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Sample records for alpha particles emitted

  1. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

  2. Quality factors for alpha particles emitted in tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borak, Thomas B.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    A concept of a mean or dose averaged quality factor was defined in ICRP Publication 26 using relationships for quality factor as a function of LET. The concept of radiation weighting factors, wR, was introduced in ICRP Publication 60 in 1990. These are meant to be generalized factors that modify absorbed dose to reflect the risk of stochastic effects as a function of the quality of the radiation incident on the body or emitted by radioactivity within the body. The values of wr are equal to 20 for all alpha particles externally or internally emitted. This note compares the dose averaged quality factor for alpha particles originating in tissue using the old and revised recommendations for quality factor as a function of LET. The dose averaged quality factor never exceeds 20 using the old recommendations and is never less than 20 with the revised recommendations.

  3. Intense alpha-particle emitting crystallites in uranium mill wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landa, E.R.; Stieff, L.R.; Germani, M.S.; Tanner, A.B.; Evans, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    Nuclear emulsion microscopy has demonstrated the presence of small, intense ??-particle emitting crystallites in laboratory-produced tailings derived from the sulfuric acid milling of uranium ores. The ??-particle activity is associated with the isotope pair 210Pb 210Po, and the host mineral appears to be PbSO4 occurring as inclusions in gypsum laths. These particles represent potential inhalation hazards at uranium mill tailings disposal areas. ?? 1994.

  4. Enhanced retention of the alpha-particle-emitting daughters of Actinium-225 by liposome carriers.

    PubMed

    Sofou, Stavroula; Kappel, Barry J; Jaggi, Jaspreet S; McDevitt, Michael R; Scheinberg, David A; Sgouros, George

    2007-01-01

    Targeted alpha-particle emitters hold great promise as therapeutics for micrometastatic disease. Because of their high energy deposition and short range, tumor targeted alpha-particles can result in high cancer-cell killing with minimal normal-tissue irradiation. Actinium-225 is a potential generator for alpha-particle therapy: it decays with a 10-day half-life and generates three alpha-particle-emitting daughters. Retention of (225)Ac daughters at the target increases efficacy; escape and distribution throughout the body increases toxicity. During circulation, molecular carriers conjugated to (225)Ac cannot retain any of the daughters. We previously proposed liposomal encapsulation of (225)Ac to retain the daughters, whose retention was shown to be liposome-size dependent. However, daughter retention was lower than expected: 22% of theoretical maximum decreasing to 14%, partially due to the binding of (225)Ac to the phospholipid membrane. In this study, Multivesicular liposomes (MUVELs) composed of different phospholipids were developed to increase daughter retention. MUVELs are large liposomes with entrapped smaller lipid-vesicles containing (225)Ac. PEGylated MUVELs stably retained over time 98% of encapsulated (225)Ac. Retention of (213)Bi, the last daughter, was 31% of the theoretical maximum retention of (213)Bi for the liposome sizes studied. MUVELs were conjugated to an anti-HER2/neu antibody (immunolabeled MUVELs) and were evaluated in vitro with SKOV3-NMP2 ovarian cancer cells, exhibiting significant cellular internalization (83%). This work demonstrates that immunolabeled MUVELs might be able to deliver higher fractions of generated alpha-particles per targeted (225)Ac compared to the relative fractions of alpha-particles delivered by (225)Ac-labeled molecular carriers. PMID:17935286

  5. A continuous sampler with background suppression for monitoring alpha-emitting aerosol particles.

    PubMed

    McFarland, A R; Rodgers, J C; Ortiz, C A; Moore, M E

    1992-05-01

    A continuous air monitor has been developed that includes provisions for improving the detection of alpha-emitting aerosol particles in the presence of radon/thoron progeny that are unattached to ambient aerosol particles. Wind tunnel tests show that 80% of 10-microns aerodynamic equivalent diameter particles penetrate the flow system from the ambient air to the collection filter when the flow rate is 57 L min-1 (2 cfm) and the wind speed is 1 m s-1. Uniformity of aerosol collection on the filter, as characterized by the coefficient of variation of the areal density deposits, is less than 15% for 10-microns aerodynamic-equivalent-diameter aerosol particles. Tests with unattached radon daughters in a flow-through chamber showed that approximately 99% of the 218Po was removed by an inlet screen that is designed to collect radon daughters that are in the size range of molecular clusters. The inlet screen offers the opportunity to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of energy spectra in the regions of interest (subranges of the energy spectrum) of transuranic elements and thereby enhance the performance of background compensation algorithms. PMID:1559808

  6. Renal tubulointerstitial changes after internal irradiation with alpha-particle-emitting actinium daughters.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, Jaspreet Singh; Seshan, Surya V; McDevitt, Michael R; LaPerle, Krista; Sgouros, George; Scheinberg, David A

    2005-09-01

    The effect of external gamma irradiation on the kidneys is well described. However, the mechanisms of radiation nephropathy as a consequence of targeted radionuclide therapies are poorly understood. The functional and morphologic changes were studied chronologically (from 10 to 40 wk) in mouse kidneys after injection with an actinium-225 (225Ac) nanogenerator, a molecular-sized, antibody-targeted, in vivo generator of alpha-particle-emitting elements. Renal irradiation from free, radioactive daughters of 225Ac led to time-dependent reduction in renal function manifesting as increase in blood urea nitrogen. The histopathologic changes corresponded with the decline in renal function. Glomerular, tubular, and endothelial cell nuclear pleomorphism and focal tubular cell injury, lysis, and karyorrhexis were observed as early as 10 wk. Progressive thinning of the cortex as a result of widespread tubulolysis, collapsed tubules, glomerular crowding, decrease in glomerular cellularity, interstitial inflammation, and an elevated juxtaglomerular cell count were noted at 20 to 30 wk after treatment. By 35 to 40 wk, regeneration of simplified tubules with tubular atrophy and loss with focal, mild interstitial fibrosis had occurred. A lower juxtaglomerular cell count with focal cytoplasmic vacuolization, suggesting increased degranulation, was also observed in this period. A focal increase in tubular and interstitial cell TGF-beta1 expression starting at 20 wk, peaking at 25 wk, and later declining in intensity with mild increase in the extracellular matrix deposition was noticed. These findings suggest that internally delivered alpha-particle irradiation-induced loss of tubular epithelial cells triggers a chain of adaptive changes that result in progressive renal parenchymal damage accompanied by a loss of renal function. These findings are dissimilar to those seen after gamma or beta irradiation of kidneys. PMID:15987754

  7. Thorium and actinium polyphosphonate compounds as bone-seeking alpha particle-emitting agents.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Gjermund; Bruland, Oyvind S; Larsen, Roy H

    2004-01-01

    The present study explores the use of alpha-particle-emitting, bone-seeking agents as candidates for targeted radiotherapy. Actinium and thorium 1,4,7,10 tetraazacyclododecane N,N',N'',N''' 1,4,7,10-tetra(methylene) phosphonic acid (DOTMP) and thorium-diethylene triamine N,N',N'' penta(methylene) phosphonic acid (DTMP) were prepared and their biodistribution evaluated in conventional Balb/C mice at four hours after injection. All three bone-seeking agents showed a high uptake in bone and a low uptake in soft tissues. Among the soft tissue organs, only kidney had a relatively high uptake. The femur/kidney ratios for 227Th-DTMP, 228-Ac-DOTMP and 227Th-DOTMP were 14.2, 7.6 and 6.0, respectively. A higher liver uptake of 228Ac-DOTMP was seen than for 227Th-DTMP and 227Th-DOTMP. This suggests that some demetallation of the 228Ac-DOTMP complex had occurred. The results indicate that 225Ac-DOTMP, 227Th-DOTMP and 227Th-DTMP have promising properties as potential therapeutic bone-seeking agents. PMID:15015582

  8. A new mechanism for DNA alterations induced by alpha particles such as those emitted by radon and radon progeny.

    PubMed Central

    Lehnert, B E; Goodwin, E H

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism(s) by which alpha (alpha) particles like those emitted from inhaled radon and radon progeny cause their carcinogenic effects in the lung remains unclear. Although direct nuclear traversals by alpha-particles may be involved in mediating these outcomes, increasing evidence indicates that a particles can cause alterations in DNA in the absence of direct hits to cell nuclei. Using the occurrence of excessive sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) as an index of DNA damage in human lung fibroblasts, we investigated the hypothesis that alpha-particles may induce DNA damage through the generation of extracellular factors. We have found that a relatively low dose of alpha-particles can result in the generation of extracellular factors, which, upon transfer to unexposed normal human cells, can cause excessive SCE to an extent equivalent to that observed when the cells are directly irradiated with the same irradiation dose. A short-lived, SCE-inducing factor(s) is generated in alpha-irradiated culture medium containing serum in the absence of cells. A more persistent SCE-inducing factor(s), which can survive freeze-thaw and is heat labile is produced by fibroblasts after exposure to the alpha-particles. These results indicate that the initiating target for alpha-particle-induced genetic changes can be larger than a cell's nucleus or even a whole cell. How transmissible factors like those observed here in vitro may extend to the in vivo condition in the context of a-particle-induced carcinogenesis in the respiratory tract remains to be determined. PMID:9400706

  9. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-emitting nuclides.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, M R; Sgouros, G; Finn, R D; Humm, J L; Jurcic, J G; Larson, S M; Scheinberg, D A

    1998-09-01

    This review discusses the application of alpha particle-emitting radionuclides in targeted radioimmunotherapy. It will outline the production and chemistry of astatine-211, bismuth-212, lead-212, actinium-225, bismuth-213, fermium-255, radium-223 and terbium-149, which at present are the most promising alpha-emitting isotopes available for human clinical use. The selective cytotoxicity offered by alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconstructs is due to the high linear energy transfer and short particle path length of these radionuclides. Based upon the pharmacokinetics of alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconstructs, both stochastic and conventional dosimetric methodology is discussed, as is the preclinical and initial clinical use of these radionuclides conjugated to monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of human neoplasia. PMID:9724387

  10. Bismuth-212-labeled anti-Tac monoclonal antibody: alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides as modalities for radioimmunotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kozak, R.W.; Atcher, R.W.; Gansow, O.A.; Friedman, A.M.; Hines, J.J.; Waldmann, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    Anti-Tac, a monoclonal antibody directed to the human interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor, has been successfully conjugated to the alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide bismuth-212 by use of a bifunctional ligand, the isobutylcarboxycarbonic anhydride of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid. The physical properties of 212Bi are appropriate for radioimmunotherapy in that it has a short half-life, deposits its high energy over a short distance, and can be obtained in large quantities from a radium generator. Antibody specific activities of 1-40 microCi/microgram (1 Ci = 37 GBq) were achieved. Specificity of the 212Bi-labeled anti-Tac was demonstrated for the IL-2 receptor-positive adult T-cell leukemia line HUT-102B2 by protein synthesis inhibition and clonogenic assays. Activity levels of 0.5 microCi or the equivalent of 12 rad/ml of alpha radiation targeted by anti-Tac eliminated greater than 98% the proliferative capabilities of HUT-102B2 cells with more modest effects on IL-2 receptor-negative cell lines. Specific cytotoxicity was blocked by excess unlabeled anti-Tac but not by human IgG. In addition, an irrelevant control monoclonal antibody of the same isotype labeled with 212Bi was unable to target alpha radiation to cell lines. Therefore, 212Bi-labeled anti-Tac is a potentially effective and specific immunocytotoxic reagent for the elimination of IL-2 receptor-positive cells. These experiments thus provide the scientific basis for use of alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides in immunotherapy.

  11. Alpha-Particle Emitting 213Bi-Anti-EGFR Immunoconjugates Eradicate Tumor Cells Independent of Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Florian C.; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; Essler, Markus; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia is a central problem in tumor treatment because hypoxic cells are less sensitive to chemo- and radiotherapy than normoxic cells. Radioresistance of hypoxic tumor cells is due to reduced sensitivity towards low Linear Energy Transfer (LET) radiation. High LET α-emitters are thought to eradicate tumor cells independent of cellular oxygenation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to demonstrate that cell-bound α-particle emitting 213Bi immunoconjugates kill hypoxic and normoxic CAL33 tumor cells with identical efficiency. For that purpose CAL33 cells were incubated with 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb or irradiated with photons with a nominal energy of 6 MeV both under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Oxygenation of cells was checked via the hypoxia-associated marker HIF-1α. Survival of cells was analysed using the clonogenic assay. Cell viability was monitored with the WST colorimetric assay. Results were evaluated statistically using a t-test and a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM). Survival and viability of CAL33 cells decreased both after incubation with increasing 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb activity concentrations (9.25 kBq/ml–1.48 MBq/ml) and irradiation with increasing doses of photons (0.5–12 Gy). Following photon irradiation survival and viability of normoxic cells were significantly lower than those of hypoxic cells at all doses analysed. In contrast, cell death induced by 213Bi-anti-EGFR-MAb turned out to be independent of cellular oxygenation. These results demonstrate that α-particle emitting 213Bi-immunoconjugates eradicate hypoxic tumor cells as effective as normoxic cells. Therefore, 213Bi-radioimmunotherapy seems to be an appropriate strategy for treatment of hypoxic tumors. PMID:23724085

  12. Engineered Modular Recombinant Transporters: Application of New Platform for Targeted Radiotherapeutic Agents to {alpha}-Particle Emitting {sup 211}At

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenkranz, Andrey A.; Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Pozzi, Oscar R.; Lunin, Vladimir G.; Zalutsky, Michael R. Sobolev, Alexander S.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: To generate and evaluate a modular recombinant transporter (MRT) for targeting {sup 211}At to cancer cells overexpressing the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Methods and Materials: The MRT was produced with four functional modules: (1) human epidermal growth factor as the internalizable ligand, (2) the optimized nuclear localization sequence of simian vacuolating virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen, (3) a translocation domain of diphtheria toxin as an endosomolytic module, and (4) the Escherichia coli hemoglobin-like protein (HMP) as a carrier module. MRT was labeled using N-succinimidyl 3-[{sup 211}At]astato-5-guanidinomethylbenzoate (SAGMB), its {sup 125}I analogue SGMIB, or with {sup 131}I using Iodogen. Binding, internalization, and clonogenic assays were performed with EGFR-expressing A431, D247 MG, and U87MG.wtEGFR human cancer cell lines. Results: The affinity of SGMIB-MRT binding to A431 cells, determined by Scatchard analysis, was 22 nM, comparable to that measured before labeling. The binding of SGMIB-MRT and its internalization by A431 cancer cells was 96% and 99% EGFR specific, respectively. Paired label assays demonstrated that compared with Iodogen-labeled MRT, SGMIB-MRT and SAGMB-MRT exhibited more than threefold greater peak levels and durations of intracellular retention of activity. SAGMB-MRT was 10-20 times more cytotoxic than [{sup 211}At]astatide for all three cell lines. Conclusion: The results of this study have demonstrated the initial proof of principle for the MRT approach for designing targeted {alpha}-particle emitting radiotherapeutic agents. The high cytotoxicity of SAGMB-MRT for cancer cells overexpressing EGFR suggests that this {sup 211}At-labeled conjugate has promise for the treatment of malignancies, such as glioma, which overexpress this receptor.

  13. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) and natural bismuth-212 ({sup 212}Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Hit rates and radiation doses to nuclei of bone lining cells from alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polig, E.; Jee, W. S.; Kruglikov, I. L.

    1992-01-01

    Factors relating the local concentration of a bone-seeking alpha-particle emitter to the mean hit rate have been determined for nuclei of bone lining cells using a Monte Carlo procedure. Cell nuclei were approximated by oblate spheroids with dimensions and location taken from a previous histomorphometric study. The Monte Carlo simulation is applicable for planar and diffuse labels at plane or cylindrical bone surfaces. Additionally, the mean nuclear dose per hit, the dose mean per hit, the mean track segment length and its second moment, the percentage of stoppers, and the frequency distribution of the dose have been determined. Some basic features of the hit statistics for bone lining cells have been outlined, and the consequences of existing standards of radiation protection with regard to the hit frequency to cell nuclei are discussed.

  15. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  16. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  17. Alpha-particle diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Ray, K.

    2009-05-13

    The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

  19. First In Vivo Evaluation of Liposome-encapsulated 223Ra as a Potential Alpha-particle-emitting Cancer Therapeutic Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasdottir, Thora J.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Borrebaek, Jorgen; Bruland, Oyvind S.; Larsen, Roy H.

    2006-09-13

    Liposomes carrying chemotherapeutics have had some success in cancer treatment and may be suitable carriers for therapeutic radionuclides. This study was designed to evaluate the biodistribution of and to estimate the radiation doses from the alpha emitter 223Ra loaded into pegylated liposomes in selected tissues. 223Ra was encapsulated in pegylated liposomal doxorubicin by ionophore-mediated loading. The biodistribution of liposomal 223Ra was compared to free cationic 223Ra in Balb/C mice. We showed that liposomal 223 Ra circulated in the blood with an initial half-time in excess of 24 hours, which agreed well with that reported for liposomal doxorubicin in rodents, while the blood half-time of cationic 223Ra was considerably less than one hour. When liposomal 223 Ra was catabolized, the released 223Ra was either excreted or taken up in the skeleton. This skeletal uptake increased up to 14 days after treatment, but did not reach the level seen with free 223Ra. Pre-treatment with non-radioactive liposomal doxorubicin 4 days in advance lessened the liver uptake of liposomal 223 Ra. Dose estimates showed that the spleen, followed by bone surfaces, received the highest absorbed doses. Liposomal 223 Ra was relatively stable in vivo and may have potential for radionuclide therapy and combination therapy with chemotherapeutic agents.

  20. Labeling monoclonal antibodies and F(ab')2 fragments with the alpha-particle-emitting nuclide astatine-211: preservation of immunoreactivity and in vivo localizing capacity.

    PubMed Central

    Zalutsky, M R; Garg, P K; Friedman, H S; Bigner, D D

    1989-01-01

    alpha-Particles such as those emitted by 211At may be advantageous for radioimmunotherapy since they are radiation of high linear energy transfer, depositing high energy over a short distance. Here we describe a strategy for labeling monoclonal antibodies and F(ab')2 fragments with 211At by means of the bifunctional reagent N-succinimidyl 3-(trimethylstannyl)benzoate. An intact antibody, 81C6, and the F(ab')2 fragment of Me1-14 (both reactive with human gliomas) were labeled with 211At in high yield and with a specific activity of up to 4 mCi/mg in a time frame compatible with the 7.2-hr half-life of 211At. Quantitative in vivo binding assays demonstrated that radioastatination was accomplished with maintenance of high specific binding and affinity. Comparison of the biodistribution of 211At-labeled Me1-14 F(ab')2 to that of a nonspecific antibody fragment labeled with 211At and 131I in athymic mice bearing D-54 MG human glioma xenografts demonstrated selective and specific targeting of 211At-labeled antibody in this human tumor model. PMID:2476813

  1. Solar flare alpha particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Interplanetary disturbances frequently change the instantaneous values of the low energy solar flare alpha-to-proton flux ratios. The fluxes of alpha particles were integrated over the duration of seven large solar events occurring between May 28, 1967, and November 6, 1969, in order to investigate the total alpha particles fluxes observed at 1 AU resulting from the flares. The spectra of the event integrated alphas are always softer than the spectra of the event integrated protons. As a consequence, the event-integrated alpha-to-proton ratios decrease slightly with increasing energy per nucleon. The He-4/H-1 ratios averaged over the seven events are found to vary as 0.026 (E/nucl) sup -0.2 in the range 1 to 10 MeV/nucleon. The value of the ratio at 1 MeV/nucleon is less than the helium-to-hydrogen abundance determined from spectroscopic studies of prominences and the chromosphere, and is less than the average solar wind helium-to-hydrogen abundance.

  2. Summary of Alpha Particle Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.

    1998-08-19

    This paper summarizes the talks on alpha particle transport which were presented at the 5th International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Committee Meeting on "Alpha Particles in Fusion Research" held at the Joint European Torus, England in September 1997.

  3. Treatment of HER2-Expressing Breast Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Cells With Alpha Particle-Emitting {sup 227}Th-Trastuzumab

    SciTech Connect

    Heyerdahl, Helen; Krogh, Cecilie; Borrebaek, Jorgen; Larsen, Asmund; Dahle, Jostein

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of low-dose-rate alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-DOTA-trastuzumab ({sup 227}Th-trastuzumab [where DOTA is 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid]) internalized by breast and ovarian cancer cell lines in order to assess the potential of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab as a therapeutic agent against metastatic cancers that overexpress the HER2 oncogene. Methods and Materials: Clonogenic survival and cell growth rates of breast cancer cells treated with {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab were compared with rates of cells treated with nonbinding {sup 227}Th-rituximab, cold trastuzumab, and X-radiation. Cell growth experiments were also performed with ovarian cancer cells. Cell-associated radioactivity was measured at several time points, and the mean radiation dose to cells was calculated. Results: SKBR-3 cells got 50% of the mean absorbed radiation dose from internalized activity and 50% from cell surface-bound activity, while BT-474 and SKOV-3 cells got 75% radiation dose from internalized activity and 25% from cell surface-bound activity. Incubation of breast cancer cells with 2.5 kBq/ml {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab for 1 h at 4{sup o}C, followed by washing, resulted in mean absorbed radiation doses of 2 to 2.5 Gy. A dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and an increase in apoptosis were induced in all cell lines. Conclusions: Clinically relevant activity concentrations of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab induced a specific cytotoxic effect in three HER2-expressing cell lines. The cytotoxic effect of {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab was higher than that of single-dose X-radiation (relative biological effectiveness = 1.2). These results warrant further studies of treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer with {sup 227}Th-trastuzumab.

  4. Typical uncertainties in alpha-particle spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommé, S.

    2015-06-01

    Alpha-particle spectrometry is routinely performed with the aim of measuring absolute activities, activity ratios between different alpha-emitting nuclides or decay data such as branching factors, alpha emission probabilities and relative half-lives. It is most commonly performed with ion-implanted silicon detectors. Strong features of the technique are the low background levels that can be achieved due to low sensitivity to other types of radiation, the intrinsic efficiency close to 1 which reduces the efficiency calculations to a geometrical problem and the uniqueness of the energy spectra for each α-decaying nuclide. The main challenge is the limitation to the attainable energy resolution, even with thin and homogenous sources, which causes alpha energy peaks to be partially unresolved due to their width and low-energy tailing. The spectral deconvolution often requires fitting of analytical functions to each peak in the alpha spectrum. True coincidence effects between alpha particles and subsequently emitted conversion electrons cause distortions of the alpha spectra which lead to significant changes in the apparent peak area ratios. Optimum energy resolution can only be achieved on very thin sources, which puts constraints on the source preparation techniques. Radiochemical separations may be needed to extract the alpha emitters from voluminous matrices and efficiency tracing is performed by adding in another isotope by known amounts. Typical uncertainty components are discussed by means of some hypothetical examples.

  5. Cancer radioimmunotherapy with alpha-emitting nuclides.

    PubMed

    Couturier, Olivier; Supiot, Stéphane; Degraef-Mougin, Marie; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Carlier, Thomas; Chatal, Jean-François; Davodeau, François; Cherel, Michel

    2005-05-01

    In lymphoid malignancies and in certain solid cancers such as medullary thyroid carcinoma, somewhat mixed success has been achieved when applying radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with beta-emitters for the treatment of refractory cases. The development of novel RIT with alpha-emitters has created new opportunities and theoretical advantages due to the high linear energy transfer (LET) and the short path length in biological tissue of alpha-particles. These physical properties offer the prospect of achieving selective tumoural cell killing. Thus, RIT with alpha-emitters appears particularly suited for the elimination of circulating single cells or cell clusters or for the treatment of micrometastases at an early stage. However, to avoid non-specific irradiation of healthy tissues, it is necessary to identify accessible tumoural targets easily and rapidly. For this purpose, a small number of alpha-emitters have been investigated, among which only a few have been used for in vivo preclinical studies. Another problem is the availability and cost of these radionuclides; for instance, the low cost and the development of a reliable actinium-225/bismuth-213 generator were probably determining elements in the choice of bismuth-213 in the only human trial of RIT with an alpha-emitter. This article reviews the literature concerning monoclonal antibodies radiolabelled with alpha-emitters that have been developed for possible RIT in cancer patients. The principal radio-immunoconjugates are considered, starting with physical and chemical properties of alpha-emitters, their mode of production, the possibilities and difficulties of labelling, in vitro studies and finally, when available, in vivo preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:15841373

  6. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Wolf, Michael A.; McAtee, James L.; Unruh, Wesley P.; Cucchiara, Alfred L.; Huchton, Roger L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  7. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

    1993-02-02

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  8. Determination of alpha-emitting Pu isotopes in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Vioque, I; Manjón, G; García-Tenorio, R; El-Daoushy, F

    2002-04-01

    This paper presents an improved radiochemical procedure for the determination of alpha-emitting Pu isotopes in environmental samples (soils, sediments, vegetation) by alpha-particle spectrometry. Quantitative Pu recovery yields were obtained (average 60%), 0.1 mBq being the average minimum detectable activity by the complete technique. Special efforts were made to ensure the removal of traces of different natural alpha-emitting radionuclides, which can interfere with the correct determination of 239+240Pu and 238Pu concentrations. The radiochemical procedure was validated by application to reference material and by participation in intercomparison exercises. This radiochemical procedure was applied to the different layers of a high-resolution sediment core taken from a lake in Sweden. The 239+240Pu and 238Pu/239+240Pu profiles obtained in the high-resolution sediment core correctly reproduced the expected evolution of these quantities as observed historically in the atmosphere, validating the procedure for this purpose and showing the power of these radionuclides for dating purposes. PMID:12022654

  9. Alpha particle confinement in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.B.; Mynick, H.E.

    1988-11-01

    An assessment of diffusive tokamak transport mechanisms of concern for alpha particles indicates that the ''stochastic regime'' is the only one which appears to pose a real danger for adequate alpha confinement. This fact, in conjunction with the threshold character of that mechanism, allows one to decide whether an alpha born at a given location will be lost or confined, according to a very simple criterion. Implementing this criterion numerically results in a new code for the assessment of alpha confinement, which is orders of magnitude faster than earlier codes used for this purpose. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1972-01-01

    Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.

  11. Scintillation of thin tetraphenyl butadiene films under alpha particle excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollmann, Tina; Boulay, Mark; Kuźniak, Marcin

    2011-04-01

    The alpha induced scintillation of the wavelength shifter 1,1,4,4-tetraphenyl-1,3-butadiene (TPB) was studied to improve the understanding of possible surface alpha backgrounds in the DEAP dark matter search experiment. We found that vacuum deposited thin TPB films emit 882±210 photons per MeV under alpha particle excitation. The scintillation pulse shape consists of a double exponential decay with lifetimes of 11±5 and 275±10 ns.

  12. Deformation of. cap alpha. -emitting nuclei from spin alignment with the spin spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Sarantites, D.G.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, M.; Puchta, H.; Beene, J.R.; Hensley, D.C.; Halbert, M.L.; Adler, L.; Choudhury, R.K.; Namboodiri, M.N.

    1982-01-01

    The Spin Spectrometer was used to measure the angular distribution of alpha particles with respect to the spin direction of residual nuclei from fusion of 176-MeV /sup 20/Ne with /sup 150/Nd. The results show an enhancement of the ratio of 90/sup 0/ to 0/sup 0/ alpha yields with respect to spin direction with decreasing E/sub ..cap alpha../ at subbarrier energies. This effect is not reproduced by statistical-model calculation made with transmission coefficients for spherical potentials, which may indicate that the ..cap alpha..-emitting nuclei are deformed with their longest axis perpendicular to the spin direction. 15 references.

  13. A High-Throughput Screen for Alpha Particle Radiation Protectants

    PubMed Central

    Seideman, Jonathan H.; Shum, David; Djaballah, Hakim

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Alpha-particle-emitting elements are of increasing importance as environmental and occupational carcinogens, toxic components of radiation dispersal devices and accidents, and potent therapeutics in oncology. Alpha particle radiation differs from radiations of lower linear energy transfer in that it predominantly damages DNA via direct action. Because of this, radical scavengers effective for other radiations have had only limited effect in mitigating alpha particle toxicity. We describe here a simple assay and a pilot screen of 3,119 compounds in a high-throughput screen (HTS), using the alpha-particle-emitting isotope, 225Ac, for the discovery of compounds that might protect mammalian cells from alpha particles through novel mechanisms. The assay, which monitored the viability of a myeloid leukemic cell line upon alpha particle exposure, was robust and reproducible, yielding a Z' factor of 0.66 and a signal-to-noise ratio of nearly 10 to 1. Surprisingly, 1 compound emerged from this screen, epoxy-4,5-?-dihydroxysantonin (EDHS), that showed considerable protective activity. While the value of EDHS remains to be determined, its discovery is a proof of concept and validation of the utility of this HTS methodology. Further application of the described assay could yield compounds useful in minimizing the toxicity and carcinogenesis associated with alpha particle exposure. PMID:20658946

  14. Actinium-225 in targeted alpha-particle therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Scheinberg, David A; McDevitt, Michael R

    2011-10-01

    Alpha particle-emitting isotopes are being investigated in radioimmunotherapeutic applications because of their unparalleled cytotoxicity when targeted to cancer and their relative lack of toxicity towards untargeted normal tissue. Actinium- 225 has been developed into potent targeting drug constructs and is in clinical use against acute myelogenous leukemia. The key properties of the alpha particles generated by 225Ac are the following: i) limited range in tissue of a few cell diameters; ii) high linear energy transfer leading to dense radiation damage along each alpha track; iii) a 10 day halflife; and iv) four net alpha particles emitted per decay. Targeting 225Ac-drug constructs have potential in the treatment of cancer. PMID:22202153

  15. Collection and Analysis of Aircraft Emitted Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, James Charles

    1999-01-01

    The University of Denver Aerosol Group proposed to adapt an impactor system for the collection of particles emitted by aircraft. The collection substrates were electron microscope grids which were analyzed by Dr. Pat Sheridan using a transmission electron microscope. The impactor was flown in the SNIFF behind aircraft and engine emissions were sampled. This report details the results of that work.

  16. Commercial Availability of Alpha-Emitting Radionuclides for Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Darrell R.

    2008-09-15

    Alpha-emitting radionuclides provide effective cell-killing properties and have been shown to be effective in cancer treatment. The number of different alpha emitters having suitable physical and chemical characteristics for applications in medicine is relatively few. Development and testing of new radiopharmaceuticals requires a reliable supply of alpha-emitters in high quality, with timely delivery, but at reasonable cost. Applications and commercial availability of the follow alpha emitters are reviewed: Actinium-225, bismuth-213, astatine-211, radium-223, bismuth-212, radium-224, radium-226, terbium-149, and thorium-227. Recommendations for improving the supply of these alpha emitters include an increased federal commitment (through funding and joint-agency cooperation), establishing new production capabilities, and strengthening federal-private partnerships with companies involved in helping to meet critical radionuclide supplies.

  17. Luminescence imaging of water during alpha particle irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Komori, Masataka; Koyama, Shuji; Toshito, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    The luminescence imaging of water using the alpha particle irradiation of several MeV energy range is thought to be impossible because this alpha particle energy is far below the Cerenkov-light threshold and the secondary electrons produced in this energy range do not emit Cerenkov-light. Contrary to this consensus, we found that the luminescence imaging of water was possible with 5.5 MeV alpha particle irradiation. We placed a 2 MBq of 241Am alpha source in water, and luminescence images of the source were conducted with a high-sensitivity, cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. We also carried out such imaging of the alpha source in three different conditions to compare the photon productions with that of water, in air, with a plastic scintillator, and an acrylic plate. The luminescence imaging of water was observed from 10 to 20 s acquisition, and the intensity was linearly increased with time. The intensity of the luminescence with the alpha irradiation of water was 0.05% of that with the plastic scintillator, 4% with air, and 15% with the acrylic plate. The resolution of the luminescence image of water was better than 0.25 mm FWHM. Alpha particles of 5.5 MeV energy emit luminescence in water. Although the intensity of the luminescence was smaller than that in air, it was clearly observable. The luminescence of water with alpha particles would be a new method for alpha particle detection and distribution measurements in water.

  18. Prospects for alpha particle studies on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.

    1987-05-01

    TFTR is expected to produce approximately 5 MW of alpha heating during the D/T Q approx. = 1 phase of operation in 1990. At that point the collective confinement properties and the heating effects of alpha particles become accessible for study for the first time. This paper outlines the potential performance of TFTR with respect to alpha particle production, the diagnostics which will be available for alpha particle measurements, and the physics issues which can be studied both before and during D/T operation.

  19. Realizing the potential of the Actinium-225 radionuclide generator in targeted alpha-particle therapy applications

    PubMed Central

    Miederer, Matthias; Scheinberg, David A.; McDevitt, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Alpha particle-emitting isotopes have been proposed as novel cytotoxic agents for augmenting targeted therapy. Properties of alpha particle radiation such as their limited range in tissue of a few cell diameters and their high linear energy transfer leading to dense radiation damage along each alpha track are promising in the treatment of cancer, especially when single cells or clusters of tumor cells are targeted. Actinium-225 (225Ac) is an alpha particle-emitting radionuclide that generates 4 net alpha particle isotopes in a short decay chain to stable 209Bi, and as such can be described as an alpha particle nanogenerator. This article reviews the literature pertaining to the research, development, and utilization of targeted 225Ac to potently and specifically affect cancer. PMID:18514364

  20. Realizing the potential of the Actinium-225 radionuclide generator in targeted alpha particle therapy applications.

    PubMed

    Miederer, Matthias; Scheinberg, David A; McDevitt, Michael R

    2008-09-01

    Alpha particle-emitting isotopes have been proposed as novel cytotoxic agents for augmenting targeted therapy. Properties of alpha particle radiation such as their limited range in tissue of a few cell diameters and their high linear energy transfer leading to dense radiation damage along each alpha track are promising in the treatment of cancer, especially when single cells or clusters of tumor cells are targeted. Actinium-225 (225 Ac) is an alpha particle-emitting radionuclide that generates 4 net alpha particle isotopes in a short decay chain to stable 209 Bi, and as such can be described as an alpha particle nanogenerator. This article reviews the literature pertaining to the research, development, and utilization of targeted 225 Ac to potently and specifically affect cancer. PMID:18514364

  1. Alpha particle confinement in tandem mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Devoto, R.S.; Ohnishi, M.; Kerns, J.; Woo, J.T.

    1980-10-10

    Mechanisms leading to loss of alpha particles from non-axisymmetric tandem mirrors are considered. Stochastic diffusion due to bounce-drift resonances, which can cause rapid radial losses of high-energy alpha particles, can be suppressed by imposing a 20% rise in axisymmetric fields before the quadrupole transition sections. Alpha particles should then be well-confined until thermal energies when they enter the resonant plateau require. A fast code for computation of drift behavior in reactors is described. Sample calculations are presented for resonant particles in a proposed coil set for the Tandem Mirror Next Step.

  2. Counting Particles Emitted by Stratospheric Aircraft and Measuring Size of Particles Emitted by Stratospheric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, James Charles

    1994-01-01

    There were two principal objectives of the cooperative agreement between NASA and the University of Denver. The first goal was to modify the design of the ER-2 condensation nuclei counter (CNC) so that the effective lower detection limit would be improved at high altitudes. This improvement was sought because, in the instrument used prior to 1993, diffusion losses prevented the smallest detectable particles from reaching the detection volume of the instrument during operation at low pressure. Therefore, in spite of the sensor's ability to detect particles as small as 0.008 microns in diameter, many of these particles were lost in transport to the sensing region and were not counted. Most of the particles emitted by aircraft are smaller than 0.1 micron in diameter. At the start date of this work, May 1990, continuous sizing techniques available on the ER-2 were only capable of detecting particles larger than 0.17 micron. Thus, the second objective of this work was to evaluate candidate sizing techniques in an effort to gain additional information concerning the size of particles emitted by aircraft.

  3. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOEpatents

    Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E. Jr.; Dawson, J.M.

    1983-11-23

    This invention relates generally to high energy confined plasmas and more particularly is directed to measuring the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a confined energetic plasma.

  4. Alpha particles in effective field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Caniu, C.

    2014-11-11

    Using an effective field theory for alpha (α) particles at non-relativistic energies, we calculate the strong scattering amplitude modified by Coulomb corrections for a system of two αs. For the strong interaction, we consider a momentum-dependent interaction which, in contrast to an energy dependent interaction alone [1], could be more useful in extending the theory to systems with more than two α particles. We will present preliminary results of our EFT calculations for systems with two alpha particles.

  5. Imaging of emitting sources in heavy ion collisions by d-alpha correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verde, G.; Brown, David A.; Danielewicz, P.; Gelbke, C. K.; Liu, T. X.; Liu, X. D.; Lynch, W. G.; Tan, W. P.; Tsang, M. B.; Xu, H. S.; Xi, H. F.; David, B.; Desouza, R. T.; Larochelle, Y.; Charity, R. J.; Sobotka, L. G.

    2000-10-01

    Correlation functions between particles and fragments produced in heavy ion collisions can be used to investigate the space-time extent of the emitting sources. Such information can be very useful for achieving a better understanding of nuclear reaction and fragmentation mechanisms at intermediate energies. In this work, the technique recently proposed for imaging emitting sources in heavy ion collisions (D.A. Brown, P. Danielewicz, Phys. Lett. B398 (1997), 252), has been extended and applied to the experimental d-alpha correlation functions extracted in Sn+Sn reactions at 50 AMEV studied at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory of the MSU, by using the LASSA multidetector system (Large Area Silicon Strips-CsI(Tl)). Results and further implications of such studies will be presented. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-95-28844 and PHY-0070818.

  6. Alpha-particle sensitive test SRAMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Blaes, B. R.

    1990-01-01

    A bench-level test is being developed to evaluate memory-cell upsets in a test SRAM designed with a cell offset voltage. This offset voltage controls the critical charge needed to upset the cell. The effect is demonstrated using a specially designed 2-micron n-well CMOS 4-kb test SRAM and a Po-208 5.1-MeV 0.61-LET alpha-particle source. This test SRAM has been made sensitive to alpha particles through the use of a cell offset voltage, and this has allowed a bench-level characterization in a laboratory setting. The experimental data are linked to a alpha-particle interaction physics and to SPICE circuit simulations through the alpha-particle collection depth. The collection depth is determined by two methods and found to be about 7 micron. In addition, alpha particles that struck outside the bloated drain were able to flip the SRAM cells. This lateral charge collection was observed to be more than 6 micron.

  7. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1993-02-16

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, which is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  8. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); McAtee, James L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, whcih is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions.

  9. The status of alpha-particle diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.; Johnson, D.W.

    1992-08-01

    There is a flurry of activity to complete alpha-particle diagnostics so that they can undergo some experimental testing in DT plasmas on JET or TFTR prior to implementation on ITER. Successful measurements of escaping charged fusion products have been made in DD plasmas, and the {alpha}-particle source can be well characterized by neutron profile measurement. These methods can be extrapolated to DT plasmas. Measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles requires a new technique. Collective Thomson scattering, methods involving charge-exchange interactions and nuclear reactions with impurities will be discussed. Some assessment is given of the capabilities of these techniques, bearing in mind the potential for their use in the physics phase of the ITER program.

  10. The status of alpha-particle diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.; Johnson, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    There is a flurry of activity to complete alpha-particle diagnostics so that they can undergo some experimental testing in DT plasmas on JET or TFTR prior to implementation on ITER. Successful measurements of escaping charged fusion products have been made in DD plasmas, and the {alpha}-particle source can be well characterized by neutron profile measurement. These methods can be extrapolated to DT plasmas. Measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles requires a new technique. Collective Thomson scattering, methods involving charge-exchange interactions and nuclear reactions with impurities will be discussed. Some assessment is given of the capabilities of these techniques, bearing in mind the potential for their use in the physics phase of the ITER program.

  11. Lunar surface outgassing and alpha particle measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, S. L.; Feldman, W. C.; Lawrence, David J. ,; Moore, K. R.; Elphic, R. C.; Maurice, S.; Belian, Richard D.; Binder, Alan B.

    2002-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (LP APS) searched for lunar surface gas release events and mapped their distribution by detecting alpha particle?; produced by the decay of gaseous radon-222 (5.5 MeV, 3.8 day half-life), solid polonium-2 18 (6.0 MeV, 3 minute half-life), and solid polonium-210 (5.3 MeV, 138 day half-life, but held up in production by the 21 year half-life of lead-210). These three nuclides are radioactive daughters from the decay of uranium-238.

  12. Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauser, C. F.; Farengo, R.

    2015-12-01

    Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes in a magnetized plasma is studied. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations are employed to show that this process can be very important in the pedestal-edge-SOL regions. This is the first study that presents clear evidence of the importance of atomic processes on the diffusion of alpha particles. A simple 1D model that includes inelastic collisions with plasma species, "cold" neutrals, and partially ionized species was employed. The code, which follows the exact particle orbits and includes the effect of inelastic collisions via a Monte Carlo type random process, runs on a graphic processor unit (GPU). The analytical and numerical results show excellent agreement when a uniform background (plasma and cold species) is assumed. The simulations also show that the gradients in the density of the plasma and cold species, which are large and opposite in the edge region, produce an inward flux of alpha particles. Calculations of the alpha particles flux reaching the walls or divertor plates should include these processes.

  13. Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes

    SciTech Connect

    Clauser, C. F. Farengo, R.

    2015-12-15

    Alpha particles diffusion due to charge changes in a magnetized plasma is studied. Analytical calculations and numerical simulations are employed to show that this process can be very important in the pedestal-edge-SOL regions. This is the first study that presents clear evidence of the importance of atomic processes on the diffusion of alpha particles. A simple 1D model that includes inelastic collisions with plasma species, “cold” neutrals, and partially ionized species was employed. The code, which follows the exact particle orbits and includes the effect of inelastic collisions via a Monte Carlo type random process, runs on a graphic processor unit (GPU). The analytical and numerical results show excellent agreement when a uniform background (plasma and cold species) is assumed. The simulations also show that the gradients in the density of the plasma and cold species, which are large and opposite in the edge region, produce an inward flux of alpha particles. Calculations of the alpha particles flux reaching the walls or divertor plates should include these processes.

  14. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOEpatents

    Grisham, Larry R.; Post, Jr., Douglass E.; Dawson, John M.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a magnetically contained plasma is provided. The fusion plasma is seeded with energetic boron neutrals for producing, by means of the reaction .sup.10 B (.alpha.,n) .sup.13 N reaction, radioactive nitrogen nuclei which are then collected by a probe. The radioactivity of the probe is then measured by conventional techniques in determining the energy distribution of the alpha particles in the plasma. In a preferred embodiment, diborane gas (B.sub.2 H.sub.6) is the source of the boron neutrals to produce .sup.13 N which decays almost exclusively by positron emission with a convenient half-life of 10 minutes.

  15. Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

    1998-12-14

    Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

  16. Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies in the Nearby Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    The Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα) of neutral hydrogen (Hi) is intrinsically the brightest emission feature in the spectrum of astrophysical nebulae, making it a very attractive observational feature with which to survey galaxies. Moreover as an ultraviolet resonance line, Lyα possesses several unique characteristics that make it useful to study the properties of the interstellar medium and ionising stellar population at all cosmic epochs. In this review, I present a summary of Lyα observations of galaxies in the nearby universe. By ultraviolet continuum selection, at the magnitudes reachable with current facilities, only ≈ 5% of the local galaxy population shows a Lyα equivalent width (W Lyα) that exceeds 20 Å. This fraction increases dramatically at higher redshifts, but only in the local universe can we study galaxies in detail and assemble unprecedented multi-wavelength datasets. I discuss many local Lyα observations, showing that when galaxies show net Lyα emission, they ubiquitously also produce large-scale halos of scattered Lyα, that dominate the integrated luminosity. Concerning global measurements, we discuss how W Lyα and the Lyα escape fraction (f Lyα esc) are higher (W Lyα ≳ 20 Å and f Lyα esc ≳ 10%) in galaxies that represent the less massive and younger end of the distribution for local objects. This is connected with various properties, such that Lyα-emitting galaxies have lower metal abundances (median value of 12 + log(O/H) ~ 8.1) and dust reddening. However, the presence of galactic outflows/winds is also vital to Doppler shift the Lyα line out of resonance with the atomic gas, and high W Lyα is found only among galaxies with winds faster than ~ 50 km s-1. The empirical evidence is then assembled into a coherent picture, and the requirement for star-formation-driven feedback is discussed in the context of an evolutionary sequence where the interstellar medium is accelerated and/or subject to hydrodynamical instabilities, which reduce the scattering of Lyα. Concluding remarks take the form of perspectives upon future developments, and the most pressing questions that can be answered by observation.

  17. Alpha-particle Gas Pressure Gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Bell, L. D.; Hecht, M. H.

    1995-01-01

    Described are preliminary results obtained on a novel gas pressure gauge that operates between 0.1 and 1000 mb. This gauge uses a 1- micron Ci alpha particle source to ionize the gas in a small chamber with an electric field imposed between anode and cathode electrodes that drives positive ions to the cathode where they are collected electronically. This gauge could make Martian pressure measurements.

  18. THE SPATIALLY RESOLVED H{alpha}-EMITTING WIND STRUCTURE OF P CYGNI

    SciTech Connect

    Balan, Aurelian; Tycner, C.; Zavala, R. T.; Benson, J. A.; Hutter, D. J.; Templeton, M. E-mail: c.tycner@cmich.ed E-mail: jbenson@nofs.navy.mi E-mail: matthewt@aavso.or

    2010-06-15

    High spatial resolution observations of the H{alpha}-emitting wind structure associated with the luminous blue variable star P Cygni were obtained with the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer. These observations represent the most comprehensive interferometric data set on P Cyg to date. We demonstrate how the apparent size of the H{alpha}-emitting region of the wind structure of P Cyg compares between the 2005, 2007, and 2008 observing seasons and how this relates to the H{alpha} line spectroscopy. Using the data sets from 2005, 2007, and 2008 observing seasons, we fit a circularly symmetric Gaussian model to the interferometric signature from the H{alpha}-emitting wind structure of P Cyg. Based on our results, we conclude that the radial extent of the H{alpha}-emitting wind structure around P Cyg is stable at the 10% level. We also show how the radial distribution of the H{alpha} flux from the wind structure deviates from a Gaussian shape, whereas a two-component Gaussian model is sufficient to fully describe the H{alpha}-emitting region around P Cyg.

  19. Sterically stabilized liposomes as a carrier for alpha-emitting radium and actinium radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Gjermund; Schoultz, B W; Michaelsen, T E; Bruland, Ø S; Larsen, R H

    2004-05-01

    The alpha-particle emitting radionuclides (223)Ra (t(1/2) = 11.4 d), (224)Ra (t(1/2) = 3.6 d), and (225)Ac(t(1/2) = 10.0 d) may have a broad application in targeted radiotherapy provided that they could be linked to vehicles with tumor affinity. The potential usefulness of liposomes as carriers was studied in the present work. Radium and actinium radionuclides could be loaded in good yields into sterically stabilized liposomes. Subsequent coating of the liposomes with a folate-F(ab')(2) construct yielded a product with affinity towards tumor cells expressing folate receptors. Radionuclide loaded liposomes showed excellent stability in serum in vitro. PMID:15093814

  20. Ferroelectric Devices Emit Charged Particles and Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Felsteiner, Joshua; Karsik, Yakov

    2005-01-01

    Devices called solid-state ferroelectric- based sources (SSFBSs) are under development as sources of electrons, ions, ultraviolet light, and x-rays for diverse applications in characterization and processing of materials. Whereas heretofore it has been necessary to use a different device to generate each of the aforementioned species of charged particles or radiation, a single SSFBS can be configured and operated to selectively generate any of the species as needed using a single source. Relative to comparable prior sources based, variously, on field emission, thermionic emission, and gaseous discharge plasmas, SSFBSs demand less power, and are compact and lightweight. An SSFBS exploits the unique physical characteristics of a ferroelectric material in the presence of a high-frequency pulsed electric field. The basic building block of an SSFBS is a ferroelectric cathode -- a ferroelectric wafer with a solid electrode covering its rear face and a grid electrode on its front face (see figure). The application of a voltage pulse -- typically having amplitude of several kilovolts and duration of several nanoseconds -- causes dense surface plasma to form near the grid wires on the front surface.

  1. Turbulent transport of alpha particles in reactor plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada-Mila, C.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.

    2006-11-15

    A systematic study of the behavior of energetic ions in reactor plasmas is presented. Using self-consistent gyrokinetic simulations, in concert with an analytic asymptotic theory, it is found that alpha particles can interact significantly with core ion-temperature-gradient turbulence. Specifically, the per-particle flux of energetic alphas is comparable to the per-particle flux of thermal species (deuterium or helium ash). This finding opposes the conventional wisdom that energetic ions, because of their large gyroradii, do not interact with the turbulence. For the parameters studied, a turbulent modification of the alpha-particle density profile appears to be stronger than turbulent modification of the alpha-particle pressure profile. Crude estimates indicate that the alpha density modification, which is directly proportional to the core turbulence intensity, could be in the range of 15% at midradius in a reactor. The corresponding modification of the alpha-particle pressure profile is predicted to be smaller (in the 1% range)

  2. Separation of the alpha-emitting radioisotopes actinium-225 and bismuth-213 from thorium-229 using alpha recoil methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddy, F. H.; Dulloo, A. R.; Seidel, J. G.; Petrović, B.

    2004-01-01

    An innovative method has been demonstrated for separating alpha-emitting isotopes for medical radiotherapy applications. The method relies on recoil-ion separation rather than on conventional wet chemistry techniques to separate medical isotopes from their precursor sources. The isotopes 225Ac and 213Bi have been separated from electro-deposited sources of 229ThO 2. Separations of 225Ac were carried out by placing nickel recoil collector foils in firm contact with the 229ThO 2 sources. One-stage recoil-ion separations of 225Ac from 229Th have been performed as well as two-stage separations of 213Bi from previously recoil separated 225Ac. In addition, a direct recoil separation of 213Bi from 229Th has been demonstrated. The 213Bi from the one-stage direct separation has a high isotopic purity, but contains small amounts of long-lived 225Ac alpha activity. The two-stage separations of 213Bi produce high isotopic purity material (>99.9999%), but result in lower isotopic yields. Range-energy calculations have been carried out to determine the yields of recoil ions as a function of alpha-particle energy and ThO 2 thickness. The results of the calculations have been benchmarked with recoil separation measurements carried out using ThO 2 electro-deposits over a range of thickness. A computer code based on the generalized Bateman equations has been developed to allow calculations of the amounts of any isotope in the 229Th decay chain as a function of recoil separation exposure time and elapsed time after the separation. An excellent match has been obtained between the predictions of the Bateman calculations and the results of recoil separation measurements. The recoil separation method has proven to be a simple and effective way of separating medically useful isotopes such as 213Bi. In addition, the method has been shown to produce no chemical or radioactive wastes, in contrast to radiochemical separation methods, which generate mixed (chemical and radioactive) waste.

  3. Counting particles emitted by stratospheric aircraft and measuring size of particles emitted by stratospheric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, James Charles

    1994-01-01

    The ER-2 condensation nuclei counter (CNC) has been modified to reduce the diffusive losses of particles within the instrument. These changes have been successful in improving the counting efficiency of small particles at low pressures. Two techniques for measuring the size distributions of particles with diameters less than 0.17 micrometers have been evaluated. Both of these methods, the differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and the diffusion battery, have fundamental problems that limit their usefulness for stratospheric applications. We cannot recommend either for this application. Newly developed, alternative methods for measuring small particles include inertial separation with a low-loss critical orifice and thin-plate impactor device. This technique is now used to collect particles in the multisample aerosol collector housed in the ER-2 CNC-2, and shows some promise for particle size measurements when coupled with a CNC as a counting device. The modified focused-cavity aerosol spectrometer (FCAS) can determine the size distribution of particles with ambient diameters as small as about 0.07 micrometers. Data from this instrument indicates the presence of a nuclei mode when CNC-2 indicates high concentrations of particles, but cannot resolve important parameters of the distribution.

  4. Alpha particle loss in the TFTR DT experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    Alpha particle loss was measured during the TFTR DT experiments using a scintillator detector located at the vessel bottom in the ion grad-B drift direction. The DT alpha particle loss to this detector was consistent with the calculated first-orbit loss over the whole range of plasma current I=0.6-2.7 MA. In particular, the alpha particle loss rate per DT neutron did not increase significantly with fusion power up to 10.7 MW, indicating the absence of any new ``collective`` alpha particle loss processes in these experiments.

  5. Alpha-Particle Gas-Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. C.; Bell, L. D.; Hecht, M. H.

    1996-01-01

    An approximate model was developed to establish design curves for the saturation region and a more complete model developed to characterize the current-voltage curves for an alpha-particle pressure sensor. A simple two-parameter current-voltage expression was developed to describe the dependence of the ion current on pressure. The parameters are the saturation-current pressure coefficient and mu/D, the ion mobility/diffusion coefficient. The sensor is useful in the pressure range between 0.1 and 1000 mb using a 1 - mu Ci(241) Am source. Experimental results, taken between 1 and up to 200 mb, show the sensor operates with an anode voltage of 5 V and a sensitivity of 20 fA/mb in nitrogen.

  6. Alpha particle destabilization of the toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1990-10-01

    The high frequency, low mode number toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) are shown to be driven unstable by the circulating and/or trapped {alpha}-particles through the wave-particle resonances. Satisfying the resonance condition requires that the {alpha}-particle birth speed v{sub {alpha}} {ge} v{sub A}/2{vert bar}m-nq{vert bar}, where v{sub A} is the Alfven speed, m is the poloidal model number, and n is the toroidal mode number. To destabilize the TAE modes, the inverse Landau damping associated with the {alpha}-particle pressure gradient free energy must overcome the velocity space Landau damping due to both the {alpha}-particles and the core electrons and ions. The growth rate was studied analytically with a perturbative formula derived from the quadratic dispersion relation, and numerically with the aid of the NOVA-K code. Stability criteria in terms of the {alpha}-particle beta {beta}{sub {alpha}}, {alpha}-particle pressure gradient parameter ({omega}{sub {asterisk}}/{omega}{sub A}) ({omega}{sub {asterisk}} is the {alpha}-particle diamagnetic drift frequency), and (v{sub {alpha}}/v{sub A}) parameters will be presented for TFTR, CIT, and ITER tokamaks. The volume averaged {alpha}-particle beta threshold for TAE instability also depends sensitively on the core electron and ion temperature. Typically the volume averaged {alpha}-particle beta threshold is in the order of 10{sup {minus}4}. Typical growth rates of the n=1 TAE mode can be in the order of 10{sup {minus}2}{omega}{sub A}, where {omega}{sub A}=v{sub A}/qR. Other types of global Alfven waves are stable in D-T tokamaks due to toroidal coupling effects.

  7. Analytic expressions for {alpha} particle preformation in heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H. F.; Wang, Y. J.; Dong, J. M.; Royer, G.

    2009-11-15

    Experimental {alpha} decay energies and half-lives are investigated systematically to extract {alpha} particle preformation in heavy nuclei. Formulas for the preformation factors are proposed that can be used to guide microscopic studies on preformation factors and perform accurate calculations of the {alpha} decay half-lives. There is little evidence for the existence of an island of long stability of superheavy nuclei.

  8. Control of the risk of exposure to alpha emitting radionuclides in French nuclear power plants: example of Cattenom.

    PubMed

    Le Guen, B; Roupioz, A; Rabu, B; Bouvy, A; Labouglie, J F; Garcier, Y

    2003-01-01

    Control of the risk of internal exposure of EDF PWR plant maintenance workers by alpha-emitting radioactive elements is based on identification and quantification of the contamination of the systems. In 2001, an experiment carried out at Cattenom Power Plant during a unit outage in the presence of a leaking fuel cladding, based on measurement of alpha-emitting radioactive elements, made it possible to determine a realistic particle resuspension coefficient. A resuspension coefficient of 10(-6) m(-1) was adopted for operational radiological protection. An appropriate monitoring system for workers was set in place in collaboration with the occupational medicine and radiological protection department. It was based on prior estimation of the level of alpha contamination, and confirmed by swipe measurements, atmospheric surveillance by monitors, and collective analysis by nose blow samples from workers selected on the basis of their workstations, as well as supplementary individual measurements (monitoring of faeces). This surveillance made it possible to validate an appropriate work area monitoring system. PMID:14526975

  9. [alpha]-particle transport-driven current in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Heikkinen, J.A. ); Sipilae, S.K. )

    1995-03-01

    It is shown that the radial transport of fusion-born energetic [alpha] particles, induced by electrostatic waves traveling in one poloidal direction, is directly connected to a net momentum of [alpha] particles in the toroidal direction in tokamaks. Because the momentum change is almost independent of toroidal velocity, the energy required for the momentum generation remains small on an [alpha]-particle population sustained by an isotropic time-independent source. By numerical toroidal Monte Carlo calculations it is shown that the current carried by [alpha] particles in the presence of intense well penetrated waves can reach several mega-amperes in reactor-sized tokamaks. The current obtained can greatly exceed the neoclassical bootstrap current of the [alpha] particles.

  10. Local Control of Lung Derived Tumors by Diffusing Alpha-Emitting Atoms Released From Intratumoral Wires Loaded With Radium-224

    SciTech Connect

    Cooks, Tomer; Schmidt, Michael; Bittan, Hadas; Lazarov, Elinor; Arazi, Lior; Kelson, Itzhak; Keisari, Yona

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: Diffusing alpha-emitters radiation therapy (DART) is a new form of brachytherapy enabling the treatment of solid tumors with alpha radiation. The present study examines the antitumoral effects resulting from the release of alpha emitting radioisotopes into solid lung carcinoma (LL2, A427, and NCI-H520). Methods and Materials: An in vitro setup tested the dose-dependent killing of tumor cells exposed to alpha particles. In in vivo studies, radioactive wires (0.3 mm diameter, 5 mm long) with {sup 224}Ra activities in the range of 21-38 kBq were inserted into LL/2 tumors in C57BL/6 mice and into human-derived A427 or NCI-H520 tumors in athymic mice. The efficacy of the short-lived daughters of {sup 224}Ra to produce tumor growth retardation and prolong life was assessed, and the spread of radioisotopes inside tumors was measured using autoradiography. Results: The insertion of a single DART wire into the center of 6- to 7-mm tumors had a pronounced retardation effect on tumor growth, leading to a significant inhibition of 49% (LL2) and 93% (A427) in tumor development and prolongations of 48% (LL2) in life expectancy. In the human model, more than 80% of the treated tumors disappeared or shrunk. Autoradiographic analysis of the treated sectioned tissue revealed the intratumoral distribution of the radioisotopes, and histological analysis showed corresponding areas of necrosis. In vitro experiments demonstrated a dose-dependent killing of tumors cells exposed to alpha particles. Conclusions: Short-lived diffusing alpha-emitters produced tumor growth retardation and increased survival in mice bearing lung tumor implants. These results justify further investigations with improved dose distributions.

  11. Law of Radioactive Decay and Motion of Emitted Decay Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, Stewart

    2009-05-01

    All bodies are in a state of no motion, linear, vibratory or rotational motion singly or in some combination. Therefore, if a particle is emitted from a decaying nucleus, it will move linearly, rotate, vibrate or have no motion singly or in some combination. If k is a vibrational force constant, x0 the amplitude of vibratation, 1/2I2̂ the kinetic energy of rotation and 1/2mv^2 the linear kinetic energy, P is parent nucleus, D is daughter nucleus and p is the emitted decay particle the equation for this law is MPc^2 + 1/2MPvP^2 +1/2IφP^2 + 1/2kPxP0^2 = MDc^2 + 1/2MDvD^2 +1/2I2̂D+ 1/2kDx0D^2+ mpc^2 + 1/2mpvp^2 + 1/2Iφp^2 + 1/2kpx0p^2.

  12. Effects of inhaled alpha-emitting actinides on mouse alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, A; Talbot, R J

    1992-01-01

    The effects of inhaled alpha-emitting actinides on the alveolar macrophage (AM) population of the rodent lung are reviewed and, in particular, of the effects of 239PuO2 on murine AM. The effects discussed include changes the AM pool size, macrophage diameter, mobility, phagocytic competence, and enzyme content. Finally, similarities in the dose-response relationships for the induction of nuclear aberrations by alpha emitters and in the induction of lung tumors by the same materials are noted. PMID:1327735

  13. Evaluation of ZnO(Ga)Coatings as Alpha Particle Transducers Within a Neutron Generator

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, J. T.; Neal, J. S.; Cooper, J. C.; Koltick, D. S.

    2002-05-02

    We report investigations and preliminary results from efforts to develop a recoil alpha particle detector for use in a portable neutron generator. The associated particle sealed tube neutron generator (APSTNG) will be used as an interrogation source for the Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS). With the emission of 14.1 MeV neutrons produced by the D-T reaction, associated 3.5 MeV alpha particles are emitted. These neutrons and alphas may then be correlated in time and direction, thus effectively ''tagging'' the neutrons of interest for subsequent use as an active nuclear materials interrogation source. The alpha particle detector uses a ZnO(Ga) scintillator coating applied to a fiber optic face plate. Gallium-doped zinc oxide is a fast (1.5 ns decay time), inorganic scintillator with a high melting point (1975C) and an absolute light yield of 1.5% of NaI(Tl). The scintillator is coated with a thin layer of nickel in order to screen out light produced in the tube and scattered deuterons and tritons. This coating also serves to prevent the buildup of charge on the detector surface. Results to date indicate promise as an effective alpha particle detector for the APSTNG for future use in the NMIS.

  14. Measurement of alpha particles on PLT

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.; Strachan, J.D.

    1984-12-01

    The radial emission profile of the d(/sup 3/He,p)..cap alpha.. fusion reaction was measured on PLT by pitch angle resolution of the escaping 3.7-MeV alphas. The d-/sup 3/He reactions were produced by /sup 3/He minority ICRF and the emission was strongly peaked at the ICRF resonance layer.

  15. Alpha particle evaporation as a probe for dynamical deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    Evaporation of alpha particles in heavy ion reactions followed by fusion has proved to be a powerful probe for the properties of emitting nuclei. Detailed experimental data and different model calculations allow us to probe whether the foundation of the statistical model holds for the compound nucleus populated in these reactions. It has been observed that in the case of composite nuclei at moderate energies and angular momenta, evaporation spectra are well explained in terms of the standard statistical model CASCADE code employing optical model transmission coefficients in the description of particle evaporation. However, it has been observed that experimental particle spectra from heavy ion induced fusion reactions are no longer consistent with the predictions of such models. It has been predicted by some authors that in these systems the emission barriers are lower than those expected from optical model transmission coefficients calculated for the respective inverse absorption channels. Some authors claim that these spectra may be well explained in terms of the statistical model incorporating only spin dependent level density and without lowering the emission barriers. The field is not yet free from the controversies. Furthermore, the assumption of the very short formation time in statistical model analysis is one extreme of the general evolution process which in fact is a continuous relaxation process, leading to the composite system from the entrance channel to the equilibrated configuration. Recent dynamical description of heavy ion collisions do not support this assumption in many cases. In symmetric entrance channels and for collisions where centre of mass energy is well above the Coulomb barrier, formation time can be even larger than decay time of the resulting composite system. In such cases realistic approach will be to couple the dynamical evolution of the intrinsic excitation of the composite system to a time dependent statistical model calculation. The above question has been addressed in the light of the alpha particle spectra taken in coincidence with the evaporation residues for the asymmetric 28Si +51V and the symmetric 28Si +27 Al systems. The experimental data have been interpreted in the framework of dynamical trajectory model calculations.

  16. The mutagenicity of. cap alpha. particles from plutonium-238

    SciTech Connect

    Thacker, J.; Stretch, A.; Goodhead, D.T.

    1982-11-01

    Cell killing and the frequency of mutation to thioguanine resistance (HGPRT enzyme deficiency) were measured after irradiation of cultured hamster cells with 250-kV X rays and with /sup 238/Pu ..cap alpha.. particles. The frequency of mutants induced by these ..cap alpha.. particles, for a given level of cell killing, was approximately twice that induced by X rays. This agrees with expectations from our previously published data on mutation induction by radiations of high linear energy transfer, but disagrees with another recently published report of the relative mutagenicity of /sup 238/Pu ..cap alpha.. particles. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  17. DISCOVERY OF AN H{alpha} EMITTING DISK AROUND THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE OF M31

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes, R. B.; Steiner, J. E.; Ricci, T. V.

    2013-01-10

    Due to its proximity, the mass of the supermassive black hole in the nucleus of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), the most massive black hole in the Local Group of galaxies, has been measured by several methods involving the kinematics of a stellar disk which surrounds it. We report here the discovery of an eccentric H{alpha} emitting disk around the black hole at the center of M31 and show how modeling this disk can provide an independent determination of the mass of the black hole. Our model implies a mass of 5.0{sup +0.8}{sub -1.0} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} for the central black hole, consistent with the average of determinations by methods involving stellar dynamics, and compatible (at 1{sigma} level) with measurements obtained from the most detailed models of the stellar disk around the central black hole. This value is also consistent with the M-{sigma} relation. In order to make a comparison, we applied our simulation on the stellar kinematics in the nucleus of M31 and concluded that the parameters obtained for the stellar disk are not formally compatible with the parameters obtained for the H{alpha} emitting disk. This result suggests that the stellar and the H{alpha} emitting disks are intrinsically different from each other. A plausible explanation is that the H{alpha} emission is associated with a gaseous disk. This hypothesis is supported by the detection of traces of weaker nebular lines in the nuclear region of M31. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that the H{alpha} emission is, at least partially, generated by stars.

  18. Effects of alpha-particles on survival and chromosomal aberrations in human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Gialanella, G.; Pugliese, M.; Nappo, M.; Yang, T. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the radiation responses of a human mammary epithelial cell line, H184B5 F5-1 M/10. This cell line was derived from primary mammary cells after treatment with chemicals and heavy ions. The F5-1 M/10 cells are immortal, density-inhibited in growth, and non-tumorigenic in athymic nude mice and represent an in vitro model of the human epithelium for radiation studies. Because epithelial cells are the target of alpha-particles emitted from radon daughters, we concentrated our studies on the efficiency of alpha-particles. Confluent cultures of M/10 cells were exposed to accelerated alpha-particles [beam energy incident at the cell monolayer = 3.85 MeV, incident linear energy transfer (LET) in cell = 109 keV/microns] and, for comparison, to 80 kVp x-rays. The following endpoints were studied: (1) survival, (2) chromosome aberrations at the first postirradiation mitosis, and (3) chromosome alterations at later passages following irradiation. The survival curve was exponential for alpha-particles (D0 = 0.73 +/- 0.04 Gy), while a shoulder was observed for x-rays (alpha/beta = 2.9 Gy; D0 = 2.5 Gy, extrapolation number 1.6). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-LET alpha-particles for human epithelial cell killing was 3.3 at 37% survival. Dose-response curves for the induction of chromosome aberrations were linear for alpha-particles and linearquadratic for x-rays. The RBE for the induction of chromosome aberrations varied with the type of aberration scored and was high (about 5) for chromosome breaks and low (about 2) for chromosome exchanges.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  19. Calibration and operation of continuous air monitors for alpha-emitting radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.

