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1

Quality factors for alpha particles emitted in tissue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A concept of a mean or dose averaged quality factor was defined in ICRP Publication 26 using relationships for quality factor as a function of LET. The concept of radiation weighting factors, wR, was introduced in ICRP Publication 60 in 1990. These are meant to be generalized factors that modify absorbed dose to reflect the risk of stochastic effects as a function of the quality of the radiation incident on the body or emitted by radioactivity within the body. The values of wr are equal to 20 for all alpha particles externally or internally emitted. This note compares the dose averaged quality factor for alpha particles originating in tissue using the old and revised recommendations for quality factor as a function of LET. The dose averaged quality factor never exceeds 20 using the old recommendations and is never less than 20 with the revised recommendations.

Borak, Thomas B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

2002-01-01

2

Intense alpha-particle emitting crystallites in uranium mill wastes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nuclear emulsion microscopy has demonstrated the presence of small, intense ??-particle emitting crystallites in laboratory-produced tailings derived from the sulfuric acid milling of uranium ores. The ??-particle activity is associated with the isotope pair 210Pb 210Po, and the host mineral appears to be PbSO4 occurring as inclusions in gypsum laths. These particles represent potential inhalation hazards at uranium mill tailings disposal areas. ?? 1994.

Landa, E. R.; Stieff, L. R.; Germani, M. S.; Tanner, A. B.; Evans, J. R.

1994-01-01

3

Bismuth212-labeled anti-Tac monoclonal antibody: alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides as modalities for radioimmunotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anti-Tac, a monoclonal antibody directed to the human interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor, has been successfully conjugated to the alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide bismuth-212 by use of a bifunctional ligand, the isobutylcarboxycarbonic anhydride of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. The physical properties of 212Bi are appropriate for radioimmunotherapy in that it has a short half-life, deposits its high energy over a short distance, and can be

R. W. Kozak; R. W. Atcher; O. A. Gansow; A. M. Friedman; J. J. Hines; T. A. Waldmann

1986-01-01

4

Cytotoxicity of alpha-particle-emitting astatine-211-labelled antibody in tumour spheroids: no effect of hyperthermia.  

PubMed Central

The high linear energy transfer, alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide astatine-211 (211At) is of interest for certain therapeutic applications; however, because of the 55- to 70-microm path length of its alpha-particles, achieving homogeneous tracer distribution is critical. Hyperthermia may enhance the therapeutic efficacy of alpha-particle endoradiotherapy if it can improve tracer distribution. In this study, we have investigated whether hyperthermia increased the cytotoxicity of an 211At-labelled monoclonal antibody (MAb) in tumour spheroids with a radius (approximately 100 microm) greater than the range of 211At alpha-particles. Hyperthermia for 1 h at 42 degrees C was used because this treatment itself resulted in no regrowth delay. Radiolabelled chimeric MAb 81C6 reactive with the extracellular matrix antigen tenascin was added to spheroids grown from the D-247 MG human glioma cell line at activity concentrations ranging from 0.125 to 250 kBq ml(-1). A significant regrowth delay was observed at 125 and 250 kBq ml(-1) in both hyperthermia-treated and untreated spheroids. For groups receiving hyperthermia, no increase in cytotoxicity was seen compared with normothermic controls at any activity concentration. These results and those from autoradiographs indicate that hyperthermia at 42 degrees C for 1 h had no significant effect on the uptake or distribution of this antitenascin MAb in D-247 MG spheroids. Images Figure 4 Figure 5

Hauck, M. L.; Larsen, R. H.; Welsh, P. C.; Zalutsky, M. R.

1998-01-01

5

THE ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION OF ALPHA PARTICLES EMITTED BY ORIENTED Np²³⁷ NUCLEI (thesis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neptunium-237 nuclei were aligned when a monocrystalline sample of ; neptunyl rubidium nitrate was cooled to 0.2 to 4.2 deg K. The rotatable sample ; was placed in a capsule filled with He³ gas for heat transfer. Also in tbe ; capsule were a germanium surface-barrier alpha-particle counter, a thermometer, ; and rotation indicators. The capsule was in thermal contact

S. H. Hanauer; J. W. T. Dabbs; L. D. Roberts; G. W. Parker

1960-01-01

6

Bismuth-212-labeled anti-Tac monoclonal antibody: alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides as modalities for radioimmunotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Anti-Tac, a monoclonal antibody directed to the human interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor, has been successfully conjugated to the alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide bismuth-212 by use of a bifunctional ligand, the isobutylcarboxycarbonic anhydride of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. The physical properties of 212Bi are appropriate for radioimmunotherapy in that it has a short half-life, deposits its high energy over a short distance, and can be obtained in large quantities from a radium generator. Antibody specific activities of 1-40 microCi/microgram (1 Ci = 37 GBq) were achieved. Specificity of the 212Bi-labeled anti-Tac was demonstrated for the IL-2 receptor-positive adult T-cell leukemia line HUT-102B2 by protein synthesis inhibition and clonogenic assays. Activity levels of 0.5 microCi or the equivalent of 12 rad/ml of alpha radiation targeted by anti-Tac eliminated greater than 98% the proliferative capabilities of HUT-102B2 cells with more modest effects on IL-2 receptor-negative cell lines. Specific cytotoxicity was blocked by excess unlabeled anti-Tac but not by human IgG. In addition, an irrelevant control monoclonal antibody of the same isotype labeled with 212Bi was unable to target alpha radiation to cell lines. Therefore, 212Bi-labeled anti-Tac is a potentially effective and specific immunocytotoxic reagent for the elimination of IL-2 receptor-positive cells. These experiments thus provide the scientific basis for use of alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides in immunotherapy.

Kozak, R.W.; Atcher, R.W.; Gansow, O.A.; Friedman, A.M.; Hines, J.J.; Waldmann, T.A.

1986-01-01

7

Alpha-Particle Emitting 213Bi-Anti-EGFR Immunoconjugates Eradicate Tumor Cells Independent of Oxygenation  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia is a central problem in tumor treatment because hypoxic cells are less sensitive to chemo- and radiotherapy than normoxic cells. Radioresistance of hypoxic tumor cells is due to reduced sensitivity towards low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation. High LET ?-emitters are thought to eradicate tumor cells independent of cellular oxygenation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to demonstrate that cell-bound ?-particle emitting 213Bi immunoconjugates kill hypoxic and normoxic CAL33 tumor cells with identical efficiency. For that purpose CAL33 cells were incubated with 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb or irradiated with photons with a nominal energy of 6 MeV both under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Oxygenation of cells was checked via the hypoxia-associated marker HIF-1?. Survival of cells was analysed using the clonogenic assay. Cell viability was monitored with the WST colorimetric assay. Results were evaluated statistically using a t-test and a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM). Survival and viability of CAL33 cells decreased both after incubation with increasing 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb activity concentrations (9.25 kBq/ml1.48 MBq/ml) and irradiation with increasing doses of photons (0.512 Gy). Following photon irradiation survival and viability of normoxic cells were significantly lower than those of hypoxic cells at all doses analysed. In contrast, cell death induced by 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb turned out to be independent of cellular oxygenation. These results demonstrate that ?-particle emitting 213Bi-immunoconjugates eradicate hypoxic tumor cells as effective as normoxic cells. Therefore, 213Bi-radioimmunotherapy seems to be an appropriate strategy for treatment of hypoxic tumors.

Gaertner, Florian C.; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Essler, Markus; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard

2013-01-01

8

Alpha-particle emitting 213Bi-anti-EGFR immunoconjugates eradicate tumor cells independent of oxygenation.  

PubMed

Hypoxia is a central problem in tumor treatment because hypoxic cells are less sensitive to chemo- and radiotherapy than normoxic cells. Radioresistance of hypoxic tumor cells is due to reduced sensitivity towards low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation. High LET ?-emitters are thought to eradicate tumor cells independent of cellular oxygenation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to demonstrate that cell-bound ?-particle emitting (213)Bi immunoconjugates kill hypoxic and normoxic CAL33 tumor cells with identical efficiency. For that purpose CAL33 cells were incubated with (213)Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb or irradiated with photons with a nominal energy of 6 MeV both under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Oxygenation of cells was checked via the hypoxia-associated marker HIF-1?. Survival of cells was analysed using the clonogenic assay. Cell viability was monitored with the WST colorimetric assay. Results were evaluated statistically using a t-test and a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM). Survival and viability of CAL33 cells decreased both after incubation with increasing (213)Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb activity concentrations (9.25 kBq/ml-1.48 MBq/ml) and irradiation with increasing doses of photons (0.5-12 Gy). Following photon irradiation survival and viability of normoxic cells were significantly lower than those of hypoxic cells at all doses analysed. In contrast, cell death induced by (213)Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb turned out to be independent of cellular oxygenation. These results demonstrate that ?-particle emitting (213)Bi-immunoconjugates eradicate hypoxic tumor cells as effective as normoxic cells. Therefore, (213)Bi-radioimmunotherapy seems to be an appropriate strategy for treatment of hypoxic tumors. PMID:23724085

Wulbrand, Christian; Seidl, Christof; Gaertner, Florian C; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Essler, Markus; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard

2013-01-01

9

1-15 MeV proton and alpha particle radiation effects on GaAs quantum well light emitting diodes [and QWIPs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent radiation damage was investigated in GaAs quantum well light emitting diodes (QW LEDs) due to protons and alpha particles in the 1-15 MeV energy range. At room temperature, these devices under forward bias emit infrared radiation at 980 mm. Current-voltage (I-V) and light emission characteristics of these devices were studied as a function of fluence and energy of protons

S. M. Khanna; D. Estan; H. C. Liu; M. Gao; M. Buchanan; A. J. SpringThorpe

2000-01-01

10

Development of phoswich detectors for simultaneous counting of alpha particles and other radiations (emitted from Actinides)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to develop actinide monitors, simultaneous counting of ? particles and other radiations has been investigated by means of phoswich detectors. Typical phoswiches devised up to the present consist of the following: ZnS(Ag)\\/NE102A for ? and ?(?) counting, ZnS(Ag)\\/NaI (Tl) or YAP for ? and ?(?) counting, ZnS(Ag)\\/anthracene\\/6Li glass for ?, ?(?), thermal- and fast-neutron counting, etc. Optical filters

Shigekazu Usuda; Kenichiro Yasuda; Satoshi Sakurai

1998-01-01

11

Hit rates and radiation doses to nuclei of bone lining cells from alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides.  

PubMed

Factors relating the local concentration of a bone-seeking alpha-particle emitter to the mean hit rate have been determined for nuclei of bone lining cells using a Monte Carlo procedure. Cell nuclei were approximated by oblate spheroids with dimensions and location taken from a previous histomorphometric study. The Monte Carlo simulation is applicable for planar and diffuse labels at plane or cylindrical bone surfaces. Additionally, the mean nuclear dose per hit, the dose mean per hit, the mean track segment length and its second moment, the percentage of stoppers, and the frequency distribution of the dose have been determined. Some basic features of the hit statistics for bone lining cells have been outlined, and the consequences of existing standards of radiation protection with regard to the hit frequency to cell nuclei are discussed. PMID:1641467

Polig, E; Jee, W S; Kruglikov, I L

1992-08-01

12

Hit rates and radiation doses to nuclei of bone lining cells from alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors relating the local concentration of a bone-seeking alpha-particle emitter to the mean hit rate have been determined for nuclei of bone lining cells using a Monte Carlo procedure. Cell nuclei were approximated by oblate spheroids with dimensions and location taken from a previous histomorphometric study. The Monte Carlo simulation is applicable for planar and diffuse labels at plane or cylindrical bone surfaces. Additionally, the mean nuclear dose per hit, the dose mean per hit, the mean track segment length and its second moment, the percentage of stoppers, and the frequency distribution of the dose have been determined. Some basic features of the hit statistics for bone lining cells have been outlined, and the consequences of existing standards of radiation protection with regard to the hit frequency to cell nuclei are discussed.

Polig, E.; Jee, W. S.; Kruglikov, I. L.

1992-01-01

13

Imaging alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

1985-01-01

14

Alpha-particle diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.

Young, K.M.

1991-01-01

15

Design considerations for thin film coated semiconductor thermal neutron detectorsI: basics regarding alpha particle emitting neutron reactive films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semiconductor-based thermal neutron detectors provide a compact technology for neutron detection and imaging. Such devices can be produced by externally coating semiconductor-charged-particle detectors with neutron reactive films that convert free neutrons into charged-particle reaction products. Commonly used films for such devices utilize the 10B(n,?)7Li reaction or the 6Li(n,?)3H reaction, which are attractive due to the relatively high energies imparted to

D. S. McGregor; M. D. Hammig; Y.-H. Yang; H. K. Gersch; R. T. Klann

2003-01-01

16

First In Vivo Evaluation of Liposome-encapsulated 223Ra as a Potential Alpha-particle-emitting Cancer Therapeutic Agent  

SciTech Connect

Liposomes carrying chemotherapeutics have had some success in cancer treatment and may be suitable carriers for therapeutic radionuclides. This study was designed to evaluate the biodistribution of and to estimate the radiation doses from the alpha emitter 223Ra loaded into pegylated liposomes in selected tissues. 223Ra was encapsulated in pegylated liposomal doxorubicin by ionophore-mediated loading. The biodistribution of liposomal 223Ra was compared to free cationic 223Ra in Balb/C mice. We showed that liposomal 223 Ra circulated in the blood with an initial half-time in excess of 24 hours, which agreed well with that reported for liposomal doxorubicin in rodents, while the blood half-time of cationic 223Ra was considerably less than one hour. When liposomal 223 Ra was catabolized, the released 223Ra was either excreted or taken up in the skeleton. This skeletal uptake increased up to 14 days after treatment, but did not reach the level seen with free 223Ra. Pre-treatment with non-radioactive liposomal doxorubicin 4 days in advance lessened the liver uptake of liposomal 223 Ra. Dose estimates showed that the spleen, followed by bone surfaces, received the highest absorbed doses. Liposomal 223 Ra was relatively stable in vivo and may have potential for radionuclide therapy and combination therapy with chemotherapeutic agents.

Jonasdottir, Thora J.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Borrebaek, Jorgen; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Larsen, Roy H.

2006-09-13

17

Alpha-particle-induced soft errors in dynamic memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new physical soft error mechanism in dynamic RAM's and CCD's is the upset of stored data by the passage of alpha particles through the memory array area. The alpha particles are emitted by the radioactive decay of uranium and thorium which are present in parts-per-million levels in packaging materials. When an alpha particle penetrates the die surface, it can

T. C. May; M. H. Woods

1979-01-01

18

Alpha Particle Diagnostic  

SciTech Connect

The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

Fisher, Ray, K.

2009-05-13

19

Treatment of HER2-Expressing Breast Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Cells With Alpha Particle-Emitting {sup 227}Th-Trastuzumab  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of low-dose-rate alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-DOTA-trastuzumab ({sup 227}Th-trastuzumab [where DOTA is 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid]) internalized by breast and ovarian cancer cell lines in order to assess the potential of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab as a therapeutic agent against metastatic cancers that overexpress the HER2 oncogene. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival and cell growth rates of breast cancer cells treated with {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab were compared with rates of cells treated with nonbinding {sup 227}Th-rituximab, cold trastuzumab, and X-radiation. Cell growth experiments were also performed with ovarian cancer cells. Cell-associated radioactivity was measured at several time points, and the mean radiation dose to cells was calculated. Results: SKBR-3 cells got 50% of the mean absorbed radiation dose from internalized activity and 50% from cell surface-bound activity, while BT-474 and SKOV-3 cells got 75% radiation dose from internalized activity and 25% from cell surface-bound activity. Incubation of breast cancer cells with 2.5 kBq/ml {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab for 1 h at 4{sup o}C, followed by washing, resulted in mean absorbed radiation doses of 2 to 2.5 Gy. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and an increase in apoptosis were induced in all cell lines. Conclusions: Clinically relevant activity concentrations of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab induced a specific cytotoxic effect in three HER2-expressing cell lines. The cytotoxic effect of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab was higher than that of single-dose X-radiation (relative biological effectiveness = 1.2). These results warrant further studies of treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer with {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab.

Heyerdahl, Helen; Krogh, Cecilie [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway); Borrebaek, Jorgen [Algeta ASA, Kjelsas, Oslo (Norway); Larsen, Asmund [Algeta ASA, Kjelsas, Oslo (Norway); Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway); Dahle, Jostein, E-mail: jostein.dahle@rr-research.n [Department of Radiation Biology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway)

2011-02-01

20

Measurement of Alpha Particle Radioactivtiy in IC Device Packages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha particle radioactivity in package materials has been shown to cause soft errors in semiconductor devices. The particles are emitted by uranium and thorium decay sequence radioactive isotopes present as trace impurities in the raw materials used to make the package component parts. Chemical and radiation analys s techniques were correlated to alpha particle fluxes, which range in value from

E. S. Meieran; P. R. Engel; T. C. May

1979-01-01

21

Long range alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); McAtee, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Unruh, Wesley P. (Los Alamos, NM); Cucchiara, Alfred L. (Los Alamos, NM); Huchton, Roger L. (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01

22

Long range alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

1993-02-02

23

Radioluminescence yield of alpha particles in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpha particles can be detected by measuring the radioluminescence light which they induce when absorbed in air. The light is emitted in the near ultraviolet region by nitrogen molecules excited by secondary electrons. The accurate knowledge of the radioluminescence yield is of utmost importance for novel radiation detection applications utilizing this secondary effect. Here, the radioluminescence yield of an alpha particle is investigated as a function of energy loss in air for the first time. Also, the total radioluminescence yield of the particle is measured with a carefully calibrated ^{239}Pu emitter used in the experiments. The obtained results consistently indicate that alpha particles generate 193 photons per one MeV of energy released in air at normal pressure (temperature 22C, relative humidity 43%) and the dependence is found to be linear in the studied energy range from 0.3 MeV to 5.1 MeV. The determined radioluminescence yield is higher than previously reported for alpha particles and similar to the radioluminescence yield of electrons at comparable energies. This strengthens the evidence that the luminescence induced by charged particles is mostly proportional to the energy loss in the media and not very sensitive to the type of primary particle.

Sand, J.; Ihantola, S.; Perjrvi, K.; Toivonen, H.; Toivonen, J.

2014-05-01

24

Direct analysis of air filter samples for alpha emitting isotopes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The traditional method for determination of alpha emitting isotopes on air filters has been to process the samples by radiochemical methods. However, this method is too slow for cases of incidents involving radioactive materials where the determination of...

A. H. Mohagheghi F. Ghanbari S. B. Ebara M. E. Enghauser S. N. Bakhtiar

1997-01-01

25

Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.

Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

1972-01-01

26

Collection and Analysis of Aircraft Emitted Particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The University of Denver Aerosol Group proposed to adapt an impactor system for the collection of particles emitted by aircraft. The collection substrates were electron microscope grids which were analyzed by Dr. Pat Sheridan using a transmission electron microscope. The impactor was flown in the SNIFF behind aircraft and engine emissions were sampled. This report details the results of that work.

Wilson, James Charles

1999-01-01

27

A High-Throughput Screen for Alpha Particle Radiation Protectants  

PubMed Central

Abstract Alpha-particle-emitting elements are of increasing importance as environmental and occupational carcinogens, toxic components of radiation dispersal devices and accidents, and potent therapeutics in oncology. Alpha particle radiation differs from radiations of lower linear energy transfer in that it predominantly damages DNA via direct action. Because of this, radical scavengers effective for other radiations have had only limited effect in mitigating alpha particle toxicity. We describe here a simple assay and a pilot screen of 3,119 compounds in a high-throughput screen (HTS), using the alpha-particle-emitting isotope, 225Ac, for the discovery of compounds that might protect mammalian cells from alpha particles through novel mechanisms. The assay, which monitored the viability of a myeloid leukemic cell line upon alpha particle exposure, was robust and reproducible, yielding a Z' factor of 0.66 and a signal-to-noise ratio of nearly 10 to 1. Surprisingly, 1 compound emerged from this screen, epoxy-4,5-?-dihydroxysantonin (EDHS), that showed considerable protective activity. While the value of EDHS remains to be determined, its discovery is a proof of concept and validation of the utility of this HTS methodology. Further application of the described assay could yield compounds useful in minimizing the toxicity and carcinogenesis associated with alpha particle exposure.

Seideman, Jonathan H.; Shum, David; Djaballah, Hakim

2010-01-01

28

Counting Particles Emitted by Stratospheric Aircraft and Measuring Size of Particles Emitted by Stratospheric Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There were two principal objectives of the cooperative agreement between NASA and the University of Denver. The first goal was to modify the design of the ER-2 condensation nuclei counter (CNC) so that the effective lower detection limit would be improved at high altitudes. This improvement was sought because, in the instrument used prior to 1993, diffusion losses prevented the smallest detectable particles from reaching the detection volume of the instrument during operation at low pressure. Therefore, in spite of the sensor's ability to detect particles as small as 0.008 microns in diameter, many of these particles were lost in transport to the sensing region and were not counted. Most of the particles emitted by aircraft are smaller than 0.1 micron in diameter. At the start date of this work, May 1990, continuous sizing techniques available on the ER-2 were only capable of detecting particles larger than 0.17 micron. Thus, the second objective of this work was to evaluate candidate sizing techniques in an effort to gain additional information concerning the size of particles emitted by aircraft.

Wilson, James Charles

1994-01-01

29

Improvements to alpha-particle spectrometry techniques.  

PubMed

Improvements to the conventional methods for alpha-particle spectrometry measurement and analysis have recently been implemented in our laboratory. They include the application of corrections for energy drift in long-duration measurements, the development and application of an efficient deconvolution method for complex alpha spectra using the new computer code ALFITeX, an alpha-gamma coincidence system using a dual-parameter multichannel analyzer, and the digitization of this coincidence system. PMID:24315085

Caro Marroyo, B; Martn Snchez, A; Jurado Vargas, M

2014-05-01

30

Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles  

DOEpatents

This invention relates generally to high energy confined plasmas and more particularly is directed to measuring the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a confined energetic plasma.

Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E. Jr.; Dawson, J.M.

1983-11-23

31

Alpha-particle sensitive test SRAMs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A bench-level test is being developed to evaluate memory-cell upsets in a test SRAM designed with a cell offset voltage. This offset voltage controls the critical charge needed to upset the cell. The effect is demonstrated using a specially designed 2-micron n-well CMOS 4-kb test SRAM and a Po-208 5.1-MeV 0.61-LET alpha-particle source. This test SRAM has been made sensitive to alpha particles through the use of a cell offset voltage, and this has allowed a bench-level characterization in a laboratory setting. The experimental data are linked to a alpha-particle interaction physics and to SPICE circuit simulations through the alpha-particle collection depth. The collection depth is determined by two methods and found to be about 7 micron. In addition, alpha particles that struck outside the bloated drain were able to flip the SRAM cells. This lateral charge collection was observed to be more than 6 micron.

Buehler, M. G.; Blaes, B. R.

1990-01-01

32

Alternating current long range alpha particle detector  

DOEpatents

An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, which is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

1993-02-16

33

Measurement of the internal magnetic field of plasmas using an alpha particle source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internal magnetic fields of plasmas can be measured under certain conditions from the integrated vB deflection of MeV alpha particles emitted by a small radioactive source. The alpha source and large-area alpha particle detector would be located inside the vacuum vessel but outside the plasma. Alphas with a typical energy of 5.5 MeV (241Am) can reach the center of almost all laboratory plasmas and magnetic fusion devices, so this method can potentially determine the q(r) profile of tokamaks or spherical toris (STs). Orbit calculations, background evaluations, and conceptual designs for such ? vB (or ``AVB'') detector are described.

Zweben, S. J.; Darrow, D. S.; Ross, P. W.; Lowrance, J. L.; Renda, G.

2004-10-01

34

Spatially Resolved H(alpha)-Emitting Wind Structure of P Cygni.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High spatial resolution observations of the H(alpha)-emitting wind structure associated with the luminous blue variable star P Cygni were obtained with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer. These observations represent the most comprehensive interfer...

A. Balan C. Tycner D. J. Hutter J. A. Benson R. T. Zavala

2010-01-01

35

Ferroelectric Devices Emit Charged Particles and Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Devices called solid-state ferroelectric- based sources (SSFBSs) are under development as sources of electrons, ions, ultraviolet light, and x-rays for diverse applications in characterization and processing of materials. Whereas heretofore it has been necessary to use a different device to generate each of the aforementioned species of charged particles or radiation, a single SSFBS can be configured and operated to selectively generate any of the species as needed using a single source. Relative to comparable prior sources based, variously, on field emission, thermionic emission, and gaseous discharge plasmas, SSFBSs demand less power, and are compact and lightweight. An SSFBS exploits the unique physical characteristics of a ferroelectric material in the presence of a high-frequency pulsed electric field. The basic building block of an SSFBS is a ferroelectric cathode -- a ferroelectric wafer with a solid electrode covering its rear face and a grid electrode on its front face (see figure). The application of a voltage pulse -- typically having amplitude of several kilovolts and duration of several nanoseconds -- causes dense surface plasma to form near the grid wires on the front surface.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Felsteiner, Joshua; Karsik, Yakov

2005-01-01

36

Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles  

DOEpatents

Measurement of the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a magnetically contained plasma is provided. The fusion plasma is seeded with energetic boron neutrals for producing, by means of the reaction .sup.10 B (.alpha.,n) .sup.13 N reaction, radioactive nitrogen nuclei which are then collected by a probe. The radioactivity of the probe is then measured by conventional techniques in determining the energy distribution of the alpha particles in the plasma. In a preferred embodiment, diborane gas (B.sub.2 H.sub.6) is the source of the boron neutrals to produce .sup.13 N which decays almost exclusively by positron emission with a convenient half-life of 10 minutes.

Grisham, Larry R. (Lawrence Township, Mercer County, NJ); Post, Jr., Douglass E. (Belle Mead, NJ); Dawson, John M. (Pacific Palisades, CA)

1986-01-01

37

Global alpha-particle optical potentials.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A search for a global optical potential for alpha-particles is described. It did not prove possible to find such a potential valid for a wide range of energies and nuclei, even treating the absorbing potential as an adjustable parameter for each nucleus. ...

N. Ferdous

1991-01-01

38

THE SPATIALLY RESOLVED H{alpha}-EMITTING WIND STRUCTURE OF P CYGNI  

SciTech Connect

High spatial resolution observations of the H{alpha}-emitting wind structure associated with the luminous blue variable star P Cygni were obtained with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer. These observations represent the most comprehensive interferometric data set on P Cyg to date. We demonstrate how the apparent size of the H{alpha}-emitting region of the wind structure of P Cyg compares between the 2005, 2007, and 2008 observing seasons and how this relates to the H{alpha} line spectroscopy. Using the data sets from 2005, 2007, and 2008 observing seasons, we fit a circularly symmetric Gaussian model to the interferometric signature from the H{alpha}-emitting wind structure of P Cyg. Based on our results, we conclude that the radial extent of the H{alpha}-emitting wind structure around P Cyg is stable at the 10% level. We also show how the radial distribution of the H{alpha} flux from the wind structure deviates from a Gaussian shape, whereas a two-component Gaussian model is sufficient to fully describe the H{alpha}-emitting region around P Cyg.

Balan, Aurelian; Tycner, C. [Department of Physics, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Zavala, R. T.; Benson, J. A.; Hutter, D. J. [US Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, 10391 W. Naval Observatory Rd., Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Templeton, M., E-mail: abalan@delta.ed, E-mail: c.tycner@cmich.ed, E-mail: bzavala@nofs.navy.mi, E-mail: jbenson@nofs.navy.mi, E-mail: djh@nofs.navy.mi, E-mail: matthewt@aavso.or [American Association of Variable Star Observers, 49 Bay State Road, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2010-06-15

39

High-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry of the 230U decay series.  

PubMed

High-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry was performed on the (230)U decay series. A (230)U source was prepared on a stainless steel disc by electrodeposition in an ammonium nitrate solution. Spectrometry of the alpha-particle energy spectrum was performed with ion-implanted planar silicon detectors in vacuum. A set of alpha emission probabilities is presented for (230)U and (226)Th. The measured peak intensities were corrected mathematically for coincidental detection of alpha-particles and conversion electrons emitted in the same decay. A good agreement with literature data was observed. The uncertainty budget and the correlation matrix are presented. The validity of the alpha-particle energies was tested and could be confirmed for most peaks within a few keV, but discrepancies were found for the 2nd peak of (226)Th and the main peak of (218)Rn. PMID:22424835

Marouli, M; Pomm, S; Paepen, J; Van Ammel, R; Jobbgy, V; Dirican, A; Suliman, G; Stroh, H; Apostolidis, C; Abbas, K; Morgenstern, A

2012-09-01

40

Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvn eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

1998-12-14

41

Alpha-particle-driven Alfven turbulence and its effect on alpha-particle transport  

SciTech Connect

Recent developments in computational and theoretical studies of alpha-particle-driven Alfven turbulence in both the long (k[perpendicular][rho][sub i] [much lt] 1) and the short (k[perpendicular][rho][sub i] [le] 1) wavelength regimes are reported. In the long wave-length regime, a hybrid particle-fluid model is solved numerically as well as analytically in a simple slab geometry. The dominant nonlinear interactions are found to be couplings between two Alfven waves to generate a zero-frequency electromagnetic convective cell and strong E x B convection of resonant alpha particles, which result in significant changes in plasma equilibria. The fluctuation energies first increase, then saturate and decay. The alpha-particle transport is convective and significant but does not necessarily lead to an appreciable alpha-particle loss. A mode-coupling theory is developed to explain the simulation results. In the short wavelength regime, a reduced turbulence model that describes the coupled nonlinear evolutions of fluctuation spectrum [vert bar][phi][vert bar][sub k][sup 2] and alpha-particle density profile n[sup [alpha

Gang, F.Y.; Sigmar, D.J. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)); Leboeuf, J.N. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Wising, F. (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden))

1994-05-01

42

Test procedure for gross alpha-particle activity in drinking water: interlaboratory collaborative study  

SciTech Connect

Gross alpha-activity values were calculated with four different alpha-emitting radionuclide standard counting efficiencies to see which standard was best for gross alpha activity determinations. Thorium-230, a pure alpha emitter, appeared to be the best standard for gross alpha counting efficiency. A secondary purpose in the study was to see how well the Ra-226 concentration of a drinking-water sample could be estimated from an early gross alpha count subtracted from a late gross alpha count and calculated from the equation provided in the test procedure. The method for gross alpha-particle concentration measurement eliminates the dissolved solids interference problem (which is a significant problem for the EPA-approved method) and provides for greater sensitivity by allowing for the use of much larger samples in the analysis.

Whittaker, E.L.

1986-08-01

43

Alpha particle diagnostics using impurity pellet injection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed using impurity injection to measure the energy distribution of the fast confined alpha particles in a reacting plasma. The ablation cloud surrounding the injected pellet is thick enough that an equilibrium fraction F(sub o)(sup (infinity))(E) of the incident alphas should be neutralized as they pass through the cloud. By observing neutrals created in the large spatial region of the cloud which is expected to be dominated by the helium-like ionization state, e.g., Li(+) ions, we can determine the incident alpha distribution dn(sub He)2+/dE from the measured energy distribution of neutral helium atoms. Initial experiments were performed on TEXT in which we compared pellet penetration with our impurity pellet ablation model, and measured the spatial distribution of various ionization states in carbon pellet clouds. Experiments have recently begun on TFTR with the goal of measuring the alpha particle energy distribution during D-T operation in 1993-94. A series of preliminary experiments are planned to test the diagnostic concept. The first experiments will observe neutrals from beam-injected deuterium ions and the high energy He-3 tail produced during ICH minority heating on TFTR interacting with the cloud. We will also monitor by line radiation the charge state distributions in lithium, boron, and carbon clouds.

Fisher, R. K.; McChesney, J. M.; Howald, A. W.; Parks, P. B.; Snipes, J. A.; Terry, J. L.; Marmar, E. S.; Zweben, S. J.; Medley, S.

1992-05-01

44

Diamond detector for alpha-particle spectrometry.  

PubMed

An artificially grown high purity diamond was used as a detector for alpha-particle spectrometry. Diamond detectors can match the performance of silicon detectors employed in standard continuous air monitoring systems. Its radiation hardness and electronic properties make them ideal to work under extreme condition such as high temperature and ambient lights. A 50 ?m thickness single-crystal diamond detector has been compared with a 300 ?m passivated implanted planar silicon detector, under ambient conditions. PMID:24768983

Dueas, J A; de la Torre Prez, J; Martn Snchez, A; Martel, I

2014-08-01

45

Experimental Studies of ZnS Alpha Particle Counters and Methods for Minimizing Detector Background  

Microsoft Academic Search

The zinc sulfide scintillation counter employed at IBM for low-level alpha flux monitoring of device and packaging materials is described. This counter provides almost 100% counting efficiency for alpha particles of 1.5MeV or greater energy emitted from the surface of planar samples up to 130 cm2 in area, and exhibits a sea level background count rate on the order of

B. J. Masters

1980-01-01

46

Pre-Equilibrium Alpha-Particle Emission as a Probe to Explore Alpha Clustering in Nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experimental data of the double-differential spectra of light particles emitted at pre-equilibrium stage of nuclear processes were obtained at Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro for the heavy-ion reactions 130 and 250 MeV 16O + 116Sn. Light charged particles were measured in coincidence with evaporation residues in order to avoid unwanted competing mechanisms. The experimental data were collected in a wide angular range from 29 to 82 degrees in the laboratory system. Theoretical model was developed in order to describe simultaneously evaporative and pre-equilibrium emission of the light particles in heavy-ion reactions. Griffin exciton model was used for the description of the pre-equilibrium stage of the compound nucleus formation, while the equilibrium evaporation processes were analyzed in the framework of the statistical theory of heavy-ion reactions. Experimental data were compared with the results of the model calculations and new approach was suggested to take into account alpha cluster formation in the projectile nucleus by measuring and analyzing pre-equilibrium alpha-particle spectra.

Kravchuk, V. L.; Fotina, O. V.; Gramegna, F.; Bruno, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Sambi, S.; Barlini, S.; Casini, G.

47

Counting particles emitted by stratospheric aircraft and measuring size of particles emitted by stratospheric aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ER-2 condensation nuclei counter (CNC) has been modified to reduce the diffusive losses of particles within the instrument. These changes have been successful in improving the counting efficiency of small particles at low pressures. Two techniques for measuring the size distributions of particles with diameters less than 0.17 micrometers have been evaluated. Both of these methods, the differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and the diffusion battery, have fundamental problems that limit their usefulness for stratospheric applications. We cannot recommend either for this application. Newly developed, alternative methods for measuring small particles include inertial separation with a low-loss critical orifice and thin-plate impactor device. This technique is now used to collect particles in the multisample aerosol collector housed in the ER-2 CNC-2, and shows some promise for particle size measurements when coupled with a CNC as a counting device. The modified focused-cavity aerosol spectrometer (FCAS) can determine the size distribution of particles with ambient diameters as small as about 0.07 micrometers. Data from this instrument indicates the presence of a nuclei mode when CNC-2 indicates high concentrations of particles, but cannot resolve important parameters of the distribution.

Wilson, James Charles

1994-01-01

48

Alpha particle collective Thomson scattering in TFTR  

SciTech Connect

A collective Thomson scattering diagnostic is being implemented on TFTR to measure alpha particle, energetic and thermal ion densities and velocity distributions. A 60 GHz, 0.1-1 kW gyrotron will be used as the transmitter source, and the scattering geometry will be perpendicular to the magnetic field in the extraordinary mode polarization. An enhanced scattered signal is anticipated from fluctuations in the lower hybrid frequency range with this scattering geometry. Millimeter wave collective Thomson scattering diagnostics have the advantage of larger scattering angles to decrease the amount of stray light, and long, high power, modulated pulses to obtain improved signal to noise through synchronous detection techniques.

Machuzak, J.S.; Woskov, P.P.; Rhee, D.Y.; Gilmore, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center; Bretz, N.L.; Park, H.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Aamodt, R.E.; Cheung, P.Y.; Russell, D.A. [Lodestar Research Corp., Boulder, CO (United States); Bindslev, H. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

1993-11-01

49

Interaction of alpha particles with bronchial cells.  

PubMed

The alpha-activity on the bronchial airways has been calculated for 222Rn daughter exposures producing observable excess bronchogenic lung cancer in underground miners. The activity distribution of aerosol particles with attached 222Rn daughters on the bronchial tree is truly diffuse because of the short half-life of the daughters and the large number of particles in the ambient aerosol. From the bronchial airway activity and the minor epidemiology, it can be shown that it requires, on average, 4 X 10(9) stem cells in bronchial epithelium to be hit in order to produce an observed lung cancer. For very high 222Rn daughter exposures of miners, multiply hit cells are highly probable; yet the lung cancer response is lower per unit exposure at high exposures than for mining exposures--near those sustained in the environment probably due to stem cell death. A knowledge of the number of multiply hit cells in miners permits some infererences to be made about the effectiveness of particulate versus diffusely distributed alpha emitters in the lung, namely, that particulates should not be significantly more effective in lung cancer induction than a diffuse distribution. PMID:2844698

Harley, N H

1988-10-01

50

Test Procedure for Gross Alpha Particle Activity in Drinking Water: Interlaboratory Collaborative Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gross alpha activity values were calculated with four different alpha emitting radionuclide standard counting efficiencies to see which standard was best for gross alpha activity determinations. Thorium-230, a pure alpha emitter, appeared to be the best s...

E. L. Whittaker

1986-01-01

51

Turbulent transport of alpha particles in reactor plasmas  

SciTech Connect

A systematic study of the behavior of energetic ions in reactor plasmas is presented. Using self-consistent gyrokinetic simulations, in concert with an analytic asymptotic theory, it is found that alpha particles can interact significantly with core ion-temperature-gradient turbulence. Specifically, the per-particle flux of energetic alphas is comparable to the per-particle flux of thermal species (deuterium or helium ash). This finding opposes the conventional wisdom that energetic ions, because of their large gyroradii, do not interact with the turbulence. For the parameters studied, a turbulent modification of the alpha-particle density profile appears to be stronger than turbulent modification of the alpha-particle pressure profile. Crude estimates indicate that the alpha density modification, which is directly proportional to the core turbulence intensity, could be in the range of 15% at midradius in a reactor. The corresponding modification of the alpha-particle pressure profile is predicted to be smaller (in the 1% range)

Estrada-Mila, C.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

2006-11-15

52

Separation of the alpha-emitting radioisotopes actinium-225 and bismuth-213 from thorium-229 using alpha recoil methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative method has been demonstrated for separating alpha-emitting isotopes for medical radiotherapy applications. The method relies on recoil-ion separation rather than on conventional wet chemistry techniques to separate medical isotopes from their precursor sources. The isotopes 225Ac and 213Bi have been separated from electro-deposited sources of 229ThO2. Separations of 225Ac were carried out by placing nickel recoil collector foils

F. H. Ruddy; A. R. Dulloo; J. G. Seidel; B. Petrovic

2004-01-01

53

Discrimination of positive particles emitted in deuterium plasma focus device using SSNTD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yields of different positive particles emitted in deutherium plasma focus device were measured. The ? particles, among the other particles, were detected. CR-39 and LR-115 (Kodak) SSNTD were used.

. Todorovi?; R. Antanasijevi?; D. evi?; A. Zari?; D. J. Konjevi?; J. Vukovi?; J. Puri?; M. ?uk

1995-01-01

54

Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at high redshift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents studies on Lya emitting galaxies (LAEs) at high redshift. The main goal of this work is to understand the nature and evolution of LAEs, with the broader aim of gaining insights into galaxy formation and evolution in general. We achieve the stated goal by constraining the stellar populations of LAEs at z ~ 3 - 6 using detailed multiwavelength observations. Using deep Spitzer IRAC imaging, we study the stellar populations of LAEs at z = 5.7 and 6.6. IRAC observations sample the rest-frame optical emission from the z ~ 6 LAEs, thus allowing the stellar masses and star formation histories of the galaxies to be constrained. Interestingly, we find that IRAC-detected LAEs at z ~ 6 can be massive and evolved, unlike typical LAEs at lower redshifts. Extending our work to lower redshift, we study the overall properties of LAEs at z = 3.1 using a large sample of 162 objects. The majority of the LAEs in our sample are young and low-mass galaxies but there is also a significant fraction of older and more massive objects. The fact that Lya emission can be seen in both young and evolved galaxies has interesting implications for the evolution of LAEs. In a further study, we use a combined sample of 40 spectroscopically selected and 111 photometrically selected objects to constrain the average stellar population of LAEs at z = 5.7. Surprisingly, the z = 5.7 LAEs in our sample appear to be more massive on average than their low-redshift counterparts. Additionally, we demonstrate that at higher redshift LAEs account for a larger fraction of the global stellar mass density and star formation rate density. Our results suggest a possible evolution of LAEs towards higher mass with redshift, potentially due to the increasing prevalence of Lya emission as a result of the lower overall dust content in high-redshift galaxies.

Lai, Kamson Yeuk Yu

2008-06-01

55

Alpha-Particle Gas-Pressure Sensor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An approximate model was developed to establish design curves for the saturation region and a more complete model developed to characterize the current-voltage curves for an alpha-particle pressure sensor. A simple two-parameter current-voltage expression was developed to describe the dependence of the ion current on pressure. The parameters are the saturation-current pressure coefficient and mu/D, the ion mobility/diffusion coefficient. The sensor is useful in the pressure range between 0.1 and 1000 mb using a 1 - mu Ci(241) Am source. Experimental results, taken between 1 and up to 200 mb, show the sensor operates with an anode voltage of 5 V and a sensitivity of 20 fA/mb in nitrogen.

Buehler, M. C.; Bell, L. D.; Hecht, M. H.

1996-01-01

56

Detection and localization of particle-emitting sources with compound-eye inspired detector arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop methods to detect and localize particle-emitting sources using detector arrays that are inspired by biological compound eyes. The sources of interest may be optical, nuclear, or cosmic; they emit particles such as visible photons, neutrons, protons, or charged particles. Our results may have wide applications to artificial vision, which can be important in robotics (robot vision) or medicine

Zhi Liu

2007-01-01

57

Absorbed fractions for alpha-particles in tissues of cortical bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bone-seeking alpha-particle emitting radionuclides are common health physics hazards. Additionally, they are under consideration as an option for therapeutic molecular radiotherapy applications. Current dose models do not account for energy or bone-site dependence as shown by alpha-particle absorbed fractions given in ICRP Publication 30. Energy-dependent, yet bone-site independent, alpha-particle absorbed fractions have been presented by the models of Stabin and Siegel (2003 Health Phys. 85 294-310). In this work, a chord-based computational model of alpha-particle transport in cortical bone has been developed that explicitly accounts for both the bone-site and particle-energy dependence of alpha-particle absorbed fractions in this region of the skeleton. The model accounts for energy deposition to three targets: cortical endosteum, haversian space tissues and cortical bone. Path length distributions for cortical bone given in Beddoe (1977 Phys. Med. Biol. 22 298-308) provided additional transport regions in the absorbed fraction calculation. Significant variations in absorbed fractions between different skeletal sites were observed. Differences were observed between this model and the absorbed fractions given in ICRP Publication 30, which varied by as much as a factor of 2.1 for a cortical bone surface source irradiating cortical endosteum.

Watchman, Christopher J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

2009-10-01

58

Evaluation of ZnO(Ga)Coatings as Alpha Particle Transducers Within a Neutron Generator  

SciTech Connect

We report investigations and preliminary results from efforts to develop a recoil alpha particle detector for use in a portable neutron generator. The associated particle sealed tube neutron generator (APSTNG) will be used as an interrogation source for the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS). With the emission of 14.1 MeV neutrons produced by the D-T reaction, associated 3.5 MeV alpha particles are emitted. These neutrons and alphas may then be correlated in time and direction, thus effectively ''tagging'' the neutrons of interest for subsequent use as an active nuclear materials interrogation source. The alpha particle detector uses a ZnO(Ga) scintillator coating applied to a fiber optic face plate. Gallium-doped zinc oxide is a fast (1.5 ns decay time), inorganic scintillator with a high melting point (1975C) and an absolute light yield of 1.5% of NaI(Tl). The scintillator is coated with a thin layer of nickel in order to screen out light produced in the tube and scattered deuterons and tritons. This coating also serves to prevent the buildup of charge on the detector surface. Results to date indicate promise as an effective alpha particle detector for the APSTNG for future use in the NMIS.

Mihalczo, J. T.; Neal, J. S.; Cooper, J. C.; Koltick, D. S.

2002-05-02

59

Nuclear {alpha}-particle condensates: Definitions, occurrence conditions, and consequences  

SciTech Connect

There has been a recent flurry of interest in the possibility of condensates of {alpha} particles in nuclei. In this Rapid Communication we discuss occurrence conditions for such states. Using the quantality condition of Mottelson we show that condensates are only marginally expected in {alpha}-particle states. We proceed to demonstrate that few-body nuclear condensates are ill defined and emphasize the conflict between {alpha}-localization and {alpha}-condensate formation. We also explore the connection between Ikeda diagrams, linear chains, and Tonks-Girardeau gases. Our findings show that no new information is contained in the approximations of nuclear states as {alpha}-cluster condensates. Furthermore, condensates of more than three {alpha} particles are very unlikely to exist due to couplings to other degrees of freedom.

Zinner, N. T.; Jensen, A. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

2008-10-15

60

Relative biological effectiveness of alpha-particle emitters in vivo at low doses  

SciTech Connect

The therapeutic potential of radionuclides that emit [alpha] particles, as well as their associated health hazards, have attracted considerable attention. The [sup 224]Ra daughters [sup 212]Pb and [sup 212]Bi, by virtue of their radiation properties which involve emission of [alpha] and [beta] particles in their decay to stable [sup 208]Pb, have been proposed as candidates for radioimmunotherapy. Using mouse testes as the experimental model and testicular spermhead survival as the biological end point, the present work examines the radiotoxicity of [sup 212]Pb and its daughters. When [sup 212]Pb, in equilibrium with its daughters [sup 212]Bi, [sup 212]Po and [sup 208]Tl, was administered directly into the testis, the dose required to achieve 37% survival (D[sub 37]) was 0.143 [+-] 0.014 Gy and the corresponding RBE of the mixed radiation field was 4.7 when compared to the D[sub 37] for acute external 120 kVp X rays. This datum, in conjunction with our earlier results for [sup 210]Po, was used to obtain an RBE-LET relationship for [alpha] particles emitted by tissue-incorporated radionuclides: RBE[sub [alpha

Howell, R.W.; Azure, M.T.; Narra, V.R.; Rao, D.V. (Univ. of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ (United States))

1994-03-01

61

Effects of alpha-particles on survival and chromosomal aberrations in human mammary epithelial cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have studied the radiation responses of a human mammary epithelial cell line, H184B5 F5-1 M/10. This cell line was derived from primary mammary cells after treatment with chemicals and heavy ions. The F5-1 M/10 cells are immortal, density-inhibited in growth, and non-tumorigenic in athymic nude mice and represent an in vitro model of the human epithelium for radiation studies. Because epithelial cells are the target of alpha-particles emitted from radon daughters, we concentrated our studies on the efficiency of alpha-particles. Confluent cultures of M/10 cells were exposed to accelerated alpha-particles [beam energy incident at the cell monolayer = 3.85 MeV, incident linear energy transfer (LET) in cell = 109 keV/microns] and, for comparison, to 80 kVp x-rays. The following endpoints were studied: (1) survival, (2) chromosome aberrations at the first postirradiation mitosis, and (3) chromosome alterations at later passages following irradiation. The survival curve was exponential for alpha-particles (D0 = 0.73 +/- 0.04 Gy), while a shoulder was observed for x-rays (alpha/beta = 2.9 Gy; D0 = 2.5 Gy, extrapolation number 1.6). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-LET alpha-particles for human epithelial cell killing was 3.3 at 37% survival. Dose-response curves for the induction of chromosome aberrations were linear for alpha-particles and linearquadratic for x-rays. The RBE for the induction of chromosome aberrations varied with the type of aberration scored and was high (about 5) for chromosome breaks and low (about 2) for chromosome exchanges.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Gialanella, G.; Pugliese, M.; Nappo, M.; Yang, T. C.

1995-01-01

62

Effect of alpha particles on Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes  

SciTech Connect

An overview is given of the analytic structure for the linear theory of the Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE), where multiple gap structures occur. A discussion is given of the alpha particle drive and the various dissipation mechanisms that can stabilize the system. A self-consistent calculation of the TAE mode, for a low-beta high-aspect-ratio plasma, indicates that though the alpha particle drive is comparable to the dissipation mechanisms, overall stability is still achieved for ignited ITER-like plasma. A brief discussion is given of the nonlinear theory for the TAE mode and how nonlinear alpha particle dynamics can be treated by mapping methods.

Berk, H.L.

1992-11-01

63

Full orbit calculation for lost alpha particle measurement on ITER  

SciTech Connect

An orbit following calculation code with full gyromotion under the ITER magnetic field configuration has been developed to investigate escaping alpha particle orbits in ITER and to determine the geometrical arrangement for alpha particle detection. The code contained the full geometrical information of the first wall panels. It was carefully investigated whether an alpha particle escaping from the plasma through the last closed flux surface does not touch or intersect the first wall boundary before reaching the detection point. Candidates of blanket module modification have been studied to achieve effective measurement geometry for escaping alpha particle detection. The calculations showed that direct orbit loss and banana diffusion can be detected with a probe head recessed from the first wall surface.

Funaki, D.; Isobe, M.; Nishiura, M.; Sato, Y.; Okamoto, A.; Kobuchi, T.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M. [Department of Quantum Energy Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2008-10-15

64

Alpha particle nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) for device applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method developed for the proton NIEL calculation previously is extended to incident alpha particles in this study: ZBL screened potential for Coulomb interactions and MCNPX 'thin target approximation' for nuclear interactions.

Jun, Insoo; Xapsos, Michael A.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.; Walters, Robert J.; Summers, Geoff; Jordan, Thomas

2004-01-01

65

Measurement of alpha particle energy using windowless electret ion chambers.  

PubMed

Electret ion chambers are inexpensive, lightweight, robust, commercially available, passive, charge-integrating devices for accurate measurement of different ionizing radiations. In an earlier work a chamber of dimensions larger than the range of alpha particles having aluminized Mylar windows of different thickness was used for measurement of alpha radiation. Correlation between electret mid-point voltage, alpha particle energy, and response was developed and it was shown that this chamber could be used for estimating the effective energy of an unknown alpha source. In the present study, the electret ion chamber is used in the windowless mode so that the alpha particles dissipate their entire energy inside the volume, and the alpha particle energy is determined from the first principles. This requires that alpha disintegration rate be accurately known or measured by an alternate method. The measured energies were within 1 to 4% of the true values for different sources (230Th, 237Np, 239Pu, 241Am, and 224Cm). This method finds application in quantitative determination of alpha energy absorbed in thin membrane and, hence, the absorbed dose. PMID:12240732

Dua, S K; Kotrappa, P; Srivastava, R; Ebadian, M A; Stieff, L R

2002-10-01

66

Probing [alpha]-particle wave functions using ([ital [rvec d  

SciTech Connect

Wave functions of the [alpha] particle corresponding to different [ital S]- and [ital D]-state deuteron-deuteron overlaps, [l angle][ital dd][vert bar][alpha][r angle], were investigated using exact finite-range distorted-wave Born-approximation (DWBA) analyses of ([ital [rvec d

Crosson, E.R.; Lemieux, S.K.; Ludwig, E.J.; Thompson, W.J. (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255 (United States) Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27706 (United States)); Bisenberger, M.; Hertenberger, R.; Hofer, D.; Kader, H.; Schiemenz, P.; Graw, G. (Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muenchen, 8046 Garching (Germany)); Eiro, A.M.; Santos, F.D. (Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Lisboa, 1700 Lisboa (Portugal))

1993-06-01

67

Magnetoluminescence of light-emitting field-effect transistors based on alpha sexithiophene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrated the effect of a magnetic field on the luminous intensity and electric current of light-emitting field-effect transistors (LEFETs) based on alpha sexithiophene (?-6T). Sublimate-grade ?-6T was thermally deposited on an n+-Si/300 nm-SiO2 substrate with patterned asymmetric gold-aluminum electrodes to fabricate a bottom-contact LEFET. We observed an increase in luminous intensity of approximately 1.3% under a magnetic field of 100 mT. A possible explanation for this is that the magnetic field increased the probability of singlet formation at the ?-6T/Al interface. While the magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) was reported to be derived from the magneto-conductance (MC) in ordinary light emitting diodes, the MEL in LEFET was independent with MC. This indicates that the luminous efficiency can be improved by optimizing the magnetic field effect.

