidly obese patients (a surgeon's perspective).

    PubMed

    Ramsey-Stewart, G

    1985-11-01

    One hundred and thirteen morbidly obese patients underwent bariatric surgery. Mean preoperative percentage above ideal weight was 98.3% (SD 30.0%). Mean percentage above ideal weight eighteen months after operation was 19.5% (SD 23.8%). Fifteen patients (13.3%) required pre-operative weight loss because of respiratory dysfunction and raised PaCO2. One patient developed asthma in the postoperative period. There were no other clinical postoperative respiratory complications. 40% of patients however did show radiological evidence of basal pulmonary atelectasis on the initial postoperative chest X-ray. All patients had pre-operative cardiological screening: there were no cardiac complications except one case of atrial fibrillation. One patient suffered a proven pulmonary embolus and recovered. Six patients (5.3%) required correction of a pre-operative potassium deficit. No episode of gastric acid aspiration syndrome occurred. 58% of patients presenting for obesity surgery had identifiable psychopathology. Despite strict pre-operative psychiatric screening, 15% of patients coming to operation required postoperative psychiatric management. PMID:4073456

  11. Impact of gasless laparoscopy on circulation, respiration, stress response, and other complications in gynecological geriatrics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-Hua; Deng, Juan; Huang, Fa-Tian; Gan, Xiao-We; Cao, Yun-Gui

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the impact of gasless laparoscopy on circulation, respiration, stress response and other complications in gynecological surgery for old female patients. 40 patients (American Society of Anesthesiologists II-III, 60-70y) scheduled for elective gynecological laparoscopy were divided into non-pneumoperitoneum group (NP) and pneumoperitoneum group (P). All patients included were monitored for Compliance, Ppeak, Ppalt, MAP, CVP, HR, SpO2, blood gas analysis (pH, PaCO2, and PaO2), serum cortisol, TNF-α, and IL-6. There were significant differences in bowel tones recovery, postoperative shoulder pain, nausea, and vomiting between two groups (P < 0.05). In the P group, the levels of CVP, and Ppeak and Ppalt at both 10 minutes and 30 minutes after suspension/pneumoperitoneum were significantly higher than those in NP group (P < 0.05). When it came to Compliance, this trend was reversed (P < 0.05). As surgery was conducted, the plasma concentrations of cortisol, IL-6 and TNF-α in the P group were higher than those in the NP group (P < 0.05). Thus, for gynecological diseases of geriatrics, the effect on respiratory and circulatory function is less significant of gasless laparoscopy than in pneumoperitoneum. The stress response, recovery of bowl tone, should pain, nausea, and vomiting after surgery in gasless laparoscopy is improved than in pneumoperitoneum. PMID:25356152

  12. Changes in body fluid compartments on re-induction to high altitude and effect of diuretics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. V.; Rawal, S. B.; Tyagi, A. K.; Bhagat, Maj J. K.; Parshad, R.; Divekar, H. M.

    1988-03-01

    Studies were carried out in 29 healthy young adults in the Indian Army stationed in the plains and posted at an elevation of 3500 m for more than 6 months. After exposure to a low elevation in Delhi (260 m) for 3 weeks they were reinduced to a height of 3500 m. The subjects were divided into three groups, each of which was treated with either placebo or acetazolamide or spironolactone. The drug treatment was started immediately after their landing at high altitude and continued for 2 days only. Total body water, extracellular fluid, intracellular fluid, plasma volume, blood pH, PaO2, PaCO2 and blood viscosity were determined on exposure at Delhi and on re-induction to high altitude. Plasma volume was increased after the descent from high altitude and remained high for up to 21 day's study. This increased plasma volume may have some significance in the pathogenesis of pulmonary oedema. Total body water and intracellular fluid content were increased at 260 m elevation, while extracellular fluid decreased. On re-induction there was a decrease in total body water with no change in the extracellular fluid content.

  13. Open and Closed Endotracheal Suctioning and Arterial Blood Gas Values: A Single-Blind Crossover Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Faraji, Azam; Khatony, Alireza; Moradi, Gholamreza; Abdi, Alireza; Rezaei, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Aim. This study was aimed at comparing the effects of the open and closed suctioning techniques on the arterial blood gas values in patients undergoing open-heart surgery. Methods. In a clinical trial, we recruited 42 patients after open-heart surgery in an educational hospital. Each patient randomly underwent both open and closed suctioning. ABGs, PaO2, SaO2, PaCO2, were analyzed before and one, five, and fifteen minutes after each suctioning episode. Results. At first the pressure of oxygen in arterial blood increased; however, this increase in the open technique was greater than that of the closed system (P < 0.001). The pressure of oxygen decreased five and fifteen minutes after both suctioning techniques (P < 0.05). The trends of carbon dioxide variations after the open and closed techniques were upward and downward, respectively. Moreover, the decrease in the level of oxygen saturation five and fifteen minutes after the open suctioning was greater than that of the closed suctioning technique (P < 0.05).  Conclusion. Arterial blood gas disturbances in the closed suctioning technique were less than those of the open technique. Therefore, to eliminate the unwanted effects of endotracheal suctioning on the arterial blood gases, the closed suctioning technique is recommended. PMID:26425366

  14. Dynamic contrast-enhanced x-ray CT measurement of cerebral blood volume in a rabbit tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenic, Aleksa; Lee, Ting-Yim; Craen, Rosemary A.; Gelb, Adrian W.

    1998-07-01

    Cerebral blood volume (CBV) is a major determinant of intracranial pressure (ICP). Hyperventilation is commonly employed to reduce raised ICP (e.g. in brain tumour patients) presumably through its effect on CBV. With the advent of slip- ring CT scanners, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging allows for the measurement of CBV with high spatial resolution. Using a two-compartment model to characterize the distribution of X- ray contrast agent in the brain, we have developed a non- equilibrium CT method to measure CBV in normal and pathological regions. We used our method to investigate the effect of hyperventilation on CBV during propofol anaesthesia in rabbits with implanted brain tumours. Eight New Zealand White rabbits with implanted VX2 carcinoma brain tumours were studied. For each rabbit, regional CBV measurements were initially made at normocapnia (PaCO2 40 mmHg) and then at hyperventilation (PaCO2 25 mmHg) during propofol anaesthesia. The head was positioned such that a coronal image through the brain incorporated a significant cross-section of the brain tumour as well as a radial artery in a forelimb. Images at the rate of 1 per second were acquired for 2 minutes as Omnipaque 300 (1.5 ml/kg rabbit weight) was injected via a peripheral vein. In these CT images, regions of interest in the brain tissue (e.g. tumour, contra-lateral normal, and peri-tumoural) and the radial artery were drawn. For each region, the mean CT number in pre-contrast images was subtracted from the mean CT number in post-contrast images to produce either the tissue contrast concentration curve, or the arterial contrast concentration curve. Using our non- equilibrium analysis method based on a two-compartment model, regional CBV values were determined from the measured contrast concentration curves. From our study, the mean CBV values [+/- SD] in the tumour, peri-tumoural, and contra-lateral normal regions during normocapnia were: 5.47 plus or minus 1.97, 3.28 plus or minus 1.01, and 1