    1993-12-31

    Spectrometer-based continuous air monitors have improved our capabilities for detecting aerosols of alpha-emitting radionuclides. This paper describes basic requirements and statistical limitations in the sensitivity of alpha continuous air monitors, and presents a technical basis for selecting the energy window for detection of uranium and plutonium aerosols, correcting for interference from airborne dust, selecting filters with low pressure drop and good front surface collection characteristics, and properly using electroplated calibration sources. Sensitivity limits are described for detecting uranium or plutonium aerosols in the presence of increased concentrations of naturally occurring, alpha-emitting radon progeny radionuclides. Decreasing the lower energy boundary of the detection window from 4.3 MeV to 2.7 MeV improves by a factor of three the detection of plutonium in the presence of dust, while causing minimal additional interference from ambient radon progeny. Selection of the Millipore Fluoropore teflon membrane filter reduces both pressure drop and interference from ambient radon progeny by up to a factor of two. Field collection of ambient radon progeny can be used to verify the proper energy of alpha emissions from electroplated calibration sources. In the absence of energy verification, errors in instrument calibration may result from solid state diffusion of the electroplated calibration radionuclide into the substrate plate.

  20. Measurement of alpha particle energy using windowless electret ion chambers.

    PubMed

    Dua, S K; Kotrappa, P; Srivastava, R; Ebadian, M A; Stieff, L R

    2002-10-01

    Electret ion chambers are inexpensive, lightweight, robust, commercially available, passive, charge-integrating devices for accurate measurement of different ionizing radiations. In an earlier work a chamber of dimensions larger than the range of alpha particles having aluminized Mylar windows of different thickness was used for measurement of alpha radiation. Correlation between electret mid-point voltage, alpha particle energy, and response was developed and it was shown that this chamber could be used for estimating the effective energy of an unknown alpha source. In the present study, the electret ion chamber is used in the windowless mode so that the alpha particles dissipate their entire energy inside the volume, and the alpha particle energy is determined from the first principles. This requires that alpha disintegration rate be accurately known or measured by an alternate method. The measured energies were within 1 to 4% of the true values for different sources (230Th, 237Np, 239Pu, 241Am, and 224Cm). This method finds application in quantitative determination of alpha energy absorbed in thin membrane and, hence, the absorbed dose. PMID:12240732

  1. Depth Measurements Using Alpha Particles and Upsettable SRAMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. G.; Reier, M.; Soli, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    A custom designed SRAM was used to measure the thickness of integrated circuit over layers and the epi-layer thickness using alpha particles and a test SRAM. The over layer consists of oxide, nitride, metal, and junction regions.

  2. Alpha particle nonionizing energy loss (NIEL) for device applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jun, Insoo; Xapsos, Michael A.; Messenger, Scott R.; Burke, Edward A.; Walters, Robert J.; Summers, Geoff; Jordan, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    A method developed for the proton NIEL calculation previously is extended to incident alpha particles in this study: ZBL screened potential for Coulomb interactions and MCNPX 'thin target approximation' for nuclear interactions.

  3. Alpha-particle effects on ballooning flute modes in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Andrushchenko, Z.N.; Bijko, A.Y.; Cheremnykh, O.K. )

    1990-11-01

    In this paper a more accurate dispersion equation for ideal ballooning flute modes in a plasma with alpha particles is obtained. It is shown that circulating and trapped alpha particles generate the eigenbranches of the mode oscillations with frequencies {omega} {approx lt} {omega}{sub *i}, where {omega}{sub *i}, is the ion drift frequency. The relevant growth rates and frequencies are found. It is ascertained that in the frequency range {omega}{sub *i} {lt} {omega} {lt} {bar {omega}{sub Db}}, where {bar {omega}{sub Db}} is the magnetic drift frequency average over a bounce period, trapped alpha particles may generate forced oscillations that influence the ideal ballooning flute mode stability boundary. It is shown that the stability may be improved for certain plasma parameters and trapped alpha-particle pressures.

  4. Full orbit calculation for lost alpha particle measurement on ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Funaki, D.; Isobe, M.; Nishiura, M.; Sato, Y.; Okamoto, A.; Kobuchi, T.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.

    2008-10-15

    An orbit following calculation code with full gyromotion under the ITER magnetic field configuration has been developed to investigate escaping alpha particle orbits in ITER and to determine the geometrical arrangement for alpha particle detection. The code contained the full geometrical information of the first wall panels. It was carefully investigated whether an alpha particle escaping from the plasma through the last closed flux surface does not touch or intersect the first wall boundary before reaching the detection point. Candidates of blanket module modification have been studied to achieve effective measurement geometry for escaping alpha particle detection. The calculations showed that direct orbit loss and banana diffusion can be detected with a probe head recessed from the first wall surface.

  5. Shielding of manned space vehicles against protons and alpha particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alsmiller, R. G., Jr.; Santoro, R. T.; Barish, J.; Claiborne, H. C.

    1972-01-01

    The available information on the shielding of manned space vehicles against protons and alpha particles is summarized. The emphasis is placed on shielding against Van Allen belt protons and against solar-flare protons and alpha particles, but information on shielding against galactic cosmic rays is also presented. The approximation methods for use by nonexperts in the space shielding field are those that are standard in the space shielding literature.

  6. The formation of ultra-fine particles during ozone-initiated oxidations with terpenes emitted from natural paint.

    PubMed

    Lamorena, Rheo B; Jung, Sang-Guen; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Lee, Woojin

    2007-03-01

    The formation of secondary products during the ozone-initiated oxidations with biogenic VOCs emitted from natural paint was investigated in this study. Mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy measurements have shown that the major components of gas-phase chemicals emitted from natural paint are monoterpenes including alpha- and beta-pinenes, camphene, p-cymene, and limonene. A significant formation of gaseous carbonyl products and nano-sized particles (4.4-168nm) was observed in the presence of ozone. Carboxylic acids were also observed to form during the reactions (i.e. formic acid at 0.170ppm and acetic acid at 0.260ppm). The formation of particles increased as the volume of paint introduced into a reaction chamber increased. A secondary increase in the particle number concentration was observed after 440min, which suggests further partitioning of oxidation products (i.e. carboxylic acids) into the particles previously existing in the reaction chamber. The growth of particles increased as the mean particle diameter and particle mass concentrations increased during the reaction. The experimental results obtained in this study may provide insight into the potential exposure of occupants to irritating chemical compounds formed during the oxidations of biogenic VOCs emitted from natural paint in indoor environments. PMID:16908097

  7. A history of nuclear transmutations by natural alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Matteo

    2005-11-01

    A systematic account of the use of alpha particles up to the 1930s for promoting the disintegration of atoms is here provided. As will be shown, a number of different radium family alpha sources were used in the experiments that led to the discoveries of the proton (Rutherford E 1919 Phil. Mag. 37 581-7) and neutron (Chadwick J 1932 Nature 129 312). The reasons leading to the employment of a particular alpha particle source, as well as the relationship between these sources and the available methods of recording, will be closely addressed.

  8. TEST PROCEDURE FOR GROSS ALPHA PARTICLE ACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER: INTERLABORATORY COLLABORATIVE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gross alpha activity values were calculated with four different alpha emitting radionuclide standard counting efficiencies to see which standard was best for gross alpha activity determinations. Thorium-230, a pure alpha emitter, appeared to be the best standard for gross alpha c...

  9. Alpha particle backscattering measurements used for chemical analysis of surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, J. H.

    1967-01-01

    Alpha particle backscattering performs a chemical analysis of surfaces. The apparatus uses a curium source and a semiconductor detector to determine the energy spectrum of the particles. This in turn determines the chemical composition of the surface after calibration to known samples.

  10. Alpha-particle emission probabilities of ²³⁶U obtained by alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marouli, M; Pommé, S; Jobbágy, V; Van Ammel, R; Paepen, J; Stroh, H; Benedik, L

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry was performed with an ion-implanted silicon detector in vacuum on a homogeneously electrodeposited (236)U source. The source was measured at different solid angles subtended by the detector, varying between 0.8% and 2.4% of 4π sr, to assess the influence of coincidental detection of alpha-particles and conversion electrons on the measured alpha-particle emission probabilities. Additional measurements were performed using a bending magnet to eliminate conversion electrons, the results of which coincide with normal measurements extrapolated to an infinitely small solid angle. The measured alpha emission probabilities for the three main peaks - 74.20 (5)%, 25.68 (5)% and 0.123 (5)%, respectively - are consistent with literature data, but their precision has been improved by at least one order of magnitude in this work. PMID:24309010

  11. Magnetoluminescence of light-emitting field-effect transistors based on alpha sexithiophene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Song-Toan; Tada, Hirokazu

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrated the effect of a magnetic field on the luminous intensity and electric current of light-emitting field-effect transistors (LEFETs) based on alpha sexithiophene (α-6T). Sublimate-grade α-6T was thermally deposited on an n+-Si/300 nm-SiO2 substrate with patterned asymmetric gold-aluminum electrodes to fabricate a bottom-contact LEFET. We observed an increase in luminous intensity of approximately 1.3% under a magnetic field of 100 mT. A possible explanation for this is that the magnetic field increased the probability of singlet formation at the α-6T/Al interface. While the magneto-electroluminescence (MEL) was reported to be derived from the magneto-conductance (MC) in ordinary light emitting diodes, the MEL in LEFET was independent with MC. This indicates that the luminous efficiency can be improved by optimizing the magnetic field effect.

  12. Analysis of radiation risk from alpha particle component of solar particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Golightly, M. J.; Weyland, M.

    1994-01-01

    The solar particle events (SPE) will contain a primary alpha particle component, representing a possible increase in the potential risk to astronauts during an SPE over the often studied proton component. We discuss the physical interactions of alpha particles important in describing the transport of these particles through spacecraft and body shielding. Models of light ion reactions are presented and their effects on energy and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra in shielding discussed. We present predictions of particle spectra, dose, and dose equivalent in organs of interest for SPE spectra typical of those occurring in recent solar cycles. The large events of solar cycle 19 are found to have substantial increase in biological risk from alpha particles, including a large increase in secondary neutron production from alpha particle breakup.

  13. Analysis of radiation risk from alpha particle component of soalr particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Golightly, M. J.; Weyland, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Solar Particle Events (SPE) will contain a primary alpha particle component, representing a possible increase in the potential risk to astronauts during an SPE over the often studied proton component. We discuss the physical interactions of alpha particles important in describing the transport of these particles through spacecraft and body shielding. Models of light ion reactions are presented and their effects on energy and Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra in shielding are discussed. We present predictions of particle spectra, dose, and dose equivalent in organs of interest for SPE spectra typical of those occurring in recent solar cycles. The large events of solar cycle 19 are found to have substantial increase in biological risk from alpha particles, including a large increase in secondary neutron production from alpha particle breakup.

  14. Coordination chemistry of the sup 212 Pb/ sup 212 Bi nuclear transformation: Alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, N.J.; Harris, W.R.; Keen, C.L.; Cooper, S.R.

    1992-07-01

    Subdivisions of this project are: (a) the synthesis of prototypical thiolate and dithiocarbamate based hexacoordinate complexes, (b) radiochemical engineering for generation of no-carrier-added lead and bismuth radioelements, (c) the first isolation of bismuth-binding proteins from in vivo studies with cyclotron produced {sup 205/206}Bi tracer, and (d) initial development of transport mechanisms for the intracellular radiobiological study of alpha emitting bismuth, and (e) the initiation of chemical equilibrium studies and biochemical pathways with cyclotron-produced, no-carrier-added, {sup 203}Pb (T{sub 1/2} = 51 hr).

  15. DUST EXTINCTION AND METALLICITIES OF STAR-FORMING Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES AT LOW REDSHIFT

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Papovich, Casey; Cohen, Seth H.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Moustakas, John

    2011-06-01

    We present the results of an optical spectroscopic study of 12 GALEX-discovered star-forming Ly{alpha} emitting galaxies (LAEs) at z {approx} 0.3. We measure the emission-line fluxes from these galaxies by fitting their observed spectra to stellar population models in order to correct for underlying stellar absorption. We revisit earlier stellar population model fitting results, finding that excluding now-known active galactic nuclei lowers the typical stellar population age and stellar mass of this sample to {approx}300 Myr and {approx}4 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}, respectively. We calculate their dust extinction using the Balmer decrement, and find a typical visual attenuation of A{sub V} {approx} 0.3 mag, similar to that seen in some high-redshift LAEs. Comparing the ratios of Ly{alpha}/H{alpha} and the Ly{alpha} equivalent widths to the measured dust extinction, we find that the interstellar media (ISMs) in these objects appear to be neither enhancing nor seriously attenuating the Ly{alpha} equivalent widths, as would be the case in a quasi-clumpy ISM. Lastly, we perform a detailed analysis of the gas-phase metallicities of these galaxies, and we find that most galaxies in our sample have Z {approx}< 0.4 Z{sub sun}. We find that at a fixed stellar mass, these low-redshift LAE analogs are offset by {approx}0.3-0.6 dex lower metallicity from the general galaxy population at similar redshifts based on the local mass-metallicity relationship. This implies that galaxies with Ly{alpha} in emission may be systematically more metal-poor than star-forming galaxies at the same stellar mass and redshift, similar to preliminary results at z {approx} 2.

  16. Utility of extracting {alpha}-particle energy by waves

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N.J.; Herrmann, M.C.

    1994-05-01

    The utility of extracting {alpha}-particle power, and then diverting this power to fast fuel ions, is investigated. As power is diverted to fast ions and then to ions, a number of effects come into play, as the relative amounts of pressure taken up by electrons, fuel ions, and fast {alpha}-particles shift. In addition, if the {alpha}-particle power is diverted to fast fuel ions, there is an enhanced fusion reactivity because of the nonthermal component of the ion distribution. Some useful expressions for describing these effects are derived, and it is shown that fusion reactors with power density about twice what otherwise might be obtained can be contemplated, so long as a substantial amount of the {alpha}-particle power can be diverted. Interestingly, in this mode of operation, once the electron heat is sufficiently confined, further improvement in confinement is actually not desirable. A similar improvement in fusion power density can be obtained for advanced fuel mixtures such as D-He{sup 3}, where the power of both the energetic {alpha}-particles and the energetic protons might be diverted advantageously.

  17. CANDIDATES OF H{alpha} EMITTING REGIONS IN THE MAGELLANIC STREAM IV CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Masafumi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Yoshida, Michitoshi

    2012-04-10

    From H{alpha} narrowband observations, we identified three H{alpha} emitting regions in the direction of Magellanic Stream IV (MS IV). They consist of three parallel filaments of 2 arcmin width and 6-30 arcmin length at 12 arcmin intervals. Their mean surface brightness (SB) is {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -18} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} arcsec{sup -2}. Because of their low SB, the regions were not detected in previous H{alpha} surveys. In the H I map, the position of the filaments overlap MS, suggesting that they are parts of the MS, but there also exists a local H I structure. If the filaments are associated with the MS, the sizes are 30 pc Multiplication-Sign 100-500 pc. The filaments lie at the leading edge of a downstream cloud, which supports shock heating and its propagation (shock cascade) model for the ionizing source. If they are local objects, on the other hand, Fossil Stroemgren Trails of more than two stars is a possible interpretation, and the sizes would be 0.1 pc Multiplication-Sign 0.3-1.5 pc at 180 pc distance. The positional information of the H{alpha} filaments presented in this Letter enables future spectroscopic observations to clarify their nature.

  18. A Search for z>6.5 Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies with WISP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagley, Micaela B.; Scarlata, Claudia; Dai, Yu Sophia; Rafelski, Marc; Baronchelli, Ivano; Colbert, James W.; Dominguez, Alberto; Hathi, Nimish P.; Henry, Alaina L.; Malkan, Matthew Arnold; Martin, Crystal L.; Mehta, Vihang; Pahl, Anthony; Ross, Nathaniel; Rutkowski, Michael J.; Teplitz, Harry I.; WISP Team

    2016-01-01

    The observed number density of Lyman-alpha emitting galaxies at z>6 provides an important probe of the reionization history of the universe. Because Lyman-alpha photons are very sensitive to the presence of neutral hydrogen, the evolution of the galaxy number density above redshift 6 can be used as a measurement on the progress of reionization. However, the Lyman-alpha luminosity function is currently poorly constrained at high-z. We present the results of a systematic search for Lyman-alpha emitters (LAEs) at redshifts of ~6.5 to 7.5 using the HST WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallels (WISP) survey. WISP's uncorrelated fields are well-suited to the study of bright LAEs, minimizing the effects of clustering introduced by a patchy reionization. From the 30 deepest WISP fields, we compile a sample of single-line emitters, confirm redshifts with broadband colors, and identify LAE candidates that have "dropped out" (are undetected at the 1 sigma level) of the WFC3 UVIS filters. By combining our results with other z~7 studies, we determine whether the number density of LAEs evolves past z~6.5.

  19. Targeted alpha-particle immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jurcic, Joseph G; Rosenblat, Todd L

    2014-01-01

    Because alpha-particles have a shorter range and a higher linear energy transfer (LET) compared with beta-particles, targeted alpha-particle immunotherapy offers the potential for more efficient tumor cell killing while sparing surrounding normal cells. To date, clinical studies of alpha-particle immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have focused on the myeloid cell surface antigen CD33 as a target using the humanized monoclonal antibody lintuzumab. An initial phase I study demonstrated the safety, feasibility, and antileukemic effects of bismuth-213 ((213)Bi)-labeled lintuzumab. In a subsequent study, (213)Bi-lintuzumab produced remissions in some patients with AML after partial cytoreduction with cytarabine, suggesting the utility of targeted alpha-particle therapy for small-volume disease. The widespread use of (213)Bi, however, is limited by its short half-life. Therefore, a second-generation construct containing actinium-225 ((225)Ac), a radiometal that generates four alpha-particle emissions, was developed. A phase I trial demonstrated that (225)Ac-lintuzumab is safe at doses of 3 μCi/kg or less and has antileukemic activity across all dose levels studied. Fractionated-dose (225)Ac-lintuzumab in combination with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) is now under investigation for the management of older patients with untreated AML in a multicenter trial. Preclinical studies using (213)Bi- and astatine-211 ((211)At)-labeled anti-CD45 antibodies have shown that alpha-particle immunotherapy may be useful as part conditioning before hematopoietic cell transplantation. The use of novel pretargeting strategies may further improve target-to-normal organ dose ratios. PMID:24857092

  20. Selective flow path alpha particle detector and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring alpha contamination are provided in which ions generated in the air surrounding the item, by the passage of alpha particles, are moved to a distant detector location. The parts of the item from which ions are withdrawn can be controlled by restricting the air flow over different portions of the apparatus. In this way, detection of internal and external surfaces separately, for instance, can be provided. The apparatus and method are particularly suited for use in undertaking alpha contamination measurements during the commissioning operations.

  1. Advantages of using gyrotron scattering for alpha particle diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Woskoboinikow, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Machuzak, J.S.; Myer, R.C.; Rhee, R.Y.

    1987-07-01

    Millimeter-wave gyrotron collective Thomson scattering can be an effective diagnostic technique for the study of alpha particle behavior in ignited plasmas. The measurement of alpha particle density, velocity distribution, and alpha particle induced plasma instabilities can be accomplished with both spatial and temporal resolution. Advantages include long pulse operation which can make possible very high signal to noise ratios and use of millimeter waves which maximizes the Doppler shifted scattered signal in WHz/sup -1/ and makes possible scattering angles up to 180/sup 0/. Extraordinary mode scattering at approximately 60 and 200 GHz would be used in TFTR and CIT respectively, and 140 GHz ordinary mode scattering in JET. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Quantum dot solar cell tolerance to alpha-particle irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cress, Cory D.; Hubbard, Seth M.; Landi, Brian J.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Wilt, David M.

    2007-10-29

    The effects of alpha-particle irradiation on an InAs quantum dot (QD) array and GaAs-based InAs QD solar cells were investigated. Using photoluminescence (PL) mapping, the PL intensity at 872 and 1120 nm, corresponding to bulk GaAs and InAs QD emissions, respectively, were measured for a five-layer InAs QD array which had a spatially varying total alpha-particle dose. The spectral response and normalized current-voltage parameters of the solar cells, measured as a function of alpha-particle fluence, were used to investigate the change in device performance between GaAs solar cells with and without InAs QDs.

  3. Safety significant class determination of continuous air monitors at facilities handling alpha-emitting radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, S.A.; Low, J.O.

    1998-11-01

    The role and use of continuous air monitors typically fall under the responsibility of institutional radiation protection programs established to maintain stochastic effects to workers at acceptable levels. This practice has led to a general perception that acute serious worker injury is not credible even with high intakes of alpha-emitting radionuclides. Using data derived from animal studies, release masses potentially causing serious worker injury are estimated. Serious pulmonary injuries to unprotected individuals are credible from airborne alpha-emitting transuranic release levels ranging between 0.1 and 10 GBq (2.7 to 270 mCi). Safety-significant designation of continuous air monitor systems should be considered at facilities where releases of these magnitudes are possible. Such designations should enhance the formality of continuous air monitor usage and ultimately improve the reliability of these systems. Serious pulmonary injuries are not considered possible from airborne releases of {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, and {sup 232}Th due to airborne mass-loading limitations.

  4. Performance comparison of scintillators for alpha particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Yuki; Yamamoto, Seiichi; Izaki, Kenji; Kaneko, Junichi H.; Toui, Kohei; Tsubota, Youichi; Higuchi, Mikio

    2014-11-01

    Scintillation detectors for alpha particles are often used in nuclear fuel facilities. Alpha particle detectors have also become important in the research field of radionuclide therapy using alpha emitters. ZnS(Ag) is the most often used scintillator for alpha particle detectors because its light output is high. However, the energy resolution of ZnS(Ag)-based scintillation detectors is poor because they are not transparent. A new ceramic sample, namely the cerium doped Gd2Si2O7 (GPS) scintillator, has been tested as alpha particle detector and its performances have been compared to that one of three different scintillating materials: ZnS(Ag), GAGG and a standard plastic scintillator. The different scintillating materials have been coupled to two different photodetectors, namely a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and a Silicon Photo-multiplier (Si-PM): the performances of each detection system have been compared. Promising results as far as the energy resolution performances (10% with PMT and 14% with Si-PM) have been obtained in the case of GPS and GAGG samples. Considering the quantum efficiencies of the photodetectors under test and their relation to the emission wavelength of the different scintillators, the best results were achieved coupling the GPS with the PMT and the GAGG with the Si-PM

  5. Fire Hose Instability Driven by Alpha Particle Temperature Anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteini, L.; Hellinger, P.; Schwartz, S. J.; Landi, S.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate properties of a solar wind-like plasma, including a secondary alpha particle population exhibiting a parallel temperature anisotropy with respect to the background magnetic field, using linear and quasi-linear predictions and by means of one-dimensional hybrid simulations. We show that anisotropic alpha particles can drive a parallel fire hose instability analogous to that generated by protons, but that, remarkably, can also be triggered when the parallel plasma beta of alpha particles is below unity. The wave activity generated by the alpha anisotropy affects the evolution of the more abundant protons, leading to their anisotropic heating. When both ion species have sufficient parallel anisotropies, both of them can drive the instability, and we observe the generation of two distinct peaks in the spectra of the fluctuations, with longer wavelengths associated to alphas and shorter ones to protons. If a non-zero relative drift is present, the unstable modes propagate preferentially in the direction of the drift associated with the unstable species. The generated waves scatter particles and reduce their temperature anisotropy to a marginally stable state, and, moreover, they significantly reduce the relative drift between the two ion populations. The coexistence of modes excited by both species leads to saturation of the plasma in distinct regions of the beta/anisotropy parameter space for protons and alpha particles, in good agreement with in situ solar wind observations. Our results confirm that fire hose instabilities are likely at work in the solar wind and limit the anisotropy of different ion species in the plasma.

  6. The effect of alpha particles on bacteriophage T4Br+.

    PubMed

    Leont'eva, G A; Akoev, I G; Grigor'ev, A E

    1983-01-01

    It is generally accepted that heavy charged particles play an important part in generating the secondary flux of nuclear particles formed by the interaction of space hadrons with nuclei. It is assumed that these particles are responsible for the high biological efficiency of space hadrons in causing cellular damage by their strong interactions. To examine this assumption we investigated the effects of 5.3 MeV alpha particles on bacteriophage T4. This energy provides a LET value of 88.6 KeV/micrometer lying in the range of the highest biological efficiency. PMID:11542756

  7. TF ripple loss of alpha particles in TFTR DT experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, M.H.; Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.

    1995-08-01

    Quantitative evaluation of TF ripple loss of DT alpha particles is a central issue for reactor design because of potentially severe first wall heat load problems. DT experiments on TFTR allow experimental measurements to be compared to modeling of the underlying alpha physics, with code validation an important goal. Modeling of TF ripple loss of alphas in TFTR now includes neoclassical calculations of alpha losses arising from first orbit loss, stochastic ripple diffusion, ripple trapping and collisional effects. Recent Hamiltonian coordinate guiding center code (ORBIT) simulations for TFTR have shown that collisions enhance the stochastic TF ripple losses at TFTR. A faster way to simulate experiment has been developed and is discussed here which uses a simple stochastic domain model for TF ripple loss within the TRANSP analysis code.

  8. MHD-Induced Alpha Particle Loss in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Taylor, G.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.; von Goeler, S.

    1999-03-01

    MHD-induced increases in alpha particle loss to the wall were observed for both coherent modes and transient reconnection events using an array of scintillator detectors near the wall of Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The magnitude of the coherent MHD-induced alpha loss as seen by these detectors was normally comparable to the MHD-quiescent first-orbit or toroidal-field ripple loss, but the magnitude of the alpha loss during reconnection events was up to 1000 times higher than this for a short time. Modeling suggest that the coherent MHD loss mechanism will be even less significant for future reactor-scale deuterium-tritium tokamaks due to the smaller ratio of the alpha gyroradius to minor radius.

  9. Alpha particle heating at comet-solar wind interaction regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, A. S.; Papadopoulos, K.

    1995-01-01

    The satellite observations at comet Halley have shown strong heating of solar wind alpha particles over an extended region dominated by high-intensity, low-frequency turbulence. These waves are excited by the water group pickup ions and can energize the solar wind plasma by different heating processes. The alpha particle heating by the Landau damping of kinetic Alfven waves and the transit time damping of low-frequency hydromagnetic waves in this region of high plasma beta are studied in this paper. The Alfven wave heating was shown to be the dominant mechanism for the observed proton heating, but it is found to be insufficient to account for the observed alpha particle heating. The transit time damping due to the interaction of the ions with the electric fields associated with the magnetic field compressions of magnetohydrodynamic waves is found to heat the alpha particles preferentially over the protons. Comparison of the calculated heating times for the transit time damping with the observations from comet Halley shows good agreement. These processes contribute to the thermalization of the solar wind by the conversion of its directed energy into the thermal energy in the transition region at comet-solar wind interaction.

  10. Making A D-Latch Sensitive To Alpha Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Blaes, Brent R.; Nixon, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    Standard complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) D-latch integrated circuit modified to increase susceptibility to single-event upsets (SEU's) (changes in logic state) caused by impacts of energetic alpha particles. Suitable for use in relatively inexpensive bench-scale SEU tests of itself and of related integrated circuits like static random-access memories.

  11. Production of α-particle emitting 211At using 45 MeV α-beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gyehong; Chun, Kwonsoo; Park, Sung Ho; Kim, Byungil

    2014-06-01

    Among the α-particle emitting radionuclides, 211At is considered to be a promising radionuclide for targeted cancer therapy due to its decay properties. The range of alpha particles produced by the decay of 211At are less than 70 µm in water with a linear energy transfer between 100 and 130 keV µm-1, which are about the maximum relative biological effectiveness for heavy ions. It is important to note that at the present time, only a few of cyclotrons routinely produce 211At. The direct production method is based on the nuclear reactions 209Bi(α,2n)211At. Production of the radionuclide 211At was carried out using the MC-50 cyclotron at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS). To ensure high beam current, the α-beam was extracted with an initial energy of 45 MeV, which was degraded to obtain the appropriate α-beam energy. The calculations of beam energy degradation were performed utilizing the MCNPX. Alumina-baked targets were prepared by heating the bismuth metal powder onto a circular cavity in a furnace. When using an Eα, av of 29.17 MeV, the very small contribution of 210At confirms the right choice of the irradiation energy to obtain a pure production of 211At isotope.

  12. Michrochannel plate for position sensitive alpha particle detection

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Hurley and James Tinsley

    2007-08-31

    This paper will describe the use of a microchannel plate (MCP) as the associated particle detector on a sealed tube neutron generator. The generator produces neutrons and associated alpha particles for use as a probe to locate and identify hidden explosives in associated particle imaging (API). The MCP measures the position in two dimensions and precise timing of the incident alpha particle, information which is then used to calculate the emission time and direction of the corresponding neutron. The MCP replaces the position-sensitive photomultipler tube (PSPMT) which, until recently, had been the only detector available for measuring position and timing for alpha particles in neutron generator applications. Where the PSPMT uses charge division for generating position information, a process that requires a first order correction to each pulse, the MCP uses delay-line timing, which requires no correction. The result is a device with an order of magnitude improvement in both position resolution and timing compared to the PSPMT. Hardware and software development and the measurements made to characterize the MCP for API applications are described.

  13. Fission beta particles emitted into the geomagnetosphere. Memorandum report

    SciTech Connect

    Bendel, W.L.

    1982-04-15

    The spectrum of electrons emitted into the earth's magnetic field by an exoatmospheric nuclear burst is considerably more energetic than the spectrum of all delayed electrons from fission, a spectrum often used. A better electron spectrum for general use is presented. Some items are calculated, including a depth-dose curve, for the two spectra compared.

  14. Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies at 2 < z < 3: Towards a Calibrated Probe of Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Caryl Gronwall

    2012-12-03

    The goal of this project was to establish the physical properties of Ly{alpha}#11;emitting galaxies from redshifts of 2 to 3 in order to better calibrate the use of LAEs as probes of the large scale structure of the universe for upcoming dark energy experiments, such as the Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX). We have obtained narrow-band imaging of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S) in two different narrow-band #12;filters centered at Ly{alpha}#11; at z=2.1 and 3.1. The resulting of samples of LAEs were used to determine the LAE luminosity function, equivalent width distribution and clustering properties (bias) of LAEs at these redshifts. While the results from the ECDF-S appear robust, they are based on a single field. To explore the effects of cosmic variance and galaxy environment on the physical properties of LAEs, we have also obtained narrow-band data at both redshifts (z = 2:1 and 3:1) in three additional #12;fields (SDSS 1030+-05, the Extended Hubble Deep Field South, and CW 1255+01). The narrow-band imaging data has been reduced and LAE catalogs are being generated. We have calculated preliminary luminosity functions, equivalent width distributions, and clustering properties. We have also obtained follow-up spectroscopy in the optical (using VLT/FORS) and in the near-infrared (using Magellan/MMIRS). Since individual LAEs have too little S/N to enable meaningful fits for stellar population parameters, our previous work has analyzed stacked Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs). SED #12;fitting was performed on several subsets of LAEs selected by their rest-UV luminosity, UV spectral slope, Ly alpha luminosity, Equivalent Width, or rest-optical (IRAC) luminosity.

  15. Additional {alpha}-particle optical potential tests below the Coulomb barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

    2010-03-15

    New results of ({alpha},{gamma}) and ({alpha},n) reaction cross section measurements close to the reaction thresholds support the setting up of recent parameters of the {alpha}-particle optical model potential (OMP) below the Coulomb barrier. Particular features of the {alpha}-particle optical potential at energies below the Coulomb barrier explain the failure of using the OMP parameters obtained by analysis of only {alpha}-particle elastic scattering at higher energies.

  16. Skeletal dosimetry models for alpha-particles for use in molecular radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watchman, Christopher J.

    Molecular radiotherapy is a cancer treatment methodology whereby a radionuclide is combined with a biologically active molecule to preferentially target cancer cells. Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides show significant potential for use in molecular radiotherapy due to the short range of the alpha-particles in tissue and their high rates of energy deposition. Current radiation dosimetry models used to assess alpha emitter dose in the skeleton were developed originally for occupational applications. In medical dosimetry, individual variability in uptake, translocation and other biological factors can result in poor correlation of clinical outcome with marrow dose estimates determined using existing skeletal models. Methods presented in this work were developed in response to the need for dosimetry models which account for these biological and patient-specific factors. Dosimetry models are presented for trabecular bone alpha particle dosimetry as well as a model for cortical bone dosimetry. These radiation transport models are the 3D chord-based infinite spongiosa transport model (3D-CBIST) and the chord-based infinite cortical transport model (CBICT), respectively. Absorbed fraction data for several skeletal tissues for several subjects are presented. Each modeling strategy accounts for biological parameters, such as bone marrow cellularity, not previously incorporated into alpha-particle skeletal dosimetry models used in radiation protection. Using these data a study investigating the variability in alpha-particle absorbed fractions in the human skeleton is also presented. Data is also offered relating skeletal tissue masses in individual bone sites for a range of ages. These data are necessary for dose calculations and have previously only been available as whole body tissue masses. A revised 3D-CBIST model is also presented which allows for changes in endosteum thickness to account for revised target cell location of tissues involved in the radiological induction of bone cancer. In addition, new data are presented on the location of bone-marrow stem cells within the marrow cavities of trabecular bone of the pelvis. All results presented in this work may be applied to occupational exposures, but their greatest utility lies in dose assessments for alpha-emitters in molecular radiotherapy.

  17. Ultra-high resolution alpha particle spectroscopy using cryogenic microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horansky, R. D.; Ullom, J. N.; Beall, J. B.; Doriese, W. B.; Duncan, W. D.; Ferreira, L.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Reintsema, C. D.; Vale, L.; Rabin, M. W.; Hoover, A. S.; Lamont, S. P.; Rudy, C. R.

    2007-03-01

    We have built a novel alpha particle detector using a transition edge sensor (TES) thermometer attached to a bulk superconducting absorber and have measured < 2.5 keV resolution at 5.3 MeV . We have used the microcalorimeter to measure a mixture of Pu isotopes and are able to individually resolve peaks corresponding to ^239Pu and ^240Pu which are separated by 12.9 keV. The ^240Pu/^239Pu activity ratio is a key parameter for determining whether a plutonium sample is weapons or reactor grade. Conventional silicon based detectors achieve resolutions no better than 10 keV, severely limiting current actinide assays. In addition, the microcalorimeter alpha detector has shown significantly better resolution for gamma rays. The origin of the resolution difference for gamma and alpha interactions may be due to lattice damage and is currently under study.

  18. CHARGE-EXCHANGE LIMITS ON LOW-ENERGY {alpha}-PARTICLE FLUXES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, H. S.; Fletcher, L.; MacKinnon, A. L.; Woods, T. N.

    2012-06-20

    This paper reports on a search for flare emission via charge-exchange radiation in the wings of the Ly{alpha} line of He II at 304 A, as originally suggested for hydrogen by Orrall and Zirker. Via this mechanism a primary {alpha} particle that penetrates into the neutral chromosphere can pick up an atomic electron and emit in the He II bound-bound spectrum before it stops. The Extreme-ultraviolet Variability Experiment on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory gives us our first chance to search for this effect systematically. The Orrall-Zirker mechanism has great importance for flare physics because of the essential roles that particle acceleration plays; this mechanism is one of the few proposed that would allow remote sensing of primary accelerated particles below a few MeV nucleon{sup -1}. We study 10 events in total, including the {gamma}-ray events SOL2010-06-12 (M2.0) and SOL2011-02-24 (M3.5) (the latter a limb flare), seven X-class flares, and one prominent M-class event that produced solar energetic particles. The absence of charge-exchange line wings may point to a need for more complete theoretical work. Some of the events do have broadband signatures, which could correspond to continua from other origins, but these do not have the spectral signatures expected from the Orrall-Zirker mechanism.

  19. An atlas of H-alpha-emitting regions in M33: A systematic search for SS433 star candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calzetti, Daniela; Kinney, Anne L.; Ford, Holland; Doggett, Jesse; Long, Knox S.

    1995-01-01

    We report finding charts and accurate positions for 432 compact H-alpha emitting regions in the Local Group galaxy M 33 (NGC 598), in an effort to isolate candidates for an SS433-like stellar system. The objects were extracted from narrow band images, centered in the rest-frame H-alpha (lambda 6563 A) and in the red continuum at 6100 A. The atlas is complete down to V approximately equal to 20 and includes 279 compact HII regions and 153 line emitting point-like sources. The point-like sources undoubtedly include a variety of objects: very small HII regions, early type stars with intense stellar winds, and Wolf-Rayet stars, but should also contain objects with the characteristics of SS433. This extensive survey of compact H-alpha regions in M 33 is a first step towards the identification of peculiar stellar systems like SS433 in external galaxies.

  20. Identification of gene-based responses in human blood cells exposed to alpha particle radiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The threat of a terrorist-precipitated nuclear event places humans at danger for radiological exposures. Isotopes which emit alpha (α)-particle radiation pose the highest risk. Currently, gene expression signatures are being developed for radiation biodosimetry and triage with respect to ionizing photon radiation. This study was designed to determine if similar gene expression profiles are obtained after exposures involving α-particles. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were used to identify sensitive and robust gene-based biomarkers of α-particle radiation exposure. Cells were isolated from healthy individuals and were irradiated at doses ranging from 0-1.5 Gy. Microarray technology was employed to identify transcripts that were differentially expressed relative to unirradiated cells 24 hours post-exposure. Statistical analysis identified modulated genes at each of the individual doses. Results Twenty-nine genes were common to all doses with expression levels ranging from 2-10 fold relative to control treatment group. This subset of genes was further assessed in independent complete white blood cell (WBC) populations exposed to either α-particles or X-rays using quantitative real-time PCR. This 29 gene panel was responsive in the α-particle exposed WBCs and was shown to exhibit differential fold-changes compared to X-irradiated cells, though no α-particle specific transcripts were identified. Conclusion Current gene panels for photon radiation may also be applicable for use in α-particle radiation biodosimetry. PMID:25017500

  1. A Novel Experiment to Investigate the Attenuation of Alpha Particles in Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, D. G. H.

    2008-01-01

    A simple student experiment investigating dependence on air pressure of the attenuation of alpha particles in air is described. An equation giving the pressure needed to absorb all alpha particles of a given energy is derived from the Bethe-Bloch formula. Results are presented for the attenuation of alpha particles from americium 241 and radium

  2. A Novel Experiment to Investigate the Attenuation of Alpha Particles in Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, D. G. H.

    2008-01-01

    A simple student experiment investigating dependence on air pressure of the attenuation of alpha particles in air is described. An equation giving the pressure needed to absorb all alpha particles of a given energy is derived from the Bethe-Bloch formula. Results are presented for the attenuation of alpha particles from americium 241 and radium…

  3. An alpha particle instrument with alpha, proton, and X-ray modes for planetary chemical analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economou, T. E.; Turkevich, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    The interaction of alpha particles with matter is employed in a compact instrument that could provide rather complete in-situ chemical analyses of surfaces and thin atmospheres of extraterrestrial bodies. The instrument is a miniaturized and improved version of the Surveyor lunar instrument. The backscattering of alpha particles and (alpha, p) reactions provide analytical data on the light elements (carbon-iron). An X-ray mode that detects the photons produced by the alpha sources provides sensitivity and resolution for the chemical elements heavier than about silicon. The X-rays are detected by semiconductor detectors having a resolution between 150 and 250 eV at 5.9 keV. Such an instrument can identify and determine with good accuracy 99 percent of the atoms (except hydrogen) in rocks. For many trace elements, the detecting sensitivity is a few ppm. Auxiliary sources could be used to enhance the sensitivities for elements of special interest. The instrument could probably withstand the acceleration involved in semi-hard landings.

  4. Alpha-particle Measurements Needed for Burning Plasma Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth M. Young

    2001-09-26

    The next major step in magnetic fusion studies will be the construction of a burning plasma (BP) experiment where the goals will be to achieve and understand the plasma behavior with the internal heating provided by fusion-generated alpha particles. Two devices with these physics goals have been proposed: the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE). Extensive conceptual design work for the instrumentation to try to meet the physics demands has been done for these devices, especially ITER. This article provides a new look at the measurements specifically important for understanding the physics aspects of the alpha particles taking into account two significant events. The first is the completion of physics experiments on the Joint European Torus (JET) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) with deuterium-tritium fueling with the first chances to study alpha physics and the second is the realization that relatively compact plasmas, making use of advanced tokamak plasma concepts, are the most probable route to burning plasmas and ultimately a fusion reactor.

  5. PC-based analysis of alpha-particle spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Terry C.

    1990-12-01

    Recently developed personal-computer (PC) software performs analysis of alpha-particle spectra. The spectra are collected using a commercially available multichannel analyzer board in the PC, interfaced with up to eight alpha-particle detectors. The PC is an IBM PC-AT computer with a 20 Mbyte Bernoulli-Box removable cartridge disk, a math coprocessor and a printer. Once saved on disk, the spectra are analyzed using the software described here. The PC analysis software performs automatic peak-area determination with operator override. Sample analysis can use measured detector efficiencies or chemical yields obtained from a radionuclide spike or both. Background contribution corrections for all peaks are included. Upper limit values are calculated for nuclides specified by the operator and not found in the sample. Nuclide identification uses a master table of up to 64 nuclides with up to 8 alpha lines for each nuclide. Any one of 32 available subtables can be selected for use in an analysis. Analysis time is short and is limited by interaction with the operator, not by calculation time. Both detailed and summary versions of final results are printed for ease of data reporting. Utilities included with the software provide nuclide table editing, subset table editing, energy calibration, efficiency calibration and background analysis with background correction file update.

  6. Interaction of alpha particle beams with metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sorescu, M.; Barb, D.

    1998-09-18

    Samples of Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 38}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 18}, Fe{sub 78}B{sub 13}Si{sub 9} and Fe{sub 66}Co{sub 18}B{sub 15}Si{sub 1} metallic glasses, selected with respect to the different values of their magnetostriction constants, were irradiated with alpha particle beams (W = 2.8 MeV) using radiation doses of 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 2}. The fundamental effects underlying the interaction of alpha particle beams with amorphous magnets were studied by transmission and conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), hysteresis loops and a.c. susceptibility measurements, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The evolution of phases and microstructure during the radiation-induced amorphous-to-crystalline transformation was found to depend on the particle flux and sample composition. Differences between bulk and surface behaviors of the magnetic texture and constituent phases were evidenced. Radiation-driven changes in the saturation magnetic moment, coercive field, real and imaginary components of the a.c. response were observed for all samples studied and found to depend on the radiation dose employed. The surface morphology of the radiation-induced crystalline precipitates was shown to vary as a function of composition, such that both spherical and dendritical modes of growth were observed. By stimulating unconventional pathways for the crystallization process, the interaction of alpha particle beams with glassy ferromagnets offers unique opportunities to understand the fundamentals of nucleation and growth in these systems.

  7. Azimuthal 2{alpha} correlations and projectile-residue distributions selected by neutron and charged-particle multiplicity measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kunde, G.J.; Gaff, S.; Gelbke, C.K.; Glasmacher, T.; Huang, M.J.; Lemmon, R.; Lynch, W.G.; Manduci, L.; Martin, L.; Popescu, R.; Tsang, M.B.; Dempsey, J.; Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.; Agnihotri, D.K.; Djerroud, B.; Schroeder, W.U.; Skulski, W.; Toke, J.; Wyrozebski, K.; Ruess, D.

    1997-03-01

    The resolution of reaction filters for intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions based upon charged-particle and neutron multiplicity measurements with 4{pi} coverage is compared for {sup 112}Sn+{sup 112}Sn and {sup 124}Sn+{sup 124}Sn collisions at E/A=40 MeV. The quality of event characterization is inferred from the azimuthal correlations of {alpha} particles emitted at intermediate rapidity and from the {ital Z} distributions of projectilelike fragments emitted at forward angles. For central and midimpact parameter collisions, the associated charged-particle multiplicity appears to provide better impact-parameter selection than the associated neutron multiplicity. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Energetic alpha particle deposition in a magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Smitherman, D.P.; Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of energetic alpha particle deposition in a dense, magnetized deuterium-tritium (DT) thermonuclear fuel has been studied numerically for the case of coulomb interactions in cylindrical geometry. This was done by following the particle trajectories initiated at various radii and in different directions through the plasma and its imposed field until they had either left the plasma or deposited all their energy. The resulting complex particle trajectories in the static magnetized fuel make a detailed treatment of the problem computationally intensive. Therefore, we have attempted to use detailed modeling to produce a data base for a neural nets algorithm for incorporation in an ignition critical profile code. While the accuracy of the neutral net in reproducing the detailed calculational results is not high, it is approximately 6000 times faster. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  9. In Vitro Cytotoxicity of Low-Dose-Rate Radioimmunotherapy by the Alpha-Emitting Radioimmunoconjugate Thorium-227-DOTA-Rituximab

    SciTech Connect

    Dahle, Jostein; Krogh, Cecilie; Melhus, Katrine B.; Borrebaek, Jorgen; Larsen, Roy H.; Kvinnsland, Yngve

    2009-11-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the low-dose-rate alpha-particle-emitting radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-1,4,7,10-p-isothiocyanato-benzyl-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7, 10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-rituximab can be used to inactivate lymphoma cells growing as single cells and small colonies. Methods and Materials: CD20-positive lymphoma cell lines were treated with {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab for 1-5 weeks. To simulate the in vivo situation with continuous but decreasing supply of radioimmunoconjugates from the blood pool, the cells were not washed after incubation with {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab, but half of the medium was replaced with fresh medium, and cell concentration and cell-bound activity were determined every other day after start of incubation. A microdosimetric model was established to estimate the average number of hits in the nucleus for different localizations of activity. Results: There was a specific targeted effect on cell growth of the {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab treatment. Although the cells were not washed after incubation with {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab, the average contribution of activity in the medium to the mean dose was only 6%, whereas the average contribution from activity on the cells' own surface was 78%. The mean dose rates after incubation with 800 Bq/mL {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab varied from 0.01 to 0.03 cGy/min. The average delay in growing from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} cells/mL was 15 days when the cells were treated with a mean absorbed radiation dose of 2 Gy alpha-particle radiation from {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab, whereas it was 11 days when the cells were irradiated with 6 Gy of X-radiation. The relative biologic effect of the treatment was estimated to be 2.9-3.4. Conclusions: The low-dose-rate radioimmunoconjugate {sup 227}Th-DOTA-rituximab is suitable for inactivation of single lymphoma cells and small colonies of lymphoma cells.

  10. Measurements of DT alpha particle loss near the outer midplane of TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.; Redi, M.H.; Schivell, J.; White, R.B.

    1995-07-01

    Measurements of DT alpha particle loss to the outer midplane region of TFTR have been made using a radially movable scintillator detector. The conclusion from this data is that mechanisms determining the DT alpha loss to the outer midplane are not substantially different from those for DD fusion products. Some of these results are compared with a simplified theoretical model for TF ripple-induced alpha loss, which is expected to be the dominant classical alpha loss mechanism near the outer midplane. An example of plasma-driven MHD-induced alpha particle loss is shown, but no signs of any ``collective`` alpha instability-induced alpha loss have yet been observed.

  11. Thick Source Alpha Particle Spectroscopy: Possibilities And Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, C. T.; Zacharias, N.; Hein, A.

    The new technique for the calculation of U and Th concentration which is based on the alpha particle spectrum taken from a thick sample by using a silicon detector is briefly described. Within the present study two major advantages of the technique will also be presented: the potentiality for detecting and providing an estimation of disequilibrium in the U and Th series -when present- for especially young sediments, and the potential use of the technique as a new method for isotopic dating of speleothems and other materials. Also the validity of the basic equation and the accuracy of this technique is tested.

  12. XRF-analysis of fine and ultrafine particles emitted from laser printing devices.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Mathias; Pedan, Vasilisa; Hahn, Oliver; Rothhardt, Monika; Bresch, Harald; Jann, Oliver; Seeger, Stefan

    2011-09-15

    In this work, the elemental composition of fine and ultrafine particles emitted by ten different laser printing devices (LPD) is examined. The particle number concentration time series was measured as well as the particle size distributions. In parallel, emitted particles were size-selectively sampled with a cascade impactor and subsequently analyzed by the means of XRF. In order to identify potential sources for the aerosol's elemental composition, materials involved in the printing process such as toner, paper, and structural components of the printer were also analyzed. While the majority of particle emissions from laser printers are known to consist of recondensated semi volatile organic compounds, elemental analysis identifies Si, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, Cr, and Fe as well as traces of Ni and Zn in different size fractions of the aerosols. These elements can mainly be assigned to contributions from toner and paper. The detection of elements that are likely to be present in inorganic compounds is in good agreement with the measurement of nonvolatile particles. Quantitative measurements of solid particles at 400 °C resulted in residues of 1.6 × 10(9) and 1.5 × 10(10) particles per print job, representing fractions of 0.2% and 1.9% of the total number of emitted particles at room temperature. In combination with the XRF results it is concluded that solid inorganic particles contribute to LPD emissions in measurable quantities. Furthermore, for the first time Br was detected in significant concentrations in the aerosol emitted from two LPD. The analysis of several possible sources identified the plastic housings of the fuser units as main sources due to substantial Br concentrations related to brominated flame retardants. PMID:21809840

  13. HETDEX: Probing the Chemical Evolution of the Universe with Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Hill, G. J.; Gebhardt, K.; Blanc, G.; Drory, N.; HETDEX Collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Hobby Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will discover 0.8 million Lyman alpha emitting galaxies (LAEs) at 1.9 < z < 3.5 over 300 square degrees beginning in Fall 2012. This unprecedentedly large volume probed will allow the discovery of large samples of bright LAEs, enabling follow-up science which cannot be done for the bulk of the LAE population, as they form the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function. Combining the HETDEX sample with the new generation of multi-object near-infrared (NIR) spectrographs will allow direct measurements of LAE physical properties, which are of interest as LAEs appear similar to galaxies at very high redshifts (z > 7) , and LAEs are also the likely progenitors of present-day Milky Way-like galaxies. Here we present results from the HETDEX pilot survey, which discovered 100 LAEs with a single integral field spectrograph mounted on the McDonald Observatory 2.7m telescope. We have detected rest-frame optical emission lines from five of these galaxies with the single-slit NIR spectrograph NIRSPEC on the Keck II 10m telescope. From the ratio of the upper limit on the (undetected) [NII] flux to the observed Halpha line strength, all five LAEs appear to have low metallicities (< 50% solar). The brightest LAE in our sample lies significantly below the mass-metallicity relation for continuum-selected galaxies at the same redshift. The remaining LAEs may also lie below this relation, however their fainter Halpha fluxes result in higher limits on the [NII]/Halpha flux ratio. Thus deeper integrations, requiring multi-object spectrographs (MOS) to be feasible, are necessary. The field-of-view of the next generation of MOS NIR spectrographs will be able to simultaneously observe > 10 HETDEX LAEs to a much deeper depth, providing a significant boost in our ability to probe the chemical enrichment of this enigmatic galaxy population.

  14. Mineralogical characterization of ambient fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei C1 coal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Senlin; Hao, Xiaojie; Liu, Dingyu; Wang, Qiangxiang; Zhang, Wenchao; Liu, Pinwei; Zhang, Rongci; Yu, Shang; Pan, Ruiqi; Wu, Minghong; Yonemochi, Shinich; Wang, Qingyue

    2016-03-01

    Nano-quartz in Xuanwei coal, the uppermost Permian (C1) coal deposited in the northwest of Yuanan, China, has been regarded as one of factors which caused high lung cancer incidence in the local residents. However, mineralogical characterization of the fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion has not previously been studied. In this study, PM1 and ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion were sampled. Chemical elements in the ambient particles were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and mineralogical characterization of these ambient particles was investigated using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM/EDX) and transmission electronic microscopy, coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (TEM/EDX). Our results showed that the size distribution of mineral particles from the coal combustion emissions ranged from 20 to 200 nm. Si-containing particles and Fe-containing particles accounted for 50.7% of the 150 individual particles measured, suggesting that these two types of particles were major minerals in the ambient particles generally. The nano-mineral particles were identified as quartz (SiO2) and gypsum (CaSO4) based on their crystal parameters and chemical elements. Additionally, there also existed unidentified nano-minerals. Armed with these data, toxicity assessments of the nano-minerals will be carried out in a future study.

  15. Traversal of cells by radiation and absorbed fraction estimates for electrons and alpha particles

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Ryman, J.C.; Taner, A.C.; Kerr, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Consideration of the pathlength which radiation traverses in a cell is central to algorithms for estimating energy deposition on a cellular level. Distinct pathlength distributions occur for radionuclides: (1) uniformly distributed in space about the cell (referred to as -randomness); (2) uniformly distributed on the surface of the cell (S-randomness); and (3) uniformly distributed within the cell volume (I-randomness). For a spherical cell of diameter d, the mean pathlengths are 2/3d, 1/2d, and 3/4d, respectively, for these distributions. Algorithms for simulating the path of radiation through a cell are presented and the absorbed fraction in the cell and its nucleus are tabulated for low energy electrons and alpha particles emitted on the surface of spherical cells. The algorithms and absorbed fraction data should be of interest to those concerned with the dosimetry of radionuclide-labeled monoclonal antibodies. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Alpha particles induce apoptosis through the sphingomyelin pathway.

    PubMed

    Seideman, Jonathan H; Stancevic, Branka; Rotolo, Jimmy A; McDevitt, Michael R; Howell, Roger W; Kolesnick, Richard N; Scheinberg, David A

    2011-10-01

    The sphingomyelin pathway involves the enzymatic cleavage of sphingomyelin to produce ceramide, a second messenger that serves as a key mediator in the rapid apoptotic response to various cell stressors. Low-linear energy transfer (LET) γ radiation can initiate this pathway, independent of DNA damage, via the cell membrane. Whether short-ranged, high-LET α particles, which are of interest as potent environmental carcinogens, radiotherapies and potential components of dirty bombs, can act through this mechanism to signal apoptosis is unknown. Here we show that irradiation of Jurkat cells with α particles emitted by the ²²⁵Ac-DOTA-anti-CD3 IgG antibody construct results in dose-dependent apoptosis. This apoptosis was significantly reduced by pretreating cells with cholesterol-depleting nystatin, a reagent known to inhibit ceramide signaling by interfering with membrane raft coalescence and ceramide-rich platform generation. The effects of nystatin on α-particle-induced apoptosis were related to disruption of the ceramide pathway and not to microdosimetry alterations, because similar results were obtained after external irradiation of the cells with a broad beam of collimated α particles using a planar ²⁴¹Am source. External irradiation allowed for more precise control of the dosimetry and geometry of the irradiation, independent of antibody binding or cell internalization kinetics. Mechanistically consistent with these findings, Jurkat cells rapidly increased membrane concentrations of ceramide after external irradiation with an average of five α-particle traversals per cell. These data indicate that α particles can activate the sphingomyelin pathway to induce apoptosis. PMID:21631289

  17. Alpha particle cluster states in fp-shell nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, A.C.

    1987-08-01

    Alpha particle cluster structure is known experimentally to persist throughout the mass range 16less than or equal toAless than or equal to20, and has been very successfully described in this region in terms of the Buck-Dover-Vary local potential cluster model. It is argued that an analogous cluster structure should be present in nuclei at the beginning of the fp shell, and the available experimental data are examined to determine likely alpha particle cluster state candidates in the mass range 40less than or equal toAless than or equal to44. Calculations of the cluster state spectra and mean square cluster-core separation distances (which may be readily used to evaluate E2 electromagnetic transition rates) for /sup 40/Ca, /sup 42/Ca, /sup 42/Sc, /sup 43/Sc, /sup 43/Ti, and /sup 44/Ti using the above-mentioned model are presented, and compared with experimental measurements where possible. The agreement between theory and experiment is generally good (although inferior to that obtained in the sd shell), and points to the desirability of an extension and improvement of the measurements of the properties of the excited states in these nuclei.

  18. Detection of alpha particles using DNA/Al Schottky junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Ta'ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber E-mail: vengadeshp@um.edu.my; Periasamy, Vengadesh E-mail: vengadeshp@um.edu.my; Amin, Yusoff Mohd

    2015-09-21

    Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA can be utilized in an organic-metallic rectifying structure to detect radiation, especially alpha particles. This has become much more important in recent years due to crucial environmental detection needs in both peace and war. In this work, we fabricated an aluminum (Al)/DNA/Al structure and generated current–voltage characteristics upon exposure to alpha radiation. Two models were utilized to investigate these current profiles; the standard conventional thermionic emission model and Cheung and Cheung's method. Using these models, the barrier height, Richardson constant, ideality factor and series resistance of the metal-DNA-metal structure were analyzed in real time. The barrier height, Φ value calculated using the conventional method for non-radiated structure was 0.7149 eV, increasing to 0.7367 eV after 4 min of radiation. Barrier height values were observed to increase after 20, 30 and 40 min of radiation, except for 6, 8, and 10 min, which registered a decrease of about 0.67 eV. This was in comparison using Cheung and Cheung's method, which registered 0.6983 eV and 0.7528 eV for the non-radiated and 2 min of radiation, respectively. The barrier height values, meanwhile, were observed to decrease after 4 (0.61 eV) to 40 min (0.6945 eV). The study shows that conventional thermionic emission model could be practically utilized for estimating the diode parameters including the effect of series resistance. These changes in the electronic properties of the Al/DNA/Al junctions could therefore be utilized in the manufacture of sensitive alpha particle sensors.

  19. Detection of alpha particles using DNA/Al Schottky junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ta'ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Amin, Yusoff Mohd

    2015-09-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA can be utilized in an organic-metallic rectifying structure to detect radiation, especially alpha particles. This has become much more important in recent years due to crucial environmental detection needs in both peace and war. In this work, we fabricated an aluminum (Al)/DNA/Al structure and generated current-voltage characteristics upon exposure to alpha radiation. Two models were utilized to investigate these current profiles; the standard conventional thermionic emission model and Cheung and Cheung's method. Using these models, the barrier height, Richardson constant, ideality factor and series resistance of the metal-DNA-metal structure were analyzed in real time. The barrier height, Φ value calculated using the conventional method for non-radiated structure was 0.7149 eV, increasing to 0.7367 eV after 4 min of radiation. Barrier height values were observed to increase after 20, 30 and 40 min of radiation, except for 6, 8, and 10 min, which registered a decrease of about 0.67 eV. This was in comparison using Cheung and Cheung's method, which registered 0.6983 eV and 0.7528 eV for the non-radiated and 2 min of radiation, respectively. The barrier height values, meanwhile, were observed to decrease after 4 (0.61 eV) to 40 min (0.6945 eV). The study shows that conventional thermionic emission model could be practically utilized for estimating the diode parameters including the effect of series resistance. These changes in the electronic properties of the Al/DNA/Al junctions could therefore be utilized in the manufacture of sensitive alpha particle sensors.

  20. Observation of lunar radon emanation with the Apollo 15 alpha particle spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1972-01-01

    The alpha particle spectrometer, a component of the orbital Sim Bay group of 'geochemistry' experiments on Apollo 15, was designed to detect alpha particles emitted during the decay of isotopes of radon gas and her daughter products. The purpose was to measure the gross activity of radon on the lunar surface and to find possible regions of increased local activity. Results are presented from a partial analysis of Apollo 15 data. For the moon as a whole, Rn220 was not observed and the upper limit on its decay rate above the lunar surface is 0.00038 disintegrations/sq cm-sec. Rn222 was marginally observed. Possible variations of radon activity on the lunar surface are being investigated. Po210 (a daughter product of Rn222) has been detected in a broad region from west of Mare Crisium to the Van de Graaff-Orlov region. The observed count rate is (4.6 plus or minus 1.4) x 0.001 disintegrations/sq cm-sec. The observed level of Po210 activity is in excess of the amount that would be in equilibrium with Rn222 by about an order of magnitude. This implies that larger levels of radon emanation have occurred on the moon within a time scale of 10 to 100 years.

  1. Preliminary results from the lunar prospector alpha particle spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, S. L.

    2001-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector Alpha Particle Spectrometer (LP APS) builds on Apollo heritage and maps the distribution of outgassing sites on the Moon. The APS searches for lunar surface gas release events and maps their distribution by detecting alpha particles produced by the decay of gaseous radon-222 (5.5 MeV, 3.8 day half-life) and solid polonium-210 (5.3 MeV, 138 day half-life, but remains on the surface with a 21 year half-life as lead-210), which are radioactive daughters from the decay of uranium-238. Radon is in such small quantities that it is not released directly from the lunar interior, rather it is entrained in a stream of gases and serves as a tracer for such gases. Once released, the radon spreads out by 'bouncing' across the surface on ballistic trajectories in a random-walk process. The 3.8 day half-life of radon-222 allows the gas to spread out by several 100 km before it decays and allows the APS to detect gas release events up to a few days after they occur. The long residence time (10s of years) of the lead-210 precursor to the polonium-210 allows the mapping of gas vents which have been active over the last approximately 50 years. Because radon and polonium are daughter products of the decay of uranium, the background level of alpha particle activity is a function of the lunar crustal uranium distribution. Using radioactive radon and polonium as tracers, the Apollo 15 and 16 Command Module orbital alpha particle experiments obtained evidence for the release of gases at several sites beneath the orbit tracks, especially over the Aristarchus Plateau and Mare Fecunditatis [1]. Aristarchus crater had previously been identified by ground-based observers as the site of transient optical events [2]. The Apollo 17 surface mass spectrometer showed that argon-40 is released from the lunar interior every few months, apparently in concert with some of the shallow moonquakes that are believed to be of tectonic origin [3]. The latter tectonic events could be associated with very young scarps identified in the lunar highlands [4] and are believed to indicate continued global contraction. Such quakes could open fissures leading to the release of gases that are trapped below the surface. The detection of radon-222 outgassing events at the margins of Fecunditatis basin was surprising because the observed surface distribution of uranium and thorium do not extend sufficiently eastward to cover Fecunditatis. If the Apollo detections prove sound, then those alpha particle emissions indicate substantial subsurface concentrations of uranium-238 within Fecunditatis. A primary goal of the APS was to map gas-release events, thus allowing both an appraisal of the current level of tectonic activity on the Moon and providing a probe of subsurface uranium concentrations.

  2. White top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes with solution-processed nano-particle scattering layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Tim; Schwab, Tobias; Lenk, Simone; Gather, Malte C.

    2015-12-01

    A random scattering approach to enhance light extraction in white top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is reported. Through solution processing from fluorinated solvents, a nano-particle scattering layer (NPSL) can be deposited directly on top of small molecule OLEDs without affecting their electrical performance. The scattering length for light inside the NPSL is determined from transmission measurements and found to be in agreement with Mie scattering theory. Furthermore, the dependence of the light outcoupling enhancement on electron transport layer thickness is studied. Depending on the electron transport layer thickness, the NPSL enhances the external quantum efficiency of the investigated white OLEDs by between 1.5 and 2.3-fold. For a device structure that has been optimized prior to application of the NPSL, the maximum external quantum efficiency is improved from 4.7% to 7.4% (1.6-fold improvement). In addition, the scattering layer strongly reduces the undesired shift in emission color with viewing angle.

  3. INSTABILITIES DRIVEN BY THE DRIFT AND TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY OF ALPHA PARTICLES IN THE SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Verscharen, Daniel; Bourouaine, Sofiane; Chandran, Benjamin D. G. E-mail: s.bourouaine@unh.edu

    2013-08-20

    We investigate the conditions under which parallel-propagating Alfven/ion-cyclotron (A/IC) waves and fast-magnetosonic/whistler (FM/W) waves are driven unstable by the differential flow and temperature anisotropy of alpha particles in the solar wind. We focus on the limit in which w{sub Parallel-To {alpha}} {approx}> 0.25v{sub A}, where w{sub Parallel-To {alpha}} is the parallel alpha-particle thermal speed and v{sub A} is the Alfven speed. We derive analytic expressions for the instability thresholds of these waves, which show, e.g., how the minimum unstable alpha-particle beam speed depends upon w{sub Parallel-To {alpha}}/v{sub A}, the degree of alpha-particle temperature anisotropy, and the alpha-to-proton temperature ratio. We validate our analytical results using numerical solutions to the full hot-plasma dispersion relation. Consistent with previous work, we find that temperature anisotropy allows A/IC waves and FM/W waves to become unstable at significantly lower values of the alpha-particle beam speed U{sub {alpha}} than in the isotropic-temperature case. Likewise, differential flow lowers the minimum temperature anisotropy needed to excite A/IC or FM/W waves relative to the case in which U{sub {alpha}} = 0. We discuss the relevance of our results to alpha particles in the solar wind near 1 AU.

  4. The energy spectra of protons and alpha particles above 300 keV/nucleon during quiet times

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Vollmer, O.; Fan, C. Y.

    1975-01-01

    An unusual spectral feature and anomalously large abundance of helium between 0.6 and about 2 MeV/nucleon observed during the most quiet time periods in 1974 indicate the presence of low energy helium of an unknown origin. During these same quiet periods protons below 1.5 MeV and alphas below 0.6 MeV/nucleon have a power law energy spectrum with an index of -1.8 and the proton to alpha ratio is about 30. From these results and the measured anisotropy of these particles we conclude that the sun emits less than about 1 MeV particles continuously even during its most inactive periods.

  5. Alpha particle losses from Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor deuterium-tritium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Darrow, D.S.; Zweben, S.J.; Batha, S.

    1996-01-01

    Because alpha particle losses can have a significant influence on tokamak reactor viability, the loss of deuterium-tritium alpha particles from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been measured under a wide range of conditions. In TFTR, first orbit loss and stochastic toroidal field ripple diffusion are always present. Other losses can arise due to magnetohydrodynamic instabilities or due to waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. No alpha particle losses have yet been seen due to collective instabilities driven by alphas. Ion Bernstein waves can drive large losses of fast ions from TFTR, and details of those losses support one element of the alpha energy channeling scenario.

  6. Photodiode radiation hardness, lyman-alpha emitting galaxies and photon detection in liquid argon neutrino detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Brian

    My dissertation is comprised of three projects: 1) studies of Lyman-alpha Emitting galaxies (LAEs), 2) radiation hardness studies of InGaAs photodiodes (PDs), and 3) scintillation photon detection in liquid argon (LAr) neutrino detectors. I began work on the project that has now become WFIRST, developing a science case that would use WFIRST after launch for the observation of LAEs. The radiation hardness of PDs was as an effort to support the WFIRST calibration team. When WFIRST was significantly delayed, I joined an R&D effort that applied my skills to work on photon detection in LAr neutrino detectors. I report results on a broadband selection method developed to detect high equivalent width (EW) LAEs. Using photometry from the CFHT-Legacy Survey Deep 2 and 3 fields, I have spectroscopically confirmed 63 z=2.5-3.5 LAEs using the WIYN/Hydra spectrograph. Using UV continuum-fitting techniques I computed properties such as EWs, internal reddening and star formation rates. 62 of my LAEs show evidence to be normal dust-free LAEs. Second, I present an investigation into the effects of ionizing proton radiation on commercial off-the-shelf InGaAs PDs. I developed a monochromator-based test apparatus that utilized NIST-calibrated reference PDs. I tested the PDs for changes to their dark current, relative responsivity as a function of wavelength, and absolute responsivity. I irradiated the test PDs using 30, 52, and 98 MeV protons at the IU Cyclotron Facility. I found the InGaAs PDs showed increased dark current as the fluence increased with no evidence of broadband response degradation at the fluences expected at an L2 orbit and a 10-year mission lifetime. Finally, I detail my efforts on technology development of both optical detector technologies and waveshifting light guide construction for LAr vacuum UV scintillation light. Cryogenic neutrino detectors use photon detection for both accelerator based science and for SNe neutrino detection and proton decay. I have developed waveshifter doped cast acrylic light guides that convert scintillation light and guide the waveshifted light to SiPMs detectors.

