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  1. Lipids and lipoprotein profile in doxorubicin treated rats: influence of alpha-tocopherol administration.

    PubMed

    Geetha, A; Catherine, J; Sankar, R; Devi, C S

    1990-11-01

    The effect of doxorubicin (DXR) on the levels of heart, liver and plasma lipids and plasma lipoproteins were studied in rats. Rats were treated with DXR (2.5 mg/kg body weight weekly for 8 weeks, iv) with or without alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TPL) (400 mg/kg body wt daily for 60 days) co-administration. DXR treated rats showed increase in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids. The activities of lecithin cholesterol-acyl transferase and hepatic and extrahepatic lipoprotein lipase were lowered significantly with concomitant increase in liver and heart lipid peroxide levels in DXR treatment. HDL cholesterol level was found to be decreased significantly in DXR treated rats as a result of which there was an increase of LDLc/HDLc ratio. alpha-TPL coadministration brought back the enzyme activity to near normal and reduced the level of lipid peroxides. The lipid changes were minimum in rats treated with both alpha-TPL and DXR. This study suggests that the toxicity of DXR is reflected in lipids and lipoprotein profile. PMID:2283173

  2. Ibuprofen administration attenuates serum TNF-{alpha} levels, hepatic glutathione depletion, hepatic apoptosis and mouse mortality after Fas stimulation

    SciTech Connect

    Cazanave, Sophie; Vadrot, Nathalie; Tinel, Marina; Berson, Alain; Letteron, Philippe; Larosche, Isabelle; Descatoire, Veronique; Feldmann, Gerard; Robin, Marie-Anne |; Pessayre, Dominique |

    2008-09-15

    Fas stimulation recruits neutrophils and activates macrophages that secrete tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), which aggravates Fas-mediated liver injury. To determine whether nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs modify these processes, we challenged 24-hour-fasted mice with the agonistic Jo2 anti-Fas antibody (4 {mu}g/mouse), and treated the animals 1 h later with saline or ibuprofen (250 mg/kg), a dual cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 inhibitor. Ibuprofen attenuated the Jo2-mediated recruitment/activation of myeloperoxidase-secreting neutrophils/macrophages in the liver, and attenuated the surge in serum TNF-{alpha}. Ibuprofen also minimized hepatic glutathione depletion, Bid truncation, caspase activation, outer mitochondrial membrane rupture, hepatocyte apoptosis and the increase in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity 5 h after Jo2 administration, to finally decrease mouse mortality at later times. The concomitant administration of pentoxifylline (decreasing TNF-{alpha} secretion) and infliximab (trapping TNF-{alpha}) likewise attenuated the Jo2-mediated increase in TNF-{alpha}, the decrease in hepatic glutathione, and the increase in serum ALT activity 5 h after Jo2 administration. The concomitant administration of the COX-1 inhibitor, SC-560 (10 mg/kg) and the COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib (40 mg/kg) 1 h after Jo2 administration, also decreased liver injury 5 h after Jo2 administration. In contrast, SC-560 (10 mg/kg) or celecoxib (40 or 160 mg/kg) given alone had no significant protective effects. In conclusion, secondary TNF-{alpha} secretion plays an important role in Jo2-mediated glutathione depletion and liver injury. The combined inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 by ibuprofen attenuates TNF-{alpha} secretion, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial alterations, hepatic apoptosis and mortality in Jo2-treated fasted mice.

  3. Alpha and beta EEG power reflects L-dopa acute administration in parkinsonian patients

    PubMed Central

    Melgari, Jean-Marc; Curcio, Giuseppe; Mastrolilli, Francesca; Salomone, Gaetano; Trotta, Laura; Tombini, Mario; di Biase, Lazzaro; Scrascia, Federica; Fini, Rita; Fabrizio, Emma; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Vernieri, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of an acute L-dopa administration on eye-closed resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of cognitively preserved Parkinsonian patients. Methods: We examined 24 right-handed patients diagnosed as uncomplicated probable Parkinson’s disease (PD). Each patient underwent Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-part-III evaluation before and 60 min after an oral load of L-dopa-methyl-ester/carbidopa 250/25 mg. Resting condition eyes-closed EEG data were recorded both pre- and post L-dopa load. Absolute EEG power values were calculated at each scalp derivation for Delta, Theta, Alpha and Beta frequency bands. UPDRS scores (both global and subscale scores) and EEG data (power values of different frequency bands for each scalp derivation) were submitted to a statistical analysis to compare Pre and Post L-Dopa conditions. Finally, a correlation analysis was carried out between EEG spectral content and UPDRS scores. Results: Considering EEG power spectral analysis, no statistically significant differences arose on Delta and Theta bands after L-dopa intake. Conversely, Alpha and Beta rhythms significantly increased on centro-parietal scalp derivations, as a function of L-dopa administration. Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between Beta power increase on centro-parietal areas and UPDRS subscores (Rigidity of arms and Bradykinesia). A minor significant negative correlation was also found between Alpha band increase and resting tremor. Conclusions: Assuming that a significant change in EEG power spectrum after L-dopa intake may be related to dopaminergic mechanisms, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that dopaminergic defective networks are implicated in cortical oscillatory abnormalities at rest in non-demented PD patients. PMID:25452725

  4. Exogenous IFN-alpha Administration Reduces Influenza A Virus Replication in the Lower Respiratory Tract of Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Matzinger, Shannon R.; Carroll, Timothy D.; Fritts, Linda; McChesney, Michael B.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the role of innate immune responses in controlling influenza A virus replication, rhesus macaques (RM) were administered pegylated IFN-alpha prior to virus challenge. Systemic and mucosal pegylated IFN-alpha administration induced expression of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) MxA and OAS in the airways. RM treated with IFN-alpha 24 hours prior to influenza virus challenge had significantly lower peak vRNA levels in the trachea compared to untreated animals. In addition to blunting viral replication, IFN-alpha treatment minimized the weight loss and spike in body temperature after influenza infection of RM. These results confirm the importance of IFN-alpha induced innate immune responses in the rapid control of influenza A virus replication in primates. PMID:22220209

  5. Intrahippocampal administration of the alpha-keto acids accumulating in maple syrup urine disease provokes learning deficits in rats.

    PubMed

    de Castro Vasques, Vilson; de Boer, Melissa Avila; Diligenti, Felipe; Brinco, Fabrício; Mallmann, Fabrício; Mello, Carlos Fernando; Wajner, Moacir

    2004-01-01

    Learning disability is a common feature of patients affected by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). However, the pathomechanisms underlying learning deficit in this disorder are poorly known. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acute administration of the alpha-keto acids accumulating in MSUD into the hippocampus on the behavior of rats in the open field and in the inhibitory avoidance tasks. Adult male Wistar rats received intrahippocampal injections of alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC, 8 micromol), alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIV, 5 micromol), alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (KMV, 5 micromol), or NaCl (8 micromol) (controls) immediately after or 10 min before training. Testing session was performed 24 h later. Posttraining administration of the keto acids had no effect on learning in the open-field task. In contrast, pretraining administration of KIV and KMV impaired habituation in the open field. Similarly, pretraining administration of KIC, KIV, and KMV affected rat performance in the inhibitory avoidance task, suggesting disruption of acquisition. The results indicate that the alpha-keto acids accumulating in MSUD induce learning deficits in aversive and nonaversive tasks. We therefore suggest that these findings may be related to the psychomotor delay/mental retardation observed in MSUD, and may indicate the contribution of increased brain concentrations of these organic acids to the pathophysiology of the neurological dysfunction of MSUD patients. PMID:14724056

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene and protein expression in adult feline myocardium after endotoxin administration.

    PubMed Central

    Kapadia, S; Lee, J; Torre-Amione, G; Birdsall, H H; Ma, T S; Mann, D L

    1995-01-01

    TNF alpha mRNA and protein biosynthesis were examined in the adult feline heart after stimulation with endotoxin. When freshly isolated hearts were stimulated with endotoxin in vitro, de novo TNF alpha mRNA expression occurred within 30 min, and TNF alpha protein production was detected within 60-75 min; however, TNF alpha mRNA and protein production were not detected in diluent-treated hearts. Immunohistochemical studies localized TNF alpha to endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and cardiac myocytes in the endotoxin-treated hearts, whereas TNF alpha immunostaining was absent in the diluent-treated hearts. To determine whether the cardiac myocyte was a source for TNF alpha production, two studies were performed. First, in situ hybridization studies, using highly specific biotinylated probes, demonstrated TNF alpha mRNA in cardiac myocytes from endotoxin-stimulated hearts; in contrast, TNF alpha mRNA was not expressed in myocytes from diluent-treated hearts. Second, TNF alpha protein production was observed when cultured cardiac myocytes were stimulated with endotoxin, whereas TNF alpha protein production was not detected in the diluent-treated cells. The functional significance of the intramyocardial production of TNF alpha was determined by examining cell motion in isolated cardiac myocytes treated with superfusates from endotoxin- and diluent-stimulated hearts. These studies showed that cell motion was depressed in myocytes treated with superfusates from the endotoxin-treated hearts, but was normal with the superfusates from the diluent-treated hearts; moreover, the negative inotropic effects of the superfusates from the endotoxin-treated hearts could be abrogated completely by pretreatment with an anti-TNF alpha antibody. Finally, endotoxin stimulation was also shown to result in the intramyocardial production of TNF alpha mRNA and protein in vivo. Thus, this study shows for the first time that the adult mammalian myocardium synthesizes biologically active

  7. Concurrent administration of coenzyme Q10 and alpha-tocopherol improves learning in aged mice.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Shelley R; Sohal, Rajindar S; Forster, Michael J

    2005-03-15

    The main purpose of this study was to determine whether supplemental intake of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ) (ubiquinone-10) or alpha-tocopherol, either alone or together, could improve brain function of aged mice, as reflected in their cognitive or psychomotor performance. Separate groups of aged mice (24 months) were administered either CoQ (123 mg/kg/day), or alpha-tocopherol acetate (200 mg/kg/day), or both, or the vehicle (soybean oil) via gavage for a period of 14 weeks. Three weeks following the initiation of these treatments, mice were given a battery of age-sensitive behavioral tests for the assessment of learning, recent memory, and psychomotor function. In a test that required the mice to rapidly identify and remember the correct arm of a T-maze, and to respond preemptively in order to avoid an electric shock, the intake of alpha-tocopherol plus CoQ resulted in more rapid learning compared to the control group. Learning was not significantly improved in the mice receiving CoQ or alpha-tocopherol alone. None of the treatments resulted in a significant improvement of psychomotor performance in the old mice. In a separate study, treatment with higher doses of CoQ alone (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) for 14 weeks failed to produce effects comparable to those of the combination of alpha-tocopherol and CoQ. The apparent interaction of CoQ and alpha-tocopherol treatments is consistent with the previous suggestion, based on biochemical studies, that coenzyme Q and alpha-tocopherol act in concert. Overall, the findings suggest that concurrent supplementation of alpha-tocopherol with CoQ is more likely to be effective as a potential treatment for age-related learning deficits than supplementation with CoQ or alpha-tocopherol alone. PMID:15721983

  8. In vivo estradiol production in postovulatory ovaries is enhanced by administration of testosterone but not by 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Tamaoki, B

    1984-02-01

    Pre- and postovulatory states of ovaries were induced by the injection of PMSG and PMSG + hCG treatments, respectively, to immature rats. The concentration of ovarian estradiol measured by radioimmunoassay decreased significantly following hCG treatment to PMSG-pretreated rats. Subcutaneous administration of testosterone in soybean oil-glycerol mixture (9:1, v/v) restored the decreased concentration of the ovarian estradiol markedly in the PMSG + hCG treated rats, but not in the group treated with PMSG alone or in the control group treated with no gonadotropin. On the other hand, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone showed no increase in the ovarian estradiol of any group. When an ethanol solution of testosterone was administered s.c. to the PMSG + hCG treated rats, the ovarian estradiol level was maximally enhanced from 0.5 to 1.0 h after the injection. On the other hand, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone in ethanol showed no effect 1 h after the injection. These results indicate that the drastic decrease in ovarian estradiol production due to the hCG administration is caused by an acute decrease in the supply of aromatizable androgens to ovarian aromatase. PMID:6714511

  9. Short-Term Effects of Repeated Olfactory Administration of Homeopathic Sulphur or Pulsatilla on Electroencephalographic Alpha Power in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Iris R.; Brooks, Audrey J.; Howerter, Amy; Jackson, Nicholas; Schwartz, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Homeopathic pathogenetic trials usually rely on symptom self report measures. Adding objective biomarkers could enhance detection of subtle initial remedy effects. The present feasibility study examined electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of repeated olfactory administration of two polycrest remedies. Methods College student volunteers (ages 18–30, both sexes) from an introductory psychology course were screened for good health and relatively elevated Sulphur OR Pulsatilla symptom scores on the Homeopathic Constitutional Type Questionnaire. Subjects underwent a series of 3 once-weekly double-blind sessions during which they repeatedly sniffed the remedy matched to their CTQ type and solvent controls. Each remedy was given in a 6c, 12c, and 30c potency, one potency per week, in randomly assigned order. Solvent controls included both plain distilled water and a water-ethanol (95%) solution. All sniff test solutions were further diluted just prior to laboratory sessions (0.5 ml test solution in 150 ml distilled water). Within a session, remedies and control solvents were administered via 2-second sniffs (8 sniffs of each of 4 different succussion levels for the potency in randomized order). Primary outcome variable was relative EEG power (alpha 1 8–10 hertz; alpha 2 10–12 hertz) averaged over 19 electrode sites, including all succussions for a given potency. Results Mixed-effect models revealed significant main effects for remedy type (Sulphur>Pulsatilla) in both alpha bands, controlling for gender, baseline resting EEG alpha, and solvent control responses. Additional analyses showed significant non-linear interactions between dilution and time (weekly session) in alpha 2 for both remedies and alpha 1 for Sulphur. Conclusion EEG alpha offers an objective biomarker of remedy effects for future studies and potential method for distinguishing time-dependent effects of specific remedies and remedy potencies from one another. PMID:21962194

  10. Protective immunity against alpha-cobratoxin following a single administration of a genetic vaccine encoding a non-toxic cobratoxin variant.

    PubMed

    Pergolizzi, Robert G; Dragos, Rachel; Ropper, Alexander E; Menez, André; Crystal, Ronald G

    2005-03-01

    Venomous snakebites result in almost 125,000 deaths per year worldwide. We present a new paradigm for the development of vaccines to protect against snakebite, using knowledge of the structure and action of specific toxins combined with a gene-based strategy to deliver a toxin gene modified to render it non-toxic while maintaining its three-dimensional structure and hence its ability to function as an immunogen. As a model for this approach, we developed a genetic vaccine to protect against alpha-cobratoxin (CTX), a potent, post-synaptic neurotoxin that is the major toxic component of the venom of Naja kaouthia, the monocellate cobra. To develop the vaccine, substitutions in the CTX cDNA were introduced at two residues critical for binding to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (Asp27 to Arg, Arg33 to Gly). The mutated CTX expression cassette was delivered in the context of a replication deficient adenovirus vector (AdmCTX). To assess whether expression of the mutated CTX in vivo leads to the development of protective immunity, BALB/c mice were challenged by IV administration of 2 microg of alpha-cobratoxin protein 21 or 63 days after administration of AdmCTX or Ad- Null (as a control; both, 10(9) particle units). Animals receiving AdmCTX but no alpha-cobratoxin challenge suffered no ill effects, but > or =80% of naive animals or those receiving the AdNull control vector died within 10 min from the alpha-cobratoxin challenge. In contrast, 100% of animals receiving a single dose of AdmCTX 21 or 63 days prior to alpha-cobratoxin challenge survived. The data demonstrates that an adenovirus-based vaccine can be developed to protect against lethal challenge with a potent snake venom. The effectiveness of this approach might serve as a basis to consider the development of a global public health program to protect those at risk for death by snakebite. PMID:15812224

  11. Effect of the Administration of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Contrast Sensitivity in Patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Gębka, Anna; Raczyńska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of oral supplementation of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on contrast sensitivity (CS) in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The study included 12 patients with T1DM aged 43±12 years, 48 patients with T2DM aged 59±10 years, and 20 control subjects aged 33±8 years. Patients from each studied group, including the control group, were randomly assigned to receive 300 mg of ALA orally once daily for 3 months. CS was evaluated with the Functional Acuity Contrast Test (FACT, Stereo Optical). In the group of patients with T1DM receiving ALA for 3 months CS remained stable and improved in those with T2DM. Reduction of CS in both T1DM and T2DM patients without alpha-lipoic acid supplementation was observed. In the control group on alpha-lipoic acid supplementation, CS improvement was noticed at one spatial frequency. Changes in the CS were observed, despite stable visual acuity and eye fundus image in all studied subjects. Our study demonstrated that oral administration of alpha-lipoic acid had influence on CS in both T1DM and T2DM patients. PMID:24665163

  12. Repeated systemic administration of the nutraceutical alpha-linolenic acid exerts neuroprotective efficacy, an antidepressant effect and improves cognitive performance when given after soman exposure.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongna; Piermartiri, Tetsade C B; Chen, Jun; McDonough, John; Oppel, Craig; Driwech, Wafae; Winter, Kristin; McFarland, Emylee; Black, Katelyn; Figueiredo, Taiza; Grunberg, Neil; Marini, Ann M

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to nerve agents results in severe seizures or status epilepticus caused by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, a critical enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine to terminate neurotransmission. Prolonged seizures cause brain damage and can lead to long-term consequences. Current countermeasures are only modestly effective against the brain damage supporting interest in the evaluation of new and efficacious therapies. The nutraceutical alpha-linolenic acid (LIN) is an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid that has a wide safety margin. Previous work showed that a single intravenous injection of alpha-linolenic acid (500 nmol/kg) administered before or after soman significantly protected against soman-induced brain damage when analyzed 24h after exposure. Here, we show that administration of three intravenous injections of alpha-linolenic acid over a 7 day period after soman significantly improved motor performance on the rotarod, enhanced memory retention, exerted an anti-depressant-like activity and increased animal survival. This dosing schedule significantly reduced soman-induced neuronal degeneration in four major vulnerable brain regions up to 21 days. Taken together, alpha-linolenic acid reduces the profound behavioral deficits induced by soman possibly by decreasing neuronal cell death, and increases animal survival. PMID:26386148

  13. Estrus synchronization and fertility in post-partum dairy cattle after administration of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) and prostaglandin F2 alpha analog.

    PubMed

    De Rensis, F; Allegri, M; Seidel, G E

    1999-07-15

    Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) plus PGF2 alpha was compared with GnRH plus PGF2 alpha for estrus synchronization of dairy cows. There were 3 treatments: GnRH analog (Buserelin, 12.6 micrograms) plus PGF2 alpha analog (Cloprostenol, 150 micrograms) 6 d later (GnRH + PGF[Day 6]); hCG (2000 IU) plus PGF2 alpha 9 d later (hCG + PGF[Day 9]); and hCG plus PGF2 alpha 6 d later (hCG + PGF[Day 6]). Treatment occurred either Days 55 to 90 or Days 91 to 135 post partum. For responses during the first 10 d after PGF2 alpha administration, estrus synchronization (P = 0.24), efficacy (percentage of treated pregnant; P = 0.20) and conception (percentage of inseminated pregnant; P = 0.23) rates were not different among the 3 treatments. Cows treated between Days 55 and 90 had a higher rate (P < 0.05) of detected estrus during this period (69% for GnRH + PG [Day 6], 70% for hCG + PGF[Day 9] and 72% for hCG + PGF[Day 6]) compared with cows treated between Days 91 and 135 (52% for GnRH + PGF[Day 6], 50% for hCG + PGF[Day 9] and 57% for hCG + PGF[Day 6]). Efficacy of treatment was higher (P < 0.05) in animals treated between Days 55 and 90 (54% for GnRH + PGF[Day 6], 56% for hCG + PGF[Day 9] and 63% for hCG + PGF [Day 6]) compared to animals treated between Days 91 and 135 (36% for GnRH + PGF[Day 6], 35% for hCG + PGF[Day 9] and 47% for hCG + PGF[Day 6]). There were no significant differences in conception between Days 51 and 90 and Days 91 and 135. The interval between parturition-first AI with conception was significantly (P < 0.001) shorter in GnRH + PGF (Day 6; 106 d), hCG + PGF (Day 9; 109 d) and hCG + PGF (Day 6; 103 d) treated cattle than in 106 untreated animals (136 d). Thus, GnRH plus PGF2 alpha or hCG plus PGF2 alpha treatments elicited similar effects in estrus synchronization, treatment efficacy, and conception rate in post-partum dairy cows. PMID:10734393

  14. Lead induced oxidative damage and its response to combined administration of alpha-lipoic acid and succimers in rats.

    PubMed

    Pande, Manisha; Flora, S J S

    2002-08-15

    Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) has been reported to be highly effective in improving the thiol capacity of the cells and in reducing lead induced oxidative stress. These results suggested its possible role as a therapeutic intervention of lead poisoning in combination with a chelator. We investigated the effects of LA, either alone or when administered in combination with succimer (meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid; DMSA or one of its analogue monoisoamyl DMSA), in influencing the lead induced alterations in haem synthesis pathway, hepatic, renal and brain oxidative stress and lead concentration from blood and soft tissues. The results suggest a significant lead induced inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), reduction in glutathione (GSH) and an increased zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level in blood, indicating altered heme synthesis pathway. Both the thiol chelators were able to increase blood ALAD activity and GSH level towards normal. The most prominent effect on blood ALAD activity was however observed when monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA) was co-administered with LA. Lead exposure produced significant depletion of hepatic GSH, while, oxidized glutahione (GSSG), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and catalase activity increased significantly, suggesting hepatic oxidative stress. All the treatments were able to increase hepatic GSH and reduce GSSG levels, while, TBARS level reduced significantly in animals administered LA and MiADMSA, individually or in combination. Lead induced increase in renal GSSG, TBARS levels and catalase activity, were effectively reduced by LA, while, the two chelators when administered alone were effective only in reducing GSSG and catalase activity. The most prominent beneficial effects, however, were observed in animals treated concomitantly with LA and one of the chelators (DMSA or MiADMSA). Brain GSH and GSSG levels decreased moderately while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity remained statistically unaltered on lead

  15. Subcutaneous administration of interleukin 2 and interferon-alpha-2b in advanced renal cell carcinoma: a confirmatory study.

    PubMed Central

    Facendola, G.; Locatelli, M. C.; Pizzocaro, G.; Piva, L.; Pegoraro, C.; Pallavicini, E. B.; Signaroldi, A.; Meregalli, M.; Lombardi, F.; Beretta, G. D.

    1995-01-01

    Recent clinical studies have suggested that the combination of subcutaneous recombinant human interleukin 2 (rIL-2) and interferon alpha (rIFN-alpha) is especially promising in advanced renal cell carcinoma. We assessed the safety, activity and toxicity of home therapy with these two agents in 50 patients. Each treatment cycle consisted of a 2 day pulse phase, with 9 x 10(6) IU m-2 of rIL-2 being given subcutaneously every 12 h, followed by a 6 week maintenance phase during which rIL-2 1.8 x 10(6) IU m-2 was administered subcutaneously every 12 h on days 1-5 and rIFN-alpha 2b 5 x 10(6) IU m-2 once a day on days 1, 3 and 5. Objective responses (CR+PR) occurred in 9/50 (18%) patients, six of whom (12%) achieved a complete response. Disease stabilisation was observed in 17 cases (34%) and 18 patients progressed during therapy. In the other six cases, treatment was interrupted early for toxicity or patient refusal. One patient died of myocardial infarction during the second cycle. The overall median survival was 12 months. Home therapy with subcutaneous rIL-2 + rIFN-alpha 2b proved to be active, feasible and moderately toxic, but serious adverse events can sometimes occur. PMID:8519672

  16. Effects of combined maternal administration with alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on prenatal programming of skeletal properties in the offspring

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nutritional manipulations during fetal growth may induce long-term metabolic effects in postnatal life. The aim of the study was to test whether combined treatment of pregnant sows with alpha-ketoglutarate and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate induces additive long-term effects on skeletal system properties in the offspring. Methods The study was performed on 290 pigs obtained from 24 sows divided into 4 equal groups and subjected to experimental treatment during two weeks before delivery. The first group consisted of control sows, while the second group received alpha-ketoglutarate. The third group was treated with β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate and the fourth group underwent combined administration of alpha-ketoglutarate and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate. Piglets obtained from sows were reared until slaughter age to perform morphometric, densitometric and mechanical analyses of femur. Serum evaluations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were performed in newborns and 90-day old piglets; additionally, plasma amino acid concentration was measured in newborns. Results Maternal treatment with alpha-ketoglutarate and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate significantly reduced fattening time and increased birth body weight, daily body weight gain, bone weight, volumetric bone mineral density, geometrical parameters and mechanical endurance of femur. These effects were associated with increased serum concentrations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin. Furthermore, alpha-ketoglutarate and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate administered solely or in combination significantly increased plasma level of 19 amino acids. Conclusions Hormonal and amino acid evaluations in pigs indicate additive effects of AKG and HMB on systemic growth and development; however, determination of bone properties has not shown such phenomenon. PMID:22578071

  17. Thyroid function abnormalities associated with the chronic outpatient administration of recombinant interleukin-2 and recombinant interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, E L; Clare-Salzler, M J; Chopra, I J; Figlin, R A

    1991-12-01

    We prospectively examined thyroid function during and following chronic, outpatient therapy with recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) and Roferon-A (rIFN-alpha 2a). Twenty-two of 30 patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated on a phase II open pilot study of concomitant rIL-2 and rIFN-alpha 2a were included. Serum levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, free thyroxine index, thyrotropin, antithyroid antibodies, and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor binding antibodies were measured before therapy and after every other cycle. Selected patients underwent studies after every cycle and following completion of therapy. Twenty patients (91%) developed laboratory evidence of thyroid dysfunction, 11 (50%) developed hypothyroidism, five (23%) had a biphasic pattern, and four (18%) had hyperthyroidism. The incidence of thyroid dysfunction increased with increased number of treatment cycles. Transient hyperthyroidism was noted in six of the 11 patients studied after the first cycle and persisted after cycle three in only two patients. Hypothyroidism was not observed after cycle 1, but became increasingly frequent between cycles 2 (56%) and 6 (90%). Thyroid function normalized following therapy in nine of 12 patients tested. Antithyroid antibodies were identified pretherapy in five patients (23%) and de novo in none; TSH receptor binding antibodies were not detected. This study demonstrates a remarkably high frequency of reversible thyroid dysfunction in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated with repeated cycles of rIL-2 plus rIFN-alpha 2a. We conclude that chronic therapy with rIL-2 and rIFN-alpha 2a produces thyroid dysfunction in virtually all patients most likely secondary to a nonspecific, nonautoimmune, toxic manifestation of prolonged treatment. IL-2 therapy may, therefore, produce thyroid dysfunction by more than one mechanism. PMID:1768679

  18. Efficacy of intravaginal progesterone administration combined with prostaglandin f(2alpha) for cystic ovarian disease in Japanese Black cows.

    PubMed

    Iwakuma, Akihiro; Suzuki, Yoshihito; Haneishi, Takashi; Kajisa, Makoto; Kamimura, Shunichi

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate cystic ovarian disease (COD) in commercial Japanese Black cows and to evaluate the efficacy of 7-day insertion of an intravaginal progesterone insert (CIDR) combined with prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) at CIDR removal. Experiment 1 was conducted to group cysts into 4 patterns based on alteration of plasma progesterone (P(4)) concentrations on d -7 and d 0 (=CIDR insertion) with 1.0 ng/ml as the cut-off level by ultrasonographic examination of 28 cows with COD that were >or=40 days postpartum and anoestrous after calving. In Experiment 2, a total of 55 cows under the same conditions as in Experiment 1 were utilized, and the same regimen as in Experiment 1 was performed without 7 days of pre-observation before treatment. As a result, 92.9% of CLs on d 21 were highly formed in Experiment 1 and 83.6% were highly formed in Experiment 2. The conception rates within 60 days after CIDR removal were also satisfactory high and were 71.4% and 54.5%, respectively. There were no differences in any overall reproductive parameters between Experiments 1 and 2 (P>0.05). The average days between CIDR removal and conception were 24.4 +/- 5.3 and 24.0 +/- 6.5 days, respectively (P>0.05); therefore, the conception dates of the cows in Experiment 2 were at least 7 days earlier compared with Experiment 1. In conclusion, treatment with a CIDR and PGF(2alpha) against COD could minimize the risk of incorrect treatment and provide sufficient reproductive performance in Japanese Black cows. PMID:18981664

  19. Plasma malondialdehyde levels and opiate withdrawal signs observed in rats treated with morphine plus naloxone: effects of alpha-lipoic acid administration.

    PubMed

    Pinelli, Arnaldo; Cighetti, Giuliana; Trivulzio, Silvio

    2008-08-01

    A number of experimental studies have found that reactive oxygen species are involved during morphine treatment or withdrawal. The aims of this study were to analyse whether morphine administration and/or removal are related to peroxide generation and/or signs of withdrawal in rats, and whether the changes in antioxidant status induced by the administration of an antioxidant may modify peroxide levels and behavioural signs. We injected morphine or morphine and naloxone into rats and evaluated the plasma levels of peroxide malondialdehyde (MDA) and the appearance of withdrawal signs. We also investigated the effects on these parameters induced by the administration of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (LA). Morphine treatment increased MDA levels. Abrupt naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal caused a further and significant increase in MDA, and the appearance of withdrawal signs such as abnormal fecal excretion, shortened latency times and jumping. The administration of LA lowered MDA levels in the rats treated with morphine or morphine plus naloxone, and also decreased MDA values and abstinence signs in the animals treated with morphine plus naloxone. The effects of LA were attributed to its capacity to scavenge peroxides and interfere with the biogenesis of the arachidonic acid metabolites involved in the expression of abstinence symptoms. PMID:18705754

  20. Intravenous administration of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor in patients of PiZ and PiM phenotype. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, K.M.; Smith, R.M.; Spragg, R.G.; Tisi, G.M.

    1988-06-24

    Nine patients with moderate pulmonary emphysema, six of PiZ phenotype and three of PiM phenotype, have received a single intravenous infusion of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (human) (A1PI), in a dose of 60 mg/kg over a 30-minute period. They also received a tracer dose (300 microCi) of /sup 131/I-labeled A1PI. No active or passive immunization against hepatitis was given. No acute toxicity was observed. Compared with baseline data, significant elevations of serum A1PI (measured both antigenically and as anti-elastase activity) occurred, with a serum half-life approximating 110 hours. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, obtained 48 hours after infusion, reflected a significant increase in A1PI concentration versus baseline bronchoalveolar lavage fluid values. Serial gamma camera images of the lungs confirmed persistence of enhanced lung radioactivity for several days. Urinary desmosine excretion did not change following A1PI infusion. During the period of follow-up thus far, no patient has had chronic toxicity, results of liver function tests have been stable, and there has been no development of hepatitis B antigen or antibodies to hepatitis B surface or core antigens.

  1. 5 alpha-Cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one. In vivo conversion to cholesterol upon oral administration to a nonhuman primate

    SciTech Connect

    Schroepfer, G.J. Jr.; Pajewski, T.N.; Hylarides, M.; Kisic, A.

    1987-08-14

    The metabolism of 5 alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3 beta-ol-15-one (I), a potent inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis with marked hypocholesteremic activity, has been studied in a nonhuman primate. A mixture of (2,4-/sup 3/H)-I and (4-/sup 14/C)-cholesterol was administered to a male baboon in the form of a feedball. Blood was samples at 4, 8, 12, 16, and 24 hr. Detailed analyses of the plasma lipids indicated very rapid absorption of I (relative to cholesterol) and metabolism to cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and esters of I. The labeled cholesterol was characterized by chromatographic techniques and by purification by way of its dibromide derivative. The levels of /sup 3/H in plasma associated with I, esters of I, cholesterol, and cholesteryl esters each showed a different time course. By 24 hr after the administration of (2,4-/sup 3/H)-I, most of the /sup 3/H in plasma was associated with cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. The levels of total /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C in plasma at various times after the administration of the mixture of (2,4-/sup 3/H)-I and (4-/sup 14/C)-cholesterol differed markedly with /sup 3/H showing a maximum value at 4 hr and /sup 14/C showing a maximum value at 24 hr.

  2. Induction of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA in bladders and spleens of mice after intravesical administration of bacillus Calmette-Guérin.

    PubMed Central

    Shin, J S; Park, J H; Kim, J D; Lee, J M; Kim, S J

    1995-01-01

    Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy is highly effective in the therapy of carcinoma in situ of the bladder, but the mechanism of BCG immunotherapy is not clearly understood. We studied the production of TNF-alpha in spleens and bladders of mice after intravesical BCG or BCG/interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) instillation. Significant change of TNF-alpha mRNA expression of spleens and bladders of C3H/He mice was observed after intravesical BCG instillation, although intravesical IFN-gamma therapy 3 days after BCG instillation to maintain the activated state of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells did not show a significant change of TNF-alpha mRNA, compared with that of BCG therapy alone. Maximal production of TNF-alpha mRNA in spleens of mice was seen after the first or second intravesical BCG instillation, and production of TNF-alpha mRNA in bladders was also increased after intravesical BCG instillation. The increment of TNF-alpha production by BCG stimulation in HL-60, a promyelocytic leukaemic cell line, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro may support the in vivo effect of BCG therapy on the bladder. These data show that local production of TNF-alpha as well as systemic production by intravesical BCG treatment may correlate with one of the mechanisms of BCG immunotherapy of superficial bladder cancer. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7697918

  3. Effects of a single administration of prostaglandin F2alpha, or a combination of prostaglandin F2alpha and prostaglandin E2, or placebo on fertility variables in dairy cows 3–5 weeks post partum, a randomized, double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Hirsbrunner, Gaby; Burkhardt, Heinz W; Steiner, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Background Delayed uterine involution has negative effects on the fertility of cows; use of prostaglandin F2alpha alone as a single treatment has not been shown to consistently improve fertility. Combined administration of PGF2alpha and PGE2 increased uterine pressure in healthy cows. We hypothesized, that the combination of both prostaglandins would accelerate uterine involution and have, therefore, a positive effect on fertility variables. In commercial dairy farming, the benefit of a single post partum combined prostaglandin treatment should be demonstrated. Methods 383 cows from commercial dairy farms were included in this study. Uterine size and secretion were evaluated at treatment 21–35 days post partum and 14 days later. Cows were randomly allocated to one of three treatment groups: PGF2alpha and PGE2, PGF2alpha or placebo. For every animal participating in the study, the following reproduction variables were recorded: Interval from calving to first insemination, days open, number of artificial inseminations (AI) to conception; subsequent treatment of uterus, subsequent treatment of ovaries. Plasma progesterone level at time of treatment was used as a covariable. For continuous measurements, analysis of variance was performed. Fisher's exact test for categorical non-ordered data and exact Kruskal-Wallis test for ordered data were used; pairwise group comparisons with Bonferroni adjustment of significance level were performed. Results There was no significant difference among treatment groups in uterine size. Furthermore, there was no significant difference among treatments concerning days open, number of AI, and subsequent treatment of uterus and ovaries. Days from calving to first insemination tended to be shorter for cows with low progesterone level given PGF2alpha and PGE2 in combination than for the placebo-group (P = 0.024). Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the administration of PGF2alpha or a combination of PGF2alpha and PGE2 21 to

  4. Prednisolone-appended alpha-cyclodextrin: alleviation of systemic adverse effect of prednisolone after intracolonic administration in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis rats.

    PubMed

    Yano, H; Hirayama, F; Arima, H; Uekama, K

    2001-12-01

    The titled compound is a cyclodextrin derivative in which prednisolone 21-succinate (PDsuc) is covalently bound to one of the secondary hydroxyl groups of alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CyD) via an ester linkage. In this study, the PDsuc-appended alpha-CyD ester conjugate (PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate) was intracolonically administered to rats with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzensulfonic acid-induced colitis, and its antiinflammatory and systemic adverse effects were compared with those of prednisolone (PD) alone and the PD/2-hydroxypropyl-beta-CyD complex (PD/HP-beta-CyD complex), which is a noncovalent inclusion complex. Colonic damage score, ratio of distal colon wet weight to body weight, and myeloperoxidase activity were evaluated as measures of the therapeutic effect of PD, whereas the ratio of thymus wet weight to body weight was evaluated as a measure of the side effect of PD. The local antiinflammatory activity increased in the order of PD alone approximately PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate < PD/HP-beta-CyD complex. As to systemic adverse effect, the PD/HP-beta-CyD complex and PD alone caused thymolysis at doses of 5-10 mg/kg. In contrast, the PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate showed no clear systemic adverse effect at the same doses. The low adverse effect of the conjugate may be ascribed to the slow release of PD in the colon, which keeps the local concentration in the colon at a low but constant level. The results suggest that the PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate can alleviate the systemic adverse effect of PD while maintaining the therapeutic activity of PD. This kind of knowledge will be useful in the rational design of steroid prodrugs for the colon-specific drug delivery system. PMID:11745769

  5. Potential risk of alpha-glucosidase inhibitor administration in prostate cancer external radiotherapy by exceptional rectal gas production: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Radiotherapy is a standard treatment for prostate cancer, and image-guided radiotherapy is increasingly being used to aid precision of dose delivery to targeted tissues. However, precision during radiotherapy cannot be maintained when unexpected intrafraction organ motion occurs. Case presentation We report our experience of internal organ motion caused by persistent gas production in a patient taking an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. A 68-year-old Japanese man with prostate cancer visited our institution for treatment with helical tomotherapy. He suffered from diabetes mellitus and took an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. Routine treatment planning computed tomography showed a large volume of rectal gas; an enema was given to void the rectum. Subsequent treatment planning computed tomography again showed a large volume of gas. After exercise (walking) to remove the intestinal gas, a third scan was performed as a test scan without tight fixation, which showed a sufficiently empty rectum for planning. However, after only a few minutes, treatment planning computed tomography again showed extreme accumulation of gas. Therefore, we postponed treatment planning computed tomography and consulted his doctor to suspend the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, which was the expected cause of his persistent gas. Four days after the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor regimen was suspended, we took a fourth treatment planning computed tomography and made a treatment plan without gas accumulation. Thereafter, the absence of rectal gas accumulation was confirmed using daily megavolt computed tomography before treatment, and the patient received 37 fractions of intensity-modified radiotherapy at 74Gy without rectal gas complications. In this case study, the alpha-glucosidase inhibitor induced the accumulation of intestinal gas, which may have caused unexpected organ motion, untoward reactions, and insufficient doses to clinical targets. Conclusions We suggest that patients who are taking

  6. Alpha Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Term that is sometimes used to describe a helium nucleus, a positively charged particle that consists of two protons and two neutrons, bound together. Alpha particles, which were discovered by Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) in 1898, are emitted by atomic nuclei that are undergoing alpha radioactivity. During this process, an unstable heavy nucleus spontaneously emits an alpha particle and transmut...

  7. Chronic administration of cholesterol oximes in mice increases transcription of cytoprotective genes and improves transcriptome alterations induced by alpha-synuclein overexpression in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Richter, Franziska; Gao, Fuying; Medvedeva, Vera; Lee, Patrick; Bove, Nicholas; Fleming, Sheila M; Michaud, Magali; Lemesre, Vincent; Patassini, Stefano; De La Rosa, Krystal; Mulligan, Caitlin K; Sioshansi, Pedrom C; Zhu, Chunni; Coppola, Giovanni; Bordet, Thierry; Pruss, Rebecca M; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise

    2014-09-01

    Cholesterol-oximes TRO19622 and TRO40303 target outer mitochondrial membrane proteins and have beneficial effects in preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases leading to their advancement to clinical trials. Dopaminergic neurons degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD) and are prone to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to provide insights into the neuroprotective potential of TRO19622 and TRO40303 for dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we assessed their effects on gene expression in laser captured nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of wildtype mice and of mice that over-express alpha-synuclein, a protein involved in both familial and sporadic forms of PD (Thy1-aSyn mice). Young mice were fed the drugs in food pellets or a control diet from 1 to 4months of age, approximately 10months before the appearance of striatal dopamine loss in this model. Unbiased weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of transcriptional changes revealed effects of cholesterol oximes on transcripts related to mitochondria, cytoprotection and anti-oxidant response in wild-type and transgenic mice, including increased transcription of stress defense (e.g. Prdx1, Prdx2, Glrx2, Hspa9, Pink1, Drp1, Trak1) and dopamine-related (Th, Ddc, Gch1, Dat, Vmat2, Drd2, Chnr6a) genes. Even at this young age transgenic mice showed alterations in transcripts implicated in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress (e.g. Bcl-2, Bax, Casp3, Nos2), and both drugs normalized about 20% of these alterations. Young Thy1-aSyn mice exhibit motor deficits that differ from parkinsonism and are established before the onset of treatment; these deficits were not improved by cholesterol oximes. However, high doses of TRO40303 improved olfaction and produced the same effects as dopamine agonists on a challenging beam test, specifically an increase in footslips, an observation congruent with its effects on transcripts involved in dopamine synthesis. High doses of TRO19622 increased alpha

  8. Chronic administration of cholesterol oximes in mice increases transcription of cytoprotective genes and improves transcriptome alterations induced by alpha-synuclein overexpression in nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Franziska; Gao, Fuying; Medvedeva, Vera; Lee, Patrick; Bove, Nicholas; Fleming, Sheila M.; Michaud, Magali; Lemesre, Vincent; Patassini, Stefano; De La Rosa, Krystal; Mulligan, Caitlin K.; Sioshansi, Pedrom; Zhu, Chunni; Coppola, Giovanni; Bordet, Thierry; Pruss, Rebecca; Chesselet, Marie-Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol-oximes TRO19622 and TRO40303 target outer mitochondrial membrane proteins and have beneficial effects in preclinical models of neurodegenerative diseases leading to their advancement to clinical trials. Dopaminergic neurons degenerate in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and are prone to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. In order to provide insights into the neuroprotective potential of TRO19622 and TRO40303 for dopaminergic neurons in vivo, we assessed their effects on gene expression in laser captured nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons of wildtype mice and of mice that over-express alpha-synuclein, a protein involved in both familial and sporadic forms of PD (Thy1-aSyn mice). Young mice were fed the drugs in food pellets or a control diet from 1 to 4 months of age, approximately 10 months before the appearance of striatal dopamine loss in this model. Unbiased weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of transcriptional changes revealed effects of cholesterol oximes on transcripts related to mitochondria, cytoprotection and anti-oxidant response in wild-type and transgenic mice, including increased transcription of stress defense (e.g. Prdx1, Prdx2, Glrx2, Hspa9, Pink1, Drp1, Trak1) and dopamine-related (Th, Ddc, Gch1, Dat, Vmat2, Drd2, Chnr6a) genes. Even at this young age transgenic mice showed alterations in transcripts implicated in mitochondrial function and oxidative stress (e.g. Bcl-2, Bax, Casp3, Nos2), and both drugs normalized about 20% of these alterations. Young Thy1-aSyn mice exhibit motor deficits that differ from parkinsonism and are established before the onset of treatment; these deficits were not improved by cholesterol oximes. However, high doses of TRO40303 improved olfaction and produced the same effects as dopamine agonists on a challenging beam test, specifically an increase in footslips, an observation congruent with its effects on transcripts involved in dopamine synthesis. High doses of TRO19622 increased

  9. Oral Absorption and Disposition of alpha-Linolenic, Rumenic and Vaccenic Acids After Administration as a Naturally Enriched Goat Dairy Fat to Rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís Miguel; Ares, Irma; Fontecha, Javier; Juarez, Manuela; Castellano, Victor; Martínez-Larrañaga, María Rosa; Anadón, Arturo; Martínez, María Aránzazu

    2015-07-01

    Although there is extensive information describing the positive biological effects of conjugated linoleic acid and its main isomer rumenic acid (RA; C18:2 cis 9, trans 11), and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and vaccenic acid (TVA), data about their bioavailability are not available. In this work, we investigated the oral absorption and disposition of these fatty acids in Wistar rats. A naturally enriched goat dairy fat (EDF) was obtained by supplementing ruminant diets with oils or oilseeds rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The EDF was administered orally (single dose of 3000 mg EDF/kg body weight equivalent to 153 mg TVA/kg body weight, 46 mg RA/kg body weight and 31 mg ALA/kg body weight), and serial blood and liver samples were collected and TVA, RA and ALA concentrations determined by GC/MS. The fatty acids TVA, RA and ALA were rapidly absorbed (t1/2a, 0.36, 0.66 and 0.76 h, respectively, for plasma) and slowly eliminated (t1/2β, 17.04, 18.40 and 16.52 h, respectively, for plasma). The maximum concentration (C max) was detected in liver > plasma > erythrocyte. Our study shows that when orally administered EDF, its components TVA, RA and ALA were rapidly absorbed and distributed throughout the body by the blood circulation to exert systemic effects. PMID:26044769

  10. SU-E-T-588: Optimization of Imaging Following 223Ra Administration in Targeted Alpha-Emitting Radionuclide Therapy of Bone Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Benabdallah, N; Bernardini, M; Desbree, A; Labriolle-Vaylet, C de; Franck, D

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: With a growing demand of alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, especially Xofigo ({sup 223}RaCl{sub 2}) which is used in the treatment of metastatic bone disease, the optimization of dosimetry becomes necessary. Indeed, in Europe, as stated on the council directive 2013/59/euratom, exposures of target volumes for radiotherapeutic purposes shall be individually planned taking into account that doses to non-target volumes and tissues shall be as low as reasonably achievable. To that aim, the possibility of imaging {sup 223}Ra was first investigated. Methods: The experiments were conducted at the Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou with an Infinia Hawkeye 4 gamma camera, equipped with a medium-energy collimator. Imaging parameters, such as sensibility, spatial resolution and energy spectrum, were determined using several physical phantoms with a source of 6 MBq of {sup 223}Ra. Bone metastases were modeled with a NEMA Body Phantom to investigate image degradation based on the concentration of {sup 223}Ra. Results: The acquired energy spectrum allowed to visualize several photon peaks: at 85, 154 and 270 keV. Camera sensitivity measured from the phantom study was 102.3 cps/MBq for the 85 keV ± 20 %, 89.9 cps/MBq for the 154 ± 20 % window and 65.4 cps/MBq for the 270 ± 10 % window. The spatial resolution (full-width at half-maximum) was respectively 1.7, 1.9 and 1.8 cm for the three energy windows. SPECT/CT images of NEMA Body Phantom without and with attenuation have permitted to determine the best reconstruction parameters. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that it is possible to obtain clinically relevant information from images of {sup 223}Ra. All these results will be valuable to analyze biodistribution imaging of the radiopharmaceutical in the patient body and go further in the reconstruction of patient images in order to personalize the dosimetry.

  11. Alpha Thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... an apparently normal individual has a child with hemoglobin H disease or alpha thalassemia minor. It can ... gene on one chromosome 25% 25% 25% 25% hemoglobin H disease there is a 25% chance with ...