Pham, Song-Toan; Tada, Hirokazu

2014-03-01

68

Alpha particle effects on the internal kink modes  

SciTech Connect

The {alpha}-particle effects on the internal kink mode stability are studied. Finite Grad-Shafranov Shift, plasma {beta}, and plasma shape can significantly enhance the trapped particle drift reversal domain in pitch angle space and reduce average magnetic drift frequency. The drift reversal effect on the ideal kink mode is small, but the {beta}{sub {alpha}} threshold for the fishbone mode can be much lower than previously predicted. In addition, the ion diamagnetic drift has a stronger destabilizing effect.

Wu, Yanlin; Cheng, C.Z.

1994-08-01

69

Shielding of manned space vehicles against protons and alpha particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The available information on the shielding of manned space vehicles against protons and alpha particles is summarized. The emphasis is placed on shielding against Van Allen belt protons and against solar-flare protons and alpha particles, but information on shielding against galactic cosmic rays is also presented. The approximation methods for use by nonexperts in the space shielding field are those that are standard in the space shielding literature.

Alsmiller, R. G., Jr.; Santoro, R. T.; Barish, J.; Claiborne, H. C.

1972-01-01

70

Coordination chemistry of the sup 212 Pb/ sup 212 Bi nuclear transformation: Alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals  

SciTech Connect

Subdivisions of this project are: (a) the synthesis of prototypical thiolate and dithiocarbamate based hexacoordinate complexes, (b) radiochemical engineering for generation of no-carrier-added lead and bismuth radioelements, (c) the first isolation of bismuth-binding proteins from in vivo studies with cyclotron produced {sup 205/206}Bi tracer, and (d) initial development of transport mechanisms for the intracellular radiobiological study of alpha emitting bismuth, and (e) the initiation of chemical equilibrium studies and biochemical pathways with cyclotron-produced, no-carrier-added, {sup 203}Pb (T{sub 1/2} = 51 hr).

Parks, N.J.; Harris, W.R.; Keen, C.L.; Cooper, S.R.

1992-07-01

71

Regarding action levels for contamination by alpha and Beta emitting radionuclides.  

PubMed

Today, there exist a number of different international documents, regulating both civilian and military operations, which present action levels regarding contamination of alpha- and/or beta-emitting radionuclides. There are, however, inconsistencies among the action levels suggested in different documents, which can be explained only in part by differences in their intended use. Many of the suggested action levels are calculated using conservative estimates. This work presents some of the suggested action levels for skin contamination, their background and rationale, and discusses which implications they might have. The focus is on action levels and guidelines aimed at emergency situations and operations in radioactively contaminated areas. PMID:24978289

Boson, Jonas; Ulvsand, Thomas; Plamboeck, Agneta H

2014-08-01

72

The X-ray emission of the Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies Haro 2 and ESO338-04  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose to obtain X ray images and spectra with Chandra ACIS-S of the Lyman alpha emitting starburst galaxies ESO 338-04 and Haro 2, aiming to analyze the proposed correlation between X ray luminosity and Lyalpha emission intensity in compact starbursts. This work will be performed within our current project to characterize in detail the properties of Lyman alpha emitting starburst galaxies in the Local Universe, as a first step to properly understand the Lyman alpha emission observed from high-redshift galaxies.

Mas-Hesse, Miguel

2007-09-01

73

CANDIDATES OF H{alpha} EMITTING REGIONS IN THE MAGELLANIC STREAM IV CLOUD  

SciTech Connect

From H{alpha} narrowband observations, we identified three H{alpha} emitting regions in the direction of Magellanic Stream IV (MS IV). They consist of three parallel filaments of 2 arcmin width and 6-30 arcmin length at 12 arcmin intervals. Their mean surface brightness (SB) is {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} arcsec{sup -2}. Because of their low SB, the regions were not detected in previous H{alpha} surveys. In the H I map, the position of the filaments overlap MS, suggesting that they are parts of the MS, but there also exists a local H I structure. If the filaments are associated with the MS, the sizes are 30 pc Multiplication-Sign 100-500 pc. The filaments lie at the leading edge of a downstream cloud, which supports shock heating and its propagation (shock cascade) model for the ionizing source. If they are local objects, on the other hand, Fossil Stroemgren Trails of more than two stars is a possible interpretation, and the sizes would be 0.1 pc Multiplication-Sign 0.3-1.5 pc at 180 pc distance. The positional information of the H{alpha} filaments presented in this Letter enables future spectroscopic observations to clarify their nature.

Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka [Optical and Infrared Astronomy Division, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Yoshida, Michitoshi, E-mail: YAGI.Masafumi@nao.ac.jp [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

2012-04-10

74

DUST EXTINCTION AND METALLICITIES OF STAR-FORMING Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES AT LOW REDSHIFT  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of an optical spectroscopic study of 12 GALEX-discovered star-forming Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies (LAEs) at z {approx} 0.3. We measure the emission-line fluxes from these galaxies by fitting their observed spectra to stellar population models in order to correct for underlying stellar absorption. We revisit earlier stellar population model fitting results, finding that excluding now-known active galactic nuclei lowers the typical stellar population age and stellar mass of this sample to {approx}300 Myr and {approx}4 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}, respectively. We calculate their dust extinction using the Balmer decrement, and find a typical visual attenuation of A{sub V} {approx} 0.3 mag, similar to that seen in some high-redshift LAEs. Comparing the ratios of Ly{alpha}/H{alpha} and the Ly{alpha} equivalent widths to the measured dust extinction, we find that the interstellar media (ISMs) in these objects appear to be neither enhancing nor seriously attenuating the Ly{alpha} equivalent widths, as would be the case in a quasi-clumpy ISM. Lastly, we perform a detailed analysis of the gas-phase metallicities of these galaxies, and we find that most galaxies in our sample have Z {approx}< 0.4 Z{sub sun}. We find that at a fixed stellar mass, these low-redshift LAE analogs are offset by {approx}0.3-0.6 dex lower metallicity from the general galaxy population at similar redshifts based on the local mass-metallicity relationship. This implies that galaxies with Ly{alpha} in emission may be systematically more metal-poor than star-forming galaxies at the same stellar mass and redshift, similar to preliminary results at z {approx} 2.

Finkelstein, Steven L.; Papovich, Casey [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Cohen, Seth H.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Moustakas, John, E-mail: stevenf@physics.tamu.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

2011-06-01

75

Model for alpha particle induced nuclear reactions: 93Nb(alpha,xalphaypzn) from 40-140 MeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive model is introduced for alpha particle induced nuclear reactions. Five different mechanisms are examined and discussed. These include inelastic scattering of the incident alpha particle, nucleon pickup, binary fragmentation, dissolution of the alpha in the nuclear field, and preequilibrium processes initiated by alpha-nucleon collisions. A series of experiments was performed to measure the excitation functions of many nuclides

Ettore Gadioli; Enrica Gadioli-Erba; James J. Hogan; Barbara V. Jacak

1984-01-01

76

Nuclear reaction diagnostics of fast confined and escaping alpha particles  

SciTech Connect

The resonant nuclear reactions D(..cap alpha..,..gamma..) /sup 6/Li, /sup 6/Li(..cap alpha..,..gamma..) /sup 10/B, and /sup 7/Li(..cap alpha..,..gamma..) /sup 11/B are examined as diagnostics of the energy distribution of confined fast alpha particles in tokamak plasmas. Reaction rates for Q-italic = 1 D-T plasmas are estimated. The design of and preliminary results from the prototype fusion gamma ray detector on the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR) will be presented. The activation reactions /sup 10/B(..cap alpha..,n-italic) /sup 13/N, /sup 14/N(..cap alpha..,..gamma..) /sup 18/F, /sup 25/Mg(..cap alpha..,p-italic) /sup 28/Al, and /sup 27/Al(..cap alpha..,p-italic) /sup 30/P are similarly examined as diagnostics of fast escaping alpha particles. Count rate estimates for Q-italic = 1 D-T plasmas will be presented.

Cecil, F.E.; Medley, S.S.; Nieschmidt, E.B.; Zweben, S.J.

1986-08-01

77

Interaction of alpha particles at the cellular level--implications for the radiation weighting factor.  

PubMed

Since low dose effects of alpha particles are produced by cellular hits in a relatively small fraction of exposed cells, the present study focuses on alpha particle interactions in bronchial epithelial cells following exposure to inhaled radon progeny. A computer code was developed for the calculation of microdosimetric spectra, dose and hit probabilities for alpha particles emitted from uniform and non-uniform source distributions in cylindrical and Y-shaped bronchial airway geometries. Activity accumulations at the dividing spur of bronchial airway bifurcations produce hot spots of cellular hits, indicating that a small fraction of cells located at such sites may receive substantially higher doses. While presently available data on in vitro transformation frequencies suggest that the relative biological effectiveness for alpha particles ranges from about 3 to 10, the effect of inhomogeneous activity distributions of radon progeny may slightly increase the radiation weighting factor relative to a uniform distribution. Thus a radiation weighting factor of about 10 may be more realistic than the current value of 20, at least for lung cancer risk following inhalation of short-lived radon progeny. PMID:15623884

Hofmann, W; Fakir, H; Aubineau-Laniece, I; Pihet, P

2004-01-01

78

Quantifying Sulfate, Organics, and Lubrication Oil in Particles Emitted from Military Aircraft Engines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

1.1 Objectives SERDP Project WP1625 was a multi-component effort to understand volatile contributions to particulate matter (PM) emitted from military aircraft engines. Volatile PM formed when condensable gases emitted in the exhaust form new particles or...

H. Wong J. Peck R. Miake-Lye S. C. Herndon Z. Yu

2012-01-01

79

Production of ?-particle emitting (211)At using 45 MeV ?-beam.  

PubMed

Among the ?-particle emitting radionuclides, (211)At is considered to be a promising radionuclide for targeted cancer therapy due to its decay properties. The range of alpha particles produced by the decay of (211)At are less than 70m in water with a linear energy transfer between 100 and 130keV m(-1), which are about the maximum relative biological effectiveness for heavy ions. It is important to note that at the present time, only a few of cyclotrons routinely produce (211)At. The direct production method is based on the nuclear reactions (209)Bi(?,2n)(211)At. Production of the radionuclide (211)At was carried out using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). To ensure high beam current, the ?-beam was extracted with an initial energy of 45 MeV, which was degraded to obtain the appropriate ?-beam energy. The calculations of beam energy degradation were performed utilizing the MCNPX. Alumina-baked targets were prepared by heating the bismuth metal powder onto a circular cavity in a furnace. When using an E?, avof 29.17 MeV, the very small contribution of (210)At confirms the right choice of the irradiation energy to obtain a pure production of (211)At isotope. PMID:24819557

Kim, Gyehong; Chun, Kwonsoo; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Byungil

2014-06-01

80

Production of ?-particle emitting 211At using 45 MeV ?-beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the ?-particle emitting radionuclides, 211At is considered to be a promising radionuclide for targeted cancer therapy due to its decay properties. The range of alpha particles produced by the decay of 211At are less than 70 m in water with a linear energy transfer between 100 and 130 keV m?1, which are about the maximum relative biological effectiveness for heavy ions. It is important to note that at the present time, only a few of cyclotrons routinely produce 211At. The direct production method is based on the nuclear reactions 209Bi(?,2n)211At. Production of the radionuclide 211At was carried out using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). To ensure high beam current, the ?-beam was extracted with an initial energy of 45 MeV, which was degraded to obtain the appropriate ?-beam energy. The calculations of beam energy degradation were performed utilizing the MCNPX. Alumina-baked targets were prepared by heating the bismuth metal powder onto a circular cavity in a furnace. When using an E?, av of 29.17 MeV, the very small contribution of 210At confirms the right choice of the irradiation energy to obtain a pure production of 211At isotope.

Kim, Gyehong; Chun, Kwonsoo; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Byungil

2014-06-01

81

Model for alpha particle induced nuclear reactions: ⁹³Nb(. cap alpha. ,x. cap alpha. ypzn) from 40--140 MeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive model is introduced for alpha particle induced nuclear reactions. Five different mechanisms are examined and discussed. These include inelastic scattering of the incident alpha particle, nucleon pickup, binary fragmentation, dissolution of the alpha in the nuclear field, and preequilibrium processes initiated by alpha-nucleon collisions. A series of experiments was performed to measure the excitation functions of many nuclides

E. Gadioli; E. Gadioli-Erba; J. J. Hogan; B. V. Jacak

1984-01-01

82

Utility of extracting {alpha}-particle energy by waves  

SciTech Connect

The utility of extracting {alpha}-particle power, and then diverting this power to fast fuel ions, is investigated. As power is diverted to fast ions and then to ions, a number of effects come into play, as the relative amounts of pressure taken up by electrons, fuel ions, and fast {alpha}-particles shift. In addition, if the {alpha}-particle power is diverted to fast fuel ions, there is an enhanced fusion reactivity because of the nonthermal component of the ion distribution. Some useful expressions for describing these effects are derived, and it is shown that fusion reactors with power density about twice what otherwise might be obtained can be contemplated, so long as a substantial amount of the {alpha}-particle power can be diverted. Interestingly, in this mode of operation, once the electron heat is sufficiently confined, further improvement in confinement is actually not desirable. A similar improvement in fusion power density can be obtained for advanced fuel mixtures such as D-He{sup 3}, where the power of both the energetic {alpha}-particles and the energetic protons might be diverted advantageously.

Fisch, N.J.; Herrmann, M.C.

1994-05-01

83

The energetic alpha particle transport method EATM  

SciTech Connect

The EATM method is an evolving attempt to find an efficient method of treating the transport of energetic charged particles in a dynamic magnetized (MHD) plasma for which the mean free path of the particles and the Larmor radius may be long compared to the gradient lengths in the plasma. The intent is to span the range of parameter space with the efficiency and accuracy thought necessary for experimental analysis and design of magnetized fusion targets.

Kirkpatrick, R.C.

1998-02-01

84

Cosmic Variance in the Physical Properties of Ly-alpha Emitting Galaxies at 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used the Mosaic camera of the CTIO 4-m telescope to conduct a deep, narrow- band survey of Ly-alpha Emitting Galaxies (LAEs) over the redshift ranges 3.10 < z < 3.13 and 2.04 < z < 2.08 in two 0.3 square degree fields, one centered on the Extended Hubble Deep Field South and the other on SDSS 1030+05. These data, combined with our previous surveys of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, give us a total survey volume of 400,000 Mpc^3 in 2.06 and 500,000 Mpc^3 at 3.1 which has been surveyed down to monochromatic line luminosities of log(L) ~42.3 ergs/s. We analyze the samples of Ly-alpha emitters found in the surveys, and present their luminosity, equivalent width, and color distributions as well as internal extinction and star formation rate. We also use these samples to search for diffuse Ly-alpha halos around LAEs at these redshifts. Most importantly, we use the information provided by our three survey fields to investigate the effect that cosmic variance has on these properties and on measurements of their evolution.

Gronwall, Caryl; Ciardullo, R.; Matkovic, A.; Feldmeier, J. J.; Hay, J.; MUSYC Collaboration

2014-01-01

85

Alpha-particle decays from excited states in 24Mg  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a cluster model based on the Woods-Saxon potential, alpha-particle decays from excited states in 24Mg have been systematically investigated. Calculations can in general reproduce experimental data, noticing the fact that the preformation factor P of alpha particle in alpha-decaying nuclei is of order from 100 to 10-2. This can be the evidence for the ?+20Ne structure in 24Mg. Meanwhile, the results also show the existence of other configurations, such as 16O+2 ?. Since the calculated decay widths are very sensitive to the angular momentum carried by the outgoing cluster ( ? particle), our results could serve as a guide to experimental spin assignments.

Wang, SiMin; Xu, Chen; Liotta, R. J.; Qi, Chong; Xu, FuRong; Jiang, DongXing

2011-08-01

86

Selective flow path alpha particle detector and method of use  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for monitoring alpha contamination are provided in which ions generated in the air surrounding the item, by the passage of alpha particles, are moved to a distant detector location. The parts of the item from which ions are withdrawn can be controlled by restricting the air flow over different portions of the apparatus. In this way, detection of internal and external surfaces separately, for instance, can be provided. The apparatus and method are particularly suited for use in undertaking alpha contamination measurements during the commissioning operations.

Orr, Christopher Henry (Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, GB); Luff, Craig Janson (Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, GB); Dockray, Thomas (Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, GB); Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore (P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545)

2002-01-01

87

HETDEX: Developing the HET's Second Generation Low Resolution Spectrograph for Probing Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HETDEX will map the power spectrum of 0.8 million blindly discovered Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies (LAE) using a revolutionary new array of massively replicated fiber-fed spectrographs dubbed the Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS). In the era of the Hobby-Eberly Telescope wide-field upgrade and VIRUS, the current Low Resolution Spectrograph (LRS) must be replaced with a fiber instrument. We discuss the development of the second generation LRS (LRS2), which is a multi-channel instrument based on the VIRUS design. In its current design phase, it is fed by a 287 fiber microlens coupled integral field unit that covers 7 x 12 with 0.62 resolution. The instrument covers 3720 to 4700 at R ? 1900 and 4600 to 7000 at R ?1200. With the purpose of making the instrument ideal for follow-up observations of LAE in the HETDEX survey, we discuss the science drivers for selecting the instrument's spectral resolution. We test the utility of the instrument and pilot a future study with LRS2 by presenting R ? 2000 spectra taken with the VIRUS prototype spectrograph (VIRUS-P) in a high-resolution mode at the McDonald Observatory Harlan J. Smith 2.7 m telescope. These LAE were originally discovered in the HETDEX Pilot Survey and their Lyman-alpha line profiles are constrained by near-infrared observations of rest-frame optical emission lines that set the systemic redshift of the galaxies. We discuss the velocity offsets of the Lyman-alpha line from the systemic line center and compare the line profiles to theoretical predictions and to similar observations for Lyman-break galaxies. Our observations provide an example of how LRS2 can be used to probe Lyman-alpha emission in 2 < z < 3 star forming galaxies.

Chonis, Taylor S.; Hill, G. J.; Lee, H.; Tuttle, S. E.; Vattiat, B. L.; Gebhardt, K.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Adams, J. J.; HETDEX Collaboration

2012-01-01

88

MHD-Induced Alpha Particle Loss in TFTR  

SciTech Connect

MHD-induced increases in alpha particle loss to the wall were observed for both coherent modes and transient reconnection events using an array of scintillator detectors near the wall of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The magnitude of the coherent MHD-induced alpha loss as seen by these detectors was normally comparable to the MHD-quiescent first-orbit or toroidal-field ripple loss, but the magnitude of the alpha loss during reconnection events was up to 1000 times higher than this for a short time. Modeling suggest that the coherent MHD loss mechanism will be even less significant for future reactor-scale deuterium-tritium tokamaks due to the smaller ratio of the alpha gyroradius to minor radius.

Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Taylor, G.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.; von Goeler, S.

1999-03-01

89

Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies at 2 < z < 3: Towards a Calibrated Probe of Dark Energy  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to establish the physical properties of Ly{alpha}#11;emitting galaxies from redshifts of 2 to 3 in order to better calibrate the use of LAEs as probes of the large scale structure of the universe for upcoming dark energy experiments, such as the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). We have obtained narrow-band imaging of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S) in two different narrow-band #12;filters centered at Ly{alpha}#11; at z=2.1 and 3.1. The resulting of samples of LAEs were used to determine the LAE luminosity function, equivalent width distribution and clustering properties (bias) of LAEs at these redshifts. While the results from the ECDF-S appear robust, they are based on a single field. To explore the effects of cosmic variance and galaxy environment on the physical properties of LAEs, we have also obtained narrow-band data at both redshifts (z = 2:1 and 3:1) in three additional #12;fields (SDSS 1030+-05, the Extended Hubble Deep Field South, and CW 1255+01). The narrow-band imaging data has been reduced and LAE catalogs are being generated. We have calculated preliminary luminosity functions, equivalent width distributions, and clustering properties. We have also obtained follow-up spectroscopy in the optical (using VLT/FORS) and in the near-infrared (using Magellan/MMIRS). Since individual LAEs have too little S/N to enable meaningful fits for stellar population parameters, our previous work has analyzed stacked Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). SED #12;fitting was performed on several subsets of LAEs selected by their rest-UV luminosity, UV spectral slope, Ly alpha luminosity, Equivalent Width, or rest-optical (IRAC) luminosity.

Caryl Gronwall

2012-12-03

90

ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF SIZED PARTICLES EMITTED FROM STATIONARY SOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper discusses several approaches for obtaining the elemental and, in a few cases, inorganic compound identification in sized particles. The elemental analyses are done by wavelength dispersion x-ray fluorescence (WXRF). Fourier Transform infrared is being used for inorgani...

91

Probing. alpha. -particle wave functions by ( d ,. alpha. ) tensor analyzing powers  

SciTech Connect

Components of {alpha}-particle wave functions corresponding to {ital d}-{ital d} configurations are used to predict analyzing powers in the ({ital d},{alpha}) reaction. Tensor analyzing powers, especially {ital A}{sub {ital x}{ital x}}, are shown to clearly distinguish between wave functions generated by different realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions. Data for the {sup 58}Ni({ital d},{alpha}){sup 56}Co reaction to the 7{sup +} stretched-nucleon-orbital state at 2.283-MeV excitation in {sup 56}Co, measured with 22-MeV deuterons, are compared to predictions from the Argonne and Urbana interactions. Similar comparisons are made to data for the lowest {ital J} {sup {pi}}=7{sup +} state in {sup 48}Sc populated by the {sup 50}Ti({ital d},{alpha}){sup 48}Sc reaction at 16 MeV.

Crosson, E.R.; Das, R.K.; Lemieux, S.K.; Ludwig, E.J.; Thompson, W.J. (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255 (United States) Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27706 (United States)); Bisenberger, M.; Hertenberger, R.; Hofer, D.; Kader, H.; Schiemenz, P.; Graw, G. (Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muenchen, 8046 Garching (Germany)); Eiro, A.M.; Santos, F.D. (Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, 1699 Lisboa Codex (Portugal))

1992-02-01

92

Skeletal dosimetry models for alpha-particles for use in molecular radiotherapy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular radiotherapy is a cancer treatment methodology whereby a radionuclide is combined with a biologically active molecule to preferentially target cancer cells. Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides show significant potential for use in molecular radiotherapy due to the short range of the alpha-particles in tissue and their high rates of energy deposition. Current radiation dosimetry models used to assess alpha emitter dose in the skeleton were developed originally for occupational applications. In medical dosimetry, individual variability in uptake, translocation and other biological factors can result in poor correlation of clinical outcome with marrow dose estimates determined using existing skeletal models. Methods presented in this work were developed in response to the need for dosimetry models which account for these biological and patient-specific factors. Dosimetry models are presented for trabecular bone alpha particle dosimetry as well as a model for cortical bone dosimetry. These radiation transport models are the 3D chord-based infinite spongiosa transport model (3D-CBIST) and the chord-based infinite cortical transport model (CBICT), respectively. Absorbed fraction data for several skeletal tissues for several subjects are presented. Each modeling strategy accounts for biological parameters, such as bone marrow cellularity, not previously incorporated into alpha-particle skeletal dosimetry models used in radiation protection. Using these data a study investigating the variability in alpha-particle absorbed fractions in the human skeleton is also presented. Data is also offered relating skeletal tissue masses in individual bone sites for a range of ages. These data are necessary for dose calculations and have previously only been available as whole body tissue masses. A revised 3D-CBIST model is also presented which allows for changes in endosteum thickness to account for revised target cell location of tissues involved in the radiological induction of bone cancer. In addition, new data are presented on the location of bone-marrow stem cells within the marrow cavities of trabecular bone of the pelvis. All results presented in this work may be applied to occupational exposures, but their greatest utility lies in dose assessments for alpha-emitters in molecular radiotherapy.

Watchman, Christopher J.

93

XRF-analysis of fine and ultrafine particles emitted from laser printing devices.  

PubMed

In this work, the elemental composition of fine and ultrafine particles emitted by ten different laser printing devices (LPD) is examined. The particle number concentration time series was measured as well as the particle size distributions. In parallel, emitted particles were size-selectively sampled with a cascade impactor and subsequently analyzed by the means of XRF. In order to identify potential sources for the aerosol's elemental composition, materials involved in the printing process such as toner, paper, and structural components of the printer were also analyzed. While the majority of particle emissions from laser printers are known to consist of recondensated semi volatile organic compounds, elemental analysis identifies Si, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, Cr, and Fe as well as traces of Ni and Zn in different size fractions of the aerosols. These elements can mainly be assigned to contributions from toner and paper. The detection of elements that are likely to be present in inorganic compounds is in good agreement with the measurement of nonvolatile particles. Quantitative measurements of solid particles at 400 C resulted in residues of 1.6 10(9) and 1.5 10(10) particles per print job, representing fractions of 0.2% and 1.9% of the total number of emitted particles at room temperature. In combination with the XRF results it is concluded that solid inorganic particles contribute to LPD emissions in measurable quantities. Furthermore, for the first time Br was detected in significant concentrations in the aerosol emitted from two LPD. The analysis of several possible sources identified the plastic housings of the fuser units as main sources due to substantial Br concentrations related to brominated flame retardants. PMID:21809840

Barthel, Mathias; Pedan, Vasilisa; Hahn, Oliver; Rothhardt, Monika; Bresch, Harald; Jann, Oliver; Seeger, Stefan

2011-09-15

94

HETDEX and the Evolution of The Physical Properties of Lyman-Alpha Emitting Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beginning in Spring 2013, the Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will begin a three year survey of two large regions of sky using VIRUS, an array of blue-sensitive integral-field spectrographs set to cover the wavelength range between 3500 to 5500 Angstroms at R = 800 resolution. These data will cover roughly 300 square degrees in the north (centered near 13 hours, +53 deg) and 140 square degrees along the equator (centered around 1.5 hours), have a filling factor of 1 in 4.5, and detect over 800,000 Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) in the redshift range 1.9 < z < 3.5. While the main goal of HETDEX is to measure the expansion history of the universe via the LAE's power spectrum, these data will also revolutionize our knowledge of the emission-line universe. Using HETDEX, we will be able to explore the 3-D clustering of LAEs, measure their halo masses, and explore their physical properties over a wide range of galactic environments. In preparation for HETDEX, we have undertaken a 3 year pilot survey of the COSMOS, GOODS-N, MUNICS-S2, and XMM-LSS regions of sky using VIRUS-P, a proto-type integral-field spectrograph placed on the McDonald 2.7-m telescope. This survey covered 169 square arcmin and discovered 104 LAEs with a median line luminosity of log L = 43.03 ergs/s. We will present the physical properties of the LAEs found in the pilot survey, and discuss how their line-luminosities, equivalent widths, star-formation rates, dust content, and Ly-alpha escape fraction change with redshift. We will also discuss the implications of the these observations for the main HETDEX survey.

Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, C.; Blanc, G.; Finkelstein, S.; Gawiser, E.; Gebhardt, K.; HETDEX Collaboration

2012-05-01

95

Use of infinitely thick source alpha particle pulse height distributions in the determination of individual specific alpha activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented in which material containing a complex mixture of alpha emitting radionuclides might be analyzed with minimal sample preparation and the individual specific activities of each alpha emitting species found. A theoretical relationship describing the pulse height distribution of an infinitely thick source of alpha activity is developed. This relationship is then fit to uranium and thorium oxide pulse height distribution data obtained with a PIPS detector/MCA counting system, confirming the validity of the theoretical pulse height distribution. The method does not require complex and time consuming sample preparation common to conventional alpha spectroscopy. Results obtained from fits to the pulse height distributions are in agreement with the specific alpha activities of the oxides.

Phoenix, Kevin A.

1997-10-01

96

Probing the Dark Matter-Galaxy Formation Connection with Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We probe the dark matter properties of high-redshift Lyman Alpha Emitting (LAE) galaxies and identify their present-day descendants. We studied the clustering properties and multiwavelength spectral energy distributions of a complete sample of 162 LAE galaxies at z=3.1 discovered in deep narrow-band imaging of the MUSYC-ECDFS field. The LAEs exhibit a moderate clustering bias of b=1.7, which implies median dark matter halo masses of 10^11 M_sun. The evolution of galaxy bias with redshift predicts that z=3.1 LAEs evolve into typical present-day galaxies with L =L*, whereas other z>3 galaxy populations, including Lyman Break Galaxies and intermediate-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei, typically evolve into more massive galaxies. A two-population fit to the LAE spectral energy distribution finds that the typical LAE has low stellar mass (10^9 M_sun), moderate star formation rate (2 M_sun/yr), a young component age of 20 Myr, and little dust (A_V<0.2). This represents our first direct knowledge of the progenitors of spiral galaxies like the Milky Way seen when the universe was only 2 Gyr in age. References: Gawiser et al. 2007 (ApJ 671, 278), Gronwall et al. 2007 (ApJ 667, 79), Francke et al. 2008 (ApJL 673, 13) We gratefully acknowledge financial support from the National Science Foundation, Department of Energy, and NASA.

Gawiser, Eric J.; Walker, J.; Bond, N.; Gronwall, C.; Ciardullo, R.; Francke, H.; Lira, P.; Guaita, L.; Padilla, N.; Feldmeier, J.; MUSYC Collaboration

2009-01-01

97

Targeted deletion of T-cell clones using alpha-emitting suicide MHC tetramers.  

PubMed

Immunosuppressive agents in current use are nonspecific. The capacity to delete specific CD8 T-cell clones of unique specificity could prove to be a powerful tool for dissecting the precise role of CD8(+) T cells in human disease and could form the basis for a safe, highly selective therapy of autoimmune disorders. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) tetramers (multimeric complexes capable of binding to specific CD8 T-cell clones) were conjugated to (225)Ac (an alpha-emitting atomic nanogenerator, capable of single-hit killing from the cell surface) to create an agent for CD8 T-cell clonal deletion. The "suicide" tetramers specifically bound to, killed, and reduced the function of their cognate CD8 T cells (either human anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or mouse anti-Listeria in 2 model systems) while leaving the nonspecific control CD8 T-cell populations unharmed. Such an approach may allow a pathway to selective ablation of pathogenic T-cell clones ex vivo or in vivo without disturbing general immune function. PMID:15217835

Yuan, Rui Rong; Wong, Phillip; McDevitt, Michael R; Doubrovina, Ekaterina; Leiner, Ingrid; Bornmann, William; O'reilly, Richard; Pamer, Eric G; Scheinberg, David A

2004-10-15

98

Malignant transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells by radon-simulated alpha-particles.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have shown that inhalation of radon is associated with an increased risk for bronchogenic carcinoma in uranium miners. These alpha-emitting radon daughters also represent the largest component of background radiation to the general public. In the present study, the oncogenic transforming effects of single versus multiple doses of radon-simulated alpha-particles were examined using human papillomavirus-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells. Endpoints such as growth kinetics, resistance to serum and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced terminal differentiation, anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice were used to assess the various stages of transformation in the bronchial epithelial cells. We show here, for the first time, that immortalized human cells in culture can be malignantly transformed by a single 30 cGy dose of alpha-particles. Transformed cells produced progressively growing subcutaneous tumors upon inoculation into athymic nude mice. Immunofluorescent staining of keratin and isozyme analysis of the cell lines subsequently generated from these tumors indicated that the cells were of human epithelial origin. Analysis of genomic DNA from the tumorigenic cell lines using PCR amplification and restriction enzyme analysis demonstrated no point mutation at either codon 12/13 or 61 in any of the ras oncogenes examined (K-, N- and H-ras). This system provides an opportunity to study the cellular and molecular changes at the various stages in radiation carcinogenesis involving human cells. PMID:8118924

Hei, T K; Piao, C Q; Willey, J C; Thomas, S; Hall, E J

1994-03-01

99

Control of alpha-particle transport by ion cyclotron resonance heating  

SciTech Connect

In this paper control of radial alpha-particle transport by using ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) waves is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak geometry. Spatially inhomogeneous ICRF wave energy with properly selected frequencies and wave numbers can induce fast convective transports of alpha particles at the speed of order v{sub {alpha}} {approximately} (P{sub RF}/n{sub {alpha}}{epsilon}{sub 0}){rho}{sup p}, where R{sub RF} is the ICRF wave power density, n{sub {alpha}} is the alpha-particle density, {epsilon}{sub 0} is the alpha-particle birth energy, and {rho}{sub p} is the poloidal gyroradius of alpha particles at the birth energy. Application to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) plasma is studied and possible antenna designs to control alpha-particle flux are discussed.

Chang, C.S.; Imre, K.; Weitzner, H.; Colestock, P. (Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.)

1990-12-01

100

Fission studies with 140 MeV {alpha} particles  

SciTech Connect

Binary fission induced by 140 MeV {alpha} particles has been measured for {sup nat}Ag, {sup 139}La, {sup 165}Ho, and {sup 197}Au targets. The measured quantities are the total kinetic energies, fragment masses, and fission cross sections. The results are compared with other data and systematics. A minimum of the fission probability in the vicinity Z{sup 2}/A=24 is observed.

Buttkewitz, A.; Duhm, H. H.; Strauss, W. [I. Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Goldenbaum, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Machner, H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Duisburg (Germany)

2009-09-15

101

Bootstrap current induced by fusion born alpha particles  

SciTech Connect

The bootstrap current produced by fusion born alpha particles is obtained, retaining effects of slowing down drag, pitch angle scattering, and arbitrary aspect ratio. The result is presented both as a summation of a rapidly converging series and a simple Pade approximation good for arbitrary aspect ratio. Quantitative results are derived using the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) (Plasma Phys. Controlled Nucl. Fusion Res. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1989), Vol. 3, p. 214) parameters.

Hsu, C.T.; Shaing, K.C.; Gormley, R.P.; Sigmar, D.J. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Plasma Fusion Center, 167 Albany Street, NW16-260, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States))

1992-12-01

102

In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Low-Dose-Rate Radioimmunotherapy by the Alpha-Emitting Radioimmunoconjugate Thorium-227-DOTA-Rituximab  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine whether the low-dose-rate alpha-particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-1,4,7,10-p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7, 10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-rituximab can be used to inactivate lymphoma cells growing as single cells and small colonies. Methods and Materials: CD20-positive lymphoma cell lines were treated with {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab for 1-5 weeks. To simulate the in vivo situation with continuous but decreasing supply of radioimmunoconjugates from the blood pool, the cells were not washed after incubation with {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab, but half of the medium was replaced with fresh medium, and cell concentration and cell-bound activity were determined every other day after start of incubation. A microdosimetric model was established to estimate the average number of hits in the nucleus for different localizations of activity. Results: There was a specific targeted effect on cell growth of the {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab treatment. Although the cells were not washed after incubation with {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab, the average contribution of activity in the medium to the mean dose was only 6%, whereas the average contribution from activity on the cells' own surface was 78%. The mean dose rates after incubation with 800 Bq/mL {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab varied from 0.01 to 0.03 cGy/min. The average delay in growing from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} cells/mL was 15 days when the cells were treated with a mean absorbed radiation dose of 2 Gy alpha-particle radiation from {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab, whereas it was 11 days when the cells were irradiated with 6 Gy of X-radiation. The relative biologic effect of the treatment was estimated to be 2.9-3.4. Conclusions: The low-dose-rate radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab is suitable for inactivation of single lymphoma cells and small colonies of lymphoma cells.

Dahle, Jostein, E-mail: jostein.dahle@rr-research.n [Department of Radiation Biology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway); Krogh, Cecilie; Melhus, Katrine B. [Department of Radiation Biology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway); Borrebaek, Jorgen [Algeta ASA, Oslo (Norway); Larsen, Roy H. [Department of Radiation Biology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway); Kvinnsland, Yngve [Nordic Neurolabs, Bergen (Norway)

2009-11-01

103

Emission factors and real-time optical properties of particles emitted from traditional wood burning cookstoves.  

PubMed

It is estimated that the combustion of biofuel generates 20% of all carbonaceous aerosols, yet these particles are studied less than those of other common sources. We designed and built a portable battery-operated emission-sampling cart to measure the real-time optical properties and other emission characteristics of biofuel cookstoves. In a field study in Honduras, we measured emission factors averaging 8.5 g/kg, higher than those found in previous laboratory studies. Strong flaming events emitted very dark particles with the optical properties of black particles. The elemental carbon to total carbon ratios ranged from 0.07 to 0.64, confirming that high elemental carbon fractions can be emitted from biofuel combustion and may not be used to distinguish fossil-fuel from biofuel sources when cooking is the dominant usage. Absorption Angstrom exponents, representing the dependence of absorption on wavelength, ranged from 1 (black) to 5 (yellow). Strongly absorbing particles with absorption inversely dependent on wavelength were emitted separately from particles with weak absorption and strong wavelength dependence; the latter probably contained conjugated aromatic compounds. Because combustion occurs in distinct phases, different types of carbonaceous aerosols from biofuel combustion are externally mixed at emission and may have different atmospheric fates. PMID:17144306

Roden, Christoph A; Bond, Tami C; Conway, Stuart; Pinel, Anibal Benjamin Osorto

2006-11-01

104

Energetic alpha particle deposition in a magnetized plasma  

SciTech Connect

The problem of energetic alpha particle deposition in a dense, magnetized deuterium-tritium (DT) thermonuclear fuel has been studied numerically for the case of coulomb interactions in cylindrical geometry. This was done by following the particle trajectories initiated at various radii and in different directions through the plasma and its imposed field until they had either left the plasma or deposited all their energy. The resulting complex particle trajectories in the static magnetized fuel make a detailed treatment of the problem computationally intensive. Therefore, we have attempted to use detailed modeling to produce a data base for a neural nets algorithm for incorporation in an ignition critical profile code. While the accuracy of the neutral net in reproducing the detailed calculational results is not high, it is approximately 6000 times faster. 7 refs., 1 fig.

Smitherman, D.P.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.

1991-01-01

105

Energetic alpha particle deposition in a magnetized plasma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of energetic alpha particle deposition in a dense, magnetized deuterium-tritium (DT) thermonuclear fuel has been studied numerically for the case of coulomb interactions in cylindrical geometry. This was done by following the particle trajectories initiated at various radii and in different directions through the plasma and its imposed field until they had either left the plasma or deposited all their energy. The resulting complex particle trajectories in the static magnetized fuel make a detailed treatment of the problem computationally intensive. Therefore, we have attempted to use detailed modeling to produce a data base for a neural nets algorithm for incorporation in an ignition critical profile code. While the accuracy of the neutral net in reproducing the detailed calculated results is not high, it is approximately 6000 times faster.

Smitherman, D. P.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.

106

HETDEX: Probing the Chemical Evolution of the Universe with Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will discover 0.8 million Lyman alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) at 1.9 < z < 3.5 over 300 square degrees beginning in Fall 2012. This unprecedentedly large volume probed will allow the discovery of large samples of bright LAEs, enabling follow-up science which cannot be done for the bulk of the LAE population, as they form the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. Combining the HETDEX sample with the new generation of multi-object near-infrared (NIR) spectrographs will allow direct measurements of LAE physical properties, which are of interest as LAEs appear similar to galaxies at very high redshifts (z > 7) , and LAEs are also the likely progenitors of present-day Milky Way-like galaxies. Here we present results from the HETDEX pilot survey, which discovered 100 LAEs with a single integral field spectrograph mounted on the McDonald Observatory 2.7m telescope. We have detected rest-frame optical emission lines from five of these galaxies with the single-slit NIR spectrograph NIRSPEC on the Keck II 10m telescope. From the ratio of the upper limit on the (undetected) [NII] flux to the observed Halpha line strength, all five LAEs appear to have low metallicities (< 50% solar). The brightest LAE in our sample lies significantly below the mass-metallicity relation for continuum-selected galaxies at the same redshift. The remaining LAEs may also lie below this relation, however their fainter Halpha fluxes result in higher limits on the [NII]/Halpha flux ratio. Thus deeper integrations, requiring multi-object spectrographs (MOS) to be feasible, are necessary. The field-of-view of the next generation of MOS NIR spectrographs will be able to simultaneously observe > 10 HETDEX LAEs to a much deeper depth, providing a significant boost in our ability to probe the chemical enrichment of this enigmatic galaxy population.

Finkelstein, Steven L.; Hill, G. J.; Gebhardt, K.; Blanc, G.; Drory, N.; HETDEX Collaboration

2012-01-01

107

Alpha-particle Measurements Needed for Burning Plasma Experiments  

SciTech Connect

The next major step in magnetic fusion studies will be the construction of a burning plasma (BP) experiment where the goals will be to achieve and understand the plasma behavior with the internal heating provided by fusion-generated alpha particles. Two devices with these physics goals have been proposed: the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE). Extensive conceptual design work for the instrumentation to try to meet the physics demands has been done for these devices, especially ITER. This article provides a new look at the measurements specifically important for understanding the physics aspects of the alpha particles taking into account two significant events. The first is the completion of physics experiments on the Joint European Torus (JET) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) with deuterium-tritium fueling with the first chances to study alpha physics and the second is the realization that relatively compact plasmas, making use of advanced tokamak plasma concepts, are the most probable route to burning plasmas and ultimately a fusion reactor.

Kenneth M. Young

2001-09-26

108

PC-based analysis of alpha-particle spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently developed personal-computer (PC) software performs analysis of alpha-particle spectra. The spectra are collected using a commercially available multichannel analyzer board in the PC, interfaced with up to eight alpha-particle detectors. The PC is an IBM PC-AT computer with a 20 Mbyte Bernoulli-Box removable cartridge disk, a math coprocessor and a printer. Once saved on disk, the spectra are analyzed using the software described here. The PC analysis software performs automatic peak-area determination with operator override. Sample analysis can use measured detector efficiencies or chemical yields obtained from a radionuclide spike or both. Background contribution corrections for all peaks are included. Upper limit values are calculated for nuclides specified by the operator and not found in the sample. Nuclide identification uses a master table of up to 64 nuclides with up to 8 alpha lines for each nuclide. Any one of 32 available subtables can be selected for use in an analysis. Analysis time is short and is limited by interaction with the operator, not by calculation time. Both detailed and summary versions of final results are printed for ease of data reporting. Utilities included with the software provide nuclide table editing, subset table editing, energy calibration, efficiency calibration and background analysis with background correction file update.

Chapman, Terry C.

1990-12-01

109

Toxicity of particles emitted from combustion of waste crankcase oil: in vitro and in vivo studies  

SciTech Connect

The ever-rising cost of energy provides incentives for the utilization of low-cost waste crankcase oil (WCO) for space heating. Although WCO is known to contain toxic heavy metals, the potential health hazards of emissions and waste products resulting from the combustion of WCO are unknown. Thus, the toxicity of the emission particles and waste products from two different types of burners, a Dravo atomizing oil burner (AOB) and a Kroll vaporizing oil burner (VOB), is evaluated using automotive WCO. Samples are characterized by performing elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Both burners emitted fine (less than or equal to 3 microns), respirable particles. The AOB emission particles contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, especially Pb, which showed concentrations as high as 7.5%. The VOB retained a significant amount of heavy metals in the burner residue and emitted a much smaller quantity into the air. The toxicity of AOB emission particles, VOB emission particles, and VOB waste residue is evaluated in three bioassay systems, including a rabbit alveolar macrophage (RAM) cytotoxicity in vitro assay, an intratracheal injection infectivity assay, and a peritoneal irritancy test in mice. The emission particles from both burners and leachate from VOB residue produce a dose-related reduction in viability and cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in alveolar macrophages following 20-hr exposure. Acidity of the RAM medium due to the presence of VOB emission particles and waste leachate contributes to its toxicity.

Mumford, J.L.; Hatch, G.E.; Hall, R.E.; Jackson, M.A.; Merrill, R.G. Jr.; Lewtas, J.

1986-07-01

110

Model for alpha particle induced nuclear reactions: /sup 93/Nb(. cap alpha. ,x. cap alpha. ypzn) from 40--140 MeV  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive model is introduced for alpha particle induced nuclear reactions. Five different mechanisms are examined and discussed. These include inelastic scattering of the incident alpha particle, nucleon pickup, binary fragmentation, dissolution of the alpha in the nuclear field, and preequilibrium processes initiated by alpha-nucleon collisions. A series of experiments was performed to measure the excitation functions of many nuclides produced from the irradiation of /sup 93/Nb by 40--140 MeV alpha particles. Together with alpha particle and proton spectra measured by other authors, these data form the basis of a test of the model introduced. A detailed analysis of the comparison between the calculated and experimental results, with particular emphasis on the interpretation of breakup processes, leads to the conclusion that breakup to four nucleons is preferred to the more commonly assumed binary fragmentation in that a much broader range of experimental data may be reproduced.

Gadioli, E.; Gadioli-Erba, E.; Hogan, J.J.; Jacak, B.V.

1984-01-01

111

Control of alpha particle transport by spatially inhomogeneous ion cyclotron resonance heating  

SciTech Connect

Control of the radial alpha particle transport by using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency waves is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak geometry. It is shown that spatially inhomogeneous ICRF-wave energy with properly selected frequencies and wave numbers can induce fast convective transport of alpha particles at the speed of order {upsilon}{sub alpha} {approximately} (P{sub RF}/n{sub {alpha}}{epsilon}{sub 0}) {rho}{sub p}, where P{sub RF} is the ICRF-wave power density, n{sub {alpha}} is the alpha density, {epsilon}{sub 0} is the alpha birth energy, and {rho}{sub p} is the poloidal gyroradius of alpha particles at the birth energy. Application to ITER plasmas is studied and possible antenna designs to control alpha particle flux are discussed. 8 refs., 3 figs.

Chang, C.S.; Imre, K.; Weitzner, H. (New York Univ., NY (USA). Courant Inst. of Mathematical Sciences); Colestock, P. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.)

1990-02-01

112

Ultrafine particles emitted by flame and electric arc guns for thermal spraying of metals.  

PubMed

The ultrafine aerosol emitted by thermal spraying of metals using flame and electric arc processes has been characterized in terms of particle size distribution and emission rates based on both particle number and mass. Thermal spraying of Zn, Zn/Al, and Al was studied. Measurements taken using an electrical low pressure impactor and a condensation nucleus counter reveal an aerosol made up of very fine particles (80-95% of number distribution <100 nm). Ultrafine particle emission rates produced by the electric arc process are very high, the largest values being recorded during spraying of pure aluminium. This process generates high particle emissions and therefore requires careful consideration and possible rethinking of currently implemented protection measures: ventilated cabins, dust collectors, and personal protective equipment. PMID:20685717

Bmer, Denis; Rgnier, Roland; Subra, Isabelle; Sutter, Benjamin; Lecler, Marie T; Morele, Yves

2010-08-01

113

Thick Source Alpha Particle Spectroscopy: Possibilities And Prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new technique for the calculation of U and Th concentration which is based on the alpha particle spectrum taken from a thick sample by using a silicon detector is briefly described. Within the present study two major advantages of the technique will also be presented: the potentiality for detecting and providing an estimation of disequilibrium in the U and Th series -when present- for especially young sediments, and the potential use of the technique as a new method for isotopic dating of speleothems and other materials. Also the validity of the basic equation and the accuracy of this technique is tested.

Michael, C. T.; Zacharias, N.; Hein, A.

114

Protons and alpha particles in the solar wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate energetic consequences of ion kinetic instabilitities in the solar wind connected with beam and core protons and alpha particles drifting with respect to each other. We compare theoretical predictions, simulations and observation results. For theoretical prediction we assume drifting bi-Maxwellian ion populations and we calculate theoretical quasilinear heating rates (Hellinger et al., 2013b). The nonlinear evolution of beam-core protons, and alpha particles in the expanding solar wind we investigate using hybrid expanding box system (Hellinger and Travnicek, 2013). The expansion leads to many different kinetic instabilities. In the simulation the beam protons and alpha particles are decelerated with respect to the core protons and all the populations are cooled in the parallel direction and heated in the perpendicular one in agreement with theoretical expectations. On the macroscopic level the kinetic instabilities cause large departures of the system evolution from the double adiabatic prediction and lead to a perpendicular heating and parallel cooling rates. The simulated heating rates are comparable to the heating rates estimated from the Helios observations (Hellinger et al., 2013a); furthermore, the differential velocity between core and beam protons observed by Ulysses exhibits apparent bounds which are compatible with the theoretical constaints imposed by the linear theory for the magnetosonic instability driven by beam-core differential velocity (Matteini et al., 2013). References Hellinger, P., P. M. Travnicek, S. Stverak, L. Matteini, and M. Velli (2013a), Proton thermal energetics in the solar wind: Helios reloaded, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 1351-1365, doi:10.1002/jgra.50107. Hellinger, P., T. Passot, P.-L. Sulem, and P. M. Travnicek (2013b), Quasi-linear heating and acceleration in bi-Maxwellian plasmas, Phys. Plasmas, 20, 122306. Hellinger, P., and P. M. Travnicek (2013), Protons and alpha particles in the expanding solar wind: Hybrid simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 5421-5430, doi:10.1002/jgra.50540. Matteini, L., P. Hellinger, B. E. Goldstein, S. Landi, M. Velli, and M. Neugebauer (2013), Signatures of kinetic instabilities in the solar wind, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 2771-2782, doi:10.1002/jgra.50320.

Hellinger, Petr; Travnicek, Pavel M.; Passot, Thierry; Sulem, Pierre-Louis; Matteini, Lorenzo; Landi, Simone

2014-05-01

115

Measurement of Ultrafine Particles and Other Air Pollutants Emitted by Cooking Activities  

PubMed Central

Cooking emissions show a strong dependence on cooking styles and parameters. Measurements of the average ultrafine particle (UFP) concentration, PM2.5 and black carbon concentrations emitted by cooking activities ranged from 1.34 104 to 6.04 105 particles/cm3, 10.0 to 230.9 ?g/m3 and 0.1 to 0.8 ?g/m3, respectively. Lower UFP concentrations were observed during boiling, while higher levels were emitted during frying. The highest UFP concentrations were observed when using a gas stove at high temperature with the kitchen exhaust fan turned off. The observed UFP profiles were similar in the kitchen and in another room, with a lag of approximately 10 min.