  7. Alpha particles are extremely damaging to developing hemopoiesis compared to gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tie-Nan Jiang ); Lord, B.I.; Hendry, J.H. )

    1994-03-01

    Estimates of risk of stochastic effects from contamination with [alpha]-particle-emitting radionuclides are based on equivalent doses which take into account the RBE of the high-LET radiation. It is assumed that the RBEs for deterministic effects are considerably less than those for stochastic effects. However, the offspring of mice injected with 30 Bq g[sup [minus]1] [sup 239]Pu at 13 days gestation develop a persistent deficit in hemopoietic stem cells which is primarily the result of damage to their regulatory microenvironment. Their spatial distribution in the marrow is also perturbed, and recent observations on those mice suggested a considerably higher factor than 20. To define a more realistic RBE for hemopoiesis, the effects of external [gamma] irradiation during the fetal development period have been compared directly with those of [sup 239]Pu incorporated via placental transfer on the development of hemopoietic tissue. Pregnant mice were irradiated with [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays (a) continuously from day 13 of gestation to birth at 0.15 or 0.6 Gy/day; (b) six repeated acute doses (0.6 Gy/min) at 0.1 or 0.3 Gy from day 13 of gestation; (c) one acute dose of 0.6 or 1.8 Gy on day 15 of gestation. The spatial distribution of hemopoietic stem cells in 8-week-old offspring was then determined and compared to that resulting from [alpha]-particle irradiation. In each case, the higher dose was required to match the results for [alpha] particles, suggesting an RBE for developing hemopoiesis of 250-360 compared to a continuous [gamma]-ray dose and a rather lower value of 130-180 compared to a single acute dose of [gamma] rays. This contrasts greatly to values for direct irradiation of the stem cells but argues that the effective RBE, measured for long-term effects in vivo, is the more realistic. It is concluded that an all-embracing factor can be grossly misleading and can greatly underestimate the risks of exposure to [alpha] particles. 21 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Selective Alpha-Particle Mediated Depletion of Tumor Vasculature with Vascular Normalization

    PubMed Central

    Seshan, Surya V.; Kappel, Barry J.; Chattopadhyay, Debjit; May, Chad; McDevitt, Michael R.; Nolan, Daniel; Mittal, Vivek; Benezra, Robert; Scheinberg, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Background Abnormal regulation of angiogenesis in tumors results in the formation of vessels that are necessary for tumor growth, but compromised in structure and function. Abnormal tumor vasculature impairs oxygen and drug delivery and results in radiotherapy and chemotherapy resistance, respectively. Alpha particles are extraordinarily potent, short-ranged radiations with geometry uniquely suitable for selectively killing neovasculature. Methodology and Principal Findings Actinium-225 (225Ac)-E4G10, an alpha-emitting antibody construct reactive with the unengaged form of vascular endothelial cadherin, is capable of potent, selective killing of tumor neovascular endothelium and late endothelial progenitors in bone-marrow and blood. No specific normal-tissue uptake of E4G10 was seen by imaging or post-mortem biodistribution studies in mice. In a mouse-model of prostatic carcinoma, 225Ac-E4G10 treatment resulted in inhibition of tumor growth, lower serum prostate specific antigen level and markedly prolonged survival, which was further enhanced by subsequent administration of paclitaxel. Immunohistochemistry revealed lower vessel density and enhanced tumor cell apoptosis in 225Ac-E4G10 treated tumors. Additionally, the residual tumor vasculature appeared normalized as evident by enhanced pericyte coverage following 225Ac-E4G10 therapy. However, no toxicity was observed in vascularized normal organs following 225Ac-E4G10 therapy. Conclusions The data suggest that alpha-particle immunotherapy to neovasculature, alone or in combination with sequential chemotherapy, is an effective approach to cancer therapy. PMID:17342201

  9. A self-consistent theory of collective alpha particle losses induced by Alfvenic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Biglari, H.; Diamond, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of kinetic Alfven waves, resonantly excited by energetic ions/alpha particles, is investigated. It is shown that {alpha}-particles govern both linear instability and nonlinear saturation dynamics, while the background MHD turbulence results only in a nonlinear real frequency shift. The most efficient saturation mechanism is found to be self-induced profile modification. Expressions for the fluctuation amplitudes and the {alpha}-particle radial flux are self-consistently derived. The work represents the first self-consistent, turbulent treatment of collective {alpha}-particle losses by Alfvenic fluctuations.

  10. Characteristics of the spectra of protons and alpha particles in recurrent events at 1 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.; Vogt, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A study of 31 individual recurrent events from three long-lived corotating particle streams is presented. The spectra of protons and alpha particles during these streams are fit well by an exponential in particle rigidity. Although the spectra show considerable temporal variation, the proton and alpha particle spectra are correlated so that the e-folding rigidities Po(alpha) and Po(p) of the two spectra are in the ratio Po(alpha)/Po(p) = 1.5 plus or minus 0.1. The consistency of this ratio may be a characteristic of the interplanetary acceleration process.

  11. Breakup of {sup 12}C resonances into three alpha particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kirsebom, O. S.; Fynbo, H. O. U.; Hyldegaard, S.; Riisager, K.; Alcorta, M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Cubero, M.; Dominguez-Reyes, R.; Madurga, M.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O.; Diget, C. A.; Fulton, B. R.; Fraile, L. M.; Jonson, B.; Nilsson, T.; Nyman, G.; Munoz Martin, A.

    2010-06-15

    The reaction {sup 3}He+{sup 11}B->d+{sup 12}C* has been used to populate resonances in {sup 12}C up to an excitation energy of 15 MeV. The subsequent breakup to three alpha particles has been measured in complete kinematics. Dalitz plots are used to visualize and analyze the data. The Dalitz plot intensity distribution exhibits zero points characteristic of the total spin and parity of the 3alpha system allowing us to determine the spin and parity of a state in {sup 12}C at 13.35 MeV whose quantum numbers were hitherto not well established. The Dalitz plot intensity distributions of the 2{sup -} state at 11.83 MeV and the 1{sup +} state at 12.71 MeV are compared with the predictions of a recent three-body calculation as well as with simpler models. All are able to reproduce the gross structures seen in the Dalitz plot, but none give an accurate description of the detailed profile of the distributions.

  12. Anomalous loss of DT alpha particles in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, H.W.

    1997-09-01

    An escaping alpha collector probe has been developed for TFTR`s DT phase. Energy distributions of escaping alphas have been determined by measuring the range of {alpha}-particles implanted into nickel foils located within the alpha collector. Results at 1.0 MA of plasma current are in good agreement with predictions for first orbit alpha loss. Results at 1.8 MA, however, show a significant anomalous loss of partially thermalized alphas (in addition to the expected first orbit loss), which is not observed with the lost alpha scintillator detectors in DT plasmas, but does resemble the anomalous delayed loss seen in DD plasmas. None of the candidate explanations proposed thus far are fully consistent with the anomalous loss observations. An experiment designed to study the effect of plasma major radius shifts on {alpha}-particle loss has led to a better understanding of {alpha}-particle dynamics in tokamaks. Intuitively, one might suppose that confined marginally passing {alpha}-particles forced to move toward higher magnetic field during an inward major radius shift (i.e., compression) would mirror and become trapped particles, leading to increased alpha loss. Such an effect was looked for during the shift experiment, however, no significant changes in alpha loss to the 90{degree} lost alpha scintillator detector were observed during the shifts. It is calculated that the energy gained by an {alpha}-particle during the inward shift is sufficient to explain this result. However, an unexpected loss of partially thermalized {alpha}-particles near the passing/trapped boundary was observed to occur between inward and outward shifts at an intermediate value of plasma current (1.4 MA). This anomalous loss feature is not yet understood.

  13. Emitted High Energy Light Particle Data Base Development Using a Thermodynamic Coalescence Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsalan, M. P.; Townsend, L. W.

    2013-03-01

    In many applications, double-differential (energy and angle) secondary light particle production cross sections must be known for ion energies from tens of MeV/nucleon to tens of GeV/nucleon. Incorporating high energy light particle spectral and angular distribution cross section databases in the transport codes enable them to transport nearly any radiation field, in three dimensions, that humans and instruments might be exposed to in space, near accelerators or during charged particle radiotherapy. In this work a thermodynamics coalescence model is used to estimate the coalescence and emitting source radii for both symmetric and asymmetric heavy ion collision systems.

  14. Self-consistent study of the alpha particle driven TAE mode

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; White, R.B.

    1994-04-01

    The interaction of high energy particles with an Alfven eigenmode is investigated self-consistently by using a realistic kinetic dispersion relation. All important poloidal mode numbers and their radial mode profiles as calculated with the NOVA-K code are included. A Hamiltonian guiding center code is used to simulate the alpha particle motion. The numerical simulations include particle orbit width, nonlinear particle dynamics and the effects of the modes on the particles. Modification of the particle distribution leading to mode saturation is observed. Particle loss is limited to devices in which the alpha particle gyro radius is a significant fraction of the minor radius.

  15. Toxicity of particles emitted from combustion of waste crankcase oil: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Mumford, J L; Hatch, G E; Hall, R E; Jackson, M A; Merrill, R G; Lewtas, J

    1986-07-01

    The ever-rising cost of energy provides incentives for the utilization of low-cost waste crankcase oil (WCO) for space heating. Although WCO is known to contain toxic heavy metals, the potential health hazards of emissions and waste products resulting from the combustion of WCO are unknown. Thus, the toxicity of the emission particles and waste products from two different types of burners, a Dravo atomizing oil burner (AOB) and a Kroll vaporizing oil burner (VOB), is evaluated using automotive WCO. Samples are characterized by performing elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Both burners emitted fine (less than or equal to 3 microns), respirable particles. The AOB emission particles contained high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, especially Pb, which showed concentrations as high as 7.5%. The VOB retained a significant amount of heavy metals in the burner residue and emitted a much smaller quantity into the air. The toxicity of AOB emission particles, VOB emission particles, and VOB waste residue is evaluated in three bioassay systems, including a rabbit alveolar macrophage (RAM) cytotoxicity in vitro assay, an intratracheal injection infectivity assay, and a peritoneal irritancy test in mice. The emission particles from both burners and leachate from VOB residue produce a dose-related reduction in viability and cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in alveolar macrophages following 20-hr exposure. Acidity of the RAM medium due to the presence of VOB emission particles and waste leachate contributes to its toxicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3732672

  16. Particle number emission factors and volatile fraction of particles emitted from on-road gasoline direct injection passenger vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momenimovahed, A.; Handford, D.; Checkel, M. D.; Olfert, J. S.

    2015-02-01

    Particle number emission factors, and the volatility of the particles, are measured on-road for five gasoline direct injection vehicles over a wide range of operating conditions including urban and highway driving conditions. Two condensation particle counters (CPC) were used to measure nascent and non-volatile (thermodenuded) particle concentrations for transient urban and highway tests. To measure the non-volatile concentration and also the volatility of the particles, a thermodenuder was employed to remove the semi-volatile material from the aerosol sample. Rapid accelerations were also studied in more detail by measuring the particle size distributions in real-time using a differential mobility spectrometer (DMS). The ratio of semi-volatile particles to total particle number is generally higher during acceleration followed by the idle operating mode. The number emission factors (for particles larger than 2.5 nm) ranged between 5.46 1011-3.50 1012/km for freshly emitted (nascent) particles and between 2.87 1011-3.31 1012/km for non-volatile (thermodenuded) particles. More particles per kilometer are produced during acceleration compared to cruise conditions where the non-volatile particle number emission factor for acceleration is 2.3 and 1.8 times higher than vehicle cruise for urban and highway driving cycles, respectively. Particle number emission factor models are also presented in terms of particle emission rate as a function of vehicle tractive power and also as a function of vehicle specific power as defined for the US Environmental Protection Agency's MOVES model.

  17. Portable alpha spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Martn Snchez, A; de la Torre Prez, J

    2012-09-01

    Many portable devices have been designed to detect ?-rays or alpha and beta particles. Most of the ?-particle detectors give the total count as a result, without identifying the radionuclides existing in the sample. The development of a device allowing rapid and straightforward ?-particle spectrometry would be very useful for detecting the radioactive contents of unknown samples. This work describes the construction of a portable device using silicon semiconductor detectors designed to rapidly detect and possibly identify alpha-emitting radionuclides. PMID:22405957

  18. Coordination chemistry of the {sup 212}Pb/{sup 212}Bi nuclear transformation: Alpha-emitting radiopharmaceuticals. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, N.J.; Harris, W.R.; Keen, C.L.; Cooper, S.R.

    1992-07-01

    Subdivisions of this project are: (a) the synthesis of prototypical thiolate and dithiocarbamate based hexacoordinate complexes, (b) radiochemical engineering for generation of no-carrier-added lead and bismuth radioelements, (c) the first isolation of bismuth-binding proteins from in vivo studies with cyclotron produced {sup 205/206}Bi tracer, and (d) initial development of transport mechanisms for the intracellular radiobiological study of alpha emitting bismuth, and (e) the initiation of chemical equilibrium studies and biochemical pathways with cyclotron-produced, no-carrier-added, {sup 203}Pb (T{sub 1/2} = 51 hr).

  19. Anomalous Loss of DT Alpha Particles in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, Hans W.

    1997-06-01

    Princeton's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is the first experimental fusion device to routinely use tritium to study the deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reaction,allowing the first systematic study of DT alpha particles in tokamak plasmas. A crucial aspect of alpha-particle physics is the fraction of alphas that escape from the plasma, particularly since these energetic particles can do severe damage to the first wall of a reactor. An escaping alpha collector probe has been developed for TFTR's DT phase. Energy distributions of escaping alphas have been determined by measuring the range of alpha-particles implanted into nickel foils located within the alpha collector. Results at 1.0 MA of plasma current are in good agreement with predictions for first orbit alpha loss. Results at 1.8 MA, however, show a significant anomalous loss of partially thermalized alphas (in addition to the expected first orbit loss), which is not observed with the lost alpha scintillator detectors in DT plasmas, but does resemble the anomalous "delayed" loss seen in DD plasmas. None of the candidate explanations proposed thus far are fully consistent with the anomalous loss observations. An experiment designed to study the effect of plasma major radius shifts on alpha-particle loss has led to a better understanding of alpha-particle dynamics in tokamaks. Intuitively, one might suppose that confined marginally passing alpha-particles forced to move toward higher magnetic field during an inward major radius shift (i.e. compression) would mirror and become trapped particles, leading to increased alpha loss. Such an effect was looked for during the shift experiment, however, no significant changes in alpha loss to the 90 degree lost alpha scintillator detector were observed during the shifts. It is calculated that the energy gained by an alpha-particle during the inward shift is sufficient to explain this result. However, an unexpected loss of partially thermalized alpha-particles near the passing/trapped boundary was observed to occur between inward and outward shifts at an intermediate value of plasma current (1.4 MA). This anomalous loss feature is not yet understood.

  20. Ultrafine particles emitted by flame and electric arc guns for thermal spraying of metals.

    PubMed

    Bémer, Denis; Régnier, Roland; Subra, Isabelle; Sutter, Benjamin; Lecler, Marie T; Morele, Yves

    2010-08-01

    The ultrafine aerosol emitted by thermal spraying of metals using flame and electric arc processes has been characterized in terms of particle size distribution and emission rates based on both particle number and mass. Thermal spraying of Zn, Zn/Al, and Al was studied. Measurements taken using an electrical low pressure impactor and a condensation nucleus counter reveal an aerosol made up of very fine particles (80-95% of number distribution <100 nm). Ultrafine particle emission rates produced by the electric arc process are very high, the largest values being recorded during spraying of pure aluminium. This process generates high particle emissions and therefore requires careful consideration and possible rethinking of currently implemented protection measures: ventilated cabins, dust collectors, and personal protective equipment. PMID:20685717

  1. Experimental Study of the Cross Sections of {alpha}-Particle Induced Reactions on 209Bi

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanne, A.; Tarkanyi, F.; Takacs, S.; Szucs, Z.

    2005-05-24

    Alpha particle induced reactions for generation of 211At used in therapeutic nuclear medicine and possible contaminants were investigated with the stacked foil activation technique on natural bismuth targets up to E{alpha}=39 MeV. Excitation functions for the reactions 209Bi({alpha},2n)211At, 209Bi({alpha},3n)210At, 209Bi({alpha},x) 210Po obtained from direct alpha emission measurements and gamma spectra from decay products are compared with earlier literature values. Thick target yields have been deduced from the experimental cross sections.

  2. Theoretical response of a ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector to alpha-emitting sources and suggested applications

    SciTech Connect

    Skrable, K.W.; Phoenix, K.A.; Chabot, G.E.; French, C.S.; Jo, M.; Falo, G.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The classic problem of alpha absorption is discussed in terms of the quantitative determination of the activity of weightless alpha sources and the specific alpha activity of extended sources accounting for absorption in the source medium and the window of a large area ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. The relationship for the expected counting rate gamma of a monoenergetic source of active area A, specific alpha activity C, and thickness H that exceeds the effective mass density range Rs of the alpha particle in the source medium can be expressed by a quadratic equation in the window thickness x when this source is placed in direct contact with the window of the ZnS(Ag) detector. This expression also gives the expected counting rate of a finite detector of sensitive area A exposed to an infinite homogeneous source medium. Counting rates y obtained for a source separated from a ZnS(Ag) detector by different thicknesses x of window material can be used to estimate parameter values in the quadratic equation, y = a + bx + cx2. The experimental value determined for the coefficient b provides a direct estimation of the specific activity C. This coefficient, which depends on the ratio of the ranges in the source medium and detector window and not the ranges themselves, is essentially independent of the energy of the alpha particle. Although certain experimental precautions must be taken, this method for estimating the specific activity C is essentially an absolute method that does not require the use of standards, special calibrations, or complicated radiochemical procedures. Applications include the quantitative determination of Rn and progeny in air, water, and charcoal, and the measurement of the alpha activity in soil and on air filter samples.

  3. Enhanced homologous recombination is induced by alpha-particle radiation in somatic cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Po; Liu, Ping; Wu, Yuejin

    Almost 9 percent of cosmic rays which strike the earth's atmosphere are alpha particles. As one of the ionizing radiations (IR), its biological effects have been widely studied. However, the plant genomic instability induced by alpha-particle radiation was not largely known. In this research, the Arabidopsis thaliana transgenic for GUS recombination substrate was used to evaluate the genomic instability induced by alpha-particle radiation (3.3MeV). The pronounced effects of systemic exposure to alpha-particle radiation on the somatic homologous recombination frequency (HRF) were found at different doses. The 10Gy dose of radiation induced the maximal HRF which was 1.9-fold higher than the control. The local radiation of alpha-particle (10Gy) on root also resulted in a 2.5-fold increase of somatic HRF in non-radiated aerial plant, indicating that the signal(s) of genomic instability was transferred to non-radiated parts and initiated their genomic instability. Concurrent treatment of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana with alpha-particle and DMSO(ROS scavenger) both in systemic and local radiation signifi- cantly suppressed the somatic HR, indicating that the free radicals produced by alpha-particle radiation took part in the production of signal of genomic instability rather than the signal transfer. Key words: alpha-particle radiation, somatic homologous recombination, genomic instability

  4. {alpha}-particle production in {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, P. N. de; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Pires, K. C. C.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Barioni, A.; Morcelle, V.; Morais, M. C.; Moro, A. M.; Arazi, A.

    2010-09-15

    The collision {sup 6}He+{sup 120}Sn has been investigated at four energies near the Coulomb barrier. A large yield of {alpha} particles has been detected, with energies around the energy of the scattered {sup 6}He beam. The energy and angular distributions of the {alpha} particles have been analyzed and compared with breakup and neutron transfer calculations.

  5. Excitation of high-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes by energetic particles and fusion alpha particles in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, G.Y.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1992-07-01

    The stability of high-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) in the presence of fusion alpha particles or energetic ions in tokamaks is investigated. The TAE modes are discrete in nature and thus can easily tap the free energy associated with energetic particle pressure gradient through wave particle resonant interaction. A quadratic form is derived for the high-n TAE modes using gyro-kinetic equation. The kinetic effects of energetic particles are calculated perturbatively using the ideal MHD solution as the lowest order eigenfunction. The finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects and the finite drift orbit width (FDW) effects are included for both circulating and trapped energetic particles. It is shown that, for circulating particles, FLR and FDW effects have two opposite influences on the stability of the high-n TAE modes. First, they have the usual stabilizing effects by reducing the wave particle interaction strength. Second, they also have destabilizing effects by allowing more particles to resonate with the TAE modes. It is found that the growth rate induced by the circulating alpha particles increase linearly with toroidal mode number n for small {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}}, and decreases as 1/n for {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} {much gt} 1. The maximum growth rate is obtained at {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} on the order of unity and is nearly constant for the range of 0.7 < {upsilon}{sub {alpha}}/{upsilon}{sub A} < 2.5. On the other hand, the trapped particle response is dominated by the precessional drift resonance. The bounce resonant contribution is negligible. The growth rate peaks sharply at the value of {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} such that the precessional drift resonance occurs for the most energetic trapped particles. The maximum growth rate due to the energetic trapped particles is comparable to that of circulating particles.

  6. Excitation of high-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes by energetic particles and fusion alpha particles in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, G.Y.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1992-07-01

    The stability of high-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) in the presence of fusion alpha particles or energetic ions in tokamaks is investigated. The TAE modes are discrete in nature and thus can easily tap the free energy associated with energetic particle pressure gradient through wave particle resonant interaction. A quadratic form is derived for the high-n TAE modes using gyro-kinetic equation. The kinetic effects of energetic particles are calculated perturbatively using the ideal MHD solution as the lowest order eigenfunction. The finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects and the finite drift orbit width (FDW) effects are included for both circulating and trapped energetic particles. It is shown that, for circulating particles, FLR and FDW effects have two opposite influences on the stability of the high-n TAE modes. First, they have the usual stabilizing effects by reducing the wave particle interaction strength. Second, they also have destabilizing effects by allowing more particles to resonate with the TAE modes. It is found that the growth rate induced by the circulating alpha particles increase linearly with toroidal mode number n for small {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}}, and decreases as 1/n for {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} {much_gt} 1. The maximum growth rate is obtained at {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} on the order of unity and is nearly constant for the range of 0.7 < {upsilon}{sub {alpha}}/{upsilon}{sub A} < 2.5. On the other hand, the trapped particle response is dominated by the precessional drift resonance. The bounce resonant contribution is negligible. The growth rate peaks sharply at the value of {kappa}{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub {alpha}} such that the precessional drift resonance occurs for the most energetic trapped particles. The maximum growth rate due to the energetic trapped particles is comparable to that of circulating particles.

  7. Simulation of Alpha Particles in Rotating Plasma Interacting with a Stationary Ripple

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-01-11

    Superthermal ExB rotation can provide magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and enhanced confinement to axisymmetric mirrors. However, the rotation speed has been limited by phenomena at end electrodes. A new prediction is that rotation might instead be produced using a magnetic ripple and alpha particle kinetic energy, in an extension of the alpha channeling concept. The interaction of alpha particles with the ripple results in visually interesting and practically useful orbits.

  8. A method to reproduce alpha-particle spectra measured with semiconductor detectors.

    PubMed

    Timón, A Fernández; Vargas, M Jurado; Sánchez, A Martín

    2010-01-01

    A method is proposed to reproduce alpha-particle spectra measured with silicon detectors, combining analytical and computer simulation techniques. The procedure includes the use of the Monte Carlo method to simulate the tracks of alpha-particles within the source and in the detector entrance window. The alpha-particle spectrum is finally obtained by the convolution of this simulated distribution and the theoretical distributions representing the contributions of the alpha-particle spectrometer to the spectrum. Experimental spectra from (233)U and (241)Am sources were compared with the predictions given by the proposed procedure, showing good agreement. The proposed method can be an important aid for the analysis and deconvolution of complex alpha-particle spectra. PMID:19900817

  9. Use of /sup 3/He/sup + +/ ICRF minority heating to simulate alpha particle heating

    DOEpatents

    Post, D.E. Jr.; Hwang, D.Q.; Hovey, J.

    1983-11-16

    It is an object of the present invention to provide a better understanding of alpha particle behavior in a magnetically confined, energetic plasma. Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved means and method for studying and measuring the energy distribution of heated alpha particles in a confined plasma. Yet another object of the present invention is to permit detailed analysis of energetic alpha particle behavior in a magnetically confined plasma for use in near term fusion reactor experiments. A still further object of the present invention is to simulate energetic alpha particle behavior in a deuterium-tritium plasma confined in a fusion reactor without producing the neutron activation associated with the thus produced alpha particles.

  10. Mitigation of radiation nephropathy after internal {alpha}-particle irradiation of kidneys

    SciTech Connect

    Jaggi, Jaspreet Singh; Seshan, Surya V.; McDevitt, Michael R.; Sgouros, George; Hyjek, Elizabeth; Scheinberg, David A. . E-mail: d-scheinberg@ski.mskcc.org

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: Internal irradiation of kidneys as a consequence of radioimmunotherapy, radiation accidents, or nuclear terrorism can result in radiation nephropathy. We attempted to modify pharmacologically, the functional and morphologic changes in mouse kidneys after injection with the actinium ({sup 225}Ac) nanogenerator, an in vivo generator of {alpha}- and {beta}-particle emitting elements. Methods and Materials: The animals were injected with 0.35 {mu}Ci of the {sup 225}Ac nanogenerator, which delivers a dose of 27.6 Gy to the kidneys. Then, they were randomized to receive captopril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor), L-158,809 (angiotensin II receptor-1 blocker), spironolactone (aldosterone receptor antagonist), or a placebo. Results: Forty weeks after the {sup 225}Ac injection, the placebo-control mice showed a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (87.6 {+-} 6.9 mg/dL), dilated Bowman spaces, and tubulolysis with basement membrane thickening. Captopril treatment accentuated the functional (BUN 119.0 {+-} 4.0 mg/dL; p <0.01 vs. placebo controls) and histopathologic damage. In contrast, L-158,809 offered moderate protection (BUN 66.6 {+-} 3.9 mg/dL; p = 0.02 vs. placebo controls). Spironolactone treatment, however, significantly prevented the development of histopathologic and functional changes (BUN 31.2 {+-} 2.5 mg/dL; p <0.001 vs. placebo controls). Conclusions: Low-dose spironolactone and, to a lesser extent, angiotensin receptor-1 blockade can offer renal protection in a mouse model of internal {alpha}-particle irradiation.

  11. Alpha particle detection with GaN Schottky diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Markov, A. V.; Kozhukhova, E. A.; Gazizov, I. M.; Kolin, N. G.; Merkurisov, D. I.; Boiko, V. M.; Korulin, A. V.; Zalyetin, V. M.; Pearton, S. J.; Lee, I.-H.; Dabiran, A. M.; Chow, P. P.

    2009-11-15

    Ni/GaN Schottky diode radiation detectors were fabricated on 3-mum-thick unintentionally doped n-GaN films grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and on 12-mum-thick undoped n-GaN layers prepared by epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG). The reverse current of all detector structures was <10{sup -9} A for bias voltages necessary for detector operation, with the level of background donor doping of <10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. With this doping level the space charge region of the Schottky diode could be extended to the entire thickness of the films. The charge collection efficiency of the detectors was close to 100% for MOCVD and ELOG detectors for alpha-particles with range comparable to the thickness of the layer. Electrical properties and deep trap spectra were also studied. The collection efficiency decreased when the concentra-tion of deep electron traps, particularly E{sub c}-0.6 eV traps, increased in MBE grown films.

  12. Identification of platinum and palladium particles emitted from vehicles and dispersed into the surface environment.

    PubMed

    Prichard, Hazel M; Fisher, Peter C

    2012-03-20

    Platinum, palladium, and rhodium are emitted from vehicle catalytic converters. Until now, the form of precious metal particles in road dust and urban waste has not been identified. This study has located, imaged, and analyzed these particles in road dust and gully waste. Two fragments of catalytic converter have been observed in road dust. They are 40-80 μm in size and covered in many minute particles (<0.3 μm) of either platinum with minor rhodium or palladium. One fragment identified in gully sediment is smaller, 25 μm in diameter, hosting only one attached particle of palladium with minor rhodium. As fragments are washed off roads they begin to disintegrate and the precious metals become detached. Also precious metal-bearing particles have been located in incinerated sewage ash including a 20 μm diameter cluster of <3 μm sized platinum particles that may be the remains of a catalytic converter fragment that has survived incineration. The form of these precious metal-bearing particles described here reveals that as they are dispersed from roads they are likely to be present predominantly as two particle sizes. Either they are attached to larger fragments of catalytic converter or they are released as individual detached tiny <0.3 μm to nanoparticle sizes. PMID:22313190

  13. Development of the MICROMEGAS detector for measuring the energy spectrum of alpha particles by using a 241Am source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Yoon; Ham, Cheolmin; Shin, Jae Won; Park, Tae-Sun; Hong, Seung-Woo; Andriamonje, Samuel; Kadi, Yacine; Tenreiro, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    We have developed MICROMEGAS (MICRO MEsh GASeous) detectors for detecting a particles emitted from an 241Am standard source. The voltage applied to the ionization region of the detector is optimized for stable operation at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The energy of a particles from the 241Am source can be varied by changing the flight path of the a particle from the 241Am source. The channel numbers of the experimentally-measured pulse peak positions for different energies of the a particles are associated with the energies deposited by the alpha particles in the ionization region of the detector as calculated by using GEANT4 simulations; thus, the energy calibration of the MICROMEGAS detector for a particles is done. For the energy calibration, the thickness of the ionization region is adjusted so that a particles may completely stop in the ionization region and their kinetic energies are fully deposited in the region. The efficiency of our MICROMEGAS detector for a particles under the present conditions is found to be ~97.3%.

  14. Angular distribution of {alpha} particles from oriented {sup 253,254}Es and {sup 255}Fm nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Severijns, N.; Golovko, V.V.; Kraev, I.S.; Phalet, T.; Belyaev, A.A.; Lukhanin, A.A.; Noga, V.I.; Erzinkyan, A.L.; Parfenova, V.P.; Eversheim, P.-D.; Herzog, P.; Tramm, C.; Filimonov, V.T.; Toporov, Yu.G.; Zotov, E.; Gurevich, G.M.; Rusakov, A.V.; Vyachin, V.N.; Zakoucky, D.

    2005-04-01

    The anisotropy in the angular distribution of {alpha} particles from oriented {sup 253,254}Es and {sup 255}Fm nuclei, which are among the strongest deformed {alpha} emitters, was measured. Large {alpha} anisotropies have been observed for all three nuclei. The results are compared with calculations based on {alpha}-particle tunneling through a deformed Coulomb barrier.

  15. Properties of alpha-particle solutions to the many-nucleon problem

    SciTech Connect

    Gnilozub, I. A. Kurgalin, S. D. Tchuvil'sky, Yu. M.

    2006-06-15

    A class of A-nucleon (for even N = Z) Hamiltonians is found such that they admit, among others, solutions that can be exactly related to solutions to the problem of A/4 alpha particles in the sense that the respective eigenvalues of the two problems coincide and that the A-nucleon solutions can be constructed from the alpha-particle solutions within a procedure that follows from the resonating-group model. It is shown that an effective nuclear Hamiltonian close to a realistic one possesses these properties, the alpha-particle states in nuclei having basic properties of an alpha condensate and, frequently, a normal nuclear density. The statistics of alpha particles (and other composite bosons) proves to be different from Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac statistics and from parastatistics.

  16. Observation of sawtooth redistribution of nonthermal, confined alpha particles in TFTR D-T discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, B.; Budny, R.; Chang, Z.; Fonck, R.; Wising, F.; Odblom, A.

    1996-05-01

    Radial profiles of the density of confined alpha particles with energies in the 0.15-0.6 MeV range are spectroscopically observed before and after a sawtooth crash in a TFTR D-T plasma. A large drop in the core alpha density is seen indicating expulsion of alphas from the core to the plasma periphery. The measured changes in the alpha density profiles are consistent with predictions based on the Kolesnichenko sawtooth model, indicating that it may be used to reliably predict the effect of sawteeth on fusion-produced alphas.

  17. Measurements of alpha particle energy using nuclear tracks in solids methodology.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, G; Amero, C; Gammage, R B

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for the measurement of alpha particle energy using polycarbonate materials as nuclear track detectors (NTDs). This method is based on the interaction of the radiation with the solid-state materials, using the relationship between the energy deposited in the material by the ionising particle and the track developed after an established chemical process. The determination of the geometrical parameters of the formed track, such as major axis, minor axis and overall track length, permit determination of the energy of the alpha particle. The track analysis is performed automatically using a digital image system, and the data are processed in a PC with commercial software. In this experiment 148Gd, 238U, 230Th, 239Pu and 244Cm alpha particle emitters were used. The values for alpha particle energy resolution, the linear response to energy, the confidence in the results and the automatisation of the procedure make this method a promising analysis system. PMID:12382812

  18. Alpha-particle effects on high-n instabilities in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Rewoldt, G.

    1988-06-01

    Hot ..cap alpha..-particles and thermalized helium ash particles in tokamaks can have significant effects on high toroidal mode number instabilities such as the trapped-electron drift mode and the kinetically calculated magnetohydrodynamic ballooning mode. In particular, the effects can be stabilizing, destabilizing, or negligible, depending on the parameters involved. In high-temperature tokamaks capable of producing significant numbers of hot ..cap alpha..-particles, the predominant interaction of the mode with the ..cap alpha..-particles is through resonances of various sorts. In turn, the modes can cause significant anomalous transport of the ..cap alpha..-particles and the helium ash. Here, results of comprehensive linear eigenfrequency-eigenfunction calculations are presented for relevant realistic cases to show these effects. 24 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. The simulation of the response of superheated emulsion to alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seth, Susnata; Das, Mala

    2016-04-01

    The response of superheated emulsion of liquid perfluorobutane (C4F10; b.p.: ‑1.7o C) to alpha particle has been studied by performing the simulation using GEANT3.21 toolkit. The simulations have been performed to generate two different experimental situations. In one case, the alpha contamination is present only in polymer and in another case, the alpha contamination is present both in polymer and active liquid. The value of the nucleation parameter, k, for bubble nucleation induced by alpha particle in superheated emulsion detector is determined by comparing the simulated normalized count rates with the available experimental results. The results show that the nucleation parameter for alpha particle in C4F10 liquid is about 0.19. The energy and position of alpha particle are not able to change the response of the alpha particle in C4F10 liquid. The recoiling nuclei associated with the alpha decay chain are responsible for making the detector sensitive at lower threshold temperatures.

  20. A study of the effects of MeV alpha particles in PE and PVDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evelyn, A. L.; Ila, D.; Zimmerman, R. L.; Bhat, K.; Poker, D. B.; Hensley, D. K.

    1997-02-01

    We have mapped and studied the effects of MeV alpha-particle bombardment in polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) and polyethylene (PE). We used 3.5 and 5.0 MeV alpha-particle incident beams and stacked polymer films to separate the contributing effects of the electronic (ɛe) and nuclear (ɛn) stopping powers. The electrical conductance and change in the chemical structures were measured by direct resistivity measurement, Raman microprobe, RBS and FTIR. The results indicate significant differences in the (ɛe) and (ɛn) effects at higher alpha-particle bombardment fluences.

  1. On the approximations of the distribution function of fusion alpha particles

    SciTech Connect

    Bilato, R. Brambilla, M.; Poli, E.

    2014-10-15

    The solution of the drift-kinetic equation for fusion-born alpha particles is derived in the limit of dominant parallel streaming, and it is related to the usual slowing-down distribution function. The typical approximations of the fast tail of fusion-born alpha particles are briefly compared and discussed. In particular, approximating the distribution function of fast-alpha particles with an “equivalent” Maxwellian is inaccurate to describe absorption of radio-frequency waves in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies.

  2. WIND measurements of proton and alpha particle flow and number density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, J. T.; Lazarus, A. J.; Ogilvie, J. T.; Lepping, R.; Byrnes, J.; Chornay, D.; Keller, J.; Torbert, R. B.; Bodet, D.; Needell, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    We propose to review measurements of the solar wind proton and alpha particle flow velocities and densities made since launch with the WIND SWE instrument. The SWE Faraday cup ion sensors are designed to be able to determine accurately flow vector directions, and thus can be used to detect proton-alpha particle differential flow. Instances of differential flow, and the solar wind features with which they are associated will be discussed. Additionally, the variability of the percentage of alpha particles as a fraction of the total solar wind ion density will be presented.

  3. Alpha particles in field-aligned beams upstream of the bow shock - Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, D.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility that field-aligned ion beams (FABs) formed by direct reflection could contain alpha particles is studied using self-consistent hybrid simulations of an oblique collisionless, supercritical shock. It is found that alpha particles can backstream from a shock in which the angle between the shock normal and the upstream magnetic field is 45 degrees. The deficit of alpha particles in the FABs, expressed as a relative density ratio to H(+) normalized to the solar wind He(2+) to H(+) density ratio, varies between about 0.1 and less than 0.01 and depends on the upstream H(+) and He(2+) temperatures.

  4. Transport theory for energetic alpha particles in finite aspect ratio tokamaks with broken symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaing, K. C.; Schlutt, M.; Lai, A. L.

    2016-02-01

    Transport theory for the energetic alpha particles in finite aspect ratio tokamaks with broken symmetry is developed for the case where the slowing down collision operator dominates. The transport fluxes in the 1 /ν and superbanana plateau regimes are derived. Here, ν is the typical collision frequency. They can be used in modeling the energy loss of the alpha particles in thermonuclear fusion reactors. Numerical realizations of the superbanana orbits of alpha particles in tokamaks with broken symmetry are also presented. The existence of the superbananas corroborates the predictions of the theories presented here and elsewhere.

  5. Method for characterizing the upset response of CMOS circuits using alpha-particle sensitive test circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G. (Inventor); Blaes, Brent R. (Inventor); Nixon, Robert H. (Inventor); Soli, George A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method for predicting the SEU susceptibility of a standard-cell D-latch using an alpha-particle sensitive SRAM, SPICE critical charge simulation results, and alpha-particle interaction physics. A technique utilizing test structures to quickly and inexpensively characterize the SEU sensitivity of standard cell latches intended for use in a space environment. This bench-level approach utilizes alpha particles to induce upsets in a low LET sensitive 4-k bit test SRAM. This SRAM consists of cells that employ an offset voltage to adjust their upset sensitivity and an enlarged sensitive drain junction to enhance the cell's upset rate.

  6. Alpha-emitting isotopes and chromium in a coastal California aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Jill N.; Izbicki, John A.; Murtaugh, Joseph M.; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2014-01-01

    The unadjusted 72-h gross alpha activities in water from two wells completed in marine and alluvial deposits in a coastal southern California aquifer 40 km north of San Diego were 15 and 25 picoCuries per liter (pCi/L). Although activities were below the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 15 pCi/L, when adjusted for uranium activity; there is concern that new wells in the area may exceed MCLs, or that future regulations may limit water use from the wells. Coupled well-bore flow and depth-dependent water-quality data collected from the wells in 2011 (with analyses for isotopes within the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay-chains) show gross alpha activity in marine deposits is associated with decay of naturally-occurring 238U and its daughter 234U. Radon activities in marine deposits were as high as 2230 pCi/L. In contrast, gross alpha activities in overlying alluvium within the Piedra de Lumbre watershed, eroded from the nearby San Onofre Hills, were associated with decay of 232Th, including its daughter 224Ra. Radon activities in alluvium from Piedra de Lumbre of 450 pCi/L were lower than in marine deposits. Chromium VI concentrations in marine deposits were less than the California MCL of 10 μg/L (effective July 1, 2014) but δ53Cr compositions were near zero and within reported ranges for anthropogenic chromium. Alluvial deposits from the nearby Las Flores watershed, which drains a larger area having diverse geology, has low alpha activities and chromium as a result of geologic and geochemical conditions and may be more promising for future water-supply development.

  7. Note: Real time optical sensing of alpha-radiation emitting radioactive aerosols based on solid state nuclear track detector.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, A; Ha, S; Joshirao, P; Manchanda, V; Bak, M S; Kim, T

    2015-06-01

    A sensitive radioactive aerosols sensor has been designed and developed. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable measurements to provide daily aerosol monitoring. The exposure of diethylene-glycol bis (allylcarbonate) to radiation causes modification of its physico-chemical properties like surface roughness and reflectance. In the present study, optical sensor based on the reflectance measurement has been developed with an aim to monitor real time presence of alpha radioactive aerosols emitted from thorium nitrate hydrate. The results shows that the fabricated sensor can detect 0.0157 kBq to 0.1572 kBq of radio activity by radioactive aerosols generated from (Th(NO3)4 ⋅ 5H2O) at 0.1 ml/min flow rate. The proposed instrument will be helpful to monitor radioactive aerosols in/around a nuclear facility, building construction sites, mines, and granite polishing factories. PMID:26133876

  8. Note: Real time optical sensing of alpha-radiation emitting radioactive aerosols based on solid state nuclear track detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, A.; Bak, M. S. E-mail: moonsoo@skku.edu; Ha, S.; Joshirao, P.; Manchanda, V.; Kim, T. E-mail: moonsoo@skku.edu

    2015-06-15

    A sensitive radioactive aerosols sensor has been designed and developed. Its design guidance is based on the need for a low operational cost and reliable measurements to provide daily aerosol monitoring. The exposure of diethylene-glycol bis (allylcarbonate) to radiation causes modification of its physico-chemical properties like surface roughness and reflectance. In the present study, optical sensor based on the reflectance measurement has been developed with an aim to monitor real time presence of alpha radioactive aerosols emitted from thorium nitrate hydrate. The results shows that the fabricated sensor can detect 0.0157 kBq to 0.1572 kBq of radio activity by radioactive aerosols generated from (Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} ⋅ 5H{sub 2}O) at 0.1 ml/min flow rate. The proposed instrument will be helpful to monitor radioactive aerosols in/around a nuclear facility, building construction sites, mines, and granite polishing factories.

  9. MIRD Pamphlet No. 22 (Unabridged): Radiobiology and Dosimetry of alpha-Particle Emitters for Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Sgouros, George; Roeske, John C.; McDevitt, Michael S.; Palm, Stig; Allen, Barry J.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Brill, Bertrand A.; Song, Hong; Howell, R. W.; Akabani, Gamal

    2010-02-28

    The potential of alpha-particle emitters to treat cancer has been recognized since the early 1900s. Advances in the targeted delivery of radionuclides, in radionuclide conjugation chemistry, and in the increased availability of alpha-emitters appropriate for clinical use have recently led to patient trials of alpha-particle-emitter labeled radiopharmaceuticals. Although alpha-emitters have been studied for many decades, their current use in humans for targeted therapy is an important milestone. The objective of this work is to review those aspects of the field that are pertinent to targeted alpha-particle-emitter therapy and to provide guidance and recommendations for human alpha-particle-emitter dosimetry.

  10. In vitro immunotoxic and genotoxic activities of particles emitted from two different small-scale wood combustion appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapanainen, Maija; Jalava, Pasi I.; Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma; Hakulinen, Pasi; Happo, Mikko S.; Lamberg, Heikki; Ruusunen, Jarno; Tissari, Jarkko; Nuutinen, Kati; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Hillamo, Risto; Salonen, Raimo O.; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2011-12-01

    Residential wood combustion appliances emit large quantities of fine particles which are suspected to cause a substantial health burden worldwide. Wood combustion particles contain several potential health-damaging metals and carbon compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which may determine the toxic properties of the emitted particles. The aim of the present study was to characterize in vitro immunotoxicological and chemical properties of PM 1 ( Dp ≤ 1 μm) emitted from a pellet boiler and a conventional masonry heater. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed for 24 h to different doses of the emission particles. Cytotoxicity, production of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and the chemokine MIP-2, apoptosis and phases of the cell cycle as well as genotoxic activity were measured after the exposure. The type of wood combustion appliance had a significant effect on emissions and chemical composition of the particles. All the studied PM 1 samples induced cytotoxic, genotoxic and inflammatory responses in a dose-dependent manner. The particles emitted from the conventional masonry heater were 3-fold more potent inducers of programmed cell death and DNA damage than those emitted from the pellet boiler. Furthermore, the particulate samples that induced extensive DNA damage contained also large amounts of PAH compounds. Instead, significant differences between the studied appliances were not detected in measurements of inflammatory mediators, although the chemical composition of the combustion particles differed considerably from each other. In conclusion, the present results show that appliances representing different combustion technology have remarkable effects on physicochemical and associated toxicological and properties of wood combustion particles. The present data indicate that the particles emitted from incomplete combustion are toxicologically more potent than those emitted from more complete combustion processes.

  11. Relative Biologic Effects of Low-Dose-Rate {alpha}-Emitting {sup 227}Th-Rituximab and {beta}-Emitting {sup 90}Y-Tiuexetan-Ibritumomab Versus External Beam X-Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dahle, Jostein Bruland, Oyvind S.; Larsen, Roy H.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: To determine the relative biologic effects (RBE) of {alpha}-particle radiation from {sup 227}Th-rituximab and of {beta}-radiation from {sup 90}Y-tiuexetan-ibritumomab (Zevalin) compared with external beam X-radiation in the Raji lymphoma xenograft model. Methods and Materials: Radioimmunoconjugates were administered intravenously in nude mice with Raji lymphoma xenografts at different levels of activity. Absorbed dose to tumor was estimated by separate biodistribution experiments for {sup 227}Th-rituximab and Zevalin. Tumor growth was measured two to three times per week after injection or X-radiation. Treatment-induced increase in growth delay to reach tumor volumes of 500 and 1,000 mm{sup 3}, respectively, was used as an end point. Results: The absorbed radiation dose-rate in tumor was slightly more than 0.1 Gy/d for the first week following injection of {sup 227}Th-rituximab, and thereafter gradually decreased to 0.03 Gy/d at 21 days after injection. For treatment with Zevalin the maximum dose-rate in tumor was achieved already 6 h after injection (0.2 Gy/d), and thereafter decreased to 0.01 Gy/d after 7 days. The relative biologic effect was between 2.5 and 7.2 for {sup 227}Th-rituximab and between 1 and 1.3 for Zevalin. Conclusions: Both at low doses and low-dose-rates, the {sup 227}Th-rituximab treatment was more effective per absorbed radiation dose unit than the two other treatments. The considerable effect at low doses suggests that the best way to administer low-dose-rates, {alpha}-emitting radioimmunoconjugates is via multiple injections.

  12. Alpha particle driven current and torque in ITER baseline scenarios with 3D perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snicker, A.; Asunta, O.; Ylitie, H.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Schneider, M.; Pinches, S. D.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper three-dimensional (3D) kinetic Monte Carlo orbit-following simulations are carried out with the ASCOT code to estimate the alpha particle driven current and torque profiles in ITER baseline scenarios. Several different 3D magnetic field configurations, including TF ripple, ferritic inserts, test blanket modules and edge localized mode coil perturbations, are used in these simulations. The alpha particle current is found to be less than one percent for all configurations and scenarios. In axisymmetric magnetic field configurations, the collisional and j × B torque components cancel each other, whilst in non-axisymmetric cases, the total torque is nonzero. The total alpha driven torque is found to oppose that generated by the neutral beam injection particles and to be an order of magnitude smaller. Consequently, alpha particles will not significantly contribute to the plasma current nor act as a source of plasma rotation in the ITER baseline scenarios considered.

  13. High concentrations of coarse particles emitted from a cattle feeding operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Gramann, J.; Auvermann, B. W.

    2011-08-01

    Housing roughly 10 million head of cattle in the United States alone, open air cattle feedlots represent a significant but poorly constrained source of atmospheric particles. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of physical and chemical properties of particles emitted from a large representative cattle feedlot in the Southwest United States. In the summer of 2008, measurements and samplings were conducted at the upwind and downwind edges of the facility. A series of far-field measurements and samplings was also conducted 3.5 km north of the facility. Two instruments, a GRIMM Sequential Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a GRIMM Portable Aerosol Spectrometer (PAS), were used to measure particle size distributions over the range of 0.01 to 25 μm diameter. Raman microspectroscopy was used to determine the chemical composition of particles on a single particle basis. Volume size distributions of dust were dominated by coarse mode particles. Twenty-four hour averaged concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less) were as high as 1200 μg m-3 during the campaign. The primary constituents of the particulate matter were carbonaceous materials, such as humic acid, water soluble organics, and less soluble fatty acids, including stearic acid and tristearin. A significant fraction of the organic particles was present in internal mixtures with salts. Basic characteristics such as size distribution and composition of agricultural aerosols were found to be different than the properties of those found in urban and semi-urban aerosols. Failing to account for such differences may lead to errors in estimates of aerosol effects on local air quality, visibility, and public health.

  14. LIMITS ON ALPHA PARTICLE TEMPERATURE ANISOTROPY AND DIFFERENTIAL FLOW FROM KINETIC INSTABILITIES: SOLAR WIND OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bourouaine, Sofiane; Verscharen, Daniel; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Maruca, Bennett A.; Kasper, Justin C.

    2013-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that the observed temperature anisotropies of protons and alpha particles in the solar wind are constrained by theoretical thresholds for pressure and anisotropy driven instabilities such as the Alfvén/ion-cyclotron (A/IC) and fast-magnetosonic/whistler (FM/W) instabilities. In this Letter, we use a long period of in situ measurements provided by the Wind spacecraft's Faraday cups to investigate the combined constraint on the alpha proton differential flow velocity and the alpha particle temperature anisotropy due to A/IC and FM/W instabilities. We show that the majority of the data are constrained to lie within the region of parameter space in which A/IC and FM/W waves are either stable or have extremely low growth rates. In the minority of observed cases in which the growth rate of the A/IC (FM/W) instability is comparatively large, we find relatively higher values of T {sub α}/T {sub p} (T {sub ∥α}/T {sub ∥p}) when the alpha proton differential flow velocity is small, where T {sub α} and T {sub p} (T {sub ∥α} and T {sub ∥p}) are the perpendicular (parallel) temperatures of alpha particles and protons. We conjecture that this observed feature might arise from preferential alpha particle heating which can drive the alpha particles beyond the instability thresholds.

  15. Modification of alpha-particle emission spectrum in beam-injected deuterium-tritium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, H.; Nakao, Y.

    2009-04-15

    The alpha ({alpha})-particle and neutron emission spectra in a deuterium-tritium plasma accompanied with neutral-beam-injection (NBI) heating are evaluated in a consistent way by solving the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equations for deuteron, triton, and {alpha}-particle simultaneously. It is shown that owing to the existence of non-Maxwellian tail component in fuel-ion distribution function due to NBI and/or nuclear elastic scattering, the generation rate of the energetic ({>=}4 MeV) {alpha}-particle increases significantly. When 20 MW intense deuterium beam with 1 MeV beam-injection energy is injected into an 800 m{sup 3} plasma (T{sub e}=10 keV, n{sub e}=6.2x10{sup 19} m{sup -3}), the enhancement of the fraction of the power carried by {alpha}-particles with energy above 4 (3.9) MeV to total {alpha}-particle power is almost twice (1.5 times) as much from the value for Gaussian distribution. A verification scenario for the modification of the emission spectrum by using the gamma ({gamma})-ray-generating {sup 9}Be({alpha},n{gamma}){sup 12}C reaction is also presented.

  16. Influence of source composition and particle energy on the determination of gross alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Timón, A Fernández; Vargas, M Jurado; Sánchez, A B Ruano; Pérez, J de la Torre; Sánchez, A Martín

    2013-12-01

    The influence of different source compositions and α-particle energies on the detection efficiency of a gas-flow proportional counter was examined using experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Efficiency variation with alpha-particle energy was very marked, being less significant with the substrate composition. These results show that the determination of gross alpha activity in an unknown sample must be carried out very carefully in order to give a correct estimation of its activity. PMID:24184741

  17. Alpha particles in solar cosmic rays over the last 80,000 years.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.; Reedy, R. C.; Arnold, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Present-day (1967 to 1969) fluxes of alpha particles from solar cosmic rays, determined from satellite measurements, were used to calculate the production rates of cobalt-57, cobalt-58, and nickel-59 in lunar surface samples. Comparisons with the activities of nickel-59 (half-life, 80,000 years) measured in lunar samples indicate that the long-term and present-day fluxes of solar alpha particles are comparable within a factor of approximately 4.

  18. {alpha}-particle optical potentials for nuclear astrophysics (NA) and nuclear technology (NT)

    SciTech Connect

    Avrigeanu, V.; Avrigeanu, M.

    2012-11-20

    The high precision of recent measurements for low-energy {alpha}-particle elastic-scattering as well as induced-reaction data makes possible the understanding of actual limits and possible improvement of the global optical model potentials parameters. Involvement of recent optical potentials for reliable description of both the elastic scattering and emission of {alpha}-particles, of equal interest for nuclear astrophysics (NA) and nuclear technology (NT) for fusion devices, is discussed in the present work.

  19. An alpha particle diagnostic based on measurements of lower hybrid wave fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, K.L.

    1989-07-01

    It is shown that the one-dimensional alpha particle velocity distribution function can be determined from the fluctuation- dissipation theorem based on measurements of lower hybrid wave fluctuations in an equilibrium plasma. This method uses collective Thomson scattering data with large signal-to-noise ratio, but it is applicable only when the alpha particles have an isotropic velocity distribution. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Particle concentrations, gas-particle partitioning, and species intercorrelations for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) emitted during biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Bryan M.; Daniel Jones, A.; Turn, Scott Q.; Williams, Robert B.

    Eight types of agricultural and forest fuels including 4 cereal crop residues and 4 wood fuels were burned in a combustion wind tunnel to simulate the open burning of biomass. Concentrations for 19 PAH species in particulate matter were found to range between 120 and 4000 mg kg -1, representing between 1 and 70% of total PAH emission. Weakly flaming spreading fires in the cereals were observed to produce higher levels of heavier PAH than more robust fires, with greater partitioning of PAH to the particle phase. Individual species concentrations appeared well correlated within groups based primarily on molecular weight, but no single species was observed to correlate with all others to serve as an indicator of PAH emission strength. Equilibrium gas-particle partitioning did not appear to be achieved within the 3-5 s residence time prior to sampling for sampling temperatures between 32 and 87°C, and in particular for the heavier species emitted from wood fuel pile fires with higher stack gas temperatures and shorter residence times. Total PAH emission, particle-phase concentrations, and fraction of PAH on particles were more strongly influenced by burning conditions than by fuel type.

  1. FORMATION OF METAL-POOR GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN Ly{alpha} EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James

    2012-09-20

    The size, mass, luminosity, and space density of Ly{alpha} emitting (LAE) galaxies observed at intermediate to high redshift agree with expectations for the properties of galaxies that formed metal-poor halo globular clusters (GCs). The low metallicity of these clusters is the result of their formation in low-mass galaxies. Metal-poor GCs could enter spiral galaxies along with their dwarf galaxy hosts, unlike metal-rich GCs, which form in the spirals themselves. Considering an initial GC mass larger than the current mass to account for multiple stellar populations, and considering the additional clusters that are likely to form with massive clusters, we estimate that each GC with a mass today greater than 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun} was likely to have formed among a total stellar mass {approx}> 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun }, a molecular mass {approx}> 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, and 10{sup 7} to 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} of older stars, depending on the relative gas fraction. The star formation rate would have been several M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} lasting for {approx}10{sup 7} yr, and the Ly{alpha} luminosity would have been {approx}> 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Integrating the LAE galaxy luminosity function above this minimum, considering the average escape probability for Ly{alpha} photons (25%), and then dividing by the probability that a dwarf galaxy is observed in the LAE phase (0.4%), we find agreement between the comoving space density of LAEs and the average space density of metal-poor GCs today. The local galaxy WLM, with its early starburst and old GC, could be an LAE remnant that did not get into a galaxy halo because of its remote location.

  2. Treatment of neuroblastoma meningeal carcinomatosis with intrathecal application of alpha-emitting atomic nanogenerators targeting disialo-ganglioside GD2.

    PubMed

    Miederer, Matthias; McDevitt, Michael R; Borchardt, Paul; Bergman, Ira; Kramer, Kim; Cheung, Nai-Kong V; Scheinberg, David A

    2004-10-15

    Labeling of specific antibodies with bifunctional chelated Actinium-225 ((225)Ac; an alpha generator) allows the formation of new, highly potent and selective alpha-emitting anticancer drugs. We synthesized and evaluated a radioimmunoconjugate based on 3F8, an IgG(3) antibody that specifically binds to ganglioside GD2, which is overexpressed by many neuroectodermal tumors including neuroblastoma. The (225)Ac-1,4,7,10-tetra-azacylododecane (DOTA)-3F8 construct was evaluated for radiochemical purity and sterility, immunoreactivity, cytotoxicity in vitro, induction of apoptosis on GD2-positive cells, as well as for pharmacological biodistribution and metabolism of the (225)Ac generator and its daughters in a nude mouse xenograft model of neuroblastoma. The (225)Ac-3F8 showed an IC(50) of 3 Bq/ml (80 pCi/ml) on the neuroblastoma cell line, NMB7, in vitro. Apoptosis of these cells was not observed. Biodistribution in mice showed specific targeting of a subcutaneous tumor; there was redistribution of the (225)Ac daughter nuclides mainly from blood to kidneys and to small intestine. Toxicity was examined in cynomolgus monkeys. Monkeys injected with 1 to 3 doses of intrathecal (225)Ac-3F8 radioimmunoconjugate (80 to 150 kBq/kg total dose) did not show signs of toxicity based on blood chemistry, complete blood counts, or by clinical evaluations. Therapeutic efficacy of intrathecal (225)Ac-3F8 was studied in a nude rat xenograft model of meningeal carcinomatosis. The (225)Ac-3F8 treatment improved survival 2-fold from 16 to 34 days (P = 0.01). In conclusion, in vivo alpha generators targeted by 3F8 warrant additional study as a possible new approach to the treatment of carcinomatous meningitis. PMID:15501978

  3. Behavior of low-energy protons and alpha particles during a disturbed time period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipavich, F. M.; Gloeckler, G.; Fan, C. Y.; Hovestadt, D.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents observations of 130- to 1200-keV protons and 40- to 420-keV/nucleon alpha particles made on the earth-orbiting spacecraft Imp 8 and Imp 7 during an active solar period in September 1974, concentrating, in particular, on an energetic storm particle (ESP) event observed in association with an interplanetary shock wave on September 21. It is found that the observed variations in the proton-to-alpha particle ratios and spectral indices can be explained either by 'pileup' or by acceleration models of ESP events. Several instances of local acceleration of particles in the near-earth environment are also discussed.

  4. Measurements of geomagnetically trapped alpha particles, 1968-1970. I - Quiet time distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krimigis, S. M.; Verzariu, P.

    1973-01-01

    Results of observations of geomagnetically trapped alpha particles over the energy range from 1.18 to 8 MeV performed with the aid of the Injun 5 polar-orbiting satellite during the period from September 1968 to May 1970. Following a presentation of a time history covering this entire period, a detailed analysis is made of the magnetically quiet period from Feb. 11 to 28, 1970. During this period the alpha particle fluxes and the intensity ratio of alpha particles to protons attained their lowest values in approximately 20 months; the alpha particle intensity versus L profile was most similar to the proton profile at the same energy per nucleon interval; the intensity ratio was nearly constant as a function of L in the same energy per nucleon representation, but rose sharply with L when computed in the same total energy interval; the variation of alpha particle intensity with B suggested a steep angular distribution at small equatorial pitch angles, while the intensity ratio showed little dependence on B; and the alpha particle spectral parameter showed a markedly different dependence on L from the equivalent one for protons.

  5. Potential for irradiation of the lens and cataract induction by incorporated alpha-emitting radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.M.; Thorne, M.C.

    1988-02-01

    Data on the uptake and retention of Ra and Pu in ocular tissues are reviewed. These data were used to calculate alpha radiation doses to the lens of the eye for patients injected with /sup 224/Ra and for individuals exposed to one annual limit on intake (ALI) per year of /sup 224/Ra, /sup 226/Ra, /sup 228/Ra and /sup 239/Pu for a period of 50 y. On the basis of this analysis, it is concluded that the induction of lens opacity should not be the factor limiting intake of any radioisotope of Pu or for /sup 224/Ra or /sup 226/Ra. However, for /sup 228/Ra the dose lies within the range of doses received by /sup 224/Ra patients who have developed cataracts.

  6. Rapid screening and analysis of alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides in liquids using a single sample preparation procedure.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Bahman; Henitz, James B; Carter, Jennifer A

    2011-02-01

    A multifaceted radiochemical testing procedure has been developed to analyze a large number of liquid samples and measure a wide range of radionuclides in a short period of time. This method involves a single, unique and fast sample preparation procedure and allows sequential/concurrent determination of analytes with accuracy and precision. The same prepared sample can be selectively analyzed by gross alpha counting, gamma-ray spectroscopy, and alpha spectroscopy. This method is especially attractive in radiological emergency events where analytical data will be needed urgently as a basis for protective action. Given the simplicity and rapidity of the method, it may be suitable for field portable laboratories, which could save time and the cost associated with the transit of samples to a fixed laboratory. A 100 mL aliquot of sample was spiked with ¹³³Ba and ⁵⁹Fe tracers and subjected to a chemical separation procedure using a combined BaSO4 and Fe(OH)3 co-precipitation scheme. Then, the gross alpha-particle activity of the prepared sample was measured with a low-background gas-proportional counter, followed by the analysis of its photon-emitters using a gamma-ray spectroscopy system with high-purity intrinsic Ge detectors. Gamma-ray determination of ¹³³Ba and ⁵⁹Fe tracers was used to assess the chemical recoveries of BaSO4 and Fe(OH)3 fractions, respectively. Selectivity of the radionuclides for co-precipitation with either BaSO4 or Fe(OH)3 components was also investigated. Alpha mass-efficiency curves were derived using ²³⁰Th and ²⁴¹Am standards as alpha-calibration sources. Various mixtures of radionuclides, including ⁵⁴Mn, ⁵⁷Co, ⁶⁰Co, ⁸⁵Sr, ⁸⁸Y, ¹⁰⁹Cd, ¹¹³Sn, ¹³⁷Cs, ¹³⁹Ce, ²⁰³Hg, ²⁰⁹Po, ²²⁶Ra, ²²⁸Ra, ²³⁰Th, ²⁴¹Am, and natural uranium were used in this study. Most were quantitatively assayed with high chemical recoveries. Alpha-isotope identification and assessment of the prepared sample was achieved by alpha spectroscopy using passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detectors. It has been shown that fission products could potentially be captured and analyzed by this method. PMID:21399430

  7. Bose-Einstein condensation of {alpha} particles and Airy structure in nuclear rainbow scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2004-10-01

    It is shown that the dilute density distribution of {alpha} particles in nuclei can be observed in the Airy structure in nuclear rainbow scattering. We have analyzed {alpha}+{sup 12}C rainbow scattering to the 0{sub 2}{sup +} (7.65 MeV) state of {sup 12}C in a coupled-channel method with the precise wave functions for {sup 12}C. It is found that the enhanced Airy oscillations in the experimental angular distributions for the 0{sub 2}{sup +} state is caused by the dilute density distribution of this state in agreement for the idea of Bose-Einstein condensation of the three alpha particles.

  8. Alpha particle transport in the presence of toroidal driftwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Y.; Huang, B.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2013-10-01

    Transport of fusion born α particles is investigated in the presence of poloidally mode coupled ballooning type driftwaves. The onset of orbit stochasticity is understood as an overlapping of electric islands produced by the driftwaves, whose overlapping threshold is lower for the thermal particles than for the α particles (high energy particles). For the trapped particles, transport is determined by the particles' sensitive response to the fluctuation at the banana tip where the parallel velocity decreases drastically. Time dependent turbulent signals (finite ω* effects) give rise to the shift of the resonant radial locations, which again is larger for the thermal particles than the high energy particles. The transport process is influenced by the microscopic structure of the islands, which deviates from the Gaussian process. This work is supported by National Science Council of Taiwan, NSC 100-2112-M-006-021-MY3 and NCKU Top University Project.

  9. Calculations of alpha particle loss for reversed magnetic shear in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, M.H.; White, R.B.; Batha, S.H.; Levinton, F.M.; McCune, D.C.

    1997-03-01

    Hamiltonian coordinate, guiding center code calculations of the toroidal field ripple loss of alpha particles from a reversed shear plasma predict both total alpha losses and ripple diffusion losses to be greater than those from a comparable non-reversed magnetic shear plasma in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Fusion Technol. 21, 1324 (1992)]. High central q is found to increase alpha ripple losses as well as first orbit losses of alphas in the reversed shear simulations. A simple ripple loss model, benchmarked against the guiding center code, is found to work satisfactorily in transport analysis modelling of reversed and monotonic shear scenarios. Alpha ripple transport on TFTR affects ions within r/a=0.5, not at the plasma edge. The entire plasma is above threshold for stochastic ripple loss of alpha particles at birth energy in the reversed shear case simulated, so that all trapped 3.5 MeV alphas are lost stochastically or through prompt losses. The 40% alpha particle loss predictions for TFTR suggest that reduction of toroidal field ripple will be a critical issue in the design of a reversed shear fusion reactor.

  10. Downstream energetic proton and alpha particles during quasi-parallel interplanetary shock events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers the energetic particle populations in the downstream region of three quasi-parallel interplanetary shock events, which was explored using the ISEE 3 Ultra Low Energy Charge Analyzer sensor, which unambiguously identifies protons and alpha particles using the electrostatic deflection versus residual energy technique. The downstream particles were found to exhibit anisotropies due largely to convection in the solar wind. The spectral indices of the proton and the alpha-particle distribution functions were found to be remarkably constant during the downstream period, being generally insensitive to changes in particle flux levels, magnetic field direction, and solar wind densities. In two of the three events, the proton and the alpha spectra were the same throughout the entire downstream period, supporting the prediction of diffusive shock acceleration theory.

  11. Superconducting calorimetric alpha particle sensors for nuclear nonproliferation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Horansky, Robert D.; Ullom, Joel N.; Beall, James A.; Hilton, Gene C.; Irwin, Kent D.; Dry, Donald E.; Hastings, Elizabeth P.; Lamont, Stephen P.; Rudy, Clifford R.; Rabin, Michael W.