  12. Reversal of age-related increase in brain protein oxidation, decrease in enzyme activity, and loss in temporal and spatial memory by chronic administration of the spin-trapping compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone

    SciTech Connect

    Carney, J.M.; Starke-Reed, P.E.; Oliver, C.N.; Landum, R.W.; Cheng, M.S.; Wu, J.F.; Floyd, R.A. )

    1991-05-01

    Oxygen free radicals and oxidative events have been implicated as playing a role in bringing about the changes in cellular function that occur during aging. Brain readily undergoes oxidative damage, so it is important to determine if aging-induced changes in brain may be associated with oxidative events. Previously we demonstrated that brain damage caused by an ischemia/reperfusion insult involved oxidative events. In addition, pretreatment with the spin-trapping compound N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) diminished the increase in oxidized protein and the loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) activity that accompanied ischemia/reperfusion injury in brain. We report here that aged gerbils had a significantly higher level of oxidized protein as assessed by carbonyl residues and decreased GS and neutral protease activities as compared to young adult gerbils. We also found that chronic treatment with the spin-trapping compound PBN caused a decrease in the level of oxidized protein and an increase in both GS and neutral protease activity in aged Mongolian gerbil brain. In contrast to aged gerbils, PBN treatment of young adult gerbils had no significant effect on brain oxidized protein content or GS activity. Male gerbils, young adults (3 months of age) and retired breeders (15-18 months of age), were treated with PBN for 14 days with twice daily dosages of 32 mg/kg. If PBN administration was ceased after 2 weeks, the significantly decreased level of oxidized protein and increased GS and neutral protease activities in old gerbils changed in a monotonic fashion back to the levels observed in aged gerbils prior to PBN administration. We also report that old gerbils make more errors than young animals and that older gerbils treated with PBN made fewer errors in a radial arm maze test for temporal and spatial memory than the untreated aged controls.

  13. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Information > Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Explore this section to learn more about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, including a description of the disorder ...

  14. Variations in Mechanical Parameters of Rock Mass Affecting Shaft Lining / Zmiany Parametrów Mechanicznych Górotworu I Ich Wpływ Na Obudowę Szybową

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majcherczyk, Tadeusz; Niedbalski, Zbigniew; Wałach, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    początkowej długości. W otoczeniu głębionego szybu występują grunty spoiste, głównie w postaci glin z przerostami piasków oraz pyły. Taka litologia powoduje, że na różnych poziomach część warstw gruntu jest zawodniona. Wpływa to na dużą zmienność własności gruntów wokół szybu oraz zmiany tych własności w czasie. Przy dużym zawodnieniu grunt był wymywany zza obudowy, co prowadziło do lokalnej utraty kontaktu pomiędzy obudową a otaczającym gruntem oraz braku właści- wego podparcia dla stóp szybowych. Efektem tego było na niewielkim odcinku szybu pękanie obudowy. Podjęte działania, które sprowadziły się do wykonania iniekcji na pewnym odcinku szybu doprowadziły do przywrócenia właściwej współpracy obudowa - górotwór. Przeprowadzone badania gruntu zza obudowy posłużyły do podjęcia działań w celu zwiększenia nośności stóp szybowych. Badania gruntu wykazały, że kąt tarcia wewnętrznego oraz spójność zmieniają się nie tylko na poszczególnych głębokościach, ale także obserwuje się duże różnice dla próbek pobranych z tej samej głębokości ale z różnych punktów na obwodzie szybu. Badania wykazały także wzrost parametrów mechanicznych badanych gruntów wraz z oddalaniem się od obudowy, co świadczy o zmianie własności gruntów bezpośrednio w sąsiedztwie szybu. Duża liczba wykonanych badań pozwoliła na opracowanie zależności pomiędzy wilgotnością a kątem tarcia wewnętrznego i spójnością. Na podstawie uzyskanych zależności można szacować z dużą dokładnością zmianę własności gruntów pod wpływem działania wody. Zrealizowane wzmocnienia stóp szybowych z wykorzystaniem kotew gruntowych pozwoliły na podjęcie dalszego głębienia szybu. Przeprowadzone na analizowanym odcinku badania betonu z obudowy szybu wykazały wartości zgodne z projektem.

  15. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (an-tee-TRIP-sin) deficiency, or AAT ... as it relates to lung disease. Overview Alpha-1 antitrypsin, also called AAT, is a protein made ...

  16. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles (4He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei—nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons—is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the ‘adiabatic projection method’ to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  17. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    PubMed

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  18. alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    alpha - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( alpha - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 84 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Ass

  19. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... measures the level of the protein AAT in blood. Alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotype testing evaluates the amount and type of AAT being produced and compares it to normal patterns. Alpha-1 antitrypsin genotype testing ( DNA testing) can ...

  20. Alpha-1 antitrypsin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003715.htm Alpha-1 antitrypsin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a laboratory test to measure the ...

  1. The Alpha Centauri System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderblom, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Alpha Centauri star system, which is the closest star system to the sun. Discusses the difficulties associated with measurements involving Alpha Centauri, along with some of the recent advances in stellar seismology. Raises questions about the possibilities of planets around Alpha Centauri. (TW)

  2. The Alpha-Helix Concept: Innovative utilization of the Space Station Program. A report to the National Aeronautical and Space Administration requesting establishment of a Sensory Physiology Laboratory on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Singh, N.

    1983-01-01

    A major laboratory dedicated to biological-medical research is proposed for the Space Platform. The laboratory would focus on sensor physiology and biochemistry since sensory physiology represents the first impact of the new space environment on living organisms. Microgravity and the high radiation environment of space would be used to help solve the problems of prolonged sojourns in space but, more importantly, to help solve terrestrial problems of human health and agricultural productivity. The emphasis would be on experimental use of microorganisms and small plants and small animals to minimize the space and time required to use the Space Platform for maximum human betterment. The Alpha Helix Concept, that is, the use of the Space Platform to bring experimental biomedicine to a new and extreme frontier is introduced so as to better understand the worldly environment. Staffing and instrumenting the Space Platform biomedical laboratory in a manner patterned after successful terrestrial sensory physiology laboratories is also proposed.

  3. Alpha adrenoceptor subtypes involved in the emetic action in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hikasa, Y; Ogasawara, S; Takase, K

    1992-05-01

    In order to assess the involvement of alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptors in emesis, the emetic effect of eight alpha agonists was studied in dogs. The i.m. administration of each agonist elicited dose-dependent emesis. The order of potency in inducing emesis was: clonidine greater than oxymetazoline greater than tramazoline greater than naphazoline greater than xylazine greater than epinephrine greater than methoxamine = phenylephrine. The clonidine-induced emesis was antagonized by adrenoceptor antagonists showing alpha-2 blocking activity, yohimbine, tolazoline and phentolamine. Among these antagonists, yohimbine was the most effective. The alpha-1 and beta adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, histaminergic, serotonergic and opioid receptor antagonists did not prevent the clonidine-induced emesis. The emesis induced by oxymetazoline, tramazoline, xylazine, naphazoline and epinephrine was also antagonized by a selective alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, but not by a selective alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin. In contrast, methoxamine and phenylephrine-induced emesis was antagonized by prazosin, but not by yohimbine. Neither yohimbine nor prazosin prevented the morphine- and histamine-induced emesis. These results indicate that alpha-2 adrenoceptors are involved in the mediation of emetic action, and that the alpha adrenoceptor-mediated emesis does not involve beta adrenergic, cholinergic, dopaminergic, histaminergic, serotonergic and opioid receptors in the emetic pathway. This study further suggests that alpha adrenoceptors involved in the emesis are mainly of the alpha-2 type, although the involvement of alpha-1 adrenoceptors cannot be ruled out. PMID:1349647

  4. 29 CFR 1915.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1915.1004 Section 1915.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1004 alpha-Naphthylamine. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  5. 29 CFR 1910.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1910.1004 Section 1910.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... alpha-Naphthylamine. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens....

  6. 29 CFR 1910.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1910.1004 Section 1910.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... alpha-Naphthylamine. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens....

  7. 29 CFR 1910.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1910.1004 Section 1910.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... alpha-Naphthylamine. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens....

  8. 29 CFR 1910.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true alpha-Naphthylamine. 1910.1004 Section 1910.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... alpha-Naphthylamine. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens....

  9. 29 CFR 1915.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1915.1004 Section 1915.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1004 alpha-Naphthylamine. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  10. 29 CFR 1915.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1915.1004 Section 1915.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1004 alpha-Naphthylamine. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  11. 29 CFR 1910.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1910.1004 Section 1910.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... alpha-Naphthylamine. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens....

  12. 29 CFR 1915.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1915.1004 Section 1915.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1004 alpha-Naphthylamine. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1915.1004 Section 1915.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1004 alpha-Naphthylamine. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  14. Calibration issues in delta alpha /alpha .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaro, Paolo; Centurión, Miriam; Levshakov, Sergei

    Laser Comb Wavelength calibration shows that the ThAr one is locally unreliable with possible deviations of up to 100 {m s}-1 within one order range, while delivering an overall 1 {m s}-1 accuracy (Wilken et al 2009). Such deviation corresponds to delta alpha /alpha ≈ 7* 10-6 for a Fe II-Mg II pair. Comparison of line shifts among the 5 Fe II lines, with almost identical sensitivity to fine structure constant changes, offers a clean way to directly test the presence of possible local wavelength calibration errors of whatever origin. We analyzed 5 absorption systems, with zabs ranging from 1.15 to 2.19 towards 3 bright QSOs. The results show that while some lines are aligned within 20 {m s}-1, others reveal large deviations reaching 200 {m s}-1 or higher and corresponding to a delta alpha /alpha > 10-5 level. The origin of these deviations is not clearly identified but could be related to the adaptation of wavelength calibration to CCD manufacturing irregularities. These results suggest that to draw conclusions from delta alpha /alpha analysis based on one or only few lines must be done with extreme care.

  15. Administrative Synergy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  16. Lactose and fatty acid synthesis in lactating-rat mammary gland. Effects of starvation, re-feeding, and administration of insulin, adrenaline, streptozotocin and 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine.

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, L E; Ward, S; Kuhn, N J

    1984-01-01

    Lactose synthesis and fatty acid synthesis in intact lactating-rat mammary gland were measured simultaneously by incorporation of [U-14C]glucose and of both [U-14C]glucose and 3H2O respectively. Both processes were almost abolished by overnight starvation. Self-re-feeding caused recovery of lipogenesis to 100% of normal by 2 h and to 170% by 5 h. Lactose synthesis recovered to 80% of normal by 5 h. Food intubated to starved rats caused partial recovery in 3 h, standard diet favouring lactose synthesis and sugars favouring lipogenesis. Casein and starch were ineffective. Olive oil intubated to fed rats suppressed lipogenesis greatly and lactose synthesis slightly. Paraffin oil or water partly mimicked these effects. Adrenaline (subcutaneous) decreased lipogenesis from glucose, whereas insulin (subcutaneous) caused hypoglycaemia associated with loss of lactose synthesis but unchanged fatty acid synthesis. Streptozotocin and 2-bromo-alpha-ergocryptine (CB-154) impaired lipogenesis but not lactose synthesis. The results are interpreted in terms of competition for intracellular glucose by biosynthetic pathways for lactose and fat, and the possible implications for variations in milk composition are discussed. PMID:6232923

  17. [Alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes and alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Ikunobu; Suzuki, Fumiko; Tanaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Hatsumi; Morishima, Shigeru

    2006-03-01

    Alpha(1)-adrenoceptors are widely distributed in the human body and play important physiologic roles. Three alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha(1A), alpha(1B) and alpha(1D)) have been cloned and show different pharmacologic profiles. In addition, a putative alpha(1)-adrenoceptor (alpha(1L) subtype) has also been proposed. Recently, three drugs (tamsulosin, naftopidil, and silodosin) have been developed in Japan for the treatment of urinary obstruction in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this review, we describe recent alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subclassifications and the pharmacologic characteristics (subtype selectivity and clinical relevance) of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists. PMID:16518082

  18. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866.5400 Section 866.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... alpha-globulin (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of alpha-globulin may...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866.5400 Section 866.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... alpha-globulin (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of alpha-globulin may...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866.5400 Section 866.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... alpha-globulin (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of alpha-globulin may...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5400 - Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-globulin immuno-logical test system. 866.5400 Section 866.5400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... alpha-globulin (a serum protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of alpha-globulin may...

  2. Assessment of Impact of the Rheological Parameters Change on Sensitivity of the Asphalt Strain Based on the Test Results / Ocena Wpływu Zmiany Parametrów Reologicznych Na Wrażliwość Deformacji Mieszanek Mineralno - Asfaltowych Na Podstawie Wyników Badań

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurpiel, Artur; Wysokowski, Adam

    2015-03-01

    żna określić parametry oparte o różne teorie pełzania a szczególnie cenne parametry reologiczne w oparciu o wybrane modele lepkosprężyste [1]. Parametry z modeli lepkosprężystych są miarodajnymi wskaźnikami obrazującymi odporność mieszanek na deformacje. Można za ich pomocą prognozować głębokości koleiny w przyjętym modelu reologicznym [1]. W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono jaki wpływ na głębokość koleiny mają różne wartości parametrów reologicznych z analizowanego modelu lepkosprężystego oraz wpływ parametrów na kształt i przebieg krzywej pełzania. Przedstawione w artykule mieszanki mineralno - asfaltowe charakteryzują się zmiennymi parametrami reologicznymi, zatem trudno jest określić, który parametr decyduje o wielkości odkształcenia danej mieszanki. Mając na uwadze powyższe, w artykule podjęto próbę analizy zmiany wartości odkształcenia mieszanki mineralno - asfaltowej przy zmianie jednego oraz dwóch parametrów w danym modelu reologicznym - w tym przypadku - Bürgersa.

  3. Modernizing Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Vincent L.; Hildebrand, Verna

    1981-01-01

    Suggests assignment of research duties and rotation of teaching and management roles for college administrators, to increase their effectiveness and diminish the negative effects of declining enrollments. (JD)

  4. The Change of Structural and Thermal Properties of Rocks Exposed to High Temperatures in the Vicinity of Designed Geo-Reactor / Zmiany właściwości strukturalnych i cieplnych skał poddanych wysokim temperaturom w rejonie projektowanego georeaktora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Małkowski, Piotr; Niedbalski, Zbigniew; Hydzik-Wiśniewska, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Among the main directions of works on energy acquisition, there is the development and application of the technology of underground gasification of coal deposits (UCG). During the process of deposit burning and oxidation, there is also impact of temperatures exceeding 1000°C on rocks surrounding the deposit. As a result of subjecting carboniferous rocks to high temperatures for a prolonged period of time, their structure will change, which in turn will result in the change of their physical properties. Due to the project of underground coal gasification, as performed in Poland, laboratory tests are currently under way to a broad extent, including physical properties of carboniferous rocks subjected to high temperatures. The article presents results of laboratory tests of rocks surrounding the designed geo-reactor: changes to bulk density, specific density and porosity due to high temperature, and confronts the above results with the results of tests of thermal conductivity, specific heat and heat diffusivity (temperature conductivity) of the rocks. The mineralogical investigations were presented too. Jednym z głównych kierunków prac nad pozyskiwaniem energii jest opracowanie i zastosowanie technologii podziemnej gazyfikacji pokładów węgla. W czasie procesu spalania i utleniania pokładu dochodzi również do oddziaływania temperatur przekraczających 1000°C na skały otaczające pokład. W wyniku poddania skał karbońskich wysokim temperaturom przez dłuższy okres czasu będzie dochodzić do zmian ich struktury, co z kolei spowoduje zmiany ich właściwości fizycznych. Ze względu na realizowany w Polsce projekt podziemnego zgazowania węgla prowadzone są obecnie badania laboratoryjne w szerokim zakresie, m.in. właściwości fizycznych skał karbońskich poddanych wysokim temperaturom. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań laboratoryjnych skał otaczających projektowany georeaktor: zmian gęstości objętościowej, gęstości właściwej i porowato

  5. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

  6. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  7. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, Richard D.; MacArthur, Duncan W.

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic detector for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure.

  8. Alpha-particle diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  10. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  11. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, R.D.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-08-27

    An electrostatic detector is disclosed for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure. 6 figs.

  12. 77 FR 44511 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation...

  13. The alpha channeling effect

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-10

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  14. Alpha-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Harteveld, Cornelis L; Higgs, Douglas R

    2010-01-01

    Alpha-thalassaemia is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by a microcytic hypochromic anaemia, and a clinical phenotype varying from almost asymptomatic to a lethal haemolytic anaemia.It is probably the most common monogenic gene disorder in the world and is especially frequent in Mediterranean countries, South-East Asia, Africa, the Middle East and in the Indian subcontinent. During the last few decades the incidence of alpha thalassaemia in North-European countries and Northern America has increased because of demographic changes. Compound heterozygotes and some homozygotes have a moderate to severe form of alpha thalassaemia called HbH disease. Hb Bart's hydrops foetalis is a lethal form in which no alpha-globin is synthesized. Alpha thalassaemia most frequently results from deletion of one or both alpha genes from the chromosome and can be classified according to its genotype/phenotype correlation. The normal complement of four functional alpha-globin genes may be decreased by 1, 2, 3 or all 4 copies of the genes, explaining the clinical variation and increasing severity of the disease. All affected individuals have a variable degree of anaemia (low Hb), reduced mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH/pg), reduced mean corpuscular volume (MCV/fl) and a normal/slightly reduced level of HbA2. Molecular analysis is usually required to confirm the haematological observations (especially in silent alpha-thalassaemia and alpha-thalassaemia trait). The predominant features in HbH disease are anaemia with variable amounts of HbH (0.8-40%). The type of mutation influences the clinical severity of HbH disease. The distinguishing features of the haemoglobin Bart's hydrops foetalis syndrome are the presence of Hb Bart's and the total absence of HbF. The mode of transmission of alpha thalassaemia is autosomal recessive. Genetic counselling is offered to couples at risk for HbH disease or haemoglobin Bart's Hydrops Foetalis Syndrome. Carriers of alpha+- or

  15. Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Ray, K.

    2009-05-13

    The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

  16. Dissociation of alpha-macrofetoprotein and alpha-fetoprotein production during experimental injury.

    PubMed

    Hudig, D; Sell, S; Newell, L; Smuckler, E A

    1979-02-01

    The concentrations of two major fetal serum proteins of the rat, alpha-macrofetoprotein (AMF) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) are measured following administration of croton oil, carbon tetrachloride, galactosamine or ethionine, and after partial hepatectomy. Greatly elevated serum concentrations of AMF are found after croton oil injection, following oral administration of CCl4, and after partial hepatectomy, but not after ethionine or galactosamine. Elevations of AFP occur after administration of hepatotoxic agents during the stage of restitutive proliferation and after exposure to the hepatocarcinogen ethionine, but not after croton oil. Therefore, elevations of AMF and AFP are clearly dissociated under certain conditions. In situations such as partial hepatectomy, after which elevations in both AMF and AFP occur, AMF appears before AFP. Therefore, the production of AMF and AFP appear to be under completely independent regulation in the adult. PMID:85804

  17. Administrative IT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Katherine, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    When it comes to Administrative IT solutions and processes, best practices range across the spectrum. Enterprise resource planning (ERP), student information systems (SIS), and tech support are prominent and continuing areas of focus. But widespread change can also be accomplished via the implementation of campuswide document imaging and sharing,…

  18. Engineering Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    This book is intended to acquaint naval engineering officers with their duties in the engineering department. Standard shipboard organizations are analyzed in connection with personnel assignments, division operations, and watch systems. Detailed descriptions are included for the administration of directives, ship's bills, damage control, training…

  19. ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BRUCE, ROBERT L.; CARTER, G.L., JR.

    IN THE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, STYLES OF LEADERSHIP PROFOUNDLY AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE SERVICE RENDERED. ACCORDINGLY, MAJOR INFLUENCES ON ADMINISTRATIVE CLIMATE AND EMPLOYEE PRODUCTIVITY ARE EXAMINED IN ESSAYS ON (1) SOURCES OF JOB SATISFACTION AND DISSATISFACTION, (2) MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES BASED ON JOB-RELATED SATISFACTIONS AND NEEDS,…

  20. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  1. ALPHA MIS: Reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Heatherly, R.D.; Hughes, S.E.; Ishee, J.S.; Pratt, S.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1992-02-01

    ALPHA is a powerful and versatile management information system (MIS) initiated and sponsored and by the Finance and Business Management Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who maintain and develop it in concert with the Business Systems Division for its Information Center. A general-purpose MIS, ALPHA allows users to access System 1022 and System 1032 databases to obtain and manage information. From a personal computer or a data terminal, Energy Systems employees can use ALPHA to control their own report reprocessing. Using four general commands (Database, Select, Sort, and Report) they can (1) choose a mainframe database, (2) define subsets within it, (3) sequentially order a subset by one or more variables, and (4) generate a report with their own or a canned format.

  2. The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

    1973-01-01

    Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

  3. The Lyman alpha coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, J. L.; Reeves, E. M.; Kirkham, B.

    1977-01-01

    The rocket-borne Lyman alpha coronagraph (RLAC) is to be used in the absence of a natural solar eclipse to determine coronal temperatures from measurements of the line width of Lyman-alpha and to determine neutral hydrogen densities of coronal material from the absolute intensity. The coronagraph consists of a 75-cm Fastie-Ebert scanning spectrometer with an AMR 641 photoelectric detection system, an off-axis parabolic primary mirror, and an occulting system. A special optical arrangement achieves rejection of radiation from the solar disk.

  4. Oral administration of active vitamin D metabolites to low birthweight infants.

    PubMed Central

    Kovar, I Z; Mayne, P D; James, J J; Barnes, I C

    1986-01-01

    The active vitamin D metabolites 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (Rocaltrol) and the analogue 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol (One-Alpha) are adequately absorbed after oral administration in the preterm infant. The absorption pattern is similar to that seen in adults. PMID:3755581

  5. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  6. From Alpha to Omega

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czaja, Paul Clement

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha point of the authors' life as a Montessori educator began in 1959, when he was a graduate student studying philosophy at Fordham University in the Bronx, New York. While studying the works of the great American philosopher William James, the author came across the writings of Maria Montessori and immediately became captivated by her…

  7. Summary of Alpha Particle Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.

    1998-08-19

    This paper summarizes the talks on alpha particle transport which were presented at the 5th International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Committee Meeting on "Alpha Particles in Fusion Research" held at the Joint European Torus, England in September 1997.

  8. Alpha Condensates in Atomic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.; Matsumura, H.

    2005-11-21

    Recent issues on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of {alpha}-particles in nuclei are reviewed. A candidate of condensates is discussed for some states in 12C and 16O by defining the amount of {alpha} condensation.

  9. Development and identification of monoclonal antibodies against meso-Tetra (alpha,alpha,alpha,alpha,-O-phenylacetamide benzene) porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyang; Huang, Xueying; Du, Li; Li, Weiguo; Qi, Chao

    2007-04-01

    The small molecule meso-Tetra (alpha,alpha,alpha,alpha-o-phenylacetamide benzene) porphyrin was synthesized through the condensation of o-nitrobenzaldehyde and pyrrole followed by reduction of the meso-tetra (o-nitrophenyl) porphyrin. The small molecule, without carrier, was used as complete antigen to immunize BALB/ C mice. Spleen cells producing high titer antibody were removed and fused with myeloma cells of SP2/0 origin. Using a conventional immunization protocol, stable murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) producing cell lines to meso-Tetra (alpha,alpha,alpha,alpha-o-phenylacetamide benzene) porphyrin 1F2 were obtained. Subclass determination showed that the clones produce IgG2a types of MAbs. The analytical results of HPLC and MALDI/TOFMS suggest that the purity of MAb 1F2 is 100%, and MAb 1F2 has a relative molecular weight of 156678.8 Da. Our results demonstrated that small molecule meso-Tetra (alpha,alpha,alpha,alpha-o-phenylacetamide benzene) porphyrin, as semiantigen without carrier, can elicit the formation of MAbs. PMID:17451352

  10. An overview on 5alpha-reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Saurabh; Thareja, Suresh; Verma, Abhilasha; Bhardwaj, Tilak Raj; Kumar, Manoj

    2010-02-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the noncancerous proliferation of the prostate gland associated with benign prostatic obstruction and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) such as frequency, hesitancy, urgency, etc. Its prevalence increases with age affecting around 70% by the age of 70 years. High activity of 5alpha-reductase enzyme in humans results in excessive dihydrotestosterone levels in peripheral tissues and hence suppression of androgen action by 5alpha-reductase inhibitors is a logical treatment for BPH as they inhibit the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Finasteride (13) was the first steroidal 5alpha-reductase inhibitor approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). In human it decreases the prostatic DHT level by 70-90% and reduces the prostatic size. Dutasteride (27) another related analogue has been approved in 2002. Unlike Finasteride, Dutasteride is a competitive inhibitor of both 5alpha-reductase type I and type II isozymes, reduced DHT levels >90% following 1 year of oral administration. A number of classes of non-steroidal inhibitors of 5alpha-reductase have also been synthesized generally by removing one or more rings from the azasteroidal structure or by an early non-steroidal lead (ONO-3805) (261). In this review all categories of inhibitors of 5alpha-reductase have been covered. PMID:19879888

  11. Alpha-2 agonists as pain therapy in horses.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Alexander

    2010-12-01

    Alpha-2 agonists, such as xylazine, clonidine, romifidine, detomidine, medetomidine, and dexmedetomidine, are potent analgesic drugs that also induce physiologic and behavioral changes, such as hypertension, bradycardia, atrioventricular block, excessive sedation and ataxia, all of which can potentially limit their systemic use as analgesics in some clinical cases. The use of medetomidine and dexmetomidine has been introduced for equine anesthesia/analgesia, and although not approved in this species, their increased specificity for alpha-2 receptors may offer some potential advantages over the traditional alpha-2 agonists. Similarly, other routes of administration and benefits of alpha-2 agonists are recognized in the human and laboratory animal literature, which may prove useful in the equine patient if validated in the near future. This review presents this relevant information. PMID:21056297

  12. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor turnover in adipose tissue and kidney: irreversible blockade of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors by benextramine

    SciTech Connect

    Taouis, M.; Berlan, M.; Lafontan, M.

    1987-01-01

    The recovery of post- and extrasynaptic alpha 2-adrenergic receptor-binding sites was studied in vivo in male golden hamsters after treatment with an irreversible alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist benextramine, a tetramine disulfide that possesses a high affinity for alpha 2-binding sites. The kidney alpha 2-adrenergic receptor number was measured with (/sup 3/H)yohimbine, whereas (/sup 3/H)clonidine was used for fat cell and brain membrane alpha 2-binding site identification. Benextramine treatment of fat cell, kidney, and brain membranes reduced or completely suppressed, in an irreversible manner, (/sup 3/H) clonidine and (/sup 3/H)yohimbine binding without modifying adenosine (A1-receptor) and beta-adrenergic receptor sites. This irreversible binding was also found 1 and 2 hr after intraperitoneal administration of benextramine to the hamsters. Although it bound irreversibly to peripheral and central alpha 2-adrenergic receptors on isolated membranes, benextramine was unable to cross the blood-brain barrier of the hamster at the concentrations used (10-20 mg/kg). After the irreversible blockade, alpha 2-binding sites reappeared in kidney and adipose tissue following a monoexponential time course. Recovery of binding sites was more rapid in kidney than in adipose tissue; the half-lives of the receptor were 31 and 46 hr, respectively in the tissues. The rates of receptor production were 1.5 and 1.8 fmol/mg of protein/hr in kidney and adipose tissue. Reappearance of alpha 2-binding sites was associated with a rapid recovery of function (antilipolytic potencies of alpha 2-agonists) in fat cells inasmuch as occupancy of 15% of (/sup 3/H)clonidine-binding sites was sufficient to promote 40% inhibition of lipolysis. Benextramine is a useful tool to estimate turnover of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors under normal and pathological situations.

  13. Alpha-globin loci in homozygous beta-thalassemia intermedia.

    PubMed

    Triadou, P; Lapoumeroulie, C; Girot, R; Labie, D

    1983-01-01

    Homozygous beta-thalassemia intermediate (TI) differs from thalassemia major (TM) in being less severe clinically. Associated alpha-thalassemia could account for the TI phenotype by reducing the alpha/non-alpha chain imbalance. We have analyzed the alpha loci of 9 TI and 11 TM patients by restriction endonuclease mapping. All the TM and 7 of the TI patients have the normal complement of four alpha-globin genes (alpha alpha/alpha alpha). One TI patient has three alpha-globin genes (alpha alpha/-alpha), and another TI patient has five alpha genes (alpha alpha/alpha alpha alpha). PMID:6305827

  14. 21 CFR 866.5620 - Alpha-2-macroglobulin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-2-macroglobulin immunological test system. 866.5620 Section 866.5620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5620 Alpha-2-macroglobulin...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5620 - Alpha-2-macroglobulin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-2-macroglobulin immunological test system. 866.5620 Section 866.5620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5620 Alpha-2-macroglobulin...

  16. 77 FR 15980 - Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Alpha Aviation Concept Limited (Type Certificate Previously Held by Alpha Aviation Design Limited)...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5130 - Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system. 866.5130 Section 866.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the alpha-1-antitrypsin (a plasma protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues. The...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system. 866.5080 Section 866.5080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... immunochemical techniques alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (a protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues....

  20. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system. 866.5080 Section 866.5080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... immunochemical techniques alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (a protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues....

  4. 21 CFR 866.5130 - Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system. 866.5130 Section 866.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the alpha-1-antitrypsin (a plasma protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues. The...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system. 866.5080 Section 866.5080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... immunochemical techniques alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (a protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues....

  6. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system. 866.5080 Section 866.5080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... immunochemical techniques alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (a protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues....

  7. 21 CFR 866.5130 - Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system. 866.5130 Section 866.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the alpha-1-antitrypsin (a plasma protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues. The...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5130 - Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system. 866.5130 Section 866.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the alpha-1-antitrypsin (a plasma protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues. The...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1104 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1926.1104 Section 1926.1104 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1104...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1104 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1926.1104 Section 1926.1104 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1104...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.1104 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1926.1104 Section 1926.1104 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1104...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1104 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1926.1104 Section 1926.1104 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1104...

  13. 29 CFR 1926.1104 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1926.1104 Section 1926.1104 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1104...

  14. Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf-2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy. PMID:22125537

  15. Alpha-mannosidosis

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Dag; Nilssen, Øivind

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by immune deficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It occurs in approximately 1 of 500,000 live births. The children are often born apparently normal, and their condition worsens progressively. Some children are born with ankle equinus or develop hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Main features are immune deficiency (manifested by recurrent infections, especially in the first decade of life), skeletal abnormalities (mild-to-moderate dysostosis multiplex, scoliosis and deformation of the sternum), hearing impairment (moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss), gradual impairment of mental functions and speech, and often, periods of psychosis. Associated motor function disturbances include muscular weakness, joint abnormalities and ataxia. The facial trait include large head with prominent forehead, rounded eyebrows, flattened nasal bridge, macroglossia, widely spaced teeth, and prognathism. Slight strabismus is common. The clinical variability is significant, representing a continuum in severity. The disorder is caused by lysosomal alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Alpha-mannosidosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is caused by mutations in the MAN2B1 gene located on chromosome 19 (19 p13.2-q12). Diagnosis is made by measuring acid alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes or other nucleated cells and can be confirmed by genetic testing. Elevated urinary secretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides is suggestive, but not diagnostic. Differential diagnoses are mainly the other lysosomal storage diseases like the mucopolysaccharidoses. Genetic counseling should be given to explain the nature of the disease and to detect carriers. Antenatal diagnosis is possible, based on both biochemical and genetic methods. The management should be pro-active, preventing complications and treating manifestations. Infections must be

  16. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  17. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  18. Proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Birte; Fukuda, Kenji; Nielsen, Peter K; Bønsager, Birgit C

    2004-02-12

    Proteins that inhibit alpha-amylases have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. These inhibitors can have natural roles in the control of endogenous alpha-amylase activity or in defence against pathogens and pests; certain inhibitors are reported to be antinutritional factors. The alpha-amylase inhibitors belong to seven different protein structural families, most of which also contain evolutionary related proteins without inhibitory activity. Two families include bifunctional inhibitors acting both on alpha-amylases and proteases. High-resolution structures are available of target alpha-amylases in complex with inhibitors from five families. These structures indicate major diversity but also some similarity in the structural basis of alpha-amylase inhibition. Mutational analysis of the mechanism of inhibition was performed in a few cases and various protein engineering and biotechnological approaches have been outlined for exploitation of the inhibitory function. PMID:14871655

  19. [Endogenous opioid system in the realization of the analgesic effect of alpha-tocopherol in reference to algomenorrhea].

    PubMed

    Kryzhanovskiĭ, G N; Bakuleva, L P; Luzina, N L; Vinogradov, V A; Iarygin, K N

    1988-02-01

    Beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity was studied in 7 patients with algomenorrhea during pain attack and 15 minutes after alpha-tocopherol administration with a therapeutic aim (till the analgetic effect was reached). There was an increase in beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity after alpha-tocopherol administration. Naloxone administration to 9 patients with algomenorrhea of various etiology resumed the pain. The effect of alpha-tocopherol application for pain relief depended on the pathogenesis of algomenorrhea. At the same time naloxone administration failed to resume the pain in patients, in whom alpha-tocopherol had a strong analgetic effect. It is assumed that the endogenous opioid system participates in alpha-tocopherol effect on pain relief in patients with algomenorrhea. PMID:2964879

  20. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Wolf, Michael A.; McAtee, James L.; Unruh, Wesley P.; Cucchiara, Alfred L.; Huchton, Roger L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  1. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

    1993-02-02

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  2. Molecular mechanism of {alpha}-tocopheryl-phosphate transport across the cell membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Negis, Yesim; Meydani, Mohsen; Zingg, Jean-Marc; Azzi, Angelo . E-mail: angelo.azzi@tufts.edu

    2007-07-27

    {alpha}-Tocopheryl-phosphate ({alpha}-TP) is synthesized and hydrolyzed in animal cells and tissues where it modulates several functions. {alpha}-TP is more potent than {alpha}-T in inhibiting cell proliferation, down-regulating CD36 transcription, inhibiting atherosclerotic plaque formation. Administration of {alpha}-TP to cells or animals requires its transfer through membranes, via a transporter. We show here that {alpha}-TP is passing the plasma membrane via a system that is inhibited by glibenclamide and probenecid, inhibitors of a number of transporters. Glibenclamide and probenecid prevent dose-dependently {alpha}-TP inhibition of cell proliferation. The two inhibitors act on ATP binding cassette (ABC) and organic anion transporters (OAT). Since ABC transporters function to export solutes and {alpha}-TP is transported into cells, it may be concluded that {alpha}-TP transport may occur via an OAT family member. Due to the protection by glibenclamide and probenecid on the {alpha}-TP induced cell growth inhibition it appears that {alpha}-TP acts after its uptake inside cells.

  3. Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.

    1990-01-01

    Solar Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including daily values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total irradiance corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha.

  4. ISS Update: Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Trent Martin, Johnson Space Center project manager for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) aboard the International Space Station. Questions...

  5. Remission of liver fibrosis by interferon-alpha 2b.

    PubMed

    Moreno, M G; Muriel, P

    1995-08-01

    Fibrosis is a dynamic process associated with the continuous deposition and resorption of connective tissue, mainly collagen. Therapeutic strategies are emerging by which this dynamic process can be modulated. Since interferons are known to inhibit collagen production, the aim of this study was to investigate if the administration of interferon-alpha 2b (IFN-alpha) can restore the normal hepatic content of collagen in rats with established fibrosis. Fibrosis was induced by prolonged bile duct ligation. IFN-alpha (100,000 IU/rat/day; s.c.) was administered to fibrotic rats for 15 days. Bile duct ligation increased liver collagen content 6-fold. In addition, serum and liver markers of hepatic injury increased significantly; liver histology showed an increase in collagen deposition, and the normal architecture was lost, with large zones of necrosis being observed frequently. IFN-alpha administration reversed to normal the values of all the biochemical markers measured and restored the normal architecture of the liver. Our results demonstrated that IFN-alpha is useful in reversing fibrosis and liver damage induced by biliary obstruction in the rat. However, further investigations are required to evaluate the therapeutic relevance of interferons on non-viral fibrosis and cholestasis. PMID:7646558

  6. The effects of interferon-alpha/beta in a model of rat heart transplantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, A. D.; Klein, J. B.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Ogden, L. L. 2nd; Gray, L. A. Jr

    1992-01-01

    Interferons have multiple immunologic effects. One such effect is the activation of expression of cell surface antigens. Interferon alpha/beta enhance expression of class I but not class II histocompatibility antigens. Contradictory information has been published regarding the effect of interferon-alpha/beta administration in patients with kidney transplantation. In a model of rat heart transplantation we demonstrated that administration of interferon-alpha/beta accelerated rejection in a dose-dependent fashion in the absence of maintenance cyclosporine. Animals treated with maintenance cyclosporine had evidence of increased rejection at 20 days that was resolved completely at 45 days with cyclosporine alone.

  7. Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority's Reading Improvement Program for Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marable, June Morehead

    This document discusses the founding and establishment of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority's reading experience pilot project. The efforts of this project were aligned with those of Right to Read and Reading Is Fundamental (RIF). Because of the response from parents and children, plans are being made to increase present operations within the next…

  8. Immunomodulatory effects of alpha interferon and thymostimulin in patients with neoplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Munno, I; Marinaro, M; Gesario, A; Cannuscio, B; Michel, Y; Paulling, E

    1995-01-01

    In this report, we have evaluated the immunological effects following administration of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) in combination with thymostimulin (TP-1), as well as of IFN-alpha and TP-1 alone in patients with neoplasias who underwent surgery and were subsequently treated with conventional chemotherapy. Data suggest that the combination of IFN-alpha and TP-1 is the most effective in the up-regulation of some immune parameters such as the CD4(+)-CD8+ cell-dependent antibacterial activity. Since this immune function plays an important role in the host protection against different targets such as invading microorganisms and/or neoplastic cells, the administration of TP-1-IFN-alpha is advisable for patients with neoplasias under chemotherapy. PMID:7583935

  9. Alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone is a peripheral, integrative regulator of glucose and fat metabolism.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Miles B; Costa, Jessica Lynn; Forbes, Stacy; Reed, Peggy; Bui, Stephanie; Hochgeschwender, Ute

    2003-06-01

    Melanocortins are known to affect feeding and probably insulin activity through the central nervous system. It was also recently shown that peripheral alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) administration can reduce weight gain in both genetic and diet-induced obese mice. As obesity is often associated with disregulation of glucose and insulin, we investigated the nature of glucose homeostasis in the obese pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) knockout mouse. Here we report that though they are obese, mice deficient in POMC (and, thereby, deficient in alpha-MSH) are euglycemic throughout their lives. While these mice are euinsulinemic, they are hypersensitive to exogenous insulin. This defect can be reversed through administration of alpha-MSH. We demonstrate that the actions of alpha-MSH in the periphery, known from our work to include lipid metabolism effects, are also involved in glucose homeostasis. These findings substantiate a pivotal role of the POMC gene products in integrating metabolism. PMID:12851327

  10. Microscopic cluster model of {alpha}+n, {alpha}+p, {alpha}+ {sup 3}He, and {alpha}+{alpha} elastic scattering from a realistic effective nuclear interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dohet-Eraly, J.; Baye, D.

    2011-07-15

    An effective nucleon-nucleon interaction adapted to cluster-model calculations of collisions is derived from the realistic Argonne potential AV18 with the unitary correlation operator method. The unitary correlation is determined from the {alpha}+{alpha} elastic phase shifts calculated in a cluster approach by the generator coordinate method coupled with the microscopic R-matrix method. With this interaction, the elastic phase shifts for the {alpha}+n, {alpha}+p, and {alpha}+{sup 3}He collisions are calculated within the same model. Without further adjustment, a good agreement with experimental data is obtained with a small model space.

  11. Alpha glucosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2014-04-01

    Alpha glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are a unique class of anti-diabetic drugs. Derived from bacteria, these oral drugs are enzyme inhibitors which do not have a pancreato -centred mechanism of action. Working to delay carbohydrate absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, they control postprandial hyperglycaemia and provide unquestioned cardiovascular benefit. Specially suited for a traditional Pakistani carbohydrate-rich diet, AGIs have been termed the 'untapped diamonds' of diabetology. The use of these oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) that target pathophysiology in the early stages of type 2 diabetes, notably to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia will inevitably increase with time. This review describes the history of their development, mechanism of action, basic and clinical pharmacology, and suggests practical, evidence-based guidance for their optimal use. PMID:24864650

  12. DFT CONFORMATIONAL STUDIES OF ALPHA-MALTOTRIOSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent DFT optimization studies on alpha-maltose improved our understanding of the preferred conformations of alpha-maltose and the present study extends these studies to alpha-maltotriose with three alpha-D-glucopyranose residues linked by two alpha-[1-4] bridges, denoted herein as DP-3's. Combina...

  13. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) and natural bismuth-212 ({sup 212}Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Prothymosin alpha in human blood.

    PubMed Central

    Panneerselvam, C; Haritos, A A; Caldarella, J; Horecker, B L

    1987-01-01

    The major cross-reacting peptide in human plasma detected with a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for thymosin alpha 1 was identified as prothymosin alpha, based on its elution properties in gel-filtration chromatography and its amino acid composition after purification by HPLC. A small quantity (less than 10%) of the total cross-reacting material was recovered in fractions corresponding to lower molecular weight thymosin alpha 1-like peptides. The total quantity of cross-reacting material detected in human blood, expressed as thymosin alpha 1 equivalents, was 11-14 pmol/ml (approximately 90% was recovered in the leukocyte fraction, approximately 10% was in the plasma fraction, and 1-2% was in the erythrocyte fraction). The peptide present in leukocytes was also identified as prothymosin alpha. After correction for the 5-times lower molar reactivity of prothymosin alpha in the thymosin alpha 1 RIA employed in these experiments, we estimate that the content of prothymosin alpha in human blood is 55-70 pmol/ml (0.6-0.8 microgram/ml). The relatively small quantities recovered in the erythrocyte and plasma fractions may be attributed to contamination of the former by leukocytes or to leakage from leukocytes into the plasma. PMID:3474615

  15. EEG Alpha Power and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppelmayr, M.; Klimesch, W.; Stadler, W.; Pollhuber, D.; Heine, C.

    2002-01-01

    Tested whether alpha power in different sub-bands is selectively related to intelligence. For 74 Austrian subjects, the EEG was recorded during a resting session and 2 different intelligence tests were performed. Findings show a strong positive correlation between intelligence and alpha power. (SLD)

  16. Increase of mouse resistance to Candida albicans infection by thymosin alpha 1.

    PubMed Central

    Bistoni, F; Marconi, P; Frati, L; Bonmassar, E; Garaci, E

    1982-01-01

    Studies were carried out to assess the ability of thymosin alpha 1 to prolong the survival of mice challenged with Candida albicans. Two- to four-month-old mice were treated with graded doses of thymosin alpha 1 before, after, or before and after intravenous challenge with C. albicans. Significant resistance ot lethal infection was afforded by 100 micrograms of thymosin alpha 1 per kg given before or before and after challenge, whereas no protection was found in mice treated with thymosin alpha 1 administered at any dose level after inoculation. Pretreatment with thymosin alpha 1 also prevented the increased susceptibility to C. albicans infection of mice pretreated with cyclophosphamide on day -6. The results showed that thymosin alpha 1 was capable of protecting untreated or cyclophosphamide-pretreated mice from C. albicans infection at an optimal dose and schedule of administration. PMID:7085074

  17. Alpha Schottky junction energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litz, Marc S.; Fan, Zhaoyang; Carroll, James J.; Bayne, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    Isotope batteries offer solutions for long-lived low-power sensor requirements. Alpha emitting isotopes have energy per decay 103 times that of beta emitters. Alpha particles are absorbed within 20 μm of most materials reducing shielding mitigation. However, damage to materials from the alphas limits their practical use. A Schottky Barrier Diode (SBD) geometry is considered with an alpha emitting contact-layer on a diamond-like crystal semiconductor region. The radiation tolerance of diamond, the safety of alpha particles, combined with the internal field of the SBD is expected to generate current useful for low-power electronic devices over decades. Device design parameters and calculations of the expected current are described.

  18. Senior Administrators Should Have Administrative Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Gary J.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing that termination is viewed by the employee as the equivalent to capital punishment of a career, an administrative contract can reduce the emotional and financial entanglements that often result. Administrative contracts are described. (MLW)

  19. Novice Administrators: Personality and Administrative Style Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Linda J.; Kosmoski, Georgia J.; Pollack, Dennis R.

    Since the advent of effective-schools research findings, educational administration experts have advocated a democratic and collegial leadership style for school administrators. This paper provides the findings of a study that examined 43 beginning administrators (25 females, 32 Caucasians, 9 African-Americans, 2 Hispanics) to determine what…

  20. Genetics Home Reference: alpha-mannosidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions alpha-mannosidosis alpha-mannosidosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Alpha-mannosidosis is a rare inherited disorder that causes ...

  1. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits albumin gene expression in a murine model of cachexia.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, D A; Buck, M; Feitelberg, S P; Chojkier, M

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for decreased serum albumin levels in patients with cachexia-associated infection, inflammation, and cancer are unknown. Since tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) is elevated in cachexia-associated diseases, and chronic administration of TNF alpha induces cachexia in animal models, we assessed the regulation of albumin gene expression by TNF alpha in vivo. In this animal model of cachexia, Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with the functional gene for human TNF alpha were inoculated into nude mice (TNF alpha mice). TNF alpha mice became cachectic and manifested decreased serum albumin levels, albumin synthesis, and albumin mRNA levels. However, even before the TNF alpha mice lost weight, their albumin mRNA steady-state levels were decreased approximately 90%, and in situ hybridization revealed a low level of albumin gene expression throughout the hepatic lobule. The mRNA levels of several other genes were unchanged. Hepatic nuclei from TNF alpha mice before the onset of weight loss were markedly less active in transcribing the albumin gene than hepatic nuclei from control mice. Therefore, TNF alpha selectively inhibits the genetic expression of albumin in this model before weight loss. Images PMID:2295699

  2. 76 FR 15986 - Alpha Omega Technology, Inc.; Denial Without Prejudice of Food Additive Petition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... the Federal Register of March 15, 1990 (55 FR 9772), FDA announced that a food additive petition (FAP... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (Formerly Docket No. 90F-0074) Alpha Omega Technology, Inc.; Denial Without Prejudice of Food Additive Petition AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  3. Alpha Blockers for the Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lepor, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of alpha blocker therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has focused on improving convenience and tolerability. Indications for treating BPH include reversing signs and symptoms or preventing progression of the disease. The indication that most commonly drives the need for intervention is relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with the intent of improving quality of life. Alpha blockers are the most effective, least costly, and best tolerated of the drugs for relieving LUTS. Four long-acting alpha 1 blockers are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of symptomatic LUTS/BPH: terazosin, doxazosin, tamsulosin, and alfuzosin. All are well tolerated and have comparable dose-dependent effectiveness. Tamsulosin and alfuzosin SR do not require dose titration. Alfuzosin, terazosin, and doxazosin have all been shown to be effective in relieving LUTS/BPH independent of prostate size. PMID:18231614

  4. Transforming growth factor-alpha-Pseudomonas exotoxin fusion protein (TGF-alpha-PE38) treatment of subcutaneous and intracranial human glioma and medulloblastoma xenografts in athymic mice.