  15. Acute severe asthma: new approaches to assessment and treatment.

    PubMed

    Papiris, Spyros A; Manali, Effrosyni D; Kolilekas, Likurgos; Triantafillidou, Christina; Tsangaris, Iraklis

    2009-01-01

    same time decrease oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Benzodiazepines can be safely used for sedation of the asthmatic patient, but time to awakening after discontinuation is prolonged and difficult to predict. The most common alternative is propofol, which is attractive in patients with sudden-onset (near-fatal) asthma who may be eligible for extubation within a few hours, because it can be titrated rapidly to a deep sedation level and has rapid reversal after discontinuation; in addition, it possesses bronchodilatory properties. The addition of an opioid (fentanyl or remifentanil) administered by continuous infusion to benzodiazepines or propofol is often desirable in order to provide amnesia, sedation, analgesia and respiratory drive suppression. Acute severe asthma is characterized by severe pulmonary hyperinflation due to marked limitation of the expiratory flow. Therefore, the main objective of the initial ventilator management is 2-fold: to ensure adequate gas exchange and to prevent further hyperinflation and ventilator-associated lung injury. This may require hypoventilation of the patient and higher arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) levels and a more acidic pH. This does not apply to asthmatic patients intubated for cardiac or respiratory arrest. In this setting the post-anoxic brain oedema might demand more careful management of PaCO(2) levels to prevent further elevation of intracranial pressure and subsequent complications. Monitoring lung mechanics is of paramount importance for the safe ventilation of patients with status asthmaticus. The first line of specific pharmacological therapy in ventilated asthmatic patients remains bronchodilation with a SABA, typically salbutamol (albuterol). Administration techniques include nebulizers or metered-dose inhalers with spacers. Systemic corticosteroids are critical components of therapy and should be administered to all ventilated patients, although the dose of systemic corticosteroids in

  16. [Ketamine racemate and S-(+)-ketamine. Cerebrovascular effects and neuroprotection following focal ischemia].

    PubMed

    Werner, C; Reeker, W; Engelhard, K; Lu, H; Kochs, E

    1997-03-01

    , increases in CBF with racemic ketamine (1 mg/kg) may also occur during normocapnia and without changes in CMRO2. This effect is related to some additional direct cerebral vasodilating potency of racemic ketamine based on a mechanism involving blockade of Ca++ channels. The effects of racemic ketamine on CBF autoregulation have not been investigated systematically. However, studies in rats have shown that CBF autoregulation was maintained with low- and high-dose S(+)-ketamine. Infusion of racemic ketamine alters intracranial volume and ICP. Studies in spontaneously ventilating pigs with and without intracranial hypertension have shown that racemic ketamine (0.5-5.0 mg/kg) produces increases in PaCO2 and ICP. In contrast, identical experiments with mechanical ventilation and controlled PaCO2 showed no changes in ICP following racemic ketamine infusion. This implies that increases in ICP are related to inadequate ventilation with consecutive hypercapnia and increases in intracranial blood volume. However, mechanical ventilation may not be sufficient to control ICP following racemic ketamine. Experiments in mechanically ventilated dogs indicate that racemic ketamine (2 mg/kg) increases cerebral blood volume and ICP even in the presence of normoventilation, a response that is reversible by hyperventilation or the administration of diazepam. Studies in patients have shown that racemic ketamine (2.0 mg/kg) reduces CBF in the presence of cerebral vasodilators like halothane or N2O. In contrast, studies in unanaesthetised humans showed increases in CBF after racemic ketamine (2-3 mg/kg). This observation is consistent with animal studies and suggests that the cerebrovascular effects of racemic ketamine are related to the pre-existing cerebrovascular tone induced by background anaesthetics. Studies in humans with and without intracranial pathology confirm the data from animal experiments. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:9163280

  17. Comparison of a New Miniaturized Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation System With Integrated Rotary Blood Pump to a Standard System in a Porcine Model of Acute Lung Injury.

    PubMed

    Pilarczyk, Kevin; Heckmann, Jens; Lyskawa, Kathrin; Strauß, Andreas; Haake, Nils; Wiese, Ingo; Jakob, Heinz; Kamler, Markus; Pizanis, Nikolaus

    2016-07-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is used for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, available ECMO systems are large and not well designed for fast delivery, emergency implantation, and interhospital transfer. Therefore, a new miniaturized oxygenator with integrated rotary blood pump (ILIAS) was developed and compared with a standard ECMO system in a large animal model. Acute lung injury was induced with repeated pulmonary saline lavage in 14 pigs until PaO2 /FiO2 -ratio was <100 mm Hg with a positive-end-expiratory-pressure of 5 mbar. Pigs were assigned to the following three groups: group 1 (n = 4): control group with conventional ventilation; group 2 (n = 5): standard vv-ECMO; group 3 (n = 5): vv-ILIAS. Gas exchange, hemodynamics, hemolysis, and coagulation activation were examined over a period of 8 h. No device failed during the observation period. PaCO2 decreased from 59.40 ± 4.14 mm Hg to 48.62 ± 4.50 mm Hg after 1 h in the ILIAS group compared with an improvement of PaCO2 from 48.86 ± 7.45 to 40.10 ± 6.02 in the conventional ECMO group (P = not significant [n.s.]). ARDS-induced respiratory acidosis was controlled promptly with a pH of 7.2 ± 0.1 at baseline increasing to 7.4 ± 0.1 in both study groups after 60 min of ECMO support. Mean carbon dioxide transfer was comparable between the conventional ECMO and ILIAS (211.36 ± 78.39 mL/min vs. 219.99 ± 76.72 mL/min, P = n.s.). PaO2 /FiO2 increased from 118.4 ± 15.5 mm Hg to 179.1 ± 72.4 mm Hg in the ILIAS group compared with an improvement of oxygenation from 107.1 ± 24.9 mm Hg to 179.0 ± 45.7 mm Hg in the standard ECMO group (P = n.s.). Mean oxygen transfer was calculated with 136.09 ± 30.25 mL/min for the ILIAS and 129.05 ± 36.28 mL/min for the standard ECMO. Hemodynamic instability or significant activation of the plasmatic coagulation was not

  18. Combining transcutaneous blood gas measurement and pulse oximetry.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, Patrick; Gisiger, P A; Gardaz, J P; Spahn, D R

    2002-01-01

    We are describing the preliminary results of tests performed in adult volunteers and in adult patients during and after general anesthesia with a miniaturized single sensor combining the continuous and non-invasive measurement of oxygen saturaiton by pulse oximetry (SpO2) and transcutaneous PCO2 (OxiCarbo sensor). The sensor is heated to 42 degrees C to arterialize the cutaneous tissue and is applied at the ear lobe with a special low-pressure clip. The results indicate a good agreement between ear lobe PCO2 and arterial PCO2 in the range 35 to 70 mmHg (10 patients, number of measurements 104, regression line TcPCO2 = 1.01 PaCO2 + 0.59 mmHg, bias 1.22 mmHg, SD 3.69 mmHg) and between ear lobe SpO2 and SaO2 (bias 0.44% with SD 0.77% in the range 80% to 100%, bias 1.39% with SD 1.43% in the range 60% to 80%). The ear lobe OxiCarbog sensor detects the SpO2 change 5 to 37 sec faster than a finger sensor and the PCO2 change 9 to 48 sec faster than a transcutaneous sensor fixed at the upper arm. Further improvements versus single sensors are a higher stability of the SpO2 signal and the possibility of performing long term SpO2 and PCO2 measurement at the ear lobe. PMID:11900043