Zhang, Qunfang; Gangupomu, Roja H.; Ramirez, David; Zhu, Yifang

2010-01-01

116

Observation of lunar radon emanation with the Apollo 15 alpha particle spectrometer.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The alpha particle spectrometer, a component of the orbital Sim Bay group of 'geochemistry' experiments on Apollo 15, was designed to detect alpha particles emitted during the decay of isotopes of radon gas and her daughter products. The purpose was to measure the gross activity of radon on the lunar surface and to find possible regions of increased local activity. Results are presented from a partial analysis of Apollo 15 data. For the moon as a whole, Rn220 was not observed and the upper limit on its decay rate above the lunar surface is 0.00038 disintegrations/sq cm-sec. Rn222 was marginally observed. Possible variations of radon activity on the lunar surface are being investigated. Po210 (a daughter product of Rn222) has been detected in a broad region from west of Mare Crisium to the Van de Graaff-Orlov region. The observed count rate is (4.6 plus or minus 1.4) x 0.001 disintegrations/sq cm-sec. The observed level of Po210 activity is in excess of the amount that would be in equilibrium with Rn222 by about an order of magnitude. This implies that larger levels of radon emanation have occurred on the moon within a time scale of 10 to 100 years.

Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

1972-01-01

117

Nonisothermal nongray absorbing-emitting-scattering suspension of FeO particles under concentrated solar irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiation transfer within a cloud of magnetite (FeO) particles contained in an infinite slab is considered. The particulate cloud is modeled as a pseudo-continuous, nongray, nonisothermal, absorbing, emitting, and anisotropically scattering medium. The energy source is concentrated solar irradiation, which is assumed to be diffusely and uniformly distributed over a circular opening and has a 5780 K blackbody spectrum. Mie-scattering

D. Mischler; A. Steinfeld

1995-01-01

118

Photodiode radiation hardness, lyman-alpha emitting galaxies and photon detection in liquid argon neutrino detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My dissertation is comprised of three projects: 1) studies of Lyman-alpha Emitting galaxies (LAEs), 2) radiation hardness studies of InGaAs photodiodes (PDs), and 3) scintillation photon detection in liquid argon (LAr) neutrino detectors. I began work on the project that has now become WFIRST, developing a science case that would use WFIRST after launch for the observation of LAEs. The radiation hardness of PDs was as an effort to support the WFIRST calibration team. When WFIRST was significantly delayed, I joined an R&D effort that applied my skills to work on photon detection in LAr neutrino detectors. I report results on a broadband selection method developed to detect high equivalent width (EW) LAEs. Using photometry from the CFHT-Legacy Survey Deep 2 and 3 fields, I have spectroscopically confirmed 63 z=2.5-3.5 LAEs using the WIYN/Hydra spectrograph. Using UV continuum-fitting techniques I computed properties such as EWs, internal reddening and star formation rates. 62 of my LAEs show evidence to be normal dust-free LAEs. Second, I present an investigation into the effects of ionizing proton radiation on commercial off-the-shelf InGaAs PDs. I developed a monochromator-based test apparatus that utilized NIST-calibrated reference PDs. I tested the PDs for changes to their dark current, relative responsivity as a function of wavelength, and absolute responsivity. I irradiated the test PDs using 30, 52, and 98 MeV protons at the IU Cyclotron Facility. I found the InGaAs PDs showed increased dark current as the fluence increased with no evidence of broadband response degradation at the fluences expected at an L2 orbit and a 10-year mission lifetime. Finally, I detail my efforts on technology development of both optical detector technologies and waveshifting light guide construction for LAr vacuum UV scintillation light. Cryogenic neutrino detectors use photon detection for both accelerator based science and for SNe neutrino detection and proton decay. I have developed waveshifter doped cast acrylic light guides that convert scintillation light and guide the waveshifted light to SiPMs detectors.

Baptista, Brian

119

Alpha particle response characterization of CdZnTe  

SciTech Connect

The coplanar-grid as well as other electron-only detection techniques are effective in overcoming some of the material problems of CdZnTe and, consequently, have led to efficient gamma-ray detectors with good energy resolution while operating at room temperature. The performance of these detectors is limited by the degree of uniformity in both electron generation and transport. Despite recent progress in the growth of CdZnTe material, small variations in these properties remain a barrier to the widespread success of such detectors. Alpha-particle response characterization of CdZnTe crystals fabricated into simple planar detectors is an effective tool to accurately study electron generation and transport. We have used a finely collimated alpha source to produce two-dimensional maps of detector response. A clear correlation has been observed between the distribution of precipitates near the entrance contact on some crystals and their alpha-response maps. Further studies are ongoing to determine the mechanism for the observed response variations and the reason for the correlation. This paper presents the results of these studies and their relationship to coplanar-grid gamma-ray detector performance.

Amman, Mark; Lee, Julie S.; Luke, Paul N.

2001-06-28

120

Preliminary results from the lunar prospector alpha particle spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (LP APS) builds on Apollo heritage and maps the distribution of outgassing sites on the Moon. The APS searches for lunar surface gas release events and maps their distribution by detecting alpha particles produced by the decay of gaseous radon-222 (5.5 MeV, 3.8 day half-life) and solid polonium-210 (5.3 MeV, 138 day half-life, but remains on the surface with a 21 year half-life as lead-210), which are radioactive daughters from the decay of uranium-238. Radon is in such small quantities that it is not released directly from the lunar interior, rather it is entrained in a stream of gases and serves as a tracer for such gases. Once released, the radon spreads out by 'bouncing' across the surface on ballistic trajectories in a random-walk process. The 3.8 day half-life of radon-222 allows the gas to spread out by several 100 km before it decays and allows the APS to detect gas release events up to a few days after they occur. The long residence time (10s of years) of the lead-210 precursor to the polonium-210 allows the mapping of gas vents which have been active over the last approximately 50 years. Because radon and polonium are daughter products of the decay of uranium, the background level of alpha particle activity is a function of the lunar crustal uranium distribution. Using radioactive radon and polonium as tracers, the Apollo 15 and 16 Command Module orbital alpha particle experiments obtained evidence for the release of gases at several sites beneath the orbit tracks, especially over the Aristarchus Plateau and Mare Fecunditatis [1]. Aristarchus crater had previously been identified by ground-based observers as the site of transient optical events [2]. The Apollo 17 surface mass spectrometer showed that argon-40 is released from the lunar interior every few months, apparently in concert with some of the shallow moonquakes that are believed to be of tectonic origin [3]. The latter tectonic events could be associated with very young scarps identified in the lunar highlands [4] and are believed to indicate continued global contraction. Such quakes could open fissures leading to the release of gases that are trapped below the surface. The detection of radon-222 outgassing events at the margins of Fecunditatis basin was surprising because the observed surface distribution of uranium and thorium do not extend sufficiently eastward to cover Fecunditatis. If the Apollo detections prove sound, then those alpha particle emissions indicate substantial subsurface concentrations of uranium-238 within Fecunditatis. A primary goal of the APS was to map gas-release events, thus allowing both an appraisal of the current level of tectonic activity on the Moon and providing a probe of subsurface uranium concentrations.

Lawson, S. L. (Stefanie L.)

2001-01-01

121

Alpha particles are extremely damaging to developing hemopoiesis compared to gamma irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of risk of stochastic effects from contamination with [alpha]-particle-emitting radionuclides are based on equivalent doses which take into account the RBE of the high-LET radiation. It is assumed that the RBEs for deterministic effects are considerably less than those for stochastic effects. However, the offspring of mice injected with 30 Bq g[sup [minus]1] [sup 239]Pu at 13 days gestation develop a persistent deficit in hemopoietic stem cells which is primarily the result of damage to their regulatory microenvironment. Their spatial distribution in the marrow is also perturbed, and recent observations on those mice suggested a considerably higher factor than 20. To define a more realistic RBE for hemopoiesis, the effects of external [gamma] irradiation during the fetal development period have been compared directly with those of [sup 239]Pu incorporated via placental transfer on the development of hemopoietic tissue. Pregnant mice were irradiated with [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays (a) continuously from day 13 of gestation to birth at 0.15 or 0.6 Gy/day; (b) six repeated acute doses (0.6 Gy/min) at 0.1 or 0.3 Gy from day 13 of gestation; (c) one acute dose of 0.6 or 1.8 Gy on day 15 of gestation. The spatial distribution of hemopoietic stem cells in 8-week-old offspring was then determined and compared to that resulting from [alpha]-particle irradiation. In each case, the higher dose was required to match the results for [alpha] particles, suggesting an RBE for developing hemopoiesis of 250-360 compared to a continuous [gamma]-ray dose and a rather lower value of 130-180 compared to a single acute dose of [gamma] rays. This contrasts greatly to values for direct irradiation of the stem cells but argues that the effective RBE, measured for long-term effects in vivo, is the more realistic. It is concluded that an all-embracing factor can be grossly misleading and can greatly underestimate the risks of exposure to [alpha] particles. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Tie-Nan Jiang (Institute of Radiation Medicine, Tianjin (China)); Lord, B.I.; Hendry, J.H. (Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester (United Kingdom))

1994-03-01

122

INSTABILITIES DRIVEN BY THE DRIFT AND TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY OF ALPHA PARTICLES IN THE SOLAR WIND  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the conditions under which parallel-propagating Alfven/ion-cyclotron (A/IC) waves and fast-magnetosonic/whistler (FM/W) waves are driven unstable by the differential flow and temperature anisotropy of alpha particles in the solar wind. We focus on the limit in which w{sub Parallel-To {alpha}} {approx}> 0.25v{sub A}, where w{sub Parallel-To {alpha}} is the parallel alpha-particle thermal speed and v{sub A} is the Alfven speed. We derive analytic expressions for the instability thresholds of these waves, which show, e.g., how the minimum unstable alpha-particle beam speed depends upon w{sub Parallel-To {alpha}}/v{sub A}, the degree of alpha-particle temperature anisotropy, and the alpha-to-proton temperature ratio. We validate our analytical results using numerical solutions to the full hot-plasma dispersion relation. Consistent with previous work, we find that temperature anisotropy allows A/IC waves and FM/W waves to become unstable at significantly lower values of the alpha-particle beam speed U{sub {alpha}} than in the isotropic-temperature case. Likewise, differential flow lowers the minimum temperature anisotropy needed to excite A/IC or FM/W waves relative to the case in which U{sub {alpha}} = 0. We discuss the relevance of our results to alpha particles in the solar wind near 1 AU.

Verscharen, Daniel; Bourouaine, Sofiane [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Chandran, Benjamin D. G., E-mail: daniel.verscharen@unh.edu, E-mail: s.bourouaine@unh.edu, E-mail: benjamin.chandran@unh.edu [Also at Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

2013-08-20

123

Effect on Particle Size to Emitted X-Ray Intensity in Pellet Cement Sample Analyzed with WDXRF Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The particle size and heterogeneity effects on the analyte line were investigated for the analysis of powdered samples by X-ray fluorescence technique. In the analysis of samples utilizing the powder method, these effects caused serious errors with variations in particle size for the emitted intensity. The fluorescence intensities of some elements in pellet samples of cement (the range of particle

Faruk Demir; Onder Simsek; Gokhan Budak; Abdulhalik Karabulut

2008-01-01

124

Coordination chemistry of the {sup 212}Pb/{sup 212}Bi nuclear transformation: Alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Subdivisions of this project are: (a) the synthesis of prototypical thiolate and dithiocarbamate based hexacoordinate complexes, (b) radiochemical engineering for generation of no-carrier-added lead and bismuth radioelements, (c) the first isolation of bismuth-binding proteins from in vivo studies with cyclotron produced {sup 205/206}Bi tracer, and (d) initial development of transport mechanisms for the intracellular radiobiological study of alpha emitting bismuth, and (e) the initiation of chemical equilibrium studies and biochemical pathways with cyclotron-produced, no-carrier-added, {sup 203}Pb (T{sub 1/2} = 51 hr).

Parks, N.J.; Harris, W.R.; Keen, C.L.; Cooper, S.R.

1992-07-01

125

Enhanced production of low energy electrons by alpha particle impact  

PubMed Central

Radiation damage to living tissue stems not only from primary ionizing particles but to a substantial fraction from the dissociative attachment of secondary electrons with energies below the ionization threshold. We show that the emission yield of those low energy electrons increases dramatically in ionatom collisions depending on whether or not the target atoms are isolated or embedded in an environment. Only when the atom that has been ionized and excited by the primary particle impact is in immediate proximity of another atom is a fragmentation route known as interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) enabled. This leads to the emission of a low energy electron. Over the past decade ICD was explored in several experiments following photoionization. Most recent results show its observation even in water clusters. Here we show the quantitative role of ICD for the production of low energy electrons by ion impact, thus approaching a scenario closer to that of radiation damage by alpha particles: We choose ion energies on the maximum of the Bragg peak where energy is most efficiently deposited in tissue. We compare the electron production after colliding He+ ions on isolated Ne atoms and on Ne dimers (Ne2). In the latter case the Ne atom impacted is surrounded by a most simple environment already opening ICD as a deexcitation channel. As a consequence, we find a dramatically enhanced low energy electron yield. The results suggest that ICD may have a significant influence on cell survival after exposure to ionizing radiation.

Kim, Hong-Keun; Titze, Jasmin; Schoffler, Markus; Trinter, Florian; Waitz, Markus; Voigtsberger, Jorg; Sann, Hendrik; Meckel, Moritz; Stuck, Christian; Lenz, Ute; Odenweller, Matthias; Neumann, Nadine; Schossler, Sven; Ullmann-Pfleger, Klaus; Ulrich, Birte; Fraga, Rui Costa; Petridis, Nikos; Metz, Daniel; Jung, Annika; Grisenti, Robert; Czasch, Achim; Jagutzki, Ottmar; Schmidt, Lothar; Jahnke, Till; Schmidt-Bocking, Horst; Dorner, Reinhard

2011-01-01

126

Characterizing gas-particle interactions of phthalate plasticizer emitted from vinyl flooring.  

PubMed

Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers, and improved ability to predict emissions of phthalates is of interest because of concern about their health effects. An experimental chamber was used to measure emissions of di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate (DEHP) from vinyl flooring, with ammonium sulfate particles introduced to examine their influence on the emission rate and to measure the partitioning of DEHP onto airborne particles. When particles were introduced to the chamber at concentrations of 100 to 245 ?g/m(3), the total (gas + particle) DEHP concentrations increased by a factor of 3 to 8; under these conditions, emissions were significantly enhanced compared to the condition without particles. The measured DEHP partition coefficient to ammonium sulfate particles with a median diameter of 45 5 nm was 0.032 0.003 m(3)/?g (95% confidence interval). The DEHP-particle sorption equilibration time was demonstrated to be less than 1 min. Both the partition coefficient and equilibration time agree well with predictions from the literature. This study represents the first known measurements of the particle-gas partition coefficient for DEHP. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that the emission rate of DEHP is substantially enhanced in the presence of particles. The particles rapidly sorb DEHP from the gas phase, allowing more to be emitted from the source, and also appear to enhance the convective mass-transfer coefficient itself. Airborne particles can influence SVOC fate and transport in the indoor environment, and these mechanisms must be considered in evaluating exposure and human health. PMID:23410053

Benning, Jennifer L; Liu, Zhe; Tiwari, Andrea; Little, John C; Marr, Linsey C

2013-03-19

127

Stopping power for alpha particles in organic liquids and vapours  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stopping power for 5.5 MeV alpha particles has been studied in liquid and vapour phases of water, methanol, ethanol, propanol, pentane, hexane, cyclohexane, heptane and octane. Experimental values for stopping powers in the range 5.5 MeV to 0.5 MeV have been extracted by fitting the range-energy data with polynomial and inverse stopping power functions, and compared with existing results. The effect of phase of the absorber on the stopping power has been clearly demonstrated, the stopping power being higher in the vapour phase. Mean values of the excitation potential have been deduced from the experimental stopping powers after allowing for shell, Barkas and Bloch corrections, which are then compared with the recommended values of Berger and Seltzer.

Haque, A. K. M. M.; Nikjoo, H.

1991-01-01

128

Breakup of {sup 12}C resonances into three alpha particles  

SciTech Connect

The reaction {sup 3}He+{sup 11}B->d+{sup 12}C* has been used to populate resonances in {sup 12}C up to an excitation energy of 15 MeV. The subsequent breakup to three alpha particles has been measured in complete kinematics. Dalitz plots are used to visualize and analyze the data. The Dalitz plot intensity distribution exhibits zero points characteristic of the total spin and parity of the 3alpha system allowing us to determine the spin and parity of a state in {sup 12}C at 13.35 MeV whose quantum numbers were hitherto not well established. The Dalitz plot intensity distributions of the 2{sup -} state at 11.83 MeV and the 1{sup +} state at 12.71 MeV are compared with the predictions of a recent three-body calculation as well as with simpler models. All are able to reproduce the gross structures seen in the Dalitz plot, but none give an accurate description of the detailed profile of the distributions.

Kirsebom, O. S.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Hyldegaard, S.; Riisager, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Alcorta, M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Cubero, M.; Dominguez-Reyes, R.; Madurga, M.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, ES-28006 Madrid (Spain); Diget, C. A.; Fulton, B. R. [Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Fraile, L. M. [PH Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G. [Fundamental Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Goeteborg (Sweden); Munoz Martin, A. [CMAM, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, ES-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2010-06-15

129

In vitro immunotoxic and genotoxic activities of particles emitted from two different small-scale wood combustion appliances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residential wood combustion appliances emit large quantities of fine particles which are suspected to cause a substantial health burden worldwide. Wood combustion particles contain several potential health-damaging metals and carbon compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which may determine the toxic properties of the emitted particles. The aim of the present study was to characterize in vitro immunotoxicological and chemical properties of PM 1 ( Dp ? 1 ?m) emitted from a pellet boiler and a conventional masonry heater. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed for 24 h to different doses of the emission particles. Cytotoxicity, production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-? and the chemokine MIP-2, apoptosis and phases of the cell cycle as well as genotoxic activity were measured after the exposure. The type of wood combustion appliance had a significant effect on emissions and chemical composition of the particles. All the studied PM 1 samples induced cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory responses in a dose-dependent manner. The particles emitted from the conventional masonry heater were 3-fold more potent inducers of programmed cell death and DNA damage than those emitted from the pellet boiler. Furthermore, the particulate samples that induced extensive DNA damage contained also large amounts of PAH compounds. Instead, significant differences between the studied appliances were not detected in measurements of inflammatory mediators, although the chemical composition of the combustion particles differed considerably from each other. In conclusion, the present results show that appliances representing different combustion technology have remarkable effects on physicochemical and associated toxicological and properties of wood combustion particles. The present data indicate that the particles emitted from incomplete combustion are toxicologically more potent than those emitted from more complete combustion processes.

Tapanainen, Maija; Jalava, Pasi I.; Mki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Hakulinen, Pasi; Happo, Mikko S.; Lamberg, Heikki; Ruusunen, Jarno; Tissari, Jarkko; Nuutinen, Kati; Yli-Piril, Pasi; Hillamo, Risto; Salonen, Raimo O.; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

2011-12-01

130

Theoretical response of a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector to alpha-emitting sources and suggested applications  

SciTech Connect

The classic problem of alpha absorption is discussed in terms of the quantitative determination of the activity of weightless alpha sources and the specific alpha activity of extended sources accounting for absorption in the source medium and the window of a large area ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. The relationship for the expected counting rate gamma of a monoenergetic source of active area A, specific alpha activity C, and thickness H that exceeds the effective mass density range Rs of the alpha particle in the source medium can be expressed by a quadratic equation in the window thickness x when this source is placed in direct contact with the window of the ZnS(Ag) detector. This expression also gives the expected counting rate of a finite detector of sensitive area A exposed to an infinite homogeneous source medium. Counting rates y obtained for a source separated from a ZnS(Ag) detector by different thicknesses x of window material can be used to estimate parameter values in the quadratic equation, y = a + bx + cx2. The experimental value determined for the coefficient b provides a direct estimation of the specific activity C. This coefficient, which depends on the ratio of the ranges in the source medium and detector window and not the ranges themselves, is essentially independent of the energy of the alpha particle. Although certain experimental precautions must be taken, this method for estimating the specific activity C is essentially an absolute method that does not require the use of standards, special calibrations, or complicated radiochemical procedures. Applications include the quantitative determination of Rn and progeny in air, water, and charcoal, and the measurement of the alpha activity in soil and on air filter samples.

Skrable, K.W.; Phoenix, K.A.; Chabot, G.E.; French, C.S.; Jo, M.; Falo, G.A. (Univ. of Lowell, MA (USA))

1991-03-01

131

Theoretical response of a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector to alpha-emitting sources and suggested applications.  

PubMed

The classic problem of alpha absorption is discussed in terms of the quantitative determination of the activity of "weightless" alpha sources and the specific alpha activity of extended sources accounting for absorption in the source medium and the window of a large area ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. The relationship for the expected counting rate gamma of a monoenergetic source of active area A, specific alpha activity C, and thickness H that exceeds the effective mass density range Rs of the alpha particle in the source medium can be expressed by a quadratic equation in the window thickness x when this source is placed in direct contact with the window of the ZnS(Ag) detector. This expression also gives the expected counting rate of a finite detector of sensitive area A exposed to an infinite homogeneous source medium. Counting rates y obtained for a source separated from a ZnS(Ag) detector by different thicknesses x of window material can be used to estimate parameter values in the quadratic equation, y = a + bx + cx2. The experimental value determined for the coefficient b provides a direct estimation of the specific activity C. This coefficient, which depends on the ratio of the ranges in the source medium and detector window and not the ranges themselves, is essentially independent of the energy of the alpha particle. Although certain experimental precautions must be taken, this method for estimating the specific activity C is essentially an absolute method that does not require the use of standards, special calibrations, or complicated radiochemical procedures. Applications include the quantitative determination of Rn and progeny in air, water, and charcoal, and the measurement of the alpha activity in soil and on air filter samples. PMID:1995511

Skrable, K W; Phoenix, K A; Chabot, G E; French, C S; Jo, M; Falo, G A

1991-03-01

132

Hygroscopic properties of smoke-generated organic aerosol particles emitted in the marine atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE), a plume of organic aerosol was produced by a smoke generator and emitted into the marine atmosphere from aboard the R/V Point Sur. In this study, the hygroscopic properties and the chemical composition of the plume were studied at plume ages between 0 and 4 h in different meteorological conditions. In sunny conditions, the plume particles had very low hygroscopic growth factors (GFs): between 1.05 and 1.09 for 30 nm and between 1.02 and 1.1 for 150 nm dry size at a relative humidity (RH) of 92%, contrasted by an average marine background GF of 1.6. New particles were produced in large quantities (several 10 000 cm-3), which lead to substantially increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations at supersaturations between 0.07 and 0.88%. Ratios of oxygen to carbon (O : C) and water-soluble organic mass (WSOM) increased with plume age: from < 0.001 to 0.2, and from 2.42 to 4.96 ?g m-3, respectively, while organic mass fractions decreased slightly (~ 0.97 to ~ 0.94). High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) spectra show that the organic fragment m/z 43 was dominated by C2H3O+ in the small, new particle mode and by C3H7+ in the large particle mode. In the marine background aerosol, GFs for 150 nm particles at 40% RH were found to be enhanced at higher organic mass fractions: an average GF of 1.06 was observed for aerosols with an organic mass fraction of 0.53, and a GF of 1.04 for an organic mass fraction of 0.35.

Wonaschtz, A.; Coggon, M.; Sorooshian, A.; Modini, R.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Mlmenstdt, J.; Roberts, G. C.; Russell, L. M.; Dey, S.; Brechtel, F. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.

2013-10-01

133

Destabilization of tokamak pressure-gradient driven instabilities by energetic alpha-particle populations  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on alpha-particle populations that can significantly alter existing magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in tokamaks through kinetic effects and coupling to otherwise stable shear Alfven waves. Resonances of the trapped alpha-particle precessional drift, with the usual ballooning mode diamagnetic frequency ({omega}{sub *i}/2) and the toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmode (TAE), are considered. These are examined for noncircular tokamaks in the high-n ballooning limit using an isotopic alpha-particle slowing down distribution and retaining the full-energy and pitch-angle dispersion in the alpha-particle drift frequency. Applying this to the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) indicates that ballooning instabilities can persist at betas below the ideal MHD threshold. These are especially dominated by the destabilization of the TAE mode. In addition, a hybrid fluid-particle approach for simulating alpha-particle effects on pressure-gradient driven instabilities is described.

Spong, D.A.; Holmes, J.A.; LeBoeuf, J.N.; Christenson, D.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1990-11-01

134

The potential for Cerenkov luminescence imaging of alpha-emitting radionuclides.  

PubMed

Targeted ?-emitting drugs are promising for cancer therapy, but cannot be effectively imaged by conventional techniques. Cerenkov luminescence imaging (CLI) has previously been shown capable of imaging ?(+)- and ?(-)-emitting radionuclides in vivo and could have the potential to image ?-emitters. Cerenkov light production from ?-emitters is through Compton scattering and from farther down the decay chain. This causes the Cerenkov production to vary in time and depend on sample geometry, complicating the interpretation of CLI images. We used the simulation toolkit Geant4 to predict the Cerenkov light output from five ?-emitting radionuclides that have therapeutic potential: (225)Ac, (230)U, (213)Bi, (212)Bi and (212)At. We found that (225)Ac, (213)Bi and (212)Bi produced an order of magnitude more Cerenkov light than (18)F. However, the light from (225)Ac is delayed from the initial decay, possibly decreasing the correlation of the drug and light source. This indicates that CLI will not be helpful in the development of some ?-emitting drugs. PMID:22252144

Ackerman, N L; Graves, E E

2012-02-01

135

Plerosphere and its role in reduction of emitted fine fly ash particles from pulverized coal-fired power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fine particles (PM2.5) emitted from the stacks of the coal-fired power plants are of environmental concern since they can easily enter the human respiratory track. The detailed study of the fly ash particles using scanning electron microscope\\/electron dispersive spectrometry (SEM\\/EDX) show that fine solid spherical particles (microspheres) are contained by the large cenosphere particles (>50?m) during the combustion process. The

F. Goodarzi; H. Sanei

2009-01-01

136

Excitation of high-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes by energetic particles and fusion alpha particles in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

The stability of high-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) in the presence of fusion alpha particles or energetic ions in tokamaks is investigated. The TAE modes are discrete in nature and thus can easily tap the free energy associated with energetic particle pressure gradient through wave particle resonant interaction. A quadratic form is derived for the high-n TAE modes using gyro-kinetic equation. The kinetic effects of energetic particles are calculated perturbatively using the ideal MHD solution as the lowest order eigenfunction. The finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects and the finite drift orbit width (FDW) effects are included for both circulating and trapped energetic particles. It is shown that, for circulating particles, FLR and FDW effects have two opposite influences on the stability of the high-n TAE modes. First, they have the usual stabilizing effects by reducing the wave particle interaction strength. Second, they also have destabilizing effects by allowing more particles to resonate with the TAE modes. It is found that the growth rate induced by the circulating alpha particles increase linearly with toroidal mode number n for small {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}}, and decreases as 1/n for {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} {much_gt} 1. The maximum growth rate is obtained at {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} on the order of unity and is nearly constant for the range of 0.7 < {upsilon}{sub {alpha}}/{upsilon}{sub A} < 2.5. On the other hand, the trapped particle response is dominated by the precessional drift resonance. The bounce resonant contribution is negligible. The growth rate peaks sharply at the value of {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} such that the precessional drift resonance occurs for the most energetic trapped particles. The maximum growth rate due to the energetic trapped particles is comparable to that of circulating particles.

Fu, G.Y.; Cheng, C.Z.

1992-07-01

137

Excitation of high-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes by energetic particles and fusion alpha particles in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

The stability of high-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) in the presence of fusion alpha particles or energetic ions in tokamaks is investigated. The TAE modes are discrete in nature and thus can easily tap the free energy associated with energetic particle pressure gradient through wave particle resonant interaction. A quadratic form is derived for the high-n TAE modes using gyro-kinetic equation. The kinetic effects of energetic particles are calculated perturbatively using the ideal MHD solution as the lowest order eigenfunction. The finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects and the finite drift orbit width (FDW) effects are included for both circulating and trapped energetic particles. It is shown that, for circulating particles, FLR and FDW effects have two opposite influences on the stability of the high-n TAE modes. First, they have the usual stabilizing effects by reducing the wave particle interaction strength. Second, they also have destabilizing effects by allowing more particles to resonate with the TAE modes. It is found that the growth rate induced by the circulating alpha particles increase linearly with toroidal mode number n for small {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}}, and decreases as 1/n for {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} {much gt} 1. The maximum growth rate is obtained at {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} on the order of unity and is nearly constant for the range of 0.7 < {upsilon}{sub {alpha}}/{upsilon}{sub A} < 2.5. On the other hand, the trapped particle response is dominated by the precessional drift resonance. The bounce resonant contribution is negligible. The growth rate peaks sharply at the value of {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} such that the precessional drift resonance occurs for the most energetic trapped particles. The maximum growth rate due to the energetic trapped particles is comparable to that of circulating particles.

Fu, G.Y.; Cheng, C.Z.

1992-07-01

138

Anomalous Loss of DT Alpha Particles in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Princeton's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is the first experimental fusion device to routinely use tritium to study the deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reaction,allowing the first systematic study of DT alpha particles in tokamak plasmas. A crucial aspect of alpha-particle physics is the fraction of alphas that escape from the plasma, particularly since these energetic particles can do severe damage to the first wall of a reactor. An escaping alpha collector probe has been developed for TFTR's DT phase. Energy distributions of escaping alphas have been determined by measuring the range of alpha-particles implanted into nickel foils located within the alpha collector. Results at 1.0 MA of plasma current are in good agreement with predictions for first orbit alpha loss. Results at 1.8 MA, however, show a significant anomalous loss of partially thermalized alphas (in addition to the expected first orbit loss), which is not observed with the lost alpha scintillator detectors in DT plasmas, but does resemble the anomalous "delayed" loss seen in DD plasmas. None of the candidate explanations proposed thus far are fully consistent with the anomalous loss observations. An experiment designed to study the effect of plasma major radius shifts on alpha-particle loss has led to a better understanding of alpha-particle dynamics in tokamaks. Intuitively, one might suppose that confined marginally passing alpha-particles forced to move toward higher magnetic field during an inward major radius shift (i.e. compression) would mirror and become trapped particles, leading to increased alpha loss. Such an effect was looked for during the shift experiment, however, no significant changes in alpha loss to the 90 degree lost alpha scintillator detector were observed during the shifts. It is calculated that the energy gained by an alpha-particle during the inward shift is sufficient to explain this result. However, an unexpected loss of partially thermalized alpha-particles near the passing/trapped boundary was observed to occur between inward and outward shifts at an intermediate value of plasma current (1.4 MA). This anomalous loss feature is not yet understood.

Herrmann, Hans W.

1997-06-01

139

High concentrations of coarse particles emitted from a cattle feeding operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Housing roughly 10 million head of cattle in the United States alone, open air cattle feedlots represent a significant but poorly constrained source of atmospheric particles. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of physical and chemical properties of particles emitted from a large representative cattle feedlot in the Southwest United States. In the summer of 2008, measurements and samplings were conducted at the upwind and downwind edges of the facility. A series of far-field measurements and samplings was also conducted 3.5 km north of the facility. Two instruments, a GRIMM Sequential Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a GRIMM Portable Aerosol Spectrometer (PAS), were used to measure particle size distributions over the range of 0.01 to 25 ?m diameter. Raman microspectroscopy was used to determine the chemical composition of particles on a single particle basis. Volume size distributions of dust were dominated by coarse mode particles. Twenty-four hour averaged concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of 10 ?m or less) were as high as 1200 ?g m-3 during the campaign. The primary constituents of the particulate matter were carbonaceous materials, such as humic acid, water soluble organics, and less soluble fatty acids, including stearic acid and tristearin. A significant fraction of the organic particles was present in internal mixtures with salts. Basic characteristics such as size distribution and composition of agricultural aerosols were found to be different than the properties of those found in urban and semi-urban aerosols. Failing to account for such differences may lead to errors in estimates of aerosol effects on local air quality, visibility, and public health.

Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Gramann, J.; Auvermann, B. W.

2011-08-01

140

Explanation of the Anomalously Small Absorption of alpha Particles in exp 40 Ca Nuclei.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The reduced absorption at lower alpha particle energies (approximately 30 MeV) which is necessary to describe the anomalous large angle scattering of alpha particles from exp 40 Ca nuclei is explained by the angular momentum mismatch between the entrance ...

R. Planeta H. Dabrowski L. Freindl K. Grotowski

1979-01-01

141

A global 2.5-dimensional three fluid solar wind model with alpha particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A global 2.5-dimensional three fluid solar wind model is presented. Two ion species, namely protons and alpha particles, are heated by an empirical energy flux while electrons are heated by the classical heat flux and Coulomb coupling with ions. It is found that for a reasonable relative speed between alpha particles and protons at 1 AU to be achieved, the

Bo Li; Xing Li; Nicolas Labrosse

2006-01-01

142

Analysis and experiment of an alpha particle emitter probe capable of direct air density measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A probe has been tested which can directly measure air densities. The probe uses an alpha-particle emitter (sealed Polonium 210), a surface barrier detector, filter amplifiers and sample\\/hold electronics for signal processing. The measurement of the residual energy of alpha particles directly relates to density of the medium they pass through, provided its composition is known. Optimum performance of such

R. A. Golobic; W. J. Honea

1978-01-01

143

One-Step Acceleration of Deuterons and alpha -Particles at the JINR Synchrophasotron.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problems are considered which are related to one-step acceleration mode of deuterons and alpha -particles at the JINR synchrophasotron. The one-step mode of acceleration of deuteron and alpha -particles has been realized by widening the driving oscill...

A. I. Mikhailov G. P. Puchkov K. V. Chekhlov

1976-01-01

144

Ion Densities and Particle Charges for Alpha Ionization in an Aerosol Atmosphere: Columnar Recombination Corrections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ionization by alpha sources in an environment containing small aerosol particles is of interest in aerosol neutralizes, particle chargers and atmospheric electricity. It is known that the conventional ion-balance equation is inadequate in describing the bulk ion densities for alpha sources in view of the columnar recombination process. An earlier self-consistent formulation to include this effect is extended to the

Y. S. Mayya; W. Hollnder

1995-01-01

145

Hygroscopic properties of organic aerosol particles emitted in the marine atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Eastern Pacific Emitted Aerosol Cloud Experiment (E-PEACE), a plume of organic aerosol was produced and emitted into the marine atmosphere from aboard the research vessel R/V Point Sur. In this study, the hygroscopic properties and the chemical composition of the plume were studied at plume ages between 0 and 4 h in different meteorological conditions. In sunny conditions, hygroscopic growth factors (GFs) at a relative humidity (RH) of 92% were low, but increased at higher plume ages: from 1.05 to 1.09 for 30 nm and from 1.05 to 1.1 for 150 nm dry size (contrasted by an average marine background GF of 1.6). Simultaneously, ratios of oxygen to carbon (O:C) increased from < 0.001 to 0.2, water-soluble organic mass (WSOM) concentrations increased from 2.42 to 4.96 ?g m-3, and organic mass fractions decreased slightly (~ 0.97 to ~ 0.94). New particles were produced in large quantities (several 10 000 cm-3), which lead to substantially increased cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations at supersaturations between 0.07-0.88%. High-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) spectra show that the organic fragment m/z 43 was dominated by C2H3O+ in the small particle mode and by C3H7+ in the large particle mode. In the marine background aerosol, GFs for 150 nm particles at 40% RH were found to be enhanced at higher organic mass fractions. An average GF of 1.06 was observed for aerosols with an organic mass fraction of 0.53, a GF of 1.04 for an organic mass fraction of 0.35.

Wonaschtz, A.; Coggon, M.; Sorooshian, A.; Modini, R.; Frossard, A. A.; Ahlm, L.; Mlmenstdt, J.; Roberts, G. C.; Russell, L. M.; Dey, S.; Brechtel, F. J.; Seinfeld, J. H.

2013-05-01

146

Mitigation of radiation nephropathy after internal {alpha}-particle irradiation of kidneys  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Internal irradiation of kidneys as a consequence of radioimmunotherapy, radiation accidents, or nuclear terrorism can result in radiation nephropathy. We attempted to modify pharmacologically, the functional and morphologic changes in mouse kidneys after injection with the actinium ({sup 225}Ac) nanogenerator, an in vivo generator of {alpha}- and {beta}-particle emitting elements. Methods and Materials: The animals were injected with 0.35 {mu}Ci of the {sup 225}Ac nanogenerator, which delivers a dose of 27.6 Gy to the kidneys. Then, they were randomized to receive captopril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor), L-158,809 (angiotensin II receptor-1 blocker), spironolactone (aldosterone receptor antagonist), or a placebo. Results: Forty weeks after the {sup 225}Ac injection, the placebo-control mice showed a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (87.6 {+-} 6.9 mg/dL), dilated Bowman spaces, and tubulolysis with basement membrane thickening. Captopril treatment accentuated the functional (BUN 119.0 {+-} 4.0 mg/dL; p <0.01 vs. placebo controls) and histopathologic damage. In contrast, L-158,809 offered moderate protection (BUN 66.6 {+-} 3.9 mg/dL; p = 0.02 vs. placebo controls). Spironolactone treatment, however, significantly prevented the development of histopathologic and functional changes (BUN 31.2 {+-} 2.5 mg/dL; p <0.001 vs. placebo controls). Conclusions: Low-dose spironolactone and, to a lesser extent, angiotensin receptor-1 blockade can offer renal protection in a mouse model of internal {alpha}-particle irradiation.

Jaggi, Jaspreet Singh [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Seshan, Surya V. [Department of Pathology, Cornell University Weill Medical College, New York, NY (United States); McDevitt, Michael R. [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Sgouros, George [Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Hyjek, Elizabeth [Department of Pathology, Cornell University Weill Medical College, New York, NY (United States); Scheinberg, David A. [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States) and Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)]. E-mail: d-scheinberg@ski.mskcc.org

2006-04-01

147

Use of /sup 3/He/sup + +/ ICRF minority heating to simulate alpha particle heating  

DOEpatents

It is an object of the present invention to provide a better understanding of alpha particle behavior in a magnetically confined, energetic plasma. Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved means and method for studying and measuring the energy distribution of heated alpha particles in a confined plasma. Yet another object of the present invention is to permit detailed analysis of energetic alpha particle behavior in a magnetically confined plasma for use in near term fusion reactor experiments. A still further object of the present invention is to simulate energetic alpha particle behavior in a deuterium-tritium plasma confined in a fusion reactor without producing the neutron activation associated with the thus produced alpha particles.

Post, D.E. Jr.; Hwang, D.Q.; Hovey, J.

1983-11-16

148

Onboard detection of intrinsic Ly. alpha. radiation from a neutral particle beam  

SciTech Connect

We consider photometers onboard a hydrogen neutral particle beam (NPB) space platform which monitor the instrinsic radiation from excited atoms in the NPB in flight. The radiation of choice is the Lyman {alpha} (Ly{alpha}) line 1216 A, emitted when the beam's {approx equal} 7% fraction of H (2S) atoms is motionally quenched in the earth's magnetic field. At nominal 20-MeV NPB energy, the Ly{alpha} radiation persists at 1% of its initial intensity out to 100 m along the beam, and is red-shifted to 1494 A when viewed form behind the exciting NPB pulse. A photosensitive detector with a {approximately} 5{degree} field of view, placed adjacent to the NPB exit port and viewing the NPB pulse along its limb, shows marked changes in detected Ly{alpha} intensity when the NPB axis shifts direction. If the NPB pulse is nominally 50 MA times 100 {mu}s, and if the detector is a 1-cm{sup 2} array of 25 {mu}m times 25 {mu}m photosensitive pixels located in the focal plane of an 8-cm diam. f/1 LiF lens, then pixels at the brightest part of the beam image are illuminated by up to 2300 Ly{alpha} photons per NPB pulse. The pixel quantum efficiency, optics transmission losses, and a geometric correction for viewing angle reduce the maximum count rate to {approximately} 200 photoelectrons per pixel per pulse under realistic operating conditions, and at a limb-viewing angle (i.e., angle between beam and detector axes) of {approx equal} 6 mrad. At smaller viewing angles the pixels count rate declines rapidly, but rapidly, but becomes sensitive to small angular shifts in the NPB axis direction. In the limit of shot-noise on the pixel count, and at optimum viewing angle ({approx equal} 0.54 mrad), we find that a single pixel can sense beam-axis shifts of {approx equal} {plus minus}50 {mu}rad. 8 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Robiscoe, R.T. (Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (USA). Dept. of Physics); Cobb, D.D.; Maier, W.B. II (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1990-05-01

149

The Rosetta Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) is a small instrument to determine the elemental composition of a given sample. For the ESA Rosetta mission, the periodical comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was selected as the target comet, where the lander PHILAE (after landing) will carry out in-situ observations. One of the instruments onboard is the APXS to make measurements on the landing site. The APXS science goal is to provide basic compositional data of the comet surface. As comets consist of a mixture of ice and dust, the dust component can be characterized and compared with known meteoritic compositions. Various element ratios can be used to evaluate whether chemical fractionations occurred in cometary material by comparing them with known chondritic material. To enable observations of the local environment, APXS measurements of several spots on the surface and one spot as function of temperature can be made. Repetitive measurements as function of heliocentric distance can elucidate thermal processes at work. By measuring samples that were obtained by drilling subsurface material can be analyzed. The accumulated APXS data can be used to shed light on state, evolution, and origin of 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko.

Klingelhfer, G.; Brckner, J.; D'Uston, C.; Gellert, R.; Rieder, R.

2007-02-01

150

Alpha particle detection with GaN Schottky diodes  

SciTech Connect

Ni/GaN Schottky diode radiation detectors were fabricated on 3-mum-thick unintentionally doped n-GaN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and on 12-mum-thick undoped n-GaN layers prepared by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG). The reverse current of all detector structures was <10{sup -9} A for bias voltages necessary for detector operation, with the level of background donor doping of <10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. With this doping level the space charge region of the Schottky diode could be extended to the entire thickness of the films. The charge collection efficiency of the detectors was close to 100% for MOCVD and ELOG detectors for alpha-particles with range comparable to the thickness of the layer. Electrical properties and deep trap spectra were also studied. The collection efficiency decreased when the concentra-tion of deep electron traps, particularly E{sub c}-0.6 eV traps, increased in MBE grown films.

Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Markov, A. V.; Kozhukhova, E. A.; Gazizov, I. M. [Institute of Rare Metals, B. Tolmachevsky 5, Moscow 119017 (Russian Federation); Kolin, N. G.; Merkurisov, D. I.; Boiko, V. M.; Korulin, A. V. [Obninsk Branch of Federal State Unitary Enterprise, Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, Kiev Avenue, Kaluga Region, Obninsk 249033 (Russian Federation); Zalyetin, V. M. [Institute of Physical-Technical Problems, Dubna (Russian Federation); Pearton, S. J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Lee, I.-H. [School of Advanced Materials Engineering and Research Center for Advanced Materials Development, Chonbuk National University, Chonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Dabiran, A. M.; Chow, P. P. [SVT Associates, Inc., 7620 Executive Drive, Eden Prairie, Minnesota 55344 (United States)

2009-11-15

151

Mineralogical residence of alpha-emitting contamination and implications for mobilization from uranium mill tailings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate and magnitude of contaminant release from mill tailings to groundwater are known to depend on the form and mineralogy of the host grains. Using samples from three uranium mill sites in the western United States, we identified four types of ?-emitting host grains those containing barium?strontium sulfates, authigenic siliceous material, uranium minerals, and iron?titanium?vanadium oxides. These four grain types constitute scheme for the tailings. Each milling process (acid or alkaline) produces distinct types of grains. In acid-milled tailings, such as those at Slick Rock, Colorado, the dominant source of ? emissions is from barium?strontium sulfate. The barium-to-strontium ratio covers the entire solid-solution range between barite and celestine. In alkaline-milled tailings, ? emissions come predominantly from siliceous composite grains, which are interpreted as grains from the mill feed that have been altered during milling. In the siliceous composite grains, radionuclides are encased by siliceous material resembling chalcedony. Other ?-emitting grains appear to be unrelated to milling; some uranium minerals and iron?titanium?vanadium oxides appear to have passed through the milling process relatively unaltered. The classification scheme identified in this study reflects the geochemical reactivity of the tailings with groundwater. Our findings can be used to improve confidence levels when predicting; (1) source loading to a groundwater system; (2) health effects from inhaled radioactive dust; and (3) long-term performance of uranium tailings containment cells.

Morrison, Stan J.; Cahn, Lorie S.

1991-09-01

152

Microscopic study of 4{alpha}-particle condensation with inclusion of resonances  

SciTech Connect

The 4{alpha} condensate state for {sup 16}O is discussed with the Tohsaki-Horiuchi-Schuck-Roepke (THSR) wave function which has {alpha}-particle condensate character. With a treatment of resonances, it is found that the 4{alpha} THSR wave function yields a fourth 0{sup +} state in the continuum above the 4{alpha}-breakup threshold, in addition to the three 0{sup +} states obtained in a previous analysis. It is shown that this fourth 0{sup +} [(0{sub 4}{sup +}){sub THSR}] state has a structure analogous to that of the Hoyle state because it has a very dilute density and a large component of {alpha}+{sup 12}C(0{sub 2}{sup +}) configuration. Furthermore, single-{alpha} motions are extracted from the microscopic 16-nucleon wave function, and the condensate fraction and momentum distribution of {alpha} particles are quantitatively discussed. It is found that for the (0{sub 4}{sup +}){sub THSR} state a large {alpha}-particle occupation probability concentrates on a single-{alpha} 0S orbit and the {alpha}-particle momentum distribution has a {delta}-function-like peak at zero momentum, both indicating that the state has a strong 4{alpha} condensate character. It is argued that the (0{sub 4}{sup +}){sub THSR} state is the counterpart of the 0{sub 6}{sup +} state which was obtained as the 4{alpha} condensate state in the previous 4{alpha} orthogonality condition model calculation and therefore is likely to correspond to the 0{sub 6}{sup +} state observed at 15.1 MeV. The necessity of including {alpha}+{sup 12}C configurations in the THSR wave function is pointed out.

Funaki, Y. [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8571 (Japan); Yamada, T. [Laboratory of Physics, Kanto Gakuin University, Yokohama 236-8501 (Japan); Tohsaki, A. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Horiuchi, H. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); International Institute for Advanced Studies, Kizugawa 619-0225 (Japan); Roepke, G. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Schuck, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS, UMR 8608, Orsay F-91406 (France); Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay F-91505 (France); Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Milieux Condenses, CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, 25 Av. des Martyrs, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

2010-08-15

153

Chemical characterization of soot particles emitted by Wood-Burning Cook Stoves: A XPS and HRTEM study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, and electronic structure of soot particles emitted directly from biofuel cook stoves have been studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In order to obtain freshly emitted soot particles, copper grids for Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were placed on the last two of an 8-stages MOUDI cascade impactor. The analysis of HRTEM micrographs revealed the nanostructure and the particle size of soot chain. Additionally, the morphology of soot particles was analyzed calculating the border-based fractal dimension (Df). Particles sampled on the first heating stage exhibit complex shapes with high values of Df, which are present as aggregates formed by carbon ceno-spheres. The XPS survey spectrum for soot particles shows that the main particle composition is carbon. We also observed differences in the carbon/oxygen (C/O) ratio of the particles, which probably depends on the combustion process efficiency of each cook-stove analyzed. The XPS C-1s spectra show carbon with two peaks that correspond to sp2 and sp3 hybridization. Also, real-time absorption (?a) and scattering (?s) coefficients of the particles emitted by cook stoves were measured. The trend in ?a and ?s indicate that the cooking process has two important combustion stages which varied in its flaming strength, being vigorous in the first stage and soft in the second one.

Carabali, Giovanni; Peralta, Oscar; Castro, Telma; Torres, Ricardo; Ruiz, Gerardo; Molina, Luisa; Saavedra, Isabel

2014-05-01

154

A model to predict the breathing zone concentrations of particles emitted from surfaces.  

PubMed

Activity based sampling (ABS) is typically performed to assess inhalation exposure to particulate contaminants known to have low, heterogeneous concentrations on a surface. Activity based sampling determines the contaminant concentration in a person's breathing zone as they perform a scripted activity, such as raking a specified area of soil, while wearing appropriate sample collection instrumentation. As an alternative approach, a probabilistic model based on aerosol physics and fluid dynamics was developed to predict the breathing zone concentration of a particulate contaminant emitted from a surface during activities of variable intensity. The model predicted the particle emission rate, tracked particle transport to the breathing zone, and calculated the breathing zone concentration for two scenarios. One scenario used an Eulerian model based on a Gaussian concentration distribution to quantify aerosol exposure in the trailing wake of a moving object. The second scenario modeled exposure in a quiescent environment. A Lagrangian model tracked the cumulative number of individual particles entering the breathing zone volume at a particular time. A Monte Carlo simulation calculated the breathing zone concentration probability distribution for each scenario. Both models predicted probability distributions of asbestos breathing zone concentrations that bracketed experimentally measured personal exposure concentrations. Modeled breathing zone concentrations were statistically correlated (p-value < 0.001) with independently collected ABS concentrations. The linear regression slope of 0.70 and intercept of 0.03 were influenced by the quantity of ABS data collected and model parameter input distributions at a site broader than those at other sites. PMID:20383380

Thornburg, Jonathan; Kominsky, John; Brown, G Gordon; Frechtel, Peter; Barrett, William; Shaul, Glenn

2010-04-01

155

Biocompatibility enhancement of chemically etched CR39 SSNTDs through superficial pore formation by alpha-particle irradiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha-particle radiobiological experiments involve irradiating cells with alpha particles and require thin biocompatible materials as substrates for cell cultures, which can record alpha-particle transversals. CR-39 SSNTDs with a thickness of about 20?m are suitable substrates. In the present work, the biocompatibility enhancement of these thin CR-39 SSNTDs is studied through superficial pore formation by alpha-particle irradiation. HeLa cells were cultured

C. K. M. Ng; K. F. Chan; W. Y. Li; A. K. W. Tse; W. F. Fong; T. Cheung; K. N. Yu

2008-01-01

156

Alpha-particle effects on high-n instabilities in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

Hot ..cap alpha..-particles and thermalized helium ash particles in tokamaks can have significant effects on high toroidal mode number instabilities such as the trapped-electron drift mode and the kinetically calculated magnetohydrodynamic ballooning mode. In particular, the effects can be stabilizing, destabilizing, or negligible, depending on the parameters involved. In high-temperature tokamaks capable of producing significant numbers of hot ..cap alpha..-particles, the predominant interaction of the mode with the ..cap alpha..-particles is through resonances of various sorts. In turn, the modes can cause significant anomalous transport of the ..cap alpha..-particles and the helium ash. Here, results of comprehensive linear eigenfrequency-eigenfunction calculations are presented for relevant realistic cases to show these effects. 24 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

Rewoldt, G.

1988-06-01

157

Measurements of alpha particle energy using nuclear tracks in solids methodology.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a method for the measurement of alpha particle energy using polycarbonate materials as nuclear track detectors (NTDs). This method is based on the interaction of the radiation with the solid-state materials, using the relationship between the energy deposited in the material by the ionising particle and the track developed after an established chemical process. The determination of the geometrical parameters of the formed track, such as major axis, minor axis and overall track length, permit determination of the energy of the alpha particle. The track analysis is performed automatically using a digital image system, and the data are processed in a PC with commercial software. In this experiment 148Gd, 238U, 230Th, 239Pu and 244Cm alpha particle emitters were used. The values for alpha particle energy resolution, the linear response to energy, the confidence in the results and the automatisation of the procedure make this method a promising analysis system. PMID:12382812

Espinosa, G; Amero, C; Gammage, R B

2002-01-01

158

Alpha particles in field-aligned beams upstream of the bow shock - Simulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility that field-aligned ion beams (FABs) formed by direct reflection could contain alpha particles is studied using self-consistent hybrid simulations of an oblique collisionless, supercritical shock. It is found that alpha particles can backstream from a shock in which the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetic field is 45 degrees. The deficit of alpha particles in the FABs, expressed as a relative density ratio to H(+) normalized to the solar wind He(2+) to H(+) density ratio, varies between about 0.1 and less than 0.01 and depends on the upstream H(+) and He(2+) temperatures.