    PubMed

    Phillips, P C; Levow, C; Catterall, M; Colvin, O M; Pastan, I; Brem, H

    1994-02-15

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is amplified or overexpressed in many malignant gliomas and other primary brain tumors but is low or undetectable in normal brain. In the present study, this differential expression has been exploited for targeted brain tumor therapy using a TGF-alpha-Pseudomonas exotoxin recombinant toxin, TGF-alpha-PE38. In vitro experiments demonstrate that the cytotoxicity of this fusion protein is primarily determined by tumor EGFR expression and that TGF-alpha-PE38 cytotoxicity is abolished by pretreatment with excess epidermal growth factor. Treatment with i.p. TGF-alpha-PE38 in nude mice bearing glioblastoma or medulloblastoma s.c. xenografts produced tumor regression and growth delay. For intracranial xenograft implants treated with i.p. TGF-alpha-PE38, significant increases in median survival were noted only for tumors with the highest EGFR expression. However, intracranial tumors treated with a single intratumoral injection of TGF-alpha-PE38 showed increased survival in all xenografts tested. These results indicate that TGF-alpha-PE38 is active against primary human brain tumors ranging from moderate to high EGFR expression. For intracranial tumors, however, the higher survival rates produced by intracranial injection of TGF-alpha-PE38 than by continuous i.p. administration suggest that increased drug clearance or impaired drug delivery reduces the efficacy of systemic TGF-alpha-PE38. Direct delivery of TGF-alpha-PE38 into brain tumors by controlled-release biodegradable polymers or intratumoral implanted catheters, or intrathecal administration into the colony stimulating factor of patients with leptomeningeal metastasis, may represent clinically useful applications of recombinant toxin therapy in tumors with high EGFR expression. PMID:8313355

  5. Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1972-01-01

    Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.

  6. Naftopidil, a novel alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist, displays selective inhibition of canine prostatic pressure and high affinity binding to cloned human alpha1-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Takei, R; Ikegaki, I; Shibata, K; Tsujimoto, G; Asano, T

    1999-04-01

    The pharmacological profiles of the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists naftopidil, tamsulosin and prazosin were studied in an anesthetized dog model that allowed the simultaneous assessment of their antagonist potency against phenylephrine-mediated increases in prostatic pressure and mean blood pressure. The intravenous administration of each of these compounds dose-dependently inhibited phenylephrine-induced increases in prostatic pressure and mean blood pressure. To further assess the ability of the three compounds to inhibit phenylephrine-induced responses, the doses required to produce a 50% inhibition of the phenylephrine-induced increases in prostatic and mean blood pressure and the selectivity index obtained from the ratio of those two doses were determined for each test compound. Forty minutes after the intravenous administration of naftopidil, the selectivity index was 3.76, and those of tamsulosin and prazosin were 1.23 and 0.61, respectively. These findings demonstrated that naftopidil selectively inhibited the phenylephrine-induced increase in prostatic pressure compared with mean blood pressure in the anesthetized dog model. The selectivity of naftopidil for prostatic pressure was the most potent among the test compounds. In addition, using cloned human alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes, naftopidil was selective for the alpha1d-adrenoceptor with approximately 3- and 17-fold higher affinity than for the alpha1a- and alpha1b-adrenoceptor subtypes, respectively. The selectivity of naftopidil for prostatic pressure may be attributable to its high binding affinity for alpha1a- and alpha1d-adrenoceptor subtypes. PMID:10361884

  7. Impact of the Tamsulosin in Alpha Adrenergic Receptor of Airways at Patients with Increased Bronchial Reactibility

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Lirim; Ilazi, Ali; Dauti, Arta; Islami, Pellumb; Kastrati, Bashkim; Islami, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this work, effect of tamsulosin as antagonist of alpha1A and alpha1B adrenergic receptor and effect of agonists of beta2 adrenergic receptor–salbutamol in patients with increased bronchial reactibility was studied. Methods: Parameters of the lung function are determined with Body plethysmography six (6) hours after administration of tamsulosin. Raw and ITGV were registered and specific resistance (SRaw) was calculated as well. Tamsulosin was administered in per os manner as a preparation in the shape of the capsules with a brand name of “Prolosin”, produced by Niche Generics Limited, Hitchin, Herts. Results: After six (6) hours of administration of tamsulosin, results gained indicate that blockage of alpha1A and alpha1B-adrenergic receptor (0.8 mg per os) has not changed significantly (p > 0.1) the bronchomotor tonus of tracheobronchial tree in comparison to the check-up that has inhaled salbutamol agonist of adrenergic beta2 receptor (2 inh. x 0.2 mg), (p < 0.05). Blood pressure suffered no significant decrease following administration of the 0.8 mg dose of tamsulosin. Conclusion: This suggests that even after six hours of administration of tamsulosin, and determining of lung function parameters, the activity of alpha1A and alpha1B-adrenergic receptor in the smooth bronchial musculature has not changed in patients with increased bronchial reactibility. PMID:26543414

  8. Binding of tumor necrosis factor alpha to activated forms of human plasma alpha 2 macroglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Wollenberg, G. K.; LaMarre, J.; Rosendal, S.; Gonias, S. L.; Hayes, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that human plasma alpha 2 macroglobulin (alpha 2M) is a latent binding glycoprotein for human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Human recombinant 125I-TNF-alpha was incubated for 2 hours (37 degrees C) with purified native alpha 2M and with alpha 2M that was modified by reaction with methylamine or various proteinases. 125I-TNF-alpha/alpha 2M complexes were detected by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after autoradiography or by liquid chromatography on Superose-6. 125I-TNF-alpha bound strongly but noncovalently to alpha 2M-plasmin and alpha 2M-methylamine. There was minimal binding of 125I-TNF-alpha to native alpha 2M, alpha 2M-trypsin, or alpha 2M-thrombin. A 10(6) molar excess of porcine heparin did not reduce the binding of 125I-TNF-alpha to alpha 2M-methylamine or alpha 2M-plasmin. alpha 2M-plasmin or alpha 2M-methylamine added to human plasma or serum preferentially bound 125I-TNF-alpha in the presence of native alpha 2M. 125I-TNF-alpha also bound to 'fast' alpha-macroglobulins in methylamine-reacted human, rat, mouse, swine, equine, and bovine plasma. However, TNF-alpha, preincubated with either alpha 2M-plasmin or alpha 2M-methylamine, remained a potent necrogen for cultured L929 cells. Purified 125I-TNF-alpha/alpha 2M-plasmin complex injected intravenously in CD-1 mice rapidly cleared from the circulation, unless the alpha 2M-receptor pathway was blocked by coinjection of excess alpha 2M-trypsin. These findings demonstrate that alpha 2M is a latent plasmin-activated binding glycoprotein for TNF-alpha and that TNF-alpha/alpha 2M-plasmin complexes can be removed from the circulation by the alpha 2M-receptor pathway. This suggests that alpha 2M may be an important regulator of the activity and distribution of TNF-alpha in vivo. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:1704186

  9. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... in each cell. Each copy is called an allele. For each gene, one allele is inherited from a person's father, and the ... person's mother. As a result, there are four alleles that produce alpha-globin. The different types of ...

  11. International Space Station (ISS) Alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An artist's concept of a fully deployed International Space Station (ISS) Alpha. The ISS-A is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experiments.

  12. Detecting Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stoller, James K

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a widely underrecognized condition, with evidence of persisting long diagnostic delays and patients' frequent need to see multiple physicians before initial diagnosis. Reasons for underrecognition include inadequate understanding of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency by physicians and allied health care providers; failure to implement available, guideline-based practice recommendations; and the belief that effective therapy is unavailable. Multiple studies have described both the results of screening and targeted detection of individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, with both varying strategies employed to identify at-risk individuals and varying results of testing. Also, various strategies to enhance detection of affected individuals have been examined, including use of the electronic medical record to prompt testing and empowerment of allied health providers, especially respiratory therapists, to promote testing for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Such efforts are likely to enhance detection with the expected result that the harmful effects of delayed diagnosis can be mitigated. PMID:27564667

  13. Alpha Heating and Burning Plasmas in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopherson, A. R.

    2015-11-01

    In inertial confinement fusion, a spherical capsule of cryogenic DT is accelerated inward at a high velocity. Near stagnation, a dense hot spot is formed where the deuterium and tritium ions begin to fuse, creating a 3.5-MeV alpha particle per reaction. These alpha particles deposit energy back into the plasma, thereby increasing the pressure, temperature, and reaction rate. This feedback process is called ``alpha heating,'' and ignition is a direct consequence of this thermal instability. The onset of a burning-plasma regime occurs when the total alpha-particle energy produced exceeds the shell compression work. Using an analytic compressible-shell model for the implosion, it is found that the onset of the burning-plasma regime is a unique function of the neutron yield enhancement caused by alpha particles for any target, direct or indirect drive. This yield enhancement can then be inferred from experimentally measureable quantities, such as the Lawson parameter. From this analysis, the onset of a burning plasma occurs at yields exceeding 50 kJ for implosions at the National Ignition Facility. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944 and DE-FC02-04ER54789 (Fusion Science Center).

  14. Alpha decay in electron surrounding

    SciTech Connect

    Igashov, S. Yu.; Tchuvil’sky, Yu. M.

    2013-12-15

    The influence of atomic electron shells on the constant of alpha decay of heavy and mediummass nuclei was considered in detail. A method for simultaneously taking into account the change in the potential-barrier shape and the effect of reflection of a diverging Coulomb wave in the classically allowed region was developed. The ratios of decay probabilities per unit time for a bare nucleus and the respective neutral atom were found for some alpha-decaying isotopes.

  15. Comparison of the effect of alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on muscle contractility of the rabbit abdominal aorta in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gnus, Jan; Rusiecka, Agnieszka; Czerski, Albert; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Hauzer, Willy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the effect of selected agonists and antagonists of alpha-adrenergic receptors on muscle contractility of the rabbit abdominal aorta in vitro with particular emphasis on alpha2-adrenergic receptor subtypes. The study was conducted on 30 New Zealand breed rabbits from which specimens of the abdominal aorta were collected. The sections were set up in an automatic water bath in a Krebs-Henseleit buffer at 37 degrees C. The experiments showed that alpha1-adrenergic receptors played the main role in the contractile response ofthe rabbit abdominal aorta. Stimulation of alpha1-adrenergic receptor by administration ofphenylephrine resulted in an increase in smooth muscle tonus ofthe rabbit abdominal aorta by an average of 4.75 mN. The reaction after stimulation of alpha2-adrenergic receptors by similar doses of their agonists was much weaker. Prolonged tissue response time and time needed to reach maximum tonus for alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists were observed. The obtained results confirm the thesis that the alpha1-adrenergic receptor is the most important factor controlling the contractility of the rabbit abdominal aorta, but the alpha2-adrenergic receptor is also involved in maintaining muscle tissue tonus. PMID:23767297

  16. Therapeutic effect of anti-feline TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody for feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Doki, Tomoyoshi; Takano, Tomomi; Kawagoe, Kohei; Kito, Akihiko; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2016-02-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) replication in macrophages/monocytes induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production, and that the TNF-alpha produced was involved in aggravating the pathology of FIP. We previously reported the preparation of a feline TNF-alpha (fTNF-alpha)-neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody (anti-fTNF-alpha mAb). This anti-fTNF-alpha mAb 2-4 was confirmed to inhibit the following fTNF-alpha-induced conditions in vitro. In the present study, we investigated whether mAb 2-4 improved the FIP symptoms and survival rate of experimentally FIPV-inoculated SPF cats. Progression to FIP was prevented in 2 out of 3 cats treated with mAb 2-4, whereas all 3 cats developed FIP in the placebo control group. Plasma alpha1-glycoprotein and vascular endothelial growth factor levels were improved by the administration of mAb 2-4, and the peripheral lymphocyte count also recovered. These results strongly suggested that the anti-fTNF-alpha antibody is effective for the treatment of FIP. PMID:26850532

  17. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  18. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  19. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  20. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  1. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  2. Organization/Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing 26 syllabi for courses on organization and administration in higher education are discussed, and six sample syllabi are presented. The syllabi focused more on organization than administration. Of the 26 syllabi, 19 dealt with organization and administration generally; 5 with administration in a specific…

  3. Binding of actin to lens alpha crystallins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Actin has been coupled to a cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B column, then tested for binding to alpha, beta, and gamma crystallin preparations from the bovine lens. Alpha, but not beta or gamma, crystallins bound to the actin affinity column in a time dependent and saturable manner. Subfractionation of the alpha crystallin preparation into the alpha-A and alpha-B species, followed by incubation with the affinity column, demonstrated that both species bound approximately the same. Together, these studies demonstrate a specific and saturable binding of lens alpha-A and alpha-B with actin.

  4. Effects of alpha-chlorohydrin and gonadectomy on the adenohypophysial cells of male rats and gerbils.

    PubMed

    Dixit, V P; Lohiya, N K; Jain, H C

    1974-05-01

    The cytological changes occurring in the gonadotropic cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary in 30 male rats and 30 male gerbils after administration of alpha-chlorohydrin were compared with those occurring following bilateral gonadectomy. A decline in the weights of testes and accessory sex glands and inhibited spermatogenesis were noted in rats and gerbils following alpha-chlorohydrin administration. Alpha-cholorohydrin changed the appearance of the delta-basilphils, cell cytoplasm showed fine granulation and vacuolization, and castration vacuoles appeared in many delta-basiphils of the anteroir lobe of the pituitary. The compound brought about transient changes resembling those of castration in the anterior lobe of the pituitary of male rats and gerbils. In gerbils, there was also a marked decrease in the number of acidophils. The results show that alpha-chlorohydrin exerts its effects on androgen-dependent structures, e.g., seminal vesicles, ventral prostrate, epididymides, and perineal complex. PMID:4841391

  5. Modulation of gene expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The naturally occurring vitamin E analogue, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), has been reported to be more potent in reducing cell proliferation and the expression of the CD36 scavenger receptor than the un-phosphorylated alpha-tocopherol (alpha T). We have now assessed the effects of alpha T an...

  6. Mechanism of alpha-tocopheryl-phosphate (alpha-TP) transport across the cell membrane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reported that alpha-TP is synthesized and hydrolyzed in animal cells and tissues; it modulates also several cell functions (FRBM 39:970, and UBMB Life, 57:23, 2005). While it is similar to alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T), alpha-TP appears to be more potent than alpha-T in inhibiting cell prolifer...

  7. Ultrasound-targeted antisense oligonucleotide attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Erikson, John M; Freeman, Gregory L; Chandrasekar, Bysani

    2003-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are now emerging as effective vehicles for delivering therapeutic agents to target tissues. In the present study, we used ultrasound-targeted, contrast-bound antisense oligonucleotides to inhibit the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a proinflammatory cytokine with negative inotropic effects. We compared the efficacy of left ventricular vs. intravenous administration and determined the optimal time for delivery. WKY rats were treated with perfluorocarbon-exposed sonicated dextrose albumin (PESDA) microspheres incubated with 100 microg of antisense oligonucleotide directed against TNF-alpha. Contrast was infused into either the superior vena cava or the left ventricular cavity along with simultaneous application of ultrasound. Twenty-four hours later, the animals underwent 15 min of ischemia and 2 h reperfusion. Control animals underwent sham operation only, ischemia/reperfusion only, or received PESDA only. A second group received treatment just prior to, or immediately after the onset of ischemia. At the end of the experimental period, hearts were removed and analyzed for TNF-alpha by northern and western blotting. While no TNF-alpha expression was detected in sham-operated animals, robust expression of TNF-alpha mRNA and protein was seen in controls treated with ultrasound and PESDA alone. In contrast, intravenous or left ventricular administration of antisense oligonucleotides significantly inhibited ischemia/reperfusion-induced TNF-alpha expression. Direct delivery into the left ventricular cavity was more effective than intravenous administration, and delivery just prior to ischemia was most effective in attenuating TNF-alpha expression. Furthermore, attenuation of TNF-alpha expression also significantly inhibited other post-ischemic inflammatory mediators including IL-1beta and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Thus, ultrasound-targeted antisense oligonucleotides can effectively attenuate post

  8. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    SciTech Connect

    Bethke, Siegfried; Hoang, Andre H.; Kluth, Stefan; Schieck, Jochen; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  9. Immunodiagnosis of alpha chain disease.

    PubMed Central

    Doe, W F; Danon, F; Seligmann, M

    1979-01-01

    Since the early diagnosis of alpha chain disease (alphaCD)) is essential to successful treatment and to epidemiological studies, the available immunodiagnostic techniques were compared for their sensitivity, specificity and ease of performance on a panel of sixteen sera, comprising ten alphaCD sera and six control sera containing either IgA myeloma protein or high levels of polyclonal IgA. Immunoselection by immunoelectrophoresis into gel containing a specially developed anti-Fabalpha antiserum provided the most sensitive and specific detection system for alphaCD protein. The same technique using anti-light chain antiserum for immunoselection was also highly sensitive, but proved less specific, being prone to false positives with difficult IgA myeloma proteins. Somewhat less sensitive, but specific and simple to perform, was immunoelectrophoresis using an antiserum recognizing the conformational specificities of Fabalpha as well as those of the constant region of alpha chains. Immunoselection using the Ouchterlony or rocket techniques proved to be less sensitive and prone to false positives when some IgA myeloma sera were tested. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:113152

  10. 3alpha-6alpha-Dihydroxy-7alpha-fluoro-5beta-cholanoate (UPF-680), physicochemical and physiological properties of a new fluorinated bile acid that prevents 17alpha-ethynyl-estradiol-induced cholestasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Clerici, Carlo; Castellani, Danilo; Asciutti, Stefania; Pellicciari, Roberto; Setchell, Kenneth D R; O'Connell, Nancy C; Sadeghpour, Bahman; Camaioni, Emidio; Fiorucci, Stefano; Renga, Barbara; Nardi, Elisabetta; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Clementi, Mattia; Giuliano, Vittorio; Baldoni, Monia; Orlandi, Stefano; Mazzocchi, Alessandro; Morelli, Antonio; Morelli, Olivia

    2006-07-15

    3alpha-6alpha-Dihydroxy-7alpha-fluoro-5beta-cholanoate (UPF-680), the 7alpha-fluorine analog of hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA), was synthesized to improve bioavailability and stability of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Acute rat biliary fistula and chronic cholestasis induced by 17alpha-ethynyl-estradiol (17EE) models were used to study and compare the effects of UPF-680 (dose range 0.6-6.0 micromol/kg min) with UDCA on bile flow, biliary bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)), lipid output, biliary bile acid composition, hepatic enzymes and organic anion pumps. In acute infusion, UPF-680 increased bile flow in a dose-related manner, by up to 40.9%. Biliary HCO(3)(-) output was similarly increased. Changes were observed in phospholipid secretion only at the highest doses. Treatment with UDCA and UPF-680 reversed chronic cholestasis induced by 17EE; in this model, UDCA had no effect on bile flow in contrast to UPF-680, which significantly increased bile flow. With acute administration of UPF-680, the biliary bile acid pool became enriched with unconjugated and conjugated UPF-680 (71.7%) at the expense of endogenous cholic acid and muricholic isomers. With chronic administration of UPF-680 or UDCA, the main biliary bile acids were tauro conjugates, but modification of biliary bile acid pool was greater with UPF-680. UPF-680 increased the mRNA for cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) and cytochrome P450 8B (CYP8B). Both UDCA and UPF-680 increased the mRNA for Na(+) taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NCTP). In conclusion, UPF-680 prevented 17EE-induced cholestasis and enriched the biliary bile acid pool with less detergent and cytotoxic bile acids. This novel fluorinated bile acid may have potential in the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. PMID:16487557

  11. 3{alpha}-6{alpha}-Dihydroxy-7{alpha}-fluoro-5{beta}-cholanoate (UPF-680), physicochemical and physiological properties of a new fluorinated bile acid that prevents 17{alpha}-ethynyl-estradiol-induced cholestasis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Clerici, Carlo . E-mail: clerici@unipg.it; Castellani, Danilo; Asciutti, Stefania; Pellicciari, Roberto; Setchell, Kenneth D.R. |; O'Connell, Nancy C. |; Sadeghpour, Bahman; Camaioni, Emidio; Fiorucci, Stefano; Renga, Barbara; Nardi, Elisabetta; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Clementi, Mattia; Giuliano, Vittorio; Baldoni, Monia; Orlandi, Stefano; Mazzocchi, Alessandro; Morelli, Antonio; Morelli, Olivia

    2006-07-15

    3{alpha}-6{alpha}-Dihydroxy-7{alpha}-fluoro-5{beta}-cholanoate (UPF-680), the 7{alpha}-fluorine analog of hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA), was synthesized to improve bioavailability and stability of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Acute rat biliary fistula and chronic cholestasis induced by 17{alpha}-ethynyl-estradiol (17EE) models were used to study and compare the effects of UPF-680 (dose range 0.6-6.0 {mu}mol/kg min) with UDCA on bile flow, biliary bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3} {sup -}), lipid output, biliary bile acid composition, hepatic enzymes and organic anion pumps. In acute infusion, UPF-680 increased bile flow in a dose-related manner, by up to 40.9%. Biliary HCO{sub 3} {sup -} output was similarly increased. Changes were observed in phospholipid secretion only at the highest doses. Treatment with UDCA and UPF-680 reversed chronic cholestasis induced by 17EE; in this model, UDCA had no effect on bile flow in contrast to UPF-680, which significantly increased bile flow. With acute administration of UPF-680, the biliary bile acid pool became enriched with unconjugated and conjugated UPF-680 (71.7%) at the expense of endogenous cholic acid and muricholic isomers. With chronic administration of UPF-680 or UDCA, the main biliary bile acids were tauro conjugates, but modification of biliary bile acid pool was greater with UPF-680. UPF-680 increased the mRNA for cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) and cytochrome P450 8B (CYP8B). Both UDCA and UPF-680 increased the mRNA for Na{sup +} taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NCTP). In conclusion, UPF-680 prevented 17EE-induced cholestasis and enriched the biliary bile acid pool with less detergent and cytotoxic bile acids. This novel fluorinated bile acid may have potential in the treatment of cholestatic liver disease.

  12. alpha-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone is neuroprotective in rat global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Forslin Aronsson, Sa; Spulber, Stefan; Popescu, Laurentiu M; Winblad, Bengt; Post, Claes; Oprica, Mircea; Schultzberg, Marianne

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), a tridecapeptide derived from proopiomelanocortin (POMC), on the neurodegeneration following global cerebral ischemia and reperfusion in the rat. The biological activities of alpha-MSH include inhibition of inflammatory responses and anti-pyretic effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) global cerebral ischemia followed by reperfusion, and treated with alpha-MSH (intraperitoneally, i.p.) at 30 min, and 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-ischemia. Stereological quantification of the pyramidal cells in the CA1 area of the hippocampus showed that the number of viable neurons in ischemic rats was 96,945+/-18,610 (means+/-SD) as compared to 183,156+/-49,935 in sham-operated rats (P<0.05). The number of viable neurons after treatment of ischemic rats with alpha-MSH was 162,829+/-34,757, i.e. significantly different from the number of viable neurons in ischemic rats injected with saline (P<0.01). Astrocyte proliferation due to the ischemic insult was markedly reduced by the treatment with alpha-MSH, and the loss in body weight was reduced by alpha-MSH. In conclusion, post-ischemic administration of alpha-MSH was found to provide neuroprotection in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer in the hippocampus, concomitant with a reduction in glial activation, indicating that alpha-MSH or mimetics thereof may have a potential in the treatment of stroke or other neurodegenerative diseases. Further studies will be required to define the post-ischemic time window for administration of alpha-MSH. PMID:16414116

  13. Involvement of interleukin-8, vascular endothelial growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor in tumor necrosis factor alpha-dependent angiogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, S; Ono, M; Shono, T; Izumi, H; Ishibashi, T; Suzuki, H; Kuwano, M

    1997-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a macrophage/monocyte-derived polypeptide which modulates the expression of various genes in vascular endothelial cells and induces angiogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism by which TNF-alpha mediates angiogenesis is not completely understood. In this study, we assessed whether TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis is mediated through TNF-alpha itself or indirectly through other TNF-alpha-induced angiogenesis-promoting factors. Cellular mRNA levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and their receptors were increased after the treatment of human microvascular endothelial cells with TNF-alpha (100 U/ml). TNF-alpha-dependent tubular morphogenesis in vascular endothelial cells was inhibited by the administration of anti-IL-8, anti-VEGF, and anti-bFGF antibodies, and coadministration of all three antibodies almost completely abrogated tubular formation. Moreover, treatment with Sp1, NF-kappaB, and c-Jun antisense oligonucleotides inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent tubular morphogenesis by microvascular endothelial cells. Administration of a NF-kappaB antisense oligonucleotide almost completely inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent IL-8 production and partially abrogated TNF-alpha-dependent VEGF production, and an Sp1 antisense sequence partially inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent production of VEGF. A c-Jun antisense oligonucleotide significantly inhibited TNF-alpha-dependent bFGF production but did not affect the production of IL-8 and VEGF. Administration of an anti-IL-8 or anti-VEGF antibody also blocked TNF-alpha-induced neovascularization in the rabbit cornea in vivo. Thus, angiogenesis by TNF-alpha appears to be modulated through various angiogenic factors, both in vitro and in vivo, and this pathway is controlled through paracrine and/or autocrine mechanisms. PMID:9199336

  14. Lactobacillus casei secreting alpha-MSH induces the therapeutic effect on DSS-induced acute colitis in Balb/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sun-Woo; Lee, Chul-Ho; Kim, Jeong-Yoon; Kim, Jie-Youn; Sung, Moon-Hee; Poo, Haryoung

    2008-12-01

    The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha- MSH) has anti-inflammatory property by downregulating the expressions of proinflammatory cytokines. Because alpha-MSH elicits the anti-inflammatory effect in various inflammatory disease models, we examined the therapeutic effect of oral administration of recombinant Lactobacillus casei, which secretes alpha-MSH (L. casei-alpha-MSH), on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in Balb/c mice. Thus, we constructed the alpha-MSH-secreting Lactobacillus casei by the basic plasmid, pLUAT-ss, which was composed of a PldhUTLS promoter and alpha-amylase signal sequence from Streptococcus bovis strain. Acute colitis was induced by oral administration of 5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. To investigate the effect of L. casei-alpha-MSH on the colitis, L. casei or L. casei-alpha-MSH was orally administered for 7 days and their effects on body weight, mortality rate, cytokine production, and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were observed. Administration of L. casei-alpha-MSH reduced the symptom of acute colitis as assessed by body weight loss (DSS alone: 14.45+/-0. 2 g; L. casei-alpha- MSH: 18.2+/-0.12 g), colitis score (DSS alone: 3.6+/-0.4; L. casei-alpha-MSH: 1.4+/-0.6), MPO activity (DSS alone: 42.7+/-4.5 U/g; L. casei-alpha-MSH: 10.25+/-0.5 U/g), survival rate, and histological damage compared with the DSS alone mice. L. casei-alpha-MSH-administered entire colon showed reduced in vitro production of proinflammatory cytokines and NF-kappaB activation. The alpha-MSH-secreting recombinant L. casei showed significant anti-inflammatory effects in the murine model of acute colitis and suggests a potential therapeutic role for this agent in clinical inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:19131702

  15. PPAR{alpha} gene expression is up-regulated by LXR and PXR activators in the small intestine

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Jun; Satoh, Shin-ichi; Kita, Mariko; Nakahara, Mayuko; Hachimura, Satoshi; Miyata, Masaaki; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2008-07-11

    LXR, PXR, and PPAR{alpha} are members of a nuclear receptor family which regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Here, we show the administration of T0901317 stimulates PPAR{alpha} gene expression in the small intestine but not in the liver of both normal and FXR-null mice. The administration of LXR specific ligand GW3965, or PXR specific ligand PCN has the same effect, indicating that ligand-dependent activation of LXR and PXR, but not FXR, is responsible for the increased gene expression of PPAR{alpha} in the mouse small intestine.

  16. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  17. Users Speak Out: A Look at Six Administrative Software Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruder, Isabelle

    1988-01-01

    Reviews six microcomputer-based administrative software programs that handle scheduling, grade reporting, and attendance tasks: (1) Alpha II, (2) Harts III, (3) Mount Castor, (4) The Osiris System, (5) The School System, and (6) STARS (Student Academic Records System). Companies producing the programs, systems they run on, and price information…

  18. alpha-Thalassemia caused by an unstable alpha-globin mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Liebhaber, S A; Kan, Y W

    1983-01-01

    In a previous study, molecular cloning of the alpha-globin genes from a patient with nondeletion Hb-H disease (genotype--/alpha alpha) showed that a single nucleotide mutation (CTG to CCG) in one of the genes resulted in a leucine to proline substitution. This paper describes the approach we used to detect the abnormal alpha-globin chain. The chain was identified using a cell-free translation system. It turned over rapidly both in vitro and in vivo in the patient's reticulocytes. The unusual feature of this unstable alpha-globin is that the alpha-globin deficiency causes alpha-thalassemia. Simple heterozygotes for this lesion (alpha Pro alpha/alpha alpha) resemble alpha-thalassemia carriers and do not exhibit the hemolytic anemia usually associated with unstable hemoglobins. Images PMID:6826718

  19. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  20. Bremsstrahlung in {alpha} Decay Reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Boie, H.; Scheit, H.; Jentschura, U. D.; Koeck, F.; Lauer, M.; Schwalm, D.; Milstein, A. I.; Terekhov, I. S.

    2007-07-13

    A high-statistics measurement of bremsstrahlung emitted in the {alpha} decay of {sup 210}Po has been performed, which allows us to follow the photon spectra up to energies of {approx}500 keV. The measured differential emission probability is in good agreement with our theoretical results obtained within the quasiclassical approximation as well as with the exact quantum mechanical calculation. It is shown that, due to the small effective electric dipole charge of the radiating system, a significant interference between the electric dipole and quadrupole contributions occurs, which is altering substantially the angular correlation between the {alpha} particle and the emitted photon.

  1. NACA Physicist Studying Alpha Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    NACA Physicits studying Alpha Rays in a continuous cloud chamber. A cloud chamber is used by Lewis scientists to obtain information aimed at minimizing undesirable effects of radiation on nuclear-powered aircraft components. Here, alpha particles from a polonium source emit in a flower-like pattern at the cloud chamber's center. The particles are made visible by means of alcohol vapor diffusing from an area at room temperature to an area at minus -78 deg. Centigrade. Nuclear-powered aircraft were never developed and aircraft nuclear propulsion systems were canceled in the early 1960s.

  2. Administration for Community Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... by Acting Assistant Secretary for Aging and ACL Administrator Edwin Walker at the HCBS Conference (08/29/ ... Remarks by Assistant Secretary on Aging and ACL Administrator Kathy Greenlee at the n4a Answers on Aging ...

  3. The New Administrative Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kenneth C.

    1988-01-01

    The past decade has seen dramatic changes in administrative computing, including more systems, more applications, a new group of computer users, and new opportunities for computer use in campus administration. (Author/MSE)

  4. Transportation Security Administration

    MedlinePlus

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration When I fly can I bring my... ... to know if you could bring through the security checkpoint. Main menu Administrator Travel Security Screening Special ...

  5. NASA, NOAA administrators nominated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    President Ronald Reagan recently said he intended to nominate James Montgomery Beggs as NASA Administrator and John V. Byrne as NOAA Administrator. These two positions are key scientific posts that have been vacant since the start of the Reagan administration on January 20. The President also said he intends to nominate Hans Mark as NASA Deputy Administrator. At press time, Reagan had not designated his nominee for the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy.

  6. Suppression of myofibrillar proteolysis in chick skeletal muscles by alpha-ketoisocaproate.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, K; Yakabe, Y; Ishida, A; Yamazaki, M; Abe, H

    2007-09-01

    We previously reported that L-leucine suppresses myofibrillar proteolysis in chick skeletal muscles. In the current study, we compared the effects of L- and D-enantiomers of leucine on myofibrillar proteolysis in skeletal muscle of chicks. We also assessed whether leucine itself or its metabolite, alpha-ketoisocaproate (alpha-KIC), mediates the effects of leucine. Food-deprived (24 h) chicks were orally administered 225 mg/100 g body weight L-leucine, D-leucine or alpha-KIC and were sacrificed after 2 h. L-Leucine administration had an obvious inhibitory effect on myofibrillar proteolysis (plasma N(tau)-methylhistidine concentration) in chicks while D-leucine and alpha-KIC were much more effective. We also examined the expression of the proteolytic-related genes (ubiquitin, proteasome, m-calpain and cathepsin B) by real-time PCR of cDNA in chick skeletal muscles. Ubiquitin mRNA expression was decreased by D-leucine and alpha-KIC but not L-leucine. Proteasome and m-calpain mRNA expressions as well as cathepsin B mRNA expression were likewise decreased by L-leucine, D-leucine and alpha-KIC. These results indicate that D-leucine and alpha-KIC suppress proteolytic-related genes, resulting in an decrease in myofibrillar proteolysis while L-leucine is much less effective in skeletal muscle of chicks, may be explain by conversion of D-leucine to alpha-KIC. PMID:16998714

  7. Ginsenoside Rf, a component of ginseng, regulates lipoprotein metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunghee; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Yoon, Michung . E-mail: yoon60@mokwon.ac.kr

    2006-01-06

    We investigated whether ginseng regulates lipoprotein metabolism by altering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha})-mediated pathways, using a PPAR{alpha}-null mouse model. Administration of ginseng extract, ginsenosides, and ginsenoside Rf (Rf) to wild-type mice not only significantly increased basal levels of hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and C-III mRNA compared with wild-type controls, but also substantially reversed the reductions in mRNA levels of apo A-I and C-III expected following treatment with the potent PPAR{alpha} ligand Wy14,643. In contrast, no effect was detected in the PPAR{alpha}-null mice. Testing of eight main ginsenosides on PPAR{alpha} reporter gene expression indicated that Rf was responsible for the effects of ginseng on lipoprotein metabolism. Furthermore, the inhibition of PPAR{alpha}-dependent transactivation by Rf seems to occur at the level of DNA binding. These results demonstrate that ginseng component Rf regulates apo A-I and C-III mRNA and the actions of Rf on lipoprotein metabolism are mediated via interactions with PPAR{alpha}.

  8. A Philosophy of Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruening, William H.

    Justification is given for paying relatively large salaries to college administrators, specifically the president or chancellor and the chief academic officer. Three administrative task areas are discussed as criteria: management, administration per se, and leadership. It is contended that only leadership can be used as a criterion for…

  9. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; And Others

    This textbook reviews the principal concerns within each of 13 major responsibility areas in school business administration. The first chapter assesses the political, social, and economic context in which schools function and school administrators work. The role and function of the school business administrator within this context is addressed in…

  10. Alcoholism, Alpha Production, and Biofeedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Frances W.; Holmes, David S.

    1976-01-01

    Electroencephalograms of 20 alcoholics and 20 nonalcoholics were obtained. Data indicated that alcoholics produced less alpha than nonalcoholics. In one training condition subjects were given accurate biofeedback, whereas in the other condition subjects were given random (noncontingent) feedback. Accurate biofeedback did not result in greater…

  11. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  12. Meet the Alpha-Pets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitlaw, Jo Ann Bruce; Frank, Cheryl Standish

    1985-01-01

    "Alpha-Pets" are the focal point of an integrated, multidisciplinary curriculum. Each pet is featured for a week in a vocabulary-rich story and introduces related activities beginning with the featured letter, such as the four food groups during Freddie Fish's week or universe during Ulysses Unicorn's week. (MT)

  13. Sparse Coding for Alpha Matting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jubin; Varnousfaderani, Ehsan Shahrian; Cholakkal, Hisham; Rajan, Deepu

    2016-07-01

    Existing color sampling based alpha matting methods use the compositing equation to estimate alpha at a pixel from pairs of foreground (F) and background (B) samples. The quality of the matte depends on the selected (F,B) pairs. In this paper, the matting problem is reinterpreted as a sparse coding of pixel features, wherein the sum of the codes gives the estimate of the alpha matte from a set of unpaired F and B samples. A non-parametric probabilistic segmentation provides a certainty measure on the pixel belonging to foreground or background, based on which a dictionary is formed for use in sparse coding. By removing the restriction to conform to (F,B) pairs, this method allows for better alpha estimation from multiple F and B samples. The same framework is extended to videos, where the requirement of temporal coherence is handled effectively. Here, the dictionary is formed by samples from multiple frames. A multi-frame graph model, as opposed to a single image as for image matting, is proposed that can be solved efficiently in closed form. Quantitative and qualitative evaluations on a benchmark dataset are provided to show that the proposed method outperforms current state-of-the-art in image and video matting.

  14. Alpha Testing Escape from Diab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha testing was conducted of sessions 2 and 3 from Diab to assess whether the activities worked as expected, and whether children in the target ages enjoyed it. Data include both RA observations of child performance while playing the games and cognitive interview responses from the players after t...

  15. cap alpha. -Methyl-p-tyrosine shifts circadian temperature rhythms

    SciTech Connect

    Cahill, A.L.; Ehret, C.F.

    1982-09-01

    ..cap alpha..-Methyl-p-tyrosine shifts the acrophase (time of highest temperature) of the circadian temperature rhythm of the rat to earlier or later times of day depending on the phase of the cicadian cycle at which the drug is administered. When ..cap alpha..-methyl-p-tyrosine methyl ester HCl is injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 100 mg/kg late in the projected 8-h light phase, the acrophase of the intraperitoneal temperature rhythm is delayed by up to 3 h.However, when the same dose of drug is given 9-10 h into the projected 16-h dark phase of the daily cycle, the acrophase of the temperature rhythm occurs about 2 h earlier than expected. The times of ..cap alpha..-methyl-p-tyrosine administration leading to maximal phase delays or advances are correlated with the times of minimal and maximal turnover of norepinephrine in the hypothalamus. These results suggest that changing rates of norepinephrine turnover in the hypothalamus may regulate the circadian temperature rhythm in rats. The results also emphasize the fact that the effects of drugs may vary as a function of the time of administration. This fact must be taken into account in pharmacologic testing.

  16. Modulation of gene expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate in thp-1 monocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The naturally occurring vitamin E analogue, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), has been reported to be more potent than the un-phosphorylated alpha alpha-tocopherol (alphaT). We have now measured plasma levels of alphaTP and compared the cellular effects of alphaTP and gamma-tocopheryl phosphate ...

  17. Coexistence of {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n and {alpha}+t+t cluster structures in {sup 10}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Itagaki, N.; Ito, M.; Milin, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.

    2008-06-15

    The coexistence of the {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n and {alpha}+t+t cluster structures in the excited states of {sup 10}Be has been discussed. In the previous analysis, all the low-lying states of {sup 10}Be were found to be well described by the motion of the two valence neutrons around two {alpha} clusters. However, the {alpha}+t+t cluster structure was found to coexist with the {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n structure around E{sub x}=15 MeV, close to the corresponding threshold. We have introduced a microscopic model to solve the coupling effect between these two configurations. The K=0 and K=1 states are generated from the {alpha}+t+t configurations due to the spin coupling of two triton clusters. The present case of {sup 10}Be is one of the few examples in which completely different configurations of triton-type ({alpha}+t+t three-center) and {alpha}-type ({alpha}+{alpha}+n+n two-center) clusters coexist in a single nucleus in the same energy region.

  18. Role of tumor necrosis factor alpha in disease using a mouse model of Shiga toxin-mediated renal damage.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Erin K; Cherla, Rama P; Jaspers, Valery; Weeks, Bradley R; Tesh, Vernon L

    2010-09-01

    Mice have been extensively employed as an animal model of renal damage caused by Shiga toxins. In this study, we examined the role of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the development of toxin-mediated renal disease in mice. Mice pretreated with TNF-alpha and challenged with Shiga toxin type 1 (Stx1) showed increased survival compared to that of mice treated with Stx1 alone. Conversely, mice treated with Stx1 before TNF-alpha administration succumbed more quickly than mice given Stx1 alone. Increased lethality in mice treated with Stx1 followed by TNF-alpha was associated with evidence of glomerular damage and the loss of renal function. No differences in renal histopathology were noted between animals treated with Stx1 alone and the TNF-alpha pretreatment group, although we noted a sparing of renal function when TNF-alpha was administered before toxin. Compared to that of treatment with Stx1 alone, treatment with TNF-alpha after toxin altered the renal cytokine profile so that the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) increased, and the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 decreased. Increased lethality in mice treated with Stx1 followed by TNF-alpha was associated with higher numbers of dUTP-biotin nick end labeling-positive renal tubule cells, suggesting that increased lethality involved enhanced apoptosis. These data suggest that the early administration of TNF-alpha is a candidate interventional strategy blocking disease progression, while TNF-alpha production after intoxication exacerbates disease. PMID:20605983

  19. Genetics Home Reference: 5-alpha reductase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... gene provides instructions for making an enzyme called steroid 5-alpha reductase 2. This enzyme is involved ... external genitalia. Mutations in the SRD5A2 gene prevent steroid 5-alpha reductase 2 from effectively converting testosterone ...

  20. Aversive Situational Effects on Alpha Feedback Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orne, Martin T.; Paskeqitz, David A.

    1974-01-01

    Anticipation of electric shock did not depress alpha activity in a feedback situation. Contrary to previous reports, a reduction in alpha activity is not a necessary consequence of apprehension or heightened arousal. (Author)

  1. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an inherited disease. "Inherited" ... have AAT deficiency inherit two faulty AAT genes, one from each parent. These genes tell cells in ...

  2. How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency has no cure, but its ... of these treatments are the same as the ones used for a lung disease called COPD (chronic ...

  3. Q (Alpha) Function and Squeezing Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunjie, Xia; Xianghe, Kong; Kezhu, Yan; Wanping, Chen

    1996-01-01

    The relation of squeezing and Q(alpha) function is discussed in this paper. By means of Q function, the squeezing of field with gaussian Q(alpha) function or negative P(a)function is also discussed in detail.

  4. Association of actin with alpha crystallins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Boyle, D.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The alpha crystallins are cytosolic proteins that co-localize and co-purify with actin-containing microfilaments. Affinity column chromatography employing both covalently-coupled actin or alpha crystallin was used to demonstrate specific and saturable binding of actin with alpha crystallin. This conclusion was confirmed by direct visualization of alpha aggregates bound to actin polymerized in vitro. The significance of this interaction in relation to the functional properties of these two polypeptides will be discussed.

  5. The ultraviolet spectra of Alpha Aquilae and Alpha Canis Minoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, D. C.; Bruzual A., G.; Kurucz, R. L.; Spinrad, H.

    1977-01-01

    Scans of Alpha Aql (A7 IV, V) and Alpha CMi (F5 IV-V) obtained with the Copernicus satellite spectrometer over the wavelength range from 2100 to 3200 A are presented along with a spectrum of the integrated solar disk over the same range procured during a calibrated rocket flight. About 1500 fairly strong absorption lines in the Alpha CMi spectrum between 2400 and 2961 A are identified by comparison with a solar atlas and by using a theoretical spectrum synthesized from a blanketed LTE model with an effective temperature of 6500 K and a surface gravity of 10,000 cm/sec per sec. The Mg II resonance doublet at 2795.528 and 2802.704 A is found to be present in all three stars together with a discontinuity at 2635 A due to Fe II, Fe I, Cr I, and Mn II. It is concluded that the Mg II resonance lines and the 2635-A continuum break would be the best spectral features for estimating the redshift of a galaxy observed at low resolution provided the redshift is not less than about 0.75.

  6. Recent Results on the CKM Angle Alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalyi, A.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2005-10-18

    The method to measure the CKM angle {alpha} and the modes sensitive to it are discussed. It is shown that the B {yields} {rho}{rho} decays provide the most stringent constraint on {alpha}, which is found to be {alpha} = 96{sup o} {+-} 10{sup o}(stat) {+-} 4{sup o}(syst){+-} 13{sup o}(penguin).

  7. Effectiveness of Alpha Biofeedback Therapy: Negative Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Charles G.; Herder, Joseph

    1980-01-01

    Assessed the utility of alpha biofeedback training in the treatment of patients (N=66). Biofeedback and placebo biofeedback groups were given alpha or mock-alpha training sessions. Improvement on 54 variables was compared to that of no-treatment controls. Only a chance number of significant changes appeared among the groups. (Author)

  8. 6 alpha-Fluoro- and 6 alpha,9 alpha-difluoro-11 beta,21-dihydroxy-16 alpha,17 alpha-propylmethylenedioxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione: synthesis and evaluation of activity and kinetics of their C-22 epimers.

    PubMed

    Thalén, B A; Axelsson, B I; Andersson, P H; Brattsand, R L; Nylander, B; Wickström, L I

    1998-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the anti-inflammatory effect of glucocorticosteroids cannot be separated from their adverse effects at the receptor level. However, modification of the pharmacokinetics through structural alterations could provide steroids with a better therapeutic index than those currently used. Thus, new 16 alpha,17 alpha-acetals between butyraldehyde and 6 alpha-fluoro- or 6 alpha,9 alpha-difluoro-16 alpha-hydroxycortisol were synthesized and studied. Acetalization of the corresponding 16 alpha,17 alpha-diols or transacetalization of their 16 alpha,17 alpha-acetonides in dioxane produced mixtures of C-22 epimers, which were resolved by preparative chromatography. Alternatively, an efficient method was used to produce the 22R-epimer stereoselectively through performing the acetalization and transacetalization in a hydrocarbon with an inert material present. The C-22 configuration of (22R)-6 alpha,9 alpha-difluoro-11 beta,21-dihydroxy-16 alpha,17 alpha-propylmethylenedioxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione was unambiguously established by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The present compounds, especially the 22R-epimer just mentioned, bind to the rat thymus glucocorticoid receptor with high potency. The C-22 epimers of the 6 alpha,9 alpha-difluoro derivatives showed a 10-fold higher biotransformation rate than the budesonide 22R-epimer when incubated with human liver S9 subcellular fraction. The high receptor affinity in combination with the high biotransformation rate indicates that (22R)-6 alpha,9 alpha-difluoro-11 beta,21-dihydroxy-16 alpha,17 alpha-propylmethylenedioxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione may be an improved 16 alpha,17 alpha-acetal glucocorticosteroid for therapy of inflammatory diseases, in which the mucous membranes are involved, such as those in the intestinal tract as well in the respiratory tract. PMID:9437793

  9. A Role for Presynaptic alpha(sub 2)-Adrenoceptors in Angiotensin 2-Induced Drinking in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, Melvin J.; Rowland, Neil E.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Studies from this laboratory have shown that either central or peripheral administration of clonidine, the alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor agonist, can attenuate a variety of dipsogenic stimuli in rats. Further, yohimbine and tolazoline, alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor antagonists, augment the drinking response to both peripherally administered isoproterenol and angiotensin 2. Studies reported here establish a dose-inhibition relationship between the dose of clonidine administered (2 to 32 micrograms/kg) intracerebroventricularly (IVT) and inhibition of the drinking response to peripherally administered angiotensin 2 (200 micrograms/kg, SC). DI(sub 50) was approximately 4 micrograms/kg. Yohimbine (300 micrograms/kg, SC) reversed the antidipsogenic effect of centrally administered clonidine (32 micrograms/kg, IVT) on angiotensin 2-induced (200 micrograms/kg, SC) water intake. Phenylephrine, an alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor agonist, administered IVT (40 and 80 micrograms/kg) also inhibited angiotensin 2-induced drinking in a dose-related fashion. The antidipsogenic effect of phenylephfine (80 micrograms/kg) was blocked by administration of yohimbine (100 micrograms/kg, SC). Thus, this effect of phenylephrine most likely occurs by way of alpha(sub 2)- adrenoceptors. These results support a role for the pre-synaptic alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor in the mediation of drinking in rats. Activation of alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptors is accompanied by reduced water intake while inhibition of these receptors enhances water intake.