    2008-09-22

    Identification of trace nuclear materials is usually accomplished by alpha spectrometry. Current detectors cannot distinguish critical elements and isotopes. We have developed a detector called a microcalorimeter, which achieves a resolution of 1.06 keV for 5.3 MeV alphas, the highest resolving power of any energy dispersive measurement. With this exquisite resolution, we can unambiguously identify the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu ratio in Pu, a critical measurement for ascertaining the intended use of nuclear material. Furthermore, we have made a direct measurement of the {sup 209}Po ground state decay.

  12. Effect of inhaled alpha-emitting nuclides on mouse alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Talbot, R.J.; Nicholls, L.; Morgan, A.; Moores, S.R. )

    1989-08-01

    The effects of inhaled alpha emitters on the free cell population of the mouse lung were investigated up to 100 days after exposure. Groups of mice inhaled aerosols of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}, {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}, or {sup 241}Am(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} to give alveolar deposits resulting in lung-averaged cumulative absorbed doses of about 20 Gy by the end of the study. Initially, with {sup 238}Pu most of the activity was associated with relatively few pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAM), whereas with {sup 241}Am, all pulmonary alveolar macrophages were labeled and a substantial fraction was extracellular. The free cell population of the lung was sampled using bronchoalveolar lavage. The main parameters investigated were (a) the recovery and total numbers of free cells, including PAM, lymphocytes, and neutrophils; (b) the incidence of nuclear abnormalities in PAM (cells with more than one nucleus or with micronuclei); and (c) metabolic activation of PAM from measurements of their size and associated beta-glucuronidase activity. All three actinides produced depletions in total numbers of PAM, increased incidences of nuclear abnormalities, and metabolic activation of PAM, without a marked infiltration of inflammatory cells. Americium-241, which is distributed relatively uniformly in PAM, produced the most marked changes in that population and {sup 238}Pu, which gave the most inhomogeneous distribution of activity, produced the least.

  13. Use of .sup.3 He.sup.30 + ICRF minority heating to simulate alpha particle heating

    DOEpatents

    Post, Jr., Douglass E.; Hwang, David Q.; Hovey, Jane

    1986-04-22

    Neutron activation due to high levels of neutron production in a first heated deuterium-tritium plasma is substantially reduced by using Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating of energetic .sup.3 He.sup.++ ions in a second deuterium-.sup.3 He.sup.++ plasma which exhibit an energy distribution and density similar to that of alpha particles in fusion reactor experiments to simulate fusion alpha particle heating in the first plasma. The majority of the fast .sup.3 He.sup.++ ions and their slowing down spectrum can be studied using either a modulated hydrogen beam source for producing excited states of He.sup.+ in combination with spectrometers or double charge exchange with a high energy neutral lithium beam and charged particle detectors at the plasma edge. The maintenance problems thus associated with neutron activation are substantially reduced permitting energetic alpha particle behavior to be studied in near term large fusion experiments.

  14. Chemical characterization of soot particles emitted by Wood-Burning Cook Stoves: A XPS and HRTEM study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabali, Giovanni; Peralta, Oscar; Castro, Telma; Torres, Ricardo; Ruiz, Gerardo; Molina, Luisa; Saavedra, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    The morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, and electronic structure of soot particles emitted directly from biofuel cook stoves have been studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In order to obtain freshly emitted soot particles, copper grids for Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were placed on the last two of an 8-stages MOUDI cascade impactor. The analysis of HRTEM micrographs revealed the nanostructure and the particle size of soot chain. Additionally, the morphology of soot particles was analyzed calculating the border-based fractal dimension (Df). Particles sampled on the first heating stage exhibit complex shapes with high values of Df, which are present as aggregates formed by carbon ceno-spheres. The XPS survey spectrum for soot particles shows that the main particle composition is carbon. We also observed differences in the carbon/oxygen (C/O) ratio of the particles, which probably depends on the combustion process efficiency of each cook-stove analyzed. The XPS C-1s spectra show carbon with two peaks that correspond to sp2 and sp3 hybridization. Also, real-time absorption (?a) and scattering (?s) coefficients of the particles emitted by cook stoves were measured. The trend in ?a and ?s indicate that the cooking process has two important combustion stages which varied in its flaming strength, being vigorous in the first stage and soft in the second one.

  15. Production of an Associated Particle Neutron Generator with ZnO:Ga Alpha-Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Koltick, David; Kane, S Z.; Mihalczo, John T; McConchie, Seth M; Mace, E. K.; Lvovsky, M.

    2008-01-01

    An associated particle neutron generator (APNG) capable of 109 neutrons per second has been operated with an alpha particle detector made of a ZnO:Ga phosphor with decay time of approximately 1 ns. Fast 14.1 MeV neutrons and 3.5 MeV alpha particles are produced through deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion reactions and travel in opposite directions to conserve momentum. The neutron generator provides high rate capability, excellent subnanosecond time resolution (< 0.7 ns), and a large solid angle with acceptance of 8%. The alpha detector was found to have a detection efficiency of 88% using a Burle 8850 bialkali photocathode. The DT beam spot diameter was measured down to 2.1 mm with the possibility of achieving 1 mm if desired. An opaque aperture was placed on the alpha detector and the neutron beam was obstructed using various amounts of lead shielding in an effort to study the generator s imaging contrast capability for neutron radiography. The alpha detector can be pixilated using a multianode photomultiplier tube to deliver imaging capability and to enhance the signal to noise ratio. Due to its ability to suppress background, the developed APNG is to be used to search cargo containers for illicit special nuclear materials, using as a trigger prompt fission gamma rays in coincidence with an alpha particle within a 10 ns gate.

  16. Simple experimental method for alpha particle range determination in lead iodide films.

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, Yuri; Bennett, Paul R; Cirignano, Leonard J; Klugerman, Mikhail; Shah, Kanai S

    2007-05-01

    An experimental method for determining the range of alpha particles in films based on I-V(s) analysis has been suggested. The range of 5.5 MeV alpha particles in PbI(2) films determined by this technique is 30+/-5 microm, and this value is in agreement with the value calculated by SRIM (the stopping and range of ions in matter), r=24 microm in PbI(2). More than 100 I-V(s) of PbI(2) films with different thicknesses and quality have been analyzed, and the influence of alpha particle radiation on PbI(2) I-V(s) curves has been studied. Developed analytical methods (dependence of current density on electric field and conception of surface defects) were used, and the method limitations are discussed. It was shown that I-V(s) demonstrate the tendency to obey Ohm's law under alpha radiation. On the other hand, dark conductivity of the lead iodide films shows a typical impure character that can lead to an overestimation of the alpha particles' range in PbI(2) films. After films were exposed to alpha radiation, the dark resistivity and I-V shape of some films improved. Also, a weak decrease of the charge carrier concentration, due to a decrease of the "surface defect" concentration ("surface refining"), was registered after successive measurements of I-V(s). PMID:17552841

  17. Simple experimental method for alpha particle range determination in lead iodide films

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, Yuri; Bennett, Paul R.; Cirignano, Leonard J.; Klugerman, Mikhail; Shah, Kanai S.

    2007-05-15

    An experimental method for determining the range of alpha particles in films based on I-V{sub s} analysis has been suggested. The range of 5.5 MeV alpha particles in PbI{sub 2} films determined by this technique is 30{+-}5 {mu}m, and this value is in agreement with the value calculated by SRIM (the stopping and range of ions in matter), r=24 {mu}m in PbI{sub 2}. More than 100 I-V{sub s} of PbI{sub 2} films with different thicknesses and quality have been analyzed, and the influence of alpha particle radiation on PbI{sub 2} I-V{sub s} curves has been studied. Developed analytical methods (dependence of current density on electric field and conception of surface defects) were used, and the method limitations are discussed. It was shown that I-V{sub s} demonstrate the tendency to obey Ohm's law under alpha radiation. On the other hand, dark conductivity of the lead iodide films shows a typical impure character that can lead to an overestimation of the alpha particles' range in PbI{sub 2} films. After films were exposed to alpha radiation, the dark resistivity and I-V shape of some films improved. Also, a weak decrease of the charge carrier concentration, due to a decrease of the ''surface defect'' concentration (''surface refining''), was registered after successive measurements of I-V{sub s}.

  18. The track interaction model for alpha particle induced thermoluminescence supralinearity: dependence of the supralinearity on the vector properties of the alpha particle radiation field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Y. S.; Rosenkrantz, M.; Mahajna, S.; Yossian, D.

    1996-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) - fluence response characteristics for peaks 5, 7, 8 and 9 in LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100; Harshaw/Bicron) were measured for 5 MeV alpha particles, in both `non-parallel' and `near-parallel' geometries,and for 1 MeV alpha particles in `near-parallel' geometry. The onset of supralinearity in the non-parallel configuration is always at a significantly lower fluence (by approximately a factor of five) than in the nearly parallel configuration. This dependence of the onset of supralinearity on the vector properties of the alpha particle radiation field is interpreted as `proof positive' of the dominant importance of track interaction effects in the linear/supralinear behaviour of the glow peaks of TLD-100. A mathematical expression for the linear/supralinear behaviour for heavy charged particles in near-parallel geometry has been developed and fitted to the TL - fluence response curves. The model incorporates both possibilities of electron and hole diffusion in the glow curve heating stage as well as the contribution to the supralinearity of all the participating nearest-neighbour track interactions. The model is capable of yielding excellent fits to the experimental data; the inclusion of hole diffusion and retrapping is preferred to predict the very abrupt transition from linear to supralinear behaviour for the high-temperature peaks.

  19. TCAD simulation for alpha-particle spectroscopy using SIC Schottky diode.

    PubMed

    Das, Achintya; Duttagupta, Siddhartha P

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing requirement of alpha spectroscopy in the fields context of environmental radioactive contamination, nuclear waste management, site decommissioning and decontamination. Although silicon-based alpha-particle detection technology is mature, high leakage current, low displacement threshold and radiation hardness limits the operation of the detector in harsh environments. Silicon carbide (SiC) is considered to be excellent material for radiation detection application due to its high band gap, high displacement threshold and high thermal conductivity. In this report, an alpha-particle-induced electron-hole pair generation model for a reverse-biased n-type SiC Schottky diode has been proposed and verified using technology computer aided design (TCAD) simulations. First, the forward-biased I-V characteristics were studied to determine the diode ideality factor and compared with published experimental data. The ideality factor was found to be in the range of 1.4-1.7 for a corresponding temperature range of 300-500 K. Next, the energy-dependent, alpha-particle-induced EHP generation model parameters were optimised using transport of ions in matter (TRIM) simulation. Finally, the transient pulses generated due to alpha-particle bombardment were analysed for (1) different diode temperatures (300-500 K), (2) different incident alpha-particle energies (1-5 MeV), (3) different reverse bias voltages of the 4H-SiC-based Schottky diode (-50 to -250 V) and (4) different angles of incidence of the alpha particle (0°-70°).The above model can be extended to other (wide band-gap semiconductor) device technologies useful for radiation-sensing application. PMID:25634901

  20. Detection and localization of particle-emitting sources with compound-eye inspired detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhi

    2007-08-01

    We develop methods to detect and localize particle-emitting sources using detector arrays that are inspired by biological compound eyes. The sources of interest may be optical, nuclear, or cosmic; they emit particles such as visible photons, neutrons, protons, or charged particles. Our results may have wide applications to artificial vision, which can be important in robotics (robot vision) or medicine (e.g., artificial eyes for the blind); security, where the detection of nuclear materials is needed; or astronomy. This dissertation consists of three parts. First, we detect a far-field particle source using two directional detector arrays: cubic and spherical. We propose a mean-difference test (MDT) detector, analyze its statistical performance, and show that the MDT has a number of advantages over the generalized likelihood- ratio test (GLRT). Second, we localize the source by proposing a novel biologically inspired detector array, whose configuration generalizes the compound eye of insects. This array combines the advantages of compound eyes (e.g., large field-of-view) and human eyes (e.g., high angular resolution). Based on a statistical model of the array measurements, we analyze the array performance by computing the Cramérao bound (CRB) on the error in estimating the source direction. We also derive lower bounds on the mean-square angular error (MSAE) of the source localization and investigate the MSAE of two source- direction estimators. Numerical examples, including the optimal array design, are presented to further illustrate the array performance. Third, we derive a statistical angular resolution limit (ARL) on resolving two closely spaced point sources in a three-dimensional frame, which is applicable to various measurement models (e.g., radar, sonar, or astronomy). Using the asymptotic analysis of the GLRT, we derive the ARL with constraints on the probabilities of false alarm and detection. Our results give explicit analytical expression for the ARL that is proportional to the square root of the CRB on the angular source separation, or equivalently to the lower bound on the MSAE.

  1. Chemical Composition of Aerosol Particles Emitted by a Passenger Car Engine Fueled by Ethanol/Gasoline Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medrano, J. M.; Gross, D. S.; Dutcher, D. D.; Drayton, M.; Kittelson, D.; McMurry, P.

    2007-12-01

    With concerns of national security, climate change, and human health, many people have called for oil independence for the United States and for the creation of alternative fuels. Ethanol has been widely praised as a viable alternative to petroleum-based fuels, due to the fact that it can be produced locally. A great deal of work has been done to characterize the energy balance of ethanol production versus consumption, but there have been fewer studies of the environmental and health impacts of emissions from combustion of ethanol/gasoline mixtures such as those burned in the modern vehicle fleet. To study the particulate emissions from such fuels, different ethanol/gasoline fuel mixtures with 0, 20, 40, and 85% ethanol were burned in a dynamometer-mounted automobile engine. The engine exhaust was diluted and sampled with two aerosol Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometers (TSI 3800 ATOFMS), sampling different particle size ranges (50-500 nm and 150-3000 nm, respectively), to measure size and composition of the emitted aerosol particles. A variety of other aerosol characterization techniques were also employed to determine the size distribution of the aerosol particles, the mass emission rate from the engine, and the concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and elemental carbon (EC) in the particle emissions. Here we will focus on results from the ATOFMS, which provides us with a particle size and mass spectra - for both negative and positive ions - for each particle that is sampled. Particles being emitted were found to contain primarily PAHs, elemental carbon (EC), nitrates, and sulfates. Particles were analyzed to investigate trends in particle composition as a function of fuel ethanol content, particle size, and for the types of particles emitted. A trend in particle type as a function of fuel ethanol content was evident in smaller particles, and trends in composition as a function of particle size were visible across the entire size range sampled.

  2. Effects of q(r) on the Alpha Particle Ripple Loss in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Darrow; M. Diesso; R.V. Budny; S. Batha; S.J. Zweben; et al.

    1997-09-01

    An experiment was done with TFTR DT plasmas to determine the effect of the q(r) profile on the alpha particle ripple loss to the outer midplane. The alpha particle loss measurements were made using a radially movable scintillator detector 20 degrees below the outer midplane. The experimental results were compared with TF ripple loss calculations done using a Monte Carlo guiding center orbit following code, ORBIT. Although some of the experimental results are consistent with the ORBIT code modeling, the variation of the alpha loss with the q(r) profiles is not well explained by this code. Quantitative interpretation of these measurements requires a careful analysis of the limiter shadowing effect, which strongly determines the diffusion of alphas into the detector aperture.

  3. Energetic/alpha particle effects on MHD modes and transport

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.; Budny, R.; Chen, L.

    1995-01-01

    A nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code (NOVA-K) has been employed to study TAE stability in TFRR D-T and DIII-D experiments and to achieve understanding of TAE instability drive and damping mechanism. Reasonably good agreement between theory and experiment has been obtained. In these experiments the dominant damping mechanism is due to both the thermal ion Landau damping and/or the beam ion Landau damping. Based on ITER EDA parameters, the TAE modes are expected to be unstable in normal ITER operations. Energetic particle transport has been studied using a test particle code (ORBIT). Energetic particle loss scales linearly with the TAE mode amplitude and can be large for TFRR and DIII-D for {delta}B{sub r}/B > 10{sup {minus}4} due to large banana orbit. From quasi-linear (ORBIT) and nonlinear kinetic-MHD (MH3D-K) simulations the saturation of TAE modes is due to nonlinear wave particle trapping and energetic particle profile modification in both radial and energy space. Finally, a convective bucket transport mechanism by MHD waves with time-dependent frequency is presented. Based on the energy-selective characteristics of the bucket transport mechanism, undesirable particles such as helium ash can be removed from the plasma core efficiently.

  4. Fusion alpha-particle diagnostics for DT experiments on the joint European torus

    SciTech Connect

    Kiptily, V. G.; Beaumont, P.; Syme, D. B.; Cecil, F. E.; Riva, M.; Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G.; Craciunescu, T.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Curuia, M.; Soare, S.; Darrow, D.; Fernandes, A. M.; Pereira, R. C.; Sousa, J.; Gorini,; Nocente, M.; and others

    2014-08-21

    JET equipped with ITER-like wall (a beryllium wall and a tungsten divertor) can provide auxiliary heating with power up to 35MW, producing a significant population of α-particles in DT operation. The direct measurements of alphas are very difficult and α-particle studies require a significant development of dedicated diagnostics. JET now has an excellent set of confined and lost fast particle diagnostics for measuring the α-particle source and its evolution in space and time, α-particle energy distribution, and α-particle losses. This paper describes how the above mentioned JET diagnostic systems could be used for α-particle measurements, and what options exist for keeping the essential α-particle diagnostics functioning well in the presence of intense DT neutron flux. Also, α-particle diagnostics for ITER are discussed.

  5. Influence of ozone concentration and temperature on ultra-fine particle and gaseous volatile organic compound formations generated during the ozone-initiated reactions with emitted terpenes from a car air freshener.

    PubMed

    Lamorena, Rheo B; Lee, Woojin

    2008-10-30

    Experiments were conducted to identify the emissions from the car air freshener and to identify the formation of ultra-fine particles and secondary gaseous compounds during the ozone-initiated oxidations with emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The identified primary constituents emitted from the car air freshener in this study were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, p-cymene, and limonene. Formation of ultra-fine particles (4.4-160 nm) was observed when ozone was injected into the chamber containing emitted monoterpenes from the air freshener. Particle number concentrations, particle mass concentrations, and surface concentrations were measured in time dependent experiments to describe the particle formation and growth within the chamber. The irritating secondary gaseous products formed during the ozone-initiated reactions include formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, and propionaldehyde. Ozone concentration (50 and 100 ppb) and temperature (30 and 40 degrees C) significantly affect the formation of particles and gaseous products during the ozone-initiated reactions. The results obtained in this study provided an insight on the potential exposure of particles and irritating secondary products formed during the ozone-initiated reaction to passengers in confined spaces. PMID:18336999

  6. Alpha particle condensation in {sup 12}C and nuclear rainbow scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2008-05-12

    It is shown that the large radius of the Hoyle state of {sup 12}C with a dilute density distribution in an {alpha} particle condensate can be clearly seen in the shift of the rainbow angle (therefore the Airy minimum) to a larger angle in {alpha}+{sup 12}C rainbow scattering at the high energy region and prerainbow oscillations in {sup 3}He+{sup 12}C scattering at the lower energy region.

  7. Alpha particle heating in hot diamagnetic cavities. [in solar wind near earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvez, Miguel; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Gary, S. Peter; Thomsen, Michelle F.; Winske, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Observational data from ISEE 1 are analyzed and a one-dimensional electromagnetic hybrid computer simulation is conducted for the heating of solar wind alpha particles in hot diamagnetic cavities (HDCs). In the simulation, which envisions alpha heating by ion-ion instabilities, low beam densities excite the proton/proton right-hand resonant instability that then pitch-angle scatters the beam without significantly heating the alphas. At greater beam densities, the proton/proton nonresonant instability undergoes saturation through a trapping of all three ion components. These results support the Thomsen et al. (1988) hypothesis that the nonresonant instability is the primary source of ion heating in hot diamagnetic cavities.

  8. Alpha particle simulation of space radiation damage effects in semiconductor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Colerico, C.W.; Serreze, H.B.; Messenger, S.R.; Burke, E.A.; Xapsos, M.A.

    1995-12-01

    The authors describe a method that uses an {sup 241}Am alpha particle source to simulate effects of space radiation damage to semiconductor devices. By applying a unique combination of analytic and numerical techniques to data obtained from alpha irradiation experiments, device response to protons and other radiation types can be predicted. The techniques enable the interpretation of the alpha data by deriving the damage-depth profiles for both ionizing and nonionizing damage in InP devices. The results agree well when compared to the results from proton and electron irradiation of the same type of devices.

  9. Alfvenic behavior of alpha particle driven ion cyclotron emission in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Cauffman, S.; Majeski, R.; McClements, K.G.

    1995-07-01

    Ion cyclotron emission (ICE) has been observed during D-T discharges in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), using rf probes located near the top and bottom of the vacuum vessel. Harmonics of the alpha cyclotron frequency ({Omega}{sub {alpha}}) evaluated at the outer midplane plasma edge are observed at the onset of the beam injection phase of TFTR supershots, and persist for approximately 100-250 ms. These results are in contrast with observations of ICE in JET, in which harmonics of {Omega}{sub {alpha}} evolve with the alpha population in the plasma edge. Such differences are believed to be due to the fact that newly-born fusion alpha particles are super-Alfvenic near the edge of JET plasmas, while they are sub-Alfvenic near the edge of TFTR supershot plasmas. In TFTR discharges with edge densities such that newly-born alpha particles are super-Alfvenic, alpha cyclotron harmonics are observed to persist. These results are in qualitative agreement with numerical calculations of growth rates due to the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability.

  10. Rigidity-independent coronal propagation and escape of solar protons and alpha particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perron, C.; Domingo, V.; Reinhard, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    1978-01-01

    In a study of rigidity-independent coronal propagation processes, data on the azimuthal variation of the solar proton/alpha-particle ratio were obtained. Sources for the data included a statistical analysis of events observed by Heos-2, a comparative study of events recorded by both Heos-2 and Pioneer-10 and -11, and a multiday survey of individual events observed by Heos-2 and Pioneer-10. The statistical investigation of Heos-2 events reveals an increase of the lower value of the proton/alpha-particle ratio away from the well-connected region. The data from one or two spacecraft connected at different heliolongitudes indicates no azimuthal dependence of the proton/alpha-particle ratio. All the data appear to suggest rigidity-independent propagation or escape processes.

  11. High resolution alpha particle detectors based on 4H-SiC epitaxial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zat'ko, B.; Dubecký, F.; Šagátová, A.; Sedlačová, K.; Ryć, L.

    2015-04-01

    We fabricated and characterized 4H-SiC Schottky diodes as a spectrometric detector of alpha particles. A thin blocking contact of Ni/Au (15 nm) was used to minimize the influence on alpha particles energy. Current-voltage characteristics of the detector were measured and a low current density below 0.3 nAcm-2 was observed at room temperature. 239Pu241Am244Cm was used as a source of alpha particles within the energy range between 5.1 MeV and 5.8 MeV for detector testing. The charge collection efficiency close to 100 % at reverse bias exceeding 50 V was determined. The best spectrometric performance shows a pulse height spectrum at a reverse bias of 200 V giving an energy resolution of 0.25 % in the full width and half maximum for 5.486 MeV of 241Am.

  12. A study of the effects of MeV alpha particles in PE and PVDC

    SciTech Connect

    Evelyn, A.L.; Ila, D.; Zimmerman, R.L.; Bhat, K.; Poker, D.B.; Hensley, D.K.

    1997-02-01

    We have mapped and studied the effects of MeV alpha-particle bombardment in polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) and polyethylene (PE). We used 3.5 and 5.0 MeV alpha-particle incident beams and stacked polymer films to separate the contributing effects of the electronic ({var_epsilon}{sub e}) and nuclear ({var_epsilon}{sub n}) stopping powers. The electrical conductance and change in the chemical structures were measured by direct resistivity measurement, Raman microprobe, RBS and FTIR. The results indicate significant differences in the ({var_epsilon}{sub e}) and ({var_epsilon}{sub n}) effects at higher alpha-particle bombardment fluences. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Low-energy electron spectrum of a copper target bombarded by {alpha}-particles of {sup 238}Pu

    SciTech Connect

    Kupryashkin, V. T. Sidorenko, L. P.; Feoktistov, A. I.; Rovenskykh, E. P.

    2011-04-15

    The ({alpha}e) time coincidence method is applied to study the low-energy electron spectrum of a copper target bombarded by {alpha}-particles of {sup 238}Pu. Ionization of atoms bombarded by charged particles is considered as the shaking of electrons into the continuous spectrum due to a sudden perturbation by a flying particle. A comparison of experimental and calculated distributions showed good agreement, which confirms the accuracy of the ionization description as a result of the shaking effect.

  14. Plasma heating from alpha particle micro-instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.; Sutton, W.R.; Choi, C.K.

    1981-01-01

    Potential use of thermonuclear (i.e., fusion product) driven kinetic instabilities to heat the background plasma has long been recognized. Considerable research on velocity space micro-instabilities exists. Most work to date has focused upon the basic physics criteria for and characteristics of particular micro-instabilities. Kinetic instabilities resulting in spatial transport of fusion products have also received some attention, but the effects on reactor concepts and performance remain uncertain. We have developed an engineering model which scopes the effect of a velocity space relaxation of fast alphas on a quasi-linear time scale. This model includes the additional heating to background plasma ions under the assumptions of: ion damping of the plasma wave; heating to background plasma results predominantly from fusion products; and periodic hiccups of the instability.

  15. Elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in exhaust particles emitted by light-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Alves, Célia A; Barbosa, Cátia; Rocha, Sónia; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted by eight different light-duty vehicles. Exhaust samples from petrol and diesel cars (Euro 3 to Euro 5) were collected in a chassis dynamometer facility. To simulate the real-world driving conditions, three ARTEMIS cycles were followed: road, to simulate a fluid traffic flow and urban with hot and cold starts, to simulate driving conditions in cities. Samples were analysed for the water-soluble ions, for the elemental composition and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respectively, by ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrate and phosphate were the major water-soluble ions in the exhaust particles emitted from diesel and petrol vehicles, respectively. The amount of material emitted is affected by the vehicle age. For vehicles ≥Euro 4, most elements were below the detection limits. Sodium, with emission factors in the ranges 23.5-62.4 and 78.2-227μg km(-1), for petrol and diesel Euro 3 vehicles, respectively, was the major element. The emission factors of metallic elements indicated that diesel vehicles release three to five times more than petrol automobiles. Element emissions under urban cycles are higher than those found for on-road driving, being three or four times higher, for petrol vehicles, and two or three times, for diesel vehicles. The difference between cycles is mainly due to the high emissions for the urban cycle with hot start-up. As registered for elements, most of the PAH emissions for vehicles ≥Euro 4 were also below the detection limits. Regardless of the vehicle models or driving cycles, the two- to four-ring PAHs were always dominant. Naphthalene, with emission factors up to 925 μg km(-1), was always the most abundant PAH. The relative cancer risk associated with naphthalene was estimated to be up to several orders of magnitude higher than any of the chemical species found in the PM phase. The highest PAH emission factors were registered for diesel-powered vehicles. The condition of the vehicle can exert a decisive influence on both element and PAH emissions. PMID:25827652

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of age-dependent radiation dose from alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides to critical trabecular bone and bone marrow targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dant, James T.; Richardson, Richard B.; Nie, Linda H.

    2013-05-01

    Alpha (α) particles and low-energy beta (β) particles present minimal risk for external exposure. While these particles can induce leukemia and bone cancer due to internal exposure, they can also be beneficial for targeted radiation therapies. In this paper, a trabecular bone model is presented to investigate the radiation dose from bone- and marrow-seeking α and β emitters to different critical compartments (targets) of trabecular bone for different age groups. Two main issues are addressed with Monte Carlo simulations. The first is the absorption fractions (AFs) from bone and marrow to critical targets within the bone for different age groups. The other issue is the application of 223Ra for the radiotherapy treatment of bone metastases. Both a static model and a simulated bone remodeling process are established for trabecular bone. The results show significantly lower AFs from radionuclide sources in the bone volume to the peripheral marrow and the haematopoietic marrow for adults than for newborns and children. The AFs from sources on the bone surface and in the bone marrow to peripheral marrow and haematopoietic marrow also varies for adults and children depending on the energy of the particles. Regarding the use of 223Ra as a radionuclide for the radiotherapy of bone metastases, the simulations show a significantly higher dose from 223Ra and its progeny in forming bone to the target compartment of bone metastases than that from two other more commonly used β-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, 153Sm and 89Sr. There is also a slightly lower dose from 223Ra in forming bone to haematopoietic marrow than that from 153Sm and 89Sr. These results indicate a higher therapy efficiency and lower marrow toxicity from 223Ra and its progeny. In conclusion, age-related changes in bone dimension and cellularity seem to significantly affect the internal dose from α and β emitters in the bone and marrow to critical targets, and 223Ra may be a more efficient radiopharmaceutical for the treatment of bone metastases than 153Sm and 89Sr, if the diffusion of 219Rn to the bone marrow is insignificant.

  17. Energy and frequency dependence of the alpha particle redistribution produced by internal kink modes

    SciTech Connect

    Farengo, R.; Ferrari, H. E.; Garcia-Martinez, P. L.; Firpo, M.-C.; Ettoumi, W.; Lifschitz, A. F.

    2014-08-15

    The redistribution of alpha particles due to internal kink modes is studied. The exact particle trajectories in the total fields, equilibrium plus perturbation, are calculated. The equilibrium has circular cross section and the plasma parameters are similar to those expected in ITER. The alpha particles are initially distributed according to a slowing down distribution function and have energies between 18 keV and 3.5 MeV. The (1, 1), (2, 2), and (2, 1) modes are included and the effect of changing their amplitude and frequency is studied. When only the (1, 1) mode is included, the spreading of high energy (E≳1 MeV) alpha particles increases slowly with the energy and mode frequency. At lower energies, the redistribution is more sensitive to the mode frequency and particle energy. When a (2, 1) mode is added, the spreading increases significantly and particles can reach the edge of the plasma. Trapped particles are the most affected and the redistribution parameter can have maxima above 1 MeV, depending on the mode frequency. These results can have important implications for ash removal.

  18. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  19. Volatile properties of particles emitted by compressed natural gas and diesel buses during steady-state and transient driving modes.

    PubMed

    Jayaratne, E R; Meyer, N K; Ristovski, Z D; Morawska, L

    2012-01-01

    Volatile properties of particle emissions from four compressed natural gas (CNG) and four diesel buses were investigated under steady-state and transient driving modes on a chassis dynamometer. The exhaust was diluted utilizing a full-flow continuous volume sampling system and passed through a thermodenuder at controlled temperature. Particle number concentration and size distribution were measured with a condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer, respectively. We show that while almost all the particles emitted by the CNG buses were in the nanoparticle size range, at least 85% and 98% were removed at 100 and 250 °C, respectively. Closer analysis of the volatility of particles emitted during transient cycles showed that volatilization began at around 40 °C, with the majority occurring by 80 °C. Particles produced during hard acceleration from rest exhibited lower volatility than those produced during other times of the cycle. On the basis of our results and the observation of ash deposits on the walls of the tailpipes, we suggest that these nonvolatile particles were composed mostly of ash from lubricating oil. Heating the diesel bus emissions to 100 °C removed ultrafine particle numbers by 69-82% when a nucleation mode was present and just 18% when it was not. PMID:22107263

  20. Size distribution, chemical composition, and hygroscopicity of fine particles emitted from an oil-fired heating plant.

    PubMed

    Happonen, Matti; Mylläri, Fanni; Karjalainen, Panu; Frey, Anna; Saarikoski, Sanna; Carbone, Samara; Hillamo, Risto; Pirjola, Liisa; Häyrinen, Anna; Kytömäki, Jorma; Niemi, Jarkko V; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2013-12-17

    Heavy fuel oil (HFO) is a commonly used fuel in industrial heating and power generation and for large marine vessels. In this study, the fine particle emissions of a 47 MW oil-fired boiler were studied at 30 MW power and with three different fuels. The studied fuels were HFO, water emulsion of HFO, and water emulsion of HFO mixed with light fuel oil (LFO). With all the fuels, the boiler emitted considerable amounts of particles smaller than 200 nm in diameter. Further, these small particles were quite hygroscopic even as fresh and, in the case of HFO+LFO emulsion, the hygroscopic growth of the particles was dependent on particle size. The use of emulsions and the addition of LFO to the fuel had a reducing effect on the hygroscopic growth of particles. The use of emulsions lowered the sulfate content of the smallest particles but did not affect significantly the sulfate content of particles larger than 42 nm and, further, the addition of LFO considerably increased the black carbon content of particulate matter. The results indicate that even the fine particles emitted from HFO based combustion can have a significant effect on cloud formation, visibility, and air quality. PMID:24245691

  1. PRESENT-DAY DESCENDANTS OF z = 3 Ly{alpha}-EMITTING GALAXIES IN THE MILLENNIUM-II HALO MERGER TREES

    SciTech Connect

    Walker-Soler, Jean P.; Gawiser, Eric; Bond, Nicholas A.; Padilla, Nelson; Francke, Harold

    2012-06-20

    Using the Millennium-II Simulation dark matter sub-halo merger histories, we created mock catalogs of Ly{alpha}-emitting (LAE) galaxies at z = 3.1 to study the properties of their descendants. Several models were created by selecting the sub-halos to match the number density and typical dark matter mass determined from observations of these galaxies. We used mass-based and age-based selection criteria to study their effects on descendant populations at z {approx_equal} 2, 1, and 0. For the models that best represent LAEs at z = 3.1, the z = 0 descendants have a median dark matter halo mass of 10{sup 12.7} M{sub Sun }, with a wide scatter in masses (50% between 10{sup 11.8} and 10{sup 13.7} M{sub Sun }). Our study differentiated between central and satellite sub-halos and found that {approx}55% of z = 0 descendants are central sub-halos with M{sub Median} {approx} 10{sup 12}. This confirms that central z = 0 descendants of z = 3.1 LAEs have halo masses typical of L*-type galaxies. The satellite sub-halos reside in group/cluster environments with dark matter masses around 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }. The median descendant mass is robust to various methods of age determination, but it could vary by a factor of five due to current observational uncertainties in the clustering of LAEs used to determine their typical z = 3.1 dark matter mass.

  2. Evolution of trace gases and particles emitted by a chaparral fire in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, S. K.; Craven, J. S.; Taylor, J. W.; McMeeking, G. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Urbanski, S. P.; Wold, C. E.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Coe, H.; Alvarado, M. J.; Weise, D. R.

    2012-02-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a major global source of trace gases and particles. Accurately representing the production and evolution of these emissions is an important goal for atmospheric chemical transport models. We measured a suite of gases and aerosols emitted from an 81 hectare prescribed fire in chaparral fuels on the central coast of California, US on 17 November 2009. We also measured physical and chemical changes that occurred in the isolated downwind plume in the first ~4 h after emission. The measurements were carried out onboard a Twin Otter aircraft outfitted with an airborne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (AFTIR), aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), single particle soot photometer (SP2), nephelometer, LiCor CO2 analyzer, a chemiluminescence ozone instrument, and a wing-mounted meteorological probe. Our measurements included: CO2; CO; NOx; NH3; non-methane organic compounds; organic aerosol (OA); inorganic aerosol (nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, and chloride); aerosol light scattering; refractory black carbon (rBC); and ambient temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, and three-dimensional wind velocity. The molar ratio of excess O3 to excess CO in the plume (ΔO3/ΔCO) increased from -5.13 (±1.13) × 10-3 to 10.2 (±2.16) × 10-2 in ~4.5 h following smoke emission. Excess acetic and formic acid (normalized to excess CO) increased by factors of 1.73 ± 0.43 and 7.34 ± 3.03 (respectively) over the same time since emission. Based on the rapid decay of C2H4 we infer an in-plume average OH concentration of 5.27 (±0.97) × 106 molec cm-3, consistent with previous studies showing elevated OH concentrations in biomass burning plumes. Ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate all increased over the course of 4 h. The observed ammonium increase was a factor of 3.90 ± 2.93 in about 4 h, but accounted for just ~36% of the gaseous ammonia lost on a molar basis. Some of the gas phase NH3 loss may have been due to condensation on, or formation of, particles below the AMS detection range. NOx was converted to PAN and particle nitrate with PAN production being about two times greater than production of observable nitrate in the first ~4 h following emission. The excess aerosol light scattering in the plume (normalized to excess CO2) increased by a factor of 2.50 ± 0.74 over 4 h. The increase in light scattering was similar to that observed in an earlier study of a biomass burning plume in Mexico where significant secondary formation of OA closely tracked the increase in scattering. In the California plume, however, ΔOA/ΔCO2 decreased sharply for the first hour and then increased slowly with a net decrease of ~20% over 4 h. The fraction of thickly coated rBC particles increased up to ~85% over the 4 h aging period. Decreasing OA accompanied by increased scattering/particle coating in initial aging may be due to a combination of particle coagulation and evaporation processes. Recondensation of species initially evaporated from the particles may have contributed to the subsequent slow rise in OA. We compare our results to observations from other plume aging studies and suggest that differences in environmental factors such as smoke concentration, oxidant concentration, actinic flux, and RH contribute significantly to the variation in plume evolution observations.

  3. H{alpha} measurements and neutral particle transport in Heliotron J

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, S.; Yabutani, H.; Nakashima, Y.; Higashizono, Y.; Nagasaki, K.; Mizuuchi, T.; Okada, H.; Sano, F.; Cappa, A.; Kondo, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Suzuki, Y.

    2006-10-15

    A multichannel system of the H{alpha}-line emission detector is developed in order to investigate the neutral particle transport in the Heliotron J plasma. The application of a multianode photomultiplier tube to the filter measurement system enables us to observe the H{alpha} emission profile with 32 chords. The absolute calibration with a standard lamp is performed and the cross-talk between each of the adjoining channels is evaluated to be less than 6%, while the photomultiplier tube has a typical cross-talk of 3% in nominal value. The temporal and spatial profiles of the H{alpha} emission are measured in detail in the plasma breakdown by electron cyclotron heating (ECH). The H{alpha} emission profile in the ECH plasma is calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation using a three-dimensional mesh model. The fueling rates of the wall recycling and the gas puffing are estimated by means of the simulation and the measurement.

  4. Fossil alpha-particle recoil tracks: a new method of age determination.

    PubMed

    Huang, W H; Walker, R M

    1967-03-01

    The discovery of a new type of fossil nuclear track in mica is reported. This track is produced by the recoil nucleus accompanying the alpha-particle decay of uranium and thorium impurities. The tracks are very short and can be seen with phase contrast microscopy. Measurement of fossil alpha-recoil track densities, coupled with determinations of the thorium and uranium contents, provides a new dating technique analogous to the previously discovered "fission-track method." The primary advantage of the alpha-recoil method is a several-thousand-fold increase in sensitivity over the fission-track technique. The alpha-recoil method should also prove useful in studying the problem of extinct isotopes in meteorites. PMID:17812006

  5. Alpha particle density and energy distributions in tandem mirrors using Monte-Carlo techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Kerns, J.A.

    1986-05-01

    We have simulated the alpha thermalization process using a Monte-Carlo technique, in which the alpha guiding center is followed between simulated collisions and Spitzer's collision model is used for the alpha-plasma interaction. Monte-Carlo techniques are used to determine the alpha radial birth position, the alpha particle position at a collision, and the angle scatter and dispersion at a collision. The plasma is modeled as a hot reacting core, surrounded by a cold halo plasma (T approx.50 eV). Alpha orbits that intersect the halo lose 90% of their energy to the halo electrons because of the halo drag, which is ten times greater than the drag in the core. The uneven drag across the alpha orbit also produces an outward, radial, guiding center drift. This drag drift is dependent on the plasma density and temperature radial profiles. We have modeled these profiles and have specifically studied a single-scale-length model, in which the density scale length (r/sub pD/) equals the temperature scale length (r/sub pT/), and a two-scale-length model, in which r/sub pD//r/sub pT/ = 1.1.

  6. Simulations of alpha particle ripple loss from the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, M.H.; Budny, R.V.; McCune, D.C.; Miller, C.O.; White, R.B.

    1996-05-01

    Calculations of collisional stochastic ripple loss of alpha particles from the new 20 toroidal field (TF) coil International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) predict small alpha ripple losses, less than 0.4%, close to the loss calculated for the full current operation of the earlier 24 TF coil design. An analytic fit is obtained to the ITER ripple data field demonstrating the nonlinear height dependence of the ripple minimum for D shaped ripple contours. In contrast to alpha loss simulations for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), a simple Goldston, White, Boozer stochastic loss criterion ripple loss model is found to require an increased renormalization of the stochastic threshold {delta}{sub s}/{delta}{sub GWB} {ge} 1. Effects of collisions, sawtooth broadening and reversal of the grad B drift direction are included in the particle following simulations.

  7. High-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry of ²³⁸U.

    PubMed

    Pommé, S; García-Toraño, E; Marouli, M; Crespo, M T; Jobbágy, V; Van Ammel, R; Paepen, J; Stroh, H

    2014-05-01

    The alpha-particle emission probabilities associated with the three main alpha transitions of (238)U were measured by high-resolution alpha-particle spectrometry. Highly enriched (238)U material was used and its isotopic composition characterised by mass spectrometry. Source production through electrodeposition was optimised to reconcile conflicting demands for good spectral resolution and statistical precision. Measurements were performed at IRMM and CIEMAT for 1-2 years in three different set-ups. A new magnet system was put into use to largely eliminate true coincidence effects with low-energy conversion electrons. Finally the accuracy and precision of the relative emission probabilities for the three transitions - 77.01 (10)%, 22.92 (10)% and 0.068 (10)%, respectively - have been improved significantly. PMID:24355304

  8. Evolution of trace gases and particles emitted by a chaparral fire in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akagi, S. K.; Craven, J. S.; Taylor, J. W.; McMeeking, G. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Urbanski, S. P.; Wold, C. E.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Coe, H.; Alvarado, M. J.; Weise, D. R.

    2011-08-01

    Biomass burning (BB) is a major global source of trace gases and particles. Accurately representing the production and evolution of these emissions is an important goal for atmospheric chemical transport models. We measured a suite of gases and aerosols emitted from an 81 ha prescribed fire in chaparral fuels on the central coast of California, US on 17 November 2009. We also measured post-emission chemical changes in the isolated downwind plume for ~4 h of smoke aging. The measurements were carried out on board a Twin Otter aircraft outfitted with an airborne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (AFTIR), aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), single particle soot photometer (SP2), nephelometer, LiCor CO2 analyzer, a chemiluminescence ozone instrument, and a wing-mounted meteorological probe. Our measurements included: CO2; CO; NOx; NH3; non-methane organic compounds; organic aerosol (OA); inorganic aerosol (nitrate, ammonium, sulfate, and chloride); aerosol light scattering; refractory black carbon (rBC); and ambient temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, and three-dimensional wind velocity. The molar ratio of excess O3 to excess CO in the plume (ΔO3/ΔCO) increased from -0.005 to 0.102 in 4.5 h. Excess acetic and formic acid (normalized to excess CO) increased by factors of 1.7 ± 0.4 and 7.3 ± 3.0 (respectively) over the same aging period. Based on the rapid decay of C2H4 we infer an in-plume average OH concentration of 5.3 (±1.0) × 106 molecules cm-3, consistent with previous studies showing elevated OH concentrations in biomass burning plumes. Ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate all increased with plume aging. The observed ammonium increase was a factor of 3.9 ± 2.6 in about 4 h, but accounted for just ~36 % of the gaseous ammonia lost on a molar basis. Some of the gas phase NH3 loss may have been due to condensation on, or formation of, particles below the AMS detection range. NOx was converted to PAN and particle nitrate with PAN production being about two times greater than production of observable nitrate over a 4 h aging period. The excess aerosol light scattering in the plume (normalized to excess CO2) increased by a factor of 2.3 ± 0.7 over 4 h. The increase in light scattering was similar to that observed in an earlier study of a biomass burning plume in Mexico where significant secondary formation of OA closely tracked the increase in scattering. In the California plume, however, ΔOA/ΔCO2 decreased sharply for the first hour and then increased slowly with a net decrease of ~24 % over 4 h. The fraction of thickly coated rBC particles increased almost twofold over the 4 h aging period. Decreasing OA accompanied by increased scattering/coating in the initial aging may be due to a combination of particle coagulation and evaporation processes. Recondensation of species initially evaporated from the particles may have contributed to the subsequent slow rise in OA. We compare our results to observations from other plume aging studies and suggest that differences in environmental factors such as smoke concentration, oxidant concentration, actinic flux, and RH contribute significantly to the variation in plume evolution observations.

  9. Distributions of Alpha Particles Escaping to the Wall because of Sawtooth Oscillations in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Lutsenko, V.V.; White, R.B.; Yakovenko, Yu.V., Zweben, S.J.

    1998-11-01

    It has been observed experimentally in deuterium-tritium shots of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) that crashes of sawtooth oscillations may result in very inhomogeneous flux of alpha particles to the wall. Namely, measurements with four detectors installed at the wall at 20°, 45°, 60°, and 90° below the midplane of the torus have shown that the alpha flux to the wall is strongly peaked at the 20° and 90° detectors and on the noise level at the 45° detector. To explain this phenomenon, both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation have been carried out. It is concluded that the "crash-induced prompt loss," i.e., the orbital loss of marginally trapped particles arising because of the crash-induced orbit transformation of circulating particles, is responsible for the flux to the 90° and 60° detectors, whereas the crash-induced stochastic diffusion of moderately trapped particles explains the large signal at the 20° detector. The calculated poloidal distributions of the integral alpha flux are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. In addition to the integral flux, the flux of particles with given energy was calculated. The energy spectrum of the escaping particles has also been calculated, which can be used for diagnostics of the crash type.

  10. Cancer incidence and lifespan vs. alpha-particle dose in beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Mays, C.W.; Lloyd, R.D.; Taylor, G.N.; Wrenn, M.E.

    1987-05-01

    Young adult beagles were injected with graded activities of /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 228/Th, /sup 228/Ra or /sup 226/Ra and observed throughout their lifespans. The vast majority of the dose was from alpha particles. The lifetime incidence of bone sarcoma increased with average skeletal dose, more or less linearly up to high incidence for /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 228/Th and /sup 226/Ra, but sigmoid fashion for /sup 228/Ra. Based on average skeletal dose, the toxicity of the emitters relative to /sup 226/Ra = 1.0 was /sup 239/Pu = 16.6 +/- 4.5, /sup 241/Am = 5.4 +/- 1.6, /sup 228/Th = 8.5 +/- 2.3 and /sup 228/Ra = 2.0 +/- 0.5. At the lowest doses, the average lifespans were 97% +/- 3% of that in the controls. If beneficial effects occurred, they may have been overwhelmed by the destructiveness of the densely ionizing alpha particles. A cell nucleus 5 micron in diameter receives a mean dose of about 1 Gy (100 rad) when traversed by a single alpha particle. We found no evidence that alpha-particle doses suppressed cancer or lengthened lifespan in beagles.

  11. Nucleon-Alpha Particle Disequilibrium and Short-Lived r-Process Radioactivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, B. S.; Clayton, D. D.; Chellapilla, S.; The, L.-S.

    2002-01-01

    r-Process yields can be extremely sensitive to expansion parameters when a persistent disequilibrium between free nucleons and alpha particles is present. This may provide a natural scenario for understanding the variation of heavy and light r-process isotopes in different r-process events. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. AlfvWaves, Alpha Particles, and Pickup Ions in the Solar Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, B. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Smith, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    The alpha particles at high latitudes are traveling significantly faster than the effective wave speed, unlike the in-ecliptic situation and the discrepancy between effective wave speed and the Alfvspeed calculated with all known corrections is also larger than in the ecliptic.

  13. Nucleon-Alpha Particle Disequilibrium and Short-Lived r-Process Radioactivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, B. S.; Clayton, D. D.; Chellapilla, S.; The, L.-S.

    2002-03-01

    r-Process yields can be extremely sensitive to expansion parameters when a persistent disequilibrium between free nucleons and alpha particles is present. This may provide a natural scenario for understanding the variation of heavy and light r-process isotopes in different r-process events.

  14. Effect of non-adiabaticity of alpha particles in the axisymmetric cusp TMR

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, G.A.; Barr, W.L.

    1981-07-20

    One of the end plug configurations we have investigated for use in a tandem mirror reactor is the axisymmetric cusp. We show that because of non-adiabaticity, the containment of 3.5 MeV alpha particles in this configuration is insufficient for the attainment of acceptable plasma performance.

  15. A Strange Box and a Stubborn Brit: Rutherford's Experiments with Alpha Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digilov, M.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses 5 innovative experiments conducted by Rutherford in early 1900s utilizing the 30 milligrams of radium salt he personally carried from Europe to Canada in 1903. Traces his work with alpha particles from his original results which determined their nature, charge, and mass, to his technique of backscattering which helped to advance

  16. A Strange Box and a Stubborn Brit: Rutherford's Experiments with Alpha Particles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Digilov, M.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses 5 innovative experiments conducted by Rutherford in early 1900s utilizing the 30 milligrams of radium salt he personally carried from Europe to Canada in 1903. Traces his work with alpha particles from his original results which determined their nature, charge, and mass, to his technique of backscattering which helped to advance…

  17. RADON AND PROGENY ALPHA-PARTICLE ENERGY ANALYSIS USING NUCLEAR TRACK METHODOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa Garcia, Guillermo; Golzarri y Moreno, Dr. Jose Ignacio; Bogard, James S

    2008-01-01

    A preliminary procedure for alpha energy analysis of radon and progeny using Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM) is described in this paper. The method is based on the relationship between alpha-particle energies deposited in polycarbonate material (CR-39) and the track size developed after a well-established chemical etching process. Track geometry, defined by parameters such as major or minor diameters, track area and overall track length, is shown to correlate with alpha-particle energy over the range 6.00 MeV (218Po) to 7.69 MeV (214Po). Track features are measured and the data analyzed automatically using a digital imaging system and commercial PC software. Examination of particle track diameters in CR-39 exposed to environmental radon reveals a multi-modal distribution. Locations of the maxima in this distribution are highly correlated with alpha particle energies of radon daughters, and the distributions are sufficiently resolved to identify the radioisotopes. This method can be useful for estimating the radiation dose from indoor exposure to radon and its progeny.

  18. Can Bose condensation of alpha particles be observed in heavy ion collisions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1993-01-01

    Using a fully self-consistent quantum statistical model, we demonstrate the possibility of Bose condensation of alpha particles with a concomitant phase transition in heavy ion collisions. Suggestions for the experimental observation of the signature of the onset of this phenomenon are made.

  19. Production of actinium-225 for alpha particle mediated radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Boll, Rose A; Malkemus, Dairin; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2005-05-01

    The initial clinical trials for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia have demonstrated the effectiveness of the alpha emitter (213)Bi in killing cancer cells. Bismuth-213 is obtained from a radionuclide generator system from decay of 10-days (225)Ac parent. Recent pre-clinical studies have also shown the potential application of both (213)Bi, and the (225)Ac parent radionuclide in a variety of cancer systems and targeted radiotherapy. This paper describes our five years of experience in production of (225)Ac in partial support of the on-going clinical trials. A four-step chemical process, consisting of both anion and cation exchange chromatography, is utilized for routine separation of carrier-free (225)Ac from a mixture of (228)Th, (229)Th and (232)Th. The separation of Ra and Ac from Th is achieved using the marcoporous anion exchange resin MP1 in 8M HNO(3) media. Two sequential MP1/NO(3) columns provide a separation factor of approximately 10(6) for Ra and Ac from Th. The separation of Ac from Ra is accomplished on a low cross-linking cation exchange resin AG50-X4 using 1.2M HNO(3) as eluant. Two sequential AG50/NO(3) columns provide a separation factor of approximately 10(2) for Ac from Ra. A 60-day processing schedule has been adopted in order to reduce the processing cost and to provide the highest levels of (225)Ac possible. Over an 8-week campaign, a total of approximately 100 mCi of (225)Ac (approximately 80% of the theoretical yield) is shipped in 5-6 batches, with the first batch typically consisting of approximately 50 mCi. After the initial separation and purification of Ac, the Ra pool is re-processed on a bi-weekly schedule or as needed to provide smaller batches of (225)Ac. The averaged radioisotopic purity of the (225)Ac was 99.6 +/- 0.7% with a (225)Ra content of < or =0.6%, and an average (229)Th content of (4(-4)(+5)) x 10(-5)%. PMID:15763472

  20. Alpha particle induced DNA damage and repair in normal cultured thyrocytes of different proliferation status.

    PubMed

    Lyckesvärd, Madeleine Nordén; Delle, Ulla; Kahu, Helena; Lindegren, Sture; Jensen, Holger; Bäck, Tom; Swanpalmer, John; Elmroth, Kecke

    2014-07-01

    Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of developing thyroid cancer later in life and this is suggested to be due to higher proliferation of the young thyroid. The interest of using high-LET alpha particles from Astatine-211 ((211)At), concentrated in the thyroid by the same mechanism as (131)I [1], in cancer treatment has increased during recent years because of its high efficiency in inducing biological damage and beneficial dose distribution when compared to low-LET radiation. Most knowledge of the DNA damage response in thyroid is from studies using low-LET irradiation and much less is known of high-LET irradiation. In this paper we investigated the DNA damage response and biological consequences to photons from Cobolt-60 ((60)Co) and alpha particles from (211)At in normal primary thyrocytes of different cell cycle status. For both radiation qualities the intensity levels of γH2AX decreased during the first 24h in both cycling and stationary cultures and complete repair was seen in all cultures but cycling cells exposed to (211)At. Compared to stationary cells alpha particles were more harmful for cycling cultures, an effect also seen at the pChk2 levels. Increasing ratios of micronuclei per cell nuclei were seen up to 1Gy (211)At. We found that primary thyrocytes were much more sensitive to alpha particle exposure compared with low-LET photons. Calculations of the relative biological effectiveness yielded higher RBE for cycling cells compared with stationary cultures at a modest level of damage, clearly demonstrating that cell cycle status influences the relative effectiveness of alpha particles. PMID:24769180

  1. Lung cancer risk from exposure to alpha particles and inhalation of other pollutants in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of these experiments is to establish a quantitative correlation between early DNA damage and cancer incidence in a way that would be helpful for assessing the carcinogenic risk of radon alone or in combination with specific indoor pollutants. Rat tracheal epithelium has been exposed in vivo to {sup 210}Po alpha particles in the presence and absence of NO{sub 2} or cigarette smoke. The major accomplishments so far are: the design and implementation of a tracheal implant to simulate radon alpha particle exposure, the measurement of DNA breaks in a small 7.0 mm segment of the trachea exposed to external x-irradiation, the measurement of the rate of repair of the x-ray induced tracheal DNA strand breaks, the measurement of DNA strand breaks following inhalation of cigarette smoke or NO{sub 2}, the measurement of tracheal DNA stand breaks following exposure to high doses {sup 210}Po alpha particle radiation, the assessment of the amount of mucous in the goblet cells and in the underlying mucous glands. So far we have been unable to detect DNA strand breaks in the tracheal epithelium as a result of exposure to NO{sub 2} cigarette smoke or {sup 210}Po alpha particles. We have developed a simple artificial' trachea consisting of rat tracheal epithelial cells growing on a basement membrane coated millipore filter. Experiments are proposed to utilize these artificial tracheas to eliminate the potential interference of increased mucous secretion and/or inflammation that can significantly affect the radiation dose from the alpha particles. 61 refs., 17 figs.

  2. Further measurement of the {beta}-delayed {alpha}-particle emission of {sup 16}N

    SciTech Connect

    France III, R. H.; Wilds, E. L.; McDonald, J. E.; Gai, M.

    2007-06-15

    We measured the {beta}-delayed {alpha}-particle emission spectrum of {sup 16}N with a sensitivity for {beta}-decay branching ratios of the order of 10{sup -10}. The {sup 16}N nuclei were produced using the d({sup 15}N,{sup 16}N)p reaction with 70 MeV {sup 15}N beams and a deuterium gas target 7.5 cm long at a pressure of 1250 torr. The {sup 16}N nuclei were collected (over 10 s) using a thin aluminum foil with an areal density of 180 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} tilted at 7 deg. with respect to the beam. The activity was transferred to the counting area by means of a stepping motor in less than 3 s with the counting carried out over 8 s. The {beta}-delayed {alpha}-particles were measured using a time-of-flight method to achieve a sufficiently low background. Standard calibration sources ({sup 148}Gd, {sup 241}Am, {sup 208,209}Po, and {sup 227}Ac) as well as {alpha} particles and {sup 7}Li from the {sup 10}B(n,{alpha}){sup 7}Li reaction were used for an accurate energy calibration. The energy resolution of the catcher foil (180-220 keV) was calculated and the time-of-flight resolution (3-10 nsec) was measured using the {beta}-delayed {alpha}-particle emission from {sup 8}Li that was produced using the d({sup 7}Li,{sup 8}Li)p reaction with the same setup. The line shape was corrected to account for the variation in the energy and time resolution and a high statistics spectrum of the {beta}-delayed {alpha}-particle emission of {sup 16}N is reported. However, our data (as well as earlier Mainz data and unpublished Seattle data) do not agree with an earlier measurement of the {beta}-delayed {alpha}-particle emission of {sup 16}N taken at TRIUMF after averaging over the energy resolution of our collection system. This disagreement, among other issues, prohibits accurate inclusion of the f-wave component in the R-matrix analysis.

  3. Energetic protons, alpha particles, and electrons in magnetic flux transfer events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1982-01-01

    Energetic proton, alpha particle, and electron data are presented for two magnetopause crossings, which show magnetic field signatures characteristic of flux transfer events (FTEs). Energetic proton and alpha particles are observed streaming along the magnetic field within the magnetosheath in all events showing magnetic signatures characteristic of the FTEs. Flux ratios as high as about 180 parallel and antiparallel to the magnetic field are observed, which means that ions of about 30 keV per charge are at times streaming almost scatter-free from the magnetopause into the magnetosheath. Energetic ion bursts with signatures equal to those observed in FTEs are reduced by more than an order of magnitude as compared to the trapped particle flux.

  4. Characteristics of sunward flowing proton and alpha particle fluxes of moderate intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, F. E.; Stone, E. C.

    1978-01-01

    The diffusive streaming of low-energy protons has been found to be predominately toward the sun during periods between prompt solar particle events. This occurs for essentially all solar wind velocities and proton intensities. The average radial component of this anisotropy (14%) and its dependence on the solar wind velocity agree with values found by a steady-state propagation model. The average radial component (16%) of the diffusive flow of low-energy alpha particles is similar to that observed for protons, suggesting a common origin. The sunward diffusion of alpha particles and protons indicates that these slightly enhanced fluxes contain a positive radial gradient. The direction of the diffusive anisotropy is a function of the magnetic field direction.

  5. Confined alpha particle diagnostic system using an energetic He{sup 0} beam for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, M.; Shinto, K.; Isobe, M.; Nishiura, M.; Kaneko, O.; Wada, M.; Walker, C. I.; Kitajima, S.; Okamoto, A.; Sugawara, H.; Takeuchi, S.; Tanaka, N.; Aoyama, H.; Kisaki, M.

    2006-10-15

    The beam neutralization system for measurement of the spatial and velocity distributions of alpha particles of ITER plasmas was studied. As forward angle detection against the beam injection direction is required for effective neutralization, arrangement of the measurement system using possible ports in ITER configuration is proposed. The count rate of neutralized alpha particles produced by the double charge exchange interaction with energetic He{sup 0} beam particles injected is estimated. The ratios of signal to neutron-induced noise are evaluated. When a He{sup 0} beam produced by autodetachment from a 1-1.5 MeV He{sup -} beam of 10 mA is injected, the signal to noise ratio becomes greater than 1 at {rho}<0.4, even without beam modulation. Usage of a lock-in technique at the frequency of radio-frequency quadrapole accelerator will make measurement at the outer region possible.

  6. Map model for nonlinear alpha particle interaction with toroidal Alfven waves

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Ye, H.

    1992-09-01

    A map model has been developed for studying the nonlinear interaction of alpha particles with the toroidal Alfven eigenmodes. The map is constructed by assuming a linear interaction during a single poloidal transit, which allows the study of the nonlinear interaction over many transits. By using this map, analytic expressions are obtained for the particle nonlinear bounce frequency, and the wave amplitude threshold for the onset of particle orbit stochasticity. The map model can also facilitate self-consistent simulations which incorporate the time variation of the waves.

  7. Fire hose instability driven by alpha particles in the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteini, Lorenzo; Hellinger, Petr; Schwartz, Steven J.; Landi, Simone

    2015-04-01

    We discuss the dynamics of fire hose parallel instability driven by anisotropic alpha particles in a plasma with typical solar wind composition (nα = 5%ne). We show, for the first time, the liner and nonlinear dynamics of the instability by means of hybrid numeric simulations, highlighting its dependence on the main plasma parameters, including the relative drift between the alphas and the main proton population. Our results confirm that the parallel fire hose instability can be efficiently excited by anisotropic distribution of the less abundant alpha particles, even when the rest of the plasma (electrons and protons) is Maxwellian. Moreover, our finding suggest that the dynamics driven by the alphas can also influence the properties of the protons. In particular the instability is found to significantly affect the evolution of the alpha-proton drift, constraining its final intensity to values smaller than the local Alfvén speed, as observed in the solar wind far from the Sun. When simulations with both species initially anisotropic are performed, we find a coexistence of the fire hose wave activity excited by both ions, leading to final stable configurations which reflect the marginal stability state of each species. As a consequence, when observed in the commonly used (β||,T⊥/T||) plane, alpha particles and protons are seen to saturate in different regions of the parameter space. This property is in very good agreement with recent solar wind in situ observations and strongly suggests that those instabilities play a role in regulating the anisotropy solar wind ions.

  8. Trident: A three-pronged galaxy survey. I. Lyman alpha emitting galaxies at z ~ 2 in GOODS North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, A.; Guaita, L.; Östlin, G.; Hayes, M.; Kiaeerad, F.

    2015-08-01

    Context. Lyman alpha (Lyα) emitting galaxies (LAEs) are used to probe the distant universe and are therefore important for galaxy evolution studies and for providing clues to the nature of the epoch of reionization. However, the exact circumstances under which Lyα escapes a galaxy are still not fully understood. Aims: The Trident project is designed to simultaneously examine Lyα, Hα, and Lyman continuum emission from galaxies at redshift z ~ 2, thus linking these three aspects of ionizing radiation in galaxies. In this paper, we outline the strategy of this project and examine the properties of LAEs in the GOODS North field. Methods: We performed a narrowband LAE survey in GOODS North using existing filters and two custom made filters at the Nordic Optical Telescope with MOSCA. We use complementary broadband archival data in the field to make a careful candidate selection and perform optical to near-IR SED fitting. We also estimate far-IR luminosities by matching our candidates to detections in Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm and Herschel/PACS catalogues. Results: We find a total of 25 LAE candidates, probing mainly the bright end of the LAE luminosity function with LLyα ~ 1-15 × 1042 erg s-1. They display a range of masses of ~ 0.5-50 × 109M⊙, and average ages from a few tens of Myr to 1 Gyr when assuming a constant star formation history. The majority of our candidates also show signs of recent elevated star formation. Three candidates have counterparts in the GOODS-Herschel far-IR catalogue, with luminosities consistent with ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). Conclusions: The wide range of parameters derived from our SED fitting, as well as part of our sample being detected as ULIRGs, seems to indicate that at these Lyα luminosities, LAEs do not necessarily have to be young dwarfs, and that a lack of dust is not required for Lyα to escape. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.Tables 4-6 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Electronic Properties of DNA-Based Schottky Barrier Diodes in Response to Alpha Particles

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ta’ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Amin, Yusoff Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Detection of nuclear radiation such as alpha particles has become an important field of research in recent history due to nuclear threats and accidents. In this context; deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) acting as an organic semiconducting material could be utilized in a metal/semiconductor Schottky junction for detecting alpha particles. In this work we demonstrate for the first time the effect of alpha irradiation on an Al/DNA/p-Si/Al Schottky diode by investigating its current-voltage characteristics. The diodes were exposed for different periods (0–20 min) of irradiation. Various diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height, series resistance, Richardson constant and saturation current were then determined using conventional, Cheung and Cheung’s and Norde methods. Generally, ideality factor or n values were observed to be greater than unity, which indicates the influence of some other current transport mechanism besides thermionic processes. Results indicated ideality factor variation between 9.97 and 9.57 for irradiation times between the ranges 0 to 20 min. Increase in the series resistance with increase in irradiation time was also observed when calculated using conventional and Cheung and Cheung’s methods. These responses demonstrate that changes in the electrical characteristics of the metal-semiconductor-metal diode could be further utilized as sensing elements to detect alpha particles. PMID:26007733

  10. Alpha-particle emissivity screening of materials used for semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Michael; Rodbell, Kenneth

    2015-03-01

    Single-Event Upsets (SEU's) in semiconductor memory and logic devices continue to be a reliability issue in modern CMOS devices. SEU's result from deposited charge in the Si devices caused by the passage of ionizing radiation. With technology scaling, the device area decreases, but the critical charge required to flip bits decreases as well. The interplay between both determines how the SEU rate scales with shrinking device geometries and dimensions. In order to minimize the alpha-particle component of SEU, the radiation in the device environment has to be at the Ultra-Low Alpha (ULA) activity levels, e.g. less than 2 α/khr-cm2. Most detectors have background levels that are significantly larger than that level which makes making these measurements difficult and time consuming. A new class of alpha particle detector, utilizing pulse shape discrimination, is now available which allows one to make measurements quickly with ultra-low detector background. This talk will discuss what is involved in making alpha particle measurements of materials in the ULA activity levels, in terms of calibration, radon adsorption mitigation, the time required for obtaining reasonable statistics and comparisons to other detectors.

  11. Lost alpha-particle diagnostics from a D-T plasma by using nuclear reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, Mamiko; Wada, Motoi; Isobe, Mitsutaka

    2014-08-21

    Among various methods proposed for alpha-particles loss measurement, we studied on those by measuring gamma rays of three cases, from (1) nuclear reactions induced by alpha particles, (2) those from short-life-time activities and (3) those from long-life-time activities induced by alpha particles. The time evolution of local alpha flux may possibly be measured by using the {sup 9}Be (a, n) {sup 12}C reaction (1). Using the same system, but with a target set up close to the first wall, activation measurement on site right after turning-off the discharge is possible (2). Nuclear reaction, {sup 25}Mg (a, p) {sup 28}Al, that produce radioisotopes of short lifetime of 2.2 minutes in one of the best candidates. As to the activation to a long lifetime (3), it is predicted that the gamma ray yield from {sup 19}F (a, n) {sup 22}Na reaction is enough for the measurement at the reactor site.

  12. Evidence for alpha-particle chain configurations in {sup 24}Mg

    SciTech Connect

    Wuosmaa, A.H.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R.; Ferre, M.; Gehring, J.; Glagola, P.G.; Happ, Th.; Henderson, D.J.; Wilt, P.; Bearden, I.G.