  19. Control of breathing during acute change in cardiac preload in a patient with partial cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Bekteshi, Edgar; Bell, Harold J; Haouzi, Annick; El-Banayosy, Aly; Haouzi, Philippe

    2010-01-31

    We recently had the opportunity to investigate the ventilatory effects of changing the rate of venous return to the heart (and thus pulmonary gas exchange) in a patient equipped with a venous-arterial oxygenated shunt (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support). The presence of the ECMO support provided a condition wherein venous return to the right heart could be increased or decreased while maintaining total aortic blood flow and arterial blood pressure (ABP) constant. The patient, who had received a heart transplant 12 years ago, was admitted for acute cardiac failure related to graft rejection. The clinical symptomatology was that of right heart failure. We studied the patient on the 4th day of ECMO support, while she was breathing spontaneously. The blood flow diverted through the ECMO system represented 2/3 of the total aortic flow (4 l min(-1)). With these ECMO settings, the baseline level of ventilation was low (3.89+/-0.99 l min(-1)), but PET(CO2) was not elevated (37+/-2 mmHg). When Pa(CO2) in the blood coming from the ECMO was increased, no stimulatory effect on ventilation was observed. However, when the diversion of the venous return to the ECMO was stopped then restored, minute ventilation respectively increased then decreased by more than twofold with opposite changes in PET(CO2). These maneuvers were associated with large changes in the size of the right atrium and ventricle and of the left atrium. This observation suggests that the change in venous return affects breathing by encoding some of the consequences of the changes in cardiac preload. The possible sites of mediation are discussed. PMID:19837189

  20. Effects of inspiratory flow waveforms on arterial blood gases and respiratory mechanics after open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Polese, G; Lubli, P; Poggi, R; Luzzani, A; Milic-Emili, J; Rossi, A

    1997-12-01

    The clinical usefulness of inspiratory flow pattern manipulation during mechanical ventilation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different inspiratory flow waveforms, i.e. constant, sinusoidal and decelerating, on arterial blood gases and respiratory mechanics, in mechanically ventilated patients. Eight patients recovering after open heart surgery for valvular replacement and/or coronary bypass were studied. The ventilator inspiratory flow waveform was changed according to a randomized sequence, keeping constant the other variables of the ventilator settings. We measured arterial blood gases, flow, volume and pressure at the proximal (airway opening pressure (Pao)) and distal (Ptr) ends of the endotracheal tubes before and after 30 min of mechanical ventilation with each inspiratory flow waveform. We computed breathing pattern, respiratory mechanics (pressures and dynamic elastance) and inspiratory work, which was then partitioned into its elastic and resistive components. We found that: 1) arterial oxygen tension (Pa,O2) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa,CO2) were not affected by changes in the inspiratory flow waveform; and 2) peak Pao and Ptr were highest with sinusoidal inspiratory flow, whilst mean Pao and Ptr and total work of breathing were least with constant inspiratory flow, mainly because of a concomitant decrease in resistive work during constant flow inflation. The effects of the inspiratory flow profile on Pao, Ptr and total inspiratory work performed by the ventilator were mainly due to the resistive properties of the endotracheal tubes. We conclude that the ventilator inspiratory flow waveform can influence patients' respiratory mechanics, but has no impact on arterial oxygen and arterial carbon dioxide tension. PMID:9493667

  1. [Effect of intravenous lidocaine infusion on arterial baroreflex].

    PubMed

    Yoneda, I

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of the first study was to identify the relationship between reflex sympathetic nerve activity and plasma concentration of lidocaine. Lidocaine was infused in 4 different doses: 2 mg.kg-1 bolus + 100 micrograms.kg-1 x min-1, 3 mg.kg-1 bolus + 200 micrograms.kg-1 x min-1, 6 mg.kg-1 bolus + 400 micrograms.kg-1 x min-1 and 12 mg.kg-1 bolus + 800 micrograms.kg-1 x min-1. Baroreflex depressor and pressor tests using sodium nitroprusside (5-10 micrograms.kg-1) and phenylephrine (2-4 micrograms.kg-1) were performed before and at 10 min after the start of lidocaine infusion. Plasma lidocaine concentrations determined by HPLC revealed that its steady-state levels were maintained during the baroreflex tests. Baroreflex sensitivity was preserved at clinical concentrations of lidocaine (< 5 micrograms.ml-1). However, baroreflex was significantly attenuated when plasma lidocaine concentrations were above seizure levels (> 10 micrograms.ml-1). This result indicates that hemodynamic derangement observed in the lidocaine-induced CNS toxicity is, at least in part, due to the attenuated arterial baroreflex. In the second study, the author evaluated the effect of respiratory acidosis and alkalosis on the baroreflex with or without lidocaine infusion (2 mg.kg-1 + 100 micrograms.kg-1 x min-1). Respiratory acidosis (PaCO2: 65.6 +/- 3.4) enhanced the baroreflex significantly, but lidocaine infusion abolished this acidosis-induced enhancement. The author concludes that hypercarbia should be avoided in patients receiving intravenous lidocaine infusion. PMID:8515540

  2. [Anesthetic management and neurological outcomes of patient for open heart surgery with infective endocarditis and neurological complications].

    PubMed

    Kuro, M; Ohsumi, H; Takaki, O; Uchida, O; Kitaguchi, K; Hayashi, Y; Onishi, Y; Nakajima, T; Kuriyama, Y; Kawazoe, K

    1994-11-01

    No reports have focused on neurological outcomes after open heart surgery of patients with infective endocarditis (IE) and neurological complications. We evaluated parameters related to anesthetic management and neurological outcomes. The subjects analyzed were 24 patients who had undergone valvular surgeries under hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass from April 1978 to December 1990. The patients were divided into two groups according to the interval between onset of neurological complication and the time of operation: 1) acute group (within one month before the surgery: n = 11, 9.4 +/- 9 days; means +/- SD) and 2) chronic group (more than one month before the surgery: n = 13, 120 +/- 80 days). After heart surgery, 5 patients in the acute group showed newly developed neurological abnormality including death from hemorrhagic transformation, hemiplegia or aphasia. No patients in the chronic group had newly developed neurological abnormality related to the surgery. In the neurologically deteriorated patients of the acute group, interval from the onset of neurological complication to surgery was 3.5 +/- 4.5 days, whereas that of the remainders of the acute group was significantly longer (14.4 +/- 9.0 days). Intraoperative events and anesthetic management of these patients were also analyzed. However, there were no significant differences in the parameters such as cerebral perfusion pressure, arterial PaCO2, doses of anesthetics and use of vasopressors. Our results suggest that the most important factor which may influence neurological outcome was the interval between the onset of neurological abnormality and the time of operation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7861608

