Science.gov

Sample records for alpha continuous air

  1. Alpha-environmental continuous air monitor inlet

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2003-01-01

    A wind deceleration and protective shroud that provides representative samples of ambient aerosols to an environmental continuous air monitor (ECAM) has a cylindrical enclosure mounted to an input on the continuous air monitor, the cylindrical enclosure having shrouded nozzles located radially about its periphery. Ambient air flows, often along with rainwater flows into the nozzles in a sampling flow generated by a pump in the continuous air monitor. The sampling flow of air creates a cyclonic flow in the enclosure that flows up through the cylindrical enclosure until the flow of air reaches the top of the cylindrical enclosure and then is directed downward to the continuous air monitor. A sloped platform located inside the cylindrical enclosure supports the nozzles and causes any moisture entering through the nozzle to drain out through the nozzles.

  2. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Gregory K.; Martz, Dowell E.

    1989-01-01

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinguishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts.

  3. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  4. FAST-RESPONSE ISOTOPIC ALPHA CONTINUOUS AIR MONITOR (CAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Keith D. Patch

    2000-04-28

    The objective of this effort is to develop and test a novel Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) instrument for monitoring alpha-emitting radionuclides, using a technology that can be applied to Continuous Emission Monitoring (CEM) of thermal treatment system off gas streams. The CAM instrument will have very high alpha spectral resolution and provide real-time, on-line monitoring suitable for alerting workers of high concentrations of alpha-emitting radionuclides in the ambient air and for improved control of decontamination, dismantlement, and air emission control equipment. Base Phase I involves the design, development, and preliminary testing of a laboratory-scale instrument. Testing will initially be conducted using naturally-occurring radon progeny in ambient air. In the Optional Phase II, the Base Phase I instrument will be critically evaluated at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI) with characterized plutonium aerosols; then an improved instrument will be built and field-tested at a suitable DOE site.

  5. Continuous air monitor for alpha-emitting aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, A.R.; Ortiz, C.A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Rodgers, J.C.; Nelson, D.C. )

    1990-01-01

    A new alpha Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) sampler is being developed for use in detecting the presence of alpha-emitting aerosol particles. The effort involves design, fabrication and evaluation of systems for the collection of aerosol and for the processing of data to speciate and quantify the alpha emitters of interest. At the present time we have a prototype of the aerosol sampling system and we have performed wind tunnel tests to characterize the performance of the device for different particle sizes, wind speeds, flow rates and internal design parameters. The results presented herein deal with the aerosol sampling aspects of the new CAM sampler. Work on the data processing, display and alarm functions is being done in parallel with the particle sampling work and will be reported separately at a later date. 17 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors for detection of airborne sup 239 Pu

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Amaro, C.R.

    1992-07-01

    Results of measurements of the sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu are presented. Four commercially available alpha CAMs (Kurz model 8311, Merlin Gerin Edgar, RADeCO model 452, and Victoreen model 758) and a prototype alpha CAM currently in use at Argonne National Laboratory- West (ANL-W) were tested sampling natural ambient air and laboratory-generated atmospheres laden with either blank dust or dust containing nCi/g concentrations of {sup 239}Pu. Cumulative alpha spectra were stored at 30 or 60 minute intervals during each sampling and were subsequently analyzed using three different commonly used alpha spectrum analysis algorithms. The effect of airborne dust concentration and sample filter porosity on detector resolution and sensitivity for airborne {sup 239}Pu are described.

  7. Sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Amaro, C.R.

    1992-07-01

    Results of measurements of the sensitivities of five alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) for detection of airborne {sup 239}Pu are presented. Four commercially available alpha CAMs (Kurz model 8311, Merlin Gerin Edgar, RADeCO model 452, and Victoreen model 758) and a prototype alpha CAM currently in use at Argonne National Laboratory- West (ANL-W) were tested sampling natural ambient air and laboratory-generated atmospheres laden with either blank dust or dust containing nCi/g concentrations of {sup 239}Pu. Cumulative alpha spectra were stored at 30 or 60 minute intervals during each sampling and were subsequently analyzed using three different commonly used alpha spectrum analysis algorithms. The effect of airborne dust concentration and sample filter porosity on detector resolution and sensitivity for airborne {sup 239}Pu are described.

  8. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T.; Walker, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) performance was evaluated to determine if CAMs could detect accidental releases of transuranic radioactivity from the underground repository. Anomalous alpha spectra and poor background subtraction were observed and attributed to salt deposits on the CAM sampling filters. Microscopic examination of salt laden sampling filters revealed that aerosol particles were forming dendritic structures on the surface of the sampling filters. Alpha CAM detection efficiency decreased exponentially as salt deposits increased on the sampling filters, suggesting that sampling-filter salt was performing like a fibrous filter rather than a membrane filter. Aerosol particles appeared to penetrate the sampling-filter salt deposits and alpha particle energy was reduced. These findings indicate that alpha CAMs may not be able to detect acute releases of radioactivity, and consequently CAMs are not used as part of the WIPP dynamic confinement system. 12 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Calibration and operation of continuous air monitors for alpha-emitting radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.

    1993-12-31

    Spectrometer-based continuous air monitors have improved our capabilities for detecting aerosols of alpha-emitting radionuclides. This paper describes basic requirements and statistical limitations in the sensitivity of alpha continuous air monitors, and presents a technical basis for selecting the energy window for detection of uranium and plutonium aerosols, correcting for interference from airborne dust, selecting filters with low pressure drop and good front surface collection characteristics, and properly using electroplated calibration sources. Sensitivity limits are described for detecting uranium or plutonium aerosols in the presence of increased concentrations of naturally occurring, alpha-emitting radon progeny radionuclides. Decreasing the lower energy boundary of the detection window from 4.3 MeV to 2.7 MeV improves by a factor of three the detection of plutonium in the presence of dust, while causing minimal additional interference from ambient radon progeny. Selection of the Millipore Fluoropore teflon membrane filter reduces both pressure drop and interference from ambient radon progeny by up to a factor of two. Field collection of ambient radon progeny can be used to verify the proper energy of alpha emissions from electroplated calibration sources. In the absence of energy verification, errors in instrument calibration may result from solid state diffusion of the electroplated calibration radionuclide into the substrate plate.

  10. Use of MCNPX for Alpha Spectrometry Simulations of a Continuous Air Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes, Craig Marianno

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the alpha energy spectrum in a Passive Implanted Planar Silicon (PIPS) detector, as modeled by MCNPX [1], can be used to design a radon stripping algorithm for a continuous air monitor (CAM). This stripping algorithm would be employed to discriminate naturally occurring radioisotopes from the anthropogenic for nuclear safety -related applications. It is hoped that using an algorithm based on MCNPX simulations, the CAM will not be prone to false alarms when radon levels are dynamic as identified in other CAM systems [2,3]. This work is focused on the design of the next generation air particulate detector (NGAPD) for the United States Navy. The primary isotope of interest is Co-60. This radionuclide emits a beta with an average energy of 96 keV. Therefore, once deposited on the CAM filter, it will produce a beta continuum seen by the PIPS detector. In addition, as radon progeny is deposited on the air filter, these will give rise to characteristic alpha peaks and a beta continuum. This is primarily an issue in port-or land-based applications. Ultimately, measurement of a radon alpha spectrum is desired to predict the amount of beta activity which would be measured from the radon progeny decay chains. All excess beta activity could then be attributed to anthropogenic sources once the radon progeny contributions have been stripped out.

  11. The influence of salt aerosol on alpha radiation detection by WIPP continuous air monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, W.T.; Walker, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Alpha continuous air monitors (CAMs) will be used at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to measure airborne transuranic radioactivity that might be present in air exhaust or in work-place areas. WIPP CAMs are important to health and safety because they are used to alert workers to airborne radioactivity, to actuate air-effluent filtration systems, and to detect airborne radioactivity so that the radioactivity can be confined in a limited area. In 1993, the Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) reported that CAM operational performance was affected by salt aerosol, and subsequently, the WIPP CAM design and usage were modified. In this report, operational data and current theories on aerosol collection were reviewed to determine CAM quantitative performance limitations. Since 1993, the overall CAM performance appears to have improved, but anomalous alpha spectra are present when sampling-filter salt deposits are at normal to high levels. This report shows that sampling-filter salt deposits directly affect radon-thoron daughter alpha spectra and overall monitor efficiency. Previously it was assumed that aerosol was mechanically collected on the surface of CAM sampling filters, but this review suggests that electrostatic and other particle collection mechanisms are more important than previously thought. The mechanism of sampling-filter particle collection is critical to measurement of acute releases of radioactivity. 41 refs.

  12. A review of acceptance testing of the Los Alamos/Canberra Alpha Sentry Continuous Air Monitor (CAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, J.C.

    1998-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) undertook the design and development of a new generation of alpha continuous air monitor (CAM) instrumentation that would incorporate advanced technologies in the design of the sampling inlet, multi-channel analyzer (MCA) electronics, solid state alpha detectors, radon background interference suppression, background interference compensation and based on spectral analysis, and microcomputer based data communication, processing, storage, and retrieval. The ANSI air monitoring instrument standards (Performance Specifications for Health Physics Instrumentation -- Occupational Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring Instrumentation, N42.17B) specify performance criteria and testing procedures for instruments and instrument systems designed to continuously sample and quantify airborne radioactivity in the workplace. Although the intent of the standard is to provide performance testing criteria for type testing, it is appropriate to evaluate the performance of a new instrument such as the Alpha Sentry against certain of these criteria for purposes of an acceptance test based on stated specifications and the Los Alamos CAM Requirements document. This report provides an overview of the results of these tests, as they pertain to instruments designed to detect alpha-emitting radionuclides in particulate form.

  13. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  14. Identification of a major continuous epitope of human alpha crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takemoto, L.; Emmons, T.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Human lens proteins were digested with trypsin or V8 protease, and the resulting peptides resolved on a C18 reverse phase column. Fractions from this column were probed with polyclonal antiserum made against the whole alpha crystallin molecule. Peptides in the seropositive fraction were purified to homogeneity, then characterized by mass spectral analysis and partial Edman degradation. The tryptic and V8 digests contained only one seropositive peptide that was derived from the C-terminal region of the alpha-A molecule. To determine the exact boundaries of the epitope, various size analogues of this region were synthesized and probed with anti-alpha serum. Together, these studies demonstrate that the major continuous epitope of the alpha-A chain includes the sequence KPTSAPS, corresponding to residues 166-172 of the human alpha-A crystallin chain.

  15. Instrument for measuring total alpha particle energies of alpha emitters in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Brucker, G. J.; Cummings, B.; Bechtel, E.; Gentner, F.; Horne, S.

    2000-11-01

    This paper describes the design, fabrication, testing and evaluation of a self-reading, carbon fiber, electrometer-type instrument. It is used for measuring the total energy of alpha particles emitted in air by progenies of 222Rn ( 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Bi), and sometimes by other types of alpha emitters (e.g. 212Pb, 238U, and 239Pu). The purpose of these measurements is to assess the energy delivered by alpha emission from these sources to the lung tissue. A sample (charged progenies attached to aerosols) is collected on filter paper from a known volume of air and placed on the instrument. The discharge rate indicates the alpha energy in MeV l -1 of air per min that is produced by the alpha emitters. The calibration procedure shows that the instrument has an energy sensitivity for alpha particles of 800.5 MeV/scale unit. The range of the readout scale is 30 units. Measurements of alpha contamination in air were made using this instrument in buildings, private homes and in a standard chamber. The value of the radon concentration in this chamber is traceable back to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

  16. Continuous air monitor filter changeout apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2008-07-15

    An apparatus and corresponding method for automatically changing out a filter cartridge in a continuous air monitor. The apparatus includes: a first container sized to hold filter cartridge replacements; a second container sized to hold used filter cartridges; a transport insert connectively attached to the first and second containers; a shuttle block, sized to hold the filter cartridges that is located within the transport insert; a transport driver mechanism means used to supply a motive force to move the shuttle block within the transport insert; and, a control means for operating the transport driver mechanism.

  17. Gross Alpha Beta Radioactivity in Air Filters Measured by Ultra Low Level alpha/beta Counter

    SciTech Connect

    Cfarku, Florinda; Bylyku, Elida; Bakiu, Erjona; Perpunja, Flamur; Deda, Antoneta; Dhoqina, Polikron

    2010-01-21

    Study of radioactivity in air as very important for life is done regularly using different methods in every country. As a result of nuclear reactors, atomic centrals, institutions and laboratories, which use the radioactivity substances in open or closed sources, there are a lot radioactive wastes. Mixing of these wastes after treatment with rivers and lakes waters makes very important control of radioactivity. At the other side nuclear and radiological accidents are another source of the contamination of air and water. Due to their radio toxicity, especially those of Sr{sup 90}, Pu{sup 239}, etc. a contamination hazard for human begins exist even at low concentration levels. Measurements of radioactivity in air have been performed in many parts of the world mostly for assessment of the doses and risk resulting from consuming air. In this study we present the results of international comparison organized by IAEA Vienna, Austria for the air filters spiked with unknown Alpha and Beta Activity. For the calibration of system we used the same filters spiked: a) with Pu-239 as alpha source; b) Sr-90 as beta source and also the blank filter. The measurements of air filter samples after calibration of the system are done with Ultra Low Level alpha/beta Counter (MPC 9604) Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the system for the determination of the Gross Alpha and Beta activity makes sure detection of low values activity of air filters. Our laboratory results are: Aalpha = (0.19+-0.01) Bq/filter and Aalpha(IAEA) = (0.17+-0.009) Bq/filter; A{sub b}eta = (0.33+-0.009) Bq/filter and A{sub b}eta (IAEA) = (0.29+-0.01) Bq/filter. As it seems our results are in good agreement with reference values given by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency).

  18. Continuous Air Monitor Operating Experience Review

    SciTech Connect

    L. C. Cadwallader; S. A. Bruyere

    2008-09-01

    Continuous air monitors (CAMs) are used to sense radioactive particulates in room air of nuclear facilities. CAMs alert personnel of potential inhalation exposures to radionuclides and can also actuate room ventilation isolation for public and environmental protection. This paper presents the results of a CAM operating experience review of the DOE Occurrence Reporting and Processing System (ORPS) database from the past 18 years. Regulations regarding these monitors are briefly reviewed. CAM location selection and operation are briefly discussed. Operating experiences reported by the U.S. Department of Energy and in other literature sources were reviewed to determine the strengths and weaknesses of these monitors. Power losses, human errors, and mechanical issues cause the majority of failures. The average “all modes” failure rate is 2.65E-05/hr. Repair time estimates vary from an average repair time of 9 hours (with spare parts on hand) to 252 hours (without spare parts on hand). These data should support the use of CAMs in any nuclear facility, including the National Ignition Facility and the international ITER experiment.

  19. Clean air land mine: Continuous monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.P. ); Mitnick, S.A. )

    1992-12-01

    When the Clean Air Act Amendments were enacted, many observers expected the new law to usher in a futuristic system of environmental control cum economic incentives. This has yet to materialize. However, the legislation has brought in an entirely different new environmental order-rigid emissions accounting, down to each operating hour. In many respects, EPA regulation of fossil plant operations is coming more to resemble the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory model for nuclear plant operations, where regulation of process and procedure is at least as important as substance. The final continuous emission monitoring (CEM) rules, which were enacted as part of the Acid Rain Program, are perhaps the best evidence of this evolution. There can be no denying that the CEM rules are a prosecutor's dream. Not only must the industry comply with the law, but it must go to heroic efforts to make affirmative proof of compliance. The final CEM rules are a serious matter requiring the immediate attention of the electric utility industry.

  20. Mathematical model of an air-filled alpha stirling refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, Patrick; Semperlotti, Fabio; Sen, Mihir

    2013-10-01

    This work develops a mathematical model for an alpha Stirling refrigerator with air as the working fluid and will be useful in optimizing the mechanical design of these machines. Two pistons cyclically compress and expand air while moving sinusoidally in separate chambers connected by a regenerator, thus creating a temperature difference across the system. A complete non-linear mathematical model of the machine, including air thermodynamics, and heat transfer from the walls, as well as heat transfer and fluid resistance in the regenerator, is developed. Non-dimensional groups are derived, and the mathematical model is numerically solved. The heat transfer and work are found for both chambers, and the coefficient of performance of each chamber is calculated. Important design parameters are varied and their effect on refrigerator performance determined. This sensitivity analysis, which shows what the significant parameters are, is a useful tool for the design of practical Stirling refrigeration systems.

  1. A Novel Experiment to Investigate the Attenuation of Alpha Particles in Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, D. G. H.

    2008-01-01

    A simple student experiment investigating dependence on air pressure of the attenuation of alpha particles in air is described. An equation giving the pressure needed to absorb all alpha particles of a given energy is derived from the Bethe-Bloch formula. Results are presented for the attenuation of alpha particles from americium 241 and radium…

  2. CONTINUOUS AIR POLLUTION SOURCE MONITORING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This handbook provides the eetailed information necessary to develop a continuous emissions monitoring program at a stationary source facility. Federal and State EPA requirements are given, including design and performance specifications and monitoring and date reporting requirem...

  3. Rapid monitoring of soil, water, and air dusts by direct large-area alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sill, C W

    1995-07-01

    During retrieval and disposition of wastes containing transuranium elements, continuous monitoring of the air, water, and soil for alpha emitters was required to ensure that safety limits were not exceeded and that the waste itself was not disturbed unknowingly. Direct measurements by alpha spectrometry were particularly promising because of their potential speed, sensitivity, and their ability to identify transuranium radionuclides under field conditions. Soil samples or settled dusts were finely ground, suspended in 80% ethanol, sprayed onto circular stainless steel pans, and dried on a hotplate. Water samples were mounted directly by spraying. Air dusts were collected with a high-volume air sampler on 20- by 25-cm membrane filters. The samples were then analyzed directly in a large pressurized gridded ionization chamber without further sample preparation. The lower limits of detection for 10-min counting times were 1.5 Bq g-1 (40 pCi g-1) for 100-mg soil samples, and 4 x 10(-2) Bq m-3 (10(-12) microCi mL-1) for a 10-min air sample taken at 0.4 m3 min-1 (14 cubic feet per minute) and counted without waiting for decay of radon progeny. PMID:7790211

  4. A continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, D.P.; Zamzow, D.S.; Eckels, D.E.; Miller, G.P.

    1999-09-19

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)--echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  5. Continuous sampling air-ICP for metals emission monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, David P.; Zamzow, Daniel S.; Eckels, David E.; Miller, George P.

    1999-12-01

    An air-inductively coupled plasma (air-ICP) system has been developed for continuous sampling and monitoring of metals as a continuous emission monitor (CEM). The plasma is contained in a metal enclosure to allow reduced-pressure operation. The enclosure and plasma are operated at a pressure slightly less than atmospheric using a Roots blower, so that sample gas is continuously drawn into the plasma. A Teflon sampling chamber, equipped with a sampling pump, is connected to the stack that is to be monitored to isokinetically sample gas from the exhaust line and introduce the sample into the air-ICP. Optical emission from metals in the sampled gas stream is detected and monitored using an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-echelle spectrometer system. A description of the continuous sampling air-ICP system is given, along with some preliminary laboratory data for continuous monitoring of metals.

  6. Calculating alpha Eigenvalues in a Continuous-Energy Infinite Medium with Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Betzler, Benjamin R.; Kiedrowski, Brian C.; Brown, Forrest B.; Martin, William R.

    2012-09-04

    The {alpha} eigenvalue has implications for time-dependent problems where the system is sub- or supercritical. We present methods and results from calculating the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum for a continuous-energy infinite medium with a simplified Monte Carlo transport code. We formulate the {alpha}-eigenvalue problem, detail the Monte Carlo code physics, and provide verification and results. We have a method for calculating the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum in a continuous-energy infinite-medium. The continuous-time Markov process described by the transition rate matrix provides a way of obtaining the {alpha}-eigenvalue spectrum and kinetic modes. These are useful for the approximation of the time dependence of the system.

  7. Continuous emission monitoring of metal aerosol concentrations in atmospheric air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Anne-Marie; Sarrette, Jean-Philippe; Madon, Lydie; Almi, Abdenbi

    1996-11-01

    Improvements of an apparatus for continuous emission monitoring (CEM) by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) of metal aerosols in air are described. The method simultaneously offers low operating costs, large volume of tested air for valuable sampling and avoids supplementary contamination or keeping of the air pollutant concentrations. Questions related to detection and calibration are discussed. The detection limits (DL) obtained for the eight pollutants studied are lower than the recommended threshold limit values (TLV) and as satisfactory as the results obtained with other CEM methods involving air-argon plasmas.

  8. FINAL REPORT. INVESTIGATIONS OF TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE CONTINUOUS AIR MONITORS UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH DUST LOADING IN ENVIRONMENTAL SETTINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective was to carry out studies to improve the detection of plutonium aerosols by environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs), particularly in dusty environments. A number of alpha-particle ECAMs are used at DOE sites such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL)...

  9. INVESTIGATION OF TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE CONTINUOUS AIR MONITORS UNDER CONDITIONS OF HIGH DUST LOADING IN ENVIRONMENTAL SETTINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigation is an in-depth exploration of environmental influences that can cause degradation of the performance (sensitivity, alarm functionality, etc.) of Continuous Air Monitors (CAMs), such as the LANL/Canberra alpha-particle CAM, and a study of techniques to correct fo...

  10. Early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung:

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, B.R.; Hahn, F.F.; Snipes, M.B.; Newton, G.J.; Eidson, A.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Boecker, B.B.

    1988-03-01

    This report summarizes an inhalation exposure experiment that concerns early and continuing effects of combined alpha and beta irradiation of the lung of rats. Both morbidity at 18 months and mortality within 18 months after exposure were examined for rats exposed to the beta-emitter /sup 147/Pm, the alpha-emitter /sup 238/Pu, or both combined. The results were used to validate hazard-function models that were developed (1)for pulmonary functional morbidity at 18 months and (2) for lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis within 18 months. Both models were found to adequately predict the experimental observations after combined chronic alpha and beta irradiation of the lung. A relative biological effectiveness of approximately 7 was obtained for /sup 238/Pu alpha radiation compared to /sup 147/Pm beta radiation for both pulmonary functional morbidity and lethality from radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis. 12 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs.

  11. Determination of human EEG alpha entrainment ERD/ERS using the continuous complex wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorlian, David B.; Porjesz, Bernice; Begleiter, Henri

    2003-04-01

    Alpha entrainment caused by exposure to a background stimulus continuously flickering at a rate of 8 1/3 Hz was affected by the appearance of a foreground target stimulus to which the subjects were requested to press a button. With the use of bipolar derivations (to reduce volume conduction effects), scalp recorded EEG potentials were subjected to a continuous wavelet transform using complex Morlet wavelets at a range of scales. Complex Morlet wavelets were used to calculate efficiently instantaneous amplitudes and phases on a per-trial basis, rather than using the Hilbert transform on band-pass filtered data. Multiple scales were employed to contrast the pattern of alpha activity with those in other bands, and to determine whether the harmonics observed in the spectral analysis of the data were simply a result of the non-sinusoidal response to the entraining signal or a distinct neural phenomenon. We were thus able to calculate desynchronization/resynchronization for both the entrained and non-entrained alpha activity. The occurance of the target stimulus caused a sharp increase in amplitude in both the entrained and non-entrained alpha activity, followed by a sharp decrease, and then a return to baseline, over a period of 2.5 seconds. However, the entrained alpha activity showed a much more rapid recovery than non-entrained activity.

  12. Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation

    DOEpatents

    Gray, McMahon L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Finseth, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

  13. Continuous air Agglomeration Method for high Carbon fly ash Beneficiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, McMahan L.; Champagne, Kenneth J.; Finseth, Dennis H.

    1998-09-29

    The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carbon-free mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

  14. Continuous measurement of gaseous pollutants in Buenos Aires city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogo, Horacio; Martín Negri, R.; San Román, Enrique

    Data on CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3 concentrations measured in Buenos Aires city using a continuous monitoring station are reported. This is the first systematic study of this kind carried out in the city, which is, together with its surroundings, the third more populated in Latin America. Measurements were performed during 12 months in one of the principal avenues near downtown. Results indicate that vehicular traffic is the principal source of CO and NO x. The concentration of O 3 is generally quite low and results from the mixing of clean air masses with exhaust gases containing high amounts of NO. The monthly averages of CO and NO decrease from Winter to Summer in correlation with the increase of the mean wind speed and average temperature. These results are compared with previous measurements on the spatial distribution of NO 2 in the whole city using passive diffusion tubes and with the concentration of CO, which is being continuously registered since several years in the downtown area. Measurements performed at a green, windy, low traffic area beneath the La Plata river are also shown.

  15. Continuous infusion of 5-fluorouracil with alpha 2b interferon for advanced colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, J. E.; Hulse, P.; Lorigan, P.; Jayson, G.; Scarffe, J. H.

    1995-01-01

    Thirty patients with symptomatic colorectal carcinoma were commenced on treatment with 5-fluorouracil (2.5 g week-1) administered by continuous intravenous infusion and alpha 2b interferon (3 x 10(6) U s.c. three times a week). Six out of 30 patients (20%) achieved a partial response. Three patients (10%) had stable disease and 21 patients (70%) progressed on treatment. Twenty patients (67%) completed ten or more weeks of treatment. In nine patients, treatment was withdrawn after 2-9 weeks because of disease progression or death. One patient's treatment was interrupted by emergency surgery. The median survival for all patients was 210 days (7 months). The principal side-effects were oral mucositis (12/30 patients), nausea (8/30 patients) and transient diarrhoea (4/30 patients), and initial constitutional symptoms due to alpha 2b interferon. The combination of low-dose continuous infusional 5-fluorouracil and low-dose alpha 2b interferon is well tolerated but has no obvious advantage over alternative infusional regimens using 5-fluorouracil as a single agent. PMID:7599051

  16. Gross Alpha Beta Radioactivity in Air Filters Measured by Ultra Low Level α/β Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cfarku, Florinda; Bylyku, Elida; Deda, Antoneta; Dhoqina, Polikron; Bakiu, Erjona; Perpunja, Flamur

    2010-01-01

    Study of radioactivity in air as very important for life is done regularly using different methods in every country. As a result of nuclear reactors, atomic centrals, institutions and laboratories, which use the radioactivity substances in open or closed sources, there are a lot radioactive wastes. Mixing of these wastes after treatment with rivers and lakes waters makes very important control of radioactivity. At the other side nuclear and radiological accidents are another source of the contamination of air and water. Due to their radio toxicity, especially those of Sr90, Pu239, etc. a contamination hazard for human begins exist even at low concentration levels. Measurements of radioactivity in air have been performed in many parts of the world mostly for assessment of the doses and risk resulting from consuming air. In this study we present the results of international comparison organized by IAEA Vienna, Austria for the air filters spiked with unknown Alpha and Beta Activity. For the calibration of system we used the same filters spiked: a) with Pu-239 as alpha source; b) Sr-90 as beta source and also the blank filter. The measurements of air filter samples after calibration of the system are done with Ultra Low Level α/β Counter (MPC 9604) Protean Instrument Corporation. The high sensitivity of the system for the determination of the Gross Alpha and Beta activity makes sure detection of low values activity of air filters. Our laboratory results are: Aα = (0.19±0.01) Bq/filter and Aα (IAEA) = (0.17±0.009) Bq/filter; Aβ = (0.33±0.009) Bq/filter and Aβ (IAEA) = (0.29±0.01) Bq/filter. As it seems our results are in good agreement with reference values given by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency).

  17. The TOMPs ambient air monitoring network - Continuous data on UK air quality for over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Graf, Carola; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    Long-term air monitoring datasets are needed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to assess the effectiveness of source abatement measures and the factors controlling ambient levels. The Toxic Organic Micro Pollutants (TOMPs) Network, which has operated since 1991, collects ambient air samples at six sites across England and Scotland, using high-volume active air samplers. The network provides long-term ambient air trend data for a range of POPs at both urban and rural locations. Data from the network provides the UK Government, regulators and researchers with valuable information on emission/source controls and on the effectiveness of international chemicals regulation such as the Stockholm Convention and UN/ECE Protocol on POPs. The target chemicals of TOMPs have been polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and, since 2010, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The continuous monitoring of these compounds demonstrates the constant decline in UK air concentrations over the last two decades, with average clearance rates for PCDD/Fs in urban locations of 5.1 years and for PCBs across all sites 6.6 years. No significant declines in rural locations for PCDD/Fs have been observed. There is a strong observable link between the declining ambient air concentrations and the emission reductions estimated in the annually produced National Atmospheric Emission Inventory (NAEI) dataset. These findings clearly demonstrate the unique strengths of long-term consistent datasets for the evaluation of the success of chemical regulation and control. PMID:26843028

  18. Rapid monitoring of soil, smears, and air dusts by direct large-area alpha spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sill, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental conditions to permit rapid monitoring of soils, smears, and air dusts for transuranic (TRU) radionuclides under field conditions are described. The monitoring technique involves direct measurement of alpha emitters by alpha spectrometry using a large-area detector to identify and quantify the radionuclides present. The direct alpha spectrometry employs a circular gridded ionization chamber 35 cm in diameter which accommodates either a circular sample holder 25 cm in diameter or a rectangular one 20 by 25 cm (8 by 10 in.). Soils or settled dusts are finely ground, suspended in 30% ethanol, and sprayed onto a 25-cm stainless steel dish. Air dusts are collected with a high-volume sampler onto 20- by 25-cm membrane filters. Removable contamination is collected from surfaces onto a 20- by 25-cm filter using an 18-cm (7-in.) paint roller to hold the large filter in contact with the surface during sample collection. All three types of samples are then counted directly in the alpha spectrometer and no other sample preparation is necessary. Some results obtained are described.

  19. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.148 Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous... pressure at any point in the supply system exceeds 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage),...

  20. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.148 Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous... pressure at any point in the supply system exceeds 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage),...

  1. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.148 Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous... pressure at any point in the supply system exceeds 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage),...

  2. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.148 Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous... pressure at any point in the supply system exceeds 863 kN/m.2 (125 pounds per square inch gage),...