  10. alpha. -Adrenergic vasoconstriction and receptor subtypes in large coronary arteries of calves

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.A.; Vatner, D.E.; Knight, D.R.; Graham, R.M.; Homcy, C.J.; Vatner, S.F. New England Regional Primate Research Center, Southborough, MA )

    1988-12-01

    The authors investigated {alpha}-adrenoceptor subtype distribution in large coronary arteries from both functional and biochemical perspectives. The effects of intracoronary administration of the selective {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine, of the selective {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenoceptor agonist B-HT 920 and of the mixed {alpha}{sub 1+2}-adrenoceptor agonist norepinephrine were examined on measurements of left circumflex coronary artery diameter in conscious calves. After {beta}-adrenergic blockade, equivalent reductions in large coronary artery diameter were observed with phenylephrine, B-HT, and norepinephrine. Phenylephrine-induced constrictions were abolished by prazosin, an {alpha}{sub 1}-selective antagonist, but unaffected by rauwolscine, an {alpha}{sub 2}-selective antagonist. Conversely, the B-HT-induced constriction was abolished by rauwolscine but unaffected by prazosin. Coronary constriction with norepinephrine was attenuated with either prazosin or rauwolscine and abolished by the two antagonists combined. Ligand-binding studies in which ({sup 3}H)prazosin and ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine and sarcolemmal membranes were used revealed an {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenoceptor density of 15 {plus minus} 3.1 fmol/mg protein with a dissociation constant (K{sub D}) of 0.7 {plus minus} 0.2 nM and an {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenoceptor density of 68 {plus minus} 5.1 fmol/mg protein, with a K{sub D} of 7.4 {plus minus} 1.2 nM. Thus large coronary arteries of the calf contain both {alpha}{sub 1}- and {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenoceptor subtypes, each of which elicits constriction of the large coronary artery in the conscious animal.

  11. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  12. THE LYMAN ALPHA REFERENCE SAMPLE: EXTENDED LYMAN ALPHA HALOS PRODUCED AT LOW DUST CONTENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Matthew; Oestlin, Goeran; Duval, Florent; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Sandberg, Andreas; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne; Orlitova, Ivana; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Oti-Floranes, Hector; Adamo, Angela; Atek, Hakim; Cannon, John M.; Herenz, E. Christian; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter

    2013-03-10

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Ly{alpha}), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028 < z < 0.18 in continuum-subtracted Ly{alpha}, H{alpha}, and the far ultraviolet continuum. We show that Ly{alpha} is emitted on scales that systematically exceed those of the massive stellar population and recombination nebulae: as measured by the Petrosian 20% radius, R{sub P20}, Ly{alpha} radii are larger than those of H{alpha} by factors ranging from 1 to 3.6, with an average of 2.4. The average ratio of Ly{alpha}-to-FUV radii is 2.9. This suggests that much of the Ly{alpha} light is pushed to large radii by resonance scattering. Defining the Relative Petrosian Extension of Ly{alpha} compared to H{alpha}, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} = R {sup Ly{alpha}}{sub P20}/R {sup H{alpha}}{sub P20}, we find {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} to be uncorrelated with total Ly{alpha} luminosity. However, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} is strongly correlated with quantities that scale with dust content, in the sense that a low dust abundance is a necessary requirement (although not the only one) in order to spread Ly{alpha} photons throughout the interstellar medium and drive a large extended Ly{alpha} halo.

  13. Alpha channeling in a rotating plasma.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Abraham J; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2008-11-14

    The wave-particle alpha-channeling effect is generalized to include rotating plasma. Specifically, radio frequency waves can resonate with alpha particles in a mirror machine with ExB rotation to diffuse the alpha particles along constrained paths in phase space. Of major interest is that the alpha-particle energy, in addition to amplifying the rf waves, can directly enhance the rotation energy which in turn provides additional plasma confinement in centrifugal fusion reactors. An ancillary benefit is the rapid removal of alpha particles, which increases the fusion reactivity. PMID:19113347

  14. Alpha voltaic batteries and methods thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor); Wilt, David (Inventor); Scheiman, David (Inventor); Chubb, Donald (Inventor); Castro, Stephanie (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An alpha voltaic battery includes at least one layer of a semiconductor material comprising at least one p/n junction, at least one absorption and conversion layer on the at least one layer of semiconductor layer, and at least one alpha particle emitter. The absorption and conversion layer prevents at least a portion of alpha particles from the alpha particle emitter from damaging the p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material. The absorption and conversion layer also converts at least a portion of energy from the alpha particles into electron-hole pairs for collection by the one p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material.

  15. The role of integrin alpha D beta2 (CD11d/CD18) in monocyte/macrophage migration.

    PubMed

    Yakubenko, Valentin P; Belevych, Nataly; Mishchuk, Daria; Schurin, Aleksey; Lam, Stephen C-T; Ugarova, Tatiana P

    2008-08-15

    Integrin alpha(D)beta(2) (CD11d/CD18) is a multiligand macrophage receptor with recognition specificity identical to that of the major myeloid cell-specific integrin alpha(M)beta(2) (CD11b/CD18, Mac-1). Despite its prominent upregulation on inflammatory macrophages, the role of alpha(D)beta(2) in monocyte and macrophage migration is unknown. In this study, we have generated model and natural cell lines expressing different densities of alpha(D)beta(2) and examined their migration to various extracellular matrix proteins. When expressed at a low density, alpha(D)beta(2) on the surface of recombinant HEK293 cells and murine IC-21 macrophages cooperates with beta(1)/beta(3) integrins to support cell migration. However, its increased expression on the alpha(D)beta(2)-expressing HEK293 cells and its upregulation by PMA on the IC-21 macrophages result in increased cell adhesiveness and inhibition of cell migration. Furthermore, ligation of alpha(D)beta(2) with anti-alpha(D) blocking antibodies restores beta(1)/beta(3)-driven cell migration by removing the excess alpha(D)beta(2)-mediated adhesive bonds. Consistent with in vitro data, increased numbers of inflammatory macrophages were recovered from the inflamed peritoneum of mice after the administration of anti-alpha(D) antibody. These results demonstrate that the density of alpha(D)beta(2) is critically involved in modulating macrophage adhesiveness and their migration, and suggest that low levels of alpha(D)beta(2) contribute to monocyte migration while alpha(D)beta(2) upregulation on differentiated macrophages may facilitate their retention at sites of inflammation. PMID:18621369

  16. Absorption and transport of deuterium-substituted 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopherol in human lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Traber, M.G.; Ingold, K.U.; Burton, G.W.; Kayden, H.J.

    1988-08-01

    Oral administration of a single dose of tri- or hexadeuterium substituted 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (d3- or d6-alpha-T-Ac) to humans was used to follow the absorption and transport of vitamin E in plasma lipoproteins. Three hr after oral administration of d3-alpha-T-Ac (15 mg) to 2 subjects, plasma levels of d3-alpha-T were detectable; these increased up to 10 hr, reached a plateau at 24 hr, then decreased. Following administration of d6-alpha-T-Ac (15-16 mg) to 2 subjects, the percentage of deuterated tocopherol relative to the total tocopherol in chylomicrons increased more rapidly than the corresponding percentage in whole plasma. Chylomicrons and plasma lipoproteins were isolated from 2 additional subjects following administration of d3-alpha-T-Ac (140 or 60 mg). The percentage of deuterated tocopherol relative to the total tocopherol increased most rapidly in chylomicrons, then in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), followed by essentially identical increases in low and high density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL, respectively) and lastly, in the red blood cells. This pattern of appearance of deuterated tocopherol is consistent with the concept that newly absorbed vitamin E is secreted by the intestine into chylomicrons; subsequently, chylomicron remnants are taken up by the liver from which the vitamin E is secreted in VLDL. The metabolism of VLDL in the circulation results in the simultaneous delivery of vitamin E into LDL and HDL.

  17. Prediction of alpha1-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate from plasma concentrations of silodosin, tamsulosin and terazosin to treat urinary obstruction in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shizuo; Kato, Yasuhiro; Okura, Takashi; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Kazuki

    2007-07-01

    Alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists are clinically useful for the improvement of urinary obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and their therapeutic effects are mediated through the blockade of prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. The present study was undertaken to predict the magnitude and duration of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate after oral alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists. Prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding parameters of silodosin were estimated by measuring specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat prostate after oral administration of this drug. The plasma concentration of silodosin after oral administration in rats and healthy volunteers was measured using a high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding affinities (K(i)) of silodosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin in the human prostate and plasma concentrations of tamsulosin and terazosin were obtained from the literature. Using the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor binding parameters of silodosin in rat prostate, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate was estimated to be around 60-70% at 1-6 h after oral administration of silodosin at doses of 3.0, 8.1, and 16.1 micromol. Thereafter, the receptor occupancy was periodically decreased, to 24% (8.1 micromol) and 54% (16.1 micromol) 24 h later. A similar magnitude and time course of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy by silodosin in the human prostate were estimated using alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding affinities (K(i)) in the human prostate. Despite about two orders of differences in the plasma unbound concentrations after clinically effective oral dosages of silodosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin, there was a comparable magnitude of prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy by these drugs. In conclusion, the prediction of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate by alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists may provide the rationale for the optimum dosage regimen of these drugs in the

  18. Subjective pain perception mediated by alpha rhythms.

    PubMed

    Peng, Weiwei; Babiloni, Claudio; Mao, Yanhui; Hu, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Suppression of spontaneous alpha oscillatory activities, interpreted as cortical excitability, was observed in response to both transient and tonic painful stimuli. The changes of alpha rhythms induced by pain could be modulated by painful sensory inputs, experimental tasks, and top-down cognitive regulations such as attention. The temporal and spatial characteristics, as well as neural functions of pain induced alpha responses, depend much on how these factors contribute to the observed alpha event-related desynchronization/synchronization (ERD/ERS). How sensory-, task-, and cognitive-related changes of alpha oscillatory activities interact in pain perception process is reviewed in the current study, and the following conclusions are made: (1) the functional inhibition hypothesis that has been proposed in auditory and visual modalities could be applied also in pain modality; (2) the neural functions of pain induced alpha ERD/ERS were highly dependent on the cortical regions where it is observed, e.g., somatosensory cortex alpha ERD/ERS in pain perception for painful stimulus processing; (3) the attention modulation of pain perception, i.e., influences on the sensory and affective dimensions of pain experience, could be mediated by changes of alpha rhythms. Finally, we propose a model regarding the determinants of pain related alpha oscillatory activity, i.e., sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational, and cognitive-modulative aspects of pain experience, would affect and determine pain related alpha oscillatory activities in an integrated way within the distributed alpha system. PMID:26026894

  19. Hypothermia-induced neurite outgrowth is mediated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Katharina R L; Boato, Francesco; Diestel, Antje; Hechler, Daniel; Kruglov, Andrei; Berger, Felix; Hendrix, Sven

    2010-07-01

    Systemic or brain-selective hypothermia is a well-established method for neuroprotection after brain trauma. There is increasing evidence that hypothermia exerts beneficial effects on the brain and may also support regenerative responses after brain damage. Here, we have investigated whether hypothermia influences neurite outgrowth in vitro via modulation of the post-injury cytokine milieu. Organotypic brain slices were incubated: deep hypothermia (2 h at 17 degrees C), rewarming (2 h up to 37 degrees C), normothermia (20 h at 37 degrees C). Neurite density and cytokine release (IL 1beta, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha) were investigated after 24 h. For functional analysis mice deficient in NT-3/NT-4 and TNF-alpha as well as the TNF-alpha inhibitor etanercept were used. Hypothermia led to a significant increase of neurite outgrowth, which was independent of neurotrophin signaling. In contrast to other cytokines investigated, TNF-alpha secretion by organotypic brain slices was significantly increased after deep hypothermia. Moreover, hypothermia-induced neurite extension was abolished after administration of the TNF-alpha inhibitor and in TNF-alpha knockout mice. We demonstrate that TNF-alpha is responsible for inducing neurite outgrowth in the context of deep hypothermia and rewarming. These data suggest that hypothermia not only exerts protective effects in the CNS but may also support neurite outgrowth as a potential mechanism of regeneration. PMID:20070303

  20. Mechanisms regulating male sexual behavior in the rat: role of 3 alpha- and 3 beta-androstanediols.

    PubMed

    Morali, G; Oropeza, M V; Lemus, A E; Perez-Palacios, G

    1994-09-01

    To assess whether naturally occurring 5 alpha-androstanediols (5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol and 5 alpha-androstane-3 beta, 17 beta-diol) play a role in the regulation of male sexual behavior in the rat, their capability to restore copulatory behavior in castrated animals was evaluated. Androstanediols were chronically administered either alone or in combination with 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or with estradiol-17 beta (E2). Animals treated with testosterone (T), DHT, E2, and vehicle, either alone or in different combinations, served as controls. The occurrence of mounting, intromission, and ejaculation as well as detailed parameters of copulatory behavior were recorded twice per week for 3 weeks. At the end of treatments, the weights of sex accessory organs were also recorded. When 3 beta, 5 alpha-androstanediol (3 beta-diol; 500 micrograms/day) was administered in combination with DHT (300 micrograms/day), full copulatory behavior was restored in all subjects in a manner similar to that obtained with E2 plus DHT or T plus DHT combinations, thus indicating an estrogen-like behavioral effect of 3 beta-diol. Administration of 3 alpha, 5 alpha-androstanediol (3 alpha-diol; 500 micrograms/day) combined with DHT also restored sexual behavior, though to a lesser extent. When 3 alpha-diol (500 micrograms/day) was simultaneously administered with E2 (5 micrograms/day), the copulatory behavior of castrated animals was fully restored in a fashion similar to that observed after administration of DHT plus E2 and T plus E2 combinations, indicating a potent androgen-like effect of 3 alpha-diol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7803627

  1. Effects of continuous infusion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) into adipose tissue on glucose and fatty acid metabolism in lactating dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late-lactation Holstein cows (n=9/treatment) were used to evaluate effects of TNF-alpha administration on glucose and fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Cows were blocked by feed intake and milk yield and randomly assigned within block to 1 of 3 treatments: control, TNF-alpha, and pair-fed control. Treatme...

  2. [alpha]2A-Adrenoceptor Stimulation Improves Prefrontal Cortical Regulation of Behavior through Inhibition of cAMP Signaling in Aging Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verduzco, Luis; van Dyck, Christopher H.; Arnsten, Amy F. T.; Ramos, Brian P.; Stark, David

    2006-01-01

    The working-memory functions of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are improved by stimulation of postsynaptic, [alpha]2A-adrenoceptors, especially in aged animals with PFC cognitive deficits. Thus, the [alpha]2A-adrenoceptor agonist, guanfacine, greatly improves working-memory performance in monkeys and rats following systemic administration or…

  3. Identification of noncollagenous sites encoding specific interactions and quaternary assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen: implications for Alport gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong Suk; Colon, Selene; Hellmark, Thomas; Sado, Yoshikazu; Hudson, Billy G; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan

    2008-12-12

    Defective assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen in the glomerular basement membrane causes Alport syndrome, a hereditary glomerulonephritis progressing to end-stage kidney failure. Assembly of collagen IV chains into heterotrimeric molecules and networks is driven by their noncollagenous (NC1) domains, but the sites encoding the specificity of these interactions are not known. To identify the sites directing quaternary assembly of alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) collagen, correctly folded NC1 chimeras were produced, and their interactions with other NC1 monomers were evaluated. All alpha1/alpha 5 chimeras containing alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 replicated the ability of alpha 5 NC1 to bind to alpha3NC1 and co-assemble into NC1 hexamers. Conversely, substitution of alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 by alpha1NC1 abolished these quaternary interactions. The amino-terminal 58 residues of alpha3NC1 encoded binding to alpha 5 NC1, but this interaction was not sufficient for hexamer co-assembly. Because alpha 5 NC1 residues 188-227 are necessary and sufficient for assembly into alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5 NC1 hexamers, whereas the immunodominant alloantigenic sites of alpha 5 NC1 do not encode specific quaternary interactions, the findings provide a basis for the rational design of less immunogenic alpha 5(IV) collagen constructs for the gene therapy of X-linked Alport patients. PMID:18930919

  4. alpha-Tocopheryl phosphate – an active lipid mediator?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol, alphaT) derivative, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), is detectable in small amounts in plasma, tissues, and cultured cells. Studies done in vitro and in vivo suggest that alphaT can become phosphorylated and alphaTP dephosphorylated, suggesting the existence of ...

  5. Preclinical pharmacology of alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Martin, D J

    1999-01-01

    The implication of a single adrenoceptor subtype in the contractility of prostatic and urethral smooth muscle cells led to the concept that drugs with selectivity for this subtype may exhibit functional uroselectivity. Comparison of the affinities of the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists revealed that few compounds show selectivity for one of the three cloned alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha1a/A, alpha1b/B, alpha1d/D) whereas most of them had a similar affinity for the three subtypes. Moreover, data supporting a relationship between selectivity for the alpha1a/A-adrenoceptor subtype and functional uroselectivity are still lacking and recent data challenged the relevance of the selectivity for a given cloned alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype in predicting functional uroselectivity. In vivo data showed that alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists without adrenoceptor subtype selectivity, like alfuzosin or to a minor extent doxazosin, showed functional uroselectivity whereas prazosin and terazosin were not shown to be uroselective. Compounds considered to be selective for the alpha1a/A-adrenoceptor, like tamsulosin or 5-Me-urapidil, did not show functional uroselectivity since they modified urethral and blood pressures in a manner which was not correlated to their selectivity for the cloned alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes. Meanwhile, the identification in prostatic tissue, of a new sub-family of alpha1-adrenoceptors with low affinity for prazosin and denominated alpha1L gave rise to numerous studies. However, its functional role as well as the affinity of the known antagonists for this receptor subtype remains to be clarified. In conclusion, the existing alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists have different pharmacological profiles in vivo which are yet not predictable from their receptor pharmacology based on the actual state of knowledge of the alpha1-adrenoceptor classification. PMID:10393471

  6. Resting-state alpha in autism spectrum disorder and alpha associations with thalamic volume.

    PubMed

    Edgar, J Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E; Schultz, Robert T; Roberts, Timothy P L

    2015-03-01

    Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha rhythms, associations between thalamic structure and alpha activity were examined. RS magnetoencephalography was obtained from 47 typically-developing children (TDC) and 41 children with ASD. RS alpha activity was measured using distributed source localization. Left and right thalamic volume measurements were also obtained. In both groups, the strongest alpha activity was observed in Calcarine Sulcus regions. In Calcarine regions, only TDC showed the expected association between age and alpha peak frequency. ASD had more alpha activity than TDC in regions bordering the Central Sulcus as well as parietal association cortices. In ASD, whereas greater left Central Sulcus relative alpha activity was associated with higher Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores, greater Calcarine region relative alpha activity was associated with lower SRS scores. Although thalamic volume group differences were not observed, relationships between thalamic volume and Calcarine alpha power were unique to TDC. The present study also identified a failure to shift peak alpha frequency as a function of age in primary alpha-generating areas in children with ASD. Findings suggested that increased RS alpha activity in primary motor and somatosensory as well as parietal multimodal areas-with increased alpha thought to reflect greater inhibition-might impair the ability to identify or interpret social cues. Finally, to our knowledge, this is the first study to report associations between thalamic volume and alpha power, an association observed only in TDC. The lack of thalamic and alpha associations in ASD suggests thalamic contributions to RS alpha

  7. CDS - Database Administrator's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, J. P.

    This guide aims to instruct the CDS database administrator in: o The CDS file system. o The CDS index files. o The procedure for assimilating a new CDS tape into the database. It is assumed that the administrator has read SUN/79.

  8. Vocational Education Administration Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryals, Karen, Ed.; Doherty, Susan Sloan, Ed.

    This handbook for vocational administrators presents an overview of vocational education programs, services, and administrative structures in Alaska. The manual contains three parts. The first, brief section introduces secondary vocational education and lists its enabling legislation. The second part presents a detailed overview of vocational…

  9. Reframing Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sharon Stewart

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform administrators and organizational leaders that a change in the support offered to faculty and the environment of research administration is desirable. This recommendation is supported by the results of a Delphi study that was undertaken to gather expert opinions and recommendations from research faculty…

  10. Justifying Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Colin; Lakomski, Gabriele

    1993-01-01

    The traditional conceptions of science dominating educational administration are mistaken. Unacceptable epistemologies, like those implicit in logical positivism, justify knowledge solely in terms of empirical adequacy. An improved science of educational administration embraces a coherent global theory accounting for all the phenomena of human…

  11. Migrant Education Administrative Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Compensatory Education.

    Relating specifically to the North Carolina migrant education program's administrative responsibilities, this guide is designed to aid administrators in program management, monitoring project activities, project evaluation, self-assessment, determining needs for training and staff development, site-visit preparation, policy development, and…

  12. DIMENSIONS OF ADMINISTRATIVE PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HEMPHILL, JOHN; AND OTHERS

    THE MAJOR OBJECTIVES WERE TO DEVELOP CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION, TO DEFINE THE NATURE OF THE JOB, AND TO DEVELOP AN INSTRUMENT FOR THE SELECTION OF ADMINISTRATORS. THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PRINCIPAL WAS CHOSEN FOR THE STUDY BECAUSE OF THE HOST OF PROBLEMS RELATED TO THE CONDUCT OF AN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM, INCLUDING THE…

  13. Test Administration Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Kirk A.; Bergstrom, Betty A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for increased exam security, improved test formats, more flexible scheduling, better measurement, and more efficient administrative processes has caused testing agencies to consider converting the administration of their exams from paper-and-pencil to computer-based testing (CBT). Many decisions must be made in order to provide an optimal…

  14. Networked Administration Streamlines Operations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Planning and Management, 1996

    1996-01-01

    An Iowa school district has retooled its computer systems for more standardized administration. In addition to administration, the district is doing inhouse databasing of financial accounting, and doing inhouse scheduling and grade reporting. A partnership with the Chamber of Commerce contributed $500,000 for the network system. (MLF)

  15. The Administrative Power Grab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    Administrative power for some school teachers can be an aphrodisiac that can be applied negatively, especially when a leader has devastating instinct for the weaknesses of others. A leader's intellect and heart closes shop and ceases to function when drunk on power. In this article, the author describes how the use of administrative power can be…

  16. Champions of Children. Administrators . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, John; Olds, H. Robert

    Today, in an era of taxpayer revolts, lack of clarity in values, and changing family structure, children need advocates in the political arena as well as in the schools. This pamphlet suggests that administrators are in an excellent position to defend the rights of children on all fronts. It focuses on what administrators have done and specific…

  17. Administration for Student Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, J. J., Ed.

    This collection of papers focuses on school administration and its relation to students. It is contended that toay's student matures earlier; has higher expectations; is more affluent; is more isolated from adults; is more critical and outspoken; and, therefore, must be heard by teachers and administrators. A related document is EA 001578.…

  18. Administration of Computer Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Gene F.

    Computing at Stanford University has, until recently, been performed at one of five facilities. The Stanford hospital operates an IBM 370/135 mainly for administrative use. The university business office has an IBM 370/145 for its administrative needs and support of the medical clinic. Under the supervision of the Stanford Computation Center are…

  19. Rural Administrative Leadership Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tift, Carolyn

    This resource book on rural administrative leadership is the result of 1988 interviews with school administrators involved in successful rural educational programs. The material is divided into eight chapters, each self-contained for separate use. Chapter 1, "Getting to Know the Community," addresses qualities of living and working in rural…

  20. School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis; Webb, L. Dean

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the societal and organizational changes affecting school business administration, describes major activities encompassed in the practice of school business administration, and reviews current literature specifically related to such activities as electronic data processing, fiscal planning and budgeting, purchasing and property management,…

  1. The Administrative Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Association of Elementary School Principals, Westerville.

    Although needs of school districts vary with size, degree of teacher negotiation procedures, and type of community involvement, the administrative team model is presented as an effective, appropriate administrative organization. Based on an assumption that each level of authority in a school district possesses and exercises expertise and unique…

  2. Handbook for Alumni Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Charles H., Ed.

    A definitive look at the field of alumni administration is presented, noting that the subject has until now received little attention. The 34 chapters are divided into nine sections: an overview of alumni administration; alumni as an essential resource; people management; budget and records; programming; communications; alumni education programs…

  3. 21 CFR 866.5580 - Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system. 866.5580 Section 866.5580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...-lipoprotein may aid in the diagnosis of Tangier disease (a hereditary disorder of fat metabolism)....

  4. 21 CFR 866.5580 - Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system. 866.5580 Section 866.5580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...-lipoprotein may aid in the diagnosis of Tangier disease (a hereditary disorder of fat metabolism)....

  5. Capture of sandhill cranes using alpha-chloralose: a 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hartup, Barry K; Schneider, Lauren; Engels, J Michael; Hayes, Matthew A; Barzen, Jeb A

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal adjustment of alpha-chloralose captures of sandhill cranes was associated with a modest increase in capture efficacy (+13%), decreased morbidity from exertional myopathy (-1.4%), and overall mortality (-1.7%) rates despite little change in sedation scores. Postcapture fluid administration also decreased confinement times by several hours over most sedation scores. PMID:24171579

  6. 21 CFR 866.5890 - Inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... system. 866.5890 Section 866.5890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test... measure by immunochemical techniques the inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor (a protein) in serum and other...

  7. 21 CFR 866.5890 - Inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... system. 866.5890 Section 866.5890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test... measure by immunochemical techniques the inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor (a protein) in serum and other...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5890 - Inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... system. 866.5890 Section 866.5890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test... measure by immunochemical techniques the inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor (a protein) in serum and other...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5890 - Inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... system. 866.5890 Section 866.5890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test... measure by immunochemical techniques the inter-alpha trypsin inhibitor (a protein) in serum and other...

  10. Delivery of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin to Airways.

    PubMed

    Griese, Matthias; Scheuch, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Treatment with exogenous alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), a potent serine protease inhibitor, was developed originally for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with AAT deficiency; however, other lung conditions involving neutrophilic inflammation and proteolytic tissue injury related to neutrophil elastase and other serine proteases may also be considered for AAT therapy. These conditions include bronchiectasis caused by primary ciliary dyskinesia, cystic fibrosis, and other diseases associated with an increased free elastase activity in the airways. Inhaled AAT may be a viable option to counteract proteolytic tissue damage. This form of treatment requires efficient drug delivery to the targeted pulmonary compartment. Aerosol technology meeting this requirement is currently available and offers an alternative therapeutic approach to systemic AAT administration. To date, early studies in humans have shown biochemical efficacy and have established the safety of inhaled AAT. However, to bring aerosol AAT therapy to patients, large phase 3 protocols in carefully selected patient populations (i.e., subgroups of patients with AAT deficiency, cystic fibrosis, or other lung diseases with bronchiectasis) will be needed with clinical end points in addition to the measurement of proteolytic activity in the airway. The outcomes likely will have to include lung function, lung structure assessed by computed tomography imaging, disease exacerbations, health status, and mortality. PMID:27564672

  11. 47 CFR 54.715 - Administrative expenses of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative expenses of the Administrator. 54.715 Section 54.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.715 Administrative expenses of the Administrator. (a) The annual administrative expenses...

  12. 47 CFR 54.715 - Administrative expenses of the Administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administrative expenses of the Administrator. 54.715 Section 54.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Administration § 54.715 Administrative expenses of the Administrator. (a) The annual administrative expenses...

  13. Head of Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Purpose and scope of the position: The main task is to provide efficient administrative services and advice to the Director General, Division Leaders and to staff members in the scientific and technical areas in the fields of financial planning and accounting, personnel management, purchasing, legal and contractual matters, information systems and building and site maintenance. As a member of the ESO Management the Head of Administration contributes essentially to the development of the overall policy, strategic planning, relations to the members of the personnel and maintains professional contacts at highest level outside the Organisation. ESO employs in total approximately 650 staff members and the Administration Division comprises the Administration at the Headquarters in Garching near Munich and the Administration in Santiago (Chile). The successful candidate will be supported by some 50 qualified staff members.

  14. Detection of urinary metabolites common to structurally related 17alpha-alkyl anabolic steroids in horses and application to doping tests in racehorses: methandienone, methandriol, and oxymetholone.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masayuki; Aramaki, Sugako; Kurosawa, Masahiko; Saito, Koichi; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2008-06-01

    Methandienone, methandriol, and oxymetholone, which are anabolic steroids possessing 17alpha-methyl and 17beta-hydroxy groups, were developed as oral formulations for therapeutic purposes. However, they have been used in racehorses to enhance racing performance. In humans, it has been reported that structurally related anabolic steroids having the 17alpha-methyl and 17beta-hydroxy groups, including 17alpha-methyltestosterone, mestanolone, methandienone, methandriol, and oxymetholone, have metabolites in common. In this study, we found that metabolites common to those of 17alpha-methyltestosterone and mestanolone were detected in horse urine after the administration of oxymetholone, methandienone, and methandriol. Based on analytical data, we confirmed these to be the common metabolites of five structurally related steroids, 17alpha-methyltestosterone, mestanolone, oxymetholone, methandienone, and methandriol. Furthermore, we detected hitherto unknown urinary metabolites of methandriol and oxymetholone in horses. The parent steroid itself was detected in horse urine after the administration of methandriol, other than metabolites common to 17alpha-methyltestosterone and mestanolone. On the other hand, the major metabolite of oxymetholone was mestanolone, aside from metabolites presumed to be the stereoisomers of 2-hydroxymethyl-17alpha-methyl-5alpha-androstan-3,17beta-diol and 2,17alpha-di(hydroxymethyl)-5alpha-androstan-3,17beta-diol. The simultaneous detection of common metabolites and other main metabolites would help us narrow down the candidate-administered steroid for the doping tests in racehorses. PMID:18544225

  15. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) suppresses postprandial lipidemia through fatty acid oxidation in enterocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Rino; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Murota, Kaeko; Yamada, Yuko; Niiya, Saori; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Murakami, Yoko; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased oxygen consumption rate and CO{sub 2} production and decreased secretion of triglyceride and ApoB from Caco-2 cells. {yields} Orally administration of bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and CO{sub 2} production in small intestinal epithelial cells. {yields} Treatment with bezafibrate decreased postprandial serum concentration of triglyceride after oral injection of olive oil in mice. {yields} It suggested that intestinal lipid metabolism regulated by PPAR{alpha} activation suppresses postprandial lipidemia. -- Abstract: Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} which regulates lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues such as the liver and skeletal muscle, decreases circulating lipid levels, thus improving hyperlipidemia under fasting conditions. Recently, postprandial serum lipid levels have been found to correlate more closely to cardiovascular diseases than fasting levels, although fasting hyperlipidemia is considered an important risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the effect of PPAR{alpha} activation on postprandial lipidemia has not been clarified. In this study, we examined the effects of PPAR{alpha} activation in enterocytes on lipid secretion and postprandial lipidemia. In Caco-2 enterocytes, bezafibrate, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase, and acyl-CoA synthase, and oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and suppressed secretion levels of both triglycerides and apolipoprotein B into the basolateral side. In vivo experiments revealed that feeding high-fat-diet containing bezafibrate increased mRNA expression levels of fatty acid oxidation-related genes and

  16. The solar Ly-alpha line profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Rottman, Gary J.; White, O. R.; Fontenla, Juan; Avrett, E. H.

    1995-01-01

    Solar Ly-alpha irradiance measurements from the SOLar STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) have been made since 1991 October with a spectral resolution of 0.1 nm. The uniqueness of the small molecular oxygen cross section near Ly-alpha permits the Ly-alpha radiation to penetrate much deeper into the atmosphere than the other emissions near Ly-alpha. We have taken advantage of this phenomenon by performing solar occultation experiments near the Ly-alpha to evaluate precisely the instrument scattered light contribution. After correcting for scattered light, the broad wings of the solar Ly-alpha line can be extracted out to 5 nm from line center with a typical accuracy of +/-20%. The variability in the Ly-alpha wings near 2 nm from line center is about one-half that of the Ly-alpha core emission, defined within 0.1 nm from line center. These Ly-alpha profile measurements are found to be consistent with the Skylab radiance measurements and theoretical models of the Ly-alpha line profiles computed using partial redistribution of photons in the source function.

  17. A study of presynaptic alpha2-autoreceptors in alpha2A/D-, alpha2B- and alpha2C-adrenoceptor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Trendelenburg, A U; Klebroff, W; Hein, L; Starke, K

    2001-08-01

    The function of presynaptic alpha2-autoreceptors was studied in the hippocampus, occipito-parietal cortex, atria and vas deferens of NMRI mice, mice in which the alpha2A/D-, the alpha2B- or alpha2c-adrenoceptor gene had been disrupted (alpha2A/DKO, alpha2BKO and alpha2CKO, respectively), and the wildtype mice from which the knockout animals had been generated. Tissue pieces were preincubated with 3H-noradrenaline and then superfused and stimulated electrically. The alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist medetomidine reduced the electrically evoked overflow of tritium in all tissues from all mouse strains (stimulation with single pulses or single high-frequency pulse trains, called POPs, i.e. pulse patterns leading to minimal autoinhibition). The effects of medetomidine did not differ in NMRI, wildtype, alpha2BKO and alpha2CKO mice but were greatly reduced in alpha2A/DKO brain preparations and to a lesser extent in alpha2A/DKO atria and vasa deferentia. Six drugs were tested as antagonists against medetomidine. Their pKd values indicated that the hippocampal and occipito-parietal alpha2-autoreceptors in NMRI and wildtype mice were alpha2D (the rodent variant of the alpha2A/D-adrenoceptor) whereas the atrial and vas deferens alpha2-autoreceptors in NMRI and wildtype mice could not be identified with a single alpha2 subtype. Deletion of the alpha2A/D gene changed the pKd values in all tissues so that they now reflected alpha2C properties, whereas deletion of the alpha2C gene changed the pKd values in atria and vasa deferentia so that they now had alpha2D properties (as they had in NMRI and wildtype brain preparations). Autoinhibition by released noradrenaline was created using trains of up to 64 pulses or up to 4 POPs, and the overflow-enhancing effect of the alpha2 antagonist rauwolscine was determined. Results did not differ, irrespective of whether preparations were obtained from NMRI, wildtype, alpha2BKO or alpha2CKO mice: the overflow of tritium elicited by p pulses or POPs

  18. Separate and combined effects of recombinant interleukin-1 alpha and gamma interferon on antibacterial resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, R S; Young, K M; Czuprynski, C J

    1989-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously reported that administration of murine recombinant interleukin 1 alpha (rIL-1 alpha) substantially enhanced the resistance of mice to Listeria monocytogenes infection. Other investigators have reported that gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) plays a pivotal role in antilisteria resistance. In the present study, we have defined doses of human rIL-1 alpha that enhanced the antilisteria resistance of mice. We then addressed the possibility that combined immunotherapy with rIL-1 alpha and recombinant IFN-gamma (rIFN-gamma) might result in an additive or synergistic enhancement of antibacterial resistance. Simultaneous administration of rIL-1 alpha and rIFN-gamma enhanced antilisteria resistance (at 3 days after infection) to a greater extent than did either cytokine alone, although the results did not imply a synergistic action between the two cytokines. Experiments which examined the effects of the timing of cytokine administration indicated that maximal protection was observed when rIL-1 alpha and rIFN-gamma were administered together concomitantly with the L. monocytogenes challenge. When we compared the separate and combined protective effects of rIL-1 alpha and rIFN-gamma throughout the course of a primary L. monocytogenes infection, we observed an additive effect of the two cytokines only at 3 days after challenge, the time at which the peak bacterial burden occurs in the spleens and livers of infected mice. Histopathological comparisons of livers and spleens from cytokine-treated and control listeria-infected mice verified that cytokine treatment reduced the severity of tissue damage in cytokine-treated listeria-infected mice. In an attempt to provide a potential mechanism for the protective effects of rIL-1 alpha and rIFN-gamma administration, we compared levels of colony-stimulating activity in sera from cytokine-treated and control listeria-infected mice. The highest levels of colony-stimulating activity were detected in sera from

  19. Targeted alpha therapy for cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Barry J.; Raja, Chand; Rizvi, Syed; Li, Yong; Tsui, Wendy; Zhang, David; Song, Emma; Qu, Chang Fa; Kearsley, John; Graham, Peter; Thompson, John

    2004-08-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT is tested by in vitro and in vivo studies in melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, and by a phase 1 trial of intralesional TAT for melanoma. The alpha-emitting radioisotope used is Bi-213, which is eluted from the Ac-225 generator and chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody (mab) or protein (e.g. plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 PAI2) to form the alpha-conjugate (AC). Stable alpha-ACs have been produced which have been tested for specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro against melanoma (9.2.27 mab), leukaemia (WM60), colorectal (C30.6), breast (PAI2, herceptin), ovarian (PAI2, herceptin, C595), prostate (PAI2, J591) and pancreatic (PAI2, C595) cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 1-1.5 million human cancer cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. Tumour growth is compared for untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. The 213Bi-9.2.27 AC is injected into secondary skin melanomas in stage 4 patients in a dose escalation study to determine the effective tolerance dose, and to measure kinematics to obtain the equivalent dose to organs. In vitro studies show that TAT is one to two orders of magnitude more cytotoxic to targeted cells than non-specific ACs, specific beta emitting conjugates or free isotopes. In vivo local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress advanced sc melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of sc melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast and prostate cancer tumour growth. Intralesional doses up to 450 µCi in human

  20. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

    1996-05-07

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

  1. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, Richard D.; Bounds, John A.; Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W.

    1996-01-01

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors.

  2. Reliability of {alpha}{sub 1} and {alpha}{sub 2} from lattice codes

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.

    1996-10-01

    Whether the higher-order terms in the momentum-compaction factor, {alpha}{sub 1} and {alpha}{sub 2}, can be obtained reliably from lattice codes is an important issue for some quasi-isochronous rings. A FODO lattice consisting of thin quadrupoles, dipoles filling all spaces, and two families of thin sextupoles is solved and {alpha}{sub 1} and {alpha}{sub 2} are derived analytically. We find accurate agreement with SYNCH is examined. Some methods of measurement of {alpha}{sub 1} and {alpha}{sub 2} are discussed.

  3. alpha-Lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant.

    PubMed

    Packer, L; Witt, E H; Tritschler, H J

    1995-08-01

    alpha-Lipoic acid, which plays an essential role in mitochondrial dehydrogenase reactions, has recently gained considerable attention as an antioxidant. Lipoate, or its reduced form, dihydrolipoate, reacts with reactive oxygen species such as superoxide radicals, hydroxyl radicals, hypochlorous acid, peroxyl radicals, and singlet oxygen. It also protects membranes by interacting with vitamin C and glutathione, which may in turn recycle vitamin E. In addition to its antioxidant activities, dihydrolipoate may exert prooxidant actions through reduction of iron. alpha-Lipoic acid administration has been shown to be beneficial in a number of oxidative stress models such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, diabetes (both alpha-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid exhibit hydrophobic binding to proteins such as albumin, which can prevent glycation reactions), cataract formation, HIV activation, neurodegeneration, and radiation injury. Furthermore, lipoate can function as a redox regulator of proteins such as myoglobin, prolactin, thioredoxin and NF-kappa B transcription factor. We review the properties of lipoate in terms of (1) reactions with reactive oxygen species; (2) interactions with other antioxidants; (3) beneficial effects in oxidative stress models or clinical conditions. PMID:7649494

  4. alpha-Lactalbumin hydrolysate stimulates glucagon-like peptide-2 secretion and small intestinal growth in suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Hirohisa; Ishizuka, Satoshi; Inafune, Ayako; Hira, Tohru; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Shimizu, Takashi; Takase, Mitsunori; Hara, Hiroshi

    2009-07-01

    We investigated whether bovine milk constituents influenced glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 secretion and intestinal growth in suckling rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (14 d old) received i.g. infusions of a milk protein fraction, a lactose solution, or the cream fraction of milk. The serum concentration of GLP-2, but not GLP-1, markedly increased in rats administered milk protein compared with those given the lactose solution or the cream fraction from 60 to 120 min after administration. In another experiment, both casein (CN) and whey protein isolate stimulated GLP-2 secretion at 120 min after administration, but soy protein and ovalbumin did not. Stimulation of GLP-2 secretion by several milk proteins was similar, including alpha-CN, alpha-lactalbumin (alpha-La), and beta-lactoglobulin, in a separate experiment. A hydrolysate of alpha-La obtained by incubation with protease A extracted from Aspergillus oryzae (LaHPA) caused almost twice the GLP-2 release due to intact alpha-La and other alpha-La hydrolysates. Free amino acid concentrations and molecular size distributions did not differ among alpha-La hydrolysates, including LaHPA. In rat pups reared with milk formulae containing alpha-La or LaHPA, LaHPA significantly promoted small intestinal elongation and increased the number of crypt epithelial cells compared with a formula containing intact alpha-La. LaHPA administration also increased the maltase:lactase activity ratio, a marker of maturation of the intestinal mucosa. In conclusion, milk proteins stimulate GLP-2 secretion and contribute to growth and maturation of the small intestine in suckling rats. PMID:19494023

  5. Fever and acute phase response induced in dwarf goats by endotoxin and bovine and human recombinant tumour necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed

    van Miert, A S; van Duin, C T; Wensing, T

    1992-12-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF), a polypeptide produced by mononuclear phagocytes, has been implicated as an important mediator of inflammatory processes and of clinical manifestations in acute infectious diseases. To study further the potential role of TNF in infectious diseases, recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) derived human (r.HuTNF-alpha) and bovine TNF (r.BoTNF-alpha) were intravenously (i.v.) administered in dwarf goats. Rectal temperature, heart rate, rumen motility, plasma zinc and iron concentrations, and certain other blood biochemical and haematological values were studied and compared with the changes seen after E. coli endotoxin (LPS) was administered (dose: 0.1 microgram/kg i.v.). Following a single injection of 4 micrograms/kg of r.BoTNF-alpha, shivering and biphasic febrile response were observed, accompanied by tachycardia, inhibition of rumen contractions, drop in plasma zinc and iron concentrations, lymphopenia, and neutropenia followed by neutrophilia. The i.v. administration of a single injection of 4 micrograms/kg r.HuTNF-alpha induced shivering and biphasic febrile responses, accompanied by anorexia and a similar drop in plasma trace metal concentrations when compared with r.BoTNF-alpha-treated goats. The TNF-alpha-induced symptoms were essentially the same as those that occurred after LPS administration. However, the time of onset of these changes after the injection of TNF-alpha was significantly shorter than after LPS. Moreover, the r.BoTNF-alpha induced a longer lasting neutrophilic leucopenia, less neutrophilia, and a more persistent lymphopenia than after LPS injection. Neither r.BoTNF-alpha nor LPS caused severe haemo-concentration. Furthermore, no cross-tolerance between r.BoTNF-alpha and LPS could be demonstrated. We conclude that both r.BoTNF-alpha and r.HuTNF-alpha induce many of the physiologic, haematologic and metabolic changes that characterize the acute phase response to LPS. The overlapping biological activities of r.BoTNF-alpha

  6. Microtubule depolymerization potentiates alpha-synuclein oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Esteves, A Raquel; Arduíno, Daniela M; Swerdlow, Russell H; Oliveira, Catarina R; Cardoso, Sandra M

    2010-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with perturbed mitochondria function and alpha-synuclein fibrillization. We evaluated potential mechanistic links between mitochondrial dysfunction and alpha-synuclein aggregation. We studied a PD cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell line in which platelet mitochondria from a PD subject were transferred to NT2 neuronal cells previously depleted of endogenous mitochondrial DNA. Compared to a control cybrid cell line, the PD line showed reduced ATP levels, an increased free/polymerized tubulin ratio, and alpha-synuclein oligomer accumulation. Taxol (which stabilizes microtubules) normalized the PD tubulin ratio and reduced alpha-synuclein oligomerization. A nexus exists between mitochondrial function, cytoskeleton homeostasis, and alpha-synuclein oligomerization. In our model, mitochondrial dysfunction triggers an increased free tubulin, which destabilizes the microtubular network and promotes alpha-synuclein oligomerization. PMID:20552056

  7. Selective sorting of alpha-granule proteins

    PubMed Central

    Italiano, J.E.; Battinelli, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    Summary One of the main functions of blood platelets is to secrete a variety of substances that can modify a developing thrombus, regulate the growth of the vasculature, promote wound repair, and contribute to cell-adhesive events. The majority of this vast array of secreted proteins is stored in alpha-granules. Until recently, it was assumed that platelets contained one homogeneous population of alpha-granules that undergo complete de-granulation during platelet activation. This review focuses on the mechanisms of alpha-granule biogenesis and secretion, with a particular emphasis on recent findings that clearly demonstrate that platelets contain distinct subpopulations of alpha-granules that undergo differential release during activation. We consider the implications of this new paradigm of platelet secretion, discuss mechanisms of alpha-granule biogenesis, and review the molecular basis of transport and delivery of alpha-granules to assembling platelets. PMID:19630794

  8. Serving the Space Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jack E.; Thompson, Arthur W.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the current program was to establish an upward mobility program that afforded employees an opportunity to improve their credibility in job opportunity selection under the directives of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (Author/RK)

  9. Copyright Implications for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Carol Mann

    1994-01-01

    Discusses copyright compliance policies for school administrators and the librarian's role in policy implementation. Topics addressed include fines; court litigation; monitoring compliance; training sessions for teachers and staff; computer software audits; and sources for more information. (LRW)

  10. Goldstone (GDSCC) administrative computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, H.

    1981-01-01

    The GDSCC Data Processing Unit provides various administrative computing services for Goldstone. Those activities, including finance, manpower and station utilization, deep-space station scheduling and engineering change order (ECO) control are discussed.

  11. Confrontation and Administrative Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Arnold J.

    1969-01-01

    Describes some of the sociological and psychological effects of organizational conflict and offers 10 operational principles to guide public administrators of schools and social agencies in meeting the confrontation tactics of activist groups. (JH)

  12. One for the Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Earth berms, a heavily insulated roof, and a narrow band of thermal pane windows, save energy at the administrative headquarters of the Anoka Hennepin school district in Coon Rapids, a suburb of Minneapolis, Minnesota. (Author/MLF)

  13. The Purchasing Administrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joyce E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the professional purchasing administrator's most common areas of responsibility: (1) staffing the department, (2) maintaining professional objectivity in vendor relationships, (3) following bidding policies, (4) receiving user input and feedback, and (5) seeking local equipment service and maintenance. (MLF)

  14. Introducing Public Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Jay W.

    1975-01-01

    The use of documents and the analysis of definitions are recommended as a means for adding zest to an introduction to public administration course to obtain student interest and motivation. (Author/ND)

  15. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Gregory K.; Martz, Dowell E.

    1989-01-01

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinguishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts.