  3. Nitrous oxide withdrawal reduces intracranial pressure in the presence of pneumocephalus.

    PubMed

    Skahen, S; Shapiro, H M; Drummond, J C; Todd, M M; Zelman, V

    1986-08-01

    Nitrous oxide anesthesia has been implicated as contributing to the development of delayed tension pneumocephalus following surgery performed in the sitting position. The authors tested the hypothesis that withdrawal of nitrous oxide anesthesia administered during formation of an intracranial gas cavity would lead to a decrease in intracranial pressure (ICP) as N2O diffuses from the cavity back into the blood. Ten halothane-anesthetized rabbits were prepared for measurement of supracortical ICP and arterial blood pressure (BP) and for intracranial volume alterations via a cisterna magna infusion catheter. Hyperventilation (Paco2 = 28-30 mmHg) and mannitol were used to shrink the brain to accommodate intracranial infusion of either air or lactated Ringer's (LR) solution, which was used to elevate ICP to between 10-15 mmHg from a baseline ICP of 2.1 +/- 2.5 mmHg over a period of 8 to 10 min. Following stabilization at an elevated ICP, inhalation of nitrous oxide (75%) was either initiated or withdrawn (if already present during the induced ICP increase) and the subsequent changes in mean ICP and BP were recorded. Following ICP elevation with LR to 10 +/- 1 mmHg, initiation of 75% N2O administration resulted in no change in ICP and modest increases (P less than 0.05) in BP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP = BP - ICP) after 4 min. However, when ICP was raised (to 12 +/- 3.5 mmHg) with intracranial air infusion, subsequent initiation of 75% N2O inhalation caused an abrupt ICP increase to 22.3 +/- 9 mmHg (from control P less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3740508

  4. Pathophysiology and clinical effects of chronic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Pierson, D J

    2000-01-01

    Hypoxia exists when there is a reduced amount of oxygen in the tissues of the body. Hypoxemia refers to a reduction in PO2 below the normal range, regardless of whether gas exchange is impaired in the lung, CaO2 is adequate, or tissue hypoxia exists. There are several potential physiologic mechanisms for hypoxemia, but in patients with COPD the predominant one is V/Q mismatching, with or without alveolar hypoventilation, as indicated by PaCO2. Hypoxemia caused by V/Q mismatching as seen in COPD is relatively easy to correct, so that only comparatively small amounts of supplemental oxygen (less than 3 L/min for the majority of patients) are required for LTOT. Although hypoxemia normally stimulates ventilation and produces dyspnea, these phenomena and the other symptoms and signs of hypoxia are sufficiently variable in patients with COPD as to be of limited value in patient assessment. Chronic alveolar hypoxia is the main factor leading to development of cor pulmonale--right ventricular hypertrophy with or without overt right ventricular failure--in patients with COPD. Pulmonary hypertension adversely affects survival in COPD, to an extent that parallels the degree to which resting mean pulmonary artery pressure is elevated. Although the severity of airflow obstruction as measured by FEV1 is the best correlate with overall prognosis in patients with COPD, chronic hypoxemia increases mortality and morbidity for any severity of disease. Large-scale studies of LTOT in patients with COPD have demonstrated a dose-response relationship between daily hours of oxygen use and survival. There is reason to believe that continuous, 24-hours-per-day oxygen use in appropriately selected patients would produce a survival benefit even greater than that shown in the NOTT and MRC studies. PMID:10771781

  5. The relationship between pulmonary function tests, thorax HRCT, and quantitative ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Demir, Tunçalp; Ikitimur, Hande; Akpinar Tekgündüz, Sibel; Mutlu, Birsen; Yildirim, Nurhayat; Akman, Canan; Ozmen, Ozlem; Kanmaz, Bedii

    2005-01-01

    We have evaluated the relationship between pulmonary function tests (PFT), thorax high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images and quantitative ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphic studies in 16 male patients (mean age 65.6 +/- 5.5 years) with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The mean forced vital capacity (FVC) value of the patient group was 2352 +/- 642 mL (65.4 +/- 15.8%), whereas mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) was found to be 1150 +/- 442 mL (40.8 +/- 14.9%). The ratio of carbon monoxide diffusion capacity to alveolar ventilation (DLCO/VA) was 3.17 +/- 0.88 mL/min/mmHg/L, and the mean partial oxygen (PaO(2)) and carbon dioxide (PaCO(2)) pressures were 68.5 +/- 11.04 mmHg and 38.9 +/- 5.8 mmHg respectively. For each patient, thorax HRCT and V/Q scintigraphic images of both lungs were divided into upper, mid and lower zones during examination. Visual scoring for the assessment of emphysema on thorax HRCT were used and images were graded from mild to severe (< or = 25% - > or = 76%). Emphysema scores were found to be higher on upper zones with accompanying lowest V/Q ratios. DLCO/VA, DLCO, total emphysema scores, and individual emphysema scores of the upper, mid and lower zones were found to be correlated. As a conclusion, it can be stated that emphysematous changes in COPD patients are more apparent in the upper lung zones, which also have the lowest V/Q ratios. PMID:16456733

  6. Acid-base balance in the developing marsupial: from ectotherm to endotherm.

    PubMed

    Andrewartha, Sarah J; Cummings, Kevin J; Frappell, Peter B

    2014-05-01

    Marsupial joeys are born ectothermic and develop endothermy within their mother's thermally stable pouch. We hypothesized that Tammar wallaby joeys would switch from α-stat to pH-stat regulation during the transition from ectothermy to endothermy. To address this, we compared ventilation (Ve), metabolic rate (Vo2), and variables relevant to blood gas and acid-base regulation and oxygen transport including the ventilatory requirements (Ve/Vo2 and Ve/Vco2), partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2), carbon dioxide (PaCO2), pHa, and oxygen content (CaO2) during progressive hypothermia in ecto- and endothermic Tammar wallabies. We also measured the same variables in the well-studied endotherm, the Sprague-Dawley rat. Hypothermia was induced in unrestrained, unanesthetized joeys and rats by progressively dropping the ambient temperature (Ta). Rats were additionally exposed to helox (80% helium, 20% oxygen) to facilitate heat loss. Respiratory, metabolic, and blood-gas variables were measured over a large body temperature (Tb) range (∼15-16°C in both species). Ectothermic joeys displayed limited thermogenic ability during cooling: after an initial plateau, Vo2 decreased with the progressive drop in Tb. The Tb of endothermic joeys and rats fell despite Vo2 nearly doubling with the initiation of cold stress. In all three groups the changes in Vo2 were met by changes in Ve, resulting in constant Ve/Vo2 and Ve/Vco2, blood gases, and pHa. Thus, although thermogenic capability was nearly absent in ectothermic joeys, blood acid-base regulation was similar to endothermic joeys and rats. This suggests that unlike some reptiles, unanesthetized mammals protect arterial blood pH with changing Tb, irrespective of their thermogenic ability and/or stage of development. PMID:24627357

  7. Structure and function relationships of the respiratory muscles.

    PubMed

    Sauleda, J; Gea, J; Orozco-Levi, M; Corominas, J; Minguella, J; Aguar, C; Broquetas, J; Agustí, A G