    1992-09-01

    Many theoretical models have been employed to described the structure of the nucleus {sup 24}Mg. Among these are the Cranked Shell model (CSM), the Cranked Cluster Model (CCM), and calculations have also been performed using the Hartree-Fock formalism. One very striking prediction of these calculations is that in this nucleus there exist very unusual configurations, with structures reminiscent of linear chains of alpha particles. In the CSM, for instance, such a configuration is identified with a pronounced minimum in the potential energy energy at very large prolate deformation. In the CCM, several very different alpha-particle duster configurations are identified, many having rather large deformations. These cluster configurations can be associated with the different potential-energy minima obtained in the CSM results. In the case of the CCM, a 6{alpha} chain-like configuration is predicted to occur at excitation energies between 40 and 50 MeV, with predicted rotational spacing given by {Dirac_h}{sup 2}/2I=22 keV. At this excitation energy, such a chain configuration would lie well above the threshold for the decay of {sup 24}Mg into 6 alpha particles, and its identification poses a difficult experimental challenge. This report discusses this challenge.

  13. Evidence for alpha-particle chain configurations in sup 24 Mg

    SciTech Connect

    Wuosmaa, A.H.; Back, B.B.; Betts, R.R.; Ferre, M.; Gehring, J.; Glagola, P.G.; Happ, Th.; Henderson, D.J.; Wilt, P. ); Bearden, I.G. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-01-01

    Many theoretical models have been employed to described the structure of the nucleus {sup 24}Mg. Among these are the Cranked Shell model (CSM), the Cranked Cluster Model (CCM), and calculations have also been performed using the Hartree-Fock formalism. One very striking prediction of these calculations is that in this nucleus there exist very unusual configurations, with structures reminiscent of linear chains of alpha particles. In the CSM, for instance, such a configuration is identified with a pronounced minimum in the potential energy energy at very large prolate deformation. In the CCM, several very different alpha-particle duster configurations are identified, many having rather large deformations. These cluster configurations can be associated with the different potential-energy minima obtained in the CSM results. In the case of the CCM, a 6{alpha} chain-like configuration is predicted to occur at excitation energies between 40 and 50 MeV, with predicted rotational spacing given by {Dirac h}{sup 2}/2I=22 keV. At this excitation energy, such a chain configuration would lie well above the threshold for the decay of {sup 24}Mg into 6 alpha particles, and its identification poses a difficult experimental challenge. This report discusses this challenge.

  14. Registration of alpha particles in Makrofol-E nuclear track detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rammah, Y. S.; Abdalla, Ayman M.; Ashraf, O.; Ashry, A. H.

    2016-06-01

    Fast detection of alpha particles in the range from 1 to 5 MeV in Makrofol-E polycarbonate nuclear track detectors (PCTDs) using a new chemical etchant was investigated. 252Cf and 241Am-thin open sources were used for irradiating Makrofol-E detectors with fission fragments and alpha particles in air at normal pressure and temperature (NPT). A chain of experimental work has been carried out using new etchants to register alpha particle in short time in Makrofol-E polycarbonate detectors. The etching efficiency were exhibited a clear dependence on the amount of methanol in the etching solution and etching time. The optimized chemical condition obtained at this stage of development for 200 μm Makrofol-E detectors are (8 ml of 10 N NaOH + 2 ml CH3OH) etching solutions at 60 °C for 3 h. In this study; it is possible to observe energy detection windows for Makrofol-E detectors according to applied etching duration. Makrofol-E introduced the characteristic Bragg peak, which indicates the advantages of this detector as alpha spectrometer. Consequently, the suggested new etchant can be developed for heavy ions detection and monitoring radon levels and its daughters.

  15. A new alpha particle diagnostic using knock-on ion tails

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.K.; Parks, P.B.; McChesney, J.M.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1994-06-01

    We propose a new method of measuring the fast confined ct-particle distribution in a reacting plasma. The presence of ct-particles in a D-T plasma will create a high energy tail on the deuterium and tritium ion energy distributions. A 3.5 MeV alpha can transfer 3.4 MeV to a tritium ion in a single elastic scattering interaction. Calculations of the size of these knock-on tails in tokamaks such as TFTR, JET, and ITER show that it may be possible to measure these tails and provide information on the fast confined alphas. The knock-on tail ions will produce D-T neutrons with energies up to 20.7 MeV, so that D-T neutron spectroscopy can be used to monitor the alpha population. Neutron spectroscopy looks especially attractive for ITER. A collimated array of threshold neutron activation detectors could be used to deduce the confined alpha density profile. Tests of this diagnostic can also be done on TFTR and JET. Existing high energy neutral particle analyzers may allow observation of the ion tails directly via passive and/or active charge exchange.

  16. A Luminosity Function of Ly(alpha)-Emitting Galaxies at Z [Approx. Equal to] 4.5(Sup 1),(Sup 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Steve; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel; Wang, JunXian; Dey, Arjun; Spinrad, Hyron; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2007-01-01

    We present a catalog of 59 z [approx. equal to] 4:5 Ly(alpha)-emitting galaxies spectroscopically confirmed in a campaign of Keck DEIMOS follow-up observations to candidates selected in the Large Are (LALA) narrowband imaging survey.We targeted 97 candidates for spectroscopic follow-up; by accounting for the variety of conditions under which we performed spectroscopy, we estimate a selection reliability of approx.76%. Together with our previous sample of Keck LRIS confirmations, the 59 sources confirmed herein bring the total catalog to 73 spectroscopically confirmed z [approx. equal to] 4:5 Ly(alpha)- emitting galaxies in the [approx. equal to] 0.7 deg(exp 2) covered by the LALA imaging. As with the Keck LRIS sample, we find that a nonnegligible fraction of the co rest-frame equivalent widths (W(sub lambda)(sup rest)) that exceed the maximum predicted for normal stellar populations: 17%-31%(93%confidence) of the detected galaxies show (W(sub lambda)(sup rest)) 12%-27% (90% confidence) show (W(sub lambda)(sup rest)) > 240 A. We construct a luminosity function of z [approx. equal to] 4.5 Ly(alpha) emission lines for comparison to Ly(alpha) luminosity function < 6.6. We find no significant evidence for Ly(alpha) luminosity function evolution from z [approx. equal to] 3 to z [approx. equal to] 6. This result supports the conclusion that the intergalactic me largely reionized from the local universe out to z [approx. equal to] 6.5. It is somewhat at odds with the pronounced drop in the cosmic star formation rate density recently measured between z approx. 3 an z approx. 6 in continuum-selected Lyman-break galaxies, and therefore potentially sheds light on the relationship between the two populations.

  17. Search for {alpha}-states in {sup 13}C via elastic resonant scattering of {alpha} particles on {sup 9}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, I.; Campajola, L.; Rosato, E.; Spadaccini, G.; Vigilante, M.

    2013-07-18

    We will discuss new experimental data concerning the elastic resonant scattering of {alpha}-particles on {sup 9}Be nuclei at bombarding energies from 3.5 MeV up to 9.9 MeV. Several excitation functions have been obtained at different polar angles, mainly in the backward hemisphere in the centre of mass frame. Excitation functions show various anomalies that can be linked to the presence of various excited states in the {sup 13}C compound nucleus. In the literature, some of these states have been proposed to belong to rotational bands built on deformed a-cluster excited state. Unfortunately, up to date the spin-parity assignment of many of these states is doubtful. The set of excitation functions we obtained from the present experiment can contribute to improve spectroscopy of highling excited states of {sup 13}C.

  18. Effect of Alpha-Particle Irradiation on Brain Glycogen in the Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, L. S.; Klatzo, Igor; Miquel, Jaime; Tobias, Cornelius; Haymaker, Webb

    1962-01-01

    The studies of Klatzo, Miquel, Tobias and Haymaker (1961) have shown that one of the earliest and most sensitive indications of the effects of alpha-particle irradiation on rat bran is the appearance of glycogen granules mainly in the neuroglia of the exposed area of the brain. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive, alpha-amylase soluble granules were demonstrated within 12 hr after irradiation, preceding by approximately 36 hr the first microscopically detectable vascular permeability disturbances, as shown by the fluorescein labeled serum protein technique. These studies suggested that the injurious effects of alpha-particle energy were on cellular elements primarily, according to the physical properties and distribution of the radiation in the tissue, and that the vascular permeability disturbances played a secondary role in pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to correlate the histochemical observations on glycogen with a quantitative assessment of the glycogen in the irradiated brain tissue. It is felt that such a study may contribute to the understanding of radiation injury at the molecular level. A practical aspect of this problem is that the information on biological radiation effects due to accelerated particles from the cyclotron source, is employed in this study, is applicable to radiation from cosmic particles both in free space and entrapped in the Van Allen belts.

  19. Antisense oligonucleotide targeting TNF-alpha can suppress Co-Cr-Mo particle-induced osteolysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Lei; Wang, Rui; Zhu, Yi-An; Wang, Chunming; Diao, Huajia; Zhang, Chenyu; Zhao, Jianning; Zhang, Junfeng

    2008-08-01

    The most common cause of implant failure in joint replacement is aseptic loosening due to particle-induced osteolysis. TNF-alpha has been shown to be one of the key factors in the process of osteoclastogenesis. Anti-TNF agents are useful in the treatment of joint inflammation related to osteolysis. This study investigated the effect of a single subcutaneous dose of an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) on particle-induced osteolysis. We utilized the murine calvaria osteolysis model in C57BL/J6 mice. Bone resorption was measured by the toluidine blue staining. Osteoclasts were detected by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining assay and were quantified by a TRAP quantification kit. Results show that bone resorption is 0.347 +/- 0.09 mm(2) in mice with particle implantation, and decreased to 0.123 +/- 0.05 mm(2) and 0.052 +/- 0.02 mm(2) after ASO treatment with low and high doses, respectively. The number of osteoclasts in animal calvaria treated with ASO is reduced compared with that of untreated animals, and the quantification results indicate that about 90% of osteoclastogenesis is suppressed by the ASO. In addition, the osteoclastogenesis can be reestablished by the addition of TNF-alpha. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the antisense oligonucleotide targeting to TNF-alpha can suppress osteolysis induced by metal particles in a murine calvaria model. This new finding may be of value in the search for novel therapeutic methods for implant loosening. PMID:18327794

  20. Relative Biological Effectiveness of Alpha-Particle Emitters In Vivo at Low Doses

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Roger W.; Azure, Michael T.; Narra, Venkat R.; Rao, Dandamudi V.

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of radionuclides that emit α particles, as well as their associated health hazards, have attracted considerable attention. The 224Ra daughters 212Pb and 212Bi, by virtue of their radiation properties which involve emission of α and β particles in their decay to stable 208Pb, have been proposed as candidates for radioimmunotherapy. Using mouse testes as the experimental model and testicular spermhead survival as the biological end point, the present work examines the radiotoxicity of 212Pb and its daughters. When 212Pb, in equilibrium with its daughters 212Bi, 212Po and 208Tl, was administered directly into the testis, the dose required to achieve 37% survival (D37) was 0.143 ± 0.014 Gy and the corresponding RBE of the mixed radiation field was 4.7 when compared to the D37 for acute external 120 kVp X rays. This datum, in conjunction with our earlier results for 210Po, was used to obtain an RBE–LET relationship for α particles emitted by tissue-incorporated radionuclides: RBEα = 4.8 − 6.1 × 10−2 LET + 1.0 × 10−3 LET2. Similarly, the dependence of RBE on α-particle energy Eα was given by RBEα=22Eα−0.73. These relationships, based on in vivo experimental data, may be valuable in predicting biological effects of α-particle emitters. PMID:8146279

  1. Cryogenic microcalorimeter system for ultra-high resolution alpha-particle spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, Michael W; Hoover, Andrew S; Bacrania, Mnesh K; Croce, Mark P; Hoteling, N J; Lamont, S P; Plionis, A A; Dry, D E; Ullom, J N; Bennett, D A; Horansky, R; Kotsubo, V; Cantor, R

    2009-01-01

    Microcalorimeters have been shown to yield unsurpassed energy resolution for alpha spectrometry, up to 1.06 keV FWHM at 5.3 MeV. These detectors use a superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) to measure the temperature change in an absorber from energy deposited by an interacting alpha particle. Our system has four independent detectors mounted inside a liquid nitrogen/liquid helium cryostat. An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) cools the detector stage to its operating temperature of 80 mK. Temperature regulation with {approx}15 uK peak-to-peak variation is achieved by PID control of the ADR. The detectors are voltage-biased, and the current signal is amplified by a commercial SQUID readout system and digitized for further analysis, This paper will discuss design and operation of our microcalorimeter alpha spectrometer, and will show recent results.

  2. Geometrical parameters of tracks registered by collimated alpha particles on CR-39 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshirao, Pranav M.; Shin, Jae Won; Kim, Do Yoon; Hong, Seung-Woo; Kolekar, Rajesh V.; Manchanda, Vijay Kumar

    2015-05-01

    The latent tracks formed on CR-39 solid state track detector on exposure of alpha radiations emanating from a collimated 241Am source were developed by a chemical etching method. Alpha track images were captured by an optical microscope and were processed by using Image Pro-Plus (6.0) software. GEANT4 simulations were carried out to obtain the angular and energy distribution profiles of the alpha particles. Apart from fluence, geometric parameters like aspect ratio (the ratio of the major to minor axis) and the depth profiles of etched tracks were measured experimentally and correlated with simulated angular and energy profile of incident radiations. Reasonable agreement was observed in the fluence and depth profile information obtained from experiments and simulations.

  3. Factors influencing the number distribution and size of the particles emitted from a modern diesel vehicle in real urban traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, C. C.; Domínguez-Sáez, A.; Rubio, J. R.; Pujadas, M.

    2012-09-01

    Particle emissions from diesel engine cars depend firstly on exhaust aftertreatment systems but the use of the vehicle becomes also crucial. In urban areas, this use depends on: transport demand, route choices, traffic density, street conditions, weather, driver behaviour and topographical characteristics of the roads. Nowadays, most diesel vehicles in urban areas across Europe are equipped with exhaust aftertreatment systems aiming to reduce the total mass of emitted particles. In comparison to earlier aftertreatment systems, the implementation of modern procedures is causing a reduction in the size of the emitted particles up to a nanometric range. The main goal of this work is the characterization of particle size and number distribution in the submicrometric range from a modern diesel vehicle emission in real traffic conditions in the city of Madrid with the purpose of assessing the actual weight of the different city parameters influencing the particle emission. In order to accomplish this objective, up to 12 on board emission measurement experiments have been performed with a Euro IV Diesel passenger car driving along a single urban circuit in Madrid City. To cover the main external factors, stretch, traffic conditions and driving directions have been considered as independent variables for this study. Assuming a proper car operating conditions, the results show that street characteristics, vehicle density and topographic features are the main factors conditioning the particle emission. Extrapolating our results, a diesel standard passenger car circulating across a city like Madrid can emit more nanoparticles per kilometre (up to 114% more in this study) at peak hour than at off peak hour. Moreover, the driving direction can also influence dramatically the emission of nanoparticles per second. This difference in the emission rate depends on the street but in our study it can be higher than 110% depending on the driving direction.

  4. Optical properties of green-blue-emitting Ca-{alpha}-Sialon:Ce{sup 3+},Li{sup +} phosphors for white light-emitting diodes (LEDs)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui-Li; Zhou, Guo-Hong; Xie, Rong-Jun; Hirosaki, Naoto; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Zhuo

    2011-05-15

    Ce{sup 3+},Li{sup +}-codoped Ca-{alpha}-Sialon phosphors with the formula [Ca{sub (1-2x)}Ce{sub x}Li{sub x}]{sub m/2}Si{sub 12-(m+n)}Al{sub m+n}O{sub n}N{sub 16-n} (0{<=}x{<=}0.25, 0.5{<=}m{<=}3.5, and 0.16{<=}n{<=}2.0) have been synthesized by gas pressure sintering (GPS). The effects of the activator concentration and the overall composition of host lattice on the phase evolution, morphology, and optical properties were investigated. The single-phase Ca-{alpha}-Sialon:Ce{sup 3+},Li{sup +} can be synthesized at x<0.1, 1.0{<=}m{<=}2.5, and n{<=}1.2. The synthesized powders exhibit a relatively dispersive and uniform morphology. Under the near UV excitation, the bright green-blue emission centered at 500-518 nm is observed. The photoluminescence can be tailored by controlling Ce{sup 3+} concentration and the overall composition of the {alpha}-Sialon host lattice. With increasing the Ce concentration and m value both excitation and emission bands show a red shift, which perfectly matches with the near-UV LEDs in the range of 360-410 nm. The strongest luminescence is achieved at x=0.08-0.1, m=2.0-2.5, and n=1.0. Simultaneously, the highest quantum efficiency and better thermal stability are also present. -- Graphical abstract: Dependence of photoluminescence intensity and normalized photoluminescence spectra (the inset) of Ca-{alpha}-Sialon:Ce{sup 3+},Li{sup +} on the host lattice composition: (a) m value and (b) n value Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} The optical properties of [Ca{sub (1-2x)}Ce{sub x}Li{sub x}]{sub m/2}Si{sub 12-(m+n)}Al{sub m+n}O{sub n}N{sub 16-n} (0{<=}x{<=}0.25, 0.5{<=}m{<=}3.5, 0.16{<=}n{<=}2.0) have been investigated. {yields} Excited by near UV, the bright green emission centered at 500-518 nm is observed. {yields} The photoluminescence can be tailored by controlling Ce{sup 3+} content and host lattice composition. {yields} The strongest luminescence is achieved at x=0.08-0.1, m=2.0-2.5, and n=1.0. {yields} The highest quantum efficiency and better thermal stability are also present.

  5. Development and Application of A Membrane-Based Thermodenuder for Measurement of Volatile Particles Emitted by A Jet Turbine Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of volatile particles emitted by modern jet engines is a daunting task. Besides the complexity in sampling jet aircraft exhaust, the main difficulty lies at how to faithfully capture the phase-partition dynamics of volatile particles as they travel downstream from the engine exhaust nozzle. As a result, the physico-chemical properties of the exhaust are also transformed. We have developed a sampling instrument that aims at enabling study of the phase-partition dynamics. The objective of this research project was to design and evaluate a new thermodenuder for performing phase separation of the engine-emitted volatile particles. The backbone of the new thermodenuder is a thin metallic membrane. The membrane enables extraction of molecules that can be thermally desorbed from the condensed particulate phases and collected for subsequent chemical analysis. Toward realization of the technique in the future field aircraft emissions measurement we tested this new thermo-denuding device using laboratory-generated particles that were made of non-volatile or semi-volatile chemicals. The particle penetration efficiency, a measure of the device performance, of this thermodenuder was found to be better than 99%. Results obtained from the tests executed at a number of operating temperature conditions show reasonably good thermal separation. We have scheduled to apply this new device to characterize emissions from a T63 turboshaft engine in the spring of 2010 and are expecting to show the engine results at the conference. The test results based on the laboratory-generated particles were encouraging for the intended application. With excellent particle transmission efficiency and an ability to simultaneously measure the composition in the gas and particle phases of the engine particles, we believe the new technology will make a great contribution to measurement research of engine emissions.

  6. Performance of an in-situ alpha spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Pöllänen, R

    2016-03-01

    Equipment was recently developed for detecting alpha particles from flat and smooth surfaces with good energy resolution at ambient air pressure. In this work, the detection efficiencies were determined using different extended-area sources emitting alpha and beta radiation and a mixed nuclide point source emitting alpha radiation. Beta particles are of importance because they can also be detected. Counts originating from alpha and beta particles are mainly at different energies, which make their separation possible. An efficiency of 0.14 was determined for an extended-area (>30cm(2)) homogeneous source emitting alpha radiation at the energy of 5-6MeV, whereas for the beta emitters the efficiencies were 0.07-0.19 depending on the beta-particle emission energies. The use of a collimator reduces the detection efficiencies by a factor of up to ten. PMID:26688356

  7. The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

    1973-01-01

    Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

  8. Variation in RBE for Survival of V79-4 Cells as a Function of Alpha-Particle (Helium Ion) Energy.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Bliss L; Stevens, David L; Goodhead, Dudley T; Hill, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    High linear energy transfer (LET) α particles are important with respect to the carcinogenic risk associated with human exposure to ionizing radiation, most notably to radon and its progeny. Additionally, the potential use of alpha-particle-emitting radionuclides in radiotherapy is increasingly being explored. Within the body the emitted alpha particles slow down, traversing a number of cells with a range of energies and therefore with varying efficiencies at inducing biological response. The LET of the particle typically rises from between ~70-90 keV μm(-1) at the start of the track (depending on initial energy) to a peak of ~237 keV μm(-1) towards the end of the track, before falling again at the very end of its range. To investigate the variation in biological response with incident energy, a plutonium-238 alpha-particle irradiator was calibrated to enable studies with incident energies ranging from 4.0 MeV down to 1.1 MeV. The variation in clonogenic survival of V79-4 cells was determined as a function of incident energy, along with the relative variation in the initial yields of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) measured using the FAR assay. The clonogenic survival data also extends previously published data obtained at the Medical Research Council (MRC), Harwell using the same cells irradiated with helium ions, with energies ranging from 34.9 MeV to 5.85 MeV. These studies were performed in conjunction with cell morphology measurements on live cells enabling the determination of absorbed dose and calculation of the average LET in the cell. The results show an increase in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for cell inactivation with decreasing helium ion energy (increasing LET), reaching a maximum for incident energies of ~3.2 MeV and corresponding average LET of 131 keV μm(-1), above which the RBE is observed to fall at lower energies (higher LETs). The effectiveness of single alpha-particle traversals (relevant to low-dose exposure) at inducing cell inactivation was observed to increase with decreasing energy to a peak of ~68% survival probability for incident energies of ~1.8 MeV (average LET of 190 keV μm(-1)) producing ~0.39 lethal lesions per track. However, the efficiency of a single traversal will also vary significantly with cell morphology and angle of incidence, as well as cell type. PMID:26121227

  9. Survival and yields of chromosome aberrations in hamster and human lung cells irradiated by alpha particles

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, J.A.; Cohn, P.; Min, T.

    1996-02-01

    The effects of {alpha}-particle irradiation on hamster and human lung cells have been studied. In both cases two end points were taken, cell death and the induction of chromosome aberrations. The hamster cells were common stock V79 cells; the human ones were freshly derived from fetal material. For both types of cells, the survival curves could be described by straight lines in the conventional exponential plot, with values of D{sub 0} of 0.78 and 0.37 Gy for the hamster and human cells, respectively. The rate of induction of chromosome aberrations could also be described by straight lines with slopes of 0.30 and 0.62 aberration per cell per gray. Thus, for this second end point also, it appears that human cells are twice as sensitive to the effects of {alpha}-particle irradiation as hamster cells. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Status of the JET Faraday cup lost alpha particle diagnostic KA-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecil, F. E.; Kiptily, V.; Darrow, D. S.; Murari, A.; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2012-09-01

    We review the operational status and present a few recent results from the JET lost alpha particle diagnostic KA2. We summarize the results of our study of the correlation between KA2 signals and JET magnetic fields and the correlation between KA2 signals and the scintillator-based lost alpha probe KA3. In addition we quantify the relative insensitivity of the diagnostic to intense neutron and gamma ray background radiation fields and our observations of the electro-mechanical noise in the diagnostics signals. We present recent observations carried out during the 2011 JET campaign following the installation of the beryllium ITER-like wall. These observations include lost energetic deuterons during both ion-cyclotron and neutral beam heated plasmas; in particular we have measured relatively intense fluxes of energetic particles during sawtooth plasmas.

  11. Alpha Particle Scintillation Analysis in High Pressure Argon Using Photomultiplier Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenz, Daniel

    2007-10-01

    We may very likely discover dark matter by studying what it is not rather than what it is. By better understanding how ordinary matter interacts with other ordinary matter, dark matter interactions should stand out. That's why physicists such as my mentor, Dr. James White, are studying the affects of scintillation events due to ionizing high pressure noble gasses with gamma rays, alpha particles, neutrons, and electrons. My project has been using photomultiplier tubes and a high pressure pure argon gas chamber to study scintillation events. We have focused mainly on alpha particles (as well as gamma rays from decaying Cobalt-57 and neutrons from a 4-MeV proton accelerator). The resulting shape of the events, the ratios of secondary to primary scintillation, and the ratios of triplet state to singlet state decay energies helps catalog ordinary matter interactions.

  12. Evidence for alpha-particle chain configurations in sup 24 Mg

    SciTech Connect

    Wuosmaa, A.H.; Betts, R.R.; Back, B.B.; Freer, M.; Glagola, B.G.; Happ, T.; Henderson, D.J.; Wilt, P. ); Bearden, I.G. )

    1992-03-02

    We have observed a strong peak in the excitation function for the inelastic scattering reaction {sup 12}C({sup 12}C,{sup 12}C(0{sub 2}{sup +})){sup 12}C(0{sub 2}{sup +}) at an energy of {ital E}{sub c.m.}=32.5 MeV. A recoil coincidence arrangement between two double-sided silicon strip detectors was used to detect the {alpha} particles from the decaying {sup 12}C nuclei, and the reconstructed reaction kinematics were used to calculate the two-body scattering {ital Q} value. This excitation-function structure may be interpreted as arising from very highly deformed {alpha}-particle chain configurations in the nucleus {sup 24}Mg.

  13. Candidate Reactions for Mercury Detection Induced by Neutron and Alpha Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Toth, James J.; Wittman, Richard S.; Schenter, Robert E.; Cooper, John A.

    2007-03-21

    This paper summarizes modeling of mercury to activated states with alpha particles, neutrons, or deuterons, and the spectral emission from the activated products. Activation can occur with a source such as 242Cf , 241Am-Be, a neutron generator, or a particle accelerator, and the activation products measured if sufficient signal is provided. Identification and measurement of mercury by prompt gamma emission, generated by bombardment with neutrons is reported. Activation product reactions of (α, xn) (d, xn) (n,γ) and (n,p) are screened as candidate reactions. Initial calculations indicate the potential use of either alpha, or 14 MeV neutron activation to assess part per billion concentrations of mercury in the gaseous phase. Ultimately, data from sample analysis of ambient conditions flue gas will be used to assess mercury detection sensitivity and specificity under typical operating conditions.

  14. Mutagenic effects of a single and an exact number of alpha particles in mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hei, T. K.; Wu, L. J.; Liu, S. X.; Vannais, D.; Waldren, C. A.; Randers-Pehrson, G.

    1997-01-01

    One of the main uncertainties in risk estimation for environmental radon exposure using lung cancer data from underground miners is the extrapolation from high- to low-dose exposure where multiple traversal is extremely rare. The biological effects of a single alpha particle are currently unknown. Using the recently available microbeam source at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility at Columbia University, we examined the frequencies and molecular spectrum of S1- mutants induced in human-hamster hybrid (A(L)) cells by either a single or an exact number of alpha particles. Exponentially growing cells were stained briefly with a nontoxic concentration of Hoechst dye for image analysis, and the location of individual cells was computer-monitored. The nucleus of each cell was irradiated with either 1,2,4, or 8 alpha particles at a linear energy transfer of 90 keV/microm consistent with the energy spectrum of domestic radon exposure. Although single-particle traversal was only slightly cytotoxic to A(L) cells (survival fraction approximately 0.82), it was highly mutagenic, and the induced mutant fraction averaged 110 mutants per 10(5) survivors. In addition, both toxicity and mutant induction were dose-dependent. Multiplex PCR analysis of mutant DNA showed that the proportion of mutants with multilocus deletions increased with the number of particle traversals. These data provide direct evidence that a single a particle traversing a nucleus will have a high probability of resulting in a mutation and highlight the need for radiation protection at low doses.

  15. Fusion alpha-particle losses in a high-beta rippled tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Bunno, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Shinohara, K.; Matsunaga, G.; Tani, K.

    2013-08-15

    In tokamak plasmas, the confinement of energetic ions depends on the magnetic field structure. If the plasma pressure is finite, the equilibrium current (i.e., the Pfirsch-Schlüter current and diamagnetic current) flows in the plasma to maintain the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium. These plasma currents generate poloidal and toroidal magnetic field and alter the field structure. Moreover, if we consider the non-axisymmetry of magnetic field structures such as toroidal field (TF) ripples, the non-axisymmetric component of the equilibrium current can alter TF ripples themselves. When the plasma beta becomes high, the changes in the field structure due to the equilibrium current might affect the confinement of energetic ions significantly. We intend to clarify how these currents alter the field structure and affect the confinement of alpha particles in high-beta plasma. The MHD equilibrium is calculated using VMEC and the orbits of fusion alpha particles are followed by using the fully three-dimensional magnetic field orbit-following Monte Carlo code. In relatively low-beta plasma (e.g., the volume-averaged beta value <β>≤2%), the changes in the magnetic field component due to the plasma current negligibly affect the confinement of alpha particles except for the Shafranov shift effect. However, for <β>≥3%, the diamagnetic effect reduces the magnetic field strength and significantly increases alpha-particle losses. In these high-beta cases, the non-axisymmetric field component generated by the equilibrium current also increases these losses, but not as effectively as compared to the diamagnetic effect.

  16. Nanodosimetry and nanodosimetric-based models of radiation action for radon alpha particles

    SciTech Connect

    Zaider, M.

    1992-01-01

    We report on a theory for describing the biological effects of ionizing radiation in particular radon [alpha] particles. Behind this approach is the recognition that biological effects such as chromosome aberrations, cellular transformation, cellular inactivation, etc, are the result of a hierarchic sequence of radiation effects. We indicate how to treat each of the individual processes in this sequence, and also how to relate one effect to the hierarchically superior one.

  17. Critical temperature for {alpha}-particle condensation within a momentum-projected mean-field approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sogo, T.; Roepke, G.; Lazauskas, R.

    2009-05-15

    {alpha}-particle (quartet) condensation in homogeneous spin-isospin symmetric nuclear matter is investigated. The usual Thouless criterion for the critical temperature is extended to the quartet case. The in-medium four-body problem is strongly simplified by the use of a momentum-projected mean-field ansatz for the quartet. The self-consistent single-particle wave functions are shown and discussed for various values of the density at the critical temperature. Excellent agreement of the critical temperature with a numerical solution of the Faddeev-Yakubovsky equation is obtained.

  18. Electrostatic ion-acoustic-like instabilities in the solar wind with a backstreaming alpha particle beam

    SciTech Connect

    Gomberoff, L.; Gomberoff, K.; Deutsch, A.

    2010-06-15

    Nonlinear electrostatic instabilities have been shown to occur frequently and under very different conditions in plasma with two ion beams such as the fast solar wind. These instabilities can be triggered when the phase velocity of electrostatic ion-acoustic waves propagating forward and backward relative to the interplanetary magnetic field overlaps due to the presence of a finite amplitude of circularly polarized wave. The instabilities can be triggered by waves supported by the same ion component, or by waves supported by different ion components. By assuming a beam of alpha particles moving backward relative to the external magnetic field, as observed in some events in the fast solar wind, it is shown that a very small negative drift velocity of the alpha particle beam relative to the core plasma--a few percent of the local Alfven velocity--can trigger a very rich variety of nonlinear electrostatic acousticlike instabilities. Their growth rates can be rather large and they persist for larger negative alpha particles drift velocities and temperatures.

  19. Radioluminescence of solid neodymium-doped laser materials excited by {alpha}-particles and fission fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Seregina, E A; Seregin, A A

    2013-02-28

    The characteristics of radioluminescence of Nd{sup 3+} : Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} crystals and laser glasses under excitation by plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) {alpha}-particles, as well as by {alpha}-particles and spontaneous fission fragments of californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf), are studied. The radioluminescence branching ratios {beta}{sub ij} for the transition from the {sup 2}F2{sub 5/2} level to the {sup 2S+1}L{sub J} levels in Nd{sup 3+} : Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} crystals are measured. Radioluminescence from the {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} level to low-lying levels is observed. The {beta}{sub ij} ratios for transitions from the high-lying {sup 2}F2{sub 5/2}, {sup 4}D{sub 3/2}, and {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} levels are theoretically calculated. The lifetimes of metastable levels of Nd{sup 3+} excited by {sup 252}Cf fission fragments are measured. The efficiency of the conversion of energy of {alpha}-particles and fission fragments to the energy of optical radiation of Nd{sup 3+} : Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12} crystals and laser glasses is determined. (active media)

  20. Acceleration of low-energy protons and alpha particles at interplanetary shock waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1983-01-01

    The low-energy protons and alpha particles in the energy range 30 keV/charge to 150 keV/charge associated with three different interplanetary shock waves in the immediate preshock and postshock region are studied using data obtained by the ISEE 3. The spatial distributions in the preshock and postshock medium are presented, and the dependence of the phase space density at different energies on the distance from the shock and on the form of the distribution function of both species immediately at the shock is examined. It is found that in the preshock region the particles are flowing in the solar wind frame of reference away from the shock and in the postshock medium the distribution is more or less isotropic in this frame of reference. The distribution function in the postshock region can be represented by a power law in energy which has the same spectral exponent for both protons and alpha particles. It is concluded that the first-order Fermi acceleration process can consistently explain the data, although the spectra of diffuse bow shock associated particles are different from the spectra of the interplanetary shock-associated particles in the immediate vicinity of the shock. In addition, the mean free path of the low energy ions in the preshock medium is found to be considerably smaller than the mean free path determined by the turbulence of the background interplanetary medium.

  1. Scattering of 42-MeV alpha particles from Cu-65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, W. M.; Seth, K. K.

    1972-01-01

    The extended particle-core coupling model was used to predict the properties of low-lying levels of Cu-65. A 42-MeV alpha particle cyclotron beam was used for the experiment. The experiment included magnetic analysis of the incident beam and particle detection by lithium-drifted silicon semiconductors. Angular distributions were measured for 10 to 50 degrees in the center of mass system. Data was reduced by fitting the peaks with a skewed Gaussian function using a least squares computer program with a linear background search. The energy calibration of each system was done by pulsar, and the excitation energies are accurate to + or - 25 keV. The simple weak coupling model cannot account for the experimentally observed quantities of the low-lying levels of Cu-65. The extended particle-core calculation showed that the coupling is not weak and that considerable configuration mixing of the low-lying states results.

  2. Redefining relative biological effectiveness in the context of the EQDX formalism: implications for alpha-particle emitter therapy.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Robert F; Howell, Roger W; Song, Hong; Baechler, Sébastien; Sgouros, George

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-particle radiopharmaceutical therapy (αRPT) is currently enjoying increasing attention as a viable alternative to chemotherapy for targeting of disseminated micrometastatic disease. In theory, αRPT can be personalized through pre-therapeutic imaging and dosimetry. However, in practice, given the particularities of α-particle emissions, a dosimetric methodology that accurately predicts the thresholds for organ toxicity has not been reported. This is in part due to the fact that the biological effects caused by α-particle radiation differ markedly from the effects caused by traditional external beam (photon or electron) radiation or β-particle emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The concept of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is used to quantify the ratio of absorbed doses required to achieve a given biological response with alpha particles versus a reference radiation (typically a beta emitter or external beam radiation). However, as conventionally defined, the RBE varies as a function of absorbed dose and therefore a single RBE value is limited in its utility because it cannot be used to predict response over a wide range of absorbed doses. Therefore, efforts are underway to standardize bioeffect modeling for different fractionation schemes and dose rates for both nuclear medicine and external beam radiotherapy. Given the preponderant use of external beams of radiation compared to nuclear medicine in cancer therapy, the more clinically relevant quantity, the 2 Gy equieffective dose, EQD2(α/β), has recently been proposed by the ICRU. In concert with EQD2(α/β), we introduce a new, redefined RBE quantity, named RBE2(α/β), as the ratio of the two linear coefficients that characterize the α particle absorbed dose-response curve and the low-LET megavoltage photon 2 Gy fraction equieffective dose-response curve. The theoretical framework for the proposed new formalism is presented along with its application to experimental data obtained from irradiation of a breast cancer cell line. Radiobiological parameters are obtained using the linear quadratic model to fit cell survival data for MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that were irradiated with either α particles or a single fraction of low-LET (137)Cs γ rays. From these, the linear coefficient for both the biologically effective dose (BED) and the EQD2(α/β) response lines were derived for fractionated irradiation. The standard RBE calculation, using the traditional single fraction reference radiation, gave RBE values that ranged from 2.4 for a surviving fraction of 0.82-6.0 for a surviving fraction of 0.02, while the dose-independent RBE2(4.6) value was 4.5 for all surviving fraction values. Furthermore, bioeffect modeling with RBE2(α/β) and EQD2(α/β) demonstrated the capacity to predict the surviving fraction of cells irradiated with acute and fractionated low-LET radiation, α particles and chronic exponentially decreasing dose rates of low-LET radiation. RBE2(α/β) is independent of absorbed dose for α-particle emitters and it provides a more logical framework for data reporting and conversion to equieffective dose than the conventional dose-dependent definition of RBE. Moreover, it provides a much needed foundation for the ongoing development of an α-particle dosimetry paradigm and will facilitate the use of tolerance dose data available from external beam radiation therapy, thereby helping to develop αRPT as a single modality as well as for combination therapies. PMID:24502376

  3. Redefining Relative Biological Effectiveness in the Context of the EQDX Formalism: Implications for Alpha-Particle Emitter Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Robert F; Howell, Roger W; Song, Hong; Baechler, Sébastien; Sgouros, George

    2013-12-30

    Alpha-particle radiopharmaceutical therapy (αRPT) is currently enjoying increasing attention as a viable alternative to chemotherapy for targeting of disseminated micrometastatic disease. In theory, αRPT can be personalized through pre-therapeutic imaging and dosimetry. However, in practice, given the particularities of α-particle emissions, a dosimetric methodology that accurately predicts the thresholds for organ toxicity has not been reported. This is in part due to the fact that the biological effects caused by α-particle radiation differ markedly from the effects caused by traditional external beam (photon or electron) radiation or β-particle emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The concept of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is used to quantify the ratio of absorbed doses required to achieve a given biological response with alpha particles versus a reference radiation (typically a beta emitter or external beam radiation). However, as conventionally defined, the RBE varies as a function of absorbed dose and therefore a single RBE value is limited in its utility because it cannot be used to predict response over a wide range of absorbed doses. Therefore, efforts are underway to standardize bioeffect modeling for different fractionation schemes and dose rates for both nuclear medicine and external beam radiotherapy. Given the preponderant use of external beams of radiation compared to nuclear medicine in cancer therapy, the more clinically relevant quantity, the 2 Gy equieffective dose, EQD2(α/β), has recently been proposed by the ICRU. In concert with EQD2(α/β), we introduce a new, redefined RBE quantity, named RBE2(α/β), as the ratio of the two linear coefficients that characterize the α particle absorbed dose-response curve and the low-LET megavoltage photon 2 Gy fraction equieffective dose-response curve. The theoretical framework for the proposed new formalism is presented along with its application to experimental data obtained from irradiation of a breast cancer cell line. Radiobiological parameters are obtained using the linear quadratic model to fit cell survival data for MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that were irradiated with either α particles or a single fraction of low-LET (137)Cs γ rays. From these, the linear coefficient for both the biologically effective dose (BED) and the EQD2(α/β) response lines were derived for fractionated irradiation. The standard RBE calculation, using the traditional single fraction reference radiation, gave RBE values that ranged from 2.4 for a surviving fraction of 0.82-6.0 for a surviving fraction of 0.02, while the dose-independent RBE2(4.6) value was 4.5 for all surviving fraction values. Furthermore, bioeffect modeling with RBE2(α/β) and EQD2(α/β) demonstrated the capacity to predict the surviving fraction of cells irradiated with acute and fractionated low-LET radiation, α particles and chronic exponentially decreasing dose rates of low-LET radiation. RBE2(α/β) is independent of absorbed dose for α-particle emitters and it provides a more logical framework for data reporting and conversion to equieffective dose than the conventional dose-dependent definition of RBE. Moreover, it provides a much needed foundation for the ongoing development of an α-particle dosimetry paradigm and will facilitate the use of tolerance dose data available from external beam radiation therapy, thereby helping to develop αRPT as a single modality as well as for combination therapies. PMID:24377718

  4. Redefining Relative Biological Effectiveness in the Context of the EQDX Formalism: Implications for Alpha-Particle Emitter Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Robert F.; Howell, Roger W.; Song, Hong; Baechler, Sébastien; Sgouros, George

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-particle radiopharmaceutical therapy (αRPT) is currently enjoying increasing attention as a viable alternative to chemotherapy for targeting of disseminated micrometastatic disease. In theory, αRPT can be personalized through pre-therapeutic imaging and dosimetry. However, in practice, given the particularities of α-particle emissions, a dosimetric methodology that accurately predicts the thresholds for organ toxicity has not been reported. This is in part due to the fact that the biological effects caused by α-particle radiation differ markedly from the effects caused by traditional external beam (photon or electron) radiation or β-particle emitting radiopharmaceuticals. The concept of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is used to quantify the ratio of absorbed doses required to achieve a given biological response with alpha particles versus a reference radiation (typically a beta emitter or external beam radiation). However, as conventionally defined, the RBE varies as a function of absorbed dose and therefore a single RBE value is limited in its utility because it cannot be used to predict response over a wide range of absorbed doses. Therefore, efforts are underway to standardize bioeffect modeling for different fractionation schemes and dose rates for both nuclear medicine and external beam radiotherapy. Given the preponderant use of external beams of radiation compared to nuclear medicine in cancer therapy, the more clinically relevant quantity, the 2 Gy equieffective dose, EQD2(α/β), has recently been proposed by the ICRU. In concert with EQD2(α/β), we introduce a new, redefined RBE quantity, named RBE2(α/β), as the ratio of the two linear coefficients that characterize the α particle absorbed dose-response curve and the low-LET megavoltage photon 2 Gy fraction equieffective dose-response curve. The theoretical framework for the proposed new formalism is presented along with its application to experimental data obtained from irradiation of a breast cancer cell line. Radiobiological parameters are obtained using the linear quadratic model to fit cell survival data for MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that were irradiated with either α particles or a single fraction of low-LET 137Cs γ rays. From these, the linear coefficient for both the biologically effective dose (BED) and the EQD2(α/β) response lines were derived for fractionated irradiation. The standard RBE calculation, using the traditional single fraction reference radiation, gave RBE values that ranged from 2.4 for a surviving fraction of 0.82–6.0 for a surviving fraction of 0.02, while the dose-independent RBE2(4.6) value was 4.5 for all surviving fraction values. Furthermore, bioeffect modeling with RBE2(α/β) and EQD2(α/β) demonstrated the capacity to predict the surviving fraction of cells irradiated with acute and fractionated low-LET radiation, α particles and chronic exponentially decreasing dose rates of low-LET radiation. RBE2(α/β) is independent of absorbed dose for α-particle emitters and it provides a more logical framework for data reporting and conversion to equieffective dose than the conventional dose-dependent definition of RBE. Moreover, it provides a much needed foundation for the ongoing development of an α-particle dosimetry paradigm and will facilitate the use of tolerance dose data available from external beam radiation therapy, thereby helping to develop αRPT as a single modality as well as for combination therapies. PMID:24502376

  5. Bismuth-213 and actinium-225 -- generator performance and evolving therapeutic applications of two generator-derived alpha-emitting radioisotopes.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Alfred; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Apostolidis, Christos

    2012-07-01

    The alpha emitters (225)Ac and (213)Bi are promising therapeutic radionuclides for application in targeted alpha therapy of cancer and infectious diseases. Both alpha emitters are available with high specific activity from established radionuclide generators. Their favourable chemical and physical properties have led to the conduction of a large number of preclinical studies and several clinical trials, demonstrating the feasibility, safety and therapeutic efficacy of targeted alpha therapy with (225)Ac and (213)Bi. This review describes methods for the production of (225)Ac and (213)Bi and gives an overview of (225)Ac/(213)Bi radionuclide generator systems. Selected preclinical studies are highlighted and the current clinical experience with (225)Ac and (213)Bi is summarized. PMID:22642390

  6. Applications of 211At and 223Ra in Targeted Alpha-Particle Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy using agents tagged with α-emitting radionuclides is gaining traction with several clinical trials already undertaken or ongoing, and others in the advanced planning stage. The most commonly used α-emitting radionuclides are 213Bi, 211At, 223Ra and 225Ac. While each one of these has pros and cons, it can be argued that 211At probably is the most versatile based on its half life, decay scheme and chemistry. On the other hand, for targeting bone metastases, 223Ra is the ideal radionuclide because simple cationic radium can be used for this purpose. In this review, we will discuss the recent developments taken place in the application of 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals and give an overview of the current status of 223Ra for targeted α-particle radiotherapy. PMID:22202151

  7. Range, energy loss, energy straggling and damage production for [alpha]-particles in uranium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzke, Hj.

    Energy loss and energy straggling of α-particles in UO 2 were measured for α-energies up to 8.78 MeV. α-sources of Pu-239 and a `multi-energy source' emitting α-particles of five different energies obtained by recoil implantation from a Th-228 source were coated with UO 2 layers of 17 different thicknesses. Confirmation of these results was obtained from Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, RBS/channeling experiments with UO 2 single crystals preimplanted with He-ions. The measured energy loss values were used to deduce the range-energy relation. The results are in good agreement with calculations using the code TRIM 96. The energy straggling results are discussed in the frame of Bohr's theory. Finally, defects and damage produced by α-particles and He-ions in UO 2 are briefly treated.

  8. Alpha particles induce pan-nuclear phosphorylation of H2AX in primary human lymphocytes mediated through ATM.

    PubMed

    Horn, Simon; Brady, Darren; Prise, Kevin

    2015-10-01

    The use of high linear energy transfer radiations in the form of carbon ions in heavy ion beam lines or alpha particles in new radionuclide treatments has increased substantially over the past decade and will continue to do so due to the favourable dose distributions they can offer versus conventional therapies. Previously it has been shown that exposure to heavy ions induces pan-nuclear phosphorylation of several DNA repair proteins such as H2AX and ATM in vitro. Here we describe similar effects of alpha particles on ex vivo irradiated primary human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Following alpha particle irradiation pan-nuclear phosphorylation of H2AX and ATM, but not DNA-PK and 53BP1, was observed throughout the nucleus. Inhibition of ATM, but not DNA-PK, resulted in the loss of pan-nuclear phosphorylation of H2AX in alpha particle irradiated lymphocytes. Pan-nuclear gamma-H2AX signal was rapidly lost over 24h at a much greater rate than foci loss. Surprisingly, pan-nuclear gamma-H2AX intensity was not dependent on the number of alpha particle induced double strand breaks, rather the number of alpha particles which had traversed the cell nucleus. This distinct fluence dependent damage signature of particle radiation is important in both the fields of radioprotection and clinical oncology in determining radionuclide biological dosimetry and may be indicative of patient response to new radionuclide cancer therapies. PMID:26116906

  9. Interaction of alpha particle beams with Fe-based and FeNi-based glassy ferromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Sorescu, M.; Barb, D.

    1996-12-31

    Samples of Fe{sub 78}B{sub 13}Si{sub 9} and Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 38}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 18} metallic glasses were irradiated with alpha particle beams (W = 2.8 MeV) using radiation doses of 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}2}. Irradiation-induced effects on the magnetic texture and phase composition of alloy samples were studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Related morphological changes and resultant crystalline precipitates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The evolution of phases and microstructure during the radiation-induced amorphous-to-crystalline transformation was found to depend on the particle flux and sample composition. The lowest radiation dose employed was found to be more effective in inducing amorphous-to-crystalline transformations in both ferromagnetic alloys studied. In addition, the FeNi-based amorphous system investigated was found to be more stale than the Fe-based metallic glass, exposed to the same particle-beam irradiation conditions. By stimulating unconventional pathways for the crystallization process, the interaction of alpha particle beams with glassy ferromagnets offers unique opportunities to understand the fundamentals of nucleation and growth in amorphous magnets.

  10. An Experiment to Measure Range, Range Straggling, Stopping Power, and Energy Straggling of Alpha Particles in Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouseph, P. J.; Mostovych, Andrew

    1978-01-01

    Experiments to measure range, range straggling, stopping power, and energy straggling of alpha particles are discussed in this article. Commercially available equipment with simple modifications is used for these measurements. (Author/GA)

  11. Experimental detection of alpha-particles from the radioactive decay of natural bismuth.

    PubMed

    de Marcillac, Pierre; Coron, Noël; Dambier, Gérard; Leblanc, Jacques; Moalic, Jean-Pierre

    2003-04-24

    The only naturally occurring isotope of bismuth, 209Bi, is commonly regarded as the heaviest stable isotope. But like most other heavy nuclei abundant in nature and characterized by an exceptionally long lifetime, it is metastable with respect to alpha-decay. However, the decay usually evades observation because the nuclear structure of 209Bi gives rise to an extremely low decay probability and, moreover, generates low-energy alpha-particles difficult to detect. Indeed, dedicated experiments attempting to record the alpha-decay of 209Bi in nuclear emulsions failed. However, scintillating bolometers operated at temperatures below 100 mK offer improved detection efficiency and sensitivity, whereas a broad palette of targets could be available. Here we report the successful use of this method for the unambiguous detection of 209Bi alpha-decay in bismuth germanate detectors cooled to 20 mK. We measure an energy release of 3,137 +/- 1 (statistical) +/- 2 (systematic) keV and a half-life of (1.9 +/- 0.2) x 10(19) yr, which are in agreement with expected values. PMID:12712201

  12. Induction of a bystander mutagenic effect of alpha particles in mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, H.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Waldren, C. A.; Vannais, D.; Hall, E. J.; Hei, T. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of X-rays was made by Rontgen more than a hundred years ago, it has always been accepted that the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation such as mutation and carcinogenesis are attributable mainly to direct damage to DNA. Although evidence based on microdosimetric estimation in support of a bystander effect appears to be consistent, direct proof of such extranuclear/extracellular effects are limited. Using a precision charged particle microbeam, we show here that irradiation of 20% of randomly selected A(L) cells with 20 alpha particles each results in a mutant fraction that is 3-fold higher than expected, assuming no bystander modulation effect. Furthermore, analysis by multiplex PCR shows that the types of mutants induced are significantly different from those of spontaneous origin. Pretreatment of cells with the radical scavenger DMSO had no effect on the mutagenic incidence. In contrast, cells pretreated with a 40 microM dose of lindane, which inhibits cell-cell communication, significantly decreased the mutant yield. The doses of DMSO and lindane used in these experiments are nontoxic and nonmutagenic. We further examined the mutagenic yield when 5-10% of randomly selected cells were irradiated with 20 alpha particles each. Results showed, likewise, a higher mutant yield than expected assuming no bystander effects. Our studies provide clear evidence that irradiated cells can induce a bystander mutagenic response in neighboring cells not directly traversed by alpha particles and that cell-cell communication process play a critical role in mediating the bystander phenomenon.

  13. Elemental Analysis of the Surface of Comet 67p/Churyumov-Gerasimenko with the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer APXS on the Rosetta Lander Philae: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingelhoefer, G.; Schmanke, D.; Girones-Lopez, J.; Brueckner, J.; d'Uston, C.; Economou, T.; Gellert, R.; Markovski, C.

    2014-12-01

    After a 10 years cruise the Rosetta probe has reached its final target, the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The main objectives of the mission are to gain more knowledge of the composition, the origin and formation of comets and the solar system. After extensive remote exploration of the comet the lander Philae will be separated to land on the comet surface, starting immediately examining its landing site with its scientific payload. Part of this payload is the APXS (Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer). It will measure in situ the chemical composition of the comet's surface and it's changes during the journey of the comet towards the sun. APXS is a combination of two spectrometers in one single instrument. It will irradiate the comet surface using Curium 244 sources, which are emitting alpha-particle and X-rays. In the alpha-mode the instrument uses alpha backscattering spectroscopy to detect lower Z elements like C, N and O and groups of elements with higher Z. In the X-ray mode alpha particle / X-ray induced X-ray spectroscopy (XRF) will allow the detection of most of the higher Z elements from Na up to Ni and above. Both modes will be always run in parallel allowing to determine lower and higher Z elements simultaneously. For 3 years the solar powered Rosetta probe had to pass a hibernation phase because of a long passage far away to the sun. After wakeup in January 2014 an extensive test phase of all instruments and subsystems has been performed, including the APXS. After landing on the comet an intense initial measurement phase of all instruments is planned, the First Science Sequence (FSS). It will be followed by a long term science phase (LTS). As long as possible APXS and the other instruments will continue to measure and monitor the changes and increasing activity of the comet during its journey towards the inner region of the solar system.The project is funded by the German Space Agency DLR under contracts 50 QP 0404 and 50 QP 0902. References: G. Klingelhöfer et al., The Rosetta Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS), Space Science Reviews, Vol.128 (2007) 383-396;

  14. Analysis of Individual Carbonaceous Particles Emitted from the Las Conchas Wildfire, Los Alamos, NM, in June-July 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzoleni, C.; China, S.; Gorkowski, K.; Flowers, B. A.; Aiken, A. C.; Dubey, M. K.

    2012-12-01

    Carbonaceous aerosol emitted from biomass burning contributes significantly to atmospheric aerosol loadings regionally and globally. The net direct radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosol can be positive and/or negative and this depends on its composition, morphology and mixing state. Biomass burning aerosols can also change the cloud properties as they can act as cloud condensation nuclei. In this study we investigated biomass burning particles emitted from the Las Conchas wildfire in northern New Mexico that started on June 26, 2011 and burned an area of 245 square miles. Aerosol samples were collected on nucleopore filters at the Los Alamos National Laboratory during the third week of the wildfire event. Individual particles (~4000) were investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to distinguish different carbonaceous particles and their shape, size, elemental composition and mixing state. A thermo-denuder was used to remove compounds that are volatile at temperatures up to 200 C, leaving behind the black carbon and any compounds that did not volatize completely. Smoke particles consisted of a) tar balls, which are amorphous spherical carbonaceous organic aerosols; b) organic particles with inorganic inclusions, c) soot particles and (d) soot with various inclusions. Two distinct kinds of tar balls, "electronically" dark and bright, were found using the field-emission scanning electron microscopy and were characterized for ambient and denuded conditions to understand coating effects and aging. It was found that dark tar balls are generally larger in size than the bright ones. Additionally, the difference between the size of ambient-bright and the size of denuded-bright tar balls was larger than the difference between the size of ambient-dark and the size of denuded-dark tar balls. EDS analysis showed that 70% of the dark tar balls had higher (~60%) relative oxygen content than in the bright tar balls. We conclude that there are two distinct kinds of biomass burning tar balls and that dark tar balls are less volatile than bright tar balls. The morphology of soot particles was also investigated by evaluating their fractal dimension for both ambient (coated with organic and inorganic material) and denuded samples at two different times of the day. The fractal dimension for ambient soot was found to be higher than for denuded soot due to the coating on the ambient soot particles. Finally, the monomer diameter decreased by up to 25% after denuding the particles. This study provides insights on the link between electron microscopy images of single particles and the mixing state, morphology, and evolution of different biomass burning aerosol at the beginning of their lifecycle.

  15. Dynamic radioactive particle source

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Murray E.; Gauss, Adam Benjamin; Justus, Alan Lawrence

    2012-06-26

    A method and apparatus for providing a timed, synchronized dynamic alpha or beta particle source for testing the response of continuous air monitors (CAMs) for airborne alpha or beta emitters is provided. The method includes providing a radioactive source; placing the radioactive source inside the detection volume of a CAM; and introducing an alpha or beta-emitting isotope while the CAM is in a normal functioning mode.

  16. Photons and particles emitted from cold atmospheric-pressure plasma inactivate bacteria and biomolecules independently and synergistically

    PubMed Central

    Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Schneider, Simon; Edengeiser, Eugen; Jarzina, Fabian; Brinckmann, Steffen; Steinborn, Elena; Havenith, Martina; Benedikt, Jan; Bandow, Julia E.

    2013-01-01

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas are currently in use in medicine as surgical tools and are being evaluated for new applications, including wound treatment and cosmetic care. The disinfecting properties of plasmas are of particular interest, given the threat of antibiotic resistance to modern medicine. Plasma effluents comprise (V)UV photons and various reactive particles, such as accelerated ions and radicals, that modify biomolecules; however, a full understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie plasma-based disinfection has been lacking. Here, we investigate the antibacterial mechanisms of plasma, including the separate, additive and synergistic effects of plasma-generated (V)UV photons and particles at the cellular and molecular levels. Using scanning electron microscopy, we show that plasma-emitted particles cause physical damage to the cell envelope, whereas UV radiation does not. The lethal effects of the plasma effluent exceed the zone of physical damage. We demonstrate that both plasma-generated particles and (V)UV photons modify DNA nucleobases. The particles also induce breaks in the DNA backbone. The plasma effluent, and particularly the plasma-generated particles, also rapidly inactivate proteins in the cellular milieu. Thus, in addition to physical damage to the cellular envelope, modifications to DNA and proteins contribute to the bactericidal properties of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma. PMID:24068175

  17. Bremsstrahlung in {alpha} Decay Reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Boie, H.; Scheit, H.; Jentschura, U. D.; Koeck, F.; Lauer, M.; Schwalm, D.; Milstein, A. I.; Terekhov, I. S.

    2007-07-13

    A high-statistics measurement of bremsstrahlung emitted in the {alpha} decay of {sup 210}Po has been performed, which allows us to follow the photon spectra up to energies of {approx}500 keV. The measured differential emission probability is in good agreement with our theoretical results obtained within the quasiclassical approximation as well as with the exact quantum mechanical calculation. It is shown that, due to the small effective electric dipole charge of the radiating system, a significant interference between the electric dipole and quadrupole contributions occurs, which is altering substantially the angular correlation between the {alpha} particle and the emitted photon.

  18. Orbit-averaged drift kinetic equation for the study of alpha-particle transport in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, G.T.; Miley, G.H. . Fusion Studies Lab.); Burrell, K.H. )

    1990-11-01

    Neoclassical transport of minority suprathermal alpha particles is investigated. This paper departs from previous investigations in that (a) the banana-width ordering parameter {rho}{sub {theta}}/L is not formally restricted to be a small parameter and (b) a linearized collision operator that retains the effects of pitch-angle scattering, electron and ion drag, and speed diffusion is used. A step model approximation for the large-aspect-ratio, circular-cross-section tokamak magnetic field is adopted to simplify the orbit-averaging procedure. Assuming that the suprathermal alphas are in the banana regime, an asymptotic expansion in {tau}{sub B}/{tau}{sub S} {much lt} l is carried out.

  19. Energy distribution of ternary {alpha} particles in spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf

    SciTech Connect

    Mutterer, M.; Kalben, J. von; Kopatch, Yu. N.; Yamaledtinov, S. R.; Lyapin, V. G.; Sillanpaeae, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Khlebnikov, S. V.; Tyurin, G. P.

    2008-12-15

    The energy distribution of the ternary {alpha} particles in spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf was measured. For the first time an energy threshold as low as 1 MeV was reached. The experiment used an array of unshielded silicon detectors measuring energy and time-of-flight (TOF) of ternary particles in coincidence with fission fragments. The TOF resolution of the system was sufficient for clear separation of {sup 6}He and tritons from {sup 4}He. The statistics were adequate to extract the {sup 6}He/{sup 4}He yield ratio. For both {sup 4}He and {sup 6}He, an excess in the yield (as compared to a Gaussian shape) was observed at energies below 9 MeV. The measured ternary {alpha} spectrum was corrected for the distortion induced by the detection geometry covering equatorial particle emission only. The emission angle was found to affect mainly the width of the energy distribution by up to 1 MeV.

  20. Proton and alpha particle precipitation onto the upper atmosphere of Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenberg Wieser, G.; Ashfaque, M.; Nilsson, H.; Futaana, Y.; Barabash, S.; Diéval, C.; Fedorov, A.; Zhang, T. L.

    2015-08-01

    We study the precipitation of protons and alpha-particles onto the upper atmosphere of Venus, using particle data recorded by the Venus Express spacecraft inside the induced magnetosphere. Our investigations are limited to the dayside close to the terminator. We observe on average a net downward flux of protons, which originate partly from the planetary atmosphere and partly from the solar wind. We present median energy spectra of the precipitating protons divided into two energy ranges, 10-100 eV and 100 eV-30 keV. The total dayside precipitation of solar wind protons is estimated to be 3×1022 s-1, assuming only protons with energies above 500 eV will reach the exobase. Downgoing protons are frequently observed but only in 3% of the available data records we see He2+. These observations are made close to the induced magnetosphere boundary and we argue that at lower altitude the countrates for alpha-particles fall below detection limits. We estimate the precipitation of He2+ onto the dayside exobase to be 1×1021 s-1, which is not enough enough to replace the helium escaping from the planet.

  1. Beams of protons and alpha particles greater than approximately 30 keV/charge from the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Ipavich, F. M.; Gloeckler, G.

    1981-01-01

    Two beamlike particle events (30 keV/charge to 160 keV/charge) upstream of the earth's bow shock have been investigated with the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland ultralow energy and charge analyzer on ISEE 1. These beams consist of protons as well as of alpha particles, and the spectra are generally steep and are decreasing with increasing energy. During one event the spectra of both protons and alpha particles have a maximum at approximately 65 keV/charge. During these events, the interplanetary magnetic field through the satellite position was almost tangent to the bow shock, and application of the theory of acceleration predicts acceleration of a solar wind particle up to 60 keV/nucleon in a single reflection. The observation of reflected protons as well as alpha particles has implications for the physical reflection process usually not discussed in acceleration theories.

  2. An alpha-particle irradiator for radiobiological research and its implementation for bystander effect studies.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Giuseppe; Antonelli, Francesca; Belli, Mauro; Campa, Alessandro; Simone, Giustina; Sorrentino, Eugenio; Tabocchini, Maria Antonella

    2009-11-01

    An experimental system based on an improved version of an existing alpha-particle irradiator has been developed for radiobiological studies, in particular those investigating bystander effects. It consists of a 20-mm-diameter stainless steel chamber that can be equipped alternatively with 244Cm or 241Am sources of different activities. Mylar-based petri dishes 56 mm in diameter were specially designed to house adaptors for permeable membrane inserts that reproduce the geometry of commercial cell culture insert companion plates. Characterization of the radiation field at the cell level was performed by experimental measurements and calculations. The average incident LET was about 122 keV/microm for 244Cm and about 125 keV/microm for 241Am. Dose rates at the chosen source-sample distance were 2.8 and 88.6 mGy/min, respectively. These low dose rates are suitable for our planned experiments on low-dose effects. For both sources, the uniformity of the alpha-particle dose was better than +/-7%, and the photon dose calculated at the cell entrance was negligible compared to the alpha-particle dose. The irradiator is small enough to be inserted into a cell incubator for irradiation under physiological conditions or into a refrigerator to prevent metabolic processes during irradiation. Benchmark experiments using the 241Am source to examine DNA double-strand breaks in directly hit and bystander primary human fibroblasts have shown that the irradiator can be used successfully for bystander effect studies. PMID:19883232

  3. Differential Velocity between Solar Wind Protons and Alpha Particles in Pressure Balance Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Yohei; Suess, Steven T.; Steinberg, John T.; Sakurai, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Pressure balance structures (PBSs) are a common high-plasma beta feature in high-latitude, high-speed solar wind. They have been proposed as remnants of coronal plumes. If true, they should reflect the observation that plumes are rooted in unipolar magnetic flux concentrations in the photosphere and are heated as oppositely directed flux is advected into and reconnects with the flux concentration. A minimum variance analysis (MVA) of magnetic discontinuities in PBSs showed there is a larger proportion of tangential discontinuities than in the surrounding high-speed wind, supporting the hypothesis that plasmoids or extended current sheets are formed during reconnection at the base of plumes. To further evaluate the character of magnetic field discontinuities in PBSs, differential streaming between alpha particles and protons is analyzed here for the same sample of PBSs used in the MVA. Alpha particles in high-speed wind generally have a higher radial flow speed than protons. However, if the magnetic field is folded back on itself, as in a large-amplitude Alfven wave, alpha particles will locally have a radial flow speed less than protons. This characteristic is used here to distinguish between folded back magnetic fields (which would contain rotational discontinuities) and tangential discontinuities using Ulysses high-latitude, high-speed solar wind data. The analysis indicates that almost all reversals in the radial magnetic field in PBSs are folded back field lines. This is found to also be true outside PBSs, supporting existing results for typical high-speed, high-latitude wind. There remains a small number of cases that appear not to be folds in the magnetic field and which may be flux tubes with both ends rooted in the Sun. The distinct difference in MVA results inside and outside PBSs remains unexplained.

  4. Differential Velocity Between Solar Wind Protons and Alpha Particles in Pressure Balance Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Y.; Suess, S. T.; Steinberg, J. T.; Sakurai, T.

    2003-01-01

    Pressure balance structures (PBSs) are a common high plasma beta feature in high latitude, high speed solar wind. They have been proposed as remnants of coronal plumes. If true, they should reflect the observation that plumes are rooted in unipolar magnetic flux concentrations in the photosphere and are heated as oppositely directed flux is advected into and reconnects with the flux concentration. A minimum variance analysis (MVA) of magnetic discontinuities in PBSs showed there is a larger proportion of tangential discontinuities than in the surrounding high speed wind, supporting the hypothesis that plasmoids or extended current sheets are formed during reconnection at the base of plumes. To further evaluate the character of magnetic field discontinuities in PBSs, differential streaming between alpha particles and protons is analyzed here for the same sample of PBSs used in the MVA. Alpha particles in high speed wind generally have a higher radial flow speed than protons. However, if the magnetic field is folded back on itself, as in a large amplitude Alfven wave, alpha particles will locally have a radial flow speed less than protons. This characteristic is used here to distinguish between folded back magnetic fields (which would contain rotational discontinuities) and tangential discontinuities using Ulysses high latitude, high speed solar wind data. The analysis indicates that almost all reversals in the radial magnetic field in PBSs are folded back field lines. This is found to also be true outside PBSs, supporting existing results for typical high speed, high latitude wind. There remains a small number of cases that appear not to be folds in the magnetic field and which may be flux tubes with both ends rooted in the Sun. The distinct difference in MVA results inside and outside PBSs remains unexplained.

  5. Secondary ion mass spectrometry combined with alpha track detection for isotope abundance ratio analysis of individual uranium-bearing particles.

    PubMed

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Magara, Masaaki

    2014-03-01

    Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) was used in combination with alpha track detection for the efficient analysis of uranium-bearing particles with higher (235)U abundances in environmental samples. A polycarbonate film containing particles was prepared and placed in contact with a CR-39 plastic detector. After exposure for 28 days, the detector was etched in a NaOH solution and each uranium-bearing particle was identified through observation of the alpha tracks recorded in the detector. A portion of the film containing each uranium-bearing particle was cut out and put onto a glassy carbon planchet. The films on the planchet were decomposed through plasma ashing for subsequent uranium abundance ratio analysis with SIMS. The alpha track-SIMS analysis of 10 uranium-bearing particles in a sample taken from a nuclear facility enabled n((235)U)/n((238)U) abundance ratios in the range 0.0072-0.25 to be detected, which were significantly higher than those obtained by SIMS without alpha track detection. The duration of the whole analytical process for analysis of 10 particles was about 32 days. The detection efficiency was calculated to be 27.1±6.5%, based on the analysis of the particles in uranium reference materials. The detection limits, defined as the diameter of the particle which produces alpha tracks more than one for a 28-days exposure, were estimated to be 0.8, 0.9, 1.1, 2.1 and 3.0 μm for the particles having the same uranium abundance ratios with NBL CRM U850, U500, U350, U050 and U010 reference materials, respectively. The use of alpha track detection for subsequent SIMS analysis is an inexpensive and an efficient way to measure uranium-bearing particles with higher (235)U abundances. PMID:24468381

  6. Atmospheric behavior of trace elements on particles emitted from a coal-fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondov, J. M.; Choquette, C. E.; Zoller, W. H.; Gordon, G. E.; Biermann, A. H.; Heft, R. E.