  3. Comparison of Ambient Radon Concentrations in Air in the Northern Mojave Desert from Continuous and Integrating Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    David S. Shafer; David McGraw; Lynn H. Karr; Greg McCurdy; Tammy L. Kluesner; Karen J. Gray; Jeffrey Tappen

    2010-05-18

    As part of a program to characterize and baseline environmental parameters, ambient radon-222 (Rn) monitoring was conducted in the rural community of Amargosa Valley, NV, the closest community to Yucca Mountain. Passive integrating and continuous Rn monitoring instruments were deployed adjacent to the Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) station in Amargosa Valley. The CEMP station provided real-time ambient gamma exposure and meteorological data used to correct the integrated Rn measurements, verified the meteorological data collected by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument, and for provided instrumentation for evaluating the relationships between meteorological conditions and Rn concentrations. Hourly Rn concentrations in air measured by the continuous Rn monitoring instrument (AlphaGUARD®) were compared to the average hourly values for the integrating Rn measurements (E-PERM®) by dividing the total Rn measurements by the number of hours the instruments were deployed. The results of the comparison indicated that average hourly ambient Rn concentrations as measured by both methods ranged from 0.2 to 0.4 pico-curies per liter of air. Ambient Rn values for the AlphaGUARD exhibited diurnal variations. When Rn concentrations were compared with measurements of temperature (T), barometric pressure, and relative humidity, the correlation (inversely) was highest with T, albeit weakly.

  4. Alpha image reconstruction (AIR): A new iterative CT image reconstruction approach using voxel-wise alpha blending

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, Christian; Sawall, Stefan; Knaup, Michael; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Iterative image reconstruction gains more and more interest in clinical routine, as it promises to reduce image noise (and thereby patient dose), to reduce artifacts, or to improve spatial resolution. Among vendors and researchers, however, there is no consensus of how to best achieve these aims. The general approach is to incorporatea priori knowledge into iterative image reconstruction, for example, by adding additional constraints to the cost function, which penalize variations between neighboring voxels. However, this approach to regularization in general poses a resolution noise trade-off because the stronger the regularization, and thus the noise reduction, the stronger the loss of spatial resolution and thus loss of anatomical detail. The authors propose a method which tries to improve this trade-off. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is called alpha image reconstruction (AIR). One starts with generating basis images, which emphasize certain desired image properties, like high resolution or low noise. The AIR algorithm reconstructs voxel-specific weighting coefficients that are applied to combine the basis images. By combining the desired properties of each basis image, one can generate an image with lower noise and maintained high contrast resolution thus improving the resolution noise trade-off. Methods: All simulations and reconstructions are performed in native fan-beam geometry. A water phantom with resolution bar patterns and low contrast disks is simulated. A filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction with a Ram-Lak kernel is used as a reference reconstruction. The results of AIR are compared against the FBP results and against a penalized weighted least squares reconstruction which uses total variation as regularization. The simulations are based on the geometry of the Siemens Somatom Definition Flash scanner. To quantitatively assess image quality, the authors analyze line profiles through resolution patterns to define a contrast

  5. Continuous Quantitative Measurements on a Linear Air Track

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Eric

    1973-01-01

    Describes the construction and operational procedures of a spark-timing apparatus which is designed to record the back and forth motion of one or two carts on linear air tracks. Applications to measurements of velocity, acceleration, simple harmonic motion, and collision problems are illustrated. (CC)

  6. Test/QA Plan (TQAP) for Verification of Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the semi-continuous ambient air monitoring technology (or MARGA) test and quality assurance plan is to specify procedures for a verification test applicable to commercial semi-continuous ambient air monitoring technologies. The purpose of the verification test is ...

  7. Environmental Technology Verification Report for Applikon MARGA Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The verification test was conducted oer a period of 30 days (October 1 to October 31, 2008) and involved the continuous operation of duplicate semi-continuous monitoring technologies at the Burdens Creek Air Monitoring Site, an existing ambient-air monitoring station located near...

  8. Continuous ECG monitoring on civil air crews during flight operations.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, C; Yamaguchi, O; Kitajima, T; Ueda, Y

    1977-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is one of the disorders resulting in sudden incapacitation and is the most common malady leading to medical retirement. It is very important for us to control this disease among pilots. Generally, pilots undergo medical checkups at health control service on the ground, but they do not undergo these checkups during flight operations. We obtained a continuous ECG recording on four pilots to assess cardiac reserve capacity for mental load during flight operation. Results show that no significant ischemic changes of ST-segment and T-wave during flight were noticed except in one case of atrial fibrillation in which significant depression of ST-segment occurred while walking up a stairway after flight. An increased number of ectopic beats was found in another normal case. In general, it was suspected that mental load is greater at landing than takeoff. PMID:907598

  9. Indicator providing continuous indication of the presence of a specific pollutant in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Bartera, R. E. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A continuous HCl in-air indicator was developed which consists of a tube-like element with an inlet end through which a continuous stream of air containing HCl enters. The air flows downstream from the inlet end and exits the element's outlet end. Positioned between the element's inlet and outlet ends are first and second spaced apart photoelectric units, which are preferably positioned adjacent the inlet and outlet ends, respectively. Ammonia gas is injected into the air, flowing through the element, at a position between the two photoelectric units. The ammonia gas reacts with the HCl in the air to form ammonium chloride particles. The difference between the outputs of the two photoelectric units is an indication of the amount of HCl in the air stream.

  10. Influence of environmental factors and air composition on the emission of {alpha}-pinene from Quercus ilex leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Loreto, F.; Tricoli, D.; Ciccioli, P.

    1996-01-01

    We studied the emission of {alpha}-pinene from Quercus ilex leaves. Only the abaxial side of the hypostomatous Q. ilex leaf emits {alpha}-pinene. Light induced photosynthesis and {alpha}-pinene emission. However, the response of photosynthesis to dark-to-light transitions was faster than that of {alpha}-pinene, suggesting that ATP controls the emission. The emission was higher at 30 than at 20{degrees}C, whereas photosynthesis did not change. Therefore, the relationship between photosynthesis and {alpha}-pinene emission does not always hold. When CO{sub 2} was removed from the air, transpiration was stimulated and transpiration was reduced, but {alpha}-pinene emission was unaffected. Therefore, the emission depends on the availability of photosynthetic carbon, is not saturated at ambient CO{sub 2}, and is not dependent on stomatal opening. The pattern of {alpha}-pinene emission from Q. ilex is different from that of plants having specialized structures for storage and emission of terpenes. We suggest that {alpha}-pinene emitted by Q. ilex leaves is synthesized in the chloroplasts and shares the same biochemical pathway with isoprene emitted by isoprene-emitting oak species. 28 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Field estimates of polyurethane foam - air partition coefficients for hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and bromoanisoles.

    PubMed

    Bidleman, Terry F; Nygren, Olle; Tysklind, Mats

    2016-09-01

    Partition coefficients of gaseous semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between polyurethane foam (PUF) and air (KPA) are needed in the estimation of sampling rates for PUF disk passive air samplers. We determined KPA in field experiments by conducting long-term (24-48 h) air sampling to saturate PUF traps and shorter runs (2-4 h) to measure air concentrations. Sampling events were done at daily mean temperatures ranging from 1.9 to 17.5 °C. Target compounds were hexachlorobenzene (HCB), alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), 2,4-dibromoanisole (2,4-DiBA) and 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (2,4,6-TriBA). KPA (mL g(-1)) was calculated from quantities on the PUF traps at saturation (ng g(-1)) divided by air concentrations (ng mL(-1)). Enthalpies of PUF-to-air transfer (ΔHPA, kJ mol(-1)) were determined from the slopes of log KPA/mL g(-1) versus 1/T(K) for HCB and the bromoanisoles, KPA of α-HCH was measured only at 14.3 to 17.5 °C and ΔHPA was not determined. Experimental log KPA/mL g(-1) at 15 °C were HCB = 7.37; α-HCH = 8.08; 2,4-DiBA = 7.26 and 2,4,6-TriBA = 7.26. Experimental log KPA/mL g(-1) were compared with predictions based on an octanol-air partition coefficient (log KOA) model (Shoeib and Harner, 2002a) and a polyparameter linear free relationship (pp-LFER) model (Kamprad and Goss, 2007) using different sets of solute parameters. Predicted KP values varied by factors of 3 to over 30, depending on the compound and the model. Such discrepancies provide incentive for experimental measurements of KPA for other SVOCs. PMID:27285381

  12. Sizing alpha emitting particles of aged plutonium on personal air sampler filters using CR-39 autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Richardson, R B; Hegyi, G; Starling, S C

    2003-01-01

    Methods have been developed to assess the size distribution of alpha emitting particles of reactor fuel of known composition captured on air sampler filters. The sizes of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide particles were determined using a system based on CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors. The CR-39 plastic was exposed to the deposited particles across a 400 microm airgap. The exposed CR-39 was chemically etched to reveal clusters of tracks radially dispersed from central points. The number and location of the tracks were determined using an optical microscope with an XY motorised table and image analysis software. The sample mounting arrangement allowed individual particles to be simultaneously viewed with their respective track cluster. The predicted diameters correlated with the actual particle diameters, as measured using the optical microscope. The efficacy of the technique was demonstrated with particles of natural uranium oxide (natUO2) of known size, ranging from 4 to 150 microm in diameter. Two personal air sampler (PAS) filters contaminated with actinide particles were placed against CR-39 and estimated to have size distributions of 0.8 and 1.0 microm activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). PMID:14526944

  13. Investigation of techniques to improve continuous air monitors under conditions of high dust loading in environmental setting. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Schery, S.D.; Wasiolek, P.T.; Rodgers, J.

    1998-06-01

    'Improvement in understanding of the deposition of ambient dust particles on ECAM (Environmental Continuous Air Monitor) filters, reduction of the alpha-particle interference of radon progeny and other radioactive aerosols in different particle size ranges on filters, and development of ECAM''s with increased sensitivity under dusty outdoor conditions. As of May 1, 1998 (1/2 year into the project) the research-prototype 30-cm pulsed ionization chamber (PIC) is assembled and operational with an alpha particle energy resolution of better than 45 keV for 5-MeV alpha particles. Measurements of spectral resolution for alpha particles from radon decay products have been made as a function of filter type and dust loading conditions. So far, a study of ten filter types has found that the best combination of resolution and throughput is obtained with 3.0 \\265m Millipore fluoropore and 1.0 \\265m Corning FNMB filters. Experiments with gypsum and Portland cement dust in the size range 1 to 20 \\265m indicate significant degradation in alpha particle resolution for dust loading above about 0.5 mg cm{sup -2}. Study of metalized films for possible use as a PIC window indicate a minimum broadening of 5-MeV alpha particle peaks from 43 (no film) to 301 keV (with film) for AVR film type B8 (0.20 mg cm{sup -2} polycarbonate). A modified ECAM sampling head, equipped with an optical microscopy system feeding data to a high resolution video data capture and logging instrument, was constructed. This system will enable time-lapse study of dust build-up on ECAM filters and formation of dendrite structures that can reduce alpha-particle resolution.'

  14. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. 84.155 Section... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type... shall not exceed 25 mm. (1 inch) of water-column height when the air flow into the...

  15. 42 CFR 84.155 - Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirator; minimum requirements. 84.155 Section... Respirators § 84.155 Airflow resistance test; Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class and...

  16. Investigation of Techniques to Improve Continuous Air Monitors Under Conditions of High Dust Loading in Environmental Settings

    SciTech Connect

    Suilou Huang; Stephen D. Schery; John C. Rodgers

    2002-07-23

    A number of DOE facilities, such as the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), use alpha-particle environmental continuous air monitors (ECAMs) to monitor air for unwanted releases of radioactive aerosols containing such materials as plutonium and uranium. High sensitivity, ease of operation, and lack of false alarms are all important for ECAMs. The object of the project was to conduct investigations to improve operation of ECAMs, particularly under conditions where a lot of nonradioactive dust may be deposited on the filters (conditions of high dust loading). The presence of such dust may increase the frequency with which filters must be changed and can lead to an increased incidence of false alarms due to deteriorated energy resolution and response specificity to the radionuclides of interest. A major finding of the investigation, not previously documented, was that under many conditions thick layers of underlying nonradioactive dust do not decrease energy resolution and specificity for target radionuclides if the radioactive aerosol arrives as a sudden thin burst deposit, as commonly occurs in the early-warning alarm mode. As a result, operators of ECAMs may not need to change filters as often as previously thought and have data upon which to base more reliable operating procedures.

  17. Test/QA Plan for Verification of Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Systems - Second Round

    EPA Science Inventory

    Test/QA Plan for Verification of Semi-Continuous Ambient Air Monitoring Systems - Second Round. Changes reflect performance of second round of testing at new location and with various changes to personnel. Additional changes reflect general improvements to the Version 1 test/QA...

  18. 42 CFR 84.148 - Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type C supplied-air respirator, continuous flow class; minimum requirements. 84.148 Section 84.148 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  19. Continuous atomic spectrometric measurement of ambient levels of sulfur dioxide in air by mercury displacement detection

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, G.; Midgley, D.

    1982-08-01

    The analytical atomic spectrometric technique of mercury displacement detection has been adapted so that sulfur dioxide can be determined at natural background levels in ambient air on a continuous basis with a 90% response time of 1-2 min. Sample air is drawn into the reaction vessel containing mercury (I) ion reagent and any sulfur dioxide present reacts to form elemental mercury which is measured, after being swept out of the solution by the same flow of sample air, by a mercury vapor detector. Reagent is continuously pumped through the analyzer and the instrument is calibrated with a permeation tube calibrator. The apparatus has a linear concentration range up to 100 ppB sulfur dioxide; this is much lower than can be obtained with existing commerical instruments. The apparatus is very precise and 6, 11, and 20 ppB sulfur dioxide can be measured with coefficients of variation of 1-2%.

  20. TNF-alpha antagonism and cancer risk in rheumatoid arthritis: is continued vigilance warranted?

    PubMed

    Park, Hyon Ju; Ranganathan, Prabha

    2012-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory arthritis that can lead to significant damage and dysfunction of involved joints. Prior to 1998, treatment options were limited to disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, commonly referred to as DMARDs like methotrexate, sulfasalazine, hydroxychloroquine, and gold salts. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a central cytokine that drives the inflammation in RA; hence inhibition of TNF-α offers an attractive treatment strategy in RA. The introduction of TNF-α inhibitors, a class of biologic DMARDs, has dramatically changed the treatment of RA as these are highly effective therapies. Medication-related adverse events remain a major problem in health care. This is true of the TNF-α antagonists as well, with particular concerns about increased risks of infections and malignancy. Because clinical trials performed prior to medication approval are limited by the number and clinical complexity of participants and the duration of the trials, post-marketing surveillance is critical in identifying adverse events. In order to better clarify the safety issues related to the use of TNF-α inhibitors in RA, several studies using large observational registries along with pooled meta-analyses of these studies have been published. This review will summarize the data from these recent studies on the question of malignancy risk associated with TNF-α inhibitor use in RA. It is comforting that the data from these studies do not support an increased risk of cancer, except non-melanoma skin cancer, with the use of TNF-α antagonists in adults with RA. PMID:22463799

  1. Optimization of the performance of a thermophilic biotrickling filter for alpha-pinene removal from polluted air.

    PubMed

    Montes, M; Veiga, M C; Kennes, C

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation of alpha-pinene was investigated in a biological thermophilic trickling filter, using a lava rock and polymer beads mixture as packing material. Partition coefficient (PC) between alpha-pinene and the polymeric material (Hytrel G3548 L) was measured at 50 degrees C. PCs of 57 and 846 were obtained between the polymer and either the water or the gas phase, respectively. BTF experiments were conducted under continuous load feeding. The effect of yeast extract (YE) addition in the recirculating nutrient medium was evaluated. There was a positive relationship between alpha-pinene biodegradation, CO2 production and YE addition. A maximum elimination capacity (ECmax) of 98.9 g m(-3) h(-1) was obtained for an alpha-pinene loading rate of about 121 g m(-3) h(-1) in the presence of 1 g L(-1) YE. The ECmax was reduced by half in the absence of YE. It was also found that a decrease in the liquid flow rate enhances alpha-pinene biodegradation by increasing the ECmax up to 103 gm(-3) h(-1) with a removal efficiency close to 90%. The impact of short-term shock-loads (6 h) was tested under different process conditions. Increasing the pollutant load either 10- or 20-fold resulted in a sudden drop in the BTF's removal capacity, although this effect was attenuated in the presence of YE. PMID:25145201

  2. OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA CONTAMINATED BUILDING MODLES VERSUS MEASURED AIR & SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-11-02

    The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

  3. Use of Source Term and Air Dispersion Modeling in Planning Demolition of Highly Alpha-Contaminated Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, James G.; Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Bloom, Richard W.

    2011-06-22

    The current cleanup of structures related to cold-war production of nuclear materials includes the need to demolish a number of highly alpha-contaminated structures. The process of planning for the demolition of such structures includes unique challenges related to ensuring the protection of both workers and the public. Pre-demolition modeling analyses were conducted to evaluate potential exposures resulting from the proposed demolition of a number of these structures. Estimated emission rates of transuranic materials during demolition are used as input to an air-dispersion model. The climatological frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures at locations of interest are estimated based on years of hourly meteorological records. The modeling results indicate that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. The pre-demolition modeling directed the need for better contamination characterization and/or different demolition methods—and in the end, provided a basis for proceeding with the planned demolition activities. Post-demolition modeling was also conducted for several contaminated structures, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. Comparisons of modeled and monitoring results are shown. Recent monitoring data from the demolition of a UO3 plant shows increments in concentrations that were previously identified in the pre-demolition modeling predictions; these comparisons confirm the validity and value of the pre-demolition source-term and air dispersion computations for planning demolition activities for other buildings with high levels of radioactive contamination.

  4. Continuous multichannel monitoring of cave air carbon dioxide using a pumped non-dispersive infrared analyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattey, D.

    2012-04-01

    The concentration of CO2 in cave air is one of the main controls on the rate of degassing of dripwater and on the kinetics of calcite precipitation forming speleothem deposits. Measurements of cave air CO2reveal great complexity in the spatial distribution among interconnected cave chambers and temporal changes on synoptic to seasonal time scales. The rock of Gibraltar hosts a large number of caves distributed over a 300 meter range in altitude and monthly sampling and analysis of air and water combined with continuous logging of temperature, humidity and drip discharge rates since 2004 reveals the importance of density-driven seasonal ventilation which drives large-scale advection of CO2-rich air though the cave systems. Since 2008 we have deployed automatic CO2 monitoring systems that regularly sample cave air from up to 8 locations distributed laterally and vertically in St Michaels Cave located near the top of the rock at 275m asl and Ragged Staff Cave located in the heart of the rock near sea level. The logging system is controlled by a Campbell Scientific CR1000 programmable datalogger which controls an 8 port manifold connected to sampling lines leading to different parts of the cave over a distance of up to 250 meters. The manifold is pumped at a rate of 5l per minute drawing air through 6mm or 8mm id polythene tubing via a 1m Nafion loop to reduce humidity to local ambient conditions. The outlet of the primary pump leads to an open split which is sampled by a second low flow pump which delivers air at 100ml/minute to a Licor 820 CO2 analyser. The software selects the port to be sampled, flushes the line for 2 minutes and CO2 analysed as a set of 5 measurements averaged over 10 second intervals. The system then switches to the next port and when complete shuts down to conserve power after using 20 watts over a 30 minute period of analysis. In the absence of local mains power (eg from the show cave lighting system) two 12v car batteries will power the system

  5. An argon ICP-based continuous emissions monitor for hazardous air pollutant metals: Field evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Seltzer, M.D.; Mayer, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    A fully-operational, argon ICP-based continuous emissions monitor (CEM) for hazardous air pollutant (HAP) metals has recently been demonstrated. The CEM has undergone extensive field evaluation in conjunction with a variety of combustor configurations including coal-fired power plants, waste incinerators, and ordnance deactivation furnaces. The CEM has been successfully demonstrated to provide both speed and sensitivity for simultaneous, multielement detection of HAP metals while exhibiting considerable tolerance for both particulate and moisture loading in sample air streams. The CEM employs a state-of-the-art argon inductively coupled plasma spectrometer as an elemental analyzer. Stack air, continuously extracted under strictly isokinetic conditions, is transported to the CEM through heated sample lines. A sampling interface of novel design permits extraction of air at the high, often variable flow rates required for isokinetic sampling while at the same time, provides aliquots of sample air to the plasma spectrometer at the relatively low but constant analytical flow rates that are appropriate for plasma injection. The CEM is automated to high degree and can operate unattended for several hours at a time. CEM calibration is accomplished using precision-generated metal aerosols. Provision is made for correction of spectral interferences from concomitant metals and molecular species in stack gases. The prototype instrumentation described here is presently considered to be the leading candidate for multimetals CEM application. While specifically designed and implemented to monitor metal emissions from military furnaces used for ordnance deactivation, the CEM has exhibited versatility that makes it well-suited for numerous compliance and process control applications. Results of field testing under various conditions and relative accuracy assessments will be presented.

  6. Continuous monitoring of polychlorinated biphenyls in air using direct sampling APCI/ITMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Masuyoshi; Suga, Masao; Waki, Izumi; Sakamoto, Masami; Morita, Masatoshi

    2005-06-01

    We report a continuous monitoring system of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air, which uses direct sampling atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)/ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS). In APCI, humidity in the atmosphere, which fluctuates from 0 to 10 vol.%, influences PCB sensitivity. In dry air (0.5% humidity), the detection limits of Di- to Hp-chlorinated biphenyls (CB) are 0.01-0.44 [mu]g/Nm3 ([mu]g/m3 at normal condition) with time resolution of 1 min, whereas the sensitivity decreases to less than 1/10 when water vapor concentration is 10 vol.%. The sensitivity decrease is calibrated in real-time using an internal standard, trichlorophenol. In order to obtain the calibration accuracy of +/-30%, we dilute the sample gas by dry air, decreasing the water vapor concentration below 1%. We applied the monitor to measure Di- to Hp-CB in ventilation air from a PCB decomposition plant. The monitored PCB concentration levels agreed well with that by high-resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS).

  7. Evaluation of the Eberline AMS-3A and AMS-4 Beta continuous air monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.L.; Sisk, D.R.

    1996-03-01

    Eberline AMS-3A-1 and AMS-4 beta continuous air monitors were tested against the criteria set forth in the ANSI Standards N42.18, Specification and Performance of On-site Instrumentation for Continuously Monitoring Radioactivity in Effluents, and ANSI N42.17B, Performance Specification for Health Physics Instrumentation - Occupational Airborne Radioactivity Monitoring Instrumentation. ANSI N42.18 does not, in general, specify testing procedures for demonstrating compliance with the criteria set forth in the standard; therefore, wherever possible, the testing procedures given in ANSI N42.17B were adopted. In all cases, the more restrictive acceptance criteria and/or the more demanding test conditions of the two standards were used.

  8. Practical Strategies for Stable Operation of HFF-QCM in Continuous Air Flow

    PubMed Central

    Wessels, Alexander; Klöckner, Bernhard; Siering, Carsten; Waldvogel, Siegfried R.

    2013-01-01

    Currently there are a few fields of application using quartz crystal microbalances (QCM). Because of environmental conditions and insufficient resolution of the microbalance, chemical sensing of volatile organic compounds in an open system was as yet not possible. In this study we present strategies on how to use 195 MHz fundamental quartz resonators for a mobile sensor platform to detect airborne analytes. Commonly the use of devices with a resonant frequency of about 10 MHz is standard. By increasing the frequency to 195 MHz the frequency shift increases by a factor of almost 400. Unfortunately, such kinds of quartz crystals tend to exhibit some challenges to obtain a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio. It was possible to reduce the noise in frequency in a continuous air flow of 7.5 m/s to 0.4 Hz [i.e., σ(τ) = 2 × 10−9] by elucidating the major source of noise. The air flow in the vicinity of the quartz was analyzed to reduce turbulences. Furthermore, we found a dependency between the acceleration sensitivity and mechanical stress induced by an internal thermal gradient. By reducing this gradient, we achieved reduction of the sensitivity to acceleration by more than one decade. Hence, the resulting sensor is more robust to environmental conditions such as temperature, acceleration and air flow. PMID:24021970

  9. Continuous oral cytarabine ocfosfate with interferon-alpha-2b for patients with newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukaemia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    del Cañizo, M C; Fisac, M P; Galende, J; Hurtado, J A; Moro, M J; Rodriguez, J A; Rivas, J M; Tabernero, M D

    2001-12-01

    Recombinant(R) interferon alpha (r-IFN-alpha) has been shown to be an effective drug for chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). However, higher response rates can be achieved using cytarabine along with r-IFN-alpha. YNK01 is a derivative of cytosine arabinoside for oral administration. So far, the only published experience with continuous YNK01 was in advanced CML (10 cases). We have performed a pilot study to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of the combined therapy r-IFN-alpha and daily oral YNK01 in patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML. Ten previously untreated patients were included in the study. Among those patients evaluable for cytogenetic response, 87% (seven out of eight) reached a major cytogenetic response with four reaching complete cytogenetic response (50%). The most significant side-effects were gastrointestinal. Macrocytic anaemia was observed in three patients. In conclusion, continuous oral administration of YNK01 in combination with IFN-alpha is safe and can result in high-cytogenetic response rates. PMID:11736933

  10. Incorrect interpretation of moving-filter continuous particulate air monitor responses.

    PubMed

    Evans, William C

    2013-04-01

    The graphs supplied by the vendors of moving-filter continuous particulate air monitors (CPAMs) in their sales literature show linear curves on a log-log scale, with net count rate on one axis and concentration on the other. The implication is that the monitor user is to read the concentration from the graph, given an observed net count rate, at any time. For the nominal filter speeds commonly used for these monitors, using the graph in this way is incorrect. The graphs do not state the limitations of the calculation: (1) the nuclide measured must be long-lived; (2) the concentration of that nuclide in the sampled air must remain constant; and (3) the reading of the net count rate must be obtained after a specific time, called the "transit time." This time is typically on the order of several hours. Reading the net count rate at any time earlier than this will result in an incorrect concentration estimate. Given that a major purpose of a CPAM is to alert plant personnel to a change in airborne radioactivity concentrations, by definition when this happens the concentration is not constant. Thus, using the supplied curves will result in an incorrect estimate of that concentration. The solution is to use instead a fixed-filter CPAM and a previously-published quantitative method. With this approach, there is no need to attempt to estimate a concentration, much less to assume that it is constant over long periods of time or that it can only change in a stair-step manner. With this alternative to a moving-filter CPAM, a signal proportional to the time-integrated worker intake can be generated continuously for any time-varying air concentration, including the sums-of-exponentials shapes expected during transient events in compartmental systems. PMID:23439149

  11. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 9. Air-drop instrumentation. Part 2. Teller-alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Grier, H.E.

    1985-09-01

    It was the purpose of the Teller-Alpha experiment to measure the coefficient alpha by means of detectors placed a long distance from the bomb. The detectors are photoelectric devices that respond to visible light produced in the air surrounding the bomb by the absorbed gamma rays. A measurement of this sort was proposed by Edward Teller prior to the Sandstone Operation. The main components of the Teller-Alpha equipment were the photohead, the 200-Mc timing oscillator, and the high-speed-sensitivity recoding oscilloscope. A complete discussion of the experiment is provided.

  12. Outdoor air pollution in close proximity to a continuous point source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Gabel, Etienne B.; Ott, Wayne R.; Switzer, Paul

    Data are lacking on human exposure to air pollutants occurring in ground-level outdoor environments within a few meters of point sources. To better understand outdoor exposure to tobacco smoke from cigarettes or cigars, and exposure to other types of outdoor point sources, we performed more than 100 controlled outdoor monitoring experiments on a backyard residential patio in which we released pure carbon monoxide (CO) as a tracer gas for continuous time periods lasting 0.5-2 h. The CO was emitted from a single outlet at a fixed per-experiment rate of 120-400 cc min -1 (˜140-450 mg min -1). We measured CO concentrations every 15 s at up to 36 points around the source along orthogonal axes. The CO sensors were positioned at standing or sitting breathing heights of 2-5 ft (up to 1.5 ft above and below the source) and at horizontal distances of 0.25-2 m. We simultaneously measured real-time air speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and temperature at single points on the patio. The ground-level air speeds on the patio were similar to those we measured during a survey of 26 outdoor patio locations in 5 nearby towns. The CO data exhibited a well-defined proximity effect similar to the indoor proximity effect reported in the literature. Average concentrations were approximately inversely proportional to distance. Average CO levels were approximately proportional to source strength, supporting generalization of our results to different source strengths. For example, we predict a cigarette smoker would cause average fine particle levels of approximately 70-110 μg m -3 at horizontal distances of 0.25-0.5 m. We also found that average CO concentrations rose significantly as average air speed decreased. We fit a multiplicative regression model to the empirical data that predicts outdoor concentrations as a function of source emission rate, source-receptor distance, air speed and wind direction. The model described the data reasonably well, accounting for ˜50% of the log

  13. Alpha-dicarbonyl yields from the NOx-air photooxidations of a series of aromatic hydrocarbons in air

    SciTech Connect

    Tuazon, E.C.; Mac Leod, H.; Atkinson, R.; Carter, W.P.L.

    1986-01-01

    The yields of the ring-cleavage products glyoxal, methylglyoxal and biacetyl from the reactions of OH radicals with benzene, toluene, o-, m- and p-xylene and 1,2,3-, 1,2,4- and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene in the presence of part-per-million concentrations of NO have been determined in one atmosphere of air using in-situ long pathlength Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy and differential optical absorption spectroscopy with supplementary gas-chromatographic analyses. The yields of glyoxal and methylglyoxal were respectively: from toluene, 0.105 plus or minus 0.019 and 0.146 plus or minus 0.006; from o-xylene, 0.087 plus or minus 0.012 and 0.246 plus or minus 0.020; from m-xylene, 0.086 plus or minus 0.011 and 0.319 plus or minus 0.009; from p-xylene, 0.225 plus or minus 0.039 and 0.105 plus or minus 0.034; from 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, 0.058 plus or minus 0.008 and 0.152 plus or minus 0.025; and from 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 0.048 plus or minus 0.005 and 0.357 plus or minus 0.017.

  14. Continuous high order sliding mode controller design for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Zong, Qun; Su, Rui; Tian, Bailing

    2014-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of tracking control with uncertainties for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (FAHV). In order to overcome the analytical intractability of this model, an Input-Output linearization model is constructed for the purpose of feedback control design. Then, the continuous finite time convergence high order sliding mode controller is designed for the Input-Output linearization model without uncertainties. In addition, a nonlinear disturbance observer is applied to estimate the uncertainties in order to compensate the controller and disturbance suppression, where disturbance observer and controller synthesis design is obtained. Finally, the synthesis of controller and disturbance observer is used to achieve the tracking for the velocity and altitude of the FAHV and simulations are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the control strategies. PMID:24534328

  15. Thermal imaging and air-coupled ultrasound characterization of a continuous-fiber ceramic composite panels.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J. G.; Easler, T. E.; Szweda, A.; Pillai, T. A. K.; Deemer, C.; Ellingson, W. A.