Burgess, D.

1989-01-01

159

The interaction of energetic alpha-particles with intense lower hybrid waves  

SciTech Connect

Lower hybrid waves are a demonstrated, continuous means of driving toroidal current in a tokamak. When these waves propagate in a tokamak fusion reactor, in which there are energetic {alpha}- particles, there are conditions under which the {alpha}-particles do not appreciably damp, and may even amplify, the wave, thereby enhancing the current-drive effect. Waves traveling in one poloidal direction, in addition to being directed in one toroidal direction, are shown to be the most efficient drivers of current in the presence of the energetic {alpha}-particles.

Fisch, N.J.; Rax, J.M.

1992-06-01

160

WIND measurements of proton and alpha particle flow and number density  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose to review measurements of the solar wind proton and alpha particle flow velocities and densities made since launch with the WIND SWE instrument. The SWE Faraday cup ion sensors are designed to be able to determine accurately flow vector directions, and thus can be used to detect proton-alpha particle differential flow. Instances of differential flow, and the solar wind features with which they are associated will be discussed. Additionally, the variability of the percentage of alpha particles as a fraction of the total solar wind ion density will be presented.

Steinberg, J. T.; Lazarus, A. J.; Ogilvie, J. T.; Lepping, R.; Byrnes, J.; Chornay, D.; Keller, J.; Torbert, R. B.; Bodet, D.; Needell, G. J.

1995-01-01

161

Detection and localization of particle-emitting sources with compound-eye inspired detector arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop methods to detect and localize particle-emitting sources using detector arrays that are inspired by biological compound eyes. The sources of interest may be optical, nuclear, or cosmic; they emit particles such as visible photons, neutrons, protons, or charged particles. Our results may have wide applications to artificial vision, which can be important in robotics (robot vision) or medicine (e.g., artificial eyes for the blind); security, where the detection of nuclear materials is needed; or astronomy. This dissertation consists of three parts. First, we detect a far-field particle source using two directional detector arrays: cubic and spherical. We propose a mean-difference test (MDT) detector, analyze its statistical performance, and show that the MDT has a number of advantages over the generalized likelihood- ratio test (GLRT). Second, we localize the source by proposing a novel biologically inspired detector array, whose configuration generalizes the compound eye of insects. This array combines the advantages of compound eyes (e.g., large field-of-view) and human eyes (e.g., high angular resolution). Based on a statistical model of the array measurements, we analyze the array performance by computing the Cramrao bound (CRB) on the error in estimating the source direction. We also derive lower bounds on the mean-square angular error (MSAE) of the source localization and investigate the MSAE of two source- direction estimators. Numerical examples, including the optimal array design, are presented to further illustrate the array performance. Third, we derive a statistical angular resolution limit (ARL) on resolving two closely spaced point sources in a three-dimensional frame, which is applicable to various measurement models (e.g., radar, sonar, or astronomy). Using the asymptotic analysis of the GLRT, we derive the ARL with constraints on the probabilities of false alarm and detection. Our results give explicit analytical expression for the ARL that is proportional to the square root of the CRB on the angular source separation, or equivalently to the lower bound on the MSAE.

Liu, Zhi

2007-08-01

162

The continuum and the alpha-particle formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absolute alpha-decay width of 212Po is calculated within a harmonic oscillator representation. Clustering features induced by the nuclear interaction appear by considering a large configuration space. The role of the neutronproton interaction is analysed and a reasonable account of the experimental alpha-decay width is given.

Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic; F. A. Janouch; R. J. Liotta; Zhao Xiaolin

1988-01-01

163

Rapid screening and analysis of alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides in liquids using a single sample preparation procedure.  

PubMed

A multifaceted radiochemical testing procedure has been developed to analyze a large number of liquid samples and measure a wide range of radionuclides in a short period of time. This method involves a single, unique and fast sample preparation procedure and allows sequential/concurrent determination of analytes with accuracy and precision. The same prepared sample can be selectively analyzed by gross alpha counting, gamma-ray spectroscopy, and alpha spectroscopy. This method is especially attractive in radiological emergency events where analytical data will be needed urgently as a basis for protective action. Given the simplicity and rapidity of the method, it may be suitable for field portable laboratories, which could save time and the cost associated with the transit of samples to a fixed laboratory. A 100 mL aliquot of sample was spiked with Ba and ??Fe tracers and subjected to a chemical separation procedure using a combined BaSO4 and Fe(OH)3 co-precipitation scheme. Then, the gross alpha-particle activity of the prepared sample was measured with a low-background gas-proportional counter, followed by the analysis of its photon-emitters using a gamma-ray spectroscopy system with high-purity intrinsic Ge detectors. Gamma-ray determination of Ba and ??Fe tracers was used to assess the chemical recoveries of BaSO4 and Fe(OH)3 fractions, respectively. Selectivity of the radionuclides for co-precipitation with either BaSO4 or Fe(OH)3 components was also investigated. Alpha mass-efficiency curves were derived using ?Th and ?Am standards as alpha-calibration sources. Various mixtures of radionuclides, including ??Mn, ??Co, ??Co, ??Sr, ??Y, ??Cd, Sn, ?Cs, ?Ce, ?Hg, ??Po, ?Ra, ?Ra, ?Th, ?Am, and natural uranium were used in this study. Most were quantitatively assayed with high chemical recoveries. Alpha-isotope identification and assessment of the prepared sample was achieved by alpha spectroscopy using passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detectors. It has been shown that fission products could potentially be captured and analyzed by this method. PMID:21399430

Parsa, Bahman; Henitz, James B; Carter, Jennifer A

2011-02-01

164

Chemical characteristics of fine particles emitted from different gas cooking methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas cooking is an important indoor source of fine particles (PM 2.5). The chemical characteristics of PM 2.5 emitted from different cooking methods, namely, steaming, boiling, stir-frying, pan-frying and deep-frying were investigated in a domestic kitchen. Controlled experiments were conducted to measure the mass concentration of PM 2.5 and its chemical constituents (elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), metals and ions) arising from these five cooking methods. To investigate the difference in particle properties of different cooking emissions, the amount and type of food, and the heat setting on the gas stove were kept constant during the entire course of the experiments. Results showed that deep-frying gave rise to the largest amount of PM 2.5 and most chemical components, followed by pan-frying, stir-frying, boiling, and steaming. Oil-based cooking methods released more organic pollutants (OC, PAHs, and organic ions) and metals, while water-based cooking methods accounted for more water-soluble (WS) ions. Their source profiles are also presented and discussed.

See, Siao Wei; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

165

CIT alpha particle extraction and measurement: Low-Z ablation cloud profile simulation for alpha-particle diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

In order to determine the expected properties of the ablation cloud of low-Z pellets interacting with a thermonuclear plasma, which in turn is proposed as a charge-neutralization medium for confined alpha particles, a numerical program has been developed. The physical model for this program is based on Parks' low-Z pellet-plasma interaction model for the interior of the cloud adjacent to the pellet's surface out to the sonic surface (roughly, a millimeter in separation) and then propagating outward from this region using the conservation laws of enthalpy, momentum, and mass, along with the assumption of charge-state equilibrium. The effects of local heating by the plasma electrons slowing down in the cloud, and ionization of the ablatant material are treated self-consistently in the model. In collaboration with Dr. Paul Parks of General Atomics Corporation, a joint ODU-GAC research plan for modeling low-Z pellet-plasma interactions has been devised, and considerable progress has been made in its implementation. Recently, using a constraint in the ablatant flow, results from the program were obtained which could be compared with the results from the GAC experiments on TEXT. The predictions of the program are in pretty good agreement with the TEXT data as to the dimensions of the C{sup +3} region of the cloud along the magnetic field. Also a small improvement has been made in the low-Z pellet plasma-penetration program, which brings the predictions of the model in closer agreement with the carbon pellet injection experiments on TFTR. 22 refs., 3 figs.

Gerdin, G.; Vahala, L.; El Cashlan, A.G.

1990-01-01

166

Some Calculations for exp 12 C in the alpha Particle Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The exp 12 C nucleus as three finite structurelesse alpha particles interacting through phenomenological potentials due to Ali and Bodmer is represented. These potentials are angular-momentum dependent and reproduce the experimental phase shifts delta sub...

V. C. Aguilera-Navarro O. Portilho

1976-01-01

167

Oncogenic Transformation of Mammalian Cells by Ultrasoft X-Rays and Alpha Particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a better understanding of oncogenic cell transformation by ionizing radiation, we conducted experiments with ultrasoft X rays and low energy alpha particles. Confluent C3HlOTl/2 cells were irradiated by Al-K (1.5 keV) X rays or alpha particles from plutonium through a thin mylar sheet, on which the cells attached and grew. Our results indicated that Al-K X rays were more effective in causing cell inactivation and oncogenic transformation than 60Co gamma rays but less effective than 1.0 and 3.7 MeV alpha particles. There was no significant difference between 1.0 and 3.7 MeV alpha particles in transforming cells although the latter were slightly more effective than the former in producing lethal effect. These results indicated that track structure is important in causing biological effects by ionizing radiation

Yang, T. C.; Craise, L. M.; Raju, M. R.

168

CONCERNING THE MULTIPLE-WIRE SPARK COUNTER FOR ALPHA-PARTICLE DETECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A guard-wire type of multiple-wire spark counter for alpha-particle ; detection is designed and its operating characteristics studied. It appears that ; its counting properties approach those of the multiple wire-cavity spark counter. ; (auth);

G. Singh; N. K. Saha

1963-01-01

169

Thermoluminescence and Coloration of Lithium Fluoride Produced by Alpha Particles, Electrons, Gamma Rays, and Neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coloration and thermoluminescence produced in LiF by 2 Mev alpha particles, by 2 Mev electrons, by 1 Mev gamma rays from Co60, and by thermal neutrons are described. The energy initially required to produce an F center varies. It is about 700 ev for alpha, 140 ev for beta, 65 ev for gamma rays, and 65 ev for thermal

Frederick F. Morehead; Farrington Daniels

1957-01-01

170

Modification of alpha-particle emission spectrum in beam-injected deuterium-tritium plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The alpha ({alpha})-particle and neutron emission spectra in a deuterium-tritium plasma accompanied with neutral-beam-injection (NBI) heating are evaluated in a consistent way by solving the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equations for deuteron, triton, and {alpha}-particle simultaneously. It is shown that owing to the existence of non-Maxwellian tail component in fuel-ion distribution function due to NBI and/or nuclear elastic scattering, the generation rate of the energetic ({>=}4 MeV) {alpha}-particle increases significantly. When 20 MW intense deuterium beam with 1 MeV beam-injection energy is injected into an 800 m{sup 3} plasma (T{sub e}=10 keV, n{sub e}=6.2x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}), the enhancement of the fraction of the power carried by {alpha}-particles with energy above 4 (3.9) MeV to total {alpha}-particle power is almost twice (1.5 times) as much from the value for Gaussian distribution. A verification scenario for the modification of the emission spectrum by using the gamma ({gamma})-ray-generating {sup 9}Be({alpha},n{gamma}){sup 12}C reaction is also presented.

Matsuura, H.; Nakao, Y. [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

2009-04-15

171

LIMITS ON ALPHA PARTICLE TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY AND DIFFERENTIAL FLOW FROM KINETIC INSTABILITIES: SOLAR WIND OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have shown that the observed temperature anisotropies of protons and alpha particles in the solar wind are constrained by theoretical thresholds for pressure and anisotropy driven instabilities such as the Alfvn/ion-cyclotron (A/IC) and fast-magnetosonic/whistler (FM/W) instabilities. In this Letter, we use a long period of in situ measurements provided by the Wind spacecraft's Faraday cups to investigate the combined constraint on the alpha proton differential flow velocity and the alpha particle temperature anisotropy due to A/IC and FM/W instabilities. We show that the majority of the data are constrained to lie within the region of parameter space in which A/IC and FM/W waves are either stable or have extremely low growth rates. In the minority of observed cases in which the growth rate of the A/IC (FM/W) instability is comparatively large, we find relatively higher values of T {sub ?}/T {sub p} (T {sub ??}/T {sub ?p}) when the alpha proton differential flow velocity is small, where T {sub ?} and T {sub p} (T {sub ??} and T {sub ?p}) are the perpendicular (parallel) temperatures of alpha particles and protons. We conjecture that this observed feature might arise from preferential alpha particle heating which can drive the alpha particles beyond the instability thresholds.

Bourouaine, Sofiane; Verscharen, Daniel; Chandran, Benjamin D. G. [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)] [Space Science Center, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Maruca, Bennett A. [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)] [Space Science Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kasper, Justin C., E-mail: s.bourouaine@unh.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

2013-11-01

172

{alpha}-particle optical potentials for nuclear astrophysics (NA) and nuclear technology (NT)  

SciTech Connect

The high precision of recent measurements for low-energy {alpha}-particle elastic-scattering as well as induced-reaction data makes possible the understanding of actual limits and possible improvement of the global optical model potentials parameters. Involvement of recent optical potentials for reliable description of both the elastic scattering and emission of {alpha}-particles, of equal interest for nuclear astrophysics (NA) and nuclear technology (NT) for fusion devices, is discussed in the present work.

Avrigeanu, V.; Avrigeanu, M. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, POBox MG-6, 077125 Magurele, Ilfov (Romania)

2012-11-20

173

Relative Yields of Ions Produced by alpha-Particles in Air and Water Vapour  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN continuation1 of the examination of the radiological properties of water, the yield of ion-pairs in water vapour under the action of alpha-particles has been compared with the yield in air. A sector-shaped parallel-plate ionization chamber containing either water vapour at 95 C. or air has been exposed to a semi-collimated beam of 5.0-MeV. alpha-particles derived from a polonium source.

R. K. Appleyard

1949-01-01

174

Isomeric yield ratios in proton-, 3-, and alpha-particle-induced reactions on 197Au  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excitation functions and mean projected recoil-ion ranges of the isomeric nuclei produced in proton-, 3-, and alpha-particle-induced reactions on 197Au were measured by an activation technique for bombarding energies Ep<~50 MeV, and E 3He, alpha<~40 MeV. Isomeric yield ratios (sigmam\\/sigmag) were determined as a function of the incident particle energy. The experimental excitation functions and isomeric yield ratios were compared

Y. Nagame; K. Sueki; S. Baba; H. Nakahara

1990-01-01

175

Effect of inhaled alpha-emitting nuclides on mouse alveolar macrophages  

SciTech Connect

The effects of inhaled alpha emitters on the free cell population of the mouse lung were investigated up to 100 days after exposure. Groups of mice inhaled aerosols of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}, {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}, or {sup 241}Am(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} to give alveolar deposits resulting in lung-averaged cumulative absorbed doses of about 20 Gy by the end of the study. Initially, with {sup 238}Pu most of the activity was associated with relatively few pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM), whereas with {sup 241}Am, all pulmonary alveolar macrophages were labeled and a substantial fraction was extracellular. The free cell population of the lung was sampled using bronchoalveolar lavage. The main parameters investigated were (a) the recovery and total numbers of free cells, including PAM, lymphocytes, and neutrophils; (b) the incidence of nuclear abnormalities in PAM (cells with more than one nucleus or with micronuclei); and (c) metabolic activation of PAM from measurements of their size and associated beta-glucuronidase activity. All three actinides produced depletions in total numbers of PAM, increased incidences of nuclear abnormalities, and metabolic activation of PAM, without a marked infiltration of inflammatory cells. Americium-241, which is distributed relatively uniformly in PAM, produced the most marked changes in that population and {sup 238}Pu, which gave the most inhomogeneous distribution of activity, produced the least.

Talbot, R.J.; Nicholls, L.; Morgan, A.; Moores, S.R. (Harwell Laboratory, Oxfordshire (England))

1989-08-01

176

On resonant excitations of high-n magnetohydrodynamic modes by energetic/alpha particles in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

Analytical theories for the excitations in tokamaks of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with large toroidal mode numbers (n>>1) are presented. Specifically, only instability mechanisms due to resonances with energetic ions/alpha particles are considered. It is noted that, while trapped energetic particles contribute to the ideal region, circulating energetic particles contribute mainly to the singular layer dynamics. A unified dispersion relation manifesting both fishbone-like modes and beam transit-resonance modes is then driven. Finally, we also analyze the stability property of toroidicity-induced shear Alfven waves excited via transit resonances with alpha particles in ignited tokamaks. 11 refs.

Chen, Liu

1989-03-01

177

Die Bonding for a Nitride Light-Emitting Diode by Low-Temperature Sintering of Micrometer Size Silver Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Die-bonding for a nitride light-emitting diode (LED) by sintering of micrometer size Ag particles in air at 200C was investigated. Micrometer size Ag particles absorb oxygen remarkably well at 200C and above, and on sintering, they form a porous layer. The activating temperature of the sintering is in good agreement with the oxygen adsorption temperature. Sintering does not progress in

Masafumi Kuramoto; Satoru Ogawa; Miki Niwa; Keun-Soo Kim; Katsuaki Suganuma

2010-01-01

178

Antiandrogenic activity of extracts of diesel exhaust particles emitted from diesel-engine truck under different engine loads and speeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

To clarify the alteration of androgenic and antiandrogenic activities by diesel engine conditions, we collected diesel exhaust particles (DEP) samples emitted from a diesel-engine truck under different conditions of engine loads and vehicle speeds, and DEP extract (DEPE) samples were prepared from each. The androgenic and antiandrogenic activities of the DEPE samples were examined using a prostate specific antigen (PSA)

Kazumasa Okamura; Ryoichi Kizu; Akira Toriba; Tsuyoshi Murahashi; Atsushi Mizokami; Kerry L. Burnstein; Carolyn M. Klinge; Kazuichi Hayakawa

2004-01-01

179

Evolution of the distribution of charged particles emitted from the surface of a sphere in a magnetic dipole field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time evolution of the distribution of charged particles emitted by the surface of a sphere in the field of a point magnetic dipole is studied for the case of a uniform, nonsteady surface distribution function along longitude lines. The evolution of the distribution function at an arbitrary point in the field is determined in a drift approximation. Explicit expressions

E. K. Kolesnikov; A. I. Solovianov

1974-01-01

180

Investigation of the reactions {alpha}p {yields} tpp and {alpha}p {yields} {tau}pn induced by 2.7-GeV/c {alpha} particles  

SciTech Connect

The underlying mechanisms of the reactions {alpha}p {yields} tpp and {alpha}p {yields} {tau}pn are studied. Data from the ITEP two-meter bubble chamber filled with liquid hydrogen and irradiated by a 2.7-GeV/c separated {alpha}-particle beam are analyzed. The total cross sections for the two reactions are estimated at 20.7 {plus_minus} 0.4 and 34.4 {plus_minus} 0.4 mb, respectively. The phase-space domains in which quasifree scattering and final-state interactions play leading roles are isolated. The angular, momentum, and invariant-mass distributions of secondary particles are a obtained over the entire allowed kinematic range. In the region of quasifree scattering, the data are compared with the pole-model predictions. 25 refs., 8 figs.

Blinov, A.V.; Grechko, V.E.; Zombkovsky, S.M. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

1995-10-01

181

Size distribution, chemical composition, and hygroscopicity of fine particles emitted from an oil-fired heating plant.  

PubMed

Heavy fuel oil (HFO) is a commonly used fuel in industrial heating and power generation and for large marine vessels. In this study, the fine particle emissions of a 47 MW oil-fired boiler were studied at 30 MW power and with three different fuels. The studied fuels were HFO, water emulsion of HFO, and water emulsion of HFO mixed with light fuel oil (LFO). With all the fuels, the boiler emitted considerable amounts of particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Further, these small particles were quite hygroscopic even as fresh and, in the case of HFO+LFO emulsion, the hygroscopic growth of the particles was dependent on particle size. The use of emulsions and the addition of LFO to the fuel had a reducing effect on the hygroscopic growth of particles. The use of emulsions lowered the sulfate content of the smallest particles but did not affect significantly the sulfate content of particles larger than 42 nm and, further, the addition of LFO considerably increased the black carbon content of particulate matter. The results indicate that even the fine particles emitted from HFO based combustion can have a significant effect on cloud formation, visibility, and air quality. PMID:24245691

Happonen, Matti; Myllri, Fanni; Karjalainen, Panu; Frey, Anna; Saarikoski, Sanna; Carbone, Samara; Hillamo, Risto; Pirjola, Liisa; Hyrinen, Anna; Kytmki, Jorma; Niemi, Jarkko V; Keskinen, Jorma; Rnkk, Topi

2013-12-17

182

Bose-Einstein condensation of {alpha} particles and Airy structure in nuclear rainbow scattering  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the dilute density distribution of {alpha} particles in nuclei can be observed in the Airy structure in nuclear rainbow scattering. We have analyzed {alpha}+{sup 12}C rainbow scattering to the 0{sub 2}{sup +} (7.65 MeV) state of {sup 12}C in a coupled-channel method with the precise wave functions for {sup 12}C. It is found that the enhanced Airy oscillations in the experimental angular distributions for the 0{sub 2}{sup +} state is caused by the dilute density distribution of this state in agreement for the idea of Bose-Einstein condensation of the three alpha particles.

Ohkubo, S. [Department of Applied Science and Environment, Kochi Women's University, Kochi 780-8515 (Japan); Hirabayashi, Y. [Information Initiative Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

2004-10-01

183

Quantitative determination of superficial alpha activity by means of plastic track detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influences of alpha particles' energy and angle of incidence on the readout obtained from cellulose nitrate plastic track detectors, exposed to materials emitting alpha particles, have been studied as a function of etching time. Simple detection equipment has been developed to allow precision measurement of superficial alpha activity. The technique has been applied to determine the air concentration of an alpha emitting suspended paniculate, after deposition onto Millipore filters.

Cecchi, Alfredo; Gori, Cesare; Zatelli, Giovanna

1986-06-01

184

Peroxidation of the dried thin film of lipid by high-energy alpha particles from a cyclotron  

SciTech Connect

High-energy ..cap alpha.. particles produced a dose-dependent linear increase in different lipid peroxidation products (e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes, and hydroperoxides) in the dried thin film state. An inverse dose-rate effect was observed when the dose rate was varied by changing either the ..cap alpha..-particle fluence rate or the ..cap alpha..-particle energy. The antioxidants ..cap alpha..-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) suppressed the ..cap alpha..-particle-induced lipid peroxidation in the dried thin film state, and in this respect ..cap alpha..-tocopherol was found superior to BHT. It was found that ..cap alpha..-tocopherol was equally efficient in inhibiting lipid peroxidations by ..cap alpha.. particles and ultraviolet light.

Agarwal, S.; Chatterjee, S.N.

1984-11-01

185

Influence of cell position relative to planar alpha-particle sources on survival and preneoplastic transformation of primary rat tracheal epithelial cells  

SciTech Connect

Rat tracheal epithelial cells exposed directly on planar {sup 210}Po sources exhibited exponential cell killing; however, no significant increase in induction of preneoplastic transformation was observed over a range of {alpha}-particle fluences (0.017-0.050 {mu}m{sup {minus}2}). In contrast, up to 10-fold increases in frequencies of preneoplastic transformants, above control levels, were observed after exposure of rat tracheal epithelial cells to similar {alpha}-particle fluences on {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am sources. Two alternative hypotheses are evaluated as an explanation for this apparent difference in the biological effect of {alpha} particles emitted from different sources: (a) possible interactions between effects produced by {alpha} particles and by low-energy photons, which occur with {sup 238}Pu and {sup 241}Am but not with {sup 210}Po; and (b) the influence of spatial relationships between exposed cells and the surface of the planar source. The data suggest that the cell-to-source spatial relationships affect both survival and transformation markedly. 29 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Terzaghi-Howe, M.; Turner, J.E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States); Ford, J.R. [Medical Research Council, Oxon (United Kingdom)

1996-04-01

186

Evolution of trace gases and particles emitted by a chaparral fire in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biomass burning (BB) is a major global source of trace gases and particles. Accurately representing the production and evolution of these emissions is an important goal for atmospheric chemical transport models. We measured a suite of gases and aerosols emitted from an 81 ha prescribed fire in chaparral fuels on the central coast of California, US on 17 November 2009. We also measured post-emission chemical changes in the isolated downwind plume for ~4 h of smoke aging. The measurements were carried out on board a Twin Otter aircraft outfitted with an airborne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (AFTIR), aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), single particle soot photometer (SP2), nephelometer, LiCor CO2 analyzer, a chemiluminescence ozone instrument, and a wing-mounted meteorological probe. Our measurements included: CO2; CO; NOx; NH3; non-methane organic compounds; organic aerosol (OA); inorganic aerosol (nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, and chloride); aerosol light scattering; refractory black carbon (rBC); and ambient temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, and three-dimensional wind velocity. The molar ratio of excess O3 to excess CO in the plume (?O3/?CO) increased from -0.005 to 0.102 in 4.5 h. Excess acetic and formic acid (normalized to excess CO) increased by factors of 1.7 0.4 and 7.3 3.0 (respectively) over the same aging period. Based on the rapid decay of C2H4 we infer an in-plume average OH concentration of 5.3 (1.0) 106 molecules cm-3, consistent with previous studies showing elevated OH concentrations in biomass burning plumes. Ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate all increased with plume aging. The observed ammonium increase was a factor of 3.9 2.6 in about 4 h, but accounted for just ~36 % of the gaseous ammonia lost on a molar basis. Some of the gas phase NH3 loss may have been due to condensation on, or formation of, particles below the AMS detection range. NOx was converted to PAN and particle nitrate with PAN production being about two times greater than production of observable nitrate over a 4 h aging period. The excess aerosol light scattering in the plume (normalized to excess CO2) increased by a factor of 2.3 0.7 over 4 h. The increase in light scattering was similar to that observed in an earlier study of a biomass burning plume in Mexico where significant secondary formation of OA closely tracked the increase in scattering. In the California plume, however, ?OA/?CO2 decreased sharply for the first hour and then increased slowly with a net decrease of ~24 % over 4 h. The fraction of thickly coated rBC particles increased almost twofold over the 4 h aging period. Decreasing OA accompanied by increased scattering/coating in the initial aging may be due to a combination of particle coagulation and evaporation processes. Recondensation of species initially evaporated from the particles may have contributed to the subsequent slow rise in OA. We compare our results to observations from other plume aging studies and suggest that differences in environmental factors such as smoke concentration, oxidant concentration, actinic flux, and RH contribute significantly to the variation in plume evolution observations.

Akagi, S. K.; Craven, J. S.; Taylor, J. W.; McMeeking, G. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Urbanski, S. P.; Wold, C. E.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Coe, H.; Alvarado, M. J.; Weise, D. R.

2011-08-01

187

Monte Carlo Calculations of Suprathermal Alpha Particles Trajectories in the Rippled Field of TFTR  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the transport of suprathermal alpha particles and their energy deposition into electrons, deuterons, tritons and carbon-12 impurity in the rippled field of TFTR. The Monte Carlo code (Punjabi A., Boozer A., Lam M., Kim M., and Burke K., J. Plasma Phys.), 44, 405 (1990) developed by Punjabi and Boozer for the transport of plasma particles due to MHD

Alkesh Punjabi; Maria Lam; Allen Boozer

1996-01-01

188

Variation of the track etch rates of alpha-particle trajectory in PADC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of etched tracks in solid-state nuclear track detectors is usually described by assuming an unequivocal correlation of the etch-rate ratio with the energy loss of charged particles. For alpha particles, this assumption could be verified within the scatter of the experimental data. In this article, the dependence of the depth (x) on the track etch rate (VT) was

M. F. Zaki; Tarek M. Hegazy; U. Seddik; A. Ahmed Morsy

2005-01-01

189

Alpha particle source for radiolysis of gaseous systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mechanically stable AmO alpha source for use in gas ; radiolysis was made by depositing americium nitrate, from a suspension, on both ; sides of a platinum disk and calcining at 500 to 550 deg C. In all, 50 layers ; were deposited on each side of the disk, giving a thickness of 0.3 mg\\/cm² ; ond a total

K. Ezerska; M. Fopys

1973-01-01

190

The continuum and the alpha-particle formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The absolute ?-decay width of 212Po is calculated within a harmonic oscillator representation. Clustering features induced by the nuclear interaction appear by considering a large configuration space. The role of the neutronproton interaction is analysed and a reasonable account of the experimental alpha-decay width is given.

Gordana Dodig-Crnkovic; F A Janouch; R J Liotta; Zhao Xiaolin

1988-01-01

191

Alpha CAM filter particle collection pattern study results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During a January 1991 Westinghouse Internal Audit of the WIPP Radiological Air Monitoring Program, an auditor observed that on an Eberline Alpha-6A CAM filter, some particulate was deposited outside the 25 mm diameter area that the filter is planned to us...

S. G. Clayton K. B. Steinbruegge T. D. Merkling

1992-01-01

192

Use of .sup.3 He.sup.30 + ICRF minority heating to simulate alpha particle heating  

DOEpatents

Neutron activation due to high levels of neutron production in a first heated deuterium-tritium plasma is substantially reduced by using Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating of energetic .sup.3 He.sup.++ ions in a second deuterium-.sup.3 He.sup.++ plasma which exhibit an energy distribution and density similar to that of alpha particles in fusion reactor experiments to simulate fusion alpha particle heating in the first plasma. The majority of the fast .sup.3 He.sup.++ ions and their slowing down spectrum can be studied using either a modulated hydrogen beam source for producing excited states of He.sup.+ in combination with spectrometers or double charge exchange with a high energy neutral lithium beam and charged particle detectors at the plasma edge. The maintenance problems thus associated with neutron activation are substantially reduced permitting energetic alpha particle behavior to be studied in near term large fusion experiments.

Post, Jr., Douglass E. (Belle Mead, NJ); Hwang, David Q. (Lawrencevill, NJ); Hovey, Jane (Plainsboro, NJ)

1986-04-22

193

Monte Carlo simulation of age-dependent radiation dose from alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides to critical trabecular bone and bone marrow targets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alpha (?) particles and low-energy beta (?) particles present minimal risk for external exposure. While these particles can induce leukemia and bone cancer due to internal exposure, they can also be beneficial for targeted radiation therapies. In this paper, a trabecular bone model is presented to investigate the radiation dose from bone- and marrow-seeking ? and ? emitters to different critical compartments (targets) of trabecular bone for different age groups. Two main issues are addressed with Monte Carlo simulations. The first is the absorption fractions (AFs) from bone and marrow to critical targets within the bone for different age groups. The other issue is the application of 223Ra for the radiotherapy treatment of bone metastases. Both a static model and a simulated bone remodeling process are established for trabecular bone. The results show significantly lower AFs from radionuclide sources in the bone volume to the peripheral marrow and the haematopoietic marrow for adults than for newborns and children. The AFs from sources on the bone surface and in the bone marrow to peripheral marrow and haematopoietic marrow also varies for adults and children depending on the energy of the particles. Regarding the use of 223Ra as a radionuclide for the radiotherapy of bone metastases, the simulations show a significantly higher dose from 223Ra and its progeny in forming bone to the target compartment of bone metastases than that from two other more commonly used ?-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, 153Sm and 89Sr. There is also a slightly lower dose from 223Ra in forming bone to haematopoietic marrow than that from 153Sm and 89Sr. These results indicate a higher therapy efficiency and lower marrow toxicity from 223Ra and its progeny. In conclusion, age-related changes in bone dimension and cellularity seem to significantly affect the internal dose from ? and ? emitters in the bone and marrow to critical targets, and 223Ra may be a more efficient radiopharmaceutical for the treatment of bone metastases than 153Sm and 89Sr, if the diffusion of 219Rn to the bone marrow is insignificant.

Dant, James T.; Richardson, Richard B.; Nie, Linda H.

2013-05-01

194

Monte Carlo simulation of age-dependent radiation dose from alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides to critical trabecular bone and bone marrow targets.  

PubMed

Alpha (?) particles and low-energy beta (?) particles present minimal risk for external exposure. While these particles can induce leukemia and bone cancer due to internal exposure, they can also be beneficial for targeted radiation therapies. In this paper, a trabecular bone model is presented to investigate the radiation dose from bone- and marrow-seeking ? and ? emitters to different critical compartments (targets) of trabecular bone for different age groups. Two main issues are addressed with Monte Carlo simulations. The first is the absorption fractions (AFs) from bone and marrow to critical targets within the bone for different age groups. The other issue is the application of (223)Ra for the radiotherapy treatment of bone metastases. Both a static model and a simulated bone remodeling process are established for trabecular bone. The results show significantly lower AFs from radionuclide sources in the bone volume to the peripheral marrow and the haematopoietic marrow for adults than for newborns and children. The AFs from sources on the bone surface and in the bone marrow to peripheral marrow and haematopoietic marrow also varies for adults and children depending on the energy of the particles. Regarding the use of (223)Ra as a radionuclide for the radiotherapy of bone metastases, the simulations show a significantly higher dose from (223)Ra and its progeny in forming bone to the target compartment of bone metastases than that from two other more commonly used ?-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, (153)Sm and (89)Sr. There is also a slightly lower dose from (223)Ra in forming bone to haematopoietic marrow than that from (153)Sm and (89)Sr. These results indicate a higher therapy efficiency and lower marrow toxicity from (223)Ra and its progeny. In conclusion, age-related changes in bone dimension and cellularity seem to significantly affect the internal dose from ? and ? emitters in the bone and marrow to critical targets, and (223)Ra may be a more efficient radiopharmaceutical for the treatment of bone metastases than (153)Sm and (89)Sr, if the diffusion of (219)Rn to the bone marrow is insignificant. PMID:23615276

Dant, James T; Richardson, Richard B; Nie, Linda H

2013-05-21

195

Simple experimental method for alpha particle range determination in lead iodide films  

SciTech Connect

An experimental method for determining the range of alpha particles in films based on I-V{sub s} analysis has been suggested. The range of 5.5 MeV alpha particles in PbI{sub 2} films determined by this technique is 30{+-}5 {mu}m, and this value is in agreement with the value calculated by SRIM (the stopping and range of ions in matter), r=24 {mu}m in PbI{sub 2}. More than 100 I-V{sub s} of PbI{sub 2} films with different thicknesses and quality have been analyzed, and the influence of alpha particle radiation on PbI{sub 2} I-V{sub s} curves has been studied. Developed analytical methods (dependence of current density on electric field and conception of surface defects) were used, and the method limitations are discussed. It was shown that I-V{sub s} demonstrate the tendency to obey Ohm's law under alpha radiation. On the other hand, dark conductivity of the lead iodide films shows a typical impure character that can lead to an overestimation of the alpha particles' range in PbI{sub 2} films. After films were exposed to alpha radiation, the dark resistivity and I-V shape of some films improved. Also, a weak decrease of the charge carrier concentration, due to a decrease of the ''surface defect'' concentration (''surface refining''), was registered after successive measurements of I-V{sub s}.

Dmitriev, Yuri; Bennett, Paul R.; Cirignano, Leonard J.; Klugerman, Mikhail; Shah, Kanai S. [Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., Watertown, Massachusetts 02472 (United States)

2007-05-15

196

Simple experimental method for alpha particle range determination in lead iodide films.  

PubMed

An experimental method for determining the range of alpha particles in films based on I-V(s) analysis has been suggested. The range of 5.5 MeV alpha particles in PbI(2) films determined by this technique is 30+/-5 microm, and this value is in agreement with the value calculated by SRIM (the stopping and range of ions in matter), r=24 microm in PbI(2). More than 100 I-V(s) of PbI(2) films with different thicknesses and quality have been analyzed, and the influence of alpha particle radiation on PbI(2) I-V(s) curves has been studied. Developed analytical methods (dependence of current density on electric field and conception of surface defects) were used, and the method limitations are discussed. It was shown that I-V(s) demonstrate the tendency to obey Ohm's law under alpha radiation. On the other hand, dark conductivity of the lead iodide films shows a typical impure character that can lead to an overestimation of the alpha particles' range in PbI(2) films. After films were exposed to alpha radiation, the dark resistivity and I-V shape of some films improved. Also, a weak decrease of the charge carrier concentration, due to a decrease of the "surface defect" concentration ("surface refining"), was registered after successive measurements of I-V(s). PMID:17552841

Dmitriev, Yuri; Bennett, Paul R; Cirignano, Leonard J; Klugerman, Mikhail; Shah, Kanai S

2007-05-01

197

Mechanics and multiple-particle tracking microheterogeneity of alpha-actinin-cross-linked actin filament networks.  

PubMed Central

Cell morphology is controlled by the actin cytoskeleton organization and mechanical properties, which are regulated by the available contents in actin and actin regulatory proteins. Using rheometry and the recently developed multiple-particle tracking method, we compare the mechanical properties and microheterogeneity of actin filament networks containing the F-actin cross-linking protein alpha-actinin. The elasticity of F-actin/alpha-actinin networks increases with actin concentration more rapidly for a fixed molar ratio of actin to alpha-actinin than in the absence of alpha-actinin, for networks of fixed alpha-actinin concentration and of fixed actin concentration, but more slowly than theoretically predicted for a homogeneous cross-linked semiflexible polymer network. These rheological measurements are complemented by multiple-particle tracking of fluorescent microspheres imbedded in the networks. The distribution of the mean squared displacements of these microspheres becomes progressively more asymmetric and wider for increasing concentration in alpha-actinin and, to a lesser extent, for increasing actin concentration, which suggests that F-actin networks become progressively heterogeneous for increasing protein content. This may explain the slower-than-predicted rise in elasticity of F-actin/alpha-actinin networks. Together these in vitro results suggest that actin and alpha-actinin provides the cell with an unsuspected range of regulatory pathways to modulate its cytoskeleton's micromechanics and local organization in vivo.

Tseng, Y; Wirtz, D

2001-01-01

198

[Physical and chemical characteristics of fine particles emitted from cooking emissions and its contribution to particulate organic matter in Beijing].  

PubMed

This paper investigated the current status of Beijing restaurants, conducting measurements of cooking emission from 4 kinds of typical Chinese restaurants with different cooking styles in Beijing. Mass concentration, morphology and chemical compositions of PM2.5 were analyzed based on filter samples. Mass concentrations of cooking source are about 8 - 35 times of those of ambient air simultaneously. Both PM1.0 and PM2.5 emitted from the restaurants were monitored by on-line equipment, and PM1.0 took 50% - 85% of PM2.5 in mass concentration. Particles emitted from cooking source are mostly in solid and liquid morphology. Chemical concentrations of organic matter, inorganic ions and elemental carbon account for about 70%, 5% - 11%, and less than 2%, respectively. The total amount of fine particles emitted by cooking source and its contribution to total POM for Beijing are roughly estimated. POM in fine particles from cooking source is approximately the same magnitude as transportation source emission and becomes one of the main sources of POM in fine particles in Beijing. Therefore it's quite urgent to understand the physical and chemical characteristics of cooking emission in order to improve Beijing air quality and secure residents' health. PMID:18290493

Wen, Meng-Ting; Hu, Min

2007-11-01

199

Determination of neutron-induced alpha-particle cross sections on carbon using the response of a liquid scintillation detector  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the sums of the cross section {sup 12}C(n, {alpha}{sub 0}) {sup 9}Be and {sup 12}C(n, N{prime}3{alpha}) determined in the neutron energy range between 7.4 and 11 MeV. An NE-213 scintillation detector is simultaneously used as a carbon target, an alpha-particle detector, and a neutron fluence monitor. By comparing the measured and calculated response spectra, the neutron-induced alpha-particle events in the scintillation volume are separated and the cross sections {sigma}{sub n,{alpha}0} + {sigma}{sub n,n{prime}3{alpha}} are determined relative to the n-p scattering cross section. The pulse-height distribution due to alpha particles allows the angular distribution to be extracted on the basis of the reaction kinematics and an accurately determined light output function for alpha particles in the NE-213 detector.

Brede, H.J.; Dietze, G.; Klein, H.; Schoelermann, H. (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, D-3300 Braunschweig (DE))

1991-01-01

200

Kinetic Approach for Studying the Alpha Particle Transport in Plasma Liner Driven Magnetized Target Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new promising concept for producing energy from thermonuclear fusion is magnetized target fusion (MTF). In MTF, an imploding material liner is used to compress magnetized plasma to fusion ignition and to inertially confine the resulting burning plasma to obtain the necessary energy gain. Plasma liners have the potential to be formed in a repeatable, standoff manner and allow for the possibility of secondary fusion burn in the liner, which allows for much higher fusion energy yields and relaxes the density and scale length requirements of the magnetized target. To date, no theoretical effort has adequately addressed the issue of thermal transport of high-energy alpha particles from the target to the liner. Although the liner/target system is highly collisional at ignition, the fast alpha particle mean free path is relatively large resulting in nonlocal deposition of the kinetic energy into the liner. Thus, a fluid approach may not be appropriate for assessing the possibility of secondary burn. A MATLAB computer code was developed that numerically modeled the alpha particles, electrons, and Deuterons using distribution functions. These distribution functions were separately evolved over time using the Boltzmann equation for the plasma transport and the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation for the collisions between the alpha particles and the electrons and Deuterons. Preliminary results from this work shows that the alpha particles collide with the initially at rest Deuterons and transfer enough energy so that both species move outward away from the target. In addition, some of the Deuterons reach fusion burn energies.

Sommer, James

2003-10-01

201

Alpha-particle emission probabilities in the decay of 240Pu.  

PubMed

Sources of enriched (240)Pu were prepared by vacuum evaporation on quartz substrates. High-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry of (240)Pu was performed with high statistical accuracy using silicon detectors and with low statistical accuracy using a bolometer. The alpha-particle emission probabilities of six transitions were derived from the spectra and compared with literature values. Additionally, some alpha-particle emission probabilities were derived from gamma-ray intensity measurements with a high-purity germanium detector. The alpha-particle emission probabilities of the three main transitions at 5168.1, 5123.6 and 5021.2 keV were derived from seven aggregate spectra analysed with five different fit functions and the results were compatible with evaluated data. Two additional weak peaks at 4863.5 and 4492.0 keV were fitted separately, using the exponential of a polynomial function to represent the underlying tailing of the larger peaks. The peak at 4655 keV could not be detected by alpha-particle spectrometry, while gamma-ray spectrometry confirms that its intensity is much lower than expected from literature. PMID:20106670

Sibbens, G; Pomm, S; Altzitzoglou, T; Garca-Torao, E; Janssen, H; Dersch, R; Ott, O; Snchez, A Martn; Montero, M P Rubio; Loidl, M; Coron, N; de Marcillac, P; Semkow, T M

2010-01-01

202

Analysis of alpha3 GlyR single particle tracking in the cell membrane.  

PubMed

Single particle tracking (SPT) of transmembrane receptors in the plasma membrane often reveals heterogeneous diffusion. A thorough interpretation of the displacements requires an extensive analysis suited for discrimination of different motion types present in the data. Here the diffusion pattern of the homomeric alpha3-containing glycine receptor (GlyR) is analyzed in the membrane of HEK 293 cells. More specifically, the influence of the alpha3 RNA splice variants alpha3K and alpha3L on lateral membrane diffusion of the receptor is revealed in detail. Using a combination of ensemble and local SPT analysis, free and anomalous diffusion parameters are determined. The GlyR alpha3 free diffusion coefficient is found to be 0.13 +/- 0.01 microm2/s and both receptor variants display confined motion. The confinement probability level and residence time are significantly elevated for the alpha3L variant compared to the alpha3K variant. Furthermore, for the alpha3L GlyR, the presence of directed motion was also established, with a velocity matching that of saltatory vesicular transport. These findings reveal that alpha3 GlyRs are prone to different types of anomalous diffusion and reinforce the role of RNA splicing in determining lateral membrane trafficking. PMID:24316136

Notelaers, Kristof; Rocha, Susana; Paesen, Rik; Smisdom, Nick; De Clercq, Ben; Meier, Jochen C; Rigo, Jean-Michel; Hofkens, Johan; Ameloot, Marcel

2014-03-01

203

Ultra-low background alpha particle counter using pulse shape analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need to measure alpha particle emissivities at levels below 0.005 ?\\/cm2-hr is becoming increasingly important in fundamental physics experiments (e.g. neutrino and rare decay measurements), environmental monitoring, nuclear activities monitoring and semiconductor packaging materials. Present counters can barely reach this level, being limited both by cosmic ray events and by their own alpha emissions. Here we report a detector

W. K. Warburton; Brendan Dwyer-McNally; Michael Momayezi; John E. Wahl

2004-01-01

204

Alpha particle condensation in {sup 12}C and nuclear rainbow scattering  

SciTech Connect

It is shown that the large radius of the Hoyle state of {sup 12}C with a dilute density distribution in an {alpha} particle condensate can be clearly seen in the shift of the rainbow angle (therefore the Airy minimum) to a larger angle in {alpha}+{sup 12}C rainbow scattering at the high energy region and prerainbow oscillations in {sup 3}He+{sup 12}C scattering at the lower energy region.

Ohkubo, S. [Department of Applied Science and Environment, Kochi Women's University, Kochi 780-8515 (Japan); Hirabayashi, Y. [Information Initiative Center, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0811 (Japan)

2008-05-12

205

Mode coupling effects on alpha-particle-driven long wavelength Alfven wave instability  

SciTech Connect

It is demonstrated both analytically and numerically that mode couplings play an important role in the nonlinear evolution of alpha-particle-driven [ital long] [ital wavelength] Alfven wave instabilities. The mode coupling process is characterized by a beat between two linearly unstable Alfven waves having opposite frequencies, which generates a linearly stable, static (zero frequency) mode. The backreaction of the static mode tends to stabilize the Alfven instabilities by eliminating the phase shift between the alpha pressure and the Alfven fluctuations.

Gang, F.Y. (Plasma Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)); Leboeuf, J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States))

1993-08-01

206

Significant Antitumor Effect from Bone-seeking, -Particle-emitting 223Ra Demonstrated in an Experimental Skeletal Metastases Model1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The therapeutic efficacy of the -particle-emitting radionuclide 223Ra (t1\\/2 11.4 days) in the treatment against experimental skeletal metasta- ses in rats was addressed. Biodistribution studies, involving measurement of 223Ra in bone marrow samples, were performed in rats after i.v. injection. To study the therapeutic effect of 223Ra, an experimental skel- etal metastases model in nude rats was used. Animals that

Gjermund Henriksen; Knut Breistl; yvind S. Bruland; ystein Fodstad; Roy H. Larsen

2002-01-01

207

Study of alpha-particle emission probabilities and energies in the decay of 240Pu.  

PubMed

In the frame of EUROMET Project No 325 "Analysis of Plutonium Alpha-Particle Spectra", the isotopic composition of a 238, 239, 240Pu mixture was measured by mass spectrometry and by high-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry. The latter revealed a discrepancy with published data of the alpha-particle emission probabilities (Palpha) and the energies (Ealpha) of the two major peaks of 240Pu. New values have been derived: Palpha1 = 0.7256 (6), Palpha2 = 0.2735 (7) and Ealpha1 = 5168.54 (14)keV, Ealpha2 = 5124.10 (15)keV, relative to reference peaks of 238Pu and 239Pu. PMID:14987635

Sibbens, G; Pomm, S

2004-01-01

208

Feasibility of alpha particle measurement in a magnetically confined plasma by CO2 laser Thomson scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fusion-product alpha particles will dominate the behavior of the next generation of ignited D-T fusion reactors. Advanced diagnostics will be required to characterize the energy deposition of these fast alpha particles in the magnetically confined plasma. For small-angle coherent Thomson scattering of a CO2 laser beam from such a plasma, a resonance in the scattered power occurs near 90 degrees with respect to the magnetic field direction. This spatial concentration permits a simplified detection of the scattered laser power from the plasma using a heterodyne system. The signal produced by the presence of fusion-product alpha particles in an ignited plasma is calculated to be well above the noise level, which results from statistical variations of the background signal produced by scattering from free electrons.

Richards, R. K.; Vandersluis, K. L.; Hutchinson, D. P.

1987-08-01

209

Factors influencing the number distribution and size of the particles emitted from a modern diesel vehicle in real urban traffic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle emissions from diesel engine cars depend firstly on exhaust aftertreatment systems but the use of the vehicle becomes also crucial. In urban areas, this use depends on: transport demand, route choices, traffic density, street conditions, weather, driver behaviour and topographical characteristics of the roads. Nowadays, most diesel vehicles in urban areas across Europe are equipped with exhaust aftertreatment systems aiming to reduce the total mass of emitted particles. In comparison to earlier aftertreatment systems, the implementation of modern procedures is causing a reduction in the size of the emitted particles up to a nanometric range. The main goal of this work is the characterization of particle size and number distribution in the submicrometric range from a modern diesel vehicle emission in real traffic conditions in the city of Madrid with the purpose of assessing the actual weight of the different city parameters influencing the particle emission. In order to accomplish this objective, up to 12 on board emission measurement experiments have been performed with a Euro IV Diesel passenger car driving along a single urban circuit in Madrid City. To cover the main external factors, stretch, traffic conditions and driving directions have been considered as independent variables for this study. Assuming a proper car operating conditions, the results show that street characteristics, vehicle density and topographic features are the main factors conditioning the particle emission. Extrapolating our results, a diesel standard passenger car circulating across a city like Madrid can emit more nanoparticles per kilometre (up to 114% more in this study) at peak hour than at off peak hour. Moreover, the driving direction can also influence dramatically the emission of nanoparticles per second. This difference in the emission rate depends on the street but in our study it can be higher than 110% depending on the driving direction.

Barrios, C. C.; Domnguez-Sez, A.; Rubio, J. R.; Pujadas, M.

2012-09-01

210

The 1997 IAEA intercomparison of commercially available PC-based software for alpha-particle spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four commercially available, PC-based analysis programs for alpha-particle spectrometry were compared using the 1997 IAEA test spectra, i.e. AlphaVision 1.20 (EG&G Ortec, USA), Alps 4.21 (Westmeier GmbH, Germany), Winner Alpha 4.0f5 (Eurisys Mesures, France) and Genie-2000 (Canberra Industries Inc., USA). A systematic statistical study of the analysis results was performed based on z-scores. The results indicate that the four programs leave room for substantial improvement.

Blaauw, M.; Garca-Torao, E.; Woods, S.; Fazinic, S.

1999-06-01

211

Alfvenic behavior of alpha particle driven ion cyclotron emission in TFTR  

SciTech Connect

Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) has been observed during D-T discharges in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), using rf probes located near the top and bottom of the vacuum vessel. Harmonics of the alpha cyclotron frequency ({Omega}{sub {alpha}}) evaluated at the outer midplane plasma edge are observed at the onset of the beam injection phase of TFTR supershots, and persist for approximately 100-250 ms. These results are in contrast with observations of ICE in JET, in which harmonics of {Omega}{sub {alpha}} evolve with the alpha population in the plasma edge. Such differences are believed to be due to the fact that newly-born fusion alpha particles are super-Alfvenic near the edge of JET plasmas, while they are sub-Alfvenic near the edge of TFTR supershot plasmas. In TFTR discharges with edge densities such that newly-born alpha particles are super-Alfvenic, alpha cyclotron harmonics are observed to persist. These results are in qualitative agreement with numerical calculations of growth rates due to the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability.