    Filter and cascade impactor samples of suspended particles were collected in-stack and at distances up to 64 km downwind in the plume of a large western coal-fired power plant equipped with both electrostatic precipitators (ESP) and venturi wet particulate scrubbers (VWS) to investigate modifications of the particulate signatures of minor and trace elements during transport. Samples were analyzed for 40 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Precipitator malfunction during the experiment caused greater than normal emission of large particles, and concentrations of As, Zn, Sb, Mo, Ga, W, U, V and Ba in near-plume particles collected on filters were enriched relative to their concentrations in stack particles by factors of 1.4 to 2.5, presumably because of sedimentation of very large particles. Selenium was enriched by up to 6-fold (plume:stack). However, enrichment of elements in the plume relative to more typical in-stack particles were insignificant for all elements except Se, which was enriched 2.3-fold. Concentrations of Se on particles in the stack and plume suggest that most of the Se vapor in stack gases became associated with aerosol particles soon after emission. Thus although significant post-emission modifications of elemental signatures of particles may occur for poorly controlled plants, little change is expected for well-controlled plants equipped with ESPs except for Se. Source signatures measured for Se must account for vapor deposition. Impactor data showed a preferential decrease in the concentrations of the above elements in submicrometer particles; suggesting that either intermodal coagulation or size selective sampling losses were important. The impactor data further suggest that enrichment-particle-size profiles for VWS emissions were not conservative during transport.

  7. Evidence for strong refraction of {sup 3}He in an {alpha}-particle condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkubo, S.; Hirabayashi, Y.

    2007-04-15

    We have analyzed {sup 3}He scattering from {sup 12}C at 34.7 and 72 MeV in a coupled channel method with a double folding potential derived from the precise wave functions for the ground 0{sup +} state and 0{sub 2}{sup +} (7.65 MeV) Hoyle state, which has been suggested to be an {alpha} particle condensate. It is found that strong refraction of {sup 3}He in the Hoyle state can be clearly seen in the experimental angular distribution at a low incident energy region as an Airy minimum of the prerainbow oscillations.

  8. The instrumental blank of the Mars Science Laboratory alpha particle X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. L.

    2012-10-01

    The alpha particle X-ray spectrometers on the Mars exploration rovers Spirit and Opportunity accomplished extensive elemental analysis of the Martian surface through a combination of XRF and PIXE. An advanced APXS is now part of the Mars Science Laboratory's Curiosity rover. APXS spectra contain contributions which enhance elemental peak areas but which do not arise from these elements within the sample under study, thereby introducing error into derived concentrations. A detailed examination of these effects in the MSL APXS enables us to test two schemes for making the necessary corrections.

  9. Chemistry of rocks and soils in Gusev Crater from the alpha particle x-ray spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Gellert, R; Rieder, R; Anderson, R C; Brückner, J; Clark, B C; Dreibus, G; Economou, T; Klingelhöfer, G; Lugmair, G W; Ming, D W; Squyres, S W; D'Uston, C; Wänke, H; Yen, A; Zipfel, J

    2004-08-01

    The alpha particle x-ray spectrometer on the Spirit rover determined major and minor elements of soils and rocks in Gusev crater in order to unravel the crustal evolution of planet Mars. The composition of soils is similar to those at previous landing sites, as a result of global mixing and distribution by dust storms. Rocks (fresh surfaces exposed by the rock abrasion tool) resemble volcanic rocks of primitive basaltic composition with low intrinsic potassium contents. High abundance of bromine (up to 170 parts per million) in rocks may indicate the alteration of surfaces formed during a past period of aqueous activity in Gusev crater. PMID:15297665

  10. Matrix Characterization of Plutonium Residues by Alpha-Particle Self-Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T.H.; Foster, L.A.; Staples, P.

    1998-07-26

    Legacy plutonium residues often have inadequate item descriptions. Nondestructive characterization can help segregate these items for reprocessing or provide information needed for disposal or storage. Alpha particle-induced gamma-ray spectra contain a wealth of information that can be used for matrix characterization. We demonstrate how this information can be used for item identification. Gamma-ray spectra were recorded at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility from a variety of legacy, plutonium-processing residues and product materials. The comparison and analysis of these spectra are presented.

  11. Elastic scattering of alpha particles and the phase of the nucleon-nucleon scattering amplitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, V.; Yin, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Glauber theory can describe elastic scattering of alpha particles by He-4, He-3, H-2, and H-1 at 7 GeV/c if the phase of the nucleon-nucleon elastic-scattering amplitude varies with momentum transfer. The phase variation leads to diffraction patterns differing markedly from those typical of constant-phase calculations and greatly affects the magnitudes of the intensities. These changes are mainly due to changes in the interference between amplitudes for different orders of multiple scattering and to a decrease in their moduli.

  12. Chemistry of Rocks and Soils in Gusev Crater from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gellert, R.; Rieder, R.; Anderson, R. C.; Brueckner, J.; Clark, B. C.; Dreibus, G.; Economou, T.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Lugmair, G. W.; Ming, D. W.

    2005-01-01

    The alpha particle x-ray spectrometer on the Spirit rover determined major and minor elements of soils and rocks in Gusev crater in order to unravel the crustal evolution of planet Mars. The composition of soils is similar to those at previous landing sites, as a result of global mixing and distribution by dust storms. Rocks (fresh surfaces exposed by the rock abrasion tool) resemble volcanic rocks of primitive basaltic composition with low intrinsic potassium contents. High abundance of bromine (up to 170 parts per million) in rocks may indicate the alteration of surfaces formed during a past period of aqueous activity in Gusev crater.

  13. Development of a He{sup 0} Source for Confined Alpha Particle Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, N.; Kisaki, M.; Iwazaki, K.; Kikuchi, M.; Okamoto, A.; Kobuchi, T.; Shinto, K.; Kitajima, S.; Sasao, M.; Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O.; Wada, M.

    2008-03-12

    A probing He{sup 0} beam for confined alpha particle measurement using a double charge exchange process is now under development. A proof of principle experiment for ground-state He{sup 0} beam production will be performed on a test stand. Several methods are developed to measure the metastable fraction of a He{sup 0} beam. A full-size strong-focusing He{sup +} source has been constructed and sufficient beam current was achieved with a beam size tolerable to be used on ITER.

  14. Final state interaction effects at higher energies in the photodisintegration of the {alpha}-particle

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedeldey, H.; Sofianos, S.A.; Ellerkmann, G. |

    1995-05-10

    Final State Interaction (FSI) effects are included in the photodisintegration of the {alpha}-particle by means of effective nucleon-trinucleon interactions constructed by inversion of the phase-shifts at energies 50--200 MeV. We show that the use of the Born approximation is justified and that the photonuclear cross sections are sensitive to the details of the bound state wave functions of the {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  15. Observation of the production of 8Li fragments in alpha-particle interaction with photoemulsion nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinina, V. V.; Egorenkova, N. P.; Pozharova, E. A.; Smirnitsky, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    About 37 × 103 events of alpha-particle interaction with photoemulsion nuclei were scanned. Among them, 339 events involving the production of a 8Li fragment and the decay 8Li →8 Be → 2α were found. Over the region extending up to 60 MeV, the energy spectrum of 8Li is consistent with the mechanism of fragment evaporation from an excited nucleus. At 8Li energies in excess of 70 MeV, the existence of a 8Li fragment in target nuclei before their interaction with a projectile is possibly observed with a probability of about 10-5.

  16. Generation of volatile organic compounds by alpha particle degradation of WIPP plastic and rubber material

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T.; Molecke, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    The generation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hydrogen, and carbon oxides due to alpha particle irradiation of polyethylene, polyvinylchloride, hypalon, and neoprene, is being investigated. A wide diversity of VOCs was found including alkenes, alkanes, alcohols, ketones, benzene derivatives, and nitro compounds. Their yields however, were quite low. The relative amounts of these compounds depended on the material, atmosphere present, and the absorbed dose. This investigation will help evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on the long-term performance assessment and regulatory compliance issues related to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP).

  17. Chemistry of rocks and soils at Meridiani Planum from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Rieder, R; Gellert, R; Anderson, R C; Brückner, J; Clark, B C; Dreibus, G; Economou, T; Klingelhöfer, G; Lugmair, G W; Ming, D W; Squyres, S W; d'Uston, C; Wänke, H; Yen, A; Zipfel, J

    2004-12-01

    The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer on the Opportunity rover determined major and minor elements of soils and rocks in Meridiani Planum. Chemical compositions differentiate between basaltic rocks, evaporite-rich rocks, basaltic soils, and hematite-rich soils. Although soils are compositionally similar to those at previous landing sites, differences in iron and some minor element concentrations signify the addition of local components. Rocky outcrops are rich in sulfur and variably enriched in bromine relative to chlorine. The interaction with water in the past is indicated by the chemical features in rocks and soils at this site. PMID:15576611

  18. Mapping alpha-Particle X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (Map-X)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bristow, T.

    2014-01-01

    Many planetary surface processes (like physical and chemical weathering, water activity, diagenesis, low-temperature or impact metamorphism, and biogenic activity) leave traces of their actions as features in the size range 10s to 100s of micron. The Mapping alpha-particle X-ray Spectrometer ("Map-X") is intended to provide chemical imaging at 2 orders of magnitude higher spatial resolution than previously flown instruments, yielding elemental chemistry at or below the scale length where many relict physical, chemical, and biological features can be imaged and interpreted in ancient rocks.

  19. PIXE-induced XRF by high energy protons and alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castiglioni, M.; Manfredi, G.; Milazzo, M.; Silari, M.

    1993-04-01

    In the past three years a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study has been conducted on the production of intense sources of monochromatic X-rays in the range 1-75 keV by bombardment of pure element targets with protons and alpha particles of tens of MeV energy. The present paper describes a dual-chamber irradiation system which has been designed and built for PIXE-induced XRF. Preliminary experimental results of analyses obtained with 20 MeV protons and a Zn primary target are shown.

  20. The propagation distance of the by-product ion beams emitted from neutral particle beam accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Borovsky, J.E.

    1989-11-01

    The effects of collective electric fields on the propagation of the positive-ion and negative-ion by-products from neutral particle beam accelerators are examined. For present and future space-based neutral particle beam experiments, it is shown that the by-product beams do not propagate across the earth's magnetic field. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Techniques for measuring particle size distribution of particulate matter emitted from animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Particle size distribution (PSD) is perhaps the most important physical parameter governing the airborne particle behavior. Various methods and techniques are available for conducting PSD analyses. Unfortunately, there is no single agreed upon method to determine the PSDs of particulate matter (PM) ...

  2. NIR-emitting molecular-based nanoparticles as new two-photon absorbing nanotools for single particle tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, J.; Godin, A. G.; Clermont, G.; Lounis, B.; Cognet, L.; Blanchard-Desce, M.

    2015-07-01

    In order to provide a green alternative to QDs for bioimaging purposes and aiming at designing bright nanoparticles combining both large one- and two-photon brightness, a bottom-up route based on the molecular engineering of dedicated red to NIR emitting dyes that spontaneously form fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) has been implemented. These fully organic nanoparticles built from original quadrupolar dyes are prepared using a simple, expeditious and green protocol that yield very small molecular-based nanoparticles (radius ~ 7 nm) suspension in water showing a nice NIR emission (λem=710 nm). These FONs typically have absorption coefficient more than two orders larger than popular NIR-emitting dyes (such as Alexa Fluor 700, Cy5.5 ….) and much larger Stokes shift values (i.e. up to over 5500 cm-1). They also show very large two-photon absorption response in the 800-1050 nm region (up to about 106 GM) of major promise for two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy. Thanks to their brightness and enhanced photostability, these FONs could be imaged as isolated nanoparticles and tracked using wide-field imaging. As such, thanks to their size and composition (absence of heavy metals), they represent highly promising alternatives to NIR-emitting QDs for use in bioimaging and single particle tracking applications. Moreover, efficient FONs coating was achieved by using a polymeric additive built from a long hydrophobic (PPO) and a short hydrophilic (PEO) segment and having a cationic head group able to interact with the highly negative surface of FONs. This electrostatically-driven interaction promotes both photoluminescence and two-photon absorption enhancement leading to an increase of two-photon brightness of about one order of magnitude. This opens the way to wide-field single particle tracking under two-photon excitation

  3. Alfven waves, alpha particles, and pickup ions in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, B. E.; Neugebauer, M.; Smith, E. J.

    1995-01-01

    Past studies of the properties of Alfven waves in the solar wind have indicated that (1) the amplitude of the velocity fluctuations is almost always smaller than expected on the basis of the amplitude of the field fluctuations, even when the anisotropy of the plasma is taken into account, and (2) the alpha particles do not participate in the wave motions because they 'surf' on the waves carried by the proton fluid. Ulysses data are used to demonstrate that (1) the discrepancy between the velocity and field fluctuations is greater at high heliographic latitudes than in the ecliptic plane, and (2) the alphas do participate in the waves, being either in phase or out of phase with the proton motions depending on whether the differential flow speed between the alphas and protons is greater than or less than the 'observed' wave speed, B(sub o)(delta v squared / delta B squared)exp 1/2, as determined from the ratio of the amplitudes of the velocity and magnetic fluctuations. It is proposed that the modification of Alfven wave propagation speed is due to pressure anisotropies resulting from asymmetric distributions of interstellar pickup ions. If the proposed explanation is correct, it indicates that scattering of pickup ions onto a (bi)spherical shell may not be as complete as generally supposed.

  4. A study of the scintillation light induced in liquid xenon by electrons and alpha particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena; Mukherjee, Reshmi; Suzuki, Masayo

    1990-01-01

    The time dependence and the intensity of the primary scintillation light in liquid Xe excited by Am-241 alpha particles and Bi-207 internal-conversion electrons were measured at different electric-field strengths. High-purity liquid Xe was used to fill a parallel-plate ionization chamber equipped with a CaF2 window coupled to a UV-sensitive photomultiplier tube. The effect of the specific ionization density on the scintillation light and the time correlation between the light signal and the charge signal is reported. It is demonstrated that the fast scintillation signal produced in liquid Xe by an ionizing particle provides an ideal trigger in a detector aiming at a complete three-dimensional event reconstruction with an excellent background rejection capability.

  5. THE ROLE OF ALPHA PARTICLES IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE SOLAR-WIND TURBULENCE TOWARD SHORT SPATIAL SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Perrone, D.; Valentini, F.; Veltri, P.

    2011-11-01

    We present a numerical study of the kinetic dynamics of protons and alpha particles during the evolution of the solar-wind turbulent cascade, in which the energy injected in large-scale slab-type Alfvenic fluctuations is transferred toward short spatial scale lengths, across the proton skin depth. We make use of a hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell code that integrates numerically the Vlasov equation for both the ion species, while the electrons are considered as a fluid. The system evolution is investigated in terms of different values of the electron to proton and alpha particle to proton temperature ratios. The numerical results show that the previously studied kinetic dynamics of protons is not strongly affected by the presence of alpha particles, at least when they are present in low concentration. Our simulations not only provide a physical explanation for the generation of beams of accelerated particles along the direction of the ambient magnetic field for both protons and alpha particles, but also show that this mechanism is more efficient for protons than for alpha particles, in agreement with recent solar-wind data analyses.

  6. The fine structure constant alpha: relevant for a model of a self-propelling photon and for particle masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greulich, Karl O.

    2015-09-01

    A model for a self propelling (i.e. massless) photon1 is based on oscillations of a pair of charges amounting to elementary charge divided by SQRT alpha, where alpha is the fine structure (Sommerfeld) constant. When one assumes a similar model for particles that do have rest mas (i.e. which are non- self propelling), alpha plays also a role in the rest masses of elementary particles. Indeed all fundamental elementary particle masses can be described by the alpha / beta rule2 --> m(particle) = alpha-n * betam* 27.2 eV /c2 where beta is the proton to electron mass ratio 183612 and n= 0….14, m= -1,0 or Thus, photons and particle masses are intimately related to the fine structure constant. If the latter would not have been strictly constant throughout all times, this would have had consequences for the nature of light and for all masses including those of elementary particles.

  7. Measurement of ion cascade energies through resolution degradation of alpha particle microcalorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Horansky, Robert D.; Stiehl, Gregory M.; Beall, James A.; Irwin, Kent D.; Ullom, Joel N.; Plionis, Alexander A.; Rabin, Michael W.

    2010-02-15

    Atomic cascades caused by ions impinging on bulk materials have remained of interest to the scientific community since their discovery by Goldstein in 1902. While considerable effort has been spent describing and, more recently, simulating these cascades, tools that can study individual events are lacking and several aspects of cascade behavior remain poorly known. These aspects include the material energies that determine cascade magnitude and the variation between cascades produced by monoenergetic ions. We have recently developed an alpha particle detector with a thermodynamic resolution near 100 eV full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) and an achieved resolution of 1.06 keV FWHM for 5.3 MeV particles. The detector relies on the absorption of particles by a bulk material and a thermal change in a superconducting thermometer. The achieved resolution of this detector provides the highest resolving power of any energy dispersive technique and a factor of 8 improvement over semiconductor detectors. The exquisite resolution can be directly applied to improved measurements of fundamental nuclear decays and nuclear forensics. In addition, we propose that the discrepancy between the thermodynamic and achieved resolution is due to fluctuations in lattice damage caused by ion-induced cascades in the absorber. Hence, this new detector is capable of measuring the kinetic energy converted to lattice damage in individual atomic cascades. This capability allows new measurements of cascade dynamics; for example, we find that the ubiquitous modeling program, SRIM, significantly underestimates the lattice damage caused in bulk tin by 5.3 MeV alpha particles.

  8. Systematics of pre- and near-scission {alpha}-particle multiplicities in heavy-ion-induced fusion-fission reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Y. K.; Biswas, D. C.; Choudhury, R. K.; Saxena, A.; Nayak, B. K.; John, Bency; Ramachandran, K.; Thomas, R. G.; Danu, L. S.; Joshi, B. N.; Mahata, K.; Pandit, S. K.; Chatterjee, A.

    2011-09-15

    The {alpha}-particle energy spectra have been measured in coincidence with fission fragments over a wide range of relative angles with respect to fragment emission direction in the {sup 11}B (62 MeV) + {sup 232}Th reaction. The {alpha}-particle multiplicity spectra have been fitted with moving source model to extract the precision ({alpha}{sub pre}) and near-scission ({alpha}{sub nse}) components. The present results, along with available data from the literature over a wide range of Z{sup 2}/A and the excitation energy of a compound system, have been analyzed to develop certain global features of the pre- and near-scission emission characteristics. It is seen that {alpha}{sub pre} values when normalized to E{sub CN}{sup 2.3} (E{sub CN} is the compound nucleus excitation energy) show a systematic linearly increasing trend with the {alpha}-particle emission Q value (Q{sub {alpha}}). The fraction of near-scission multiplicity is observed to be nearly the same at around 10% of the total precision multiplicity for all the systems.

  9. Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles

    PubMed Central

    China, Swarup; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Gorkowski, Kyle; Aiken, Allison C.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass burning is one of the largest sources of carbonaceous aerosols in the atmosphere, significantly affecting earth’s radiation budget and climate. Tar balls, abundant in biomass burning smoke, absorb sunlight and have highly variable optical properties, typically not accounted for in climate models. Here we analyse single biomass burning particles from the Las Conchas fire (New Mexico, 2011) using electron microscopy. We show that the relative abundance of tar balls (80%) is 10 times greater than soot particles (8%). We also report two distinct types of tar balls; one less oxidized than the other. Furthermore, the mixing of soot particles with other material affects their optical, chemical and physical properties. We quantify the morphology of soot particles and classify them into four categories: ~50% are embedded (heavily coated), ~34% are partly coated, ~12% have inclusions and~4% are bare. Inclusion of these observations should improve climate model performances. PMID:23824042

  10. Characterization and control of airborne particles emitted during production of epoxy/carbon nanotube nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Cena, Lorenzo G; Peters, Thomas M

    2011-02-01

    This work characterized airborne particles generated from the weighing of bulk, multiwall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the manual sanding of epoxy test samples reinforced with CNTs. It also evaluated the effectiveness of three local exhaust ventilation (LEV) conditions (no LEV, custom fume hood, and biosafety cabinet) for control of particles generated during sanding of CNT-epoxy nanocomposites. Particle number and respirable mass concentrations were measured using an optical particle counter (OPC) and a condensation particle counter (CPC), and particle morphology was assessed by transmission electron microscopy. The ratios of the geometric mean (GM) concentrations measured during the process to that measured in the background (P/B ratios) were used as indices of the impact of the process and the LEVs on observed concentrations. Processing CNT-epoxy nanocomposites materials released respirable size airborne particles (P/B ratio: weighing = 1.79; sanding = 5.90) but generally no nanoparticles (P/B ratio ?1). The particles generated during sanding were predominantly micron sized with protruding CNTs and very different from bulk CNTs that tended to remain in large (>1 ?m) tangled clusters. Respirable mass concentrations in the operator's breathing zone were lower when sanding was performed in the biological safety cabinet (GM = 0.20 ?g/m(3) compared with those with no LEV (GM = 2.68 ?g/m(3) or those when sanding was performed inside the fume hood (GM = 21.4 ?g/m(3); p-value < 0.0001). The poor performance of the custom fume hood used in this study may have been exacerbated by its lack of a front sash and rear baffles and its low face velocity (0.39 m/sec). PMID:21253981

  11. Trajectory of a test particle around a slowly rotating relativistic star emitting isotropic radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jae Sok; Kim, Hongsu; Lee, Hyung Mok

    2010-04-15

    We explored the motion of test particles near slowly rotating relativistic star having a uniform luminosity. In order to derive the test particle's equations of motion, we made use of the radiation stress-energy tensor first constructed by Miller and Lamb. From the particle's trajectory obtained through the numerical integration of the equations of motion, it is found that for sufficiently high luminosity, 'suspension orbit' exists, where the test particle hovers around at uniform angular velocity in the same direction as the star's spin. Interestingly, it turned out that the radial position of the suspension orbit was determined by the luminosity and the angular momentum of the star alone and was independent of the initial positions and the specific angular momentum of the particle. Also found is that there exist not only the radiation drag but also 'radiation counter drag', which depends on the stellar radius and the angular momentum, and it is this radiation counterdrag that makes the test particle in the suspension orbit hover around at a uniform angular velocity that is greater than that induced by the Lense-Thirring effect (i.e., general relativistic dragging of inertial frame).

  12. Monte-Carlo dosimetry on a realistic cell monolayer geometry exposed to alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberet, Ph; Vianna, F.; Karamitros, M.; Brun, T.; Gordillo, N.; Moretto, Ph; Incerti, S.; Seznec, H.

    2012-04-01

    The energy and specific energy absorbed in the main cell compartments (nucleus and cytoplasm) in typical radiobiology experiments are usually estimated by calculations as they are not accessible for a direct measurement. In most of the work, the cell geometry is modelled using the combination of simple mathematical volumes. We propose a method based on high resolution confocal imaging and ion beam analysis (IBA) in order to import realistic cell nuclei geometries in Monte-Carlo simulations and thus take into account the variety of different geometries encountered in a typical cell population. Seventy-six cell nuclei have been imaged using confocal microscopy and their chemical composition has been measured using IBA. A cellular phantom was created from these data using the ImageJ image analysis software and imported in the Geant4 Monte-Carlo simulation toolkit. Total energy and specific energy distributions in the 76 cell nuclei have been calculated for two types of irradiation protocols: a 3 MeV alpha particle microbeam used for targeted irradiation and a 239Pu alpha source used for large angle random irradiation. Qualitative images of the energy deposited along the particle tracks have been produced and show good agreement with images of DNA double strand break signalling proteins obtained experimentally. The methodology presented in this paper provides microdosimetric quantities calculated from realistic cellular volumes. It is based on open-source oriented software that is publicly available.

  13. Monte-Carlo dosimetry on a realistic cell monolayer geometry exposed to alpha particles.

    PubMed

    Barberet, Ph; Vianna, F; Karamitros, M; Brun, T; Gordillo, N; Moretto, Ph; Incerti, S; Seznec, H

    2012-04-21

    The energy and specific energy absorbed in the main cell compartments (nucleus and cytoplasm) in typical radiobiology experiments are usually estimated by calculations as they are not accessible for a direct measurement. In most of the work, the cell geometry is modelled using the combination of simple mathematical volumes. We propose a method based on high resolution confocal imaging and ion beam analysis (IBA) in order to import realistic cell nuclei geometries in Monte-Carlo simulations and thus take into account the variety of different geometries encountered in a typical cell population. Seventy-six cell nuclei have been imaged using confocal microscopy and their chemical composition has been measured using IBA. A cellular phantom was created from these data using the ImageJ image analysis software and imported in the Geant4 Monte-Carlo simulation toolkit. Total energy and specific energy distributions in the 76 cell nuclei have been calculated for two types of irradiation protocols: a 3 MeV alpha particle microbeam used for targeted irradiation and a ²³⁹Pu alpha source used for large angle random irradiation. Qualitative images of the energy deposited along the particle tracks have been produced and show good agreement with images of DNA double strand break signalling proteins obtained experimentally. The methodology presented in this paper provides microdosimetric quantities calculated from realistic cellular volumes. It is based on open-source oriented software that is publicly available. PMID:22456322

  14. Partition of thorium between organs of monkeys injected with thorotrast: implications for alpha-particle dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Y; Humphreys, J A; Wesch, H; Priest, N D

    1998-09-01

    Risk estimates for alpha-particle-induced malignancies have been based mainly on studies of Thorotrast patients, but certain aspects of its deposition in the body have been at issue: the partition between the liver, spleen and red bone marrow, and the deposition at lower concentrations in other organs, such as muscle and fat, which may contribute to the risk. To supplement the existing data for humans, thorium concentrations were measured in the organs of two female monkeys 3-4 years after injection with Thorotrast. Relative deposits (liver:spleen:red bone marrow) were 54:6:41 and 75:4:21, in better agreement with the most recent observations in Thorotrast patients than with previous reports. Whereas the human testis had ranked among intermediate-level organs such as the adrenal glands and pancreas, the ovary of the monkey was among the organs with the lowest concentrations. The data suggest that risk factors for induction of malignancies by alpha-particle irradiation should be re-examined. PMID:9728666

  15. Results of the Alpha-Particle-X-Ray Spectrometer on Board of the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, R.; Zipfel, J.; Brueckner, J.; Dreibus, G.; Lugmair, G.; Rieder, R.; Waenke, H.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity landed at Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) is part of the instrument suite on both rovers. It is equipped with six 244Cm sources which provide x-ray excitation with alpha-particles (PIXE) and x-ray radiation (XRF). This combination allows x-ray spectroscopy of elements from Na to Br in the energy range of 0.9 to 16 keV. X-ray detectors with a high energy resolution of 160 eV at Fe K allow us to separate even closely spaced energy peaks, such as Na, Mg, Al and Si. The APXS is attached to the rover s arm and provides in-situ measurements of the chemical composition of soils, surfaces of rocks and outcrops and their abraded surfaces. This abstract gives an overview of APXS results obtained during the first year of operation on both landing sites.

  16. An improved electrostatic integrating radon monitor with the CR-39 as alpha-particle detector.

    PubMed

    Fan, D; Zhuo, W; Chen, B; Zhao, C; Yi, Y; Zhang, Y

    2015-11-01

    In this study, based on the electrostatic integrating radon monitor (EIRM) developed by Iida et al., a new type of EIRM with the allyl glycol carbonate (CR-39) as alpha-particle detector was developed for outdoor radon measurements. Besides using the CR-39 to replace the cellulose nitrate film as alpha-particle detector, the electrode and the setting place of the CR-39 were also optimally designed based on the simulation results of the electric field and the detection efficiency. The calibration factor of the new EIRM was estimated to be 0.136±0.002 tracks cm(-2) (Bq m(-3) h)(-1), with the lower detection limit of 0.6 Bq m(-3) for a 2-month exposure. Furthermore, both the battery and the dry agent were also replaced to protect the environment. The results of intercomparison and field experiments showed that the performances of the new EIRM were much better than the original one. It suggests that the new type of ERIM is more suitable for large-scale and long-term outdoor radon surveys. PMID:25920784

  17. Detailed 8-transistor SRAM cell analysis for improved alpha particle radiation hardening in nanometer technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bota, Sebastià A.; Torrens, Gabriel; Verd, Jaume; Segura, Jaume

    2015-09-01

    Eight-transistor (8T) cells were introduced to improve variability tolerance, cell stability and low-voltage operation in high-speed SRAM caches by decoupling the read and write design requirements. Altogether, 8T-SRAM can be designed without significant area penalty over 6T-SRAM. Ionizing radiation effects are nowadays a major concern for reliability and dependability of emerging electronic SRAM devices, even for sea-level applications. In this paper we demonstrate from experimental results that the 8T-SRAM also exhibits an enhanced overall intrinsic tolerance to alpha particle radiation even though its critical charge values are smaller than conventional 6T cells. We have experimentally found that the soft error rate measured in accelerated experiments with alpha particles in SRAM devices implemented in a 65 nm CMOS is 56% better for 8T cells with respect to standard 6T-cells. Even more, we show that this value can be increased up to a 200% through transistor sizing optimization.

  18. Gross alpha, gross beta activities and gamma emitting radionuclides composition of rainwater samples and deposition to ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueñas, C.; Fernández, M. C.; Gordo, E.; Cañete, S.; Pérez, M.

    2011-02-01

    The radiometric composition of bulk deposition samples, collected monthly in a 5 year period (1 January 2005 until 31 December 2009) at a site located 30 m a.s.l in Málaga (4°28' 8″W; 36° 43'40″N), are analysed in this paper. Measurement of gross alpha, gross beta, artificial and natural radionuclide activity concentrations were carried out in 60 bulk deposition samples. We analysed the time series of gross alpha, gross beta 7Be, 210Pb and 40K. The specific activities of gross alpha and gross beta measured in bulk deposition material are in the range from 0.012-0.32 and 0.045-1.81 Bq l -1 and theirs mean values are: 0.11 and 0.59 Bq l -1 respectively. The activity values of 7Be and 210Pb are in the range from 0.65-8.3 and 0.05-1.32 Bq l -1 with mean values of 2.5 and 0.41 Bq l -1 respectively. The highest specific activities of 40K in bulk deposition material were recorded in connection with high altitude Saharan dust intrusion. The time variations of the different radionuclide concentrations have been discussed in relation with various meteorological factors and the mean values have been compared to those published in recent literature for other sites located at different latitudes. To study the deposition, monthly deposition data from a funnel collector were compared from 2005 to 2009.The monthly range in deposition fluxes for gross alpha varied widely (0.40-11 Bq m -2 month -1) and the average annual deposition is 21 Bq m -2 y -1. The monthly fluxes for gross beta varied (1.3-33.8 Bq m -2 month -1) and the average annual deposition is approximately 120 Bq m -2 y -1. The total annual deposition fluxes of 210Pb varied between 64.9 and 160.8 Bq m -2 y -1 with a mean of 120 Bq m -2 y -1. The annual 7Be depositional flux varied between 432 and 1204 Bq m -2 y -1 with a mean of 676 Bq m -2 y -1. Observed seasonal variations of deposition data are explained in terms of different environmental features. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of 7Be and 210Pb were moderately well correlated with rainfall ( r2 of 0.72 and 0.76 respectively) and well correlated one with the other ( r2 of 0.79).

  19. Chemical characterization of freshly emitted particulate matter from aircraft exhaust using single particle mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Brem, B. T.; Ellenrieder, M.; Durdina, L.; Rindlisbacher, T.; Wang, J.; Lohmann, U.; Sierau, B.

    2016-06-01

    Non-volatile aircraft engine emissions are an important anthropogenic source of soot particles in the upper troposphere and in the vicinity of airports. They influence climate and contribute to global warming. In addition, they impact air quality and thus human health and the environment. The chemical composition of non-volatile particulate matter emission from aircraft engines was investigated using single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The exhaust from three different aircraft engines was sampled and analyzed. The soot particulate matter was sampled directly behind the turbine in a test cell at Zurich Airport. Single particle analyses will focus on metallic compounds. The particles analyzed herein represent a subset of the emissions composed of the largest particles with a mobility diameter >100 nm due to instrumental restrictions. A vast majority of the analyzed particles was shown to contain elemental carbon, and depending on the engine and the applied thrust the elemental carbon to total carbon ratio ranged from 83% to 99%. The detected metallic compounds were all internally mixed with the soot particles. The most abundant metals in the exhaust were Cr, Fe, Mo, Na, Ca and Al; V, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and Zr were also detected. We further investigated potential sources of the ATOFMS-detected metallic compounds using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The potential sources considered were kerosene, engine lubrication oil and abrasion from engine wearing components. An unambiguous source apportionment was not possible because most metallic compounds were detected in several of the analyzed sources.

  20. Scattering of 42 MeV alpha particles from copper-65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, W. M.; Seth, K. K.

    1973-01-01

    Beams of 42-MeV alpha particles were elastically and inelastically scattered from Cu-65 in an attempt to excite states which may be described in terms of an excited core model. Angular distributions were measured for 17 excited states. Seven of the excited states had angular distributions similar to a core quadrupole excitation and eight of the excited states had angular distributions similar to a core octupole excitation. The excited state at 2.858 MeV had an angular distribution which suggests that it may have results from the particle coupling to a two-phonon core state. An extended particle-core coupling calculation was performed and the predicted energy levels and reduced transition probabilities compared to the experimental data. The low lying levels are described quite well and the wavefunctions of these states explain the large spectroscopic factors measured in stripping reactions. For Cu-65 the coupling of the particle to the core is no larger weak as in the simpler model, and configuration mixing results.

  1. Alpha-particle-driven instability of alfven waves in a tandem mirror. Final summary report, 21 February-20 May 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, S.K.

    1985-08-20

    Alpha particles born at D-T fusion are mirror confined in the tandem mirror due to their relatively high energy. Therefore, they have a loss-cone type distribution in the velocity space. This anisotropy is susceptible to microinstability. The objective of this work is to study the possible instability that can be driven by the alpha loss-cone. The low frequency (at the order of the ion cyclotron frequency) wave spectrum is studied to seek the waves that can be destabilized by the alphas. The radial mode structure is found for the growth rate calculation. The alpha particle distribution with a loss-cone is obtained from a Legendre function expansion and a diffusion front method. The growth rate of the instability is formulated from linear stability theory and computed numerically. A marginal stability boundary in the ion density and temperature parameters is calculated.

  2. TOXICITY OF PARTICLES EMITTED FROM COMBUSTION OF WASTE CRANKCASE OIL: IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ever-rising cost of energy provides incentives for the utilization of waste crankcase oil (WCO) for space heating. The potential health hazards of emissions and waste products resulting from the combustion of WCO are unknown. The toxicity of the emission particles and waste p...

  3. The evolution of energetic particles and the emitted radiation in solar flares. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Edward Tsang

    1989-01-01

    The evolution of accelerated particle distributions in a magnetized plasma and the resulting radiation are calculated, and the results are applied to solar flares. To study the radiation on timescales of order the particle lifetimes, the evolution of the particle distribution is determined by the use of the Fokker-Planck equation including Coulomb collisions and magnetic mirroring. Analytic solution to the equations are obtained for limiting cases such as homogeneous injection in a homogeneous plasma, and for small pitch angle. These analytic solutions are then used to place constraints on flare parameters such as density, loop length, and the injection timescale for very short implusive solar flares. For general particle distributions in arbitrary magnetic field and background density, the equation is solved numerically. The relative timing of microwaves and X-rays during individual flares is investigated. A number of possible sources for excessive microwave flux are discussed including a flattening in the electron spectrum above hard X-ray energies, thermal synchrotron emission, and trapping of electron by converging magnetic fields. Over shorter timescales, the Fokker-Planck equation is solved numerically to calculate the temporal evolution of microwaves and X-rays from nonthermal thick target models. It is shown that magnetic trapping will not account for the observed correlation of microwaves of approximately 0.15 seconds behind X-rays in flares with rapid time variation, and thus higher energy electrons must be accelerated later than lower energy electrons.

  4. Azimuthal asymmetries of particles emitted in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, T.; Akiba, Y.; Beavis, D.; Bloomer, M.A.; Bond, P.D.; Chasman, C.; Chen, Z.; Chu, Y.Y.; Cole, B.A.; Costales, J.B.; Crawford, H.J.; Cumming, J.B.; Debbe, R.; Duek, E.; Engelage, J.; Fung, S.Y.; Gushue, S.; Hamagaki, H.; Hansen, O.; Hayano, R.S.; Hayashi, S.; Haustein, P.E.; Homma, S.; Huang, H.Z.; Ikeda, Y.; Juricic, I.; Kang, J.; Katcoff, S.; Kaufman, S.; Kimura, K.; Kitamura, K.; Kurita, K.; Ledoux, R.J.; LeVine, M.J.; Miake, Y.; Morse, R.J.; Moskowitz, B.; Nagamiya, S.; Olness, J.; Parsons, C.G.; Remsberg, L.P.; Sakurai, H.; Sarabura, M.; Stankus, P.; Steadman, S.G.; Stephans, G.S.F.; Sugitate, T.; Tannenbaum, M.J.; van Dijk, J.H.; Videbaek, F.; Vient, M.; Vincent, P.; Vutsadakis, V.; Wegner, H.E.; Woodruff, D.S.; Wu, Y.D.; Zajc, W. Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Tanashi, Tokyo 188 Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 Massachusetts Institute of

    1993-03-08

    Experimental particle yield ratios from 14.6[ital A]-GeV/[ital c][sup 28]Si interactions with nuclei at intermediate impact parameters are correlated with the orientation of the transverse momentum of projectile fragments. The [pi][sup [plus minus

  5. Additive impacts on particle emissions from heating low emitting cooking oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amouei Torkmahalleh, M.; Zhao, Y.; Hopke, P. K.; Rossner, A.; Ferro, A. R.

    2013-08-01

    The effect of five additives, including table salt, sea salt, black pepper, garlic powder, and turmeric, on the emission of PM2.5 and ultrafine particles (UFP) from heated cooking oil (200 °C) were studied. One hundred milligrams of the additives were added individually to either canola or soybean oil without stirring. Black pepper, table salt, and sea salt reduced the PM2.5 emission of canola oil by 86% (p < 0.001), 88% (p < 0.001), and 91% (p < 0.001), respectively. Black pepper, table salt, and sea salt also decreased the total particle number emissions of canola oil by 45% (p = 0.003), 52% (p = 0.001), and 53% (p < 0.001), respectively. Turmeric and garlic powder showed no changes in the PM2.5 and total number emissions of canola oil. Table salt and sea salt, decreased the level of PM2.5 emissions from soybean oil by 47% (p < 0.001) and 77% (p < 0.001), respectively. No differences in the PM2.5 emissions were observed when other additives were added to soybean oil. Black pepper, sea salt, and table salt reduced the total particle number emissions from the soybean oil by 51%, 61% and 68% (p < 0.001), respectively. Turmeric and garlic powder had no effect on soybean oil with respect to total particle number emissions. Our results indicate that table salt, sea salt, and black pepper can be used to reduce the particle total number and PM2.5 emissions when cooking with oil.

  6. Bench-level characterization of a CMOS standard-cell D-latch using alpha-particle sensitive test circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, B. R.; Soli, G. A.; Buehler, M. G.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is described for predicting the SEU susceptibility of a standard-cell D-latch using an alpha-particle sensitive SRAM, SPICE critical charge simulation results, and alpha-particle interaction physics. Measurements were made on a 1.6-micron n-well CMOS 4-kb test SRAM irradiated with an Am-241 alpha-particle source. A collection depth of 6.09 micron was determined using these results and TRIM computer code. Using this collection depth and SPICE derived critical charge results on the latch design, an LET threshold of 34 MeV sq cm/mg was predicted. Heavy ion tests were then performed on the latch and an LET threshold of 41 MeV sq cm/mg was determined.

  7. Bench-level characterization of a CMOS standard-cell D-latch using alpha-particle sensitive test circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Blaes, B.R.; Soli, G.A.; Buehler, M.G. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper describes a methodology for predicting the SEU susceptibility of a standard-cell D-latch using an alpha-particle sensitive SRAM, SPICE critical charge simulation results, and alpha-particle interaction physics. Measurements were made on a 1.6-{mu}m n-well CMOS 4k-bit test SRAM irradiated with an Am-241 alpha-particle source. A collection depth of 6.09 {mu}m was determined using these results and TRIM computer code. Using this collection depth and SPICE derived critical charge results on the latch design, an LET threshold of 34 Mev cm{sup 2}/mg was predicted. Heavy ion tests were then performed on the latch and an LET threshold of 41 MeV cm{sup 2}/mg was determined.

  8. K-shell X-ray production cross sections of Ni induced by protons, alpha-particles, and He+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertol, A. P. L.; Hinrichs, R.; Vasconcellos, M. A. Z.

    2015-11-01

    The proton, alpha-particle, and He+ induced X-ray emissions of Ni were measured on mono-elemental thin films in order to obtain the K-shell X-ray production cross section in the energy range of 0.7-2.0 MeV for protons, 4.0-6.5 MeV for alpha-particles, and 3.0-4.0 MeV for He+. The proton-induced X-ray production cross section for Ni agreed well with the theoretical values, endorsing the quality of the measurements. The X-ray production cross section induced with alpha-particles is in good agreement with ECPSSR theory in the complete range of energies, while for He+ that quantity is systematically below. Kβ/Kα ratios were evaluated and compared with experimental and theoretical values.

  9. [Characteristics of water soluble inorganic ions in fine particles emitted from coal-fired power plants].

    PubMed

    Duan, Lei; Ma, Zi-Zhen; Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jing-Kun; Ye, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Currently, China suffers from serious pollution of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Coal-fired power plant is one of the most important sources of PM2.5 in the atmosphere. To achieve the national goals of total emission reductions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) during the 11th and 12th Five-Year Plan, most of coal-fired power plants in China have installed or will install flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and flue gas denitrification (DNO(x)) systems. As a result, the secondary PM2.5, generated from gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere, would be decreased. However, the physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 in flue gas would be affected, and the emission of primary PM2.5 might be increased. This paper summarized the size distributions of PM2.5 and its water soluble ions emitted from coal-fired power plants, and highlighted the effects of FGD and DNO(x) on PM2.5 emission, especially on water soluble ions (such as SO4(2-), Ca2+ and NH4+) in PM2.5. Under the current condition of serious PM2.5 pollution and wide application of FGD and DNO(x), quantitative study on the effects of FGD and DNO(x) installation on emission characteristics of PM2.5 from coal-fired power plants is of great necessity. PMID:25929084

  10. NACA Physicist Studying Alpha Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    NACA Physicits studying Alpha Rays in a continuous cloud chamber. A cloud chamber is used by Lewis scientists to obtain information aimed at minimizing undesirable effects of radiation on nuclear-powered aircraft components. Here, alpha particles from a polonium source emit in a flower-like pattern at the cloud chamber's center. The particles are made visible by means of alcohol vapor diffusing from an area at room temperature to an area at minus -78 deg. Centigrade. Nuclear-powered aircraft were never developed and aircraft nuclear propulsion systems were canceled in the early 1960s.

  11. Distributions of alpha particles escaping to the wall during sawtooth oscillations in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnichenko, Ya. I.; Lutsenko, V. V.; White, R. B.; Yakovenko, Yu. V.; Zweben, S. J.

    1999-04-01

    It has been observed experimentally in deuterium-tritium shots of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [D. J. Grove and D. M. Meade, Nucl. Fusion 25, 1167 (1985)] that crashes of sawtooth oscillations may result in very inhomogeneous flux of alpha particles to the wall. To explain this phenomenon, both theoretical analysis and numerical simulation have been carried out. It is concluded that the "crash-induced prompt loss," i.e., the orbital loss of marginally trapped particles arising because of the crash-induced orbit transformation of circulating particles, is responsible for the flux near the bottom of the vessel, whereas the crash-induced stochastic diffusion of moderately trapped particles explains the large signal near the equatorial plane of the torus. The calculated poloidal distributions of the integral alpha flux are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. The energy spectrum of the escaping particles has also been calculated, which can be used for diagnostics of the crash type.

  12. Transcriptional and secretomic profiling of epidermal cells exposed to alpha particle radiation.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew; Greene, Hillary Boulay; Wilkins, Ruth C

    2012-01-01

    Alpha (α)-particle emitters are probable isotopes to be used in a terrorist attack. The development of biological assessment tools to identify those who have handled these difficult to detect materials would be an asset to our current forensic capacity. In this study, for the purposes of biomarker discovery, human keratinocytes were exposed to α-particle and X-radiation (0.98 Gy/h at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 Gy) and assessed for differential gene and protein expression using microarray and Bio-Plex technology, respectively. Secretomic analysis of supernatants showed expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-13 and PDGF-bb) to be exclusively affected in α-particle exposed cells. The highest dose of α-particle radiation modulated a total of 67 transcripts (fold change>|1.5|, (False discovery rate) FDR<0.05) in exposed cells. Several genes which responded with high expression levels (>2 fold) included KIF20A, NEFM, C7orf10, HIST1H2BD, BMP6, and HIST1H2AC. Among the high expressing genes, five (CCNB2, BUB1, NEK2, CDC20, AURKA) were also differentially expressed at the medium (1.0 Gy) dose however, these genes were unmodulated following exposure to X-irradiation. Networks of these genes clustered around tumor protein-53 and transforming growth factor-beta signaling. This study has identified some potential gene /protein responses and networks that may be validated further to confirm their specificity and potential to be signature biomarkers of α-particle exposure. PMID:23002402

  13. Techniques for measuring particle size distribution of particulate matter emitted from animal feeding operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang-Li, Lingjuan; Cao, Zihan; Buser, Michael; Whitelock, Derek; Parnell, Calvin B.; Zhang, Yuanhui

    2013-02-01

    While various techniques for measuring particle size distributions (PSD) of particulate matter (PM) exist, there is no a single agreed upon standard or reference method for PM with different characteristics. This study investigated differences in the PSD measurements by four PSD analyzers: LS13 320 multi-wave length laser diffraction particle size analyzer, LS230 laser diffraction particle size analyzer, LA-300 laser scattering particle size analyzer, and Coulter Counter Multisizer3 (CCM3). Simultaneously collected total suspended particulate (TSP) samples in a commercial egg production house were analyzed by the four analyzers for PSDs. In addition, four types of testing powders (limestone, starch, No.3 micro aluminum, and No.5 micro aluminum) were also analyzed by these four PSD analyzers. The results suggest when comparing measured mass median diameters (MMDs) and geometric standard deviations (GSD) of the PSDs, the laser diffraction method (LS13 320, LS230 and LA-300) provided larger MMDs and broader distributions (GSDs) than the electrical sensing zone method (CCM3) for all samples. When comparing mass fractions of PM10 and PM2.5 between the measured values and the lognormal fitting values derived from the measured MMDs and GSDs, lognormal fitting method produced reasonably accurate PM10 mass fraction estimations (within 5%), but it failed to produce accurate PM2.5 mass fraction estimations. The measured PM2.5 mass fractions significantly differed from the lognormal fitting PM2.5 fractions and the mean differences reached as high as 95%. It is strongly recommended that when reporting a PSD of certain PM samples, in addition to MMD and GSD, the mass fractions of PM10 and PM2.5 should also be reported.

  14. Study of the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jianbing Zhang, Xianmei Yu, Limin Zhao, Xiang

    2014-02-12

    Part of the energy of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves may be absorbed by the α particles via the so-called perpendicular landau damping mechanism, which depends on various parameters of fusion reactors and the LH waves. In this article, we calculate the absorption coefficient γ{sub α} of LH waves due to α particles. Results show that, the γ{sub α} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ∥} while deceases with increasing the frequency of LH waves ω{sub LH} over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption, and there is a peak value of γ{sub α} when n{sub e}≈8×10{sup 19}m{sup −3} for ITER-like scenario. The thermal corrections to the cold plasma dispersion relation will change the damping rate to a certain extent under some specific conditions. We have also evaluated the fraction of LH power absorbed by the alpha particles, η ≈ 0.47% and 4.1% for an LH frequency of 5 GHz and 3.7 GHz respectively for ITER-like scenario. This work gives the effective reference for the choice of parameters of future fusion reactors.

  15. The optical, wettability and hardness properties of polyethylene improved by alpha particle irradiations.

    PubMed

    Zaki, M F

    2015-12-01

    In this work, the optical, chemical and morphological changes of alpha irradiated low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were investigated using UV/Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition to, the wettability and Vicker's Micro-Hardness have been studied using the contact angle measurements and Vicker's Micro-Hardness tester. The polymer samples are irradiated with different times of alpha particles. UV/Vis spectra show that the absorbance increases with increase in the irradiation time and the absorption edge shifts toward the higher wavelength. This indicates to a decrease in the optical band gap energy and an increase in number of carbon clusters. FTIR analysis reveals that the formation of CH groups and O-H has been observed and also indicated the presence of unsaturations due to vinyl end groups in the irradiated samples. Noticeable decreases in the contact angle of irradiated samples were observed. This decrease reflects the increase in the wettability and consequently the surface free energy. This behavior is due to the formation of oxidized layer on the irradiated surface polymer. Induced increasing in the Vicker's hardness in the irradiated polymers was observed, that can be attributed to crosslinking effects in the chain of the polymers. PMID:26184467

  16. The Evolution of Ly-alpha Emitting Galaxies Between z = 2.1 and z = 3.l

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall,Caryl; Wolf, Christopher; McCathran, Emily; Bond, Nicholas A.; Gawiser, Eric; Guaita, Lucia; Feldmeier, John J.; Treister, Ezequiel; Padilla, Nelson; Francke, Harold; Matkovic, Ana; Altmann, Martin; Herrera, David

    2011-01-01

    We describe the results of a new, wide-field survey for z= 3.1 Ly-alpha emission-line galaxies (LAEs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDF-S). By using a nearly top-hat 5010 Angstrom filter and complementary broadband photometry from the MUSYC survey, we identify a complete sample of 141 objects with monochromatic fluxes brighter than 2.4E-17 ergs/cm^2/s and observers-frame equivalent widths greater than 80 Angstroms (i.e., 20 Angstroms in the rest-frame of Ly-alpha). The bright-end of this dataset is dominated by x-ray sources and foreground objects with GALEX detections, but when these interlopers are removed, we are still left with a sample of 130 LAE candidates, 39 of which have spectroscopic confirmations. This sample overlaps the set of objects found in an earlier ECDF-S survey, but due to our filter's redder bandpass, it also includes 68 previously uncataloged sources. We confirm earlier measurements of the z=3.1 LAE emission-line luminosity function, and show that an apparent anti-correlation between equivalent width and continuum brightness is likely due to the effect of correlated errors in our heteroskedastic dataset. Finally, we compare the properties of z=3.1 LAEs to LAEs found at z=2.1. We show that in the approximately 1 Gyr after z approximately 3, the LAE luminosity function evolved significantly, with L * fading by approximately 0.4 mag, the number density of sources with L greater than 1.5E42 ergs/s declining by approximately 50%, and the equivalent width scalelength contracting from 70^{+7}_{-5} Angstroms to 50^{+9}_{-6} Angstroms. When combined with literature results, our observations demonstrate that over the redshift range z approximately 0 to z approximately 4, LAEs contain less than approximately 10% of the star-formation rate density of the universe.

  17. Effect of crystal thickness and geometry on the alpha-particle resolution of CsI (Tl)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martinez, P.; Senftle, F.E.

    1960-01-01

    The resolution of CsI(Tl) for Po210 alpha particles has been measured as a function of crystal thickness. The best resolution of a 12;-in. diam cylindrical crystal was obtained for a thickness of 0.38 mm, and the effect of thickness on the resolution is discussed. Based on the proposed model, a conical crystal was designed, which yielded a line width of 1.8% for Po 210 alpha particles with a selected photomultiplier tube. ?? 1960 The American Institute of Physics.

  18. Gas production due to alpha particle degradation of polyethylene and polyvinylchloride

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, D.T.; Hoh, J.; Emery, J.; Okajima, S.; Krause, T.

    1998-07-01

    Alpha particle degradation experiments were performed on polyethylene (PE) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) plastic samples typical of Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) transuranic (TRU) waste. This was done to evaluate the effects of sealing TRU waste during shipment. Experiments were conducted at three temperatures using low dose rates. Predominant products from both plastics were hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and various organic species, with the addition of hydrochloric acid from PVC. In all experiments, the total pressure decreased. Irradiation at 30 and 60 C and at various dose rates caused small changes for both plastics, but at 100 C coupled thermal-radiolytic effects included discoloration of the material as well as large differences in the gas phase composition.

  19. Electron correlations in single-electron capture from helium by fast protons and {alpha} particles

    SciTech Connect

    Mancev, Ivan; Milojevic, Nenad

    2010-02-15

    Single-electron capture from heliumlike atomic systems by bare projectiles is investigated by means of the four-body boundary-corrected first Born approximation (CB1-4B). The effect of the dynamic electron correlation is explicitly taken into account through the complete perturbation potential. The quantum-mechanical post and prior transition amplitudes for single charge exchange encompassing symmetric and/or asymmetric collisions are derived in terms of two-dimensional real integrals in the case of the prior form and five-dimensional quadratures for the post form. An illustrative computation is performed for single-electron capture from helium by protons and {alpha} particles at intermediate and high impact energies. The role of dynamic correlations is examined as a function of increased projectile energy. The validity and utility of the proposed CB1-4B method is critically assessed in comparison with the existing experimental data for total cross sections, and excellent agreement is obtained.

  20. Thermal and suprathermal protons and alpha particles in the earth's plasma sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ipavich, F. M.; Scholer, M.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed proton energy spectra in the quasi-stable distant plasma sheet over the energy range from approximately 13 keV to approximately 130 keV are presented. These spectra are compared with spectra of simultaneously measured alpha particles in the energy range from approximately 30 keV/Q to approximately 130 keV/Q. The proton spectra are then extended into the higher energy range up to approximately 1 MeV, thereby supplementing the study of Sarris et al. (1981). The temporal behavior of the spectra in the higher energy range is discussed. It is found that below about 16 keV the proton spectra can be represented by a Maxwellian distribution; above this level, a suprathermal tail is found that cannot be represented by a single power law.

  1. An alpha particle experiment for chemical analysis of the Martian surface and atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Economou, T. E.; Turkevich, A. L.; Patterson, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    An alpha particle experiment similar to the one performed successfully on the Surveyor lunar missions is described. It is designed to provide a chemical analysis of the Martian surface and atmosphere. Analyses of rocks of known and unknown compositions have been made under simulated Martian conditions. The accuracies attained are generally comparable to those of the Surveyor lunar analyses. Improvements have been achieved in determining carbon and oxygen, so that a few per cent of water or carbonates in rocks can be detected. Some aspects of the integration of such an experiment with the spacecraft, a possible mission profile, and some other problems associated with a soft-landing mission to Mars are discussed. The importance of such a chemical analysis experiment in answering current questions about the nature and history of Martian surface material and its suitability for life processes is presented.

  2. Solar flare protons and alpha particles during the last three solar cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goswami, J. N.; Mcguire, R. E.; Reedy, R. C.; Lal, D.; Jha, R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents solar-flare-associated proton and alpha-particle fluxes determined for major events from October 1972 through March 1987 (the period that represents the last part of solar cycle 20 and the whole of solar cycle 21), using data obtained by detectors on board the IMP-7 and IMP-8 satellites, along with earlier obtained data for cycle 20. It was found that the average omnidirectional flux of protons with kinetic energy above 10 MeV for cycle 21 (64/sq cm per sec) is lower than the corresponding number for cycle 20 (92/sq cm per sec) and for the cycle 19 (378/sq cm per sec). No definitive correlation was found to exist between cycle-averaged solar flare proton fluxes and peak sunspot numbers.

  3. Studies of Light and Charge Produced by Alpha-Particles in High-Pressure Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey; Ramsey, Brian

    1999-01-01

    The results of measurements of scintillation light induced by alpha-particles in high-pressure Xe are presented. The ratio of N(sub ex)/N(sub i) and the intensity and time characteristics of the luminescence signal have been measured for different densities up to 0.74 g/cc. The role and mechanisms of the electron-ion recombination in high-pressure gas have been investigated. The existence of clusters and self-trapped excitons above 0.6 g/cc has been observed and discussed. This work is a part of a development program of high-pressure Xe detectors for low-energy gamma rays.

  4. An alpha particle measurement system using an energetic neutral helium beam in ITER (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Sasao, M.; Tanaka, N.; Terai, K.; Kaneko, O.; Kisaki, M.; Kobuchi, T.; Tsumori, K.; Okamoto, A.; Kitajima, S.; Shinto, K.; Wada, M.

    2012-02-15

    An energetic helium neutral beam is involved in the beam neutralization measurement system of alpha particles confined in a DT fusion plasma. A full size strong-focusing He{sup +} ion source (2 A, the beam radius of 11.3 mm, the beam energy less than 20 keV). Present strong-focusing He{sup +} ion source shows an emittance diagram separated for each beamlet of multiple apertures without phase space mixing, despite the space charge of a beamlet is asymmetric and the beam flow is non-laminar. The emittance of beamlets in the peripheral region was larger than that of center. The heat load to the plasma electrode was studied to estimate the duty factor for the ITER application.

  5. Characterization of coal and charcoal by alpha-particle and gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco Lourtau, A. M.; Rubio Montero, M. P.; Jurado Vargas, M.

    2015-11-01

    Although coal and charcoal have similar physical and chemical characteristics, there are several crystallographic procedures used to distinguish and characterize them. But if the matrix is crushed, there is no standard procedure to distinguish coal from charcoal. In this work, a procedure to characterize coal and charcoal samples based on the radioactive content is proposed. The first assay is by gamma-ray spectrometry, which allows a part of the radioactive content to be determined rapidly and non-destructively. Then, alpha-particle spectrometry is applied to assay the content of those radionuclides which are difficult to determine precisely by gamma-ray spectrometry. This second technique requires prior chemical purification of the carbon sample in order to separate the corresponding radionuclides of interest.

  6. Collisional stochastic ripple diffusion of alpha particles and beam ions on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, M.H.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; White, R.B.; Budny, R.V.; Janos, A.C.; Owens, D.K.; Schivell, J.F.; Scott, S.D.; Zweben, S.J.

    1995-07-01

    Predictions for ripple loss of fast ions from TFTR are investigated with a guiding center code including both collisional and ripple effects. A synergistic enhancement of fast ion diffusion is found for toroidal field ripple with collisions. The total loss is calculated to be roughly twice the sum of ripple and collisional losses calculated separately. Discrepancies between measurements and calculations of plasma beta at low current and large major radius are resolved when both effects are included for neutral beam ions. A 20--30% reduction in alpha particle heating is predicted for q{sub a} = 6--14, R = 2.6 m DT plasmas on TFTR due to first orbit and collisional stochastic ripple diffusion.

  7. [Near infrared distance sensing method for Chang'e-3 alpha particle X-ray spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiao-Hua; Wu, Ming-Ye; Wang, Huan-Yu; Peng, Wen-Xi; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Wang, Jin-Zhou; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Yang, Jia-Wei; Fan, Rui-Rui; Gao, Min; Liu, Ya-Qing; Zhang, Fei; Dong, Yi-Fan; Guo, Dong-Ya

    2013-05-01

    Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) is one of the payloads of Chang'E-3 lunar rover, the scientific objective of which is in-situ observation and off-line analysis of lunar regolith and rock. Distance measurement is one of the important functions for APXS to perform effective detection on the moon. The present paper will first give a brief introduction to APXS, and then analyze the specific requirements and constraints to realize distance measurement, at last present a new near infrared distance sensing algorithm by using the inflection point of response curve. The theoretical analysis and the experiment results verify the feasibility of this algorithm. Although the theoretical analysis shows that this method is not sensitive to the operating temperature and reflectance of the lunar surface, the solar infrared radiant intensity may make photosensor saturation. The solutions are reducing the gain of device and avoiding direct exposure to sun light. PMID:23905352

  8. [Temperature effect correction for Chang'E-3 alpha particle X-ray spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Ye; Wang, Huan-Yu; Peng, Wen-Xi; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jin-Zhou; Yang, Jia-Wei; Fan, Rui-Rui; Liu, Ya-Qing; Dong, Yi-Fan; Wu, Feng; Zhao, Xiao-Yun

    2012-07-01

    Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) is one of the payloads of Chang'E-3 lunar rover of China's Lunar Exploration Project. The present paper introduces briefly the components of APXS, how it works and its working environment on the lunar surface. The environmental temperature effect has been studied with simulations and experiments, and the results show that the temperature of the APXS sensor will be varying during the measuring on the lunar surface. And another experiment reveals that the energy resolution becomes worse if the sensor's temperature is varying. In this paper, a correction method based on Pearson's chi-squared test is presented. The method can improve the energy resolution when the sensor's temperature is varying. We have tested the method with the spectra acquired by APXS in the temperature varying period of Temperature Cycling Test, and the results show that the method is efficient and reliable. PMID:23016364

  9. Evaluation of uncertainty components associated with alpha-particle spectrometric measurements of uranium isotopes in water.

    PubMed

    Seferinoğlu, Meryem; Dirican, Abdullah; Esra Erden, Pınar; Erçin, Demet

    2014-12-01

    Qualifications of uncertainties associated with the measurement of specific activity concentration of uranium radioisotope ((238)U) in water samples by alpha-particle spectrometry are presented. Possible sources of uncertainty are identified and quantified in the activity concentration measurements of (238)U isotope; the major source being the statistical counting uncertainty as expected. The combined relative standard uncertainty [Formula: see text] of the measurement was calculated as 1.4Bq kg(-1) (7.9%) for the investigated NPL sample. The accuracy and precision of recommended procedure were checked analysing six spiked water samples supplied from IAEA-proficiency test exercises. The results were evaluated in terms of relative bias, z-score, u-score, trueness and precision. These results show that the activity values and their uncertainties are in good agreement with recommended values. PMID:25306402

  10. Study of L-subshell ionization cross sections of Ho, Er, and Tm by {alpha} particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dhehadeh, B.A.; Hallak, A.W.; Garwan, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    The L-subshell ionization cross sections induced by 1 to 6 MeV {alpha} particles were measured for three elements of the rare earth group: holmium, erbium, and thulium. Simultaneous PIXE and RBS measurements were utilized. The measured cross sections were compared with the theoretical calculations of the ECPSSR theory. The comparison shows good agreement at high bombardment energies especially for L{sub 2} subshell. When the effect of intra-shell transitions (IS) induced by the Coulomb field of the projectile was included in the ECPSSR formalism, the systematic discrepancies between the theoretical and the experimental values at low energies were reduced. The L{sub 2} and L{sub 3} subshells discrepancies have been resolved only after the united atom effect (UA) has been incorporated into the theory. However; as the discrepancies of the L{sub 1} subshell remain to be addressed only possible reasons are discussed.

  11. Fission time scale from prescission neutron, proton, and {alpha} particle multiplicities in {sup 28}Si+{sup 175}Lu

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, K.; Chatterjee, A.; Navin, A.; Mahata, K.; Shrivastava, A.; Tripathi, V.; Kailas, S.; Saxena, A.; Thomas, R.G.; Kumar, Suresh; Sahu, P.K.; Nanal, V.; Pillay, R.G.

    2006-06-15

    Prescission neutron, proton, and {alpha}-particle multiplicities for the reaction {sup 28}Si+{sup 175}Lu at 159 MeV were measured simultaneously. The multiplicity data were analyzed using deformation dependent particle transmission coefficients, binding energies, and level densities to extract fission time scales and the mean deformation of the saddle-to-scission emitter. The neutron and charged particle data could be explained consistently, a better fit being obtained by considering the emission of neutrons to be favored toward larger deformation as compared to charged particles. The total fission time scale is deduced as 36-41x10{sup -21}s.

  12. Radioactive Positron Emitter Production by Energetic Alpha Particles in Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, R. J.; Kozlovsky, B.; Share, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of the 0.511 MeV positron-annihilation line from solar flares are used to explore the flare process in general and ion acceleration in particular. In flares, positrons are produced primarily by the decay of radioactive positron-emitting isotopes resulting from nuclear interactions of flare-accelerated ions with ambient solar material. Kozlovsky et al. provided ion-energy-dependent production cross sections for 67 positron emitters evaluated from their threshold energies (some <1 MeV nucleon-1) to a GeV nucleon-1, incorporating them into a computer code for calculating positron-emitter production. Adequate cross-section measurements were available for proton reactions, but not for α-particle reactions where only crude estimates were possible. Here we re-evaluate the α-particle cross sections using new measurements and nuclear reaction codes. In typical large gamma-ray line flares, proton reactions dominate positron production, but α-particle reactions will dominate for steeper accelerated-ion spectra because of their relatively low threshold energies. With the accelerated-3He reactions added previously, the code is now reliable for calculating positron production from any distribution of accelerated-ion energies, not just those of typical flares. We have made the code available in the online version of the Journal. We investigate which reactions, projectiles, and ion energies contribute to positron production. We calculate ratios of the annihilation-line fluence to fluences of other gamma-ray lines. Such ratios can be used in interpreting flare data and in determining which nuclear radiation is most sensitive for revealing acceleration of low-energy ions at the Sun.

  13. RADIOACTIVE POSITRON EMITTER PRODUCTION BY ENERGETIC ALPHA PARTICLES IN SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, R. J.; Kozlovsky, B.; Share, G. H. E-mail: benz@wise.tau.ac.il

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of the 0.511 MeV positron-annihilation line from solar flares are used to explore the flare process in general and ion acceleration in particular. In flares, positrons are produced primarily by the decay of radioactive positron-emitting isotopes resulting from nuclear interactions of flare-accelerated ions with ambient solar material. Kozlovsky et al. provided ion-energy-dependent production cross sections for 67 positron emitters evaluated from their threshold energies (some <1 MeV nucleon{sup –1}) to a GeV nucleon{sup –1}, incorporating them into a computer code for calculating positron-emitter production. Adequate cross-section measurements were available for proton reactions, but not for α-particle reactions where only crude estimates were possible. Here we re-evaluate the α-particle cross sections using new measurements and nuclear reaction codes. In typical large gamma-ray line flares, proton reactions dominate positron production, but α-particle reactions will dominate for steeper accelerated-ion spectra because of their relatively low threshold energies. With the accelerated-{sup 3}He reactions added previously, the code is now reliable for calculating positron production from any distribution of accelerated-ion energies, not just those of typical flares. We have made the code available in the online version of the Journal. We investigate which reactions, projectiles, and ion energies contribute to positron production. We calculate ratios of the annihilation-line fluence to fluences of other gamma-ray lines. Such ratios can be used in interpreting flare data and in determining which nuclear radiation is most sensitive for revealing acceleration of low-energy ions at the Sun.