    1998-04-01

    Potential relationships between the structure of the diaphragm and external intercostals and several indices of respiratory muscle function, lung function and nutrition in 27 patients (61+/-10 yrs of age) subjected to thoracotomy as a result of a lung neoplasm have been investigated. Prior to surgery the nutritional status of the patients was assessed and lung function (spirometry, lung volumes, transfer factor of the lungs for carbon monoxide, arterial blood gases) and respiratory muscle function (maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and diaphragmatic function were measured). Biopsies of the diaphragm (and external intercostals) were obtained during surgery. On average, patients showed mild airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), 70+/-14% of predicted value, FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), 70+/-9%) with some air trapping (residual volume (RV), 139+/-50% pred) and normal gas exchange (arterial oxygen tension (Pa,O2), 11.3+/-1.33 kPa (85+/-10 mmHg)) and arterial carbon dioxide tension (Pa,CO2) 5.4+/-0.5 kPa (40.6+/-4 mmHg). MIP was 77+/-25% pred; maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure was 90+/-27 cmH2O. Most morphometric measurements of the diaphragm and external intercostals were within the range of values reported previously in other skeletal muscles. The size of the fibres of these two respiratory muscles was positively related (p<0.05) to MIP (% pred). There were no significant relationships between the structure of both muscles and nutritional status or any index of lung function. In conclusion, in the population studied, the fibre size of the diaphragm and external intercostals appears to relate to their ability to generate force. PMID:9623696

  8. Fit for high altitude: are hypoxic challenge tests useful?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Altitude travel results in acute variations of barometric pressure, which induce different degrees of hypoxia, changing the gas contents in body tissues and cavities. Non ventilated air containing cavities may induce barotraumas of the lung (pneumothorax), sinuses and middle ear, with pain, vertigo and hearing loss. Commercial air planes keep their cabin pressure at an equivalent altitude of about 2,500 m. This leads to an increased respiratory drive which may also result in symptoms of emotional hyperventilation. In patients with preexisting respiratory pathology due to lung, cardiovascular, pleural, thoracic neuromuscular or obesity-related diseases (i.e. obstructive sleep apnea) an additional hypoxic stress may induce respiratory pump and/or heart failure. Clinical pre-altitude assessment must be disease-specific and it includes spirometry, pulsoximetry, ECG, pulmonary and systemic hypertension assessment. In patients with abnormal values we need, in addition, measurements of hemoglobin, pH, base excess, PaO2, and PaCO2 to evaluate whether O2- and CO2-transport is sufficient. Instead of the hypoxia altitude simulation test (HAST), which is not without danger for patients with respiratory insufficiency, we prefer primarily a hyperoxic challenge. The supplementation of normobaric O2 gives us information on the acute reversibility of the arterial hypoxemia and the reduction of ventilation and pulmonary hypertension, as well as about the efficiency of the additional O2-flow needed during altitude exposure. For difficult judgements the performance of the test in a hypobaric chamber with and without supplemental O2-breathing remains the gold standard. The increasing numbers of drugs to treat acute pulmonary hypertension due to altitude exposure (acetazolamide, dexamethasone, nifedipine, sildenafil) or to other etiologies (anticoagulants, prostanoids, phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists) including mechanical aids to reduce periodical or

  9. Effect of inhaled terbutaline sulphate in relation to its deposition in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, C; Wollmer, P; Eklundh, G; Jonson, B

    1992-06-01

    We studied the effects of inhaled terbutaline on FEV1 and gas exchange, and the pattern of deposition within the lungs. To document this and to estimate the dose of terbutaline administered to the lungs, [99mTc]DTPA was added to nebulised terbutaline solution. The aerosol was deposited preferentially in large or small airways by using aerosols with different particle mass median diameters (1.5 and 4.8 microns) and different inhalation flow rates (0.25 and 1.0 l/s). The patients inhaled placebo and then three increasing doses of terbutaline (0.006, 0.02 and 0.08 mg to the lungs). Finally, 2 mg terbutaline was inhaled from a metered dose inhaler via a spacer. After each inhalation FEV1, PaO2 and PaCO2 was measured. The inhalation of small particles at a low flow resulted in a fairly uniform lung deposition, while larger particles at a higher flow resulted in heavy central deposition. Penetration index for small and large particles were 1.3 +/- 0.2 and 0.8 +/- 0.3 (P less than 0.001), respectively. In both groups FEV1 increased similarly with each dose, and at 0.02 and 0.08 mg the increase was significant (P less than 0.01). After eight metered doses of terbutaline sulphate (0.25 mg per dose) inhaled via a spacer, there was a further increase in FEV1 (P less than 0.001). Gas exchange did not differ between the two groups but if they were combined the DA-aO2 was significantly lower after metered doses than control (P less than 0.05). Thus, it appears that the site of deposition is not important for the bronchodilator effect of terbutaline, and gas exchange tended to improve with both modes of administration. PMID:1611230

  10. Lung cinescintigraphy in the dynamic assessment of ventilation and mucociliary clearance of asbestos cement workers.

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, L; Mele, M; Pegorari, M M; Fratello, A; Zocchetti, C; Capozzi, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To verify in vivo whether lung cinescintigraphy confirms the effect of asbestos on the patency of the smallest airways and on the efficiency of mucociliary clearance in asbestos cement workers. METHODS: 39 male subjects were examined: 30 asbestos cement workers and nine workers never exposed to occupational respiratory irritants. All subjects had a chest radiograph (International Labour Organisation (ILO) 1980); standard questionnaire on chronic bronchitis; spirometry; arterial blood gas analysis; carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLcosb); pulmonary O2 and CO2 ductances (DuO2, DuCO2); electrocardiogram; and lung cinescintigraphy after radioaerosol inhalation for the measurement of mucociliary clearance time in vivo in the smallest ciliated airways and for the assessment of radioaerosol deposition in alveoli (alveolar deposition index). RESULTS: Apart from nine non-exposed subjects, the 30 asbestos cement workers were so classified on the basis of chest radiography: nine of them as healthy exposed, 10 with pleural plaques, and 11 with asbestosis. The four groups had similar ages, work seniority, and smoking habits. Exercise dyspnoea was significantly more frequent in asbestos cement workers. Lung function variables of workers with effects related to asbestos were significantly lower than the other two groups. The PaO2, TLcOsb and DuO2 mean values were significantly lower in exposed workers than non-exposed. The mean PacO2 value was significantly higher in the asbestosis group than in the other three groups. Workers with effects related to asbestos showed a significantly lower alveolar deposition index and a significantly higher mucociliary clearance time than the other two groups. Subjects with asbestosis showed similar differences from those with pleural plaques. CONCLUSIONS: Lung cinescintigraphy confirms in vivo the effects of asbestos on bronchiolar and alveolar patency and on efficiency of mucociliary clearance in the smallest ciliated airways