  16. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  17. Alpha-physics and measurement requirements for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Young, K.M.; Putvinski, S.; Petrov, M.P.; Sadler, G.; Tobita, K.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reviews alpha particle physics issues in ITER and their implications for alpha particle measurements. A comparison is made between alpha heating in ITER and NBI and ICRH heating systems in present tokamaks, and alpha particle issues in ITER are discussed in three physics areas: `single particle` alpha effects, `collective` alpha effects, and RF interactions with alpha particles. 29 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Intrapleural administration of DNase alone for pleural empyema

    PubMed Central

    Bobek, Vladimir; Majewski, Andrzej; Kolostova, Katarina; Rzechonek, Adam; Lischke, Robert; Schutzner, Jan; Kacprzak, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pleural empyema is a severe complication of various diseases. The essential is the inserting a drain into the pleural cavity and evacuation of the pus. Sometimes the pus is very thick and its evacuation and re-expansion of the lung is very difficult. Methods: We report a group of 10 patients with intrapleural administration of Pulmozyme (dornase alpha) in dosages of either 2.5 mg once or on two separate occasions. All of the patients had a chest tube inserted into the pleural cavity. Measurement of viscosity was done before and after the instillation of the dornase alpha. Results: In six patients dornase alfa was introduced into the pleural cavity once. Three of them received this on the 4th whilst the rest were treated with the agent on the 6th day. Four patients received the dornase alpha twice because of the small amount of drainage fluid after the previous instillation. Five patients were discharged from hospital with complete re-expansion of their lungs. Two patients were qualified for a surgical operation since the lung was trapped and did not re-expand. Three patients had to be discharged with a drain as a result of incomplete re-expansion of the lung. In all the patients the density of the pus after administering the dornase alpha decreased and the amount of the pus drainage increased. Conclusions: Dornase alpha may be used in some patients with pleural empyema with good results. PMID:26885174

  19. Teaching calculus with Wolfram|Alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimiceli, Vincent E.; Lang, Andrew S. I. D.; Locke, LeighAnne

    2010-12-01

    This article describes the benefits and drawbacks of using Wolfram|Alpha as the platform for teaching calculus concepts in the lab setting. It is a result of our experiences designing and creating an entirely new set of labs using Wolfram|Alpha. We present the reasoning behind our transition from using a standard computer algebra system (CAS) to Wolfram|Alpha in our differential and integral calculus labs, together with the positive results from our experience. We also discuss the current limitations of Wolfram|Alpha, including a discussion on why we still use a CAS for our multivariate calculus labs.

  20. Prospects for alpha particle studies on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.

    1987-05-01

    TFTR is expected to produce approximately 5 MW of alpha heating during the D/T Q approx. = 1 phase of operation in 1990. At that point the collective confinement properties and the heating effects of alpha particles become accessible for study for the first time. This paper outlines the potential performance of TFTR with respect to alpha particle production, the diagnostics which will be available for alpha particle measurements, and the physics issues which can be studied both before and during D/T operation.

  1. [Alpha-linolenic acid and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Ristić, Gordana; Tepsić, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    IMPORTANCE AND METABOLISM OF ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID: Alpha-linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid which cannot be produced in the body and must be taken by food. Both in animals and humans, alpha-linolenic acid is desaturated and elongated into eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also incorporated into plasma and tissue lipids and its conversion is affected by levels of linoleic acid. POTENTIAL ROLE IN PATHOGENESIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: Diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids, especially alpha-linolenic acid, reduces the incidence of cardiac death. Studies have shown that alpha linolenic acid prevents ventricular fibrillation which is the main cause of cardiac death. Studies in rats suggest that alpha-linolenic acid may be more effective in preventing ventricular fibrillations than eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Furthermore, alpha-linolenic acid is the main fatty acid decreasing platalet aggregation which is an important step in thrombosis i.e. non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. DIETARY SOURCES AND NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS: Dietary sources include flaxseed and flaxseed oil, canola oil, soybean and soybean oil, pumpkin seed and pumpkin oil, walnuts and walnut oil. Strong evidence supports beneficial effects of alpha-linolenic acid and its dietary sources should be incorporated into balanced diet for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The recommended daily intake is 2 g with a ratio of 5/1 for linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid. PMID:15510909

  2. Gene transfer mediated by alpha2-macroglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, H; Huse, K; Birkenmeier, G; Otto, A; Scholz, G H

    1996-01-01

    alpha2-Macroglobulin covalently linked to poly(L)-lysine can be used as a vehicle for receptor-mediated gene transfer. This modified alpha2-macroglobulin maintains its ability to bind to the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor, and was shown to introduce a luciferase reporter gene plasmid into HepG2 human hepatoma cells in vitro. The alpha2-macroglobulin receptor is a very large and multifunctional cell surface receptor, whose rapid and efficient internalization rate makes it attractive for gene therapy, e.g. for hepatic gene targeting via injection into the portal vein. PMID:8871570

  3. A comparative study of the effects of the intravenous self-administration or subcutaneous minipump infusion of nicotine on the expression of brain neuronal nicotinic receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Milena; Mugnaini, Manolo; Tessari, Michela; Zoli, Michele; Gaimarri, Annalisa; Manfredi, Irene; Pistillo, Francesco; Clementi, Francesco; Gotti, Cecilia

    2010-08-01

    Long-term nicotine exposure changes neuronal acetylcholine nicotinic receptor (nAChR) subtype expression in the brains of smokers and experimental animals. The aim of this study was to investigate nicotine-induced changes in nAChR expression in two models commonly used to describe the effects of nicotine in animals: operant (two-lever presses) intravenous self-administration (SA) and passive subcutaneous nicotine administration via an osmotic minipump (MP). In the MP group, alpha4beta2 nAChRs were up-regulated in all brain regions, alpha6beta2* nAChRs were down-regulated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and caudate-putamen, and alpha7 nAChRs were up-regulated in the caudal cerebral cortex (CCx); the up-regulation of alpha4beta2alpha5 nAChRs in the CCx was also suggested. In the SA group, alpha4beta2 up-regulation was lower and limited to the CCx and NAc; there were no detectable changes in alpha6beta2* or alpha7 nACRs. In the CCx of the MP rats, there was a close correlation between the increase in alpha4beta2 binding and alpha4 and beta2 subunit levels measured by means of Western blotting, demonstrating that the up-regulation was due to an increase in alpha4beta2 proteins. Western blotting also showed that the increase in the beta2 subunit exceeded that of the alpha4 subunit, suggesting that a change in alpha4beta2 stoichiometry may occur in vivo as has been shown in vitro. These results show that nicotine has an area-specific effect on receptor subtypes, regardless of its administration route, but the effect is quantitatively greater in the case of MP administration. PMID:20439469

  4. Expression of the alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 3 isoforms of the GABAA receptor in human alcoholic brain.

    PubMed

    Lewohl, J M; Crane, D I; Dodd, P R

    1997-03-14

    The expression of the alpha 1, alpha 2 and alpha 3 isoforms of the GABAA receptor was studied in the superior frontal and motor cortices of 10 control, 10 uncomplicated alcoholic and 7 cirrhotic alcoholic cases matched for age and post-mortem delay. The assay was based on competitive RT/PCR using a single set of primers specific to the alpha class of isoform mRNA species, and was normalized against a synthetic cRNA internal standard. The assay was shown to be quantitative for all three isoform mRNA species. Neither the patient's age nor the post-mortem interval significantly affected the expression of any isoform in either cortical area. The profile of expression was shown to be significantly different between the case groups, particularly because alpha 1 expression was raised in both groups of alcoholics of controls. The two groups of alcoholics could be differentiated on the basis of regional variations in alpha 1 expression. In frontal cortex, alpha 1 mRNA expression was significantly increased when uncomplicated alcoholics were compared with control cases whereas alcoholic-cirrhotic cases were not significantly different from either controls or uncomplicated alcoholic cases. In the motor cortex, alpha 1 expression was elevated only when alcoholic-cirrhotic cases were compared with control cases. There was no significant difference between case groups or areas for any other isoform. PMID:9098573

  5. Resting-State Alpha in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alpha Associations with Thalamic Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D.; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha…

  6. Optical Model Parameters for the Ar-36+{alpha} and Ca-40+{alpha} Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Generalov, L.; Zvenigorodskii, A.

    2005-05-24

    For 36Ar+{alpha} and 40Ca+{alpha} systems there are presented the parameters of Woods-Saxon potential with volume absorption in the {alpha}-particle energy range lower and higher than the Coulomb barrier. They were obtained as a result of existing optical potentials modification.

  7. A Critical Review of Alpha Radionuclide Therapy-How to Deal with Recoiling Daughters?

    PubMed

    de Kruijff, Robin M; Wolterbeek, Hubert T; Denkova, Antonia G

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the successes and challenges currently faced in alpha radionuclide therapy. Alpha particles have an advantage in killing tumour cells as compared to beta or gamma radiation due to their short penetration depth and high linear energy transfer (LET). Touching briefly on the clinical successes of radionuclides emitting only one alpha particle, the main focus of this article lies on those alpha-emitting radionuclides with multiple alpha-emitting daughters in their decay chain. While having the advantage of longer half-lives, the recoiled daughters of radionuclides like 224Ra (radium), 223Ra, and 225Ac (actinium) can do significant damage to healthy tissue when not retained at the tumour site. Three different approaches to deal with this problem are discussed: encapsulation in a nano-carrier, fast uptake of the alpha emitting radionuclides in tumour cells, and local administration. Each approach has been shown to have its advantages and disadvantages, but when larger activities need to be used clinically, nano-carriers appear to be the most promising solution for reducing toxic effects, provided there is no accumulation in healthy tissue. PMID:26066613

  8. A Critical Review of Alpha Radionuclide Therapy—How to Deal with Recoiling Daughters?

    PubMed Central

    de Kruijff, Robin M.; Wolterbeek, Hubert T.; Denkova, Antonia G.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the successes and challenges currently faced in alpha radionuclide therapy. Alpha particles have an advantage in killing tumour cells as compared to beta or gamma radiation due to their short penetration depth and high linear energy transfer (LET). Touching briefly on the clinical successes of radionuclides emitting only one alpha particle, the main focus of this article lies on those alpha-emitting radionuclides with multiple alpha-emitting daughters in their decay chain. While having the advantage of longer half-lives, the recoiled daughters of radionuclides like 224Ra (radium), 223Ra, and 225Ac (actinium) can do significant damage to healthy tissue when not retained at the tumour site. Three different approaches to deal with this problem are discussed: encapsulation in a nano-carrier, fast uptake of the alpha emitting radionuclides in tumour cells, and local administration. Each approach has been shown to have its advantages and disadvantages, but when larger activities need to be used clinically, nano-carriers appear to be the most promising solution for reducing toxic effects, provided there is no accumulation in healthy tissue. PMID:26066613

  9. Cross-talk between integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1 in renal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abair, Tristin D.; Sundaramoorthy, Munirathinam; Chen, Dong; Heino, Jyrki; Ivaska, Johanna; Hudson, Billy G.; Sanders, Charles R.; Pozzi, Ambra; Zent, Roy

    2008-11-15

    The collagen-binding integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1 have profoundly different functions, yet they are often co-expressed in epithelial cells. When both integrins are expressed in the same cell, it has been suggested that {alpha}1{beta}1 negatively regulates integrin {alpha}2{beta}1-dependent functions. In this study we utilized murine ureteric bud (UB) epithelial cells, which express no functionally detectable levels of endogenous integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1, to determine the mechanism whereby this regulation occurs. We demonstrate that UB cells expressing integrin {alpha}2{beta}1, but not {alpha}1{beta}1 adhere, migrate and proliferate on collagen I as well as form cellular cords in 3D collagen I gels. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of the integrin {alpha}2 subunit with that of {alpha}1 results in decreased cell adhesion, migration and cord formation. In contrast, substitution of the integrin {alpha}2 cytoplasmic tail with that of {alpha}1, decreases cell migration and cord formation, but increases proliferation. When integrin {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 subunits are co-expressed in UB cells, the {alpha}1 subunit negatively regulates integrin {alpha}2{beta}1-dependent cord formation, adhesion and migration and this inhibition requires expression of both {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 tails. Thus, we provide evidence that the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the {alpha}2 integrin subunit, as well as the {alpha}1 integrin subunit, regulate integrin {alpha}2{beta}1 cell function.

  10. Use of alpha-agonists for management of anaphylaxis occurring under anaesthesia: case studies and review.

    PubMed

    Heytman, M; Rainbird, A

    2004-12-01

    Anaphylaxis is an uncommon but serious complication of anaesthesia. Most current guidelines for the management of anaphylaxis list only epinephrine as a vasopressor to use in the event of cardiovascular collapse. We present two cases of anaphylaxis under anaesthesia where return of spontaneous circulation was refractory to epinephrine, but occurred following the administration of the alpha-agonist metaraminol. Potential advantages and disadvantages of using epinephrine in this setting, the role of alpha-agonists and some potential mechanisms accounting for their role in successful management are reviewed. PMID:15549981

  11. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression in experimental cirrhosis: correlation with vascular endothelial growth factor expression and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bozova, Sevgi; Elpek, Gülsüm Ozlem

    2007-07-01

    Angiogenesis progresses together with fibrogenesis during chronic liver injury. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha), a master regulator of homeostasis, plays a pivotal role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis through its regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The association between hypoxia, angiogenesis and VEGF expression has been demonstrated in experimental cirrhosis. However, expression of HIF-1alpha has yet to be reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of HIF-1alpha expression during experimental liver fibrosis and the relationships between HIF-1alpha expression, VEGF expression and angiogenesis. Cirrhosis was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal administration of diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) (100 mg/kg, once a week). The serial sections from liver tissues were stained with anti-HIF-1alpha, anti-VEGF and anti-CD34 antibodies before being measured by light microscopy. Our results showed that HIF-1alpha expression gradually increases according to the severity of fibrosis (p<0.01). Moreover, its expression was found to be correlated with angiogenesis (r=0.916) and VEGF expression (r=0.969). The present study demonstrates that HIF-1alpha might have a role in the development of angiogenesis via regulation of VEGF during experimental liver fibrogenesis and suggests that this factor could be a potential target in the manipulation of angiogenesis in chronic inflammatory diseases of the liver. PMID:17614845

  12. Solution conformation of a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA that discriminates {alpha}3 vs. {alpha}6 nAChR subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Seung-Wook; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Olivera, Baldomero M.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Han, Kyou-Hoon . E-mail: khhan600@kribb.re.kr

    2006-06-23

    {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA from Conus omaria is the only {alpha}-conotoxin that shows a {approx}20-fold higher affinity to the {alpha}3{beta}2 over the {alpha}6{beta}2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. We have determined a three-dimensional structure of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA has an '{omega}-shaped' overall topology with His{sup 5}-Asn{sup 12} forming an {alpha}-helix. Structural features of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA responsible for its selectivity are suggested by comparing its surface characteristics with other functionally related {alpha}4/7 subfamily conotoxins. Reduced size of the hydrophilic area in {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA seems to be associated with the reduced affinity towards the {alpha}6{beta}2 nAChR subtype.

  13. alpha-Galactosylceramide can act as a nasal vaccine adjuvant inducing protective immune responses against viral infection and tumor.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sung-Youl; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Chang, Woo-Sung; Park, Se-Ho; Kweon, Mi-Na; Kang, Chang-Yuil

    2005-09-01

    alpha-Galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) is a ligand of invariant Valpha14+ NKT cells and is presented by CD1d molecule on APC. NKT cells produce a large amount of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in response to alpha-GalCer-presented APC. In this study, we assessed whether alpha-GalCer could act as an effective nasal vaccine adjuvant for mucosal vaccine that would be capable of inducing systemic as well as mucosal immune responses. When alpha-GalCer was administered with OVA via the intranasal route to C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, significant OVA-specific mucosal secretory IgA, systemic IgG, and CTL responses were induced with mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles seen in both strains of mice. Interestingly, as BALB/c mice were intranasally immunized with PR8 hemagglutinin Ag isolated from influenza virus A/PR/8/34 together with alpha-GalCer, significant protection was afforded against influenza viral infection. When alpha-GalCer was coimmunized with a replication-deficient live adenovirus to BALB/c mice, it significantly induced both humoral and cellular immune responses. In addition, intranasal administration of OVA with alpha-GalCer showed complete protection against EG7 tumor challenge in C57BL/6. The adjuvant effects induced by intranasal coadministration with alpha-GalCer were blocked in CD1d-/- mice, indicating that the immune responses were exclusively mediated by CD1d molecule on APC. Most interestingly, intranasally coadministered alpha-GalCer activated naive T cells and triggered them to differentiate into functional effector T cells when CFSE-labeled OT-1 cells were adoptively transferred into syngeneic mice. Overall, our results are the first to show that alpha-GalCer can act as a nasal vaccine adjuvant inducing protective immune responses against viral infections and tumors. PMID:16116223

  14. Astronaut Administrator Richard Truly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Astronaut Richard H. Truly, pilot of the Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-2 and Commander of Shuttle Challenger on mission STS-8, became NASA's eighth Administrator on July 1, 1989. One day earlier he concluded a 30 year Naval career retiring as a Vice Admiral. He was the first astronaut to head the nation's civilian space agency. Truly became Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Flight on February 20, 1986. In this position, he led the painstaking rebuilding of the Space Shuttle program less than one month after the Challenger disaster. This was highlighted by the much heralded 'Return to Flight' on September 29, 1988 with the launch of Shuttle Discovery, 32 months after Challenger's final flight. On February 12th, 1992 Richard Truly resigned as NASA Administrator at the request of President George Bush.

  15. Elementary Processes Underlying Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    NM.J. Fisch

    2012-06-15

    Alpha channeling in tokamaks is speculative, but also extraordinarily attractive. Waves that can accomplish this effect have been identified. Key aspects of the theory now enjoy experimental confirmation. This paper will review the elementary processes of wave-particle interactions in plasma that underlie the alpha channeling effect

  16. Commentary on Coefficient Alpha: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2009-01-01

    The general use of coefficient alpha to assess reliability should be discouraged on a number of grounds. The assumptions underlying coefficient alpha are unlikely to hold in practice, and violation of these assumptions can result in nontrivial negative or positive bias. Structural equation modeling was discussed as an informative process both to…

  17. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...

  18. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...

  19. Teaching Calculus with Wolfram|Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimiceli, Vincent E.; Lang, Andrew S. I. D.; Locke, LeighAnne

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the benefits and drawbacks of using Wolfram|Alpha as the platform for teaching calculus concepts in the lab setting. It is a result of our experiences designing and creating an entirely new set of labs using Wolfram|Alpha. We present the reasoning behind our transition from using a standard computer algebra system (CAS) to…

  20. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...

  1. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…

  2. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...

  3. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Inherited Emphysema)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 protein in the blood with normal alpha-1 antitrypsin from healthy plasma donors. It is given in a vein (IV). The dose is adjusted based on body weight. This treatment is often given once a week. There are three ... the management of Alpha-1 related emphysema includes: • Exercise and a healthy lifestyle ...

  4. Psychiatric Symptoms in Alpha-Mannosidosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malm, D.; Pantel, J.; Linaker, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis is characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID), moderate to severe neurosensory hearing loss, frequent infections, psychomotor disturbances and skeletal dysmorphism. For the first time, a panel of nine alpha-mannosidosis patients with psychiatric symptoms is presented. The clinical picture has several…

  5. Alpha particle spectrometry using superconducting microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horansky, Robert; Ullom, Joel; Beall, James; Hilton, Gene; Stiehl, Gregory; Irwin, Kent; Plionis, Alexander; Lamont, Stephen; Rudy, Clifford; Rabin, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Alpha spectrometry is the preferred technique for analyzing trace samples of radioactive material because the alpha particle flux can be significantly higher than the gamma-ray flux from nuclear materials of interest. Traditionally, alpha spectrometry is performed with Si detectors whose resolution is at best 8 keV FWHM. Here, we describe the design and operation of a microcalorimeter alpha detector with an energy resolution of 1.06 keV FWHM at 5 MeV. We demonstrate the ability of the microcalorimeter to clearly resolve the alpha particles from Pu-239 and Pu-240, whose ratio differentiates reactor-grade Pu from weapons-grade. We also show the first direct observation of the decay of Po-209 to the ground state of Pb-205 which has traditionally been obscured by a much stronger alpha line 2 keV away. Finally, the 1.06 keV resolution observed for alpha particles is far worse than the 0.12 keV resolution predicted from thermal fluctuations and measurement of gamma-rays. The cause of the resolution degradation may be ion damage in the tin. Hence, alpha particle microcalorimeters may provide a novel tool for studying ion damage and lattice displacement energies in bulk materials.

  6. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.95 Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at...

  7. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  8. Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction of cytokine secretion from murine T cells and proliferation of NK1.1 {alpha}/{beta} TCR-double positive cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, Hirofumi; Itonori, Saki; Sugita, Mutsumi; Nakamura, Kimihide; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Akemi; Kushi, Yasunori

    2008-08-29

    Interferon (IFN)-{gamma} and interleukin (IL)-4 regulate many types of immune responses. Here we report that acidic glycosphingolipids (AGLs) of Hypsizigus marmoreus and Pleurotus eryngii induced secretion of IFN- {gamma} and IL-4 from T cells in a CD11c-positive cell-dependent manner similar to that of {alpha}-galactosylceramide ({alpha}-GalCer) and isoglobotriaosylceramide (iGb3), although activated T cells by AGLs showed less secretion of cytokine than those activated by {alpha}-GalCer. In addition, stimulation of these mushroom AGLs induced proliferation of NK1.1 {alpha}/{beta} TCR-double positive cells in splenocytes. Administration of a mixture of {alpha}-GalCer and AGLs affected the stimulation of {alpha}-GalCer and generally induced a subtle Th1 bias for splenocytes but induced an extreme Th2 bias for thymocytes. These results suggested that edible mushroom AGLs contribute to immunomodulation.

  9. Computer hardware fault administration

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Megerian, Mark G.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2010-09-14

    Computer hardware fault administration carried out in a parallel computer, where the parallel computer includes a plurality of compute nodes. The compute nodes are coupled for data communications by at least two independent data communications networks, where each data communications network includes data communications links connected to the compute nodes. Typical embodiments carry out hardware fault administration by identifying a location of a defective link in the first data communications network of the parallel computer and routing communications data around the defective link through the second data communications network of the parallel computer.

  10. MCS Systems Administration Toolkit

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2001-09-30

    This package contains a number of systems administration utilities to assist a team of system administrators in managing a computer environment by automating routine tasks and centralizing information. Included are utilities to help install software on a network of computers and programs to make an image of a disk drive, to manage and distribute configuration files for a number of systems, and to run self-testss on systems, as well as an example of using amore » database to manage host information and various utilities.« less

  11. Local Structure and Vibrational Properties of alpha-Pu, alpha-U, and the alpha-U Charge Density Wave

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E J; Allen, P G; Blobaum, K M; Wall, M A; Booth, C H

    2004-08-10

    The local atomic environment and vibrational properties of atoms in monoclinic pure {alpha}-plutonium as well as orthorhombic pure {alpha}-uranium and its low-temperature charge-density-wave (CDW) modulation are examined by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Pu L{sub III}-edge and U L{sub III}-edge EXAFS data measured at low temperatures verify the crystal structures of {alpha}-U and {alpha}-Pu samples previously determined by x-ray diffraction and neutron scattering. Debye-Waller factors from temperature-dependent EXAFS measurements are fit with a correlated Debye model. The observed Pu-Pu bond correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-Pu) = 162 {+-} 5 K for the pure {alpha}-Pu phase agrees with our previous measurement of the correlated Debye temperature of the gallium-containing {alpha}'-Pu phase in a mixed phase 1.9 at% Ga-doped {alpha}'-Pu/{delta}-Pu alloy. The temperature dependence of the U-U nearest neighbor Debye-Waller factor exhibits a sharp discontinuity in slope near T{sub CDW} = 43 K, the transition temperature at which the charge-density wave (CDW) in {alpha}-U condenses from a soft phonon mode along the (100) direction. Our measurement of the CDW using EXAFS is the first observation of the structure of the CDW in polycrystalline {alpha}-U. The different temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor for T < T{sub CDW} can be modeled by the change in bond length distributions resulting from condensation of the charge density wave. For T > T{sub CDW}, the observed correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-U) = 199 {+-} 3 K is in good agreement with other measurements of the Debye temperature for polycrystalline {alpha}-U. CDW structural models fit to the {alpha}-U EXAFS data support a squared CDW at the lowest temperatures, with a displacement amplitude of {var_epsilon} = 0.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom}.

  12. An Alpha Schottky Junction Power Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litz, Marc; Carroll, James; Henriquez, Stan

    2011-10-01

    Isotope batteries present solutions for long-lived low power sources. Compact sensors, and electronic circuit boards can be powered for the lifetime of infrastructure. Alpha sources are practical for safety reasons because of the limited distance before energy absorption in materials, and the high energy (~5MeV) per particle. Damage to materials from the alphas limits the practical use. A Schottky diode geometry is created from an alpha foil on a diamond-like crystal. A power source is proposed that takes advantage of the radiation damage tolerance of diamond, combined with the short range of the alpha radiation. The internal field of the Schottky barrier creates a current through the diode from electron-hole pairs created by alpha bombardment in the gap. Calculations of the expected current, circuit model results, and design parameters for a device are described.

  13. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  14. Catalytic Mechanism of Human Alpha-galactosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Guce, A.; Clark, N; Salgado, E; Ivanen, D; Kulinskaya, A; Brumer, H; Garman, S

    2010-01-01

    The enzyme {alpha}-galactosidase ({alpha}-GAL, also known as {alpha}-GAL A; E.C. 3.2.1.22) is responsible for the breakdown of {alpha}-galactosides in the lysosome. Defects in human {alpha}-GAL lead to the development of Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the buildup of {alpha}-galactosylated substrates in the tissues. {alpha}-GAL is an active target of clinical research: there are currently two treatment options for Fabry disease, recombinant enzyme replacement therapy (approved in the United States in 2003) and pharmacological chaperone therapy (currently in clinical trials). Previously, we have reported the structure of human {alpha}-GAL, which revealed the overall structure of the enzyme and established the locations of hundreds of mutations that lead to the development of Fabry disease. Here, we describe the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme derived from x-ray crystal structures of each of the four stages of the double displacement reaction mechanism. Use of a difluoro-{alpha}-galactopyranoside allowed trapping of a covalent intermediate. The ensemble of structures reveals distortion of the ligand into a {sup 1}S{sub 3} skew (or twist) boat conformation in the middle of the reaction cycle. The high resolution structures of each step in the catalytic cycle will allow for improved drug design efforts on {alpha}-GAL and other glycoside hydrolase family 27 enzymes by developing ligands that specifically target different states of the catalytic cycle. Additionally, the structures revealed a second ligand-binding site suitable for targeting by novel pharmacological chaperones.

  15. Folate receptor {alpha} regulates cell proliferation in mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Congjun; Evans, Chheng-Orn; Stevens, Victoria L.; Owens, Timothy R.; Oyesiku, Nelson M.

    2009-11-01

    We have previously found that the mRNA and protein levels of the folate receptor alpha (FR{alpha}) are uniquely over-expressed in clinically human nonfunctional (NF) pituitary adenomas, but the mechanistic role of FR{alpha} has not fully been determined. We investigated the effect of FR{alpha} over-expression in the mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cell line as a model for NF pituitary adenomas. We found that the expression and function of FR{alpha} were strongly up-regulated, by Western blotting and folic acid binding assay. Furthermore, we found a higher cell growth rate, an enhanced percentage of cells in S-phase by BrdU assay, and a higher PCNA staining. These observations indicate that over-expression of FR{alpha} promotes cell proliferation. These effects were abrogated in the same {alpha}T3-1 cells when transfected with a mutant FR{alpha} cDNA that confers a dominant-negative phenotype by inhibiting folic acid binding. Finally, by real-time quantitative PCR, we found that mRNA expression of NOTCH3 was up-regulated in FR{alpha} over-expressing cells. In summary, our data suggests that FR{alpha} regulates pituitary tumor cell proliferation and mechanistically may involve the NOTCH pathway. Potentially, this finding could be exploited to develop new, innovative molecular targeted treatment for human NF pituitary adenomas.

  16. Human podocytes adhere to the KRGDS motif of the alpha3alpha4alpha5 collagen IV network.

    PubMed

    Borza, Corina M; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; Pedchenko, Vadim; Saleem, Moin A; Mathieson, Peter W; Sado, Yoshikazu; Hudson, Heather M; Pozzi, Ambra; Saus, Juan; Abrahamson, Dale R; Zent, Roy; Hudson, Billy G

    2008-04-01

    Podocyte adhesion to the glomerular basement membrane is required for proper function of the glomerular filtration barrier. However, the mechanism whereby podocytes adhere to collagen IV networks, a major component of the glomerular basement membrane, is poorly understood. The predominant collagen IV network is composed of triple helical protomers containing the alpha3alpha4alpha5 chains. The protomers connect via the trimeric noncollagenous (NC1) domains to form hexamers at the interface. Because the NC1 domains of this network can potentially support integrin-dependent cell adhesion, it was determined whether individual NC1 monomers or alpha3alpha4alpha5 hexamers support podocyte adhesion. It was found that, although human podocytes did not adhere to NC1 domains proper, they did adhere via integrin alphavbeta3 to a KRGDS motif located adjacent to alpha3NC1 domains. Because the KRGDS motif is a site of phosphorylation, its interactions with integrin alphavbeta3 may play a critical role in cell signaling in physiologic and pathologic states. PMID:18235087

  17. Oromucosal Administration of Interferon to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Beilharz, Manfred W.; Cummins, Martin J.; Bennett, Alayne L.; Cummins, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing dogma is that, to be systemically effective, interferon-alpha (IFNα) must be administered in sufficiently high doses to yield functional blood concentrations. Such an approach to IFNα therapy has proven effective in some instances, but high-dose parenteral IFNα therapy has the disadvantage of causing significant adverse events. Mounting evidence suggests that IFNα delivered into the oral cavity in low doses interacts with the oral mucosa in a unique manner to induce systemic host defense mechanisms without IFNα actually entering the circulation, thus reducing the potential for toxic side effects. A better understanding of the applications and potential benefits of this treatment modality are under active investigation. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature on the clinical use of the oromucosal route of administration of interferon, with an emphasis on the treatment of influenza.

  18. Telecommunications administration standard

    SciTech Connect

    Gustwiller, K.D.

    1996-05-01

    The administration of telecommunications is critical to proper maintenance and operation. The intent is to be able to properly support telecommunications for the distribution of all information within a building/campus. This standard will provide a uniform administration scheme that is independent of applications, and will establish guidelines for owners, installers, designers and contractors. This standard will accommodate existing building wiring, new building wiring and outside plant wiring. Existing buildings may not readily adapt to all applications of this standard, but the requirement for telecommunications administration is applicable to all buildings. Administration of the telecommunications infrastructure includes documentation (labels, records, drawings, reports, and work orders) of cables, termination hardware, patching and cross-connect facilities, telecommunications rooms, and other telecommunications spaces (conduits, grounding, and cable pathways are documented by Facilities Engineering). The investment in properly documenting telecommunications is a worthwhile effort. It is necessary to adhere to these standards to ensure quality and efficiency for the operation and maintenance of the telecommunications infrastructure for Sandia National Laboratories.

  19. Study Shows Administrative Shortage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, John R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Summarizes "Administrative Shortage in New England: The Evidence, the Causes, the Recommendations." High pressure, long hours, low salaries, and high housing costs are among the reasons cited for the shortage. Recommendations are centered on role identity, staff support, training, and recruitment. (SI)

  20. Central Administration. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke Univ., Durham, NC.

    Because the configuration of the central administration of Duke University has recently been modified, this report was prepared: (1) to describe the changes and rearrangements thus far introduced; (2) to propose desirable clarifications not yet provided; (3) to recommend certain additional changes where these may already appear to be needed; and…

  1. Guidebook for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Fritz, Ed.

    To provide guidance and advice regarding day-to-day responsibilities of new and experienced school administrators and superintendents in New York State, this compendium of knowledge and advice submitted by practitioners is presented with emphasis on all major aspects of superintendency. The section on general aspects of superintendency includes…

  2. Redis database administration tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2013-02-13

    MyRedis is a product of the Lorenz subproject under the ASC Scirntific Data Management effort. MyRedis is a web based utility designed to allow easy administration of instances of Redis databases. It can be usedd to view and manipulate data as well as run commands directly against a variety of different Redis hosts.

  3. Female Administrator Acceptance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlitschek, Elizabeth Ann

    The number of women in educational administration is declining, despite official efforts to end sex discrimination. Women are hampered on the way to obtaining an adequate education, finding roadblocks from sex bias in elementary readers to discrimination in graduate programs; are considered responsible for home and children even when working full…

  4. Hospital Library Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Anne

    The objectives of a hospital are to improve patient care, while the objectives of a hospital library are to improve services to the staff which will support their efforts. This handbook dealing with hospital administration is designed to aid the librarian in either implementing a hospital library, or improving services in an existing medical…

  5. Discretionary Grants Administration Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    This manual sets forth applicable administrative policies and procedures to recipients of discretionary project grants or cooperative agreements awarded by program offices in the Office of Human Development Services (HDS). It is intended to serve as a basic reference for project directors and business officers of recipient organizations who are…

  6. [Rural School Administrator's Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AEL, Inc., Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains resources on five topics relevant to rural school administrators. "Assessing Parent Involvement: A Checklist for Rural Schools": discusses educator beliefs that support successful parent engagement programs, challenges and advantages of rural schools attempting to involve parents and community, and aspects of successful…

  7. Information for School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowitz, Gerald T.; And Others

    Modern management theory, based on the reduction of uncertainties, demands the collection and manipulation of large amounts of information. School Administrators choke in the process of trying to digest a proliferation of data, only some of which are useful. The aims of the study were to explore the extent to which large amounts of data could be…

  8. Research Administration: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummer, George H.

    1995-01-01

    The ways in which accountability issues have affected federal-university relationships, particularly in the area of academic research, are examined. Lessons university administrators have learned since issuance of Office of Management and Budget Circular A-21 in 1958, Congressional hearings on the operations of the National Institutes of Health…

  9. Administrators Confront Student "Sexting"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2009-01-01

    Cellphone-savvy students have created instructional and disciplinary challenges for educators for years. But the recent emergence of "sexting" by adolescents over their mobile phones caught many school administrators off guard, and the practice is prompting efforts around the country to craft policy responses. Students' sharing of nude or…

  10. Championing the Latino Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Carlos A.

    2011-01-01

    When the author worked as a vice principal at a K-8 school in Watsonville, California, a school predominantly filled with migrant workers' children, he felt a lack of support as a Latino as he began moving up into school administration. He also continued to see what he had seen as a teacher--which was how underserved minority students were. These…

  11. Hispanic Administrators in Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballestero, Victor; Wright, Sam

    2008-01-01

    The study was designed to provide information on Hispanic administrators in the Commonwealth of Kentucky. The data was obtained from Kentucky school Superintendents or their designees in 175 public school districts. The Hispanic survey contained six questions. The survey was mailed to Kentucky Superintendents on April 21, 2008. A follow-up survey…

  12. Educational Administration's Weber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronn, Peter

    1994-01-01

    Discusses Max Weber's importance in Greenfield's work, particularly in Greenfield and Ribbins'"Greenfield on Educational Administration" (1993). In concentrating on human actors' subjective understanding, Greenfield was a faithful Weberian. However, he deviated from Weber by disavowing structural explanations of social and organizational…

  13. "Complicating" Educational Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Colleen S.

    Administrators desiring to lead organizations that will adapt and survive in a complex environment like today's public schools need to develop what Karl Weick calls "complicated" understanding of "requisite variety." The law of requisite variety states that a diverse and complicated environment demands similar diversity from its inhabitants if…

  14. A Treatise on Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas R.

    1988-01-01

    Expands Henri Fayol's definition of the administrative process to include a humanistic approach involving planning, organizing, implementing, controlling, evaluating, and satisfying functions. This empirical definition differs from some theoretical approaches by looking beyond resource consumption to consider ecological effects on the environment…

  15. Administrative Uses of Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Chase

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the administrative uses of the microcomputer, stating that high performance educational managers are likely to have microcomputers in their organizations. Four situations that would justify the use of a computer are: (1) when massive amounts of data are processed through well-defined operations; (2) when data processing is…

  16. Administrative Utility Analysis: Appendices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., San Juan, Puerto Rico.

    Appendixes to a study on administrative utility analysis and vocational education programs for the Area of Vocational and Technical Education (AVTE) in the Puerto Rico Department of Education contain the planning and budgeting system elements, position descriptions, and information on the growth of vocational education in Puerto Rico. The elements…

  17. Educator Effectiveness Administrative Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this manual is to provide guidance in the evaluation of educators, highlight critical components of effectiveness training, and offer opportunities for professional growth. The term "educator" includes teachers, all professional and temporary professional employees, education specialists, and school administrators/principals.…

  18. Standards and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, S. P.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water quality standards and administration, covering publications of 1976-77. Consideration is given to municipal facilities, National Pollutant Discharge Elimination Systems, regional and international water quality management, and effluent standards. A list of 99 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Migrant Education Administrative Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge. Bureau of Migrant Education.

    Intended to provide information pertaining to the administration of migrant education projects in Louisiana, the handbook is divided into two sections: basic guidelines for program operations and support services--nursing. Section I covers the Federal and State migrant program, local migrant projects, project personnel and staff development, and…

  20. Using Administrative Data. Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLeonardi, Joan W.; Yuan, Ying-Ying T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the value of administrative data to child welfare researchers. Considers issues in using client records--confidentiality, selection of data, historical data, sampling reliability, replication of findings, and access to data--that can be resolved in standardized ways. Notes other problematic issues, such as greater distance from subject,…

  1. Standards for Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    1998-01-01

    This newsletter reviews five reports that address the implications of standards for administrators. These texts include "Designing and Implementing Standards-Based Accountability System" (Education Commission of the States), which describes some of the policy implications of standards-driven accountability; "Why Principals Fail: Are National…

  2. Administrative Effectiveness in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whetten, David A.; Cameron, Kim S.

    1985-01-01

    Determinants of organizational and administrative effectiveness in higher education are discussed, and eight administrator characteristics associated with maintaining and enhancing institutional effectiveness are identified. (MSE)

  3. Mapping High-Velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha Emission from Supernova 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Fransson, Claes; Larsson, Josefin; Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Garnavich, Peter; Heng, Kevin; Lawrence, Stephen S.; Lundqvist, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Sonneborn, George

    2015-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope images of high-velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha emission in the outer debris of SN 1987A. The H-alpha images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H-alpha imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock front, in the velocity intervals (-7,500 < V(sub obs) < -2,800 km/s) and (1,000 < V(sub obs) < 7,500 km/s), ?M(sub H) = 1.2 × 10(exp -3) M/ y. We also present the first Lyman-alpha imaging of the whole remnant and new Chandra X-ray observations. Comparing the spatial distribution of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission, we observe that the majority of the high-velocity Lyman-alpha emission originates interior to the equatorial ring. The observed Lyman-alpha/H-alpha photon ratio, R(L-alpha/H-alpha) approx. = 17, is significantly higher than the theoretically predicted ratio of approx. = 5 for neutral atoms crossing the reverse shock front. We attribute this excess to Lyman-alpha emission produced by X-ray heating of the outer debris. The spatial orientation of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission suggests that X-ray heating of the outer debris is the dominant Lyman-alpha production mechanism in SN 1987A at this phase in its evolution.

  4. [Contents and its change during storage of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in potatoes].

    PubMed

    Shindo, Tetsuya; Ushiyama, Hirofumi; Kan, Kimiko; Yasuda, Kazuo; Saito, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    Contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in native species of potato (May Queen, Danshaku and Waseshiro), and in species (Jagakids Red '90 (Red) and Jagakids Purple '90 (Purple)) on the market, and their change during storage at room temparature were investigated. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were extracted from potatoes with methanol, cleaned up by using a Sep-Pak Plus C18 cartridge, and then subjected to HPLC. The recoveries of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine from potatoes were both more than 96%, and the quantitation limits were both 2 microg/g. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were detected in periderm in all samples at the levels of 260-320 microg/g in May Queen,190-240 microg/g in Danshaku, 43-63 microg/g in Waseshiro, 140-200 microg/g in Red and 84-130 microg/g in Purple, respectively. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were detected in the cortex in all samples of May Queen and Danshaku at the levels of 2.7-12 microg/g and 5.8-31 microg/g, respectively. Contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in the cortex of May Queen and Danshaku were less than 10% of those in the periderm. When potatoes were stored for 90 days at room temparature in a dark place, no marked change in the contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine was observed in any of the potato samples. PMID:15678944

  5. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis III alpha/beta

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions mucolipidosis III alpha/beta mucolipidosis III alpha/beta Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Mucolipidosis III alpha/beta is a slowly progressive disorder that affects ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: mucolipidosis II alpha/beta

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions mucolipidosis II alpha/beta mucolipidosis II alpha/beta Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse ... PDF Open All Close All Description Mucolipidosis II alpha/beta (also known as I-cell disease) is ...

  7. The IL-6/sIL-6R treatment of a malignant melanoma cell line enhances susceptibility to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wagley, Yadav; Yoo, Yung-Choon; Seo, Han Geuk; Rhee, Man Hee; Kim, Tae-Hyoung; Kang, Keon Wook; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Oh, Jae-Wook . E-mail: ohjw@mail.chosun.ac.kr

    2007-03-23

    Melanoma is an intractable tumor that has shown very impressive and promising response to local administration of high dose recombinant TNF-{alpha} in combination with IFN-{gamma} in clinical studies. In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-6/sIL-6R on TNF-{alpha}-resistant B16/F10.9 melanoma cells. A low dose of TNF-{alpha} or IL-6/sIL-6R had minimal affect on the cell growth. However, the highly active fusion protein of sIL-6R and IL-6 (IL6RIL6), covalently linked by a flexible peptide, sensitized TNF-{alpha}-resistant F10.9 melanoma cells to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis. Stimulation of the cells with IL6RIL6 plus TNF-{alpha} resulted in both the activation of caspase-3 and the reduction of bcl-2 expression. Flow cytometry analysis showed that IL6RIL6-upregulated TNF-R55 and TNF-R75 expression, suggesting an increase in TNF-{alpha} responsiveness by IL6RIL6 resulting from the induction of TNF receptors. Moreover, exposure of F10.9 cells to neutralizing antibody to TNF-R55 significantly inhibited IL6RIL6/TNF-{alpha}-induced cytotoxicity. These results suggest that the IL6/sIL6R/gp130 system, which sensitizes TNF-{alpha}-resistant melanoma cells to TNF-{alpha}-induced apoptosis, may provide a new target for immunotherapy.

  8. Local structure and vibrational properties of alpha-Pu, alpha-Uand the alpha-U charge density wave

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.J.; Allen, P.G.; Blobaum, K.J.M.; Wall, W.A.; Booth, C.H.

    2004-08-10

    The local atomic environment and vibrational properties of atoms in monoclinic pure {alpha}-plutonium as well as orthorhombic pure a-uranium and its low-temperature charge-density-wave (CDW) modulation are examined by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Pu L{sub III}-edge and U L{sub III}-edge EXAFS data measured at low temperatures verify the crystal structures of {alpha}-U and {alpha}-Pu samples previously determined by x-ray diffraction and neutron scattering. Debye-Waller factors from temperature-dependent EXAFS measurements are fit with a correlated Debye model. The observed Pu-Pu bond correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-Pu) = 162 {+-} 5 K for the pure {alpha}-Pu phase agrees with our previous measurement of the correlated Debye temperature of the gallium-containing {alpha}{prime}-Pu phase in a mixed phase 1.9 at% Ga-doped {alpha}{prime}-Pu/{delta}-Pu alloy. The temperature dependence of the U-U nearest neighbor Debye-Waller factor exhibits a sharp discontinuity in slope near T{sub CDW} = 43 K, the transition temperature at which the charge-density wave (CDW) in {alpha}-U condenses from a soft phonon mode along the (100) direction. Our measurement of the CDW using EXAFS is the first observation of the structure of the CDW in polycrystalline {alpha}-U. The different temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor for T < T{sub CDW} can be modeled by the change in bond length distributions resulting from condensation of the charge density wave. For T > T{sub CDW}, the observed correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-U) = 199 {+-} 3 K is in good agreement with other measurements of the Debye temperature for polycrystalline {alpha}-U. CDW structural models fit to the {alpha}-U EXAFS data support a squared CDW at the lowest temperatures, with a displacement amplitude of {var_epsilon} = 0.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom}.

  9. Disposition of 14C-alpha-cyclodextrin in germ-free and conventional rats.

    PubMed

    Van Ommen, B; De Bie, A T H J; Bär, A

    2004-06-01

    The absorption, disposition, metabolism, and excretion of uniformly (14)C-labeled alpha-cyclodextrin ((14)C-alpha-CD) was examined in four separate experiments with Wistar rats. In Experiment 1, (14)C-alpha-CD (25 microCi, 50 mg/kg bw) was administered intravenously to four male and four female conventional rats. In Experiment 2, (14)C-alpha-CD (25 microCi, 200 mg/kg bw) was given by gavage to four male and four female germ-free rats. In Experiments 3 and 4, (14)C-alpha-CD was given to groups of four male and four female conventional rats by gavage at different dose levels (100 microCi, 200 mg/kg bw; 25 microCi, 200 and 100 mg/kg bw). In all experiments, (14)C was measured in respiratory CO(2), urine, and feces over periods of 24-48 h, and in the contents of the gastrointestinal tract, blood, main organs, and residual carcass at termination of the experiments. The chemical identity of the (14)C-labeled compounds was examined by HPLC in blood (Experiment 1), urine (Experiments 1-4), feces (Experiments 2-4), and samples of intestinal contents (Experiments 2 and 4). Recovered (14)C was expressed as percentage of the administered dose. Experiment 1 showed that intravenously administered alpha-CD is excreted rapidly with urine. During the first 2h after dosing, plasma (14)C levels decreased rapidly (t(1/2), 26 and 21 min in male and female rats, respectively). About 13% of the administered (14)C dose (range 4.6-30.6) was detected in the feces, respiratory CO(2), organs, and carcass at the end of the experiment, i.e., 24 h after dosing. The presence of about 1.9% in the intestinal contents and feces suggests that a certain fraction of systemic alpha-CD is eliminated with the bile or saliva. Conclusive evidence, either positive or negative, for a hydrolysis and further metabolism of a small fraction of the administered alpha-CD by the enzymes of the mammalian body could not be gained from this experiment. Upon oral administration of (14)C-alpha-CD to germ-free rats

  10. Mechanisms of alpha 1-adrenergic vascular desensitization in conscious dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiuchi, K.; Vatner, D. E.; Uemura, N.; Bigaud, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hempel, D. M.; Graham, R. M.; Vatner, S. F.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of alpha 1-adrenergic vascular desensitization, osmotic minipumps containing either saline (n = 9) or amidephrine mesylate (AMD) (n = 9), a selective alpha 1-adrenergic receptor agonist, were implanted subcutaneously in dogs with chronically implanted arterial and right atrial pressure catheters and aortic flow probes. After chronic alpha 1-adrenergic receptor stimulation, significant physiological desensitization to acute AMD challenges was observed, i.e., pressor and vasoconstrictor responses to the alpha 1-adrenergic agonist were significantly depressed (p < 0.01) compared with responses in the same dogs studied in the conscious state before pump implantation. However, physiological desensitization to acute challenges of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) in the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade was not observed for either mean arterial pressure (MAP) (30 +/- 7 versus 28 +/- 5 mm Hg) or total peripheral resistance (TPR) (29.8 +/- 4.9 versus 28.9 +/- 7.3 mm Hg/l per minute). In the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor plus ganglionic blockade after AMD pump implantation, physiological desensitization to NE was unmasked since the control responses to NE (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) before the AMD pumps were now greater (p < 0.01) than after chronic AMD administration for both MAP (66 +/- 5 versus 32 +/- 2 mm Hg) and TPR (42.6 +/- 10.3 versus 23.9 +/- 4.4 mm Hg/l per minute). In the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor, ganglionic, plus NE-uptake blockade after AMD pump implantation, desensitization was even more apparent, since NE (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) induced even greater differences in MAP (33 +/- 5 versus 109 +/- 6 mm Hg) and TPR (28.1 +/- 1.8 versus 111.8 +/- 14.7 mm Hg/l per minute). The maximal force of contraction induced by NE in the presence or absence of endothelium was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in vitro in mesenteric artery rings from AMD pump dogs

  11. Changing Patterns of Alpha Agonist Medication Use in Children and Adolescents 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Mayne, Stephanie L.; Song, Lihai; Steffes, Jennifer; Liu, Weiwei; McCarn, Banita; Margolis, Benyamin; Grimes, Alan; Gotlieb, Edward; Localio, Russell; Ross, Michelle E.; Grundmeier, Robert W.; Wasserman, Richard; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe rates and patterns of long- and short-acting alpha agonist use for behavioral problems in a primary care population following Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of the long-acting alpha agonists guanfacine and clonidine. Methods: Children and adolescents 4–18 years of age, who received an alpha agonist prescription between 2009 and 2011, were identified from a sample of 45 United States primary care practices in two electronic health record-based research networks. Alpha agonist receipt was identified using National Drug Codes and medication names. The proportion of subjects receiving long- and short-acting prescriptions in each year was calculated and examined with respect to reported mental health diagnoses, and whether indications for use were on-label, had evidence from clinical trials, or had no trial evidence. Results: In a cohort of 282,875 subjects, 27,671 (10%) received any psychotropic medication and only 4,227 subjects (1.5%) received at least one prescription for an alpha agonist, most commonly a short-acting formulation (83%). Only 20% of alpha agonist use was on-label (use of long-acting formulations for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]). Most subjects (68%) received alpha agonists for indications with evidence of efficacy from clinical trials but no FDA approval, primarily short-acting formulations for ADHD and autism; 12% received alpha agonists for diagnoses lacking randomized clinical trial evidence in children, including sleep disorders and anxiety, or for which there was no documented mental health diagnosis. Rates of long-acting alpha agonist use increased more than 20-fold from 0.2% to 4%, whereas rates of short-acting alpha agonist use grew only slightly between 2009 and 2011 from 10.6% to 11.3%. Conclusions: Alpha agonist use was uncommon in this population, and most subjects received short-acting forms for conditions that were off-label, but with

  12. Lucid dreaming and alpha activity: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, R D; Hunt, H T; Tyson, P D; Lucescu, M L; Jeakins, D B

    1982-12-01

    10 good dream recallers spent 2 nights in the sleep lab during which they were awakened 4 times per night from REM sleep, twice during their highest alpha activity in REM, and twice during low REM alpha. 5 were given alpha feedback training prior to sleep onset. Arousals from high alpha REM sleep yielded significantly higher lucidity ratings. Alpha feedback had no effect upon lucidity or REM alpha levels. Similarities between lucid dreams and meditative phenomena are discussed. PMID:7162915

  13. Lyman alpha radiation in external galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1990-01-01

    The Ly alpha line of atomic hydrogen is often a luminous component of the radiation emitted by distant galaxies. Except for those galaxies which have a substantial central source of non-stellar ionizing radiation, most of the Ly alpha radiation emitted by galaxies is generated within regions of the interstellar medium which are photoionized by starlight. Conversely, much of the energy radiated by photoionized regions is carried by the Ly alpha line. Only hot, massive stars are capable of ionizing hydrogen in the interstellar medium which surrounds them, and because such stars are necessarily short-lived, Ly alpha emission traces regions of active star formation. Researchers argue that the strength of the Ly alpha emission observed from external galaxies may be used to estimate quantitatively the dust content of the emitting region, while the Ly alpha line profile is sensitive to the presence of shock waves. Interstellar dust particles and shock waves are intimately associated with the process of star formation in two senses. First, both dust particles and shock waves owe their existence to stellar activity; second, they may both serve as agents which facilitate the formation of stars, shocks by triggering gravitational instabilities in the interstellar gas that they compress, and dust by shielding star-forming molecular clouds from the ionizing and dissociative effects of external UV radiation. By using Ly alpha observations as a probe of the dust content in diffuse gas at high redshift, we might hope to learn about the earliest epochs of star formation.