  14. Searching for Neutral Hydrogen Halos Around z approx. 2.1 and z approx. 3.1 Ly(alpha) Emitting Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldmeier, John J.; Hagen, Alex; Ciardullo, Robin; Cronwall, Caryl; Gawiser, Eric; Guaita, Lucia; Hagen, Lea. M. Z.; Bond, Nicholas A.; Acquaviva, Viviana; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Orsi, Alvaro; Kurczynski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    We search for evidence of diffuse Ly(alpha) emission from extended neutral hydrogen surrounding Ly(alpha) emitting galaxies (LAEs) using deep narrow-band images of the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. By stacking the profiles of 187 LAEs at z = 2.06, 241 LAEs at z = 3.10, and 179 LAEs at z = 3.12, and carefully performing low-surface brightness photometry, we obtain mean surface brightness maps that reach 9.9, 8.7, and 6.2 × 10(exp -19) erg/sq cm/s/sq arcsec in the emission line. We undertake a thorough investigation of systematic uncertainties in our surface brightness measurements and find that our limits are 5-10 times larger than would be expected from Poisson background fluctuations; these uncertainties are often underestimated in the literature. At z approx. 3.1, we find evidence for extended halos with small-scale lengths of 5-8 kpc in some but not all of our sub-samples. We demonstrate that sub-samples of LAEs with low equivalent widths and brighter continuum magnitudes are more likely to possess such halos. At z approx. 2.1, we find no evidence of extended Lya emission down to our detection limits. Through Monte-Carlo simulations, we also show that we would have detected large diffuse LAE halos if they were present in our data sets. We compare these findings to other measurements in the literature and discuss possible instrumental and astrophysical reasons for the discrepancies.

  15. Lower hybrid instability driven by mono-energy {alpha}-particles with finite pitch angle spread in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Vishwesh; Tripathi, V. K.

    2013-02-15

    A kinetic formalism of lower hybrid wave instability, driven by mono-energy {alpha}-particles with finite pitch angle spread, is developed. The instability arises through cyclotron resonance interaction with high cyclotron harmonics of {alpha}-particles. The {alpha}-particles produced in D-T fusion reactions have huge Larmor radii ({approx}10 cm) as compared to the wavelength of the lower hybrid wave, whereas their speed is an order of magnitude smaller than the speed of light in vacuum. As a result, large parallel phase velocity lower hybrid waves, suitable for current drive in tokamak, are driven unstable via coupling to high cyclotron harmonics. The growth rate decreases with increase in pitch angle spread of the beam. At typical electron density of {approx}10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, magnetic field {approx}4 Tesla and {alpha}-particle concentration {approx}0.1%, the large parallel phase velocity lower hybrid wave grows on the time scale of 20 ion cyclotron periods. The growth rate decreases with plasma density.

  16. Lyman alpha radiation in external galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1990-01-01

    The Ly alpha line of atomic hydrogen is often a luminous component of the radiation emitted by distant galaxies. Except for those galaxies which have a substantial central source of non-stellar ionizing radiation, most of the Ly alpha radiation emitted by galaxies is generated within regions of the interstellar medium which are photoionized by starlight. Conversely, much of the energy radiated by photoionized regions is carried by the Ly alpha line. Only hot, massive stars are capable of ionizing hydrogen in the interstellar medium which surrounds them, and because such stars are necessarily short-lived, Ly alpha emission traces regions of active star formation. Researchers argue that the strength of the Ly alpha emission observed from external galaxies may be used to estimate quantitatively the dust content of the emitting region, while the Ly alpha line profile is sensitive to the presence of shock waves. Interstellar dust particles and shock waves are intimately associated with the process of star formation in two senses. First, both dust particles and shock waves owe their existence to stellar activity; second, they may both serve as agents which facilitate the formation of stars, shocks by triggering gravitational instabilities in the interstellar gas that they compress, and dust by shielding star-forming molecular clouds from the ionizing and dissociative effects of external UV radiation. By using Ly alpha observations as a probe of the dust content in diffuse gas at high redshift, we might hope to learn about the earliest epochs of star formation.

  17. A Catalog of z=3.1 Lyman Alpha Emitting Galaxies Discovered in Narrow-band Imaging of MUSYC 1030+05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christenson, Holly; Gangolli, Nakul; Raney, Catie Ann; Walker, Jean P.; Gawiser, Eric J.; MUSYC Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present a catalog of ~200 Lyman Alpha Emitting galaxies (LAEs) at redshift z=3.1 found in a 5015 Å narrow-band image of the MUSYC 1030+05 field. We reduced raw optical images taken with the MOSAIC II CCD camera at the CTIO 4m telescope with the IRAF MSCRED package. The reduction included the crucial steps of bias subtraction, flat-field correction, cosmic ray and satellite trail rejection, astrometric calibration, tangent plane projection, weighted stacking, and sky background removal. Our initial catalog of sources detected in the narrow-band filter contains ~20,000 sources. We used additional photometric measurements in the MUSYC broad-band filters to identify LAEs via their flux density excess in the narrow-band. This catalog of LAEs will undergo further analysis to characterize how the number density, clustering, colors, and star formation rates of LAEs vary with position and evolve with redshift.We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF grants AST-1055919 & PHY-1263280.

  18. Development of a three-layer phoswich alpha-beta-gamma imaging detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Ishibashi, Hiroyuki

    2015-06-01

    For radiation monitoring at the sites of such nuclear power plant accidents as Fukushima Daiichi, radiation detectors are needed not only for gamma photons but also for alpha and beta particles because some nuclear fission products emit beta particles and gamma photons and some nuclear fuels contain plutonium that emits alpha particles. In some applications, imaging detectors are required to detect the distribution of plutonium particles that emit alpha particles and radiocesium in foods that emits beta particles and gamma photons. To solve these requirements, we developed an imaging detector that can measure the distribution of alpha and beta particles as well as gamma photons. The imaging detector consists of three-layer scintillators optically coupled to each other and to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The first layer, which is made of a thin plastic scintillator (decay time: ~5 ns), detects alpha particles. The second layer, which is made of a thin Gd2SiO5 (GSO) scintillator with 1.5 mol% Ce (decay time: 35 ns), detects beta particles. The third layer made of a thin GSO scintillator with 0.4 mol% Ce (decay time: 70 ns) detects gamma photons. Using pulse shape discrimination, the images of these layers can be separated. The position information is calculated by the Anger principle from 8×8 anode signals from the PSPMT. The images for the alpha and beta particles and the gamma photons are individually formed by the pulse shape discriminations for each layer. We detected alpha particle images in the first layer and beta particle images in the second layer. Gamma photon images were detected in the second and third layers. The spatial resolution for the alpha and beta particles was ~1.25 mm FWHM and less than 2 mm FWHM for the gamma photons. We conclude that our developed alpha-beta-gamma imaging detector is promising for imaging applications not only for the environmental monitoring of radionuclides but also for medical and molecular imaging.

  19. Low doses of alpha particles do not induce sister chromatid exchanges in bystander Chinese hamster cells defective in homologous recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, H; Wilson, P F; Chen, D J; Thompson, L H; Bedford, J S; Little, J B

    2007-10-26

    We reported previously that the homologous recombinational repair (HRR)-deficient Chinese hamster mutant cell line irs3 (deficient in the Rad51 paralog Rad51C) showed only a 50% spontaneous frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) as compared to parental wild-type V79 cells. Furthermore, when irradiated with very low doses of alpha particles, SCEs were not induced in irs3 cells, as compared to a prominent bystander effect observed in V79 cells (Nagasawa et al., Radiat. Res. 164, 141-147, 2005). In the present study, we examined additional Chinese hamster cell lines deficient in the Rad51 paralogs Rad51C, Rad51D, Xrcc2, and Xrcc3 as well as another essential HRR protein, Brca2. Spontaneous SCE frequencies in non-irradiated wild-type cell lines CHO, AA8 and V79 were 0.33 SCE/chromosome, whereas two Rad51C-deficient cell lines showed only 0.16 SCE/chromosome. Spontaneous SCE frequencies in cell lines defective in Rad51D, Xrcc2, Xrcc3, and Brca2 ranged from 0.23-0.33 SCE/chromosome, 0-30% lower than wild-type cells. SCEs were induced significantly 20-50% above spontaneous levels in wild-type cells exposed to a mean dose of 1.3 mGy of alpha particles (<1% of nuclei traversed by an alpha particle). However, induction of SCEs above spontaneous levels was minimal or absent after {alpha}-particle irradiation in all of the HRR-deficient cell lines. These data suggest that Brca2 and the Rad51 paralogs contribute to DNA damage repair processes induced in bystander cells (presumably oxidative damage repair in S-phase cells) following irradiation with very low doses of alpha particles.

  20. I. Excluded Volume Effects in Ising Cluster Distributions and Nuclear Multifragmentation II. Multiple-Chance Effects in Alpha-Particle Evaporation

    SciTech Connect

    Breus, Dimitry E.

    2005-05-16

    In Part 1, geometric clusters of the Ising model are studied as possible model clusters for nuclear multifragmentation. These clusters may not be considered as non-interacting (ideal gas) due to excluded volume effect which predominantly is the artifact of the cluster's finite size. Interaction significantly complicates the use of clusters in the analysis of thermodynamic systems. Stillinger's theory is used as a basis for the analysis, which within the RFL (Reiss, Frisch, Lebowitz) fluid-of-spheres approximation produces a prediction for cluster concentrations well obeyed by geometric clusters of the Ising model. If thermodynamic condition of phase coexistence is met, these concentrations can be incorporated into a differential equation procedure of moderate complexity to elucidate the liquid-vapor phase diagram of the system with cluster interaction included. The drawback of increased complexity is outweighted by the reward of greater accuracy of the phase diagram, as it is demonstrated by the Ising model. A novel nuclear-cluster analysis procedure is developed by modifying Fisher's model to contain cluster interaction and employing the differential equation procedure to obtain thermodynamic variables. With this procedure applied to geometric clusters, the guidelines are developed to look for excluded volume effect in nuclear multifragmentation. In part 2, an explanation is offered for the recently observed oscillations in the energy spectra of {alpha}-particles emitted from hot compound nuclei. Contrary to what was previously expected, the oscillations are assumed to be caused by the multiple-chance nature of {alpha}-evaporation. In a semi-empirical fashion this assumption is successfully confirmed by a technique of two-spectra decomposition which treats experimental {alpha}-spectra has having contributions from at least two independent emitters. Building upon the success of the multiple-chance explanation of the oscillations, Moretto's single-chance evaporation theory is augmented to include multiple-chance emission and tested on experimental data to yield positive results.

  1. Alpha spectrometric characterization of process-related particle size distributions from active particle sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory uranium foundry

    SciTech Connect

    Plionis, Alexander A; Peterson, Dominic S; Tandon, Lav; Lamont, Stephen P

    2009-01-01

    Uranium particles within the respirable size range pose a significant hazard to the health and safety of workers. Significant differences in the deposition and incorporation patterns of aerosols within the respirable range can be identified and integrated into sophisticated health physics models. Data characterizing the uranium particle size distribution resulting from specific foundry-related processes are needed. Using personal air sampling cascade impactors, particles collected from several foundry processes were sorted by activity median aerodynamic diameter onto various Marple substrates. After an initial gravimetric assessment of each impactor stage, the substrates were analyzed by alpha spectrometry to determine the uranium content of each stage. Alpha spectrometry provides rapid nondestructive isotopic data that can distinguish process uranium from natural sources and the degree of uranium contribution to the total accumulated particle load. In addition, the particle size bins utilized by the impactors provide adequate resolution to determine if a process particle size distribution is: lognormal, bimodal, or trimodal. Data on process uranium particle size values and distributions facilitate the development of more sophisticated and accurate models for internal dosimetry, resulting in an improved understanding of foundry worker health and safety.

  2. Alpha spectrometric characterization of process-related particle size distributions from active particle sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory uranium foundry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plionis, A. A.; Peterson, D. S.; Tandon, L.; LaMont, S. P.

    2010-03-01

    Uranium particles within the respirable size range pose a significant hazard to the health and safety of workers. Significant differences in the deposition and incorporation patterns of aerosols within the respirable range can be identified and integrated into sophisticated health physics models. Data characterizing the uranium particle size distribution resulting from specific foundry-related processes are needed. Using personal air sampling cascade impactors, particles collected from several foundry processes were sorted by activity median aerodynamic diameter onto various Marple substrates. After an initial gravimetric assessment of each impactor stage, the substrates were analyzed by alpha spectrometry to determine the uranium content of each stage. Alpha spectrometry provides rapid non-distructive isotopic data that can distinguish process uranium from natural sources and the degree of uranium contribution to the total accumulated particle load. In addition, the particle size bins utilized by the impactors provide adequate resolution to determine if a process particle size distribution is: lognormal, bimodal, or trimodal. Data on process uranium particle size values and distributions facilitate the development of more sophisticated and accurate models for internal dosimetry, resulting in an improved understanding of foundry worker health and safety.

  3. Computation of Cosmic Ray Ionization and Dose at Mars: a Comparison of HZETRN and Planetocosmics for Proton and Alpha Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gronoff, Guillaume; Norman, Ryan B.; Mertens, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to evaluate the cosmic ray environment at Mars is of interest for future manned exploration. To support exploration, tools must be developed to accurately access the radiation environment in both free space and on planetary surfaces. The primary tool NASA uses to quantify radiation exposure behind shielding materials is the space radiation transport code, HZETRN. In order to build confidence in HZETRN, code benchmarking against Monte Carlo radiation transport codes is often used. This work compares the dose calculations at Mars by HZETRN and the Geant4 application Planetocosmics. The dose at ground and the energy deposited in the atmosphere by galactic cosmic ray protons and alpha particles has been calculated for the Curiosity landing conditions. In addition, this work has considered Solar Energetic Particle events, allowing for the comparison of varying input radiation environments. The results for protons and alpha particles show very good agreement between HZETRN and Planetocosmics.

  4. Effect of Drive Cycle and Gasoline Particulate Filter on the Size and Morphology of Soot Particles Emitted from a Gasoline-Direct-Injection Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Saffaripour, Meghdad; Chan, Tak W; Liu, Fengshan; Thomson, Kevin A; Smallwood, Gregory J; Kubsh, Joseph; Brezny, Rasto

    2015-10-01

    The size and morphology of particulate matter emitted from a light-duty gasoline-direct-injection (GDI) vehicle, over the FTP-75 and US06 transient drive cycles, have been characterized by transmission-electron-microscope (TEM) image analysis. To investigate the impact of gasoline particulate filters on particulate-matter emission, the results for the stock-GDI vehicle, that is, the vehicle in its original configuration, have been compared to the results for the same vehicle equipped with a catalyzed gasoline particulate filter (GPF). The stock-GDI vehicle emits graphitized fractal-like aggregates over all driving conditions. The mean projected area-equivalent diameter of these aggregates is in the 78.4-88.4 nm range and the mean diameter of primary particles varies between 24.6 and 26.6 nm. Post-GPF particles emitted over the US06 cycle appear to have an amorphous structure, and a large number of nucleation-mode particles, depicted as low-contrast ultrafine droplets, are observed in TEM images. This indicates the emission of a substantial amount of semivolatile material during the US06 cycle, most likely generated by the incomplete combustion of accumulated soot in the GPF during regeneration. The size of primary particles and soot aggregates does not vary significantly by implementing the GPF over the FTP-75 cycle; however, particles emitted by the GPF-equipped vehicle over the US06 cycle are about 20% larger than those emitted by the stock-GDI vehicle. This may be attributed to condensation of large amounts of organic material on soot aggregates. High-contrast spots, most likely solid nonvolatile cores, are observed within many of the nucleation-mode particles emitted over the US06 cycle by the GPF-equipped vehicle. These cores are either generated inside the engine or depict incipient soot particles which are partially carbonized in the exhaust line. The effect of drive cycle and the GPF on the fractal parameters of particles, such as fractal dimension and fractal prefactor, is insignificant. PMID:26340691

  5. Elementary Analysis of a Cometary Surface - the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer APXS on the Rosetta Mission to Comet 67P/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmanke, Dirk; Economou, Thanasis; Brueckner, Johannes; Gellert, Ralf; Rodionov, Daniel; Klingelhoefer, Goestar; Girones Lopez, Jordi; Uston, Lionel D.

    After a 10 years cruise the Rosetta probe will reach its final target in the middle of this year, the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The main objectives of the mission are to gain more knowledge of the composition, the origin and formation of comets and the solar system. After extensive remote examination of the comet the lander Philae will be separated to land on the comet surface. It will start immediately examining the landing site with its scientific payload. A part of this payload is the APXS (Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer), it will measure in situ the chemical composition of the comet's surface and its changes during the journey of the comet towards the sun. APXS is a combination of two spectrometers in one single instrument, being low in mass and power consumption. It will irradiate the cometary surface with Curium 244 sources, which are emitting alpha-particle and X-rays. In the alpha-mode the instrument uses alpha backscattering spectroscopy to detect lower Z elements like C, N and O and groups of elements with higher Z. In the X-ray mode alpha particle/X-ray induced X-ray spectroscopy (XRF) will allow the detection of most of the higher Z elements from Na up to Ni and above. Both modes will be always run in parallel allowing to determine lower and higher Z elements simultaneously. During the long duration travel to the comet checkouts and software updates of the Rosetta probe and its payload were performed at regular intervals. In recent 3 years the solar powered Rosetta probe had to pass a hibernation phase because of a long passage far away from the sun. After the successful wakeup in January 2014 an extensive test phase of all instruments and subsystems has to be performed, including the APXS. After the landing on the comet an intense long measurement phase of all instruments is planned, the First Science Sequence (FSS). It will be followed by a long term science phase (LTS), determined by periodical changes between measurements and forced breaks to recharge the lander batteries. During these operations the Rosetta probe will escort the comet and the lander along the comets trajectory around the sun. As long as possible APXS and the other instruments will continue to repeat their measurements to monitor the changes and rising activity of the comet. This will shed light on state, composition, evolution and the origin of comets and the solar system. Acknowledgements: This project is funded by the German Space Agency DLR under contracts 50 QP 0404 and 50 QP 0902. References: G. Klingelhöfer, J. Brückner, C. d'Uston, R. Gellert, and R. Rieder, The Rosetta Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS), Space Science Reviews, Vol.128 (2007) 383-396; doi:10.1007/s11214-006-9137-3

  6. Schottky barrier detectors on 4H-SiC n-type epitaxial layer for alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhuri, S. K.; Krishna, R. M.; Zavalla, K. J.; Mandal, K. C.

    2013-02-01

    Schottky barrier detectors have been fabricated on 50 μm n-type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers grown on 360 μm SiC substrates by depositing ∼10 nm nickel contact. Current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements were carried out to investigate the Schottky barrier properties. The detectors were evaluated for alpha particle detection using a 241Am alpha source. An energy resolution of ∼2.7% was obtained with a reverse bias of 100 V for 5.48 MeV alpha particles. The measured charge collection efficiency (CCE) was seen to vary as a function of bias voltage following a minority carrier diffusion model. Using this model, a diffusion length of∼3.5 μm for holes was numerically calculated from the CCE vs. bias voltage plot. Rise-time measurements of digitally recorded charge pulses for the 5.48 MeV alpha particles showed a presence of two sets of events having different rise-times at a higher bias of 200 V. A biparametric correlation scheme was successfully implemented for the first time to visualize the correlated pulse-height distribution of the events with different rise-times. Using the rise-time measurements and the biparametric plots, the observed variation of energy resolution with applied bias was explained.

  7. Interaction of the human cytomegalovirus particle with the host cell induces hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha

    SciTech Connect

    McFarlane, Steven; Nicholl, Mary Jane; Sutherland, Jane S.; Preston, Chris M.

    2011-05-25

    The cellular protein hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1{alpha}) was induced after infection of human fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). HCMV irradiated with ultraviolet light (uv-HCMV) also elicited the effect, demonstrating that the response was provoked by interaction of the infecting virion with the cell and that viral gene expression was not required. Although induction of HIF-1{alpha} was initiated by an early event, accumulation of the protein was not detected until 9 hours post infection, with levels increasing thereafter. Infection with uv-HCMV resulted in increased abundance of HIF-1{alpha}-specific RNA, indicating stimulation of transcription. In addition, greater phosphorylation of the protein kinase Akt was observed, and the activity of this enzyme was required for induction of HIF-1{alpha} to occur. HIF-1{alpha} controls the expression of many cellular gene products; therefore the findings reveal new ways in which interaction of the HCMV particle with the host cell may cause significant alterations to cellular physiology.

  8. Alpha-Particle/Proton Differential Flow in the Solar Wind: Implications for Plasma Heating, Azimuthal Flow, and the Parker Spiral Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verscharen, D.; Bourouaine, S.; Chandran, B. D. G.

    2014-12-01

    Protons and alpha particles in the fast solar wind are only weakly collisional and exhibit a number of non-equilibrium features, including temperature anisotropies and relative drifts along the direction of the background magnetic field. Two mechanisms have been proposed for limiting differential flow between alpha particles and protons: plasma instabilities and the rotational force. Both mechanisms decelerate the alpha particles - for example, the Alfvén/ion-cyclotron and fast-magnetosonic/whistler instabilities limit the drift velocity to a value comparable to the Alfvén speed, which decreases with increasing heliocentric distance r. However, while plasma instabilities transform bulk-flow kinetic energy into heat and plasma waves, the rotational force does not. We present an analytic expression for the rate Qflow at which energy is released when alpha particles are decelerated by instabilities. We find that Qflow becomes zero at a critical radius r=rcrit, where rcrit is between 1.5 AU and 2 AU in the fast solar wind in the ecliptic plane, and rcrit increases with increasing heliographic latitude. We show that instabilities control the deceleration of alpha particles at ralpha particles at r>rcrit. We compare the value of Qflow at ralpha particles deduced from in-situ measurements of fast-wind streams from the Helios and Ulysses spacecraft. We find that Qflow exceeds the empirical heating rate for alpha particles at r<1 AU. We conclude that the continuous energy input from alpha-particle deceleration at ralpha-particle drift for the azimuthal flow velocities of the ions and for the Parker spiral magnetic field.

  9. Evaluation of internal alpha-particle radiation exposure and subsequent fertility among a cohort of women formerly employed in the radium dial industry

    SciTech Connect

    Schieve, L.A.; Davis, F.; Freels, S.

    1997-02-01

    This study examined the effect of internal exposure to {alpha}-particle radiation on subsequent fertility among women employed in radium dial industry prior to 1930, when appreciable amounts of radium were often ingested through the practice of pointing the paint brush with the lips. The analysis was limited to women for whom a radium body burden measurement had been obtained and who were married prior to age 45 (n = 603). Internal radiation dose to the ovary was calculated based on initial intakes of radium-226 and radium-228, average ovarian mass, number and energy of {alpha} particles emitted, fraction of energy absorbed within the ovary, effective retention integrals and estimated photon irradiation. Time between marriage and pregnancy, number of pregnancies and number of live births served as surrogates for fertility. Radiation appeared to have no effect on fertility at estimated cumulative ovarian dose equivalents below 5 Sv; above this dose, however, statistically significant declines in both number of pregnancies and live births were observed. These trends persisted after multivariable adjustment for potential confounding variables and after exclusion of subjects contributing a potential classification or selection bias to the study. Additionally, the high-dose group experienced fewer live births than would have been expected based on population rates. There were no differences in time to first pregnancy between high- and low-dose groups. These results are consistent with earlier studies of {gamma}-ray exposures and suggest that exposure to high doses of radiation from internally deposited radium reduces fertility rather than inducing sterility. 42 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Prompt detection of alpha particles from 210Po: another clue to the origin of rock varnish?

    PubMed

    Hodge, Vernon F; Farmer, Dennis E; Diaz, Tammy; Orndorff, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    Alpha particles have been measured coming from the surfaces of rocks covered with dark red-brown rock varnish, as well as rocks that appear to have little, if any, varnish. A pronounced peak at 5.3 MeV indicates the presence of 210Po, a short-lived natural-radioactive element. Surface activities for 33 samples range from 0.008 Bq/cm2 to 0.065 Bq/cm2. It is estimated that this nuclide is concentrated 10(11) times in these paper-thin coatings above its concentration in ground-level air. Gamma rays from the decay of 137Cs, a product of testing nuclear weapons some 50 years ago, were also detected. Analysis of samples of varnish stripped from the rock revealed traces of 239,240Pu and 238Pu. The presence of all of these isotopes strongly supports the theory that varnish films derive their building blocks from the atmosphere and, with time, all rocks in arid environments will become coated. PMID:15511566

  11. The Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS): Results from Gusev Crater and Calibration Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gellert, R.; Rieder, R.; Brueckner, J.; Clark, B.; Dreibus, G.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Lugmair, G.; Ming, D.; Waenke, H.; Yen, A.; Zipfel, J.; Squyres, S.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of rocks and soils on Mars analyzed during the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit Mission was determined by X-ray analyses with the Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS). Details of the data analysis method and the instrument calibration are presented. Measurements performed on Mars to address geometry effects and background contributions are shown. Cross calibration measurements among several instrument sensors and sources are discussed. An unintentional swap of the two flight instruments is evaluated. New concentration data acquired during the first 470 sols of rover Spirit in Gusev Crater are presented. There are two geological regions, the Gusev plains and the Columbia Hills. The plains contain soils that are very similar to previous landing sites on Mars. A meteoritic component in the soil is identified. Rocks in the plains revealed thin weathering rinds. The underlying abraded rock was classified as primitive basalt. One of these rocks contained significant Br that is probably associated with vein-filling material of different composition. One of the trenches showed large subsurface enrichments of Mg, S, and Br. Disturbed soils and rocks in the Columbia Hills revealed different elemental compositions. These rocks are significantly weathered and enriched in mobile elements, such as P, S, Cl, or Br. Even abraded rock surfaces have high Br concentrations. Thus, in contrast to the rocks and soils in the Gusev Plains, the Columbia Hills material shows more significant evidence of ancient aqueous alteration.

  12. Radiotoxicity of Gadolinium-148 and Radium-223 in Mouse Testes: Relative Biological Effectiveness of Alpha-Particle Emitters In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Roger W.; Goddu, S. Murty; Narra, Venkat R.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Schenter, Robert E.; Rao, Dandamudi V.

    2012-01-01

    The biological effects of radionuclides that emit α particles are of considerable interest in view of their potential for therapy and their presence in the environment. The present work is a continuation of our ongoing effort to study the radiotoxicity of α-particle emitters in vivo using the survival of murine testicular sperm heads as the biological end point. Specifically, the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of very low-energy α particles (3.2 MeV) emitted by 148Gd is investigated and determined to be 7.4 ± 2.4 when compared to the effects of acute external 120 kVp X rays. This datum, in conjunction with our earlier results for 210Po and 212Pb in equilibrium with its daughters, is used to revise and extend the range of validity of our previous RBE–energy relationship for α particles emitted by tissue-incorporated radionuclides. The new empirical relationship is given by RBEα = 9.14 − 0.510 Eα, where 3 < Eα < 9 MeV. The validity of this empirical relationship is tested by determining the RBE of the prolific α-particle emitter 223Ra (in equilibrium with its daughters) experimentally in the same biological model and comparing the value obtained experimentally with the predicted value. The resulting RBE values are 5.4 ± 0.9 and 5.6, respectively. This close agreement strongly supports the adequacy of the empirical RBE-Eα relationship to predict the biological effects of α-particle emitters in Vivo. PMID:9052681

  13. Particle Leaking, Cross-Section Ratio 10B(n,{alpha})/238U(n,fission), and Excitation Function of the Reaction 10B(n,{alpha})7Li at MeV Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Giorginis, Georgios; Khryachkov, Vitali

    2005-05-24

    The 10B(n,{alpha})7Li reaction was studied in the energy range between 1.5 MeV and 5.6 MeV at the 7-MV Van de Graaff accelerator of IRMM by using a gridded ionisation chamber, signal digitisation, and an intrinsic 238U neutron monitor. The aim was to obtain accurate data for the IAEA Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on the improvement of standard cross sections for light elements. The effect of particle leaking was discovered and its implications investigated. The determination of the cross section {sigma}({alpha}0+{alpha}1) strongly benefits from it but measurements of angular distributions, individual cross sections {sigma}({alpha}0) and {sigma}({alpha}1), and the branching ratio {alpha}0/{alpha}1 are negatively affected. The correct number of reaction events was obtained by identification of unknown particle signatures in the energy spectra as 10B(n,{alpha})7Li events in the form of quasi 7Li+{alpha} particles created by particle leaking. The cross-section ratio 10B(n,{alpha})7Li/238U(n,fission) was measured and the excitation function of 10B(n,{alpha})7Li determined by simultaneously detecting the charged particles from the boron disintegration in the forward hemisphere and the 238U fission fragments in the backward hemisphere. The IRMM cross sections are compared to experimental data of other groups and to predictions of the ENDF/B-VI.8, JENDL-3.3, and JEF-2.2 evaluations.

  14. Investigation of magnetic nanoparticles for the rapid extraction and assay of alpha-emitting radionuclides from urine: Demonstration of a novel radiobioassay method

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, Matthew J.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Maclellan, Jay A.; Warner, Cynthia L.; Warner, Marvin G.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2011-08-01

    In the event of an accidental or intentional release of radionuclides into a populated area, three things must occur in a timely manner: food and drinking water supplies must be determined to be safe to eat / drink, civilians and/or military personnel must be surveyed to ensure that they do not have external contamination, and they must be screened to ensure that significant ingestion or inhalation of radionuclides has not occurred (this paper is concerned with the latter). In the event of such a disaster, the volume of radiobioassays to be performed would be tremendous. If the event released significant levels of β- or α-emitting radionuclides, in vivo assays would be ineffective. Therefore, highly efficient and rapid analytical methods for radionuclide detection from submitted spot urine samples (≤ 50 mL) would be required. At present, the quantitative determination of α-emitting radionuclides from urine samples is highly labor intensive, and requires significant sample preparation and analysis time. Sorbent materials that provide effective collection and enable rapid assay could significantly streamline the radioanalytical process. We have demonstrated the use of paramagnetic nanoparticles as a novel class of extracting media for four α-emitting radionuclides of concern (Po, Ra, Am, and U) from chemically unmodified and pH 2 human urine. Herein the initial experimental sorption results are presented along with a novel method that utilizes paramagnetic nanoparticles for the extraction of radionuclides from unmodified human urine followed by the magnetic field-induced collection of the particles for subsequent α-counting-source preparation. Additionally, we construct a versatile human dose model that determines the detector count times required to estimate internal human dose at specific protective action thresholds. The model provides a means to assess a method’s detection capabilities and use fundamental health physics parameters and actual experimental data as core variables. The modeling shows that with effective sorbent materials, rapid screening for internalized α-emitters is possible from a 50 mL spot urine sample volume collected within one week of exposure/intake.

  15. Nanocrystalline particle coatings on alpha-alumina powders by a carbonate precipitation and thermal-assisted combustion route.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Woo; Jung, Young Mi

    2007-11-01

    We have suggested ultrafine particle coating processes for preparing nanocrystalline particle coated alpha-alumina powders by a carbonate precipitation and thermal-assisted combustion route, which is environmentally friendly. The nanometric ammonium aluminum carbonate hydroxide (AACH) as a precursor for coating of alumina was produced from precipitation reaction of ammonium aluminum sulfate and ammonium hydrogen carbonate. The synthetic crystalline size and morphology were greatly dependent on pH and temperature. By adding ammonium aluminum sulfate solution dispersed the alpha-alumina core particle in the ammonium hydrogen carbonate aqueous solution, nanometric AACH with a size of 5 nm was tightly bonded and uniformly coated on the core powder due to formation of surface complexes by the adsorption of carbonates, hydroxyl and ammonia groups on the surface of aluminum oxide. The synthetic precursor rapidly converted to amorphous- and y-alumina phase without significant change in the morphological features through decomposition of surface complexes and thermal-assisted phase transformation. As a result, the nanocrystalline polymorphic particle coated alpha-alumina core powders with highly uniform distribution were prepared from the route of carbonate precipitation and thermal-assisted combustion. PMID:18047085

  16. The effectiveness of an air cleaner in controlling droplet/aerosol particle dispersion emitted from a patient's mouth in the indoor environment of dental clinics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; Zhao, Bin; Cui, Weilin; Dong, Lei; An, Na; Ouyang, Xiangying

    2010-07-01

    Dental healthcare workers (DHCWs) are at high risk of occupational exposure to droplets and aerosol particles emitted from patients' mouths during treatment. We evaluated the effectiveness of an air cleaner in reducing droplet and aerosol contamination by positioning the device in four different locations in an actual dental clinic. We applied computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to solve the governing equations of airflow, energy and dispersion of different-sized airborne droplets/aerosol particles. In a dental clinic, we measured the supply air velocity and temperature of the ventilation system, the airflow rate and the particle removal efficiency of the air cleaner to determine the boundary conditions for the CFD simulations. Our results indicate that use of an air cleaner in a dental clinic may be an effective method for reducing DHCWs' exposure to airborne droplets and aerosol particles. Further, we found that the probability of droplet/aerosol particle removal and the direction of airflow from the cleaner are both important control measures for droplet and aerosol contamination in a dental clinic. Thus, the distance between the air cleaner and droplet/aerosol particle source as well as the relative location of the air cleaner to both the source and the DHCW are important considerations for reducing DHCWs' exposure to droplets/aerosol particles emitted from the patient's mouth during treatments. PMID:20031985

  17. The effectiveness of an air cleaner in controlling droplet/aerosol particle dispersion emitted from a patient's mouth in the indoor environment of dental clinics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun; Zhao, Bin; Cui, Weilin; Dong, Lei; An, Na; Ouyang, Xiangying

    2010-01-01

    Dental healthcare workers (DHCWs) are at high risk of occupational exposure to droplets and aerosol particles emitted from patients' mouths during treatment. We evaluated the effectiveness of an air cleaner in reducing droplet and aerosol contamination by positioning the device in four different locations in an actual dental clinic. We applied computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to solve the governing equations of airflow, energy and dispersion of different-sized airborne droplets/aerosol particles. In a dental clinic, we measured the supply air velocity and temperature of the ventilation system, the airflow rate and the particle removal efficiency of the air cleaner to determine the boundary conditions for the CFD simulations. Our results indicate that use of an air cleaner in a dental clinic may be an effective method for reducing DHCWs' exposure to airborne droplets and aerosol particles. Further, we found that the probability of droplet/aerosol particle removal and the direction of airflow from the cleaner are both important control measures for droplet and aerosol contamination in a dental clinic. Thus, the distance between the air cleaner and droplet/aerosol particle source as well as the relative location of the air cleaner to both the source and the DHCW are important considerations for reducing DHCWs' exposure to droplets/aerosol particles emitted from the patient's mouth during treatments. PMID:20031985

  18. Characterization of an Associated Particle Neutron Generator with ZnO:Ga Alpha-Detector and Active Focusing

    SciTech Connect

    McConchie, Seth M; Mihalczo, John T

    2008-01-01

    A deuterium-tritium (DT) associated particle neutron generator (APNG) with active focusing has been operated using an alpha particle detector made of a ZnO:Ga phosphor with decay time of approximately 1 ns. The APNG is capable of producing 109 neutrons per second. The DT beam spot diameter was adjusted and measured from 7 mm to 2.1 mm with the possibility of achieving 1 mm subject to the removal of a safety interlock protecting the APNG tritiated target. In addition, the alpha detector was found to have a detection efficiency of 88% and sub-nanosecond time resolution (<0.7 ns) using a Burle 8850 bialkali photocathode. Lastly, the neutron beam was obstructed using various amounts of lead shielding to study the generator's imaging contrast capability for neutron radiography. The APNG provides high-rate capability and a large solid angle with acceptance of 8%.

  19. Treatment of HER2 Positive Breast Carcinomatous Meningitis with Intrathecal Administration of ?-Particle Emitting 211At-labeled Trastuzumab?

    PubMed Central

    Boskovitz, Abraham; McLendon, Roger E.; Okamura, Tatsunori; Sampson, John H.; Bigner, Darell D.; Zalutsky, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Carcinomatous meningitis (CM) is a devastating disease characterized by the dissemination of malignant tumor cells into the subarachnoid space along the brain and spine. Systemic treatment with monoclonal antibody (mAb) trastuzumab can be effective against HER2-positive systemic breast carcinoma but like other therapies, is ineffective against CM. The goal of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of ?-particle emitting 211At-labeled trastuzumab following intrathecal administration in a rat model of breast carcinoma CM. Methods Athymic rats were injected intrathecally with MCF-7/HER2-18 breast carcinoma cells through a surgically-implanted indwelling intrathecal catheter. In Experiment 1, animals received 33 or 66 Ci 211At-labeled trastuzumab, cold trastuzumab, or saline. In Experiment 2, animals were inoculated with a lower tumor burden and received 46 or 92 Ci 211At-labeled trastuzumab, or saline. In Experiment 3, animals received 28 Ci 211At-labeled trastuzumab, 30 Ci 211At-labeled TPS3.2 control mAb or saline. Histopathological analysis of the neuroaxis was performed at the end of the study. Results In Experiment 1, median survival increased from 21 days for the saline and cold trastuzumab groups to 45 and 48 days for 33 and 66 Ci 211At-labeled trastuzumab, respectively. In Experiment 2, median survival increased from 23 days for saline controls to 68 and 92 days for 46 and 92 Ci 211At-labeled trastuzumab, respectively. In Experiment 3, median survival increased from 20 days to 29 and 36 days for animals treated with 211At-labeled TPS3.2 and 211At-labeled trastuzumab, respectively. Long-term survivors were observed exclusively in the 211At-trastuzumab-treated groups. Conclusion Intrathecal 211At-labeled trastuzumab shows promise as a treatment for patients with HER2-positive breast CM. PMID:19647172

  20. Optical Model Potential Parameters for p, d, {sup 3}He and Alpha-Particle Scattering on Lithium Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Burtebayev, N.; Nassurlla, Marzhan; Nassurlla, Maulen; Kerimkulov, Zh. K.; Sakuta, S. B.

    2008-11-11

    Analysis of the p, d, {sup 3}He and {alpha}-particles elastic scattering on the {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li nuclei has been done in the framework of the optical model at the beam energies up to 72 MeV. It was shown that the account of the cluster exchange mechanism together with the potential scattering allow reproducing the experimental cross-sections in the whole angular range.

  1. Nanodosimetry and nanodosimetric-based models of radiation action for radon alpha particles. Progress report, July 1990--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Zaider, M.

    1992-12-31

    We report on a theory for describing the biological effects of ionizing radiation in particular radon {alpha} particles. Behind this approach is the recognition that biological effects such as chromosome aberrations, cellular transformation, cellular inactivation, etc, are the result of a hierarchic sequence of radiation effects. We indicate how to treat each of the individual processes in this sequence, and also how to relate one effect to the hierarchically superior one.

  2. Dependence of alpha particle track diameter on the free volume holes size using positron annihilation lifetime technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gamal, S.; Abdalla, Ayman M.; Abdel-Hady, E. E.

    2015-09-01

    The alpha particle track diameter dependence of the free volume holes size (Vf) in DAM-ADC and CR-39 nuclear track detectors was investigated using positron annihilation lifetime technique. The effect of temperature on the alpha particle track diameter and free volume were also investigated in the T-range (RT-130 °C). The obtained results revealed that the values of ortho-positronium lifetime τ3 and Vf increases while I3 slightly increases as T increases for the two detectors. The values of τ3, Vf and I3 are higher in CR-39 than DAM-ADC. The interpretation of obtained results is based on the fact that increasing T leads to significant enhancement of thermal expansion of the polymer matrix and consequently Vf increases. The track diameter increases as T increases. This can be explained by the fact that the increase in T increases the crystal size and Vf in the polymer. A relationship between Vf and the alpha particle track diameter was obtained. Moreover results of detector irradiation, along with free volume evaluation are addressed and thoroughly discussed.

  3. Designing experimental setup and procedures for studying alpha-particle-induced adaptive response in zebrafish embryos in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, V. W. Y.; Lam, R. K. K.; Chong, E. Y. W.; Cheng, S. H.; Yu, K. N.

    2010-03-01

    The present work was devoted to designing the experimental setup and the associated procedures for alpha-particle-induced adaptive response in zebrafish embryos in vivo. Thin PADC films with a thickness of 16 μm were fabricated and employed as support substrates for holding dechorionated zebrafish embryos for alpha-particle irradiation from the bottom through the films. Embryos were collected within 15 min when the light photoperiod began, which were then incubated and dechorionated at 4 h post fertilization (hpf). They were then irradiated at 5 hpf by alpha particles using a planar 241Am source with an activity of 0.1151 μCi for 24 s (priming dose), and subsequently at 10 hpf using the same source for 240 s (challenging dose). The levels of apoptosis in irradiated zebrafish embryos at 24 hpf were quantified through staining with the vital dye acridine orange, followed by counting the stained cells under a florescent microscope. The results revealed the presence of the adaptive response in zebrafish embryos in vivo, and demonstrated the feasibility of the adopted experimental setup and procedures.

  4. Analysis of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-particle emitters on air filters and swipe samples using a liquid scintillation counter with alpha/beta discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, E.L.; Cox, J.M.; Workman, W.J.

    1998-12-31

    The capabilities of a Quantulus{trademark} model 1220 Liquid Scintillation Counter (LSC) for rapidly analyzing alpha-particle emitters and {sup 90}Sr on air filters and swipe samples have been studied. Counting conditions were established and the instrument was calibrated using quench standards of {sup 90}Sr/Y and {sup 241}Am prepared on membrane filters. A LOTUS{trademark} template was developed to analyze the spectra. The data were used to develop a method for estimating the optimum pulse-shape analysis parameter based on linear fits to the quench parameter. Linear fits were also used to estimate window settings for {sup 90}Sr and {sup 90}Y, the Sr/Y ratio and the counting efficiencies. The linear fits have been incorporated into the template so that they are all done automatically when the quench parameter is entered. Analysis of the spectra from a sample can be done in a matter of minutes. Sample preparation simply involves transferring the filter to a scintillation vial and adding cocktail. Since the counting efficiencies of the LSC are high, counting times of an hour or less can be employed. The study showed that the method produces results that are sufficiently reliable for air filters and swipe samples. This methodology was used to analyze swipe samples from CANDU{reg_sign} nuclear stations. The results revealed complex beta-particle spectra with a number of components present. However, {sup 90}Y could be estimated from the high-energy component, which was less abundant than the low and intermediate energy components. The swipe samples contained much less alpha- than beta-particle activity.

  5. Momentum characteristics of the backward emitted shower particles in the interactions of 4.5 A GeV/c 12C and 28Si with emulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Nadi, M.; Abdelsalam, A.; Ali-Moussa, N.

    1996-05-01

    An analysis of momentum characteristics of the backward emitted shower particles has been performed using interactions of 4.5 A GeV/c 12C and 28Si with emulsion. These data have been compared with the corresponding ones in the forward hemisphere. The average values of momentum and transverse momentum in the backward and forward hemisphere are < Pb> = 182 ± 11, < Ptb> 68 ± 4, < Pf = 720 ± and < Ptf> = 280 ± 20, respectively. The transverse momentum distributions have been compared with Hagedorn's distribution and the corresponding temperatures have been deduced to be Tb = 27.2 ± 1.6 and Tf = 112.0 ± 5.6. The momentum distribution of shower particles emitted in the backward hemisphere has an exponential form with slope parameter T0 = 46 MeV/c.

  6. Studies of SSNTDs made from LR-115 in view of their applicability in radiobiological experiments with alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dörschel, B.; Hermsdorf, D.; Pieck, S.; Starke, S.; Thiele, H.; Weickert, F.

    2003-06-01

    Radiobiological studies on cell monolayers irradiated by charged particles need to determine the number and position of particle traversals. Solid state nuclear track detectors used as basic substrate for the cell layers are in principle suitable for this purpose. The detector foils must be as thin as possible but still guaranteeing mechanical stability. Two types of LR-115, red coloured and colourless, were tested in the present work. The studies aimed at optimisation of the etching conditions and determination of the registration efficiency for alpha particles in a wide range of energies and angles of incidence. Specific requirements have to be fulfilled for application of the detector foils under the environmental conditions of radiobiological experiments. Most important are biocompatibility between detector and cells and registration properties insensible against special treatments, as UV sterilisation and cell plating prior to irradiation as well as cell incubation after the irradiation. The experimental studies performed with alpha particles showed that environmental conditions of radiobiological experiments do not change the registration properties of LR-115 detectors significantly.

  7. Kerr black hole parameters in terms of the redshift/blueshift of photons emitted by geodesic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Nucamendi, Ulises

    2015-08-01

    We are motivated by the recently reported dynamical evidence of stars with short orbital periods moving around the center of the Milky Way and the corresponding hypothesis about the existence of a supermassive black hole hosted at its center. In this paper we show how the mass and rotation parameters of a Kerr black hole (assuming that the putative supermassive black hole is of this type), as well as the distance that separates the black hole from the Earth, can be estimated in a relativistic way in terms of (i) the redshift and blueshift of photons that are emitted by geodesic massive particles (stars) and travel along null geodesics towards a distant observer (located at a finite distance), and (ii) the radius of these star orbits. As a concrete example and as a first step towards a full relativistic analysis of the above-mentioned star orbits around the center of our Galaxy, we consider stable equatorial circular orbits of stars and express their corresponding redshift/blueshift in terms of the metric parameters (mass and angular momentum per unit mass) and the orbital radii of both the emitter star and the distant observer. These radii are linked through the constants of motion along the null geodesics followed by photons since their emission until their detection, allowing us to get a closed expression for the orbital radius of the observer in terms of the emitter orbital radius, which is known from observations, and the black hole parameters M and a . In principle, these expressions allow one to statistically estimate the mass and rotation parameters of the Kerr black hole, and the radius of our orbit, through a Bayesian fitting, i.e., with the aid of observational data: the redshift/blueshift measured at certain points of stars' orbits and their radii, with their respective errors, a task that we hope to perform in the near future. We also point to several astrophysical phenomena, like accretion disks of rotating black holes, binary systems and active galactic nuclei, among others, to which this formalism can be applied.

  8. Improve the catalytic activity of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in decomposition of ammonium perchlorate by coating amorphous carbon on their surface

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yifu; Liu Xinghai; Nie Jiaorong; Yu Lei; Zhong Yalan; Huang Chi

    2011-02-15

    Sphere- and pod-like {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles have been selectively synthesized using NH{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O and NaOH solution to adjust the pH value of the designed synthetic system, respectively. The sphere-like {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles with diameter about 25 nm on average were encapsulated into carbon shells to fabricate a novel core-shell composite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-C) through the coating experiments. The catalytic performance of the products on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) was investigated by thermal gravimetric analyzer (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The thermal decomposition temperatures of AP in the presence of pod-like {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, sphere-like {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-C are reduced by 72, 81 and 109 {sup o}C, respectively, which show that {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-C core-shell composites have higher catalytic activity than that of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. -- Graphical abstract: The catalytic performance of pod-like {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, sphere-like {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-C on the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP). Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Sphere- and pod-like {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles have been selectively synthesized using NH{sub 3}.H{sub 2}O and NaOH solution to adjust the pH value. {yields} A novel core-shell composite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-C core-shell structured composite) has been successfully synthesized using sphere-like {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles as the cores and glucose as the source of carbon. {yields} The thermal decomposition temperatures of AP in the presence of pod-like {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, sphere-like {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-C are reduced by 72, 81 and 109 {sup o}C, respectively, which shows that these materials have high catalytic activity.

  9. Humidity influenced capacitance and resistance of an Al/DNA/Al Schottky diode irradiated by alpha particles.

    PubMed

    Al-Ta'ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2016-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA based sensors, especially as humidity and alpha particle sensors have become quite popular in recent times due to flexible and highly optimizable nature of this fundamental biomaterial. Application of DNA electronics allow for more sensitive, accurate and effective sensors to be developed and fabricated. In this work, we examined the effect of different humidity conditions on the capacitive and resistive response of Aluminum (Al)/DNA/Al Schottky barrier structure when bombarded by time-dependent dosages of alpha particles. Based on current-voltage profiles, which demonstrated rectifying behaviours, Schottky diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance was calculated. Results observed generally pointed towards a decrease in the resistance value from the pristine to the radiated structures. It was also demonstrated that under the effect of humidity, the capacitance of the DNA thin film increased from 0.05894 to 92.736 nF, with rising relative humidity level. We also observed the occurrence of the hypersensitivity phenomena after alpha irradiation between 2 to 4 min by observing a drop in the series resistance, crucial in the study of DNA damage and repair mechanisms. These observations may also suggest the exciting possibility of utilizing Al/DNA/Al Schottky diodes as potentially sensitive humidity sensors. PMID:27160654

  10. Humidity influenced capacitance and resistance of an Al/DNA/Al Schottky diode irradiated by alpha particles

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ta’ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Amin, Yusoff Mohd; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2016-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA based sensors, especially as humidity and alpha particle sensors have become quite popular in recent times due to flexible and highly optimizable nature of this fundamental biomaterial. Application of DNA electronics allow for more sensitive, accurate and effective sensors to be developed and fabricated. In this work, we examined the effect of different humidity conditions on the capacitive and resistive response of Aluminum (Al)/DNA/Al Schottky barrier structure when bombarded by time-dependent dosages of alpha particles. Based on current-voltage profiles, which demonstrated rectifying behaviours, Schottky diode parameters such as ideality factor, barrier height and series resistance was calculated. Results observed generally pointed towards a decrease in the resistance value from the pristine to the radiated structures. It was also demonstrated that under the effect of humidity, the capacitance of the DNA thin film increased from 0.05894 to 92.736 nF, with rising relative humidity level. We also observed the occurrence of the hypersensitivity phenomena after alpha irradiation between 2 to 4 min by observing a drop in the series resistance, crucial in the study of DNA damage and repair mechanisms. These observations may also suggest the exciting possibility of utilizing Al/DNA/Al Schottky diodes as potentially sensitive humidity sensors. PMID:27160654

  11. Development and characterization of an exposure platform suitable for physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of printer-emitted particles (PEPs)

    PubMed Central

    Pirela, Sandra V.; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Bello, Dhimiter; Thomas, Treye; Castranova, Vincent; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-01-01

    An association between laser printer use and emissions of particulate matter (PM), ozone and volatile organic compounds has been reported in recent studies. However, the detailed physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of these printer-emitted particles (PEPs) and possible incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into toner formulations remain largely unknown. In this study, a printer exposure generation system suitable for the physico-chemical, morphological, and toxicological characterization of PEPs was developed and used to assess the properties of PEPs from the use of commercially available laser printers. The system consists of a glovebox type environmental chamber for uninterrupted printer operation, real-time and time-integrated particle sampling instrumentation for the size fractionation and sampling of PEPs and an exposure chamber for inhalation toxicological studies. Eleven commonly used laser printers were evaluated and ranked based on their PM emission profiles. Results show PM peak emissions are brand independent and varied between 3000 to 1 300 000 particles/cm3, with modal diameters ranging from 49 to 208 nm, with the majority of PEPs in the nanoscale (<100 nm) size. Furthermore, it was shown that PEPs can be affected by certain operational parameters and printing conditions. The release of nanoscale particles from a nano-enabled product (printer toner) raises questions about health implications to users. The presented PEGS platform will help in assessing the toxicological profile of PEPs and the link to the physico-chemical and morphological properties of emitted PM and toner formulations. PMID:24862974

  12. Development and characterization of an exposure platform suitable for physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of printer-emitted particles (PEPs).

    PubMed

    Pirela, Sandra V; Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Bello, Dhimiter; Thomas, Treye; Castranova, Vincent; Demokritou, Philip

    2014-06-01

    An association between laser printer use and emissions of particulate matter (PM), ozone and volatile organic compounds has been reported in recent studies. However, the detailed physico-chemical, morphological and toxicological characterization of these printer-emitted particles (PEPs) and possible incorporation of engineered nanomaterials into toner formulations remain largely unknown. In this study, a printer exposure generation system suitable for the physico-chemical, morphological, and toxicological characterization of PEPs was developed and used to assess the properties of PEPs from the use of commercially available laser printers. The system consists of a glovebox type environmental chamber for uninterrupted printer operation, real-time and time-integrated particle sampling instrumentation for the size fractionation and sampling of PEPs and an exposure chamber for inhalation toxicological studies. Eleven commonly used laser printers were evaluated and ranked based on their PM emission profiles. Results show PM peak emissions are brand independent and varied between 3000 to 1?300?000?particles/cm, with modal diameters ranging from 49 to 208?nm, with the majority of PEPs in the nanoscale (<100?nm) size. Furthermore, it was shown that PEPs can be affected by certain operational parameters and printing conditions. The release of nanoscale particles from a nano-enabled product (printer toner) raises questions about health implications to users. The presented PEGS platform will help in assessing the toxicological profile of PEPs and the link to the physico-chemical and morphological properties of emitted PM and toner formulations. PMID:24862974

  13. Size-segregated emissions and metal content of vehicle-emitted particles as a function of mileage: Implications to population exposure.

    PubMed

    Golokhvast, Kirill S; Chernyshev, Valery V; Chaika, Vladimir V; Ugay, Sergey M; Zelinskaya, Elena V; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Karakitsios, Spyros P; Sarigiannis, Denis A

    2015-10-01

    The study aims at investigating the characteristics (size distribution, active surface and metal content) of particles emitted by cars as a function of mileage using a novel methodology for characterizing particulate emissions captured by Exhaust Gas Suspension (EGS). EGS was obtained by passing the exhaust gases through a container of deionized water. EGS analysis was performed using laser granulometry, electron scanning microscopy, and high resolution mass spectrometry. Implications of the differences in key features of the emitted particles on population exposure were investigated using numerical simulation for estimating size-segregated PM deposition across human respiratory tract (HRT). It was found that vehicle mileage, age and the respective emissions class have almost no effect on the size distribution of the exhaust gas particulate released into the environment; about half of the examined vehicles with low mileage were found to release particles of aerodynamic diameter above 10 μm. The exhaust gas particulate detected in the EGS of all cars can be classified into three major size classes: (1) 0.1-5 µm - soot and ash particles, metals (Au, Pt, Pd, Ir); (2) 10-30 µm - metal (Cr, Fe, Cu, Zr, Ni) and ash particles; (3) 400-1,000 µm - metal (Fe, Cr, Pb) and ash particles. Newer vehicles with low mileage are substantial sources of soot and metal particles with median diameter of 200 nm with a higher surface area (up to 89,871.16 cm(2)/cm(3)). These tend to deposit in the lower part of the human respiratory tract. PMID:26264860

  14. Semiconductor polycrystalline alpha detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieber, M.; Roth, M.; Zuck, A.; Marom, G.; Khakhan, O.; Alfassi, Z. B.

    2006-08-01

    In order to check possible novel neutron detectors based on composite semiconductor detectors containing nuclides with large cross sections for neutron, we tested their response to alpha particles. In the present paper we describe results obtained with composite samples made of hexagonal Boron Nitride particles bound with Polystyrene or Nylon-6. The samples were tested under 5.5 MeV alpha particle radiation emitted from 241Am source and 4.8MeV alpha particle of 226Ra source. Some of the responses of these composite detectors to thermal neutrons were already reported and here we shall show some newer results obtained with thermal neutrons, from a low intensity 241Am - 9Be and also from a medium intensity 252Cf source, which were thermalized using 10 cm thick paraffin. The Alpha detection experiments show that all the tested samples, regardless of the binder, show a well-defined peak around the 270 energy channel. There was very little polarization of the alpha radiation, since the amplitude of the alpha peak is reduced after ~ 2min from start of the irradiation, from 100% to 95% and it stayed stable at this level for another 10 minutes. The alpha spectrum detected from a PbI II single crystal is also shown for comparison. The neutron spectrum obtained by the composite BN samples showed an apparent peak around the 150 energy channel. The Signal to noise ratio for neutron detection from radionuclide shown here is about 2 only, whereas recent results to be published later, obtained with our composite BN detectors from a neutron beam of about 10 7 sec -1cm -2 is ~2 5. The 1.4 and 1.7 MeV alpha peaks resulting from the nuclear reaction of thermal neutrons with 10B of the boron nitride detector are not buried in the noise range. The capacitance noise requires small contact areas, therefore for large area detectors it is necessary to produce an electronic read-out device which can add up a multitude of small (less than 10sq.mm) pixilated contacts.

  15. Modelling TF ripple loss of alpha particles in TFTR DT experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Redi, M.H.; Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.

    1995-07-01

    Modelling of TF ripple loss of alphas in DT experiments on TFTR now includes neoclassical calculations of first orbit loss, stochastic ripple diffusion, ripple trapping and collisional effects. A rapid way to simulate experiment has been developed which uses a simple stochastic domain model for TF ripple loss within the TRANSP analysis code, with the ripple diffusion threshold evaluated by comparison with more accurate but computationally expensive Hamiltonian coordinate guiding center code simulations. Typical TF collisional ripple loss predictions are 6-10% loss of alphas for TFTR D-T experiments at I{sub p} = 1.0-2.0 MA and R = 2.52 m.

  16. Effects of Complex Symmetry-Breakings on Alpha Particle Power Loads on First Wall Structures and Equilibrium in ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Shinohara, K.; Kurki-Suonio, T.; Spong, Donald A; Asunta, O.; Tani, K.; Strumberger, E.; Briguglio, S.; Vlad, G.; Kramer, G.; Putvinski, S.; Hamamatsu, K.

    2011-01-01

    Within the ITPA Topical Group on Energetic Particles, we have investigated the impact that various mechanisms breaking the tokamak axisymmetry can have on the fusion alpha particle confinement in ITER as well as on the wall power loads due to these alphas. In addition to the well-known TF ripple, the 3D effect due to ferromagnetic materials (in ferritic inserts and test blanket modules) and ELM mitigation coils are included in these mechanisms. ITER scenario 4 was chosen since, due to its lower plasma current, it is more vulnerable for various off-normal features. First, the validity of using a 2D equilibrium was investigated: a 3D equilibrium was reconstructed using the VMEC code, and it was verified that no 3D equilibrium reconstruction is needed but it is sufficient to add the vacuum field perturbations onto an axisymmetric equilibrium. Then the alpha particle confinement was studied using three independent codes, ASCOT, DELTA5D and F3D OFMC, all of which assume MHD quiescent background plasma and no anomalous diffusion. All the codes gave a loss power fraction of about 0.2%. The distribution of the peak power load was found to depend on the first wall shape. We also made the first attempt to accommodate the effect of fast-ion-related MHD on the wall loads in ITER using the HMGC and ASCOT codes. The power flux to the wall was found to increase due to the redistribution of fast ions by the MHD activity. Furthermore, the effect of the ELM mitigation field on the fast-ion confinement was addressed by simulating NBI ions with the F3D OFMC code. The loss power fraction of NBI ions was found to increase from 0.3% without the ELM mitigation field to 4-5% with the ELM mitigation field.

  17. Response of Ni/4H-SiC Schottky barrier diodes to alpha-particle irradiation at different fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omotoso, E.; Meyer, W. E.; Auret, F. D.; Diale, M.; Ngoepe, P. N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Irradiation experiments have been carried out on 1.9×1016 cm-3 nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC at room temperature using 5.4 MeV alpha-particle irradiation over a fluence ranges from 2.6×1010 to 9.2×1011 cm-2. Current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements have been carried out to study the change in characteristics of the devices and free carrier removal rate due to alpha-particle irradiation, respectively. As radiation fluence increases, the ideality factors increased from 1.20 to 1.85 but the Schottky barrier height (SBHI-V) decreased from 1.47 to 1.34 eV. Free carrier concentration, Nd decreased with increasing fluence from 1.7×1016 to 1.1×1016 cm-2 at approximately 0.70 μm depth. The reduction in Nd shows that defects were induced during the irradiation and have effect on compensating the free carrier. The free carrier removal rate was estimated to be 6480±70 cm-1. Alpha-particle irradiation introduced two electron traps (E0.39 and E0.62), with activation energies of 0.39±0.03 eV and 0.62±0.08 eV, respectively. The E0.39 as attribute related to silicon or carbon vacancy, while the E0.62 has the attribute of Z1/Z2.

  18. Radioimmunotherapy of breast cancer metastases with alpha-particle emitter 225Ac: comparing efficacy with 213Bi and 90Y.

    PubMed

    Song, Hong; Hobbs, Robert F; Vajravelu, Ravy; Huso, David L; Esaias, Caroline; Apostolidis, Christos; Morgenstern, Alfred; Sgouros, George

    2009-12-01

    alpha-Particles are suitable to treat cancer micrometastases because of their short range and very high linear energy transfer. alpha-Particle emitter (213)Bi-based radioimmunotherapy has shown efficacy in a variety of metastatic animal cancer models, such as breast, ovarian, and prostate cancers. Its clinical implementation, however, is challenging due to the limited supply of (225)Ac, high technical requirement to prepare radioimmunoconjugate with very short half-life (T(1/2) = 45.6 min) on site, and prohibitive cost. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of the alpha-particle emitter (225)Ac, parent of (213)Bi, in a mouse model of breast cancer metastases. A single administration of (225)Ac (400 nCi)-labeled anti-rat HER-2/neu monoclonal antibody (7.16.4) completely eradicated breast cancer lung micrometastases in approximately 67% of HER-2/neu transgenic mice and led to long-term survival of these mice for up to 1 year. Treatment with (225)Ac-7.16.4 is significantly more effective than (213)Bi-7.16.4 (120 microCi; median survival, 61 days; P = 0.001) and (90)Y-7.16.4 (120 microCi; median survival, 50 days; P < 0.001) as well as untreated control (median survival, 41 days; P < 0.0001). Dosimetric analysis showed that (225)Ac-treated metastases received a total dose of 9.6 Gy, significantly higher than 2.0 Gy from (213)Bi and 2.4 Gy from (90)Y. Biodistribution studies revealed that (225)Ac daughters, (221)Fr and (213)Bi, accumulated in kidneys and probably contributed to the long-term renal toxicity observed in surviving mice. These data suggest (225)Ac-labeled anti-HER-2/neu monoclonal antibody could significantly prolong survival in HER-2/neu-positive metastatic breast cancer patients. PMID:19920193

  19. Simulation of the alpha particle heating and the helium ash source in an International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor-like tokamak with an internal transport barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Lei Guo, Wenfeng; Xiao, Xiaotao; Dai, Zongliang; Wang, Shaojie

    2014-12-15

    A guiding center orbit following code, which incorporates a set of non-singular coordinates for orbit integration, was developed and applied to investigate the alpha particle heating in an ITER-like tokamak with an internal transport barrier. It is found that a relatively large q (safety factor) value can significantly broaden the alpha heating profile in comparison with the local heating approximation; this broadening is due to the finite orbit width effects; when the orbit width is much smaller than the scale length of the alpha particle source profile, the heating profile agrees with the source profile, otherwise, the heating profile can be significantly broadened. It is also found that the stagnation particles move to the magnetic axis during the slowing-down process, thus the effect of stagnation orbits is not beneficial to the helium ash removal. The source profile of helium ash is broadened in comparison with the alpha source profile, which is similar to the heating profile.

  20. Ionization of noble gas atoms by alpha particles and fission fragments from the decay of 252Cf1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, B. M.; Watson, R. L.; Wohrer, K.; Bandong, B. B.; Sampoll, G.; Horvat, V.

    1993-07-01

    Charge state distributions of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe ions produced in single collisions with alpha particles and fission fragments from the decay of 252Cf have been measured using time of flight spectrometry. The measurements reveal that the maximum number of electrons removed in a fission fragment collision ranges from eight in the case of Ne to 20 in the case of Xe. Recoil-ion production cross sections have been determined for the resolvable ionic charge states and compared with the predictions of a model based upon the independent electron approximation.

  1. New interpretation of alpha-particle-driven instabilities in deuterium-tritium experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor.

    PubMed

    Nazikian, R; Kramer, G J; Cheng, C Z; Gorelenkov, N N; Berk, H L; Sharapov, S E

    2003-09-19

    The original description of alpha particle driven instabilities in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor in terms of toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) remained inconsistent with three fundamental characteristics of the observations: (i) the variation of the mode frequency with toroidal mode number, (ii) the chirping of the mode frequency for a given toroidal mode number, and (iii) the antiballooning density perturbation of the modes. It is now shown that these characteristics can be explained by observing that cylindrical-like modes can exist in the weak magnetic shear region of the plasma that then make a transition to TAEs as the central safety factor decreases in time. PMID:14525368

  2. 1.5D Quasilinear Model for Alpha Particle-TAE Interaction in ARIES ACT-I

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ghantous, N.N. Gorelenkov, C. Kessel, F. Poli

    2013-01-30

    We study the TAE interaction with alpha particle fusion products in ARIES ACT-I using the 1.5D quasilinear model. 1.5D uses linear analytic expressions for growth and damping rates of TAE modes evaluated using TRANSP pro les to calculates the relaxation of pressure pro les. NOVA- K simulations are conducted to validate the analytic dependancies of the rates, and to normalize their absolute value. The low dimensionality of the model permits calculating loss diagrams in large parameter spaces.

  3. Gamma-H2AX foci in cells exposed to a mixed beam of X-rays and alpha particles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Little is known about the cellular effects of exposure to mixed beams of high and low linear energy transfer radiation. So far, the effects of combined exposures have mainly been assessed with clonogenic survival or cytogenetic methods, and the results are contradictory. The gamma-H2AX assay has up to now not been applied in this context, and it is a promising tool for investigating the early cellular response to mixed beam irradiation. Purpose To determine the dose response and repair kinetics of gamma-H2AX ionizing radiation-induced foci in VH10 human fibroblasts exposed to mixed beams of 241Am alpha particles and X-rays. Results VH10 human fibroblasts were irradiated with each radiation type individually or both in combination at 37°C. Foci were scored for repair kinetics 0.5, 1, 3 and 24 h after irradiation (one dose per irradiation type), and for dose response at the 1 h time point. The dose response effect of mixed beam was additive, and the relative biological effectiveness for alpha particles (as compared to X-rays) was of 0.76 ± 0.52 for the total number of foci, and 2.54 ± 1.11 for large foci. The repair kinetics for total number of foci in cells exposed to mixed beam irradiation was intermediate to that of cells exposed to alpha particles and X-rays. However, for mixed beam-irradiated cells the frequency and area of large foci were initially lower than predicted and increased during the first 3 hours of repair (while the predicted number and area did not). Conclusions The repair kinetics of large foci after mixed beam exposure was significantly different from predicted based on the effect of the single dose components. The formation of large foci was delayed and they did not reach their maximum area until 1 h after irradiation. We hypothesize that the presence of low X-ray-induced damage engages the DNA repair machinery leading to a delayed DNA damage response to the more complex DNA damage induced by alpha particles. PMID:23121736

  4. Nickel-59 in Surface Layers of Lunar Basalt 74275: Implications for the Solar Alpha Particle Flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnabel, C.; Xue, S.; Ma, P.; Herzog, G. F.; Fifield, K.; Cresswell, R. G.; diTada, M. L.; Hausladen, Paul; Reedy, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    By using AMS we have profiled 59 Ni/Ni ratios in lunar basalt 74275. Activities (dpm 59 Ni/[kg Fe]) range from 120 to 10 at depths (mg/cm 2) from about 30 to 650. Modeling results hint at higher solar alpha fluxes during the last about 0.5 My than during the last approximately 1 My.