  11. Heliox Improves Carbon Dioxide Removal during Lung Protective Mechanical Ventilation.

    PubMed

    Beurskens, Charlotte J; Brevoord, Daniel; Lagrand, Wim K; van den Bergh, Walter M; Vroom, Margreeth B; Preckel, Benedikt; Horn, Janneke; Juffermans, Nicole P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Helium is a noble gas with low density and increased carbon dioxide (CO2) diffusion capacity. This allows lower driving pressures in mechanical ventilation and increased CO2 diffusion. We hypothesized that heliox facilitates ventilation in patients during lung-protective mechanical ventilation using low tidal volumes. Methods. This is an observational cohort substudy of a single arm intervention study. Twenty-four ICU patients were included, who were admitted after a cardiac arrest and mechanically ventilated for 3 hours with heliox (50% helium; 50% oxygen). A fixed protective ventilation protocol (6 mL/kg) was used, with prospective observation for changes in lung mechanics and gas exchange. Statistics was by Bonferroni post-hoc correction with statistical significance set at P < 0.017. Results. During heliox ventilation, respiratory rate decreased (25 ± 4 versus 23 ± 5 breaths min(-1), P = 0.010). Minute volume ventilation showed a trend to decrease compared to baseline (11.1 ± 1.9 versus 9.9 ± 2.1 L min(-1), P = 0.026), while reducing PaCO2 levels (5.0 ± 0.6 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 kPa, P = 0.011) and peak pressures (21.1 ± 3.3 versus 19.8 ± 3.2 cm H2O, P = 0.024). Conclusions. Heliox improved CO2 elimination while allowing reduced minute volume ventilation in adult patients during protective mechanical ventilation. PMID:25548660

  12. Effects of acetazolamide in patients with the sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tojima, H; Kunitomo, F; Kimura, H; Tatsumi, K; Kuriyama, T; Honda, Y

    1988-02-01

    There is as yet no convincing evidence that acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, is effective in obstructive sleep apnoea. A study was therefore designed to examine the effect of acetazolamide (250 mg/day) on sleep events and ventilatory control during wakefulness in nine patients with the sleep apnoea syndrome. In eight of the nine patients the apnoea index and the total duration of apnoea were reduced by acetazolamide, and the mean (SEM) apnoea index of all patients changed from 25.0 (6.7) to 18.1 (5.8) episodes an hour. Furthermore, the total time of arterial oxygen desaturation (SaO2)--more than 4% depression in SaO2 from the baseline sleeping level--divided by total sleep time was also significantly decreased and its mean (SEM) value improved from 24.1 (7.9) to 13.6 (4.8)% of total sleep time. Five of the seven patients with varying degrees of daytime hypersomnolence had their symptoms obviously improved. There was no patient whose predominant type of apnoea was converted from the obstructive to the central type, or vice versa. In the studies of wakefulness, metabolic acidosis, an increase of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) and a decrease of arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) were observed. The slopes of the occlusion pressure response and the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide increased, and the carbon dioxide ventilatory response line shifted to the left. It is suggested that acetazolamide cannot remove apnoea completely but has a beneficial effect in mild cases of obstructive sleep apnoea through an augmentation of central (CO2, H+) drive and a stabilising effect on ventilatory control. PMID:3127912

  13. Detrimental Effects of Standard Medical Therapy in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

    PubMed Central

    Kays, David W.; Langham, Max R.; Ledbetter, Daniel J.; Talbert, James L.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of a nonstandard ventilation strategy on survival in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Background Despite recent advances, including nitric oxide, CDH remains an unsolved problem with a mortality rate of 35% to 50%. Hyperventilation and alkalization remain common therapies. Methods In 1992, the authors prospectively abandoned hyperventilation and alkalization. Patients are lightly sedated and ventilated with the lowest pressure providing adequate chest movement, and the rate is set to patient comfort. Nitric oxide and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are reserved for life-threatening instability. Surgical repair is delayed 1 to 5 days. Sixty consecutive patients are compared with 29 previous patients treated with hyperventilation and alkalization, 13 before and 16 after the availability of ECMO. Results Overall, 47 of 60 patients (78%) in study era 3 survived compared with 2 of 13 (15%) in the hyperventilation era and 7 of 16 (44%) in the hyperventilation/ECMO era (p < 0.0001). The disease severity and the incidence of associated anomalies did not differ between groups. To compare management strategies, patients who had treatment withheld because of lethal associated conditions were then removed from analysis. Peak inspiratory pressure and arterial pH were lower (p < 0.0001) and PaCO2 was higher (p < 0.05) in era 3 than in the previous eras. The rate of pneumothorax (1.9%) decreased (p < 0.0001). In era 3, survival was 47 of 53 (89%) treated patients, and 23 of 25 inborn patients with isolated CDH survived (92%). Conclusions Nonstandard ventilatory support of patients with CDH has led to significantly improved survival rates. This study sets a survival benchmark and strongly suggests the negative effects of hyperventilation and alkalization. PMID:10493481

  14. Haemodynamic effects of atrial natriuretic peptide in hypoxic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, T. K.; Sheedy, W.; Waterhouse, J.; Howard, P.; Morice, A. H.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Pulmonary artery pressure is elevated in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Release of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is increased in pulmonary hypertension and this hormone may both selectively vasodilate pulmonary vessels and inhibit pulmonary vascular remodelling. The hypothesis that ANP has a physiological role in protection of the pulmonary circulation from pressure overload, and that it may be beneficial in patients with COPD, has been examined. METHODS--Ten patients with hypoxic COPD were infused for 30 minute periods with saline followed by ANP at 0.4, 2, and 10 pmol/kg/min respectively via a pulmonary artery catheter whilst monitoring haemodynamics and oxygenation. RESULTS--Levels of immunoreactive ANP (irANP) increased from a mean (SD) of 23 (15) pmol/l to a maximum of 94 (41) pmol/l. Neither systemic blood pressure, cardiac output nor total systemic vascular resistance showed any correlation with irANP levels. There were negative correlations between levels of ANP and mean pulmonary artery pressure which fell from 28.7 to 25.9 mm Hg, pulmonary artery wedge pressure which fell from 6.5 to 4.6 mmHg, and total pulmonary vascular resistance which fell from 489 to 428 dynes s cm-5. There was a small fall in PaCO2 from 6.2 to 5.9 kPa, whilst venous admixture and oxygen delivery both increased non-significantly. CONCLUSIONS--At these pathophysiological concentrations there was evidence that ANP selectively reduced right ventricular afterload. These data support the hypotheses that increased plasma levels of ANP may be beneficial in hypoxic COPD, and that endogenous ANP may ameliorate pulmonary hypertension in humans. PMID:8202879

  15. AltitudeOmics: The Integrative Physiology of Human Acclimatization to Hypobaric Hypoxia and Its Retention upon Reascent