Cauffman, S.; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); McClements, K.G. [UKAEA Government Division, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom). Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association] [and others

1995-07-01

212

Recent outgassing from the lunar surface: The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (APS) was designed to detect characteristic-energy alpha particles from the decay of Rn-222, Po-218, and Po-210 and to therefore map sites of radon release on the lunar surface. These three nuclides are radioactive daughters from the decay of U-238 hence the background level of alpha particle activity is a function of the lunar crustal uranium distribution. Radon reaches the lunar surface either at areas of high soil porosity or where fissures release the trapped gases in which radon is entrained. Once released, the radon spreads out by ``bouncing'' across the surface on ballistic trajectories in a random-walk process. The half-life of Rn-222 allows the gas to spread out by several hundred kilometers before it decays (depositing approximately half of the Po-218 recoil nuclides on the lunar surface) and allows the APS to detect gas release events up to several days after they occur. The long residence time of the Pb-210 precursor to Po-210 allows the mapping of gas vents which have been active over the last approximately 60 years. The APS found only a faint indication of Po-218 alpha particles. However, the Rn-222 alpha particle map shows that radon gas was emanating from the vicinity of craters Aristarchus and Kepler at the time of Lunar Prospector. The Po-210 alpha particle distribution reveals a variability in time and space of lunar gas release events. Po-210 and Rn-222 detections are associated with both thorium enhancements and lunar pyroclastic deposits.

Lawson, Stefanie L.; Feldman, William C.; Lawrence, David J.; Moore, Kurt R.; Elphic, Richard C.; Belian, Richard D.; Maurice, Sylvestre

2005-09-01

213

Modeling of alpha-particle-induced soft error rate in DRAM  

SciTech Connect

Alpha-particle-induced soft error in 256M DRAM was numerically investigated. A unified model for alpha-particle-induced charge collection and a soft-error-rate simulator (SERS) was developed. The author investigated the soft error rate of 256M DRAM and identified the bit-bar mode as one of dominant modes for soft error. In addition, for the first time, it was found that trench-oxide depth has a significant influence on soft error rate, and it should be determined by the tradeoff between soft error rate and cell-to-cell isolation characteristics.

Shin, H. [Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electronic Engineering

1999-09-01

214

Theoretical response of a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector to alpha-emitting sources and suggested applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classic problem of alpha absorption is discussed in terms of the quantitative determination of the activity of weightless alpha sources and the specific alpha activity of extended sources accounting for absorption in the source medium and the window of a large area ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. The relationship for the expected counting rate gamma of a monoenergetic source of active

K. W. Skrable; K. A. Phoenix; G. E. Chabot; C. S. French; M. Jo; G. A. Falo

1991-01-01

215

Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

Shen, B. S. P.

1974-01-01

216

Quantitative determination of superficial alpha activity by means of plastic track detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of alpha particles' energy and angle of incidence on the readout obtained from cellulose nitrate plastic track detectors, exposed to materials emitting alpha particles, have been studied as a function of etching time. Simple detection equipment has been developed to allow precision measurement of superficial alpha activity. The technique has been applied to determine the air concentration of

Alfredo Cecchi; Cesare Gori; Giovanna Zatelli

1986-01-01

217

Natural protection from zoonosis by alpha-gal epitopes on virus particles in xenotransmission.  

PubMed

Clinical transplantation has become one of the preferred treatments for end-stage organ failure, and one of the novel approaches being pursued to overcome the limited supply of human organs involves the use of organs from other species. The pig appears to be a near ideal animal due to proximity to humans, domestication, and ability to procreate. The presence of Gal-alpha1,3-Gal residues on the surfaces of pig cells is a major immunological obstacle to xenotransplantation. Alpha1,3galactosyltransferase (alpha1,3GT) catalyzes the synthesis of Gal alpha 1-3Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc-R (alpha-gal epitope) on the glycoproteins and glycolipids of non-primate mammals, but this does not occur in humans. Moreover, the alpha-gal epitope causes hyperacute rejection of pig organs in humans, and thus, the elimination of this antigen from pig tissues is highly desirable. Recently, concerns have been raised that the risk of virus transmission from such pigs may be increased due to the absence of alpha-gal on their viral particles. In this study, transgenic cells expressing alpha1,3GT were selected using 1.25 mg/ml neomycin. The development of HeLa cells expressing alpha1,3GT now allows accurate studies to be conducted on the function of the alpha-gal epitope in xenotransmission. The expressions of alpha-gal epitopes on HeLa/alpha-gal cells were demonstrated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy using cells stained with IB4-fluorescein isothiocyanate lectin. Vaccinia viruses propagated in HeLa/alpha-gal cells also expressed alpha-gal on their viral envelopes and were more sensitive to inactivation by human sera than vaccinia virus propagated in HeLa cells. Moreover, neutralization of vaccinia virus was inhibited in human serum by 10 mm ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethylether)tetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment. Our data indicated that alpha-gal epitopes are one of the major barriers to zoonosis via xenotransmission. PMID:17381684

Kim, Na Young; Jung, Woon-Won; Oh, Yu-Kyung; Chun, Taehoon; Park, Hong-Yang; Lee, Hoon-Taek; Han, In-Kwon; Yang, Jai Myung; Kim, Young Bong

2007-03-01

218

Variation of the track etch rates of alpha-particle trajectory in PADC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of etched tracks in solid-state nuclear track detectors is usually described by assuming an unequivocal correlation of the etch-rate ratio with the energy loss of charged particles. For alpha particles, this assumption could be verified within the scatter of the experimental data. In this article, the dependence of the depth (x) on the track etch rate (V-T) was

M. F. Zaki; T. M. Hegazy; U. Seddik; A. A. Morsy

2005-01-01

219

STACKED REST-FRAME ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA OF Ly{alpha}-EMITTING AND CONTINUUM-SELECTED GALAXIES AT 2 < z < 3.5  

SciTech Connect

We present properties of individual and composite rest-UV spectra of continuum- and narrowband-selected star-forming galaxies (SFGs) at a redshift of 2 < z < 3.5 discovered by the MUSYC collaboration in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South. Among our sample of 81 UV-bright SFGs, 59 have R < 25.5, of which 32 have rest-frame equivalent widths of W{sub Ly{alpha}} > 20 A, the canonical limit to be classified as an Ly{alpha}-emitting galaxy. We divide our data set into subsamples based on properties that we are able to measure for each individual galaxy: Ly{alpha} equivalent width, rest-frame UV colors, and redshift. Among our subsample of galaxies with R < 25.5, those with rest frame W{sub Ly{alpha}} > 20 A have bluer UV continua, weaker low-ionization interstellar absorption lines, weaker C IV absorption, and stronger Si II* nebular emission than those with W{sub Ly{alpha}} < 20 A. We measure a velocity offset of {Delta}v {approx} 600 km s{sup -1} between Ly{alpha} emission and low-ionization absorption, which does not vary substantially among any of our subsamples. We find that the interstellar component, as opposed to the stellar component, dominates the high-ionization absorption line profiles. We find that the low- and high-ionization Si ionization states have similar kinematic properties, yet the low-ionization absorption is correlated with Ly{alpha} emission and the high-ionization absorption is not. These trends are consistent with outflowing neutral gas being in the form of neutral clouds embedded in ionized gas as previously suggested by Steidel et al. Moreover, our galaxies with bluer UV colors have stronger Ly{alpha} emission, weaker low-ionization absorption, and more prominent nebular emission line profiles. From a redshift of 2.7 < z < 3.5 to 2.0 < z < 2.7, our subsample of galaxies with W{sub Ly{alpha}} < 20 Angstrom-Sign shows no significant evolution in their physical properties or the nature of their outflows. Among our data set, UV-bright galaxies with W{sub Ly{alpha}} > 20 A exhibit weaker Ly{alpha} emission at lower redshifts, although we caution that this could be caused by spectroscopic confirmation of low Ly{alpha} equivalent width galaxies being harder at z {approx} 3 than z {approx} 2.

Berry, Michael; Gawiser, Eric [Physics and Astronomy Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Guaita, Lucia [Department of Astronomy, Oskar Klein Cosmology Centre, Stockholm University, Stolkholm (Sweden); Padilla, Nelson; Francke, Harold [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Treister, Ezequiel [Department of Astronomy, Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Blanc, Guillermo A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States); Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2012-04-10

220

Alpha-particle dose to the liver and spleen tissues of Japanese Thorotrast patients.  

PubMed

We set out to establish an appropriate and convenient method for calculating alpha-particle absorbed doses to the liver and spleen of Thorotrast patients and to estimate a representative dose rate to the liver for the whole population of surviving and deceased Thorotrast patients in Japan. First, we determined steady-state activity ratios of 232Th progeny from 13 autopsy cases and found them to be identical to those reported in German subjects. Second, we estimated the alpha dose rates in 206 subjects at autopsy from radioactivity measurements and terminal weights of the organs. Combining these results with measurements of exhaled 220Rn in survivors, we considered the representative dose rates at injection to be 0.22 Gy y-1. Additionally, our data suggest that deposition in the spleen has previously been overestimated. This is an error with some bearing on the evaluation of leukemia risks from alpha-particle irradiation. PMID:8225986

Ishikawa, Y; Kato, Y; Mori, T; Machinami, R; Kitagawa, T

1993-11-01

221

Cryogenic Microcalorimeter System for Ultra-High Resolution Alpha-Particle Spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microcalorimeters have been shown to yield unsurpassed energy resolution for alpha spectrometry, up to 1.06 keV FWHM at 5.3 MeV. These detectors use a superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) to measure the temperature change in an absorber from energy deposited by an interacting alpha particle. Our system has four independent detectors mounted inside a liquid nitrogen/liquid helium cryostat. An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) cools the detector stage to its operating temperature of 80 mK. Temperature regulation with ~15-?K peak-to-peak variation is achieved by PID control of the ADR. The detectors are voltage-biased, and the current signal is amplified by a commercial SQUID readout system and digitized for further analysis. This paper will discuss design and operation of our microcalorimeter alpha-particle spectrometer, and will show recent results.

Croce, M. P.; Bacrania, M. K.; Hoover, A. S.; Rabin, M. W.; Hoteling, N. J.; Lamont, S. P.; Plionis, A. A.; Dry, D. E.; Ullom, J. N.; Bennett, D. A.; Horansky, R. D.; Kotsubo, V.; Cantor, R.

2009-12-01

222

Measurement of alphas from the structure of particle clusters produced in hadronic Z decays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using 106 000 hadronic events obtained with the ALEPH detector at LEP at energies close to the Z resonance peak, the strong coupling constant alphas is measured by an analysis of energy-energy correlations (EEC) and the global event shape variables thrust, C-parameter and oblateness. It is shown that the theoretical uncertainties can be significantly reduced if the final state particles

D. Decamp; B. Deschizeaux; C. Goy; J.-P. Lees; M.-N. Minard; R. Alemany; J. M. Crespo; M. Delfino; E. Fernandez; V. Gaitan; Ll. Garrido; P. Mato; R. Miquel; Ll. M. Mir; S. Orteu; A. Pacheco; J. A. Perlas; E. Tubau; M. G. Catanesi; D. Creanza; M. de Palma; A. Farilla; G. Iaselli; G. Maggi; M. Maggi; S. Natali; S. Nuzzo; M. Quattromini; A. Ranieri; G. Raso; F. Romano; F. Ruggieri; G. Selvaggi; L. Silvestris; P. Tempesta; G. Zito; Y. Gao; H. Hu; D. Huang; X. Huang; J. Lin; J. Lou; C. Qiao; T. Ruan; T. Wang; Y. Xie; D. Xu; R. Xu; J. Zhang; W. Zhao; H. Albrecht; W. B. Atwood; F. Bird; E. Blucher; G. Bonvicini; F. Bossi; D. Brown; T. H. Burnett; H. Drevermann; F. Dydak; R. W. Forty; C. Grab; R. Hagelberg; S. Haywood; B. Jost; M. Kasemann; G. Kellner; J. Knobloch; A. Lacourt; I. Lehraus; T. Lohse; D. Lke; A. Marchioro; M. Martinez; J. May; S. Menary; A. Minten; A. Miotto; J. Nash; P. Palazzi; F. Ranjard; G. Redlinger; A. Roth; J. Rothberg; H. Rotscheidt; W. von Rden; R. St. Denis; D. Schlatter; M. Takashima; M. Talby; W. Tejessy; H. Wachsmuth; S. Wasserbaech; S. Wheeler; W. Wiedenmann; W. Witzeling; J. Wotschack; Z. Ajaltouni; M. Bardadin-Otwinowska; A. Falvard; R. El Fellous; P. Gay; J. Harvey; P. Henrard; J. Jousset; B. Michel; J.-C. Montret; D. Pallin; P. Perret; J. Proriol; F. Prulhire; G. Stimpfl; J. D. Hansen; J. R. Hansen; P. H. Hansen; R. Mllerud; E. R. Nielsen; B. S. Nilsson; I. Efthymiopoulos; E. Simopoulou; A. Vayaki; J. Badier; A. Blondel; G. Bonneaud; J. Bourotte; F. Braems; J. C. Brient; G. Fouque; A. Gamess; R. Guirlet; A. Rosowsky; A. Roug; M. Rumpf; R. Tanaka; H. Videau; D. J. Candlin; E. Veitch; G. Parrini; M. Corden; C. Georgiopoulos; M. Ikeda; J. Lannutti; D. Levinthal; M. Mermikides; L. Sawyer; A. Antonelli; R. Baldini; G. Bencivenni; G. Bologna; P. Campana; G. Capon; V. Chiarella; B. D'Ettorre-Piazzoli; G. Felici; P. Laurelli; G. Mannocchi; F. Massimo-Brancaccio; F. Murtas; G. P. Murtas; G. Nicoletti; L. Passalacqua; M. Pepe-Altarelli; P. Picchi; P. Zografou; B. Altoon; O. Boyle; A. W. Halley; I. Ten Have; J. L. Hearns; J. G. Lynch; W. T. Morton; C. Raine; J. M. Scarr; K. Smith; A. S. Thompson; R. M. Turnbull; B. Brandl; O. Braun; R. Geiges; C. Geweniger; P. Hanke; V. Hepp; E. E. Kluge; Y. Maumary; A. Putzer; B. Rensch; A. Stahl; K. Tittel; M. Wunsch; A. T. Belk; R. Beuselinck; D. M. Binnie; W. Cameron; M. Cattaneo; P. J. Dornan; S. Dugeay; A. M. Greene; J. F. Hassard; N. M. Lieske; S. J. Patton; D. G. Payne; M. J. Phillips; J. K. Sedgbeer; G. Taylor; I. R. Tomalin; A. G. Wright; P. Girtler; D. Kuhn; G. Rudolph; C. K. Bowdery; T. J. Brodbeck; A. J. Finch; F. Foster; G. Hughes; N. R. Keemer; M. Nuttall; A. Patel; B. S. Rowlingson; T. Sloan; S. W. Snow; E. P. Whelan; T. Barczewski; L. A. T. Bauerdick; K. Kleinknecht; B. Renk; S. Roehn; H.-G. Sander; M. Schmelling; H. Schmidt; F. Steeg; J.-P. Albanese; J.-J. Aubert; C. Benchouk; V. Bernard; A. Bonissent; D. Courvoisier; F. Etienne; S. Papalexiou; P. Payre; B. Pietrzyk; Z. Qian; W. Blum; P. Cattaneo; G. Cowan; B. Dehning; H. Dietl; M. Fernandez-Bosman; T. Hansl-Kozanecka; A. Jahn; W. Kozanecki; E. Lange; G. Ltjens; G. Lutz; W. Mnner; H.-G. Moser; Y. B. Pan; R. Richter; J. Schrder; A. S. Schwarz; R. Settles; U. Stierlin; J. Thomas; G. Wolf; V. Bertin; G. de Bouard; J. Boucrot; O. Callot; X. Chen; A. Cordier; M. Davier; G. Ganis; J.-F. Grivaz; Ph. Heusse; P. Janot; V. Journ; D. W. Kim; J. Lefranois; A.-M. Lutz; J.-J. Veillet; I. Videau; Z. Zhang; F. Zomer; S. R. Amendolia; G. Bagliesi; G. Batignani; L. Bosisio; U. Bottigli; C. Bradaschia; M. Carpinelli; M. A. Ciocci; R. dell'Orso; I. Ferrante; F. Fidecaro; L. Fo; E. Focardi; F. Forti; A. Giassi; M. A. Giorgi; F. Ligabue; A. Lusiani; E. B. Mannelli; P. S. Marrocchesi; A. Messineo; L. Moneta; F. Palla; G. Sanguinetti; J. Steinberger; R. Tenchini; G. Tonelli; G. Triggiani; C. Vannini-Castaldi; A. Venturi; P. G. Verdini; J. Walsh; J. M. Carter; M. G. Green; P. V. March; T. Medcalf; I. S. Quazi; M. R. Saich; J. A. Strong; R. M. Thomas; L. R. West; T. Wildish; D. R. Botterill; R. W. Clifft; T. R. Edgecock; M. Edwards; S. M. Fisher; T. J. Jones; P. R. Norton; D. P. Salmon; J. C. Thompson; B. Bloch-Devaux; P. Colas; C. Klopfenstein; E. Lanon; E. Locci; S. Loucatos; E. Monnier; P. Perez; F. Perrier; J. Rander; J.-F. Renardy; A. Roussarie; J.-P. Schuller; J. Schwindling; J. G. Ashman; C. N. Booth; C. Buttar; R. Carney; S. Cartwright; F. Combley; M. Dinsdale; M. Dogru; F. Hatfield; J. Martin; D. Parker; P. Reeves; L. F. Thompson; S. Brandt; H. Burkhardt; C. Grupen; H. Meinhard; L. Mirabito; E. Neugebauer; U. Schfer; H. Seywerd; G. Apollinari; G. Giannini; B. Gobbo; F. Liello; L. Rolandi; U. Stiegler; L. Bellantoni; J. F. Boudreau; D. Cinabro; J. S. Conway; D. F. Cowen; A. J. Deweerd; Z. Feng; D. P. S. Ferguson; J. Grahl; J. L. Harton; J. Hilgart

1991-01-01

223

Possibilities of alpha-particle diagnostics in future tokamaks using helium and lithium beam injection  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the possibility of using active charge-exchange (CX) diagnostics based on helium and lithium beam injection to investigate the confined alpha-particle distribution function in future fusion experiments. The required helium beam densities are determined by mathematic modeling of the physical processes (double CX, attenuation of the doping beam, and CX flow, taking into account the step process). They are found to be {approximately}1 A for a 40-keV beam for thermalized (ash) alpha-particle diagnostics and 30 to 600 MA for a 0.35 to 0.65 MeV/amu HeH{sup +} ion source for hot alpha-particle diagnostics. A {sup 3}He beam with energy of 500 keV (He{sup +} ion source) and intensity of 0.1 to 3 A is proposed for measurement of the alpha-particle distribution function in the energy range of 0.2 to 2 MeV.

Gorelenkov, N.N.; Krasilnikov, A.V. (I.V. Kurchatov Inst. of Atomic Energy, Moscow (SU))

1991-03-01

224

RADON AND PROGENY ALPHA-PARTICLE ENERGY ANALYSIS USING NUCLEAR TRACK METHODOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary procedure for alpha energy analysis of radon and progeny using Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM) is described in this paper. The method is based on the relationship between alpha-particle energies deposited in polycarbonate material (CR-39) and the track size developed after a well-established chemical etching process. Track geometry, defined by parameters such as major or minor diameters, track area and overall track length, is shown to correlate with alpha-particle energy over the range 6.00 MeV (218Po) to 7.69 MeV (214Po). Track features are measured and the data analyzed automatically using a digital imaging system and commercial PC software. Examination of particle track diameters in CR-39 exposed to environmental radon reveals a multi-modal distribution. Locations of the maxima in this distribution are highly correlated with alpha particle energies of radon daughters, and the distributions are sufficiently resolved to identify the radioisotopes. This method can be useful for estimating the radiation dose from indoor exposure to radon and its progeny.

Espinosa Garcia, Guillermo [ORNL; Golzarri y Moreno, Dr. Jose Ignacio [Instituto de Fisica, Mexico; Bogard, James S [ORNL

2008-01-01

225

Alpha Particle Pressure Gauge for High Altitude Constant Level Balloon Flights  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an alpha particle pressure gauge designed for use on very high altitude constant level balloon flights. The instrument gives continuous readings from sea level to pressures less than 1 millibar with an accuracy in the 110 millibar range of a few tenths of a millibar. The instrument utilizes a sensitive electrometer measuring the ionization current due to

R. L. Howard; S. W. Nelson; J. R. Winckler

1968-01-01

226

Alternate method for treating Alfven waves driven unstable by {alpha} particles  

SciTech Connect

For treating Alfven waves driven unstable by {alpha} particles, an alternative to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory gyro-Landau fluid approach is suggested. Its primary advantage is that this method can simultaneously treat fluid nonlinearities and kinetic quasilinear effects. It is argued that more perturbative approaches could overestimate the kinetic quasilinear effects. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

Hedrick, C.L.; Leboeuf, J.; Prochaska, M.D.; Spong, D.A.; Carreras, B.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2009, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071 (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2009, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071 (United States)

1995-12-01

227

Control of alpha particle transport by spatially inhomogeneous ion cyclotron resonance heating.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Control of the radial alpha particle transport by using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency waves is investigated in a large-aspect-ratio tokamak geometry. It is shown that spatially inhomogeneous ICRF-wave energy with properly selected frequencies and wave ...

C. S. Chang K. Imre H. Weitzner P. Colestock

1990-01-01

228

Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS): Results from Gusev crater and calibration report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of rocks and soils on Mars analyzed during the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit Mission was determined by X-ray analyses with the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS). Details of the data analysis method and the instrument calibration are presented. Measurements performed on Mars to address geometry effects and background contributions are shown. Cross calibration measurements among several instrument

R. Gellert; R. Rieder; J. Brckner; B. C. Clark; G. Dreibus; G. Klingelhfer; G. Lugmair; D. W. Ming; H. Wnke; A. Yen; J. Zipfel; S. W. Squyres

2006-01-01

229

The new Athena alpha particle X-ray spectrometer for the Mars Exploration Rovers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) is part of the Athena payload of the two Mars Exploration Rovers (MER). The APXS sensor head is attached to the turret of the instrument deployment device (IDD) of the rover. The APXS is a very light-weight instrument for determining the major and minor elemental composition of Martian soils, rocks, and other geological

R. Rieder; R. Gellert; J. Brckner; G. Klingelhfer; G. Dreibus; A. Yen; S. W. Squyres

2003-01-01

230

Can Bose condensation of alpha particles be observed in heavy ion collisions?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using a fully self-consistent quantum statistical model, we demonstrate the possibility of Bose condensation of alpha particles with a concomitant phase transition in heavy ion collisions. Suggestions for the experimental observation of the signature of the onset of this phenomenon are made.

Tripathi, Ram K.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

1993-01-01

231

Boron compounds as a dominant source of alpha particles in semiconductor devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of cosmic ray neutrons and boron is demonstrated as the dominant source of alpha particles and other radiations in electronic devices utilizing borophosphosilicate glass (BPSG). A simple process modification is proposed to significantly reduce this intense source of ionizing radiation without compromising the reflow and passivation properties of BPSG.

Robert Baumann; Tim Hossain; Shinya Murata; Hideki Kitagawa

1995-01-01

232

Nuclear Densities of 1FSUB(7/2) Nuclei from Elastic alpha-Particle Scattering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The elastic scattering of 104 MeV alpha particles by sup(40,42,43,44,48)Ca, exp 50 Ti, exp 51 V, exp 52 Cr has been analyzed by phenomenological and semimicroscopic optical potentials in order to get information on isotopic and isotonic differences of the...

E. Friedman H. J. Gils H. Rebel

1983-01-01

233

Nucleon-Alpha Particle Disequilibrium and Short-Lived r-Process Radioactivities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

r-Process yields can be extremely sensitive to expansion parameters when a persistent disequilibrium between free nucleons and alpha particles is present. This may provide a natural scenario for understanding the variation of heavy and light r-process isotopes in different r-process events. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Meyer, B. S.; Clayton, D. D.; Chellapilla, S.; The, L.-S.

2002-01-01

234

Effects of fusion-product alpha particles on plasma stability in the fusion ignition experiment IGNITEX  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. The effects of alpha particles on the stability of MHD modes in IGNITEX plasmas are investigated analytically and numerically. The sawtooth and fishbone oscillations, which may occur in the central part of the plasma column, are associated with the n =1, m=1 internal kink modes and are considered to be a potential threat to the attainment

Z. Guo; R. Carrera; G. Y. Fu; G. Miley; E. Montalvo; M. N. Rosenbluth; J. W. Van Dam

1990-01-01

235

A Luminosity Function of Ly(alpha)-Emitting Galaxies at Z [Approx. Equal to] 4.5(Sup 1),(Sup 2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a catalog of 59 z [approx. equal to] 4:5 Ly(alpha)-emitting galaxies spectroscopically confirmed in a campaign of Keck DEIMOS follow-up observations to candidates selected in the Large Are (LALA) narrowband imaging survey.We targeted 97 candidates for spectroscopic follow-up; by accounting for the variety of conditions under which we performed spectroscopy, we estimate a selection reliability of approx.76%. Together with our previous sample of Keck LRIS confirmations, the 59 sources confirmed herein bring the total catalog to 73 spectroscopically confirmed z [approx. equal to] 4:5 Ly(alpha)- emitting galaxies in the [approx. equal to] 0.7 deg(exp 2) covered by the LALA imaging. As with the Keck LRIS sample, we find that a nonnegligible fraction of the co rest-frame equivalent widths (W(sub lambda)(sup rest)) that exceed the maximum predicted for normal stellar populations: 17%-31%(93%confidence) of the detected galaxies show (W(sub lambda)(sup rest)) 12%-27% (90% confidence) show (W(sub lambda)(sup rest)) > 240 A. We construct a luminosity function of z [approx. equal to] 4.5 Ly(alpha) emission lines for comparison to Ly(alpha) luminosity function < 6.6. We find no significant evidence for Ly(alpha) luminosity function evolution from z [approx. equal to] 3 to z [approx. equal to] 6. This result supports the conclusion that the intergalactic me largely reionized from the local universe out to z [approx. equal to] 6.5. It is somewhat at odds with the pronounced drop in the cosmic star formation rate density recently measured between z approx. 3 an z approx. 6 in continuum-selected Lyman-break galaxies, and therefore potentially sheds light on the relationship between the two populations.

Dawson, Steve; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel; Wang, JunXian; Dey, Arjun; Spinrad, Hyron; Jannuzi, Buell T.

2007-01-01

236

Blue-Emitting Small Silica Particles Incorporating ZnSe-Based Nanocrystals Prepared by Reverse Micelle Method  

PubMed Central

ZnSe-based nanocrystals (ca. 4-5 nm in diameter) emitting in blue region (ca. 445 nm) were incorporated in spherical small silica particles (2040 nm in diameter) by a reverse micelle method. During the preparation, alkaline solution was used to deposit the hydrolyzed alkoxide on the surface of nanocrystals. It was crucially important for this solution to include Zn2+ ions and surfactant molecules (thioglycolic acid) to preserve the spectral properties of the final silica particles. This is because these substances in the solution prevent the surface of nanocrystals from deterioration by dissolution during processing. The resultant silica particles have an emission efficiency of 16% with maintaining the photoluminescent spectral width and peak wavelength of the initial colloidal solution.

Ando, Masanori; Li, Chunliang; Yang, Ping; Murase, Norio

2007-01-01

237

Onboard detection of intrinsic Ly. alpha. radiation from a neutral particle beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider photometers onboard a hydrogen neutral particle beam (NPB) space platform which monitor the instrinsic radiation from excited atoms in the NPB in flight. The radiation of choice is the Lyman α (Lyα) line 1216 A, emitted when the beam's {approx equal} 7% fraction of H (2S) atoms is motionally quenched in the earth's magnetic field. At nominal 20-MeV

R. T. Robiscoe; D. D. Cobb; W. B. II Maier

1990-01-01

238

Lung cancer risk from exposure to alpha particles and inhalation of other pollutants in rats  

SciTech Connect

The goal of these experiments is to establish a quantitative correlation between early DNA damage and cancer incidence in a way that would be helpful for assessing the carcinogenic risk of radon alone or in combination with specific indoor pollutants. Rat tracheal epithelium has been exposed in vivo to {sup 210}Po alpha particles in the presence and absence of NO{sub 2} or cigarette smoke. The major accomplishments so far are: the design and implementation of a tracheal implant to simulate radon alpha particle exposure, the measurement of DNA breaks in a small 7.0 mm segment of the trachea exposed to external x-irradiation, the measurement of the rate of repair of the x-ray induced tracheal DNA strand breaks, the measurement of DNA strand breaks following inhalation of cigarette smoke or NO{sub 2}, the measurement of tracheal DNA stand breaks following exposure to high doses {sup 210}Po alpha particle radiation, the assessment of the amount of mucous in the goblet cells and in the underlying mucous glands. So far we have been unable to detect DNA strand breaks in the tracheal epithelium as a result of exposure to NO{sub 2} cigarette smoke or {sup 210}Po alpha particles. We have developed a simple artificial' trachea consisting of rat tracheal epithelial cells growing on a basement membrane coated millipore filter. Experiments are proposed to utilize these artificial tracheas to eliminate the potential interference of increased mucous secretion and/or inflammation that can significantly affect the radiation dose from the alpha particles. 61 refs., 17 figs.

Burns, F.J.

1990-01-01

239

Angular Momentum Transport and Proton-Alpha-Particle Differential Streaming in the Solar Wind  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interplay between the proton-alpha-particle differential flow speed, v?p, and angular momentum transport in the solar wind is explored by using a three-fluid model. The force introduced by the azimuthal components is found to play an important role in the force balance for ions in interplanetary space, bringing the radial flow speeds of protons and alpha particles closer to each other. For the fast solar wind, the model cannot account for the decrease of v?p observed by Helios between 0.3 and 1 AU. However, it can reproduce the v?p profile measured by Ulysses beyond 2 AU, if the right value for v?p is imposed at that distance. In the slow wind, the effect of solar rotation is more pronounced if one starts with the value measured by Helios at 0.3 AU: a relative change of 10%-16% is introduced in the radial speed of the alpha particles between 1 and 4 AU. The model calculations show that, although alpha particles consume only a small fraction of the energy and linear momentum fluxes of protons, they cannot be neglected when considering the proton angular momentum flux Lp. In most examples, it is found that Lp is determined by v?p for both the fast and the slow wind. In the slow solar wind, the proton and alpha particle angular momentum fluxes Lp and L? can be several times larger in magnitude than the flux carried by the magnetic stresses LM. While the sum LP=Lp+L? is smaller than LM, for the modeled fast and slow wind alike, this result is at variance with the Helios measurements.

Li, Bo; Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Li, Xing

2007-05-01

240

Light particles emitted in coincidence with evaporation residues in {sup 79}Br(930 MeV) + {sup 27}Al collisions  

SciTech Connect

Exclusive measurements of light particles, deuterons, tritons and alphas, in coincidence with Evaporation Residues (ER), were performed at the Holified Heavy Ion Research Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the large detector array HILI (Heavy Ion Light Ion). Heavy fragments produced in the reaction (Z 35), were stopped in the Ionisation Chamber, where their energy, atomic number (Z) and position were measured. Coincident light particles, were detected in the 192 element hodoscope placed behind the chamber, where its charge (Z) and energy were measured. Also the time of flight relative to the radio frequency of the cyclotron, allowed identification of protons deuterons and tritons.

Chavez Lomeli, E.; Dacal, A.; Ortiz, M.E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; D`Onofrio, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Naples (Italy); Gomez del Campo, J.; Kim, H.; Korolija, M.; Shapira, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1993-10-01

241

Optical properties of green-blue-emitting Ca-{alpha}-Sialon:Ce{sup 3+},Li{sup +} phosphors for white light-emitting diodes (LEDs)  

SciTech Connect

Ce{sup 3+},Li{sup +}-codoped Ca-{alpha}-Sialon phosphors with the formula [Ca{sub (1-2x)}Ce{sub x}Li{sub x}]{sub m/2}Si{sub 12-(m+n)}Al{sub m+n}O{sub n}N{sub 16-n} (0{<=}x{<=}0.25, 0.5{<=}m{<=}3.5, and 0.16{<=}n{<=}2.0) have been synthesized by gas pressure sintering (GPS). The effects of the activator concentration and the overall composition of host lattice on the phase evolution, morphology, and optical properties were investigated. The single-phase Ca-{alpha}-Sialon:Ce{sup 3+},Li{sup +} can be synthesized at x<0.1, 1.0{<=}m{<=}2.5, and n{<=}1.2. The synthesized powders exhibit a relatively dispersive and uniform morphology. Under the near UV excitation, the bright green-blue emission centered at 500-518 nm is observed. The photoluminescence can be tailored by controlling Ce{sup 3+} concentration and the overall composition of the {alpha}-Sialon host lattice. With increasing the Ce concentration and m value both excitation and emission bands show a red shift, which perfectly matches with the near-UV LEDs in the range of 360-410 nm. The strongest luminescence is achieved at x=0.08-0.1, m=2.0-2.5, and n=1.0. Simultaneously, the highest quantum efficiency and better thermal stability are also present. -- Graphical abstract: Dependence of photoluminescence intensity and normalized photoluminescence spectra (the inset) of Ca-{alpha}-Sialon:Ce{sup 3+},Li{sup +} on the host lattice composition: (a) m value and (b) n value Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} The optical properties of [Ca{sub (1-2x)}Ce{sub x}Li{sub x}]{sub m/2}Si{sub 12-(m+n)}Al{sub m+n}O{sub n}N{sub 16-n} (0{<=}x{<=}0.25, 0.5{<=}m{<=}3.5, 0.16{<=}n{<=}2.0) have been investigated. {yields} Excited by near UV, the bright green emission centered at 500-518 nm is observed. {yields} The photoluminescence can be tailored by controlling Ce{sup 3+} content and host lattice composition. {yields} The strongest luminescence is achieved at x=0.08-0.1, m=2.0-2.5, and n=1.0. {yields} The highest quantum efficiency and better thermal stability are also present.

Li, Hui-Li, E-mail: hlli@phy.ecnu.edu.c [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Zhou, Guo-Hong [Structural Ceramics Center, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xie, Rong-Jun; Hirosaki, Naoto [Nano Ceramics Center, National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Wang, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Zhuo [Engineering Research Center for Nanophotonics and Advanced Instrument, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China)

2011-05-15

242

DIFFUSE Ly{alpha} EMITTING HALOS: A GENERIC PROPERTY OF HIGH-REDSHIFT STAR-FORMING GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect

Using a sample of 92 UV continuum-selected, spectroscopically identified galaxies with (z) = 2.65, all of which have been imaged in the Ly{alpha} line with extremely deep narrow-band imaging, we examine galaxy Ly{alpha} emission profiles to very faint surface brightness limits. The galaxy sample is representative of spectroscopic samples of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at similar redshifts in terms of apparent magnitude, UV luminosity, inferred extinction, and star formation rate and was assembled without regard to Ly{alpha} emission properties. Approximately 45% (55%) of the galaxy spectra have Ly{alpha} appearing in net absorption (emission), with {approx_equal} 20% satisfying commonly used criteria for the identification of 'Ly{alpha} emitters' (LAEs; W{sub 0}(Ly{alpha}) {>=} 20 A). We use extremely deep stacks of rest-UV continuum and continuum-subtracted Ly{alpha} images to show that all sub-samples exhibit diffuse Ly{alpha} emission to radii of at least 10'' ({approx}80 physical kpc). The characteristic exponential scale lengths for Ly{alpha} line emission exceed that of the {lambda}{sub 0} = 1220 A UV continuum light by factors of {approx}5-10. The surface brightness profiles of Ly{alpha} emission are strongly suppressed relative to the UV continuum light in the inner few kpc, by amounts that are tightly correlated with the galaxies' observed spectral morphology; however, all galaxy sub-subsamples, including that of galaxies for which Ly{alpha} appears in net absorption in the spectra, exhibit qualitatively similar diffuse Ly{alpha} emission halos. Accounting for the extended Ly{alpha} emission halos, which generally would not be detected in the slit spectra of individual objects or with typical narrow-band Ly{alpha} imaging, increases the total Ly{alpha} flux (and rest equivalent width W{sub 0}(Ly{alpha})) by an average factor of {approx}5, and by a much larger factor for the 80% of LBGs not classified as LAEs. We argue that most, if not all, of the observed Ly{alpha} emission in the diffuse halos originates in the galaxy H II regions but is scattered in our direction by H I gas in the galaxy's circum-galactic medium. The overall intensity of Ly{alpha} halos, but not the surface brightness distribution, is strongly correlated with the emission observed in the central {approx}1''-more luminous halos are observed for galaxies with stronger central Ly{alpha} emission. We show that whether or not a galaxy is classified as a giant 'Ly{alpha} blob' (LAB) depends sensitively on the Ly{alpha} surface brightness threshold reached by an observation. Accounting for diffuse Ly{alpha} halos, all LBGs would be LABs if surveys were sensitive to 10 times lower Ly{alpha} surface brightness thresholds; similarly, essentially all LBGs would qualify as LAEs.

Steidel, Charles C.; Bogosavljevic, Milan [California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Shapley, Alice E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kollmeier, Juna A. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Reddy, Naveen A. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85258 (United States); Erb, Dawn K. [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Pettini, Max [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom)

2011-08-01

243

Relative Biological Effectiveness of Alpha-Particle Emitters In Vivo at Low Doses  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic potential of radionuclides that emit ? particles, as well as their associated health hazards, have attracted considerable attention. The 224Ra daughters 212Pb and 212Bi, by virtue of their radiation properties which involve emission of ? and ? particles in their decay to stable 208Pb, have been proposed as candidates for radioimmunotherapy. Using mouse testes as the experimental model and testicular spermhead survival as the biological end point, the present work examines the radiotoxicity of 212Pb and its daughters. When 212Pb, in equilibrium with its daughters 212Bi, 212Po and 208Tl, was administered directly into the testis, the dose required to achieve 37% survival (D37) was 0.143 0.014 Gy and the corresponding RBE of the mixed radiation field was 4.7 when compared to the D37 for acute external 120 kVp X rays. This datum, in conjunction with our earlier results for 210Po, was used to obtain an RBELET relationship for ? particles emitted by tissue-incorporated radionuclides: RBE? = 4.8 ? 6.1 10?2 LET + 1.0 10?3 LET2. Similarly, the dependence of RBE on ?-particle energy E? was given by RBE?=22E??0.73. These relationships, based on in vivo experimental data, may be valuable in predicting biological effects of ?-particle emitters.

Howell, Roger W.; Azure, Michael T.; Narra, Venkat R.; Rao, Dandamudi V.

2012-01-01

244

Characterization and Control of Airborne Particles Emitted During Production of Epoxy\\/Carbon Nanotube Nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work characterized airborne particles generated from the weighing of bulk, multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the manual sanding of epoxy test samples reinforced with CNTs. It also evaluated the effectiveness of three local exhaust ventilation (LEV) conditions (no LEV, custom fume hood, and biosafety cabinet) for control of particles generated during sanding of CNT-epoxy nanocomposites. Particle number and respirable

Lorenzo G. Cena; Thomas M. Peters

2011-01-01

245

Photons and particles emitted from cold atmospheric-pressure plasma inactivate bacteria and biomolecules independently and synergistically.  

PubMed

Cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas are currently in use in medicine as surgical tools and are being evaluated for new applications, including wound treatment and cosmetic care. The disinfecting properties of plasmas are of particular interest, given the threat of antibiotic resistance to modern medicine. Plasma effluents comprise (V)UV photons and various reactive particles, such as accelerated ions and radicals, that modify biomolecules; however, a full understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie plasma-based disinfection has been lacking. Here, we investigate the antibacterial mechanisms of plasma, including the separate, additive and synergistic effects of plasma-generated (V)UV photons and particles at the cellular and molecular levels. Using scanning electron microscopy, we show that plasma-emitted particles cause physical damage to the cell envelope, whereas UV radiation does not. The lethal effects of the plasma effluent exceed the zone of physical damage. We demonstrate that both plasma-generated particles and (V)UV photons modify DNA nucleobases. The particles also induce breaks in the DNA backbone. The plasma effluent, and particularly the plasma-generated particles, also rapidly inactivate proteins in the cellular milieu. Thus, in addition to physical damage to the cellular envelope, modifications to DNA and proteins contribute to the bactericidal properties of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma. PMID:24068175

Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Schneider, Simon; Edengeiser, Eugen; Jarzina, Fabian; Brinckmann, Steffen; Steinborn, Elena; Havenith, Martina; Benedikt, Jan; Bandow, Julia E

2013-12-01

246

Neoclassical Simulations of Fusion Alpha Particles in Pellet Charge Exchange Experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect

Neoclassical simulations of alpha particle density profiles in high fusion power plasmas on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 1577] are found to be in good agreement with measurements of the alpha distribution function made with a sensitive active neutral particle diagnostic. The calculations are carried out in Hamiltonian magnetic coordinates with a fast, particle-following Monte Carlo code which includes the neoclassical transport processes, a recent first-principles model for stochastic ripple loss and collisional effects. New global loss and confinement domain calculations allow an estimate of the actual alpha particle densities measured with the pellet charge exchange diagnostic.

Batha, S.H.; Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Levinton, F.M.; Redi, M.H.; et al

1999-02-01

247

A spin filter polarimeter and an {alpha}-particle D-state study  

SciTech Connect

A Spin Filter Polarimeter (SFP) which reveals populations of individual hyperfine states of nuclear spin-polarized H{sup {+-}} (or D{sup {+-}}) beams has been tested. the SFP is based on unique properties of a three-level interaction in the 2S{sub 1/2} and 2P{sub 1/2} states of the hydrogen (or deuterium) atoms, created when the polarized ion beams pick up electrons in cesium vapor. The SFP has potential for an absolute accuracy of better than 1.5%, thus it could be used for calibrating polarimeters absolutely for low energy experiments for which no nuclear polarization standard exists. Test results show that the SFP provides a quick and elegant measure of the relative hyperfine state populations in the beam. This {alpha}-particle study is a small part of a larger project studying the deuteron-deuteron configuration of the {alpha}-particle wave function. The differential cross section and tensor analyzing powers (TAP) were measured for the {sup 50}Ti({bar d},{alpha}){sup 48}Sc reaction to the J{sup {pi}} = 7{sup +} state in {sup 48}Sc at E{sub x} = 1.097 MeV and compared with exact finite-range distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) calculations. The DWBA calculations use realistic {alpha}-particle wave functions generated from variational Monte-Carlo calculations.

Lemieux, S.K.

1993-12-31

248

Superconducting Transition-Edge Sensor Microcalorimeters for UltraHigh Resolution Alpha-Particle Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha-particle spectrometry is a powerful analytical tool for nuclear forensics and environmental monitoring. Super- conducting transition-edge sensor microcalorimeters have been shown to yield unsurpassed energy resolution for alpha spectrom- etry. With nearly an order of magnitude better energy resolution (1.06 keV FWHM at 5.3 MeV) than the current state-of-the-art silicon detectors (8-10 keV at 5.3 MeV), it is possible to

M. P. Croce; M. K. Bacrania; E. M. Bond; D. E. Dry; A. L. Klingensmith; W. A. Moody; S. P. LaMont; M. W. Rabin; J. H. Rim; J. A. Beall; D. A. Bennett; V. Kotsubo; R. D. Horansky; G. C. Hilton; D. Schmidt; J. N. Ullom; R. Cantor

2011-01-01

249

The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

1973-01-01

250

Neutron production in the lunar subsurface from alpha particles in galactic cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron production from alpha particles in galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in the lunar subsurface has not been estimated with reliable precision despite its importance for lunar nuclear spectroscopy and space dosimetry. Here, we report our estimation of neutron production from GCR nuclei (protons and alpha particles) with the Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS), which includes several heavy ion interaction models. PHITS simulations of the equilibrium neutron density profiles in the lunar subsurface are compared with experimental data obtained in the Apollo 17 Lunar Neutron Probe Experiment. Our calculations successfully reproduced the data within an experimental error of 15%. Our estimation of neutron production from GCR nuclei, estimated by scaling that from protons by a factor of 1.27, is in good agreement within an error of 1% with the calculations using two different alpha particle interaction models in PHITS during a period of average activity of the solar cycle. However, we show that the factor depends on the incident GCR spectrum model used in the simulation. Therefore, we conclude that the use of heavy ion interaction models is important for estimating neutron production in the lunar subsurface.

Ota, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Sihver, L.; Yamashita, N.; Hasebe, N.

2011-01-01

251

Large-angle {alpha}-particle scattering on {sup 12}C and search for signatures of {alpha}-particle Bose condensation  

SciTech Connect

Evidence of the 3{alpha}-particle condensate character of the Hoyle state (the 0{sub 2}{sup +} state at 7.65 MeV in {sup 12}C) implies not only an enhanced radius of {sup 12}C in this state, which was established by many theoretical calculations and confirmed by the recent diffraction model analysis, but also zero relative angular momenta between clusters. We performed coupled-channels model calculations of the angular distributions of {alpha}+{sup 12}C elastic and inelastic (to the 4.44-MeV 2{sup +}, 7.65-MeV 0{sub 2}{sup +}, and 9.65-MeV 3{sub 1}{sup -} states) scattering at 110 MeV and found the ratio of the empirical spectroscopic factors S(L). As the differential cross sections of these reactions are characterized by pronounced enhancement and strong oscillations at large angles, we assumed a potential scattering in the forward hemisphere and the direct transfer of a {sup 8}Be cluster at {theta}{sub c.m.}>90 deg. and took into account the direct transfer of {sup 8}Be in the ground state and in the first excited 2{sup +} and 4{sup +} states. We found that the cluster configuration with L=0 dominates in the 0{sub 2}{sup +} state, being more than three times larger than that in the ground state. This result provides additional evidence of the condensed structure of the Hoyle state in {sup 12}C with a dominance of zero relative angular momentum. The negative-parity 3{sub 1}{sup -} excited state in {sup 12}C observed above the 3{alpha} threshold is also considered to have the 3{alpha}-cluster structure. The present calculations described well the structure of the large-angle cross section on this state. We found a positive interference for all allowed {alpha}+{sup 8}Be configurations with a dominance of the p-orbital (69%){alpha}+{sup 8}Be motion and confirmed the exotic, but hardly a condensed, structure of this state.

Belyaeva, T. L. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, C.P. 50000, Toluca (Mexico); Danilov, A. N.; Demyanova, A. S.; Ogloblin, A. A. [RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow RU-123182 (Russian Federation); Goncharov, S. A. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Vorob'evy Gory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Perez-Torres, R. [Universidad Tecnologico del Valle de Toluca (Mexico)

2010-11-15

252

Search for {alpha}-states in {sup 13}C via elastic resonant scattering of {alpha} particles on {sup 9}Be  

SciTech Connect

We will discuss new experimental data concerning the elastic resonant scattering of {alpha}-particles on {sup 9}Be nuclei at bombarding energies from 3.5 MeV up to 9.9 MeV. Several excitation functions have been obtained at different polar angles, mainly in the backward hemisphere in the centre of mass frame. Excitation functions show various anomalies that can be linked to the presence of various excited states in the {sup 13}C compound nucleus. In the literature, some of these states have been proposed to belong to rotational bands built on deformed a-cluster excited state. Unfortunately, up to date the spin-parity assignment of many of these states is doubtful. The set of excitation functions we obtained from the present experiment can contribute to improve spectroscopy of highling excited states of {sup 13}C.

Lombardo, I.; Campajola, L.; Rosato, E.; Spadaccini, G.; Vigilante, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell'Universita di Napoli Federico II INFN - Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy)

2013-07-18

253

Cytotoxic reaction and TNF-alpha response of macrophages to polyurethane particles.  

PubMed

Their unique mechanical and biological properties make polyurethanes (PUs) ideal materials for many implantable devices. However, uncertain long-term biostability in the human physiological environment limits their extensive clinical applications. Chronic inflammatory response associated with macrophage activation has been suggested as a prime factor; although the mechanism of macrophage activation in response to biomaterial surfaces and debris is still unknown. The overall objective of this work was to study the response of macrophages to PU materials in vitro by measuring cell viability and activity. The studies were carried out using phagocytozable-size PU particles from three types of commercially-available PUs: Pellethane 2363 80ABA (PL); Tecothane TT2065 (TC65); and Tecothane TT2085 (TC85). These polymers posess the same generic composition but differ in the length of hard and soft segments, as revealed by the FTIR and NMR studies. The results showed that PU particles affected both viability and activity of J774 macrophages. The percentage of mortality ranged from 1 to 15% with 10-100 microg ml(-1) of particles after 24 and 48 h incubation. These three types of particles induced different mortality on the macrophages. Specifically, the mortality with PL particles was 1-4% (p > 0.05), while the mortality with TC85 particles was 2-10% (p < 0.05) and 4-15% with TC65 (p < 0.05). Conversely, these particles also affected cell proliferation. Cell numbers increased by 132 and 167% after 24 and 48 h incubation, respectively, without particles, whereas the cell numbers increased only 46 and 78% with TC65, 66 and 105% with TC85, and 67 and 110% with PL in the presence of 100 microg ml(-1) of particles for the respective incubation times. PU particles also increased TNF-alpha release from macrophage. After having been incubated for 24 h with 100 microg ml(-1) particles of TC65, TC85, and PL, macrophages release TNF-alpha 7.4, 5.2, and 4.1 times more than the control. In conclusion, PU particles had cytotoxic effects on J774 macrophage at high concentrations. The order of macrophage response for three types of particles was TC65 > TC85 > PL. PU particles' effect on macrophage viability and activity depends on the concentration of particles and their chemical composition, especially on the ratio of hard to soft segments. PMID:12102593

Ma, Nan; Petit, Alain; Yahia, L'Hocine; Huk, Olga L; Tabrizian, Maryam

2002-01-01

254

Detection of charged particles emitted by electrolytically induced cold nuclear fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made to obtain evidence for electrolytically induced cold nuclear fusion by detecting charged particles associated with the nuclear reaction. Charged particles were detected by a conventional silicon surface barrier detector attached close to the thin foil cathode which formed the bottom of an electrolysis cell. The efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio of this system are higher than those

Ryoichi Taniguchi; Takao Yamamoto; Setsuko Irie

1989-01-01

255

The propagation distance of the by-product ion beams emitted from neutral particle beam accelerators  

SciTech Connect

The effects of collective electric fields on the propagation of the positive-ion and negative-ion by-products from neutral particle beam accelerators are examined. For present and future space-based neutral particle beam experiments, it is shown that the by-product beams do not propagate across the earth's magnetic field. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Borovsky, J.E.

1989-11-01

256

The propagation distance of the by-product ion beams emitted from neutral particle beam accelerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of collective electric fields on the propagation of the positive-ion and negative-ion by-products from neutral particle beam accelerators are examined. For present and future space-based neutral particle beam experiments, it is shown that the by-product beams do not propagate across the earth's magnetic field. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Borovsky

1989-01-01

257

Dynamic radioactive particle source  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

2012-06-26

258

Preferential heating and acceleration of alpha particles by Alfvn-cyclotron waves.  

PubMed

Preferential heating and acceleration of heavy ions in the solar wind and corona represent a long-standing theoretical problem in space physics, and are distinct experimental signatures of kinetic processes occurring in collisionless plasmas. We show that fast and slow ion-acoustic waves (IAW) and transverse waves, driven by Alfvn-cyclotron wave parametric instabilities can selectively destroy the coherent fluid motion of different ion species and, in this way lead to their differential heating and acceleration. Trapping of the more abundant protons by the fast IAW generates a proton beam with drift speed of about the Alfvn speed. Because of their larger mass, alpha particles do not become significantly trapped and start, by conservation of total ion momentum, drifting relative to the receding bulk protons. Thus the resulting core protons and the alpha particles are differentially heated via pitch-angle scattering. PMID:19518788

Araneda, J A; Maneva, Y; Marsch, E

2009-05-01

259

Status of the JET Faraday cup lost alpha particle diagnostic KA-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the operational status and present a few recent results from the JET lost alpha particle diagnostic KA2. We summarize the results of our study of the correlation between KA2 signals and JET magnetic fields and the correlation between KA2 signals and the scintillator-based lost alpha probe KA3. In addition we quantify the relative insensitivity of the diagnostic to intense neutron and gamma ray background radiation fields and our observations of the electro-mechanical noise in the diagnostics signals. We present recent observations carried out during the 2011 JET campaign following the installation of the beryllium ITER-like wall. These observations include lost energetic deuterons during both ion-cyclotron and neutral beam heated plasmas; in particular we have measured relatively intense fluxes of energetic particles during sawtooth plasmas.