    1998-04-01

    SYLRAMIC{trademark} continuous fiber ceramic-matrix composites (Nicalon{trademark} fiber/SiNC matrix) were fabricated by Dow Corning Corporation with the polymer-impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) process. The composite microstructure and its uniformity, and the completeness of infiltration during processing were studied as a function of number of PIP cycles. Two nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods, i.e., infrared thermal imaging and air-coupled ultrasound (UT), were used to investigate flat composite panels of two thicknesses and various sizes. The thermal imaging method provided two-dimensional (2D) images of through-thickness thermal diffusivity distributions, and the air-coupled UT method provided 2D images of through-thickness ultrasonic transmission of the panel components. Results from both types of NDEs were compared at various PIP cycles during fabrication of the composites. A delaminated region was clearly detected and its progressive repair was monitored during processing. The NDE data were also correlated to results obtained from destructive characterization.

  16. Influence of surfactant on the drop bag breakup in a continuous air jet stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Zhang, Wen-Bin; Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng; Liu, Hai-Feng

    2016-05-01

    The deformation and breakup of surfactant-laden drops is a common phenomenon in nature and numerous practical applications. We investigate influence of surfactant on the drop bag breakup in a continuous air jet stream. The airflow would induce the advection diffusion of surfactant between interface and bulk of drop. Experiments indicate that the convective motions of deforming drop would induce the non-equilibrium distribution of surfactant, which leads to the change of surface tension. When the surfactant concentration is smaller than critical micelle concentration (CMC), with the increase of surface area of drop, the surface tension of liquid-air interface and the critical Weber number will increase. When the surfactant concentration is bigger than CMC, the micelle can be considered as the source term, which can supply the monomers. So in the presence of surfactant, there would be the significant nonlinear variation on the critical Weber number of bag breakup. We build the dynamic non-monotonic relationship between concentrations of surfactant and critical Weber number theoretically. In the range of parameters studied, the experimental results are consistent with the model estimates.

  17. Testing of Continuous Sampling Air-ICP and Mercury Systems as Continuous Emission Monitors at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    D.P. Baldwin; S.J. Bajic; D.E. Eckels; D.S. Zamzow; G.P. Miller; S. Tao; C.A. Waggoner

    2001-03-15

    This report has been prepared to document the performance of the continuous sampling reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy) and mercury-monitor systems developed by Ames Laboratory for use as continuous emission monitors (CEM). This work was funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology, through the Mixed Waste Focus Area. The purpose of the project is to develop instrumentation and methods for spectroscopic field monitoring applications. During FY00 this included continued work on the development of the continuous sample introduction system and the multi-frequency AOTF-echelle spectrometer, used in conjunction with the reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES system as a multi-metal CEM. The assembly, development, and testing of an echelle spectrometer system for the detection of mercury (Hg) by atomic absorption was also completed during FY00. The continuous sampling system and the multi-metal air-ICP and mercury-monitor CEM systems were tested at Mississippi State University at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at the end of FY00. This report describes the characteristics and performance of these systems, and the results of the field tests performed at DIAL.

  18. Detectors for alpha particles and X-rays operating in ambient air in pulse counting mode or/and with gas amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpak, G.; Benaben, P.; Breuil, P.; Peskov, V.

    2008-02-01

    Ionization chambers working in ambient air in current detection mode are attractive due to their simplicity and low cost and are widely used in several applications such as smoke detection, dosimetry, therapeutic beam monitoring and so on. The aim of this work was to investigate if gaseous detectors can operate in ambient air in pulse counting mode as well as with gas amplification which potentially offers the highest possible sensitivity in applications like alpha particle detection or high energy X-ray photon or electron detection. To investigate the feasibility of this method two types of open- end gaseous detectors were build and successfully tested. The first one was a single wire or multiwire cylindrical geometry detector operating in pulse mode at a gas gain of one (pulse ionization chamber). This detector was readout by a custom made wide -band charge sensitive amplifier able to deal with slow induced signals generated by slow motion of negative and positive ions. The multiwire detector was able to detect alpha particles with an efficiency close to 22%. The second type of an alpha detector was an innovative GEM-like detector with resistive electrodes operating in air in avalanche mode at high gas gains (up to 104). This detector can also operate in a cascaded mode or being combined with other detectors, for example with MICROMEGAS. This detector was readout by a conventional charge -sensitive amplifier and was able to detect alpha particles with 100% efficiency. This detector could also detect X-ray photons or fast electrons. A detailed comparison between these two detectors is given as well as a comparison with commercially available alpha detectors. The main advantages of gaseous detectors operating in air in a pulse detection mode are their simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity. One of the possible applications of these new detectors is alpha particle background monitors which, due to their low cost can find wide application not only in houses, but

  19. Uncertainties in Air Exchange using Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling Tracer-Gas Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Lunden, Melissa M.

    2013-12-01

    The PerFluorocarbon Tracer (PFT) method is a low-cost approach commonly used for measuring air exchange in buildings using tracer gases. It is a specific application of the more general Continuous-Injection, Long-Term Sampling (CILTS) method. The technique is widely used but there has been little work on understanding the uncertainties (both precision and bias) associated with its use, particularly given that it is typically deployed by untrained or lightly trained people to minimize experimental costs. In this article we will conduct a first-principles error analysis to estimate the uncertainties and then compare that analysis to CILTS measurements that were over-sampled, through the use of multiple tracers and emitter and sampler distribution patterns, in three houses. We find that the CILTS method can have an overall uncertainty of 10-15percent in ideal circumstances, but that even in highly controlled field experiments done by trained experimenters expected uncertainties are about 20percent. In addition, there are many field conditions (such as open windows) where CILTS is not likely to provide any quantitative data. Even avoiding the worst situations of assumption violations CILTS should be considered as having a something like a ?factor of two? uncertainty for the broad field trials that it is typically used in. We provide guidance on how to deploy CILTS and design the experiment to minimize uncertainties.

  20. Some Analysis of Integrated-count Processing for Fixed-filter Continuous Particulate Air Monitors.

    PubMed

    Evans, William C

    2016-09-01

    A calculation for estimating concentrations of long-lived airborne particulate radioactivity using fixed-filter continuous air monitors is given in an ISO standard. The method uses counts integrated over relatively long time intervals, rather than the 'instantaneous' count rates that in digital systems are evaluated using much shorter time intervals and some form of variance-reduction filtering. This article presents three ways of deriving and interpreting this calculation, based on previously published mathematical models that were derived from first principles. The method is also extended here to apply for short-lived activity. Some statistical properties of the estimator are discussed, including its time-dependent variance and the presence of strong autocorrelation in the concentration estimates. An interactive simulation was used to examine the performance of the concentration estimation, using physically plausible concentration time-dependence profiles; example plots are provided. The conclusion of these studies is that the method, as modified herein, can perform remarkably well in providing periodic average-concentration estimates for both long- and short-lived activity, and it should be considered an appropriate method in those situations where the tracking of a time-dependent concentration is deemed necessary. PMID:27472754

  1. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  2. Modulation of Posterior Alpha Activity by Spatial Attention Allows for Controlling A Continuous Brain-Computer Interface.

    PubMed

    Horschig, Jörn M; Oosterheert, Wouter; Oostenveld, Robert; Jensen, Ole

    2015-11-01

    Here we report that the modulation of alpha activity by covert attention can be used as a control signal in an online brain-computer interface, that it is reliable, and that it is robust. Subjects were instructed to orient covert visual attention to the left or right hemifield. We decoded the direction of attention from the magnetoencephalogram by a template matching classifier and provided the classification outcome to the subject in real-time using a novel graphical user interface. Training data for the templates were obtained from a Posner-cueing task conducted just before the BCI task. Eleven subjects participated in four sessions each. Eight of the subjects achieved classification rates significantly above chance level. Subjects were able to significantly increase their performance from the first to the second session. Individual patterns of posterior alpha power remained stable throughout the four sessions and did not change with increased performance. We conclude that posterior alpha power can successfully be used as a control signal in brain-computer interfaces. We also discuss several ideas for further improving the setup and propose future research based on solid hypotheses about behavioral consequences of modulating neuronal oscillations by brain computer interfacing. PMID:25388661

  3. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, V. Sojka, P. E.

    2014-07-15

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ∼12 < We < ∼16. We aim to address several issues connected with this breakup process and their dependence on We and Oh which have been hitherto unexplored. The We boundary at which breakup begins is theoretically determined and the expression obtained, We=12(1+2/3Oh{sup 2}), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545–560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, “Formation of drops and bubbles,” in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak.

  4. Alpha B-crystallin prevents the arrhythmogenic effects of particulate matter isolated from ambient air by attenuating oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hyelim; Park, Sanghoon; Jeon, Hyunju; Song, Byeong-Wook; Kim, Jin-Bae; Kim, Chang-Soo; Pak, Hui-Nam; Hwang, Ki-Chul; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Chung, Ji Hyung; Joung, Boyoung

    2013-01-15

    Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is activated by particulate matter (PM) isolated from ambient air and linked to prolonged repolarization and cardiac arrhythmia. We evaluated whether alpha B-crystallin (CryAB), a heat shock protein, could prevent the arrhythmogenic effects of PM by preventing CaMKII activation. CryAB was delivered into cardiac cells using a TAT-protein transduction domain (TAT-CryAB). ECGs were measured before and after tracheal exposure of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and each intervention in adult Sprague–Dawley rats. After endotracheal exposure of DEP (200 μg/mL for 30 minutes, n = 11), QT intervals were prolonged from 115 ± 14 ms to 144 ± 20 ms (p = 0.03), and premature ventricular contractions were observed more frequently (0% vs. 44%) than control (n = 5) and TAT-Cry (n = 5). However, DEP-induced arrhythmia was not observed in TAT-CryAB (1 mg/kg) pretreated rats (n = 5). In optical mapping of Langendorff-perfused rat heats, compared with baseline, DEP infusion of 12.5 μg/mL (n = 12) increased apicobasal action potential duration (APD) differences from 2 ± 6 ms to 36 ± 15 ms (p < 0.001), APD restitution slope from 0.26 ± 0.07 to 1.19 ± 0.11 (p < 0.001) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) from 0% to 75% (p < 0.001). DEP infusion easily induced spatially discordant alternans. However, the effects of DEP were prevented by TAT-CryAB (1 mg/kg, n = 9). In rat myocytes, while DEP increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and phosphated CaMKII, TAT-CryAB prevented these effects. In conclusion, CryAB, a small heat shock protein, might prevent the arrhythmogenic effects of PM by attenuating ROS generation and CaMKII activation. -- Highlights: ► Particulate matter (PM) increases arrhythmia. ► PM induced arrhythmias are related with oxidative stress and CaMKII activation. ► Alpha B-crystallin (CryAB) could attenuate the arrhythmogenic effect of PM. ► CryAB decreases oxidative stress and CaMKII activation

  5. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) Project: Lower Cost, Continuous Ambient Monitoring Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of numerous sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement existing monitoring networks and ...

  6. Environmental continuous air monitor inlet with combined preseparator and virtual impactor

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, John C.

    2007-06-19

    An inlet for an environmental air monitor is described wherein a pre-separator interfaces with ambient environment air and removes debris and insects commonly associated with high wind outdoors and a deflector plate in communication with incoming air from the pre-separator stage, that directs the air radially and downward uniformly into a plurality of accelerator jets located in a manifold of a virtual impactor, the manifold being cylindrical and having a top, a base, and a wall, with the plurality of accelerator jets being located in the top of the manifold and receiving the directed air and accelerating directed air, thereby creating jets of air penetrating into the manifold, where a major flow is deflected to the walls of the manifold and extracted through ports in the walls. A plurality of receiver nozzles are located in the base of the manifold coaxial with the accelerator jets, and a plurality of matching flow restrictor elements are located in the plurality of receiver nozzles for balancing and equalizing the total minor flow among all the plurality of receiver nozzles, through which a lower, fractional flow extracts large particle constituents of the air for collection on a sample filter after passing through the plurality of receiver nozzles and the plurality of matching flow restrictor elements.

  7. Insect hygroreceptor responses to continuous changes in humidity and air pressure

    PubMed Central

    Tichy, H.; Kallina, W.

    2011-01-01

    The most favored model of humidity transduction views the cuticular wall of insect hygroreceptive sensilla as a hygromechanical transducer. Hygroscopic swelling or shrinking alters the geometry of the wall, deforming the dendritic membranes of the moist and dry cells. The small size the sensilla and their position surrounded by elevated structures creates technical difficulties to mechanically stimulate them by direct contact. The present study investigated hygroreceptors on the antennae of the cockroach and the stick insect. Accurately controlled, homogeneous mechanical input was delivered by modulating air pressure. Both the moist and dry cells responded not only to changes in air pressure, but also in the opposite direction, as observed during changes in air humidity. The moist-cell’s excitatory response to increasing humidity and increasing air pressure implies that swelling of the hygroscopic cuticle compresses the dendrites, and the dry-cell’s excitatory response to decreasing humidity and decreasing air pressure implies that shrinking of the hygroscopic cuticle expands the dendrites. The moist and dry cells of the stick insect are more sensitive to pressure changes than those of the cockroach, but the responses to air pressure are generally weaker than to humidity. Therefore, the hygroreceptive sensilla differ in their physical properties and constitutions. Furthermore, the mechanical parameters associated with homogeneous changes in air pressure on the sensillum surface can only partially account for the responses of the moist and dry cells of both species to humidity stimulation. PMID:20375249

  8. Insect hygroreceptor responses to continuous changes in humidity and air pressure.

    PubMed

    Tichy, H; Kallina, W

    2010-06-01

    The most favored model of humidity transduction views the cuticular wall of insect hygroreceptive sensilla as a hygromechanical transducer. Hygroscopic swelling or shrinking alters the geometry of the wall, deforming the dendritic membranes of the moist and dry cells. The small size the sensilla and their position surrounded by elevated structures creates technical difficulties to mechanically stimulate them by direct contact. The present study investigated hygroreceptors on the antennae of the cockroach and the stick insect. Accurately controlled, homogeneous mechanical input was delivered by modulating air pressure. Both the moist and dry cells responded not only to changes in air pressure but also in the opposite direction, as observed during changes in air humidity. The moist cell's excitatory response to increasing humidity and increasing air pressure implies that swelling of the hygroscopic cuticle compresses the dendrites, and the dry cell's excitatory response to decreasing humidity and decreasing air pressure implies that shrinking of the hygroscopic cuticle expands the dendrites. The moist and dry cells of the stick insect are more sensitive to pressure changes than those of the cockroach, but the responses to air pressure are generally weaker than to humidity. Therefore the hygroreceptive sensilla differ in their physical properties and constitutions. Furthermore, the mechanical parameters associated with homogeneous changes in air pressure on the sensillum surface can only partially account for the responses of the moist and dry cells of both species to humidity stimulation. PMID:20375249

  9. Influences of air calcination and steam activation on microstructure and photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO{sub 2} fibers

    SciTech Connect

    You, Yang; Zhang, Shiying; Xu, Difa

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Effects of air calcination and steam activation on TiO{sub 2} fibers were studied. ► The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of formaldehyde. ► Steam activation promoted the anatase–rutile phase transformation. ► Steam activation decreased grain size and increased special surface area. ► Steam activation improved photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} fibers. -- Abstract: Effects of air calcination and steam activation, on phase transformation, microstructure and photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO{sub 2} fibers prepared by sol–gel method were studied. The fibers were characterized by XRD, SEM, and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of formaldehyde. Results showed that 100% rutile fibers heat-treated in air and steam were obtained at 800 °C and 600 °C, respectively. The anatase grain sizes and special surface areas of the fibers heat-treated at 500 °C in air and steam were 31.6 nm, 22.7 nm, 26.7 m{sup 2}/g and 32.3 m{sup 2}/g, respectively. The degradation rates of formaldehyde over the fibers heat-treated at 500 °C in air and steam were 92.3% and 98.6% after 14 h under UV irradiation, respectively. Compared with the air calcination, the steam activation promoted the anatase–rutile phase transformation, reduced the grain size, increased the special surface area, and improved photocatalytic activity of continuous TiO{sub 2} fibers.

  10. Dry/wet performance of a plate-fin air-cooled heat exchanger with continuous corrugated fins

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, S.G.; Kreid, D.K.; Johnson, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    The performance and operating characteristics of a plate-fin heat exchanger in dry/wet or deluge operations was experimentally determined. Development of the deluge heat/mass transfer model continued. The experiments were conducted in a specially-designed wind tunnel at the PNL. Air that was first heated and humidified to specified conditions was circulated at a controlled rate through a 2 ft x 6 ft heat exchanger module. The heat exchanger used in the tests was a wavy surface, plate fin on tube configuration. Hot water was circulated through the tubes at high flow rates to maintain an essentially isothermal condition on the tube side. Deionized water sprayed on the top of the vertically oriented plate fins was collected at the bottom of the core and recirculated. Instrumentation was provided for measurement of flow rates and thermodynamic conditions in the air, in the core circulation water, and in the deluge water. Measurements of the air side pressure drop and heat rejection rate were made as a function of air flow rate, air inlet temperature and humidity, deluge water flow rate, and the core inclination from the vertical. An overall heat transfer coefficient and an effective deluge film convective coefficient was determined. The deluge model, for predicting heat transfer from a wet finned heat exchanger was further developed and refined, and a major extension of the model was formulated that permits simultaneous calculation of both the heat transfer and evaporation rates from the wetted surface. The experiments showed an increase in the heat rejection rate due to wetting, accompanied by a proportional increase in the air side pressure drop. For operation at the same air side pressure drop, the enhancement ratio Q/sub w//Q/sub d/ varied between 2 and 5 for the conditions tested. Thus, the potential enhancement of heat transfer due to wetting can be substantial.

  11. An Experiment to Measure Range, Range Straggling, Stopping Power, and Energy Straggling of Alpha Particles in Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouseph, P. J.; Mostovych, Andrew

    1978-01-01

    Experiments to measure range, range straggling, stopping power, and energy straggling of alpha particles are discussed in this article. Commercially available equipment with simple modifications is used for these measurements. (Author/GA)

  12. Physical and Mathematical Modeling of Thin Steel Slab Continuous Casting Secondary Cooling Zone Air-Mist Impingement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de León B., Melecio; Castillejos E., A. Humberto

    2015-10-01

    This study is an attempt to unveil the fluid dynamic phenomena occurring during interaction of air-mists with the surface of the steel strand during its pass through the continuous casting secondary cooling system. Air-mists generated under conditions of practical interest are studied while impacting on a vertical wall at room temperature. Experimentally a spatial multiple-counting technique based on capturing instantaneous double-exposure shadowgraphs is used to visualize the internal structure of mists at distances between 0 and 4 mm from the wall. Analysis of single exposure images allows determination of size distributions of primary (impinging) and secondary (ejecting) drops and of fluctuating thickness of water films formed on the wall surface. Besides, examination of image pairs enables measurement of velocity and trajectory angles of both kinds of drops. These results aided in the formulation and validation of a transient, turbulent, 3D, multiphase fluid dynamic model for simulating impinging air-mists. The model is based on KIVA-3V and for simulating the airborne mist region it solves the continuity equations—mass, momentum, turbulence quantities—for the air coupled with the equation of motion for drops sampled randomly from distributions assumed to govern their size and volume flux at the nozzle orifice. While for the impingement region submodels are established to estimate the results of drop/wall interaction, i.e., the dynamics of secondary drops and water films formed by the impingement of primary drops. The model forecasts reasonably well the random distributions of diameters, velocities, trajectory angles, and Weber numbers of both kind of drops moving near the wall. Additionally, it predicts well the average thickness of the water film and the important effect that air nozzle pressure has on the normal impinging velocity of drops; high pressures result in large drop velocities favoring intimate contact with the surface.

  13. Evaluation of the Impact of Media Marketing Strategies on Continuing Education Enrollments. AIR Forum 1982 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jill F.; Spiro, Louis M.

    The impact of media marketing strategies on continuing education enrollment at the State University of New York College at Brockport (SUNY-CB), was evaluated. The evaluation of advertising impacts used advertising records of SUNY-CB and other area colleges and a telephone questionnaire instrument. A stratified, random countywide sample, in…

  14. Use of sulfur hexafluoride airflow studies to determine the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in an alpha inhalation exposure laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    Determination of the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in the workplace is quite subjective and is generally one of the more difficult tasks in radiation protection. General guidance for determining the number and placement of air sampling and monitoring instruments has been provided by technical reports such as Mishima, J. These two documents and other published guidelines suggest that some insight into sampler placement can be obtained by conducting airflow studies involving the dilution and clearance of the relatively inert tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) in sampler placement studies and describes the results of a study done within the ITRI alpha inhalation exposure laboratories. The objectives of the study were to document an appropriate method for conducting SF{sub 6} dispersion studies, and to confirm the appropriate number and placement of air monitors and air samplers within a typical ITRI inhalation exposure laboratory. The results of this study have become part of the technical bases for air sampling and monitoring in the test room.

  15. Pulling Results Out of Thin Air: Four Years of Ozone and Greenhouse Gas Measurements by the Alpha Jet Atmospheric Experiment (AJAX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, Emma

    2015-01-01

    The Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) has been measuring atmospheric ozone, carbon dioxide, methane and meteorological parameters from near the surface to 8000 m since January 2011. The main goals are to study photochemical ozone production and the impacts of extreme events on western US air quality, provide data to support satellite observations and aid in the quantification of emission sources e.g. wildfires, urban outflow, diary and oil and gas. The aircraft is based at Moffett Field and flies multiple times a month to sample vertical profiles at selected sites in California and Nevada, providing long-term data records at these sites. AJAX is also uniquely positioned to launch with short notice sampling flights in rapid response to extreme events e.g. the 2013 Yosemite Rim fire. This talk will focus on the impacts of vertical transport on surface air quality, and investigation of emission sources from diaries and wildfires.

  16. Reactions of ozone with. alpha. -pinene and. beta. -pinene in air: Yields of gaseous and particulate products

    SciTech Connect

    Hatakeyama, S.; Izumi, K.; Fukuyama, T.; Akimoto, H. )

    1989-09-20

    Reactions of ozone with {alpha}-prinene and {beta}-pinene were studied for the purpose of obtaining the quantitative yields of gaseous and particulate products. Major gaseous products from {alpha}-pinene were CO, CO{sub 2}, HCHO, and aldehydes mainly composed of pinonaldehyde and nor-pinonaldehyde, while those from {beta}-pinene were CO{sub 2}, HCHO, and 6,6-dimethylbicyclo(3.1.1)heptan-2-one. Average molar yields from {alpha}-pinene were CO; 9{plus minus}1%, CO{sub 2}; 30{plus minus}2%, HCHO; 22{plus minus}1%, and aldehydes; 51{plus minus}6%. Average molar yields from {beta}-pinene were CO{sub 2}; 27{plus minus}2%, HCHO; 76{plus minus}2%, and 6,6-dimethylbicyclo(3.1.1)heptan-2-one; 40{plus minus}2%. Particulate products were found to include pinonaldehyde, nor-pinonaldehyde, pinonic acid, and nor-pinonic acid from {alpha}-pinene. The yields of the particulate aldehydes decreased with the reaction time, whereas the yields of the acids increased. This observation suggests the sequential oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. From {beta}-pinene, only 6,6-dimethylbicyclo(3.1.1)heptan-2-one was identified as a particulate product. For {alpha}-pinene, most of the products are explainable in terms of the reaction mechanism similar to that for the cyclohexene/ozone reaction, whereas for {beta}-pinene the principal reaction path is that of the doubly substituted Criegee intermediate. The total yields of organic aerosols from both {alpha}- and {beta}-pinene were measured with their concentrations at a lower ppb level. The yields were found almost constant in a pinene concentration range from 10 up to 100 ppb, being 18.3{plus minus}1.1 and 13.8{plus minus}0.8% for {alpha}- and {beta}-pinene, respectively, which are much lower than the previously reported values. {copyright} American Geophysical Union 1989

  17. Petroleum mass removal from low permeability sediment using air sparging/soil vapor extraction: impact of continuous or pulsed operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirtland, Brian C.; Aelion, C. Marjorie

    2000-02-01

    Air sparging and soil vapor extraction (AS/SVE) are innovative remediation techniques that utilize volatilization and microbial degradation to remediate petroleum spills from soils and groundwater. This in situ study investigated the use of AS/SVE to remediate a gasoline spill from a leaking underground storage tank (UST) in the low permeability, clayey soil of the Appalachian Piedmont. The objectives of this study were to evaluate AS/SVE in low permeability soils by quantifying petroleum mass removal rates, monitoring vadose zone contaminant levels, and comparing the mass extraction rates of continuous AS/SVE to 8 and 24 h pulsed operation. The objectives were met by collecting AS/SVE exhaust gas samples and vadose zone air from multi-depth soil vapor probes. Samples were analyzed for O 2, CO 2, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), and total combustible hydrocarbon (TCH) concentrations using portable hand meters and gas chromatography. Continuous AS/SVE was effective in removing 608 kg of petroleum hydrocarbons from low permeability soil in 44 days (14.3 kg day -1). Mass removal rates ranged from 2.6 times higher to 5.1 times lower than other AS/SVE studies performed in sandy sediments. BTEX levels in the vadose zone were reduced from about 5 ppm to 1 ppm. Ten pulsed AS/SVE tests removed 78 kg in 23 days and the mean mass removal rate (17.6 kg day -1) was significantly higher than the last 15 days of continuous extraction. Pulsed operation may be preferable to continuous operation because of increased mass removal and decreased energy consumption.

  18. AOTF-echelle spectrometer for air-ICP-AES continuous emission monitoring of heavy metals and actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, David P.; Zamzow, Daniel S.; Eckels, David E.; Miller, George P.

    1999-02-01

    A spectrometer system consisting of a quartz acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and an echelle grating has been assembled and tested for ICP-AES continuous emission monitoring of heavy metal and actinide elements in stack exhaust offgases introduced into an air plasma. The AOTF is a rapidly tunable bandpass filter that is used to select a small wavelength range (0.1 to 0.6 nm) of optical emission from the air plasma; the echelle grating provides high dispersion, yielding a spectral resolution of approximately 0.004 to 0.008 nm from 200 to 425 nm. The AOTF-echelle spectrometer, equipped with a photodiode array or CCD, provides rapid sequential multielement analysis capabilities. It is much more compact and portable than commercial ICP-AES echelle spectrometers, allowing use of the system in field and on-line process monitoring applications. Data will be presented that detail the resolution, detection limits, capabilities, and performance of the AOTF-echelle spectrometer for continuous emission monitoring of heavy metals (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb) and actinides (including U isotopes). The potential use of the AOTF-echelle spectrometer with other emission sources and for other monitoring applications will be discussed.

  19. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Wolf, Michael A.; McAtee, James L.; Unruh, Wesley P.; Cucchiara, Alfred L.; Huchton, Roger L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  20. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

    1993-02-02

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  1. ANALYSIS OF EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) PROTOCOL GASES USED FOR CALIBRATION AND AUDITS OF CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING SYSTEMS AND AMBIENT AIR ANALYZERS - RESULTS OF AUDIT 6

    EPA Science Inventory

    A performance audit was conducted on EPA Protocol Gases used for calibration and audits of continuous emission monitoring systems and ambient air analyzers. Fifty gaseous pollutant calibraton standards were purchased from eleven specialty gas producers. These standards contained ...

  2. Efficient salt removal in a continuously operated upflow microbial desalination cell with an air cathode.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Kyle S; Drew, David M; He, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    Microbial desalination cells (MDCs) hold great promise for drinking water production because of potential energy savings during the desalination process. In this study, we developed a continuously operated MDC--upflow microbial desalination cell (UMDC) for the purpose of salt removal. During the 4-month operation, the UMDC constantly removed salts and generated bio-electricity. At a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 days (salt solution) and current production of ∼62 mA, the UMDC was able to remove more than 99% of NaCl from the salt solution that had an initial salt concentration of 30 g total dissolved solids (TDS)/L. In addition, the TDS removal rate was 7.50 g TDSL(-1)d(-1) (salt solution volume) or 5.25 g TDSL(-1)d(-1) (wastewater volume), and the desalinated water met the drinking water standard, in terms of TDS concentration. A high charge transfer efficiency of 98.6% or 81% was achieved at HRT 1 or 4d. The UMDC produced a maximum power density of 30.8 W/m(3). The phenomena of bipolar electrodialysis and proton transport in the UMDC were discussed. These results demonstrated the potential of the UMDC as either a sole desalination process or a pre-desalination reactor for downstream desalination processes. PMID:20584603

  3. Continuous Droplet Removal upon Dropwise Condensation of Humid Air on a Hydrophobic Micropatterned Surface

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Combination of two physical phenomena, capillary pressure gradient and wettability gradient, allows a simple two-step fabrication process that yields a reliable hydrophobic self-cleaning condenser surface. The surface is fabricated with specific microscopic topography and further treatment with a chemically inert low-surface-energy material. This process does not require growth of nanofeatures (nanotubes) or hydrophilic–hydrophobic patterning of the surface. Trapezoidal geometry of the microfeatures facilitates droplet transfer from the Wenzel to the Cassie state and reduces droplet critical diameter. The geometry of the micropatterns enhances local coalescence and directional movement for droplets with diameter much smaller than the radial length of the micropatterns. The hydrophobic self-cleaning micropatterned condenser surface prevents liquid film formation and promotes continuous dropwise condensation cycle. Upon dropwise condensation, droplets follow a designed wettability gradient created with micropatterns from the most hydrophobic to the least hydrophobic end of the surface. The surface has higher condensation efficiency, due to its directional self-cleaning property, than a plain hydrophobic surface. We explain the self-actuated droplet collection mechanism on the condenser surface and demonstrate experimentally the creation of an effective wettability gradient over a 6 mm radial distance. In spite of its fabrication simplicity, the fabricated surface demonstrates self-cleaning property, enhanced condensation performance, and reliability over time. Our work enables creation of a hydrophobic condenser surface with the directional self-cleaning property that can be used for collection of biological (chemical, environmental) aerosol samples or for condensation enhancement. PMID:25073014

  4. Continuous droplet removal upon dropwise condensation of humid air on a hydrophobic micropatterned surface.

    PubMed

    Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Bardaweel, Hamzeh K; Carron, Christopher J; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Brand, Oliver; Delplanque, Jean-Pierre; Davis, Cristina E

    2014-08-26

    Combination of two physical phenomena, capillary pressure gradient and wettability gradient, allows a simple two-step fabrication process that yields a reliable hydrophobic self-cleaning condenser surface. The surface is fabricated with specific microscopic topography and further treatment with a chemically inert low-surface-energy material. This process does not require growth of nanofeatures (nanotubes) or hydrophilic-hydrophobic patterning of the surface. Trapezoidal geometry of the microfeatures facilitates droplet transfer from the Wenzel to the Cassie state and reduces droplet critical diameter. The geometry of the micropatterns enhances local coalescence and directional movement for droplets with diameter much smaller than the radial length of the micropatterns. The hydrophobic self-cleaning micropatterned condenser surface prevents liquid film formation and promotes continuous dropwise condensation cycle. Upon dropwise condensation, droplets follow a designed wettability gradient created with micropatterns from the most hydrophobic to the least hydrophobic end of the surface. The surface has higher condensation efficiency, due to its directional self-cleaning property, than a plain hydrophobic surface. We explain the self-actuated droplet collection mechanism on the condenser surface and demonstrate experimentally the creation of an effective wettability gradient over a 6 mm radial distance. In spite of its fabrication simplicity, the fabricated surface demonstrates self-cleaning property, enhanced condensation performance, and reliability over time. Our work enables creation of a hydrophobic condenser surface with the directional self-cleaning property that can be used for collection of biological (chemical, environmental) aerosol samples or for condensation enhancement. PMID:25073014

  5. First continuous measurements of δ18O-CO2 in air with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardag, S. N.; Hammer, S.; Sabasch, M.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Levin, I.