    PubMed Central

    Subudhi, Andrew W.; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Bucher, Jenna; Davis, Christopher; Elliott, Jonathan E.; Eutermoster, Morgan; Evero, Oghenero; Fan, Jui-Lin; Houten, Sonja Jameson-Van; Julian, Colleen G.; Kark, Jonathan; Kark, Sherri; Kayser, Bengt; Kern, Julia P.; Kim, See Eun; Lathan, Corinna; Laurie, Steven S.; Lovering, Andrew T.; Paterson, Ryan; Polaner, David M.; Ryan, Benjamin J.; Spira, James L.; Tsao, Jack W.; Wachsmuth, Nadine B.; Roach, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of human responses to hypoxia is important for the health of millions of people worldwide who visit, live, or work in the hypoxic environment encountered at high altitudes. In spite of dozens of studies over the last 100 years, the basic mechanisms controlling acclimatization to hypoxia remain largely unknown. The AltitudeOmics project aimed to bridge this gap. Our goals were 1) to describe a phenotype for successful acclimatization and assess its retention and 2) use these findings as a foundation for companion mechanistic studies. Our approach was to characterize acclimatization by measuring changes in arterial oxygenation and hemoglobin concentration [Hb], acute mountain sickness (AMS), cognitive function, and exercise performance in 21 subjects as they acclimatized to 5260 m over 16 days. We then focused on the retention of acclimatization by having subjects reascend to 5260 m after either 7 (n = 14) or 21 (n = 7) days at 1525 m. At 16 days at 5260 m we observed: 1) increases in arterial oxygenation and [Hb] (compared to acute hypoxia: PaO2 rose 9±4 mmHg to 45±4 while PaCO2 dropped a further 6±3 mmHg to 21±3, and [Hb] rose 1.8±0.7 g/dL to 16±2 g/dL; 2) no AMS; 3) improved cognitive function; and 4) improved exercise performance by 8±8% (all changes p<0.01). Upon reascent, we observed retention of arterial oxygenation but not [Hb], protection from AMS, retention of exercise performance, less retention of cognitive function; and noted that some of these effects lasted for 21 days. Taken together, these findings reveal new information about retention of acclimatization, and can be used as a physiological foundation to explore the molecular mechanisms of acclimatization and its retention. PMID:24658407

  16. Exercise physiological responses to drug treatments in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Charalampopoulos, Athanasios; Gibbs, J Simon R; Davies, Rachel J; Gin-Sing, Wendy; Murphy, Kevin; Sheares, Karen K; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna; Jenkins, David P; Howard, Luke S

    2016-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) that was deemed to be inoperable were more likely to respond to drugs for treating pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) by using cardiopulmonary exercise (CPX) testing than those with CTEPH that was deemed to be operable. We analyzed CPX testing data of all patients with CTEPH who were treated with PAH drugs and had undergone CPX testing before and after treatment at a single pulmonary hypertension center between February 2009 and March 2013. Suitability for pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) was decided by experts in PEA who were associated with a treatment center. The group with inoperable CTEPH included 16 patients, the operable group included 26 patients. There were no differences in demographics and baseline hemodynamic data between the groups. Unlike patients in the operable group, after drug treatment patients with inoperable CTEPH had a significantly higher peak V̇o2 (P < 0.001), work load (P = 0.002), and oxygen pulse (P < 0.001). In terms of gas exchange, there was an overall net trend toward improved V̇e/V̇co2 in the group with inoperable CTEPH, with an increased PaCO2 (P = 0.01), suggesting reduced hyperventilation. No changes were observed in patients with operable CTEPH. In conclusion, treatment with PAH drug therapy reveals important pathophysiological differences between inoperable and operable CTEPH, with significant pulmonary vascular and cardiac responses in inoperable disease. Drug effects on exercise function observed in inoperable CTEPH cannot be translated to all forms of CTEPH. PMID:27418685

  17. CPAP of 10 cmH2O during cardiopulmonary bypass followed by an alveolar recruitment manoeuvre does not improve post-bypass oxygenation compared to a recruitment manoeuvre alone in children.

    PubMed

    Kim, J T; Na, H S; Kim, H S; Kim, C S; Kim, S D

    2010-03-01

    This randomised controlled study assessed whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) of 10 cmH2O during cardiopulmonary bypass improves post-bypass oxygenation in children compared with no CPAP during bypass. We studied children with a ventricular septal defect. CPAP of 10 cmH2O was applied during bypass in the CPAP group (n=24), whereas the lungs were left deflated in the control group (n=20). In both groups, an alveolar recruitment maneuver was performed by applying positive pressure of 30 to 40 cmH2O for five seconds before weaning from bypass. Postoperative ventilation had the peak inflation pressure set to produce an expired tidal volume of 8 ml/kg with positive end expiratory pressure of 5 cmH2O. Arterial blood gas and haemodynamic measurements were performed at skin incision, five minutes after weaning from bypass, five minutes after chest closure and four hours after arrival in the intensive care unit. In four children CPAP was discontinued because it adversely affected the operating field. There was no difference in demographic characteristics, haemodynamic data, bypass time and operation time. No difference was observed between the groups with respect to pH, PaO2, P(A-a) DO2, PaCO2, and ETCO2 at each time. Variability in the data was greater than expected, leading to a decrease in the expected power of the study. CPAP at 10 cmH2O during bypass was not found to improve the post-bypass oxygenation as compared with leaving the lung deflated during bypass in children undergoing ventricular septal defect repair who had an alveolar recruitment maneuver at the end of bypass. PMID:20369762

  18. [Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation in bronchiectatic patients and clinical reflections].

    PubMed

    Kömüs, Nuray; Tertemiz, Kemal Can; Akkoçlu, Atila; Gülay, Zeynep; Yilmaz, Erkan

    2006-01-01

    Bronchiectasis is characterized with irreversible dilatation according to destruction of epithelium, elastic and muscular layer. Most important cause of bronchiectasis is chronic bacterial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation is frequently seen in bronchiectatic patients. We aimed to find out P. aeruginosa colonisation frequency and clinical, radiological and spirometric reflections due to colonisation. We analysed 83 cases retrospectively. Mean age was 58.2 and 54.2% of them were female. Bronchiectasis were localised 19.3% in left lung, 19.3% right and 61.4% bilaterally. 29 (35.8%) normal, 28 (34.6%) obstructive, 7 (8.6%) restrictive, 17 (21%) mixed type disorders are detected in spirometric measures. Sputum culture performed in 50 cases. No microorganism colonisation determined in 30 (60%) cases, P. aeruginosa colonisation 16 (32%), Haemophilus influenzae 2 (4%), 1 (2%) Streptococcus pneumoniae and Proteus mirabilis 1 (2%) cases. P. aeruginosa colonisation determined more frequent in males (p<0.05). No significant correlation detected between colonisation and age or smoking habits (p>0.05). In cases with colonisation; clubbing and hemoptysis were significantly frequent (p<0.05). Only peribronchial thickening was significantly correlated with colonisation in radiological findings (p<0.05). In blood gase analysis PaO2, oxygen saturation were lower and PaCO2 higher in cases colonised with P. aeruginosa but it was not statisticaly significant (p>0.05). Hospitalization rate was higher in P. aeruginosa colonised cases (p>0.05). It is an important problem about mortality because of higher hemoptysis and hospitalisation requirement rate in P. aeruginosa colonised cases. PMID:17203422

  19. Effect of therapeutic hypothermia on gas exchange and respiratory mechanics: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Karnatovskaia, Lioudmila V; Festic, Emir; Freeman, William D; Lee, Augustine S