  14. Applying alpha-channeling to mirror machines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhmoginov, A. I.; Fisch, N. J.

    2012-05-15

    The {alpha}-channeling effect entails the use of radio-frequency waves to expel and cool high-energetic {alpha} particles born in a fusion reactor; the device reactivity can then be increased even further by redirecting the extracted energy to fuel ions. Originally proposed for tokamaks, this technique has also been shown to benefit open-ended fusion devices. Here, the fundamental theory and practical aspects of {alpha} channeling in mirror machines are reviewed, including the influence of magnetic field inhomogeneity and the effect of a finite wave region on the {alpha}-channeling mechanism. For practical implementation of the {alpha}-channeling effect in mirror geometry, suitable contained weakly damped modes are identified. In addition, the parameter space of candidate waves for implementing the {alpha}-channeling effect can be significantly extended through the introduction of a suitable minority ion species that has the catalytic effect of moderating the transfer of power from the {alpha}-channeling wave to the fuel ions.

  15. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe smallscale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events" (RBEs) [Rouppe van der Voort et al., 2009], the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem [De Pontieu et al., 2011]. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1" pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mAngstroms (33mAngstroms pixels) across a broad 20Angstrom spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-a emission at 1216Angstroms. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  16. Diagnostics for PLX-alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the Plasma Liner eXperiment PLX-alpha at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to establish the viability of creating a spherically imploding plasma liner for MIF and HED applications, using a spherical array of supersonic plasma jets launched by innovative contoured-gap coaxial plasma guns. PLX- α experiments will focus in particular on establishing the ram pressure and uniformity scalings of partial and fully spherical plasma liners. In order to characterize these parameters experimentally, a suite of diagnostics is planned, including multi-camera fast imaging, a 16-channel visible interferometer (upgraded from 8 channels) with reconfigurable, fiber-coupled front end, and visible and VUV high-resolution and survey spectroscopy. Tomographic reconstruction and data fusion techniques will be used in conjunction with interferometry, imaging, and synthetic diagnostics from modeling to characterize liner uniformity in 3D. Diagnostic and data analysis design, implementation, and status will be presented. Supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy - U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Scalable encryption using alpha rooting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharton, Eric J.; Panetta, Karen A.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2008-04-01

    Full and partial encryption methods are important for subscription based content providers, such as internet and cable TV pay channels. Providers need to be able to protect their products while at the same time being able to provide demonstrations to attract new customers without giving away the full value of the content. If an algorithm were introduced which could provide any level of full or partial encryption in a fast and cost effective manner, the applications to real-time commercial implementation would be numerous. In this paper, we present a novel application of alpha rooting, using it to achieve fast and straightforward scalable encryption with a single algorithm. We further present use of the measure of enhancement, the Logarithmic AME, to select optimal parameters for the partial encryption. When parameters are selected using the measure, the output image achieves a balance between protecting the important data in the image while still containing a good overall representation of the image. We will show results for this encryption method on a number of images, using histograms to evaluate the effectiveness of the encryption.

  18. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Allred, J.; Airapetian, V.; Gong, Q.; Fontenla, J.; McIntosh, S.; de Pontieu, B.

    2011-05-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe small-scale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events” (RBEs), the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1” pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mÅ (33mÅ pixels) across a broad 20Å spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-α emission at 1216Å. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  19. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, P. C.; Allred, J. C.; Airapetian, V.; Gong, Q.; Mcintosh, S. W.; De Pontieu, B.; Fontenla, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe small-scale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events" (RBEs) [Rouppe van der Voort et al., 2009], the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem [De Pontieu et al., 2011]. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1" pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mÅ (33mÅ pixels) across a broad 20Å spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-α emission at 1216Å. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  20. Accelerated transport and maturation of lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A in Fabry lymphoblasts by an enzyme inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Fan, J Q; Ishii, S; Asano, N; Suzuki, Y

    1999-01-01

    Fabry disease is a disorder of glycosphingolipid metabolism caused by deficiency of lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A), resulting in renal failure along with premature myocardial infarction and strokes. No effective treatment of this disorder is available at present. Studies of residual activities of mutant enzymes in many Fabry patients showed that some of them had kinetic properties similar to those for normal alpha-Gal A, but were significantly less stable, especially in conditions of neutral pH (refs. 3-5). The biosynthetic processing was delayed in cultured fibroblasts of a Fabry patient, and the mutant protein formed an aggregate in endoplasmic reticulum, indicating that the enzyme deficiency in some mutants was mainly caused by abortive exit from the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to excessive degradation of the enzyme. We report here that 1-deoxy-galactonojirimycin (DGJ), a potent competitive inhibitor of alpha-Gal A, effectively enhanced alpha-Gal A activity in Fabry lymphoblasts, when administrated at concentrations lower than that usually required for intracellular inhibition of the enzyme. DGJ seemed to accelerate transport and maturation of the mutant enzyme. Oral administration of DGJ to transgenic mice overexpressing a mutant alpha-Gal A substantially elevated the enzyme activity in some organs. We propose a new molecular therapeutic strategy for genetic metabolic diseases of administering competitive inhibitors as 'chemical chaperons' at sub-inhibitory intracellular concentrations. PMID:9883849

  1. [Heme oxygenase activity in rat organs during cadmium chloride administration].

    PubMed

    Strel'chenko, E V; Nikitchenko, I V; Kaliman, P A

    2002-01-01

    Heme oxygenase activity, the level of spontaneous and ascorbat-induced LPO in the liver, kidney and spleen homogenates of rats and blood serum absorption spectrum in the Soret region in different periods both after CdCl2 and prior alpha-tocopherol administration were studied. The increase in the hemolysis products content in the serum was observed in 15 min after CdCl2 injection and remained during 24 h. Heme oxygenase activity in the liver and kidney increased after 6 h and stayed at the same level 24 h after CdCl2 administration. The level of spontaneous LPO in the spleen increased after 6 h, and in the liver and kidney the level of spontaneous and ascorbat-induced LPO increased in 24 h after CdCl2 injection. The preliminary alpha-tocopherol administration did not prevent the accumulation of hemolysis products in the serum and the increase of heme oxygenase activity in the liver and kidney caused by CdCl2 administration. However, the increase in the ascorbat-induced LPO in these organs was completely blocked. The role of heme and LPO in the heme oxygenase induction by CdCl2 are discussed. PMID:12916165

  2. Fibrinogen {alpha} genes: Conservation of bipartite transcripts and carboxy-terminal-extended {alpha} subunits in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Y.; Cao, Y.; Hertzberg, K.M.; Grieninger, G.

    1995-11-01

    All three well-studied subunits of the clotting protein fibrinogen ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}) share N-terminal structural homologies, but until recently only the {beta} and {gamma} chains were recognized as having similar globular C-termini. With the discovery of an extra exon in the human fibrinogen {alpha} gene (exon VI), a minor form of the {alpha} subunit ({alpha}{sub E}) with an extended {beta}- and {gamma}-like C-terminus has been identified. In the present study, the polymerase chain reaction has been used to identify sequences that encode counterparts to {alpha}{sub E} in chicken, rabbit, rat, and baboon. The basic six-exon structure of the fibrinogen {alpha} genes is shown to be conserved among mammals and birds, as are the intron positions. Bipartite transcripts - still bearing an intron prior to the last exon - are found among the products of the various vertebrate fibrinogen {alpha} genes. The last exon represents the largest conserved segment of the gene and, in each species examined, encodes exactly 236 amino acids. The C-termini of these {alpha}{sub E} chains align without a single gap and are between 76 and 99% identical. Since the exon VI-encoded domain of {alpha}{sub E} is as well conserved as the corresponding regions of the {beta} and {gamma} chains, it follows that it is equally important and that {alpha}{sub E}-fibrinogen plays a vital, if as-yet unrecognized physiological role. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Divergence of human [alpha]-chain constant region gene sequences: A novel recombinant [alpha]2 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Chintalacharuvu, K. R.; Morrison, S.L. ); Raines, M. )

    1994-06-01

    IgA is the major Ig synthesized in humans and provides the first line of defense at the mucosal surfaces. The constant region of IgA heavy chain is encoded by the [alpha] gene on chromosome 14. Previous studies have indicated the presence of two [alpha] genes, [alpha]1 and [alpha]2 existing in two allotypic forms, [alpha]2 m(1) and [alpha]2 m(2). Here the authors report the cloning and complete nucleotide sequence determination of a novel human [alpha] gene. Nucleotide sequence comparison with the published [alpha] sequences suggests that the gene arose as a consequence of recombination or gene conversion between the two [alpha]2 alleles. The authors have expressed the gene as a chimeric protein in myeloma cells indicating that it encodes a functional protein. The novel IgA resembles IgA2 m(2) in that disulfide bonds link H and L chains. This novel recombinant gene provides insights into the mechanisms of generation of different constant regions and suggests that within human populations, multiple alleles of [alpha] may be present providing IgAs of different structures.

  4. Methylation of alpha-type embryonic globin gene alpha pi represses transcription in primary erythroid cells.

    PubMed

    Singal, Rakesh; vanWert, Jane M; Ferdinand, Larry

    2002-12-01

    The inverse relationship between expression and methylation of beta-type globin genes is well established. However, little is known about the relationship between expression and methylation of avian alpha-type globin genes. The embryonic alpha(pi)-globin promoter was unmethylated, and alpha(pi)-globin RNA was easily detected in 5-day chicken erythroid cells. A progressive methylation of the CpG dinucleotides in the alpha(pi) promoter associated with loss of expression of alpha(pi)-globin gene was seen during development in primary erythroid cells. A 315-bp alpha(pi)-globin promoter region was cloned in an expression construct (alpha(pi)pGL3E) containing a luciferase reporter gene and SV40 enhancer. The alpha(pi)pGL3E construct was transfected into primary erythroid cells derived from 5-day-old chicken embryos. Methylation of alpha(pi)pGL3E plasmid and alpha(pi)-globin promoter alone resulted in a 20-fold and 7-fold inhibition of expression, respectively. The fully methylated but not the unmethylated 315-bp alpha(pi)-globin gene promoter fragment formed a methyl cytosine-binding protein complex (MeCPC). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were combined with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess histone acetylation associated with the alpha(pi)-globin gene promoter. Slight hyperacetylation of histone H3 but a marked hyperacetylation of histone H4 was seen in 5-day when compared with 14-day erythroid cells. These results demonstrate that methylation can silence transcription of an avian alpha-type embryonic globin gene in homologous primary erythroid cells, possibly by interacting with an MeCPC and histone deacetylase complex. PMID:12393573

  5. Lyman alpha airglow observations from SORCE SOLSTICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolinar, E.; Snow, M.; Holsclaw, G.; Thomas, G. E.; Woods, T. N.

    2010-12-01

    The Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) instrument on board the Solar Radiation Climate Experiment (SORCE) spacecraft in low Earth orbit observes stars every orbit for in-flight calibration. It also observes several star-free regions of the sky near the wavelength of Lyman alpha to correct for airglow emission in the stellar measurements. Although the airglow measurements are only taken during the eclipse portion of the orbit, the look directions cover nearly the entire anti-sunward hemisphere. This seven-year record of Lyman alpha airglow observations (2003-2010) shows the response of the Hydrogen geocorona to changes in the solar Lyman alpha irradiance over the solar cycle.

  6. alpha-Glucosidase inhibitors from Commelina communis.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Kim, Y H; Hong, Y S; Paek, N S; Lee, H S; Kim, T H; Kim, K W; Lee, J J

    1999-06-01

    A methanolic extract of Commelina communis showed potent inhibitory activity against alpha-glucosidase. One pyrrolidine alkaloid, 2,5-dihydroxymethyl-3,4-dihydroxypyrrolidine (DMDP, 1) and four piperidine alkaloids, 1-deoxymannojirimycin (2), 1-deoxynojirimycin (3), alpha-homonojirimycin (4) and 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl alpha-homonojirimycin (5) were isolated by bioassay-directed fractionation and separation. These compounds have been identified for the first time from Commelina communis, supporting the pharmacological basis of this plant that has been used as a traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:10418330

  7. Alpha particle confinement in tandem mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Devoto, R.S.; Ohnishi, M.; Kerns, J.; Woo, J.T.

    1980-10-10

    Mechanisms leading to loss of alpha particles from non-axisymmetric tandem mirrors are considered. Stochastic diffusion due to bounce-drift resonances, which can cause rapid radial losses of high-energy alpha particles, can be suppressed by imposing a 20% rise in axisymmetric fields before the quadrupole transition sections. Alpha particles should then be well-confined until thermal energies when they enter the resonant plateau require. A fast code for computation of drift behavior in reactors is described. Sample calculations are presented for resonant particles in a proposed coil set for the Tandem Mirror Next Step.

  8. Human placenta type V collagens. Evidence for the existence of an alpha 1(V) alpha 2(V) alpha 3(V) collagen molecule.

    PubMed

    Niyibizi, C; Fietzek, P P; van der Rest, M

    1984-11-25

    Human type V collagen was purified from placenta and found to contain alpha 1(V), alpha 2(V), and alpha 3(V) chains in varying ratios. Using any of three independent nondenaturing methods (phosphocellulose chromatography, high-performance ion-exchange chromatography on IEX-540 DEAE, and ammonium sulfate precipitation), this preparation could be resolved into two fractions. Analysis of the two fractions by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that one fraction contained alpha 1(V) and alpha 2(V) in a 2:1 ratio and the other contained alpha 1(V), alpha 2(V), and alpha 3(V) in a 1:1:1 ratio. When the crude placental type V collagen was electrophoresed under nondenaturing conditions, two bands were observed, one co-migrating with purified (alpha 1(V]2 alpha 2(V) and the other co-migrating with the fractions containing alpha 1(V), alpha 2(V), and alpha 3(V) chains in a 1:1:1 ratio. Electrophoresis in a second dimension under denaturing conditions confirmed that the fast-migrating band contained (alpha 1(V]2 alpha 2(V) and that the slow-migrating band contained the three chains in equimolar ratio. CD spectra of the two fractions and resistance to trypsin-chymotrypsin digestion confirmed that the two fractions contain triple helical collagen. Thermal denaturations were monitored by the changes in CD signal at 221 nm. The two fractions purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation melted at 39.1 and 36.4 degrees C for the (alpha 1(V]2 alpha 2(V) and alpha 1(V) alpha 2(V) alpha 3(V) fractions, respectively. Trypsin cleavage of these two native fractions at temperatures near melting produced completely different fragmentation patterns, indicating different partial unwinding sites of the alpha 1(V) and alpha 2(V) chains in the two preparations and thus different molecular assemblies. Our data demonstrate the existence of two different molecular assemblies of type V collagen in human placenta consisting of (alpha 1(V]2 alpha 2(V) and alpha 1(V

  9. GAS KINEMATICS IN Ly{alpha} NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yujin; Jahnke, Knud; Zabludoff, Ann; Eisenstein, Daniel; Dave, Romeel; Shectman, Stephen A.; Kelson, Daniel D.

    2011-07-10

    Exploring the origin of Ly{alpha} nebulae ('blobs') at high redshift requires measurements of their gas kinematics that are impossible with only the resonant, optically thick Ly{alpha} line. To define gas motions relative to the systemic velocity of the blob, the Ly{alpha} line must be compared with an optically thin line like H{alpha} {lambda}6563, which is not much altered by radiative transfer effects and is more concentrated about the galaxies embedded in the nebula's core. We obtain optical and near-IR (NIR) spectra of the two brightest Ly{alpha} blobs (CDFS-LAB01 and CDFS-LAB02) from the Yang et al. sample using the Magellan/Magellan Echellette Spectrograph optical and Very Large Telescope/SINFONI NIR spectrographs. Both the Ly{alpha} and H{alpha} lines confirm that these blobs lie at the survey redshift, z {approx} 2.3. Within each blob, we detect several H{alpha} sources, which roughly correspond to galaxies seen in Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame UV images. The H{alpha} detections show that these galaxies have large internal velocity dispersions ({sigma}{sub v} = 130-190 km s{sup -1}) and that, in the one system (LAB01), where we can reliably extract profiles for two H{alpha} sources, their velocity difference is {Delta}v {approx} 440 km s{sup -1}. The presence of multiple galaxies within the blobs, and those galaxies' large velocity dispersions and large relative motion, is consistent with our previous finding that Ly{alpha} blobs inhabit massive dark matter halos that will evolve into those typical of present-day rich clusters and that the embedded galaxies may eventually become brightest cluster galaxies. To determine whether the gas near the embedded galaxies is predominantly infalling or outflowing, we compare the Ly{alpha} and H{alpha} line centers, finding that Ly{alpha} is not offset ({Delta}v{sub Ly{alpha}} = +0 km s{sup -1}) in LAB01 and redshifted by only +230 km s{sup -1} in LAB02. These offsets are small compared to those of Lyman break

  10. 7. Administrative structures.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The basic systems of any society rarely can operate independently. Instead, they are dependent and often interdependent upon other entities. Such entities control the resources within their respective systems. Thus, coordination and control agencies require contracts or memoranda of understanding with these entities in order to assure access to the resources required during a crisis. These administrative structures include: (1) governmental institutions and agencies, including the military; (2) intergovernmental organisations; (3) nongovernmental organisations; (4) commercial private sector organisations; and (5) academic institutions. These dependencies create potential barriers to the provision of coordination and control including: (1) the complexity of the administrative structures with which coordination and control must interact; (2) the location of resources; (3) finding responsible person(s); (4) the competence and compatibility; (5) methods of access; (6) payment; (7) contracts and memoranda of understanding; (8) inventories of accessible resources; (9) competition for the mandate, power, and resources; and (10) jealousy. The need for potential interactions between administrative structures requires that agreements for the sharing of resources during crises be reached as part of planning and preparedness. Gaining an understanding of these relationships is an important area for research. PMID:24785804

  11. TNF{alpha} acting on TNFR1 promotes breast cancer growth via p42/P44 MAPK, JNK, Akt and NF-{kappa}B-dependent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Rivas, Martin A.; Carnevale, Romina P.; Proietti, Cecilia J.; Rosemblit, Cinthia; Beguelin, Wendy; Salatino, Mariana; Charreau, Eduardo H.; Frahm, Isabel; Sapia, Sandra; Brouckaert, Peter; Elizalde, Patricia V.; Schillaci, Roxana

    2008-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor {alpha} (TNF{alpha}) enhances proliferation of chemically-induced mammary tumors and of T47D human cell line through not fully understood pathways. Here, we explored the intracellular signaling pathways triggered by TNF{alpha}, the participation of TNF{alpha} receptor (TNFR) 1 and TNFR2 and the molecular mechanism leading to breast cancer growth. We demonstrate that TNF{alpha} induced proliferation of C4HD murine mammary tumor cells and of T47D cells through the activation of p42/p44 MAPK, JNK, PI3-K/Akt pathways and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-{kappa}B) transcriptional activation. A TNF{alpha}-specific mutein selectively binding to TNFR1 induced p42/p44 MAPK, JNK, Akt activation, NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activation and cell proliferation, just like wild-type TNF{alpha}, while a mutein selective for TNFR2 induced only p42/p44 MAPK activation. Interestingly, blockage of TNFR1 or TNFR2 with specific antibodies was enough to impair TNF{alpha} signaling and biological effect. Moreover, in vivo TNF{alpha} administration supported C4HD tumor growth. We also demonstrated, for the first time, that injection of a selective inhibitor of NF-{kappa}B activity, Bay 11-7082, resulted in regression of TNF{alpha}-promoted tumor. Bay 11-7082 blocked TNF{alpha} capacity to induce cell proliferation and up-regulation of cyclin D1 and of Bcl-x{sub L}in vivo and in vitro. Our results reveal evidence for TNF{alpha} as a breast tumor promoter, and provide novel data for a future therapeutic approach using TNF{alpha} antagonists and NF-{kappa}B pharmacological inhibitors in established breast cancer treatment.

  12. Influence of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha buildup on tokamak reactor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Uckan, N.A.; Tolliver, J.S.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1987-11-01

    The effect of fast alpha diffusion and thermal alpha accumulation on the confinement capability of a candidate Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) plasma (Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor (TIBER-II)) in achieving ignition and steady-state driven operation has been assessed using both global and 1-1/2-D transport models. Estimates are made of the threshold for radial diffusion of fast alphas and thermal alpha buildup. It is shown that a relatively low level of radial transport, when combined with large gradients in the fast alpha density, leads to a significant radial flow with a deleterious effect on plasma performance. Similarly, modest levels of thermal alpha concentration significantly influence the ignition and steady-state burn capability. 23 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. An alpha-omega-dynamo with an alpha-effect due to magnetostrophic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, D.

    1987-03-01

    The effects of the latitude dependence of the dynamic alpha-effect on the solution of equations of alpha-omega-dynamos are investigated. The equations of kinematic rotationally symmetric alpha-omega-dynamos are evaluated using the spherical solar dynamo model of Deinzer and Stix (1971), in which the induction effects, differential rotation, and alpha-effect act in two separate infinitesimal thin shells. Butterfly diagrams are derived and analyzed. It is observed that the diagram has two branches: the ordinary sunspot branch, migrating from midlatitudes toward the equator during the cycle, and the polar branch, which migrates from the midlatitudes toward the pole. It is also found that, in order to obtain the correct propagation direction of the two dynamos, the alpha of the magnetostrophic waves requires a rotation decreasing with depth. The influence of various locations of the induction layers of alpha- and omega-effect are examined.

  14. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOEpatents

    Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E. Jr.; Dawson, J.M.

    1983-11-23

    This invention relates generally to high energy confined plasmas and more particularly is directed to measuring the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a confined energetic plasma.

  15. Genetics Home Reference: alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... and genetic modifiers of emphysema risk. Thorax. 2004 Mar;59(3):259-64. Review. Citation on PubMed ... alpha}1-antitrypsin deficiency. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Mar 23;169(6):546-50. doi: 10.1001/ ...

  16. Five cases of alpha chain disease

    PubMed Central

    Doe, William F.; Henry, K.; Hobbs, J. R.; Jones, F. Avery; Dent, C. E.; Booth, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    Five patients suffering from alpha chain disease are described. Clinically the patients presented with clubbing and the symptoms of malabsorption. There was a characteristic, predominantly plasma cell infiltrate of the wall of the small intestine. Spread of the plasmacytosis beyond the small intestine to bone marrow (1), peripheral blood (1), and probably the nasopharyngeal lymphoid tissue (1) is described. Fragments of the heavy chain of IgA (alpha chain) were found in serum (5), urine (3), jejunal fluid (2), and saliva (1). The jejunal biopsy of one patient was shown to synthesize free alpha chain in tissue culture. A new and simple immunoselection technique for the identification of free alpha chain is described. Marked clinical remissions were achieved in two patients treated with intermittent cytotoxic and steroid therapy, and in a third patient who received intermittent cytotoxic therapy and tetracycline. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4119805

  17. Alpha Coincidence Spectroscopy studied with GEANT4

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Tatishvili, Gocha; Warren, Glen A.

    2013-11-02

    Abstract The high-energy side of peaks in alpha spectra, e.g. 241Am, as measured with a silicon detector has structure caused mainly by alpha-conversion electron and to some extent alphagamma coincidences. We compare GEANT4 simulation results to 241Am alpha spectroscopy measurements with a passivated implanted planar silicon detector. A large discrepancy between the measurements and simulations suggest that the GEANT4 photon evaporation database for 237Np (daughter of 241Am decay) does not accurately describe the conversion electron spectrum and therefore was found to have large discrepancies with experimental measurements. We describe how to improve the agreement between GEANT4 and alpha spectroscopy for actinides of interest by including experimental measurements of conversion electron spectroscopy into the photon evaporation database.

  18. International Space Station (ISS) Alpha Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Artist's concept of the final configuration of the International Space Station (ISS) Alpha. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experimentation.

  19. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

  20. Generation, characterization and therapeutic potential of anti-feline TNF-alpha MAbs for feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Doki, Tomoyoshi; Takano, Tomomi; Nishiyama, Yuri; Nakamura, Michiyo; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2013-12-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a lethal infectious disease affecting domestic and wild cats. Several reports suggested that TNF-alpha is related to the progression of FIP. Thus, the administration of a feline TNF-alpha-neutralizing antibody to cats with FIP may reduce the disease progression. In this study, we have prepared nine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that recognize feline TNF-alpha. All MAbs neutralized recombinant TNF-alpha. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the MAbs for the cytotoxicity of recombinant TNF-alpha were 5-684 ng/ml. MAb 2-4 exhibited high neutralizing activity against natural TNF-alpha derived from FIPV-infected macrophages, and was confirmed to inhibit the following feline TNF-alpha-induced conditions in vitro: (i) an increase in the survival rate of neutrophils from cats with FIP, (ii) aminopeptidase N (APN) mRNA expression in macrophages, and (iii) apoptosis of a feline T-lymphocyte cell line. PMID:24095161

  1. Control of luteal relaxin release by prostaglandin F2 alpha: differences in the sow cycle and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bagnell, C A; Baker, N K; McMurtry, J P; Brocht, D M; Lewis, G S

    1990-06-01

    The effect of an in vivo prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) challenge in pregnant and cyclic sows was compared to determine whether PGF2 alpha-induced release of relaxin (RLX) from the corpus luteum (CL) in late pregnancy is also effective during the cycle. Ovarian venous RLX and progesterone were monitored by radioimmunoassay and RLX localized in the CL by immunohistochemistry. In Day 108 pregnant sows, infusion of PGF2 alpha (100 micrograms) into the ovarian artery resulted in an immediate and sustained rise in ovarian venous RLX with an initial decline in progesterone levels by 30 min which then returned to pretreatment levels. In Day 13 or 15 cyclic sows with functional corpora lutea (i.e., elevated progesterone), RLX was undetectable in ovarian venous blood after 100 micrograms of PGF2 alpha. Administration of PGF2 alpha via either the jugular vein or intramuscular route was also ineffective in releasing RLX from the CL of the cycle. The intensity of RLX immunostaining of the CL was similar in saline and PGF2 alpha-treated sows. These studies indicate that the control of RLX release from the sow CL differs in the estrous cycle and pregnancy. PMID:2349248

  2. Yohimbine impairs extinction of cocaine-conditioned place preference in an alpha2-adrenergic receptor independent process.

    PubMed

    Davis, Adeola R; Shields, Angela D; Brigman, Jonathan L; Norcross, Maxine; McElligott, Zoe A; Holmes, Andrew; Winder, Danny G

    2008-09-01

    Extinction, a form of learning that has the ability to reshape learned behavior based on new experiences, has been heavily studied utilizing fear learning paradigms. Mechanisms underlying extinction of positive-valence associations, such as drug self-administration and place preference, are poorly understood yet may have important relevance to addiction treatment. Data suggest a major role for the noradrenergic system in extinction of fear-based learning. Employing both pharmacological and genetic approaches, we investigated the role of the alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor (alpha(2)-AR) in extinction of cocaine-conditioned place preference (CPP) and glutamatergic transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). We found that pre-extinction systemic treatment with the alpha(2)-AR antagonist yohimbine impaired cocaine CPP extinction in C57BL/6J mice, an effect that was not mimicked by the more selective alpha(2)-AR antagonist, atipamezole. Moreover, alpha(2A)-AR knockout mice exhibited similar cocaine CPP extinction and exacerbated extinction impairing effects of yohimbine. Using acute brain slices and electrophysiological approaches, we found that yohimbine produces a slowly evolving depression of glutamatergic transmission in the BNST that was not mimicked by atipamezole. Further, this action was extant in slices from alpha(2A)-AR knockout mice. Our data strongly suggest that extinction-modifying effects of yohimbine are unlikely to be due to actions at alpha(2A)-ARs. PMID:18772254

  3. RBx 6198: a novel alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kamna; Naruganahalli, Krishna S; Gupta, Suman; Malhotra, Shivani; Tiwari, Atul; Hegde, Laxminarayan G; Jain, Sanjay; Sinha, Neelima; Gupta, Jung B; Chugh, Anita; Anand, Nitya; Ray, Abhijit

    2009-04-01

    The present study, investigates the effect of RBx 6198, 2-{3-[4-(2-Isopropoxy-phenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-propyl}-3a, 4, 7, 7a-tetrahydro-isoindole-1, 3,-dione, a novel alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, in both in vitro and in vivo test systems. RBx 6198 is a potent (nanomolar affinity) alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor antagonist with demonstrable uroselectivity in anaesthesized dog model. In radioligand binding studies using human recombinant receptors, RBx 6198 exhibited high selectivity (approximately 50 fold) for the alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor subtype as compared to alpha(1B)-adrenoceptor subtype. In order to assess tissue selectivity, the antagonistic effect of RBx 6198 on the phenylephrine induced contractile response of isolated rat prostate, spleen and aorta was characterized. RBx 6198 was 8 fold more potent in inhibiting phenylephrine-evoked contractions of isolated tissues compared to tamsulosin. However, the compound was non-selective for alpha(1A) vs. alpha(1D)-adrenoceptor like tamsulosin. In anaesthetized beagle dogs RBx 6198 suppressed the intraurethral pressure response to phenylephrine to a greater extent than the mean arterial pressure response thereby demonstrating uroselectivity consistent with in vitro binding and functional data. RBx 6198 was 6.4 fold more uroselective as compared to tamsulosin after i.v. route dose administration. Taken together all results from preclinical studies, it is suggested that RBx 6198 is a novel alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist that exhibited improved pharmacological profile over tamsulosin in both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19239913

  4. Antioxidant treatment with alpha-tocopherol improves erectile function in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ushiyama, Masayuki; Kuramochi, Tomoya; Yagi, Shinji; Katayama, Shigehiro

    2008-05-01

    There is no known treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) in hypertensive patients. We tested whether or not antioxidative therapy improves ED in the setting of hypertension. Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) were treated with a control chow or an alpha-tocopherol-enriched chow (12 or 24 mg/100 g chow) for 8 weeks. The isometric tension of corpus cavernosum strips from these SHRs was recorded. nNOS and HO-2 gene expression and NOx, cGMP, thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance (TBARS), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels were determined in serum and tissue. Relaxation in response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the corpus cavernosum increased after the administration of alpha-tocopherol at a dose of 24 mg/100 g chow. This effect was inhibited by a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor and by a heme oxygenase (HO) inhibitor, nNOS and HO-2 gene expression and NOx concentrations in the corpus cavernosum were similar between 24 mg alpha-tocopherol-fed SHRs and controls. Tissue cGMP levels were greater in alpha-tocopherol-fed SHRs than in controls. Treatment with 24 mg alpha-tocopherol decreased TBARS levels and increased SOD activity in the serum and corpus cavernosum. Relaxation in response to acetylcholine chloride in the corpus cavernosum was improved with alpha-tocopherol treatment at each dose. These results suggest that alpha-tocopherol treatment increases the diminished relaxation in the corpus cavernosum of SHRs by improving neuronal or endothelial function related to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. This, in turn, indicates that antioxidant therapy may play a role in treatment for ED in hypertensive patients. PMID:18712056

  5. Isolation and activity of an alpha-amylase inhibitor from white kidney beans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-qi; Yang, Ming-yan; Ma, Yu; Tian, Jia; Song, Ji-Rong

    2007-12-01

    An alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI) was isolated from white kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L) by ethanol fractional precipitation, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration column chromatography. It was a homogeneity glycoprotein demonstrated by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration on CL-6B. The glycoprotein contained 88.2% protein and was rich in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, leucine, threonine and serine. The carbohydrate moiety was consisted of Man, Glc, Gal and Xyl in a mole ratio of 2.42: 1.50: 1.52: 1.00. The glycan and the core protein backbone was connected by O-linkage as determined by beta-elimination reaction. The continuous oral administration of the alpha-AI (150 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) for 7 days can lower fasting blood glucose and 300 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) alpha-AI for 7 days can improve the sugar tolerance on alloxan-dependent diabetic model rats. The result showed the alpha-AI obtained from white kidney beans had good hypoglycemic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats and may have high potential pharmaceutical value as a regulative digestive-starch degradation in patients suffering from diabetes. PMID:18338641

  6. Alpha-2 adrenergic stimulation triggers Achilles tenocyte hypercellularity: Comparison between two model systems

    PubMed Central

    Backman, L J; Andersson, G; Fong, G; Alfredson, H; Scott, A; Danielson, P

    2013-01-01

    The histopathology of tendons with painful tendinopathy is often tendinosis, a fibrosis-like condition of unclear pathogenesis characterized by tissue changes including hypercellularity. The primary tendon cells (tenocytes) have been shown to express adrenoreceptors (mainly alpha-2A) as well as markers of catecholamine production, particularly in tendinosis. It is known that adrenergic stimulation can induce proliferation in other cells. The present study investigated the effects of an exogenously administered alpha-2 adrenergic agonist in an established in vivo Achilles tendinosis model (rabbit) and also in an in vitro human tendon cell culture model. The catecholamine producing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase and the alpha-2A-adrenoreceptor (α2A AR) were expressed by tenocytes, and alpha-2 adrenergic stimulation had a proliferative effect on these cells, in both models. The proliferation was inhibited by administration of an α2A AR antagonist, and the in vitro model further showed that the proliferative alpha-2A effect was mediated via a mitogenic cell signaling pathway involving phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2. The results indicate that catecholamines produced by tenocytes in tendinosis might contribute to the proliferative nature of the pathology through stimulation of the α2A AR, pointing to a novel target for future therapies. The study furthermore shows that animal models are not necessarily required for all aspects of this research. PMID:22292987

  7. Alpha-emitters for medical therapy workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Feinendegen, L.E.; McClure, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    A workshop on ``Alpha-Emitters for Medical Therapy`` was held May 30-31, 1996 in Denver Colorado to identify research goals and potential clinical needs for applying alpha-particle emitters and to provide DOE with sufficient information for future planning. The workshop was attended by 36 participants representing radiooncology, nuclear medicine, immunotherapy, radiobiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, radiopharmaceutical chemistry, dosimetry, and physics. This report provides a summary of the key points and recommendations arrived at during the conference.

  8. Transport of Radioactive Material by Alpha Recoil

    SciTech Connect

    Icenhour, A.S.

    2005-05-19

    The movement of high-specific-activity radioactive particles (i.e., alpha recoil) has been observed and studied since the early 1900s. These studies have been motivated by concerns about containment of radioactivity and the protection of human health. Additionally, studies have investigated the potential advantage of alpha recoil to effect separations of various isotopes. This report provides a review of the observations and results of a number of the studies.

  9. Beteigeuze (Alpha Orionis) und Mintaka (Delta Orionis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmann, Wolfgang

    2013-02-01

    Magnitude measures transformed to Johnson V of Alpha Orionis (Betelgeuse) and Delta Orionis with a wide-angle lens and DSLR are presented and discussed. Alpha Orionis light changes are shown clearly. The primary and secondary eclipses of Delta Orionis with amplitudes of 0.12 and 0.05 mag respectively are clearly recorded. They occur near phase 0.00 and 0.50 respectively of current elements from VSX (2).

  10. Acid-induced dissociation of alpha A- and alpha B-crystallin homopolymers.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, A; Augusteyn, R C

    1993-01-01

    Homopolymers were constructed from the alpha A and alpha B polypeptides isolated from the lens protein alpha-crystallin. As the pH is lowered from 7.0 to 3.4, these homopolymers dissociate to smaller species with molecular masses ranging from 80 to 250 kDa for the alpha A and around 140 kDa for the alpha B dissociation products. The pKa for this dissociation was 3.8 +/- 0.2 for alpha A and 4.1 +/- 0.1 for alpha B homopolymers. Further decreases in pH, to 2.5, resulted in the presence of only denatured alpha B polypeptides, whereas the alpha A dissociation products remained intact. Fractionation of the acid dissociation products from the alpha A homopolymer at pH 2.5 yielded stable species with molecular masses of 220 +/- 30, 160 +/- 20, and 90 +/- 10 kDa. The majority of the population at acid pH consisted of the 160 kDa species. Conformational analysis of these species revealed that most of the secondary structure of the original alpha A homopolymer was retained but that the tertiary structure was perturbed. Fluorescence quenching and energy transfer measurements suggested that the molecule had undergone acid expansion, with the greatest perturbation observed in the smallest particles. The results from this work suggest that alpha A homopolymers are heterogeneous populations of aggregates of a "monomeric" molecule with a molecular mass of 160 kDa. This "monomeric" molecule may be formed from the association of two tetrameric units. PMID:8274652

  11. Different polyphenolic components of soft fruits inhibit alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Gordon J; Shpiro, Faina; Dobson, Patricia; Smith, Pauline; Blake, Alison; Stewart, Derek

    2005-04-01

    Polyphenol-rich extracts from soft fruits were tested for their ability to inhibit alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. All extracts tested caused some inhibition of alpha-amylase, but there was a 10-fold difference between the least and most effective extracts. Strawberry and raspberry extracts were more effective alpha-amylase inhibitors than blueberry, blackcurrant, or red cabbage. Conversely, alpha-glucosidase was more readily inhibited by blueberry and blackcurrant extracts. The extent of inhibition of alpha-glucosidase was related to their anthocyanin content. For example, blueberry and blackcurrant extracts, which have the highest anthocyanin content, were the most effective inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase. The extracts most effective in inhibiting alpha-amylase (strawberry and raspberry) contain appreciable amounts of soluble tannins. Other tannin-rich extracts (red grape, red wine, and green tea) were also effective inhibitors of alpha-amylase. Indeed, removing tannins from strawberry extracts with gelatin also removed inhibition. Fractionation of raspberry extracts on Sephadex LH-20 produced an unbound fraction enriched in anthocyanins and a bound fraction enriched in tannin-like polyphenols. The unbound anthocyanin-enriched fraction was more effective against alpha-glucosidase than the original extract, whereas the alpha-amylase inhibitors were concentrated in the bound fraction. The LH-20 bound sample was separated by preparative HPLC, and fractions were assayed for inhibition of alpha-amylase. The inhibitory components were identified as ellagitannins using LC-MS-MS. This study suggests that different polyphenolic components of fruits may influence different steps in starch digestion in a synergistic manner. PMID:15796622

  12. Integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 are receptors for the rotavirus enterotoxin.

    PubMed

    Seo, Neung-Seon; Zeng, Carl Q-Y; Hyser, Joseph M; Utama, Budi; Crawford, Sue E; Kim, Kate J; Höök, Magnus; Estes, Mary K

    2008-07-01

    Rotavirus NSP4 is a viral enterotoxin capable of causing diarrhea in neonatal mice. This process is initiated by the binding of extracellular NSP4 to target molecule(s) on the cell surface that triggers a signaling cascade leading to diarrhea. We now report that the integrins alpha1beta1 and alpha2beta1 are receptors for NSP4. NSP4 specifically binds to the alpha1 and alpha2 I domains with apparent K(d) = 1-2.7 muM. Binding is mediated by the I domain metal ion-dependent adhesion site motif, requires Mg(2+) or Mn(2+), is abolished with EDTA, and an NSP4 point mutant, E(120)A, fails to bind alpha2 integrin I domain. NSP4 has two distinct integrin interaction domains. NSP4 amino acids 114-130 are essential for binding to the I domain, and NSP4 peptide 114-135 blocks binding of the natural ligand, collagen I, to integrin alpha2. NSP4 amino acids 131-140 are not associated with the initial binding to the I domain, but elicit signaling that leads to the spreading of attached C2C12-alpha2 cells, mouse myoblast cells stably expressing the human alpha2 integrin. NSP4 colocalizes with integrin alpha2 on the basolateral surface of rotavirus-infected polarized intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells as well as surrounding noninfected cells. NSP4 mutants that fail to bind or signal through integrin alpha2 were attenuated in diarrhea induction in neonatal mice. These results indicate that NSP4 interaction with integrin alpha1 and alpha2 is an important component of enterotoxin function and rotavirus pathogenesis, further distinguishing this viral virulence factor from other microbial enterotoxins. PMID:18587047

  13. Preparation and properties of (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2. 2. 2)oct-3-yl- (R)-(+)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4-( sup 125 I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate and (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2. 2. 2)oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha- (4-( sup 125 I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate as potential radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, V.I.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Gibson, R.E.; Fan, L.H.; Reba, R.C. )

    1989-10-01

    rac-4-Nitrobenzilic acid was synthesized and resolved with quinidine and quinine to give the corresponding (R)- and (S)-salts. The resolved diastereomeric salts were converted to (R)- and (S)-4-nitrobenzilic acids and subsequent esterification gave their corresponding ethyl esters. Transesterification with (R)-(-)-3-quinuclidinol afforded (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(R)-(+)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha- (4-nitrophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate and (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy- alpha-(4-nitrophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate. After hydrogenation, the (R,R)- and (R,S)-amines were converted to the respective triazene derivatives. The triazene derivatives reacted with sodium ({sup 125}I)iodide to give (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(R)-(+)- alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4-({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate and (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy- alpha-(4-(125I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate. The evaluation of their affinities to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (MAcChR) shows that (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4- ({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate exhibits an affinity for the MAcChR from corpus striatum that is approximately threefold lower than that of (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(R)-(+)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4- ({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate.

  14. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandhaus, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a condition caused by the inheritance of two mutated SERPINA1 gene alleles. Individuals with AATD are at increased risk of injury to the liver and lungs. The pulmonary manifestations include precocious onset of pulmonary emphysema and bronchiectasis. For nearly three decades, treatment has been available to individuals with emphysema caused by AATD, but this therapy-augmentation of plasma and tissue alpha-1 antitrypsin levels by intravenous administration of human plasma-derived protein-was approved by regulatory authorities based on its biochemical efficacy. This therapy appears to slow the progression of emphysema in patients with AATD. The medical, patient, and regulatory communities have sought assurance that this expensive therapy provides measurable clinical benefit. Documenting such benefit has been difficult because of the slow progression of the underlying lung disease in AATD, the rarity of this genetic condition, and the lack of direct quantitative measurements of emphysema progression. Over the past decade, quantitative computed tomography (CT) densitometry of the lungs has been found to correlate with severity and progression of emphysema. The recent publication of a well-powered, masked, placebo-controlled study using CT densitometry to evaluate the effectiveness of augmentation therapy at slowing the progression of emphysema has provided some assurance of the clinical efficacy of this therapy. PMID:27564674

  15. Challenges and Prospects for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Joanna; Wandtke, Tomasz; Kopinski, Piotr; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a protease inhibitor belonging to the serpin family. A number of identified mutations in the SERPINA1 gene encoding this protein result in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). A decrease in AAT serum concentration or reduced biological activity causes considerable risk of chronic respiratory and liver disorders. As a monogenic disease, AATD appears to be an attractive target for gene therapy, particularly for patients with pulmonary dysfunction, where augmentation of functional AAT levels in plasma might slow down respiratory disease development. The short AAT coding sequence and its activity in the extracellular matrix would enable an increase in systemic serum AAT production by cellular secretion. In vitro and in vivo experimental AAT gene transfer with gamma-retroviral, lentiviral, adenoviral, and adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has resulted in enhanced AAT serum levels and a promising safety profile. Human clinical trials using intramuscular viral transfer with AAV1 and AAV2 vectors of the AAT gene demonstrated its safety, but did not achieve a protective level of AAT >11 μM in serum. This review provides an in-depth critical analysis of current progress in AATD gene therapy based on viral gene transfer. The factors affecting transgene expression levels, such as site of administration, dose and type of vector, and activity of the immune system, are discussed further as crucial variables for optimizing the clinical effectiveness of gene therapy in AATD subjects. PMID:26413996

  16. Alpha-dispersion in human tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Ørjan G.

    2010-04-01

    Beta dispersion is found in living tissue in the kilohertz - megahertz range and is caused by the cellular structure of biological materials with low frequency properties caused by cell membranes. Alpha dispersion is found in the hertz range and the causes are not so well known. Alpha dispersions are the first to disappear when tissue dies. Tissue data have often been based upon excised specimen from animals and are therefore not necessarily representative for human tissue alpha dispersions. Here we present data obtained with non-invasive skin surface electrodes for different segments of the living human body. We found alpha dispersions in all cases; the ankle-wrist results had the smallest. Large alpha dispersions were found where the distance between the electrodes and muscle masses was small, e.g. on the calf. Further studies on electrode technique and reciprocity, electrode positioning, statistical variations, gender, age and bodily constitutions are necessary in order to reveal more about the alpha dispersion, its appearance and disappearance.