    2015-02-01

    The continuous in situ measurement of δ18O in atmospheric CO2 opens a new door to differentiating between CO2 source and sink components with high temporal resolution. Continuous 13C-CO2 measurement systems have already been commercially available for some time, but until now, only few instruments have been able to provide a continuous measurement of the oxygen isotope ratio in CO2. Besides precise 13C/12C observations, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer is also able to measure the 18O / 16O ratio in CO2, but the precision and accuracy of the measurements have not yet been evaluated. Here we present a first analysis of δ18O-CO2 (and δ13C-CO2) measurements with the FTIR analyser in Heidelberg. We used Allan deviation to determine the repeatability of δ18O-CO2 measurements and found that it decreases from 0.25‰ for 10 min averages to about 0.1‰ after 2 h and remains at that value up to 24 h. We evaluated the measurement precision over a 10-month period (intermediate measurement precision) using daily working gas measurements and found that our spectrometer measured δ18O-CO2 to better than 0.3‰ at a temporal resolution of less than 10 min. The compatibility of our FTIR-spectrometric measurements to isotope-ratio mass-spectrometric (IRMS) measurements was determined by comparing FTIR measurements of cylinder gases and ambient air with IRMS measurements of flask samples, filled with gases of the same cylinders or collected from the same ambient air intake. Two-sample t tests revealed that, at the 0.01 significance level, the FTIR and the IRMS measurements do not differ significantly from each other and are thus compatible. We describe two weekly episodes of ambient air measurements, one in winter and one in summer, and discuss what potential insights and new challenges combined highly resolved CO2, δ13C-CO2 and δ18O-CO2 records may provide in terms of better understanding regional scale continental carbon exchange processes.

  6. Size and Velocity Characteristics of Droplets Generated by Thin Steel Slab Continuous Casting Secondary Cooling Air-Mist Nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minchaca M, J. I.; Castillejos E, A. H.; Acosta G, F. A.

    2011-06-01

    Direct spray impingement of high temperature surfaces, 1473 K to 973 K (1200 °C to 700 °C), plays a critical role in the secondary cooling of continuously cast thin steel slabs. It is known that the spray parameters affecting the local heat flux are the water impact flux w as well as the droplet velocity and size. However, few works have been done to characterize the last two parameters in the case of dense mists ( i.e., mists with w in the range of 2 to 90 L/m2s). This makes it difficult to rationalize how the nozzle type and its operating conditions must be selected to control the cooling process. In the present study, particle/droplet image analysis was used to determine the droplet size and velocity distributions simultaneously at various locations along the major axis of the mist cross section at a distance where the steel strand would stand. The measurements were carried out at room temperature for two standard commercial air-assisted nozzles of fan-discharge type operating over a broad range of conditions of practical interest. To achieve statistically meaningful samples, at least 6000 drops were analyzed at each location. Measuring the droplet size revealed that the number and volume frequency distributions were fitted satisfactorily by the respective log-normal and Nukiyama-Tanasawa distributions. The correlation of the parameters of the distribution functions with the water- and air-nozzle pressures allowed for reasonable estimation of the mean values of the size of the droplets generated. The ensemble of measurements across the mist axis showed that the relationship between the droplet velocity and the diameter exhibited a weak positive correlation. Additionally, increasing the water flow rate at constant air pressure caused a decrease in the proportion of the water volume made of finer droplets, whereas the volume proportion of faster droplets augmented until the water flow reached a certain value, after which it decreased. Diminishing the air

  7. Experimental und numerical investigations on cooling efficiency of Air-Mist nozzles on steel during continuous casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arth, G.; Taferner, M.; Bernhard, C.; Michelic, S.

    2016-07-01

    Cooling strategies in continuous casting of steel can vary from rapid cooling to slow cooling, mainly controlled by adjusting the amount of water sprayed onto the surface of the product. Inadequate adjustment however can lead to local surface undercooling or reheating, leading to surface and inner defects. This paper focuses on cooling efficiency of Air-Mist nozzles on casted steel and the experimental and numerical prediction of surface temperature distributions over the product width. The first part explains the determination of heat transfer coefficients (HTC) on laboratory scale, using a so called nozzle measuring stand (NMS). Based on measured water distributions and determined HTC's for air-mist nozzles using the NMS, surface temperatures are calculated by a transient 2D-model on a simple steel plate, explained in the second part of this paper. Simulations are carried out varying water impact density and spray water distribution, consequently influencing the local HTC distribution over the plate width. Furthermore, these results will be interpreted with regard to their consequence for surface and internal quality of the cast product. The results reveal the difficulty of correct adjustment of the amount of sprayed water, concurrent influencing water distribution and thus changing HTC distribution and surface temperature.

  8. Effects of continuous infusion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) into adipose tissue on glucose and fatty acid metabolism in lactating dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Late-lactation Holstein cows (n=9/treatment) were used to evaluate effects of TNF-alpha administration on glucose and fatty acid (FA) metabolism. Cows were blocked by feed intake and milk yield and randomly assigned within block to 1 of 3 treatments: control, TNF-alpha, and pair-fed control. Treatme...

  9. Prototype development and test results of a continuous ambient air monitoring system for hydrazine at the 10 ppb level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneghelli, Barry; Parrish, Clyde; Barile, Ron; Lueck, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A Hydrazine Vapor Area Monitor (HVAM) system is currently being field tested as a detector for the presence of hydrazine in ambient air. The MDA/Polymetron Hydrazine Analyzer has been incorporated within the HVAM system as the core detector. This analyzer is a three-electrode liquid analyzer typically used in boiler feed water applications. The HVAM system incorporates a dual-phase sample collection/transport method which simultaneously pulls ambient air samples containing hydrazine and a very dilute sulfuric acid solution (0.0001 M) down a length of 1/4 inch outside diameter (OD) tubing from a remote site to the analyzer. The hydrazine-laden dilute acid stream is separated from the air and the pH is adjusted by addition of a dilute caustic solution to a pH greater than 10.2 prior to analysis. Both the dilute acid and caustic used by the HVAM are continuously generated during system operation on an "as needed" basis by mixing a metered amount of concentrated acid/base with dilution water. All of the waste water generated by the analyzer is purified for reuse by Barnstead ion-exchange cartridges so that the entire system minimizes the generation of waste materials. The pumping of all liquid streams and mixing of the caustic solution and dilution water with the incoming sample are done by a single pump motor fitted with the appropriate mix of peristaltic pump heads. The signal to noise (S/N) ratio of the analyzer has been enhanced by adding a stirrer in the MDA liquid cell to provide mixing normally generated by the high liquid flow rate designed by the manufacturer. An onboard microprocessor continuously monitors liquid levels, sample vacuum, and liquid leak sensors, as well as handles communications and other system functions (such as shut down should system malfunctions or errors occur). The overall system response of the HVAM can be automatically checked at regular intervals by measuring the analyzer response to a metered amount of calibration standard injected

  10. Prototype development and test results of a continuous ambient air monitoring system for hydrazine at the 10 ppb level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meneghelli, Barry; Parrish, Clyde; Barile, Ron; Lueck, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    A Hydrazine Vapor Area Monitor (HVAM) system is currently being field tested as a detector for the presence of hydrazine in ambient air. The MDA/Polymetron Hydrazine Analyzer has been incorporated within the HVAM system as the core detector. This analyzer is a three-electrode liquid analyzer typically used in boiler feed water applications. The HVAM system incorporates a dual-phase sample collection/transport method which simultaneously pulls ambient air samples containing hydrazine and a very dilute sulfuric acid solution (0.0001 M) down a length of 1/4 inch outside diameter (OD) tubing from a remote site to the analyzer. The hydrazine-laden dilute acid stream is separated from the air and the pH is adjusted by addition of a dilute caustic solution to a pH greater than 10.2 prior to analysis. Both the dilute acid and caustic used by the HVAM are continuously generated during system operation on an "as needed" basis by mixing a metered amount of concentrated acid/base with dilution water. All of the waste water generated by the analyzer is purified for reuse by Barnstead ion-exchange cartridges so that the entire system minimizes the generation of waste materials. The pumping of all liquid streams and mixing of the caustic solution and dilution water with the incoming sample are done by a single pump motor fitted with the appropriate mix of peristaltic pump heads. The signal to noise (S/N) ratio of the analyzer has been enhanced by adding a stirrer in the MDA liquid cell to provide mixing normally generated by the high liquid flow rate designed by the manufacturer. An onboard microprocessor continuously monitors liquid levels, sample vacuum, and liquid leak sensors, as well as handles communications and other system functions (such as shut down should system malfunctions or errors occur). The overall system response of the HVAM can be automatically checked at regular intervals by measuring the analyzer response to a metered amount of calibration standard injected

  11. Simultaneous measurement of Rn and its progeny in cave air by liquid scintillation techniques and. cap alpha. -ray spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, H.; Kasai, A.; Matsunaga, T.

    1985-09-01

    To estimate the internal dose from Rn and its progeny, the working level month which is defined as exposure at one working level concentration for 170 h has been used traditionally. But concerning dose calculated for the inhalation of Rn and its progeny to the public, dose factors from individual nuclides were recommended. The approach using individual dose factors requires determination of the concentration of these individual nuclides. Thus a simultaneous measurement of Rn and its progeny was made in an enclosed cave, which is used for seismological observation, since the problem is most acute in an enclosed environment and the situation is not so complicated under such circumstances. Radon sampling by adsorption in organic solvent and in-situ ..cap alpha..-ray spectrometry of Rn progeny have been carried out in this cave. The internal dose by inhalation is estimated for the workers in this cave.

  12. Rapid analytical technique to identify alpha emitting isotopes in water, air-filters, urine, and solid matrices using a Frisch Grid detector.

    PubMed

    Scarpitta, Salvatore C; Miltenberger, Robert P; Gaschott, Robert; Carte, Nina

    2003-04-01

    A 5-inch-diameter Frisch Grid gas-proportional ionization chamber was utilized at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to rapidly characterize and quantify alpha-emitting actinides in unprocessed water, soil, air-filter, urine, and solid matrices. Instrument calibrations for the various matrices were performed by spiking representative samples with National Institute of Standards and Technology traceable isotopes of 230Th, 232U, 236Pu, and 243Am. Detection efficiencies were typically 15-20% for solid matrices (soil, concrete, filters, dry urine) and 45% for mass-less water samples. Instrument background over a 512-channel alpha-energy range of 3-8 MeV is very low at 0.01 cps. At optimum efficiency, minimum detectable levels of 0.56 mBq Kg(-1), 74 mBq L(-1) and 14.8 mBq filter(-1) were achievable for 40 x 10(-6) Kg soil, 1 x 10(-3) L tap water (or urine), and 4.5 cm diameter air-filter samples, respectively, each counted for 60 min. Data and spectra are presented showing the quality of results obtained using untreated samples obtained from the BNL Graphite Research Reactor Decommissioning Project. These samples contained Bq to MBq per gram amounts of (239,240)Pu, 241Am, and/or (234,235/238)U (as well as other beta/gamma emitters). Data and spectra are also presented for a very finely pulverized and homogeneous U.S. DOE/RESL soil reference standard (spiked with 239Pu, 241Am, and 233U) that was used to assess precision, accuracy, and reproducibility. Although this technique has its limitations, the advantages are (1) minimal sample preparation, (2) no separation chemistry required, (3) no chemical or hazardous waste generated, and (4) ability to immediately characterize and quantify alpha-emitting nuclides in most matrices. The benefits of this technique to the BNL/DOE Project Managers were rapid (1-2 d) turn-around times coupled with significant cost savings, as compared to commercial off-site analyses. PMID:12705448

  13. Prostaglandin release from isolated rabbit cerebral cortex micro-vessels--comparison of 6-keto PGF1 alpha and PGE2 release from micro-vessels incubated in 100% O2, room air and 95% N2:5% CO2.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A M; Gerritsen, M E

    1984-01-01

    Prostaglandin release from microvessels isolated from the rabbit cerebral cortex was determined under three different atmospheric conditions: 100% O2 ("O2") room air, and 95% N2:5% CO2 ("N2-CO2"). Initial studies with homogenates prepared from rabbit cerebral microvessels (RCMV) indicated two pathways of enzymatic PGH2 transformation, namely PGI2 synthase and GSH-dependent PGH-PGE isomerase. We measured the release of the principal products of these pathways, 6-keto PGF1 alpha and PGE2 from freshly prepared RCMV. The release of 6-keto PGF1 alpha exceeded that of PGE2 in all three protocols. RCMV incubated in "N2-CO2" exhibited a reduction in the release of 6-keto PGF1 alpha compared to room air or "O2" incubated RCMV, evident at 30-60 min of incubation. No significant differences in the release of PGE2 were observed among the three incubation protocols. In all three incubation protocols the ratio of 6-keto PGF1 alpha to PGE2 did not differ during the initial 10 minutes of each incubation. After 30 to 60 min of incubation, this ratio did not change from the "O2" or room air treated RCMV, but decreased significantly for the "N2-CO2" treated group. To determine the reversibility of the apparent "N2-CO2" induced decline in 6-keto PGF1 alpha release, microvessels were removed from the nitrogen atmosphere and incubated in room air. Release was measured during the initial 10 min following reintroduction to room air and was compared to room air pretreated controls treated in an identical manner.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6431653

  14. Discontinuous and Continuous Indoor Air Quality Monitoring in Homes with Fireplaces or Wood Stoves as Heating System

    PubMed Central

    de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Dambruoso, Paolo Rosario; Di Gilio, Alessia; Di Palma, Valerio; Marzocca, Annalisa; Tutino, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Around 50% of the world’s population, particularly in developing countries, uses biomass as one of the most common fuels. Biomass combustion releases a considerable amount of various incomplete combustion products, including particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The paper presents the results of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) measurements in six houses equipped with wood burning stoves or fireplaces as heating systems. The houses were monitored for 48-h periods in order to collect PM10 samples and measure PAH concentrations. The average, the maximum and the lowest values of the 12-h PM10 concentration were 68.6 μg/m3, 350.7 μg/m3 and 16.8 μg/m3 respectively. The average benzo[a]pyrene 12-h concentration was 9.4 ng/m3, while the maximum and the minimum values were 24.0 ng/m3 and 1.5 ng/m3, respectively. Continuous monitoring of PM10, PAHs, Ultra Fine Particle (UFP) and Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) was performed in order to study the progress of pollution phenomena due to biomass burning, their trends and contributions to IAQ. The results show a great heterogeneity of impacts on IAQ in terms of magnitude and behavior of the considered pollutants’ concentrations. This variability is determined by not only different combustion technologies or biomass quality, but overall by different ignition mode, feeding and flame management, which can also be different for the same house. Moreover, room dimensions and ventilation were significant factors for pollution dispersion. The increase of PM10, UFP and PAH concentrations, during lighting, was always detected and relevant. Continuous monitoring allowed singling out contributions of other domestic sources of considered pollutants such as cooking and cigarettes. Cooking contribution produced an impact on IAQ in same cases higher than that of the biomass heating system. PMID:26712773

  15. Development of Alternative Continuing Educational Systems for Preventing the Technological Obsolescence of Air Force Scientists and Engineers. Volume 2. Survey of Continuing Educational Programs Within Selected Industries and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisez, Louis; Slebodnick, Edward B.

    Survey data obtained from industries and universities are summarized and analyzed from the standpoint of the Air Force's requirement for updating its military scientists and engineers.It is concluded that the wide range of innovative methods of continuing education (CE), in use or in development within selected industries and universities, can be…

  16. Long-term continuous measurement of near-road air pollution in Las Vegas: Seasonal variability in traffic emissions impact on local air quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess air pollution along roadways is an issue of public health concern and motivated a long-term measurement effort established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in Las Vegas, Nevada. Measurements of air pollutants – including black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO),...

  17. Independent Evaluation of Air Filter Media from Chornobyl

    SciTech Connect

    MD Hoover; AF Fencl; GJ Vargo

    1999-12-21

    An independent evaluation was performed to assess the morphology, pressure drop characteristics, alpha spectroscopy characteristics, and collection efficiency of an air sampling filter media and two types of aerosol face masks provided from Chernobyl by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The evaluation included characterizing the filter morphology by scqg electron microscopy; measuring the filter pressure drop as a function of air flowrate; evaluating the spectroscopy characteristics of the filter for alpha-emitting radionuclides by sampling ambient radon progeny aerosols in an Eberline Alpha-6A alpha continuous air monitor; determining the particle collection efficiency of the filter media for 0.3 {micro}m aerodynamic diameter monodisperse particles at 1 and 2 cfm; and comparing the apparent construction, durability, and performance similarities of the filter media to other media commonly used for monitoring airborne alpha-emitting radionuclides.

  18. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  19. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  20. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  1. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  2. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  3. Development of Alternative Continuing Educational Systems for Preventing the Technological Obsolescence of Air Force Scientists and Engineers. Volume 1. Basic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slebodnick, Edward B.; And Others

    Volume 1 of the study reports a work effort to define and give guidelines for the acquisition of cost-effective alternative continuing education (CE) systems to prevent the technological obsolescence of Air Force military scientific and engineering officer personnel. A detailed background survey of the problem was conducted using questionnaires,…

  4. Kinetics of the transformation from {alpha}{r_arrow}{gamma} during continuous heating and cooling in a Ti-47.5 at.% Al alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Veeraraghavan, D.; Vasudevan, V.K.

    1995-12-31

    The {alpha}{r_arrow}{gamma} transformation in a Ti-47.5 At.% Al alloys was studied by a novel computer interfaced control-cum-data acquisition technique. In situ, real time, high speed simultaneous measurements of resistivity and temperature were made in the system designed and constructed for this purpose. The experiments were conducted in high vacuum. The samples were heated to the completely {alpha}-region by controlled direct resistance heating and cooled at various rates utilizing a varying helium gas jet quench. Temperature and resistivity changes were monitored during heating and cooling and correlated with corresponding phase/microstructural changes. The results have shown that the {gamma} phase is characterized by a low resistivity ({approximately}50 {micro}{Omega}-cm at room temperature), whereas both {alpha} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases have high and nearly constant resistivities ({approximately}190 to 200{micro}{Omega}-cm). Because of the large difference in resistivities of the {alpha} and {gamma} phases, large and measurable changes in resistivity can be observed when one of these phases transforms to the other. In the Ti-47.5 Al alloy, the lamellar {gamma} morphology was observed at slower cooling rates, the feathery/massive reaction at intermediate rates and a massive morphology at high cooling rates. Results of the transformation start and completion temperatures for the various reactions as a function of cooling rate are presented. The growth rate of the massive product was determined to vary from 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} to 6.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} m/s with increasing undercooling.

  5. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, Richard D.; MacArthur, Duncan W.

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic detector for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure.

  6. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, R.D.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-08-27

    An electrostatic detector is disclosed for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure. 6 figs.

  7. Evaluation of effect of continuous positive airway pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass on cardiac de-airing after open heart surgery in randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Mojtaba; Massodnia, Nasim; Mirdehghan, Abolghasem; Bigdelian, Hamid; Massoumi, Gholamreza; Alavi, Zeinab Rafieipour

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiac and pulmonary veins de-airing are of the most important steps during open heart surgery. This study evaluates the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on air trapping in pulmonary veins and on quality of de-airing procedure. Materials and Methods: This randomized prospective double blind clinical trial conducted on 40 patients. In the control group: During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the ventilator was turned off and adjustable pressure limit (APL) valve was placed in SPONT position. In CPAP group: During CPB, after turning the ventilator off, the flow of oxygen flow was maintained at the rate of 0.5 L/min and the APL valve was placed in MAN position on 20 mbar. During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) weaning, the patients were observed for air bubbles in left atrium by using transesophageal echocardiography. Results: The mean de-airing time after the start of mechanical ventilation in CPAP group (n = 20) was significantly lower than the control group (n = 20) (P = 0.0001). The mean time of the left atrium air bubbles occupation as mild (P = 0.004), moderate (P = 0.0001) and severe (P = 0.015) grading was significantly lower in CPAP group. Conclusions: By CPAP at 20 mbar during CPB in open heart surgery, de-airing process can be down in better quality and in significantly shorter time. PMID:24949307

  8. Using continuous measurements of near-surface atmospheric water vapor isotopes to document snow-air interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Winkler, Renato; Satow, Kazuhide; Prie, Frederic; Bayou, Nicolas; Brun, Eric; Cuffey, Kurt; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Dumont, Marie; Guillevic, Myriam; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Landais, Amaelle; Popp, Trevor; Risi, Camille; Steffen, Konrad; Stenni, Barbara; Sveinbjornsdottir, Arny

    2014-05-01

    Water stable isotope data from Greenland ice cores provide key paleoclimatic information. However, post-depositional processes linked with snow metamorphism remain poorly documented. For this purpose, a monitoring of the isotopic composition δ18O and δD at several height levels (up to 13 meter) of near-surface water vapor, precipitation and snow in the first 0.5 cm from the surface has been conducted during three summers (2010-2012) at NEEM, NW Greenland. We observe a clear diurnal cycle in both the value and gradient of the isotopic composition of the water vapor above the snow surface. The diurnal amplitude in δD is found to be ~15‰. The diurnal isotopic composition follows the absolute humidity cycle. This indicates a large flux of vapor from the snow surface to the atmosphere during the daily warming and reverse flux during the daily cooling. The isotopic measurements of the flux of water vapor above the snow give new insights into the post depositional processes of the isotopic composition of the snow. During nine 1-5 days periods between precipitation events, our data demonstrate parallel changes of δ18O and d-excess in surface snow and near-surface vapor. The changes in δ18O of the vapor are similar or larger than those of the snow δ18O. It is estimated using the CROCUS snow model that 6 to 20% of the surface snow mass is exchanged with the atmosphere. In our data, the sign of surface snow isotopic changes is not related to the sign or magnitude of sublimation or deposition. Comparisons with atmospheric models show that day-to-day variations in near-surface vapor isotopic composition are driven by synoptic variations and changes in air mass trajectories and distillation histories. We suggest that, in-between precipitation events, changes in the surface snow isotopic composition are driven by these changes in near-surface vapor isotopic composition. This is consistent with an estimated 60% mass turnover of surface snow per day driven by snow

  9. Development of a local continuous sampling probe for the equivalence air-fuel ratio measurement. Application to spark ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guibert, P.; Dicocco, E.

    This paper is a contribution to the development of an original technique for measuring the in-cylinder equivalence air-fuel ratio. The main objective was to construct an instrument able to furnish instantaneous values of hydrocarbon concentration for many consecutive cycles at a definite location, especially at the spark plug location. The probe is based on a hot-wire-like apparatus, but involves catalytic oxidation on the wire surface in order to be sensitive to the hydrocarbon concentration. In this paper, we present the different steps needed to develop and validate the probe. The first step focuses on the geometric configuration to simplify as much as possible the mass transfer phenomena on the wire. The second step is a parametric study to evaluate the sensitivity, confidence and lifetime of the wire. By physical analysis, we propose a relationship between the electrical signal and the air-fuel equivalence ratio of the sampled gases. The third step is the application of the probe to in-cylinder motored engine measurements, which confirms the ability of the technique to characterise, quantitatively, the homogeneity of the air-fuel mixture, especially during the compression stroke. This work points out that the global sensitivity is estimated at 4V per unit of equivalence air-fuel ratio and the response time is estimated at about 400μs. The equivalence air-fuel ratio range is from pure air to 1.2. Experiments show that it is necessary to calibrate the system before use because of the existence of multiple catalysis states. The probe presents advantages associated with its simplicity, its low cost and its direct engine application without any modifications.

  10. Alpha Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Term that is sometimes used to describe a helium nucleus, a positively charged particle that consists of two protons and two neutrons, bound together. Alpha particles, which were discovered by Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) in 1898, are emitted by atomic nuclei that are undergoing alpha radioactivity. During this process, an unstable heavy nucleus spontaneously emits an alpha particle and transmut...

  11. 75 FR 60493 - Advisory Circular 120-79A, Developing and Implementing an Air Carrier Continuing Analysis and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular 120-79A, Developing and Implementing an Air Carrier... of Availability. SUMMARY: This notice announces the issuance and availability of Advisory Circular...''. This new advisory circular (AC) updates AC 120-79 originally issued on April 21, 2003. This new...

  12. Application of continuous seismic-reflection techniques to delineate paleochannels beneath the Neuse River at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardinell, Alex P.

    1999-01-01

    A continuous seismic-reflection profiling survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Neuse River near the Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station during July 7-24, 1998. Approximately 52 miles of profiling data were collected during the survey from areas northwest of the Air Station to Flanner Beach and southeast to Cherry Point. Positioning of the seismic lines was done by using an integrated navigational system. Data from the survey were used to define and delineate paleochannel alignments under the Neuse River near the Air Station. These data also were correlated with existing surface and borehole geophysical data, including vertical seismic-profiling velocity data collected in 1995. Sediments believed to be Quaternary in age were identified at varying depths on the seismic sections as undifferentiated reflectors and lack the lateral continuity of underlying reflectors believed to represent older sediments of Tertiary age. The sediments of possible Quaternary age thicken to the southeast. Paleochannels of Quaternary age and varying depths were identified beneath the Neuse River estuary. These paleochannels range in width from 870 feet to about 6,900 feet. Two zones of buried paleochannels were identified in the continuous seismic-reflection profiling data. The eastern paleochannel zone includes two large superimposed channel features identified during this study and in re-interpreted 1995 land seismic-reflection data. The second paleochannel zone, located west of the first paleochannel zone, contains several small paleochannels near the central and south shore of the Neuse River estuary between Slocum Creek and Flanner Beach. This second zone of channel features may be continuous with those mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1995 using land seismic-reflection data on the southern end of the Air Station. Most of the channels were mapped at the Quaternary-Tertiary sediment boundary. These channels appear to have been cut into the older sediments

  13. Experimental study of heat transfer enhancement in solar air heater with different angle of attack of V-down continuous ribs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istanto, Tri; Danardono, Dominicus; Yaningsih, Indri; Wijayanta, Agung Tri

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, an experimental study on the effect of angle attack in V-down continuous ribs on heat transfer and friction factor in an artificially roughened air heater duct is presented. The electric heater with a constant heat flux as a simulation of the indoor testing solar air heater is used to heat the roughened part of rectangular duct while other parts were insulated. The system and operating conditions were used to decide the range of parameters for the study. The ratio of the width to height of the duct (W/H) was 12, the relative roughness pitch (p/e) was 10, the relative roughness height (e/Dh) was 0.033 and the angle of attack of flow (α) was 30-80°. The air flow rate corresponded to Reynolds number between 3500 -10,000. The result of heat transfer and friction factor had been compared to those for smooth duct under similar flow and thermal boundary condition. The thermo-hydraulic performance also had been considered. As a result, the maximum enhancement of Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor(f) were 2.34 and 2.45 times, respectively. For each variation of angle attack of flow, the thermo-hydraulic performance has been compared and the result shows that a V-down continuous rib with the angle of attack of flow as 60° gave the best thermo-hydraulic performance.

  14. DRY/WET PERFORMANCE OF A PLATE-FIN AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGER WITH CONTINUOUS CORRUGATED FINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes work to (1) determine experimentally the performance and operating characteristics of a plate-fin heat exchanger during dry/wet or 'deluge' operation and (2) continue developing the deluge heat/mass transfer model. This work supports the improvement of power ...

  15. Continuous scanning of the mobility and size distribution of charged clusters and nanometer particles in atmospheric air and the Balanced Scanning Mobility Analyzer BSMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammet, H.

    2006-12-01

    Measuring of charged nanometer particles in atmospheric air is a routine task in research on atmospheric electricity, where these particles are called the atmospheric ions. An aspiration condenser is the most popular instrument for measuring atmospheric ions. Continuous scanning of a mobility distribution is possible when the aspiration condenser is connected as an arm of a balanced bridge. Transfer function of an aspiration condenser is calculated according to the measurements of geometric dimensions, air flow rate, driving voltage, and electric current. The most complicated phase of the calibration is the estimation of the inlet loss of ions due to the Brownian deposition. The available models of ion deposition on the protective inlet screen and the inlet control electrofilter have the uncertainty of about 20%. To keep the uncertainty of measurements low the adsorption should not exceed a few tens of percent. The online conversion of the mobility distribution to the size distribution and a correct reduction of inlet losses are possible when air temperature and pressure are measured simultaneously with the mobility distribution. Two instruments called the Balanced Scanning Mobility Analyzers (BSMA) were manufactured and tested in routine atmospheric measurements. The concentration of atmospheric ions of the size of about a few nanometers is very low and a high air flow rate is required to collect enough of ion current. The air flow of 52 l/s exceeds the air flow in usual aerosol instruments by 2-3 orders of magnitude. The high flow rate reduces the time of ion passage to 60 ms and the heating of air in an analyzer to 0.2 K, which suppresses a possible transformation of ions inside the instrument. The mobility range of the BSMA of 0.032-3.2 cm 2 V - 1 s - 1 is logarithmically uniformly divided into 16 fractions. The size distribution is presented by 12 fractions in the diameter range of 0.4-7.5 nm. The measurement noise of a fraction concentration is typically

  16. Assessment of 17{alpha}-ethinylestradiol effects and underlying mechanisms in a continuous, multigeneration exposure of the Chinese rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus)

    SciTech Connect

    Zha Jinmiao; Sun Liwei; Zhou Yiqi; Spear, Philip A.; Ma, Mei; Wang Zijian

    2008-02-01

    17{alpha}-Ethinylestradiol (EE{sub 2}) is a synthetic estrogen used primarily in birth control pills and in hormone replacement therapy. Owing to its occurrence in surface waters at concentrations frequently greater than 1 ng/l and its projected future use, EE{sub 2} is expected to pose a significant risk to aquatic organisms. This study was conducted to obtain long-term exposure data necessary for the establishment of water quality criteria and to investigate mechanisms associated with toxic effects. In a multigeneration experiment, Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) were constantly exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of the synthetic estrogen EE{sub 2}. Mortality, deformities, reproductive parameters, plasma vitellogenin and histopathology were assessed. The results showed that, in the F{sub 0} generation, all endpoints were significantly affected at concentrations higher than 0.2 ng/l EE{sub 2}. No F{sub 1} phenotypic males developed to maturity at 0.2 ng/l and, when adult females of this exposure group were crossed with unexposed males, no F{sub 2} fertile eggs were produced. Kidney histopathology and ultrastructure suggest anomalies possibly associated with increased vitellogenin accumulation. We concluded that the reproduction of the F{sub 1} minnows was completely inhibited at the lowest concentration tested, 0.2 ng/l EE{sub 2}, a concentration frequently detected in surface waters. Growth effects may be related to increased energy requirements including the energy used in VTG synthesis. Reproductive effects are presumably associated with male feminization and the occurrence of testis-ova in males; however, ovarian degeneration observed in females may also have contributed to reproductive failure.