Cecil, F. E.; Kiptily, V.; Darrow, D. S.; Murari, A.; Contributors, JET-EFDA

2012-09-01

260

Energy resolution of silicon surface-barrier detectors for alpha particles, oxygen ions, and fission fragments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A group of 53 silicon surface-barrier detectors, 10 manufactured by ORTEC and 43 fabricated by the first author and his students, have been extensively tested for their energy resolutions with 244Cm alpha particles, oxygen ions of 25 and 50 MeV energy from the University of Pittsburgh Van de Graaff accelerator, and fission fragments from a 252Cf source. A total of 47 detectors were tested with alpha particles, 24 were tested with fission fragments, and 8 were tested with the oxygen ions. Six detectors were tested with all three sources. The resistivity of the silicon from which the detectors were made and the reverse bias at which they were operated were given special attention. Capacitance measurements were made on most of the detectors to get an independent measurement of the resistivity of the silicon starting material.

Klema, Ernest D.; Saladin, J. X.; Alessi, James G.; Schmitt, H. W.

1980-12-01

261

Development of scintillator plates with high energy resolution for alpha particles made of GPS scintillator grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scintillator plate with high energy resolution was developed to produce an alpha particle monitor used in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and mixed plutonium-uranium oxide (MOX) fuel plants. Grains of a Gd2Si2O7 (GPS) scintillator of several 10 to 550 ?m were fixed on a glass substrate and were then mechanically polished. By increasing the size of scintillator grains and removing fine powders, the collected light yield and energy resolution for alpha particles were drastically improved. Energy resolution of 9.3% was achieved using average grain size of 91 ?m. Furthermore, the ratios between counts in a peak and total counts were improved by more than 60% by the further increase of grain size and adoption of mechanically polished surfaces on both sides. Beta and gamma ray influences were suppressed sufficiently by the thin 100 ?m scintillator plates.

Shimaoka, Takehiro; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Izaki, Kenji; Tsubota, Youichi; Higuchi, Mikio; Nishiyama, Shusuke

2014-01-01

262

Mutagenic effects of a single and an exact number of alpha particles in mammalian cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the main uncertainties in risk estimation for environmental radon exposure using lung cancer data from underground miners is the extrapolation from high- to low-dose exposure where multiple traversal is extremely rare. The biological effects of a single alpha particle are currently unknown. Using the recently available microbeam source at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility at Columbia University, we examined the frequencies and molecular spectrum of S1- mutants induced in human-hamster hybrid (A(L)) cells by either a single or an exact number of alpha particles. Exponentially growing cells were stained briefly with a nontoxic concentration of Hoechst dye for image analysis, and the location of individual cells was computer-monitored. The nucleus of each cell was irradiated with either 1,2,4, or 8 alpha particles at a linear energy transfer of 90 keV/microm consistent with the energy spectrum of domestic radon exposure. Although single-particle traversal was only slightly cytotoxic to A(L) cells (survival fraction approximately 0.82), it was highly mutagenic, and the induced mutant fraction averaged 110 mutants per 10(5) survivors. In addition, both toxicity and mutant induction were dose-dependent. Multiplex PCR analysis of mutant DNA showed that the proportion of mutants with multilocus deletions increased with the number of particle traversals. These data provide direct evidence that a single a particle traversing a nucleus will have a high probability of resulting in a mutation and highlight the need for radiation protection at low doses.

Hei, T. K.; Wu, L. J.; Liu, S. X.; Vannais, D.; Waldren, C. A.; Randers-Pehrson, G.

1997-01-01

263

Absolute number of scintillation photons in liquid xenon by alpha-particles  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the absolute scintillation yield obtained to be 3.26 [times] 10[sup 5] for alpha-particles of 5.303 MeV in liquid xenon. This result followed from fitting the absolute photo-electron yields measured with a VUV sensitive photomultiplier, which was used as a photo-diode, to the results of Monte-Carlo simulation.

Miyajima, M.; Sasaki, S.; Tawara, H. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Shibamura, E. (Saitama College of Health, Kamiokubo 519, Urawa, Saitama 338 (Japan))

1992-08-01

264

Nanodosimetry and nanodosimetric-based models of radiation action for radon alpha particles  

SciTech Connect

We report on a theory for describing the biological effects of ionizing radiation in particular radon [alpha] particles. Behind this approach is the recognition that biological effects such as chromosome aberrations, cellular transformation, cellular inactivation, etc, are the result of a hierarchic sequence of radiation effects. We indicate how to treat each of the individual processes in this sequence, and also how to relate one effect to the hierarchically superior one.

Zaider, M.

1992-01-01

265

Ionisation cross sections of Cd, Sn, Te, I and Ba for protons and alpha particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

K-shell X-ray production cross sections of 48Cd, 50Sn, 52Te, 53I and 56Ba have been measured for alpha particles with energies between 2.2 and 2.8 MeV. In addition, production cross sections for 52Te have been measured for protons between 1.6 and 3 MeV. The values have been compared with the earlier experiments and with the theoretical predictions given by four different

L. Avaldi; M. Milazzo; G. Trivia; I. V. Mitchell

1983-01-01

266

Energy dependence of radiation damage in molybdenum irradiated by. cap alpha. particles  

SciTech Connect

Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray analysis are used to study the defect structure produced in polycrystalline molybdenum by irradiation with high-energy (10--50 MeV) ..cap alpha.. particles. The nature of the radiation-induced defect clusters is determined and it is shown that there is no change in the crystal lattice parameters when interstitial and vacancy clusters are present together with isolated voids.

Ibragimov, S.S.; Reutov, V.F.; Abdrashitov, I.Y.; Vagin, S.P.

1983-01-01

267

Fusion alpha-particle losses in a high-beta rippled tokamak  

SciTech Connect

In tokamak plasmas, the confinement of energetic ions depends on the magnetic field structure. If the plasma pressure is finite, the equilibrium current (i.e., the Pfirsch-Schlter current and diamagnetic current) flows in the plasma to maintain the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium. These plasma currents generate poloidal and toroidal magnetic field and alter the field structure. Moreover, if we consider the non-axisymmetry of magnetic field structures such as toroidal field (TF) ripples, the non-axisymmetric component of the equilibrium current can alter TF ripples themselves. When the plasma beta becomes high, the changes in the field structure due to the equilibrium current might affect the confinement of energetic ions significantly. We intend to clarify how these currents alter the field structure and affect the confinement of alpha particles in high-beta plasma. The MHD equilibrium is calculated using VMEC and the orbits of fusion alpha particles are followed by using the fully three-dimensional magnetic field orbit-following Monte Carlo code. In relatively low-beta plasma (e.g., the volume-averaged beta value ?2%), the changes in the magnetic field component due to the plasma current negligibly affect the confinement of alpha particles except for the Shafranov shift effect. However, for ?3%, the diamagnetic effect reduces the magnetic field strength and significantly increases alpha-particle losses. In these high-beta cases, the non-axisymmetric field component generated by the equilibrium current also increases these losses, but not as effectively as compared to the diamagnetic effect.

Bunno, M.; Nakamura, Y. [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)] [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Suzuki, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)] [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Shinohara, K.; Matsunaga, G. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Tani, K. [Nippon Advanced Technology, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan)] [Nippon Advanced Technology, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan)

2013-08-15

268

Alpha-particle emission from carbon bombarded with neutrons below 30 MeV  

SciTech Connect

Alpha-particle emission induced by neutron bombardment of carbon has been studied from threshold to over 30 MeV using the spallation neutron source at WNR/LAMPF. Targets include thin foils of CH{sub 2} and thicker foils of CH and polycrystalline graphite. Comparisons are made with evaluated data. Values for KERMA (kinetic energy released in materials) based on the results will be presented and compared with those obtained through other experimental approaches.

Haight, R.C.; Lee, T.M.; Sterbenz, S.M. [and others

1994-07-01

269

Preliminary analysis of alpha-particle effects in the fusion ignition experiment ignitex  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a simple fusion experiment for the production and control do deuterium-tritium-ignited plasmas for scientific study is considered. The basic elements of fusion product alpha-particle containment is rather high even with the assumption of significant levels of toroidal asymmetries. Production of thermally stable plasmas is possible because of the low-beta thermal damping provided by electron cyclotron emission. The

R. Carrera; E. Montalvo; G. Y. Fu; G. H. Miley; L. M. Hively; M. N. Rosenbluth; S. Tamor

1990-01-01

270

Polycrystalline BN and LiF Based Semiconductor Alpha Particle and Neutron Detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite, polycrystalline, semiconductor, hexagonal BN alone or mixed with B4C or BMg2 and cubic LiF were embedded in an insulating matrix which acts as a binder and tested as alpha particle and neutron detectors. The boron containing semiconductors have the natural abundance of 10B which is ~20%. In the case of LiF is the natural content of 6Li only 7.4%.

M. Schieber; M. Roth; A. Zuck; O. Khakhan; J. Uher; V. Linhart; S. Pospisil; M. Fiederle

2006-01-01

271

Scattering of 42-MeV alpha particles from Cu-65  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extended particle-core coupling model was used to predict the properties of low-lying levels of Cu-65. A 42-MeV alpha particle cyclotron beam was used for the experiment. The experiment included magnetic analysis of the incident beam and particle detection by lithium-drifted silicon semiconductors. Angular distributions were measured for 10 to 50 degrees in the center of mass system. Data was reduced by fitting the peaks with a skewed Gaussian function using a least squares computer program with a linear background search. The energy calibration of each system was done by pulsar, and the excitation energies are accurate to + or - 25 keV. The simple weak coupling model cannot account for the experimentally observed quantities of the low-lying levels of Cu-65. The extended particle-core calculation showed that the coupling is not weak and that considerable configuration mixing of the low-lying states results.

Stewart, W. M.; Seth, K. K.

1972-01-01

272

Analysis of particle-borne odorants emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations.  

PubMed

Airborne particles are known to serve as a carrier of odors emanating from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). However, limited quantitative data about particle-borne odorants preclude an accurate assessment of the role of particles in odor transport. This study collected total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10?m) at the air exhaust of eight types of CAFOs (swine: farrowing, gestation, weaning, and finishing; poultry: manure-belt layer hen, tom turkey, chicken broiler, and cage-free layer hen; in total 20 animal buildings) in multiple seasons, and examined the variability in particle odorant composition with animal operation type, season, and particle size. Fifty-seven non-sulfur-containing odorants were identified and quantitated, including carbonyls, alcohols, acids, phenols, and nitrogen-containing compounds. They in total accounted for 2.191.52% TSP and 4.973.25% PM10 mass. Acetic acid and ethanol were most abundant but less odor-contributing than phenylacetic acid, indole, dodecanoic acid, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, as determined by odor activity value. Particle odorant composition varied significantly with animal operation type, season, and particle size. The TSP and PM10 samples from swine gestation buildings, for example, showed distinctly different odorant compositions than those from tom turkey buildings. The summer TSP and PM10 samples contained in general lower concentrations of short-chain fatty acids but higher concentrations of long-chain fatty acids, aldehydes, and short-chain alcohols than the winter samples. Compared to TSP, PM10 samples from different types of CAFOs shared a more similar odorant composition, contained higher odorant concentrations per mass of particles, and accounted for on average 53.2% of the odor strength of their corresponding TSP samples. PMID:24863138

Yang, Xufei; Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa; Cadwallader, Keith R; Wang, Xinlei; Zhang, Yuanhui; Lee, Jongmin

2014-08-15

273

Characterization of individual fly ash particles emitted from coal- and oil-fired power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individual particles from coal- and oil-fired power plants were analyzed by scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer to investigate size, morphology, and composition. Samples were collected on filters by dichotomous sampler in the fine ( <2.5 ?m aerodynamic diameter) and coarse (2.5 to 5-10 ?m) fractions. In both fractions coal fly ash particles were predominantly ( > 95%) smooth, mineral spheres. No cenospheres (perforated hollow spheres) were detected, and almost 90% of the mass concentrations occurred in the coarse fraction. Sulfur as lared as a surface layer on the mineral core; the abundances of Fe and S were highly variable. The Al/Si ratio was fairly constant for most of the spheres but not for the relatively few Fe-rich or non-spherical coal fly ash particles. Over 90% of the mass of oil fly ash occurred in the fine fraction. The size distribution of chemical and morphological properties of individual oil fly ash particles was found to be trimodal. Oil fly ash particles smaller than 0.7 ? (geometric diameter) were non-spherical and relatively pure in sulfate, and 90% of such particles were smaller than 0.5 ?m; V or Ni could be detected in 50% to 60% of such particles larger than 0.3 ?m. Those particles in the 0.7-3 ?m range of geometric diameters were predominantly spherical and of mineral composition, highly variable in Al, Si, P, Ca, Ti and Fe; 50-60% of them contained detectable amounts of V or Ni. Larger oil fly ash particles had a lacy morphology and consisted of carbonaceous material and sulfur.

Mamane, Y.; Miller, J. L.; Dzubay, T. G.

274

Acceleration of low-energy protons and alpha particles at interplanetary shock waves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The low-energy protons and alpha particles in the energy range 30 keV/charge to 150 keV/charge associated with three different interplanetary shock waves in the immediate preshock and postshock region are studied using data obtained by the ISEE 3. The spatial distributions in the preshock and postshock medium are presented, and the dependence of the phase space density at different energies on the distance from the shock and on the form of the distribution function of both species immediately at the shock is examined. It is found that in the preshock region the particles are flowing in the solar wind frame of reference away from the shock and in the postshock medium the distribution is more or less isotropic in this frame of reference. The distribution function in the postshock region can be represented by a power law in energy which has the same spectral exponent for both protons and alpha particles. It is concluded that the first-order Fermi acceleration process can consistently explain the data, although the spectra of diffuse bow shock associated particles are different from the spectra of the interplanetary shock-associated particles in the immediate vicinity of the shock. In addition, the mean free path of the low energy ions in the preshock medium is found to be considerably smaller than the mean free path determined by the turbulence of the background interplanetary medium.

Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F. M.; Gloeckler, G.

1983-01-01

275

The local skin dose conversion coefficients of electrons, protons and alpha particles calculated using the Geant4 code.  

PubMed

The skin tissue-equivalent slab reported in the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 116 to calculate the localised skin dose conversion coefficients (LSDCCs) was adopted into the Monte Carlo transport code Geant4. The Geant4 code was then utilised for computation of LSDCCs due to a circular parallel beam of monoenergetic electrons, protons and alpha particles <10 MeV. The computed LSDCCs for both electrons and alpha particles are found to be in good agreement with the results using the MCNPX code of ICRP 116 data. The present work thus validates the LSDCC values for both electrons and alpha particles using the Geant4 code. PMID:23610196

Zhang, Bintuan; Dang, Bingrong; Wang, Zhuanzi; Wei, Wei; Li, Wenjian

2013-10-01

276

First evidence of collective alpha particle effect on TAE modes in the TFTR D-T experiment  

SciTech Connect

The alpha particle effect on the excitation of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) was investigated in deuterium-tritium (d-t) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). RF power was used to position the plasma near the instability threshold, and the alpha particle effect was inferred from the reduction of RF power threshold for TAE instability in d-t plasmas. Initial calculations indicate that the alpha particles contribute 10--30% of the total drive in a d-t plasma with 3 MW of peak fusion power.

Wong, K.L.; Schmidt, G.; Batha, S.H. [and others

1995-08-01

277

Multi-MeV Li/sup 0/ beam as a diagnostic for fast confined alpha particles  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a method of measuring the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a magnetically contained plasma. We calculate the characteristics of the signals to be expected from injecting multi-MeV Li/sup 0/ into the plasma to undergo double charge-exchange reactions with the alpha particles. Neutralized alpha particles then escape from the plasma to be detected by a charge-exchange analyzer. We also examine the feasibility of producing a Li/sup 0/ beam of the required current and energy, and we discuss a conceptual design for an appropriate beam system.

Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E.; Mikkelsen, D.R.

1982-04-01

278

Study of the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16N  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16N has been studied, with 16N nuclei produced using 80 MeV/nucleon 18O beams on 9Be targets. The 16N secondary nuclei were mass analyzed and separated from the reaction products using the Michigan State University A1200 isotope separator. A detector array, including four thin surface barrier detectors, a p-i-n diode, a Ge gamma-ray detector, and a two-dimensional position sensitive parallel plate avalanche counter, was used for implantation and study of the separated nuclei. A beta-decay branching ratio of (1.3+/-0.3)10-5 to the 1- state at 9.6 MeV and a centroid of 2.35+/-0.05 MeV for the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission were measured. These results are essential for the analysis of a high sensitivity measurement at Yale University of the low-energy beta-delayed alpha-particle emission of 16N, and for understanding the 12C(?,?)16O reaction in the helium burning process in massive stars.

Zhao, Z.; France, R. H., III; Lai, K. S.; Gai, M.; Wilds, E. L.; Kryger, R. A.; Winger, J. A.; Beard, K. B.

1993-07-01

279

alpha-Particle and gamma-ray spectrometry of a plutonium solution for impurity determination.  

PubMed

A highly enriched (240)Pu solution was measured by alpha-particle and gamma-ray spectrometry to determine other radionuclides present in the material as impurities. Low activities of (238)Pu, (241)Am, (243)Cm and (244)Cm were determined by measuring thin sources, made from the original solution, in a high-resolution alpha-particle spectrometer. The sources were prepared by evaporating the plutonium solution on quartz plates in a vacuum chamber. From the ingrowth of (241)Am in the original solution, the amount of (241)Pu could be calculated. After radiochemical separation of (241)Am, the plutonium was measured by high-efficiency alpha-particle spectrometry to determine the amount of (238)Pu. The enriched (240)Pu material was also measured by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry, using two different HPGe detectors to determine the impurities of (239)Pu and (241)Am. The preparation of the sources and the measurement methods are described and discussed. The measured impurities, given in % of the (240)Pu activity, are compared with the values on the certificate. PMID:18356064

Sibbens, G; Altzitzoglou, T; Benedik, L; Pomm, S; Van Ammel, R

2008-01-01

280

Electrostatic ion-acoustic-like instabilities in the solar wind with a backstreaming alpha particle beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear electrostatic instabilities have been shown to occur frequently and under very different conditions in a plasma with two ion beams such as the fast solar wind. These instabilities can be triggered when the phase velocity of electrostatic ion-acoustic propagating forward and backward relative to the interplanetary magnetic field overlap, due to the presence of a finite amplitude of circularly polarized wave. The instabilities can be triggered by waves supported by the same ion-component, or by waves supported by different ion-components. By assuming a beam of alpha particles moving backward relative to the external magnetic field, as observed in some events in the fast solar wind, it is shown that a very small negative drift velocity of the alpha particle beam relative to the core plasma - a few per cent of the local Alfvn velocity - can trigger a very rich variety of nonlinear electrostatic acoustic-like instabilities. Their growth rates can be rather large and they persist for a wide range of ion temperatures, provided that the alpha particle backstreaming beams, have much larger drift velocities.

Gomberoff, L.; Gomberoff, K.; Deutsch, A.

2009-12-01

281

Energy loss of proton, alpha particle, and electron beams in hafnium dioxide films  

SciTech Connect

The electronic stopping power, S, of HfO{sub 2} films for proton and alpha particle beams has been measured and calculated. The experimental data have been obtained by the Rutherford backscattering technique and cover the range of 120-900 and 120-3000 keV for proton and alpha particle beams, respectively. Theoretical calculations of the energy loss for the same projectiles have been done by means of the dielectric formalism using the Mermin energy loss function--generalized oscillator strength (MELF-GOS) model for a proper description of the HfO{sub 2} target on the whole momentum-energy excitation spectrum. At low projectile energies, a nonlinear theory based on the extended Friedel sum rule has been employed. The calculations and experimental measurements show good agreement for protons and a quite good one for alpha particles. In particular, the experimental maximums of both stopping curves (around 120 and 800 keV, respectively) are well reproduced. On the basis of this good agreement, we have also calculated the inelastic mean-free path (IMFP) and the stopping power for electrons in HfO{sub 2} films. Our results predict a minimum value of the IMFP and a maximum value of the S for electrons with energies around 120 and 190 eV, respectively.

Behar, Moni; Fadanelli, Raul C.; Nagamine, Luiz C. C. M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Abril, Isabel; Denton, Cristian D. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat dAlacant, Apartat 99, E-03080 Alacant (Spain); Garcia-Molina, Rafael [Departamento de Fisica-CIOyN, Universidad de Murcia, Apartado 4021, E-30080 Murcia (Spain); Arista, Nestor R. [Division Colisiones Atomicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, RA-8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

2009-12-15

282

Phagocytosis of titanium particles and necrosis in TNF-alpha-resistant mouse sarcoma L929 cells.  

PubMed

In the oral cavity, titanium is an excellent biocompatible material. However, it is reported that high ratios of intracellular titanium particles can cause cell apoptosis or necrosis by as-yet unknown mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)-resistant L929 fibroblasts to titanium particles. Cells were cultured in Eagle's medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum and L-glutamine. Titanium particle sizes were less than 9 micro. Cytotoxicity was assayed by a cell counting kit, trypan blue dye exclusion test and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected by a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) using dichlorofluorescein diacetate as a fluorescent probe. Morphology was viewed by a CLSM and with an X-ray microanalyser (XMA). When titanium particles were added to cells, the viability decreased to around 50% at a particle concentration of 2.0%. The number of dead cells and LDH activity in the culture media increased significantly between 1 and 2 days. However, formation of active oxygen species did not occur, since no dichlorofluorescein fluorescence was observed. A scanning electron photomicrograph (SEM) revealed a large number of particles covering or adhering to cellular components in lysed cells compared with flattened control cells attached to the substrate. The XMA showed that the titanium accumulation was coincident with the deformed cell shape. The CLSM also confirmed that particles were within the cells. From these results it was concluded that titanium particles ingested in large quantities into the cell induced necrosis by a pathway other than by producing ROS. PMID:12537961

Osano, E; Kishi, J; Takahashi, Y

2003-02-01

283

Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles  

PubMed Central

Biomass burning is one of the largest sources of carbonaceous aerosols in the atmosphere, significantly affecting earths radiation budget and climate. Tar balls, abundant in biomass burning smoke, absorb sunlight and have highly variable optical properties, typically not accounted for in climate models. Here we analyse single biomass burning particles from the Las Conchas fire (New Mexico, 2011) using electron microscopy. We show that the relative abundance of tar balls (80%) is 10 times greater than soot particles (8%). We also report two distinct types of tar balls; one less oxidized than the other. Furthermore, the mixing of soot particles with other material affects their optical, chemical and physical properties. We quantify the morphology of soot particles and classify them into four categories: ~50% are embedded (heavily coated), ~34% are partly coated, ~12% have inclusions and~4% are bare. Inclusion of these observations should improve climate model performances.

China, Swarup; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Gorkowski, Kyle; Aiken, Allison C.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

2013-01-01

284

Characterization and control of airborne particles emitted during production of epoxy/carbon nanotube nanocomposites.  

PubMed

This work characterized airborne particles generated from the weighing of bulk, multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the manual sanding of epoxy test samples reinforced with CNTs. It also evaluated the effectiveness of three local exhaust ventilation (LEV) conditions (no LEV, custom fume hood, and biosafety cabinet) for control of particles generated during sanding of CNT-epoxy nanocomposites. Particle number and respirable mass concentrations were measured using an optical particle counter (OPC) and a condensation particle counter (CPC), and particle morphology was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The ratios of the geometric mean (GM) concentrations measured during the process to that measured in the background (P/B ratios) were used as indices of the impact of the process and the LEVs on observed concentrations. Processing CNT-epoxy nanocomposites materials released respirable size airborne particles (P/B ratio: weighing = 1.79; sanding = 5.90) but generally no nanoparticles (P/B ratio ?1). The particles generated during sanding were predominantly micron sized with protruding CNTs and very different from bulk CNTs that tended to remain in large (>1 ?m) tangled clusters. Respirable mass concentrations in the operator's breathing zone were lower when sanding was performed in the biological safety cabinet (GM = 0.20 ?g/m(3) compared with those with no LEV (GM = 2.68 ?g/m(3) or those when sanding was performed inside the fume hood (GM = 21.4 ?g/m(3); p-value < 0.0001). The poor performance of the custom fume hood used in this study may have been exacerbated by its lack of a front sash and rear baffles and its low face velocity (0.39 m/sec). PMID:21253981

Cena, Lorenzo G; Peters, Thomas M

2011-02-01

285

Trajectory of a test particle around a slowly rotating relativistic star emitting isotropic radiation  

SciTech Connect

We explored the motion of test particles near slowly rotating relativistic star having a uniform luminosity. In order to derive the test particle's equations of motion, we made use of the radiation stress-energy tensor first constructed by Miller and Lamb. From the particle's trajectory obtained through the numerical integration of the equations of motion, it is found that for sufficiently high luminosity, 'suspension orbit' exists, where the test particle hovers around at uniform angular velocity in the same direction as the star's spin. Interestingly, it turned out that the radial position of the suspension orbit was determined by the luminosity and the angular momentum of the star alone and was independent of the initial positions and the specific angular momentum of the particle. Also found is that there exist not only the radiation drag but also 'radiation counter drag', which depends on the stellar radius and the angular momentum, and it is this radiation counterdrag that makes the test particle in the suspension orbit hover around at a uniform angular velocity that is greater than that induced by the Lense-Thirring effect (i.e., general relativistic dragging of inertial frame).

Oh, Jae Sok; Kim, Hongsu; Lee, Hyung Mok [Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-04-15

286

Alpha-Particle Angular Distributions of At and Rn Isotopes and Their Relation to Nuclear Structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on an extensive on-line nuclear orientation study of the angular distribution of ? particles emitted in the favored decay of neutron deficient At and Rn nuclei near the N = 126 shell closure. Surprisingly large anisotropies were observed, showing pronounced changes from one isotope to another. Comparing these data with several theoretical models shows that anisotropic ? emission in favored decays from near-spherical nuclei can well be explained within the shell model, implying that it is mainly determined by the structure of the decaying nucleus.

Schuurmans, P.; Will, B.; Berkes, I.; Camps, J.; de Jesus, M.; de Moor, P.; Herzog, P.; Lindroos, M.; Paulsen, R.; Severijns, N.; van Geert, A.; van Duppen, P.; Vanneste, L.; Nicole Collaboration; ISOLDE Collaboration

1996-12-01

287

A FLUX-LIMITED SAMPLE OF z {approx} 1 Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH ,  

SciTech Connect

We describe a method for obtaining a flux-limited sample of Ly{alpha} emitters from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) grism data. We show that the multiple GALEX grism images can be converted into a three-dimensional (two spatial axes and one wavelength axis) data cube. The wavelength slices may then be treated as narrowband images and searched for emission-line galaxies. For the GALEX NUV grism data, the method provides a Ly{alpha} flux-limited sample over the redshift range z = 0.67-1.16. We test the method on the Chandra Deep Field South field, where we find 28 Ly{alpha} emitters with faint continuum magnitudes (NUV > 22) that are not present in the GALEX pipeline sample. We measure the completeness by adding artificial emitters and measuring the fraction recovered. We find that we have an 80% completeness above a Ly{alpha} flux of 10{sup -15} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. We use the UV spectra and the available X-ray data and optical spectra to estimate the fraction of active galactic nuclei in the selection. We report the first detection of a giant Ly{alpha} blob at z < 1, though we find that these objects are much less common at z = 1 than at z = 3. Finally, we compute limits on the z {approx} 1 Ly{alpha} luminosity function and confirm that there is a dramatic evolution in the luminosity function over the redshift range z = 0-1.

Barger, A. J.; Wold, I. G. B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cowie, L. L. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2012-04-20

288

Alpha-particle autoradiography in CR-39: The determination of the microdistribution of activity and trace element analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New and elaborate techniques for alpha-particle autoradiography of thick specimens based on the plastic nuclear track detector CR-39 have been developed. These permit a full analysis of both trace element and microdistribution of alpha-active nuclides present. The important features of the techniques are: (1) reliable low level counting down to 10 -15Ci g -1, (2) high resolution alpha-particle spectroscopy in CR-39, (3) determination of the absolute abundance of alpha active nuclides present in the specimen, (4) determination of the distribution of emission with height up to 30 microns above the surface of the autoradiograph, (5) the local determination of the radon diffusion coefficient in the specimen which is needed to calculate the activity levels of 222Rn and daughter nuclei, (6) the analysis of small and large clusters of alpha-particle activity recorded on the autoradiograph. These techniques are briefly discussed.

Peter Fews, A.; Henshaw, Denis L.

289

A survey of the physical processes which determine the response function of silicon detectors to alpha particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectra of monoenergetic alpha particles exhibit a well known asymmetric shape when measured with silicon detectors. The processes are described which determine the response of silicon detectors to alpha particles, particularly the energy dependence of the line shape. In this work particle implanted and passivated silicon (PIPS) detectors are assumed to have a thin dead layer at the front contact and an infinite sensitive volume. The incoming monoenergetic alpha particles lose energy in the dead layer where they develop a Gaussian energy distribution due to electronic energy-loss straggling. In the sensitive volume the alpha particles transfer most of their energy to electronic excitation and ionization ( Es,e) and the remaining fraction to the production of lattice vibrations and crystal damage. The statistical distribution of Es,e has been calculated by Monte Carlo simulation and shown to be asymmetric. The energy Es,e is subsequently used for the creation of electron-hole pairs, which are measured by an amplifier system with a Gaussian contribution to the energy resolution due to electronic noise. This model permits a quantitative calculation of the detector response function to alpha particles, and the result is in excellent agreement with measured spectra. On the basis of this model the energy dependence of the alpha particle line shape is also discussed.

Steinbauer, E.; Bortels, G.; Bauer, P.; Biersack, J. P.; Burger, P.; Ahmad, I.

1994-01-01

290

Redistribution of high energy alpha particles due to sawteeth with partial reconnection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The redistribution of high energy alpha particles due to internal kink modes is studied in plasmas with ITER-like parameters. The exact particle trajectories in the total fields, equilibrium plus perturbation, are calculated. The equilibrium magnetic field is obtained by analytically solving the Grad-Shafranov equation and the perturbed electric and magnetic fields are reconstructed using ideal MHD and the experimental information about the displacement eigenfunction. The (1, 1), (2, 2) and (2, 1) modes are included and the effect of changing their amplitude and frequency is determined. The results show that if the conditions are similar to those reported in Igochine et al (2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 23), the peak density of counter-passing particles decreases between 25% and 40% (depending on the energy); the peak of the trapped particles density shifts outwards by approximately 10% of the minor radius and the total on axis density decreases by more than 25%. This redistribution occurs inside the q = 1 surface. The addition of a (2, 1) mode, which can produce the stochastization of the magnetic field, significantly increases particle redistribution and allows particles to spread beyond the q = 1 surface. Different groups of particles (co-passing, counter-passing, trapped) respond differently to the perturbations.

Farengo, R.; Ferrari, H. E.; Garca-Martnez, P. L.; Firpo, M.-C.; Ettoumi, W.; Lifschitz, A. F.

2013-04-01

291

An Experiment to Measure Range, Range Straggling, Stopping Power, and Energy Straggling of Alpha Particles in Air  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiments to measure range, range straggling, stopping power, and energy straggling of alpha particles are discussed in this article. Commercially available equipment with simple modifications is used for these measurements. (Author/GA)

Ouseph, P. J.; Mostovych, Andrew

1978-01-01

292

Nanodosimetry and nanodosimetric-based models of radiation action for radon alpha particles. Progress report, July 1990--June 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report on a theory for describing the biological effects of ionizing radiation in particular radon (alpha) particles. Behind this approach is the recognition that biological effects such as chromosome aberrations, cellular transformation, cellular inac...

M. Zaider

1992-01-01

293

Analysis of neutron emission spectra for 30 50 MeV alpha-particle induced reactions in thick targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons of calculated neutron yield distributions from alpha-particle induced reactions on thick targets are made with measured data to analyze the initial reaction process in the framework of the exciton (hybrid) model code ALICE91 (M. Blann, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Report UCID 19614, 1982). We have considered two reaction mechanisms: dissolution of the alpha in the nuclear field, and preequilibrium

D. Dhar; S. N. Roy; Maitreyee Nandy; P. K. Sarkar

2003-01-01

294

Characterization of individual fly-ash particles emitted from coal- and oil-fired power plants  

SciTech Connect

Individual particles from coal- and oil-fired power plants were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer to investigate the morphology and composition as a function of size. Samples were collected on filters by a dichotomous sampler in the fine (<2.5 micrometer aerodynamic diameter) and the coarse fractions (2.5 to 5-10 micrometers). In both fractions, coal fly-ash particles were predominantly smooth spheres, and no cenospheres (perforated hollow spheres) were detected. Almost 90% of the mass concentration occurred in the coarse fraction; the major elements included Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, and Fe. Sulfur appeared as a surface layer on the mineral core. The abundances of Fe and S in each particle were highly variable. The ratio of Al to Si was fairly constant for most of the spheres but not for the relatively few Fe-rich or non-spherical coal fly ash particles. Over 90% of the mass of oil fly-ash occurred in the fine fraction.

Mamane, Y.; Miller, J.L.; Dzubay, T.G.

1986-01-01

295

TOXICITY OF PARTICLES EMITTED FROM COMBUSTION OF WASTE CRANKCASE OIL: IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The ever-rising cost of energy provides incentives for the utilization of waste crankcase oil (WCO) for space heating. The potential health hazards of emissions and waste products resulting from the combustion of WCO are unknown. The toxicity of the emission particles and waste p...

296

The evolution of energetic particles and the emitted radiation in solar flares. Ph.D. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of accelerated particle distributions in a magnetized plasma and the resulting radiation are calculated, and the results are applied to solar flares. To study the radiation on timescales of order the particle lifetimes, the evolution of the particle distribution is determined by the use of the Fokker-Planck equation including Coulomb collisions and magnetic mirroring. Analytic solution to the equations are obtained for limiting cases such as homogeneous injection in a homogeneous plasma, and for small pitch angle. These analytic solutions are then used to place constraints on flare parameters such as density, loop length, and the injection timescale for very short implusive solar flares. For general particle distributions in arbitrary magnetic field and background density, the equation is solved numerically. The relative timing of microwaves and X-rays during individual flares is investigated. A number of possible sources for excessive microwave flux are discussed including a flattening in the electron spectrum above hard X-ray energies, thermal synchrotron emission, and trapping of electron by converging magnetic fields. Over shorter timescales, the Fokker-Planck equation is solved numerically to calculate the temporal evolution of microwaves and X-rays from nonthermal thick target models. It is shown that magnetic trapping will not account for the observed correlation of microwaves of approximately 0.15 seconds behind X-rays in flares with rapid time variation, and thus higher energy electrons must be accelerated later than lower energy electrons.

Lu, Edward Tsang

1989-01-01

297

Dependence of scintillation characteristics in the CsI(Tl) crystal on Tl* concentrations under electron and alpha particles excitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the emission spectra, pulse heights and decay curves of CsI(Tl) crystals with a Tl* concentration ranging from 10-6 mol to 10-2 mol, under electron and alpha particle excitations. Larger pulse heights from the crystals with Tl+concentration of more than 10-3 mol were observed for a higher ionization density of alpha particle excitation, compared with those of electron

M. M. Hamadaa; F. E. Costa; M. C. C. Pereira; S. Kubota

2000-01-01

298

Dependence of scintillation characteristics in the CsI(Tl) crystal on Tl+ concentrations under electron and alpha particles excitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the emission spectra, pulse heights, and decay curves of CsI(TI) crystals with a Tl+ concentration ranging from 10-6 to 10-2 mol under electron and alpha particle excitations. Larger pulse heights from the crystals with Tl+ concentration of more than 10-3 mol were observed for a higher ionization density of alpha particle excitation compared with those of electron

Margarida M. Hamada; Fabio E. Costa; Maria C. C. Pereira; Shinzou Kubota

2001-01-01

299

Deep level defects and carrier removal due to proton and alpha particle irradiation of InP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deep level transient spectroscopy and capacitance voltage measurements of the defect introduction rates and carrier removal rates for 2 MeV proton and 2 MeV alpha particle irradiations in p-type InP have been performed. The carrier removal rate for 2 MeV protons was 6500 cm?1 and for 2 MeV alpha particles was 73 400 cm?1, or 12 times higher. The defect

George C. Rybicki; Christian A. Zorman

1994-01-01

300

Induction of a bystander mutagenic effect of alpha particles in mammalian cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ever since the discovery of X-rays was made by Rontgen more than a hundred years ago, it has always been accepted that the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation such as mutation and carcinogenesis are attributable mainly to direct damage to DNA. Although evidence based on microdosimetric estimation in support of a bystander effect appears to be consistent, direct proof of such extranuclear/extracellular effects are limited. Using a precision charged particle microbeam, we show here that irradiation of 20% of randomly selected A(L) cells with 20 alpha particles each results in a mutant fraction that is 3-fold higher than expected, assuming no bystander modulation effect. Furthermore, analysis by multiplex PCR shows that the types of mutants induced are significantly different from those of spontaneous origin. Pretreatment of cells with the radical scavenger DMSO had no effect on the mutagenic incidence. In contrast, cells pretreated with a 40 microM dose of lindane, which inhibits cell-cell communication, significantly decreased the mutant yield. The doses of DMSO and lindane used in these experiments are nontoxic and nonmutagenic. We further examined the mutagenic yield when 5-10% of randomly selected cells were irradiated with 20 alpha particles each. Results showed, likewise, a higher mutant yield than expected assuming no bystander effects. Our studies provide clear evidence that irradiated cells can induce a bystander mutagenic response in neighboring cells not directly traversed by alpha particles and that cell-cell communication process play a critical role in mediating the bystander phenomenon.

Zhou, H.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Waldren, C. A.; Vannais, D.; Hall, E. J.; Hei, T. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

2000-01-01

301

Long-range alpha detection  

SciTech Connect

The detection and measurement of alpha contamination is not an easy task. An alpha particle`s characteristic high charge and large mass make it highly interactive with surrounding matter. The particle is often absorbed before its presence can be sensed with a detector. Los Alamos National Laboratory has studied this problem and has developed an improved process to detect alpha-emitting contaminants. The process is called long-range alpha detection (LRAD). The LRAD process focuses on the collection and measurement of ions created as a result of an alpha particle`s interaction with air. With only about 35 eV necessary to create an ion pair, a typical 5-MeV alpha particle, upon emission from its maternal nucleus, creates about 150,000 pairs of charged particles. In air these charged particles take several seconds to locate a mate and become electrically neutral. During this time, ions can be pulled away from the source, collected, and measured. Ions can be motivated to a collection device by using an electric field or by moving the air mass in which the ions are located. The collected charges create a small but discrete current that can give some useful information about the alpha-emitting source. In this article, two commercially available applications of the LRADS technology will be discussed. One of these, a device used primarily for pipe monitoring, is from BNFL Instruments, Inc. The other is a monitoring box of sorts from Eberline that will produce an alpha measurement on anything that is placed in the box.

Kasper, K.

1998-12-01

302

Techniques for measuring particle size distribution of particulate matter emitted from animal feeding operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While various techniques for measuring particle size distributions (PSD) of particulate matter (PM) exist, there is no a single agreed upon standard or reference method for PM with different characteristics. This study investigated differences in the PSD measurements by four PSD analyzers: LS13 320 multi-wave length laser diffraction particle size analyzer, LS230 laser diffraction particle size analyzer, LA-300 laser scattering particle size analyzer, and Coulter Counter Multisizer3 (CCM3). Simultaneously collected total suspended particulate (TSP) samples in a commercial egg production house were analyzed by the four analyzers for PSDs. In addition, four types of testing powders (limestone, starch, No.3 micro aluminum, and No.5 micro aluminum) were also analyzed by these four PSD analyzers. The results suggest when comparing measured mass median diameters (MMDs) and geometric standard deviations (GSD) of the PSDs, the laser diffraction method (LS13 320, LS230 and LA-300) provided larger MMDs and broader distributions (GSDs) than the electrical sensing zone method (CCM3) for all samples. When comparing mass fractions of PM10 and PM2.5 between the measured values and the lognormal fitting values derived from the measured MMDs and GSDs, lognormal fitting method produced reasonably accurate PM10 mass fraction estimations (within 5%), but it failed to produce accurate PM2.5 mass fraction estimations. The measured PM2.5 mass fractions significantly differed from the lognormal fitting PM2.5 fractions and the mean differences reached as high as 95%. It is strongly recommended that when reporting a PSD of certain PM samples, in addition to MMD and GSD, the mass fractions of PM10 and PM2.5 should also be reported.

Wang-Li, Lingjuan; Cao, Zihan; Buser, Michael; Whitelock, Derek; Parnell, Calvin B.; Zhang, Yuanhui

2013-02-01

303

Controlling the velocities and the number of emitted particles in the tunneling to open space dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A scheme to control the many-boson tunneling process from a trap through a potential barrier to open space is devised and demonstrated. The number of ejected particles and their velocities can be controlled by two parameters, the threshold of the potential and the interparticle interaction. Employing a recently developed efficient many-body method, results for two, three, and one hundred interacting bosons in one spatial dimension can be computed numerically exactly, solving thereby an intricate problem of general interest. It is shown that the control scheme devised for the many-boson tunneling process performs very well for the dynamics of the momentum density, the correlations, and the coherence, as well as for the number of particles remaining in the trap. To interpret the many-body tunneling process, a transparent model assembling the many-body process from single-particle emission processes is derived. Analysis of the energetics of available decay channels together with the numerical results rules out the situation of two (or more) bosons tunneling together to open space. The present investigation generalizes the findings reported by us [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 13521 (2012), 10.1073/pnas.1201345109] for many-boson tunneling to open space in the absence of a threshold.

Lode, Axel U. J.; Klaiman, Shachar; Alon, Ofir E.; Streltsov, Alexej I.; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

2014-05-01

304

Observation of beam-induced changes in the polarization of Balmer-{alpha} radiation emitted following beam--tilted-foil transmission  

SciTech Connect

Measurements of the circular polarization of Balmer-{alpha} radiation emitted by excited hydrogen atoms, following the transmission of (20--50)-keV protons through thin, tilted amorphous carbon foils, exhibit markedly unexpected behavior as a function of exposure of the foil to the proton beam. Specifically, the circular polarization changes from an initially well understood tilt-angle dependence to a behavior which, for low tilt angles, gives the {ital opposite} {ital handedness} {ital of} {ital circular} {ital polarization} from that predicted. In addition, the degree of alignment, indicated by the linear Stokes parameter {ital M}/{ital I}, is enhanced also as a function of dose. These changes in the tilt-angle dependence of the Stokes parameters have been systematically correlated with beam-induced graphitization of the foil, which is observed to occur from Raman measurements.

Harper, D.L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky, 42101 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky, 42101 (United States); Albridge, R.G.; Tolk, N.H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Molecular and Atomic Studies at Surfaces, 6514 Stevenson Science Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Center for Molecular and Atomic Studies at Surfaces, 6514 Stevenson Science Center, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Qi, W.; Allred, D.D.; Knight, L.V. [Department of Physics, 296 Eyring Science Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 (United States)] [Department of Physics, 296 Eyring Science Center, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602 (United States)

1995-12-01

305

Orbit-averaged drift kinetic equation for the study of alpha-particle transport in tokamaks  

SciTech Connect

Neoclassical transport of minority suprathermal alpha particles is investigated. This paper departs from previous investigations in that (a) the banana-width ordering parameter {rho}{sub {theta}}/L is not formally restricted to be a small parameter and (b) a linearized collision operator that retains the effects of pitch-angle scattering, electron and ion drag, and speed diffusion is used. A step model approximation for the large-aspect-ratio, circular-cross-section tokamak magnetic field is adopted to simplify the orbit-averaging procedure. Assuming that the suprathermal alphas are in the banana regime, an asymptotic expansion in {tau}{sub B}/{tau}{sub S} {much lt} l is carried out.

Sager, G.T.; Miley, G.H. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Fusion Studies Lab.); Burrell, K.H. (General Atomics Co., San Diego, CA (United States))

1990-11-01

306

Beams of protons and alpha particles greater than approximately 30 keV/charge from the earth's bow shock  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two beamlike particle events (30 keV/charge to 160 keV/charge) upstream of the earth's bow shock have been investigated with the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland ultralow energy and charge analyzer on ISEE 1. These beams consist of protons as well as of alpha particles, and the spectra are generally steep and are decreasing with increasing energy. During one event the spectra of both protons and alpha particles have a maximum at approximately 65 keV/charge. During these events, the interplanetary magnetic field through the satellite position was almost tangent to the bow shock, and application of the theory of acceleration predicts acceleration of a solar wind particle up to 60 keV/nucleon in a single reflection. The observation of reflected protons as well as alpha particles has implications for the physical reflection process usually not discussed in acceleration theories.

Scholer, M.; Ipavich, F. M.; Gloeckler, G.

1981-01-01

307

Investigation of the airborne submicrometer particles emitted by dredging vessels using a plume capture method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for investigating ship emissions, known as the plume capture and analysis system (PCAS) is described. The PCAS is applied to the task of measuring airborne pollutant emission factors (EFs) and particle size distributions aboard two dredgers, although the technique is also suitable for remote measurements. EFs were measured relative to the fuel consumption using the fuel combustion derived plume CO2. Each measurement typically took 6 min to complete and during one day, 40-50 measurements were possible. EFs for particle number (PN), NOx, SO2, and PM2.5 were independent within a targeted dilution factor range of 50-1000 suitable for onboard and remote sampling. For the Amity, the EF ranges were PN: 2.2-9.6 1015 (kg-fuel)-1; NOx: 35-72 g (NO2) (kg-fuel)-1, SO2 0.6-1.1 g (SO2) (kg-fuel)-1and PM2.5: 0.7-6.1 g (PM2.5) (kg-fuel)-1. For the Brisbane they were PN: 1.0-1.5 1016 (kg-fuel)-1, NOx: 3.4-8.0 g (NO2) (kg-fuel)-1, SO2: 1.3-1.7 g (SO2) (kg-fuel)-1 and PM2.5: 1.2-5.6 g (PM2.5) (kg-fuel)-1. Particle number emission factors as a function of size as well as the count median diameter (CMD), and geometric standard deviation of the size distributions are provided. This size distributions were consistently uni-modal in the range below 500 nm for both vessels, and this CMD always lay within the accumulation mode range.

Juwono, Alamsyah M.; Johnson, G. R.; Mazaheri, M.; Morawska, L.; Roux, F.; Kitchen, B.

2013-07-01

308

Differential Velocity between Solar Wind Protons and Alpha Particles in Pressure Balance Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure balance structures (PBSs) are a common high-plasma beta feature in high-latitude, high-speed solar wind. They have been proposed as remnants of coronal plumes. If true, they should reflect the observation that plumes are rooted in unipolar magnetic flux concentrations in the photosphere and are heated as oppositely directed flux is advected into and reconnects with the flux concentration. A minimum variance analysis (MVA) of magnetic discontinuities in PBSs showed there is a larger proportion of tangential discontinuities than in the surrounding high-speed wind, supporting the hypothesis that plasmoids or extended current sheets are formed during reconnection at the base of plumes. To further evaluate the character of magnetic field discontinuities in PBSs, differential streaming between alpha particles and protons is analyzed here for the same sample of PBSs used in the MVA. Alpha particles in high-speed wind generally have a higher radial flow speed than protons. However, if the magnetic field is folded back on itself, as in a large-amplitude Alfven wave, alpha particles will locally have a radial flow speed less than protons. This characteristic is used here to distinguish between folded back magnetic fields (which would contain rotational discontinuities) and tangential discontinuities using Ulysses high-latitude, high-speed solar wind data. The analysis indicates that almost all reversals in the radial magnetic field in PBSs are folded back field lines. This is found to also be true outside PBSs, supporting existing results for typical high-speed, high-latitude wind. There remains a small number of cases that appear not to be folds in the magnetic field and which may be flux tubes with both ends rooted in the Sun. The distinct difference in MVA results inside and outside PBSs remains unexplained.

Yamauchi, Yohei; Suess, Steven T.; Steinberg, John T.; Sakurai, Takashi

2004-01-01

309

Differential Velocity Between Solar Wind Protons and Alpha Particles in Pressure Balance Structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pressure balance structures (PBSs) are a common high plasma beta feature in high latitude, high speed solar wind. They have been proposed as remnants of coronal plumes. If true, they should reflect the observation that plumes are rooted in unipolar magnetic flux concentrations in the photosphere and are heated as oppositely directed flux is advected into and reconnects with the flux concentration. A minimum variance analysis (MVA) of magnetic discontinuities in PBSs showed there is a larger proportion of tangential discontinuities than in the surrounding high speed wind, supporting the hypothesis that plasmoids or extended current sheets are formed during reconnection at the base of plumes. To further evaluate the character of magnetic field discontinuities in PBSs, differential streaming between alpha particles and protons is analyzed here for the same sample of PBSs used in the MVA. Alpha particles in high speed wind generally have a higher radial flow speed than protons. However, if the magnetic field is folded back on itself, as in a large amplitude Alfven wave, alpha particles will locally have a radial flow speed less than protons. This characteristic is used here to distinguish between folded back magnetic fields (which would contain rotational discontinuities) and tangential discontinuities using Ulysses high latitude, high speed solar wind data. The analysis indicates that almost all reversals in the radial magnetic field in PBSs are folded back field lines. This is found to also be true outside PBSs, supporting existing results for typical high speed, high latitude wind. There remains a small number of cases that appear not to be folds in the magnetic field and which may be flux tubes with both ends rooted in the Sun. The distinct difference in MVA results inside and outside PBSs remains unexplained.

Yamauchi, Y.; Suess, S. T.; Steinberg, J. T.; Sakurai, T.

2003-01-01

310

The comparative effects of gamma radiation and in situ alpha particles on five strong-base anion exchange resins  

SciTech Connect

The effects of external gamma radiation and in situ alpha particles were measured on a recently available, macroporous, strong-base polyvinylpyridine resin and on four strong-base polystyrene anion exchange resins. Each resin was irradiated in 7 M nitric acid to 1--10 megaGray of gamma radiation from external {sup 60}Co, or to 5--14 megaGray of alpha particles from sorbed {sup 238}Pu. Each irradiated resin was measured for changes in dry weight, wet volume, weak-base and strong-base chloride exchange capacities, and exchange capacities for Pu(4) from nitric acid. Alpha-induced resin damage was significantly less than that caused by an equivalent dose of gamma radiation. The polyvinylpyridine resin offers the greatest resistance to damage from gamma radiation and from alpha particles. 5 refs., 1 figs. 5 tabs.

Marsh, S.F.

1991-01-01

311

The instrumental blank of the Mars Science Laboratory alpha particle X-ray spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alpha particle X-ray spectrometers on the Mars exploration rovers Spirit and Opportunity accomplished extensive elemental analysis of the Martian surface through a combination of XRF and PIXE. An advanced APXS is now part of the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover. APXS spectra contain contributions which enhance elemental peak areas but which do not arise from these elements within the sample under study, thereby introducing error into derived concentrations. A detailed examination of these effects in the MSL APXS enables us to test two schemes for making the necessary corrections.