  17. Alpha particle analysis using PEARLS spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    McKlveen, J.W.; Klingler, G.W.; McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    Alpha particle assay by conventional plate-counting methods is difficult because chemical separation, tracer techniques, and/or self-absorption losses in the final sample may cause either non-reproducible results or create unacceptable errors. PEARLS (Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation) Spectrometry is an attractive alternative since radionuclides may be extracted into a scintillator in which there would be no self-absorption or geometry problems and in which up to 100% chemical recovery and counting efficiency is possible. Sample preparation may include extraction of the alpha emitter of interest by a specific organic-phase-soluble compound directly into the liquid scintillator. Detection electronics use energy and pulse-shape discrimination to provide discrete alpha spectra and virtual absence of beta and gamma backgrounds. Backgrounds on the order of 0.01 cpm are readily achievable. Accuracy and reproducibility are typically in the 100 +-1% range. Specific procedures have been developed for gross alpha, uranium, plutonium, thorium, and polonium assay. This paper will review liquid scintillation alpha counting methods and reference some of the specific applications. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  18. [Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Camelier, Aquiles A; Winter, Daniel Hugo; Jardim, José Roberto; Barboza, Carlos Eduardo Galvão; Cukier, Alberto; Miravitlles, Marc

    2008-07-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a recently identified genetic disease that occurs almost as frequently as cystic fibrosis. It is caused by various mutations in the SERPINA1 gene, and has numerous clinical implications. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is mainly produced in the liver and acts as an antiprotease. Its principal function is to inactivate neutrophil elastase, preventing tissue damage. The mutation most commonly associated with the clinical disease is the Z allele, which causes polymerization and accumulation within hepatocytes. The accumulation of and the consequent reduction in the serum levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin cause, respectively, liver and lung disease, the latter occurring mainly as early emphysema, predominantly in the lung bases. Diagnosis involves detection of low serum levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin as well as phenotypic confirmation. In addition to the standard treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, specific therapy consisting of infusion of purified alpha-1 antitrypsin is currently available. The clinical efficacy of this therapy, which appears to be safe, has yet to be definitively established, and its cost-effectiveness is also a controversial issue that is rarely addressed. Despite its importance, in Brazil, there are no epidemiological data on the prevalence of the disease or the frequency of occurrence of deficiency alleles. Underdiagnosis has also been a significant limitation to the study of the disease as well as to appropriate treatment of patients. It is hoped that the creation of the Alpha One International Registry will resolve these and other important issues. PMID:18695797

  19. Methods for the synthesis and polymerization of .alpha.,.alpha.'-dihalo-p-xylenes

    DOEpatents

    Ferraris, John P.; Neef, Charles J.

    2002-07-30

    The present invention describes an improved method for the polymerization of .alpha.,.alpha.-dihalo-p-xylene's such as the .alpha.,.alpha.'-dihalo-2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-xylene's. The procedure for synthesis is based on the specific order of addition of reagents and the use of an anionic initiator that allows control of the molecular weight of the polymer. The molecular weight control allows processability of the polymer which is important for its utility in applications including in light-emitting-diodes, field effect transistors and photovoltaic devices.

  20. Alpha-particle scattering from sup 6 Li near the. alpha. - d breakup threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, C.; Ghosh, S.; Lahiri, M. ); Ray, S. ); Banerjee, S.R. )

    1992-04-01

    The {sup 6}Li({alpha},{alpha}{prime}) reaction was studied at {ital E}{sub {alpha}}=50 MeV. The angular distribution of the continuum region near the {sup 6}Li{r arrow}{alpha}+{ital d} breakup threshold (1.475 MeV) was measured for {theta}{sub lab}=7{degree}--40{degree}. The data were analyzed in terms of plane-wave and distorted-wave impulse approximation calculations. To study the possible effects of recombination of the breakup clusters in the exit channel, distorted-wave Born approximation calculations were also performed.

  1. Contribution from 3 alpha-Condensed States to the Triple-Alpha Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Kiyoshi; Kurokawa, Chie; Arai, Koji

    2010-06-01

    The alpha-condensed state in nuclear systems has been proposed by Tohsaki et al. and has given rise to interesting discussions. The Hoyle state of {sup 12}C has been studied as the most typical example of such an alpha-condensed state. A new resonant 0{sub 3}{sup +} state (E{sub r} = 1.66 MeV, GAMMA = 1.48 MeV) is predicted as an excited alpha-condensed state in addition to the second 0{sup +} state of the Hoyle state by calculations of the 3 alpha orthogonality condition model (3 alpha OCM) using the complex scaling method. Based on this result, the breakup strengths of the inversion reaction for sequential ({sup 8}Be+alpha->{sup 12}C+gamma) and direct (alpha+alpha+alpha->{sup 12}C+gamma) processes are calculated. It is discussed that a large reaction strength calculated recently by Ogata et al. in non-resonant energies is considered as a contribution from the excited 0{sub 3}{sup +} state.

  2. Gene Therapy for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Chiuchiolo, Maria J; Crystal, Ronald G

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, characterized by low plasma levels of the serine protease inhibitor AAT, is associated with emphysema secondary to insufficient protection of the lung from neutrophil proteases. Although AAT augmentation therapy with purified AAT protein is efficacious, it requires weekly to monthly intravenous infusion of AAT purified from pooled human plasma, has the risk of viral contamination and allergic reactions, and is costly. As an alternative, gene therapy offers the advantage of single administration, eliminating the burden of protein infusion, and reduced risks and costs. The focus of this review is to describe the various strategies for AAT gene therapy for the pulmonary manifestations of AAT deficiency and the state of the art in bringing AAT gene therapy to the bedside. PMID:27564673

  3. Domino System Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkland, R.

    Need a concise, practical explanation about the new features of Domino, and how to make some of the advanced stuff really work? You need answers and solutions from someone who's been in the trenches. You want information from someone like you, who has worked with the product for years, and understands what it is you need to know. Domino System Administration from New Riders is the answer-the first book on Domino that attacks the technology at the professional level, with practical, hands-on assistance to get Domino 5 running in your organization.

  4. Meperidine, remifentanil and tramadol but not sufentanil interact with alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor knock out mice brain.

    PubMed

    Höcker, Jan; Weber, Bernd; Tonner, Peter H; Scholz, Jens; Brand, Philipp-Alexander; Ohnesorge, Henning; Bein, Berthold

    2008-03-17

    alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists like clonidine or dexmedetomidine increase the sedative and analgesic actions of opioids. Furthermore opioids like meperidine show potent anti-shivering effects like alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists. The underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects are still poorly defined. The authors therefore studied the ability of four different opioids (meperidine, remifentanil, sufentanil and tramadol) to interact with different alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes in mice lacking individual alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)- or alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors (alpha(2)-adrenoceptor knock out (alpha(2)-AR KO) mice)). The interaction of opioids with alpha(2)-adrenoceptors was investigated by quantitative receptor autoradiography in brain slices of alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)- or alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor deficient mice. Displacement of the radiolabelled alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist [(125)I]-paraiodoclonidine ([(125)I]-PIC) from alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in different brain regions by increasing opioid concentrations was measured, and binding affinity of the analysed opioids to alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes in different brain regions was quantified. Meperidine, remifentanil and tramadol but not sufentanil provoked dose dependent displacement of specifically bound [(125)I]-PIC from all alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes in cortex, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, thalamus, hippocampus and pons. Required concentrations of meperidine and remifentanil for [(125)I]-PIC displacement from alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors were lower than from alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors, indicating higher binding affinity for alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors. In contrast, [(125)I]-PIC displacement by tramadol indicated higher binding affinity to alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors than to alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors. Our results indicate that meperidine, remifentanil and tramadol interact with alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in mouse brain showing different affinity for alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C

  5. Prevention of chromate induced oxidative stress by alpha-lipoic acid.

    PubMed

    Budhwar, Roli; Kumar, Sushil

    2005-06-01

    The parenteral administration of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) protected against chromate induced oxidative stress in mouse liver. A shift in Cr induced pro-oxidant state to antioxidant-state by LA was noteworthy. The degree of protection was significant and similar in different LA administration regimens (prior-, co- and post- parenteral Cr exposure) explored. An improved status of the tissue antioxidants by LA appeared to be the mechanism of mitigation. The results are of chemopreventive value and suggest a possible alternative to ascorbic acid for abrogation of Cr toxicity. PMID:15997482

  6. Fibronectin receptor functions in embryonic cells deficient in alpha 5 beta 1 integrin can be replaced by alpha V integrins.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J T; Hynes, R O

    1996-01-01

    alpha 5 beta 1 integrin mediates cell adhesion to extracellular matrix by interacting with fibronectin (FN). Mouse lines carrying null mutations in genes encoding either the alpha 5 integrin subunit or FN have been generated previously. Both mutations are embryonic lethal with overlapping defects, but the defects of alpha 5-null embryos are less severe. Primary embryonic cells lacking alpha 5 beta 1 are able to adhere to FN, form focal contacts, migrate on FN, and assemble FN matrix. These results suggest the involvement of (an)other FN receptors(s). In this study, we examined functions of alpha 4 beta 1 and alpha V integrins in embryonic cells lacking alpha 5 beta 1. Our analysis of cells lacking both alpha 4 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1 showed that alpha 4 beta 1 is also not required for these FN-dependent functions. Using alpha V-specific blocking reagents, we showed that alpha V integrins are required for alpha 5-null cells, but not wild-type cells, to adhere and spread on FN. Our data also showed that, although the expression levels of alpha V integrins on the wild-type and alpha 5-null cells are similar, there is an increase in recruitment of alpha V integrins into focal contacts in alpha 5-null cells plated on FN, indicating that alpha V integrins can compensate functionally for the loss of alpha 5 beta 1 in focal contacts of alpha 5-null cells. Finally, our data suggested possible roles for alpha V integrins in replacing the role of alpha 5 beta 1 in FN matrix assembly in vitro and in FN-dependent embryonic functions in vivo. Images PMID:8930896

  7. alpha-Thalassaemia in Tunisia: some epidemiological and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Siala, H; Ouali, F; Messaoud, T; Bibi, A; Fattoum, S

    2008-12-01

    Unlike the other haemoglobinopathies, few researches have been published concerning alpha-thalassaemia in Tunisia. The aim of the present work is to acquire further data concerning alpha-thalassaemia prevalence and molecular defects spectrum in Tunisia, by collecting and studying several kinds of samples carrying alpha-thalassaemia. The first survey conducted on 529 cord blood samples using cellulose acetate electrophoresis, have displayed the prevalence of 7.38% Hb Bart's carriers at birth. Molecular analyses were conducted by PCR and DNA sequencing on 20 families' cases from the above survey carrying the Hb Bart's at birth and on 10 Hb H diseased patients. The results showed six alpha-globin gene molecular defects and were responsible for alpha-thalassaemia: -alpha(3.7), - -(MedI), alpha(TSaudi), alpha(2)(cd23GAG->Stop), Hb Greone Hart: alpha(1)(119CCT->TCT) corresponding to 11 genotypes out of which two are responsible for Hb H disease (- -(Med)/-alpha(3.7)) and (alpha(TSaudi)alpha/alpha(TSaudi)alpha) and a newly described polymorphism: alpha+6C->G. The geographical repartition of alpha-thal carriers showed that the -alpha3.7 deletion is distributed all over the country, respectively the alpha(HphI) and alpha(TSaudi) seem to be more frequent in the central region of the northeast region. The haematological and clinical data showed a moderate phenotype with a late age of diagnosis for Hb H disease. This work had permitted, in addition to an overview on alpha-thalassaemia in the country, the optimization of protocols for alpha-thalassaemia detection in our lab, allowing further investigations concerning phenotype-genotype correlation in sickle cell disease or beta-thalassaemia. PMID:19147907

  8. A Method for Maximizing the Internal Consistency Coefficient Alpha.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin, Michel

    This paper presents three different ways of computing the internal consistency coefficient alpha for a same set of data. The main objective of the paper is the illustration of a method for maximizing coefficient alpha. The maximization of alpha can be achieved with the aid of a principal component analysis. The relation between alpha max. and the…

  9. Alpha Com eclipse observing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2014-12-01

    Drs. Matthew W. Muterspaugh and Gregory W. Henry (Tennessee State University) have requested AAVSO observers' ssistance in monitoring the possible Algol-like binary star alpha Com before, during, and after the eclipse they have predicted for mid-to-late January 2015. The PIs will be using the Fairborn Observatory automated photometric telescopes on Mt. Hopkins, but they are requesting additional observations not only to supplement theirs but also specifically to have good coverage in the event of bad weather at Mt. Hopkins. Alf Com has a 26-year period and is 4.32V at maximum. The expected amplitude of the eclipse is about 0.8 magnitude and the duration somewhere between 28 and 45 hours. The eclipse is predicted for January 25 ± three days (JD 2457047 ± 3). Muterspaugh at al. first calculated the possibility of a 2015 eclipse in 2010 (AJ). Muterspaugh and Henry recently published an article with updated information (arXiv 2014). V and/or R photometry (other bands welcome) is requested, with a minimal cadence of one measurement/2 hours, to make sure the eclipse is caught right as it begins and to ensure having multiple data points on any unseen objects that might eclipse as well. During eclipse, continuous observations are important. Infrared (H-band) observations could be interesting, should the CHARA array image the event. The precision photometry in the weeks before and after the eclipse is requested in order to catch possible evidence for planets or other materials around the eclipsing star. Updated astrometry from the current epoch would greatly improve the eclipse preductions. Charts with comparison star sequence for alf Com may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). The PIs recommend using the comparison stars HD 113848 (39 Com, HR 4946, HIP 63948, V=5.990, B-V=0.39, F4V) and HD 114520 (HIP 64312, V=6.820, B-V=0.46,F2II). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See AAVSO Alert Notice 506

  10. In vitro anti-inflammatory activities of new steroidal antedrugs: [16alpha,17alpha-d] Isoxazoline and [16alpha,17alpha-d]-3'-hydroxy-iminoformyl isoxazoline derivatives of prednisolone and 9alpha-fluoroprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwan-K; Ko, Dong-H; You, Z; Khan, M Omar F; Lee, Henry J

    2006-03-01

    A series of new anti-inflammatory steroidal antedrugs with C-16,17-isoxazoline ring system were synthesized and their pharmacological activities were evaluated. We reported earlier that these compounds are promising antedrugs based on the results of 5-day rat croton oil ear edema assay. In the present study, most of these compounds showed high binding affinities to the glucocorticoid receptor of liver cytosol. 21-acetyloxy-9alpha-fluoro-11beta-hydroxy-3,20-dioxo-1,4-pregnadieno [16alpha,17alpha-d] isoxazoline (FP-ISO-21AC) and 11beta,21-dihydroxy-9alpha-fluoro-3,20-dioxo-1,4-pregnadieno [16alpha,17alpha-d] isoxazoline (FP-ISO-21OH) were found 5.0-, 5.3-fold more potent than prednisolone, respectively. Inhibitory effects of the antedrugs on the nitric oxide (NO) production were assessed using LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells. All these steroidal antedrugs exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of NO production, but their relative potencies were lower than prednisolone. In vitro metabolism study in rat plasma showed that FP-ISO-21AC and 21-acetyloxy-9alpha-fluoro-11beta-hydroxy-3,20-dioxo-1,4-pregnadieno [16alpha,17alpha-d]-3'-hydroxyiminoformyl isoxazoline (FP-OXIM-21AC) were hydrolyzed rapidly, with the half-lives of 2.1 and 4.2 min, respectively. The half-lives of FP-ISO-21OH and 11beta,21-dihydroxy-9alpha-fluoro-3,20-dioxo-1,4-pregnadieno [16alpha,17alpha-d]-3'-hydroxyiminoformyl isoxazoline (FP-OXIM-21OH) were 92.2 and 110.2 min, respectively. PMID:16309722

  11. A Review of the Literature on College Administrators and Administrations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, George; Uhse, Stefan

    A review of the extensive literature on college administration and college administrators reveals there are relatively few empirical studies in the field. It was also observed that: there is widespread agreement on a few broad principles; there has been a heavy emphasis on human relations and proper administrative procedures; there are fundamental…

  12. Alpha-keto and alpha-hydroxy branched-chain acid interrelationships in normal humans.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, L J; Taveroff, A; Robitaille, L; Mamer, O A; Reimer, M L

    1993-09-01

    Plasma concentrations of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine and valine, and those of leucine's and isoleucine's transamination products alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KICA) and alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (KMVA), respectively, are known to increase after a protein meal or during extended fasting, but little or no increase in the concentration of valine's transamination product, alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (KIVA), has been observed under these conditions. To determine whether this could be explained by the conversion of KIVA to its alpha-hydroxy analogue, we measured the plasma concentrations of KICA, KMVA and KIVA, as well as their alpha-hydroxy analogues [alpha-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA), alpha-hydroxy-beta-methylvaleric acid (HMVA) and alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid (HIVA)], in normal volunteers immediately after a protein meal or during a 60-h fast. We also determined the oxidoreduction equilibrium constants for HIVA/KIVA and HICA/KICA and their extent of plasma protein binding. In subjects in the postabsorptive state, the plasma concentrations of KICA and KMVA were 100 times those of HICA and HMVA, whereas that of KIVA was only twice that of HIVA. Shortly after a protein meal, KICA and KMVA concentrations increased significantly by 30 and 60%, respectively, whereas that of KIVA decreased by 25% (P < 0.05). HICA, HMVA and HIVA concentrations did not change. During prolonged fasting the plasma concentrations of all six metabolites increased gradually. The high plasma keto/hydroxy acid ratios were not related to their K(eq), which favored alpha-hydroxy analogue formation. The reduction of the branched-chain alpha-keto acids to their alpha-hydroxy analogues seems to take place too slowly to attain thermodynamic equilibrium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8360777

  13. Overview Of Suborbital Human Transportation Concept Alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adirim, H.; Pilz, N.; Marini, M.; Hendrick, P.; Schmid, M.; Behr, R.; Barth, T.; Tarfeld, F.; Wiegand, A.; Charbonnier, D.; Haya Ramos, R.; Steeland, J.; Mack, A.

    2011-05-01

    Within the EC co-funded project FAST20XX (Future high-Altitude high-Speed Transport 20XX), the European suborbital passenger transportation system concept ALPHA (Airplane Launched PHoenix Aircraft), which shall be based to a maximum extent on existing technologies and capabilities, is currently being investigated as collaborative project by a European consortium under coordination of ESA. The ALPHA concept incorporates an air-launch from a carrier aircraft, which shall be used as first stage. The ALPHA vehicle shall be capable of transporting up to four passengers plus one pilot to an altitude of at least 100 km. The ALPHA vehicle is a down-scaled version of the suborbital space transportation concept Hopper, which was already deeply investigated within the European FESTIP System Study and the German ASTRA program including the successfully flown experimental landing demonstrator Phoenix. This approach has allowed the use of existing aerodynamic vehicle data and has led to the adaptation of the external Hopper/Phoenix configuration for ALPHA. In FESTIP and ASTRA, the Hopper configuration showed sufficient stability margins. Due to the geometric similarity of the ALPHA and Hopper vehicles, a trimable and flyable configuration could be derived by means of ALPHA flight trajectory calculations. In its current configuration, the ALPHA vehicle has a length of ca. 9 m and a gross take-off mass of ca. 3.5 Mg. The launch, staging and separation of ALPHA shall be performed either as internal air-launch from the cargo bay of the carrier aircraft, as under-wing air-launch or as towed air-launch. After separation from the carrier aircraft, the ALPHA vehicle ignites its onboard rocket propulsion system. Since conventional liquid and solid propulsion did not seem suitable for ALPHA due to Their high cost, limited safety and toxicity, a low-cost, “green” and non-hazardous hybrid propulsion system based on liquid nitrous oxide in combination with a solid polymer fuel was

  14. Cancer radioimmunotherapy with alpha-emitting nuclides.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Olivier; Supiot, Stéphane; Degraef-Mougin, Marie; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Carlier, Thomas; Chatal, Jean-François; Davodeau, François; Cherel, Michel

    2005-05-01

    In lymphoid malignancies and in certain solid cancers such as medullary thyroid carcinoma, somewhat mixed success has been achieved when applying radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with beta-emitters for the treatment of refractory cases. The development of novel RIT with alpha-emitters has created new opportunities and theoretical advantages due to the high linear energy transfer (LET) and the short path length in biological tissue of alpha-particles. These physical properties offer the prospect of achieving selective tumoural cell killing. Thus, RIT with alpha-emitters appears particularly suited for the elimination of circulating single cells or cell clusters or for the treatment of micrometastases at an early stage. However, to avoid non-specific irradiation of healthy tissues, it is necessary to identify accessible tumoural targets easily and rapidly. For this purpose, a small number of alpha-emitters have been investigated, among which only a few have been used for in vivo preclinical studies. Another problem is the availability and cost of these radionuclides; for instance, the low cost and the development of a reliable actinium-225/bismuth-213 generator were probably determining elements in the choice of bismuth-213 in the only human trial of RIT with an alpha-emitter. This article reviews the literature concerning monoclonal antibodies radiolabelled with alpha-emitters that have been developed for possible RIT in cancer patients. The principal radio-immunoconjugates are considered, starting with physical and chemical properties of alpha-emitters, their mode of production, the possibilities and difficulties of labelling, in vitro studies and finally, when available, in vivo preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:15841373

  15. A chimera-like alpha-amylase inhibitor suggesting the evolution of Phaseolus vulgaris alpha-amylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Wato, S; Kamei, K; Arakawa, T; Philo, J S; Wen, J; Hara, S; Yamaguchi, H

    2000-07-01

    White kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) contains two kinds of alpha-amylase inhibitors, one heat-stable (alpha AI-s) and one heat-labile (alpha AI-u). alpha AI-s has recently been revealed to be a tetrameric complex, alpha(2)beta(2), with two active sites [Kasahara et al. (1996) J. Biochem. 120, 177-183]. The present study was undertaken to reveal the molecular features of alpha AI-u, which is composed of three kinds of subunits, alpha, beta, and gamma. The gamma-subunit, in contrast to the alpha- and beta-subunits that are indistinguishable from the alpha- and beta-subunits of alpha AI-s, was found to correspond to a subunit of an alpha-amylase inhibitor-like protein, which has been identified as an inactive, evolutionary intermediate between arcelin and the alpha-amylase inhibitor in a P. vulgaris defense protein family. The polypeptide molecular weight of alpha AI-u determined by the light-scattering technique, together with the polypeptide molecular weights of the subunits, suggests that alpha AI-u is a trimeric complex, alpha beta gamma. The inhibition of alpha AI-u by increasing amounts of porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA) indicates that an inactive 1:1 complex is formed between alpha AI-u and PPA. Molecular weight estimation of the complex by the light-scattering technique confirmed that it is a complex of alpha AI-u with one PPA molecule. Thus it seems probable that alpha AI-u is an evolutionary intermediate of the P. vulgaris alpha-amylase inhibitor. PMID:10876168

  16. Identification of a novel bile acid in swans, tree ducks, and geese: 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid.

    PubMed

    Kakiyama, Genta; Iida, Takashi; Goto, Takaaki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Nambara, Toshio; Hagey, Lee R; Schteingart, Claudio D; Hofmann, Alan F

    2006-07-01

    By HPLC, a taurine-conjugated bile acid with a retention time different from that of taurocholate was found to be present in the bile of the black-necked swan, Cygnus melanocoryphus. The bile acid was isolated and its structure, established by (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry, was that of the taurine N-acyl amidate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid. The compound was shown to have chromatographic and spectroscopic properties that were identical to those of the taurine conjugate of authentic 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid, previously synthesized by us from ursodeoxycholic acid. By HPLC, the taurine conjugate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid was found to be present in 6 of 6 species in the subfamily Dendrocygninae (tree ducks) and in 10 of 13 species in the subfamily Anserinae (swans and geese) but not in other subfamilies in the Anatidae family. It was also not present in species from the other two families of the order Anseriformes. 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid is a new primary bile acid that is present in the biliary bile acids of swans, tree ducks, and geese and may be termed 15alpha-hydroxy-chenodeoxycholic acid. PMID:16648547

  17. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  18. Administrative Law and Organization Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evan, William M.

    1977-01-01

    Considered are some trends in American administrative law, some trends in organization theory, a model of the administrative process, and several potentially useful research strategies. The analysis has implications for comparative research on legal systems. (Author/LBH)

  19. Administration for Children and Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Office ACF Help Center (help-center) Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) ... Global Populations Hispanic Outreach Homelessness Human Trafficking LGBT Native Americans/Tribes Unaccompanied Children Grants & Funding Expand How to ...

  20. Selecting the Administrative Computing Executive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bielec, John A.

    1985-01-01

    Important steps in the computing administrator selection process are outlined, including: reviewing the administrative computing organization, determining a search methodology, selecting a search or screening committee, narrowing the candidate pool, scheduling interviews and evaluating candidates, and conducting negotiations. (MSE)

  1. Administrative Implications of Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Max G.; Eidell, Terry L.

    1970-01-01

    The director of the Center for the Advanced Study of Educational Administration at the University of Oregon and one of his associates discuss the new role of administration in an individual-oriented educational system. (AA)

  2. Alpha Channeling in Rotating Plasma with Stationary Waves

    SciTech Connect

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2010-02-15

    An extension of the alpha channeling effect to supersonically rotating mirrors shows that the rotation itself can be driven using alpha particle energy. Alpha channeling uses radiofrequency waves to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. We show that stationary magnetic fields with high nθ can be used for this purpose, and simulations show that a large fraction of the alpha energy can be converted to rotation energy.

  3. Thalidomide treatment reduces tumor necrosis factor alpha production and enhances weight gain in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Tramontana, J. M.; Utaipat, U.; Molloy, A.; Akarasewi, P.; Burroughs, M.; Makonkawkeyoon, S.; Johnson, B.; Klausner, J. D.; Rom, W.; Kaplan, G.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The monocyte-derived cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), is essential for host immunity, but overproduction of this cytokine may have serious pathologic consequences. Excess TNF alpha produced in pulmonary tuberculosis may cause fevers, weakness, night sweats, necrosis, and progressive weight loss. Thalidomide (alpha-N-phthalimidoglutarimide) has recently been shown to suppress TNF alpha production by human monocytes in vitro and to reduce serum TNF alpha in leprosy patients. We have therefore conducted a two-part placebo-controlled pilot study of thalidomide in patients with active tuberculosis to determine its effects on clinical response, immune reactivity, TNF alpha levels, and weight. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 30 male patients with active tuberculosis, either human immunodeficiency virus type 1 positive (HIV-1+) or HIV-1-, received thalidomide or placebo for single or multiple 14 day cycles. Toxicity of the study drug, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), cytokine production, and weight gain were evaluated. RESULTS: Thalidomide treatment was well tolerated, without serious adverse events. The drug did not adversely affect the DTH response to purified protein derivative (PPD), total leukocyte, or differential cell counts. TNF alpha production was significantly reduced during thalidomide treatment while interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) production was enhanced. Daily administration of thalidomide resulted in a significant enhancement of weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that thalidomide is well tolerated by patients receiving anti-tuberculosis therapy. Thalidomide treatment reduces TNF alpha production both in vivo and in vitro and is associated with an accelerated weight gain during the study period. PMID:8521296

  4. Rapid postexposure decay of. cap alpha. /sub 2u/-globulin and hyaline droplets in the kidneys of gasoline-treated male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Garg, B.D.; Olson, M.J.; Demyan, W.F.; Roy, A.K.

    1988-01-01

    Renal ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin content increased to 210% of control within 18 h of a single oral dose of gasoline (2.0 ml/kg) in male rats; maximal levels (320% of control) were attained following gasoline administration for 3 d. Increases in renal ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin caused by gasoline were accompanied by concurrent proliferation of hyaline droplets. However, within 3 d of terminating gasoline administration renal ..cap alpha../sub2u/-globulin content decreased to the same level as that in unexposed rats, although renal hyaline droplet number returned to pretreatment levels somewhat more slowly. The conjoint effect of postexposure recovery and estradiol (an inhibitor of hepatic ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin synthesis) administration was also determined in male rats. On postexposure of 3, 6, and 9, estradiol treatment (1 mg/kg, sc, 4 d, starting on d 9 of gasoline treatment) decreased renal ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin content to 75%, 59%, and 48%, respectively, of that in rats allowed to recover from gasoline with no hormone treatment. Hepatic ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin content in estradiol-treated rats was decreased by 74%, 97%, and 96% at the same intervals. Estradiol treatment during recovery from gasoline also appeared to increase the removal of accumulated hyaline droplets from the renal cortex. Thus, accumulation of ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin-containing hyaline droplets after subacute exposure of male rats to gasoline is rapidly reversible, dependent on continuous exposure to gasoline and maintenance of the normal rate of hepatic ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin synthesis. These results emphasize the dynamic state of renal cortical hyaline droplets and suggest strongly that gasoline hydrocarbons cause hyaline droplet accumulation by prolonging the half-time degradation of ..cap alpha../sub 2u/-globulin.

  5. Correcting Coefficient Alpha for Correlated Errors: Is [alpha][K]a Lower Bound to Reliability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    When errors of measurement are positively correlated, coefficient alpha may overestimate the "true" reliability of a composite. To reduce this inflation bias, Komaroff (1997) has proposed an adjusted alpha coefficient, ak. This article shows that ak is only guaranteed to be a lower bound to reliability if the latter does not include correlated…

  6. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10300 Benzeneacetic acid,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10300 Benzeneacetic acid,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10300 Benzeneacetic acid,...

  9. Reaction of. cap alpha. ,. cap alpha. ,omega-trihydroperfluoroalkanols with thionyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Krolevets, A.A.; Ragulin, L.I.; Popov, A.G.

    1987-06-10

    The effect of catalysts on the reaction of thionyl chloride with ..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..,omega-trihydroperfluoroalkanols was investigated. It was shown that the use of calcium chloride, aluminum chloride, ferric chloride, and magnesium chloride as catalysts makes it possible to obtain polyfluoroalkyl chlorosulfites and bis(polyfluoroalkyl) sulfites with good yields.

  10. Simultaneous measurements of the hydrogen airglow emissions of Lyman alpha, Lyman beta, and Balmer alpha.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weller, C. S.; Meier, R. R.; Tinsley, B. A.

    1971-01-01

    Comparison of Lyman-alpha, 740- to 1050-A, and Balmer-alpha airglow measurements made at 134 deg solar-zenith angle on Oct. 13, 1969, with resonance-scattering models of solar radiation. Model comparison with Lyman-alpha data fixes the hydrogen column abundance over 215 km to 2 x 10 to the 13th per cu cm within a factor of 2. Differences between the Lyman-alpha model and data indicate a polar-equatorial departure from spherical symmetry in the hydrogen distribution. A Lyman-beta model based on the hydrogen distribution found to fit the Lyman-alpha data fits the spatial variation of the 740- to 1050-A data well from 100 to 130 km, but it does not fit the data well at higher altitudes; thus the presence of more rapidly absorbed shorter-wavelength radiation is indicated. This same resonance-scattering model yields Balmer-alpha intensities that result in good spatial agreement with the Balmer-alpha measurements, but a fivefold increase in the measured solar line center Lyman-beta flux is required (as required for the Lyman-beta measurement). The intensity ratio of Lyman-beta and Balmer-alpha at night is found to be a simple measure of the hydrogen optical depth if measurements with good accuracy can be made in the visible and ultraviolet spectrum.

  11. Amyloid formation and disaggregation of {alpha}-synuclein and its tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR)

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, Song Yi; Kim, Seulgi; Hwang, Heejin; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Yoon, Hyun C.; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, SangYoon; Kim, T. Doohun

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Formation of the {alpha}-synuclein amyloid fibrils by [BIMbF{sub 3}Im]. {yields} Disaggregation of amyloid fibrils by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and baicalein. {yields} Amyloid formation of {alpha}-synuclein tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR). -- Abstract: The aggregation of {alpha}-synuclein is clearly related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, detailed understanding of the mechanism of fibril formation is highly valuable for the development of clinical treatment and also of the diagnostic tools. Here, we have investigated the interaction of {alpha}-synuclein with ionic liquids by using several biochemical techniques including Thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our data shows a rapid formation of {alpha}-synuclein amyloid fibrils was stimulated by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [BIMbF{sub 3}Im], and these fibrils could be disaggregated by polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and baicalein. Furthermore, the effect of [BIMbF{sub 3}Im] on the {alpha}-synuclein tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR) in the aggregation process was studied.

  12. Experimental and Theoretical Electron Density Distribution of Alpha,Alpha-Trehalose Dihydrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha,alpha-rehalose is of interest because of its cryoprotective and antidessicant properties, and because it possesses various technical anomalies such as 13C NMR spectra that give misleading indications of intramolecular structural symmetry. It is a non-reducing disaccharide, with the glycosidic...

  13. Alpha-7 and alpha-4 nicotinic receptor subunit immunoreactivity in genioglossus muscle motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Dehkordi, Ozra; Millis, Richard M; Dennis, Gary C; Coleman, Bernell R; Johnson, Sheree M; Changizi, Loubat; Ovid Trouth, C

    2005-02-15

    In the present study, immunohistochemistry combined with retrograde labeling techniques were used to determine if hypoglossal motoneurons (HMNs), retrogradely labeled after cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) injection to the genioglossus muscle in rats, show immunoreactivity for alpha-7 and alpha-4 subunits of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). CTB-positive HMNs projecting to the genioglossus muscle were consistently labeled throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the hypoglossal nuclei with the greatest labeling at and caudal to area postrema. Alpha-7 subunit immunoreactivity was found in 39.44+/-5.10% of 870 CTB-labeled motoneurons and the alpha-4 subunit in 51.01+/-3.71% of 983 CTB-positive neurons. Rostrally, the number of genioglossal motoneurons demonstrating immunoreactivity for the alpha-7 subunit was 45.85+/-10.04% compared to 34.96+/-5.11% at and caudal to area postrema (P>0.1). The number of genioglossal motoneurons that showed immunoreactivity for the alpha-4 subunit was 55.03+/-4.83% at and caudal to area postrema compared to 42.98+/-3.90% in rostral areas (P=0.074). These results demonstrate that nAChR immunoreactivity is present in genioglossal motoneurons and suggest a role for alpha-7 and alpha-4 subunits containing nAChRs in the regulation of upper airway patency. PMID:15705531

  14. Syntheses of alpha-tocopheryl glycosides by glucosidases.

    PubMed

    Ponrasu, Thangavel; Charles, Rajachristu Einstein; Sivakumar, Ramaiah; Divakar, Soundar

    2008-08-01

    Enzymatic syntheses of water-soluble alpha-tocopheryl glycosides were carried out in di-isopropyl ether using amyloglucosidase from Rhizopus mold or beta-glucosidase isolated from sweet almond. Optimum conditions for the amyloglucosidase were: alpha-tocopherol 0.5 mmol, D-glucose 0.5 mmol, 400 activity unit (AU) amyloglucosidase, 0.2 mM pH 7 phosphate buffer and 72 h; and for the beta-glucosidase: alpha-tocopherol 0.5 mmol, D: -glucose 0.5 mmol, 110 AU beta-glucosidase, 0.1 mM pH 6 phosphate buffer and 72 h. Out of 11 carbohydrates employed, amyloglucosidase reacted only with D-glucose to give 50% of 6-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol. However, the beta-glucosidase gave 6-O-(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol, 6-O-(alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol, 6-O-(beta-D-galactopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol, 6-O-(alpha-D-mannopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol and 6-O-(beta-D-mannopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol in yields ranging from 10-25%. Water solubility of 6-O-(alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)alpha-tocopherol was 26 g/l at 25 degrees C. alpha-Tocopheryl glycosides showed antioxidant activities with IC(50) values from 0.5 to 1 mM and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity with IC(50) values from 1.3 to 2.6 mM. PMID:18368294

  15. Phosphorylation-independent stimulation of DNA topoisomerase II alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, K; Saijo, M; Tanaka, M; Enomoto, T

    1996-05-01

    It has been suggested that casein kinase II phosphorylates DNA topoisomerase II alpha (topo II alpha) in mouse FM3A cells, by comparison of phosphopeptide maps of topo II alpha labeled in intact cells and of topo II alpha phosphorylated by various kinases in vitro. The phosphorylation of purified topo II alpha by casein kinase II, which attached a maximum of two phosphate groups per topo II alpha molecule, had no effect on the activity of topo II alpha. Dephosphorylation of purified topo II alpha by potato acid phosphatase, which almost completely dephosphorylated the topo II alpha, did not reduce the activity of topo II alpha. The incubation itself, regardless of phosphorylation or dephosphorylation status, stimulated the enzyme activity in both reactions. Topo II alpha activity was stimulated by incubation in a medium containing low concentrations of glycerol but not in that containing high concentrations of glycerol, such as the 50% in which purified topo II alpha is stored. The stimulation of topo II alpha activity by incubation was dependent on the concentration of topo II alpha, requiring a relatively high concentration of topo II alpha. PMID:8631919

  16. Three Generations of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, F. G.

    This paper compares two Australian educational administration texts published in 1963 to reflect critically on the radical changes that have occurred in educational administration in Australia since then. The books are "Headmasters for Better Schools," by Bassett, Crane, and Walker; and "Training the Administrator," by Cunningham and Radford. The…

  17. Special Education Administration Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watherman, Richard F.; Hollingsworth, Sue Ann

    Presented are course materials from a competency based education program in special education administration. It is explained that the Special Education Administration Training Program (SEATP) is designed for continuing education of administrators. Materials are divided into three self contained curriculum areas: fiscal management, personnel…

  18. The Future of Public Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Harlan

    Past approaches to public administration, the diminishing distinctions between foreign and domestic policy, the role of the public administrator, and leadership qualities are discussed. As a relatively young discipline, public administration first focused on scientific management (1920's). It then shifted to the art and science of getting things…

  19. Administrative Uses of the Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spuck, Dennis W.; Atkinson, Gene

    1983-01-01

    An outline of microcomputer applications for administrative computing in education is followed by discussions of aspects of office automation, database management systems, management information systems, administrative computer systems, and software. Several potential problems relating to administrative computing in education are identified.…

  20. Certification of Financial Aid Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Stacey A.

    2011-01-01

    The certification of financial aid administrators has been debated for over 37 years. A job satisfaction survey conducted by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA, 2008a) revealed that college and university administrators' perceptions of the efficiency, effectiveness, and quality of the services provided by the…

  1. Straight Talk about School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of California School Administrators.

    In this report, the Association of California School Administrators examined some of the myths and misrepresentations about administration in California's public schools. Specifically, it examined the following five myths: (1) A lot of money that could be better spent in the classroom is being wasted on administration. (2) There are too many…

  2. Administrators' Decisions about Resource Allocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, William E.; Folkins, John W.; Hakel, Milton D.; Kennell, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Do academic administrators make decisions about resource allocation differently depending on the discipline receiving the funding? Does an administrator's academic identity influence these decisions? This study explored those questions with a sample of 1,690 academic administrators at doctoral-research universities. Participants used fictional…

  3. {alpha}-nucleus potentials, {alpha}-decay half-lives, and shell closures for superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Mohr, Peter

    2006-03-15

    Systematic {alpha}-nucleus folding potentials are used to analyze {alpha}-decay half-lives of superheavy nuclei. Preformation factors of about several percent are found for all nuclei under study. The systematic behavior of the preformation factors and the volume integrals of the potentials allows predictions of {alpha}-decay energies and half-lives for unknown nuclei. Shell closures can be determined from measured {alpha}-decay energies using the discontinuity of the volume integral at shell closures. For the first time a double shell closure is predicted for Z{sub magic}=132,N{sub magic}=194, and A{sub magic}=326 from the systematics of folding potentials. The calculated {alpha}-decay half-lives remain far below 1 ns for superheavy nuclei with double shell closure and masses A>300 independent of the precise knowledge of the magic proton and neutron numbers.

  4. Alpha globin gene analysis in a Sardinian family with interacting alpha and beta thalassaemia genes.

    PubMed

    Melis, M A; Galanello, R; Cao, A

    1983-04-01

    This paper reports the results of alpha globin gene analysis in a Sardinian family with interacting alpha and beta thalassaemia genes. The propositus, who was identified in a newborn survey as he had 26.0% Hb Bart's and 74.0% Hb F, successively developed the clinical and haematological picture of a transfusion-dependent thalassaemia major. According to the haemoglobin pattern, restriction endonuclease analysis of the DNA from this patient showed the deletion of three of the four alpha-globin structural genes. Thus beta 0-thalassaemia homozygotes with the delection of three alpha-structural genes seem to have a severe clinical phenotype similar to that of patients with a full complement of four alpha-globin structural genes. PMID:6299325

  5. ALPHA ATTENUATION DUE TO DUST LOADING

    SciTech Connect

    Dailey, A; Dennis Hadlock, D

    2007-08-09

    Previous studies had been done in order to show the attenuation of alpha particles in filter media. These studies provided an accurate correction for this attenuation, but there had not yet been a study with sufficient results to properly correct for attenuation due to dust loading on the filters. At the Savannah River Site, filter samples are corrected for attenuation due to dust loading at 20%. Depending on the facility the filter comes from and the duration of the sampling period, the proper correction factor may vary. The objective of this study was to determine self-absorption curves for each of three counting instruments. Prior work indicated significant decreases in alpha count rate (as much as 38%) due to dust loading, especially on filters from facilities where sampling takes place over long intervals. The alpha count rate decreased because of a decrease in the energy of the alpha. The study performed resulted in a set of alpha absorption curves for each of three detectors. This study also took into account the affects of the geometry differences in the different counting equipment used.

  6. Peptide modulators of alpha-glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Roskar, Irena; Molek, Peter; Vodnik, Miha; Stempelj, Mateja; Strukelj, Borut; Lunder, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Acute glucose fluctuations during the postprandial period pose great risk for cardiovascular complications and thus represent an important therapeutic approach in type 2 diabetes. In the present study, screening of peptide libraries was used to select peptides with an affinity towards mammalian intestinal alpha-glucosidase as potential leads in antidiabetic agent development. Materials and Methods Three phage-displayed peptide libraries were used in independent selections with different elution strategies to isolate target-binding peptides. Selected peptides displayed on phage were tested to compete for an enzyme-binding site with known competitive inhibitors, acarbose and voglibose. The four best performing peptides were synthesized. Their binding to the mammalian alpha-glucosidase and their effect on enzyme activity were evaluated. Results Two linear and two cyclic heptapeptides with high affinity towards intestinal alpha-glucosidase were selected. Phage-displayed as well as synthetic peptides bind into or to the vicinity of the active site on the enzyme. Both cyclic peptides inhibited enzyme activity, whereas both linear peptides increased enzyme activity. Conclusions Although natural substrates of glycosidase are polysaccharides, in the present study we successfully isolated novel peptide modulators of alpha-glucosidase. Modulatory activity of selected peptides could be further optimized through peptidomimetic design. They represent promising leads for development of efficient alpha-glucosidase inhibitors. PMID:26543535

  7. H-alpha Observations of MKW10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Harold; Coble, Kimberly A.; Koopmann, Rebecca A.; Durbala, Adriana; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team project looking at clusters and groups of galaxies to investigate the effects of environment on star formation, we analyzed H-alpha and R-band observations of the group MKW10 from the WIYN 0.9-m telescope with MOSAIC camera at Kitt Peak. We continuum-subtract the H-alpha images by scaling and subtracting the broadband R images. This process includes: determining the seeing of each image by calculating the FWHM values of several stars in the image; convolving all images to the worst seeing; stacking images for each filter; subtracting sky background; scaling the R image to H-alpha; and subtracting the scaled R from H-alpha. We then use the H-alpha-continuum-subtracted image to perform surface photometry of individual galaxies in MKW10. The data will be used to determine star formation rates and distributions of galaxies in this group environment and will be compared to results for galaxies in other UAT group and cluster environments. Analysis is ongoing.This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005 and the Illinois Space Grant Consortium.

  8. Alpha-particle sensitive test SRAMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Blaes, B. R.

    1990-01-01

    A bench-level test is being developed to evaluate memory-cell upsets in a test SRAM designed with a cell offset voltage. This offset voltage controls the critical charge needed to upset the cell. The effect is demonstrated using a specially designed 2-micron n-well CMOS 4-kb test SRAM and a Po-208 5.1-MeV 0.61-LET alpha-particle source. This test SRAM has been made sensitive to alpha particles through the use of a cell offset voltage, and this has allowed a bench-level characterization in a laboratory setting. The experimental data are linked to a alpha-particle interaction physics and to SPICE circuit simulations through the alpha-particle collection depth. The collection depth is determined by two methods and found to be about 7 micron. In addition, alpha particles that struck outside the bloated drain were able to flip the SRAM cells. This lateral charge collection was observed to be more than 6 micron.

  9. Polyfluorinated. cap alpha. ,. beta. -unsaturated ketons

    SciTech Connect

    Latypov, R.R.; Belogai, V.D.; Pashkevich, K.I.

    1986-07-10

    The ..cap alpha..,..beta..-unsaturated ketones (..cap alpha..,..beta..-UK), particularly those groups containing fluoroalkyl groups, are of interest as highly reactive compounds having two nonequivalent electrophilic centers. In the present investigation, by boiling polyfluorinated aldehydes with methylketones in glacial acetic acid, they have obtained for the first time the polyfluorinated ..beta..-hydroxy-ketones, the dehydration of which has been used to synthesize the corresponding polyfluorinated ..cap alpha..,..beta..-UK, and their structure and reactions with the nucleophiles NH/sub 3/, PhNH/sub 2/, MeOH have been studied. In the PMR spectra of the ..cap alpha..,..beta..-UK (X)-(XVI) two doublets of triplets are observed at 6.9 and 7.9 ppm, caused by the spin-spin coupling of the olefin protons with the CF/sub 2/ group of the substituent. For ..cap alpha..,..beta..-UK, apart from the cis-trans isomerism relative to the C=C bond, a rotational isomerism is possible, caused by rotation around the C-C single bond. The presence in the IR spectra of absorption bands from nonplanar torsion-deformation vibrations of C-H for a double bond (nu = 975-980 cm/sup -1/) and the high value of the spin-spin coupling constant of the olefin protons (J/sub HH/ = 15 Hz) indicate unambiguously the transconfiguration of the olefin protons.