  17. Design and performance of a Nafion dryer for continuous operation at CO2 and CH4 air monitoring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welp, L. R.; Keeling, R. F.; Weiss, R. F.; Paplawsky, W.; Heckman, S.

    2013-05-01

    In preparation for routine deployment in a network of greenhouse gas monitoring stations, we have designed and tested a simple method for drying ambient air to near or below 0.2% (2000 ppm) mole fraction H2O using a Nafion dryer. The inlet system was designed for use with cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) analyzers such as the Picarro model G2301 that measure H2O in addition to their principal analytes, in this case CO2 and CH4. These analyzers report dry-gas mixing ratios without drying the sample by measuring H2O mixing ratio at the same frequency as the main analytes, and then correcting for the dilution and peak broadening effects of H2O on the mixing ratios of the other analytes measured in moist air. However, it is difficult to accurately validate the water vapor correction in the field. By substantially lowering the amount of H2O in the sample, uncertainties in the applied water vapor corrections can be reduced by an order of magnitude or more, thus eliminating the need to determine instrument-specific water vapor correction coefficients and to verify the stability over time. Our Nafion drying inlet system takes advantage of the extra capacity of the analyzer pump to redirect 30% of the dry gas exiting the Nafion to the outer shell side of the dryer and has no consumables. We tested the Nafion dryer against a cryotrap (-97 °C) method for removing H2O and found that in wet-air tests, the Nafion reduces the CO2 dry-gas mixing ratios of the sample gas by as much as 0.1 ± 0.01 ppm due to leakage across the membrane. The effect on CH4 was smaller and varied within ± 0.2 ppb, with an approximate uncertainty of 0.1 ppb. The Nafion-induced CO2 bias is partially offset by sending the dry reference gases through the Nafion dryer as well. The residual bias due to the impact of moisture differences between sample and reference gas on the permeation through the Nafion was approximately -0.05 ppm for CO2 and varied within ± 0.2 ppb for CH4. The uncertainty of this

  18. Influence of the continuous and dispersed phases on the symmetry of a gas turbine air-blast atomizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonell, V. G.; Samuelsen, G. S.

    1990-01-01

    Current trends in liquid-fueled practical combustion systems are leaving less tolerance for fuel injection deficiencies such as poor spray field symmetry. The present paper evaluates the symmetry of the flowfield produced by a practical airblast atomizer. Specifically, the influence of both the continuous phase and dispersed phase on the spray field symmetry is assessed. In the present case, asymmetry in volume flux is associated principally with disparities in the injection of the dispersed phase, which is manifested by a maldistribution of larger drops. Asymmetries observed in the continuous phase without the dispersed phase are reduced in magnitude by the presence of the dispersed phase, but still contribute to asymmetry in radial spread of the dispersed phase.

  19. Production of Chlorella vulgaris as a source of essential fatty acids in a tubular photobioreactor continuously fed with air enriched with CO2 at different concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Montoya, Erika Y; Casazza, Alessandro A; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Perego, Patrizia; Converti, Attilio; de Carvalho, João C Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    To reduce CO2 emissions and simultaneously produce biomass rich in essential fatty acids, Chlorella vulgaris CCAP 211 was continuously grown in a tubular photobioreactor using air alone or air enriched with CO2 as the sole carbon source. While on one hand, nitrogen-limited conditions strongly affected biomass growth, conversely, they almost doubled its lipid fraction. Under these conditions using air enriched with 0, 2, 4, 8, and 16% (v/v) CO2 , the maximum biomass concentration was 1.4, 5.8, 6.6, 6.8, and 6.4 gDB L(-1) on a dry basis, the CO2 consumption rate 62, 380, 391, 433, and 430 mgCO2 L(-1) day(-1) , and the lipid productivity 3.7, 23.7, 24.8, 29.5, and 24.4 mg L(-1) day(-1) , respectively. C. vulgaris was able to grow effectively using CO2 -enriched air, but its chlorophyll a (3.0-3.5 g 100gDB (-1) ), chlorophyll b (2.6-3.0 g 100gDB (-1) ), and lipid contents (10.7-12.0 g 100gDB (-1) ) were not significantly influenced by the presence of CO2 in the air. Most of the fatty acids in C. vulgaris biomass were of the saturated series, mainly myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids, but a portion of no less than 45% consisted of unsaturated fatty acids, and about 80% of these were high added-value essential fatty acids belonging to the ω3 and ω6 series. These results highlight that C. vulgaris biomass could be of great importance for human health when used as food additive or for functional food production. PMID:24532479

  20. Design and performance of a Nafion dryer for continuous operation at CO2 and CH4 air monitoring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welp, L. R.; Keeling, R. F.; Weiss, R. F.; Paplawsky, W.; Heckman, S.

    2012-08-01

    In preparation for the routine deployment of the Earth Networks greenhouse gas monitoring network, we have designed and tested a simple method for drying ambient air to below 0.2% mole fraction H2O using a Nafion dryer. The inlet was designed for use with a Picarro model G2301 cavity ring down spectrometer (CRDS) CO2/CH4/H2O analyzer. The analyzer measures water vapor mixing ratio at the same frequency as CO2 and CH4 and then corrects for the dilution and peak broadening effects of H2O on the CO2 and CH4 mixing ratios. This analyzer is remarkably stable and performs well on water vapor correction tests, but there is potentially an added benefit of reducing the dependence on the H2O correction for long term field measurement programs. Substantially lowering the amount of H2O in the sample can reduce uncertainties in the applied H2O corrections by an order of magnitude or more, and eliminate the need to determine an instrument-specific H2O correction factor and to verify its stability over time. Our Nafion drying inlet system takes advantage of the extra capacity of the analyzer pump to redirect 30% of the dry gas exiting the Nafion to the outer shell side of the dryer and has no consumables. We tested the Nafion dryer against a cryotrap (-95 °C) method for removing H2O and found that it does not significantly alter the CO2 and CH4 dry mixing ratios of the sample gas. Systematic differences between the drying methods were at the level of 0.05 ppm in CO2 and 0.1 ppb in CH4 for the wet-air tests, well within the WMO compatibility guidelines.

  1. Water- and Air-Quality Monitoring of the Sweetwater Reservoir Watershed, San Diego County, California-Phase One Results, Continued, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Foreman, William T.; Sidhu, Jagdeep S.; Majewski, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sweetwater Authority, began a study to assess the overall health of the Sweetwater watershed with respect to chemical contamination. The study included regular sampling of air and water at Sweetwater Reservoir for chemical contaminants, including volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, and major and trace elements. Background water samples were collected at Loveland Reservoir for volatile organic compounds and pesticides. The purpose of this study was to monitor changes in contaminant composition and concentration in the air and water resulting from the construction and operation of State Route 125 near Sweetwater Reservoir. To accomplish this, the study was divided into two phases. Phase One sampling was designed to establish baseline conditions for target compounds in terms of detection frequency and concentration in air and water. Phase Two sampling is planned to continue at the established monitoring sites during and after construction of State Route 125 to assess the chemical impact this roadway alignment project may have on the water quality in the reservoir. In addition to the ongoing data collection, several special studies were initiated to assess the occurrence of specific chemicals of concern, such as low-use pesticides, trace metals, and wastewater compounds. This report describes the study design, and the sampling and analytical methods, and presents the results for the second and third years of the study (October 1999 to September 2001). Data collected during the first year of sampling (October 1998 to September 1999) were published in 2002.

  2. Reactions of OH with. alpha. -pinene and. beta. -pinene in air: Estimate of global CO production from the atmosphere oxidation of terpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Hatakeyama, Shiro; Izumi, Katsuyuki; Fukuyama, Tsutomu; Akimoto, Hajime; Washida, Nobuaki )

    1991-01-20

    Reactions of OH with {alpha}-pinene and {beta}-pinene were studied for the purpose of obtaining the basic data to estimate the emission rate of CO from the photooxidation of terpenes in the atmosphere. In the presence of NO the main product was pinonaldehyde and 6,6-dimethylbicyclo(3.1.1)heptan-2-one from {alpha}- and {beta}-pinene, respectively, and the yield was 56{plus minus}4 and 79{plus minus}8%, respectively. In the absence of NO the yield was remarkably lower, and the yield of organic aerosols was enhanced. For {alpha}-pinene 56 {plus minus} 3% was obtained as a yield of aerosols on the carbon number basis. Gross annual emission of CO from the reactions of OH with terpenes was estimated to be 22 Tg C/yr (50 Tg CO/yr) by regarding {alpha}-pinene as the representative of terpenes, on the basis of the annual emission rate of terpenes, estimated lifetime of pinenes in the atmosphere, the apparent rate constant for the intermediate to form CO, and the estimated yield of CO from the secondary oxidation of pinonaldehyde. The ultimate yield of CO from the tropospheric oxidation of terpenes (including both ozone and OH reactions) was estimated to be 20% on the carbon number basis, and the total annual emission of CO was evaluated to be 96 Tg C/yr (222 Tg CO/yr).

  3. Alpha Thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... an apparently normal individual has a child with hemoglobin H disease or alpha thalassemia minor. It can ... gene on one chromosome 25% 25% 25% 25% hemoglobin H disease there is a 25% chance with ...

  4. Water- and Air-Quality Monitoring of Sweetwater Reservoir Watershed, San Diego County, California - Phase One Results Continued, 2001-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Foreman, William T.; Morita, Andrew; Majewski, Michael S.

    2008-01-01

    In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sweetwater Authority, began a study to monitor water, air, and sediment at the Sweetwater and Loveland Reservoirs in San Diego County, California. The study includes regular sampling of water and air at Sweetwater Reservoir for chemical constituents, including volatile organic compounds (VOC), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), pesticides, and major and trace elements. The purpose of this study is to monitor changes in contaminant composition and concentration during the construction and operation of State Route 125. To accomplish this, the study was divided into two phases. Phase One sampling (water years 1998-2004) determined baseline conditions for the detection frequency and the concentrations of target compounds in air and water. Phase Two sampling (starting water year 2005) continues at selected monitoring sites during and after construction of State Route 125 to assess the chemical impact this roadway alignment may have on water quality in the reservoir. Water samples were collected for VOCs and pesticides at Loveland Reservoir during Phase One and will be collected during Phase Two for comparison purposes. Air samples collected to monitor changes in VOCs, PAHs, and pesticides were analyzed by adapting methods used to analyze water samples. Bed-sediment samples have been and will be collected three times during the study; at the beginning of Phase One, at the start of Phase Two, and near the end of the study. In addition to the ongoing data collection, several special studies were initiated to assess the occurrence of specific chemicals of concern, such as trace metals, anthropogenic indicator compounds, and pharmaceuticals. This report describes the study design, and the sampling and analytical methods, and presents data from water and air samples collected during the fourth and fifth years of Phase One of the study (October 2001 to September 2003). Data collected during the first three

  5. Corn leaf nitrate reductase - A nontoxic alternative to cadmium for photometric nitrate determinations in water samples by air-segmented continuous-flow analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, C.J.; Fischer, A.E.; Campbell, W.H.; Campbell, E.R.

    2002-01-01

    Development, characterization, and operational details of an enzymatic, air-segmented continuous-flow analytical method for colorimetric determination of nitrate + nitrite in natural-water samples is described. This method is similar to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 353.2 and U.S. Geological Survey method 1-2545-90 except that nitrate is reduced to nitrite by soluble nitrate reductase (NaR, EC 1.6.6.1) purified from corn leaves rather than a packed-bed cadmium reactor. A three-channel, air-segmented continuous-flow analyzer-configured for simultaneous determination of nitrite (0.020-1.000 mg-N/L) and nitrate + nitrite (0.05-5.00 mg-N/L) by the nitrate reductase and cadmium reduction methods-was used to characterize analytical performance of the enzymatic reduction method. At a sampling rate of 90 h-1, sample interaction was less than 1% for all three methods. Method detection limits were 0.001 mg of NO2- -N/L for nitrite, 0.003 mg of NO3-+ NO2- -N/L for nitrate + nitrite by the cadmium-reduction method, and 0.006 mg of NO3- + NO2- -N/L for nitrate + nitrite by the enzymatic-reduction method. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite by both methods was greater than 95% complete over the entire calibration range. The difference between the means of nitrate + nitrite concentrations in 124 natural-water samples determined simultaneously by the two methods was not significantly different from zero at the p = 0.05 level.

  6. Electric field variations measured continuously in free air over a conductive thin zone in the tilted Lias-epsilon black shales near Osnabrück, Northwest Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurk, M.; Bosch, F. P.; Tougiannidis, N.

    2013-04-01

    Common studies on the static electric field distribution over a conductivity anomaly use the self-potential method. However, this method is time consuming and requires nonpolarizable electrodes to be placed in the ground. Moreover, the information gained by this method is restricted to the horizontal variations of the electric field. To overcome the limitation in the self-potential technique, we conducted a field experiment using a non conventional technique to assess the static electric field over a conductivity anomaly. We use two metallic potential probes arranged on an insulated boom with a separation of 126 cm. When placed into the electric field of the free air, a surface charge will be induced on each probe trying to equalize with the potential of the surrounding atmosphere. The use of a plasma source at both probes facilitated continuous and quicker measurement of the electric field in the air. The present study shows first experimental measurements with a modified potential probe technique (MPP) along a 600-meter-long transect to demonstrate the general feasibility of this method for studying the static electric field distribution over shallow conductivity anomalies. Field measurements were carried out on a test site on top of the Bramsche Massif near Osnabrück (Northwest Germany) to benefit from a variety of available near surface data over an almost vertical conductivity anomaly. High resolution self-potential data served in a numerical analysis to estimate the expected individual components of the electric field vector. During the experiment we found more anomalies in the vertical and horizontal components of the electric field than self-potential anomalies. These contrasting findings are successfully cross-validated with conventional near surface geophysical methods. Among these methods, we used self-potential, radiomagnetotelluric, electric resistivity tomography and induced polarization data to derive 2D conductivity models of the subsurface in

  7. Effects of continuous phonation on /sup 133/xenon-inhalation air curves (of the kind used in deriving regional cerebral blood flow)

    SciTech Connect

    Formby, C.; Thomas, R.G.; Brown, W.S. Jr.; Halsey, J.H. Jr.

    1987-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) may be measured with inhalation techniques that use end-expired values of radioactivity to estimate the isotope concentration in arterial blood. These end-expired data are used as an input function in a mathematical equation to derive rCBF. End-expired air is assumed normally to be in equilibrium with the arterial blood at the alveolar surface of the lung during regular (passive) breathing; this assumption may not be valid during continuous phonation. We therefore have analyzed breathing (inhalation/exhalation) patterns and end-expired radioactivity (/sup 133/Xe) during (1) speaking, (2) singing, and (3) humming of the national anthem, and also during (4) passive breathing. Statistically significant differences in breathing patterns were measured between a group of nonmusicians and two groups of musicians (singers) during the phonation tasks: The nonmusicians breathed more often (and more rapidly) and exhibited less variability in their breathing patterns than did the musicians. Notwithstanding these differences, the shapes of smoothed functions derived from the end-expired values were not influenced appreciably during phonation (except possibly during talking). The latter finding suggests that estimates of rCBF derived with these data should not be confounded seriously because of the continuous phonation.

  8. The effects of continuous phonation on 133xenon-inhalation air curves (of the kind used in deriving regional cerebral blood flow).

    PubMed

    Formby, C; Thomas, R G; Brown, W S; Halsey, J H

    1987-07-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) may be measured with inhalation techniques that use end-expired values of radioactivity to estimate the isotope concentration in arterial blood. These end-expired data are used as an input function in a mathematical equation to derive rCBF. End-expired air is assumed normally to be in equilibrium with the arterial blood at the alveolar surface of the lung during regular (passive) breathing; this assumption may not be valid during continuous phonation. We therefore have analyzed breathing (inhalation/exhalation) patterns and end-expired radioactivity (133Xe) during (1) speaking, (2) singing, and (3) humming of the national anthem, and also during (4) passive breathing. Statistically significant differences in breathing patterns were measured between a group of nonmusicians and two groups of musicians (singers) during the phonation tasks: The nonmusicians breathed more often (and more rapidly) and exhibited less variability in their breathing patterns than did the musicians. Notwithstanding these differences, the shapes of smoothed functions derived from the end-expired values were not influenced appreciably during phonation (except possibly during talking). The latter finding suggests that estimates of rCBF derived with these data should not be confounded seriously because of the continuous phonation. PMID:3620907

  9. Ultrawide continuously tunable 1.55-μm vertical air-cavity wavelength-selective elements for VCSELs using micromachined electrostatic actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillmer, Hartmut H.; Daleiden, Juergen; Prott, Cornelia; Roemer, Friedhard; Irmer, Soeren; Ataro, Edwin; Tarraf, Amer; Gutermuth, D.; Kommallein, I.; Strassner, Martin

    2003-08-01

    Surface-micromachined 1.55μm vertical-resonator-based devices, capable of wide, continuous, monotonic and kink-free tuning are designed, technologically implemented and characterized. Tuning is achieved by mechanically actuating one or several membranes in a vertical resonator including two ultra-highly reflective DBR mirrors. The tuning is controlled by a single parameter (actuation voltage). The two different layers composing the mirrors reveal a very strong refractive index contrast. Filters including InP/air-gap DBR's (3.5 periods) using GaInAs sacrificial layers reveal a continuous tuning of up to 9% of the absolute wavelength. Varying a reverse voltage (U=0 .. -3.2V) between the membranes, a tuning range up to 142nm was obtained by electrostatic actuation. The correlation of the wavelength and the applied voltage is accurately reproducible without any hysteresis. Theoretical model calculations are performed for symmetric and asymmetric device structures, varying layer thickness and compositions. Models of highly sophisticated color tuning can be found in nature, e.g. in tunable spectral light filtering by trogon and butterfly wings. Bionics transfers the principles of success of nature into natural science, engineering disciplines and applications (here filters and VCSELs for optical communication on the basis of WDM). Light interferes constructively and destructively with nano- and microstructures of appropriate shape, dimensions and materials, both in the artificial DBR structures fabricated in our labs as well as in the natural ones.

  10. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Information > Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Explore this section to learn more about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, including a description of the disorder ...

  11. An assessment of the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA): a semi-continuous method for soluble compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, I. C.; Cowen, K. A.; Walker, J. T.; Kelly, T. J.; Hanft, E. A.; Mishoe, K.; Rogers, C.; Proost, R.; Beachley, G. M.; Lear, G.; Frelink, T.; Otjes, R. P.

    2014-06-01

    Ambient air monitoring as part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA's) Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) currently uses filter packs to measure weekly integrated concentrations. The US EPA is interested in supplementing CASTNet with semi-continuous monitoring systems at select sites to characterize atmospheric chemistry and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds at higher time resolution than the filter pack. The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA) measures water-soluble gases and aerosols at an hourly temporal resolution. The performance of the MARGA was assessed under the US EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The assessment was conducted in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, from 8 September to 8 October 2010 and focused on gaseous SO2, HNO3, and NH3 and aerosol SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+. Precision of the MARGA was evaluated by calculating the median absolute relative percent difference (MARPD) between paired hourly results from duplicate MARGA units (MUs), with a performance goal of ≤ 25%. The accuracy of the MARGA was evaluated by calculating the MARPD for each MU relative to the average of the duplicate denuder/filter pack concentrations, with a performance goal of ≤ 40%. Accuracy was also evaluated by using linear regression, where MU concentrations were plotted against the average of the duplicate denuder/filter pack concentrations. From this, a linear least squares line of best fit was applied. The goal was for the slope of the line of best fit to be between 0.8 and 1.2. The MARGA performed well in comparison to the denuder/filter pack for SO2, SO42-, and NH4+, with all three compounds passing the accuracy and precision goals by a significant margin. The performance of the MARGA in measuring NO3- could not be evaluated due to the different sampling efficiency of coarse NO3- by the MUs and the filter pack. Estimates of "fine" NO3- were calculated for the MUs and the filter pack

  12. Use of sulfur hexafluoride airflow studies to determine the appropriate number and placement of air monitors in an alpha inhalation exposure laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.

    1997-12-01

    Determination of the number and placement of air monitors in the workplace is subjective and is generally one of the more difficult tasks in radiation protection. General guidance for determining this task is provided by technical reports such as Mishima et al. and Hickey et al. These two documents and other guidelines suggest that some insight into sampler placement can be obtained by conducting airflow studies involving dilution and clearance of sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Objectives of the study were to document a method for conducting SF{sub 6} dispersion studies and to confirm the number and placement of air monitors within a typical Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute (ITRI) inhalation exposure laboratory.

  13. Air Proportional Counter

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Jr, J A

    1950-12-05

    A multiple wire counter utilizing air at atmospheric pressure as the ionizing medium and having a window of a nylon sheet of less than 0.5 mil thickness coated with graphite. The window is permeable to alpha particles so that the counter is well adapted to surveying sources of alpha radiation.

  14. PNNL OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. M.; Duchsherer, Cheryl J.; Sisk, Daniel R.; Carter, Gregory L.; Douglas, David D.; Carrell, Dorothy M.

    2006-01-25

    This Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) OS3300 Alpha/Beta Monitoring System Software and Hardware Operations Manual describes how to install and operate the software and hardware on a personal computer in conjunction with the EG&G Berthold LB150D continuous air monitor. Included are operational details for the software functions, how to read and use the drop-down menus, how to understand readings and calculations, and how to access the database tables.

  15. Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4: a novel biomarker for environmental exposure to particulate air pollution in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kang-Yun; Feng, Po-Hao; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chen, Tzu-Tao; Su, Chien-Ling; Liu, Wen-Te; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic inflammatory disease that is correlated with environmental stress. Particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10) is considered to be a risk factor for COPD development; however, the effects of PM10 on the protein levels in COPD remain unclear. Fifty subjects with COPD and 15 healthy controls were recruited. Gene ontology analysis of differentially expressed proteins identified immune system process and binding as the most important biological process and molecular function, respectively, in the responses of PM10-exposed patients with COPD. Biomarkers for PM10 in COPD were identified and compared with the same in healthy controls and included proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 4 (ITIH4), and apolipoprotein F (APOF). PRG4 and ITIH4 were associated with a past 3-year PM10 exposure level. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that ITIH4 is a sensitive and specific biomarker for PM10 exposure (area under the curve [AUC] =0.690, P=0.015) compared with PRG4 (AUC =0.636, P=0.083), APOF (AUC =0.523, P=0.766), 8-isoprostane (AUC =0.563, P=0.405), and C-reactive protein (CRP; AUC =0.634, P=0.086). ITIH4 levels were correlated with CRP (r=0.353, P=0.005), suggesting that ITIH4 may be involved in an inflammatory mechanism. In summary, serum ITIH4 may be a PM10-specific biomarker in COPD and may be related to inflammation. PMID:25977605

  16. An assessment of the performance of the Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA): a semi-continuous method for soluble compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumsey, I. C.; Cowen, K.; Kelly, T.; Hanft, E.; Mishoe, K.; Rogers, C.; Proost, R.; Lear, G.; Frelink, T.; Walker, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Ambient air monitoring as part of the U.S. EPA's Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) currently uses filter packs to measure weekly integrated concentrations. The U.S. EPA is interested in supplementing CASTNet with semi-continuous monitoring systems at select sites to examine ecosystem exposure to nitrogen and sulfur compounds at higher time resolution and with greater accuracy than the filter pack. The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA) measures water-soluble gases and aerosols at hourly temporal resolution. The performance of the MARGA was assessed under the U.S. EPA Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program. The assessment was conducted in Research Triangle Park, NC from September 8th-October 8th, 2010. Precision of the MARGA was evaluated by comparing duplicate units and accuracy was evaluated by comparing duplicate MARGAs to duplicate reference denuder/filter packs. The MARGA utilizes a Wet Rotating Denuder (WRD) to collect gases, while aerosols are collected by a Steam Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC). Both the WRD and the SJAC produce aqueous sample streams, which are analyzed by online ion chromatography for anions and cations. The reference denuder/filter pack consisted of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and phosphorous acid (H3PO3) coated denuders followed by a Teflon filter, a nylon filter, and a citric acid coated cellulose filter. The assessment of the MARGA units focused on gaseous SO2, HNO3 and NH3 and aerosol SO4-, NO3- and NH4+. To evaluate accuracy, hourly MARGA concentrations were averaged over 12 hours to match with 12-hour integrated concentrations from the reference system. The concentrations were compared using linear regression with performance goals of slope between 0.8-1.2 and y-intercept between -10 ppb and 10 ppb. Accuracy was further quantified as the median absolute relative percent difference (MARPD) between 12-hour MARGA and reference concentrations, with a performance goal of ≤ 40%. The precision of

  17. Friction and wear of sintered Alpha SiC sliding against IN-718 alloy at 25 to 800 C in atmospheric air at ambient pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deadmore, Daniel L.; Sliney, Harold E.

    1986-01-01

    The sliding friction and wear of the SiC-nickel based alloy IN-718 couple under line contact test conditions in atmospheric air at a linear velocity of 0.18 m/sec and a load of 6.8 kg (67N) was investigated at temperatures of 25 to 800 C. It was found that the coefficient of friction was 0.6 up to 350 C then decreased to 0.3 at 500 and 800 C. It is suggested that the sharp decrease in the friction in the range of 350 to 550 C is due to the lubrication value of oxidation products. The wear rate reaches a minimum of 1 x 10 to the -10 to 2 x 10 to the -10 cu cm/cm/kg at 400 to 600 C.

  18. 40 CFR 63.6635 - How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate continuous compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for...

  19. 40 CFR 63.7120 - How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate continuous compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for...

  20. A Graphical Method for Estimation of Barometric Efficiency from Continuous Data - Concepts and Application to a Site in the Piedmont, Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonthier, Gerard J.

    2007-01-01

    A graphical method that uses continuous water-level and barometric-pressure data was developed to estimate barometric efficiency. A plot of nearly continuous water level (on the y-axis), as a function of nearly continuous barometric pressure (on the x-axis), will plot as a line curved into a series of connected elliptical loops. Each loop represents a barometric-pressure fluctuation. The negative of the slope of the major axis of an elliptical loop will be the ratio of water-level change to barometric-pressure change, which is the sum of the barometric efficiency plus the error. The negative of the slope of the preferred orientation of many elliptical loops is an estimate of the barometric efficiency. The slope of the preferred orientation of many elliptical loops is approximately the median of the slopes of the major axes of the elliptical loops. If water-level change that is not caused by barometric-pressure change does not correlate with barometric-pressure change, the probability that the error will be greater than zero will be the same as the probability that it will be less than zero. As a result, the negative of the median of the slopes for many loops will be close to the barometric efficiency. The graphical method provided a rapid assessment of whether a well was affected by barometric-pressure change and also provided a rapid estimate of barometric efficiency. The graphical method was used to assess which wells at Air Force Plant 6, Marietta, Georgia, had water levels affected by barometric-pressure changes during a 2003 constant-discharge aquifer test. The graphical method was also used to estimate barometric efficiency. Barometric-efficiency estimates from the graphical method were compared to those of four other methods: average of ratios, median of ratios, Clark, and slope. The two methods (the graphical and median-of-ratios methods) that used the median values of water-level change divided by barometric-pressure change appeared to be most resistant to

  1. An assessment of the performance of Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA): a semi-continuous method for soluble compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air monitoring as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA’s) Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) currently uses filter packs to measure weekly integrated concentrations. The U.S. EPA is interested in supplementing CASTNet with semi-continuou...

  2. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (an-tee-TRIP-sin) deficiency, or AAT ... as it relates to lung disease. Overview Alpha-1 antitrypsin, also called AAT, is a protein made ...

  3. Effect of bed medium moisture on {alpha}-pinene removal by biofilters

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.D.; Apel, W.A.; Cook, L.L.; Nichols, K.M.

    1996-12-31

    In this study, laboratory scale continuous flow bioifilters were used to determine the effect of bed medium moisture on biofilter performance when treating off-gases containing {alpha}-pinene. Biofilters were packed using a proprietary wood waste bed medium and were operated at a flow rate of 700 ml of air per min, yielding an empty bed residence time of 2 minutes. For the bed medium moisture levels tested, a biofilter bed held at 100% moisture on a dry weight basis demonstrated the best overall {alpha}-pinene removal results. Volumetric productivity and percent removal were higher, while the time to reach maximum removal efficiency was decreased compared to biofilters operated at 40, 60 and 80% bed medium moisture. Results indicate that control of moisture in a biofilter is important for maximum removal of {alpha}-pinene.

  4. Single and double grid long-range alpha detectors

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.

    1993-03-16

    Alpha particle detectors capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a voltage is generated in a single electrically conductive grid while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across the conductive grid. The current in the conductive grid can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. Another embodiment builds on this concept and provides an additional grid so that air ions of both polarities can be detected. The detector can be used in many applications, such as for pipe or duct, tank, or soil sample monitoring.

  5. Single and double grid long-range alpha detectors

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.