    2014-06-01

    Targeted temperature management (TTM) may improve respiratory mechanics and lung inflammation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) based on animal and limited human studies. We aimed to assess the pulmonary effects of TTM in patients with respiratory failure following cardiac arrest. Retrospective review of consecutive cardiac arrest cases occurring out of hospital or within 24 hours of hospital admission (2002-2012). Those receiving TTM (n=44) were compared with those who did not (n=42), but required mechanical ventilation (MV) for at least 4 days following the arrest. There were no between-group differences in age, gender, body mass index, APACHE II, or fluid balance during the study period. The TTM group had lower ejection fraction, Glasgow Coma Score, and more frequent use of paralytics. Matched data analyses (change at day 4 compared with baseline of the individual subject) showed favorable, but not statistically significant trends in respiratory mechanics endpoints (airway pressure, compliance, tidal volume, and PaO2/FiO2) in the TTM group. The PaCO2 decreased significantly more in the TTM group, as compared with controls (-12 vs. -5 mmHg, p=0.02). For clinical outcomes, the TTM group consistently, although not significantly, did better in survival (59% vs. 43%) and hospital length of stay (12 vs. 15 days). The MV duration and Cerebral Performance Category score on discharge were significantly lower in the TTM group (7.3 vs. 10.7 days, p=0.04 and 3.2 vs. 4, p=0.01). This small retrospective cohort suggests that the effect of TTM ranges from equivalent to favorable, compared with controls, for the specific respiratory and clinical outcomes in patients with respiratory failure following cardiac arrest. PMID:24840620

  20. Role of BiPAP applied through endotracheal tube in unconscious patients suffering from acute exacerbation of COPD: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Jagdish; Sindhwani, Girish; Biswas, Debasis; Dua, Ruchi

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives Mechanical ventilation is the recommended treatment in unconscious patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and hypercapenic respiratory failure. But, in resource-poor countries, many of these patients are not able to afford this treatment due to financial constraints. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness, safety and cost-effectiveness of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) applied via endotracheal tube in such patients. Methods Twenty patients with acute exacerbation of COPD and altered sensorium, who were unable to afford ventilatory support, were intubated and BiPAP therapy was provided to these patients through the endotracheal tube. The outcome of these patients was studied. Results The BiPAP success rate and hospital mortality were 85% (17/20) and 15% (3/20) respectively. BiPAP failure was associated with high sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score at the time of admission (P = 0.002). Improvement in Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score (P < 0.001), pH (P = 0.001), PaCO2 (partial pressure of carbon dioxide) (P < 0.001), respiratory rate (P < 0.001), and SOFA score (P = 0.001) was observed among the responders following 2 hours of therapy. Only one of the responders developed aspiration pneumonitis, as a complication. The daily cost of BiPAP therapy was 8.75 times lower than the average cost of mechanical ventilation. Conclusion This pilot study reveals that this treatment modality could be a safe, cost-effective and efficacious method of treatment in unconscious patients with acute exacerbation of COPD. PMID:22665995

  1. The influence of controlled mandatory ventilation (CMV), intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) and biphasic intermittent positive airway pressure (BIPAP) on duration of intubation and consumption of analgesics and sedatives. A prospective analysis in 596 patients following adult cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Rathgeber, J; Schorn, B; Falk, V; Kazmaier, S; Spiegel, T; Burchardi, H

    1997-11-01

    The aim of the study was the determination of the influence of ventilation modes on the consumption of analgesics and sedatives, duration of intubation and pulmonary gas exchange. Assist/controlled mandatory ventilation (S-CMV, 123 patients), synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (S-IMV, 431 patients) and biphasic positive airway pressure ventilation (BIPAP, 42 patients) were compared in a prospective, controlled, open clinical trial over an 18-month period. Five hundred and ninety-six adult patients with normal pulmonary function before surgery and uneventful course following coronary artery bypass graft surgery were studied. Patients ventilated with BIPAP had a significantly shorter mean duration of intubation (10.1 h, P < 0.05) than patients treated with S-IMV (14.7 h) and S-CMV (13.2 h). In the S-CMV group, 39.9% of the patients required single or multiple doses of midazolam, but only 13.5% in the S-IMV group and 9.5% in the BIPAP group. The mean total amount of midazolam administered to these patients was significantly higher in the S-CMV group (8.8 mg) than in the S-IMV group (6.6 mg, P < 0.05) and in the BIPAP group (4.3 mg, P < 0.05). The consumption of pethidine and piritramide did not differ between S-CMV and S-IMV, but was significantly lower during BIPAP (P < 0.05). After extubation the patients' PaCO2 was highest in the S-CMV group. We conclude that ventilatory support with BIPAP reduces the consumption of analgesics and sedatives, and the duration of intubation. The possibility of unrestricted spontaneous breathing in all phases of the respiratory cycle is considered to be the reason. BIPAP seems to be an alternative to S-CMV and S-IMV in short-term ventilated patient. PMID:9466092

  2. Response of respiratory motor output to varying pressure in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Xirouhaki, N; Kondili, E; Mitrouska, I; Siafakas, N; Georgopoulos, D

    1999-09-01

    It has been shown in mechanically ventilated patients that pressure support (PS) unloads the respiratory muscles in a graded fashion depending on the PS level. The downregulation of respiratory muscles could be mediated through chemical or load-related reflex feedback. To test this hypothesis, 8 patients with acute lung injury mechanically ventilated on PS mode (baseline PS) were studied. In Protocol A, PS was randomly decreased or increased by at least 5 cmH2O for two breaths. During this time, which is shorter than circulation delay, only changes in load-related reflex feedback were operating. Sixty trials where PS increased (high PS) for two breaths and 62 trials where PS decreased (low PS), also for two breaths were analysed. Thereafter, the patients were assigned randomly to baseline, low or high PS and ventilated in each level for 30 min (Protocol B). The last 2 min of each period were analysed. Respiratory motor output was assessed by total pressure generated by the respiratory muscles (Pmus), computed from oesophageal pressure (Poes). In Protocol A, alteration in PS caused significant changes in tidal volume (VT) without any effect on Pmus waveform except for neural expiratory time (ntE). ntE increased significantly with increasing PS. In Protocol B, Pmus was significantly down-regulated with increasing PS. Carbon dioxide tension in arterial blood (Pa,CO2) measured at the end of each period increased with decreasing PS. There was not any further alteration in ntE beyond that observed in Protocol A. These results indicate that the effect of load-related reflex on respiratory motor output is limited to timing. The downregulation of pressure generated by the respiratory muscles with steady-state increase in pressure support is due to a slow feedback system, which is probably chemical in nature. PMID:10543268

  3. Mechanisms of improvement of respiratory failure in patients with COPD treated with NIV

    PubMed Central

    Nickol, Annabel H; Hart, Nicholas; Hopkinson, Nicholas S; Hamnegård, Carl-Hugo; Moxham, John; Simonds, Anita; Polkey, Michael I

    2008-01-01

    Background Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) improves gas-exchange and symptoms in selected chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure. We hypothesized NIV reverses respiratory failure by one or all of increased ventilatory response to carbon-dioxide, reduced respiratory muscle fatigue, or improved pulmonary mechanics. Methods Nineteen stable COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in one second 35% predicted) were studied at baseline (D0), 5–8 days (D5) and 3 months (3M) after starting NIV. Results Ventilator use was 6.2 (3.7) hours per night at D5 and 3.4 (1.6) at 3M (p = 0.12). Mean (SD) daytime arterial carbon-dioxide tension (PaCO2) was reduced from 7.4 (1.2) kPa to 7.0 (1.1)