  10. Role of Frontal Alpha Oscillations in Creativity

    PubMed Central

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Boyle, Michael R.; Foulser, A. Alban; Mellin, Juliann M.; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Creativity, the ability to produce innovative ideas, is a key higher-order cognitive function that is poorly understood. At the level of macroscopic cortical network dynamics, recent EEG data suggests that cortical oscillations in the alpha frequency band (8 – 12 Hz) are correlated with creative thinking. However, whether alpha oscillations play a fundamental role in creativity has remained unknown. Here we show that creativity is increased by enhancing alpha power using 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (10Hz-tACS) of the frontal cortex. In a study of 20 healthy participants with a randomized, balanced cross-over design, we found a significant improvement of 7.4% in the Creativity Index measured by the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a comprehensive and most frequently used assay of creative potential and strengths. In a second similar study with 20 subjects, 40Hz-tACS was used in instead of 10Hz-tACS to rule out a general “electrical stimulation” effect. No significant change in the Creativity Index was found for such frontal gamma stimulation. Our results suggest that alpha activity in frontal brain areas is selectively involved in creativity; this enhancement represents the first demonstration of specific neuronal dynamics that drive creativity and can be modulated by non-invasive brain stimulation. Our findings agree with the model that alpha recruitment increases with internal processing demands and is involved in inhibitory top-down control, which is an important requirement for creative ideation. PMID:25913062

  11. Regulation of alpha o expression by the 5'-flanking region of the alpha o gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Mortensen, R; Neer, E J

    1994-11-01

    Many responses of cells to external signals require activation of the heterotrimeric G proteins. These responses depend on the type and amount of G proteins that are expressed. Each cell has a characteristic complement of G protein subunits. For example, the alpha o subunit is very abundant in neural tissues. Very little is known about the mechanisms that determine cellular levels of G proteins. In the present study, we have isolated a genomic clone for mouse alpha o gene and identified the promoter region. There are multiple transcription initiation sites located about 750 base pairs upstream of the translational start site. The promoter region is GC-rich and contains neither a TATA-box nor a CAAT box. Transient expression assays using a series of constructs containing various lengths of the 5'-flanking region of the alpha o promoter demonstrated that the region 300-700 base pairs upstream of the transcription initiation sites is responsible for the basic promoter activity. The relative activity of alpha o promoter is 8-12-fold higher in cells expressing alpha o than in cells lacking alpha o. The level of alpha o in cells may also be regulated at the level of protein translation because deletions in the 5'-noncoding region of alpha o gene increase reporter enzyme expression without a corresponding increase in reporter enzyme mRNA level. Our results suggest that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are involved in regulating the expression of alpha o in vivo. Transcriptional regulation probably is important for control of tissue-specific expression, while posttranscriptional mechanisms may be used to regulate the alpha o level in cells. PMID:7961675

  12. L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine inhibits the transfer function of phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Hiroaki; Westerman, Jan; Snoek, Gerry T; Taraschi, Theodore F; Janes, Nathan

    2003-12-30

    Phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha (PITP-alpha) is a bifunctional phospholipid transfer protein that is highly selective for phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) and phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho). Polar lipid metabolites, including L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (GroPCho), increasingly have been linked to changes in cellular function and to disease. In this study, polar lipid metabolites of PtdIns and PtdCho were tested for their ability to influence PITP-alpha activity. GroPCho inhibited the ability of PITP-alpha to transfer PtdIns or PtdCho between liposomes. The IC(50) of both processes was dependent on membrane composition. D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate and glycerylphosphorylinositol modestly enhanced PITP-alpha-mediated phospholipid transfer. Choline, phosphorylcholine (PCho), CDP-choline, glyceryl-3-phosphate, myo-inositol and D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate had little effect. Membrane surface charge was a strong determinant of the GroPCho inhibition with the inhibition being greatest for highly anionic membranes. GroPCho was shown to enhance the binding of PITP-alpha to anionic vesicles. In membranes of low surface charge, phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) was a determinant enabling the GroPCho inhibition. Anionic charge and PtdEtn content appeared to increase the strength of PITP-alpha-membrane interactions. The GroPCho-enhanced PITP-alpha-membrane binding was sufficient to cause inhibition, but not sufficient to account for the extent of inhibition observed. Processes associated with strengthened PITP-alpha-membrane binding in the presence of GroPCho appeared to impair the phospholipid insertion/extraction process. PMID:14729069

  13. G alpha12 interaction with alphaSNAP induces VE-cadherin localization at endothelial junctions and regulates barrier function.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Alexandra V; Kutuzov, Mikhail A; Vaiskunaite, Rita; Profirovic, Jasmina; Meigs, Thomas E; Predescu, Sanda; Malik, Asrar B; Voyno-Yasenetskaya, Tatyana

    2005-08-26

    The involvement of heterotrimeric G proteins in the regulation of adherens junction function is unclear. We identified alphaSNAP as an interactive partner of G alpha12 using yeast two-hybrid screening. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays showed the selective interaction of alphaSNAP with G alpha12 in COS-7 as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Using domain swapping experiments, we demonstrated that the N-terminal region of G alpha12 (1-37 amino acids) was necessary and sufficient for its interaction with alphaSNAP. G alpha13 with its N-terminal extension replaced by that of G alpha12 acquired the ability to bind to alphaSNAP, whereas G alpha12 with its N terminus replaced by that of G alpha13 lost this ability. Using four point mutants of alphaSNAP, which alter its ability to bind to the SNARE complex, we determined that the convex rather than the concave surface of alphaSNAP was involved in its interaction with G alpha12. Co-transfection of human umbilical vein endothelial cells with G alpha12 and alphaSNAP stabilized VE-cadherin at the plasma membrane, whereas down-regulation of alphaSNAP with siRNA resulted in the loss of VE-cadherin from the cell surface and, when used in conjunction with G alpha12 overexpression, decreased endothelial barrier function. Our results demonstrate a direct link between the alpha subunit of G12 and alphaSNAP, an essential component of the membrane fusion machinery, and implicate a role for this interaction in regulating the membrane localization of VE-cadherin and endothelial barrier function. PMID:15980433

  14. [Activity of 5-aminolevulinate synthase in rat liver during degradation of cytochrome P-450 caused by administration of cadmium chloride].

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A; Inshina, N N

    2003-01-01

    The 5-aminolevulinate synthase, tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase activities and cytochrome P-450 content in the rat liver was studied in different terms after CdCl2 administration and after administration of metal salt against a background of 2-hours action of alpha-tocopherol. The lowering of activity of 5-aminolevulinate synthase in 2 h with the consequent increase of the enzyme activity in 6 h and 24 h was detected. The holoenzyme activity and heme saturation of tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase increased 6 h after CdCl2 administration. The holoenzyme activity and the total activity of tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase rised in 24 h. The level of cytochrome P-450 lowered. Preliminary administration of alpha-tocopherol prevented changes of studied parameters 24 h after CdCl2 administration. The relationship between decrease of cytochrome P-450 level and 5-aminolevulinate synthase activation are discussed. PMID:14577179

  15. Key Obama officials leave administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  16. Human eosinophils can express the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Costa, J J; Matossian, K; Resnick, M B; Beil, W J; Wong, D T; Gordon, J R; Dvorak, A M; Weller, P F; Galli, S J

    1993-01-01

    By in situ hybridization, 44-100% of the blood eosinophils from five patients with hypereosinophilia and four normal subjects exhibited intense hybridization signals for TNF-alpha mRNA. TNF-alpha protein was detectable by immunohistochemistry in blood eosinophils of hypereosinophilic subjects, and purified blood eosinophils from three atopic donors exhibited cycloheximide-inhibitable spontaneous release of TNF-alpha in vitro. Many blood eosinophils (39-91%) from hypereosinophilic donors exhibited intense labeling for macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) mRNA, whereas eosinophils of normal donors demonstrated only weak or undetectable hybridization signals for MIP-1 alpha mRNA. Most tissue eosinophils infiltrating nasal polyps were strongly positive for both TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha mRNA. By Northern blot analysis, highly enriched blood eosinophils from a patient with the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome exhibited differential expression of TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha mRNA. These findings indicate that human eosinophils represent a potential source of TNF-alpha and MIP-1 alpha, that levels of expression of mRNA for both cytokines are high in the blood eosinophils of hypereosinophilic donors and in eosinophils infiltrating nasal polyps, that the eosinophils of normal subjects express higher levels of TNF-alpha than MIP-1 alpha mRNA, and that eosinophils purified from the blood of atopic donors can release TNF-alpha in vitro. Images PMID:8514874

  17. Solution structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA, a novel antagonist of {alpha}6 subunit containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Seung-Wook; Lee, Si-Hyung; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Kim, Jae-Sung; Olivera, Baldomero M.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Han, Kyou-Hoon . E-mail: khhan600@kribb.re.kr

    2005-12-30

    {alpha}-Conotoxin PIA is a novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist isolated from Conus purpurascens that targets nAChR subtypes containing {alpha}6 and {alpha}3 subunits. {alpha}-conotoxin PIA displays 75-fold higher affinity for rat {alpha}6/{alpha}3{beta}2{beta}3 nAChRs than for rat {alpha}3{beta}2 nAChRs. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The {alpha}-conotoxin PIA has an '{omega}-shaped' overall topology as other {alpha}4/7 subfamily conotoxins. Yet, unlike other neuronally targeted {alpha}4/7-conotoxins, its N-terminal tail Arg{sup 1}-Asp{sup 2}-Pro{sup 3} protrudes out of its main molecular body because Asp{sup 2}-Pro{sup 3}-Cys{sup 4}-Cys{sup 5} forms a stable type I {beta}-turn. In addition, a kink introduced by Pro{sup 15} in the second loop of this toxin provides a distinct steric and electrostatic environment from those in {alpha}-conotoxins MII and GIC. By comparing the structure of {alpha}-conotoxin PIA with other functionally related {alpha}-conotoxins we suggest structural features in {alpha}-conotoxin PIA that may be associated with its unique receptor recognition profile.

  18. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOEpatents

    Grisham, Larry R.; Post Jr., Douglass E.; Dawson, John M.

    1986-06-03

    Measurement of the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a magnetically contained plasma is provided. The fusion plasma is seeded with energetic boron neutrals for producing, by means of the reaction .sup.10 B (.alpha.,n) .sup.13 N reaction, radioactive nitrogen nuclei which are then collected by a probe. The radioactivity of the probe is then measured by conventional techniques in determining the energy distribution of the alpha particles in the plasma. In a preferred embodiment, diborane gas (B.sub.2 H.sub.6) is the source of the boron neutrals to produce .sup.13 N which decays almost exclusively by positron emission with a convenient half-life of 10 minutes.

  19. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1993-02-16

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, which is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  20. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOEpatents

    Grisham, Larry R.; Post, Jr., Douglass E.; Dawson, John M.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a magnetically contained plasma is provided. The fusion plasma is seeded with energetic boron neutrals for producing, by means of the reaction .sup.10 B (.alpha.,n) .sup.13 N reaction, radioactive nitrogen nuclei which are then collected by a probe. The radioactivity of the probe is then measured by conventional techniques in determining the energy distribution of the alpha particles in the plasma. In a preferred embodiment, diborane gas (B.sub.2 H.sub.6) is the source of the boron neutrals to produce .sup.13 N which decays almost exclusively by positron emission with a convenient half-life of 10 minutes.

  1. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; McAtee, James L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, whcih is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  2. ALPHA MIS: Reference manual. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Heatherly, R.D.; Hughes, S.E.; Ishee, J.S.; Pratt, S.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1992-02-01

    ALPHA is a powerful and versatile management information system (MIS) initiated and sponsored and by the Finance and Business Management Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who maintain and develop it in concert with the Business Systems Division for its Information Center. A general-purpose MIS, ALPHA allows users to access System 1022 and System 1032 databases to obtain and manage information. From a personal computer or a data terminal, Energy Systems employees can use ALPHA to control their own report reprocessing. Using four general commands (Database, Select, Sort, and Report) they can (1) choose a mainframe database, (2) define subsets within it, (3) sequentially order a subset by one or more variables, and (4) generate a report with their own or a canned format.

  3. Iron modulates the alpha chain of fibrinogen.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Vance G; Jacobsen, Wayne K

    2016-04-01

    Iron-bound fibrinogen has been noted to accelerate plasmatic coagulation in patients with divergent conditions involving upregulation of heme oxygenase activity, including hemodialysis, Alzheimer's disease, sickle cell anemia, and chronic migraine. Our goal was to determine if a site of iron-fibrinogen interaction was on the alpha chain. Using thrombelastography, we compared the coagulation kinetic profiles of plasma exposed to 0-10 µM ferric chloride after activation of coagulation with thrombin generated by contact activation of plasma with the plastic sample cup or by exposure to 1 µg/ml of Calloselasma rhodostoma venom (rich in ancrod activity), which causes coagulation via polymerization of alpha chain monomers. Venom mediated coagulation always occurred before thrombin activated thrombus formation, and ferric chloride always diminished the time of onset of coagulation and increased the velocity of clot growth. Iron enhances plasmatic coagulation kinetics by modulating the alpha chain of fibrinogen. PMID:26782808

  4. Ultraviolet observations of alpha Aurigae from Copernicus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Emission lines of L-alpha (1215.67 A) and O VI (1031.94 A) were detected in the spectroscopic binary alpha Aur (Capella) with the Princeton experiment on Copernicus. Temperatures of the emitting regions are inferred to be in excess of 300,000 K. The temperature and emission measure are consistent with a variable source of soft X-rays. If the emission is attributed to the primary star (G5 III), the atmosphere is expanding with velocities of about 20-100 km/s. Such expansion can lead to material within the binary system. The density of interstellar hydrogen inferred from absorption of stellar L-alpha appears to be approximately 0.01 hydrogen atoms per cu cm.

  5. The evolutionary conservation of DNA polymerase. alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M.A.; Korn, D.; Wang, T.S.F. )

    1988-08-25

    The evolutionary conservation of DNA polymerase {alpha} was assessed by immunological and molecular genetic approaches. Four anti-human KB cell DNA polymerase {alpha} monoclonal antibodies were tested for their ability to recognize a phylogenetically broad array of eukaryotic DNA polymerases. While the single non-neutralizing antibody used in this study recognizes higher mammalian (human, simian, canine, and bovine) polymerases only, three neutralizing antibodies exhibit greater, but variable, extents of cross-reactivity among vertebrate species. Genomic Southern hybridization studies with the cDNA of the human DNA polymerase {alpha} catalytic polypeptide identify the existence of many consensus DNA sequences within the DNA polymerase genes of vertebrate, invertebrate, plant and unicellular organisms. These findings illustrate the differential evolutionary conservation of four unique epitopes on DNA sequences, presumably reflective of critical functional domains, in the DNA polymerase genes from a broad diversity of living forms.

  6. Lyman-alpha imagery of Comet Kohoutek

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Opal, C. B.; Page, T. L.; Meier, R. R.; Prinz, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    Electrographic imagery of Comet Kohoutek in the 1100-1500 A wavelength range was obtained from a sounding rocket on Jan. 8, 1974, and from the Skylab space station on 13 occasions between Nov. 26, 1973 and Feb. 2, 1974. These images are predominantly due to Lyman-alpha (1216 A) emission from the hydrogen coma of the comet. The rocket pictures have been calibrated for absolute sensitivity and a hydrogen production rate has been determined. However, the Skylab camera suffered degradation of its sensitivity during the mission, and its absolute sensitivity for each observation can only be estimated by comparison of the comet images with those taken by the rocket camera, with imagery of the geocoronal Lyman-alpha glow, of the moon in reflected Lyman-alpha, and of ultraviolet-bright stars. The rocket and geocoronal comparisons are used to derive a preliminary, qualitative history of the development of the cometary hydrogen coma and the associated hydrogen production rate.

  7. Alpha-decay of light protactinium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Faestermann, T.; Gillitzer, A.; Hartel, K.; Henning, W.; Kienle, P.

    1987-12-10

    Light protactinium isotopes have been produced with /sup 204/Pb (/sup 19/F,xn) reactions. ..cap alpha..-activities with E/sub ..cap alpha../ = 9.90(5) MeV, T/sub 1/2/ = 53(10) ns and E/sub ..cap alpha../ = 9.65(5) MeV, T/sub 1/2/ = 0.78(16) ..mu..s could be attributed to the previously unobserved nuclei /sup 219/Pa and /sup 220/Pa with the help of excitation functions. The peak cross sections for the 4n and 3n evaporation channels are on the order of 10 ..mu..b. The decay energies as well as the halflives fit well into the systematics of these nuclei close to the magic neutron number N = 126. /sup 219/Pa is the shortest lived nuclide known with directly measured halflife.

  8. Synthesis of peptide .alpha.-thioesters

    DOEpatents

    Camarero, Julio A.; Mitchell, Alexander R.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2008-08-19

    Disclosed herein is a new method for the solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) of C-terminal peptide .alpha. thioesters using Fmoc/t-Bu chemistry. This method is based on the use of an aryl hydrazine linker, which is totally stable to conditions required for Fmoc-SPPS. When the peptide synthesis has been completed, activation of the linker is achieved by mild oxidation. The oxidation step converts the acyl-hydrazine group into a highly reactive acyl-diazene intermediate which reacts with an .alpha.-amino acid alkylthioester (H-AA-SR) to yield the corresponding peptide .alpha.-thioester in good yield. A variety of peptide thioesters, cyclic peptides and a fully functional Src homology 3 (SH3) protein domain have been successfully prepared.

  9. The Story of Alpha - In Three Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautecoeur, Jean-Paul

    2001-09-01

    The article presents a retrospective history of the ALPHA series of publications. This action-research project (later called "cooperative research") on literacy and basic education is divided into three periods of seven years each. The first one, "Construction", involved assisting the nascent literacy movement in Québec and Canada by given it a theoretical, critical and ideological basis. In the second period, "Ruptures", the project distanced itself somewhat from the literacy movement, whose success, according to the author, was dubious. During the same period ALPHA systematised its critical function and internationalised its field of research. The third phase, "Wanderings", involved a different research paradigm, in which the project explored basic education at community level in connection with local development initiatives. This biographical/autobiographical account ends with the last publication ALPHA 2000, evincing an ecological vision for alternative education and sustainable communities, partly documented in the Arab countries.

  10. AlphaCor artificial cornea: clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    Jirásková, N; Rozsival, P; Burova, M; Kalfertova, M

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term results of AlphaCor implantations, and to evaluate the main complications and risk factors. Methods Retrospective analysis of preoperative and follow-up data from 15 AlphaCor implantations. Analysis of outcomes, trends, and associations was performed and compared with data from published clinical trials and a literature review. Results The survival rate of the device at 1, 2, and 3 years was 87%, 58%, and 42%, respectively. Postoperative visual acuity ranged from hand movement to 0.8. The most significant complications were stromal melt (nine cases), optic deposition (three eyes), and retroprosthetic membrane formation (three eyes). The most common device-unrelated complication was trauma (three patients). All complications were managed without loss of the eye. Conclusion AlphaCor provides a treatment option for patients with corneal blindness in which a donor tissue graft would not succeed. PMID:21681219

  11. Analysis of H-alpha flare spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulander, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    Spectrographs of the H-alpha line taken at 15 second intervals from the event of 5 Sept. 1973 were interpreted by comparison with synthetic profiles. A sequence of 27 high resolution H alpha profiles was obtained from the second brightest flare kernel. The profiles were generally self reversed with a maximum peak intensity of 1.16 x continuum and a maximum central intensity of .91 x continuum. The line characteristics such as red and violet peak intensities and positions, center shifts and wing intensities were tabulated. Synthetic H-alpha profiles were generated from a finite layer assuming simple parameteric forms for the source function and velocity field. The velocity chosen always decreased with optical depth and had the same sign. For absorption profiles, bisector shifts were calculated for a variety of velocities. The velocity field and source function were derived as a function of optical depth and time.

  12. The status of alpha-particle diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.; Johnson, D.W.

    1992-08-01

    There is a flurry of activity to complete alpha-particle diagnostics so that they can undergo some experimental testing in DT plasmas on JET or TFTR prior to implementation on ITER. Successful measurements of escaping charged fusion products have been made in DD plasmas, and the {alpha}-particle source can be well characterized by neutron profile measurement. These methods can be extrapolated to DT plasmas. Measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles requires a new technique. Collective Thomson scattering, methods involving charge-exchange interactions and nuclear reactions with impurities will be discussed. Some assessment is given of the capabilities of these techniques, bearing in mind the potential for their use in the physics phase of the ITER program.

  13. The status of alpha-particle diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.; Johnson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    There is a flurry of activity to complete alpha-particle diagnostics so that they can undergo some experimental testing in DT plasmas on JET or TFTR prior to implementation on ITER. Successful measurements of escaping charged fusion products have been made in DD plasmas, and the {alpha}-particle source can be well characterized by neutron profile measurement. These methods can be extrapolated to DT plasmas. Measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles requires a new technique. Collective Thomson scattering, methods involving charge-exchange interactions and nuclear reactions with impurities will be discussed. Some assessment is given of the capabilities of these techniques, bearing in mind the potential for their use in the physics phase of the ITER program.

  14. Microdosimetry for Targeted Alpha Therapy of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Guatelli, Susanna; Oborn, Bradley M.; Allen, Barry J.

    2012-01-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) has the advantage of delivering therapeutic doses to individual cancer cells while reducing the dose to normal tissues. TAT applications relate to hematologic malignancies and now extend to solid tumors. Results from several clinical trials have shown efficacy with limited toxicity. However, the dosimetry for the labeled alpha particle is challenging because of the heterogeneous antigen expression among cancer cells and the nature of short-range, high-LET alpha radiation. This paper demonstrates that it is inappropriate to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of TAT by macrodosimetry. The objective of this work is to review the microdosimetry of TAT as a function of the cell geometry, source-target configuration, cell sensitivity, and biological factors. A detailed knowledge of each of these parameters is required for accurate microdosimetric calculations. PMID:22988479

  15. Low-valent niobium-mediated double activation of C-F/C-H bonds: fluorene synthesis from o-arylated alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluorotoluene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Fuchibe, Kohei; Akiyama, Takahiko

    2006-02-01

    By the treatment of 0.3 molar amount of NbCl5 and LiAlH4, o-arylated alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluorotoluenes afforded fluorene derivatives in good yields. C-F bonds of the CF3 group and the neighboring ortho C-H bond were doubly activated to give the coupling products. PMID:16448098

  16. Tumor necrosis factor alpha negatively regulates hepatitis B virus gene expression in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Gilles, P N; Fey, G; Chisari, F V

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that several inflammatory cytokines can modulate hepatocellular gene expression in a complex physiological process known as the hepatic acute-phase response. Since hepatitis B virus (HBV) characteristically induces a vigorous lymphomononuclear inflammatory response in the liver during acute and chronic hepatitis, it is possible that hepatocellular HBV gene expression may also be modulated by one or more of the cytokines produced by these cells. Using bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a surrogate inducer of inflammatory cytokines in vivo, we have tested this hypothesis in a transgenic mouse model system. In experiments with two independent transgenic mouse lineages that express the HBV envelope region under the control of either HBV or cellular promoters, we observed a 50 to 80% reduction in the hepatic steady-state content of a 2.1-kb HBV mRNA following administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of LPS. The regulatory influence of several inflammatory cytokines known to be induced by LPS was also examined in this system. The negative regulatory effect of LPS was consistently reproduced by the administration of a single nontoxic dose of tumor necrosis factor alpha, and it was occasionally observed following the administration of high doses of alpha interferon and interleukin-6, while no effect was detectable in response to high-dose interleukin-1 alpha or to gamma interferon. These observations suggest that tumor necrosis factor alpha and perhaps other cytokines may activate a heretofore unsuspected intracellular pathway that negatively regulates HBV gene expression. The intracellular mechanism(s) responsible for this effect and its pathophysiologic relevance remain to be elucidated. Images PMID:1583737

  17. Deep H alpha images of interacting galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, S. C.; Kovo, O.

    1993-01-01

    Gravitational interactions between galaxies are believed to increase star formation activity dramatically, and most of the brightest starburst galaxies show clear signs of recent interactions. However, it is still not known how interaction triggers star formation, nor are there models to relate the type or strength of interaction to the location or amount of star formation. We report on a series of deep H alpha images of interacting and post-interaction galaxies which we took with the purpose of finding the young stars and ionized gas in these objects. We were motivated in part by the hope that by studying the very recently formed stars we could see how the interaction process had affected the star formation. We observed the galaxies through 50 A-wide filters, one on the redshifted H alpha line and one off, and a standard R filter. Depending on the galaxy and conditions, images in the B, V, and I filters were also obtained. The images were recorded with a 4x7 ft. or 17 ft. diameter CCD at the 1-meter telescope of the Wise Observatory in Mitzpe Ramon. The H alpha and continuum images are used, together with observations at other wavelengths, to put together as complete a picture as possible of star formation and interactions in each galaxy. The complete observation set is not yet available for all the galaxies but certain results are already clear. There do not seem to be any correlations between H 1 and H alpha structures. In some H 1 plume galaxies H alpha extensions were seen on the other side of the galaxy from the H 1; in others extensive H alpha filaments have been found but not H 1. The preliminary results agree with the simplest model that interaction-induced star formation will be concentrated in the system center, since that is where the mass ends up.

  18. Improved quantification of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha and F2-isoprostanes by gas chromatography/triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometry: partial cyclooxygenase-dependent formation of 8-epi-prostaglandin F2 alpha in humans.

    PubMed

    Schweer, H; Watzer, B; Seyberth, H W; Nüsing, R M

    1997-12-01

    F2-isoprostanes are considered to be novel markers of lipid peroxidation. To study the in vivo formation of F2-isoprostanes, an improved method was developed for isotope dilution assays involving gas chromatography/triple-stage quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) including thin-layer chromatography (TLC) (sum of all F2-isoprostanes) and high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) purification (prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and 8-epi-PGF2 alpha). Following the addition of isotopically labeled prostaglandins to urine, the sample was acidified and applied to a C18 cartridge. After elution, prostaglandins were derivatized to pentafluorobenzyl esters and subjected to TLC. A broad zone was scratched off, isoprostanes were eluted and after formation of their trimethylsilyl ether derivatives the sum of F2-isoprostanes was determined by GC/MS/MS. For the determination of PGE2 alpha and 8-epi-PGF2 alpha prior to trimethylsilylation an additional HPLC step was performed and the fractions containing PGF2 alpha and 8-epi-PGF2 alpha were analyzed by GC/MS/MS. Using this technique, 8-epi-PGF2 alpha concentrations in urine samples as low as 5 pg ml-1 could be determined with high accuracy. The excretion rates of isoprostanes were studied in comparison with the classical prostaglandins in three different groups: healthy adults, healthy children and children with hyper-PGE syndrome (HPS), a pathological situation associated with a stimulated PGE2 synthesis. F2-isoprostanes represented the main arachidonic acid metabolites in these groups and 8-epi-PGF2 alpha excretion was comparable in its amount to the classical prostanoids. To delineate the cyclooxygenase-catalyzed contribution, the influence of indomethacin, an inhibitor of cyclooxygenases, on F2-isoprostane formation in healthy adults and in HPS children was analyzed. Significantly decreased excretion rates were observed 2 days after indomethacin administration for all prostanoids, including F2-isoprostanes and 8

  19. Protective effects of L-carnitine and alpha-lipoic acid in rats with adjuvant arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tastekin, Nurettin; Aydogdu, Nurettin; Dokmeci, Dikmen; Usta, Ufuk; Birtane, Murat; Erbas, Hakan; Ture, Mevlut

    2007-10-01

    Free radicals play an important role in the pathophysiology of adjuvant arthritis. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of L-carnitine (LC) and alpha-lipoic acid (alpha-LA) which are known to have antioxidant effects, in the treatment of adjuvant arthritis. Arthritis model was created by the administration of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in 32 of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided into five groups. Rats in Group I served as controls and received 0.1 ml kg(-1) saline. Group II received only 0.1 ml of CFA and served as the CFA-control for the other groups. Groups III-V, after being injected with CFA, were treated with LC, alpha-LA or diclofenac, respectively. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were measured in plasma samples. Enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured. The paws of rats were evaluated histopathologically to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects. TNF-alpha levels were measured for the evaluation of inflammation. In Group II plasma MDA increased, levels of glutathione decreased, enzyme activities of SOD and GPx decreased. Histopathological damage increased in the paws of the rats in this group. MDA levels decreased in Groups III-V when compared with Group II. GSH levels significantly increased in Group III and IV than Group V. SOD activity of Group IV was higher than Group III and V. TNF-alpha levels were significantly lower in Group IV and V. LC and alpha-LA seemed to have protective effects against oxidative damage in adjuvant arthritis model. PMID:17826175

  20. Daily treatment with {alpha}-naphthoflavone enhances follicular growth and ovulation rate in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Barreiro, Karina A.; Di Yorio, Maria P.; Artillo-Guida, Romina D.; Paz, Dante A.; Faletti, Alicia G.

    2011-04-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor and the first protein involved in a variety of physiological and toxicological processes, including those of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes. AhR has been found in the ovary of many species and seems to mediate the ovarian toxicity of many environmental contaminants, which are AhR ligands. However, the role of AhR in the ovarian function is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the action of {alpha}-naphthoflavone ({alpha}NF), known to be an AhR antagonist, on both follicular growth and ovulation. Immature Sprague-Dawley rats were daily injected intraperitoneally with {alpha}NF (0.1-80 mg/kg) or vehicle for 12 days, and primed with gonadotrophins (eCG/hCG) to induce follicular growth and ovulation. Ovaries were obtained 20 h after hCG administration. By means of immunohistochemistry, we found that the numbers of primordial, primary and antral follicles were increased in rats treated with 80 mg/kg {alpha}NF and that there were no differences with other doses. Likewise, the ovarian weight and the ovulation rate, measured by both number of oocytes within oviducts and corpora lutea in ovarian sections, were increased when the rats received either 1 or 10 mg/kg daily. Although further studies are necessary to know the mechanism of action of {alpha}NF, it is possible that the different ovarian processes can be differentially responsive to the presence of different levels of {alpha}NF, and that the same or different endogenous AhR ligands can be involved in these ovarian processes in a cell type-dependent manner.

  1. Role of. alpha. sub 2 -adrenergic receptors in the carotid body response to hypoxia

    SciTech Connect

    Kou, Y.R.; Ernsberger, P.; Cherniack, N.S.; Prabhakar, N.R. )

    1990-02-26

    Clonidine, which acts in part as an {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor agonist, depresses ventilation. The authors examined the role of {alpha}{sub 2}-receptors in carotid chemoreceptor activity. The density of {alpha}{sub 2}-receptors was determined in membrane fractions of 18 cat carotid bodies using {sup 125}I-iodoclonidine with 0.1 mM epinephrine or 10 {mu}M SKF-86466 defining nonspecific binding. {alpha}{sub 2}-Adrenergic receptor density averaged 0.6{plus minus}0.1 fmol/carotid body (mean {plus minus} SEM) and was comparable to other sympathetic target tissues. The authors then studied the effects of an agonist (guanabenz) and an antagonist (SKF-86466; 6-Cl-N-methyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1-H3-benzazepine) specific for {alpha}{sub 2}-receptors on baseline and hypoxia-stimulated carotid body discharge, in 10 anesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated cats. Intracarotid infusion of guanabenz for 5 minutes caused a dose-dependent depression of the baseline activity and reduced the chemoreceptor response to hypoxia by 88.0{plus minus}5.8% of the vehicle-injected controls. Intravenous administration of SKF-86466 reversed the effects of guanabenz on the carotid body activity. in contrast, chemoreceptor depression caused by dopamine was unaffected by SKF-86466. SKF-86466 alone increased baseline discharge and potentiated the chemoreceptor response to hypoxia by 34.0 {plus minus} 9.6% of the controls. These results demonstrate that {alpha}{sub 2}-adrenergic receptors are present in the cat carotid body and they exert an inhibitory influence on the chemoreceptor response to hypoxia.

  2. Opposite effects of the acute promyelocytic leukemia PML-retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) and PLZF-RAR alpha fusion proteins on retinoic acid signalling.

    PubMed Central

    Ruthardt, M; Testa, U; Nervi, C; Ferrucci, P F; Grignani, F; Puccetti, E; Grignani, F; Peschle, C; Pelicci, P G

    1997-01-01

    Fusion proteins involving the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) and the PML or PLZF nuclear protein are the genetic markers of acute promyelocytic leukemias (APLs). APLs with the PML-RAR alpha or the PLZF-RAR alpha fusion protein are phenotypically indistinguishable except that they differ in their sensitivity to retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation: PML-RAR alpha blasts are sensitive to RA and patients enter disease remission after RA treatment, while patients with PLZF-RAR alpha do not. We here report that (i) like PML-RAR alpha expression, PLZF-RAR alpha expression blocks terminal differentiation of hematopoietic precursor cell lines (U937 and HL-60) in response to different stimuli (vitamin D3, transforming growth factor beta1, and dimethyl sulfoxide); (ii) PML-RAR alpha, but not PLZF-RAR alpha, increases RA sensitivity of hematopoietic precursor cells and restores RA sensitivity of RA-resistant hematopoietic cells; (iii) PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha have similar RA binding affinities; and (iv) PML-RAR alpha enhances the RA response of RA target genes (those for RAR beta, RAR gamma, and transglutaminase type II [TGase]) in vivo, while PLZF-RAR alpha expression has either no effect (RAR beta) or an inhibitory activity (RAR gamma and type II TGase). These data demonstrate that PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha have similar (inhibitory) effects on RA-independent differentiation and opposite (stimulatory or inhibitory) effects on RA-dependent differentiation and that they behave in vivo as RA-dependent enhancers or inhibitors of RA-responsive genes, respectively. Their different activities on the RA signalling pathway might underlie the different responses of PML-RAR alpha and PLZF-RAR alpha APLs to RA treatment. The PLZF-RAR alpha fusion protein contains an approximately 120-amino-acid N-terminal motif (called the POZ domain), which is also found in a variety of zinc finger proteins and a group of poxvirus proteins and which mediates protein

  3. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  4. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-05-10

    A fan-less long range alpha detector is disclosed which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces. 2 figures.

  5. Alpha particles in effective field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Caniu, C.

    2014-11-11

    Using an effective field theory for alpha (α) particles at non-relativistic energies, we calculate the strong scattering amplitude modified by Coulomb corrections for a system of two αs. For the strong interaction, we consider a momentum-dependent interaction which, in contrast to an energy dependent interaction alone [1], could be more useful in extending the theory to systems with more than two α particles. We will present preliminary results of our EFT calculations for systems with two alpha particles.

  6. Lyman Alpha Searches at Redshift Z>7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Jon

    2007-05-01

    The ZEN survey is a narrow J-band survey for Ly-alpha emitting galaxies at z > 7. I will briefly review the pros and cons of narrow band observations before summarising the ZEN1 and ZEN2 searches based upon deep ISAAC pointings. I will then present ZEN3, consisting of wide field, narrow band observations of two fields using the CFHT WIRCam facility. I will conclude by reviewing the current sample of candidates and what we have learned about the z > 7 Ly-alpha emitting population.

  7. Task motivation influences alpha suppression following errors.

    PubMed

    Compton, Rebecca J; Bissey, Bryn; Worby-Selim, Sharoda

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the present research is to examine the influence of motivation on a novel error-related neural marker, error-related alpha suppression (ERAS). Participants completed an attentionally demanding flanker task under conditions that emphasized either speed or accuracy or under conditions that manipulated the monetary value of errors. Conditions in which errors had greater motivational value produced greater ERAS, that is, greater alpha suppression following errors compared to correct trials. A second study found that a manipulation of task difficulty did not affect ERAS. Together, the results confirm that ERAS is both a robust phenomenon and one that is sensitive to motivational factors. PMID:24673621

  8. Signatures for Multi-{alpha}-Condensed States

    SciTech Connect

    Kokalova, Tz.; Wheldon, C.; Itagaki, N.; Oertzen, W. von

    2006-05-19

    An experimental way of testing Bose-Einstein condensation of {alpha} clusters in the atomic nucleus is reported. The enhancement of cluster emission and the multiplicity partition of possible emitted clusters could be direct signatures for the condensed states. The barrier for the emission of clusters, such as {sup 8}Be and {sup 12}C{sup *}(0{sub 2}{sup +}), is calculated and compared with the barrier for the sequential emission of 2 or 3{alpha} particles from the compound nucleus. For the calculations, a simple approach using a folded Woods-Saxon potential is used.

  9. {alpha} Decay of Deformed Actinide Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, T.L.; Kermode, M.W.; Beachey, D.J.; Rowley, N.; Grant, I.S.; Kruppa, A.T.

    1996-07-01

    {alpha} decay through a deformed potential barrier produces significant mixing of angular momenta when mapped from the nuclear interior to the outside. Using experimental branching ratios and either semiclassical or coupled-channels transmission matrices, we have found that there is a set of internal amplitudes which is essentially constant for all even-even actinide nuclei. These same amplitudes also give good results for the known anisotropic {alpha}-particle emission of the favored decays of odd nuclei in the same mass region. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Lunar surface outgassing and alpha particle measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, S. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, David J. ,; Moore, K. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Belian, Richard D.; Binder, Alan B.

    2002-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (LP APS) searched for lunar surface gas release events and mapped their distribution by detecting alpha particle?; produced by the decay of gaseous radon-222 (5.5 MeV, 3.8 day half-life), solid polonium-2 18 (6.0 MeV, 3 minute half-life), and solid polonium-210 (5.3 MeV, 138 day half-life, but held up in production by the 21 year half-life of lead-210). These three nuclides are radioactive daughters from the decay of uranium-238.

  11. Enteric alpha defensins in norm and pathology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Microbes living in the mammalian gut exist in constant contact with immunity system that prevents infection and maintains homeostasis. Enteric alpha defensins play an important role in regulation of bacterial colonization of the gut, as well as in activation of pro- and anti-inflammatory responses of the adaptive immune system cells in lamina propria. This review summarizes currently available data on functions of mammalian enteric alpha defensins in the immune defense and changes in their secretion in intestinal inflammatory diseases and cancer. PMID:22236533

  12. Evaluation of plasma alpha-2-macroglobulin and interactions with tumour necrosis factor-alpha in horses with endotoxemic signs.

    PubMed Central

    Coté, N; Trout, D R; Hayes, A M

    1996-01-01

    The electrophoretic position and behavior of the native and activated forms of equine plasma alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) were characterized and compared to human alpha 2M by nondenaturing polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Plasma alpha 2M was also compared between 6 normal horses and 6 horses with clinical signs of colic and endotoxemia due to volvulus or enteritis. Native and activated forms of alpha 2M were quantified by PAGE and densitometry. Binding of radio-labeled recombinant human tumour necrosis factor-alpha (125I-rhTNF-alpha) to native and activated forms of equine alpha 2M was also evaluated by autoradiography and densitometry of PAGE. Equine plasma alpha 2M migrated as a single band at a position equivalent to native human alpha 2M. Methylamine-reacted equine plasma samples resulted in faster migration of alpha 2M in a similar position to activated human alpha 2M. However, in methylamine-reacted equine plasma, an intermediate alpha 2M band was consistently present between the bands corresponding to native and activated alpha 2M. Amounts of plasma alpha 2M were similar in normal and endotoxemic horses, and remained in the electrophoretically slow or unreacted native form. The vast majority of 125I-rHuTNF-alpha did not bind to alpha 2M or other equine plasma proteins. 125I-rHuTNF-alpha bound weakly to both native and fast methylamine-reacted equine forms of alpha 2M, although binding was better to the activated form. This study indicates that: (1) equine plasma alpha 2M behaves similarly to human alpha 2M on PAGE, (2) plasma alpha 2M of horses can be activated to electrophoretically fast forms, but it is neither activated nor depleted during endotoxemia, and (3) the binding interactions between equine alpha 2M and TNF-alpha are too low to implicate equine alpha 2M as a regulator of TNF-alpha during endotoxemia in horses. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:8785722

  13. Tissue-specific regulation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 phosphorylation by alpha-ketoisocaproate.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Fumiaki; Sekizawa, Haruhito; Hirayama, Sachiyo; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Nagasawa, Takashi; Sugahara, Kunio

    2004-02-01

    The indispensable branched-chain amino acid leucine acts as a key regulator of mRNA translation by modulating the phosphorylation of proteins that represent important control points in translation initiation, including the translational repressor, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1). In the current study, we compared the effects of L- and D-enantiomers of leucine on the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1. We also assessed whether leucine itself or its metabolite, alpha-ketoisocaproate (alpha-KIC), mediates the effects of leucine. Food-deprived (18 h) rats were orally administered 135 mg/100 g body weight L-leucine, D-leucine or alpha-KIC and were sacrificed after 1 h. L-Leucine administration had an obvious stimulatory effect on the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and S6K1 in both skeletal muscle and liver while D-leucine was much less effective, indicating that the effect of leucine is stereospecific. Oral administration of alpha-KIC mimicked the stimulatory effect of L-leucine in skeletal muscle. In contrast to skeletal muscle, provision of alpha-KIC was significantly less effective than L-leucine in the liver. The results showing that the efficacy of L-leucine and alpha-KIC in stimulating phosphorylation of S6K1 and 4E-BP1 is equivalent in skeletal muscle, may be explained by the conversion of alpha-KIC to L-leucine. PMID:15228219

  14. Molecular basis of alpha-thalassemia in Algeria.

    PubMed

    Mesbah-Amroun, Hamida; Rouabhi, Fatiha; Ducrocq, Rolande; Elion, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    An epidemiological molecular study was carried out to evaluate the spectrum and allelic frequency of alpha-thalassemia (alpha-thal) defects in Algeria. A series of 153 randomly selected blood donors was screened for 10 alpha-thal alleles described in the Mediterranean area. In addition, six unrelated cases with hematological and biochemical data suggestive of Hb H disease were investigated. Our data revealed an allele frequency of 4.6%. The presence of alpha(0)-thal determinants (-alpha(20.5) and --MED I) was observed both in Hb H patients and in the randomly collected samples. Overall, the -alpha(3.7) deletion was the most prevalent allele (2.9%), followed by the alpha(Nco I)alpha (HBA2:c.1A>G) allele (0.6%) and by the alpha(Hph I)alpha (HBA2:c.95 + 2_95 + 6delTGAGG), -alpha(20.5), --(MED I) alleles (0.3% each). The -alpha(4.2) deletion was observed in only one Hb H patient. These results outline the heterogeneity of the alpha-thal alleles in Algeria which reflects the anthropological history of the country. Because of their frequency, alpha-thal alleles are probably frequent modulators of prevalent beta-globin gene-related hemoglobinopathies in Algeria. PMID:18473243

  15. Ambient but not incremental oxidant generation effects intercellular adhesion molecule 1 induction by tumour necrosis factor alpha in endothelium.

    PubMed

    Arai, T; Kelly, S A; Brengman, M L; Takano, M; Smith, E H; Goldschmidt-Clermont, P J; Bulkley, G B

    1998-05-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines upregulate endothelial adhesion molecule expression, thereby initiating the microvascular inflammatory response. We re-evaluated the reported role of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs) in signalling upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells by tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in vitro. TNF-alpha upregulation of endothelial-cell ICAM-1 expression was inhibited by the cell-permeable antioxidants, or by the adenovirus-mediated intracellular overexpression of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase, but not by the exogenous (extracellular) administration of the cell-impermeable antioxidants, superoxide dismutase and/or catalase. This ICAM-1 upregulation was also inhibited by inhibitors of NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome bc1 complex and NADPH oxidase. However, a measurable increase in net cellular ROM generation in response to TNF-alpha was not seen using four disparate sensitive ROM assays. Moreover, the stimulation of exogenous or endogenous ROM generation did not upregulate ICAM-1, nor enhance ICAM-1 upregulation by TNF-alpha. These findings suggest that an ambient background flux of ROMs, generated intracellularly, but not their net incremental generation, is necessary for TNF-alpha to induce ICAM-1 expression in endothelium in vitro. PMID:9560314

  16. The role of protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Lahn, Michael M; Sundell, Karen L

    2004-04-01

    In the 1980s, protein kinase C (PKC) was identified as a contributing factor in skin tumorigenesis. As drugs targeting specifically PKC have become available, the intent of this review was to assess the role of PKC, in particular of PKC-alpha in melanoma or other skin cancers. We reviewed and summarized published studies examining the role of PKC-alpha in the development of melanoma or other skin cancers. Most studies to date have been cell-culture based. In models of melanoma, PKC-alpha activation is typically associated with increased tumour cell proliferation, invasiveness and decreased differentiation, suggesting that PKC-alpha inhibitors, such as aprinocarsen, an antisense oligonucleotide directed against PKC-alpha, may be appropriate in the treatment of skin malignancies. Because of the recent developments on selective or specific PKC-alpha inhibitors, including aprinocarsen, there is a growing need to conduct further translational research, especially in melanoma patients, to identify the patient population that might benefit most from PKC-alpha targeted therapy. PMID:15057036

  17. A practical alpha particle irradiator for studying internal alpha particle exposure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Man; Lee, Ui-Seob; Kim, Eun-Hee

    2016-09-01

    An alpha particle irradiator has been built in the Radiation Bioengineering Laboratory at Seoul National University (SNU) to investigate the cellular responses to alpha emissions from radon and the progeny. This irradiator is designed to have the energy of alpha particles entering target cells similar to that of alpha emissions from the radon progeny Po-218 and Po-214 residing in the human respiratory tract. For the SNU alpha particle irradiator, an irradiation system is equipped with cell dishes of 4µm thick Mylar bottom and a special setup of cells on slide for gamma-H2AX assay. Dose calibration for the alpha particle irradiator was performed by dual approaches, detection and computer simulation, in consideration of the source-to-target distance (STD) and the size of a cell dish. The uniformity of dose among cells in a dish is achieved by keeping the STD and the size of cell dish in certain ranges. The performance of the SNU alpha particle irradiator has been proven to be reliable through the gamma-H2AX assay with the human lung epithelial cells irradiated. PMID:27475622

  18. Instrument for measuring total alpha particle energies of alpha emitters in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Brucker, G. J.; Cummings, B.; Bechtel, E.; Gentner, F.; Horne, S.

    2000-11-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and evaluation of a self-reading, carbon fiber, electrometer-type instrument. It is used for measuring the total energy of alpha particles emitted in air by progenies of 222Rn ( 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Bi), and sometimes by other types of alpha emitters (e.g. 212Pb, 238U, and 239Pu). The purpose of these measurements is to assess the energy delivered by alpha emission from these sources to the lung tissue. A sample (charged progenies attached to aerosols) is collected on filter paper from a known volume of air and placed on the instrument. The discharge rate indicates the alpha energy in MeV l -1 of air per min that is produced by the alpha emitters. The calibration procedure shows that the instrument has an energy sensitivity for alpha particles of 800.5 MeV/scale unit. The range of the readout scale is 30 units. Measurements of alpha contamination in air were made using this instrument in buildings, private homes and in a standard chamber. The value of the radon concentration in this chamber is traceable back to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  19. The alpha-form of the hydroxides of bivalent metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feitknecht, W.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray analyses were made of the hydroxides of the bivalent metals. The freshly pptd. hydroxide is usually in the alpha-form, which on standing is converted to another form or other forms. The alpha and c grating dimensions of the alpha-form and the C6-type of Co, Zn, C, Co-Zn and Ni-Zn hydroxides are tabulated. Ni hydroxide does not exhibit an alpha-form. The alpha-Co(OH)2, the blue form, is stabilized by sugar or by the higher alcohols: these compounds do not stabilize alpha-Zn(OH)2.

  20. Determining the alpha dynamo parameter in incompressible homogeneous magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Goldstein, M. L.; Lantz, S. R.

    1983-01-01

    Alpha, an important parameter in dynamo theory, is proportional to either the kinetic, current, magnetic, or velocity helicity of the fluctuating magnetic field and fluctuating velocity field. The particular helicity to which alpha is proportional depends on the assumptions used in deriving the first order smoothed equations that describe the alpha effect. In two cases, when alpha is proportional to either the magnetic helicity or velocity helicity, alpha is determined experimentally from two point measurements of the fluctuating fields in incompressible, homogeneous turbulence having arbitrary symmetry. For the other two possibilities, alpha is determined if the turbulence is isotropic.