Campbell, J. L.

2012-10-01

312

Model of alpha particle diffusion in the outer limiter shadow of TFTR  

SciTech Connect

A new code, Monte Carlo Collisional Stochastic Orbit Retracing (MCCSOR), has been developed to model the alpha particle loss signal as measured by the outer midplane scintillator detector in TFTR. The shadowing effects due to the outer limiters and the detector itself have been included, along with a pitch angle scattering and stochastic ripple diffusion. Shadowing by the outer limiters has a strong effect on both the magnitude and pitch angle distribution of the calculated loss. There is at least qualitative agreement between the calculated results and the experimental data.

Wang, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)]|[Academia Sinica, Hefei, Anhui (China). Inst. of Plasma Physics; Zweben, S.J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.

1996-05-01

313

NBS (National Bureau of Standards) large-area alpha-particle counting systems  

SciTech Connect

Two alpha-particle counting systems for the measurement of large-area sources were developed at the National Bureau of Standards. The systems and their characteristics are described. One system uses an internal-source proportional counter and the other measures sources external to the counting volume through a thin aluminized mylar window. The internal system is used to measure sources in the lower-activity ranges. These calibrated sources are then used to establish the efficiency of the external counter used to measure the higher-activity sources.

Hutchinson, J.M.R.; Bright, S.J.

1987-01-01

314

Chemistry of Rocks and Soils in Gusev Crater from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alpha particle x-ray spectrometer on the Spirit rover determined major and minor elements of soils and rocks in Gusev crater in order to unravel the crustal evolution of planet Mars. The composition of soils is similar to those at previous landing sites, as a result of global mixing and distribution by dust storms. Rocks (fresh surfaces exposed by the rock abrasion tool) resemble volcanic rocks of primitive basaltic composition with low intrinsic potassium contents. High abundance of bromine (up to 170 parts per million) in rocks may indicate the alteration of surfaces formed during a past period of aqueous activity in Gusev crater.

Gellert, R.; Rieder, R.; Anderson, R. C.; Brckner, J.; Clark, B. C.; Dreibus, G.; Economou, T.; Klingelhfer, G.; Lugmair, G. W.; Ming, D. W.; Squyres, S. W.; d'Uston, C.; Wnke, H.; Yen, A.; Zipfel, J.

2004-08-01

315

Alpha-particle emission probabilities in the decay of 239Pu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alpha-particle emission probabilities ( P?) of 239Pu have been measured using material of highest enrichment and radiochemical purity, thin sources produced by vacuum sublimation, and high-resolution ? spectroscopy with ion-implanted Si detectors (PIPS). The results for the major emissions are P?0.07 = 0.70770.0014, P?13 = 0.1711 0.0014 and P?51 = 0.11940.0007, which for the P?0.07 is about 3.6% lower than the recent evaluated value in the literature.

Garca-Torao, E.; Acea, M. L.; Bortels, G.; Mouchel, D.

1993-10-01

316

Chemistry of Rocks and Soils in Gusev Crater from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The alpha particle x-ray spectrometer on the Spirit rover determined major and minor elements of soils and rocks in Gusev crater in order to unravel the crustal evolution of planet Mars. The composition of soils is similar to those at previous landing sites, as a result of global mixing and distribution by dust storms. Rocks (fresh surfaces exposed by the rock abrasion tool) resemble volcanic rocks of primitive basaltic composition with low intrinsic potassium contents. High abundance of bromine (up to 170 parts per million) in rocks may indicate the alteration of surfaces formed during a past period of aqueous activity in Gusev crater.

Gellert, R.; Rieder, R.; Anderson, R. C.; Brueckner, J.; Clark, B. C.; Dreibus, G.; Economou, T.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Lugmair, G. W.; Ming, D. W.

2005-01-01

317

Current-drive by lower hybrid waves in the presence of energetic alpha-particles  

SciTech Connect

Many experiments have now proved the effectiveness of lower hybrid waves for driving toroidal current in tokamaks. The use of these waves, however, to provide all the current in a reactor is thought to be uncertain because the waves may not penetrate the center of the more energetic reactor plasma, and, if they did, the wave power may be absorbed by alpha particles rather than by electrons. This paper explores the conditions under which lower-hybrid waves might actually drive all the current. 26 refs.

Fisch, N.J.; Rax, J.M.

1991-10-01

318

Spectroscopic studies on alpha particle-irradiated PADC (CR-39 detector)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic studies on a Poly Allyl Diglycol Carbonate (PADC or CR-39) detector irradiated with 5 MeV ?-particles were carried out. The CR-39 samples were exposed to perpendicular incidence of ?-particles with different fluence ranging from 0.85 109 to 6.79 109 particles/cm2. The induced modifications in the CR-39 detectors were investigated using UV-Vis, FTIR, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results reveal that UV-Visible and FTIR spectroscopic techniques are insensitive to detect the induced modifications in the irradiated CR-39 detector within the selected range of fluence. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra, on the other hand, showed a reasonable difference between the detected spectra of the irradiated samples. The integrated intensity (N) under the PL emission band and peaks heights (P) exhibits a linear correlation with the alpha particles fluence. The fitting linear formula and the relevant parameters for both relations (N and P vs. fluence) were determined. The comparison study between the three spectroscopic techniques indicated that PL spectroscopy provides a sensitive method for ?-particles dosimetric applications using a CR-39 detector.

El Ghazaly, M.; Hassan, H. E.

319

Gross alpha, gross beta activities and gamma emitting radionuclides composition of rainwater samples and deposition to ground  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The radiometric composition of bulk deposition samples, collected monthly in a 5 year period (1 January 2005 until 31 December 2009) at a site located 30 m a.s.l in Mlaga (428' 8?W; 36 43'40?N), are analysed in this paper. Measurement of gross alpha, gross beta, artificial and natural radionuclide activity concentrations were carried out in 60 bulk deposition samples. We analysed the time series of gross alpha, gross beta 7Be, 210Pb and 40K. The specific activities of gross alpha and gross beta measured in bulk deposition material are in the range from 0.012-0.32 and 0.045-1.81 Bq l -1 and theirs mean values are: 0.11 and 0.59 Bq l -1 respectively. The activity values of 7Be and 210Pb are in the range from 0.65-8.3 and 0.05-1.32 Bq l -1 with mean values of 2.5 and 0.41 Bq l -1 respectively. The highest specific activities of 40K in bulk deposition material were recorded in connection with high altitude Saharan dust intrusion. The time variations of the different radionuclide concentrations have been discussed in relation with various meteorological factors and the mean values have been compared to those published in recent literature for other sites located at different latitudes. To study the deposition, monthly deposition data from a funnel collector were compared from 2005 to 2009.The monthly range in deposition fluxes for gross alpha varied widely (0.40-11 Bq m -2 month -1) and the average annual deposition is 21 Bq m -2 y -1. The monthly fluxes for gross beta varied (1.3-33.8 Bq m -2 month -1) and the average annual deposition is approximately 120 Bq m -2 y -1. The total annual deposition fluxes of 210Pb varied between 64.9 and 160.8 Bq m -2 y -1 with a mean of 120 Bq m -2 y -1. The annual 7Be depositional flux varied between 432 and 1204 Bq m -2 y -1 with a mean of 676 Bq m -2 y -1. Observed seasonal variations of deposition data are explained in terms of different environmental features. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of 7Be and 210Pb were moderately well correlated with rainfall ( r2 of 0.72 and 0.76 respectively) and well correlated one with the other ( r2 of 0.79).

Dueas, C.; Fernndez, M. C.; Gordo, E.; Caete, S.; Prez, M.

2011-02-01

320

A study of the scintillation light induced in liquid xenon by electrons and alpha particles  

SciTech Connect

The authors have measured the time dependence and the intensity of the primary scintillation light in liquid xenon excited by {sup 241}Am alpha particles and {sup 207}Bi internal conversion electrons, at different electric field strengths. High purity liquid xenon was used to fill a parallel plate ionization chamber equipped with a CaF{sub 2} window coupled to a UV sensitive photomultiplier tube. The effect of the specific ionization density on the scintillation light as well as the time correlation between the light signal and the charge signal is reported. The authors demonstrate that the fast scintillation signal produced in liquid xenon by an ionizing particle provides an ideal trigger in a detector aiming at a complete three-dimensional even reconstruction with an excellent background rejection capability.

Aprile, E.; Mukherjee, R.; Suzuki, M. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1990-04-01

321

The severity of alpha-particle-induced DNA damage is revealed by exposure to cell-free extracts  

SciTech Connect

The rejoining of single-strand breaks induced by {alpha}-particle and {gamma} irradiation in plasmid DNA under two scavenging conditions has been compared. At the two scavenger conditions has been compared. At the two scavenger capacities used of 1.5 {times} 10{sup 7} and 3 {times} 10{sup 8}s{sup {minus}1} using Tris-HCl as the scavenger, the ratio of single- to double-strand breaks for {alpha} particles is fivefold less than the corresponding ratios for {gamma} irradiation. The repair of such radiation-induced single-strand breaks has been examined using a cell-free system derived from human whole-cell extracts. We show that the rejoining of single-strand breaks for both {alpha}-particle- and {gamma}-irradiated plasmid is dependent upon the scavenging capacity and that the efficiency of rejoining of {alpha}-particle-induced single-strand breaks is significantly less than that observed for {gamma}-ray-induced breaks. In addition, for DNA that had been irradiated under conditions that mimic the cellular environment with respect to the radical scavenging capacity, 50 of {alpha}-particle-induced single-strand breaks are converted to double-strand breaks, in contrast with only {approximately}12% conversion of {gamma}-ray-induced single-strand breaks, indicating that the initial damage caused by {alpha} particles is more severe. These studies provide experimental evidence for increased clustering of damage which may have important implications for the induction of cancer by low-level {alpha}-particle sources such as domestic radon. 37 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Hodgkins, P.S.; O`Neill, P.; Stevens, D.; Fairman, M.P. [Medical Research Council, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

1996-12-01

322

Transport theory for energetic alpha particles and tolerable magnitude of error fields in tokamaks with broken symmetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A transport theory for energetic fusion born alpha particles in tokamaks with broken symmetry has been developed. The theory is a generalization of the theory for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity for thermal particles in tokamaks. It is shown that the radial energy transport rate can be comparable to the slowing down rate for energetic alpha particles when the ratio of the typical magnitude of the perturbed magnetic field strength to that of the equilibrium magnetic field strength is of the order of 10-4 or larger. This imposes a constraint on the magnitude of the error fields in thermonuclear fusion reactors. The implications on stellarators as potential fusion reactors are also discussed.

Shaing, K. C.; Hsu, C. T.

2014-03-01

323

Systemic radioimmunotherapy using a monoclonal antibody, anti-Tac directed toward the alpha subunit of the IL-2 receptor armed with the alpha-emitting radionuclides (212)Bi or (211)At.  

PubMed

To exploit the fact that IL-2 receptors are expressed by T-cells responding to foreign antigens but not by resting T-cells, humanized anti-Tac (HAT) armed with alpha-emitting radionuclides (212)Bi and (211)At was evaluated in a cynomolgus cardiac allograft model. Control graft survival was 8.2+/- 0.5 days compared with 14.0+/-1.3 days (p<0.01) survival for monkeys treated with (212)Bi labeled HAT and 26.7+/-2.4 days survival (p<0.001 versus controls) with (211)At labeled HAT. Thus, (211)At labeled HAT may have application in organ transplantation and in treatment of IL-2 receptor expressing T-cell leukemia. PMID:15028248

Wesley, Jon N; McGee, Edwin C; Garmestani, Kayhan; Brechbiel, Martin W; Yordanov, Alexander T; Wu, Chuanchu; Gansow, Otto A; Eckelman, William C; Bacher, John D; Flynn, Michael; Goldman, Carolyn K; MacLin, Melvin; Schwartz, Uwe P; Jackson-White, Terri; Phillip, Celeste M; Decker, Jean; Waldmann, Thomas A

2004-04-01

324

Measurement of ion cascade energies through resolution degradation of alpha particle microcalorimeters  

SciTech Connect

Atomic cascades caused by ions impinging on bulk materials have remained of interest to the scientific community since their discovery by Goldstein in 1902. While considerable effort has been spent describing and, more recently, simulating these cascades, tools that can study individual events are lacking and several aspects of cascade behavior remain poorly known. These aspects include the material energies that determine cascade magnitude and the variation between cascades produced by monoenergetic ions. We have recently developed an alpha particle detector with a thermodynamic resolution near 100 eV full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) and an achieved resolution of 1.06 keV FWHM for 5.3 MeV particles. The detector relies on the absorption of particles by a bulk material and a thermal change in a superconducting thermometer. The achieved resolution of this detector provides the highest resolving power of any energy dispersive technique and a factor of 8 improvement over semiconductor detectors. The exquisite resolution can be directly applied to improved measurements of fundamental nuclear decays and nuclear forensics. In addition, we propose that the discrepancy between the thermodynamic and achieved resolution is due to fluctuations in lattice damage caused by ion-induced cascades in the absorber. Hence, this new detector is capable of measuring the kinetic energy converted to lattice damage in individual atomic cascades. This capability allows new measurements of cascade dynamics; for example, we find that the ubiquitous modeling program, SRIM, significantly underestimates the lattice damage caused in bulk tin by 5.3 MeV alpha particles.

Horansky, Robert D.; Stiehl, Gregory M.; Beall, James A.; Irwin, Kent D.; Ullom, Joel N. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway MS 817.03, Boulder, Colorado (United States); Plionis, Alexander A.; Rabin, Michael W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2010-02-15

325

Single particle characterization of iron-induced pore-forming alpha-synuclein oligomers.  

PubMed

Aggregation of alpha-synuclein is a key event in several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson disease. Recent findings suggest that oligomers represent the principal toxic aggregate species. Using confocal single-molecule fluorescence techniques, such as scanning for intensely fluorescent targets (SIFT) and atomic force microscopy, we monitored alpha-synuclein oligomer formation at the single particle level. Organic solvents were used to trigger aggregation, which resulted in small oligomers ("intermediate I"). Under these conditions, Fe(3+) at low micromolar concentrations dramatically increased aggregation and induced formation of larger oligomers ("intermediate II"). Both oligomer species were on-pathway to amyloid fibrils and could seed amyloid formation. Notably, only Fe(3+)-induced oligomers were SDS-resistant and could form ion-permeable pores in a planar lipid bilayer, which were inhibited by the oligomer-specific A11 antibody. Moreover, baicalein and N'-benzylidene-benzohydrazide derivatives inhibited oligomer formation. Baicalein also inhibited alpha-synuclein-dependent toxicity in neuronal cells. Our results may provide a potential disease mechanism regarding the role of ferric iron and of toxic oligomer species in Parkinson diseases. Moreover, scanning for intensely fluorescent targets allows high throughput screening for aggregation inhibitors and may provide new approaches for drug development and therapy. PMID:18258594

Kostka, Marcus; Hgen, Tobias; Danzer, Karin M; Levin, Johannes; Habeck, Matthias; Wirth, Andreas; Wagner, Richard; Glabe, Charles G; Finger, Sabine; Heinzelmann, Udo; Garidel, Patrick; Duan, Wenzhen; Ross, Christopher A; Kretzschmar, Hans; Giese, Armin

2008-04-18

326

Alfven waves, alpha particles, and pickup ions in the solar wind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Past studies of the properties of Alfven waves in the solar wind have indicated that (1) the amplitude of the velocity fluctuations is almost always smaller than expected on the basis of the amplitude of the field fluctuations, even when the anisotropy of the plasma is taken into account, and (2) the alpha particles do not participate in the wave motions because they 'surf' on the waves carried by the proton fluid. Ulysses data are used to demonstrate that (1) the discrepancy between the velocity and field fluctuations is greater at high heliographic latitudes than in the ecliptic plane, and (2) the alphas do participate in the waves, being either in phase or out of phase with the proton motions depending on whether the differential flow speed between the alphas and protons is greater than or less than the 'observed' wave speed, B(sub o)(delta v squared / delta B squared)exp 1/2, as determined from the ratio of the amplitudes of the velocity and magnetic fluctuations. It is proposed that the modification of Alfven wave propagation speed is due to pressure anisotropies resulting from asymmetric distributions of interstellar pickup ions. If the proposed explanation is correct, it indicates that scattering of pickup ions onto a (bi)spherical shell may not be as complete as generally supposed.

Goldstein, B. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Smith, E. J.

1995-01-01

327

Targeted Cytoplasmic Irradiation with Alpha Particles Induces Mutations in Mammalian Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever since x-rays were shown to induce mutation in Drosophila more than 70 years ago, prevailing dogma considered the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation, such as mutations and carcinogenesis, as being due mostly to direct damage to the nucleus. Although there was indication that alpha particle traversal through cellular cytoplasm was innocuous, the full impact remained unknown. The availability of the microbeam at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility of Columbia University made it possible to target and irradiate the cytoplasm of individual cells in a highly localized spatial region. By using dual fluorochrome dyes (Hoechst and Nile Red) to locate nucleus and cellular cytoplasm, respectively, thereby avoiding inadvertent traversal of nuclei, we show here that cytoplasmic irradiation is mutagenic at the CD59 (S1) locus of human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells, while inflicting minimal cytotoxicity. The principal class of mutations induced are similar to those of spontaneous origin and are entirely different from those of nuclear irradiation. Furthermore, experiments with radical scavenger and inhibitor of intracellular glutathione indicated that the mutagenicity of cytoplasmic irradiation depends on generation of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that cytoplasm is an important target for genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation, particularly radon, the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States. In addition, cytoplasmic traversal by alpha particles may be more dangerous than nuclear traversal, because the mutagenicity is accomplished by little or no killing of the target cells.

Wu, Li-Jun; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Xu, An; Waldren, Charles A.; Geard, Charles R.; Yu, Zengliang; Hei, Tom K.

1999-04-01

328

Calibration of the Mars Science Laboratory Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used a suite of over 60 geochemical reference standards for the calibration of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). For the elements P, S, Cl and Br we have supplemented this suite by adding various amounts of relevant chemical compounds to a powdered basalt standard. Special attention has been paid to include phyllosilicates, sulphates and a broad selection of igneous basalts as these are predicted key deposits at the MSL landing site, Gale Crater. The calibration is performed from first principles using x-ray excitation cross sections for the alpha particle and x-ray radiation source and an assumed homogeneous sample matrix. Remaining deviations indicate significant influences of mineral phases especially for light elements in basalts, ultra-mafic rocks and trachytes. Supporting x-ray diffraction work has helped to derive empirical, iterative corrections for distinct rock types, based on the first APXS analysis, assuming a homogeneous sample. These corrections have the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of APXS analyses, especially when other MSL instrument results, such as x-ray diffraction data from ChemMin, are included in the overall analysis process.

Perrett, G. M.; Campbell, J. L.; Gellert, R.; King, P. L.; Maxwell, J. A.; Andrushenko, S. M.

2011-12-01

329

Results of the Alpha-Particle-X-Ray Spectrometer on Board of the Mars Exploration Rovers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity landed at Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is part of the instrument suite on both rovers. It is equipped with six 244Cm sources which provide x-ray excitation with alpha-particles (PIXE) and x-ray radiation (XRF). This combination allows x-ray spectroscopy of elements from Na to Br in the energy range of 0.9 to 16 keV. X-ray detectors with a high energy resolution of 160 eV at Fe K allow us to separate even closely spaced energy peaks, such as Na, Mg, Al and Si. The APXS is attached to the rover s arm and provides in-situ measurements of the chemical composition of soils, surfaces of rocks and outcrops and their abraded surfaces. This abstract gives an overview of APXS results obtained during the first year of operation on both landing sites.

Geller, R.; Zipfel, J.; Brueckner, J.; Dreibus, G.; Lugmair, G.; Rieder, R.; Waenke, H.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.

2005-01-01

330

Protons and alpha particles in the expanding solar wind: Hybrid simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of a two-dimensional hybrid expanding box simulation of a plasma system with three ion populations, beam and core protons, and alpha particles (and fluid electrons), drifting with respect to each other. The expansion with a strictly radial magnetic field leads to a decrease of the ion perpendicular to parallel temperature ratios as well as to an increase of the ratio between the ion relative velocities and the local Alfven velocity creating a free energy for many different instabilities. The system is most of the time marginally stable with respect to kinetic instabilities mainly due to the ion relative velocities; these instabilities determine the system evolution counteracting some effects of the expansion. Nonlinear evolution of these instabilities leads to large modifications of the ion velocity distribution functions. The beam protons and alpha particles are decelerated with respect to the core protons and all the populations are cooled in the parallel direction and heated in the perpendicular one. On the macroscopic level the kinetic instabilities cause large departures of the system evolution from the double adiabatic prediction and lead to to perpendicular heating and parallel cooling rates which are comparable to the heating rates estimated from the Helios observations.

Travnicek, P. M.; Hellinger, P.

2013-12-01

331

Protons and alpha particles in the expanding solar wind: Hybrid simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present results of a two?dimensional hybrid expanding box simulation of a plasma system with three ion populations, beam and core protons, and alpha particles (and fluid electrons), drifting with respect to each other. The expansion with a strictly radial magnetic field leads to a decrease of the ion perpendicular to parallel temperature ratios as well as to an increase of the ratio between the ion relative velocities and the local Alfvn velocity creating a free energy for many different instabilities. The system is most of the time marginally stable with respect to kinetic instabilities mainly due to the ion relative velocities; these instabilities determine the system evolution counteracting some effects of the expansion. Nonlinear evolution of these instabilities leads to large modifications of the ion velocity distribution functions. The beam protons and alpha particles are decelerated with respect to the core protons and all the populations are cooled in the parallel direction and heated in the perpendicular one. On the macroscopic level, the kinetic instabilities cause large departures of the system evolution from the double adiabatic prediction and lead to perpendicular heating and parallel cooling rates which are comparable to the heating rates estimated from the Helios observations.

Hellinger, Petr; Trvn?ek, Pavel M.

2013-09-01

332

Gamma-diagnostics of alpha-particles in 4He and D-T plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reports on ?-ray diagnosis of ICRF-accelerated 4He ions and fusion ? particles used in the JET tokamak. This diagnostic based on the analysis of ? rays emitted in nuclear reaction 9Be(?,n?)12C. The results of the first observation of the 4.44-MeV ?-radiation due to the reaction 9Be(?,n?)12C in JET deuterium-tritium experiment (DTE1) are presented. Gamma-ray spectra have been recorded with collimated spectrometer, and the ?-ray emission radial profiles measured with the JET neutron/gamma profile monitor. Doppler broadening effects which could be used for the ICRF-accelerated 4He-ion diagnosis with high energy resolution ?-ray detectors are discussed. Capabilities of the ?-ray measurements in next step D-T devices are discussed.

Kiptily, V. G.; Popovichev, S.; Sharapov, S. E.; Bertalot, L.; Cecil, F. E.; Conroy, S.; Mantsinen, M. J.

2003-03-01

333

DYNAMICS OF A SPHERICAL ACCRETION SHOCK WITH NEUTRINO HEATING AND ALPHA-PARTICLE RECOMBINATION  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effects of neutrino heating and alpha-particle recombination on the hydrodynamics of core-collapse supernovae. Our focus is on the nonlinear dynamics of the shock wave that forms in the collapse and the assembly of positive energy material below it. To this end, we perform time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations with FLASH2.5 in spherical and axial symmetry. These generalize our previous calculations by allowing for bulk neutrino heating and for nuclear statistical equilibrium between n, p, and alpha. The heating rate is freely tunable, as is the starting radius of the shock relative to the recombination radius of alpha-particles. An explosion in spherical symmetry involves the excitation of an overstable mode, which may be viewed as the l = 0 version of the 'Standing Accretion Shock Instability'. In two-dimensional simulations, nonspherical deformations of the shock are driven by plumes of material with positive Bernoulli parameter, which are concentrated well outside the zone of strong neutrino heating. The nonspherical modes of the shock reach a large amplitude only when the heating rate is also high enough to excite convection below the shock. The critical heating rate that causes an explosion depends sensitively on the initial position of the shock relative to the recombination radius. Weaker heating is required to drive an explosion in two dimensions than in one, but the difference also depends on the size of the shock. Forcing the infalling heavy nuclei to break up into n and p below the shock only causes a slight increase in the critical heating rate, except when the shock starts out at a large radius. This shows that heating by neutrinos (or some other mechanism) must play a significant role in pushing the shock far enough out that recombination heating takes over.

Fernandez, Rodrigo [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Thompson, Christopher [CITA, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H8 (Canada)

2009-10-01

334

Constraining the Metallicity and Escape Fraction of Two z?3.1 Lyman-Alpha Emitting Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed two z?3.1 Lyman-? emitting galaxies (LAE) using the Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrometer (NIFS) at Gemini North, specifically looking for [OIII] 4960 & 5008, [OII] 3727, and H-? 4863. We detected the [OIII] doublet in both objects, determined upper limits for [OII] for both objects, and determined upper limits for H-? for one object. With the detections and upper limits we use the [OIII]/[OII] and R23 line diagnostic to attempt to constrain the metallicity and escape fraction of Ly-?. These metallicity constraints are needed to explore the behaviour of the Mass-Metallicty relation in the low-mass regime and also give insight into the star formation histories of LAE which are known to host young stellar populations. The escape fraction, when combined with an extinction correction, gives insight into the presence of neutral gas. This neutral gas is responsible for resonantly scattering any escaped Ly-? photons, increasing its optical depth to dust. For one object we constrain the metallicity to be Z? 0.4Z? and constrain the escape fraction of Ly-? to be Fesc ? 30%. For the second object we are only able to constrain its escape fraction, finding 6% ? Fesc ? 40%. We would like to thank the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada for their financial support through a post-graduate fellowship.

Richardson, Mark L. A.; McLinden, E. M.; Malhotra, S.; Rhoads, J. E.; Levesque, E. M.

2012-05-01

335

To Stack or Not To Stack: Spectral Energy Distribution Properties of Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies at z=2.1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of Vargas et al. (2013, ArXiV: 1309.6341). We use the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) GOODS-S multi-wavelength catalog to identify counterparts for 20 Ly? Emitting (LAE) galaxies at z = 2.1. We build several types of stacked Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) of these objects. We combine photometry to form average and median flux-stacked SEDs, and postage stamp images to form average and median image-stacked SEDs. We also introduce scaled flux stacks that eliminate the influence of variation in overall brightness. We use the SED fitting code SpeedyMC to constrain the physical properties of individual objects and stacks. Our LAEs at z = 2.1 have stellar masses ranging from 2 10^7 Msun - 8 10^9 Msun (median = 3 10^8 Msun), ages ranging from 4 Myr to 500 Myr (median =100 Myr), and E(B-V) between 0.02 and 0.24 (median = 0.12). The SED parameters of the flux stacks match the average and median values of the individual objects, with the flux-scaled median SED performing best with reduced uncertainties. Median image-stacked SEDs provide a poor representation of the median individual object, and none of the stacking methods captures the large dispersion of LAE properties.

Vargas, Carlos J.; Bish, H.; Acquaviva, V.; Gawiser, E. J.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Ciardullo, R.; The CANDELS Collaboration; The MUSYC Collaboration

2014-01-01

336

Feasibility study on the use of polyallyldiglycol-carbonate cell dishes in TUNEL assay for alpha particle radiobiological experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, we have studied the feasibility of a method based on polyallyldiglycol-carbonate (PADC) films to investigate the effects of alpha particles on HeLa cervix cancer cells. Thin PADC films with thickness of about 20 ?m were prepared from commercially available CR-39 films by chemical etching to fabricate custom-made petri dishes for cell culture, which could accurately record alpha particle hit positions. A special method involving "base tracks" for aligning the images of cell nuclei and alpha particle hits has been proposed, so that alpha particle transversals of cell nuclei can be visually counted. Radiobiological experiments were carried out to induce DNA damages, with the TdT-mediated d UTP Nick- End Labeling (TUNEL) fluorescence method employed to detect DNA strand breaks. The staining results were investigated by flow cytometer. The preliminary results showed that more strand breaks occurred in cells hit by alpha particles with lower energies. Moreover, large TUNEL positive signals were obtained even with small percentages of cells irradiated and TUNEL signals were also obtained from non-targeted cells. These provided evidence for the bystander effect.

Chan, K. F.; Yum, E. H. W.; Wan, C. K.; Fong, W. F.; Yu, K. N.

2007-08-01

337

DISCOVERY OF STRONG IRON K{alpha} EMITTING COMPTON THICK QUASARS AT z = 2.5 AND 2.9  

SciTech Connect

We report the detection of the 6.4 keV iron K{alpha} emission line in two infrared-luminous, massive, star-forming BzK galaxies at z = 2.578 and z = 2.90 in the CDF-S. The Chandra 4 Ms spectra of BzK 4892 and BzK 8608 show a reflection-dominated continuum with strong iron lines, with rest-frame equivalent widths EW {approx} 2.3 keV and 1.2 keV, respectively, demonstrating Compton thick (CT) obscuration of the central active galactic nucleus (AGN). For BzK 8608, the line identification closely matches the existing photometric redshift derived from the stellar emission. We use the observed luminosities of the iron K{alpha} line, of the rest-frame mid-IR continuum and of the UV rest-frame narrow emission lines to infer intrinsic L{sub 2-10}{sub keV} {approx}> 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}, about 1.0-2.5 dex larger than the observed ones, hence confirming the presence of an absorber with N{sub H}>10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}. The two BzK galaxies have stellar masses of 5 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun} and, based on Very Large Array 1.4 GHz and submillimeter 870 {mu}m observations, they appear to host vigorous starburst activity with star formation rate {approx} 300-700 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} that is also optically thick. We estimate that the AGN might also conceivably account for an important fraction of the bolometric far-IR emission of the galaxies. The implied volume density of CT AGN with L{sub 2-10}{sub keV}>10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} is in agreement with predictions from X-ray background synthesis models. These sources provide one of the first clear-cut observations of the long-sought phase of simultaneous, heavily obscured quasar and star formation activity, predicted by models of massive galaxy evolution at high redshifts.

Feruglio, C.; Daddi, E. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d'Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Fiore, F.; Piconcelli, E. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Alexander, D. M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Malacaria, C., E-mail: chiara.feruglio@cea.fr [Universita' La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)

2011-03-01

338

The Evolution of Ly-alpha Emitting Galaxies Between z = 2.1 and z = 3.l  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe the results of a new, wide-field survey for z= 3.1 Ly-alpha emission-line galaxies (LAEs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S). By using a nearly top-hat 5010 Angstrom filter and complementary broadband photometry from the MUSYC survey, we identify a complete sample of 141 objects with monochromatic fluxes brighter than 2.4E-17 ergs/cm^2/s and observers-frame equivalent widths greater than 80 Angstroms (i.e., 20 Angstroms in the rest-frame of Ly-alpha). The bright-end of this dataset is dominated by x-ray sources and foreground objects with GALEX detections, but when these interlopers are removed, we are still left with a sample of 130 LAE candidates, 39 of which have spectroscopic confirmations. This sample overlaps the set of objects found in an earlier ECDF-S survey, but due to our filter's redder bandpass, it also includes 68 previously uncataloged sources. We confirm earlier measurements of the z=3.1 LAE emission-line luminosity function, and show that an apparent anti-correlation between equivalent width and continuum brightness is likely due to the effect of correlated errors in our heteroskedastic dataset. Finally, we compare the properties of z=3.1 LAEs to LAEs found at z=2.1. We show that in the approximately 1 Gyr after z approximately 3, the LAE luminosity function evolved significantly, with L * fading by approximately 0.4 mag, the number density of sources with L greater than 1.5E42 ergs/s declining by approximately 50%, and the equivalent width scalelength contracting from 70^{+7}_{-5} Angstroms to 50^{+9}_{-6} Angstroms. When combined with literature results, our observations demonstrate that over the redshift range z approximately 0 to z approximately 4, LAEs contain less than approximately 10% of the star-formation rate density of the universe.

Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall,Caryl; Wolf, Christopher; McCathran, Emily; Bond, Nicholas A.; Gawiser, Eric; Guaita, Lucia; Feldmeier, John J.; Treister, Ezequiel; Padilla, Nelson; Francke, Harold; Matkovic, Ana; Altmann, Martin; Herrera, David

2011-01-01

339

THE EVOLUTION OF Ly{alpha}-EMITTING GALAXIES BETWEEN z = 2.1 AND z = 3.1  

SciTech Connect

We describe the results of a new, wide-field survey for z = 3.1 Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S). By using a nearly top-hat 5010 A filter and complementary broadband photometry from the MUSYC survey, we identify a complete sample of 141 objects with monochromatic fluxes brighter than 2.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -17} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and observers-frame equivalent widths (EWs) greater than {approx}80 A (i.e., 20 A in the rest frame of Ly{alpha}). The bright end of this data set is dominated by X-ray sources and foreground objects with Galaxy Evolution Explorer detections, but when these interlopers are removed, we are still left with a sample of 130 LAE candidates, 39 of which have spectroscopic confirmations. This sample overlaps the set of objects found in an earlier ECDF-S survey, but due to our filter's redder bandpass, it also includes 68 previously uncataloged sources. We confirm earlier measurements of the z = 3.1 LAE emission-line luminosity function and show that an apparent anticorrelation between EW and continuum brightness is likely due to the effect of correlated errors in our heteroskedastic data set. Finally, we compare the properties of z = 3.1 LAEs to LAEs found at z = 2.1. We show that in the {approx}1 Gyr after z {approx} 3, the LAE luminosity function evolved significantly, with L* fading by {approx}0.4 mag, the number density of sources with L > 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} declining by {approx}50%, and the EW scale length contracting from 70{sup +7}{sub -5} A to 50{sup +9}{sub -6} A. When combined with literature results, our observations demonstrate that over the redshift range z {approx} 0 to z {approx} 4, LAEs contain less than {approx}10% of the star formation rate density of the universe.

Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Wolf, Christopher; McCathran, Emily; Matkovic, Ana [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

2012-01-10

340

Half-life estimation of the first excited state of {sup 229}Th by using {alpha}-particle spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

To search for a direct-decay signal from the isomer {sup 229}Th{sup m}, {alpha}-particle spectra of {sup 229}Th{sup m,g} produced from 93 mg of {sup 233}U have been measured by using a rapid and high-resolution {alpha}-particle spectrometry, which can distinguish {alpha} lines of {sup 229}Th{sup m} from those of its ground state. Although {alpha} events were not obtained in the expected energy region for {sup 229}Th{sup m} with the exception of those derived from {sup 229}Th{sup g}, we can estimate that the half-life of {sup 229}Th{sup m} is shorter than 2 h at 3{sigma} confidence level under the chemical condition of chloride or hydroxide.

Kikunaga, H. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Base Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kasamatsu, Y. [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Haba, H. [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Base Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Mitsugashira, T. [Institute for Material Research, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Hara, M. [International Research Center for Nuclear Materials Science, Tohoku University, Oarai-machi, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Takamiya, K. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Ohtsuki, T. [Laboratory of Nuclear Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 982-0826 (Japan); Yokoyama, A.; Nakanishi, T. [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Shinohara, A. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

2009-09-15

341

Determination of 239Pu/240Pu isotopic ratio by high-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry using the ADAM program.  

PubMed

A novel analysis program to unfold alpha-particle energy spectra was introduced, demonstrated and validated using radiochemically processed test sources, which contained different amounts of (239)Pu and (240)Pu. A high-resolution alpha spectrometer was used for data acquisition. The software known as ADAM unfolds the spectra using nuclide-specific decay data as a constraint. The peaks can have different shapes and the software can also cope with the coincidences between alpha particles and electrons/photons. In the present paper, the (239)Pu/(240)Pu activity ratios from alpha spectrometry agreed, within the stated uncertainties, with the reference values. Number of counts in the (239,240)Pu peak group must be larger than 100 to obtain reliable values when using semiconductor detector of energy resolution FWHM=10.6 keV. PMID:22227537

Pllnen, R; Siiskonen, T; Ihantola, S; Toivonen, H; Pelikan, A; Inn, K; La Rosa, J; Bene, B J

2012-04-01

342

Some Properties of Supported Small alpha-Fe2O3 Particles Determined with the Mssbauer Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mssbauer spectra of Fe57 in alpha-Fe2O3 have been measured as a function of particle size and temperature. Bulk alpha-Fe2O3 shows a change in the sign of the quadrupole interaction in going through the Morin transition temperature, 263K. Analyses of the spectra show that the magnetization vector is in the c plane above the transition temperature and parallel to the c

Walter Kndig; Hans Bmmel; G. Constabaris; R. H. Lindquist

1966-01-01

343

Gene expression responses in human lung fibroblasts exposed to alpha particle radiation.  

PubMed

This study examined alpha (?-) particle radiation effects on global changes in gene expression for the purposes of identifying potential signaling pathways that may be involved in Radon ((222)Rn) gas exposure and lung carcinogenesis. Human lung fibroblast cells were exposed to ?-particle radiation at a dose range of 0-1.5Gy. Twenty-four hours post-exposure, transcript modulations were monitored using microarray technology. A total of 208 genes were shown to be dose-responsive (FDR adjusted p<0.05, Fold change>|2|) of which 32% were upregulated and 68% downregulated. Fourteen of the high expressing genes (>|4| fold) were further validated using alternate technology and among these genes, GDF15 and FGF2 were assessed at the protein level. GDF15, a known marker of lung injury, had expression levels 3-fold higher in exposed cell culture media, 24h post-irradiation as detected by ELISA. Further, pathway analysis of the dose-responsive transcripts showed them to be involved in biological processes related to cell cycle control/mitosis, chromosome instability and cell differentiation. This panel of genes with particular focus on GDF15 may merit further analysis to determine their specific role in mechanisms leading to ?-particle induced lung carcinogenesis. PMID:24945610

Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew

2014-10-01

344

Effect of crystal thickness and geometry on the alpha-particle resolution of CsI (Tl)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The resolution of CsI(Tl) for Po210 alpha particles has been measured as a function of crystal thickness. The best resolution of a 12;-in. diam cylindrical crystal was obtained for a thickness of 0.38 mm, and the effect of thickness on the resolution is discussed. Based on the proposed model, a conical crystal was designed, which yielded a line width of 1.8% for Po 210 alpha particles with a selected photomultiplier tube. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.

Martinez, P.; Senftle, F. E.

1960-01-01

345

Positron study of alpha particles effect on oxide-dispersion-strengthened steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microstructure of oxide-dispersion-strengthened steels with different chromium content - MA 956 (20% Cr), ODM 751 (16% Cr) and MA 957 (14% Cr) were studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy. Samples were measured before and after helium ion implantation (He2+); therefore microstructure changes and radiation resistance to alpha particles of these steels were observed. Defect accumulation due to the radiation treatment was proven in all investigated materials. After ion implantation, mean lifetimes increased of about ~ 10 ps, which indicates significant change in microstructure. According to calculations of a defect volume from defect concentration and pre-dominant size of defects, ODM 751 is the most resistant steel in comparison to other investigated materials.

Veternikova, J.; Slugen, V.; Stancek, S.; Degmova, J.; Sabelova, V.; Sojak, S.; Petriska, M.; Hinca, R.

2013-06-01

346

An alpha particle measurement system using an energetic neutral helium beam in ITER (invited).  

PubMed

An energetic helium neutral beam is involved in the beam neutralization measurement system of alpha particles confined in a DT fusion plasma. A full size strong-focusing He(+) ion source (2 A, the beam radius of 11.3 mm, the beam energy less than 20 keV). Present strong-focusing He(+) ion source shows an emittance diagram separated for each beamlet of multiple apertures without phase space mixing, despite the space charge of a beamlet is asymmetric and the beam flow is non-laminar. The emittance of beamlets in the peripheral region was larger than that of center. The heat load to the plasma electrode was studied to estimate the duty factor for the ITER application. PMID:22380323

Sasao, M; Kisaki, M; Kobuchi, T; Tsumori, K; Tanaka, N; Terai, K; Okamoto, A; Kitajima, S; Kaneko, O; Shinto, K; Wada, M

2012-02-01

347

Charge exchange recombination spectroscopy for {alpha} particles colliding with hydrogen atoms  

SciTech Connect

The intensities of charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) of {alpha} particles colliding with the hydrogen atoms in the neutral beam injection (NBI) are calculated by solving the rate equations including electron collision processes in the quasi-static state approximation. The effects of electron collision processes on the CXRS signals for He{sup +}(n=4{yields}3) at {lambda}=468.6nm in various plasma conditions are discussed, and it is found that these effects can increase the CXRS signals by 50% for electron density n{sub e}{>=}10{sup 15}cm{sup -3}. However, their importance decreases with the increasing of NBI energy. For the short pulse of NBI, the influences of electron collision processes can be neglected for n{sub e}{<=}10{sup 14}cm{sup -3}. Furthermore, the spectra of He{sup +}(n{yields}n') are present for the plasma conditions of HT-7 tokamak.

Liu, X. J.; Xiao, B. J. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Liu, L. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, PO Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); College of Material Sciences and Optoelectronic Technology, Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 4588, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, J. G. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, PO Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); Qu, Y. Z. [College of Material Sciences and Optoelectronic Technology, Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 4588, Beijing 100049 (China)

2011-10-15

348

Experimental investigations of electron capture from atomic hydrogen and deuterium by alpha particles  

SciTech Connect

We report progress made during the period 15 September 1991--14 September 1992 on the project Experimental Investigations of Electron Capture from Atomic Hydrogen and Deuterium by Alpha Particles''. In the past year we have developed reliable, narrow energy spread, high-current sources of He[sup ++] based on direct-current magentron and electron-cyclotron resonance discharges. These sources have been proven on our test bench accelerator which has been upgraded to also allow us to test atomic hydrogen effusive targets. We have thus made substantial progress toward our goal of studying single electron capture from atomic hydrogen by doubly-ionized helium. A research plan for the upcoming year is also presented.

Gay, T.J.; Park, J.T.

1992-01-01

349

Alpha-particles as probes of nuclear shape and structure effects in proton evaporation spectra  

SciTech Connect

The emission barriers and subbarrier anisotropies in the alpha-particle decay with respect to the spin direction on Sn and rare earth compound nuclei are examined in the light of recent calculations incorporating deformation effects in the decay process. For the Sn systems the spectral shapes and anisotropies can be examined without involving deformation. For the rare earth systems deformation which increases with spin is necessary to explain the data. Energy spectra and angular correlations of evaporated protons from the {sup 52}Cr ({sup 34}S, 2p2n){sup 82}Sr reaction were measured in coincidence with discrete transitions. Large shifts in proton spectra were observed when high spin states in different rotational bands are populated. These effects cannot be explained by statistical model calculations that do not include explicitly nuclear structure effects in the deexcitation process. They are interpreted as due to near-yrast stretched proton emission, which preferentially populates the yrast band by subbarrier protons.

Sarantites, D.G.; Nicolis, N.G.; Abenante, V.; Majka, Z.; Semkow, T.M. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA)); Baktash, C.; Beene, J.R.; Garcia-Bermudez, G.; Halbert, M.L.; Hensley, D.C.; Johnson, N.R.; Lee, I.Y.; McGowan, F.K.; Riley, M.A.; Virtanen, A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Griffin, H.C. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA))

1990-01-01

350

An alpha particle measurement system using an energetic neutral helium beam in ITER (invited)  

SciTech Connect

An energetic helium neutral beam is involved in the beam neutralization measurement system of alpha particles confined in a DT fusion plasma. A full size strong-focusing He{sup +} ion source (2 A, the beam radius of 11.3 mm, the beam energy less than 20 keV). Present strong-focusing He{sup +} ion source shows an emittance diagram separated for each beamlet of multiple apertures without phase space mixing, despite the space charge of a beamlet is asymmetric and the beam flow is non-laminar. The emittance of beamlets in the peripheral region was larger than that of center. The heat load to the plasma electrode was studied to estimate the duty factor for the ITER application.

Sasao, M.; Tanaka, N.; Terai, K.; Kaneko, O. [Graduate school of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Kisaki, M.; Kobuchi, T.; Tsumori, K.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Shinto, K. [IFMIF R and D Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Wada, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

2012-02-15

351

Solar flare protons and alpha particles during the last three solar cycles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents solar-flare-associated proton and alpha-particle fluxes determined for major events from October 1972 through March 1987 (the period that represents the last part of solar cycle 20 and the whole of solar cycle 21), using data obtained by detectors on board the IMP-7 and IMP-8 satellites, along with earlier obtained data for cycle 20. It was found that the average omnidirectional flux of protons with kinetic energy above 10 MeV for cycle 21 (64/sq cm per sec) is lower than the corresponding number for cycle 20 (92/sq cm per sec) and for the cycle 19 (378/sq cm per sec). No definitive correlation was found to exist between cycle-averaged solar flare proton fluxes and peak sunspot numbers.

Goswami, J. N.; Mcguire, R. E.; Reedy, R. C.; Lal, D.; Jha, R.

1988-01-01

352

Etching characteristic studies for the detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study reports the characteristic studies for the detection of alpha particles in DAM-ADC nuclear track detector. Several important parameters that control the track formation such as, the bulk etch rate (VB), track etching rate (VT), dependence of VB and VT on etching concentration and temperature have been extensively studied. The activation energy (Eb) of the bulk etching rate for the DAM-ADC sheets has been calculated, the dependence of etching efficiency and sensitivity upon etchant concentrations and temperature has been investigated, registration efficiency of DAM-ADC detector etched at the optimum etching condition has been examined. The detailed studied results presented in this study provide various useful information about the mechanism of track formation in polymers.

El-Samman, H.; Ashry, A. H.; Arafa, W.; Abou-leila, M.; Abdalla, A. M.; Tsuruta, T.

2014-09-01

353

Gas production due to alpha particle degradation of polyethylene and polyvinylchloride  

SciTech Connect

Alpha particle degradation experiments were performed on polyethylene (PE) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) plastic samples typical of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) transuranic (TRU) waste. This was done to evaluate the effects of sealing TRU waste during shipment. Experiments were conducted at three temperatures using low dose rates. Predominant products from both plastics were hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and various organic species, with the addition of hydrochloric acid from PVC. In all experiments, the total pressure decreased. Irradiation at 30 and 60 C and at various dose rates caused small changes for both plastics, but at 100 C coupled thermal-radiolytic effects included discoloration of the material as well as large differences in the gas phase composition.

Reed, D.T.; Hoh, J.; Emery, J.; Okajima, S.; Krause, T.

1998-07-01

354

Beat wave launch of lower-hybrid wave for alpha particle diagnostic  

SciTech Connect

By use of nonlinear mixing of oppositely-directed pump waves of frequency {ital f}{sub 0}{plus_minus}{delta}{ital f}{gt}{ital f}{sub {ital pe}},{ital f}{sub {ital ce}}, a beat wave of frequency {ital f}{sub 12}=2{delta}{ital f} and velocity {ital v}{sub 12}={ital c}{delta}{ital f}/{ital f}{sub 0} may be launched deeply into the interior of a confined plasma. For launch perpendicular to magnetic field at a beat frequency in the lower-hybrid range, {ital f}{sub {ital ci}}{lt}{ital f}{sub 12}{lt}{ital f}{sub {ital ce}}, wave damping is proportional to the local derivative of the fast ion distribution function, {partial_derivative}{ital f}{sub {alpha}}/{ital dv}{parallel}{sub {ital v}}{sub 12}, thus providing (in combination with a wave-scattering diagnostic) a potential means for direct, noninvasive measurement of the local alpha-particle distribution. Present experiments on the Davis Divertor Torus (DDT) are aimed at developing quantitative agreement between computed and actual Langmuir probe measurements of spatial and temporal beat-wave distributions in a three-dimensional plasma volume. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

Horton, R.D.; Evans, R.W.; Hwang, D.Q.; McLean, H.S. [UC Davis/LLNL Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Rogers, J.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States)

1996-02-01

355

Biodegradation process of alpha-TCP particles and new bone formation in a rabbit cranial defect model.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to observe the biodegradation process of pure alpha-tricalcium phosphate (alpha-TCP) particles and to determine the efficacy of alpha-TCP as a space maintainer in a bone defect. We used 14 rabbits and prepared two cranial bone defects in each rabbit. One defect was left empty as a control, whereas the other was filled with alpha-TCP particles about 300 mum in diameter. Animals were sacrificed at 1 week, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. The cranial bone was then embedded either in paraffin wax for the preparation of decalcified specimens, or in polyester resin for the preparation of nondecalcified specimens. All specimens were evaluated histologically and histomorphometrically. As a consequence of the degradation of alpha-TCP, a "reticulate structure" appeared in the particles at 1 week and new bone was observed in this structure at 8 weeks. The amount of new bone between the control and experimental groups was not significantly different at any of the time points. However, in the experimental group, new bone at the surface of alpha-TCP was evident even in the center of the defect whereas fibrous connective tissue was dominant in the control group. These results indicate that alpha-TCP is a degradable osteoconductive material that is able to act as a space maintainer for bone regeneration when applied to a bone defect. While there was no significant difference in total bone formation between the experimental and negative control groups, the space-maintaining and osteoconductive properties of the particles may result in more complete bone formation in longer-term studies. PMID:16680680

Kihara, Hidemichi; Shiota, Makoto; Yamashita, Yasuo; Kasugai, Shohei

2006-11-01

356

Charge-Collection Length Induced by Proton and Alpha Particle Injected Into Silicon Detectors Due to Funneling Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measured deposited energies by 3 to 70 MeV protons and 9.5 to 24.5 MeV\\/nucleon alpha particles in partially depleted silicon detectors were 2 to 5 times larger than calculated deposited energies in an original depletion layer. All released charge carriers within a charge-collection length were collected. The charge-collection lengths are found to be independent of particle species, energies and stopping

Masashi Takada; Tomoya Nunomiya; Takeshi Ishikura; T. Nakamura

2009-01-01

357

Use of 4.7 MeV alpha particles in elemental analysis and fusion reactor materials studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities for using 4.7 MeV alpha particles produced at the U-120 CIP Cyclotron for charged particle induced X- and gamma-ray emission applications (PIXE and PIGE, respectively) and for fast neutron radiation damage simulation are presented. The combined analysis using PIGE and PIXE methods either separately or simultaneously is an excellent means of determining the relative abundances of lighter elements

B. Constantinescu; S. Dima; V. Florescu; E. A. Ivanov; D. Plostinaru; C. Srbu

1986-01-01

358

Lyman alpha radiation in external galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Ly alpha line of atomic hydrogen is often a luminous component of the radiation emitted by distant galaxies. Except for those galaxies which have a substantial central source of non-stellar ionizing radiation, most of the Ly alpha radiation emitted by galaxies is generated within regions of the interstellar medium which are photoionized by starlight. Conversely, much of the energy radiated by photoionized regions is carried by the Ly alpha line. Only hot, massive stars are capable of ionizing hydrogen in the interstellar medium which surrounds them, and because such stars are necessarily short-lived, Ly alpha emission traces regions of active star formation. Researchers argue that the strength of the Ly alpha emission observed from external galaxies may be used to estimate quantitatively the dust content of the emitting region, while the Ly alpha line profile is sensitive to the presence of shock waves. Interstellar dust particles and shock waves are intimately associated with the process of star formation in two senses. First, both dust particles and shock waves owe their existence to stellar activity; second, they may both serve as agents which facilitate the formation of stars, shocks by triggering gravitational instabilities in the interstellar gas that they compress, and dust by shielding star-forming molecular clouds from the ionizing and dissociative effects of external UV radiation. By using Ly alpha observations as a probe of the dust content in diffuse gas at high redshift, we might hope to learn about the earliest epochs of star formation.

Neufeld, David A.; Mckee, Christopher F.