  5. Very High Efficiency, Miniaturized, Long-Lived Alpha Particle Power Source Using Diamond Devices for Extreme Space Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolawa, Elizabeth A. (Inventor); Patel, Jagdishbhai U. (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A power source that converts a-particle energy into electricity by coulomb collision in doped diamond films is described. Alpha particle decay from curium-244 creates electron-hole pairs by free- ing electrons and holes inside the crystal lattice in N- and P-doped diamond films. Ohmic contacts provide electrical connection to an electronic device. Due to the built-in electric field at the rectifying junction across the hT- and P-doped diamond films, the free electrons are constrained to traveling in generally one direction. This one direction then supplies electrons in a manner similar to that of a battery. The radioactive curium layer may be disposed on diamond films for even distribution of a-particle radiation. The resulting power source may be mounted on a diamond substrate that serves to insulate structures below the diamond substrate from a-particle emission. Additional insulation or isolation may be provided in order to prevent damage from a-particle collision. N-doped silicon may be used instead of N-doped diamond.

  6. A Comparitive Assessement of Cytokine Expression in Human-Derived Cell Lines Exposed to Alpha Particles and X-Rays

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinita; Howland, Matthew; Wilkins, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Alpha- (α-) particle radiation exposure has been linked to the development of lung cancer and has been identified as a radiation type likely to be employed in radiological dispersal devices. Currently, there exists a knowledge gap concerning cytokine modulations associated with exposure to α-particles. Bio-plex technology was employed to investigate changes in proinflammatory cytokines in two human-derived cell lines. Cells were irradiated at a dose of 1.5 Gy to either α-particles or X-rays at equivalent dose rates. The two cell lines exhibited a unique pattern of cytokine expression and the response varied with radiation type. Of the 27 cytokines assessed, only vascular endothelin growth factor (VEGF) was observed to be modulated in both cell lines solely after α-particle exposure, and the expression of VEGF was shown to be dose responsive. These results suggest that certain proinflammatory cytokines may be involved in the biological effects related to α- particle exposure and the responses are cell type and radiation type specific. PMID:22619631

  7. Transcriptional Response of Human Cells to Microbeam Irradiation with 2.1 MeV Alpha Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, C. E.; Bogner, S.; Spitta, L.; Arenz, A.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Greif, K. D.; Giesen, U.

    Within the next decades an increasing number of human beings in space will be simultaneously exposed to different stimuli especially microgravity and radiation To assess the risks for humans during long-duration space missions the complex interplay of these parameters at the cellular level must be understood Cellular stress protection responses lead to increased transcription of several genes via modulation of transcription factors Activation of the Nuclear Factor kappa B NF- kappa B pathway as a possible anti-apoptotic route represents such an important cellular stress response A screening assay for detection of NF- kappa B-dependent gene activation using the destabilized variant of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein d2EGFP as reporter protein had been developed It consists of Human Embryonic Kidney HEK 293 Cells stably transfected with a receptor-reporter-construct carrying d2EGFP under the control of a NF- kappa B response element Clones positive for Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha TNF- alpha inducible d2EGFP expression were selected as cellular reporters Irradiation was performed either with X-rays 150 kV 19 mA at DLR Cologne or with 2 1 MeV alpha particles LET sim 160 keV mu m at PTB Braunschweig After irradiation the following biological endpoints were determined i cell survival via the colony forming ability test ii time-dependent activation of NF- kappa B dependent d2EGFP gene expression using flow cytometry iii quantitative RT-PCR

  8. Use of 4.7 MeV alpha particles in elemental analysis and fusion reactor materials studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinescu, B.; Dima, S.; Florescu, V.; Ivanov, E. A.; Ploştinaru, D.; Sârbu, C.

    1986-07-01

    The possibilities for using 4.7 MeV alpha particles produced at the U-120 CIP Cyclotron for charged particle induced X- and gamma-ray emission applications (PIXE and PIGE, respectively) and for fast neutron radiation damage simulation are presented. The combined analysis using PIGE and PIXE methods either separately or simultaneously is an excellent means of determining the relative abundances of lighter elements with gamma-ray spectra and of heavier elements ( Z ⩾ 16) with X-ray spectra. Some aspects of surface deformation effects by neutrons were simulated by means of medium-energy helium ions. An investigation of three types of commercial stainless steel (Romanian W 4016, Soviet 12KH18N10T and Japanese W 4541) was started using 3.0 [1], 4.7 and 6.8 MeV helium ions. The main post-irradiation effects observed are discussed.

  9. Which radionuclide, carrier molecule and clinical indication for alpha-immunotherapy?

    PubMed

    Guerard, F; Barbet, J; Chatal, J F; Kraeber-Bodere, F; Cherel, M; Haddad, F

    2015-06-01

    Beta-emitting radionuclides are not able to kill isolated tumor cells disseminated in the body, even if a high density of radiolabeled molecules can be targeted at the surface of these cells because the vast majority of emitted electrons deliver their energy outside the targeted cells. Alpha-particle emitting radionuclides may overcome this limitation. It is thus of primary importance to test and validate the radionuclide of choice, the most appropriate carrier molecule and the most promising clinical indication. Four α-particle emitting radionuclides have been or are clinically tested in phase I studies namely 213Bi, 225Ac, 212Pb and 211At. Clinical safety has been documented and encouraging efficacy has been shown for some of them (213Bi and 211At). 211At has been the most studied and could be the most promising radionuclide but 225Ac and 212Pb are also of potential great interest. Any carrier molecule that has been labeled with β-emitting radionuclides could be labeled with alpha particle-emitting radionuclide using, for some of them, the same chelating agents. However, the physical half-life of the radionuclide should match the biological half-life of the radioconjugate or its catabolites. Finally everybody agrees, based on the quite short range of alpha particles, on the fact that the clinical indications for alpha-immunotherapy should be limited to the situation of disseminated minimal residual diseases made of small clusters of malignant cells or isolated tumor cells. PMID:25752501

  10. Deceleration of Alpha Particles in the Solar Wind by Instabilities and the Rotational Force: Implications for Heating, Azimuthal Flow, and the Parker Spiral Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verscharen, Daniel; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Bourouaine, Sofiane; Hollweg, Joseph V.

    2015-06-01

    Protons and alpha particles in the fast solar wind are only weakly collisional and exhibit a number of non-equilibrium features, including relative drifts between particle species. Two non-collisional mechanisms have been proposed for limiting differential flow between alpha particles and protons: plasma instabilities and the rotational force. Both mechanisms decelerate the alpha particles. In this paper, we derive an analytic expression for the rate {Q}{flow} at which energy is released by alpha-particle deceleration, accounting for azimuthal flow and conservation of total momentum. We show that instabilities control the deceleration of alpha particles at r\\lt {r}{crit}, and the rotational force controls the deceleration of alpha particles at r\\gt {r}{crit}, where {r}{crit}≃ 2.5 {AU} in the fast solar wind in the ecliptic plane. We find that {Q}{flow} is positive at r\\lt {r}{crit} and {Q}{flow}=0 at r≥slant {r}{crit}, consistent with the previous finding that the rotational force does not lead to a release of energy. We compare the value of {Q}{flow} at r\\lt {r}{crit} with empirical heating rates for protons and alpha particles, denoted {Q}p and {Q}α , deduced from in situ measurements of fast-wind streams from the Helios and Ulysses spacecraft. We find that {Q}{flow} exceeds {Q}α at r\\lt 1 {AU}, and that {Q}{flow}/{Q}p decreases with increasing distance from the Sun from a value of about one at r = 0.29-0.42 AU to about 1/4 at 1 AU. We conclude that the continuous energy input from alpha-particle deceleration at r\\lt {r}{crit} makes an important contribution to the heating of the fast solar wind. We also discuss the implications of the alpha-particle drift for the azimuthal flow velocities of the ions and for the Parker spiral magnetic field.

  11. Screening materials with the XIA UltraLo alpha particle counter at Southern Methodist University

    SciTech Connect

    Nakib, M. Z.; Cooley, J.; Kara, B.; Qiu, H.; Scorza, S.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Rielage, K.; Schnee, R. W.

    2013-08-08

    Southern Methodist University houses one of five existing commercially available UltraLo 1800 production model alpha counters made by XIA LLC. The instrument has an electron drift chamber with a 707 cm{sup 2} or 1800 cm{sup 2} counting region which is determined by selecting the inner electrode size. The SMU team operating this device is part of the SuperCDMS screening working group, and uses the alpha counter to study the background rates from the decay of radon in materials used to construct the SuperCDMS experiment. We have studied four acrylic samples obtained from the MiniCLEAN direct dark matter search with the XIA instrument demonstrating its utility in low background experiments by investigating the plate-out of {sup 210}Pb and comparing the effectiveness of cleaning procedures in removing {sup 222}Rn progenies from the samples.

  12. Screening materials with the XIA UltraLo alpha particle counter at Southern Methodist University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakib, M. Z.; Cooley, J.; Guiseppe, V. E.; Kara, B.; Qiu, H.; Rielage, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.

    2013-08-01

    Southern Methodist University houses one of five existing commercially available UltraLo 1800 production model alpha counters made by XIA LLC. The instrument has an electron drift chamber with a 707 cm2 or 1800 cm2 counting region which is determined by selecting the inner electrode size. The SMU team operating this device is part of the SuperCDMS screening working group, and uses the alpha counter to study the background rates from the decay of radon in materials used to construct the SuperCDMS experiment. We have studied four acrylic samples obtained from the MiniCLEAN direct dark matter search with the XIA instrument demonstrating its utility in low background experiments by investigating the plate-out of 210Pb and comparing the effectiveness of cleaning procedures in removing 222Rn progenies from the samples.

  13. Gene amplification and microsatellite instability induced in tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial cells by alpha particles and heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piao, C. Q.; Hei, T. K.; Hall, E. J. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Gene amplification and microsatellite alteration are useful markers of genomic instability in tumor and transformed cell lines. It has been suggested that genomic instability contributes to the progression of tumorigenesis by accumulating genetic changes. In this study, amplification of the carbamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbamylase, dihydro-orotase (CAD) gene in transformed and tumorigenic human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells induced by either alpha particles or (56)Fe ions was assessed by measuring resistance to N-(phosphonacetyl)-l-aspartate (PALA). In addition, alterations of microsatellite loci located on chromosomes 3p and 18q were analyzed in a series of primary and secondary tumor cell lines generated in nude mice. The frequency of PALA-resistant colonies was 1-3 x 10(-3) in tumor cell lines, 5-8 x 10(-5) in transformed cells prior to inoculation into nude mice, and less than 10(-7) in control BEP2D cells. Microsatellite alterations were detected in all 11 tumor cell lines examined at the following loci: D18S34, D18S363, D18S877, D3S1038 and D3S1607. No significant difference in either PALA resistance or microsatellite instability was found in tumor cell lines that were induced by alpha particles compared to those induced by (56)Fe ions.

  14. A neutral-beam diagnostic for fast confined alpha particles in a burning plasma: Application on CIT (Compact Ignition Tokamak)

    SciTech Connect

    Schlachter, A.S.; Stearns, J.W.; Cooper, W.S.

    1987-10-01

    Diagnostic methods for fast confined alpha particles are essential for a burning-plasma experiment. We review one- and two-electron-capture methods using energetic neutral beams, and provide quantitative estimates of signal level for a two-electron-capture method applicable to CIT. The best probe is a ground-state helium-atom beam because of its relatively good penetration into a CIT plasma and the large cross section for two-electron capture; it can be produced in useful quantities from HeH/sup +/. We calculate a signal level of the order of 10/sup 7/ counts/s for 100 mA of accelerated HeH/sup +/, which is sufficient to allow time-resolved measurements of the alpha-particle velocity distribution. Limited position information could be obtained for appropriate access port geometry. This diagnostic is feasible, and we recommend further research and development leading to implementation on CIT. 39 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Non-gyrotropic proton and alpha-particle velocity distributions in the solar wind: TAUS observations and stability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Astudillo, H. F.; Marsch, E.; Livi, S.; Rosenbauer, H.

    1995-01-01

    Ion velocity distribution functions have been measured with high time resolution by the TAUS plasma instrument on the PHOBOS mission to Mars in 1989. The unambiguous separation of protons and alpha-particles by TAUS enabled us to study the nonthermal features of their distributions separately and to analyze the stability of the distributions against excitation of waves in the cyclotron-frequency domain. Typical nonthermal features include temperature anisotropies, with T(sub perpendicular) larger than T(sub parallel), and ion beam populations drifting along the local magnetic field direction. Also, distinctly non-gyrotropic alpha-particle velocity distributions were sometimes found. Non-gyrotropy strongly changes the wave dispersion and gives rise to new growing modes, related to the coupling of the standard wave modes existing in gyrotropic plasma. It is found that for the measured non-gyrotropic ion distributions the right-hand polarized wave can also be excited by a temperature anistropy instead of the usual beam drift.

  16. Interacting boson model of clustering in nuclei: alpha-particle clustering in heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A general interacting boson model of clustering in nuclei is presented. The model is then specialized to the case of n identical ..cap alpha..-clusters (U(6) circle cross U(4)), followed by a detailed study of the SU(3) dynamical limit. Many useful formulae are derived in this limit. The general problem of coexistence and configuration mixing is discussed, and a useful SU(3) bank mixing approximation (BMA) is presented. Formulae of the case of two mixed configurations are derived. The method of calculating the matrix elements for two-nucleon transfer reactions is demonstrated, and formulae for ..cap alpha..-decay reduced widths are given. This model is then utilized for the study of the systematic trends of the data available for actinide nuclei. Most of the results presented here are for the well-deformed even-even mass actinides with A < 242; however, some trends in going to the spherical region and to larger A are studied. Tests, based on experimental data, are presented to discriminate between different limits of this model, and between this and other models. The limit of the model presented here satisfies all of the experimental tests found, while all other competing models were found to have serious deficiencies. This phenomenological study indicates that ..cap alpha..-clustering effects are of fundamental importance for understanding the structure and dynamics of actinide nuclei. Suggestions for future research are made, some of which are based on preliminary work that has already been done.

  17. Sulfur-containing particles emitted by concealed sulfide ore deposits: an unknown source of sulfur-containing particles in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, J. J.; Li, Y. K.; Jiang, T.; Hu, G.

    2015-06-01

    Sources of sulfur dioxide, sulfates, and organic sulfur compounds, such as fossil fuels, volcanic eruptions, and animal feeding operations, have attracted considerable attention. In this study, we collected particles carried by geogas flows ascending through soil, geogas flows above the soil that had passed through the soil, and geogas flows ascending through deep faults of concealed sulfide ore deposits, and analysed them using transmission electron microscopy. Numerous crystalline and amorphous sulfur-containing particles or particle aggregations were found in the ascending geogas flows. In addition to S, the particles contained O, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Na, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, As, Ti, Sr, Ba, Si, etc. Such particles are usually a few to several hundred nanometres in diameter with either regular or irregular morphology. The sulfur-containing particles originated from deep-seated weathering or faulting products of concealed sulfide ore deposits. The particles suspended in the ascending geogas flow migrated through faults from deep-seated sources to the atmosphere. This is a previously unknown source of the atmospheric particles. This paper reports, for the first time, the emission of sulfur-containing particles into the atmosphere from concealed sulfide ore deposits. The climatic and ecological influences of these sulfur-containing particles and particle aggregations should be assessed.

  18. Sulfur-containing particles emitted by concealed sulfide ore deposits: an unknown source of sulfur-containing particles in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, J.; Li, Y.; Jiang, T.; Hu, G.

    2014-11-01

    Sources of sulfur dioxide, sulfates, and organic sulfur compounds, such as fossil fuels, volcanic eruptions, and animal feeding operations, have attracted considerable attention. In this study, we collected particles carried by geogas flows ascending through soil, geogas flows above the soil that had passed through the soil, and geogas flows ascending through deep faults of concealed sulfide ore deposits and analyzed them using transmission electron microscopy. Numerous crystalline and amorphous sulfur-containing particles or particle aggregations were found in the ascending geogas flows. In addition to S, the particles contained O, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Na, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, As, Ti, Sr, Ba, Si, etc. Such particles are usually a few to several hundred nanometers in diameter with either regular or irregular morphology. The sulfur-containing particles originated from deep-seated weathering or faulting products of concealed sulfide ore deposits. The particles suspended in the ascending geogas flow migrated through faults from deep-seated sources to the atmosphere. This is a previously unknown source of the atmospheric particles. This paper reports, for the first time, the emission of sulfur-containing particles into the atmosphere from concealed sulfide ore deposits. The climatic and ecological influences of these sulfur-containing particles and particle aggregations should to be assessed.

  19. Improving the output power of GaN-based light-emitting diode using Ag particles embedded within a SiO2 current blocking layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Seong; Han, Jaecheon; Seong, Tae-Yeon

    2015-07-01

    GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated with Ag particles embedded within a SiO2 current blocking layer (CBL) are demonstrated. The Ag particles varied from 100 to 250 nm in size, and had a density of ∼3.8 × 108 cm-2. The transmittances obtained from GaN/sapphire and Ag particles/GaN/sapphire were 75 and 66% at 450 nm, respectively. The LEDs (chip size: 1000 × 1000 μm2) fabricated with ITO-only, ITO/SiO2 CBL, and ITO/Ag particles/SiO2 CBL showed forward-bias voltages of 3.05, 3.25 and 3.1 V at 20 mA, respectively. The LEDs with the ITO/Ag particles/SiO2 CBL yielded 11.9 and 7.0% higher light output powers (at 20 mA) than the LEDs with the ITO-only and ITO/SiO2 CBL, respectively. The improved output power is explained by the combined effects of the improved extraction and current spreading.

  20. Comparison of PHITS, GEANT4, and HIBRAC simulations of depth-dependent yields of ?+-emitting nuclei during therapeutic particle irradiation to measured data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohling, Heide; Sihver, Lembit; Priegnitz, Marlen; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Fiedler, Fine

    2013-09-01

    For quality assurance in particle therapy, a non-invasive, in vivo range verification is highly desired. Particle therapy positron-emission-tomography (PT-PET) is the only clinically proven method up to now for this purpose. It makes use of the ?+-activity produced during the irradiation by the nuclear fragmentation processes between the therapeutic beam and the irradiated tissue. Since a direct comparison of ?+-activity and dose is not feasible, a simulation of the expected ?+-activity distribution is required. For this reason it is essential to have a quantitatively reliable code for the simulation of the yields of the ?+-emitting nuclei at every position of the beam path. In this paper results of the three-dimensional Monte-Carlo simulation codes PHITS, GEANT4, and the one-dimensional deterministic simulation code HIBRAC are compared to measurements of the yields of the most abundant ?+-emitting nuclei for carbon, lithium, helium, and proton beams. In general, PHITS underestimates the yields of positron-emitters. With GEANT4 the overall most accurate results are obtained. HIBRAC and GEANT4 provide comparable results for carbon and proton beams. HIBRAC is considered as a good candidate for the implementation to clinical routine PT-PET.

  1. Accounting for long alpha-particle stopping distances in (U-Th-Sm)/He geochronology: Refinement of the baseline case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketcham, Richard A.; Gautheron, Ccile; Tassan-Got, Laurent

    2011-12-01

    This contribution proposes a number of methodological refinements for accounting for ejection of energetic particles, most particularly in the case of long alpha-particle stopping distance effects in (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronometry. Recent stopping-distance estimates for minerals commonly used for thermochronometry are up to 1.5 ?m shorter than previously thought, which directly affects the magnitude of the ejection correction parameter FT. The revision in stopping distances necessitates re-fitting the empirical polynomials that have been used to calculate FT corrections for various crystal forms. Reformulation and re-parameterization of these polynomials enables them to account for present and any future change in stopping distances without needing to be recalibrated. The library of shapes described with these polynomials to accommodate habits is expanded for all crystal systems and also ellipsoids, thus covering all minerals currently used and under development for (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronometry. In addition, the inaccuracy caused by characterizing a set of alpha particles from a decay chain with a single mean stopping distance is examined, and a simple method for compensation is recommended. A new method of using FT parameters to calculate corrected ages by applying them to parents instead of daughters or age is presented, which maximizes accuracy for old specimens such as meteorites. Altogether, the refinements proposed will affect (U-Th-Sm)/He ages by 1-5%, depending on size and age. Finally, the concept of an FT-equivalent sphere is introduced as a sphere with the same effective FT value as a given mineral grain. Testing indicates that the FT-equivalent sphere is of comparable or superior accuracy to a sphere of the same surface to volume ratio for diffusion modeling. This finding greatly facilitates utilization of (U-Th-Sm)/He data from standard data tables for forward and inverse modeling.

  2. Trojan horse particle invariance studied with the {sup 6}Li(d,{alpha}){sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 4}He reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzone, R. G.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Cherubini, S.; La Cognata, M.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Bertulani, C.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Blokhintsev, L.; Burjan, V.; Hons, Z.; Kroha, V.; Mrazek, J.; Piskor, S.; Kiss, G. G.; Li, C.; Tumino, A.

    2011-04-15

    The Trojan horse nucleus invariance for the binary reaction cross section extracted from the Trojan horse reaction was tested using the quasifree {sup 3}He({sup 6}Li,{alpha}{alpha})H and {sup 3}He({sup 7}Li,{alpha}{alpha}){sup 2}H reactions. The cross sections for the {sup 6}Li(d,{alpha}){sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li(p,{alpha}){sup 4}He binary processes were extracted in the framework of the plane wave approximation. They are compared with direct behaviors as well as with cross sections extracted from previous indirect investigations of the same binary reactions using deuteron as the Trojan horse nucleus instead of {sup 3}He. The very good agreement confirms the applicability of the plane wave approximation which suggests the independence of the binary indirect cross section on the chosen Trojan horse nucleus, at least for the investigated cases.

  3. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  4. Development of an alpha/beta/gamma detector for radiation monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2011-11-15

    For radiation monitoring at the site of nuclear power plant accidents such as Fukushima Daiichi, radiation detectors not only for gamma photons but also for alpha and beta particles are needed because some nuclear fission products emit beta particles and gamma photons and some nuclear fuels contain plutonium that emits alpha particles. We developed a radiation detector that can simultaneously monitor alpha and beta particles and gamma photons for radiation monitoring. The detector consists of three-layered scintillators optically coupled to each other and coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The first layer, which is made of a thin plastic scintillator (decay time: 2.4 ns), detects alpha particles. The second layer, which is made of a thin Gd{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} (GSO) scintillator with 1.5 mol.% Ce (decay time: 35 ns), detects beta particles. The third layer made of a thin GSO scintillator with 0.4 mol.% Ce (decay time: 70 ns) detects gamma photons. By using pulse shape discrimination, the count rates of these layers can be separated. With individual irradiation of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons, the count rate of the first layer represented the alpha particles, the second layer represented the beta particles, and the third layer represented the gamma photons. Even with simultaneous irradiation of the alpha and beta particles and the gamma photons, these three types of radiation can be individually monitored using correction for the gamma detection efficiency of the second and third layers. Our developed alpha, beta, and gamma detector is simple and will be useful for radiation monitoring, especially at nuclear power plant accident sites or other applications where the simultaneous measurements of alpha and beta particles and gamma photons are required.

  5. Conversion efficiency and spectral broadening of the K-{alpha} line emitted from planar titanium targets irradiated with ultra-short laser pulses of high intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, V.; Singhal, H.; Naik, P. A.; Gupta, P. D.

    2011-10-15

    A study of the conversion efficiency and line shape of the K-{alpha} x-ray line radiation from a planar titanium target irradiated by an ultra-short laser pulse is performed. The conversion efficiency and spectral broadening are studied as a function of laser intensity (5 x 10{sup 16}-10{sup 18} W cm{sup -2}), laser pulse duration (45 fs-800 fs), and laser fluence (2 x 10{sup 3}-4.2 x 10{sup 4} J cm{sup -2}). The K-{alpha}{sub 1} line (4510 eV) is observed to be broadened (up to {approx}9 eV), predominantly towards the higher energy side and strongly depends on the laser fluence rather than on laser intensity. The reason for the spectral broadening is attributed to K-{alpha} emission in warm dense plasma. The role of hot electrons and direct laser heating on spectral broadening is outlined. In addition to this, our observations indicates that the presence of pre-plasma strongly contribute to the observed broadening through the inner-shell transitions in multiply charged titanium ions in the pre-plasma. The appropriate laser irradiation parameters to achieve high conversion efficiency and minimum spectral width of the K-{alpha} radiation are identified. The study is important, since the control of the spectral profile is of general interest for diffraction or scattering experiments in view of its potential in increasing temporal resolution.

  6. The ATM kinase signaling induced by the low-energy β-particles emitted by (33)P is essential for the suppression of chromosome aberrations and is greater than that induced by the energetic β-particles emitted by (32)P.

    PubMed

    White, Jason S; Yue, Ning; Hu, Jing; Bakkenist, Christopher J

    2011-03-15

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) encodes a nuclear serine/threonine protein kinase whose activity is increased in cells exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR). Here we examine ATM kinase activation in cells exposed to either (32)P- or (33)P-orthophosphate under conditions typically employed in metabolic labelling experiments. We calculate that the absorbed dose of IR delivered to a 5cm×5cm monolayer of cells incubated in 2ml media containing 1mCi of the high-energy (1.70MeV) β-particle emitter (32)P-orthophosphate for 30min is ∼1Gy IR. The absorbed dose of IR following an otherwise identical exposure to the low-energy (0.24MeV) β-particle emitter (33)P-orthophosphate is ∼0.18Gy IR. We show that low-energy β-particles emitted by (33)P induce a greater number of ionizing radiation-induced foci (IRIF) and greater ATM kinase signaling than energetic β-particles emitted by (32)P. Hence, we demonstrate that it is inappropriate to use (33)P-orthophosphate as a negative control for (32)P-orthophosphate in experiments investigating DNA damage responses to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Significantly, we show that ATM accumulates in the chromatin fraction when ATM kinase activity is inhibited during exposure to either radionuclide. Finally, we also show that chromosome aberrations accumulate in cells when ATM kinase activity is inhibited during exposure to ∼0.36Gy β-particles emitted by (33)P. We therefore propose that direct cellular exposure to (33)P-orthophosphate is an excellent means to induce and label the IR-induced, ATM kinase-dependent phosphoproteome. PMID:21315088

  7. Influence of plasma parameters on the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Zhang, X. Yu, L.; Zhao, X.

    2014-12-15

    In tokamaks, fusion generated α particles may absorb lower hybrid (LH) wave energy, thus reducing the LH current drive efficiency. The absorption coefficient γ{sub α} of LH waves due to α particles changing with some typical parameters is calculated in this paper. Results show that γ{sub α} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ‖}, while decreases with the frequency of LH waves ω over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption. The absorption coefficient γ{sub α} increases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} ≤ 8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, while decreases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} becomes larger, and there is a peak value of γ{sub α} when n{sub e} ≈ 8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −1} for the ITER-like scenario. The influence of spectral broadening in parametric decay instabilities on the absorption coefficient is evaluated. The value of γ{sub α} with n{sub ‖} being 2.5 is almost two times larger than that with n{sub ‖} being 2.0 and is even lager in the case of 2.9, which will obviously increase the absorption of the LH power by alpha particles.

  8. Solar modulation of protons and alpha particles at rigidities of 4-10 GV/c

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Golden, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The high statistics and high resolution rigidity spectra from geomagnetic cutoff to 160 GV/c were provided by a superconducting-magnet spectrometer flown on a balloon. The spectra above 8.3 GV/c fit a power law in rigidity for protons and alphas; below 8.3 GV/c, no clear evidence of solar modification is available. The analysis of data from 5.5 to 8.3 GV/c by the Gleeson-Axford model for solar modulation indicated that the modulation parameter was 0.3 + or - 0.05 Gev/nucleon; the spectra below 5.5 GV/c are being analyzed using a portion of the flight data recorded while the balloon was essentially stationary

  9. Double-electron capture in collision of fast alpha particles with helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari-Adivi, Ebrahim; Ghavaminia, Hoda

    2014-11-01

    A four-body boundary-corrected first-order Jackson-Schiff approximation (JS1-4B) is developed to calculate the differential and integral cross-sections (DCSs) for double-electron exchange in collision of fast alpha ions with helium atoms in their ground states. The influence of the static electron correlations on cross-sections is taken into account through choosing the different wave functions to describe the initial and final bound states of the electrons. The quantum-mechanical post and prior transition amplitudes for double charge exchange are derived in terms of two-dimensional real integrals which can be calculated numerically. The validity and utility of the applied approach is critically assessed in comparison with the available experimental data for differential and integral cross-sections. The present calculations are also compared with the results obtained from the other theories.

  10. Effects of fresh lubricant oils on particle emissions emitted by a modern gasoline direct injection passenger car.

    PubMed

    Pirjola, Liisa; Karjalainen, Panu; Heikkilä, Juha; Saari, Sampo; Tzamkiozis, Theodoros; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Kulmala, Kari; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2015-03-17

    Particle emissions from a modern turbocharged gasoline direct injection passenger car equipped with a three-way catalyst and an exhaust gas recirculation system were studied while the vehicle was running on low-sulfur gasoline and, consecutively, with five different lubrication oils. Exhaust particle number concentration, size distribution, and volatility were determined both at laboratory and on-road conditions. The results indicated that the choice of lubricant affected particle emissions both during the cold start and warm driving cycles. However, the contribution of engine oil depended on driving conditions being higher during acceleration and steady state driving than during deceleration. The highest emission factors were found with two oils that had the highest metal content. The results indicate that a 10% decrease in the Zn content of engine oils is linked with an 11-13% decrease to the nonvolatile particle number emissions in steady driving conditions and a 5% decrease over the New European Driving Cycle. The effect of lubricant on volatile particles was even higher, on the order of 20%. PMID:25679531

  11. Outgassing from alpha particle irradiation of lithium hydride and lithium hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haertling, Carol; Usov, Igor; Wang, Yongqiang

    2011-02-01

    We have experimentally studied the effects of α-particle radiation on isotopically enriched lithium hydride ( 6LiH) and its corrosion product lithium hydroxide ( 6LiOH) to determine, in particular, the type and amount of gases evolved during irradiation. SRIM Monte Carlo simulations suggest that irradiating these materials with 2.2-MeV α-particles will ionize atoms and form hydrogen vacancies in the target material, and that these α-particles will penetrate 13.5 and 9 μm into LiH and LiOH, respectively. Using an accelerator to irradiate LiH and LiOH with 2.2-MeV α-particles released only H 2 and CO 2; no other product gases were observed. At 25 °C, doses that simulated 66.5 years of actinide exposure (with accelerated fluxes) produced 2.3 × 10 5 mol/(cm 3 J) H 2 in LiH and 2.3 × 10 6 mol/(cm 3 J) H 2 in LiOH, in the form of a ˜9-μm-thick surface layer on LiH. More H 2 evolved from LiOH than from LiH. We argue that the production of H 2 gas was the result of radiolysis, rather than radiation-induced chemical reaction.

  12. Determination of oxygen in silicon and carbide by activation with 27.2 meV alpha particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolgolenko, A. P.; Kornienko, N. D.; Lithovchenko, P. G.

    1978-01-01

    The Si sample was polished on one side, and on the other side Ni was applied chemically and soldered with Pb to a water cooled Cu substrate. Optical quartz standard was fixed from the other side. Si carbide samples were soldered to a substrated with In. The prepared samples were irradiated in a cyclotron with a 27.2 MeV alpha particle beam. The layers were removed from the Si and Si carbide samples by grinding and the positron activity of F-18(t sub 1/2 110 min) was measured by using a gamma, gamma coincidence spectrometer with two NaI(TI) crystals. For analysis of Si carbide, the activity decay curve of the samples was recorded to find the contribution of the positron activity of Cu-65(t sub 1/2 12.9 hr) which formed from Ni impurity on irradiation.

  13. On resonant destabilization of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes by circulating and trapped energetic ions/alpha particles in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Biglari, H.; Zonca, F.; Chen, L.

    1991-10-01

    Toroidal Alfven eigenmodes are shown to be resonantly destabilized by both circulating and trapped energetic ions/alpha particles. In particular, the energetic circulating ions are shown to resonate with the mode not only at the Alfven speed ({upsilon}{sub A}), but also one-third of this speed, while resonances exist between trapped energetic ions and the wave when {upsilon} = {upsilon}{sub A}/21{epsilon}{sup {1/2}} (l=integer, {epsilon}=r/R is the local inverse aspect ratio), although the instability becomes weaker for resonances other than the fundamental. The oft-quoted criterion that instability requires super-Alfvenic ion velocities is thus sufficient but not necessary. 14 refs.

  14. A comparative study of the number and mass of fine particles emitted with diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Md. Nurun; Brown, Richard J.; Ristovski, Zoran; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-09-01

    The current investigation reports on diesel particulate matter emissions, with special interest in fine particles from the combustion of two base fuels. The base fuels selected were diesel fuel and marine gas oil (MGO). The experiments were conducted with a four-stroke, six-cylinder, direct injection diesel engine. The results showed that the fine particle number emissions measured by both SMPS and ELPI were higher with MGO compared to diesel fuel. It was observed that the fine particle number emissions with the two base fuels were quantitatively different but qualitatively similar. The gravimetric (mass basis) measurement also showed higher total particulate matter (TPM) emissions with the MGO. The smoke emissions, which were part of TPM, were also higher for the MGO. No significant changes in the mass flow rate of fuel and the brake-specific fuel consumption (BSFC) were observed between the two base fuels.

  15. Online laser desorption-multiphoton postionization mass spectrometry of individual aerosol particles: molecular source indicators for particles emitted from different traffic-related and wood combustion sources.

    PubMed

    Bente, Matthias; Sklorz, Martin; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2008-12-01

    Direct inlet aerosol mass spectrometry plays an increasingly important role in applied and fundamental aerosol and nanoparticle research. Laser desorption/ionization (LDI) based techniques for single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LDI-SP-TOFMS) are a promising approach in the chemical analysis of single aerosol particles, especially for the detection of inorganic species and distinction of particle classes. However, until now the detection of molecular organic compounds on a single particle basis has been difficult due to the high laser power densities which are required for the LDI process as well as due to the inherent matrix effects associated with this ionization technique. By the application of a two-step approach, where an IR desorption laser pulse is applied to perform a gentle desorption of organic material from the single particle surface and a second UV-laser performs the soft ionization of the desorbed species, this drawback of laser based single particles mass spectrometry can be overcome. The postionization of the desorbed molecules has been accomplished in this work by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) using a KrF excimer laser (248 nm). REMPI allows an almost fragmentation free trace analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives from individual single particles (laser desorption-REMPI postionization-single particle-time-of-flight mass spectrometry or LD-REMPI-SP-TOFMS). Crucial system parameters of the home-built aerosol mass spectrometer such as the power densities and the relative timing of both lasers were optimized with respect to the detectability of particle source specific organic signatures using well characterized standard particles. In a second step, the LD-REMPI-SP-TOFMS system was applied to analyze different real world aerosols (spruce wood combustion, gasoline car exhaust, beech wood combustion, and diesel car exhaust). It was possible to distinguish the particles from different sources by their molecular signature. Finally, exemplary ambient aerosol measurements have been carried out, which demonstrate the potential of the method for investigating urban aerosol and making contributions to source attribution studies. PMID:18983175

  16. Evaluation of Melt-Grown, ZnO Single Crystals for Use as Alpha-Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, John S; Giles, N. C.; Yang, Xiaocheng; Wall, R. Andrew; Ucer, Burak; Williams, Richard T.; Wisniewski, Dariusz J; Boatner, Lynn A; Rengarajan, Varatharajan; Nause, Jeff E; Nemeth, Bell

    2008-01-01

    As part of an ongoing investigation of the scintillation properties of zinc-oxide-based scintillators, several melt-grown, ZnO single crystals have been characterized using -particle excitation, infrared reflectance, and room temperature photoluminescence. The crystals, grown by Cermet, Inc. using a pressurized melt growth process, were doped with Group 1 elements (Li), Group 2 elements (Mg), Group 3 elements (Ga, In) and Lanthanides (Gd, Er, Tm). The goals of these studies are to better understand the scintillation mechanisms associated with various members of the ZnO scintillator family and to then use this knowledge to improve the radiation detection capabilities of ZnO-based scintillators. One application for which ZnO is particularly well suited as a scintillator is as the associated particle detector in a deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron generator. Application requirements include the exclusion of organic materials, outstanding timing resolution, and high radiation resistance. ZnO(Ga) and ZnO(In) have demonstrated fast (sub-nanosecond) decay times with relatively low light yields, and ZnO(Ga) has been used in a powder form as the associated particle detector for a D-T neutron generator. Four promising candidate materials, ZnO, ZnO:Ga, ZnO:In,Li, and ZnO:Er,Li, were identified in this study. These four samples demonstrated sub-nanosecond decay times and alpha particle excited luminescence comparable to BC-400 fast plastic scintillator. The ZnO:Mg,Ga, ZnO:Gd, and ZnO:Li samples demonstrated appreciable slow (microsecond) decay components that would be incompatible with high-counting-rate applications.

  17. Alpha-particle capture reactions in inverse kinematics relevant to p-process nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujić, P.; Lagoyannis, A.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Harissopulos, S.; Demetriou, P.; Perrot, L.; Stodel, Ch.; Saint-Laurent, M.-G.; Kamalou, O.; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A.; Spyrou, A.; Amthor, M. A.; Grevy, S.; Caceres, L.; Koivisto, H.; Laitinen, M.; Uusitalo, J.; Julin, R.

    2011-10-01

    The first feasibility study of an α-particle capture reaction in inverse kinematics at energies relevant to the p process was performed at the Wien Filter of the LISE spectrometer at GANIL. Hereby, the 4He(78Kr,γ)82Sr reaction was investigated using as target an 4He-implanted thin Al foil. The analysis of the data has shown that the determination of (α,γ) reaction cross sections at rather low energies around 2 MeV/u in inverse kinematics is indeed feasible regarding the high rejection rate of the primary beam, which in the present work was better than a factor of 109. However, the expected position of the recoils of interest was completely masked by particles of currently unknown origin that could hardly be attributed to scattering of the primary beam. The most probable explanation for the origin of these "pollutants" could be microscopic dust particles of 10 μm diameter and less, that are extremely difficult to avoid in standard experimental conditions. Hence, the use of a gas-jet target instead of a solid one is compulsory.

  18. Scenarios for the nonlinear evolution of alpha particle induced Alfven wave instability

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Ye, Huanchun.

    1992-03-01

    Various nonlinear scenarios are given for the evolution of energetic particles that are slowing down in a background plasma and simultaneously causing instability of the background plasma waves. If the background damping is sufficiently weak, a steady-state wave is established as described by Berk and Breizman. For larger background damping rate pulsations develop. Saturation occurs when the wave amplitude rises to where the wave trapping frequency equals the growth rate. The wave then damps due to the small background dissipation present and a relatively long quiet interval exists between bursts while the free energy of the distribution is refilled by classical transport. In this scenario the anomalous energy loss of energetic particles due to diffusion is small compared to the classical collisional energy exchange with the background plasma. However, if at the trapping frequency, the wave amplitude is large enough to cause orbit stochasticity, a phase space explosion'' occurs where the wave amplitudes rise to higher levels which leads to rapid loss of energetic particles.

  19. Scenarios for the nonlinear evolution of alpha particle induced Alfven wave instability

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Ye, Huanchun

    1992-03-01

    Various nonlinear scenarios are given for the evolution of energetic particles that are slowing down in a background plasma and simultaneously causing instability of the background plasma waves. If the background damping is sufficiently weak, a steady-state wave is established as described by Berk and Breizman. For larger background damping rate pulsations develop. Saturation occurs when the wave amplitude rises to where the wave trapping frequency equals the growth rate. The wave then damps due to the small background dissipation present and a relatively long quiet interval exists between bursts while the free energy of the distribution is refilled by classical transport. In this scenario the anomalous energy loss of energetic particles due to diffusion is small compared to the classical collisional energy exchange with the background plasma. However, if at the trapping frequency, the wave amplitude is large enough to cause orbit stochasticity, a phase space ``explosion`` occurs where the wave amplitudes rise to higher levels which leads to rapid loss of energetic particles.

  20. Development of a CO2 Laser Collective Thomson Scattering Fast Ion/Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Roger K.; Hutchinson, Donald P.

    2000-10-01

    A collective Thomson scattering diagnostic is being developed for the measurement of confined fast ions in hot, dense plasmas such as the ion tail in JT-60U and the alphas produced in a burning reactor or the upgraded JET device. A CO2 laser scattering system has been installed on JT-60U for this purpose. The diagnostic also has the capability of measuring the isotopic D/T density ratio of the core ions. The advances under development for this diagnostic include improvements in the high power source laser, increased bandwidth and reduced noise in the receiver, and the development of an IF electronic filter bank. Such improvements are designed to permit the temporal measurement of the fast ions and improve the accuracy in determining their velocity distribution. Modeling of the expected scattered signals produced by these improvements and the diagnostics capability to measure the velocity distribution and isotopic ratio are presented. · Managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC0500OR22725.

  1. Characterization of Spatial Impact of Particles Emitted from a Cement Material Production Facility on Outdoor Particle Deposition in the Surrounding Community

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chang Ho; Fan, Zhihua (Tina); McCandlish, Elizabeth; Stern, Alan H.; Lioy, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contribution of a facility that processes steel production slag into raw material for cement production to local outdoor particle deposition in Camden, NJ. A dry deposition sampler that can house four 37-mm quartz fiber filters was developed and used for the collection of atmospheric particle deposits. Two rounds of particle collection (3–4 weeks each) were conducted in 8–11 locations 200–800 m downwind of the facility. Background samples were concurrently collected in a remote area located ~2 km upwind from the facility. In addition, duplicate surface wipe samples were collected side-by-side from each of the 13 locations within the same sampling area during the first deposition sampling period. One composite source material sample was also collected from a pile stored in the facility. Both the bulk of the source material and the <38 μm fraction subsample were analyzed to obtain the elemental source profile. The particle deposition flux in the study area was higher (24–83 mg/m2 day) than at the background sites (13–17 mg/m2·day). The concentration of Ca, a major element in the cement source production material, was found to exponentially decrease with increasing downwind distance from the facility (P < 0.05). The ratio of Ca/Al, an indicator of Ca enrichment due to anthropogenic sources in a given sample, showed a similar trend. These observations suggest a significant contribution of the facility to the local particle deposition. The contribution of the facility to outdoor deposited particle mass was further estimated by three independent models using the measurements obtained from this study. The estimated contributions to particle deposition in the study area were 1.8–7.4% from the regression analysis of the Ca concentration in particle deposition samples against the distance from the facility, 0–11% from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) source-receptor model, and 7.6–13% from the EPA Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST3) dispersion model using the particle-size-adjusted permit-based emissions estimates. PMID:22070034

  2. Characterization of spatial impact of particles emitted from a cement material production facility on outdoor particle deposition in the surrounding community.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chang Ho; Fan, Zhihua; McCandlish, Elizabeth; Stern, Alan H; Lioy, Paul J

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the contribution of a facility that processes steel production slag into raw material for cement production to local outdoor particle deposition in Camden, NJ. A dry deposition sampler that can house four 37-mm quartz fiber filters was developed and used for the collection of atmospheric particle deposits. Two rounds of particle collection (3-4 weeks each) were conducted in 8-11 locations 200-800 m downwind of the facility. Background samples were concurrently collected in a remote area located -2 km upwind from the facility. In addition, duplicate surface wipe samples were collected side-by-side from each of the 13 locations within the same sampling area during the first deposition sampling period. One composite source material sample was also collected from a pile stored in the facility. Both the bulk of the source material and the < 38 microm fraction subsample were analyzed to obtain the elemental source profile. The particle deposition flux in the study area was higher (24-83 mg/m2 x day) than at the background sites (13-17 mg/m2day). The concentration of Ca, a major element in the cement source production material, was found to exponentially decrease with increasing downwind distance from the facility (P < 0.05). The ratio of Ca/Al, an indicator of Ca enrichment due to anthropogenic sources in a given sample, showed a similar trend. These observations suggest a significant contribution of the facility to the local particle deposition. The contribution of the facility to outdoor deposited particle mass was further estimated by three independent models using the measurements obtained from this study. The estimated contributions to particle deposition in the study area were 1.8-7.4% from the regression analysis of the Ca concentration in particle deposition samples against the distance from the facility, 0-11% from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) source-receptor model, and 7.6-13% from the EPA Industrial Source Complex Short Term (ISCST3) dispersion model using the particle-size-adjusted permit-based emissions estimates. PMID:22070034

  3. Double strand break rejoining after irradiation of human fibroblasts with X rays or alpha particles: PFGE studies and numerical models.

    PubMed

    Pinto, M; Prise, K M; Michael, B D

    2002-01-01

    When a charged-particle track intercepts the chromatin fibre in DNA of mammalian cells, clustered damage is induced depending on the DNA conformation, local environment and track structure. Intra-track correlated DNA damage may have a higher probability of being mis-repaired or left un-repaired. Fragment size-distributions of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) induced in primary human fibroblasts by 240 kVp X rays and 238Pu alpha particles (110 keV.micron-1) were resolved using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). By monitoring DSB rejoining kinetics and changes in the fragment size distribution with repair time, the relevance of spatial association of DSBs in determining rejoining kinetics was investigated. Rejoining kinetics appeared bi-phasic and independent of the size of the DNA fragments for both radiation qualities, with high LET radiation-induced DSBs repairing more slowly. Results suggest that local complexity of individual DSBs, rather than spatial association with other breaks is more significant in the determination of rejoining kinetics. PMID:12194265

  4. Targeting Aberrant DNA double strand break repair in triple negative breast cancer with alpha particle emitter radiolabeled anti-EGFR antibody

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hong; Hedayati, Mohammad; Hobbs, Robert F.; Shao, Chunbo; Bruchertseifer, Frank; Morgenstern, Alfred; DeWeese, Theodore L.; Sgouros, George

    2013-01-01

    The higher potential efficacy of alpha-particle radiopharmaceutical therapy lies in the 3 to 8-fold greater biological effectiveness (RBE) of alpha particles relative to photon or beta-particle radiation. This greater RBE, however, also applies to normal tissue, thereby reducing the potential advantage of high RBE. Since alpha particles typically cause DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), targeting tumors that are defective in DSB repair effectively increases the RBE, yielding a secondary, RBE-based differentiation between tumor and normal tissue that is complementary to conventional, receptor-mediated tumor targeting. In some triple negative breast cancers (TNBC, ER−/PR−/HER-2−), germline mutation in BRCA-1, a key gene in homologous recombination (HR) DSB repair, predisposes patients to early onset of breast cancer. These patients have few treatment options once the cancer has metastasized. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of alpha particle emitter, 213Bi labeled anti-EGFR antibody, Cetuximab, in BRCA-1 defective TNBC. 213Bi-Cetuximab was found to be significantly more effective in the BRCA-1 mutated TNBC cell line HCC1937 than BRCA-1 competent TNBC cell MDA-MB-231. siRNA knockdown of BRCA-1 or DNA-PKcs, a key gene in non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) DSB repair pathway, also sensitized TNBC cells to 213Bi-Cetuximab. Furthermore, the small molecule inhibitor of DNA-PKcs, NU7441, sensitized BRCA-1 competent TNBC cells to alpha particle radiation. Immunofluorescent staining of γH2AX foci and comet assay confirmed that enhanced RBE is caused by impaired DSB repair. These data offer a novel strategy for enhancing conventional receptor-mediated targeting with an additional, potentially synergistic radiobiological targeting that could be applied to TNBC. PMID:23873849

  5. Evidence of DNA double strand breaks formation in Escherichia coli bacteria exposed to alpha particles of different LET assessed by the SOS response.

    PubMed

    Serment-Guerrero, Jorge; Breña-Valle, Matilde; Aguilar-Moreno, Magdalena; Balcázar, Miguel

    2012-12-01

    Ionizing radiation produces a plethora of lesion upon DNA which sometimes is generated among a relatively small region due to clustered energy deposition events, the so called locally multiply damaged sites that could change to DSB. Such clustered damages are more likely to occur in high LET radiation exposures. The effect of alpha particles of different LET was evaluated on the bacterium Escherichia coli either by survival properties or the SOS response activity. Alpha radiation and LET distribution was controlled by means of Nuclear Track Detectors. The results suggest that alpha particles produce two types of lesion: lethal lesions and SOS inducing-mutagenic, a proportion that varies depending on the LET values. The SOS response as a sensitive parameter to assess RBE is mentioned. PMID:22705051

  6. Detectors for alpha particles and X-rays operating in ambient air in pulse counting mode or/and with gas amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpak, G.; Benaben, P.; Breuil, P.; Peskov, V.

    2008-02-01

    Ionization chambers working in ambient air in current detection mode are attractive due to their simplicity and low cost and are widely used in several applications such as smoke detection, dosimetry, therapeutic beam monitoring and so on. The aim of this work was to investigate if gaseous detectors can operate in ambient air in pulse counting mode as well as with gas amplification which potentially offers the highest possible sensitivity in applications like alpha particle detection or high energy X-ray photon or electron detection. To investigate the feasibility of this method two types of open- end gaseous detectors were build and successfully tested. The first one was a single wire or multiwire cylindrical geometry detector operating in pulse mode at a gas gain of one (pulse ionization chamber). This detector was readout by a custom made wide -band charge sensitive amplifier able to deal with slow induced signals generated by slow motion of negative and positive ions. The multiwire detector was able to detect alpha particles with an efficiency close to 22%. The second type of an alpha detector was an innovative GEM-like detector with resistive electrodes operating in air in avalanche mode at high gas gains (up to 104). This detector can also operate in a cascaded mode or being combined with other detectors, for example with MICROMEGAS. This detector was readout by a conventional charge -sensitive amplifier and was able to detect alpha particles with 100% efficiency. This detector could also detect X-ray photons or fast electrons. A detailed comparison between these two detectors is given as well as a comparison with commercially available alpha detectors. The main advantages of gaseous detectors operating in air in a pulse detection mode are their simplicity, low cost and high sensitivity. One of the possible applications of these new detectors is alpha particle background monitors which, due to their low cost can find wide application not only in houses, but in public areas: airports, railway station and so on.

  7. LET-Dependent Bystander Effects Caused by Irradiation of Human Prostate Carcinoma Cells with X Rays or Alpha Particles

    PubMed Central

    Anzenberg, Vered; Chandiramani, Sarika; Coderre, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects have been demonstrated in both normal and tumor cells using a variety of different radiation qualities. Literature reports are contradictory, however, on whether there is an LET dependence of the bystander effect. This study investigated the ability of DU-145 human prostate carcinoma cells irradiated with either α particles or 250 kVp X rays to cause medium-mediated bystander effects in unirradiated populations of DU-145 cells or in AG01522 human fibroblasts. The end points measured in both of the bystander cell lines were micronucleus formation, γ-H2AX focus induction, and the surviving fraction. The incidence of micronuclei increased 1.5–2.0-fold in both tumor and fibroblast bystander cells after 4 h of co-culture with DU-145 tumor cells that had been directly irradiated with either α particles or X rays. Only the AG01522 fibroblasts showed bystander effects for the γ-H2AX focus (a 1.5-fold increase) and surviving fraction (a decrease to 0.8) end points when co-cultured with X-irradiated tumor cells. Alpha-particle irradiation of DU-145 tumor cells produced no decrease in the surviving fraction and no increase in γ-H2AX focus induction in co-cultured bystander cells of either cell line. These results indicate that there are LET-dependent differences in the signal released from DU-145 human prostate carcinoma cells and that, for some end points, bystander AG01522 fibroblasts and bystander DU-145 prostate carcinoma cells respond differently to the same medium-mediated signal. PMID:19024654

  8. Readout cross-talk for alpha-particle measurements in a pixelated sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norlin, B.; Reza, S.; Krapohl, D.; Fröjdh, E.; Thungström, G.

    2015-05-01

    Simulations in Medici are performed to quantify crosstalk and charge sharing in a hybrid pixelated silicon detector. Crosstalk and charge sharing degrades the spatial and spectral resolution of single photon processing X-ray imaging systems. For typical medical X-ray imaging applications, the process is dominated by charge sharing between the pixels in the sensor. For heavier particles each impact generates a large amount of charge and the simulation seems to over predict the charge collection efficiency. This indicates that some type of non modelled degradation of the charge transport efficiency exists, like the plasma effect where the plasma might shield the generated charges from the electric field and hence distorts the charge transport process. Based on the simulations it can be reasoned that saturation of the amplifiers in the Timepix system might generate crosstalk that increases the charge spread measured from ion impact on the sensor.

  9. Track structure based modelling of chromosome aberrations after photon and alpha-particle irradiation.

    PubMed

    Friedland, Werner; Kundrát, Pavel

    2013-08-30

    A computational model of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human cells within the PARTRAC Monte Carlo simulation framework is presented. The model starts from radiation-induced DNA damage assessed by overlapping radiation track structures with multi-scale DNA and chromatin models, ranging from DNA double-helix in atomic resolution to chromatin fibre loops, heterochromatic and euchromatic regions, and chromosome territories. The repair of DNA double-strand breaks via non-homologous end-joining is followed. Initial spatial distribution and complexity, diffusive motion, enzymatic processing, synapsis and ligation of individual DNA ends from the breaks are simulated. To enable scoring of different chromosome aberration types resulting from improper joining of DNA fragments, the repair module has been complemented by tracking the chromosome origin of the ligated fragments and the positions of centromeres. The modelled motion of DNA ends has sub-diffusive characteristics and corresponds to measured chromatin mobility within time-scales of a few hours. The calculated formation of dicentrics after photon and α-particle irradiation in human fibroblasts is compared to experimental data (Cornforth et al., 2002, Radiat Res 158, 43). The predicted yields of dicentrics overestimate the measurements by factors of five for γ-rays and two for α-particle irradiation. Nevertheless, the observed relative dependence on radiation dose is correctly reproduced. Calculated yields and size distributions of other aberration types are discussed. The present work represents a first mechanistic approach to chromosome aberrations and their kinetics, combining full track structure simulations with detailed models of chromatin and accounting for the kinetics of DNA repair. PMID:23811166

  10. Final Scientific/Technical Report, DE-FG02-08ER41561: "Lyman-alpha Emitting Galaxies at 2

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Gawiser

    2010-03-19

    Lyman Alpha Emitting (LAE) galaxies are a powerful tracer of large scale structure, making them an excellent probe of baryonic acoustic oscillations, which constrain the expansion history of the universe and hence the nature of the dark energy. The HETDEX Stage III dark energy experiment will utilize LAEs for this purpose, and they are under consideration as a tracer of structure for Stage IV ground- and space-based dark energy missions. Our successful investigation of LAEs at z=2.1 and z=3.1 now provides the best information on the number density and clustering bias of these galaxies over the redshift range that HETDEX will study. Connecting these star-forming galaxies to their host dark matter halos represents a major increase in scientific understanding, as we can now proceed with confidence in studying the spatial distribution of significantly larger samples. Our data also provided an empirical test of the Lyman Alpha Tomography technique, which has proven effective and can now be used to design future experiments to probe dark energy and dark matter properties.

  11. Gas-phase and particle-phase organic compounds emitted from motor vehicle traffic in a Los Angeles roadway tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, M.P.; Cass, G.R.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1998-07-15

    The emission rates for 221 vapor-phase, semivolatile, and particle-phase organic compounds from motor vehicles plus fine particulate matter mass and some inorganic particle-phase species are calculated based on measurements made inside and outside a Los Angeles roadway tunnel in 1993. These emission rates are calculated based on tunnel dilution rates or air circulation. The results show carbon monoxide emissions rates of 130 g L{sup {minus}1} of gasoline-equivalent fuel burned and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions of 9.1 g L{sup {minus}1}. These values are higher than predicted by the baseline version of California`s EMFAC 7G emissions inventory program but are within the coemission rate range of 108 {+-} 25 g L{sup {minus}1} reported by roadside remote sensing studies in Los angeles. When the VOC emissions composition in the tunnel is compared to that of tailpipe emissions source test data and to the composition of additional unburned whole gasoline, the tunnel atmosphere is found to be consistent with a linear combination of these major contributors over a fairly broad range of about 74--97% vehicle exhaust depending on the tailpipe profiles used.

  12. The anthropogenic magnetic particles contain in indoor dust as markers of pollution emitted by different outside sources.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepaniak, Iga; Górka-Kostrubiec, Beata

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to explain the impact of magnetic particles originated from different external sources of pollution on the air quality inside apartments. We used the indoor dust as an indicator of air pollution inside apartments. For the study, a small town was chosen, in which dominated the local sources of pollution: (1) vehicle traffic (in the city center), (2) local heating plant, (3) individual households (in the suburbs) and (4) re-emission of soil particles from the contaminated post-industrial area. In each of four areas were selected several private apartments as a sampling points. Dust samples were collected by the owners of apartments from the floor surface using vacuum cleaners in the same time period (September 2014). The concentration-dependent magnetic parameters (magnetic susceptibility - and magnetization MS) were used to determine the level of the magnetic pollution of the indoor dust. The properties of magnetic particles (mineralogy, domain structure and grain size), and their chemical composition were used to describe and identify the source of air pollution inside the apartments. Generally, the results showed that in each of studied areas were observed flats with both: very high and low values of parameters depending on the concentration of magnetic particles. The biggest differences between the areas were visible in mineralogy of magnetic fraction of pollution. The research of apartments exposed to pollution generated by vehicle traffic (located in the city center) show a wide range of values χ (75-1021 -10-8 m3kg-1) and MS (35-656 -10-3 Am2kg-1). These differences were due to the high contribution of pure iron to magnetic fraction of pollution. Detailed analysis of the M (T) curves revealed two magnetic transitions: first at a temperature Tc = 585oC for magnetite and the second at Tc = 760oC for pure iron. For the dust samples from the city center the high values of χ and MS well correlated with high level of anthropogenic elements Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, which main source is the motor vehicle traffic. Samples of dust collected from the apartments located near the urban heat contained magnetite and pure iron, but in smaller amounts than the samples from the city center. The dust coming from the apartments located on contaminated post-industrial area contains only magnetite. On the curves χ(T), the contribution of the pure iron was not visible. For the both groups of the samples, the concentration expressed by the magnetic susceptibility correlated with a high concentration of heavy metals and toxic elements. Dust samples from the apartments located in the area with low anthropogenic factor (in the suburbs) had the values of χ and MS below average values determined from all investigated areas. Generally, the magnetic fraction of dust mainly contained fine grained magnetite but also small amount of pure iron. The contribution of pure iron depends on proximity of the apartment to the road. In this group, the relatively low susceptibility values of correlated with the low concentration of heavy metals.

  13. A Critical Review of Alpha Radionuclide Therapy-How to Deal with Recoiling Daughters?

    PubMed

    de Kruijff, Robin M; Wolterbeek, Hubert T; Denkova, Antonia G

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the successes and challenges currently faced in alpha radionuclide therapy. Alpha particles have an advantage in killing tumour cells as compared to beta or gamma radiation due to their short penetration depth and high linear energy transfer (LET). Touching briefly on the clinical successes of radionuclides emitting only one alpha particle, the main focus of this article lies on those alpha-emitting radionuclides with multiple alpha-emitting daughters in their decay chain. While having the advantage of longer half-lives, the recoiled daughters of radionuclides like 224Ra (radium), 223Ra, and 225Ac (actinium) can do significant damage to healthy tissue when not retained at the tumour site. Three different approaches to deal with this problem are discussed: encapsulation in a nano-carrier, fast uptake of the alpha emitting radionuclides in tumour cells, and local administration. Each approach has been shown to have its advantages and disadvantages, but when larger activities need to be used clinically, nano-carriers appear to be the most promising solution for reducing toxic effects, provided there is no accumulation in healthy tissue. PMID:26066613

  14. A Critical Review of Alpha Radionuclide Therapy—How to Deal with Recoiling Daughters?

    PubMed Central

    de Kruijff, Robin M.; Wolterbeek, Hubert T.; Denkova, Antonia G.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the successes and challenges currently faced in alpha radionuclide therapy. Alpha particles have an advantage in killing tumour cells as compared to beta or gamma radiation due to their short penetration depth and high linear energy transfer (LET). Touching briefly on the clinical successes of radionuclides emitting only one alpha particle, the main focus of this article lies on those alpha-emitting radionuclides with multiple alpha-emitting daughters in their decay chain. While having the advantage of longer half-lives, the recoiled daughters of radionuclides like 224Ra (radium), 223Ra, and 225Ac (actinium) can do significant damage to healthy tissue when not retained at the tumour site. Three different approaches to deal with this problem are discussed: encapsulation in a nano-carrier, fast uptake of the alpha emitting radionuclides in tumour cells, and local administration. Each approach has been shown to have its advantages and disadvantages, but when larger activities need to be used clinically, nano-carriers appear to be the most promising solution for reducing toxic effects, provided there is no accumulation in healthy tissue. PMID:26066613

  15. Integro-differential equation approach. II. Triton and. alpha. -particle wave functions, graphical plots

    SciTech Connect

    Oehm, W.; Sofianos, S.A.; Fiedeldey, H. Physics Department, University of South Africa, Pretoria 0001 ); Fabre de la Ripelle, M. Physics Department, University of South Africa, Pretoria 0001 )

    1991-01-01

    Three- and four-nucleon ground-state wave functions are displayed graphically in coordinate space as well as the Faddeev amplitudes from which they are constructed. In the four-body case only two-particle correlations are taken into account in the integro-differential equation approach, which consequently allows us to make a direct comparison between the Faddeev amplitudes for three and four nucleons and to demonstrate their high degree of similarity in shape. We also investigate the effect of the inclusion of the hypercentral potential in the definition of the (modified) Faddeev amplitudes. It is shown that the Faddeev-type components calculated in the adiabatic approximation are rather similar in shape to those calculated by means of the exact solution of the system of coupled integro-differential equations in two variables. The mixed symmetry component of the Faddeev-type amplitudes show the greatest sensitivity to the number of nucleons, the inclusion of the hypercentral potential, and to the adiabatic approximation.

  16. Real-time monitoring for alpha emitters in high-airflow environments

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, J.E.; MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M; Whitley, C.R.; Conaway, J.G.; Steadman, P.A.

    1996-07-01

    Key problems in detecting alpha contamination for site characterization and decontamination and decommissioning that remain to be solved include measurement of airborne contamination, material holdup within pipes, and leakage of material containers. These problems are very difficult using traditional alpha detectors and systems. The ionization detection method (long-range alpha detection of LRAD) offers a number of specific advantages for these environmental measurements. An LRAD system detects the air molecules ionized by alpha-emitting contamination rather than the alpha particles. Thus, LRAD-based detectors are not limited by the short range of alpha particles and can be used to detect contamination anywhere that air can penetrate. Extending this technology to large enclosures of long pipes requires a system optimized for large airflows. In this paper we will present designs and preliminary results for high-volume flow-through air monitors based on the LRAD technique. In addition, we will discuss the behavior of the monitors and their potential applications.

  17. Computation of cosmic ray ionization and dose at Mars. I: A comparison of HZETRN and Planetocosmics for proton and alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronoff, Guillaume; Norman, Ryan B.; Mertens, Christopher J.

    2015-04-01

    The ability to evaluate the cosmic ray environment at Mars is of interest for future manned exploration. To support exploration, tools must be developed to accurately access the radiation environment in both free space and on planetary surfaces. The primary tool NASA uses to quantify radiation exposure behind shielding materials is the space radiation transport code, HZETRN. In order to build confidence in HZETRN, code benchmarking against Monte Carlo radiation transport codes is often used. This work compares the dose calculations at Mars by HZETRN and the Geant4 application Planetocosmics. The dose at ground and the energy deposited in the atmosphere by galactic cosmic ray protons and alpha particles has been calculated for the Curiosity landing conditions. In addition, this work has considered Solar Energetic Particle events, allowing for the comparison of varying input radiation environments. The results for protons and alpha particles show very good agreement between HZETRN and Planetocosmics.

  18. Structure study of [sup 42]Ca by [alpha]+[sup 38]Ar cluster model: Coexistence of alpha-particle clustering and shell structure

    SciTech Connect

    Sakuda, T. ); Ohkubo, S. )

    1995-02-01

    The structure of [sup 42]Ca is investigated by the [alpha]+[sup 38]Ar orthogonality condition model. The energy spectra, [alpha]-spectroscopic factors, [ital E]2 transitions, and charge form factors are analyzed. On the whole, the calculated properties are in very good agreement with the experimental data. The levels are classified into the cluster and shell-model states through the analysis of the wave functions. It is emphasized that the coexistence and interplay of cluster and shell-model states are essential to understand the properties of [sup 42]Ca.

  19. The flow configuration of protons and alpha particles in the Earth's subsolar magnetosheath

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts were made to experimentally determine whether the magnetosheath bulk flow has a stagnation point or a stagnation line configuration, using data from the Active Mesospheric Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE)/Charge Composition Explorer (CCE) Spacecraft. The AMPTE/CCE spacecraft has an equatorial orbit with an apogee of 8.8 R sub 3. During compressions of the magnetosphere, it enters the subsolar magnetosheath, sometimes for several hours. This is an ideal situation to observe the flow configuration because the spacecraft is at rest, or nearly so, in the subsolar region. The CHEM instrument can detect ions from 1 to 300 keV/e in approximately the YZ GSE plane, the plane parallel to the magnetopause. Near the subsolar region, most of the bulk flow speed is in this plane. The H(+) and He(+2) is approximately 20 percent lower than that of the H(+) on average, although this may be a computational artifact. The bulk flow direction was compared to the theoretical flow direction predictions for a stagnation point and a stagnation line. It was found that 36 percent of the time intervals were consistent with the theory of a stagnation point, while 24 percent of the intervals were consistent with the theory of a stagnation line. The hourly average interplanetary magnetic field from the IMP 8 spacecraft was examined during the orbits for which it was available. For orbits with a significant number (greater than 4) of stagnation point-like intervals, the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was either northward or unmeasured. In contrast, for stagnation line-like orbits the IMF was either southward or unmeasured. The flow configuration of the subsolar magnetosheath appears to be fundamentally different for different orientations of the IMF.

  20. Monte Carlo particle-trajectory models for neutral cometary gases. I - Models and equations. II - The spatial morphology of the Lyman-alpha coma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Combi, Michael R.; Smyth, William H.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical derivations of various methods employed in the Monte Carlo particle-trajectory model (MCPTM) are presented, and the application of the MCPTM to the calculation of the photochemical heating of the inner coma through the partial thermalization of cometary hydrogen atoms produced by the photodissociation of water is discussed. This model is then used to explain the observed morphology of the spatially extended Ly-alpha comas of comets. The rocket and Skylab images of the Ly-alpha coma of Comet Kohoutek are examined.