    1993-01-01

    Alpha particle detectors capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a voltage is generated in a single electrically conductive grid while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across the conductive grid. The current in the conductive grid can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. Another embodiment builds on this concept and provides an additional grid so that air ions of both polarities can be detected. The detector can be used in many applications, such as for pipe or duct, tank, or soil sample monitoring.

  6. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

    1996-05-07

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

  7. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, Richard D.; Bounds, John A.; Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W.

    1996-01-01

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors.

  8. NACA Physicist Studying Alpha Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    NACA Physicits studying Alpha Rays in a continuous cloud chamber. A cloud chamber is used by Lewis scientists to obtain information aimed at minimizing undesirable effects of radiation on nuclear-powered aircraft components. Here, alpha particles from a polonium source emit in a flower-like pattern at the cloud chamber's center. The particles are made visible by means of alcohol vapor diffusing from an area at room temperature to an area at minus -78 deg. Centigrade. Nuclear-powered aircraft were never developed and aircraft nuclear propulsion systems were canceled in the early 1960s.

  9. FIELD METHOD COMPARISON BETWEEN PASSIVE AIR SAMPLERS AND CONTINUOUS MONITORS FOR VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND NO2 IN EL PASO, TEXAS, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Passive sampling of gas-phase air toxics and criteria pollutants has become an attractive monitoring method in human exposure studies due to the relatively low sampling cost and ease of use. This study evaluates the performance of Model 3300 Ogawa(TM) Passive NO2 Samplers and 3...

  10. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1993-02-16

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, which is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  11. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; McAtee, James L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, whcih is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  12. Development of an automatic continuous analyzer for water-soluble gases in air by combining an artificial lung with an ion chromatograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Takeno, Masaki; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiko; Ishitani, Osamu; Fukuyama, Tsutomu; Utiyama, Masahiro

    An automatic measurement system for the simultaneous monitoring of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and ammonia (NH 3) in air was developed by combining an artificial lung and an ion chromatograph. An artificial lung was used as a new technique for concentrated collection of trace amounts of gaseous pollutants in air. It was found that SO 2 and NH 3 were effectively absorbed into ultra-pure water in the artificial lung. Collection efficiencies for SO 2 and NH 3 were 100% and 98%, respectively, at a gas flow rate of 1 l min -1, and material balances >90% were obtained. No interference from the simultaneous collection of SO 2 and NH 3 was found. When a 400 ppb standard NH 3 gas was measured automatically with this system, the recovery rate was 98%, and the relative standard deviation was 2.7% ( n=8). In the case of a 200 ppb standard SO 2 gas, the recovery rate was 87%, and the relative standard deviation was 1.6% ( n=7). Results from the simultaneous measurement of SO 2 and NH 3 with the automatic system were equally as good as those obtained by measuring a single component at a time. Calibration curves for SO 2 and NH 3 showed good relationships between concentration and peak intensity. The linear correlation coefficients were 0.997 and 0.998 for SO 2 and NH 3, respectively. The detection limits of SO 2 and NH 3 were 0.06 and 0.1 ppb, respectively, in a 40 l air volume. The system was tested in air and found to be capable of simultaneous measurement of SO 2 and NH 3 with a 20 min cycle.

  13. Downward continuation of the free-air gravity anomalies to the ellipsoid using the gradient solution and terrain correction: An attempt of global numerical computations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y. M.

    1989-01-01

    The formulas for the determination of the coefficients of the spherical harmonic expansion of the disturbing potential of the earth are defined for data given on a sphere. In order to determine the spherical harmonic coefficients, the gravity anomalies have to be analytically downward continued from the earth's surface to a sphere-at least to the ellipsoid. The goal is to continue the gravity anomalies from the earth's surface downward to the ellipsoid using recent elevation models. The basic method for the downward continuation is the gradient solution (the g sub 1 term). The terrain correction was also computed because of the role it can play as a correction term when calculating harmonic coefficients from surface gravity data. The fast Fourier transformation was applied to the computations.

  14. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles (4He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei—nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons—is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the ‘adiabatic projection method’ to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  15. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    PubMed

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  16. Continuous measurement of oxygen tensions in the air-breathing organ of Pacific tarpon (Megalops cyprinoides) in relation to aquatic hypoxia and exercise.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Roger S; Farrell, Anthony P; Christian, Keith; Clark, Timothy D; Bennett, Michael B; Wells, Rufus M G; Baldwin, John

    2007-07-01

    The Pacific tarpon is an elopomorph teleost fish with an air-breathing organ (ABO) derived from a physostomous gas bladder. Oxygen partial pressure (PO(2)) in the ABO was measured on juveniles (238 g) with fiber-optic sensors during exposure to selected aquatic PO(2) and swimming speeds. At slow speed (0.65 BL s(-1)), progressive aquatic hypoxia triggered the first breath at a mean PO(2) of 8.3 kPa. Below this, opercular movements declined sharply and visibly ceased in most fish below 6 kPa. At aquatic PO(2) of 6.1 kPa and swimming slowly, mean air-breathing frequency was 0.73 min(-1), ABO PO(2) was 10.9 kPa, breath volume was 23.8 ml kg(-1), rate of oxygen uptake from the ABO was 1.19 ml kg(-1) min(-1), and oxygen uptake per breath was 2.32 ml kg(-1). At the fastest experimental speed (2.4 BL s(-1)) at 6.1 kPa, ABO oxygen uptake increased to about 1.90 ml kg(-1) min(-1), through a variable combination of breathing frequency and oxygen uptake per breath. In normoxic water, tarpon rarely breathed air and apparently closed down ABO perfusion, indicated by a drop in ABO oxygen uptake rate to about 1% of that in hypoxic water. This occurred at a wide range of ABO PO(2) (1.7-26.4 kPa), suggesting that oxygen level in the ABO was not regulated by intrinsic receptors. PMID:17387483

  17. Continuous measurements of surface water vapor isotopic ratios in the Bolivian Andes during the monsoon period: influence of regional convection and air masses mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vimeux, Francoise; Tremoy, Guillaume; Roca, Manuel; Moreno, Isabel; Cattani, Olivier; Guilpart, Etienne; Velarde, Fernando; Andrade, Marcos

    2015-04-01

    The isotopic composition of surface water vapor has been monitored since October 2013 in the Bolivian Andes on the Chacaltaya GAW Station (CHC). This platform is located at 16.21degree S and 68.08 degree W (elevation 5240m a.s.l) in the north western ridge of Mount Chacaltaya. Water vapor measurements have been recorded by a Picarro instrument (L2130-i model) which is based on Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). We focus here on the data interpretation at the synoptic scale from October 2013 to January 2014. This time period corresponds to the transition between dry and wet seasons and also includes some local and regional intense convective periods. Several processes are recorded in the isotopic composition of water vapor at the synoptic scale and two majors processes will be discussed: (1) dehydrated air parcels are mixed with moist air advected from the Amazon basin and (2) deep tropical convection over the Amazon basin produces the largest isotopic variability (up to 20 per mil in oxygen 18).

  18. alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    alpha - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( alpha - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 84 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Ass

  19. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... measures the level of the protein AAT in blood. Alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotype testing evaluates the amount and type of AAT being produced and compares it to normal patterns. Alpha-1 antitrypsin genotype testing ( DNA testing) can ...

  20. Alpha-1 antitrypsin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003715.htm Alpha-1 antitrypsin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a laboratory test to measure the ...

  1. The Alpha Centauri System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderblom, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Alpha Centauri star system, which is the closest star system to the sun. Discusses the difficulties associated with measurements involving Alpha Centauri, along with some of the recent advances in stellar seismology. Raises questions about the possibilities of planets around Alpha Centauri. (TW)

  2. 40 CFR 63.7121 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  3. 40 CFR 63.7121 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  4. 40 CFR 63.7121 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  5. 40 CFR 63.7121 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  6. 40 CFR 63.7121 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations standard?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  7. 40 CFR 63.7541 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance under the emission averaging provision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Continuous...

  8. 40 CFR 63.7535 - How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate continuous compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Continuous Compliance Requirements § 63.7535 How...

  9. 40 CFR 63.7541 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance under the emission averaging provision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Continuous...

  10. Atlantic mercury emission determined from continuous analysis of the elemental mercury sea-air concentration difference within transects between 50°N and 50°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuss, J.; Zülicke, C.; Pohl, C.; Schneider, B.

    2011-09-01

    Mercury in the environment deserves serious concern because of the mobility of volatile elemental mercury (Hg0) in the atmosphere, in combination with the harmful effect of Hg compounds on human health and the ecosystem. A major source of global atmospheric mercury is presumed to be oceanic Hg0 emission. However, available Hg0 surface water data to reliably estimate the ocean's mercury emissions are sparse. In this study, high-resolution surface water and air measurements of Hg0 were carried out between Europe and South Africa in November 2008 and between South America and Europe in April-May 2009. On each cruise a strong enrichment of Hg0 in tropical surface water was determined that apparently followed the seasonal shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). A combination of a high Hg0 production rate constant and the actual low wind speeds, which prevented emission, probably caused the accumulation of Hg0 in surface waters of the ITCZ. Hg0 emissions in the tropics were significant only if wind speed variability on a monthly scale was considered, in which case the observed significant decline of total Hg in tropical surface waters during the northern winter could be explained. In the midlatitudes, increased autumn Hg0 emissions were calculated for November in the Northern Hemisphere and for May in the Southern Hemisphere; conversely, emissions were low during both the northern and the southern spring. Mercury removal from surface waters by Hg0 emission and sinking particles was comparable to its supply through wet and dry deposition.

  11. Calibration issues in delta alpha /alpha .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaro, Paolo; Centurión, Miriam; Levshakov, Sergei

    Laser Comb Wavelength calibration shows that the ThAr one is locally unreliable with possible deviations of up to 100 {m s}-1 within one order range, while delivering an overall 1 {m s}-1 accuracy (Wilken et al 2009). Such deviation corresponds to delta alpha /alpha ≈ 7* 10-6 for a Fe II-Mg II pair. Comparison of line shifts among the 5 Fe II lines, with almost identical sensitivity to fine structure constant changes, offers a clean way to directly test the presence of possible local wavelength calibration errors of whatever origin. We analyzed 5 absorption systems, with zabs ranging from 1.15 to 2.19 towards 3 bright QSOs. The results show that while some lines are aligned within 20 {m s}-1, others reveal large deviations reaching 200 {m s}-1 or higher and corresponding to a delta alpha /alpha > 10-5 level. The origin of these deviations is not clearly identified but could be related to the adaptation of wavelength calibration to CCD manufacturing irregularities. These results suggest that to draw conclusions from delta alpha /alpha analysis based on one or only few lines must be done with extreme care.

  12. Selective flow path alpha particle detector and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring alpha contamination are provided in which ions generated in the air surrounding the item, by the passage of alpha particles, are moved to a distant detector location. The parts of the item from which ions are withdrawn can be controlled by restricting the air flow over different portions of the apparatus. In this way, detection of internal and external surfaces separately, for instance, can be provided. The apparatus and method are particularly suited for use in undertaking alpha contamination measurements during the commissioning operations.

  13. Overview Of Suborbital Human Transportation Concept Alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adirim, H.; Pilz, N.; Marini, M.; Hendrick, P.; Schmid, M.; Behr, R.; Barth, T.; Tarfeld, F.; Wiegand, A.; Charbonnier, D.; Haya Ramos, R.; Steeland, J.; Mack, A.

    2011-05-01

    Within the EC co-funded project FAST20XX (Future high-Altitude high-Speed Transport 20XX), the European suborbital passenger transportation system concept ALPHA (Airplane Launched PHoenix Aircraft), which shall be based to a maximum extent on existing technologies and capabilities, is currently being investigated as collaborative project by a European consortium under coordination of ESA. The ALPHA concept incorporates an air-launch from a carrier aircraft, which shall be used as first stage. The ALPHA vehicle shall be capable of transporting up to four passengers plus one pilot to an altitude of at least 100 km. The ALPHA vehicle is a down-scaled version of the suborbital space transportation concept Hopper, which was already deeply investigated within the European FESTIP System Study and the German ASTRA program including the successfully flown experimental landing demonstrator Phoenix. This approach has allowed the use of existing aerodynamic vehicle data and has led to the adaptation of the external Hopper/Phoenix configuration for ALPHA. In FESTIP and ASTRA, the Hopper configuration showed sufficient stability margins. Due to the geometric similarity of the ALPHA and Hopper vehicles, a trimable and flyable configuration could be derived by means of ALPHA flight trajectory calculations. In its current configuration, the ALPHA vehicle has a length of ca. 9 m and a gross take-off mass of ca. 3.5 Mg. The launch, staging and separation of ALPHA shall be performed either as internal air-launch from the cargo bay of the carrier aircraft, as under-wing air-launch or as towed air-launch. After separation from the carrier aircraft, the ALPHA vehicle ignites its onboard rocket propulsion system. Since conventional liquid and solid propulsion did not seem suitable for ALPHA due to Their high cost, limited safety and toxicity, a low-cost, “green” and non-hazardous hybrid propulsion system based on liquid nitrous oxide in combination with a solid polymer fuel was

  14. [Alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes and alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Ikunobu; Suzuki, Fumiko; Tanaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Hatsumi; Morishima, Shigeru

    2006-03-01

    Alpha(1)-adrenoceptors are widely distributed in the human body and play important physiologic roles. Three alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha(1A), alpha(1B) and alpha(1D)) have been cloned and show different pharmacologic profiles. In addition, a putative alpha(1)-adrenoceptor (alpha(1L) subtype) has also been proposed. Recently, three drugs (tamsulosin, naftopidil, and silodosin) have been developed in Japan for the treatment of urinary obstruction in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this review, we describe recent alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subclassifications and the pharmacologic characteristics (subtype selectivity and clinical relevance) of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists. PMID:16518082

  15. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Bounds, John A.

    1994-01-01

    A fan-less long range alpha detector which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces.

  16. Fan-less long range alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.

    1994-05-10

    A fan-less long range alpha detector is disclosed which operates by using an electrical field between a signal plane and the surface or substance to be monitored for air ions created by collisions with alpha radiation. Without a fan, the detector can operate without the possibility of spreading dust and potential contamination into the atmosphere. A guard plane between the signal plane and the electrically conductive enclosure and maintained at the same voltage as the signal plane, reduces leakage currents. The detector can easily monitor soil, or other solid or liquid surfaces. 2 figures.

  17. Use of Chiral Signatures of Organochlorine Pesticides in Asian, Trans-Pacific, and Western U.S. Air Masses to Identify Source Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonich, S.; Genualdi, S.; Primbs, T.; Ryoo, K.; Bidleman, T.; Jantunen, L.

    2008-12-01

    Chiral signatures of organochlorine pesticides were measured in air masses on Okinawa Japan and three remote locations in the Pacific Northwestern U.S.: Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), a coastal site on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington at 500 m; Mary's Peak Observatory (MPO), a site at 1250 m in Oregon's Coast range; and Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO), a site at 2300 m in Oregon's Cascade range. The chiral signature of composite soil samples collected from agricultural areas in China and South Korea were also measured. Racemic alpha-HCH was measured in Asian air masses and soil from China and South Korea. Non-racemic (enantiomer fraction (EF) = 0.528 ± 0.0048) alpha-HCH was measured in regional air masses at CPO, a marine boundary layer site, and may reflect volatilization from the Pacific Ocean and regional soils. However, during trans-Pacific transport events at CPO, the EFs were significantly (p-value <0.001) more racemic (EF = 0.513 ± 0.0003). Racemic alpha-HCH was consistently measured in trans- Pacific air masses at MPO and MBO. The alpha-HCH EFs in CPO, MPO, and MBO air masses were positively correlated (p-value = 0.0017) with the amount of time the air mass spent above the boundary layer along the 10-day back air mass trajectory prior to being sampled. This suggests that the alpha-HCH in the free troposphere is racemic. The racemic signatures of cis and trans chlordane in air masses at all four air sampling sites suggest that Asian and U.S. urban areas continue to be sources of chlordanes that have not yet undergone biotransformation.

  18. Comparative study regarding the association of alpha-2U globulin with the nephrotoxic mechanism of certain petroleum-based air force fuels. Final report 1, December 1987-30 November 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Eurell, T.E.

    1988-12-01

    Fischer 344 male rats have a dose- and time-dependent renal proximal tubular degeneration induced by certain hydrocarbon compounds. This degeneration my be associated with a low-molecular-weight urinary protein called alpha-2U globulin. The authors using a rat-strain variation of the alpha-2U globulin molecule and metabolic alteration of the urinary pH as methods to investigate the hydrocarbon-induced nephrotoxic response. Two significant advances were made in the first year of this project: (1) a histochemical procedure was developed to specifically evaluate changes in the renal epithelial lysosome, and (2) a rat-strain difference was detected in susceptibility to hydrocarbon-induced nephrotoxicity.

  19. Alpha-particle diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  1. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  2. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1915.1004 Section 1915.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1004 alpha-Naphthylamine. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  4. 29 CFR 1910.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1910.1004 Section 1910.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... alpha-Naphthylamine. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens....

  5. 29 CFR 1910.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1910.1004 Section 1910.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... alpha-Naphthylamine. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens....

  6. 29 CFR 1910.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1910.1004 Section 1910.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... alpha-Naphthylamine. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens....

  7. 29 CFR 1910.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true alpha-Naphthylamine. 1910.1004 Section 1910.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... alpha-Naphthylamine. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens....

  8. 29 CFR 1915.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1915.1004 Section 1915.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1004 alpha-Naphthylamine. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  9. 29 CFR 1915.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1915.1004 Section 1915.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1004 alpha-Naphthylamine. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1910.1004 Section 1910.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... alpha-Naphthylamine. See § 1910.1003, 13 carcinogens....

  11. 29 CFR 1915.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1915.1004 Section 1915.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1004 alpha-Naphthylamine. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.1004 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1915.1004 Section 1915.1004 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1004 alpha-Naphthylamine. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under...

  13. Enantiomeric signatures of organochlorine pesticides in Asian, trans-Pacific, and western U.S. air masses.

    PubMed

    Genualdi, Susan A; Simonich, Staci L Massey; Primbs, Toby K; Bidleman, Terry F; Jantunen, Liisa M; Ryoo, Keon-Sang; Zhu, Tong

    2009-04-15

    The enantiomeric signatures of organochlorine pesticides were measured in air masses from Okinawa, Japan and three remote locations in the Pacific Northwestern United States: Cheeka Peak Observatory (CPO), a marine boundary layer site on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington at 500 m above sea level (m.a.s.l); Mary's Peak Observatory (MPO), a site at 1250 m.a.s.l in Oregon's Coast range; and Mt. Bachelor Observatory (MBO), a site at 2763 m.a.s.l in Oregon's Cascade range. The enantiomeric signatures of composite soil samples, collected from China, South Korea, and the western U.S. were also measured. The data from chiral analysis was expressed asthe enantiomeric fraction, defined as (+) enantiomer/(sum of the (+) and (-) enantiomers), where a racemic composition has EF = 0.5. Racemic alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH) was measured in Asian air masses at Okinawa and in Chinese and South Korean soils. Nonracemic alpha-HCH (EF = 0.528 +/- 0.0048) was measured in regional air masses at CPO, and may reflect volatilization from the Pacific Ocean and regional soils. However, during trans-Pacific transport events at CPO, the alpha-HCH EFs were significantly more racemic (EF = 0.513 +/- 0.0003, p < 0.001). Racemic alpha-HCH was consistently measured at MPO and MBO in trans-Pacific air masses that had spent considerable time in the free troposphere. The alpha-HCH EFs in CPO, MPO, and MBO air masses were negatively correlated (p = 0.0017) with the amount of time the air mass spent above the boundary layer, along the 10-day back air mass trajectory, prior to being sampled. This suggests that, on the West coast of the U.S., the alpha-HCH in the free troposphere is racemic. Racemic signatures of cis- and trans-chlordane were measured in air masses at all four air sampling sites, suggesting that Asian and U.S. urban areas continue to be sources of chlordane that has not yet been biotransformed. PMID:19475954

  14. The alpha channeling effect

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-10

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  15. Alpha-thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Harteveld, Cornelis L; Higgs, Douglas R

    2010-01-01

    Alpha-thalassaemia is inherited as an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by a microcytic hypochromic anaemia, and a clinical phenotype varying from almost asymptomatic to a lethal haemolytic anaemia.It is probably the most common monogenic gene disorder in the world and is especially frequent in Mediterranean countries, South-East Asia, Africa, the Middle East and in the Indian subcontinent. During the last few decades the incidence of alpha thalassaemia in North-European countries and Northern America has increased because of demographic changes. Compound heterozygotes and some homozygotes have a moderate to severe form of alpha thalassaemia called HbH disease. Hb Bart's hydrops foetalis is a lethal form in which no alpha-globin is synthesized. Alpha thalassaemia most frequently results from deletion of one or both alpha genes from the chromosome and can be classified according to its genotype/phenotype correlation. The normal complement of four functional alpha-globin genes may be decreased by 1, 2, 3 or all 4 copies of the genes, explaining the clinical variation and increasing severity of the disease. All affected individuals have a variable degree of anaemia (low Hb), reduced mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH/pg), reduced mean corpuscular volume (MCV/fl) and a normal/slightly reduced level of HbA2. Molecular analysis is usually required to confirm the haematological observations (especially in silent alpha-thalassaemia and alpha-thalassaemia trait). The predominant features in HbH disease are anaemia with variable amounts of HbH (0.8-40%). The type of mutation influences the clinical severity of HbH disease. The distinguishing features of the haemoglobin Bart's hydrops foetalis syndrome are the presence of Hb Bart's and the total absence of HbF. The mode of transmission of alpha thalassaemia is autosomal recessive. Genetic counselling is offered to couples at risk for HbH disease or haemoglobin Bart's Hydrops Foetalis Syndrome. Carriers of alpha+- or

  16. Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Ray, K.

    2009-05-13

    The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

  17. Luminescence imaging of water during alpha particle irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Komori, Masataka; Koyama, Shuji; Toshito, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    The luminescence imaging of water using the alpha particle irradiation of several MeV energy range is thought to be impossible because this alpha particle energy is far below the Cerenkov-light threshold and the secondary electrons produced in this energy range do not emit Cerenkov-light. Contrary to this consensus, we found that the luminescence imaging of water was possible with 5.5 MeV alpha particle irradiation. We placed a 2 MBq of 241Am alpha source in water, and luminescence images of the source were conducted with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We also carried out such imaging of the alpha source in three different conditions to compare the photon productions with that of water, in air, with a plastic scintillator, and an acrylic plate. The luminescence imaging of water was observed from 10 to 20 s acquisition, and the intensity was linearly increased with time. The intensity of the luminescence with the alpha irradiation of water was 0.05% of that with the plastic scintillator, 4% with air, and 15% with the acrylic plate. The resolution of the luminescence image of water was better than 0.25 mm FWHM. Alpha particles of 5.5 MeV energy emit luminescence in water. Although the intensity of the luminescence was smaller than that in air, it was clearly observable. The luminescence of water with alpha particles would be a new method for alpha particle detection and distribution measurements in water.

  18. Performance of an in-situ alpha spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, R

    2016-03-01

    Equipment was recently developed for detecting alpha particles from flat and smooth surfaces with good energy resolution at ambient air pressure. In this work, the detection efficiencies were determined using different extended-area sources emitting alpha and beta radiation and a mixed nuclide point source emitting alpha radiation. Beta particles are of importance because they can also be detected. Counts originating from alpha and beta particles are mainly at different energies, which make their separation possible. An efficiency of 0.14 was determined for an extended-area (>30cm(2)) homogeneous source emitting alpha radiation at the energy of 5-6MeV, whereas for the beta emitters the efficiencies were 0.07-0.19 depending on the beta-particle emission energies. The use of a collimator reduces the detection efficiencies by a factor of up to ten. PMID:26688356

  19. Apparatus for detecting alpha radiation in difficult access areas

    DOEpatents

    Steadman, Peter; MacArthur, Duncan W.

    1997-09-02

    An electrostatic alpha radiation detector for measuring alpha radiation emitted from inside an enclosure comprising an electrically conductive expandable electrode for insertion into the enclosure. After insertion, the electrically conductive expandable electrode is insulated from the enclosure and defines a decay cavity between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure so that air ions generated in the decay cavity are electrostatically captured by the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure when an electric potential is applied between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. Indicator means are attached to the electrically conductive expandable electrode for indicating an electrical current produced by generation of the air ions generated in the decay cavity by collisions between air molecules and the alpha particles emitted from the enclosure. A voltage source is connected between the indicator means and the electrically conductive enclosure for creating an electric field between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure.

  20. Apparatus for detecting alpha radiation in difficult access areas

    DOEpatents

    Steadman, P.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1997-09-02

    An electrostatic alpha radiation detector for measuring alpha radiation emitted from inside an enclosure comprising an electrically conductive expandable electrode for insertion into the enclosure is disclosed. After insertion, the electrically conductive expandable electrode is insulated from the enclosure and defines a decay cavity between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure so that air ions generated in the decay cavity are electrostatically captured by the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure when an electric potential is applied between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. Indicator means are attached to the electrically conductive expandable electrode for indicating an electrical current produced by generation of the air ions generated in the decay cavity by collisions between air molecules and the alpha particles emitted from the enclosure. A voltage source is connected between the indicator means and the electrically conductive enclosure for creating an electric field between the electrically conductive expandable electrode and the enclosure. 4 figs.

  1. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  2. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  3. The Remote Detection of Alpha-Radioactive Nucleus Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurkovskiy, Boris; Miroshnichenko, Vladimir; Onishchenko, Evgeny; Simakov, Andrey; Streil, Thomas

    Results of the new device design for the alpha-radiation remote detection are presented. Negative ions from the alpha particle tracks are detected by the discharge wire counter opened to air. Ion clusters being transferred from the particle tracks to the detector volume by an air flux. The detector works in a counting mode that provides sharp selectivity and accuracy of measurements. The basic parameters of the device are: detecting distance -0.5 m; measurement time -30 s; the square sensitivity -0.05 Bq/cm2.

  4. ALPHA MIS: Reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Heatherly, R.D.; Hughes, S.E.; Ishee, J.S.; Pratt, S.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1992-02-01

    ALPHA is a powerful and versatile management information system (MIS) initiated and sponsored and by the Finance and Business Management Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who maintain and develop it in concert with the Business Systems Division for its Information Center. A general-purpose MIS, ALPHA allows users to access System 1022 and System 1032 databases to obtain and manage information. From a personal computer or a data terminal, Energy Systems employees can use ALPHA to control their own report reprocessing. Using four general commands (Database, Select, Sort, and Report) they can (1) choose a mainframe database, (2) define subsets within it, (3) sequentially order a subset by one or more variables, and (4) generate a report with their own or a canned format.

  5. The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

    1973-01-01

    Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

  6. The Lyman alpha coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, J. L.; Reeves, E. M.; Kirkham, B.

    1977-01-01

    The rocket-borne Lyman alpha coronagraph (RLAC) is to be used in the absence of a natural solar eclipse to determine coronal temperatures from measurements of the line width of Lyman-alpha and to determine neutral hydrogen densities of coronal material from the absolute intensity. The coronagraph consists of a 75-cm Fastie-Ebert scanning spectrometer with an AMR 641 photoelectric detection system, an off-axis parabolic primary mirror, and an occulting system. A special optical arrangement achieves rejection of radiation from the solar disk.

  7. 40 CFR 69.12 - Continuing exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Guam § 69.12 Continuing exemptions. (a... Clean Air Act and from the related NSPS limitation on sulfur dioxide emissions contained in the Guam SIP... changed will be grounds for revocation of the exemption and enforcement of the underlying Clean Air...

  8. 40 CFR 69.12 - Continuing exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) SPECIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLEAN AIR ACT Guam § 69.12 Continuing exemptions. (a... Clean Air Act and from the related NSPS limitation on sulfur dioxide emissions contained in the Guam SIP... changed will be grounds for revocation of the exemption and enforcement of the underlying Clean Air...

  9. Technological change and productivity growth in the air transport industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, N.; Thompson, A.; Belsley, S. E.

    1978-01-01

    The progress of the civil air transport industry in the United States was examined in the light of a proposal of Enos who, after examining the growth of the petroleum industry, divided that phenomenon into two phases, the alpha and the beta; that is, the invention, first development and production, and the improvement phase. The civil air transport industry developed along similar lines with the technological progress coming in waves; each wave encompassing several new technological advances while retaining the best of the old ones. At the same time the productivity of the transport aircraft as expressed by the product of the aircraft velocity and the passenger capacity increased sufficiently to allow the direct operating cost in cents per passenger mile to continually decrease with each successive aircraft development.

  10. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  11. From Alpha to Omega

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czaja, Paul Clement

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha point of the authors' life as a Montessori educator began in 1959, when he was a graduate student studying philosophy at Fordham University in the Bronx, New York. While studying the works of the great American philosopher William James, the author came across the writings of Maria Montessori and immediately became captivated by her…

  12. Comparative study regarding the association of alpha 2U globulin with the nephrotoxic mechanism of certain petroleum-based air force fuels. Final report, 1 July 1990-31 August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Eurell, T.E.

    1993-08-31

    Adult male rats have a strain, dose, and time-dependent renal proximal tubular degeneration induced by certain hydrocarbon compounds. We used rat strain variation (Fisher 344 and NCI Black Reiter) and different hydrocarbon compounds (JP-4, JP-8, decalin and trimethylpentane) to investigate the hydrocarbon-induced nephrotoxic response. Histochemical and morphometric evaluation of NCI-Black Reiter rats exposed to decalin and JP-8 indicated that this strain undergoes an intermediate form of the hydrocarbon-induced nephrotoxicity when compared to the albino Fisher 344 strain. The intermediate nephrotoxic response of the NCI-Black Reiter rat was characterized by approximately a two-fold increase in the number of acid phosphatase reactive lysosomes in renal tubular cells. The NBR rats did not demonstrate an increase in the size of the individual lysosomes, however, a characteristic lysosomal aggregation pattern occurred in renal tubular cells following hydrocarbon exposure. Light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of A2U reactive sites in the renal tubular cell of F344 male rats exposed to decalin, trimethylpentane, JP-4 and JP-8. The nephrotoxic effect of decalin, trimethylpentane, JP-4 and JP-8 appeared to be equivalent as judged by renal tubular lysosomal alterations and increased A2U immunoreactive sites. Most lysosomal proteins in either control or treated animals were not reactive with specific antibodies against A2U. The relative number of A2U reactive sites per unit area did riot increase as lysosomes enlarged or became angular in response to hydrocarbon exposure. Alpha 2U globulin, Hyaline droplet nephropathy, Rats, Petroleum fuels, JP-4, JP-8, Cytoskeleton, Immunohistochemistry.