1990-01-01

359

Monte Carlo study of alpha (?) particles transport in nanoscale gallium arsenide semiconductor materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space and ground level electronic equipment with semiconductor devices are always subjected to the deleterious effects by radiation. The study of ion-solid interaction can show the radiation effects of scattering and stopping of high speed atomic particles when passing through matter. This study had been of theoretical interest and of practical important in these recent years, driven by the need to control material properties at nanoscale. This paper is attempted to present the calculations of final 3D distribution of the ions and all kinetic phenomena associated with the ion's energy loss: target damage, sputtering, ionization, and phonon production of alpha (?) particle in Gallium Arsenide(GaAs) material. This calculation is being simulated using the Monte Carlo simulation, SRIM (Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter). The comparison of radiation tolerance between the conventional scale and nanoscale GaAs layer will be discussed as well. From the findings, it is observed that most of the damage formed in the GaAs layer induced by the production of lattice defects in the form of vacancies, defect clusters and dislocations. However, when the GaAs layer is scaled down (nanoscaling), it is found that the GaAs layer can withstand higher radiation energy, in term of displacement damage.

Amir, Haider F. Abdul; Chee, Fuei Pien

2012-09-01

360

Effects of neutral particle beam on nano-crystalline silicon thin films, with application to thin film transistor backplane for flexible active matrix organic light emitting diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel deposition process for nano-crystalline silicon (nc-Si) thin films was developed using neutral beam assisted chemical vapor deposition (NBaCVD) technology for the application of the thin film transistor (TFT) backplane of flexible active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED). During the formation of a nc-Si thin film, the energetic particles enhance nano-sized crystalline rather microcrystalline Si in thin films.

Jin Nyoung Jang; Byoung Chul Song; Dong Hyeok Lee; Suk Jae Yoo; Bonju Lee; MunPyo Hong

2011-01-01

361

Alpha-quartz-induced chemokine expression by rat lung epithelial cells: effects of in vivo and in vitro particle exposure.  

PubMed Central

Chemokines are chemotactic cytokines that can play a key role in leukocyte recruitment to sites of tissue injury or infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to alpha-quartz as well as other noxious particles increases chemokine gene expression in rat lung, although the cells responsible for chemokine expression and the mechanisms underlying this response have remained unclear. The present studies demonstrate that exposure of rats to alpha-quartz induced expression of mRNA for the chemokine macrophage-inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in epithelial cells lining the terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts as well as macrophages and alveolar type II cells in the more distal lung. Treatment of rats with an anti-MIP-2 antiserum before alpha-quartz exposure markedly attenuated neutrophilic infiltration of the lungs demonstrating an important role for MIP-2 in alpha-quartz-induced pulmonary inflammation. In vitro exposure of primary cultures of rat alveolar type II cells or the rat alveolar type II cell line RLE-6TN to tumor necrosis factor-alpha, endotoxin, or alpha-quartz increased mRNA for MIP-2 as well as the structurally and functionally similar chemokine cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant but not the chemokine MIP-1 alpha. The alpha-quartz-induced increase in epithelial MIP-2 mRNA resulted, at least in part, from increased gene transcription and was associated with the release of active MIP-2 protein. Induction of RLE-6TN MIP-2 and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant mRNA expression was not unique to alpha-quartz, being also increased by crocidolite asbestus fibers but not by titanium dioxide or MMVF-10 glass fibers. These findings indicate that epithelial cells contribute to chemokine expression in rat lung after exposure to alpha-quartz and potentially other noxious particles and suggest that alpha-quartz-activated MIP-2 expression in vivo results, at least in part, from a direct action of the particles on the lung epithelium. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8

Driscoll, K. E.; Howard, B. W.; Carter, J. M.; Asquith, T.; Johnston, C.; Detilleux, P.; Kunkel, S. L.; Isfort, R. J.

1996-01-01

362

Evidence for Direct Durable Capture of 1- to 8-Mev Solar Alpha Particles onto Geomagnetically Trapped Orbits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

By using satellite observations from Injun 5, an examination of the temporal variations of the intensity of geomagnetically trapped alpha particles has been made for the 8-month period September 1968 to April 1969. The most prominent change was a stepwise...

J. A. Van Allen B. A. Randall

1970-01-01

363

Determination of Geometry and Absorption Effects and Their Impact on the Accuracy of Alpha Particle Soft Error Rate Extrapolations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a physical experiment and extensive simulation runs are presented for the first time demonstrating the significant effects of geometry and air absorption on accelerated alpha particle soft error rate tests. These results show that geometry and absorption must be properly accounted for even when the source is in close proximity to the device to avoid substantial underestimation

Robert C. Baumann; Daniele Radaelli

2007-01-01

364

Energy and Mass Dependences of the Parameters of the Semimicroscopic Folding Model for Alpha Particles at Low and Intermediate Energies  

SciTech Connect

The energy and mass dependences of the parameters of the semimicroscopic alpha-particle potential are investigated for the first time in the region of low and intermediate energies. Within the semimicroscopic folding model, both elastic and inelastic differential and total cross sections for reactions on various nuclei are well described by using global parameters obtained in this study.

Kuterbekov, K.A.; Zholdybayev, T.K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, 480082 (Kazakhstan); Kukhtina, I.N.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow oblast, 141980 (Russian Federation)

2005-06-01

365

Lower hybrid instability driven by mono-energy {alpha}-particles with finite pitch angle spread in a plasma  

SciTech Connect

A kinetic formalism of lower hybrid wave instability, driven by mono-energy {alpha}-particles with finite pitch angle spread, is developed. The instability arises through cyclotron resonance interaction with high cyclotron harmonics of {alpha}-particles. The {alpha}-particles produced in D-T fusion reactions have huge Larmor radii ({approx}10 cm) as compared to the wavelength of the lower hybrid wave, whereas their speed is an order of magnitude smaller than the speed of light in vacuum. As a result, large parallel phase velocity lower hybrid waves, suitable for current drive in tokamak, are driven unstable via coupling to high cyclotron harmonics. The growth rate decreases with increase in pitch angle spread of the beam. At typical electron density of {approx}10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, magnetic field {approx}4 Tesla and {alpha}-particle concentration {approx}0.1%, the large parallel phase velocity lower hybrid wave grows on the time scale of 20 ion cyclotron periods. The growth rate decreases with plasma density.

Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Vishwesh; Tripathi, V. K. [Department of Physics, IIT Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India)

2013-02-15

366

I. Excluded Volume Effects in Ising Cluster Distributions and Nuclear Multifragmentation II. Multiple-Chance Effects in Alpha-Particle Evaporation  

SciTech Connect

In Part 1, geometric clusters of the Ising model are studied as possible model clusters for nuclear multifragmentation. These clusters may not be considered as non-interacting (ideal gas) due to excluded volume effect which predominantly is the artifact of the cluster's finite size. Interaction significantly complicates the use of clusters in the analysis of thermodynamic systems. Stillinger's theory is used as a basis for the analysis, which within the RFL (Reiss, Frisch, Lebowitz) fluid-of-spheres approximation produces a prediction for cluster concentrations well obeyed by geometric clusters of the Ising model. If thermodynamic condition of phase coexistence is met, these concentrations can be incorporated into a differential equation procedure of moderate complexity to elucidate the liquid-vapor phase diagram of the system with cluster interaction included. The drawback of increased complexity is outweighted by the reward of greater accuracy of the phase diagram, as it is demonstrated by the Ising model. A novel nuclear-cluster analysis procedure is developed by modifying Fisher's model to contain cluster interaction and employing the differential equation procedure to obtain thermodynamic variables. With this procedure applied to geometric clusters, the guidelines are developed to look for excluded volume effect in nuclear multifragmentation. In part 2, an explanation is offered for the recently observed oscillations in the energy spectra of {alpha}-particles emitted from hot compound nuclei. Contrary to what was previously expected, the oscillations are assumed to be caused by the multiple-chance nature of {alpha}-evaporation. In a semi-empirical fashion this assumption is successfully confirmed by a technique of two-spectra decomposition which treats experimental {alpha}-spectra has having contributions from at least two independent emitters. Building upon the success of the multiple-chance explanation of the oscillations, Moretto's single-chance evaporation theory is augmented to include multiple-chance emission and tested on experimental data to yield positive results.

Breus, Dimitry E.

2005-05-16

367

The effects of radon daughter alpha-particle irradiation in K1 and xrs-5 CHO cell lines.  

PubMed

We investigated the radiobiological effects of the radon daughter bismuth-212 (212Bi) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) K1 cells and in xrs-5 cells, which are X-ray sensitive and deficient in the ability to rejoin DNA double-strand breaks. The cells were exposed to 250 kVp X-rays or to 212Bi chelated to diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA); chelation of 212Bi to DTPA prevented its attachment to or entry into the cells. Cytotoxic, clastogenic, and mutagenic responses of the cells were measured and RBEs (D10, 2 chromatid aberrations/cell and 10 induced 6-thioguanine-resistant mutants) were calculated to be 3.8, 3.5, and 3.9, respectively for K1, and 1.4, 0.8, and 5.1, respectively, for xrs-5. With the exception of the RBE of less than 1 for alpha-induced aberrations in xrs-5, the results are consistent with the following conclusions: (1) alpha-particles are in general more effective cytotoxic, clastogenic and mutagenic agents than X-rays; (2) the primary lethal and clastogenic lesion induced by both X-rays and alpha-particles is probably a DNA double-strand break; (3) DNA double-strand breaks induced by alpha-radiation are less well repaired than those induced by X-rays, although a portion of alpha-induced damage is repairable; and (4) deficiencies in rejoining DNA double-strand breaks affect the clastogenic and cytotoxic effects of X-rays and alpha-radiation, not their mutagenic effects. The RBE of 0.8 for aberration induction in xrs-5 cells could reflect a deficiency in the ability of these cells to convert alpha-induced damage to chromosome aberrations. Alternatively, the RBE of less than 1 might reflect an unusual sensitivity of xrs-5 cells to alpha-induced G2 delays. PMID:2030713

Shadley, J D; Whitlock, J L; Rotmensch, J; Atcher, R W; Tang, J; Schwartz, J L

1991-05-01

368

Alpha spectrometric characterization of process-related particle size distributions from active particle sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory uranium foundry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranium particles within the respirable size range pose a significant hazard to the health and safety of workers. Significant differences in the deposition and incorporation patterns of aerosols within the respirable range can be identified and integrated into sophisticated health physics models. Data characterizing the uranium particle size distribution resulting from specific foundry-related processes are needed. Using personal air sampling cascade impactors, particles collected from several foundry processes were sorted by activity median aerodynamic diameter onto various Marple substrates. After an initial gravimetric assessment of each impactor stage, the substrates were analyzed by alpha spectrometry to determine the uranium content of each stage. Alpha spectrometry provides rapid non-distructive isotopic data that can distinguish process uranium from natural sources and the degree of uranium contribution to the total accumulated particle load. In addition, the particle size bins utilized by the impactors provide adequate resolution to determine if a process particle size distribution is: lognormal, bimodal, or trimodal. Data on process uranium particle size values and distributions facilitate the development of more sophisticated and accurate models for internal dosimetry, resulting in an improved understanding of foundry worker health and safety.

Plionis, A. A.; Peterson, D. S.; Tandon, L.; LaMont, S. P.

2010-03-01

369

Emission rates of alpha particles from supports with different surface conditions in direct deposition sources.  

PubMed

Direct deposition is the only method that can be utilised for the standardisation of radioactive solutions because there is no deposition loss on a support. The present study investigated how much the roughness of the support influences the emission rate of alpha particles for direct deposition sources from the practical viewpoint of use of the method. A number of samples were prepared by evaporating a 0.1-ml aliquot of a dilute nitric acid aqueous solution that contained (241)Am on stainless steel supports with four different surface conditions; untreated supports were either polished (using metal abrasives available commercially) or not polished, and buffed supports (grid size of #400) were either polished or not polished. Alpha spectrometry of the samples revealed that the detection efficiency was significantly different between the non-polished and polished supports; the former was lower by 3 % than the latter for both the untreated and buffed supports. Microscopic observations clarified that the counting loss was attributed to irregular flaws or polishing lines on the non-polished supports, most of which were found to be in the order of submicron in depth and were diminished on the polished supports. One may usually assume that a direct deposition source offers no counting loss if its entire energy spectrum is seen above a low-energy discrimination limit of the spectrometer. However, this should be experimentally confirmed using a solution with known activity. It was difficult to identify the counting loss for the buffed supports without polishing because their energy spectra showed little degradation. PMID:21097486

Kurihara, Osamu; Saito, Fumihiro; Koarashi, Jun; Kim, Eunjoo; Shiraishi, Kunio; Yamada, Yuji; Akashi, Makoto

2011-04-01

370

The biological effects of Auger electrons compared to alpha-particles and Li ions.  

PubMed

The present study reports the results of V-79 Chinese hamster cell survival studies in which Auger electron emission was stimulated in gadolinium (Gd) after thermal neutron capture. When a porphyrin that had previously been labeled with boron (10BOPP) was also labeled with Gd (Gd-10BOPP), the cells were incubated with Gd-10BOPP to assess the compound's ability to physiologically transport the Gd into the cell, and localize the Gd atoms in or near the cell's critical target, presumably the DNA. It was anticipated that Auger electron emission, stimulated during the 157Gd (n, gamma)158Gd interaction, would impart additional high LET damage to that observed from the alpha-particle and Li ion during the 10B(n, alpha) 7Li reaction. Following irradiation with thermal neutrons from the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor, the effectiveness of the Auger electrons was determined by comparing the response of cells incubated with 10BOPP, where damage was imparted by the boron neutron capture (BNC) products, to that from Gd-10BOPP, with equal concentration of 10B in both solutions. An Auger effectiveness factor of approximately 2 was found for the Gd-10BOPP cells. The Auger effectiveness observed with Gd strongly suggested that the 10BOPP molecule physiologically transported the Gd3+ ion intracellularly where it probably bound to DNA. Others have reported that Gd3+ does, in fact, complex with DNA. While depositing less energy per interaction than the high LET BNC reaction by-products, Auger electron ionization was more effective. PMID:9004772

Laster, B H; Shani, G; Kahl, S B; Warkentien, L

1996-01-01

371

Evaluation of internal alpha-particle radiation exposure and subsequent fertility among a cohort of women formerly employed in the radium dial industry.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of internal exposure to alpha-particle radiation on subsequent fertility among women employed in the radium dial industry prior to 1930, when appreciable amounts of radium were often ingested through the practice of pointing the paint brush with the lips. The analysis was limited to women for whom a radium body burden measurement had been obtained and who were married prior to age 45 (n = 603). Internal radiation dose to the ovary was calculated based on initial intakes of radium-226 and radium-228, average ovarian mass, number and energy of alpha particles emitted, fraction of energy absorbed within the ovary, effective retention integrals and estimated photon irradiation. Time between marriage and pregnancy, number of pregnancies and number of live births served as surrogates for fertility. Radiation appeared to have no effect on fertility at estimated cumulative ovarian dose equivalents below 5 Sv; above this dose, however, statistically significant declines in both number of pregnancies and live births were observed. These trends persisted after multivariable adjustment for potential confounding variables and after exclusion of subjects contributing a potential classification or selection bias to the study. Additionally, the high-dose group experienced fewer live births than would have been expected based on population rates. There were no differences in time to first pregnancy between high- and low-dose groups. These results are consistent with earlier studies of gamma-ray exposures and suggest that exposure to high doses of radiation from internally deposited radium reduces fertility rather than inducing sterility. PMID:9008216

Schieve, L A; Davis, F; Roeske, J; Handler, A; Freels, S; Stinchcomb, T; Keane, A

1997-02-01

372

Evaluation of internal alpha-particle radiation exposure and subsequent fertility among a cohort of women formerly employed in the radium dial industry  

SciTech Connect

This study examined the effect of internal exposure to {alpha}-particle radiation on subsequent fertility among women employed in radium dial industry prior to 1930, when appreciable amounts of radium were often ingested through the practice of pointing the paint brush with the lips. The analysis was limited to women for whom a radium body burden measurement had been obtained and who were married prior to age 45 (n = 603). Internal radiation dose to the ovary was calculated based on initial intakes of radium-226 and radium-228, average ovarian mass, number and energy of {alpha} particles emitted, fraction of energy absorbed within the ovary, effective retention integrals and estimated photon irradiation. Time between marriage and pregnancy, number of pregnancies and number of live births served as surrogates for fertility. Radiation appeared to have no effect on fertility at estimated cumulative ovarian dose equivalents below 5 Sv; above this dose, however, statistically significant declines in both number of pregnancies and live births were observed. These trends persisted after multivariable adjustment for potential confounding variables and after exclusion of subjects contributing a potential classification or selection bias to the study. Additionally, the high-dose group experienced fewer live births than would have been expected based on population rates. There were no differences in time to first pregnancy between high- and low-dose groups. These results are consistent with earlier studies of {gamma}-ray exposures and suggest that exposure to high doses of radiation from internally deposited radium reduces fertility rather than inducing sterility. 42 refs., 5 tabs.

Schieve, L.A.; Davis, F.; Freels, S. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

1997-02-01

373

Intratumour injection of immunoglobulins labelled with the alpha-particle emitter 211At: analyses of tumour retention, microdistribution and growth delay.  

PubMed Central

To determine the effects of 211At-labelled antibodies in solid tumour tissue, nude mice carrying OHS human osteosarcoma xenografts received intratumour injections at dosages of 1, 2 or 4 MBq (-1) tumour. The radioisotope was conjugated to either the osteosarcoma-specific monoclonal antibody TP-3 or the non-specific polyclonal antibody hlgGkappa. Tumour retention of injected radioimmunoconjugate (RIC), measured as the percentage of injected activity dosage per gram, was significantly higher for the [211At]TP-3 (203 +/- 93 at 24.1 h post injection) compared with the [211At]hlgGkappa (57 +/- 22 at 23.2 h post injection). The radioactive count rates in body (measured at neck and abdomen) were significantly lower with the TP-3 than with the hlgGkappa. Microautoradiography of the tumour radionuclide distribution was different for the two RICs, i.e. the [211At]TP-3 was to a larger extent concentrated near the injection site, whereas the [211At]hlgGkappa was more evenly distributed all over the tumour. The tumour growth was significantly delayed as a function of the injected activity dosage but without significant difference between the specific and the non-specific RIC. According to this study, it is possible to deliver highly selective radiation doses to solid tumours using intratumour injection of alpha-particle-emitting RICs. Improved tumour retention caused by antigen binding indicates that reduced normal tissue exposure can be obtained with antigen-specific antibodies. The heterogeneous tumour dose distribution observed is, however, a major impediment to the use of alpha-particle emitters against solid tumours. Images Figure 2 Figure 3

Larsen, R. H.; Bruland, O. S.

1998-01-01

374

[Production of 61Cu, 62Zn by alpha and 3He particle bombardment of natural nickel (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The optimum irradiation conditions were investigated for the production of 61Cu and 62Zn by alpha and 3He particle bombardment of natural nickel. Formation cross sections and thick-target yields were obtained for reaction products in the energy range of 10 to 40 MeV. For the production of 61Cu and 62Zn, the alpha particle bombardment was found superior to the 3He particle bombardment in so far as the yield was concerned. When the incident alpha energy of 21 MeV was chosen, after 2.4 hours of cooling, 2.1 mCi/muA.h of 61Cu could be produced with less than 1% of 60Cu contamination. For the production of 62Zn, when the incident alpha energy of 35 MeV and the target thickness of 57 mg /cm2 were chosen, 97.5 muCi/muA.h of 62Zn could be produced. Radiochemical purity of 62Zn was the highest at 12 hours after the end of bombardment. PMID:752170

Muramatsu, H; Shirai, E; Nakahara, H; Murakami, Y

1978-11-01

375

Interaction of the human cytomegalovirus particle with the host cell induces hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha  

SciTech Connect

The cellular protein hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) was induced after infection of human fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). HCMV irradiated with ultraviolet light (uv-HCMV) also elicited the effect, demonstrating that the response was provoked by interaction of the infecting virion with the cell and that viral gene expression was not required. Although induction of HIF-1{alpha} was initiated by an early event, accumulation of the protein was not detected until 9 hours post infection, with levels increasing thereafter. Infection with uv-HCMV resulted in increased abundance of HIF-1{alpha}-specific RNA, indicating stimulation of transcription. In addition, greater phosphorylation of the protein kinase Akt was observed, and the activity of this enzyme was required for induction of HIF-1{alpha} to occur. HIF-1{alpha} controls the expression of many cellular gene products; therefore the findings reveal new ways in which interaction of the HCMV particle with the host cell may cause significant alterations to cellular physiology.

McFarlane, Steven; Nicholl, Mary Jane; Sutherland, Jane S.; Preston, Chris M., E-mail: Christopher.preston@glasgow.ac.u

2011-05-25

376

Particle size and interfacial effects on heat transfer characteristics of water and {alpha}-SiC nanofluids.  

SciTech Connect

The effect of average particle sizes on basic macroscopic properties and heat transfer performance of {alpha}-SiC/water nanofluids was investigated. The average particle sizes, calculated from the specific surface area of nanoparticles, were varied from 16 to 90 nm. Nanofluids with larger particles of the same material and volume concentration provide higher thermal conductivity and lower viscosity increases than those with smaller particles because of the smaller solid/liquid interfacial area of larger particles. It was also demonstrated that the viscosity of water-based nanofluids can be significantly decreased by pH of the suspension independently from the thermal conductivity. Heat transfer coefficients were measured and compared to the performance of base fluids as well as to nanofluids reported in the literature. Criteria for evaluation of the heat transfer performance of nanofluids are discussed and optimum directions in nanofluid development are suggested.

Timofeeva, E.; Smith, D. S.; Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Singh, D.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems); ( NE); (Univ. of Illinois)

2010-01-01

377

Primary scintillation characteristics of Ar+CF4 gas mixtures excited by proton and alpha particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we report how the concentration of carbon-tetrafluoride (CF4) affects the primary scintillation from Ar+CF4 gas mixtures excited by proton and alpha particles. The single photon counting method was used to measure the time spectra of the primary scintillation from Ar, CF4 and their mixtures at atmospheric pressure. Pure Ar exhibits a fast decay time constant, which is approximately 6 ns, and a slow decay time tail. Initially, increases in the concentration of CF4 increase the decay time of the Ar+CF4 gas mixture. However, when the concentration of CF4 exceeds a certain threshold, the decay time decreases to that of pure CF4, approximately 8-9 ns. We also report the photon emission spectra of Ar+CF4 mixtures excited by protons. The emission spectrum of the primary scintillation from Ar is improved by CF4 in both the ultraviolet region and the visible to near-infrared region.

Liu, Jinliang; Ouyang, Xiaoping; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Xianpeng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Zhongbing; Ruan, Jinlu

2012-12-01

378

Calibration of the Mars Science Laboratory Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The alpha-particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission was calibrated for routine analysis of: Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, and Y. The following elements were also calibrated, but may be too low to be measured (10s-100s ppm) for their usual abundance on Mars: V, Cu, Ga, As, Se and W. An extensive suite of geological reference materials, supplemented by pure chemical elements and compounds was used. Special attention was paid to include phyllosilicates, sulfates and a broad selection of basalts as these are predicted minerals and rocks at the Gale Crater landing site. The calibration approach is from first principles, using fundamental physics parameters and an assumed homogeneous sample matrix to calculate expected elemental signals for a given instrument setup and sample composition. Resulting concentrations for most elements accord with expected values. Deviations in elements of lower atomic number (Na, Mg, Al) indicate significant influences of mineral phases, especially in basalts, ultramafic rocks and trachytes. The systematics of these deviations help us to derive empirical, iterative corrections for different rock groups, based on a preliminary APXS analysis which assumes a homogeneous sample. These corrections have the potential to significantly improve the accuracy of APXS analyses, especially when other MSL instrument results, such as the X-ray diffraction data from CheMin, are included in the overall analysis process.

Campbell, John L.; Perrett, Glynis M.; Gellert, Ralf; Andrushenko, Stefan M.; Boyd, Nicholas I.; Maxwell, John A.; King, Penelope L.; Schofield, Cleste D. M.

2012-09-01

379

Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS): Results from Gusev crater and calibration report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical composition of rocks and soils on Mars analyzed during the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit Mission was determined by X-ray analyses with the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS). Details of the data analysis method and the instrument calibration are presented. Measurements performed on Mars to address geometry effects and background contributions are shown. Cross calibration measurements among several instrument sensors and sources are discussed. An unintentional swap of the two flight instruments is evaluated. New concentration data acquired during the first 470 sols of rover Spirit in Gusev Crater are presented. There are two geological regions, the Gusev plains and the Columbia Hills. The plains contain soils that are very similar to previous landing sites on Mars. A meteoritic component in the soil is identified. Rocks in the plains revealed thin weathering rinds. The underlying abraded rock was classified as primitive basalt. One of these rocks contained significant Br that is probably associated with vein-filling material of different composition. One of the trenches showed large subsurface enrichments of Mg, S, and Br. Disturbed soils and rocks in the Columbia Hills revealed different elemental compositions. These rocks are significantly weathered and enriched in mobile elements, such as P, S, Cl, or Br. Even abraded rock surfaces have high Br concentrations. Thus, in contrast to the rocks and soils in the Gusev Plains, the Columbia Hills material shows more significant evidence of ancient aqueous alteration.

Gellert, R.; Rieder, R.; Brckner, J.; Clark, B. C.; Dreibus, G.; Klingelhfer, G.; Lugmair, G.; Ming, D. W.; Wnke, H.; Yen, A.; Zipfel, J.; Squyres, S. W.

2006-01-01

380

Gamma-Ray, Neutron, and Alpha-Particle Spectrometers for the Lunar Prospector mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-Ray, Neutron, and Alpha-Particle Spectrometers (GRS, NS, and APS, respectively) were included in the payload complement of Lunar Prospector (LP). Specific objectives of the GRS were to map abundances of Fe, Ti, Th, K, Si, O, Mg, Al, and Ca to depths of 20 cm. Those of the NS were to search for water ice to depths of 100 cm near the lunar poles and to map regolith maturity. Objectives of the APS were to search for, map, and provide a measure of the time history of gaseous release events at the lunar surface. The purpose of this paper is to document the mechanical, analog electronic, digital electronic, and microprocessor designs of the suite of spectrometers, present a representative sample of the calibrated response functions of all sensors, and document the operation of all three LP spectrometers in sufficient detail as to enable the full knowledgeable use of all data products that were archived in the Planetary Data System for future use by the planetary-science community.

Feldman, W. C.; Ahola, K.; Barraclough, B. L.; Belian, R. D.; Black, R. K.; Elphic, R. C.; Everett, D. T.; Fuller, K. R.; Kroesche, J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Lawson, S. L.; Longmire, J. L.; Maurice, S.; Miller, M. C.; Prettyman, T. H.; Storms, S. A.; Thornton, G. W.

2004-07-01

381

The Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS): Results from Gusev Crater and Calibration Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The chemical composition of rocks and soils on Mars analyzed during the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit Mission was determined by X-ray analyses with the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS). Details of the data analysis method and the instrument calibration are presented. Measurements performed on Mars to address geometry effects and background contributions are shown. Cross calibration measurements among several instrument sensors and sources are discussed. An unintentional swap of the two flight instruments is evaluated. New concentration data acquired during the first 470 sols of rover Spirit in Gusev Crater are presented. There are two geological regions, the Gusev plains and the Columbia Hills. The plains contain soils that are very similar to previous landing sites on Mars. A meteoritic component in the soil is identified. Rocks in the plains revealed thin weathering rinds. The underlying abraded rock was classified as primitive basalt. One of these rocks contained significant Br that is probably associated with vein-filling material of different composition. One of the trenches showed large subsurface enrichments of Mg, S, and Br. Disturbed soils and rocks in the Columbia Hills revealed different elemental compositions. These rocks are significantly weathered and enriched in mobile elements, such as P, S, Cl, or Br. Even abraded rock surfaces have high Br concentrations. Thus, in contrast to the rocks and soils in the Gusev Plains, the Columbia Hills material shows more significant evidence of ancient aqueous alteration.

Gellert, R.; Rieder, R.; Brueckner, J.; Clark, B.; Dreibus, G.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Lugmair, G.; Ming, D.; Waenke, H.; Yen, A.; Zipfel, J.; Squyres, S.

2006-01-01

382

Reduced proton and alpha particle precipitations at Mars during solar wind pressure pulses: Mars Express results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a statistical study of downward moving protons and alpha particles of ~keV energy (assumed to be of solar wind origin) inside the Martian induced magnetosphere from July 2006 to July 2010. Ion and electron data are from the Analyzer of Space Plasma and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) package on board Mars Express. We investigated the solar wind ion entry into the ionosphere, excluding intervals of low-altitude magnetosheath encounters. The study compares periods of quiet solar wind conditions and periods of solar wind pressure pulses, including interplanetary coronal mass ejections and corotating interaction regions. The solar wind ion precipitation appears localized and/or intermittent, consistent with previous measurements. Precipitation events are less frequent, and the precipitating fluxes do not increase during pressure pulse encounters. During pressure pulses, the occurrence frequency of observed proton precipitation events is reduced by a factor of ~3, and for He2+ events the occurrence frequency is reduced by a factor of ~2. One explanation is that during pressure pulse periods, the mass loading of the solar wind plasma increases due to a deeper penetration of the interplanetary magnetic flux tubes into the ionosphere. The associated decrease of the solar wind speed thus increases the pileup of the interplanetary magnetic field on the dayside of the planet. The magnetic barrier becomes thicker in terms of solar wind ion gyroradii, causing the observed reduction of H+/He2+ precipitations.

DiVal, C.; Stenberg, G.; Nilsson, H.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Barabash, S.

2013-06-01

383

Nanocrystalline particle coatings on alpha-alumina powders by a carbonate precipitation and thermal-assisted combustion route.  

PubMed

We have suggested ultrafine particle coating processes for preparing nanocrystalline particle coated alpha-alumina powders by a carbonate precipitation and thermal-assisted combustion route, which is environmentally friendly. The nanometric ammonium aluminum carbonate hydroxide (AACH) as a precursor for coating of alumina was produced from precipitation reaction of ammonium aluminum sulfate and ammonium hydrogen carbonate. The synthetic crystalline size and morphology were greatly dependent on pH and temperature. By adding ammonium aluminum sulfate solution dispersed the alpha-alumina core particle in the ammonium hydrogen carbonate aqueous solution, nanometric AACH with a size of 5 nm was tightly bonded and uniformly coated on the core powder due to formation of surface complexes by the adsorption of carbonates, hydroxyl and ammonia groups on the surface of aluminum oxide. The synthetic precursor rapidly converted to amorphous- and y-alumina phase without significant change in the morphological features through decomposition of surface complexes and thermal-assisted phase transformation. As a result, the nanocrystalline polymorphic particle coated alpha-alumina core powders with highly uniform distribution were prepared from the route of carbonate precipitation and thermal-assisted combustion. PMID:18047085

Kim, Sang Woo; Jung, Young Mi

2007-11-01

384

Mutations in the tumor suppressor gene p53 in human liver cancer induced by alpha-particles.  

PubMed

The p53 tumor suppressor gene is mutated in varying fractions of almost all tumor types studied. The rate of mutations and the mutational spectrum in some tumors are specific for environmental mutagens assumed to be involved in the carcinogenic process. Thus, hepatocellular carcinomas supposedly induced by aflatoxin exposure often contain a specific point mutation in codon 249, and in lung cancers of miners with heavy radon exposure, another specific point mutation in codon 249 suggestive of an alpha-particle-specific mutation has been shown. The interpretation of studies linking the mutational spectrum with specific environmental exposures is complicated by the multifactorial or unknown genesis of most tumors. However, people given injections of the X-ray contrast medium Thorotrast (Th) in the past have experienced an enormous risk of liver tumors, and virtually all of these are supposedly induced by alpha-particles from the decay of 232Th. The examination of these tumors may provide evidence as to whether specific p53 point mutations are relevant in alpha-particle carcinogenesis. Therefore, we collected paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed archival tissues from 18 hepatocellular carcinomas, 9 cholangiocarcinomas, and 9 hepatic angiosarcomas from Thorotrast-exposed patients. The tissues were analyzed for p53 protein expression by immunohistochemical staining by using the mAb DO-7 and for mutations of exons 5-8 by PCR and constant denaturant gel electrophoresis. G --> T transversions of the third base of codon 249 of the p53 gene were specifically screened for by restriction enzymes. No high score for p53 protein expression (i.e., positive staining of >20% of examined cells) was observed; lower scores were seen in 5 of 18 (28%) hepatocellular carcinomas, 1 of 9 (11%) cholangiocarcinomas, and 0 of 8 (0%) hepatic angiosarcomas. Only one p53 mutation, a heterozygous T --> G transversion of the first base codon 176, occurred in a hepatocellular carcinoma. The rate of p53 point mutations in alpha-particle-induced liver tumors seems to be lower than in European hepatocellular carcinomas in general. The study does not exclude the possibility that alpha-particle carcinogenesis may involve inactivation of p53 by gross deletions of the gene, but it speaks against the proposed specificity of point mutations of codon 249 in cancer supposedly induced by alpha-particles from radon progeny. PMID:8672994

Andersson, M; Jnsson, M; Nielsen, L L; Vyberg, M; Visfeldt, J; Storm, H H; Wallin, H

1995-01-01

385

Effects of Nanosized Ni Particle Structure on the Enhancement of Light Extraction from 600 nm AlGaInP Light-Emitting Diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the effect of Ni particle structures on the light extraction in 600 nm AlGaInP light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A Ni film was deposited on top of a gallium phosphide (GaP) layer and the surface texture was improved by an ammonia (NH3) plasma etching process into a chamber resulting in the formation of Ni particles with an average size of 10 nm. AlGaInP LED with the Ni particle shows an increase in the light extraction by 75% and a higher emission intensity with a percentage increase of 112.5% as compared with the conventional AlGaInP LEDs.

Lee, Hyung Joo; Castro, Edward Joseph D.; Kim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Choong Hun

2012-12-01

386

Measurement and analysis of neutron spectra from thick targets of Al and Ti bombarded by 30 50 MeV alpha particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy distributions of neutrons emitted from thick targets of 27Al and 46Ti are measured for alpha induced reactions at 30, 40, and 50 MeV projectile energies. Measurements are done at 0, 30, and 45 with respect to the projectile direction using the proton recoil scintillation technique. The measured data are compared with results from calculations using three different approaches of

D. Dhar; S. N. Roy; T. Bandyopadhyay; P. K. Sarkar

2003-01-01

387

The measurement of 240Pu/ 239Pu and 238Pu/ 239Pu isotopic ratios by alpha-particle spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of the alpha-activity ratio of {238Pu }/{( 239Pu + 240Pu) } is a routine practice in the determination of the isotopic composition of plutonium. However, measurement of the atomic ratio of 240Pu/ 239Pu by alpha-particle spectrometry is hampered due to insufficient energy resolution for the set of closely spaced peaks of these two isotopes. Passivated and implanted, planar silicon (PIPS) detectors have recently become available with an energy resolution of 10 keV or better, which significantly improves the deconvolution of spectra from plutonium samples. A set of alpha sources was prepared on porcelain disks by ignition, and the spectra were accumulated at a gain of approximately 1 keV per channel. The GRPANL computer program as developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was used to analyze the spectra. The isotopic ratios were measured in parallel by mass spectrometry. It was found that the agreement on the ratios of 240Pu/ 239Pu and 238Pu/ 239Pu between mass spectrometry and measurements by PIPS detectors was within 2%. Half-life values were obtained from the literature (M. Lammer and O. Schwerer, Handbook of Nuclear Data for Safeguards, Rep. INDC(NDS)-248, IAEA, Vienna, 1991; ref. [5]). Other factors were also studied to improve the accuracy of the data. The alpha-particle emission probabilities of highly enriched 239Pu and 240Pu have been measured. The alpha-particle energies obtained in the fitting were in agreement with those in ref. [5]. The fitted energy values were used throughout this work.

Raab, W.; Parus, J. L.

1994-01-01

388

Refueling pellets as a source of charge exchange neutrals for alpha particle measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha interactions with neutrals in the ablation cloud of a refueling pellet are considered as a fast alpha diagnostic through charge-capture radiation (ACCR) by the alphas or their complete neutralization and escape. Calculations of pellet penetration into a reactor plasma indicate that regions of r\\/a>0.61 could be reached by refueling pellets with initial radii of 4 mm, hence this would

G. Gerdin

1987-01-01

389

Nanodosimetry and nanodosimetric-based models of radiation action for radon alpha particles. Final performance technical report  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop theoretical/computational tools for evaluating the risks incurred by populations exposed to radon alpha particles. Topics of concern include the following: compound dual radiation action (general aspects); a mathematical formalism describing the yield of radiation induced single-and double-strand DNA breaks, and its dependence on radiation quality; a study of the excited states in cytosine and guanine stacks in the Hartree-Fock and exciton approximations; nanodosimetry of radon alpha particles; application of the HSEF to assessing radiation risks in the practice of radiation protection; carcinogenic risk coefficients at environmental levels of radon exposures: a microdosimetric approach; and hit-size effectiveness approach in radiation protection.

Zaider, M.

1997-12-31

390

Refueling pellets as a source of charge exchange neutrals for alpha particle measurements  

SciTech Connect

Alpha interactions with neutrals in the ablation cloud of a refueling pellet are considered as a fast alpha diagnostic through charge-capture radiation (ACCR) by the alphas or their complete neutralization and escape. Calculations of pellet penetration into a reactor plasma indicate that regions of r/a>0.61 could be reached by refueling pellets with initial radii of 4 mm, hence this would be an outer core diagnostic. A spherically symmetric neutral-gas shielding model (SSMNGSM) in which ionization is treated self-consistently and governed by local thermodynamic equilibrium is used in these calculations. Collisional processes are found to govern the alpha--cloud interactions and local equilibrium calculations were performed in which the charge exchange and ionization cross sections are used to obtain the state fractions of the alphas in the cloud. At 1640 A the ratio of ACCR to cloud bremsstrahlung is found to be 10/sup -5/ whereas at 304 A this ratio ranges from 3 x 10/sup -3/ to 0.5 for the cases considered; no neutralized alphas escape the cloud. Magnetic field effects are considered and they appear to reduce the bremsstrahlung from the cloud by a factor of 300 at 304 A in regions perpendicular to the magnetic field from the pellet's surface; escape of neutralized alphas may be possible in these directions. Alpha refueling pellet interactions are potentially useful as outer core fast alpha diagnostics and this could be tested in near term experiments.

Gerdin, G.

1987-12-01

391

Elastic and inelastic scattering of alpha particles from 40,44Ca over a broad range of energies and angles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Angular distributions for alpha particle elastic scattering by 40,44Ca and excitation of the 3.73 MeV 3- collective state of 40Ca were measured for incident energies ranging from 40 to 62 MeV. An extensive optical model analysis of these elastic scattering cross sections and other available data, using squared Woods-Saxon form factors, results in potentials with fixed geometry for both real

Th. Delbar; Gh. Grgoire; G. Paic; R. Ceuleneer; F. Michel; R. Vanderpoorten; A. Budzanowski; H. Dabrowski; L. Freindl; K. Grotowski; S. Micek; R. Planeta; A. Strzalkowski; K. A. Eberhard

1978-01-01

392

Nanodosimetry and nanodosimetric-based models of radiation action for radon alpha particles. Progress report, July 1990--June 1992  

SciTech Connect

We report on a theory for describing the biological effects of ionizing radiation in particular radon {alpha} particles. Behind this approach is the recognition that biological effects such as chromosome aberrations, cellular transformation, cellular inactivation, etc, are the result of a hierarchic sequence of radiation effects. We indicate how to treat each of the individual processes in this sequence, and also how to relate one effect to the hierarchically superior one.

Zaider, M.

1992-12-31

393

Production cross sections of lithium and beryllium isotopes in 12C by high-energy protons and alpha particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation cross sections of 6Li, 7Li and 7Be, 9Be, 10Be by high-energy protons and alpha-particles in a 12C target have been determined by a high sensitivity mass-spectrometric technique. A method for extracting lithium and beryllium from the irradiated graphite without interference by natural contamination has been developed. Cross sections have been measured for 150 MeV and 600 MeV protons

P. Fontes; C. Perron; J. Lestringuez; F. Yiou; R. Bernas

1971-01-01

394

Low doses of alpha particles do not induce sister chromatid exchanges in bystander Chinese hamster cells defective in homologous recombination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported previously that the homologous recombinational repair (HRR)-deficient Chinese hamster mutant cell line irs3 (deficient in the Rad51 paralog Rad51C) showed only a 50% spontaneous frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) as compared to parental wild-type V79 cells. Furthermore, when irradiated with very low doses of alpha particles, SCEs were not induced in irs3 cells, as compared to a

Hatsumi Nagasawa; Paul F. Wilson; David J. Chen; Larry H. Thompson; Joel S. Bedford; John B. Little

2008-01-01

395

Low doses of alpha particles do not induce sister chromatid exchanges in bystander Chinese hamster cells defective in homologous recombination  

Microsoft Academic Search

We reported previously that the homologous recombinational repair (HRR)-deficient Chinese hamster mutant cell line irs3 (deficient in the Rad51 paralog Rad51C) showed only a 50% spontaneous frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) as compared to parental wild-type V79 cells. Furthermore, when irradiated with very low doses of alpha particles, SCEs were not induced in irs3 cells, as compared to a

H Nagasawa; P F Wilson; D J Chen; L H Thompson; J S Bedford; J B Little

2007-01-01

396

The Role of Heat Flux in Governing the Thermal Behavior of Alpha Particles in the Fast Solar Wind  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a 16-moment, three-fluid description of the solar wind consisting of electrons, protons, and alpha particles. We assume gyrotropic flow (transport across the magnetic field is neglected) which reduces the 16-moment set of transport equations to a six-moment set yielding the density, velocity, temperatures parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, and parallel heat conductive fluxes from the parallel

L. A. Allen; X. Li

2005-01-01

397

Optical Model Potential Parameters for p, d, {sup 3}He and Alpha-Particle Scattering on Lithium Nuclei  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the p, d, {sup 3}He and {alpha}-particles elastic scattering on the {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li nuclei has been done in the framework of the optical model at the beam energies up to 72 MeV. It was shown that the account of the cluster exchange mechanism together with the potential scattering allow reproducing the experimental cross-sections in the whole angular range.

Burtebayev, N.; Nassurlla, Marzhan; Nassurlla, Maulen; Kerimkulov, Zh. K. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Sakuta, S. B. [Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow (Russian Federation)

2008-11-11

398

Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis of tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells induced by radon alpha particles.  

PubMed

To establish a cell culture model for lung carcinogenesis, independent populations of the human papillomavirus 18-immortalized human bronchial epithelial cell line BEP2D were treated with high linear energy transfer radon-simulated alpha-particles, expanded and xenotransplanted into Nu/Nu mice. Six independent cell lines were established from tumors that developed from three separate radiation treatments as follows: treatment (Tx) 1 (30 cGy--two doses), H2BT, Tx 2 (30 cGy--single dose), R30T1L, R30T2 and R30T3L, Tx 3 (30 cGy--single dose), H1ATN and H1ATBA1. Cytogenetic analysis revealed common changes in all tumor lines: loss of the Y chromosome (ch), one of three copies of ch8, one of three copies of ch14, and one of two copies of ch4p16-pter and ch11p15-pter. Analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified short tandem repeats of informative loci confirmed the loss of chY in all lines and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at eight loci spanning the length of ch8 in all lines from Tx's 1 and 2. Our data support previous studies indicating the presence of tumor suppressor genes on ch8. LOH also was confirmed on ch14 at locus D14S306 in all cell lines from Tx 2 and in one of two lines from Tx 3. This region, 14q12-q13, may contain changes in one of the five known somatostatin receptor genes (SSTR1). No LOH was detected at any of the informative loci tested for on ch4 or ch11. PMID:9214610

Weaver, D A; Hei, T K; Hukku, B; McRaven, J A; Willey, J C

1997-06-01

399

Deletion-pattern analysis of alpha-particle and X-ray induced mutations at the HPRT locus of V79 Chinese hamster cells.  

PubMed

To investigate the mutagenic mechanisms of low-energy alpha particles V79 Chinese hamster cells were irradiated with 241Am-alpha particles (mean LET of 112 keV/micron). Parallel experiments were performed using 300 kV X-rays. Cell inactivation and mutation induction cross sections were measured. At approximately 20%--survival level, DNA deletions were analysed at the HPRT locus by multiplex-PCR-analysis of all nine exons of 47 alpha-irradiated and 36 background mutants. 92 HPRT- mutants isolated after 300 kV-X-irradiation were analysed similarly for comparison, along with 15 corresponding background mutants. The resulting mutant deletion-pattern distributions were corrected for background mutations. alpha Particles induced a larger fraction of deletions than X-rays. Furthermore, non-contiguous partial deletions were present among the alpha-induced mutants, a type not found after X-irradiation. PMID:9852989

Schmidt, P; Kiefer, J

1998-11-01

400

Saturation of a floating potential of an electron emitting electrode with increased electron emission: A one-dimensional kinetic model and particle-in-cell simulation  

SciTech Connect

A bounded plasma system is studied by a one-dimensional kinetic model and particle-in-cell computer simulation using the XPDP1 code. Three particle species are injected into the system from a planar source, which are the singly charged positive ions and the cool and the hot electrons. All the particle species are injected with half-Maxwellian velocity distributions with different temperatures. From the collector, the emitted electrons are injected, also with a half-Maxwellian velocity distribution, but with a much lower temperature than the cool electrons. As electron emission from the collector is increased, the floating potential of the collector increases also until the boundary of space charge limited emission is achieved. In the simulation, the emission can be increased further and it turns out that the floating potential of the collector remains constant in spite of the increased electron emission. The model on the other hand is valid only up to the boundary of space charge limited emission. The predictions of that limit and of the respective floating potential of the collector by the model are in very good agreement with the simulation. As the criterion for comparison of the model and the simulations propose the matching of the potential, electric field, and density profiles obtained from the simulation and from the numerical solution of the Poisson equation. The matching of potential and electric field profiles is usually almost perfect. On the other hand, the numerical solutions of the Poisson equation give larger ion density at the source and emitted electron density at the collector than obtained from the simulation, but the matching of the particle densities around the inflection point of the potential between the model and the simulation is excellent for all 4 particle species. The same is valid also for the hot electron density at the source. If the potentials and the electric fields are read from the simulation and inserted into the model equations, one obtains an over-determined system of 4 equations for 3 unknown parameters: the ion and the hot electron density at the source and the emitted electron density at the collector. A solution of such a system with the method of least squares is presented. The errors obtained by such a solution can be considered as a measure of how well does the model describe the simulated system.

Gyergyek, T. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska 25, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, P. O. Box 100, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Association EURATOM/MHEST, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kovacic, J. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska 25, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Association EURATOM/MHEST, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2012-01-15

401

Experimental investigation of the concept of a 'breathing zone' using a mannequin exposed to a point source of inertial/sedimenting particles emitted with momentum.  

PubMed

An inhaling mannequin, CALTOOL, was used in a specially ventilated room to compare the concentrations inhaled with those sampled by samplers mounted across the breathing zone. The CALTOOL is made from metal sheets and consists of a cylindrical torso (42 x 24 x 54 cm) with a circular cylinder as head. A circular nozzle simulates the mouth. This nozzle is part of a cassette that holds a filter. The inhalation rate is not periodic but kept constant at nominally 20 l min(-1). The CALTOOL was placed in a horizontal air stream ( approximately 10 cm s(-1)) either facing or back to the wind. In front of the lower chest of the CALTOOL, a particle source was mounted which emitted particles with a momentum directed upwards at an angle of 45 degrees towards the CALTOOL. Five monodisperse aluminium oxide powders were used as test aerosols. The mass median aerodynamic diameters of the test aerosols ranged approximately 10 to 95 mum. Six conically shaped aerosol samplers were mounted horizontally and over the breathing zone of the CALTOOL, one on each shoulder, three across the upper torso, and one at the lower torso centre. Four to six runs per test aerosol and CALTOOL orientation in the airflow were conducted. The samples were analysed gravimetrically. The concentration ratio aerosol sampler to the CALTOOL cassette was determined for the investigated mounting positions. The results showed that when the CALTOOL was exposed to particles emitted with momentum from a point source in front of the lower chest, the variation in concentration over the breathing zone was large. The ratio of the concentration sampled by an aerosol sampler mounted somewhere within the breathing zone to the CALTOOL cassette concentration, would, for specific particle sizes, easily differ by a factor of 3, but may extend up to 10-100, depending on the particular conditions. The basic concept of a breathing zone consisting of a hemisphere of radius 25-30 cm is therefore not well suited for workers handling a point source emitting large particles. For such sampling situations, it is suggested that the radius of the breathing zone is reduced to 10 cm, which may be achieved by a head-mounted sampler. PMID:19955328

Lidn, Gran; Waher, Jri

2010-01-01

402

Comparison of PHITS, GEANT4, and HIBRAC simulations of depth-dependent yields of ?+-emitting nuclei during therapeutic particle irradiation to measured data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For quality assurance in particle therapy, a non-invasive, in vivo range verification is highly desired. Particle therapy positron-emission-tomography (PT-PET) is the only clinically proven method up to now for this purpose. It makes use of the ?+-activity produced during the irradiation by the nuclear fragmentation processes between the therapeutic beam and the irradiated tissue. Since a direct comparison of ?+-activity and dose is not feasible, a simulation of the expected ?+-activity distribution is required. For this reason it is essential to have a quantitatively reliable code for the simulation of the yields of the ?+-emitting nuclei at every position of the beam path. In this paper results of the three-dimensional Monte-Carlo simulation codes PHITS, GEANT4, and the one-dimensional deterministic simulation code HIBRAC are compared to measurements of the yields of the most abundant ?+-emitting nuclei for carbon, lithium, helium, and proton beams. In general, PHITS underestimates the yields of positron-emitters. With GEANT4 the overall most accurate results are obtained. HIBRAC and GEANT4 provide comparable results for carbon and proton beams. HIBRAC is considered as a good candidate for the implementation to clinical routine PT-PET.

Rohling, Heide; Sihver, Lembit; Priegnitz, Marlen; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Fiedler, Fine

2013-09-01

403

Comparison of PHITS, GEANT4, and HIBRAC simulations of depth-dependent yields of ?(+)-emitting nuclei during therapeutic particle irradiation to measured data.  

PubMed

For quality assurance in particle therapy, a non-invasive, in vivo range verification is highly desired. Particle therapy positron-emission-tomography (PT-PET) is the only clinically proven method up to now for this purpose. It makes use of the ?(+)-activity produced during the irradiation by the nuclear fragmentation processes between the therapeutic beam and the irradiated tissue. Since a direct comparison of ?(+)-activity and dose is not feasible, a simulation of the expected ?(+)-activity distribution is required. For this reason it is essential to have a quantitatively reliable code for the simulation of the yields of the ?(+)-emitting nuclei at every position of the beam path. In this paper results of the three-dimensional Monte-Carlo simulation codes PHITS, GEANT4, and the one-dimensional deterministic simulation code HIBRAC are compared to measurements of the yields of the most abundant ?(+)-emitting nuclei for carbon, lithium, helium, and proton beams. In general, PHITS underestimates the yields of positron-emitters. With GEANT4 the overall most accurate results are obtained. HIBRAC and GEANT4 provide comparable results for carbon and proton beams. HIBRAC is considered as a good candidate for the implementation to clinical routine PT-PET. PMID:23999571

Rohling, Heide; Sihver, Lembit; Priegnitz, Marlen; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Fiedler, Fine

2013-09-21

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