  13. 40 CFR 63.7540 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits and work practice standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process...

  14. Summary of Alpha Particle Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.

    1998-08-19

    This paper summarizes the talks on alpha particle transport which were presented at the 5th International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Committee Meeting on "Alpha Particles in Fusion Research" held at the Joint European Torus, England in September 1997.

  15. Alpha Condensates in Atomic Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Y.; Matsumura, H.

    2005-11-21

    Recent issues on Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of {alpha}-particles in nuclei are reviewed. A candidate of condensates is discussed for some states in 12C and 16O by defining the amount of {alpha} condensation.

  16. Hepa room air purifier

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.B.

    1986-12-16

    This patent describes a portable air purification apparatus comprising a housing including a base portion and cover means, the base portion including an air deflection means and a plate means mounted in spaced relationship to the air deflection means so as to create a substantially continuous air exhaust opening therebetween. A centrifugal fan means is disposed between the plate means and the air deflection means and is mounted so as to direct air radially outwardly therefrom through the air exhaust opening, at least one opening through the plate means to permit air flow therethrough to the centrifugal fan means. The motor means carried by the base portion and extends upwardly with respect to the opening in the plate means, the motor means having drive shaft means for driving the centrifugal fan means. An air filter means is mounted between the base portion and the cover means so that air is drawn therethrough toward the centrifugal fan means, and a means for secures the cover means relative to the base means to thereby retain the air filter means therebetween.

  17. 29 CFR 1926.1104 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1926.1104 Section 1926.1104 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1104...

  18. 29 CFR 1926.1104 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1926.1104 Section 1926.1104 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1104...

  19. 29 CFR 1926.1104 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1926.1104 Section 1926.1104 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1104...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.1104 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1926.1104 Section 1926.1104 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1104...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.1104 - alpha-Naphthylamine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false alpha-Naphthylamine. 1926.1104 Section 1926.1104 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1104...

  2. AlphaSpectrum ASPECT analysis code for background correction & peak integration

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-04-13

    The ASPECT code provides a means for rapid analysis of energy-resolved spectra obtained by multi-channel pulse-height analysis (MCA) during (or after) counting of alpha-emissions from a filter air sample (or other suitably prepared sample) utilizing a solid-state detector, or other detector having sufficient energy resolution indiviual radioisotope peaks indentified in a spectrum are fitted using a peak shape algorithm by non-linear least-square fitting procedures that minimize Chi-square differences between the data and a fitted peakmore » function. The code accomplishes the identification of all significant peaks present in the spectrum with automatic recalibration to the 7.68 Po-214 alpha peak from the Radon-222 decay chain, the subtraction of all radon progeny interference overlaps with lower energy peaks in the energy range of Pu-238, Am-241, Pu-239, and U-234/Th-232, and the integration of the counts in any peak identified for these transuranic radionuclides. The output is therefore in the form of isotope specific net transuranic CPM, DPM or concentration, available in near real-time during air sampling. In this "copyright" version, the assumption is made that the alpha spectra to be analyzed have been stored by unique name in sequential form: "FileName(i)", where "FileName" can be any name and i is the index number of the file saved (e.g., i = 1,2, ..., n). this format is one automatically generated by the alpha Environmental Continuous Air Monitor (ECAM), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, and manufactured by Canberra Industries, a Laboratory Industrial Partner for this technology. It is assumed in this version of the code that the alpha spectrum data are stored in a 256 channel spectrum, although a larger num ber of channels could be easily accommodated by small code changes. The ECAM data output format is RADNET compliant (an inidustry standard developed at Los Alamos), and include, in addition to a 256-channel alpha spectrum, data on the

  3. AlphaSpectrum ASPECT analysis code for background correction & peak integration

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, John C.

    2005-04-13

    The ASPECT code provides a means for rapid analysis of energy-resolved spectra obtained by multi-channel pulse-height analysis (MCA) during (or after) counting of alpha-emissions from a filter air sample (or other suitably prepared sample) utilizing a solid-state detector, or other detector having sufficient energy resolution indiviual radioisotope peaks indentified in a spectrum are fitted using a peak shape algorithm by non-linear least-square fitting procedures that minimize Chi-square differences between the data and a fitted peak function. The code accomplishes the identification of all significant peaks present in the spectrum with automatic recalibration to the 7.68 Po-214 alpha peak from the Radon-222 decay chain, the subtraction of all radon progeny interference overlaps with lower energy peaks in the energy range of Pu-238, Am-241, Pu-239, and U-234/Th-232, and the integration of the counts in any peak identified for these transuranic radionuclides. The output is therefore in the form of isotope specific net transuranic CPM, DPM or concentration, available in near real-time during air sampling. In this "copyright" version, the assumption is made that the alpha spectra to be analyzed have been stored by unique name in sequential form: "FileName(i)", where "FileName" can be any name and i is the index number of the file saved (e.g., i = 1,2, ..., n). this format is one automatically generated by the alpha Environmental Continuous Air Monitor (ECAM), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory, and manufactured by Canberra Industries, a Laboratory Industrial Partner for this technology. It is assumed in this version of the code that the alpha spectrum data are stored in a 256 channel spectrum, although a larger num ber of channels could be easily accommodated by small code changes. The ECAM data output format is RADNET compliant (an inidustry standard developed at Los Alamos), and include, in addition to a 256-channel alpha spectrum, data on the count time

  4. Development and identification of monoclonal antibodies against meso-Tetra (alpha,alpha,alpha,alpha,-O-phenylacetamide benzene) porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyang; Huang, Xueying; Du, Li; Li, Weiguo; Qi, Chao

    2007-04-01

    The small molecule meso-Tetra (alpha,alpha,alpha,alpha-o-phenylacetamide benzene) porphyrin was synthesized through the condensation of o-nitrobenzaldehyde and pyrrole followed by reduction of the meso-tetra (o-nitrophenyl) porphyrin. The small molecule, without carrier, was used as complete antigen to immunize BALB/ C mice. Spleen cells producing high titer antibody were removed and fused with myeloma cells of SP2/0 origin. Using a conventional immunization protocol, stable murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) producing cell lines to meso-Tetra (alpha,alpha,alpha,alpha-o-phenylacetamide benzene) porphyrin 1F2 were obtained. Subclass determination showed that the clones produce IgG2a types of MAbs. The analytical results of HPLC and MALDI/TOFMS suggest that the purity of MAb 1F2 is 100%, and MAb 1F2 has a relative molecular weight of 156678.8 Da. Our results demonstrated that small molecule meso-Tetra (alpha,alpha,alpha,alpha-o-phenylacetamide benzene) porphyrin, as semiantigen without carrier, can elicit the formation of MAbs. PMID:17451352

  5. 40 CFR 63.60 - Deletion of caprolactam from the list of hazardous air pollutants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of hazardous air pollutants. 63.60 Section 63.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES List of Hazardous Air Pollutants, Petitions Process, Lesser Quantity...

  6. 6. INTERIOR OF THE MAIN EQUIPMENT ROOM, AN/FPS66 ALPHA, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR OF THE MAIN EQUIPMENT ROOM, AN/FPS66 ALPHA, BUILDING 408, LOOKING WEST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Operations Building & Annex, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  7. Alpha contamination assessment for D&D activities: Technology overview

    SciTech Connect

    Conaway, J.G.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    Instruments based on the principle of Long-Range Alpha Detection (LRAD) detect the ions created in ambient air by Ionizing radiation, particularly alpha radiation, interacting with air molecules. Using either an electrostatic field or forced convection, these ions can be transported to a detection grid where the ions produce a small current that is measured with a sensitive electrometer. LRAD-based instruments can give separate, simultaneous measurements of alpha-emitting solids and inert radioactive gases such as radon. LRAD-based instruments assess surface contamination on an entire object or large surface area in a single, rapid measurement, including relatively inaccessible areas such as interior surfaces of pipes and process equipment. The LRAD concept is well proven and has been developed into a range of different radiation detection devices. This paper presents an overview of the technology, while several associated papers explore specific applications in greater detail.

  8. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  9. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants 7 Table 7 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous...

  10. Alpha-globin loci in homozygous beta-thalassemia intermedia.

    PubMed

    Triadou, P; Lapoumeroulie, C; Girot, R; Labie, D

    1983-01-01

    Homozygous beta-thalassemia intermediate (TI) differs from thalassemia major (TM) in being less severe clinically. Associated alpha-thalassemia could account for the TI phenotype by reducing the alpha/non-alpha chain imbalance. We have analyzed the alpha loci of 9 TI and 11 TM patients by restriction endonuclease mapping. All the TM and 7 of the TI patients have the normal complement of four alpha-globin genes (alpha alpha/alpha alpha). One TI patient has three alpha-globin genes (alpha alpha/-alpha), and another TI patient has five alpha genes (alpha alpha/alpha alpha alpha). PMID:6305827

  11. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section 1065.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section 1065.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section 1065.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section 1065.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section 1065.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use...

  16. 40 CFR 81.93 - Hampton Roads Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air... Wight, James City, Nansemond, Southampton, York. Cities—Chesapeake, Franklin, Hampton, Newport...

  17. 40 CFR 81.145 - State Capital Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air... City, Chesterfield, Dinwiddie, Goochland, Greensville, Hanover, Henrico, New Kent, Powhatan,...

  18. 40 CFR 81.145 - State Capital Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air... City, Chesterfield, Dinwiddie, Goochland, Greensville, Hanover, Henrico, New Kent, Powhatan,...

  19. 40 CFR 81.145 - State Capital Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air... City, Chesterfield, Dinwiddie, Goochland, Greensville, Hanover, Henrico, New Kent, Powhatan,...

  20. 40 CFR 81.93 - Hampton Roads Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air... Wight, James City, Nansemond, Southampton, York. Cities—Chesapeake, Franklin, Hampton, Newport...

  1. 40 CFR 81.145 - State Capital Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air... City, Chesterfield, Dinwiddie, Goochland, Greensville, Hanover, Henrico, New Kent, Powhatan,...

  2. 40 CFR 81.93 - Hampton Roads Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air... Wight, James City, Nansemond, Southampton, York. Cities—Chesapeake, Franklin, Hampton, Newport...

  3. 40 CFR 81.93 - Hampton Roads Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air... Wight, James City, Nansemond, Southampton, York. Cities—Chesapeake, Franklin, Hampton, Newport...

  4. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Arundel County, Baltimore City, Baltimore County, Carroll County, Harford County, Howard County....

  5. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Arundel County, Baltimore City, Baltimore County, Carroll County, Harford County, Howard County....

  6. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Arundel County, Baltimore City, Baltimore County, Carroll County, Harford County, Howard County....

  7. 40 CFR 81.28 - Metropolitan Baltimore Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Arundel County, Baltimore City, Baltimore County, Carroll County, Harford County, Howard County....

  8. Alpha-mannosidosis

    PubMed Central

    Malm, Dag; Nilssen, Øivind

    2008-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by immune deficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It occurs in approximately 1 of 500,000 live births. The children are often born apparently normal, and their condition worsens progressively. Some children are born with ankle equinus or develop hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Main features are immune deficiency (manifested by recurrent infections, especially in the first decade of life), skeletal abnormalities (mild-to-moderate dysostosis multiplex, scoliosis and deformation of the sternum), hearing impairment (moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss), gradual impairment of mental functions and speech, and often, periods of psychosis. Associated motor function disturbances include muscular weakness, joint abnormalities and ataxia. The facial trait include large head with prominent forehead, rounded eyebrows, flattened nasal bridge, macroglossia, widely spaced teeth, and prognathism. Slight strabismus is common. The clinical variability is significant, representing a continuum in severity. The disorder is caused by lysosomal alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Alpha-mannosidosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is caused by mutations in the MAN2B1 gene located on chromosome 19 (19 p13.2-q12). Diagnosis is made by measuring acid alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes or other nucleated cells and can be confirmed by genetic testing. Elevated urinary secretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides is suggestive, but not diagnostic. Differential diagnoses are mainly the other lysosomal storage diseases like the mucopolysaccharidoses. Genetic counseling should be given to explain the nature of the disease and to detect carriers. Antenatal diagnosis is possible, based on both biochemical and genetic methods. The management should be pro-active, preventing complications and treating manifestations. Infections must be

  9. An alpha/beta/gamma health physics instrument with pulse-shape discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    McElhaney, S.A.; Chiles, M.M.; Ramsey, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    A recent breakthrough in alpha scintillation detector design supports the feasibility of extending this new technology to the development of a monolithic alpha/beta/gamma ({alpha}/{beta}/{gamma}) scintillation detector. The new scintillator is physically robust and chemically resistant to environmental conditions encountered in radiation monitoring, and yet inexpensive to manufacture. The use of pulse-shape discrimination electronics allows pulses from each scintillator to be separated for particle identification. An {alpha}/{beta}/{gamma} detector has a wide variety of possible applications including laundry monitoring, wastewater monitoring, air sampling, and health physics instrumentation. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  10. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34...

  11. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34...

  12. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34...

  13. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34...

  14. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Beryllium § 61.34...

  15. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  16. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  17. Proteinaceous alpha-amylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Birte; Fukuda, Kenji; Nielsen, Peter K; Bønsager, Birgit C

    2004-02-12

    Proteins that inhibit alpha-amylases have been isolated from plants and microorganisms. These inhibitors can have natural roles in the control of endogenous alpha-amylase activity or in defence against pathogens and pests; certain inhibitors are reported to be antinutritional factors. The alpha-amylase inhibitors belong to seven different protein structural families, most of which also contain evolutionary related proteins without inhibitory activity. Two families include bifunctional inhibitors acting both on alpha-amylases and proteases. High-resolution structures are available of target alpha-amylases in complex with inhibitors from five families. These structures indicate major diversity but also some similarity in the structural basis of alpha-amylase inhibition. Mutational analysis of the mechanism of inhibition was performed in a few cases and various protein engineering and biotechnological approaches have been outlined for exploitation of the inhibitory function. PMID:14871655

  18. Air Force Seal Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhew, Ellen R.

    1996-01-01

    Seal technology development is an important part of the Air Force's participation in the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) initiative, the joint DOD, NASA, ARPA, and industry endeavor to double turbine engine capabilities by the turn of the century. Significant performance and efficiency improvements can be obtained through reducing internal flow system leakage, but seal environment requirements continue to become more extreme as the engine thermodynamic cycles advance towards these IHPTET goals. Seal technology continues to be pursued by the Air Force to control leakage at the required conditions. This presentation briefly describes current seal research and development programs and gives a summary of seal applications in demonstrator and developmental engines.

  19. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  20. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  1. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  2. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  3. 29 CFR 1202.13 - Air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air carriers. 1202.13 Section 1202.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.13 Air carriers. By the... carrier by air engaged in interstate or foreign commerce, and every carrier by air transporting mail...

  4. Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.

    1990-01-01

    Solar Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including daily values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total irradiance corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha.

  5. ISS Update: Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Kelly Humphries interviews Trent Martin, Johnson Space Center project manager for the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) aboard the International Space Station. Questions...

  6. Structure and diversity of the TCR alpha-chain in a teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Partula, S; de Guerra, A; Fellah, J S; Charlemagne, J

    1996-07-01

    T cell receptor beta-chain genes are well characterized in representatives of most vertebrate phyla, from sharks to mammals, but the molecular structure of complete TCR alpha-chains has not yet been established in cold-blooded vertebrates. We used a PCR approach to isolate cDNAs encoding putative teleost fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss, rainbow trout) TCR alpha-chains. Eight V alpha segments were identified, belonging to six different families, and the best amino acid sequence identity scores for these trout V alpha were all provided by mammalian V alpha or V delta sequences. Twenty-four (60.1 %) of the 39 analyzed V alpha segments belong to the V alpha 2 family, which has limited homology with mammalian V alpha/delta sequences and with the human V pre-B sequence. A total of 32 different J alpha segments were identified from 40 J alpha regions sequenced, suggesting that a large repertoire of J alpha segments is a characteristic of most vertebrates. The structural properties of the TCR alpha-chain complementarity-determining region 3 loop are well conserved between trout and mammals, suggesting that this region has been under continuous selective pressure in jawed vertebrate evolution. The trout C alpha segment has conserved N-terminal and transmembrane domains, but the C alpha intercysteine distance contains only 40 residues, significantly smaller as compared with mammals (49-56 residues). The conserved features of teleost fish TCR beta- and alpha-chains with their mammalian equivalents suggest that TCR-alpha beta receptors were still present in the common Devonian ancestors of modern teleost fish and mammals, about 450 million years ago. PMID:8683116

  7. Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority's Reading Improvement Program for Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marable, June Morehead

    This document discusses the founding and establishment of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority's reading experience pilot project. The efforts of this project were aligned with those of Right to Read and Reading Is Fundamental (RIF). Because of the response from parents and children, plans are being made to increase present operations within the next…

  8. Microscopic cluster model of {alpha}+n, {alpha}+p, {alpha}+ {sup 3}He, and {alpha}+{alpha} elastic scattering from a realistic effective nuclear interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dohet-Eraly, J.; Baye, D.

    2011-07-15

    An effective nucleon-nucleon interaction adapted to cluster-model calculations of collisions is derived from the realistic Argonne potential AV18 with the unitary correlation operator method. The unitary correlation is determined from the {alpha}+{alpha} elastic phase shifts calculated in a cluster approach by the generator coordinate method coupled with the microscopic R-matrix method. With this interaction, the elastic phase shifts for the {alpha}+n, {alpha}+p, and {alpha}+{sup 3}He collisions are calculated within the same model. Without further adjustment, a good agreement with experimental data is obtained with a small model space.

  9. Alpha glucosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2014-04-01

    Alpha glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are a unique class of anti-diabetic drugs. Derived from bacteria, these oral drugs are enzyme inhibitors which do not have a pancreato -centred mechanism of action. Working to delay carbohydrate absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, they control postprandial hyperglycaemia and provide unquestioned cardiovascular benefit. Specially suited for a traditional Pakistani carbohydrate-rich diet, AGIs have been termed the 'untapped diamonds' of diabetology. The use of these oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) that target pathophysiology in the early stages of type 2 diabetes, notably to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia will inevitably increase with time. This review describes the history of their development, mechanism of action, basic and clinical pharmacology, and suggests practical, evidence-based guidance for their optimal use. PMID:24864650

  10. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  11. DFT CONFORMATIONAL STUDIES OF ALPHA-MALTOTRIOSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent DFT optimization studies on alpha-maltose improved our understanding of the preferred conformations of alpha-maltose and the present study extends these studies to alpha-maltotriose with three alpha-D-glucopyranose residues linked by two alpha-[1-4] bridges, denoted herein as DP-3's. Combina...

  12. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) and natural bismuth-212 ({sup 212}Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Prothymosin alpha in human blood.

    PubMed Central

    Panneerselvam, C; Haritos, A A; Caldarella, J; Horecker, B L

    1987-01-01

    The major cross-reacting peptide in human plasma detected with a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for thymosin alpha 1 was identified as prothymosin alpha, based on its elution properties in gel-filtration chromatography and its amino acid composition after purification by HPLC. A small quantity (less than 10%) of the total cross-reacting material was recovered in fractions corresponding to lower molecular weight thymosin alpha 1-like peptides. The total quantity of cross-reacting material detected in human blood, expressed as thymosin alpha 1 equivalents, was 11-14 pmol/ml (approximately 90% was recovered in the leukocyte fraction, approximately 10% was in the plasma fraction, and 1-2% was in the erythrocyte fraction). The peptide present in leukocytes was also identified as prothymosin alpha. After correction for the 5-times lower molar reactivity of prothymosin alpha in the thymosin alpha 1 RIA employed in these experiments, we estimate that the content of prothymosin alpha in human blood is 55-70 pmol/ml (0.6-0.8 microgram/ml). The relatively small quantities recovered in the erythrocyte and plasma fractions may be attributed to contamination of the former by leukocytes or to leakage from leukocytes into the plasma. PMID:3474615

  14. EEG Alpha Power and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doppelmayr, M.; Klimesch, W.; Stadler, W.; Pollhuber, D.; Heine, C.

    2002-01-01

    Tested whether alpha power in different sub-bands is selectively related to intelligence. For 74 Austrian subjects, the EEG was recorded during a resting session and 2 different intelligence tests were performed. Findings show a strong positive correlation between intelligence and alpha power. (SLD)

  15. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  16. Alpha Schottky junction energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litz, Marc S.; Fan, Zhaoyang; Carroll, James J.; Bayne, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    Isotope batteries offer solutions for long-lived low-power sensor requirements. Alpha emitting isotopes have energy per decay 103 times that of beta emitters. Alpha particles are absorbed within 20 μm of most materials reducing shielding mitigation. However, damage to materials from the alphas limits their practical use. A Schottky Barrier Diode (SBD) geometry is considered with an alpha emitting contact-layer on a diamond-like crystal semiconductor region. The radiation tolerance of diamond, the safety of alpha particles, combined with the internal field of the SBD is expected to generate current useful for low-power electronic devices over decades. Device design parameters and calculations of the expected current are described.

  17. Clinical and immunological responses to occupational exposure to alpha-amylase in the baking industry.

    PubMed Central

    Brisman, J; Belin, L

    1991-01-01

    alpha-Amylase is a starch cleaving enzyme often used in the baking industry as a flour additive. It is usually of fungal origin, produced by Aspergillus oryzae. One previous report has shown IgE antibodies and positive skin prick test against alpha-amylase in asthmatic bakers. This paper describes four alpha-amylase sensitised index cases with occupational asthma or rhinitis and the results of a cross sectional study of 20 workers from the same factory who were also exposed to alpha-amylase powder. Air sampling detected airborne alpha-amylase at a concentration of 0.03 mg/m3. Significantly more work related symptoms such as rhinitis and dermatitis were found among the alpha-amylase exposed workers compared with referents. A skin prick test to alpha-amylase was positive in 30% (6/20) of the exposed workers. Most of the persons showing a positive skin prick test had work related symptoms and were also skin prick test positive to common allergens. Nasal challenge tests with amylase were performed in selected cases and validated three cases of alpha-amylase induced rhinitis. Two non-symptomatic workers had precipitins to alpha-amylase. Specific IgG antibodies were shown by two further serological techniques. The nature and relevance of these antibodies are currently being studied. It is concluded that alpha-amylase powder is a potent occupational sensitiser. Precautions should be taken when handling this allergenic enzyme. PMID:1832939

  18. Clinical and immunological responses to occupational exposure to alpha-amylase in the baking industry.

    PubMed

    Brisman, J; Belin, L

    1991-09-01

    alpha-Amylase is a starch cleaving enzyme often used in the baking industry as a flour additive. It is usually of fungal origin, produced by Aspergillus oryzae. One previous report has shown IgE antibodies and positive skin prick test against alpha-amylase in asthmatic bakers. This paper describes four alpha-amylase sensitised index cases with occupational asthma or rhinitis and the results of a cross sectional study of 20 workers from the same factory who were also exposed to alpha-amylase powder. Air sampling detected airborne alpha-amylase at a concentration of 0.03 mg/m3. Significantly more work related symptoms such as rhinitis and dermatitis were found among the alpha-amylase exposed workers compared with referents. A skin prick test to alpha-amylase was positive in 30% (6/20) of the exposed workers. Most of the persons showing a positive skin prick test had work related symptoms and were also skin prick test positive to common allergens. Nasal challenge tests with amylase were performed in selected cases and validated three cases of alpha-amylase induced rhinitis. Two non-symptomatic workers had precipitins to alpha-amylase. Specific IgG antibodies were shown by two further serological techniques. The nature and relevance of these antibodies are currently being studied. It is concluded that alpha-amylase powder is a potent occupational sensitiser. Precautions should be taken when handling this allergenic enzyme. PMID:1832939

  19. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    SciTech Connect

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.

    1995-10-01

    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer{trademark} system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma, scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft.

  20. 21 CFR 866.5620 - Alpha-2-macroglobulin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-2-macroglobulin immunological test system. 866.5620 Section 866.5620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5620 Alpha-2-macroglobulin...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5620 - Alpha-2-macroglobulin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-2-macroglobulin immunological test system. 866.5620 Section 866.5620 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5620 Alpha-2-macroglobulin...

  2. Air Force seal activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhew, Ellen R.

    1994-01-01

    Seal technology development is an important part of the Air Force's participation in the Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (IHPTET) initiative, the joint DOD, NASA, ARPA, and industry endeavor to double turbine engine capabilities by the turn of the century. Significant performance and efficiency improvements can be obtained through reducing internal flow system leakage, but seal environment requirements continue to become more extreme as the engine thermodynamic cycles advance towards these IHPTET goals. Brush seal technology continues to be pursued by the Air Force to reduce leakage at the required conditions. Likewise, challenges in engine mainshaft air/oil seals are also being addressed. Counter-rotating intershaft applications within the IHPTET initiative involve very high rubbing velocities. This viewgraph presentation briefly describes past and current seal research and development programs and gives a summary of seal applications in demonstrator and developmental engine testing.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: alpha-mannosidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions alpha-mannosidosis alpha-mannosidosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Alpha-mannosidosis is a rare inherited disorder that causes ...

  4. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, D.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1995-10-17

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle`s rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump. 8 figs.

  5. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  6. Process air quality data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, C. M.; Hogge, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Air quality sampling was conducted. Data for air quality parameters, recorded on written forms, punched cards or magnetic tape, are available for 1972 through 1975. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate several daily statistical measures of location, (2) plot time histories of data or the calculated daily statistics, (3) calculate simple correlation coefficients, and (4) plot scatter diagrams. Computer software was developed for processing air quality data to include time series analysis and goodness of fit tests. Computer software was developed to (1) calculate a larger number of daily statistical measures of location, and a number of daily monthly and yearly measures of location, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, (2) decompose the extended time series model and (3) perform some goodness of fit tests. The computer program is described, documented and illustrated by examples. Recommendations are made for continuation of the development of research on processing air quality data.

  7. Air bag restraint device

    DOEpatents

    Marts, Donna J.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    A rear-seat air bag restraint device is disclosed that prevents an individual, or individuals, from continuing violent actions while being transported in a patrol vehicle's rear seat without requiring immediate physical contact by the law enforcement officer. The air bag is activated by a control switch in the front seat and inflates to independently restrict the amount of physical activity occurring in the rear seat of the vehicle while allowing the officer to safely stop the vehicle. The air bag can also provide the officer additional time to get backup personnel to aid him if the situation warrants it. The bag is inflated and maintains a constant pressure by an air pump.

  8. 32 CFR 245.21 - ESCAT air traffic priority list.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false ESCAT air traffic priority list. 245.21 Section 245.21 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS PLAN FOR THE EMERGENCY SECURITY CONTROL OF AIR TRAFFIC (ESCAT) ESCAT Air Traffic Priority List (EATPL) § 245.21 ESCAT air...

  9. 40 CFR 58.15 - Annual air monitoring data certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual air monitoring data certification. 58.15 Section 58.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.15 Annual air monitoring...

  10. 40 CFR 58.15 - Annual air monitoring data certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual air monitoring data certification. 58.15 Section 58.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Monitoring Network § 58.15 Annual air monitoring...

  11. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intake and cooling air measurements. 92.108 Section 92.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.108 Intake and cooling air measurements....

  12. Alpha LAMP Integration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oshiro, Richard; Sowers, Dennis; Gargiulo, Joe; Mcgahey, Mark

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the activity recently completed to meet the simulated space environment requirements for the ground-based testing of an integrated Space Based Laser (SBL) system experiment. The need to maintain optical alignment in the challenging dynamic environment of the pressure recovery system required to simulate space dominated the design requirements. A robust system design was established which minimized the total program costs, most notably by reducing the cost of integrating the components of the experiment. The components of the experiment are integrated on an optical bench in a clean area adjacent to the vacuum chamber and moved on air bearings into the chamber for testing.

  13. Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1972-01-01

    Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.

  14. Continuous and passive environmental radon monitoring: Measuring methods and health effects. (Latest citations from the INSPEC: Information Services for the Physics and Engineering Communities data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning continuous and passive radon (Rn) monitoring, measurement methods, equipment, and health effects from Rn concentration in air, water, and soils. The design, development, and evaluations of Rn and Rn-daughter monitoring and detection devices are presented, including alpha spectroscopy and dosimetry, track detecting and scintillation, thermoluminescent, electret, and electrode collection. The citations also examine sources of Rn concentration levels found in building materials, ventilation systems, soils, and ground water. Lung cancer-associated risks from Rn radiation exposure are examined. Radon monitoring in mining operations is excluded. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  15. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Ffff of... - Partially Soluble Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pollutants 8 Table 8 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Miscellaneous Organic...

  16. Alpha detection as a probe for counter proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, J.E.; Johnson, J.P.; MacArthur, D.W.; Walters, S.G.

    1994-07-01

    An indication of the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) can be obtained by the detection of alpha particles from the decay of the SNM. Current techniques for detecting alpha particles have a number of limitations. Sensitive conventional detection of SNM traces involves off-site laboratory analysis -- but at the loss of an on-site confirmation. Fieldable detection instruments, on the other hand, are delicate and have poor sensitivity. New long-range alpha detection (LRAD) technology mitigates these limitations. An LRAD-based instrument relies on the detection of the hundreds of thousands of ions produced in ambient air by one emitted alpha particle. The ions can be transported to an ion detector at a distance much greater than the range of the original alpha particle. The LRAD-based monitors have the characteristics of high sensitivity, fast (real-time) response, ruggedness, and reliability. Many of the designs are quite portable. In this paper, several scenarios are identified for which particular LRAD-based detectors can provide confirmation of proliferation activity.

  17. 40 CFR 52.2682 - Air quality surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quality surveillance. 52.2682 Section 52.2682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2682 Air...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2682 - Air quality surveillance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quality surveillance. 52.2682 Section 52.2682 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2682 Air...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Rhode Island § 52.2083 Significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Guam § 52.2676 Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virgin Islands § 52.2779 Significant deterioration of air...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Carolina § 52.2131 Significant deterioration of air...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Washington § 52.2497 Significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Vermont § 52.2380 Significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) South Dakota § 52.2178 Significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) American Samoa § 52.2827 Significant deterioration of air...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Virginia § 52.2451 Significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2346 Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Puerto Rico § 52.2729 Significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Tennessee § 52.2233 Significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5...

  12. Solid waste combustion for alpha waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, D.I.

    1981-02-01

    Radioactive waste incinerator development at the Savannah River Laboratory has been augmented by fundamental combustion studies at the University of South Carolina. The objective was to measure and model pyrolysis and combustion rates of typical Savannah River Plant waste materials as a function of incinerator operating conditions. The analytical models developed in this work have been incorporated into a waste burning transient code. The code predicts maximum air requirement and heat energy release as a function of waste type, package size, combustion chamber size, and temperature. Historically, relationships have been determined by direct experiments that did not allow an engineering basis for predicting combustion rates in untested incinerators. The computed combustion rates and burning times agree with measured values in the Savannah River Laboratory pilot (1 lb/hr) and full-scale (12 lb/hr) alpha incinerators for a wide variety of typical waste materials.

  13. Hydrogen alpha laser ablation plasma diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Parigger, C G; Surmick, D M; Gautam, G; El Sherbini, A M

    2015-08-01

    Spectral measurements of the H(α) Balmer series line and the continuum radiation are applied to draw inferences of electron density, temperature, and the level of self-absorption in laser ablation of a solid ice target in ambient air. Electron densities of 17 to 3.2×10(24) m(-3) are determined from absolute calibrated emission coefficients for time delays of 100-650 ns after generation of laser plasma using Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation. The corresponding temperatures of 4.5-0.95 eV were evaluated from the absolute spectral radiance of the continuum at the longer wavelengths. The redshifted, Stark-broadened hydrogen alpha line emerges from the continuum radiation after a time delay of 300 ns. The electron densities inferred from power law formulas agree with the values obtained from the plasma emission coefficients. PMID:26258326

  14. Propagation or failure of detonation across an air gap in an LX-17 column: continuous time-dependent detonation or shock speed using the Embedded Fiber Optic (EFO) technique

    SciTech Connect

    Hare, D E; Chandler, J B; Compton, S M; Garza, R G; Grimsley, D A; Hernandez, A; Villafana, R J; Wade, J T; Weber, S R; Wong, B M; Souers, P C

    2008-01-16

    The detailed history of the shock/detonation wave propagation after crossing a room-temperature-room-pressure (RTP) air gap between a 25.4 mm diameter LX-17 donor column and a 25.4 mm diameter by 25.4 mm long LX-17 acceptor pellet is investigated for three different gap widths (3.07, 2.08, and 0.00 mm) using the Embedded Fiber Optic (EFO) technique. The 2.08 mm gap propagated and the 3.07 mm gap failed and this can be seen clearly and unambiguously in the EFO data even though the 25.4 mm-long acceptor pellet would be considered quite short for a determination by more traditional means such as pins.

  15. Binding of tumor necrosis factor alpha to activated forms of human plasma alpha 2 macroglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Wollenberg, G. K.; LaMarre, J.; Rosendal, S.; Gonias, S. L.; Hayes, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that human plasma alpha 2 macroglobulin (alpha 2M) is a latent binding glycoprotein for human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Human recombinant 125I-TNF-alpha was incubated for 2 hours (37 degrees C) with purified native alpha 2M and with alpha 2M that was modified by reaction with methylamine or various proteinases. 125I-TNF-alpha/alpha 2M complexes were detected by nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after autoradiography or by liquid chromatography on Superose-6. 125I-TNF-alpha bound strongly but noncovalently to alpha 2M-plasmin and alpha 2M-methylamine. There was minimal binding of 125I-TNF-alpha to native alpha 2M, alpha 2M-trypsin, or alpha 2M-thrombin. A 10(6) molar excess of porcine heparin did not reduce the binding of 125I-TNF-alpha to alpha 2M-methylamine or alpha 2M-plasmin. alpha 2M-plasmin or alpha 2M-methylamine added to human plasma or serum preferentially bound 125I-TNF-alpha in the presence of native alpha 2M. 125I-TNF-alpha also bound to 'fast' alpha-macroglobulins in methylamine-reacted human, rat, mouse, swine, equine, and bovine plasma. However, TNF-alpha, preincubated with either alpha 2M-plasmin or alpha 2M-methylamine, remained a potent necrogen for cultured L929 cells. Purified 125I-TNF-alpha/alpha 2M-plasmin complex injected intravenously in CD-1 mice rapidly cleared from the circulation, unless the alpha 2M-receptor pathway was blocked by coinjection of excess alpha 2M-trypsin. These findings demonstrate that alpha 2M is a latent plasmin-activated binding glycoprotein for TNF-alpha and that TNF-alpha/alpha 2M-plasmin complexes can be removed from the circulation by the alpha 2M-receptor pathway. This suggests that alpha 2M may be an important regulator of the activity and distribution of TNF-alpha in vivo. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:1704186

  16. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Overview

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is flying to the station on STS-134. The AMS experiment is a state-of-the-art particle physics detector being operated by an international team composed of 60 ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... in each cell. Each copy is called an allele. For each gene, one allele is inherited from a person's father, and the ... person's mother. As a result, there are four alleles that produce alpha-globin. The different types of ...

  18. International Space Station (ISS) Alpha

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    An artist's concept of a fully deployed International Space Station (ISS) Alpha. The ISS-A is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide an unprecedented undertaking in scientific, technological, and international experiments.

  19. Detecting Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stoller, James K

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a widely underrecognized condition, with evidence of persisting long diagnostic delays and patients' frequent need to see multiple physicians before initial diagnosis. Reasons for underrecognition include inadequate understanding of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency by physicians and allied health care providers; failure to implement available, guideline-based practice recommendations; and the belief that effective therapy is unavailable. Multiple studies have described both the results of screening and targeted detection of individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, with both varying strategies employed to identify at-risk individuals and varying results of testing. Also, various strategies to enhance detection of affected individuals have been examined, including use of the electronic medical record to prompt testing and empowerment of allied health providers, especially respiratory therapists, to promote testing for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Such efforts are likely to enhance detection with the expected result that the harmful effects of delayed diagnosis can be mitigated. PMID:27564667

  20. Alpha decay in electron surrounding

    SciTech Connect

    Igashov, S. Yu.; Tchuvil’sky, Yu. M.

    2013-12-15

    The influence of atomic electron shells on the constant of alpha decay of heavy and mediummass nuclei was considered in detail. A method for simultaneously taking into account the change in the potential-barrier shape and the effect of reflection of a diverging Coulomb wave in the classically allowed region was developed. The ratios of decay probabilities per unit time for a bare nucleus and the respective neutral atom were found for some alpha-decaying isotopes.

  1. Alpha counting and spectrometry using liquid scintillation methods

    SciTech Connect

    McDowell, W J

    1986-01-01

    The material in this report is intended to be a practical introduction and guide to the use of liquid scintillation for alpha counting and spectrometry. Other works devoted to the development of the theory of liquid scintillation exist and a minimum of such material is repeated here. Much remains to be learned and many improvements remain to be made in the use of liquid scintillation for alpha counting and spectrometry. It is hoped that this modest work will encourage others to continue development in the field.

  2. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not...

  14. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  10. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  14. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  17. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  5. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements...

  10. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  13. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  14. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  16. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  18. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  19. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  1. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  2. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  3. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  4. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  5. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  6. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  7. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  8. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  9. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  11. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  12. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  13. 78 FR 50138 - Applications for Certificates of Public Convenience and Necessity and Foreign Air Carrier Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... PanAir requesting a foreign air carrier permit to operate charter air transportation of property..., whether or not it constitutes part of a continuous operation that includes service to Panama. PanAir...

  14. 40 CFR 81.164 - San Diego Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air... Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of...

  15. 40 CFR 81.141 - Berkshire Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air... Air Quality Control Region (Massachusetts) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the following jurisdictions or described area (including the territorial area of...

  16. 40 CFR 81.88 - Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air...: Region II. 481.169Helena Intrastate Air Quality Control Region: Region IV. 481.170Miles City...

  17. 40 CFR 81.88 - Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air...: Region II. 481.169Helena Intrastate Air Quality Control Region: Region IV. 481.170Miles City...

  18. 40 CFR 81.88 - Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air...: Region II. 481.169Helena Intrastate Air Quality Control Region: Region IV. 481.170Miles City...

  19. 40 CFR 81.88 - Billings Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air...: Region II. 481.169Helena Intrastate Air Quality Control Region: Region IV. 481.170Miles City...

  20. Targeting of dornase alpha therapy in adult cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ledson, M J; Wahbi, Z; Convery, R P; Cowperthwaite, C; Heaf, D P; Walshaw, M J

    1998-01-01

    Although dornase alpha (recombinant human DNase) can thin the viscid pulmonary secretions of cystic fibrosis (CF), clinical trials in groups of unselected patients have shown only modest average improvements in pulmonary function. The product is very expensive, so in conjunction with purchasers we designed selection criteria and a protocol for a 2-week trial to target CF individuals who might gain most benefit. Treatment was to be continued in those showing > or = 10% improvement in pulmonary function. Those who had a trial of dornase alpha were followed up for 2 years. Of 25 patients who had a 2-week trial of dornase alpha, 17 met the criteria for continuation (average gain in forced expiratory volume 37%). The 11 of these who were still alive at 2 years had a greater initial average FEV1 improvement than those who had died (45% versus 22%), and still had an average improvement of 31% at 2 years. The 8 patients who did not meet the criteria for continuation were older and had required fewer intravenous antibiotic courses. All these were alive at 2 years with unchanged clinical indices. This method of selection for dornase alpha treatment allows targeting to those who gain most benefit without disadvantaging the remaining patients. Furthermore, production of such guidelines in conjunction with purchasers obviates funding difficulties and allows rational prescribing. PMID:9771494

  1. 40 CFR 63.8465 - How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate continuous compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Brick and Structural Clay Products Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements § 63.8465 How do I monitor...

  2. 40 CFR 63.8690 - How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate continuous compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asphalt Processing and Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Continuous Compliance Requirements § 63.8690 How do I...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1225 - What types of continuous emission monitoring must I perform?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After August...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1365 - What records must I keep for continuously monitored pollutants or parameters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... items: (1) Calendar dates whenever any of the five pollutant or parameter levels recorded in...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1850 - What records must I keep for continuously monitored pollutants or parameters?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY... five pollutant or parameter levels recorded in paragraph (b) of this section or the opacity...

  6. Temporal variation of 212Pb concentration in outdoor air of Milan and a comparison with 214Bi.

    PubMed

    Marcazzan, G M; Caprioli, E; Valli, G; Vecchi, R

    2003-01-01

    Continuous measurement of hourly concentrations of 212Pb attached to aerosol particles was carried out during the whole year 2000 in the outdoor air of Milan (Italy). An improved experimental method based on on-line alpha spectroscopy during atmospheric particulate matter sampling allowed the contemporary determination of 212Pb and 214Bi through the deconvolution of the alpha energy spectral distribution analysis. The 212Pb hourly concentrations were about 100 times lower than 214Bi but showed a similar characteristic diurnal time trend. However, the influence of meteorological parameters such as rain and wind was more evident in 212Pb than in 214Bi concentrations. The 212Pb average annual concentration was 0.090 +/- 0.060 Bq/m3 with daily mean concentration varying from 0.013 to 0.333 Bq/m3. PMID:12683729

  7. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  8. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  9. Alpha-beta monitoring system based on pair of simultaneous Multi-Wire Proportional Counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wengrowicz, U.; Amidan, D.; Orion, I.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach for a simultaneous alpha-beta Multi-wire Proportional Counter (MWPC) is presented. The popular approach for alpha-beta monitoring systems consists of a large area MWPC using noble gas flow such as Argon Methane. This method of measurement is effective but requires large-scale and expensive maintenance due to the needs of gas flow control and periodic replacements. In this work, a pair of simultaneous MWPCs for alpha-beta measuring is presented. The developed detector consists of a sealed gas MWPC sensor for beta particles, behind a free air alpha sensor. This approach allows effective simultaneous detection and discrimination of both alpha and beta radiation without the maintenance cost noble gas flow required for unsealed detectors.

  10. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  11. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  12. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  13. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  14. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  15. Binding of actin to lens alpha crystallins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Actin has been coupled to a cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B column, then tested for binding to alpha, beta, and gamma crystallin preparations from the bovine lens. Alpha, but not beta or gamma, crystallins bound to the actin affinity column in a time dependent and saturable manner. Subfractionation of the alpha crystallin preparation into the alpha-A and alpha-B species, followed by incubation with the affinity column, demonstrated that both species bound approximately the same. Together, these studies demonstrate a specific and saturable binding of lens alpha-A and alpha-B with actin.

  16. Investigations of nanoscale helical pitch in smectic-C*alpha and smectic-C* phases of a chiral smectic liquid crystal using differential optical reflectivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Panov, V P; McCoy, B K; Liu, Z Q; Vij, J K; Goodby, J W; Huang, C C

    2006-07-01

    Differential optical reflectivity (DOR) was used to study the temperature dependence of the short helical pitch in freestanding films of a liquid crystal compound. The experimentally measured DOR signal was fitted using Berreman's 4 x 4 matrix method to get the pitch value in the smectic-C*alpha (sMC*alpha) phase. The results show continuous evolution of the pitch between the smectic-C*alpha and sMC*alpha phases. In sMC*alpha, the pitch decreases as temperature increases and is found to level off at 16+/-1 smectic layers at the sMC*alpha to smectic-A* transition. PMID:16907105

  17. Continuous aqueous tritium monitor

    DOEpatents

    McManus, Gary J.; Weesner, Forrest J.

    1989-05-30

    An apparatus for a selective on-line determination of aqueous tritium concentration is disclosed. A moist air stream of the liquid solution being analyzed is passed through a permeation dryer where the tritium and moisture and selectively removed to a purge air stream. The purge air stream is then analyzed for tritium concentration, humidity, and temperature, which allows computation of liquid tritium concentration.

  18. Modulation of gene expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The naturally occurring vitamin E analogue, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), has been reported to be more potent in reducing cell proliferation and the expression of the CD36 scavenger receptor than the un-phosphorylated alpha-tocopherol (alpha T). We have now assessed the effects of alpha T an...

  19. Mechanism of alpha-tocopheryl-phosphate (alpha-TP) transport across the cell membrane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reported that alpha-TP is synthesized and hydrolyzed in animal cells and tissues; it modulates also several cell functions (FRBM 39:970, and UBMB Life, 57:23, 2005). While it is similar to alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T), alpha-TP appears to be more potent than alpha-T in inhibiting cell prolifer...

  20. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Fffff of... - Continuous Compliance With Emission and Opacity Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Integrated... frequencies specified in § 63.7821. 5. Each sinter cooler at an existing sinter plant a. Maintaining...

  1. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Aaaaa of... - Continuous Compliance With Operating Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... required by 40 CFR part 63, subpart A, General Provisions and according to PS-1 of appendix B to part 60 of... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Lime Manufacturing...

  2. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Fffff of... - Continuous Compliance With Emission and Opacity Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for... frequencies specified in § 63.7821. 5. Each sinter cooler at an existing sinter plant a. Maintaining...

  3. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Fffff of... - Continuous Compliance With Emission and Opacity Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for... frequencies specified in § 63.7821. 5. Each sinter cooler at an existing sinter plant a. Maintaining...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.803 - Compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1926.803 Section 1926.803 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Underground Construction, Caissons, Cofferdams and Compressed Air § 1926.803 Compressed...

  5. Binding of [alpha, alpha]-Disubstituted Amino Acids to Arginase Suggests New Avenues for Inhibitor Design

    SciTech Connect

    Ilies, Monica; Di Costanzo, Luigi; Dowling, Daniel P.; Thorn, Katherine J.; Christianson, David W.

    2011-10-21

    Arginase is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that hydrolyzes L-arginine to form L-ornithine and urea, and aberrant arginase activity is implicated in various diseases such as erectile dysfunction, asthma, atherosclerosis, and cerebral malaria. Accordingly, arginase inhibitors may be therapeutically useful. Continuing our efforts to expand the chemical space of arginase inhibitor design and inspired by the binding of 2-(difluoromethyl)-L-ornithine to human arginase I, we now report the first study of the binding of {alpha},{alpha}-disubstituted amino acids to arginase. Specifically, we report the design, synthesis, and assay of racemic 2-amino-6-borono-2-methylhexanoic acid and racemic 2-amino-6-borono-2-(difluoromethyl)hexanoic acid. X-ray crystal structures of human arginase I and Plasmodium falciparum arginase complexed with these inhibitors reveal the exclusive binding of the L-stereoisomer; the additional {alpha}-substituent of each inhibitor is readily accommodated and makes new intermolecular interactions in the outer active site of each enzyme. Therefore, this work highlights a new region of the protein surface that can be targeted for additional affinity interactions, as well as the first comparative structural insights on inhibitor discrimination between a human and a parasitic arginase.

  6. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    SciTech Connect

    Bethke, Siegfried; Hoang, Andre H.; Kluth, Stefan; Schieck, Jochen; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  7. Immunodiagnosis of alpha chain disease.

    PubMed Central

    Doe, W F; Danon, F; Seligmann, M

    1979-01-01

    Since the early diagnosis of alpha chain disease (alphaCD)) is essential to successful treatment and to epidemiological studies, the available immunodiagnostic techniques were compared for their sensitivity, specificity and ease of performance on a panel of sixteen sera, comprising ten alphaCD sera and six control sera containing either IgA myeloma protein or high levels of polyclonal IgA. Immunoselection by immunoelectrophoresis into gel containing a specially developed anti-Fabalpha antiserum provided the most sensitive and specific detection system for alphaCD protein. The same technique using anti-light chain antiserum for immunoselection was also highly sensitive, but proved less specific, being prone to false positives with difficult IgA myeloma proteins. Somewhat less sensitive, but specific and simple to perform, was immunoelectrophoresis using an antiserum recognizing the conformational specificities of Fabalpha as well as those of the constant region of alpha chains. Immunoselection using the Ouchterlony or rocket techniques proved to be less sensitive and prone to false positives when some IgA myeloma sera were tested. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:113152

  8. Alpha Com eclipse observing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2014-12-01

    Drs. Matthew W. Muterspaugh and Gregory W. Henry (Tennessee State University) have requested AAVSO observers' ssistance in monitoring the possible Algol-like binary star alpha Com before, during, and after the eclipse they have predicted for mid-to-late January 2015. The PIs will be using the Fairborn Observatory automated photometric telescopes on Mt. Hopkins, but they are requesting additional observations not only to supplement theirs but also specifically to have good coverage in the event of bad weather at Mt. Hopkins. Alf Com has a 26-year period and is 4.32V at maximum. The expected amplitude of the eclipse is about 0.8 magnitude and the duration somewhere between 28 and 45 hours. The eclipse is predicted for January 25 ± three days (JD 2457047 ± 3). Muterspaugh at al. first calculated the possibility of a 2015 eclipse in 2010 (AJ). Muterspaugh and Henry recently published an article with updated information (arXiv 2014). V and/or R photometry (other bands welcome) is requested, with a minimal cadence of one measurement/2 hours, to make sure the eclipse is caught right as it begins and to ensure having multiple data points on any unseen objects that might eclipse as well. During eclipse, continuous observations are important. Infrared (H-band) observations could be interesting, should the CHARA array image the event. The precision photometry in the weeks before and after the eclipse is requested in order to catch possible evidence for planets or other materials around the eclipsing star. Updated astrometry from the current epoch would greatly improve the eclipse preductions. Charts with comparison star sequence for alf Com may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). The PIs recommend using the comparison stars HD 113848 (39 Com, HR 4946, HIP 63948, V=5.990, B-V=0.39, F4V) and HD 114520 (HIP 64312, V=6.820, B-V=0.46,F2II). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See AAVSO Alert Notice 506

  9. The alpha gal story: Lessons learned from connecting the dots

    PubMed Central

    Steinke, John W; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Commins, Scott P

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction that can be rapidly progressing and fatal; thus, establishing the etiology of anaphylaxis is pivotal to long-term risk management. Our recent work has identified a novel IgE antibody response to a mammalian oligosaccharide epitope, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). IgE to alpha-gal has been associated with two distinct forms of anaphylaxis: i) immediate onset anaphylaxis during first exposure to intravenous cetuximab, and ii) delayed onset anaphylaxis 3–6 hours after ingestion of mammalian food products (e.g., beef and pork). Results of our studies and those of others strongly suggest that tick bites are a cause, if not the only significant cause, of IgE antibody responses to alpha-gal in the southern, eastern and central United States, Europe, Australia and parts of Asia. Typical immune responses to carbohydrates are considered to be T cell-independent, while IgE antibody production is thought to involve sequential class-switching that requires input from T cells. Therefore, establishing the mechanism of the specific IgE antibody response to alpha-gal will be an important aspect to address as this area of research continues. PMID:25747720

  10. Remission of liver fibrosis by interferon-alpha 2b.

    PubMed

    Moreno, M G; Muriel, P

    1995-08-01

    Fibrosis is a dynamic process associated with the continuous deposition and resorption of connective tissue, mainly collagen. Therapeutic strategies are emerging by which this dynamic process can be modulated. Since interferons are known to inhibit collagen production, the aim of this study was to investigate if the administration of interferon-alpha 2b (IFN-alpha) can restore the normal hepatic content of collagen in rats with established fibrosis. Fibrosis was induced by prolonged bile duct ligation. IFN-alpha (100,000 IU/rat/day; s.c.) was administered to fibrotic rats for 15 days. Bile duct ligation increased liver collagen content 6-fold. In addition, serum and liver markers of hepatic injury increased significantly; liver histology showed an increase in collagen deposition, and the normal architecture was lost, with large zones of necrosis being observed frequently. IFN-alpha administration reversed to normal the values of all the biochemical markers measured and restored the normal architecture of the liver. Our results demonstrated that IFN-alpha is useful in reversing fibrosis and liver damage induced by biliary obstruction in the rat. However, further investigations are required to evaluate the therapeutic relevance of interferons on non-viral fibrosis and cholestasis. PMID:7646558

  11. MFTF-. cap alpha. + T progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.D.

    1985-04-01

    Early in FY 1983, several upgrades of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) were proposed to the fusion community. The one most favorably received was designated MFTF-..cap alpha..+T. The engineering design of this device, guided by LLNL, has been a principal activity of the Fusion Engineering Design Center during FY 1983. This interim progress report represents a snapshot of the device design, which was begun in FY 1983 and will continue for several years. The report is organized as a complete design description. Because it is an interim report, some parts are incomplete; they will be supplied as the design study proceeds. As described in this report, MFTF-..cap alpha..+T uses existing facilities, many MFTF-B components, and a number of innovations to improve on the physics parameters of MFTF-B. It burns deuterium-tritium and has a central-cell Q of 2, a wall loading GAMMA/sub n/ of 2 MW/m/sup 2/ (with a central-cell insert module), and an availability of 10%. The machine is fully shielded, allows hands-on maintenance of components outside the vacuum vessel 24 h after shutdown, and has provisions for repair of all operating components.

  12. Nonlinear feedback control for high alpha flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalford, Harold

    1990-01-01

    Analytical aerodynamic models are derived from a high alpha 6 DOF wind tunnel model. One detail model requires some interpolation between nonlinear functions of alpha. One analytical model requires no interpolation and as such is a completely continuous model. Flight path optimization is conducted on the basic maneuvers: half-loop, 90 degree pitch-up, and level turn. The optimal control analysis uses the derived analytical model in the equations of motion and is based on both moment and force equations. The maximum principle solution for the half-loop is poststall trajectory performing the half-loop in 13.6 seconds. The agility induced by thrust vectoring capability provided a minimum effect on reducing the maneuver time. By means of thrust vectoring control the 90 degrees pitch-up maneuver can be executed in a small place over a short time interval. The agility capability of thrust vectoring is quite beneficial for pitch-up maneuvers. The level turn results are based currently on only outer layer solutions of singular perturbation. Poststall solutions provide high turn rates but generate higher losses of energy than that of classical sustained solutions.

  13. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  14. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  15. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  16. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  17. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  18. Continuous enzymatic liquefaction of starch for saccharification

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.E.; Black, L.T.; Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    A process was explored for continuous enzymatic liquefaction of corn starch at high concentration and subsequent saccharification to glucose. The process appears to be quite efficient for conversion of starch to glucose and enzymatic liquefaction and should be readily adaptable to industrial fermentation processes. Preliminary work indicated that milled corn or other cereal grains also can be suitably converted by such a process. Essentially, the process involved incorporation of a thermostable, bacterial alpha-amylase for liquefaction and, subsequently, of a glucoamylase into the continuous mixer under conditions conductive to rapid enzymatic hydrolyses. Also studied was the effect on substrate liquefaction of variables such as starch concentration (40-70%), level of alpha-amylase (0.14-0.4%, dry starch basis), temperature (70-100 degrees C), pH (5.8-7.1), and residence time (6 and 12 minutes). The degree of liquefaction was assessed by determining 1) the Brookfield viscosity, 2) the amount of reducing groups, and 3) the rate and extent of glucose formed after glucoamylase treatment. Best liquefaction processing conditions were achieved by using 50-60% starch concentration, at 95 degrees C, with 0.4% alpha-amylase, and a 6 minute residence period in the mixer. Under these conditions, rates and extents of glucose obtained after glucoamylase treatment approached those obtained in longer laboratory batch liquefactions. The amount of glucose formed in 24 hours with the use of 0.4% glucoamylase was 86% of theory after a 6-min continuous liquefaction, compared to 90% for a 30-min laboratory batch liquefaction (95 degrees C, 0.4% alpha-amylase). (Refs. 15).

  19. alpha-Thalassemia caused by an unstable alpha-globin mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Liebhaber, S A; Kan, Y W

    1983-01-01

    In a previous study, molecular cloning of the alpha-globin genes from a patient with nondeletion Hb-H disease (genotype--/alpha alpha) showed that a single nucleotide mutation (CTG to CCG) in one of the genes resulted in a leucine to proline substitution. This paper describes the approach we used to detect the abnormal alpha-globin chain. The chain was identified using a cell-free translation system. It turned over rapidly both in vitro and in vivo in the patient's reticulocytes. The unusual feature of this unstable alpha-globin is that the alpha-globin deficiency causes alpha-thalassemia. Simple heterozygotes for this lesion (alpha Pro alpha/alpha alpha) resemble alpha-thalassemia carriers and do not exhibit the hemolytic anemia usually associated with unstable hemoglobins. Images PMID:6826718

  20. Residential radon daughter monitor based on alpha spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Nazaroff, W.W.

    1980-05-01

    The radioactive daughters of radon-222 pose a serious indoor air quality problem in some circumstances. A technique for measuring the concentrations of these radioisotopes in air is presented. The method involves drawing air through a filter; then, for two time intervals after sampling, counting the alpha decays from polonium-218 and polonium-214 on the filter. The time intervals are optimized to yield the maximum resolution between the individual daughter concentrations. For a total measurement time of 50 minutes, individual daughter concentrations of 1.0 nanocuries per cubic meter are measured with an uncertainty of 20%. A prototype of a field monitor based on this technique is described, as is a field test in which the prototype was used to measure radon daughter concentrations as a function of ventilation conditions in an energy-efficient house.

  1. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  2. Bremsstrahlung in {alpha} Decay Reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Boie, H.; Scheit, H.; Jentschura, U. D.; Koeck, F.; Lauer, M.; Schwalm, D.; Milstein, A. I.; Terekhov, I. S.

    2007-07-13

    A high-statistics measurement of bremsstrahlung emitted in the {alpha} decay of {sup 210}Po has been performed, which allows us to follow the photon spectra up to energies of {approx}500 keV. The measured differential emission probability is in good agreement with our theoretical results obtained within the quasiclassical approximation as well as with the exact quantum mechanical calculation. It is shown that, due to the small effective electric dipole charge of the radiating system, a significant interference between the electric dipole and quadrupole contributions occurs, which is altering substantially the angular correlation between the {alpha} particle and the emitted photon.

  3. Alpha high-power chemical laser program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordi, Anthony J.; Lurie, Henry; Callahan, David W.; Thomson, Matthew

    1993-06-01

    Alpha is a megawatt-class ground demonstration of a hydrogen fluoride, continuous wave, space-based chemical laser. The laser operates in the infrared at 2.8 microns. The basic device consists of a cylindrical combustion chamber that exhausts radially outward through circumferential nozzles into an annular lasing area. An annular ring resonator is used to extract the laser energy from this area. Technical firsts include: (1) use of aluminum combustion chamber/nozzle ring modules, (2) diamond turned, water-cooled optics made of molybdenum for low thermal distortion with good heat transfer, (3) use of uncooled silicon mirrors in a megawatt-class laser system, (4) an optical bench made of aluminum honeycomb, and (5) active controls to adjust alignment of selected mirrors and the optical bench.

  4. CONTINUOUS AND SEMI-CONTINUOUS METHODS FOR PM MASS AND COMPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article is a review of the status of continuous and semi-continuous methods for PM mass and composition based on results from EPA's PM Supersites Program and related studies. It summarizes recommendations suggested by Solomon and Sioutas (2006 submitted to the J. Air and Wa...

  5. 40 CFR 81.30 - Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.30 Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Milwaukee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) has been renamed the...

  6. 40 CFR 81.24 - Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.24 Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial...

  7. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  8. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial...

  9. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  10. 40 CFR 81.62 - Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.62 Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the...

  11. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  12. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  13. 40 CFR 81.23 - Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.23 Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region is redesignated to consist of the...

  14. 40 CFR 81.48 - Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.48 Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Vermont-New York) has been revised to consist of...

  15. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  16. 40 CFR 81.49 - Southeast Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.49 Southeast Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeast Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region is redesignated to consist of the territorial...

  17. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality...

  18. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been...

  19. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of...

  20. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  1. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality...

  2. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  3. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been...

  4. 40 CFR 81.48 - Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.48 Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Vermont-New York) has been revised to consist of...

  5. 40 CFR 81.49 - Southeast Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.49 Southeast Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southeast Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region is redesignated to consist of the territorial...

  6. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  7. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been...

  8. 40 CFR 81.62 - Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.62 Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the...

  9. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial...

  10. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of...

  11. 40 CFR 81.34 - Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.34 Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dayton Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  12. 40 CFR 81.62 - Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.62 Northeast Mississippi Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Alabama-Mississippi-Tennessee Interstate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the...

  13. 40 CFR 81.45 - Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.45 Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Atlanta Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia) has been revised to consist of...

  14. 40 CFR 81.24 - Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.24 Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial...

  15. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist...

  16. 40 CFR 81.41 - Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.41 Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Birmingham Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Alabama) has been revised to consist of...

  17. 40 CFR 81.29 - Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Region. 81.29 Section 81.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.29 Metropolitan Indianapolis Intrastate Air Quality...

  18. 40 CFR 81.16 - Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.16 Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Denver Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado) consists of the territorial...

  19. 40 CFR 81.30 - Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.30 Southeastern Wisconsin Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Milwaukee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Wisconsin) has been renamed the...

  20. 40 CFR 81.24 - Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.24 Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Niagara Frontier Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial...