Sample records for alpha tc3 cells

  1. Development of a bioartificial pancreas: II. Effects of oxygen on long-term entrapped betaTC3 cell cultures.


    Papas, K K; Long, R C; Sambanis, A; Constantinidis, I


    Tissue-engineered pancreatic constructs based on immunoisolated, insulin-secreting cells are promising in providing an effective, relatively inexpensive, long-term treatment for type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes. An in vitro characterization of construct function under conditions mimicking the in vivo environment is essential prior to any extensive animal experimentation. Encapsulated cells may experience hypoxic conditions postimplantation as a result of one or more of the following: the design of the construct; the environment at the implantation site; or the development of fibrosis around the construct. In this work, we studied the effects of 3- and 4-day-long hypoxic episodes on the metabolic and secretory activities and on the levels of intracellular metabolites detectable by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P NMR) of alginate/poly-L-lysine/alginate entrapped betaTC3 mouse insulinomas continuously perfused with culture medium. Results show that, upon decreasing the oxygen concentration in the surrounding medium, the encapsulated cell system reached a new, lower metabolic and secretory state. Hypoxia drove the cells to a more anaerobic glycolytic metabolism, increased the rates of glucose consumption (GCR) and lactate production (LPR), and reduced the rates of oxygen consumption (OCR) and insulin secretion (ISR). Furthermore, hypoxia reduced the levels of intracellular nucleotide triphosphates (NTP) and phosphorylcholine (PC) and caused a rapid transient increase in inorganic phosphate (P(i)). Upon restoration of the oxygen concentration in the perfusion medium, all parameters returned to their prehypoxic levels within 2 to 3 days following either gradual unidirectional changes (ISR, NTP, PC) or more complicated dynamic patterns (OCR, GCR, LPR). A further increase in oxygen concentration in the perfusion medium drove OCR, ISR, NTP, PC, and P(i) to new, higher levels. It is concluded that (31)P NMR spectroscopy can be used for the prolonged

  2. 99mTc-3P-RGD2 SPECT to monitor early response to bevacizumab therapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bin; Zhao, Guoqing; Ma, Qingjie; Ji, Bin; Ji, Tiefeng; Xin, Hua; Gao, Shi


    The present study assessed the predictive value of 99mTc-3(poly-(ethylene glycol), PEG) 4-arginine-glycine-aspartic (99mTc-3P-RGD2) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for the early identification of response to antiangiogenic treatment with bevacizumab in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with advanced NSCLC treated with bevacizumab were prospectively studied with 99mTc-3P-RGD2 SPECT before and after 2 weeks from start of treatment. The tumor response was evaluated with RECIST criteria and related to observed change in the tumor to non-tumor (T/N) ratio for the largest known lesion. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to determine T/N ratio changes with regard to predicting response to bevacizumab therapy. Change in T/N ratio was also related to progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Twenty-six patients were included, and 23 were finally assessable for metabolic response evaluation with 99mTc-3P-RGD2 SPECT. The cut-off value of T/N ratio change defined by ROC analysis was 24.4%. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value of 99mTc-3P-RGD2 SPECT for predicting tumor response were 81.8%, 91.7%, and 84.6%, respectively. Using the cut-off value defined by ROC analysis on 99mTc-3P-RGD2 SPECT, metabolic non-progressive disease patients (mNP) showed prolonged PFS (5.6 months versus 3.4 months; P < 0.001) and OS (17.1 months versus 8.6 months; P < 0.001) than metabolic progressive disease patients (mP). 99mTc-3P-RGD2 SPECT scan is a promising test to predict tumor response in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer early in the course of bevacizumab therapy. PMID:26884883

  3. Mechanism of alpha-tocopheryl-phosphate (alpha-TP) transport across the cell membrane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reported that alpha-TP is synthesized and hydrolyzed in animal cells and tissues; it modulates also several cell functions (FRBM 39:970, and UBMB Life, 57:23, 2005). While it is similar to alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T), alpha-TP appears to be more potent than alpha-T in inhibiting cell prolifer...

  4. The recovery of asteroid 2008 TC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaddad, Muawia H.; Jenniskens, Peter; Numan, Diyaa; Kudoda, Ayman M.; Elsir, Saadia; Riyad, Ihab F.; Ali, Awad Elkareem; Alameen, Mohammed; Alameen, Nada M.; Eid, Omer; Osman, Ahmed T.; Abubaker, Mohamed I.; Yousif, Mohamed; Chesley, Steven R.; Chodas, Paul W.; Albers, Jim; Edwards, Wayne N.; Brown, Peter G.; Kuiper, Jacob; Friedrich, Jon M.


    On October 7, 2008, asteroid 2008 TC3 impacted Earth and fragmented at 37 km altitude above the Nubian Desert in northern Sudan. The area surrounding the asteroid's approach path was searched, resulting in the first recovery of meteorites from an asteroid observed in space. This was also the first recovery of remains from a fragile "cometary" PE = IIIa/b type fireball. In subsequent searches, over 600 mostly small 0.2-379 g meteorites (named "Almahata Sitta") with a total mass 10.7 kg were recovered from a 30 × 7 km area. Meteorites fell along the track at 1.3 kg km-1, nearly independent of mass between 1 and 400 g, with a total fallen mass of 39 ± 6 kg. The strewn field was shifted nearly 1.8 km south from the calculated approach path. The influence of winds on the distribution of the meteorites, and on the motion of the dust train, is investigated. The majority of meteorites are ureilites with densities around 2.8 g cm-3, some of an anomalous (porous, high in carbon) polymict ureilite variety with densities as low as 1.5 g cm-3. In addition, an estimated 20-30% (in mass) of recovered meteorites were ordinary, enstatite, and carbonaceous chondrites. Their fresh look and matching distribution of fragments in the strewn field imply that they were part of 2008 TC3. For that reason, they are all referred to as "Almahata Sitta." No ureilite meteorites were found that still held foreign clasts, suggesting that the asteroid's clasts were only loosely bound.

  5. Folate receptor {alpha} regulates cell proliferation in mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Congjun; Evans, Chheng-Orn; Stevens, Victoria L.; Owens, Timothy R.; Oyesiku, Nelson M.


    We have previously found that the mRNA and protein levels of the folate receptor alpha (FR{alpha}) are uniquely over-expressed in clinically human nonfunctional (NF) pituitary adenomas, but the mechanistic role of FR{alpha} has not fully been determined. We investigated the effect of FR{alpha} over-expression in the mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cell line as a model for NF pituitary adenomas. We found that the expression and function of FR{alpha} were strongly up-regulated, by Western blotting and folic acid binding assay. Furthermore, we found a higher cell growth rate, an enhanced percentage of cells in S-phase by BrdU assay, and a higher PCNA staining. These observations indicate that over-expression of FR{alpha} promotes cell proliferation. These effects were abrogated in the same {alpha}T3-1 cells when transfected with a mutant FR{alpha} cDNA that confers a dominant-negative phenotype by inhibiting folic acid binding. Finally, by real-time quantitative PCR, we found that mRNA expression of NOTCH3 was up-regulated in FR{alpha} over-expressing cells. In summary, our data suggests that FR{alpha} regulates pituitary tumor cell proliferation and mechanistically may involve the NOTCH pathway. Potentially, this finding could be exploited to develop new, innovative molecular targeted treatment for human NF pituitary adenomas.

  6. DNA binding activities of the Caenorhabditis elegans Tc3 transposase.

    PubMed Central

    Colloms, S D; van Luenen, H G; Plasterk, R H


    Tc3 is a member of the Tc1/mariner family of transposable elements. All these elements have terminal inverted repeats, encode related transposases and insert exclusively into TA dinucleotides. We have studied the DNA binding properties of Tc3 transposase and found that an N-terminal domain of 65 amino acids binds specifically to two regions within the 462 bp Tc3 inverted repeat; one region is located at the end of the inverted repeat, the other is located approximately 180 bp from the end. Methylation interference experiments indicate that this N-terminal DNA binding domain of the Tc3 transposase interacts with nucleotides on one face of the DNA helix over adjacent major and minor grooves. Images PMID:7838706

  7. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J


    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  8. Cross-talk between integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1 in renal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abair, Tristin D.; Sundaramoorthy, Munirathinam; Chen, Dong; Heino, Jyrki; Ivaska, Johanna; Hudson, Billy G.; Sanders, Charles R.; Pozzi, Ambra; Zent, Roy


    The collagen-binding integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1 have profoundly different functions, yet they are often co-expressed in epithelial cells. When both integrins are expressed in the same cell, it has been suggested that {alpha}1{beta}1 negatively regulates integrin {alpha}2{beta}1-dependent functions. In this study we utilized murine ureteric bud (UB) epithelial cells, which express no functionally detectable levels of endogenous integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1, to determine the mechanism whereby this regulation occurs. We demonstrate that UB cells expressing integrin {alpha}2{beta}1, but not {alpha}1{beta}1 adhere, migrate and proliferate on collagen I as well as form cellular cords in 3D collagen I gels. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of the integrin {alpha}2 subunit with that of {alpha}1 results in decreased cell adhesion, migration and cord formation. In contrast, substitution of the integrin {alpha}2 cytoplasmic tail with that of {alpha}1, decreases cell migration and cord formation, but increases proliferation. When integrin {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 subunits are co-expressed in UB cells, the {alpha}1 subunit negatively regulates integrin {alpha}2{beta}1-dependent cord formation, adhesion and migration and this inhibition requires expression of both {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 tails. Thus, we provide evidence that the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the {alpha}2 integrin subunit, as well as the {alpha}1 integrin subunit, regulate integrin {alpha}2{beta}1 cell function.

  9. Methylation of alpha-type embryonic globin gene alpha pi represses transcription in primary erythroid cells.


    Singal, Rakesh; vanWert, Jane M; Ferdinand, Larry


    The inverse relationship between expression and methylation of beta-type globin genes is well established. However, little is known about the relationship between expression and methylation of avian alpha-type globin genes. The embryonic alpha(pi)-globin promoter was unmethylated, and alpha(pi)-globin RNA was easily detected in 5-day chicken erythroid cells. A progressive methylation of the CpG dinucleotides in the alpha(pi) promoter associated with loss of expression of alpha(pi)-globin gene was seen during development in primary erythroid cells. A 315-bp alpha(pi)-globin promoter region was cloned in an expression construct (alpha(pi)pGL3E) containing a luciferase reporter gene and SV40 enhancer. The alpha(pi)pGL3E construct was transfected into primary erythroid cells derived from 5-day-old chicken embryos. Methylation of alpha(pi)pGL3E plasmid and alpha(pi)-globin promoter alone resulted in a 20-fold and 7-fold inhibition of expression, respectively. The fully methylated but not the unmethylated 315-bp alpha(pi)-globin gene promoter fragment formed a methyl cytosine-binding protein complex (MeCPC). Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays were combined with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction to assess histone acetylation associated with the alpha(pi)-globin gene promoter. Slight hyperacetylation of histone H3 but a marked hyperacetylation of histone H4 was seen in 5-day when compared with 14-day erythroid cells. These results demonstrate that methylation can silence transcription of an avian alpha-type embryonic globin gene in homologous primary erythroid cells, possibly by interacting with an MeCPC and histone deacetylase complex. PMID:12393573

  10. Fibronectin receptor functions in embryonic cells deficient in alpha 5 beta 1 integrin can be replaced by alpha V integrins.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J T; Hynes, R O


    alpha 5 beta 1 integrin mediates cell adhesion to extracellular matrix by interacting with fibronectin (FN). Mouse lines carrying null mutations in genes encoding either the alpha 5 integrin subunit or FN have been generated previously. Both mutations are embryonic lethal with overlapping defects, but the defects of alpha 5-null embryos are less severe. Primary embryonic cells lacking alpha 5 beta 1 are able to adhere to FN, form focal contacts, migrate on FN, and assemble FN matrix. These results suggest the involvement of (an)other FN receptors(s). In this study, we examined functions of alpha 4 beta 1 and alpha V integrins in embryonic cells lacking alpha 5 beta 1. Our analysis of cells lacking both alpha 4 beta 1 and alpha 5 beta 1 showed that alpha 4 beta 1 is also not required for these FN-dependent functions. Using alpha V-specific blocking reagents, we showed that alpha V integrins are required for alpha 5-null cells, but not wild-type cells, to adhere and spread on FN. Our data also showed that, although the expression levels of alpha V integrins on the wild-type and alpha 5-null cells are similar, there is an increase in recruitment of alpha V integrins into focal contacts in alpha 5-null cells plated on FN, indicating that alpha V integrins can compensate functionally for the loss of alpha 5 beta 1 in focal contacts of alpha 5-null cells. Finally, our data suggested possible roles for alpha V integrins in replacing the role of alpha 5 beta 1 in FN matrix assembly in vitro and in FN-dependent embryonic functions in vivo. Images PMID:8930896

  11. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin and Lung Cell Apoptosis.


    Serban, Karina A; Petrache, Irina


    Discovery of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) as the principal circulating inhibitor of neutrophil elastase was critical to the appreciation of protease/antiprotease imbalance involvement in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Additional targets of A1AT have been uncovered, along with their contribution to alveolar wall destruction induced by cigarette smoke exposure. We highlight in this report mechanisms of A1AT antiapoptotic effects on structural lung endothelial cells. This function was largely dependent on uptake of the protein from the circulation via clathrin- and, in part, caveolae-mediated endocytosis and on specific interactions with cysteine proteases such as capsase-3, -6, and -7. Exposures to cigarette smoke diminished A1AT intracellular uptake and its anticaspase action, suggesting that even in A1AT-suficient individuals, cigarette smoke may weaken the serpin's endothelial prosurvival effect. In addition, cigarette smoke exposure or genetic mutations known to induce posttranslational modifications such as oxidation or polymerization may alter A1AT bidirectional intracellular traffic in endothelial cells and thus determine its functional bioavailability in certain lung compartments. Uncovering and harnessing the A1AT canonical and noncanonical mechanisms will advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of emphysema and may provide means to improve the effectiveness of therapies in both A1AT-sufficient and A1AT-deficient individuals. PMID:27115949

  12. Trafficking of. cap alpha. -L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells

    SciTech Connect

    DiCioccio, R.A.; Brown, K.S.


    The quantity of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in human serum is determined by heredity. The mechanism controlling levels of the enzyme in serum is unknown. To investigate this, lymphoid cell lines derived from individuals with either low, intermediate or high ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in serum were established. Steady state levels of extracellular ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase protein and activity overlapped among the cell lines. Thus, in vivo serum phenotypes of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase are not adequately expressed in this system. ..cap alpha..-L-Fucosidase was also metabolically labelled with /sup 35/S-methionine, immunoprecipitated, and examined by SDS-PAGE. Cells pulse-labelled from 0.25-2 h had a major intracellular form of enzyme (Mr = 58,000). Cells pulsed for 1.5 h and chased for 21 h with unlabeled methionine had an intracellular form of Mr = 60,000 and an extracellular form of Mr = 62,000. Cells treated with chloroquine had only the 58,000-form both intra- and extra-cellularly. Moreover, chloroquine did not effect the quantitative distribution of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase between cells and medium. In fibroblasts, chloroquine enhanced the secretion of newly made lysosomal enzymes and blocked the processing of intercellular enzyme forms from a higher to a lower molecular mass. Thus, there are trafficking differences between ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells and lysosomal enzymes in fibroblasts. This suggests that alternative targeting mechanisms for lysosomal enzymes exist in these cells.

  13. Pancreatic alpha-cell dysfunction in diabetes.


    Burcelin, R; Knauf, C; Cani, P D


    A major, yet poorly understood, feature of type 2 diabetes is the excessive hepatic glucose production and the corresponding insulin resistance leading to fasting hyperglycaemia. The tremendous amount of work done to provide the physiological and molecular mechanisms explaining this impairment has led to the emergence of several consensual hypotheses. Among these, is the increased daily and unregulated plasma glucagon concentration in type 2 diabetic patients. Therefore, studies aiming to understand the physiological regulation of glucagon secretion and the corresponding impairment during diabetes are directly relevant to the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Glucagon secretion by alpha-cells is an immediate response to glucopenia. Abnormal secretion of glucagon and other counterregulatory hormones is a hallmark of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and a major limitation to the use of strong hypoglycaemia agents. A few molecular mechanisms of glucose detection triggering counterregulation and in particular inducing glucagon secretion or suppressing it during hyperglycaemic episodes, have been identified. Such mechanisms are related to those of the insulin secreted beta-cell. The glucose transporter GLUT2 and the K-ATP dependent channel, as well as regulatory mechanisms, involved the central nervous system and the gut-brain hormone GLP-1. Over the last years, glucoincretins have provided promising results for the normalization of plasma glucagon concentration of type 2 diabetic patients, which could partly explain the therapeutic benefits of incretin-related therapy. The underlined mechanisms of GLP-1 regulated glucagon secretion are most likely related to the action of the hormone on the activation of the portal and brain glucose sensors. Certainly, strategies aiming to restore glucose-regulated glucagon secretion are important milestones for the treatment of diabetic patient and the prevention of iatrogenic hypoglycaemia. PMID:18640586

  14. Alpha-amanitin resistance: a dominant mutation in CHO cells.


    Lobban, P E; Siminovitch, L


    Hybrids of CHO cells were constructed consisting of either a 1:1 or 1:2 ratio of alpha-amanitin-resistant and sensitive cells, respectively. The resistance of such hybrids to killing by the drug was similar but slightly less than that of the resistant parent. The hybrids contained both resistant and wild-type RNA polymerase II, in amounts related to the expected gene dosage. The alpha-amanitin marker therefore is expressed codominantly. PMID:1168545

  15. Nonantioxidant functions of alpha-tocopherol in smooth muscle cells.


    Azzi, A; Breyer, I; Feher, M; Ricciarelli, R; Stocker, A; Zimmer, S; Zingg, J


    Most tocopherols and tocotrienols, with the exception of alpha-tocopherol, are not retained by humans. This suggests that alpha-tocopherol is recognized uniquely; therefore, it may exert an exclusive function. alpha-Tocopherol possesses distinct properties that are independent of its prooxidant, antioxidant or radical-scavenging ability. alpha-Tocopherol specifically inhibits protein kinase C, the growth of certain cells and the transcription of the CD36 and collagenase genes. Activation events have also been seen on the protein phosphatase 2A (PP(2)A) and on the expression of other genes (alpha-tropomyosin and connective tissue growth factor). Neither ss-tocopherol nor probucol possessed the same specialty functions as alpha-tocopherol. Recently, we isolated a new ubiquitous cytosolic alpha-tocopherol binding protein (TAP). Its motifs suggest that it is a member of the hydrophobic ligand-binding protein family (CRAL-TRIO). TAP may also be involved in the regulation of cellular alpha-tocopherol concentration and alpha-tocopherol-mediated signaling. PMID:11160565

  16. GM=tc^3 in The Year of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riofrio, Louise


    2015 is the International Year of Light. With the lack of evidence for primordial gravitational waves, light is an alternative to the darkness of untestable ideas. We may test a hypothesis GM=tc^3, where G is Newton's constant and M, t represent mass and age in the universe. This provides a precise fit to redshifts of Type Ia supernovae and explains the "Faint Young Sun" paradox of astrophysics. A 12-sigma anomaly in laser measurements of lunar orbital evolution can be predicted to 1/10 of a standard deviation, a precise test of theory. Starting in 2016, the Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) aboard the International Space Station will search for anisotropies in the speed of light. Growing evidence may indicate a "c change" in physics.

  17. Tetrahydro-iso-alpha Acids Antagonize Estrogen Receptor Alpha Activity in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lempereur, Maëlle; Majewska, Claire; Brunquers, Amandine; Wongpramud, Sumalee; Valet, Bénédicte; Janssens, Philippe; Dillemans, Monique; Van Nedervelde, Laurence; Gallo, Dominique


    Tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids commonly called THIAA or Tetra are modified hop acids extracted from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) which are frequently used in brewing industry mainly in order to provide beer bitterness and foam stability. Interestingly, molecular structure of tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids is close to a new type of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) antagonists aimed at disrupting the binding of coactivators containing an LxxLL motif (NR-box). In this work we show that THIAA decreases estradiol-stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 (ERα-positive breast cancer cells). Besides, we show that it inhibits ERα transcriptional activity. Interestingly, this extract fails to compete with estradiol for ERα binding and does not significantly impact the receptor turnover rate in MCF-7 cells, suggesting that it does not act like classical antiestrogens. Hence, we demonstrate that THIAA is able to antagonize ERα estradiol-induced recruitment of the LxxLL binding motif. PMID:27190515

  18. Tetrahydro-iso-alpha Acids Antagonize Estrogen Receptor Alpha Activity in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells.


    Lempereur, Maëlle; Majewska, Claire; Brunquers, Amandine; Wongpramud, Sumalee; Valet, Bénédicte; Janssens, Philippe; Dillemans, Monique; Van Nedervelde, Laurence; Gallo, Dominique


    Tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids commonly called THIAA or Tetra are modified hop acids extracted from hop (Humulus lupulus L.) which are frequently used in brewing industry mainly in order to provide beer bitterness and foam stability. Interestingly, molecular structure of tetrahydro-iso-alpha acids is close to a new type of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) antagonists aimed at disrupting the binding of coactivators containing an LxxLL motif (NR-box). In this work we show that THIAA decreases estradiol-stimulated proliferation of MCF-7 (ERα-positive breast cancer cells). Besides, we show that it inhibits ERα transcriptional activity. Interestingly, this extract fails to compete with estradiol for ERα binding and does not significantly impact the receptor turnover rate in MCF-7 cells, suggesting that it does not act like classical antiestrogens. Hence, we demonstrate that THIAA is able to antagonize ERα estradiol-induced recruitment of the LxxLL binding motif. PMID:27190515

  19. Impaired tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production and abnormal B cell response to TNF-alpha in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

    PubMed Central

    Mitamura, K; Kang, H; Tomita, Y; Hashimoto, H; Sawada, S; Horie, T


    We examined the TNF-alpha activity in culture supernatants of monocytes isolated from the peripheral blood of patients with SLE and of normal individuals. The monocytes from patients with SLE stimulated with silica particles, lipopolysaccharide or Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1 secreted significantly lower amounts of TNF-alpha than did normal monocytes. A decreased TNF mRNA expression was observed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated by mitogens from patients with SLE. Furthermore, we examined the effect of recombinant TNF-alpha (rTNF-alpha) on the B cell function in SLE patients. rTNF-alpha inhibited the spontaneous B cell proliferation of SLE, but tended to enhance the normal B cell proliferation. Spontaneous IgM production from SLE B cells was inhibited by rTNF-alpha, but that from normal B cells was not. Spontaneous IgG production was unaffected by rTNF-alpha. Also, rTNF-alpha did not affect the viability of B cells. These findings suggest that an impaired TNF-alpha production and an abnormal B cell response to TNF-alpha play a role in the immunological dysfunction in patients with SLE. Images Fig. 2 PMID:1893618

  20. The interaction of alpha-thalassemia and homozygous sickle-cell disease.


    Higgs, D R; Aldridge, B E; Lamb, J; Clegg, J B; Weatherall, D J; Hayes, R J; Grandison, Y; Lowrie, Y; Mason, K P; Serjeant, B E; Serjeant, G R


    Patients with homozygous sickle-cell disease may be homozygous for alpha-thalassemia 2 (alpha-/alpha-), may be heterozygous for alpha-thalassemia 2 (alpha-/alpha alpha), or may have a normal alpha-globin-gene complement (alpha alpha/alpha alpha). We compared the clinical and hematologic features of 44 patients who had sickle-cell disease and homozygous alpha-thalassemia 2 with those of controls with the two hematologic conditions. The patients with homozygous alpha-thalassemia 2 had significantly higher red-cell counts and levels of hemoglobin and hemoglobin A2, as well as significantly lower hemoglobin F, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, reticulocyte counts, irreversibly-sickled cell counts, and serum total bilirubin levels, than those with a normal alpha-globin-gene complement. Heterozygotes (alpha-/alpha alpha) had intermediate values. In the group with homozygous alpha-thalassemia 2, fewer patients had episodes of acute chest syndrome and chronic leg ulceration and more patients had splenomegaly, as compared with patients in other two subgroups. These data confirm previous suggestions that alpha-thalassemia inhibits in vivo sickling in homozygous sickle-cell disease and may be an important genetic determinant of its hematologic severity. PMID:6176865

  1. Alpha-, Delta- and PP-cells

    PubMed Central

    Brereton, Melissa F.; Vergari, Elisa; Zhang, Quan


    Islet non-β-cells, the α- δ- and pancreatic polypeptide cells (PP-cells), are important components of islet architecture and intercellular communication. In α-cells, glucagon is found in electron-dense granules; granule exocytosis is calcium-dependent via P/Q-type Ca2+-channels, which may be clustered at designated cell membrane sites. Somatostatin-containing δ-cells are neuron-like, creating a network for intra-islet communication. Somatostatin 1-28 and 1-14 have a short bioactive half-life, suggesting inhibitory action via paracrine signaling. PP-cells are the most infrequent islet cell type. The embryologically separate ventral pancreas anlage contains PP-rich islets that are morphologically diffuse and α-cell deficient. Tissue samples taken from the head region are unlikely to be representative of the whole pancreas. PP has anorexic effects on gastro-intestinal function and alters insulin and glucagon secretion. Islet architecture is disrupted in rodent diabetic models, diabetic primates and human Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes, with an increased α-cell population and relocation of non-β-cells to central areas of the islet. In diabetes, the transdifferentiation of non-β-cells, with changes in hormone content, suggests plasticity of islet cells but cellular function may be compromised. Understanding how diabetes-related disordered islet structure influences intra-islet cellular communication could clarify how non-β-cells contribute to the control of islet function. PMID:26216135

  2. Bax alpha perturbs T cell development and affects cell cycle entry of T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Brady, H J; Gil-Gómez, G; Kirberg, J; Berns, A J


    Bax alpha can heterodimerize with Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), countering their effects, as well as promoting apoptosis on overexpression. We show that bax alpha transgenic mice have greatly reduced numbers of mature T cells, which results from an impaired positive selection in the thymus. This perturbation in positive selection is accompanied by an increase in the number of cycling thymocytes. Further to this, mature T cells overexpressing Bax alpha have lower levels of p27Kip1 and enter S phase more rapidly in response to interleukin-2 stimulation than do control T cells, while the converse is true of bcl-2 transgenic T cells. These data indicate that apoptotic regulatory proteins can modulate the level of cell cycle-controlling proteins and thereby directly impact on the cell cycle. Images PMID:9003775

  3. Quantum dot solar cell tolerance to alpha-particle irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cress, Cory D.; Hubbard, Seth M.; Landi, Brian J.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Wilt, David M.


    The effects of alpha-particle irradiation on an InAs quantum dot (QD) array and GaAs-based InAs QD solar cells were investigated. Using photoluminescence (PL) mapping, the PL intensity at 872 and 1120 nm, corresponding to bulk GaAs and InAs QD emissions, respectively, were measured for a five-layer InAs QD array which had a spatially varying total alpha-particle dose. The spectral response and normalized current-voltage parameters of the solar cells, measured as a function of alpha-particle fluence, were used to investigate the change in device performance between GaAs solar cells with and without InAs QDs.

  4. The impact and recovery of asteroid 2008 TC(3).


    Jenniskens, P; Shaddad, M H; Numan, D; Elsir, S; Kudoda, A M; Zolensky, M E; Le, L; Robinson, G A; Friedrich, J M; Rumble, D; Steele, A; Chesley, S R; Fitzsimmons, A; Duddy, S; Hsieh, H H; Ramsay, G; Brown, P G; Edwards, W N; Tagliaferri, E; Boslough, M B; Spalding, R E; Dantowitz, R; Kozubal, M; Pravec, P; Borovicka, J; Charvat, Z; Vaubaillon, J; Kuiper, J; Albers, J; Bishop, J L; Mancinelli, R L; Sandford, S A; Milam, S N; Nuevo, M; Worden, S P


    In the absence of a firm link between individual meteorites and their asteroidal parent bodies, asteroids are typically characterized only by their light reflection properties, and grouped accordingly into classes. On 6 October 2008, a small asteroid was discovered with a flat reflectance spectrum in the 554-995 nm wavelength range, and designated 2008 TC(3) (refs 4-6). It subsequently hit the Earth. Because it exploded at 37 km altitude, no macroscopic fragments were expected to survive. Here we report that a dedicated search along the approach trajectory recovered 47 meteorites, fragments of a single body named Almahata Sitta, with a total mass of 3.95 kg. Analysis of one of these meteorites shows it to be an achondrite, a polymict ureilite, anomalous in its class: ultra-fine-grained and porous, with large carbonaceous grains. The combined asteroid and meteorite reflectance spectra identify the asteroid as F class, now firmly linked to dark carbon-rich anomalous ureilites, a material so fragile it was not previously represented in meteorite collections. PMID:19325630

  5. Quantitative-Proteomic Comparison of Alpha and Beta Cells to Uncover Novel Targets for Lineage Reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Mertins, Philipp; Udeshi, Namrata D.; Dančík, Vlado; Fomina-Yadlin, Dina; Kubicek, Stefan; Clemons, Paul A.; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Carr, Steven A.; Wagner, Bridget K.


    Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells are destroyed by the immune system. An emerging strategy to regenerate beta-cell mass is through transdifferentiation of pancreatic alpha cells to beta cells. We previously reported two small molecules, BRD7389 and GW8510, that induce insulin expression in a mouse alpha cell line and provide a glimpse into potential intermediate cell states in beta-cell reprogramming from alpha cells. These small-molecule studies suggested that inhibition of kinases in particular may induce the expression of several beta-cell markers in alpha cells. To identify potential lineage reprogramming protein targets, we compared the transcriptome, proteome, and phosphoproteome of alpha cells, beta cells, and compound-treated alpha cells. Our phosphoproteomic analysis indicated that two kinases, BRSK1 and CAMKK2, exhibit decreased phosphorylation in beta cells compared to alpha cells, and in compound-treated alpha cells compared to DMSO-treated alpha cells. Knock-down of these kinases in alpha cells resulted in expression of key beta-cell markers. These results provide evidence that perturbation of the kinome may be important for lineage reprogramming of alpha cells to beta cells. PMID:24759943

  6. Human fat cell alpha-2 adrenoceptors. I. Functional exploration and pharmacological definition with selected alpha-2 agonists and antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Galitzky, J.; Mauriege, P.; Berlan, M.; Lafontan, M.


    This study was undertaken to investigate more fully the pharmacological characteristics of the human fat cell alpha-2 adrenoceptor. Biological assays were performed on intact isolated fat cells while radioligand binding studies were carried out with (/sup 3/H)yohimbine in membranes. These pharmacological studies brought: (1) a critical definition of the limits of the experimental conditions required for the exploration of alpha-2 adrenergic responsiveness on human fat cells and membranes; (2) an improvement in the pharmacological definition of the human fat cell postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptor. Among alpha-2 agonists, UK-14,304 was the most potent and the relative order of potency was: UK-14,304 greater than p-aminoclonidine greater than clonidine = B-HT 920 greater than rilmenidine. For alpha-2 antagonists, the potency order was: yohimbine greater than idazoxan greater than SK F-86,466 much greater than benextramine; (3) a description of the impact of benextramine (irreversible alpha-1/alpha-2 antagonist) on human fat cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors and on human fat cell function; the drug inactivates the alpha-2 adrenergic receptors with a minor impact on beta adrenergic receptors and without noticeable alterations of fat cell function as assessed by preservation of beta adrenergic and Al-adenosine receptor-mediated lipolytic responses; and (4) a definition of the relationship existing between alpha-2 adrenergic receptor occupancy, inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity and antilipolysis with full and partial agonists. The existence of a receptor reserve must be taken into account when evaluating alpha-2 adrenergic receptor distribution and regulation of human fat cells.

  7. Exosomal cell-to-cell transmission of alpha synuclein oligomers

    PubMed Central


    Background Aggregation of alpha-synuclein (αsyn) and resulting cytotoxicity is a hallmark of sporadic and familial Parkinson’s disease (PD) as well as dementia with Lewy bodies, with recent evidence implicating oligomeric and pre-fibrillar forms of αsyn as the pathogenic species. Recent in vitro studies support the idea of transcellular spread of extracellular, secreted αsyn across membranes. The aim of this study is to characterize the transcellular spread of αsyn oligomers and determine their extracellular location. Results Using a novel protein fragment complementation assay where αsyn is fused to non-bioluminescent amino-or carboxy-terminus fragments of humanized Gaussia Luciferase we demonstrate here that αsyn oligomers can be found in at least two extracellular fractions: either associated with exosomes or free. Exosome-associated αsyn oligomers are more likely to be taken up by recipient cells and can induce more toxicity compared to free αsyn oligomers. Specifically, we determine that αsyn oligomers are present on both the outside as well as inside of exosomes. Notably, the pathway of secretion of αsyn oligomers is strongly influenced by autophagic activity. Conclusions Our data suggest that αsyn may be secreted via different secretory pathways. We hypothesize that exosome-mediated release of αsyn oligomers is a mechanism whereby cells clear toxic αsyn oligomers when autophagic mechanisms fail to be sufficient. Preventing the early events in αsyn exosomal release and uptake by inducing autophagy may be a novel approach to halt disease spreading in PD and other synucleinopathies. PMID:22920859

  8. Reduced Paneth cell alpha-defensins in ileal Crohn's disease.


    Wehkamp, Jan; Salzman, Nita H; Porter, Edith; Nuding, Sabine; Weichenthal, Michael; Petras, Robert E; Shen, Bo; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias; Linzmeier, Rose; Feathers, Ryan W; Chu, Hiutung; Lima, Heriberto; Fellermann, Klaus; Ganz, Tomas; Stange, Eduard F; Bevins, Charles L


    The pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease, is attributed, in part, to intestinal bacteria that may initiate and perpetuate mucosal inflammation in genetically susceptible individuals. Paneth cells (PC) are the major source of antimicrobial peptides in the small intestine, including human alpha-defensins HD5 and HD6. We tested the hypothesis that reduced expression of PC alpha-defensins compromises mucosal host defenses and predisposes patients to CD of the ileum. We report that patients with CD of the ileum have reduced antibacterial activity in their intestinal mucosal extracts. These specimens also showed decreased expression of PC alpha-defensins, whereas the expression of eight other PC products either remained unchanged or increased when compared with controls. The specific decrease of alpha-defensins was independent of the degree of inflammation in the specimens and was not observed in either CD of the colon, ulcerative colitis, or pouchitis. The functional consequence of alpha-defensin expression levels was examined by using a transgenic mouse model, where we found changes in HD5 expression levels, comparable to those observed in CD, had a pronounced impact on the luminal microbiota. Thus, the specific deficiency of PC defensins that characterizes ileal CD may compromise innate immune defenses of the ileal mucosa and initiate and/or perpetuate this disease. PMID:16330776

  9. The trajectory and impact circumstances of asteroid 2008 TC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chodas, Paul; Chesley, S.; Yeomans, D.


    On October 6, 2008, the small newly discovered near-Earth asteroid 2008 TC3 was found to be on an Earth-impacting trajectory, with impact less than 20 hours away. This was the first ever predicted impact of a near-Earth object. Fortunately, it was immediately clear that the object was only a few meters in size and would therefore almost certainly break up when it entered the Earth's atmosphere. We review the pre-impact orbit computations and predictions, the post-impact reconstructions of the trajectory, and the trajectory geometry. The first prediction of impact was made by the Minor Planet Center (MPC), which quickly made the discovery and subsequent follow-up observations available to the astronomical community and contacted us at the NASA/JPL Near-Earth Object Program Office. Our impact predictions indicated that the atmospheric entry would occur over northern Sudan around 02:46 UT on October 7. Over the course of the day, the number of observations sky-rocketed to several hundred, and the impact prediction uncertainty shrank to ±3 km. Topocentric parallax up to 15 degrees is present in the data and the rates of motion approached 13.4 arcsec/s prior to the object's disappearance into the Earth's umbra. Detections of the actual atmospheric impact event suggested that it was an airburst explosion at an altitude of 37 km with an energy equivalent of about one kiloton of TNT. The airburst occurred at 02:45:45 UT at about 32.2 East longitude and 20.8 North latitude, matching the final impact predictions to within 0.2 s in time and 1.5 km in position. We compute Monte Carlo clones of the final orbit to investigate possible source orbits. Trajectory dispersions remain fairly compact as far back as 1961 , when an Earth close approach at 0.18 ± 0.12 AU scatters the predictions. Only statistical characterizations of the earlier trajectory are possible.





    1. The cell-bound alpha-amylase of Streptococcus bovis has been isolated from other carbohydrases in the cell extract by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The enzyme has been compared with the extracellular alpha-amylase produced by this organism. 2. The two amylases had similar action patterns on amylose, the main product being maltotriose with smaller amounts of maltose and a little glucose. 3. The cell-bound amylase hydrolysed maltopentaose and maltohexaose at a similar rate to the hydrolysis of amylose. Maltotetraose was hydrolysed six times more slowly, and maltotriose 280 times more slowly, than amylose. 4. Studies with end-labelled maltodextrins revealed that the cell-bound alpha-amylase preferentially hydrolysed the third linkage from the non-reducing end, liberating maltotriose. The linkage at the reducing end of maltotriose was more easily hydrolysed than the other. 5. Egg-white lysozyme and the extracellular enzymes of Streptomyces albus lysed the cell walls of Streptococcus bovis, releasing amylase into the medium. In the presence of 0.6 m-sucrose 10% of the maximal amylase activity was released by lysozyme. Suspension of the spheroplasts in dilute buffer caused the rupture of the cytoplasmic membrane and the liberation of amylase. 6. A sensitive method for determining the ability of amylases to degrade starch granules is described. PMID:14346085

  11. Quinazoline-derived alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists induce prostate cancer cell apoptosis via an alpha1-adrenoceptor-independent action.


    Benning, Cynthia M; Kyprianou, Natasha


    Recent evidence suggests that the quinazoline-based alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, doxazosin and terazosin, exhibit a potent apoptotic effect against prostate tumor epithelial cells, whereas tamsulosin, a sulfonamide-based alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist, was ineffective in inducing a similar apoptotic effect against prostate cells (Cancer Res., 60: 4550-4555, 2000). In this study, to identify the precise molecular mechanism underlying this apoptosis induction, we examined whether doxazosin and terazosin (both piperazinyl quinazolines) affect prostate growth via an alpha1-adrenoceptor-independent action. Transfection-mediated overexpression of alpha1-adrenoceptor in human prostate cancer cells, DU-145 (that lack alpha1-adrenoceptor), did not alter the ability of prostate cancer cells to undergo apoptosis in response to quinazolines. Significantly enough, there was no modification of the apoptotic threshold of the androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells, LNCaP, to either quinazoline-based alpha1-agonist by androgens. Furthermore, human normal prostate epithelial cells exhibited a very low sensitivity to the apoptotic effects of doxazosin compared with that observed for the malignant prostate cells. These findings provide the first evidence that the apoptotic activity of the quinazoline-based alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists (doxazosin and terazosin) against prostate cancer cells is independent of: (a) their capacity to antagonize alpha1-adrenoceptors; and (b) the hormone sensitivity status of the cells. This may have potential therapeutic significance in the use of quinazoline-based alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists (already in clinical use for the treatment of hypertension and benign prostate hyperplasia) for the treatment of androgen-independent human prostate cancer. PMID:11809715

  12. glucagon is essential for alpha cell transdifferentiation and beta cell neogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Lihua; Robertson, Morgan A.; Hesselson, Daniel; Stainier, Didier Y. R.; Anderson, Ryan M.


    The interconversion of cell lineages via transdifferentiation is an adaptive mode of tissue regeneration and an appealing therapeutic target. However, its clinical exploitation is contingent upon the discovery of contextual regulators of cell fate acquisition and maintenance. In murine models of diabetes, glucagon-secreting alpha cells transdifferentiate into insulin-secreting beta cells following targeted beta cell depletion, regenerating the form and function of the pancreatic islet. However, the molecular triggers of this mode of regeneration are unknown. Here, using lineage-tracing assays in a transgenic zebrafish model of beta cell ablation, we demonstrate conserved plasticity of alpha cells during islet regeneration. In addition, we show that glucagon expression is upregulated after injury. Through gene knockdown and rescue approaches, we also find that peptides derived from the glucagon gene are necessary for alpha-to-beta cell fate switching. Importantly, whereas beta cell neogenesis was stimulated by glucose, alpha-to-beta cell conversion was not, suggesting that transdifferentiation is not mediated by glucagon/GLP-1 control of hepatic glucose production. Overall, this study supports the hypothesis that alpha cells are an endogenous reservoir of potential new beta cells. It further reveals that glucagon plays an important role in maintaining endocrine cell homeostasis through feedback mechanisms that govern cell fate stability. PMID:25852199

  13. HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha Are Differentially Activated in Distinct Cell Populations in Retinal Ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Mowat, Freya M.; Luhmann, Ulrich F. O.; Smith, Alexander J.; Lange, Clemens; Duran, Yanai; Harten, Sarah; Shukla, Deepa; Maxwell, Patrick H.; Ali, Robin R.; Bainbridge, James W. B.


    Background Hypoxia plays a key role in ischaemic and neovascular disorders of the retina. Cellular responses to oxygen are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) that are stabilised in hypoxia and induce the expression of a diverse range of genes. The purpose of this study was to define the cellular specificities of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in retinal ischaemia, and to determine their correlation with the pattern of retinal hypoxia and the expression profiles of induced molecular mediators. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the tissue distribution of retinal hypoxia during oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) in mice using the bio-reductive drug pimonidazole. We measured the levels of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha proteins by Western blotting and determined their cellular distribution by immunohistochemistry during the development of OIR. We measured the temporal expression profiles of two downstream mediators, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (Epo) by ELISA. Pimonidazole labelling was evident specifically in the inner retina. Labelling peaked at 2 hours after the onset of hypoxia and gradually declined thereafter. Marked binding to Müller glia was evident during the early hypoxic stages of OIR. Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein levels were significantly increased during retinal hypoxia but were evident in distinct cellular distributions; HIF-1alpha stabilisation was evident in neuronal cells throughout the inner retinal layers whereas HIF-2alpha was restricted to Müller glia and astrocytes. Hypoxia and HIF-alpha stabilisation in the retina were closely followed by upregulated expression of the downstream mediators VEGF and EPO. Conclusions/Significance Both HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha are activated in close correlation with retinal hypoxia but have contrasting cell specificities, consistent with differential roles in retinal ischaemia. Our findings suggest that HIF-2alpha activation plays a key role in

  14. Integrin {alpha}6 cleavage: A novel modification to modulate cell migration

    SciTech Connect

    Pawar, Sangita C.; Demetriou, Manolis C.; Nagle, Raymond B.; Bowden, G. Tim; Cress, Anne E. . E-mail:


    Integrins play a major role in cell adhesion and migration. Previous work reported that a cleaved form of integrin {alpha}6 ({alpha}6p) was detected in invasive human prostate cancer tissue, absent in normal prostate tissue and was produced by urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator (uPA) in a plasmin-independent manner. Using site-directed mutagenesis we identified amino acid residues R594 and R595, located in the 'stalk' region of integrin {alpha}6, as essential for cleavage. The cleavage site is located on the extracellular region of the protein between the {beta}-barrel domain and the thigh domain. Prostate cancer cells (PC3N) were stably transfected to overexpress the cleavable, wild-type (PC3N-{alpha}6-WT) or the non-cleavable form of integrin {alpha}6 (PC3N-{alpha}6-RR). The number of cells invading laminin 111- and laminin 332-coated filters by PC3N-{alpha}6-WT cells increased by threefold as compared to PC3N-{alpha}6-RR cells. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) reduced the invasion of PC3N-{alpha}6-WT cells by approximately 42% through laminin 332-coated filters and plasmin inhibitor aprotinin had no significant effect. Linear cell migration increased production of integrin {alpha}6p in the PC3N-{alpha}6-WT cells and not in the PC3N-{alpha}6-RR cells and 32% of the PC3N-{alpha}6-WT cells migrated on laminin 111 in the linear migration assay as compared to the 5% PC3N-{alpha}6-RR cells. These data taken together suggest that the uPA-mediated cell surface cleavage of the {alpha}6 integrin extracellular domain is involved in tumor cell invasion and migration on laminin.

  15. Altered enteroendocrine cell expression in T cell receptor alpha chain knock-out mice.


    Rubin, D C; Zhang, H; Qian, P; Lorenz, R G; Hutton, K; Peters, M G


    Mice lacking T cell receptor alpha chain (TCRalpha(-/-)) develop inflammation of the colon. We have examined the effect of this inflammation on the colonic epithelium by studying markers of epithelial cuff, enteroendocrine, and immune cell differentiation. Using immunohistochemical techniques, colons were compared in normal C57/BL6 and murine TCR alpha(-/-) mice aged 2 and 3 weeks and 3-11 months. TCR alpha(-/-) mice aged 3-11 months had histologic evidence of inflammation with increased expression of CD45, CD4+, CD8+, and B220+ cells and a decrease in expression of IgA+ cells. There was a decrease in the number of cholecystokinin, serotonin, and neurotensin enteroendocrine expressing cells in the colon of TCR alpha(-/-) mice. These changes were not present in 2-3-week-old suckling/weaning mice. In contrast, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1, and gastrin expression did not change and small intestinal enteroendocrine cells remained unaltered. The change in colonic enteroendocrine cell expression appears to be a specific response, since only a subset of these cells was altered, and the epithelium was intact by histologic analysis. The absence of functional T cells in TCR alpha(-/-) colon has a marked effect on differentiation of a specific subpopulation of enteroendocrine cells, prior to loss of integrity of the epithelium. PMID:11054861

  16. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-3 alpha (HNF-3{alpha}) negatively regulates androgen receptor transactivation in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyun Joo; Hwang, Miok; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Lee, Keesook


    The androgen receptor (AR) is involved in the development and progression of prostate cancers. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs remain incompletely understood. In previous reports, hepatocyte nuclear factor-3{alpha} (HNF-3{alpha}) has been shown to be expressed in the epithelia of the prostate gland, and has been determined to regulate the transcription of prostate-specific genes. In this study, we report that HNF-3{alpha} functions as a novel corepressor of AR in prostatic cells. HNF-3{alpha} represses AR transactivation on target promoters containing the androgen response element (ARE) in a dose-dependent manner. HNF-3{alpha} interacts physically with AR, and negatively regulates AR transactivation via competition with AR coactivators, including GRIP1. Furthermore, HNF-3{alpha} overexpression reduces the androgen-induced expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in LNCaP cells. Taken together, our findings indicate that HNF-3{alpha} is a novel corepressor of AR, and predict its effects on the proliferation of prostate cancer cells.

  17. Alpha-tocopherol inhibits agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion to cultured human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Faruqi, R; de la Motte, C; DiCorleto, P E


    Antioxidants have been proposed to be anti-atherosclerotic agents; however, the mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects are poorly understood. We have examined the effect of alpha-tocopherol (alpha-tcp) on one cellular event in atherosclerotic plaque development, monocyte adhesion to stimulated endothelial cells (ECs). Human umbilical vein ECs were pretreated with alpha-tcp before stimulation with known agonists of monocyte adhesion: IL-1 (10 ng/ml), LPS (10 ng/ml), thrombin (30 U/ml), or PMA (10 nM). Agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion, but not basal adhesion, was inhibited in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by alpha-tcp. The IC50 of alpha-tcp on an IL-1-induced response was 45 microM. The inhibition correlated with a decrease in steady state levels of E-selectin mRNA and cell surface expression of E-selectin which is consistent with the ability of a monoclonal antibody to E-selectin to inhibit monocytic cell adhesion in this system. Probucol (50 microM) and N-acetylcysteine (20 mM) also inhibited agonist-induced monocytic cell adhesion; whereas, several other antioxidants had no significant effect. Protein kinase C (PKC) does not appear to play a role in the alpha-tcp effect since no suppression of phosphorylation of PKC substrates was observed. Activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa B is reported to be necessary but not sufficient for E-selectin expression in EC. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays failed to show an alpha-tcp-induced decrease in activation of this transcription factor after cytokine stimulation. It has been hypothesized that alpha-tcp acts as an anti-atherosclerotic molecule by inhibiting generation of oxidized LDL--a putative triggering molecule in the atherosclerotic process. Our results point to a novel alternative mechanism of action of alpha-tcp. Images PMID:7518838

  18. Cultured Ito cells of rat liver express the alpha 2-macroglobulin gene.


    Andus, T; Ramadori, G; Heinrich, P C; Knittel, T; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H


    Ito cells were isolated from rat liver and kept in culture for up to 13 days. The capability of the Ito cells to synthesize alpha 2-macroglobulin was analyzed at different times after isolation and by pulse-chase experiments. Newly synthesized alpha 2-macroglobulin was determined by immunoprecipitation followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. alpha 2-Macroglobulin synthesis was hardly detectable in Ito cells and their media 3 days after plating. However, 5-11 days after the isolation of the cells, increasing amounts of alpha 2-macroglobulin were synthesized. The results of pulse-chase experiments performed on day 7 showed that radioactively labeled alpha 2-macroglobulin decreased in the intracellular compartment and increased in the culture medium. alpha 2-Macroglobulin was identified by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing and non-reducing conditions. Furthermore, when unlabeled alpha 2-macroglobulin was added during the immunoprecipitation, a competition was observed. Incubation of pancreatic elastase with culture medium of rat Ito cells or rat hepatocytes led to the same cleavage products as found with alpha 2-macroglobulin. alpha 2-Macroglobulin-specific mRNA could be demonstrated by Northern blot analysis of total RNA extracted from rat Ito cells. Under the conditions where alpha 2-macroglobulin was synthesized in Ito cells, no synthesis of alpha 1-macroglobulin, alpha 1-inhibitor 3, alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, alpha 1-acute-phase globulin (T-kininogen) and albumin could be demonstrated. It is concluded that alpha 2-macroglobulin is a true secretory protein of rat Ito cells in culture. This could be of importance for collagen metabolism in liver diseases. PMID:2444437

  19. Alpha-adrenergic blocker mediated osteoblastic stem cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Lee, Jue Yeon; Lee, Seung Jin; Chung, Chong-Pyoung; Park, Yoon Jeong


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxazocin directly up-regulated bone metabolism at a low dose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxazocin induced osteoblastic stem cell differentiation without affecting cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This osteogenic stem cell differentiation is mediated by ERK-signal dependent pathway. -- Abstract: Recent researches have indicated a role for antihypertensive drugs including alpha- or beta-blockers in the prevention of bone loss. Some epidemiological studies reported the protective effects of those agents on fracture risk. However, there is limited information on the association with those agents especially at the mechanism of action. In the present study, we investigated the effects of doxazosin, an alpha-blocker that is clinically used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) along with antihypertensive medication, on the osteogenic stem cell differentiation. We found that doxazosin increased osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells, detected by Alizarin red S staining and calcein. Doxazosin not only induced expression of alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, osteopontin, and osteocalcin, it also resulted in increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), a MAP kinase involved in osteoblastic differentiation. Treatment with U0126, a MAP kinase inhibitor, significantly blocked doxazosin-induced osteoblastic differentiation. Unrelated to activation of osteogenic differentiation by doxazosin, we found that there were no significant changes in adipogenic differentiation or in the expression of adipose-specific genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}, aP2, or LPL. In this report, we suggest that doxazosin has the ability to increase osteogenic cell differentiation via ERK1/2 activation in osteogenic differentiation of adult stem cells, which supports the protective effects of antihypertensive drug on fracture risk and

  20. The structure of cell wall alpha-glucan from fission yeast.


    Grün, Christian H; Hochstenbach, Frans; Humbel, Bruno M; Verkleij, Arie J; Sietsma, J Hans; Klis, Frans M; Kamerling, Johannis P; Vliegenthart, Johannes F G


    Morphology and structural integrity of fungal cells depend on cell wall polysaccharides. The chemical structure and biosynthesis of two types of these polysaccharides, chitin and (1-->3)-beta-glucan, have been studied extensively, whereas little is known about alpha-glucan. Here we describe the chemical structure of alpha-glucan isolated from wild-type and mutant cell walls of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Wild-type alpha-glucan was found to consist of a single population of linear glucose polymers, approximately 260 residues in length. These glucose polymers were composed of two interconnected linear chains, each consisting of approximately 120 (1-->3)-linked alpha-d-glucose residues and some (1-->4)-linked alpha-D-glucose residues at the reducing end. By contrast, alpha-glucan of an alpha-glucan synthase mutant with an aberrant cell morphology and reduced alpha-glucan levels consisted of a single chain only. We propose that alpha-glucan biosynthesis involves an ordered series of events, whereby two alpha-glucan chains are coupled to create mature cell wall alpha-glucan. This mature form of cell wall alpha-glucan is essential for fission-yeast morphogenesis. PMID:15470229

  1. Functional analysis of the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin {alpha}1 subunit in endothelial cells.


    Abair, Tristin D; Bulus, Nada; Borza, Corina; Sundaramoorthy, Munirathinam; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra


    Integrin alpha1beta1, the major collagen type IV receptor, is expressed by endothelial cells and plays a role in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. Because the molecular mechanisms whereby this collagen IV receptor mediates endothelial cell functions are poorly understood, truncation and point mutants of the integrin alpha1 subunit cytoplasmic tail (amino acids 1137-1151) were generated and expressed into alpha1-null endothelial cells. We show that alpha1-null endothelial cells expressing the alpha1 subunit, which lacks the entire cytoplasmic tail (mutant alpha1-1136) or expresses all the amino acids up to the highly conserved GFFKR motif (mutant alpha1-1143), have a similar phenotype to parental alpha1-null cells. Pro(1144) and Leu(1145) were shown to be necessary for alpha1beta1-mediated endothelial cell proliferation; Lys(1146) for adhesion, migration, and tubulogenesis and Lys(1147) for tubulogenesis. Integrin alpha1beta1-dependent endothelial cell proliferation is primarily mediated by ERK activation, whereas migration and tubulogenesis require both p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation. Thus, distinct amino acids distal to the GFFKR motif of the alpha1 integrin cytoplasmic tail mediate activation of selective downstream signaling pathways and specific endothelial cell functions. PMID:18647959

  2. The crystal structure of a TL/CD8{alpha}{alpha} complex at 2.1 {angstrom} resolution : implications for modulation of T cell activation and memory.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Xiong, Y.; Naidenko, O. V.; Liu, J.-H.; Zhang, R.; Joachimiak, A.; Kronenberg, M.; Cheroutre, H.; Reinherz, E. L.; Wang, J.-H.; Biosciences Division; Dana-Farber Cancer Inst.; Harvard Medical School; La Jolla Inst. of Allergy and Immunology


    TL is a nonclassical MHC class I molecule that modulates T cell activation through relatively high-affinity interaction with CD8{alpha}{alpha}. To investigate how the TL/CD8{alpha}{alpha} interaction influences TCR signaling, we characterized the structure of the TL/CD8{alpha}{alpha} complex using X-ray crystallography. Unlike antigen-presenting molecules, the TL antigen-binding groove is occluded by specific conformational changes. This feature eliminates antigen presentation, severely hampers direct TCR recognition, and prevents TL from participating in the TCR activation complex. At the same time, the TL/CD8{alpha}{alpha} interaction is strengthened through subtle structure changes in the TL {alpha}3 domain. Thus, TL functions to sequester and redirect CD8{alpha}{alpha} away from the TCR, modifying lck-dependent signaling.

  3. Molecular mechanism of {alpha}-tocopheryl-phosphate transport across the cell membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Negis, Yesim; Meydani, Mohsen; Zingg, Jean-Marc; Azzi, Angelo . E-mail:


    {alpha}-Tocopheryl-phosphate ({alpha}-TP) is synthesized and hydrolyzed in animal cells and tissues where it modulates several functions. {alpha}-TP is more potent than {alpha}-T in inhibiting cell proliferation, down-regulating CD36 transcription, inhibiting atherosclerotic plaque formation. Administration of {alpha}-TP to cells or animals requires its transfer through membranes, via a transporter. We show here that {alpha}-TP is passing the plasma membrane via a system that is inhibited by glibenclamide and probenecid, inhibitors of a number of transporters. Glibenclamide and probenecid prevent dose-dependently {alpha}-TP inhibition of cell proliferation. The two inhibitors act on ATP binding cassette (ABC) and organic anion transporters (OAT). Since ABC transporters function to export solutes and {alpha}-TP is transported into cells, it may be concluded that {alpha}-TP transport may occur via an OAT family member. Due to the protection by glibenclamide and probenecid on the {alpha}-TP induced cell growth inhibition it appears that {alpha}-TP acts after its uptake inside cells.

  4. ERR{alpha} regulates osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rajalin, Ann-Marie; Pollock, Hanna; Aarnisalo, Piia


    The orphan nuclear receptor estrogen-related receptor-{alpha} (ERR{alpha}) has been reported to have both a positive and a negative regulatory role in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. We have studied the role of ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from ERR{alpha} deficient mice and their differentiation capacities were compared to that of the wild-type cells. ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced cellular proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, and mineralization. In the complementary experiment, overexpression of ERR{alpha} in MC3T3-E1 cells increased the expression of osteoblastic markers and mineralization. Alterations in the expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP) may at least partially explain the effects on mineralization as BSP expression was reduced in ERR{alpha} deficient MSCs and enhanced upon ERR{alpha} overexpression in MC3T3-E1 cells. Furthermore, a luciferase reporter construct driven by the BSP promoter was efficiently transactivated by ERR{alpha}. Under adipogenic conditions, ERR{alpha} deficient cultures displayed reduced adipocytic differentiation. Our data thus propose a positive role for ERR{alpha} in osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation. The variability in the results yielded in the different studies implies that ERR{alpha} may play different roles in bone under different physiological conditions.

  5. Endogenous catecholamine enhances the dysfunction of unfolded protein response and alpha-synuclein oligomerization in PC12 cells overexpressing human alpha-synuclein.


    Ito, Satoru; Nakaso, Kazuhiro; Imamura, Keiko; Takeshima, Takao; Nakashima, Kenji


    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of dopaminergic neurons and the presence of Lewy bodies. alpha-Synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies. Recently, many studies have focused on the interaction between alpha-synuclein and catecholamine in the pathogenesis of PD. However, no detailed relationship between cathecholamine and alpha-synuclein cytotoxicity has been elucidated. Therefore, this study established PC12 cell lines which overexpress human alpha-synuclein in a tetracycline-inducible manner. The overexpression of human alpha-synuclein increased the number of apoptotic cells in a long-term culture. Moreover, human alpha-synuclein expressing PC12 cells demonstrated an increased vulnerability to several stressors in a short culture period. Thapsigargin increased the SDS soluble oligomers of alpha-synuclein associated with catecholamine-quinone. The unfolded protein response (UPR) study showed that thapsigargin increased eIF2alpha phosphorylation and nuclear GADD153/CHOP induction under alpha-synuclein overexpressed conditions. The activities of the ATF6alpha and IRE1alpha pathways decreased. These findings suggest that an overexpression of alpha-synuclein partly inactivates the UPR. alpha-Methyltyrosine inhibited the dysfunction of the UPR caused by an overexpression of human alpha-synuclein. Therefore, these findings suggest that the coexistence of human alpha-synuclein with catecholamine enhances the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related toxicity in PD pathogenesis. PMID:19835916

  6. Alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate cytotoxicity in hepatocytes and other cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bailie, M.B.; Roth, R.A. )


    Alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) is a model hepatotoxicant that causes injury to liver parenchymal and bile ductular cells in vivo. In this study, toxicity to various cells in culture was evaluated. In short term cultures of rat hepatocytes (HCs), a 4hr exposure to ANIT caused a concentration dependent increase in cytotoxicity as measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. HCs cultured for 24hr or longer demonstrated a delay in ANIT-induced LDH release when compared to 2.5hr cultures. In addition, the magnitude of the cytotoxic response was greater in longer term cultures. The threshold for ANIT-induced cytotoxicity in HCs was between 20 and 63uM. In porcine endothelial cell cultures, ANIT cytotoxicity was similar to that seen in HCs. In two transformed cells lines, the Swiss 3T3 fibroblast and WB cell, a 24hr exposure to ANTI caused a concentration dependent increase in LDH release. Like the HCs, the threshold concentration was between 20 and 63uM. These results indicate that ANIT is directly cytotoxic to various cells in culture. Since endothelium and fibroblasts are deficient in cytochrome P-450 mixed function oxidase activity, ANIT toxicity in culture may be largely independent of this xenobiotic metabolizing system.

  7. DNA polymorphisms and mutations of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) promoter in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH).


    Wu, W S; McClain, K L


    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal proliferation of dendritic histiocytes expressing elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). The cause of the increased cytokine levels is unknown, but DNA sequence changes in promoters could alter expression. The TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma promoter DNA sequences of 12 LCH patients were studied and compared with normal individuals by dideoxy fingerprinting and DNA sequencing. Functional consequences of polymorphic or mutated sequences were assessed by cloning altered and control promoter sequences into a luciferase reporter gene vector. Electrophoretic mobility shifts (EMSA) after binding of nuclear extracts from a macrophage cell line (U-937) by mutated promoters were compared with controls. Five of 12 LCH patients had alterations in the TNF-alpha promoter DNA sequence. None were found in the IFN-gamma gene promoter. Of the 5 with TNF-alpha DNA alterations, 2 were at position -308, which has been described as a G-A polymorphism associated with upregulation of TNF-alpha in some patients with infections or immune-mediated diseases. The polymorphism at -308 but not the other TNF-alpha promoter mutations caused a 3-fold to 7-fold increased production of the luciferase reporter gene. EMSA showed that the -308 mutant promoters bound fewer nuclear proteins than normals. Polymorphisms of the TNF-alpha promoter in LCH patients could increase the production of that cytokine. PMID:9355965

  8. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhances IL-15-induced natural killer cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jiwon; Lee, Suk Hyung; Shin, Nara; Jeong, Mira; Kim, Mi Sun; Kim, Mi Jeong; Yoon, Suk Ran; Chung, Jin Woong; Kim, Tae-Don; Choi, Inpyo


    The differentiation of natural killer (NK) cells is regulated by various factors including soluble growth factors and transcription factors. Here, we have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) is a positive regulator of NK cell differentiation. TNF-{alpha} augmented the IL-15-induced expression of NK1.1 and CD122 in mature NK cells, and TNF-{alpha} alone also induced NK cell maturation as well as IL-15. TNF-{alpha} also increased IFN-{gamma} production in NK cells in the presence of IL-15. Meanwhile, mRNA expression of several transcription factors, including T-bet and GATA-3, was increased by the addition of TNF-{alpha} and IL-15. In addition, TNF-{alpha} increased nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activity in NK cells and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B impeded TNF-{alpha}-enhanced NK cell maturation. Overall, these data suggest that TNF-{alpha} significantly increased IL-15-driven NK cell differentiation by increasing the expression of transcription factors that play crucial roles in NK cell maturation and inducing the NF-{kappa}B activity.

  9. Selective production of interferon-alpha subtypes by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, A L; Overall, M L; Sattayasai, N; Rowley, M J; Hertzog, P J; McMullen, G L; Cheetham, B F; Marzuki, S


    The biological significance of the existence of multiple interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) subtypes is unknown but may represent a finely tuned mechanism whereby different subtypes are produced in response to different stimuli. To investigate the expression of individual IFN-alpha subtypes, polyclonal antipeptide antisera designed to react with all IFN-alpha subtypes, or with a particular subtype, IFN-alpha 2 or IFN-alpha 4, have been produced. In this study we demonstrate the utility of these antisera for the detection, using indirect immunofluorescence staining, of intracellular IFN-alpha produced by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and lymphoblastoid cells. Secreted IFN-alpha was also investigated by bioassay and a sandwich radioimmunoassay (RIA), using two monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and specific for IFN-alpha 4. The PBMC were shown to produce IFN reactive with all three polyclonal antisera, after stimulation with Sendai virus. The lymphoblastoid cells also produced IFN, including IFN-alpha 2, but IFN-alpha 4 was not detected either intracellularly, by immunofluorescence, or in the medium, by sandwich RIA. The immunofluorescence studies also demonstrate that in the absence of viral stimulation IFN-alpha is found in the cytoplasm of PBMC and lymphoblastoid cells but not secreted in detectable levels. The finding that two lymphoblastoid cell lines do not produce the subtype IFN-alpha 4 raises important questions as to whether other cell lines and cell types produce IFN-alpha subtypes selectively, and whether individual IFN-alpha subtypes have different roles in human physiology and pathology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1537595

  10. Serum-alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase levels in sickle-cell disease and sickle-cell crisis.


    White, J M; Billimoria, F; Muller, M A; Davis, L R; Stroud, C E


    In patients with sickle-cell disease (Hb S/S disease) who are not in crisis, the serum-level of alpha-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (alpha-H.B.D.) is significantly above normal. The degree of elevation correlates with the severity of the disease. During infarctive crises the level increases still further by a factor of 2 to 3, and it returns to the patient's normal level on recovery. The level of alpha-H.B.D. thus provides an index of the severity of the disease. Also, it allows distinction between true infarctive crisis, infection, and fake symptoms. In 5 patients a rise in the level of alpha-H.B.D. above the patient's normal level was detected several days before the onset of symptoms, which suggests that there may be a "prodromal" phase. PMID:76073

  11. Levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha/cachectin (TNF alpha) in sera from patients with sickle cell disease.


    Malavé, I; Perdomo, Y; Escalona, E; Rodriguez, E; Anchustegui, M; Malavé, H; Arends, T


    Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha/cachectin (TNF alpha) were studied in a group of adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), which include 31 patients with homozygous SS hemoglobinopathy and 10 patients bearing double heterozygous SC hemoglobinopathy and in their matched normal controls. All patients tested did not show any form of crisis for at least 4 weeks prior to the extraction of the sample. The amount of TNF alpha in serum was quantitated by means of an immunoenzymatic assay with a lower limit of detection of 25 pg/ml. The percentage of sera with detectable levels of TNF alpha was significantly increased in SCD patients as compared with the normal controls. Mean TNF alpha values in individuals with detectable levels of the cytokine were also significantly higher in the whole group of SCD patients and in patients bearing either SS or SC hemoglobinopathies than in the control group. An inverse correlation was observed between the percentages of Hb F and the levels of TNF alpha found in the sera from the patients. PMID:8140855

  12. Neuronal-type alpha-bungarotoxin receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic receptor subunit gene are expressed in neuronal and nonneuronal human cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Chini, B; Clementi, F; Hukovic, N; Sher, E


    alpha-Bungarotoxin (alpha Bgtx) is a toxin known to interact with muscle nicotinic receptors and with some neuronal nicotinic receptors. We show that alpha Bgtx binding sites are also expressed in nonmuscle and nonneuronal human cells, including small cell lung carcinoma and several epithelial cell lines. These receptors are immunologically related to the alpha Bgtx receptors of unknown function described in the nervous system and in the IMR32 neuroblastoma cell line and are distinct from muscle nicotinic receptors. We have also cloned from IMR32 cells the human alpha 5-nicotinic receptor subunit, which is supposed to participate in the formation of alpha Bgtx receptors. Transcripts corresponding to the alpha 5-subunit gene were found not only in neuroblastoma cells but also in all the cell lines expressing alpha Bgtx receptors, with the exception of the TE671 cell line, whose nicotinic receptor subunits are of the muscle type. We conclude that both alpha Bgtx receptors and the alpha 5-nicotinic subunit gene are not neuron-specific, as previously thought, but are expressed in a number of human cell lines of various origin. Images PMID:1542648

  13. Stem cell factor induces HIF-1{alpha} at normoxia in hematopoietic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, Malin; Loefstedt, Tobias; Sun Jianmin; Holmquist-Mengelbier, Linda; Pahlman, Sven; Roennstrand, Lars


    Signaling by the receptor for stem cell factor (SCF), c-Kit, is of major importance for hematopoiesis, melanogenesis and reproduction, and the biological responses are commonly proliferation and cell survival. Thus, constitutive activation due to c-Kit mutations is involved in the pathogenesis of several forms of cancer, e.g. leukemias, gastrointestinal stromal tumors and testicular tumors. Tumor survival requires oxygen supply through induced neovascularization, a process largely mediated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a prominent target of the transcription factors hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and HIF-2. Using Affymetrix microarrays we have identified genes that are upregulated following SCF stimulation. Interestingly, many of the genes induced were found to be related to a hypoxic response. These findings were corroborated by our observation that SCF stimulation of the hematopoietic cell lines M-07e induces HIF-1{alpha} and HIF-2{alpha} protein accumulation at normoxia. In addition, SCF-induced HIF-1{alpha} was transcriptionally active, and transcribed HIF-1 target genes such as VEGF, BNIP3, GLUT1 and DEC1, an effect that could be reversed by siRNA against HIF-1{alpha}. We also show that SCF-induced accumulation of HIF-1{alpha} is dependent on both the PI-3-kinase and Ras/MEK/Erk pathways. Our data suggest a novel mechanism of SCF/c-Kit signaling in angiogenesis and tumor progression.

  14. Non random usage of T cell receptor alpha gene expression in atopy using anchored PCR.


    Mansur, A H; Gelder, C M; Holland, D; Campell, D A; Griffin, A; Cunliffe, W; Markham, A F; Morrison, J F


    The T cell receptor (TCR) alpha beta heterodimer recognises antigenic peptide fragments presented by Class II MHC. This interaction initiates T cell activation and cytokine release with subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells. Previous work from our group suggests a qualitative difference in variable alpha gene expression in atopy as compared to non atopic controls. In this study we examine TCR alpha repertoire using anchored PCR to provide a quantitative assessment of the V alpha and J alpha repertoire. One atopic (DRB1*0701,DRB1*15: DRB4*0101, DRB5*01: DQB1* 0303, DQB1*601/2) and one non-atopic (DRB1*0701,DRB1*03011/2: DRB4*01, DRB3*0x: DQB1* 0303, DQB1*0201/2) control were studied. Variable gene usage was markedly limited in the atopic individual. V alpha 1, 3, 8 accounted for 60% and J alpha 12, 31 30% of the gene usage. There was evidence of preferential V alpha-J alpha gene pairing and clonal expansion. We conclude that there is a marked non random TCR alpha gene distribution in atopy using both V alpha family and anchored PCR. This may be due in part to antigen driven clonal expansion. PMID:9095269

  15. Target site choice of the related transposable elements Tc1 and Tc3 of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    van Luenen, H G; Plasterk, R H


    We have investigated the target choice of the related transposable elements Tc1 and Tc3 of the nematode C. elegans. The exact locations of 204 independent Tc1 insertions and 166 Tc3 insertions in an 1 kbp region of the genome were determined. There was no phenotypic selection for the insertions. All insertions were into the sequence TA. Both elements have a strong preference for certain positions in the 1 kbp region. Hot sites for integration are not clustered or regularly spaced. The orientation of the integrated transposon has no effect on the distribution pattern. We tested several explanations for the target site preference. If simple structural features of the DNA (e.g. bends) would mark hot sites, we would expect the patterns of the two related transposons Tc1 and Tc3 to be similar; however we found them to be completely different. Furthermore we found that the sequence at the donor site has no effect on the choice of the new insertion site, because the insertion pattern of a transposon that jumps from a transgenic donor site is identical to the insertion pattern of transposons jumping from endogenous genomic donor sites. The most likely explanation for the target choice is therefore that the primary sequence of the target site is recognized by the transposase. However, alignment of the Tc1 and Tc3 integration sites does not reveal a strong consensus sequence for either transposon. PMID:8127662

  16. Biologically active monoiodinated alpha-MSH derivatives for receptor binding studies using human melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, A.N.; Verin, V.J.; Solca, F.; Siegrist, W.; Kueenlin, C.B.; Bagutti, C.; Stutz, S.; Girard, J. , University Hospital, Basel )


    Three different monoiodinated radioligands of alpha-MSH (alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) were compared in a binding assay with human D10 melanoma cells: (Tyr(125I)2)-alpha-MSH, (Tyr(125I)2,NIe4)-alpha-MSH, and (Tyr(125I)2,NIe4,D-Phe7)-alpha-MSH. They were prepared either by the classical chloramine T method or by the Enzymobead method. A simple and rapid purification scheme was developed consisting of a primary separation on reversed-phase C18 silica cartridges immediately after the iodination, followed by HPLC purification before each binding experiment. Biological testing of the three radioligands showed that they all retained high melanotropic activity in the B16 melanin assay and the Anolis melanophore assay. However, in human D10 melanoma cells, (Tyr(125I)2,NIe4)-alpha-MSH led to a high degree of non-specific binding to the cells which could not be displaced by excess alpha-MSH and only partially by (NIe4)-alpha-MSH. The (Tyr(125I)2,NIe4,D-Phe7)-alpha-MSH tracer gave similar results but with a much lower proportion of non-specific binding. On the other hand, (Tyr(125I)2)-alpha-MSH proved to be an excellent radioligand whose non-specific binding to the D10 cells was not higher than 20% of the total binding.

  17. Interferon-alpha stimulates production of interleukin-10 in activated CD4+ T cells and monocytes.


    Aman, M J; Tretter, T; Eisenbeis, I; Bug, G; Decker, T; Aulitzky, W E; Tilg, H; Huber, C; Peschel, C


    In the present study, we investigated the effect of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) on the expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA and protein synthesis in human monocytes and CD4+ T cells. In mononuclear cells, IFN-alpha induced expression of IL-10 mRNA and further enhanced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated IL-10 expression. In purified monocytes, a strong expression of IL-10 mRNA induced by LPS was not further enhanced by IFN-alpha. In highly purified CD4+ T cells, IFN-alpha upregulated IL-10 mRNA upon activation with phytohemagglutinin and phorbol myristate acetate. In purified monocytes, an effect of IFN-alpha on IL-10 protein synthesis was dependent on costimulation with LPS. Maximal stimulation of IL-10 protein by IFN-alpha was seen after prolonged incubation periods of 48 to 96 hours, whereas IFN-gamma reduced IL-10 production in the early incubation period. Similar effects of IFN-alpha were observed in CD4+ T cells activated with CD3 and CD28 monoclonal antibodies. Addition of IFN-alpha caused an increase of IL-10 in culture supernatants of activated T-helper cells of more than 100% after 96 hours of incubation. In contrast, other cytokines, including IFN-gamma and IL-4, had no influence on IL-10 secretion stimulated by CD3 and CD28 in CD4+ T cells. In serum samples of IFN-alpha-treated individuals, we failed to detect an influence of cytokine treatment on IL-10 serum levels, confirming the requirement of additional activating signals for IFN-alpha-mediated effects on IL-10 synthesis. In conclusion, IFN-alpha enhances the late induction of IL-10, which physiologically occurs upon stimulation of monocytes and T cells. Biologically, this effect might enhance the negative-feedback mechanism ascribed to IL-10, which limits inflammatory reactions. PMID:8639843

  18. The p53 inhibitor, pifithrin-{alpha}, suppresses self-renewal of embryonic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelalim, Essam Mohamed; Tooyama, Ikuo


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determine the role of p53 in ES cells under unstressful conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFT-{alpha} suppresses ES cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFT-{alpha} induces ES cell cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PFT-{alpha} downregulates Nanog and cyclin D1. -- Abstract: Recent studies have reported the role of p53 in suppressing the pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells after DNA damage and blocking the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. However, to date no evidence has been presented to support the function of p53 in unstressed ES cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of pifithrin (PFT)-{alpha}, an inhibitor of p53-dependent transcriptional activation, on self-renewal of ES cells. Our results revealed that treatment of ES cells with PFT-{alpha} resulted in the inhibition of ES cell propagation in a dose-dependent manner, as indicated by a marked reduction in the cell number and colony size. Also, PFT-{alpha} caused a cell cycle arrest and significant reduction in DNA synthesis. In addition, inhibition of p53 activity reduced the expression levels of cyclin D1 and Nanog. These findings indicate that p53 pathway in ES cells rather than acting as an inactive gene, is required for ES cell proliferation and self-renewal under unstressful conditions.

  19. The mutual clonal origin of the lymphoplasmocytic and lymphoma cell in alpha-heavy chain disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ramot, B; Levanon, M; Hahn, Y; Lahat, N; Moroz, C


    Biosynthetic studies in alpha-heavy chain disease were performed on the gut tumour which was composed mainly of lymphoplasmocytic cells and on the mesenteric lymph node tumour composed mainly of immunoblasts. The gut tumour cells synthesised alpha-heavy chains and secreted them during 2-5 hr culture, whereas the lymph node tumour cells synthesized alpha-heavy chains which were shed into the culture medium only after 20 hr. These chains were shown to be present on the surface of the immunoblastic tumour cells by enzymatic radioiodination. Both the surface and the secreted alpha-heavy chain of the lymph node and gut tumour were found to be smaller than the alpha-heavy chain of myeloma proteins. These results suggest that the lymphoblasmocytic and the immunoblastic tumour cells originate from the same defective clone. PMID:405165

  20. Suppression of estrogen receptor-alpha transactivation by thyroid transcription factor-2 in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Eunsook; Gong, Eun-Yeung; Romanelli, Maria Grazia; Lee, Keesook


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TTF-2 was expressed in mammary glands and breast cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TTF-2 repressed ER{alpha} transactivation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TTF-2 inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells. -- Abstract: Estrogen receptors (ERs), which mediate estrogen actions, regulate cell growth and differentiation of a variety of normal tissues and hormone-responsive tumors through interaction with cellular factors. In this study, we show that thyroid transcription factor-2 (TTF-2) is expressed in mammary gland and acts as ER{alpha} co-repressor. TTF-2 inhibited ER{alpha} transactivation in a dose-dependent manner in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In addition, TTF-2 directly bound to and formed a complex with ER{alpha}, colocalizing with ER{alpha} in the nucleus. In MCF-7/TTF-2 stable cell lines, TTF-2 repressed the expression of endogenous ER{alpha} target genes such as pS2 and cyclin D1 by interrupting ER{alpha} binding to target promoters and also significantly decreased cell proliferation. Taken together, these data suggest that TTF-2 may modulate the function of ER{alpha} as a corepressor and play a role in ER-dependent proliferation of mammary cells.

  1. Integrins alpha(6A)beta 1 and alpha(6B)beta 1 promote different stages of chondrogenic cell differentiation.


    Segat, Daniela; Comai, Riccardo; Di Marco, Eddi; Strangio, Antonella; Cancedda, Ranieri; Franzi, Adriano T; Tacchetti, Carlo


    The differentiation of chondrocytes and of several other cell types is associated with a switch from the alpha(6B) to the alpha(6A) isoform of the laminin alpha(6)beta(1) integrin receptor. To define whether this event plays a functional role in cell differentiation, we used an in vitro model system that allows chick chondrogenic cells to remain undifferentiated when cultured in monolayer and to differentiate into chondrocytes when grown in suspension culture. We report that: (i) upon over-expression of the human alpha(6B), adherent chondrogenic cells differentiate to stage I chondrocytes (i.e. increased type II collagen, reduced type I collagen, fibronectin, alpha(5)beta(1) and growth rate, loss of fibroblast morphology); (ii) the expression of type II collagen requires the activation of p38 MAP kinase; (iii) the over-expression of alpha(6A) induces an incomplete differentiation to stage I chondrocytes, whereas no differentiation was observed in alpha(5) and mock-transfected control cells; (iv) a prevalence of the alpha(6A) subunit is necessary to stabilize the differentiated phenotype when cells are transferred to suspension culture. Altogether, these results indicate a functional role for the alpha(6B) to alpha(6A) switch in chondrocyte differentiation; the former promotes chondrocyte differentiation, and the latter is necessary in stabilizing the differentiated phenotype. PMID:12077132

  2. Failure of isolated rat tibial periosteal cells to 5 alpha reduce testosterone to 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.T.; Bleiberg, B.; Colvard, D.S.; Keeting, P.E.; Evans, G.; Spelsberg, T.C. )


    Periosteal cells were isolated from tibiae of adult male rats after collagenase treatment. Northern blot analysis of total cytoplasmic RNA extracted from the isolated periosteal cells was positive for expression of genes encoding the osteoblast marker proteins osteocalcin (BGP) and pre-pro-alpha 2(I) chain of type 1 precollagen. The isolated periosteal cells were incubated with 1 nM (3H)testosterone (({sup 3}H)T) for up to 240 minutes and the reaction products separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. ({sup 3}H)5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (({sup 3}H)DHT) was not detected in extracts of periosteal cell incubations. In contrast, ({sup 3}H)DHT was produced in a time-dependent manner by cells from seminal vesicles. These results suggest that testosterone 5 alpha-reductase activity is not expressed by osteoblasts in rat tibial periosteum and that the anabolic effects of androgens in this tissue are not mediated by locally produced DHT.

  3. Identification of novel targets for PGC-1{alpha} and histone deacetylase inhibitors in neuroblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Rita M. Talati, Pratik; Blake, Kathryn R.; Meador-Woodruff, James H.; Russell, James W.


    Recent evidence suggests that the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator activated receptor {gamma} coactivator 1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}) is involved in the pathology of Huntington's Disease (HD). While animals lacking PGC-1{alpha} express lower levels of genes involved in antioxidant defense and oxidative phosphorylation in the brain, little is known about other targets for PGC-1{alpha} in neuronal cells and whether there are ways to pharmacologically target PGC-1{alpha} in neurons. Here, PGC-1{alpha} overexpression in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells upregulated expression of genes involved in mitochondrial function, glucose transport, fatty acid metabolism, and synaptic function. Overexpression also decreased vulnerability to hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death and caspase 3 activation. Treatment of cells with the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi's) trichostatin A and valproic acid upregulated PGC-1{alpha} and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). These results suggest that PGC-1{alpha} regulates multiple pathways in neurons and that HDACi's may be good candidates to target PGC-1{alpha} and GLUT4 in HD and other neurological disorders.

  4. Cell surface expression and turnover of the alpha-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel.


    Kleyman, T R; Zuckerman, J B; Middleton, P; McNulty, K A; Hu, B; Su, X; An, B; Eaton, D C; Smith, P R


    The renal epithelial cell line A6, derived from Xenopus laevis, expresses epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaCs) and serves as a model system to study hormonal regulation and turnover of ENaCs. Our previous studies suggest that the alpha-subunit of Xenopus ENaC (alpha-xENaC) is detectable as 150- and 180-kDa polypeptides, putative immature and mature alpha-subunit heterodimers. The 150- and 180-kDa alpha-xENaC were present in distinct fractions after sedimentation of A6 cell lysate through a sucrose density gradient. Two anti-alpha-xENaC antibodies directed against distinct domains demonstrated that only 180-kDa alpha-xENaC was expressed at the apical cell surface. The half-life of cell surface-expressed alpha-xENaC was 24-30 h, suggesting that once ENaC matures and is expressed at the plasma membrane, its turnover is similar to that reported for mature cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. No significant changes in apical surface expression of alpha-xENaC were observed after treatment of A6 cells with aldosterone for 24 h, despite a 5.3-fold increase in short-circuit current. This lack of change in surface expression is consistent with previous observations in A6 cells and suggests that aldosterone regulates ENaC gating and increases channel open probability. PMID:11457713

  5. Differential expression of alpha-subunits of G-proteins in human neuroblastoma-derived cell clones.


    Klinz, F J; Yu, V C; Sadée, W; Costa, T


    The distribution of alpha- and beta-subunits of G-proteins was analyzed in membranes of three cell clones which are derived from the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. The neuroblast-like clone SH-SY5Y shows a pattern of G-proteins very similar to that of human brain cortex with high levels of Gi alpha and Go alpha but low levels of G40 alpha. The intermediate clone SH-IN contains high levels of Go alpha and Gi alpha and moderate levels of G40 alpha. The non-neuronal clone SH-EP shows high levels of G40 alpha but lacks Go alpha. Differentiation of the neuroblast-like clone SH-SY5Y by retinoic acid or nerve growth factor does not change the amount of Gi alpha or Go alpha in the membrane. PMID:3119368

  6. Interaction between HP1{alpha} and replication proteins in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Auth, Tanja . E-mail:; Kunkel, Elisabeth; Grummt, Friedrich . E-mail:


    HP1 is an essential heterochromatin-associated protein known to play an important role in the organization of heterochromatin as well as in the transcriptional regulation of heterochromatic and euchromatic genes both in repression and activation. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and immunoprecipitation, we report here that murine HP1{alpha} interacts with the preRC proteins ORC1, ORC2 and CDC6. Immunofluorescence staining and EGFP/DsRed fusion proteins revealed a colocalization of HP1{alpha} with ORC1, ORC2 and CDC6 in heterochromatin, supporting the notion that ORC and probably CDC6 play an important role in murine HP1{alpha} function. Besides that, we also observed a colocalization of HP1{alpha} with {gamma}-tubulin suggesting a centrosomal localization of HP1{alpha} in murine cells. To gain insight into HP1{alpha} function, we applied the RNAi technique. Depletion of HP1{alpha} leads to a slow down of cell proliferation, an aberrant cell cycle progression as well as to multinucleated cells with insufficiently organized microtubule. These results together indicate that HP1{alpha} exerts functions in mitosis and cytokinesis.

  7. Widespread histologic distribution of the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin cell-surface collagen receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Zutter, M. M.; Santoro, S. A.


    The alpha 2 beta 1 integrin (platelet membrane glycoprotein Ia-IIa, VLA-2, ECMR-II) functions as a cell surface receptor for collagen. The authors have determined the histologic distribution of the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor in normal tissues by immunohistochemical technique. The studies revealed that the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor was expressed on fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells from multiple sites including skin, tonsil, breast, sweat gland, gastrointestinal tract, lung, bladder, cervix, and prostate. Follicular dendritic cells of the lymph node, tonsil, and spleen and dendritic cells of the thymus also expressed the alpha 2 beta 1 receptor. The receptor also was present on Schwann cells of ganglia and on neuroglia. Greatly enhanced expression of the receptor in regions of proliferating epithelium suggests that enhanced expression of alpha 2 beta 1 is associated with orderly, regulated cell proliferation. The circumferential staining pattern of the alpha 2 beta 1 integrin within many epithelia is virtually identical to that observed for other adhesive receptors, such as the cadherins, which have been implicated in cell-cell adhesion. Images Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 16 Figure 17 PMID:2164774

  8. T-cell receptor V sub. alpha. and C sub. alpha. alleles associated with multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis

    SciTech Connect

    Oksenberg, J.R.; Cavalli-Sforza, L.L.; Steinman, L. ); Sherritt, M.; Bernard, C.C. ); Begovich, A.B.; Erlich, H.A. )


    Polymorphic markers in genes encoding the {alpha} chain of the human T-cell receptor (TcR) have been detected by Southern blot analysis in Pss I digests. Polymorphic bands were observed at 6.3 and 2.0 kilobases (kb) with frequencies of 0.30 and 0.44, respectively, in the general population. Using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, the authors amplified selected sequences derived from the full-length TcR {alpha} cDNA probe. These PcR products were used as specific probes to demonstrate that the 6.3-kb polymorphic fragment hybridizes to the variable (V)-region probe and the 2.0-kb fragment hybridizes to the constant (C)-region probe. Segregation of the polymorphic bands was analyzed in family studies. To look for associations between these markers and autoimmune diseases, the authors have studied the restriction fragment length polymorphism distribution of the Pss I markers in patients with multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and Graves disease. Significant differences in the frequency of the polymorphic V{sub {alpha}} and C{sub {alpha}} markers were identified between patients and healthy individuals.

  9. PKC{alpha} expression regulated by Elk-1 and MZF-1 in human HCC cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Y.-H.; Wu, T.-T.; Tsai, J.-H.; Huang, C.-Y.; Hsieh, Y.-S.; Liu, J.-Y. . E-mail:


    Our previous study found that PKC{alpha} was highly expressed in the poor-differentiated human HCC cells and associated with cell migration and invasion. In this study, we further investigated the gene regulation of this enzyme. We showed that PKC{alpha} expression enhancement in the poor-differentiated human HCC cells was found neither by DNA amplification nor by increasing mRNA stability using differential PCR and mRNA decay assays. After screening seven transcription factors in the putative cis-acting regulatory elements of human PKC{alpha} promoters, only Elk-1 and MZF-1 antisense oligonucleotide showed a significant reduction in the PKC{alpha} mRNA level. They also reduced cell proliferation, cell migratory and invasive capabilities, and DNA binding activities in the PKC{alpha} promoter region. Over-expression assay confirmed that the PKC{alpha} expression may be modulated by these two factors at the transcriptional level. Therefore, these results may provide a novel mechanism for PKC{alpha} expression regulation in human HCC cells.

  10. Thiazolidinediones inhibit REG I{alpha} gene transcription in gastrointestinal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, Akiyo; Takahashi, Iwao; Takasawa, Shin; Nata, Koji; Noguchi, Naoya; Ikeda, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Takeo; Shervani, Nausheen J.; Suzuki, Iwao; Uruno, Akira; Unno, Michiaki; Okamoto, Hiroshi Sugawara, Akira


    REG (Regenerating gene) I{alpha} protein functions as a growth factor for gastrointestinal cancer cells, and its mRNA expression is strongly associated with a poor prognosis in gastrointestinal cancer patients. We here demonstrated that PPAR{gamma}-agonist thiazolidinediones (TZDs) inhibited cell proliferation and REG I{alpha} protein/mRNA expression in gastrointestinal cancer cells. TZDs inhibited the REG I{alpha} gene promoter activity, via its cis-acting element which lacked PPAR response element and could not bind to PPAR{gamma}, in PPAR{gamma}-expressing gastrointestinal cancer cells. The inhibition was reversed by co-treatment with a specific PPAR{gamma}-antagonist GW9662. Although TZDs did not inhibit the REG I{alpha} gene promoter activity in PPAR{gamma}-non-expressing cells, PPAR{gamma} overexpression in the cells recovered their inhibitory effect. Taken together, TZDs inhibit REG I{alpha} gene transcription through a PPAR{gamma}-dependent pathway. The TZD-induced REG I{alpha} mRNA reduction was abolished by cycloheximide, indicating the necessity of novel protein(s) synthesis. TZDs may therefore be a candidate for novel anti-cancer drugs for patients with gastrointestinal cancer expressing both REG I{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}.

  11. The mouse dead-end gene isoform alpha is necessary for germ cell and embryonic viability.


    Bhattacharya, Chitralekha; Aggarwal, Sita; Zhu, Rui; Kumar, Madhu; Zhao, Ming; Meistrich, Marvin L; Matin, Angabin


    Inactivation of the dead-end (Dnd1) gene in the Ter mouse strain results in depletion of primordial germ cells (PGCs) so that mice become sterile. However, on the 129 mouse strain background, loss of Dnd1 also increases testicular germ cell tumor incidence in parallel to PGC depletion. We report that inactivation of Dnd1 also affects embryonic viability in the 129 strain. Mouse Dnd1 encodes two protein isoforms, DND1-isoform alpha (DND1-alpha) and DND1-isoform beta (DND1-beta). Using isoform-specific antibodies, we determined DND1-alpha is expressed in embryos and embryonic gonads whereas DND1-beta expression is restricted to germ cells of the adult testis. Our data implicate DND1-alpha isoform to be necessary for germ cell viability and therefore its loss in Ter mice results in PGC depletion, germ cell tumor development and partial embryonic lethality in the 129 strain. PMID:17291453

  12. Fish oils lower rat plasma and hepatic, but not immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentration.


    Alexander, D W; McGuire, S O; Cassity, N A; Fritsche, K L


    These studies were designed to measure the impact of different fish oil sources of dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid on the alpha-tocopherol content of rat immune cells. In the first experiment, rats were fed diets containing either lard, corn oil, menhaden fish oil or cod liver oil. In the second study, sardine fish oil replaced corn oil. Dietary fat source did not significantly influence body weights or the yield of immune cells in either study. In both studies, plasma and liver alpha-tocopherol concentrations were significantly lower in (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid-fed rats than in rats fed lard. In the first study, immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentrations followed those observed in the plasma and liver. These concentrations closely paralleled the amount of RRR-alpha-tocopheryl acetate added to diets and not the total vitamin E present, which was the same for all treatment groups. However, in the second study, alpha-tocopherol concentration of immune cells was not significantly different among rats fed lard, menhaden fish oil, and sardine fish oil. In that study both the amount and form of vitamin E were carefully balanced across dietary treatment groups. In conclusion, despite having similar amounts of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids, two out of three fish oils tested did not lower immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentration even in the face of significantly reduced plasma and liver alpha-tocopherol concentrations. PMID:7562101

  13. Quantitative analysis of topoisomerase II{alpha} to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Masashi; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Kano, Hideyuki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro; Katsuki, Takahisa; Shirahata, Mitsuaki; Ono, Makoto; Yamana, Norikazu; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Takahashi, Jun A. . E-mail:


    Immunohistochemical cell proliferation analyses have come into wide use for evaluation of tumor malignancy. Topoisomerase II{alpha} (topo II{alpha}), an essential nuclear enzyme, has been known to have cell cycle coupled expression. We here show the usefulness of quantitative analysis of topo II{alpha} mRNA to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors. A protocol to quantify topo II{alpha} mRNA was developed with a real-time RT-PCR. It took only 3 h to quantify from a specimen. A total of 28 brain tumors were analyzed, and the level of topo II{alpha} mRNA was significantly correlated with its immuno-staining index (p < 0.0001, r = 0.9077). Furthermore, it sharply detected that topo II{alpha} mRNA decreased in growth-inhibited glioma cell. These results support that topo II{alpha} mRNA may be a good and rapid indicator to evaluate cell proliferate potential in brain tumors.

  14. Mouse pre-immunocytes as non-proliferating multipotent precursors of macrophages, interferon-producing cells, CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) dendritic cells.


    Bruno, L; Seidl, T; Lanzavecchia, A


    In this study we characterize in mouse bone marrow and peripheral blood a homogeneous cell subset expressing Ly6C, CD31 and CD11c, that can give rise to multiple cell types involved in the immune response. Under the aegis of M-CSF or GM-CSF these cells rapidly differentiate without division to either macrophages or immature dendritic cells, which can be further induced to mature by LPS stimulation. In fetal thymic organ cultures the same cells generate both CD8alpha(+) and CD8alpha(-) dendritic cells in comparable proportion as found in normal thymus. The Ly6C(+), CD31(+) and CD11c(+) cells express not only TLR2 and TLR4, which are characteristic of myeloid dendritic cells, but also TLR7 and TLR9, which conversely are characteristic of human interferon-producing cells. Moreover, following stimulation with influenza virus, they rapidly express high levels of IFN-alpha mRNA. Finally these precursors are increased in bone marrow and peripheral blood during systemic inflammation. These cells are defined as "pre-immunocytes" to underline the fact that they serve in a flexible fashion multiple, and often divergent, functions required for the immune response to pathogens. PMID:11745359

  15. Biotransformation of alpha- and 6beta-santonin by fungus and plant cell cultures.


    Yang, L; Dai, J; Sakai, J-I; Ando, M


    One fungus, Abisidia coerulea IFO 4011, and suspended cell cultures of one plant, Asparagus officinalis, were employed to bioconvert alpha- and 6beta-santonin. Incubation of alpha-santonin with the cell cultures of the fungus afforded two products, 11beta-hydroxy-alpha-santonin (1, in 76.5% yield) and 8alpha-hydroxy-alpha-santonin (2, in 2.0% yield). And from 6beta-santonin, four major products (3, 4, 5 and 6) and four minor products (7, 8, 9 and 10) were obtained, including 8alpha-hydroxylated products in trace yields. Very interestingly, a skeletal rearrangement occurred and a guaiane product (13) formed in a very low yield when alpha-santonin incubating with A.officinalis cell cultures, while not in the case of 6beta-santonin as substrate. Among the obtained 15 products, 2, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 12 are new compounds. The fact of 8alpha hydroxylation of santonin enables the formation of 8,12-eudesmanolide instead of 6,12-eudesmanolide and some useful modification at C-8 position. In addition, these reactions would provide evidence for the biogenesis between different types of eudesmane and/or guaiane compounds in the plants in nature. PMID:16864442

  16. Conversion of adult pancreatic alpha-cells to beta-cells after extreme beta-cell loss.


    Thorel, Fabrizio; Népote, Virginie; Avril, Isabelle; Kohno, Kenji; Desgraz, Renaud; Chera, Simona; Herrera, Pedro L


    Pancreatic insulin-producing beta-cells have a long lifespan, such that in healthy conditions they replicate little during a lifetime. Nevertheless, they show increased self-duplication after increased metabolic demand or after injury (that is, beta-cell loss). It is not known whether adult mammals can differentiate (regenerate) new beta-cells after extreme, total beta-cell loss, as in diabetes. This would indicate differentiation from precursors or another heterologous (non-beta-cell) source. Here we show beta-cell regeneration in a transgenic model of diphtheria-toxin-induced acute selective near-total beta-cell ablation. If given insulin, the mice survived and showed beta-cell mass augmentation with time. Lineage-tracing to label the glucagon-producing alpha-cells before beta-cell ablation tracked large fractions of regenerated beta-cells as deriving from alpha-cells, revealing a previously disregarded degree of pancreatic cell plasticity. Such inter-endocrine spontaneous adult cell conversion could be harnessed towards methods of producing beta-cells for diabetes therapies, either in differentiation settings in vitro or in induced regeneration. PMID:20364121

  17. [Cloning the alpha-amylase gene of Streptococcus bovis and its expression in Bacillus subtilis cells].


    Iakorski, P; Kuntsova, M M; Loseva, E F; Khasanov, F K


    The gene coding for alpha-amylase from the ruminant bacterium Streptococcus bovis was cloned on the plasmid pMX39 in Bacillus subtilis cells. An alpha-amylase positive colony was isolated in the initial screening of 3900 colonies on the medium containing insoluble starch. The size of the insert was approximately 2.8 kb. The recombinant plasmid was stably maintained in Bacillus subtilis cells under the nonselective conditions. PMID:1944323

  18. Bimatoprost and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) selectively stimulate intracellular calcium signaling in different cat iris sphincter cells.


    Spada, Clayton S; Krauss, Achim H-P; Woodward, David F; Chen, June; Protzman, Charles E; Nieves, Amelia L; Wheeler, Larry A; Scott, David F; Sachs, George


    Bimatoprost is a synthetic analog of prostaglandin F(2 alpha) ethanolamide (prostamide F(2 alpha)), and shares a pharmacological profile consistent with that of the prostamides. Like prostaglandin F(2 alpha) carboxylic acid, bimatoprost potently lowers intraocular pressure in dogs, primates and humans. In order to distinguish its mechanism of action from prostaglandin F(2 alpha), fluorescence confocal microscopy was used to examine the effects of bimatoprost, prostaglandin F(2 alpha) and 17-phenyl prostaglandin F(2 alpha) on calcium signaling in resident cells of digested cat iris sphincter, a tissue which exhibits contractile responses to both agonists. Constant superfusion conditions obviated effective conversion of bimatoprost. Serial challenge with 100 nM bimatoprost and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) consistently evoked responses in different cells within the same tissue preparation, whereas prostaglandin F(2 alpha) and 17-phenyl prostaglandin F(2 alpha) elicited signaling responses in the same cells. Bimatoprost-sensitive cells were consistently re-stimulated with bimatoprost only, and prostaglandin F(2 alpha) sensitive cells could only be re-stimulated with prostaglandin F(2 alpha). The selective stimulation of different cells in the same cat iris sphincter preparation by bimatoprost and prostaglandin F(2 alpha), along with the complete absence of observed instances in which the same cells respond to both agonists, strongly suggests the involvement of distinct receptors for prostaglandin F(2 alpha) and bimatoprost. Further, prostaglandin F(2 alpha) but not bimatoprost potently stimulated calcium signaling in isolated human embryonic kidney cells stably transfected with the feline- and human-prostaglandin F(2 alpha) FP-receptor and in human dermal fibroblast cells, and only prostaglandin F(2 alpha) competed with radioligand binding in HEK-feFP cells. These studies provide further evidence for the existence of a bimatoprost-sensitive receptor that is distinct from

  19. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha is expressed by glomerular visceral epithelial cells in human membranous nephropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Neale, T. J.; Rüger, B. M.; Macaulay, H.; Dunbar, P. R.; Hasan, Q.; Bourke, A.; Murray-McIntosh, R. P.; Kitching, A. R.


    The role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was examined in biopsy-proven glomerulonephritis by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, immunogold electron microscopy, immunoassay in serum and urine, and urinary immunoblot. Striking glomerular capillary wall and visceral glomerular epithelial cell TNF-alpha protein staining was observed in all cases of membranous nephropathy and membranous lupus nephropathy. Staining was less frequently observed in crescentic glomerulonephritis and in isolated cases of other histological subtypes of glomerulonephritis, usually in association with glomerular macrophages. By immunogold electron microscopy TNF-alpha was localized in membranous nephropathy within the visceral glomerular epithelial cells, and also in the glomerular basement membrane, especially in relation to immune deposits. In situ hybridization localized TNF-alpha mRNA exclusively to glomerular epithelial cells in all biopsies with membranous morphology but not in other histological subtypes. Concentrations of TNF-alpha were significantly increased compared with normal controls in the urine of patients with membranous nephropathy and with crescentic glomerulonephritis. The expression of TNF-alpha by glomerular epithelial cells exclusively and universally in biopsies showing a membranous morphology strongly suggests this cytokine has a role in the pathogenesis of membranous nephropathy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:7778683

  20. Fish oil source differentially affects rat immune cell alpha-tocopherol concentration.


    McGuire, S O; Alexander, D W; Fritsche, K L


    We have previously reported that both the source of dietary fish oil and the chemical form of vitamin E supplied in the diet affect the vitamin E status of immune cells in rats. The purpose of this study was to investigate further the effect of fish oil source on immune cell vitamin E status using free alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T) at the AIN recommended level as the sole source of vitamin E. Sixty weanling female rats were fed semipurified, high fat (20 g/100 g) diets containing either tocopherol-stripped lard (LRD), menhaden fish oil (MFO), sardine fish oil (SRD) or cod liver oil (CLO) as the primary lipid source. Endogenous alpha-T concentration was measured and equalized to 150 mg/kg oil by addition of free RRR-alpha-T to each lipid source, allowing for a final concentration of alpha-T in the mixed diet of 30 mg/kg. An additional group of rats was fed LRD without supplemental vitamin E (LRD-) as a negative control. After feeding experimental diets for 5 or 10 wk, tissues were collected for alpha-T analysis by HPLC. After 5 wk, plasma and liver alpha-T (micromol alpha-T/g lipid) were significantly lower in SRD- and CLO-fed rats compared with LRD-fed rats. At 10 wk, only plasma alpha-T in CLO-fed rats remained significantly depressed. Plasma and liver alpha-T concentrations (micromol alpha-T/g lipid) were not significantly lower in MFO-fed rats than LRD-fed rats at either time point. Compared with LRD, feeding MFO to rats for 5 or 10 wk resulted in significantly greater alpha-T content of immune cells. In similar fashion, SRD-fed rats, compared with LRD-fed rats, also had significantly greater alpha-T content in splenocytes at both time points and greater thymocyte alpha-T at 10 wk. In all instances, the alpha-T status of rats fed CLO was indistinguishable from that of rats fed the vitamin E-free diet (LRD-). These data further demonstrate the complexity of the relationship between vitamin E status and dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). PMID:9202096

  1. Differences in properties between human alphaA- and alphaB-crystallin proteins expressed in Escherichia coli cells in response to cold and extreme pH.

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Mandai, Yumi; Otsu, Akiko; Shirakawa, Taro; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Chinami, Masanobu


    It has been reported that alphaA-crystallin has greater protective effects against apoptosis in lens epithelial cells than alphaB-crystallin [Andley, Song, Wawrousek, Fleming and Bassnett (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 36823-36831]. Because the alphaA-crystallin proteins are specifically expressed in the vertebrate lens, we examine the non-specific properties of both alphaA- and alphaB-crystallins in an Escherichia coli system. E. coli cells were transformed with the inducible protein expression vector pET-11a, harbouring the gene for either human alphaA- or alphaB-crystallin, and two other control plasmids, pET-1la vector alone or pGEX-2T vector encoding GST (glutathione S-transferase). These cells were exposed to various stress conditions, such as cold-shock at 4 degrees C or extremely low or high pH environments (pH 4.7 or pH 8.0) for 6 h, and survival of the host cells and the solubility of the expressed target proteins in the cytosol were examined. Under these stress conditions, the cells expressing alphaB-crystallin protein demonstrated significantly improved survival when compared with the other cells, and the expressed protein in the cytosol was almost soluble, in contrast with the alphaA-crystallin protein. Differences in the amino acid sequence between the proteins in a phenylalanine-rich region next to the N-terminal consensus alpha-crystallin domain was considered to be responsible for chaperone activity and cell survival. PMID:12826011

  2. Protective effect of alpha-mangostin against oxidative stress induced-retinal cell death

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuan; Su, Tu; Qiu, Xiaorong; Mao, Pingan; Xu, Yidan; Hu, Zizhong; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Xinhua; Xie, Ping; Liu, Qinghuai


    It is known that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathogenesis. Alpha-mangostin is the main xanthone purified from mangosteen known as anti-oxidative properties. The aim of the study was to test the protective effect of alpha-mangostin against oxidative stress both in retina of light-damaged mice model and in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-stressed RPE cells. We observed that alpha-mangostin significantly inhibited light-induced degeneration of photoreceptors and 200 μM H2O2-induced apoptosis of RPE cells. 200 μM H2O2-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and light-induced generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) were suppressed by alpha-mangostin. Alpha-mangostin stimulation resulted in an increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and glutathione (GSH) content both in vivo and vitro. Furthermore, the mechanism of retinal protection against oxidative stress by alpha-mangostin involves accumulation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2) along with up-regulation the expression of heme oxygenas-1 (HO-1). Meanwhile, alpha-mangostin can activate the expression of PKC-δ and down-regulate the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including ERK1/2, JNK, P38. The results suggest that alpha-mangostin could be a new approach to suspend the onset and development of AMD. PMID:26888416

  3. Protective effect of alpha-mangostin against oxidative stress induced-retinal cell death.


    Fang, Yuan; Su, Tu; Qiu, Xiaorong; Mao, Pingan; Xu, Yidan; Hu, Zizhong; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Xinhua; Xie, Ping; Liu, Qinghuai


    It is known that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) pathogenesis. Alpha-mangostin is the main xanthone purified from mangosteen known as anti-oxidative properties. The aim of the study was to test the protective effect of alpha-mangostin against oxidative stress both in retina of light-damaged mice model and in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-stressed RPE cells. We observed that alpha-mangostin significantly inhibited light-induced degeneration of photoreceptors and 200 μM H2O2-induced apoptosis of RPE cells. 200 μM H2O2-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and light-induced generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) were suppressed by alpha-mangostin. Alpha-mangostin stimulation resulted in an increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and glutathione (GSH) content both in vivo and vitro. Furthermore, the mechanism of retinal protection against oxidative stress by alpha-mangostin involves accumulation and the nuclear translocation of the NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2) along with up-regulation the expression of heme oxygenas-1 (HO-1). Meanwhile, alpha-mangostin can activate the expression of PKC-δ and down-regulate the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including ERK1/2, JNK, P38. The results suggest that alpha-mangostin could be a new approach to suspend the onset and development of AMD. PMID:26888416

  4. Retinoic acid modulates RAR alpha and RAR beta receptors in human glioma cell lines.


    Carpentier, A F; Leonard, N; Lacombe, J; Zassadowski, F; Padua, R A; Degos, L; Daumas-Duport, C; Chomienne, C


    To identify retinoic acid (RA) signalling pathways involved in growth and differentiation in cells of the glial lineage, two human glioma ceh lines were studied. The three RA receptors (RARs) mRNAs were constitutively expressed, and of the three RXRs, RXR beta appeared predominant. Western blotting analysis confirmed the constitutive expression of RAR alpha and RAR beta. Treatment with all-trans-RA induced morphological changes in the two cell lines, which progressed from their normal pattern of randomly oriented spindle-shaped cells to fibroblast-like glial cells. RA up-regulated RAR alpha and RAR beta mRNAs in both cell lines. Interestingly, RA treatment up-regulated RAR beta proteins but not RAR alpha proteins, suggesting post-transcriptional regulations of RAR transcripts in glioma cells. PMID:10652610

  5. Alpha-2 adrenergic and serotonin-1B receptors in the OK cell, an opossum kidney cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.


    Alpha-2 adrenergic and serotonin-1B (5HT{sub 1B}) receptors, both negatively-coupled to adenylyl cyclase, were characterized in the OK cell line, a renal proximal tubule epithelial cell line derived from the kidney of a North American opossum. In membrane saturation radioligand binding experiments, ({sup 3}H)yohimbine and ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine labeled an equivalent number of binding sites. Detailed pharmacological analysis of OK cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in competition binding assays indicate this receptor is neither an alpha-2A nor an alpha-2B adrenergic receptor subtype, although the alpha-2B receptor subtype-selective drugs prazosin, ARC-239 and chlorpromazine have affinities for OK cell alpha-2 adrenergic receptors similar to those at the alpha-2B receptor subtype. Determinations of agonist potency for inhibition of PTH-stimulated cyclic AMP production and radioligand binding analysis using ({sup 125}I)({minus})-cyanopindolol indicate that a 5HT{sub 1B} receptor is expressed in the OK cell line. A biochemical effector system coupled to this receptor subtype has not been previously described. Several compounds appear to be potent agonists at the 5TH{sub 1B} receptor including the beta adrenergic antagonists cyanopindolol, pindolol, propranolol and alprenolol.

  6. Activity of DL-alpha-Difluoromethylarginine and Polyamine Analogues against Cryptosporidium parvum Infection in a T-Cell Receptor Alpha-Deficient Mouse Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The in vivo effectiveness of a series of conformationally restricted polyamine analogs alone and in combination with DL-alpha-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) towards a T-cell receptor-alpha deficient mouse model infection of Cryptosporidium parvum was tested. Polyamine analogues were constructed from ...

  7. AMPA receptors serum-dependently mediate GABAA receptor alpha1 and alpha6 subunit down-regulation in cultured mouse cerebellar granule cells.


    Uusi-Oukari, Mikko; Kontturi, Leena-Stiina; Kallinen, Sampsa A; Salonen, Virpi


    Depolarization of cultured mouse cerebellar granule cells with potassium or kainate results in developmentally arrested state that includes down-regulation of GABA(A) receptor alpha1, alpha6 and beta2 subunit expression. These subunits are normally strongly expressed in cerebellar granule cells from second postnatal week throughout the adulthood. In the present study we demonstrate that selective activation of AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors down-regulates alpha1 and alpha6 subunit mRNA expression. Removal of AMPA agonist from culture medium restores expression of these subunits indicating reversibility of the down-regulation. In serum-free culture medium AMPA receptor activation did not down-regulate alpha1 or alpha6 subunit expression. Furthermore, the down-regulation was strongly attenuated when the cells were cultured in the presence of dialysed fetal calf serum. The results indicate that down-regulation of GABA(A) receptor alpha1 and alpha6 subunits by AMPA receptor activation is dependent on the presence of low molecular weight compounds present in fetal calf serum. In order to study mouse cerebellar granule cell maturation and/or regulation of GABA(A) receptor subunit expression in culture, the experiments should be performed in the absence of fetal calf serum. PMID:20170697

  8. G Protein Coupled Receptors in Embryonic Stem Cells: A Role for Gs-Alpha Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Layden, Brian T.; Newman, Marsha; Chen, Fei; Fisher, Amanda; Lowe, William L.


    Background Identification of receptor mediated signaling pathways in embryonic stem (ES) cells is needed to facilitate strategies for cell replacement using ES cells. One large receptor family, largely uninvestigated in ES cells, is G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). An important role for these receptors in embryonic development has been described, but little is known about GPCR expression in ES cells. Methodology/Principal Findings We have examined the expression profile of 343 different GPCRs in mouse ES cells demonstrating for the first time that a large number of GPCRs are expressed in undifferentiated and differentiating ES cells, and in many cases at high levels. To begin to define a role for GPCR signaling in ES cells, the impact of activating Gs-alpha, one of the major alpha subunits that couples to GPCRs, was investigated. Gs-alpha activation resulted in larger embryoid bodies (EBs), due, in part, to increased cell proliferation and prevented the time-related decline in expression of transcription factors important for maintaining ES cell pluripotency. Significance/Conclusions These studies suggest that Gs-alpha signaling contributes to ES cell proliferation and pluripotency and provide a framework for further investigation of GPCRs in ES cells. PMID:20161705

  9. Effects of alpha-particles on survival and chromosomal aberrations in human mammary epithelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durante, M.; Grossi, G. F.; Gialanella, G.; Pugliese, M.; Nappo, M.; Yang, T. C.


    We have studied the radiation responses of a human mammary epithelial cell line, H184B5 F5-1 M/10. This cell line was derived from primary mammary cells after treatment with chemicals and heavy ions. The F5-1 M/10 cells are immortal, density-inhibited in growth, and non-tumorigenic in athymic nude mice and represent an in vitro model of the human epithelium for radiation studies. Because epithelial cells are the target of alpha-particles emitted from radon daughters, we concentrated our studies on the efficiency of alpha-particles. Confluent cultures of M/10 cells were exposed to accelerated alpha-particles [beam energy incident at the cell monolayer = 3.85 MeV, incident linear energy transfer (LET) in cell = 109 keV/microns] and, for comparison, to 80 kVp x-rays. The following endpoints were studied: (1) survival, (2) chromosome aberrations at the first postirradiation mitosis, and (3) chromosome alterations at later passages following irradiation. The survival curve was exponential for alpha-particles (D0 = 0.73 +/- 0.04 Gy), while a shoulder was observed for x-rays (alpha/beta = 2.9 Gy; D0 = 2.5 Gy, extrapolation number 1.6). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of high-LET alpha-particles for human epithelial cell killing was 3.3 at 37% survival. Dose-response curves for the induction of chromosome aberrations were linear for alpha-particles and linearquadratic for x-rays. The RBE for the induction of chromosome aberrations varied with the type of aberration scored and was high (about 5) for chromosome breaks and low (about 2) for chromosome exchanges.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  10. Effect of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone and testosterone on apoptosis in human dermal papilla cells.


    Winiarska, A; Mandt, N; Kamp, H; Hossini, A; Seltmann, H; Zouboulis, C C; Blume-Peytavi, U


    Pathogenetic mechanisms in androgenetic alopecia are not yet fully understood; however, it is commonly accepted that androgens like testosterone (T) and 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alpha-DHT) inhibit hair follicle activity with early induction of the catagen. Thus, we investigated the influence of T and 5alpha-DHT on proliferation, cell death and bcl-2/bax expression in cultured dermal papilla cells (DPC) from nonbalding scalp regions of healthy volunteers. T and 5alpha-DHT induced apoptosis in DPC in a dose-dependent and time-related manner; in addition a necrotic effect due to T at 10(-5) M was found. Interestingly, bcl-2 protein expression was decreased in T- and 5alpha-DHT-treated cells, leading to an increase in the bax/bcl-2 ratio. In addition, T and 5alpha-DHT induced proteolytic cleavage of caspase 8 and inhibited proliferation of DPC at 10(-5) M. High concentrations of T and 5alpha-DHT were needed to induce apoptotic effects in DPC. These data suggest that DPC from nonbalding scalp regions do have the capacity to undergo apoptosis, but need a high androgen stimulus. The present study provides an interesting new pathogenetic approach in androgenetic alopecia. PMID:16931898

  11. Transient functional expression of alphaVbeta 3 on vascular cells during wound repair.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R. A.; Tonnesen, M. G.; Gailit, J.; Cheresh, D. A.


    During early granulation tissue formation of wound repair, new capillaries invade the fibrin clot, a process that undoubtedly requires an interaction of vascular cells with the wound provisional matrix composed mainly of fibrin, fibronectin, and vitronectin. Integrin alphaVbeta3 is the vascular cell receptor for these wound-associated adhesive proteins. Therefore, we investigated the expression of this receptor on new capillaries of healing full-thickness cutaneous porcine wounds. During granulation tissue formation, alphaVbeta3 was expressed specifically on capillary sprouts invading the central fibrin clot whereas the closely related integrin alphaVbeta5 failed to localize to these cells. Cyclic peptides or antibody antagonists of alphaVbeta3 specifically inhibited granulation tissue formation in a transient manner during the period of invasive angiogenesis. Immunolocalization studies revealed that alphaVbeta3 became aggregated and lost from sprouting vessels after treatment with a peptide antagonist. In contrast, beta 1 integrins were not modulated by this treatment. Once granulation tissue filled the wound and invasive angiogenesis terminated, the alphaVbeta3 showed little or no expression in the granulation tissue microvasculature. These data demonstrate that integrin alphaVbeta3 plays a fundamental, but transient, role during invasive angiogenesis and granulation tissue formation in a healing wound. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:8623913

  12. The Alpha Stem Cell Clinic: a model for evaluating and delivering stem cell-based therapies.


    Trounson, Alan; DeWitt, Natalie D; Feigal, Ellen G


    Cellular therapies require the careful preparation, expansion, characterization, and delivery of cells in a clinical environment. There are major challenges associated with the delivery of cell therapies and high costs that will limit the companies available to fully evaluate their merit in clinical trials, and will handicap their application at the present financial environment. Cells will be manufactured in good manufacturing practice or near-equivalent facilities with prerequisite safety practices in place, and cell delivery systems will be specialized and require well-trained medical and nursing staff, technicians or nurses trained to handle cells once delivered, patient counselors, as well as statisticians and database managers who will oversee the monitoring of patients in relatively long-term follow-up studies. The model proposed for Alpha Stem Cell Clinics will initially use the capacities and infrastructure that exist in the most advanced tertiary medical clinics for delivery of established bone marrow stem cell therapies. As the research evolves, they will incorporate improved procedures and cell preparations. This model enables commercialization of medical devices, reagents, and other products required for cell therapies. A carefully constructed cell therapy clinical infrastructure with the requisite scientific, technical, and medical expertise and operational efficiencies will have the capabilities to address three fundamental and critical functions: 1) fostering clinical trials; 2) evaluating and establishing safe and effective therapies, and 3) developing and maintaining the delivery of therapies approved by the Food and Drug Administration, or other regulatory agencies. PMID:23197634

  13. The Alpha Stem Cell Clinic: A Model for Evaluating and Delivering Stem Cell-Based Therapies

    PubMed Central

    DeWitt, Natalie D.; Feigal, Ellen G.


    Summary Cellular therapies require the careful preparation, expansion, characterization, and delivery of cells in a clinical environment. There are major challenges associated with the delivery of cell therapies and high costs that will limit the companies available to fully evaluate their merit in clinical trials, and will handicap their application at the present financial environment. Cells will be manufactured in good manufacturing practice or near-equivalent facilities with prerequisite safety practices in place, and cell delivery systems will be specialized and require well-trained medical and nursing staff, technicians or nurses trained to handle cells once delivered, patient counselors, as well as statisticians and database managers who will oversee the monitoring of patients in relatively long-term follow-up studies. The model proposed for Alpha Stem Cell Clinics will initially use the capacities and infrastructure that exist in the most advanced tertiary medical clinics for delivery of established bone marrow stem cell therapies. As the research evolves, they will incorporate improved procedures and cell preparations. This model enables commercialization of medical devices, reagents, and other products required for cell therapies. A carefully constructed cell therapy clinical infrastructure with the requisite scientific, technical, and medical expertise and operational efficiencies will have the capabilities to address three fundamental and critical functions: 1) fostering clinical trials; 2) evaluating and establishing safe and effective therapies, and 3) developing and maintaining the delivery of therapies approved by the Food and Drug Administration, or other regulatory agencies. PMID:23197634

  14. In vitro antitumor cytotoxic T lymphocyte response induced by dendritic cells transduced with DeltaNp73alpha recombinant adenovirus.


    Hu, Yijie; He, Yong; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S; Fan, Shizhi; Jiang, Yaoguang


    DeltaNp73alpha, the N-terminal truncated form of p73alpha is a candidate tumor antigen because of its selective expression in many human cancers and lack of expression in normal tissues. Therefore, we investigated the effects of dendritic cells infected with adenoviral DeltaNp73alpha (DNp73alpha) on breaking immune tolerance and induction of immunity against DNp73alpha-expressing (A549 lung cancer, K-562 leukemia) and non-expressing (MCF-7 breast cancer) cell lines. Immature dendritic cells generated in the presence of interleukin-4 and granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor from a human umbilical cord blood were transduced with a recombinant adenoviral (Ad) vector encoding full-length human DNp73alpha cDNA (Ad-DNp73alpha) or a control vector Ad-EGFP, using the centrifugal force method. Induction of DNp73alpha-specific CTL response was evaluated by a cytotoxic assay against the three human tumor cell lines with different DNp73alpha expression levels. The viability and activation status of transduced dendritic cells were assessed by flow cytometry. The dendrocyte/Ad-DNp73alpha-activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes showed significantly higher cytotoxicity against the cell lines A549/DNp73alpha, K-562 that expressed DNp73alpha than the DNp73alpha-null MCF-7 cells. The DCs/Ad-DNp73alpha showed higher survival rates than the DCs/Ad-EGFP or untransduced DCs, presumably due to the inhibition of cell death. These findings, with potential applications for immunotherapy, demonstrate that dendrocytes transduced with Ad-DNp73alpha can induce specific and sustained T cell responses against tumors expressing this variant p53-related gene. PMID:17914557

  15. The coffee diterpene kahweol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyung Gyun; Kim, Ji Young; Hwang, Yong Pil; Lee, Kyung Jin; Lee, Kwang Youl; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Dong Hyun; Jeong, Hye Gwang . E-mail:


    Endothelial cells produce adhesion molecules after being stimulated with various inflammatory cytokines. These adhesion molecules play an important role in the development of atherogenesis. Recent studies have highlighted the chemoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of kahweol, a coffee-specific diterpene. This study examined the effects of kahweol on the cytokine-induced monocyte/human endothelial cell interaction, which is a crucial early event in atherogenesis. Kahweol inhibited the adhesion of TNF{alpha}-induced monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF{alpha}-induced protein and mRNA expression of the cell adhesion molecules, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Furthermore, kahweol inhibited the TNF{alpha}-induced JAK2-PI3K/Akt-NF-{kappa}B activation pathway in these cells. Overall, kahweol has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities, which occurs partly by down-regulating the pathway that affects the expression and interaction of the cell adhesion molecules on endothelial cells.

  16. Possible Role of Non-Muscle Alpha-Actinins in Muscle Cell Mechanosensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ogneva, Irina V.; Biryukov, Nikolay S.; Leinsoo, Toomas A.; Larina, Irina M.


    The main hypothesis suggested that changes in the external mechanical load would lead to different deformations of the submembranous cytoskeleton and, as a result, dissociation of different proteins from its structure (induced by increased/decreased mechanical stress). The study subjects were fibers of the soleus muscle and cardiomyocytes of Wistar rats. Changes in external mechanical conditions were reconstructed by means of antiorthostatic suspension of the animals by their tails for 6, 12, 18, 24 and 72 hours. Transversal stiffness was measured by atomic force microscopy imaging; beta-, gamma-actin, alpha-actinin 1 and alpha-actinin 4 levels in membranous and cytoplasmic fractions were quantified by Western blot analysis; expression rates of the corresponding genes were studied using RT-PCR. Results: In 6 hours, alpha-actinin 1 and alpha-actinin 4 levels decreased in the membranous fraction of proteins of cardiomyocytes and soleus muscle fibers, respectively, but increased in the cytoplasmic fraction of the abovementioned cells. After 6–12 hours of suspension, the expression rates of beta-, gamma-actin, alpha-actinin 1 and alpha-actinin 4 were elevated in the soleus muscle fibers, but the alpha-actinin 1 expression rate returned to the reference level in 72 hours. After 18–24 hours, the expression rates of beta-actin and alpha-actinin 4 increased in cardiomyocytes, while the alpha-actinin 1 expression rate decreased in soleus muscle fibers. After 12 hours, the beta- and gamma-actin content dropped in the membranous fraction and increased in the cytoplasmic protein fractions from both cardiomyocytes and soleus muscle fibers. The stiffness of both cell types decreased after the same period of time. Further, during the unloading period the concentration of nonmuscle actin and different isoforms of alpha-actinins increased in the membranous fraction from cardiomyocytes. At the same time, the concentration of the abovementioned proteins decreased in the soleus

  17. CCL20/macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and tumor necrosis factor alpha production by primary uterine epithelial cells in response to treatment with lipopolysaccharide or Pam3Cys.


    Crane-Godreau, Mardi A; Wira, Charles R


    Having previously shown that CCL20/macrophage inflammatory protein 3alpha and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) are released by polarized primary rat uterine epithelial cells (UEC) in response to Escherichia coli but not to Lactobacillus rhamnosus, we sought to determine if epithelial cells are responsive to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP), including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and Pam(3)Cys, a bacterial lipoprotein analog. Epithelial cells were grown to confluence on Nunc cell culture inserts prior to apical treatment with PAMPs. In response to LPS, LTA, and Pam(3)Cys (EMC Microcollection GmbH, Tubingen, Germany), CCL20 levels increased (4- to 10-fold) while PAMPs caused increased TNF-alpha (1- to 4-fold) in the medium collected after 24 h of incubation. Both apical and basolateral secretion of CCL20 and TNF-alpha increased in response to PAMPs, but treatments had no effect on cell viability and integrity, as measured by transepithelial resistance. Time course studies of CCL20 and TNF-alpha release in response to Pam(3)Cys and LPS indicated that CCL20 release peaked between 2 and 4 h after treatment, whereas TNF-alpha release was gradual over the length of the incubation. Freeze-thaw and cell lysis experiments, along with actinomycin D studies, suggested that CCL20 and TNF-alpha are synthesized in response to PAMP stimulation. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that E. coli and selected PAMPs have direct effects on the production of CCL20 and TNF-alpha without affecting cell integrity. Since CCL20 is known to be both chemotactic and antimicrobial, the increase in apical and basolateral release by UEC in response to PAMPs suggests a new mechanism of innate immune protection in the female reproductive tract. PMID:15618187

  18. PPAR{alpha} agonists up-regulate organic cation transporters in rat liver cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luci, Sebastian; Geissler, Stefanie; Koenig, Bettina; Koch, Alexander; Stangl, Gabriele I.; Hirche, Frank; Eder, Klaus . E-mail:


    It has been shown that clofibrate treatment increases the carnitine concentration in the liver of rats. However, the molecular mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we observed for the first time that treatment of rats with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-{alpha} agonist clofibrate increases hepatic mRNA concentrations of organic cation transporters (OCTNs)-1 and -2 which act as transporters of carnitine into the cell. In rat hepatoma (Fao) cells, treatment with WY-14,643 also increased the mRNA concentration of OCTN-2. mRNA concentrations of enzymes involved in carnitine biosynthesis were not altered by treatment with the PPAR{alpha} agonists in livers of rats and in Fao cells. We conclude that PPAR{alpha} agonists increase carnitine concentrations in livers of rats and cells by an increased uptake of carnitine into the cell but not by an increased carnitine biosynthesis.

  19. Tumor necrosis factor alpha induces expression of human immunodeficiency virus in a chronically infected T-cell clone.

    PubMed Central

    Folks, T M; Clouse, K A; Justement, J; Rabson, A; Duh, E; Kehrl, J H; Fauci, A S


    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), also known as cachectin, was demonstrated to induce the expression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in a chronically infected T-cell clone (ACH-2). Concentrations of recombinant TNF-alpha as low as 50 pg/ml induced a significant increase over background of HIV expression in the ACH-2 cells as determined by supernatant reverse transcriptase activity. The HIV-inducing effects of TNF-alpha could not be explained by toxic effects on the cells. In addition, both the uninfected parental cell line (A3.01) and the infected ACH-2 cells were shown to have high-affinity receptors for TNF-alpha. Transient-transfection experiments demonstrated that the inductive effects of TNF-alpha were due to specific activation of the HIV long terminal repeat. These studies provide evidence that TNF-alpha may play a role in the mechanisms of pathogenesis of HIV infection. Images PMID:2784570

  20. Posttranscriptional regulation of collagen alpha1(I) mRNA in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed Central

    Stefanovic, B; Hellerbrand, C; Holcik, M; Briendl, M; Aliebhaber, S; Brenner, D A


    The hepatic stellate cell (HSC) is the primary cell responsible for the dramatic increase in the synthesis of type I collagen in the cirrhotic liver. Quiescent HSCs contain a low level of collagen alpha1(I) mRNA, while activated HSCs contain about 60- to 70-fold more of this mRNA. The transcription rate of the collagen alpha1(I) gene is only two fold higher in activated HSCs than in quiescent HSCs. In assays using actinomycin D or 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole riboside collagen alpha1(I) mRNA has estimated half-lives of 1.5 h in quiescent HSCs and 24 h in activated HSCs. Thus, this 16-fold change in mRNA stability is primarily responsible for the increase in collagen alpha1(I) mRNA steady-state level in activated HSCs. We have identified a novel RNA-protein interaction targeted to the C-rich sequence in the collagen alpha1(I) mRNA 3' untranslated region (UTR). This sequence is localized 24 nucleotides 3' to the stop codon. In transient transfection experiments, mutation of this sequence diminished accumulation of an mRNA transcribed from a collagen alpha1(I) minigene and in stable transfections decreased the half-life of collagen alpha1(I) minigene mRNA. Binding to the collagen alpha1(I) 3' UTR is present in cytoplasmic extracts of activated but not quiescent HSCs. It contains as a subunit alphaCP, which is also found in the complex involved in stabilization of alpha-globin mRNA. The auxiliary factors necessary to promote binding of alphaCP to the collagen 3' UTR are distinct from the factors necessary for binding to the alpha-globin sequence. Since alphaCP is expressed in both quiescent and activated HSCs, these auxiliary factors are responsible for the differentially expressed RNA-protein interaction at the collagen alpha1(I) mRNA 3' UTR. PMID:9271398

  1. Oxidative stress induces nuclear translocation of C-terminus of {alpha}-synuclein in dopaminergic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Shengli; Zhou Ming; Yu Shun; Cai Yanning; Zhang Alex; Ueda, Kenji; Chan Piu . E-mail:


    Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in the neuronal degeneration and can promote the aggregation of {alpha}-synuclein. However, the role of {alpha}-synuclein under physiological and pathological conditions remains poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the possible interaction between the {alpha}-synuclein and oxidative stress. In a dopaminergic cell line MES23.5, we have found that the 200 {mu}M H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment induced the translocation of {alpha}-synuclein from cytoplasm to nuclei at 30 min post-treatment. The immunoactivity of {alpha}-synuclein became highly intensive in the nuclei after 2 h treatment. The protein translocated to nucleus was a 10 kDa fragment of C-terminus region of {alpha}-synuclein, while full-length {alpha}-synuclein remained in cytoplasm. Thioflavine-S staining suggested that the C-terminal fragment in the nuclei has no {beta}-sheet structures. Our present results indicated that 200 {mu}M H{sub 2}O{sub 2} treatment induces the intranuclear accumulation of the C-terminal fragment of {alpha}-synuclein in dopaminergic neurons, whose role remains to be investigated.

  2. Protein kinase C-alpha and -beta play antagonistic roles in the differentiation process of THP-1 cells.


    Dieter, P; Schwende, H


    The roles of protein kinase C (PKC) isoenzymes in the differentiation process of THP-1 cells are investigated. Inhibition of PKC by RO 31-8220 reduces the phagocytosis of latex particles and the release of superoxide, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. The proliferation of THP-1 cells is slightly enhanced by RO 31-8220. Stable transfection of THP-1 cells with asPKC-alpha, and incubation of THP-1 cells with antisense (as) PKC-alpha oligodeoxynucleotides reduces PKC-alpha levels and PKC activity. asPKC-alpha-transfected THP-1 cells show a decreased phagocytosis and a decreased release of superoxide, PGE(2) and TNF-alpha. The proliferation of asPKC-alpha-transfected THP-1 cells is enhanced. Stable transfection of THP-1 cells with asPKC-beta, and incubation of THP-1 cells with asPKC-beta oligodeoxynucleotides, reduces PKC-beta levels and PKC activity. asPKC-beta-transfected THP-1 cells show a decreased phagocytosis, a decreased TNF-alpha release, and a decreased proliferation. However, no difference is measured in the release of superoxide and PGE(2). These results suggest that: (1) PKC-alpha but not PKC-beta is involved in the release of superoxide and PGE(2); (2) TNF-alpha release and the phagocytosis of latex particles are mediated by PKC-alpha, PKC-beta, and other PKC isoenzymes; and (3) PKC-alpha and PKC-beta play antagonistic roles in the differentiation process of THP-1 cells. PKC-alpha promotes the differentiation process of THP-1 cells, PKC-beta retards the differentiation of THP-1 cells into macrophage-like cells. PMID:10822170

  3. Infection of human fallopian tube epithelial cells with Neisseria gonorrhoeae protects cells from tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis.


    Morales, Priscilla; Reyes, Paz; Vargas, Macarena; Rios, Miguel; Imarai, Mónica; Cardenas, Hugo; Croxatto, Horacio; Orihuela, Pedro; Vargas, Renato; Fuhrer, Juan; Heckels, John E; Christodoulides, Myron; Velasquez, Luis


    Following infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae, bacteria may ascend into the Fallopian tubes (FT) and induce salpingitis, a major cause of infertility. In the FT, interactions between mucosal epithelial cells and gonococci are pivotal events in the pathogen's infection cycle and the inflammatory response. In the current study, primary FT epithelial cells were infected in vitro with different multiplicities of infection (MOI) of Pil+ Opa+ gonococci. Bacteria showed a dose-dependent association with cells and induced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). A significant finding was that gonococcal infection (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in approximately 30% of cells, whereas increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100) did not induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was observed in only 11% of cells with associated bacteria, whereas >84% of cells with no adherent bacteria were apoptotic. TNF-alpha was a key contributor to apoptosis, since (i) culture supernatants from cells infected with gonococci (MOI = 1) induced apoptosis in naïve cultures, suggesting that a soluble factor was responsible; (ii) gonococcal infection-induced apoptosis was inhibited with anti-TNF-alpha antibodies; and (iii) the addition of exogenous TNF-alpha induced apoptosis, which was inhibited by the presence of increasing numbers of bacteria (MOI = 10 to 100). These data suggest that TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis of FT epithelial cells is likely a primary host defense mechanism to prevent pathogen colonization. However, epithelial cell-associated gonococci have evolved a mechanism to protect the cells from undergoing TNF-alpha-mediated apoptosis, and this modulation of the host innate response may contribute to establishment of infection. Understanding the antiapoptotic mechanisms used by Neisseria gonorrhoeae will inform the pathogenesis of salpingitis and could suggest new intervention strategies for prevention and treatment of the disease. PMID:16714596

  4. One-step purification of functional human and rat pancreatic alpha cells.


    Köhler, Martin; Daré, Elisabetta; Ali, Muhammed Yusuf; Rajasekaran, Subu Surendran; Moede, Tilo; Leibiger, Barbara; Leibiger, Ingo B; Tibell, Annika; Juntti-Berggren, Lisa; Berggren, Per-Olof


    Pancreatic alpha cells contribute to glucose homeostasis by the regulated secretion of glucagon, which increases glycogenolysis and hepatic gluconeogenesis in response to hypoglycemia. Alterations of glucagon secretion are observed in diabetic patients and exacerbate the disease. The restricted availability of purified primary alpha cells has limited our understanding of their function in health and disease. This study was designed to establish convenient protocols for the purification of viable alpha cells from rat and human pancreatic islets by FACS, using intrinsic cellular properties. Islets were isolated from the pancreata of Wistar rats or deceased human organ donors. Dispersed islet cells were separated by FACS based on light scatter and autofluorescence. Purity of sorted cells was evaluated by immunocytochemistry using hormone specific antibodies. Relative hormone expression was further determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Viability was determined by Annexin V and propidium iodide staining and function was assessed by monitoring cytoplasmic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) using Fura-2/AM. We developed species-specific FACS gating strategies that resulted in populations consisting mainly of alpha cells (96.6 ± 1.4%, n = 3 for rat; 95.4 ± 1.7%, n = 4 for human, mean ± SEM). These cell fractions showed ~5-fold and ~4-fold enrichment (rat and human, respectively) of glucagon mRNA expression compared to total ungated islet cells. Most of the sorted cells were viable and functional, as they responded with an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) upon stimulation with L-arginine (10 mM). The majority of the sorted human alpha cells responded also to stimulation with kainate (100 μM), whereas this response was infrequent in rat alpha cells. Using the same sample preparation, but a different gating strategy, we were also able to sort rat and human populations enriched in beta cells. In conclusion, we have simplified and optimized a method for the purification of rat

  5. Human dermal mast cells contain and release tumor necrosis factor alpha, which induces endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, L J; Trinchieri, G; Waldorf, H A; Whitaker, D; Murphy, G F


    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine that mediates endothelial leukocyte interactions by inducing expression of adhesion molecules. In this report, we demonstrate that human dermal mast cells contain sizeable stores of immunoreactive and biologically active TNF-alpha within granules, which can be released rapidly into the extracellular space upon degranulation. Among normal human dermal cells, mast cells are the predominant cell type that expresses both TNF-alpha protein and TNF-alpha mRNA. Moreover, induction of endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 expression is a direct consequence of release of mast cell-derived TNF-alpha. These findings establish a role for human mast cells as "gatekeepers" of the dermal microvasculature and indicate that mast cell products other than vasoactive amines influence endothelium in a proinflammatory fashion. Images PMID:1709737

  6. Effects of alpha-chlorohydrin and gonadectomy on the adenohypophysial cells of male rats and gerbils.


    Dixit, V P; Lohiya, N K; Jain, H C


    The cytological changes occurring in the gonadotropic cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary in 30 male rats and 30 male gerbils after administration of alpha-chlorohydrin were compared with those occurring following bilateral gonadectomy. A decline in the weights of testes and accessory sex glands and inhibited spermatogenesis were noted in rats and gerbils following alpha-chlorohydrin administration. Alpha-cholorohydrin changed the appearance of the delta-basilphils, cell cytoplasm showed fine granulation and vacuolization, and castration vacuoles appeared in many delta-basiphils of the anteroir lobe of the pituitary. The compound brought about transient changes resembling those of castration in the anterior lobe of the pituitary of male rats and gerbils. In gerbils, there was also a marked decrease in the number of acidophils. The results show that alpha-chlorohydrin exerts its effects on androgen-dependent structures, e.g., seminal vesicles, ventral prostrate, epididymides, and perineal complex. PMID:4841391

  7. Stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}/CXCL12) stimulates ovarian cancer cell growth through the EGF receptor transactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Porcile, Carola; Bajetto, Adriana . E-mail:; Barbieri, Federica; Barbero, Simone; Bonavia, Rudy; Biglieri, Marianna; Pirani, Paolo; Florio, Tullio . E-mail:; Schettini, Gennaro


    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of death in gynecologic diseases in which there is evidence for a complex chemokine network. Chemokines are a family of proteins that play an important role in tumor progression influencing cell proliferation, angiogenic/angiostatic processes, cell migration and metastasis, and, finally, regulating the immune cells recruitment into the tumor mass. We previously demonstrated that astrocytes and glioblastoma cells express both the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), and that SDF-1{alpha} treatment induced cell proliferation, supporting the hypothesis that chemokines may play an important role in tumor cells' growth in vitro. In the present study, we report that CXCR4 and SDF-1 are expressed in OC cell lines. We demonstrate that SDF-1{alpha} induces a dose-dependent proliferation in OC cells, by the specific interaction with CXCR4 and a biphasic activation of ERK1/2 and Akt kinases. Our results further indicate that CXCR4 activation induces EGF receptor (EGFR) phosphorylation that in turn was linked to the downstream intracellular kinases activation, ERK1/2 and Akt. In addition, we provide evidence for cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase (c-Src) involvement in the SDF-1/CXCR4-EGFR transactivation. These results suggest a possible important 'cross-talk' between SDF-1/CXCR4 and EGFR intracellular pathways that may link signals of cell proliferation in ovarian cancer.

  8. GW8510 Increases Insulin Expression in Pancreatic Alpha Cells through Activation of p53 Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Fomina-Yadlin, Dina; Kubicek, Stefan; Vetere, Amedeo; He, Kaihui Hu; Schreiber, Stuart L.; Wagner, Bridget K.


    Background Expression of insulin in terminally differentiated non-beta cell types in the pancreas could be important to treating type-1 diabetes. Previous findings led us to hypothesize involvement of kinase inhibition in induction of insulin expression in pancreatic alpha cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Alpha (αTC1.6) cells and human islets were treated with GW8510 and other small-molecule inhibitors for up to 5 days. Alpha cells were assessed for gene- and protein-expression levels, cell-cycle status, promoter occupancy status by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), and p53-dependent transcriptional activity. GW8510, a putative CDK2 inhibitor, up-regulated insulin expression in mouse alpha cells and enhanced insulin secretion in dissociated human islets. Gene-expression profiling and gene-set enrichment analysis of GW8510-treated alpha cells suggested up-regulation of the p53 pathway. Accordingly, the compound increased p53 transcriptional activity and expression levels of p53 transcriptional targets. A predicted p53 response element in the promoter region of the mouse Ins2 gene was verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Further, inhibition of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase activities suppressed insulin induction by GW8510. Conclusions/Significance The induction of Ins2 by GW8510 occurred through p53 in a JNK- and p38-dependent manner. These results implicate p53 activity in modulation of Ins2 expression levels in pancreatic alpha cells, and point to a potential approach toward using small molecules to generate insulin in an alternative cell type. PMID:22242153

  9. Complete sequence of three alpha-tubulin cDNAs in Chinese hamster ovary cells: each encodes a distinct alpha-tubulin isoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, E M; Henderson, G; Sarangi, F; Ling, V


    The genome of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells contains a complex family of approximately 16 alpha-tubulin genes, many of which may be pseudogenes. We present here the complete cDNA sequences of three expressed alpha-tubulin genes; one of these genes has been identified only in CHO cells. The noncoding regions of these three CHO alpha-tubulin genes differed significantly, but their coding regions were highly conserved. Nevertheless, we observed differences in the predicted amino acid sequences for the three genes. A comparison of the CHO alpha-tubulin sequences with all of the sequences available for mammals allowed assignment of the alpha-tubulin genes to three classes. The proteins encoded by the members of two of these classes showed no class-specific amino acids among the mammalian species examined. The gene belonging to the third class encoded an isoprotein which was clearly distinct, and members of this class may play a unique role in vivo. Sequencing of the three alpha-tubulin genes was also undertaken in CMR795, a colcemid-resistant clonal CHO cell line which has previously been shown to have structural and functional alterations in its tubulin proteins. We found differences in the tubulin nucleotide sequence compared with the parental line; however, no differences in the alpha-tubulin proteins encoded in the two cell lines were observed. PMID:3773896

  10. Inhibition of Calpain Prevents Manganese-Induced Cell Injury and Alpha-Synuclein Oligomerization in Organotypic Brain Slice Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Liu, Wei; Deng, Yu; Yang, Tian-Yao; Feng, Shu; Xu, Zhao-Fa


    Overexposure to manganese has been known to promote alpha-synuclein oligomerization and enhance cellular toxicity. However, the exact mechanism of Mn-induced alpha-synuclein oligomerization is unclear. To explore whether alpha-synuclein oligomerization was associated with the cleavage of alpha-synuclein by calpain, we made a rat brain slice model of manganism and pretreated slices with calpain inhibitor II, a cell-permeable peptide that restricts the activity of calpain. After slices were treated with 400 μM Mn for 24 h, there were significant increases in the percentage of apoptotic cells, lactate dehydrogenase release, intracellular [Ca2+]i, calpain activity, and the mRNA and protein expression of calpain 1 and alpha-synuclein. Moreover, the number of C- and N-terminal fragments of alpha-synuclein and the amount of alpha-synuclein oligomerization also increased. These results also showed that calpain inhibitor II pretreatment could reduce Mn-induced nerve cell injury and alpha-synuclein oligomerization. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in the number of C- and N-terminal fragments of alpha-synuclein in calpain inhibitor II-pretreated slices. These findings revealed that Mn induced the cleavage of alpha-synuclein protein via overactivation of calpain and subsequent alpha-synuclein oligomerization in cultured slices. Moreover, the cleavage of alpha-synuclein by calpain 1 is an important signaling event in Mn-induced alpha-synuclein oligomerization. PMID:25756858

  11. Overexpression of {alpha}-catenin increases osteoblastic differentiation in mouse mesenchymal C3H10T1/2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dohee; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Shin, Chan Soo


    {alpha}- and {beta}-Catenin link cadherins to the actin-based cytoskeleton at adherens junctions and regulate cell-cell adhesion. Although roles of cadherins and canonical Wnt-/{beta}-catenin-signaling in osteoblastic differentiation have been extensively studied, the role of {alpha}-catenin is not known. Murine embryonic mesenchymal stem cells, C3H10T1/2 cells, were transduced with retrovirus encoding {alpha}-catenin (MSCV-{alpha}-catenin-HA-GFP). In the presence of Wnt-3A conditioned medium or osteogenic medium ({beta}-glycerol phosphate and ascorbic acid), cells overexpressing {alpha}-catenin showed enhanced osteoblastic differentiation as measured by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and ALP activity assay compared to cells transduced with empty virus (MSCV-GFP). In addition, mRNA expression of osteocalcin and Runx2 was significantly increased compared to control. Cell aggregation assay revealed that {alpha}-catenin overexpression has significantly increased cell-cell aggregation. However, cellular {beta}-catenin levels (total, cytoplasmic-nuclear ratio) and {beta}-catenin-TCF/LEF transcriptional activity did not change by overexpression of {alpha}-catenin. Knock-down of {alpha}-catenin using siRNA decreased osteoblastic differentiation as measured by ALP assay. These results suggest that {alpha}-catenin overexpression increases osteoblastic differentiation by increasing cell-cell adhesion rather than Wnt-/{beta}-catenin-signaling.

  12. Involvement of DNA polymerase alpha in host cell reactivation of UV-irradiated herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiyama, Y.; Yoshida, S.; Maeno, K.


    Aphidicolin is a potent inhibitor of both host cell DNA polymerase alpha and herpes simplex virus (HSV)-induced DNA polymerase but has no effect on DNA polymerases beta and gamma of host cells. By using an aphidicolin-resistant mutant (Aphr) of HSV, a possible involvement of DNA polymerase alpha in host cell reactivation of UV-damaged HSV was studied. Plaque formation by UV-irradiated Aphr was markedly inhibited by 1 microgram of aphidicolin per ml, which did not affect the plating efficiency of nonirradiated Aphr. Aphidicolin added before 12 h postinfection inhibited plaque formation by irradiated Aphr, which became aphidicolin insensitive after 36 h postinfection. The results strongly suggest that host cell DNA polymerase alpha is involved in the repair of UV-irradiated HSV DNA.

  13. The Atlantic Salmon MHC class II alpha and beta promoters are active in mammalian cell lines.


    Vestrheim, O; Lundin, M; Syed, M


    The major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) genes are only constitutively expressed in certain immune response cells such as B cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and other antigen presenting cells. This cell specific expression pattern and the presence of conserved regions such as the X-, X2-, Y-, and W-boxes make the MHCII promoters especially interesting as vector constructs. We tested whether the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) MHCII promoters can function in cell lines from other organisms. We found that the salmon MHCII alpha and MHCII beta promoters could drive expression of a LacZ reporter gene in adherent lymphoblast cell lines from dog (DH82) and rabbit (HybL-L). This paper shows that the promoters of Atlantic salmon MHCII alpha and beta genes can function in mammalian cell lines. PMID:17934904

  14. Mutagenesis and repair by low doses of alpha radiation in mammalian cells.


    Puck, Theodore T; Johnson, Robert; Webb, Patricia; Cui, Helen; Valdez, Joseph G; Crissman, Harry


    Low doses of alpha radiation in basements have been causally implicated in lung cancer. Previous studies have concentrated on high dose effects, for which no significant repair was found. In the present study, the methodology for measuring mutation by quantitating mitotic breaks and gaps was found to be applicable to G2-phase Chinese hamster ovary cells irradiated with 10-50 cGy of alpha radiation. The mutation yield in such cells closely resembles that of gamma irradiation. Caffeine, which inhibits repair, produces the same straight line increase of alpha and gamma mutation yields plotted against the dose. In the absence of caffeine, the repair of alpha radiation lesions is almost twice as great as for gamma radiation. Mitotic index changes substantiate these interpretations. It is proposed that the higher ion density associated with alpha radiation may result in fewer lesions being missed by the repair processes. The quantitation of chromosomal lesions for G2 cells exposed to low doses of alpha radiation, gamma radiation, or chemical mutagens in the presence and absence of caffeine is a rapid and reproducible methodology. Protection from mutational disease in a fashion similar to the use of sanitation for infectious disease appears practical. PMID:12198179

  15. Sphingolipid signalling: molecular basis and role in TNF-alpha-induced cell death.


    Malagarie-Cazenave, Sophie; Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie; Ségui, Bruno; Gouazé, Valérie; Tardy, Claudine; Cuvillier, Olivier; Levade, Thierry


    Various lipidic molecules serve as second messengers for transducing signals from the cell surface to the cell interior and trigger specific cellular responses. Sphingolipids represent a complex group of lipids that have recently emerged as new transducers in eukaryotic cells. Several sphingolipid molecules are able to modulate cell growth, differentiation and death. This review summarises current knowledge of the signalling functions of sphingolipids, especially in the regulation of tumour necrosis factor [alpha] (TNF-[alpha])-mediated cytotoxic effects. TNF-[alpha] is a multifaceted cytokine that controls a wide range of immune responses in mammals, including induction of programmed cell death (also called apoptosis). On the basis of recent observations, a working model is proposed for the molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of sphingolipid generation following TNF-[alpha] receptor 1 activation. The implications of these findings for the development of future pharmacological strategies to prevent the cytotoxic TNF-[alpha] response and subsequent cellular dysfunctions (as seen in various human diseases) are discussed. PMID:14987386

  16. Lability of DNA polymerase alpha correlated with decreased DNA synthesis and increased age in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Busbee, D.; Sylvia, V.; Stec, J.; Cernosek, Z.; Norman, J.


    DNA excision repair and mitogen-initiated blastogenesis in human cells declined in efficiency as an apparent function of decreased DNA polymerase alpha specific activity with increased age of the cell donor. DNA polymerase alpha isolated from fetal cells contained a single, high-specific-activity enzyme form that could not be further activated and that was stable with regard to enzyme activity and affinity for DNA template-primer. DNA polymerase alpha isolated from adult-derived cells contained both low-specific-activity and high-specific-activity forms. The low-activity enzyme form, which showed low affinity of binding to DNA template-primer, was activated by treatment with phosphatidylinositol, /sup 32/P-ATP, and phosphatidylinositol kinase, resulting in a /sup 32/P-labeled enzyme that exhibited high affinity of binding to DNA template-primer. The activated enzyme was unstable, exhibiting a loss of /sup 32/P-label correlated with the loss of both specific activity and high affinity of binding to DNA template-primer. The data suggest that DNA polymerase alpha isolated from adult-derived human cells has low-activity and high-activity forms. Decreased specific activity of DNA polymerase alpha correlated with increased age of the donor appears to be a function of loss of an enzyme activator molecule resulting in diminished ability of the enzyme to bind DNA template-primer.

  17. Claudin 1 mediates tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced cell migration in human gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Shiozaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Hiroki; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Konishi, Hirotaka; Komatsu, Shuhei; Kubota, Takeshi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Okamoto, Kazuma; Iitaka, Daisuke; Nakashima, Shingo; Nako, Yoshito; Liu, Mingyao; Otsuji, Eigo


    AIM: To investigate the role of claudin 1 in the regulation of genes involved in cell migration and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced gene expression in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. METHODS: Knockdown experiments were conducted with claudin 1 small interfering RNA (siRNA), and the effects on the cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion were analyzed in human gastric adenocarcinoma MKN28 cells. The gene expression profiles of cells were analyzed by microarray and bioinformatics. RESULTS: The knockdown of claudin 1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and increased apoptosis. Microarray analysis identified 245 genes whose expression levels were altered by the knockdown of claudin 1. Pathway analysis showed that the top-ranked molecular and cellular function was the cellular movement related pathway, which involved MMP7, TNF-SF10, TGFBR1, and CCL2. Furthermore, TNF- and nuclear frctor-κB were the top-ranked upstream regulators related to claudin 1. TNF-α treatment increased claudin 1 expression and cell migration in MKN28 cells. Microarray analysis indicated that the depletion of claudin 1 inhibited 80% of the TNF-α-induced mRNA expression changes. Further, TNF-α did not enhance cell migration in the claudin 1 siRNA transfected cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that claudin 1 is an important messenger that regulates TNF-α-induced gene expression and migration in gastric cancer cells. A deeper understanding of these cellular processes may be helpful in establishing new therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:25548484

  18. The regulatory mechanism of Hsp90{alpha} secretion from endothelial cells and its role in angiogenesis during wound healing

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Xiaomin; Luo, Yongzhang


    Research highlights: {yields} Growth factors such as bFGF, VEGF, PDGF and SDF-1 stimulate Hsp90{alpha} secretion from endothelial cells. {yields} Secreted Hsp90{alpha} localizes on the leading edge of activated endothelial cells. {yields} Secreted Hsp90{alpha} promotes angiogenesis in wound healing. -- Abstract: Heat shock protein 90{alpha} (Hsp90{alpha}) is a ubiquitously expressed molecular chaperone, which is essential for the maintenance of eukaryote homeostasis. Hsp90{alpha} can also be secreted extracellularly and is associated with several physiological and pathological processes including wound healing, cancer, infectious diseases and diabetes. Angiogenesis, defined as the sprouting of new blood vessels from pre-existing capillaries via endothelial cell proliferation and migration, commonly occurs in and contributes to the above mentioned processes. However, the secretion of Hsp90{alpha} from endothelial cells and also its function in angiogenesis are still unclear. Here we investigated the role of extracellular Hsp90{alpha} in angiogenesis using dermal endothelial cells in vitro and a wound healing model in vivo. We find that the secretion of Hsp90{alpha} but not Hsp90{beta} is increased in activated endothelial cells with the induction of angiogenic factors and matrix proteins. Secreted Hsp90{alpha} localizes on the leading edge of endothelial cells and promotes their angiogenic activities, whereas Hsp90{alpha} neutralizing antibodies reverse the effect. Furthermore, using a mouse skin wound healing model in vivo, we demonstrate that extracellular Hsp90{alpha} localizes on blood vessels in granulation tissues of wounded skin and promotes angiogenesis during wound healing. Taken together, our study reveals that Hsp90{alpha} can be secreted by activated endothelial cells and is a positive regulator of angiogenesis, suggesting the potential application of Hsp90{alpha} as a stimulator for wound repair.

  19. Identification of cDNA encoding an additional. alpha. subunit of a human GTP-binding protein: Expression of three. alpha. sub i subtypes in human tissues and cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S.; Ang, S.L.; Bloch, D.B.; Bloch, K.D.; Kawahara, Y.; Tolman, C.; Lee, R.; Seidman, J.G.; Neer, E.J. )


    The guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which mediate hormonal regulation of many membrane functions, are composed of {alpha}, {beta}, and {gamma} subunits. The authors have cloned and characterized cDNA from a human T-cell library encoding a form of {alpha}{sub i} that is different from the human {alpha}{sub i} subtypes previously reported. {alpha}{sub i} is the {alpha} subunit of a class of G proteins that inhibits adenylate cyclase and regulates other enzymes and ion channels. This cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 354 amino acids and is assigned to encode the {alpha}{sub i-3} subtype of G proteins on the basis of its similarity to other {alpha}{sub i}-like cDNAs and the presence of a predicted site for ADP ribosylation by pertussis toxin. They have determined the expression of mRNA for this and two other subtypes of human {alpha}{sub i} ({alpha}{sub i-1} and {alpha}{sub i-2}) in a variety of human fetal tissues and in human cell lines. All three {alpha}{sub i} subtypes were present in the tissues tested. However, analysis of individual cell types reveals specificity of {alpha}{sub i-1} expression. mRNA for {alpha}{i-1} is absent in T cells, B cells, and monocytes but is present in other cell lines. The finding of differential expression of {alpha}{sub i-1} genes may permit characterization of distinct physiological roles for this {alpha}{sub i} subunit. mRNA for {alpha}{sub i-2} and {alpha}{sub i-3} was found in all the primary and transformed cell lines tested. Thus, some cells contain all three {alpha}{sub i} subtypes. This observation raises the question of how cells prevent cross talk among receptors that are coupled to effectors through such similar {alpha} proteins.

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations from whole blood cultures correlate with isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many cellular immune assays are impractical because they require labor-intensive isolation of cells from their natural environment. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between cell culture supernatant TNF-alpha from isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and w...

  1. Identification of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor sites in human retinoblastoma (Y-79) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kazmi, S.M.; Mishra, R.K.


    The existence of specific alpha 2-adrenergic receptor sites has been shown in human retinoblastoma (Y-79) and neuroblastoma (SH-SH5Y) cells using direct radioligand binding. (/sup 3/H)Rauwolscine, a selective alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, exhibited high affinity, saturable binding to both Y-79 and SH-SY5Y cell membranes. The binding of alpha 1 specific antagonist, (/sup 3/H)Prazocine, was not detectable in either cell type. Competition studies with antagonists yielded pharmacological characteristics typical of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors: rauwolscine greater than yohimbine greater than phentolamine greater than prazocine. Based on the affinity constants of prazocine and oxymetazoline, it appears that Y-79 cells contain alpha 2A receptor, whereas SH-SY5Y cells probably represent a mixture of alpha 2A and alpha 2B receptors. alpha 2-agonists clonidine and (-)epinephrine inhibition curves yielded high and low affinity states of the receptor in SH-SY5Y cells. Gpp(NH)p and sodium ions reduced the proportion of high affinity sites of alpha 2 receptors. These two neuronal cell lines of human origin would prove useful in elucidating the action and regulation of human alpha 2-adrenergic receptors and their interaction with other receptor systems.

  2. Targeted inhibition of {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin with an RNA aptamer impairs endothelial cell growth and survival

    SciTech Connect

    Mi Jing; Zhang Xiuwu; Giangrande, Paloma H.; McNamara, James O.; Nimjee, Shahid M.; Sarraf-Yazdi, Shiva; Sullenger, Bruce A.; Clary, Bryan M. . E-mail:


    {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin is a crucial factor involved in a variety of physiological processes, such as cell growth and migration, tumor invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis, and wound healing. {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin exerts its effect by regulating endothelial cell (EC) migration, proliferation, and survival. Inhibiting the function of {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin, therefore, represents a potential anti-cancer, anti-thrombotic, and anti-inflammatory strategy. In this study, we tested an RNA aptamer, Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 that binds recombinant {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin, for its ability to bind endogenous {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin on the surface of cells in culture and to subsequently affect cellular response. Our data illustrate that Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 binds {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin expressed on the surface of live HUVECs. This interaction significantly decreases both basal and PDGF-induced cell proliferation as well as inhibition of cell adhesion. Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 can also reduce PDGF-stimulated tube formation and increase HUVEC apoptosis through inhibition of FAK phosphorylation pathway. Our results demonstrate that by binding to its target, Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 can efficiently inhibit human EC proliferation and survival, resulting in reduced angiogenesis. It predicts that Apt-{alpha}v{beta}3 could become useful in both tumor imaging and the treatment of tumor growth, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and inflammation.

  3. Association of alpha interferon production with natural killer cell lysis of U937 cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rappocciolo, G; Toso, J F; Torpey, D J; Gupta, P; Rinaldo, C R


    Mononuclear leukocytes from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative and -seropositive homosexual men lysed HIV-infected U937 cells to a significantly greater degree than uninfected U937 cells. Depletion of cell subsets with monoclonal antibodies and complement indicated that the effector cells were primarily of the CD16+ phenotype. Acid-stable alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) production induced by the HIV-infected cells correlated with, although was not an absolute requisite for, preferential lysis of the infected targets. The activity of these CD16+, natural killer (NK) cells decreased in relation to the duration of HIV infection and the presence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pretreatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seronegative subjects, but not HIV-seropositive men, with IFN-alpha or recombinant interleukin-2 enhanced lysis of both uninfected and HIV-infected U937 cells. These results suggest that IFN-alpha-associated, NK-like mechanisms are active in the cytotoxic response against HIV-infected cells and that HIV infection results in an early and progressive depression of such responses. Prospective investigations may be useful in determining the role of this NK cell response in the natural history and pathogenesis of HIV infection and the efficacy of therapeutic modalities. PMID:2913035

  4. PDGFBB promotes PDGFR{alpha}-positive cell migration into artificial bone in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Shigeyuki; Iwasaki, Ryotaro; Kawana, Hiromasa; Miyauchi, Yoshiteru; Hoshi, Hiroko; Miyamoto, Hiroya; Mori, Tomoaki; Kanagawa, Hiroya; Katsuyama, Eri; Fujie, Atsuhiro; Hao, Wu; and others


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined effects of PDGFBB in PDGFR{alpha} positive cell migration in artificial bones. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB was not expressed in osteoblastic cells but was expressed in peripheral blood cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB promoted PDGFR{alpha} positive cell migration into artificial bones but not osteoblast proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PDGFBB did not inhibit osteoblastogenesis. -- Abstract: Bone defects caused by traumatic bone loss or tumor dissection are now treated with auto- or allo-bone graft, and also occasionally by artificial bone transplantation, particularly in the case of large bone defects. However, artificial bones often exhibit poor affinity to host bones followed by bony union failure. Thus therapies combining artificial bones with growth factors have been sought. Here we report that platelet derived growth factor bb (PDGFBB) promotes a significant increase in migration of PDGF receptor {alpha} (PDGFR{alpha})-positive mesenchymal stem cells/pre-osteoblastic cells into artificial bone in vivo. Growth factors such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF{beta}) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) reportedly inhibit osteoblast differentiation; however, PDGFBB did not exhibit such inhibitory effects and in fact stimulated osteoblast differentiation in vitro, suggesting that combining artificial bones with PDGFBB treatment could promote host cell migration into artificial bones without inhibiting osteoblastogenesis.

  5. Severe osteoporosis due to systemic mast cell disease: successful treatment with interferon alpha-2B.


    Lehmann, T; Beyeler, C; Lämmle, B; Hunziker, T; Vock, P; Olah, A J; Dahinden, C; Gerber, N J


    We describe a 33-year old man suffering from severe vertebral osteoporosis and urticaria pigmentosa due to systemic mast cell disease (SMCD). Because i.v. clodronate therapy could not prevent further vertebral fractures, an additional treatment with interferon alpha-2b was initiated. During 24 months of treatment, our patient had no further pain episodes, no new vertebral fractures were discovered, trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) increased significantly and urticarial symptoms improved. Nevertheless, the extent of skin lesions remained unchanged. On histological examination, a remarkable decrease of mast cells was observed in the bone marrow, but not in the skin. Five months after discontinuation of interferon alpha-2b, trabecular BMD decreased and urticarial symptoms deteriorated. These findings illustrate a beneficial effect of interferon alpha-2b on SMCD-induced osteoporosis as well as urticarial symptoms, and raise the question whether this treatment may have a diverse impact on mast cell population in different tissues. PMID:8810675

  6. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha stimulates invasiveness of T-cell hybridomas and cytotoxic T-cell clones by a pertussis toxin-insensitive mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    La Rivière, G; Klein Gebbinck, J W; Schipper, C A; Roos, E


    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) stimulated invasion by mouse T-cell hybridomas and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clones into rat embryo fibroblast monolayers. The effect on these highly invasive cells was limited: invasion was stimulated maximally to 130% of controls. However, when cells were pretreated with pertussis toxin (PT), which inhibits invasion to +/- 20% of controls, a clearcut effect was observed: 400 U TNF-alpha per ml stimulated invasion usually two- to threefold, and sometimes even up to 10-fold. Therefore, experiments were done with PT-pretreated cells. Stimulation was dose dependent and maximal at 200-400 U TNF-alpha per ml. An anti-TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody completely abolished TNF-alpha-induced invasion. The effect was maximal 30 min after addition of cells and TNF-alpha to the monolayer and then declined. TNF-alpha preincubation of T-cell hybridoma cells, but not of fibroblasts, had a similar stimulatory effect, which was also maximal after 30 min. This shows that TNF-alpha acts directly on the T-cell hybridoma cells. Invasive T-cell hybridomas colonize many tissues from the blood similarly as normal T cells. Our data thus suggest that TNF-alpha can stimulate migration of normal T lymphocytes into inflamed tissues and can promote metastasis of malignant T lymphomas. The signals involved are transmitted via a pertussis toxin-insensitive pathway. PMID:1551690

  7. Effects of warm acclimation on Na+,K+-ATPase alpha-subunit expression in chloride cells of Antarctic fish.


    Brauer, Philip R; Sanmann, Jennifer N; Petzel, David H


    The teleosts Trematomus bernacchii thrive in southern oceanic waters with temperatures below 0 degrees C. These fish have serum osmolalities almost double those found in fish of temperate waters, thereby lowering their serum's freezing point and the energy needed for ionic homeostasis. Upon warm acclimation to 4 degrees C, T. bernacchii decrease their serum osmolality and increase the Na+,K+-ATPase activity in their gills. Na+,K+-ATPase alpha1-, alpha2-, and alpha3-subunit isoforms are expressed in the gills of T. bernacchii and it is thought that Na+,K+-ATPase subunit composition in chloride cells changes with warm acclimation. Using immunohistochemistry, we compared the number of chloride cells expressing various alpha-isoforms of the Na+,K+-ATPase in the gills of cold- and warm-acclimated T. bernacchii. We found no change in the number of alpha2- or alpha3-immunopositive cells in warm-acclimated fish gills or in the number of cells immunopositive for the Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter. However, the number of pan-alpha-immunopositive (recognizing all three alpha-isoforms) and alpha1-immunopositive cells both increased in warm-acclimated fish. This suggests that changes in the number of alpha1-isoform-expressing chloride cells could contribute to the increased Na+,K+-ATPase activity that occurs with warm-acclimation. PMID:15912523

  8. Tumor suppressor p53 and its homologue p73alpha affect cell migration.


    Sablina, Anna A; Chumakov, Peter M; Kopnin, Boris P


    The p53 tumor suppressor plays a central role in the negative control of growth and survival of abnormal cells. Previously we demonstrated that in addition to these functions, p53 expression affects cell morphology and lamellar activity of the cell edge (Alexandrova, A., Ivanov, A., Chumakov, P. M., Kopnin, P. B., and Vasiliev, J. M. (2000) Oncogene 19, 5826-5830). In the present work we studied the effects of p53 and its homologue p73alpha on cell migration. We found that loss of p53 function correlated with decreased cell migration that was analyzed by in vitro wound closure test and Boyden chamber assay. The decreased motility of p53-deficient cells was observed in different cell contexts: human foreskin fibroblasts (BJ), human colon and lung carcinoma cell lines (HCT116 and H1299, respectively), as well as mouse normal fibroblasts from lung and spleen, peritoneal macrophages, and keratinocytes. On the other hand, overexpression of the p53 family member p73alpha stimulated cell migration. Changes in cell migration correlated directly with transcription activation induced by p53 or p73alpha. Noteworthy, p53 modulated cell motility in the absence of stress. The effect of p53 and p73alpha on cell migration was mediated through the activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Rac1 pathway. This p53/p73 function was mainly associated with some modulation of intracellular signaling rather than with stimulation of production of secreted motogenic factors. The identified novel activity of the p53 family members might be involved in regulation of embryogenesis, wound healing, or inflammatory response. PMID:12750388

  9. Tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} enhanced fusions between oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and endothelial cells via VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Kai; Zhu, Fei; Zhang, Han-zhong; Shang, Zheng-jun


    Fusion between cancer cells and host cells, including endothelial cells, may strongly modulate the biological behavior of tumors. However, no one is sure about the driving factors and underlying mechanism involved in such fusion. We hypothesized in this study that inflammation, one of the main characteristics in tumor microenvironment, serves as a prominent catalyst for fusion events. Our results showed that oral cancer cells can fuse spontaneously with endothelial cells in co-culture and inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) increased fusion of human umbilical vein endothelium cells and oral cancer cells by up to 3-fold in vitro. Additionally, human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and 35 out of 50 (70%) oral squamous carcinoma specimens express VLA-4, an integrin, previously implicated in fusions between human peripheral blood CD34-positive cells and murine cardiomyocytes. Expression of VCAM-1, a ligand for VLA-4, was evident on vascular endothelium of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Moreover, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis revealed that expression of VCAM-1 increased obviously in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated endothelial cells. Anti-VLA-4 or anti-VCAM-1 treatment can decrease significantly cancer-endothelial adhesion and block such fusion. Collectively, our results suggested that TNF-{alpha} could enhance cancer-endothelial cell adhesion and fusion through VCAM-1/VLA-4 pathway. This study provides insights into regulatory mechanism of cancer-endothelial cell fusion, and has important implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for prevention of metastasis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous oral cancer-endothelial cell fusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} enhanced cell fusions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer VCAM-1/VLA-4 expressed in oral cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TNF-{alpha} increased expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells. Black

  10. Alpha-irradiation-induced G2 delay: a period of cell recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Lucke-Huhle, C.


    Exponentially growing Chinese hamster V79 cells were delayed in G2 very efficiently by 3.4-MeV ..cap alpha.. particles. In comparison with the effect caused by sparsely ionizing /sup 60/Co ..gamma.. rays, G2 delay after ..cap alpha.. irradiation was greater by a factor of 6.7 and 4.2 for doses <0.5 Gy and >0.5 Gy, respectively, if the slopes of the dose-effect curves are compared. While at low doses (0.03-0.5 Gy) G2 arrest was reversible within 10 hr, increasing doses (0.5-4.38 Gy) of ..cap alpha.. irradiation blocked increasing fractions of cells for more than 16 hr, as determined by flow cytometry, and only some of these were able to complete mitosis. Addition of caffeine, however, reduced G2 arrest considerably if given directly after irradiation and reversed G2 arrest if added 8 hr after 4.38 Gy of ..cap alpha.. particles, a time when most of the cells already had accumulated in G2, caffeine treatment during G2 decreased survival after ..cap alpha.. irradiation by factors of 1.3 and 1.7 for 1 and 2 mM caffeine, respectively.

  11. Ablation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase class II alpha suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Stanley K.L.; Neo, Soek-Ying; Yap, Yann-Wan; Karuturi, R. Krishna Murthy; Loh, Evelyn S.L.; Liau, Kui-Hin; Ren, Ee-Chee


    Cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by complex perturbations in multiple signaling pathways, including the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K/AKT) pathways. Herein we investigated the role of PI3K catalytic isoforms, particularly class II isoforms in HCC proliferation. Among the siRNAs tested against the eight known catalytic PI3K isoforms, specific ablation of class II PI3K alpha (PIK3C2{alpha}) was the most effective in impairing cell growth and this was accompanied by concomitant decrease in PIK3C2{alpha} mRNA and protein levels. Colony formation ability of cells deficient for PIK3C2{alpha} was markedly reduced and growth arrest was associated with increased caspase 3 levels. A small but significant difference in gene dosage and expression levels was detected between tumor and non-tumor tissues in a cohort of 19 HCC patients. Taken together, these data suggest for the first time that in addition to class I PI3Ks in cancer, class II PIK3C2{alpha} can modulate HCC cell growth.

  12. WS6 induces both alpha and beta cell proliferation without affecting differentiation or viability

    PubMed Central

    Boerner, Brian P.; George, Nicholas M.; Mir, Shakeel U.R.; Sarvetnick, Nora E.


    Agents that stimulate human pancreatic beta cell proliferation are needed to improve diabetes mellitus treatment. Recently, a small molecule, WS6, was observed to stimulate human beta cell proliferation. However, little is known about its other effects on human islets. To better understand the role of WS6 as a possible beta cell regenerative therapy, we carried out in-depth phenotypic analysis of WS6-treated human islets, exploring its effects on non-beta cell proliferation, beta cell differentiation, and islet cell viability. WS6 not only stimulated beta cell proliferation in cultured human islets (in agreement with previous reports), but also human alpha cell proliferation, indicating that WS6 is not a beta cell-specific mitogen. WS6 did not change the proportion of insulin-positive beta cells or the expression of beta cell-specific transcription factors, suggesting that WS6 does not alter beta cell differentiation, and WS6 had no effect on human islet cell apoptosis or viability. In conclusion, WS6 stimulates proliferation of both human beta and alpha cells while maintaining cellular viability and the beta cell differentiated phenotype. These findings expand the literature on WS6 and support the suggestion that WS6 may help increase human islet mass needed for successful treatment of diabetes. PMID:25739404

  13. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Xia; Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui; Shang, Deya


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  14. Inhibition of protein synthesis by imexon reduces HIF-1alpha expression in normoxic and hypoxic pancreatic cancer cells.


    Samulitis, Betty K; Landowski, Terry H; Dorr, Robert T


    Hypoxia-inducing factor-1 alpha (HIF-1alpha), is a major survival factor for tumor cells growing in a low oxygen environment. The anti-cancer agent imexon binds thiols and causes accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in pancreatic cancer cells. Unlike many cytotoxic agents, imexon is equi-cytotoxic in human MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 cells grown in normoxic (21% O(2)) and hypoxic (1% O(2)) conditions. Western blot analyses of imexon-treated cells demonstrated that imexon reduces HIF-1alpha protein levels in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions in a time- and concentration-dependant fashion. Gemcitabine did not similarly affect HIF-1alpha levels. Imexon did not reduce transcription of new HIF-1alpha mRNA, but did reduce the synthesis of new proteins, including HIF-1alpha, measured by (35)S methionine/cysteine (Met/Cys) incorporation. Concurrently, the half-life of existing HIF-1alpha protein was increased by imexon, in association with a marked inhibition of chymotryptic activity in the 20S proteasome. The inhibition of HIF-1alpha translation was not specific, rather it was part of a general decrease in protein translation caused by imexon. This inhibitory effect on translation did not involve phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha (eIF-2alpha) and was not closely correlated to cell growth inhibition by imexon, suggesting that mechanisms other than protein synthesis inhibition contribute to the drug's cytotoxic effects. In summary, imexon blocks the translation of new proteins, including HIF-1alpha, and this effect overcomes an increase in the stability of preformed HIF-1alpha due to proteasome inhibition by imexon. Because net HIF-1alpha levels are reduced by imexon, combination studies with other drugs affected by HIF-1alpha survival signaling are warranted. PMID:18607542

  15. Transactivation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long terminal repeats by cell surface tumor necrosis factor alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Tadmori, W; Mondal, D; Tadmori, I; Prakash, O


    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is expressed in secreted and cell surface (csTNF-alpha) forms by activated monocytic and T cells. In this report, we demonstrate that csTNF-alpha may predominantly regulate the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) activation in the promonocytic cell line U937 and in the Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B-cell line BH1. Anti-TNF-alpha antibody suppressed both the constitutive expression of the HIV-1 LTR in BH1 cells and the expression induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in U937 cells. This suppression was found to be mediated via csTNF-alpha. No correlation between the HIV-1 LTR activation and the secretion of TNF-alpha was evident in these cell lines. Suppression of TNF-alpha secretion by cyclosporin A or by a serine protease inhibitor did not suppress the HIV-1 LTR activation. These observations suggest a novel biological role for csTNF-alpha in the immunopathogenesis of AIDS. PMID:1942242

  16. TNF-{alpha} promotes cell survival through stimulation of K{sup +} channel and NF{kappa}B activity in corneal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Ling; Reinach, Peter; Lu, Luo . E-mail:


    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-{alpha}) in various cell types induces either cell death or mitogenesis through different signaling pathways. In the present study, we determined in human corneal epithelial cells how TNF-{alpha} also promotes cell survival. Human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells were cultured in DMEM/F-12 medium containing 10% FBS. TNF-{alpha} stimulation induced activation of a voltage-gated K{sup +} channel detected by measuring single channel activity using patch clamp techniques. The effect of TNF-{alpha} on downstream events included NF{kappa}B nuclear translocation and increases in DNA binding activities, but did not elicit ERK, JNK, or p38 limb signaling activation. TNF-{alpha} induced increases in p21 expression resulting in partial cell cycle attenuation in the G{sub 1} phase. Cell cycle progression was also mapped by flow cytometer analysis. Blockade of TNF-{alpha}-induced K{sup +} channel activity effectively prevented NF{kappa}B nuclear translocation and binding to DNA, diminishing the cell-survival protective effect of TNF-{alpha}. In conclusion, TNF-{alpha} promotes survival of HCE cells through sequential stimulation of K{sup +} channel and NF{kappa}B activities. This response to TNF-{alpha} is dependent on stimulating K{sup +} channel activity because following suppression of K{sup +} channel activity TNF-{alpha} failed to activate NF{kappa}B nuclear translocation and binding to nuclear DNA.

  17. The RNA polymerase II of an alpha-amanitin-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line.


    Lobban, P E; Siminovitch, L; Ingles, C J


    Amal, an alpha-amanitin-resistant mutant of the Chinese hamster ovary cell line, contains an RNA polymerase activity which elutes from DEAE-Sephadex at a salt concentration characteristic of an RNA polymerase II, but which is not sensitive to alpha-amanitin at levels where the polymerase II of wild-type cells is strongly inhibited. This result suggests that Amal owes its amanitin-resistant phenotype to a mutation affecting one of its genes for RNA polymerase II. To test this hypothesis, we purified the enzyme from Amal and then compared its properties with those of the wild-type enzyme. The mutant enzyme is indeed a polymerase II, and is over 600 times less sensitive to alpha-amanitin and more thermolabile than the wild-type enzyme. PMID:954093

  18. Isolation and characterisation of Kasumi-1 human myeloid leukaemia cell line resistant to tumour necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ido, M.; Hayashi, K.; Kato, S.; Ogawa, H.; Komada, Y.; Zhau, Y. W.; Zhang, X. L.; Sakurai, M.; Suzuki, K.


    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha induces apoptosis in a human acute myeloid leukaemia cell line, Kasumi-1. To examine the role of protein phosphorylation in signal transduction of TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis, a variant cell line resistant to TNF-alpha was established by an intermittent challenge of Kasumi-1 cells with increasing concentrations of TNF-alpha for 6 months. The mechanism of resistance to TNF-alpha appears to be in the post-receptor pathway because expression of p55 TNF receptor in the variant cells is increased compared with that of the parental Kasumi-1 cells. In renaturation assays, TNF-alpha induced a rapid activation of different protein kinases of different molecular weights, including the 50 kDa protein kinase (PK50) followed by the 35 kDa protein kinase (PK35), in the parental Kasumi-1 cells. The dose-response of TNF-alpha required to activate PK50 and PK35 was closely related to concentrations of TNF-alpha that induced apoptosis. Treatment of Kasumi-1 cells with ceramide also activated PK35. In TNF-resistant variant cells, activation of PK35 in response to TNF-alpha or ceramide was practically nil. These findings suggest that activation of PK35 through the ceramide pathway may play an important role in signal transduction of TNF-alpha in the Kasumi-1 cell line, while the decreased activation of PK35 may explain the insensitivity of the variant cells towards TNF-alpha. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8562342

  19. Different patterns of 5{alpha}-reductase expression, cellular distribution, and testosterone metabolism in human follicular dermal papilla cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shicheng Yamauchi, Hitoshi


    Androgens regulate hair growth, and 5{alpha}-reductase (5{alpha}R) plays a pivotal role in the action of androgens on target organs. To clarify the molecular mechanisms responsible for controlling hair growth, the present study presents evidence that the human follicular dermal papilla cells (DPCs) from either beard (bDPCs) or scalp hair (sDPCs) possess endogenous 5{alpha}R activity. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that the highest level of 5{alpha}R1 mRNA was found in bDPCs, followed by sDPCs, and a low but detectable level of 5{alpha}R1 mRNA was observed in fibroblasts. Minimally detectable levels of 5{alpha}R2 mRNA were found in all three cell types. A weak band at 26 kDa corresponding to the human 5{alpha}R1 protein was detected by Western blot in both DPCs, but not in fibroblasts. Immuonofluorescence analysis confirmed that 5{alpha}R1 was localized to the cytoplasm rather than in the nuclei in both DPCs Furthermore, a 5{alpha}R assay using [{sup 14}C]testosterone labeling in intact cells revealed that testosterone was transformed primarily into androstenedione, and in small amounts, into DHT. Our results demonstrate that the 5{alpha}R activities of either bDPCs or sDPCs are stronger than that of dermal fibroblasts, despite the fact that the major steroidogenic activity is attributed to 17{beta}-HSD rather than 5{alpha}R among the three cell types. The 5{alpha}R1 inhibitor MK386 exhibited a more potent inhibitory effect on 5{alpha}R activity than finasteride (5{alpha}R2 inhibitor) in bDPCs.

  20. Study on CXCR4/SDF-1alpha axis in lymph node metastasis of cervical squamous cell carcinoma.


    Zhang, J-P; Lu, W-G; Ye, F; Chen, H-Z; Zhou, C-Y; Xie, X


    CXCR4/stromal-cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) is involved in many cancer metastatic mechanisms. Cervical squamous cell cancer (SCC) tissues (n=35), normal cervical tissues (n=10), metastatic (n=10) and nonmetastatic lymph nodes (n=50), and Hela cells were stained immunohistochemically with CXCR4 monoclonal antibody (mAb). Meanwhile, lymph nodes were stained immunohistochemically with rabbit anti-SDF-1alpha. In vitro invasion of Hela cells was evaluated using Transwell Permeable Supports (Corning, NY), in which Hela cells with/without CXCR4 mAb preincubation were seeded in the upper chambers and medium containing 0-100 ng/mL SDF-1alpha was added to the lower compartments. For evaluating the effect of CXCR4/SDF-1alpha on proliferation of cervical cancer cells, Hela cells were cultured for 72 h exposed to SDF-1alpha with and without CXCR4 mAb. We found that CXCR4 was expressed on SCC cells in all cervical cancer, metastatic lymph node, and Hela cells but not in normal cervix. SDF-1alpha was expressed on lymph cells in all lymph nodes. SDF-1alpha induced the directed migration of Hela cells with a concentration-dependent model, which was inhibited by CXCR4 mAb (P<0.05). SDF-1alpha also stimulated the proliferation of Hela cells mediated by CXCR4 (P<0.05). CXCR4/SDF-1alpha axis probably participates in the metastasis toward lymph nodes in cervical cancer. PMID:17362322

  1. Cell-cell interaction promotes rat marrow stromal cell differentiation into endothelial cell via activation of TACE/TNF-alpha signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Liu, Xinfeng; Chen, Jieli; Zacharek, Alex; Cui, Xu; Savant-Bhonsale, Smita; Chopp, Michael; Liu, Zhenguo


    Objective Marrow stromal cells (MSCs) are capable of differentiating into various cell types including endothelial cells. Microenvironment is important in cell fate determination. Tumor necrosis factor alpha converting enzyme (TACE), a well characterized “sheddase”, participates in the differentiation process of multiple lineages by the proteolytic release of membrane-bound proteins such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). Methods and Results We investigated the endothelial differentiation of MSCs under two co-culture conditions: 1) direct MSCs-rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (rBMECs) contact co-culture; and 2) indirect co-culture of MSCs and rBMECs. Also, we examined the role of TACE/TNF-alpha signaling in the process of differentiation under direct co-culture condition. We found that endothelial differentiation of MSCs was substantially enhanced in MSCs-rBMECs direct contact co-culture, but not in indirect transwell co-culture condition. Transcript levels of TACE and TNF-alpha as well as TACE protein expression were significantly upregulated in direct, but not in indirect co-culture condition. Addition of human recombinant TACE promoted gene expression of endothelial specific markers including vWF, CD31, VE-cadherin, Flk-1 and Flt-1 in the differentiating MSCs. Furthermore, inhibition of TACE with TAPI-2 or inhibition of TNF-alpha with Etanercept attenuated endothelial differentiation of MSCs in the direct co-culture condition. Conclusions We demonstrated for the first time that direct MSCs-rBMECs interaction stimulated the endothelial differentiation of MSCs via TACE/TNF alpha signaling. PMID:19796498

  2. Curcumin inhibits interferon-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jeeyun |; Im, Young-Hyuck | E-mail:; Jung, Hae Hyun; Kim, Joo Hyun; Park, Joon Oh |; Kim, Kihyun |; Kim, Won Seog |; Ahn, Jin Seok


    The A549 cells, non-small cell lung cancer cell line from human, were resistant to interferon (IFN)-{alpha} treatment. The IFN-{alpha}-treated A549 cells showed increase in protein expression levels of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2. IFN-{alpha} induced NF-{kappa}B binding activity within 30 min and this increased binding activity was markedly suppressed with inclusion of curcumin. Curcumin also inhibited IFN-{alpha}-induced COX-2 expression in A549 cells. Within 10 min, IFN-{alpha} rapidly induced the binding activity of a {gamma}-{sup 32}P-labeled consensus GAS oligonucleotide probe, which was profoundly reversed by curcumin. Taken together, IFN-{alpha}-induced activations of NF-{kappa}B and COX-2 were inhibited by the addition of curcumin in A549 cells.

  3. Binding of human interferon alpha to cells of different sensitivities: studies with internally radiolabeled interferon retaining full biological activity.

    PubMed Central

    Yonehara, S; Yonehara-Takahashi, M; Ishii, A


    The characteristics of interferon binding to various cells with different interferon sensitivity were studied by using [3H]leucine-labeled, pure human interferon alpha from Namalwa cells. Scatchard analysis of the binding data on cells sensitive to interferon alpha (human FL and fibroblasts and bovine MDBK) indicated the presence of two kinds of binding sites with high and low affinities. The binding constants of the high-affinity sites in these cells were similar (4 X 10(10) to 11 X 10(10) M-1). Cells insensitive to human interferon alpha (human HEC-1 and mouse L cells) were shown to have only low-affinity sites, suggesting that high-affinity binding sites are indispensable for interferon sensitivity and represent interferon receptors. However, the number of sites in three human diploid fibroblast strains and one strain trisomic for chromosome 21 were not proportionally correlated to the interferon sensitivity of the cells. The high-affinity binding to human cells was completely inhibited by both nonradioactive human interferons alpha and beta in a similar manner, but binding to bovine MDBK cells, on which human interferon beta is practically inactive, was inhibited effectively only by interferon alpha and not by beta. These results suggest that the receptor for human interferon alpha is common to human interferon beta in human cells, whereas the receptor on bovine cells binds only human interferon alpha. PMID:6300453

  4. Erythropoietin protects myocardin-expressing cardiac stem cells against cytotoxicity of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Madonna, Rosalinda; Shelat, Harnath; Xue, Qun; Willerson, James T.; De Caterina, Raffaele; Geng, Yong-Jian


    Cardiac stem cells are vulnerable to inflammation caused by infarction or ischemic injury. The growth factor, erythropoietin (Epo), ameliorates the inflammatory response of the myocardium to ischemic injury. This study was designed to assess the role of Epo in regulation of expression and activation of the cell death-associated intracellular signaling components in cardiac myoblasts stimulated with the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}. Cardiac myoblasts isolated from canine embryonic hearts characterized by expression of myocardin A, a promyogenic transcription factor for cardiovascular muscle development were pretreated with Epo and then exposed to TNF-{alpha}. Compared to untreated cells, the Epo-treated cardiac myoblasts exhibited better morphology and viability. Immunoblotting revealed lower levels of active caspase-3 and reductions in iNOS expression and NO production in Epo-treated cells. Furthermore, Epo pretreatment reduced nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B and inhibited phosphorylation of inhibitor of kappa B (I{kappa}B) in TNF-{alpha}-stimulated cardiac myoblasts. Thus, Epo protects cardiac myocyte progenitors or myoblasts against the cytotoxic effects of TNF-{alpha} by inhibiting NF-{kappa}B-mediated iNOS expression and NO production and by preventing caspase-3 activation.

  5. Alpha-defensins 1-3 release by dendritic cells is reduced by estrogen

    PubMed Central


    Background During pregnancy the immune system of the mother must protect any activation that may negatively affect the fetus. Changes in susceptibility to infection as well as resolution of some autoimmune disorders represent empirical evidence for pregnancy related alterations in immunity. Sex hormones reach extremely high levels during pregnancy and have been shown to have direct effects on many immune functions including the antiviral response of dendritic cells. Among the immunologically active proteins secreted by monocyte derived DCs (MDDC) are the alpha-defensins 1-3. This family of cationic antimicrobial peptides has a broad spectrum of microbicidal activity and has also been shown to link innate to adaptive immunity by attracting T cells and immature DCs, which are essential for initiating and polarizing the immune response. Methods We compare culture-generated monocyte derived DCs (MDDCs) with directly isolated myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and measure their alpha-defensins 1-3 secretion by ELISA both, in basal situations and after hormone (E2 or PG) treatments. Moreover, using a cohort of pregnant women we isolated mDCs from blood and also measure the levels of these anti-microbial peptides along pregnancy. Results We show that mDCs and pDCs constitutively produce alpha-defensins 1-3 and at much higher levels than MDDCs. Alpha-defensins 1-3 production from mDCs and MDDCs but not pDCs is inhibited by E2. PG does not affect alpha-defensins 1-3 in any of the populations. Moreover, alpha-defensins 1-3 production by mDCs was reduced in the later stages of pregnancy in 40% of the patients. Conclusions Here, we demonstrate that mDCs and pDCs secrete alpha-defensins 1-3 and present a novel effect of E2 on the secretion of alpha-defensins 1-3 by dendritic cells. PMID:21861873

  6. TRIM32 promotes retinoic acid receptor {alpha}-mediated differentiation in human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Tomonobu; Okumura, Fumihiko; Iguchi, Akihiro; Ariga, Tadashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 enhanced RAR{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity even in the absence of RA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 stabilized RAR{alpha} in the human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of TRIM32 in HL60 cells induced granulocytic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 may function as a coactivator for RAR{alpha}-mediated transcription in APL cells. -- Abstract: Ubiquitination, one of the posttranslational modifications, appears to be involved in the transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors including retinoic acid receptor {alpha} (RAR{alpha}). We previously reported that an E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM32, interacts with several important proteins including RAR{alpha} and enhances transcriptional activity of RAR{alpha} in mouse neuroblastoma cells and embryonal carcinoma cells. Retinoic acid (RA), which acts as a ligand to nuclear receptors including RAR{alpha}, plays crucial roles in development, differentiation, cell cycles and apoptosis. In this study, we found that TRIM32 enhances RAR{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity even in the absence of RA and stabilizes RAR{alpha} in the human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60. Moreover, we found that overexpression of TRIM32 in HL60 cells suppresses cellular proliferation and induces granulocytic differentiation even in the absence of RA. These findings suggest that TRIM32 functions as one of the coactivators for RAR{alpha}-mediated transcription in acute promyelogenous leukemia (APL) cells, and thus TRIM32 may become a potentially therapeutic target for APL.

  7. Telomere attrition in beta and alpha cells with age.


    Tamura, Yoshiaki; Izumiyama-Shimomura, Naotaka; Kimbara, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi; Ishikawa, Naoshi; Aida, Junko; Chiba, Yuko; Matsuda, Yoko; Mori, Seijiro; Arai, Tomio; Fujiwara, Mutsunori; Poon, Steven Ss; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Araki, Atsushi; Takubo, Kaiyo; Ito, Hideki


    We have reported telomere attrition in β and α cells of the pancreas in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, but it has not been explored how the telomere lengths of these islet cells change according to age in normal subjects. To examine the telomere lengths of β and α cells in individuals without diabetes across a wide range of ages, we conducted measurement of the telomere lengths of human pancreatic β and α cells obtained from 104 autopsied subjects without diabetes ranging in age from 0 to 100 years. As an index of telomere lengths, the normalized telomere-centromere ratio (NTCR) was determined for β (NTCRβ) and α (NTCRα) cells by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH). We found NTCRβ and NTCRα showed almost the same levels and both decreased according to age (p < 0.001 for both). NTCRs decreased more rapidly with age and were more widely distributed (p = 0.036 for NTCRβ, p < 0.001 for NTCRα) in subjects under 18 years of age than in subjects over 18 years. There was a positive correlation between NTCRβ and NTCRα only among adult subjects (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the telomeres of β and α cells become shortened with normal aging process. PMID:27216158

  8. Arsenite enhances tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

    SciTech Connect

    Tsou, T.-C. . E-mail:; Yeh, Szu Ching; Tsai, E.-M.; Tsai, F.-Y.; Chao, H.-R.; Chang, Louis W.


    Epidemiological studies demonstrated a high association of vascular diseases with arsenite exposure. We hypothesize that arsenite potentiates the effect of proinflammatory cytokines on vascular endothelial cells, and hence contributes to atherosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the effect of arsenite and its induction of glutathione (GSH) on vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) protein expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in response to tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}), a typical proinflammatory cytokine. Our study demonstrated that arsenite pretreatment potentiated the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression with up-regulations of both activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). To elucidate the role of GSH in regulation of AP-1, NF-{kappa}B, and VCAM-1 expression, we employed L-buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a specific {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS) inhibitor, to block intracellular GSH synthesis. Our investigation revealed that, by depleting GSH, arsenite attenuated the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression as well as a potentiation of AP-1 and an attenuation of NF-{kappa}B activations by TNF-{alpha}. Moreover, we found that depletion of GSH would also attenuate the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression with a down-regulation of the TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activation and without significant effect on AP-1. On the other hand, the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression could be completely abolished by inhibition of AP-1 or NF-{kappa}B activity, suggesting that activation of both AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B was necessary for VCAM-1 expression. In summary, we demonstrate that arsenite enhances the TNF-{alpha}-induced VCAM-1 expression in HUVECs via regulation of AP-1 and NF-{kappa}B activities in a GSH-sensitive manner. Our present study suggested a potential mechanism for arsenite in the induction of vascular inflammation and vascular diseases via modulating the actions

  9. Alpha2 adrenoceptors regulate proliferation of human intestinal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Schaak, S; Cussac, D; Cayla, C; Devedjian, J; Guyot, R; Paris, H; Denis, C


    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Previous studies on rodents have suggested that catecholamines stimulate proliferation of the intestinal epithelium through activation of α2 adrenoceptors located on crypt cells. The occurrence of this effect awaits demonstration in humans and the molecular mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. Here, we examined the effect of α2 agonists on a clone of Caco2 cells expressing the human α2A adrenoceptor.
METHODS—Cells were transfected with a bicistronic plasmid containing the α2C10 and neomycin phosphotransferase genes. G418 resistant clones were assayed for receptor expression using radioligand binding. Receptor functionality was assessed by testing its ability to couple Gi proteins and to inhibit cAMP production. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was followed by western blot, and cell proliferation was estimated by measuring protein and DNA content.
RESULTS—Permanent transfection of Caco2 cells allowed us to obtain a clone (Caco2-3B) expressing α2A adrenoceptors at a density similar to that found in normal human intestinal epithelium. Caco2-3B retained morphological features and brush border enzyme expression characteristic of enterocytic differentiation. The receptor was coupled to Gi2/Gi3 proteins and its stimulation caused marked diminution of forskolin induced cAMP production. Treatment of Caco2-3B with UK14304 (α2 agonist) induced a rapid increase in the phosphorylation state of MAPK, extracellular regulated protein kinase 1 (Erk1), and 2 (Erk2). This event was totally abolished in pertussis toxin treated cells and in the presence of kinase inhibitors (genistein or PD98059). It was unaffected by protein kinase C downregulation but correlated with a transient increase in Shc tyrosine phosphorylation. Finally, sustained exposure of Caco2-3B to UK14304 resulted in modest but significant acceleration of cell proliferation. None of these effects was observed in the parental cell line Caco2.

  10. Cell-cell contact between marrow stromal cells and myeloma cells via VCAM-1 and alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin enhances production of osteoclast-stimulating activity.


    Michigami, T; Shimizu, N; Williams, P J; Niewolna, M; Dallas, S L; Mundy, G R; Yoneda, T


    Myeloma is a unique hematologic malignancy that exclusively homes in the bone marrow and induces massive osteoclastic bone destruction presumably by producing cytokines that promote the differentiation of the hematopoietic progenitors to osteoclasts (osteoclastogenesis). It is recognized that neighboring bone marrow stromal cells influence the expression of the malignant phenotype in myeloma cells. This study examined the role of the interactions between myeloma cells and neighboring stromal cells in the production of osteoclastogenic factors to elucidate the mechanism underlying extensive osteoclastic bone destruction. A murine myeloma cell line 5TGM1, which causes severe osteolysis, expresses alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin and tightly adheres to the mouse marrow stromal cell line ST2, which expresses the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), a ligand for alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin. Co-cultures of 5TGM1 with primary bone marrow cells generated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Co-cultures of 5TGM1 with ST2 showed increased production of bone-resorbing activity and neutralizing antibodies against VCAM-1 or alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin inhibited this. The 5TGM1 cells contacting recombinant VCAM-1 produced increased osteoclastogenic and bone-resorbing activity. The activity was not blocked by the neutralizing antibody to known osteoclastogenic cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor, or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. These data suggest that myeloma cells are responsible for producing osteoclastogenic activity and that establishment of direct contact with marrow stromal cells via alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin/VCAM-1 increases the production of this activity by myeloma cells. They also suggest that the presence of stromal cells may provide a microenvironment that allows exclusive colonization of myeloma cells in the bone marrow. (Blood. 2000;96:1953-1960) PMID:10961900

  11. Tumor cell alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity and its involvement in GcMAF-related macrophage activation.


    Mohamad, Saharuddin B; Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi


    Alpha-N-acetyl galactosaminidase (alpha-NaGalase) has been reported to accumulate in serum of cancer patients and be responsible for deglycosylation of Gc protein, which is a precursor of GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade, finally leading to immunosuppression in advanced cancer patients. We studied the biochemical characterization of alpha-NaGalase from several human tumor cell lines. We also examined its effect on the potency of GcMAF to activate mouse peritoneal macrophage to produce superoxide in GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade. The specific activity of alpha-NaGalases from human colon tumor cell line HCT116, human hepatoma cell line HepG2, and normal human liver cells (Chang liver cell line) were evaluated using two types of substrates; GalNAc-alpha-PNP (exo-type substrate) and Gal-beta-GalNAc-alpha-PNP (endo-type substrate). Tumor-derived alpha-NaGalase having higher activity than normal alpha-NaGalase, had higher substrate specificity to the exo-type substrate than to the endo-type substrate, and still maintained its activity at pH 7. GcMAF enhance superoxide production in mouse macrophage, and pre-treatment of GcMAF with tumor cell lysate reduce the activity. We conclude that tumor-derived alpha-NaGalase is different in biochemical characterization compared to normal alpha-NaGalase from normal Chang liver cells. In addition, tumor cell-derived alpha-NaGalase decreases the potency of GcMAF on macrophage activation. PMID:12062184

  12. Alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic receptors on a platelet precursor cell line, HEL

    SciTech Connect

    McKernan, R.M.; Motulsky, H.J.; Rozansky, D.; Insel, P.A.


    The authors have identified ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors on human erythroleukemia HEL cells, a suspension-growing, bone-marrow-derived cell line related to human platelets. Intact HEL cells were studied using radioligand binding and cAMP accumulation assays. The authors identified saturable specific binding of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonist (/sup 3/H)yohimbine (yoh) in cells incubated at 37/sup 0/C for 1 hr (B/sub max/ 5900 +/- 2100 sites/cell, K/sub d/ 3.6 +/- 0.9 nM, n = 7). Competition for (/sup 3/H)yoh binding sites with antagonists confirmed that these sites were similar to human ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors from platelets and other resources, as typified by their high affinity for WY-26392, yohimbine and idazoxan, and very low affinity for prazosin. Studies at 37/sup 0/C revealed a low affinity of these sites for catecholamines (K/sub i/ for (-)-epinephrine, 21; (-)-norepinephrine, 45, (+)-epinephrine, 80 When experiments were conducted at 4 /sup 0/C, (-)-epinephrine was able to compete for only 50-60% of the sites specifically labelled by (/sup 3/H)yoh at 37/sup 0/, but (-)-epinephrine had an approximately 10-fold greater affinity for these sites (K/sub i/ at 4 /sup 0/C = 2.4 In addition, epinephrine inhibited cAMP accumulation stimulated by forskolin and PGE/sub 1/ in HEL cells; this response was inhibited by pertussis toxin. The authors conclude that HEL cells possess ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors linked to G/sub i/ and thus should serve as a useful model to explore metabolism and regulation of these receptors in human cells.

  13. Transforming growth factor-alpha in vivo stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in digestive tissues of suckling rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hormi, K; Lehy, T


    BACKGROUND: The role that exogenous transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) may exert on cell proliferation in vivo is poorly understood. AIM: To investigate the effect of rat TGF-alpha on epithelial cell proliferation in all suckling rat digestive tissues and to compare it with that of rat epidermal growth factor (EGF). ANIMAL AND METHODS: TGF-alpha and EGF were given three times daily either subcutaneously (10 or 20 micrograms/kg) or intraperitoneally (100 micrograms/kg) to rats from the ninth postnatal day. Cell proliferation was assessed through 5-bromo- 2-deoxyuridine incorporation and estimation of labelling indices. RESULTS: For both growth factors, the highest dose given for only two days significantly increased stomach and intestinal weights compared with controls (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). The proliferative responded depended on the dose given, colonic mucosa being the most sensitive whereas oxyntic mucosa remained unresponsive. TGF-alpha was as potent as EGF in stimulating epithelial cell proliferation in antral, duodenal, and colonic mucosae. However, EGF was more active on oesophageal and jejunal cell proliferation whereas TGF-alpha was more active on pancreatic exocrine cell proliferation and the differences between the two growth factor treated groups were significant. CONCLUSIONS: These results prove for the first time the stimulating effect in vivo of exogenous rat TGF-alpha on epithelial cell proliferation in rat digestive tissues during the developmental period and support a functional role for TGF-alpha at that time. PMID:8944561

  14. Identification of a putative alpha-glucan synthase essential for cell wall construction and morphogenesis in fission yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hochstenbach, Frans; Klis, Frans M.; van den Ende, Herman; van Donselaar, Elly; Peters, Peter J.; Klausner, Richard D.


    The cell wall protects fungi against lysis and determines their cell shape. Alpha-glucan is a major carbohydrate component of the fungal cell wall, but its function is unknown and its synthase has remained elusive. Here, we describe a fission yeast gene, ags1+, which encodes a putative alpha-glucan synthase. In contrast to the structure of other carbohydrate polymer synthases, the predicted Ags1 protein consists of two probable catalytic domains for alpha-glucan assembly, namely an intracellular domain for alpha-glucan synthesis and an extracellular domain speculated to cross-link or remodel alpha-glucan. In addition, the predicted Ags1 protein contains a multipass transmembrane domain that might contribute to transport of alpha-glucan across the membrane. Loss of Ags1p function in a temperature-sensitive mutant results in cell lysis, whereas mutant cells grown at the semipermissive temperature contain decreased levels of cell wall alpha-glucan and fail to maintain rod shapes, causing rounding of the cells. These findings demonstrate that alpha-glucan is essential for fission yeast morphogenesis. PMID:9689051

  15. Direct visualisation of peptide hormones in cultured pancreatic islet alpha- and beta-cells by intact-cell mass spectrometry.


    Buchanan, Christina M; Malik, Arpita S; Cooper, Garth J S


    The application of intact-cell mass spectrometry (ICM) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry to achieve direct protein-profiling of bacterial species is now well established. However, this methodology has not to our knowledge been applied to the analysis of mammalian cells in routine culture. Here, we describe a novel application of ICM by which we have identified proteins in intact cells from two lines representative of pancreatic islet alpha- and beta-cells. Adherent alphaTC1 clone 9 and betaTC6 F7 cells were harvested into phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) using enzyme-free dissociation buffer before 1 microL of cell suspension was spotted onto MALDI plates. Cells were overlaid with sinapinic acid then washed with pure water before application of a final coat of sinapinic acid. Data in the 2000-20,000 m/z range were acquired in linear mode on a Voyager DE-Pro mass spectrometer. The proteins which ionised were composed in large part of peptide hormones (e.g. insulin and glucagon) known to be packaged into the secretory granules of the beta- and alpha-cells respectively. However, in addition to visualising the peptides expected to be associated with these cells, a mass consistent with oxyntomodulin was identified in the cultured alpha-cells, a finding not previously reported to our knowledge. In summary, this paper describes, for the first time, a rapid and direct method useful for identifying secretory products in intact endocrine cells. PMID:17918213

  16. Polycystin-1 promotes PKC{alpha}-mediated NF-{kappa}B activation in kidney cells

    SciTech Connect

    Banzi, Manuela; Aguiari, Gianluca; Trimi, Viky; Mangolini, Alessandra; Pinton, Paolo; Witzgall, Ralph; Rizzuto, Rosario; Senno, Laura del . E-mail:


    Polycystin-1 (PC1), the PKD1 gene product, is a membrane receptor which regulates many cell functions, including cell proliferation and apoptosis, both typically increased in cyst lining cells in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Here we show that PC1 upregulates the NF-{kappa}B signalling pathway in kidney cells to prevent cell death. Human embryonic kidney cell lines (HEK293{sup CTT}), stably expressing a PC1 cytoplasmic terminal tail (CTT), presented increased NF-{kappa}B nuclear levels and NF-{kappa}B-mediated luciferase promoter activity. This, consistently, was reduced in HEK293 cells in which the endogenous PC1 was depleted by RNA interference. CTT-dependent NF-{kappa}B promoter activation was mediated by PKC{alpha} because it was blocked by its specific inhibitor Ro-320432. Furthermore, it was observed that apoptosis, which was increased in PC1-depleted cells, was reduced in HEK293{sup CTT} cells and in porcine kidney LtTA cells expressing a doxycycline-regulated CTT. Staurosporine, a PKC inhibitor, and parthenolide, a NF-{kappa}B inhibitor, significantly reduced the CTT-dependent antiapoptotic effect. These data reveal, therefore, a novel pathway by which polycystin-1 activates a PKC{alpha}-mediated NF-{kappa}B signalling and cell survival.

  17. Alpha tumor necrosis factor contributes to CD8{sup +} T cell survival in the transition phase

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Meiqing; Ye, Zhenmin; Umeshappa, Keshav Sokke; Moyana, Terence; Xiang, Jim . E-mail:


    Cytokine and costimulation signals determine CD8{sup +} T cell responses in proliferation phase. In this study, we assessed the potential effect of cytokines and costimulations to CD8{sup +} T cell survival in transition phase by transferring in vitro ovalbumin (OVA)-pulsed dendritic cell-activated CD8{sup +} T cells derived from OVA-specific T cell receptor transgenic OT I mice into wild-type C57BL/6 mice or mice with designated gene knockout. We found that deficiency of IL-10, IL-12, IFN-{gamma}, CD28, CD40, CD80, CD40L, and 41BBL in recipients did not affect CD8{sup +} T cell survival after adoptive transfer. In contrast, TNF-{alpha} deficiency in both recipients and donor CD8{sup +} effector T cells significantly reduced CD8{sup +} T cell survival. Therefore, our data demonstrate that the host- and T cell-derived TNF-{alpha} signaling contributes to CD8{sup +} effector T cell survival and their transition to memory T cells in the transition phase, and may be useful information when designing vaccination.

  18. Cell, matrix changes and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in repair of the canine meniscus.


    Kambic, H E; Futani, H; McDevitt, C A


    Processes in the repair of a crevice in the knee joint meniscus were investigated in 10 dogs. Two 2-mm cylindrical plugs from each medial meniscus were removed, rendered acellular by freezing and thawing, and then reinserted into the meniscus. Dogs were euthanized at intervals of 3-52 weeks after surgery. The crevice between the plug and meniscus at 3 weeks after surgery was filled with a tissue containing alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells. One year after surgery, the plug had remodeled and was populated with spindle-shaped and fibrochondrocyte-like cells. The plug had an appearance intermediate between that of hyaline and fibrocartilage at this time, with a seamless integration in sites between the remodeled plug and the surrounding meniscus. alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells were concentrated at the interface of the remodeled plug and adjacent meniscus and at the surface of the plug. Therefore, remodeling of both the plug and meniscal tissue and the participation of alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells appear essential for integration of the plug into the adjacent meniscal tissue. Cells in the superficial zone of the meniscus seem to be active in the repair process. A change in both the phenotype of the cells and the quality of the matrix toward a more hyaline state appears to be an integral part of the remodeling process in the meniscus. PMID:11208183

  19. The HPV-16 E7 oncogene sensitizes malignant cells to IFN-alpha-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yisong


    Interferons (IFNs) exert antitumor effects in several human malignancies, but their mechanism of action is unclear. There is a great variability in sensitivity to IFN treatment depending on both tumor type and the individual patient. The reason for this variable sensitivity is not known. The fact that several IFN-induced anticellular effects are exerted through modulation of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes may indicate that the malignant genotype may be decisive in the cell's sensitivity to IFN. To determine if a deregulated oncogene could alter the cellular response to IFN, a mouse lymphoma cell line (J3D) was stably transfected with the viral human papillomavirus-16 (HPV-16) E7 oncogene. The E7-transfected cells and their respective mock-transfected sister clones were treated with IFN-{alpha} and examined for possible IFN-induced anticellular effects. We found that the E7-transfected clones were greatly sensitized to IFN-{alpha}-induced apoptosis compared with their mock-transfected counterparts. Induction of apoptosis in the transfected cells correlated with the ability of IFN to activate parts of the proapoptotic machinery specifically in these cells, including activation of caspases and the proapoptotic protein Bak. In summary, our data suggest that transfection of malignant cells with the E7 oncogene can sensitize them to IFN-{alpha}-induced apoptosis. This demonstrates that an oncogenic event may alter the cellular sensitivity to IFN and might also have implications for treatment of HPV related diseases with IFN.

  20. Method of using alpha-1 acid glycoprotein on T-cells as a marker for alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Fudenberg, H.H.


    A method is described of diagnosing a dementia of the Alzheimer's type characterized by a change in the percentage of T-cells bearing surface membrane alpha-1 acid glycoprotein which comprises providing T-cells from a subject, determining the percentage of those T cells which bear surface membrane alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, and comparing that percentage of the percentage of T cells which bear the glycoprotein in a control, whereby the dementia is diagnosed.

  1. TNF-Alpha Represses Transcription of Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4 in Lung Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Nian-Ling; Li, Changgong; Huang, Hao Hao; Sebald, Matthew; Londhe, Vedang A.; Heisterkamp, Nora; Warburton, David; Bellusci, Saverio; Minoo, Parviz


    Bone Morphogenetic Proteins are key signaling molecules in vertebrate development. Little is known about Bmp gene regulation in any organ. In Drosophila, the Bmp gene, dpp is regulated by Dorsal, the invertebrate homologue of Rel-NFkB. In this study we examined whether TNF-alpha, which activates NF-kB, can regulate Bmp4 gene expression. TNF-alpha reduced Bmp4 mRNA in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and repressed transcriptional activity of the human Bmp4 promoter in a dose-dependent manner. Similar repression was observed when the Bmp4 promoter was co-transfected with a p65 (RelA) expression vector in the absence of TNF-alpha treatment, suggesting that RelA mediates the effect of TNF-alpha. In support of this finding, the repressor effect of TNF-alpha on Bmp4 was abrogated by a co-transfected dominant negative mutant of IkB (S32A/S36A). The human Bmp4 promoter contains 3 putative consensus binding sites for NF-kB. Surprisingly, only one of the latter binding sites was capable of binding NFkB. Repressor effect of NFkB was not dependent on any of the three binding sites, but localized to a 122 bp fragment which bound both RelA and SP1. SP1stimulated transcription, whereas increasing doses of RelA opposed this effect. In vivo, TNF-alpha inhibited branching morphogenesis and LacZ gene expression in Bmp4-lacz transgenic lungs. These data support a model in which TNF-alpha-induced RelA interacts with SP1 to bring about transcriptional repression of Bmp4 gene. These findings provide a mechanistic paradigm for interactions between mediators of inflammation and morphogenesis with relevant implications for normal lung development and pathogenesis of disease. PMID:17350185

  2. [Treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma with a combination of interferon alpha and gamma].


    Naito, S; Yasumasu, T; Kumazawa, J; Hiratsuka, Y; Sakamoto, K; Iguchi, A; Masaki, Z; Hasui, Y; Osada, Y; Kurozumi, T


    A total of 29 patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma entered a pilot study of combination therapy with interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). IFN-alpha (HLBI: 3 x 10(6) IU, BALL 1:5 x 10(6) IU, IFN-alpha-2a: 9 x 10(6) IU or IFN-alpha-2b: 6 x 10(6) IU) was given intramuscularly every day and IFN-gamma (IFN-gamma-1a: 3 x 10(6) JRU) was given intravenously by drip infusion 3 times a week (every 2-3 days). The treatment was continued for 3 months as the induction therapy, and then the tumor response was evaluated. Of the 22 evaluable patients, 4 achieved a partial response (PR), 10 showed no change (NC), and in 8 the disease had progressed (PD) during the therapy. Thus, the overall response rate was 18.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-34.3%]. A favorable response tended to be obtained in patients with good performance status or small pulmonary metastases, or in those who had no prior therapy with IFN-alpha, who received this treatment immediately subsequent to radical nephrectomy, or who received IFN-gamma as much as possible according to this regimen. Toxicity was evaluated in 28 patients: fever, general fatigue, anorexia, leukocytopenia and impaired liver function were frequently noted, and 3 patients were withdrawn from the study because of such adverse effects. In patients who had a PR or NC, the same dosage of IFN-alpha was continued to be given intramuscularly 2-3 times a week (every 2-4 days) as the maintenance therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7474618

  3. Cloning and sequencing of the gene for alpha antigen from Mycobacterium avium and mapping of B-cell epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, N; Matsuo, K; Yamaguchi, R; Yamazaki, A; Tasaka, H; Yamada, T


    The complete nucleotide sequence of alpha antigen secreted from Mycobacterium avium (A-alpha) was determined. The gene encodes 330 amino acids, including 40 amino acids for the signal peptide, followed by 290 amino acids for the mature protein with a molecular mass of 30,811 Da. This is the first sequence of A-alpha. Comparisons between A-alpha and alpha antigens of Mycobacterium leprae, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and Mycobacterium kansasii showed highly homologous regions which suggested a conserved functional domain and two less-homologous regions. Serological analysis of recombinant A-alpha, expressed by a series of deletion constructs, indicated the possibility that A-alpha carries at least six B-cell epitopes. The three antigenic determinants were common to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. kansasii, and M. avium. The results also suggested the possibility that there are three species-specific epitopes. Images PMID:7681039

  4. A selective alpha1D-adrenoreceptor antagonist inhibits human prostate cancer cell proliferation and motility "in vitro".


    Colciago, Alessandra; Mornati, Ornella; Ferri, Nicola; Castelnovo, Luca Franco; Fumagalli, Laura; Bolchi, Cristiano; Pallavicini, Marco; Valoti, Ermanno; Negri-Cesi, Paola


    The progression of prostate cancer (PC) to a metastatic hormone refractory disease is the major contributor to the overall cancer mortality in men, mainly because the conventional therapies are generally ineffective at this stage. Thus, other therapeutic options are needed as alternatives or in addition to the classic approaches to prevent or delay tumor progression. Catecholamines participate to the control of prostate cell functions by the activation of alpha1-adrenoreceptors (alpha1-AR) and increased sympathetic activity has been linked to PC development and evolution. Molecular and pharmacological studies identified three alpha1-AR subtypes (A, B and D), which differ in tissue distribution, cell signaling, pharmacology and physiological role. Within the prostate, alpha1A-ARs mainly control stromal cell functions, while alpha1B- and alpha1D- subtypes seem to modulate glandular epithelial cell growth. The possible direct contribution of alpha1D-ARs in tumor biology is supported by their overexpression in PC. The studies here presented investigate the "in vitro" antitumor action of A175, a selective alpha1D-AR antagonist we have recently obtained by modifying the potent, but not subtype-selective alpha1-AR antagonist (S)-WB4101, in the hormone-refractory PC3 and DU145 PC cell lines. The results indicate that A175 has an alpha1D-AR-mediated significant and dose-dependent antiproliferative action that possibly involves the induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, but not apoptosis. In addition, A175 reduces cell migration and adhesiveness to culture plates. In conclusion, our work clarified some cellular aspects promoted by alpha1D-AR activity modulation and supports a further pharmacological approach in the cure of hormone-refractory PC, by targeting specifically this AR subtype. PMID:26621245

  5. Dual Energy Nano-XRF Quantification in EL-3 Fragments of the Almahata Sitta TC3 Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simionovici, A. S.; David, G.; Lemelle, L.; Boyet, M.; Gillet, Ph.; Rivard, C.; El Goresy, A.


    We studied idiomorphic sinoite crystals in MS-17/177 fragments of A-S TC3 asteroid by dual energy XRF nano-imaging at ESRF (Grenoble, France), down to O/N and confirm previous findings favoring the CaS-Si2N2O condensation sequence scheme.

  6. Nano-XRF Study of Earliest Solar Condensates in EL-3 Fragments from the Almahata Sitta TC3 Asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simionovici, A. S.; Lemelle, L.; Boyet, M.; Gillet, Ph.; Rivard, C.; El Goresy, A.


    A nano-XRF study of enstatite chondritic fragments of the Almahata Sitta TC3 asteroid was performed at the ID21 beamline of the ESRF synchrotron in Grenoble, France. We report on the identification and composition of idiomorphic sinoite crystals.

  7. The nectin-1{alpha} transmembrane domain, but not the cytoplasmic tail, influences cell fusion induced by HSV-1 glycoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Ravi P.; Dunn, Jennifer E.; Geraghty, Robert J. . E-mail:


    Nectin-1 is a receptor for herpes simplex virus (HSV), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, and a cellular adhesion molecule. To study domains of nectin-1{alpha} involved in cell fusion, we measured the ability of nectin-1{alpha}/nectin-2{alpha} chimeras, nectin-1{alpha}/CD4 chimeras, and transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail mutants of nectin-1{alpha} to promote cell fusion induced by HSV-1 glycoproteins. Our results demonstrate that only chimeras and mutants containing the entire V-like domain and a link to the plasma membrane conferred cell-fusion activity. The transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail of nectin-1 were not required for any viral receptor or cell adhesion function tested. Cellular cytoplasmic factors that bind to the nectin-1{alpha} cytoplasmic tail, therefore, did not influence virus entry or cell fusion. Interestingly, the efficiency of cell fusion was reduced when membrane-spanning domains of nectin-1{alpha} and gD were replaced by glycosylphosphatidylinositol tethers, indicating that transmembrane domains may play a modulatory role in the gD/nectin-1{alpha} interaction in fusion.

  8. The alpha 2-adrenoceptors of the human retinoblastoma cell line (Y79) may represent an additional example of the alpha 2C-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, M. M.; Hieble, J. P.


    1. In agreement with the literature, correlation of the ability of a series of agonists and antagonists to displace [3H]-rauwolscine binding shows the alpha 2-adrenoceptors of HT29 cells, NG108-15 cells, OK cells and homogenates of rat sublingual gland to represent four distinct subtypes. 2. [3H]-rauwolscine also bound with high affinity (KD = 0.30 +/- 0.10 mM) to a human retinoblastoma cell line (Y79). Specific binding represents 73% of total binding, and a Bmax of 38 +/- 1 fmol mg-1 protein was determined. 3. Correlation of antagonist affinities against [3H]-rauwolscine with corresponding values in the other four tissue sources showed the Y79 cells to resemble most closely the OK cells, the prototype example of an alpha 2C-adrenoceptor, with a correlation coefficient of 0.90 and a regression slope of 1.01 being obtained for 10 antagonists in these two systems. 4. Comparison of KD values for [3H]-rauwolscine also showed a similarity between the OK cells (0.19 +/- 0.07 nM) and Y79 cells. 5. These data suggest that the human retinoblastoma cell line may represent an additional example of the alpha 2C-adrenoceptor subtype. PMID:1358385

  9. TC3: Convective and radiative heating of MSRO for simplest kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhikov, Sergey T.


    Numerical simulation results for radiative heating of whole surface of space vehicle Mars Sampler Return Orbiter (MSRO) are presented and analyzed. Two calculation cases are considered: non-catalytic and pseudo-catalytic surface. The calculation data were obtained by the radiative gas dynamic code RGDSV-2 developed in Institute for Problems in Mechanics Russian Academy of Sciences (IPMech RAS), which is intended for study of aerothermodynamics of space vehicles entering planetary atmospheres and for diagnostics of trajectory parameters by measuring spectrum of heat radiation from high-temperature gas around space vehicles. Distinguishing feature of the code is proper prediction of directional spectral emissive power of a space vehicle at its braking trajectory in an atmosphere and also prediction of radiative heating of whole surface of space vehicles. Simplest kinetic models were used for obtaining calculation data presented in the paper in accordance with the Test Case 3 (TC-3) problem statement [1]. Vibrational excitations of diatomic and three atomic molecules were neglected.

  10. Spatial Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in 2008 TC3 Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbah, Hassan; Morrow, A.; Zare, R. N.; Jenniskens, P.


    Hassan Sabbah1, Amy L. Morrow1, Richard N. Zare1 and Petrus Jenniskens2 1Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, 2 SETI Institute, Carl Sagan Center, 515 North Whisman Road, Mountain View, California 94043, USA. In October 2006 a small asteroid (2-3 meters) was observed in outer space. On October 7, 2008, it entered the Earth's atmosphere creating a fireball over Northern Sudan. Some 280 meteorites were collected by the University of Khartoum. In order to explore the existence of organic materials, specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), we applied two-step laser desorption laser ionization mass spectrometry (L2MS) to some selected fragments. This technique consists of desorbing with a pulsed infrared laser beam the solid materials into a gaseous phase with no fragmentation followed by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization to analyze the PAH content. L2MS was already applied to an array of extraterrestrial objects including interplanetary dust particles IDPs, carbonaceous chondrites and comet coma particles. Moreover, spatial resolution of PAHs in 2008 TC3 samples was achieved to explore the heterogeneity within individual fragments. The results of these studies and their contribution to understanding the formation of this asteroid will be discussed.

  11. In vitro cell irradiation systems based on 210Po alpha source: construction and characterisation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, J.; Feher, I.; Palfalvi, J.; Balashazy, I.; Dam, A. M.; Polonyi, I.; Bogdandi, E. N.


    One way of studying the risk to human health of low-level radiation exposure is to make biological experiments on living cell cultures. Two 210Po alpha-particle emitting devices, with 0.5 and 100 MBq activity, were designed and constructed to perform such experiments irradiating monolayers of cells. Estimates of dose rate at the cell surface were obtained from measurements by a PIPS alpha-particle spectrometer and from calculations by the SRIM 2000, Monte Carlo charged particle transport code. Particle fluence area distributions were measured by solid state nuclear track detectors. The design and dosimetric characterisation of the devices are discussed. c2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Activation of two new alpha(1,3)fucosyltransferase activities in Chinese hamster ovary cells by 5-azacytidine.

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, B; Stanley, P


    Several mammalian alpha(1,3)fucosyltransferases (alpha[1,3]Fuc-T) that synthesize carbohydrates containing alpha(1,3)fucosylated lactosamine units have been identified. Although Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells do not express alpha(1,3)Fuc-T activity, the rare mutants LEC11 and LEC12, isolated after mutagenesis or DNA transfection, each express an alpha(1,3)Fuc-T that may be distinguished by several criteria. Two new CHO mutants possessing alpha(1,3)Fuc-T activity (LEC29 and LEC30) have now been isolated after treatment of a CHO cell population with 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC), ethylnitrosourea (ENU), or 5-AzaC followed by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Like LEC12, both mutants possess an N-ethylmaleimide-resistant alpha(1,3)Fuc-T activity that can utilize a variety of acceptors and both express the Lewis X (Lex) determinant (Gal beta[1,4](Fuc alpha[1,3])GlcNAc beta 1)) but not the sialyl alpha(2,3)Lex determinant on cell-surface carbohydrates. However, LEC29 and LEC30 may be distinguished from LEC11 and LEC12, as well as from each other, on the basis of their unique patterns of lectin resistance and their abilities to bind the VIM-2 monoclonal antibody that recognizes carbohydrates terminating in NeuNAc alpha(2,3)Gal beta(1,4)GlcNAc beta(1,3)Gal beta(1,4)(Fuc alpha[1,3])GlcNAc beta and also by the different in vitro substrate specificities and kinetic properties of their respective alpha(1,3)Fuc-T activities. The combined data provide good evidence that the LEC29 and LEC30 alpha(1,3)Fuc-Ts are novel transferases encoded by distinct gene products. PMID:1724918

  13. The PPFLMLLKGSTR motif in globular domain 3 of the human laminin-5 {alpha}3 chain is crucial for integrin {alpha}3{beta}1 binding and cell adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin-Man; Park, Won Ho; Min, Byung-Moo . E-mail:


    Laminin-5 regulates various cellular functions, including cell adhesion, spreading, and motility. Here, we expressed the five human laminin {alpha}3 chain globular (LG) domains as monomeric, soluble fusion proteins, and examined their biological functions and signaling. Recombinant LG3 (rLG3) protein, unlike rLG1, rLG2, rLG4, and rLG5, played roles in cell adhesion, spreading, and integrin {alpha}3{beta}1 binding. More significantly, we identified a novel motif (PPFLMLLKGSTR) in the LG3 domain that is crucial for these responses. Studies with the synthetic peptides delineated the PPFLMLLKGSTR peptide within LG3 domain as a major site for both integrin {alpha}3{beta}1 binding and cell adhesion. Substitution mutation experiments suggest that the Arg residue is important for these activities. rLG3 protein- and PPFLMLLKGSTR peptide-induced keratinocyte adhesion triggered cell signaling through FAK phosphorylation at tyrosine-397 and -577. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the PPFLMLLKGSTR peptide within the LG3 domain is a novel motif that is capable of supporting integrin {alpha}3{beta}1-dependent cell adhesion and spreading.

  14. Induction of a bystander mutagenic effect of alpha particles in mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, H.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Waldren, C. A.; Vannais, D.; Hall, E. J.; Hei, T. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)


    Ever since the discovery of X-rays was made by Rontgen more than a hundred years ago, it has always been accepted that the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation such as mutation and carcinogenesis are attributable mainly to direct damage to DNA. Although evidence based on microdosimetric estimation in support of a bystander effect appears to be consistent, direct proof of such extranuclear/extracellular effects are limited. Using a precision charged particle microbeam, we show here that irradiation of 20% of randomly selected A(L) cells with 20 alpha particles each results in a mutant fraction that is 3-fold higher than expected, assuming no bystander modulation effect. Furthermore, analysis by multiplex PCR shows that the types of mutants induced are significantly different from those of spontaneous origin. Pretreatment of cells with the radical scavenger DMSO had no effect on the mutagenic incidence. In contrast, cells pretreated with a 40 microM dose of lindane, which inhibits cell-cell communication, significantly decreased the mutant yield. The doses of DMSO and lindane used in these experiments are nontoxic and nonmutagenic. We further examined the mutagenic yield when 5-10% of randomly selected cells were irradiated with 20 alpha particles each. Results showed, likewise, a higher mutant yield than expected assuming no bystander effects. Our studies provide clear evidence that irradiated cells can induce a bystander mutagenic response in neighboring cells not directly traversed by alpha particles and that cell-cell communication process play a critical role in mediating the bystander phenomenon.

  15. Mushroom acidic glycosphingolipid induction of cytokine secretion from murine T cells and proliferation of NK1.1 {alpha}/{beta} TCR-double positive cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, Hirofumi; Itonori, Saki; Sugita, Mutsumi; Nakamura, Kimihide; Ohba, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Akemi; Kushi, Yasunori


    Interferon (IFN)-{gamma} and interleukin (IL)-4 regulate many types of immune responses. Here we report that acidic glycosphingolipids (AGLs) of Hypsizigus marmoreus and Pleurotus eryngii induced secretion of IFN- {gamma} and IL-4 from T cells in a CD11c-positive cell-dependent manner similar to that of {alpha}-galactosylceramide ({alpha}-GalCer) and isoglobotriaosylceramide (iGb3), although activated T cells by AGLs showed less secretion of cytokine than those activated by {alpha}-GalCer. In addition, stimulation of these mushroom AGLs induced proliferation of NK1.1 {alpha}/{beta} TCR-double positive cells in splenocytes. Administration of a mixture of {alpha}-GalCer and AGLs affected the stimulation of {alpha}-GalCer and generally induced a subtle Th1 bias for splenocytes but induced an extreme Th2 bias for thymocytes. These results suggested that edible mushroom AGLs contribute to immunomodulation.

  16. Single-cell TCRseq: paired recovery of entire T-cell alpha and beta chain transcripts in T-cell receptors from single-cell RNAseq.


    Redmond, David; Poran, Asaf; Elemento, Olivier


    Accurate characterization of the repertoire of the T-cell receptor (TCR) alpha and beta chains is critical to understanding adaptive immunity. Such characterization has many applications across such fields as vaccine development and response, clone-tracking in cancer, and immunotherapy. Here we present a new methodology called single-cell TCRseq (scTCRseq) for the identification and assembly of full-length rearranged V(D)J T-cell receptor sequences from paired-end single-cell RNA sequencing reads. The method allows accurate identification of the V(D)J rearrangements for each individual T-cell and has the novel ability to recover paired alpha and beta segments. Source code is available at . PMID:27460926

  17. Inhibition of mucin glycosylation by aryl-N-acetyl-alpha-galactosaminides in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuan, S.F.; Byrd, J.C.; Basbaum, C.; Kim, Y.S. )


    Specific inhibitors of the glycosylation of O-glycosidically linked glycoproteins have not previously been described. When tested for their effects on mucin glycosylation in a mucin-producing colon cancer cell line, LS174T, benzyl-, phenyl-, and p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-alpha-galactosaminide inhibited the formation of fully glycosylated mucin in a dose-dependent manner. Free aryl-oligosaccharides were found in the medium of treated cells labeled with ({sup 3}H)glucosamine, ({sup 3}H)galactose, ({sup 3}H)fucose, ({sup 3}H)mannosamine, or phenyl-alpha-(6-{sup 3}H) N-acetylgalactosamine. UDP-Gal:GalNAc-beta 1,3-galactosyltransferase was inhibited by aryl-N-acetyl-alpha-galactosaminides but not by a number of other aryl-glycosides. Treatment with these inhibitors also causes reversible morphologic changes including formation of intercellular cysts. Aryl-N-acetyl-alpha-galactosaminides can be useful for the structural and functional studies of mucin macromolecules and other O-linked glycoproteins.

  18. Filamentous nerve cell inclusions in neurodegenerative diseases: tauopathies and alpha-synucleinopathies.

    PubMed Central

    Goedert, M


    Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease are the most common neurodegenerative diseases. They are characterized by the degeneration of selected populations of nerve cells that develop filamentous inclusions before degeneration. The neuronal inclusions of Alzheimer's disease are made of the microtubule-associated protein tau, in a hyperphosphorylated state. Recent work has shown that the filamentous inclusions of Parkinson's disease are made of the protein alpha-synuclein and that rare, familial forms of Parkinson's disease are caused by missense mutations in the alpha-synuclein gene. Besides Parkinson's disease, the filamentous inclusions of two additional neurodegenerative diseases, namely dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy, have also been found to be made of alpha-synuclein. Abundant filamentous tau inclusions are not limited to Alzheimer's disease. They are the defining neuropathological characteristic of frontotemporal dementias such as Pick's disease, and of progressive supranuclear palsy and corticobasal degeneration. The recent discovery of mutations in the tau gene in familial forms of frontotemporal dementia has provided a direct link between tau dysfunction and dementing disease. The new work has established that tauopathies and alpha-synucleinopathies account for most late-onset neurodegenerative diseases in man. The formation of intracellular filamentous inclusions might be the gain of toxic function that leads to the demise of affected brain cells. PMID:10434313

  19. Proliferation of Estrogen Receptor alpha Positive Mammary Epithelial Cells is Restrained by TGFbeta1 in Adult Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ewan, Kenneth B.R.; Oketch-Rabah, Hellen A.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Shyamala, G.; Moses, Harold L.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen


    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) is a potent inhibitor of mammary epithelial proliferation. In human breast, estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) cells rarely co-localize with markers of proliferation, but their increased frequency correlates with breast cancer risk. To determine whether TGF{beta}1 is necessary for the quiescence of ER{alpha}-positive population, we examined mouse mammary epithelial gland at estrus. Approximately 35% of cells showed TGF{beta}1 activation, which co-localized with nuclear receptor-phosphorylated Smad 2/3, indicating that TGF{beta} signaling is autocrine. Furthermore, nuclear Smad co-localized with nuclear ER{alpha}. To test whether TGF{beta} was functional, we examined genetically engineered mice with different levels of TGF{beta}1. ER{alpha} co-localization with markers of proliferation (i.e. Ki-67 or BrdU) at estrus was significantly increased in the mammary glands of Tgf{beta}1 C57/bl/129SV heterozygote mice. This relationship was maintained following pregnancy, but was absent at puberty. Conversely, mammary epithelial expression of constitutively active TGF{beta}1 via the MMTV promoter suppressed proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells. Thus, TGF{beta}1 activation functionally restrains ER{alpha} positive cells from proliferating in adult mammary gland. Accordingly, we propose that TGF{beta}1 dysregulation may promote proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells associated with breast cancer risk in humans.

  20. dl-. cap alpha. -tocopheryl succinate enhances the effect of. gamma. -irradiation on neuroblastoma cells in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Sarri, A.; Prasad, K.N.


    The effect of dl-..cap alpha..-tocopheryl (vitamin E) succinate in modifying the radiation response of mouse neuroblastoma (NBP/sub 2/) and mouse fibroblast (L-cells) cells in culture was studied on the criterion of growth inhibition (due to cell death and inhibition of cell division). Results show that vitamin E succinate markedly enhanced the effect of /sub 60/CO-..gamma..-irradiation on NB cells, but it did not significantly modify the effect of irradiation on mouse fibroblasts. Sodium succinate plus ethanol (0.25% final concentration) did not modify the radiation response of NB cells or fibroblasts. Butylated hydroxyanisole, a lipid soluble antioxidant, also enhanced the effect of irradiation on NB cells, indicating that the effect of vitamin E in modifying the radiation response may be mediated, in part, by antioxidation mechanisms.

  1. Cyclic mechanical stretching and interleukin-1alpha synergistically up-regulate prostacyclin secretion in cultured human uterine myometrial cells.


    Korita, D; Itoh, H; Sagawa, N; Yura, S; Yoshida, M; Kakui, K; Takemura, M; Nuamah, M A; Fujii, S


    Prostacyclin (PGI2), a potent uterine smooth muscle relaxant, is postulated to be a major prostaglandin (PG) secreted from the human myometrium. PGI2 metabolite concentrations in the maternal plasma were reported to be elevated during pregnancy, especially during labor. Recently, we developed cultured human myometrial cells from pregnant women and reported that cyclic mechanical stretching mimicking labor increased PGI2 secretion from these cells by up-regulating PGI2 synthase promoter activities. Since elevation of cervical/vaginal interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha) concentrations is also a characteristic feature of delivery, and IL-1alpha is a known stimulator of PG synthesis, we investigated a possible synergistic effect of cyclic mechanical stretching and IL-1alpha on PGI2 production in cultured human myometrial cells. Treatment with IL-1alpha (10 ng/ml) significantly augmented (4- to 60-fold) the secretion of PGI2, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2) from cultured human myometrial cells obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women as well as in cultured human umbilical artery and cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). However, labor-like cyclic mechanical stretching up-regulated IL-1alpha-augmented PGI2 secretion from myometrial cells obtained from non-pregnant and pregnant women 2.1- to 2.8-fold (p < 0.05 for all comparisons), but not PGE2, PGF2alpha nor TXA2. Moreover, such an augumentation of PGI2 secretion by cyclic mechanical stretching was not observed in cultured human umbilical artery nor in cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells. These results suggest that cyclic mechanical stretching by labor, in concert with IL-1alpha stimulation, contributes to the increase in myometrial PGI2 secretion during delivery. PMID:15255281

  2. Negative feedback between prostaglandin and alpha- and beta-chemokine synthesis in human microglial cells and astrocytes.


    Janabi, N; Hau, I; Tardieu, M


    The understanding of immune surveillance and inflammation regulation in cerebral tissue is essential in the therapy of neuroimmunological disorders. We demonstrate here that primary human glial cells were able to produce alpha- and beta-chemokines (IL-8 > growth related protein alpha (GROalpha) > RANTES > microphage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha and MIP-1beta) in parallel to PGs (PGE2 and PGF2alpha) after proinflammatory cytokine stimulation: TNF-alpha + IL-1beta induced all except RANTES, which was induced by TNF-alpha + IFN-gamma. Purified cultures of astrocytes and microglia were also induced by the same combination of cytokines, to produce all these mediators except MIP-1alpha and MIP-1beta, which were produced predominantly by astrocytes. The inhibition of PG production by indomethacin led to a 37-60% increase in RANTES, MIP-1alpha, and MIP-1beta but not in GROalpha and IL-8 secretion. In contrast, inhibition of IL-8 and GRO activities using neutralizing Abs resulted in a specific 6-fold increase in PGE2 but not in PGF2alpha production by stimulated microglial cells and astrocytes, whereas Abs to beta-chemokines had no effect. Thus, the production of PGs in human glial cells down-regulates their beta-chemokine secretion, whereas alpha-chemokine production in these cells controls PG secretion level. These data suggest that under inflammatory conditions, the intraparenchymal production of PGs could control chemotactic gradient of beta-chemokines for an appropriate effector cell recruitment or activation. Conversely, the elevated intracerebral alpha-chemokine levels could reduce PG secretion, preventing the exacerbation of inflammation and neurotoxicity. PMID:9973432

  3. Functional analysis of {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferase VI in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Qiya; Guo, Bin; Wang, Yingming; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Wenjun; Zhao, Shenan; Qiao, Shouyi; Wu, Yanhua


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human FUT6 is up-regulated in HCC tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of FUT6 promotes G0/G1-S transition and cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 confers a growth advantage in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 suppresses p21 expression through modulating PI3K/Akt signaling. -- Abstract: The {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferases (FUT) subfamily are key enzymes in cell surface antigen synthesis during various biological processes. A novel role of FUTs in tumorigenesis has been discovered recently, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized FUT6, a member of {alpha}1,3/4-FUT subfamily, in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In HCC tissues, the expression levels of FUT6 and its catalytic product SLe{sup x} were significantly up-regulated. Overexpression of FUT6 in HCC cells enhanced S-phase cell population, promoted cell growth and colony formation ability. Moreover, subcutaneously injection of FUT6-overexpressing cells in nude mice promoted cell growth in vivo. In addition, elevating FUT6 expression markedly induced intracellular Akt phosphorylation, and suppressed the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor p21. Bath application of the PI3K inhibitor blocked FUT6-induced Akt phosphorylation, p21 suppression and cell proliferation. Our results suggest that FUT6 plays an important role in HCC growth by regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  4. The effects of 1alpha,24(S)-dihydroxyvitamin D(2) analog on cancer cell proliferation and cytokine expression.


    Shany, S; Levy, Y; Lahav-Cohen, M


    It is well established that 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3)), the active metabolite of vitamin D, plays a role in regulating proliferation and differentiation of cells, in addition to its classic function in mineral homeostasis. Recent studies have also provided evidence for the involvement of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) in regulating the immune system. However, therapeutic application of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) to hyperproliferative diseases such as cancer, or for immunologic purposes, is thwarted by its hypercalcemic activity. In order to overcome this obstacle, analogs of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) have been produced that exhibit decreased hypercalcemic activity while retaining the growth and immunologic regulating properties. In the present study, the efficacy of 1alpha,24(S)-dihydroxyvitamin D(2) (1alpha,24(S)(OH)(2)D(2)), a vitamin D(2) analog, in restraining cell proliferation was compared to that of 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). In parallel studies, cancer cell lines were grown in increased concentrations (10(-10)-10(-7) M) of each compound for various incubation periods (1-4 days). Growth was assessed by measuring [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. The results revealed that 1alpha,24(S)(OH)(2)D(2) significantly inhibits proliferation to an extent similar to that observed for 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). Moreover, incubating the human leukemia cell line, HL-60, with 1alpha,24(S)(OH)(2)D(2) resulted in an induction of differentiation of these promyelomonocyte cells into monocyte-macrophage-like cells, in a manner similar to that observed with 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3). Using a Western procedure, it was also shown that 1alpha,24(S)(OH)(2)D(2) like 1alpha,25(OH)(2)D(3) enhances the expression of vitamin D receptors (VDR) in the rat osteosarcoma cell line, ROS 17/2.8. The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha (TNF-alpha) in human peritoneal macrophages (HPM) obtained from uremic patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) was found to be

  5. Establishment of type II 5alpha-reductase over-expressing cell line as an inhibitor screening model.


    Jang, Sunhyae; Lee, Young; Hwang, Seong-Lok; Lee, Min-Ho; Park, Su Jin; Lee, In Ho; Kang, Sangjin; Roh, Seok-Seon; Seo, Young-Joon; Park, Jang-Kyu; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Kim, Chang Deok


    Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is the most potent male hormone that causes androgenetic alopecia. The type II 5alpha-reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of testosterone (T) to DHT, therefore it can be expected that specific inhibitors for type II 5alpha-reductase may improve the pathophysiologic status of androgenetic alopecia. In this study, we attempted to establish the reliable and convenient screening model for type II 5alpha-reductase inhibitors. After transfection of human cDNA for type II 5alpha-reductase into HEK293 cells, the type II 5alpha-reductase over-expressing stable cells were selected by G418 treatment. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses confirmed that type II 5alpha-reductase gene was expressed in the stable cells. In in vitro enzymatic assay, 10 microg of stable cell extract completely converted 1 microCi (approximately 0.015 nmol) of T into DHT. The type II 5alpha-reductase activity was inhibited by finasteride in a dose-dependent manner, confirming the reliability of screening system. In cell culture condition, 2 x 10(5) of stable cells completely converted all the input T (approximately 0.03 nmol) into DHT by 4h incubation, demonstrating that the stable cell line can be used as a cell-based assay system. Using this system, we selected the extracts of Curcumae longae rhizoma and Mori ramulus as the potential inhibitors for type II 5alpha-reductase. These results demonstrate that the type II 5alpha-reductase over-expressing stable cell line is a convenient and reliable model for screening and evaluation of inhibitors. PMID:17646096

  6. Quinazoline-based alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists induce prostate cancer cell apoptosis via TGF-beta signalling and I kappa B alpha induction.


    Partin, J V; Anglin, I E; Kyprianou, N


    Previous studies documented the ability of quinazoline-based alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists to induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells via an alpha 1-adrenoceptor-independent mechanism. In this study we investigated the molecular events initiating this apoptotic effect. Since transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) mediates prostate epithelial cell apoptosis, we hypothesised that the activation of the TGF-beta 1 pathway underlies the quinazoline-based apoptotic effect in prostate cancer cells. Treatment of the androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells PC-3 with doxazosin resulted in a strong caspase-3 activation within 24 h, whereas tamsulosin, a sulphonamide-based alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, had no significant apoptotic effect against prostate cancer cells. To identify the molecular components involved in this quinazoline-mediated apoptosis, cDNA microarray analysis of PC-3 prostate cancer cells treated with doxazosin (3 h) was performed. Induced expression of several genes was observed including p21(WAF-1) and I kappa B alpha (inhibitor of NF-kappa B alpha). Relative quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed induction of several TGF-beta1 signalling effectors: Induction of mRNA for Smad4 and the TGF-beta1-regulated apoptosis-inducing transcription factor TGF-beta1-inducible early gene (TIEG1) was detected within the first 6 h of doxazosin treatment. Upregulation of I kappa B alpha at both the mRNA and protein level was also detected after 6 h of treatment. Furthermore, doxazosin resulted in a considerable elevation in Smad4 and TIEG protein expression (6 h). A 'latent' increase in TGF-beta mRNA expression was detected after 48 h of treatment. These findings suggest that the quinazoline-based doxazosin mediates prostate cancer apoptosis by initially inducing the expression of TGF-beta1 signalling effectors and subsequently I kappa B alpha. The present study provides an initial insight into the molecular

  7. 5-Azacytidine treatment of HA-A melanoma cells induces Sp1 activity and concomitant transforming growth factor alpha expression.

    PubMed Central

    Shin, T H; Paterson, A J; Grant, J H; Meluch, A A; Kudlow, J E


    Evidence indicates DNA methylation as a part of the regulatory machinery controlling mammalian gene expression. The human melanoma cell line HA-A expresses low levels of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha). TGF-alpha mRNA accumulated, however, in response to DNA demethylation induced by a nucleoside analog, 5-azacytidine (5-azaC). The importance of DNA methylation in the TGF-alpha promoter region was examined by a transient transfection assay with luciferase reporter plasmids containing a portion of the TGF-alpha promoter. 5-azaC treatment of HA-A cells before the transfection caused a significant increase in the luciferase activity. Since input plasmids were confirmed to remain unmethylated, DNA demethylation of the TGF-alpha promoter itself does not account for the observed increase in TGF-alpha mRNA. Using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, enhanced formation of protein-TGF-alpha promoter complex was detected in response to 5-azaC treatment. This 5-azaC-induced complex was shown to contain the transcription factor Sp1 by the following criteria: the protein-DNA complex formed on the TGF-alpha promoter contained immunoreactive Sp1; the mobility of the complex in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay was similar to that formed by recombinant Sp1; and DNase I footprinting analysis demonstrated that the 5-azaC-induced complex produced a footprint on the TGF-alpha promoter identical to that of authentic Sp1. These observations suggest that 5-azaC induces TGF-alpha expression by augmenting the Sp1 activity. However, neither the Sp1 mRNA nor its protein was induced by 5-azaC. These results suggest that in HA-A cells, TGF-alpha expression is down-modulated by DNA methylation. In addition, this process may involve the specific regulation of Sp1 activity without altering the amount of the transcription factor. Images PMID:1380648

  8. CD20-targeted tetrameric interferon-alpha, a novel and potent immunocytokine for the therapy of B-cell lymphomas.


    Rossi, Edmund A; Goldenberg, David M; Cardillo, Thomas M; Stein, Rhona; Chang, Chien-Hsing


    Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) has direct inhibitory effects on some tumors and is a potent stimulator of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. A tumor-targeting antibody-IFN-alpha conjugate (mAb-IFN-alpha) could kill by direct actions of the monoclonal antibody (mAb) and IFN-alpha on tumor cells and also potentiate a tumor-directed immune response. The modular Dock-and-Lock method (DNL) was used to generate 20-2b, the first immunocytokine having 4 cytokine (IFN-alpha2b) groups that are fused to the humanized anti-CD20 mAb, veltuzumab. Additional mAb-IFN-alpha constructs, each retaining potent IFN-alpha2b biologic activity, also were produced by DNL. The 20-2b shows enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity compared with veltuzumab but lacks complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The 20-2b inhibits in vitro proliferation of lymphoma cells and depletes them from whole human blood more potently than the combination of veltuzumab and a nontargeting, irrelevant, mAb-IFN-alpha. The 20-2b demonstrated superior therapeutic efficacy compared with veltuzumab or nontargeting mAb-IFN-alpha in 3 human lymphoma xenograft models, even though mouse immune cells respond poorly to human IFN-alpha2b. Targeting IFN-alpha with an anti-CD20 mAb makes the immunocytokine more potent than either agent alone. These findings suggest that 20-2b merits clinical evaluation as a new candidate antilymphoma therapeutic. PMID:19710501

  9. Effect of alpha Ni3S2 on arachidonic acid metabolites in cultured human lung cells (L132 cell line).


    Shirali, P; Teissier, E; Marez, T; Hildebrand, H F; Haguenoer, J M


    Our previous investigations have shown evidence of an interaction between alpha Ni3S2 and membranous and cellular lipids of lung cells with a significant increase in the linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic acid pool. The present work is designed to follow the metabolic fate of arachidonic acid in alpha Ni3S2-exposed human embryonic pulmonary epithelial cells (L132) in culture (50 microM alpha Ni3S2 for 3 days). The metabolites of arachidonic acid were assessed by HPLC determination coupled with UV or electrochemical detection. We determined malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), leukotrienes (LT) and reduced glutathione (GSH). In exposed cells we observed a significant increase of MDA, which is a breakdown product of lipid peroxidation. In addition, we noted significant increases of 5-HETE and 15-HETE in L132 cells resulting from the enzymatic reduction of 5-HPETE and 15-HPETE respectively. There was also a simultaneous decrease of GSH--confirmed by a strong decrease of GSH in exposed cells with respect to controls. 5-HPETE is furthermore converted to epoxides such as leukotriene A4 and we also quantified in exposed cells a significant increase of its subsequent catabolites LTB4, LTC4 and LTE4. These investigations show clearly that exposure of L132 cells to alpha Ni3S2 enhances lipid peroxidation based upon direct measurements of MDA and other metabolites of arachidonic acid. This lipid peroxidation is an autocatalytic free-radical process and could be responsible for DNA damage. PMID:8149492

  10. Endogenous interleukin 1 alpha must be transported to the nucleus to exert its activity in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Maier, J A; Statuto, M; Ragnotti, G


    We have previously shown that the signal peptideless cytokine interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) may play a role as an intracellular regulator of human endothelial cell senescence (J. A. M. Maier, P. Voulalas, D. Roeder, and T. Maciag, Science 249:1570-1574, 1990). To investigate the potential intracellular function of IL-1 alpha, transformed endothelial cells were transfected with the human cDNAs that code for the two forms of IL-1 alpha, the precursor molecule IL-1(1-271) and the mature protein IL-1(113-271). The subcellular localization of the two different polypeptides was investigated directly or by using chimeric genes constructed by fusion of different fragments of the IL-1 alpha gene and the beta-galactosidase open reading frames. The IL-1(113-271) protein was cytoplasmic, while IL-1(1-271) was nuclear. The basic cluster at the NH2 terminus of IL-1, KVLKKRR, has been shown to mediate IL-1 alpha nuclear targeting. Moreover, nuclear localization of IL-1 alpha correlates with impaired cell growth and expression of some IL-1 alpha-inducible genes. These results suggest that transport of endogenous IL-1(1-271) into the nucleus is required for it to modulate endothelial cell function. Images PMID:8114717

  11. Tumor suppressor KAI1 affects integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated ovarian cancer cell adhesion, motility, and proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruseva, Zlatna; Geiger, Pamina Xenia Charlotte; Hutzler, Peter; Kotzsch, Matthias; Luber, Birgit; Schmitt, Manfred; Gross, Eva; Reuning, Ute


    The tetraspanin KAI1 had been described as a metastasis suppressor in many different cancer types, a function for which associations of KAI1 with adhesion and signaling receptors of the integrin superfamily likely play a role. In ovarian cancer, integrin {alpha}v{beta}3 correlates with tumor progression and its elevation in vitro provoked enhanced cell adhesion accompanied by significant increases in cell motility and proliferation in the presence of its major ligand vitronectin. In the present study, we characterized integrin {alpha}v{beta}3-mediated tumor biological effects as a function of cellular KAI1 restoration and proved for the first time that KAI1, besides its already known physical crosstalk with {beta}1-integrins, also colocalizes with integrin {alpha}v{beta}3. Functionally, elevated KAI1 levels drastically increased integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-dependent ovarian cancer cell adhesion. Since an intermediate level of cell adhesive strength is required for optimal cell migration, we next studied ovarian cancer cell motility as a function of KAI1 restoration. By time lapse video microscopy, we found impaired integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-mediated cell migration most probably due to strongly enhanced cellular immobilization onto the adhesion-supporting matrix. Moreover, KAI1 reexpression significantly diminished cell proliferation. These data strongly indicate that KAI1 may suppress ovarian cancer progression by inhibiting integrin {alpha}v{beta}3/vitronectin-provoked tumor cell motility and proliferation as important hallmarks of the oncogenic process.

  12. Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene expression in human monocytic THP-1 cells exposed to beryllium.


    Galbraith, G M; Pandey, J P; Schmidt, M G; Arnaud, P; Goust, J M


    Chronic beryllium disease, which results from occupational exposure to particulate beryllium, is characterized by the development of lung granulomas and progressive pulmonary fibrosis. Increased production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta) by pulmonary alveolar macrophages occurs in many chronic fibrotic lung diseases and is thought to contribute to the disease process. The purpose of the present study was to investigate cytokine production by human monocytic cells exposed to beryllium in vitro. The results indicated that such cells respond to beryllium ions in the presence of fluoride by accumulation of messenger ribonucleic acid for both tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta. These findings suggest that inhaled beryllium may directly stimulate the production of these cytokines by alveolar macrophages in vitro. PMID:8629860

  13. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha up-regulates decay-accelerating factor gene expression in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Andoh, A; Fujiyama, Y; Sumiyoshi, K; Sakumoto, H; Okabe, H; Bamba, T


    The increased expression of decay-accelerating factor (DAF) has been detected in intestinal epithelial cells at the inflamed mucosa. In this study, we examined the effects of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha on DAF expression in three intestinal epithelial cell lines. DAF mRNA expression was evaluated by Northern blot analysis, and DAF protein expression was analysed by biotin labelling and immunoprecipitation. TNF-alpha induced a marked increase in DAF mRNA and protein expression in HT-29, T84 and Caco-2 cells. In HT-29 cells, the effects of TNF-a on DAF mRNA accumulation were observed in a dose-dependent manner; DAF mRNA accumulation reached a maximum at 3-6 hr, and then gradually decreased. These effects of TNF-alpha required de novo protein synthesis. Messenger RNA stability studies suggested that TNF-alpha partially regulated DAF gene expression by a posttranscriptional mechanism. Moreover, the combination of TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL)-4 induced an additive increase in DAF mRNA accumulation in HT-29 and T84 cells. In human intestinal epithelial cells, TNF-alpha acts as a potent inducer of DAF mRNA expression, indicating an important role for TNF-alpha in the regulation of DAF expression at the inflamed mucosa. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:9155641

  14. A pathway for cell wall anchorage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-agglutinin.

    PubMed Central

    Lu, C F; Kurjan, J; Lipke, P N


    Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-agglutinin is a cell wall-anchored adhesion glycoprotein. The previously identified 140-kDa form, which contains a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor (D. Wojciechowicz, C.-F. Lu, J. Kurjan, and P. N. Lipke, Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:2554-2563, 1993), and additional forms of 80, 150, 250 to 300, and > 300 kDa had the properties of intermediates in a transport and cell wall anchorage pathway. N glycosylation and additional modifications resulted in successive increases in size during transport. The 150- and 250- to 300-kDa forms were membrane associated and are likely to be intermediates between the 140-kDa form and a cell surface GPI-anchored form of > 300 kDa. A soluble form of > 300 kDa that lacked the GPI anchor had properties of a periplasmic intermediate between the plasma membrane form and the > 300-kDa cell wall-anchored form. These results constitute experimental support for the hypothesis that GPI anchors act to localize alpha-agglutinin to the plasma membrane and that cell wall anchorage involves release from the GPI anchor to produce a periplasmic intermediate followed by linkage to the cell wall. Images PMID:8007981

  15. HIF-1alpha Deficiency Attenuates the Cardiomyogenesis of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kudová, Jana; Procházková, Jiřina; Vašiček, Ondřej; Perečko, Tomáš; Sedláčková, Miroslava; Pešl, Martin; Pacherník, Jiří


    Cardiac cell formation, cardiomyogenesis, is critically dependent on oxygen availability. It is known that hypoxia, a reduced oxygen level, modulates the in vitro differentiation of pluripotent cells into cardiomyocytes via hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α)-dependent mechanisms. However, the direct impact of HIF-1α deficiency on the formation and maturation of cardiac-like cells derived from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) in vitro remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that HIF-1α deficiency significantly altered the quality and quantity of mESC-derived cardiomyocytes. It was accompanied with lower mRNA and protein levels of cardiac cell specific markers (myosin heavy chains 6 and 7) and with a decreasing percentage of myosin heavy chain α and β, and cardiac troponin T-positive cells. As to structural aspects of the differentiated cardiomyocytes, the localization of contractile proteins (cardiac troponin T, myosin heavy chain α and β) and the organization of myofibrils were also different. Simultaneously, HIF-1α deficiency was associated with a lower percentage of beating embryoid bodies. Interestingly, an observed alteration in the in vitro differentiation scheme of HIF-1α deficient cells was accompanied with significantly lower expression of the endodermal marker (hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha). These findings thus suggest that HIF-1α deficiency attenuates spontaneous cardiomyogenesis through the negative regulation of endoderm development in mESC differentiating in vitro. PMID:27355368

  16. CD90-positive cells, an additional cell population, produce laminin {alpha}2 upon transplantation to dy{sup 3k}/dy{sup 3k} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fukada, So-ichiro Yamamoto, Yukiko; Segawa, Masashi; Sakamoto, Kenta; Nakajima, Mari; Sato, Masaki; Morikawa, Daisuke; Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Tsujikawa, Kazutake; Yamamoto, Hiroshi


    Laminin {alpha}2 is a component of skeletal and cardiac muscle basal lamina. A defect of the laminin {alpha}2 chain leads to severe congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A) in humans and dy/dy mice. Myogenic cells including myoblasts, myotubes, and myofibers in skeletal muscle are a possible source of the laminin {alpha}2 chain, and myogenic cells are thus proposed as a cell source for congenital muscular dystrophy therapy. However, we observed production of laminin {alpha}2 in non-myogenic cells of normal mice, and we could enrich these laminin {alpha}2-producing cells in CD90{sup +} cell fractions. Intriguingly, the number of CD90{sup +} cells increased dramatically during skeletal muscle regeneration in mice. This fraction did not include myogenic cells but exhibited a fibroblast-like phenotype. Moreover, these cells were resident in skeletal muscle, not derived from bone marrow. Finally, the production of laminin {alpha}2 in CD90{sup +} cells was not dependent on fusion with myogenic cells. Thus, CD90{sup +} cells are a newly identified additional cell fraction that increased during skeletal muscle regeneration in vivo and could be another cell source for therapy for lama2-deficient muscular dystrophy.

  17. In utero transplantation of monocytic cells in cats with alpha-mannosidosis

    PubMed Central

    Abkowitz, Janis L.; Sabo, Kathleen M.; Yang, Zhantao; Vite, Charles H.; Shields, Laurence E.; Haskins, Mark E.


    Background Lysosomal storage diseases are devastating illnesses, in large part because of their neurological consequences. Since significant morbidity occurs prenatally, in utero therapy is an attractive therapeutic approach. Methods We studied the feasibility and efficacy of in utero (IU) injections of monocytic cells (derived from normal marrow) in feline alpha-mannosidosis. Heterozygous cats were interbred to produce affected (homozygous) and control (heterozygous and wild-type) offspring. Thirty-seven pregnancies were studied in which fetuses were transplanted intraperitoneally (1 × 108 cells/kg recipient) at gestational day 27–33 and then each week for two weeks (term=63 days). After birth, affected kittens were evaluated clinically and pathologically, tissue alpha-mannosidase (MANB) levels were assayed, and in many studies, the numbers of MANB-containing cells were enumerated. When male donor cells were transplanted into female recipients, engraftment was also quantified using PCR to amplify a Y-chromosome-specific sequence. Results We establish methods to transplant cats intraperitoneally while IU using ultrasound guidance, thus, describing a new large animal model for prenatal therapy. We show that the donor monocytic cells engraft and persist (for up to 125 days) in brain, liver, and spleen, albeit at levels below those needed to alter the clinical or pathological progression of the alpha-mannosidosis. Conclusions This is the first study of monocyte transplantation in a large animal model of a lysosomal storage disorder and demonstrates its feasibility, safety, and promise. Delivering cells IU may be a useful strategy to prevent morbidities before a definitive therapy, such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, can be administered after birth. PMID:19667933

  18. Mannosidase 2, alpha 1 deficiency is associated with ricin resistance in embryonic stem (ES) cells.


    Wang, Wei; Hale, Christine; Goulding, Dave; Haslam, Stuart M; Tissot, Bérangère; Lindsay, Christopher; Michell, Stephen; Titball, Rick; Yu, Jun; Toribio, Ana Luisa; Rossi, Raffaella; Dell, Anne; Bradley, Allan; Dougan, Gordon


    Host gene products required for mediating the action of toxins are potential targets for reversing or controlling their pathogenic impact following exposure. To identify such targets libraries of insertional gene-trap mutations generated with a PiggyBac transposon in Blm-deficient embryonic stem cells were exposed to the plant toxin, ricin. Resistant clones were isolated and genetically characterised and one was found to be a homozygous mutant of the mannosidase 2, alpha 1 (Man2α1) locus with a matching defect in the homologous allele. The causality of the molecular lesion was confirmed by removal of the transposon following expression of PB-transposase. Comparative glycomic and lectin binding analysis of the Man2α1 (-/-) ricin resistant cells revealed an increase in the levels of hybrid glycan structures and a reduction in terminal β-galactose moieties, potential target receptors for ricin. Furthermore, naïve ES cells treated with inhibitors of the N-linked glycosylation pathway at the mannosidase 2, alpha 1 step exhibited either full or partial resistance to ricin. Therefore, we conclusively identified mannosidase 2, alpha 1 deficiency to be associated with ricin resistance. PMID:21886775

  19. Respiratory epithelial cell expression of human transforming growth factor-alpha induces lung fibrosis in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Korfhagen, T R; Swantz, R J; Wert, S E; McCarty, J M; Kerlakian, C B; Glasser, S W; Whitsett, J A


    Increased production of EGF or TGF-alpha by the respiratory epithelial cells has been associated with the pathogenesis of various forms of lung injury. Growth factors and cytokines are thought to act locally, via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms, to stimulate cell proliferation and matrix deposition by interstitial lung cells resulting in pulmonary fibrosis. To test whether TGF-alpha mediates pulmonary fibrotic responses, we have generated transgenic mice expressing human TGF-alpha under control of regulatory regions of the human surfactant protein C (SP-C) gene. Human TGF-alpha mRNA was expressed in pulmonary epithelial cells in the lungs of the transgenic mice. Adult mice bearing the SP-C-TGF-alpha transgene developed severe pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrotic lesions were observed in peribronchial, peribronchiolar, and perivascular regions, as well as subjacent to pleural surfaces. Lesions consisted of fibrous tissue that included groups of epithelial cells expressing endogenous SP-C mRNA, consistent with their identification as distal respiratory epithelial cells. Peripheral fibrotic regions consisted of thickened pleura associated with extensive collagen deposition. Alveolar architecture was disrupted in the transgenic mice with loss of alveoli in the lung parenchyma. Pulmonary epithelial cell expression of TGF-alpha in transgenic mice disrupts alveolar morphogenesis and produces fibrotic lesions mediated by paracrine signaling between respiratory epithelial and interstitial cells of the lung. Images PMID:8163670

  20. Human cord blood T-cell receptor alpha beta cell responses to protein antigens of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis yeast forms.

    PubMed Central

    Munk, M E; Kaufmann, S H


    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis causes a chronic granulomatous mycosis, prevalent in South America, and cell-mediated immunity represents the principal mode of protection against this fungal infection. We investigated the response of naive cord blood T cells to P. brasiliensis lysates. Our results show: (1) P. brasiliensis stimulates T-cell expansion, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production and differentiation into cytotoxic T cells; (2) T-cell stimulation depends on P. brasiliensis processing and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression; (3) the responsive T-cell population expresses alpha beta T-cell receptors (TCR) with different V beta gene products, CD4 and CD45RO; (4) the P. brasiliensis components involved in T-cell expansion primarily reside in a high molecular weight (100,000 MW) and a low molecular weight (< 1000 MW) protein fraction. These results indicate that protein antigens of P. brasiliensis stimulate cord blood CD4 alpha beta T cells, independent from in vivo presensitization, and thus question direct correlation of positive in vitro responses with protective immunity in vivo. PMID:7890308

  1. HIF-1alpha Expression Profile in Intratumoral and Peritumoral Inflammatory Cells as a Prognostic Marker for Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Suzanny Oliveira; dos Santos, Marcelo; Peterle, Gabriela Tonini; Maia, Lucas de Lima; Stur, Elaine; Agostini, Lidiane Pignaton; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Louro, Iúri Drumond; Trivilin, Leonardo Oliveira; da Silva-Conforti, Adriana Madeira Álvares


    The HIF-1 transcriptional complex is responsible for controlling transcription of over 100 genes involved in cell hypoxia response. HIF-1alpha subunit is stabilized in hypoxia conditions, creating the HIF-1 nuclear transcription factor. In inflammatory cells, high HIF-1alpha expression induces lymphocytic immunosuppression, decreasing tumoral antigen recognition, which promotes tumor growth. The present work investigated the relationship between HIF-1alpha expression in lymphocytes populating the intratumoral and peritumoral region of 56 patients with oral cancer. Our data indicates a prognostic value for this expression. High HIF-1alpha expression in peritumoral inflammatory cells is significantly related to worse patient outcome, whereas high expression in the intratumoral lymphoid cells correlates with a better prognosis. A risk profile indicating the chance of disease relapse and death was designed based on HIF-1alpha expression in tumoral inflammatory cells, defining low, intermediate and high risks. This risk profile was able to determine that high HIF-1alpha expression in peritumoral cells correlates with worse prognosis, independently of intratumoral expression. Low HIF-1alpha in tumor margins and high expression in the tumor was considered a low risk profile, showing no cases of disease relapse and disease related death. Intermediate risk was associated with low expression in tumor and tumor margins. Our results suggest that HIF-1alpha expression in tumor and peritumoral inflammatory cells may play an important role as prognostic tumor marker. PMID:24416312

  2. Do HLA genes play a prominent role in determining T cell receptor V{alpha} segment usage in humans?

    SciTech Connect

    Gulwani-Akolkar, B.; Shi, B.; Akolkar, P.N.


    Previous studies in humans have demonstrated that HLA genes can profoundly influence the TCR V{beta} repertoire. To similarly assess the influence of HLA genes on the TCR V{alpha} segment repertoire, the V{alpha} repertoires of 12 individuals from three unrelated families were determined by quantitative PCR. Each family contained at least one pair of HLA-identical and -nonidentical siblings. Repertoire analysis was performed on purified CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} cells by using V{alpha}-specific primers. We were unable to demonstrate more similar V{alpha} repertoires between HLA-identical siblings than between HLA-nonidentical siblings. In contrast, when a similar analysis was performed on the same individuals for the V{beta} repertoire, HLA-identical siblings were found to have significantly more similar repertoires than HLA-nonidentical siblings. Furthermore, both the V{alpha} and V{beta} repertoires of monozygotic twins showed striking similarity. Despite our inability to shown an influence of HLA genes on the V{alpha} repertoire, we did observe a very strong skewing in terms of preferential expression on CD4{sup +} or CD8{sup +} cells of several V{alpha} segments, notably TCRAV1, -2, -5, -6, -7, -11, -12, and -13. These studies suggest that HLA genes play less of a role in determining V{alpha} segment usage than V{beta}. Nevertheless, the pronounced skewing of V{alpha} segment expression in the CD4{sup +} or CD8{sup +} populations suggests some role for HLA genes in determining the V{alpha} TCR repertoire. Furthermore, the striking similarity of V{alpha} repertoires of identical twins suggests a major role for non-HLA genes in determining the V{alpha} repertoire. 35 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Increased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and natural killer cell (NK) function using an integrative approach in late stage cancers.


    See, Darryl; Mason, Stephanie; Roshan, Ramesh


    Natural products may increase cytotoxic activity of Natural Killer Cells (NK) Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-alpha) while decreasing DNA damage in patients with late-stage cancer. Pilot studies have suggested that a combination of Nutraceuticals can raise NK cell function and TNF-alpha alpha activity and result in improved clinical outcomes in patients with late stage cancer. The objective of the study is to determine if Nutraceuticals can significantly raise NK function and TNF levels in patients with late stage cancer. After informed consent was obtained, 20 patients with stage IV, end-stage cancer were evaluated (one bladder, five breast, two prostate, one neuroblastoma, two non-small cell lung, three colon, 1 mesothelioma, two lymphoma, one ovarian, one gastric, one osteosarcoma). Transfer Factor Plus (TFP+, 3 tablets 3 times per day), IMUPlus (non denatured milk whey protein, 40 gm/day); Intravenous (50 to 100 gm/day) and oral (1-2 gm/day) ascorbic acid; Agaricus Blazeii Murill teas (10 gm/day); Immune Modulator Mix (a combination of vitamin, minerals, antioxidants and immune-enhancing natural products); nitrogenated soy extract (high levels of genistein and dadzein) and Andrographis Paniculata (500 mg twice, daily) were used. Baseline NK function by standard 4 h 51Cr release assay and TNF alpha and receptor levels were measured by ELISA from resting and phytohemagglutinin (PHA) stimulated adherent and non-adherent Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell (PBMC). Total mercaptans and glutathione in plasma were taken and compared to levels measured 6 months later. Complete blood counts and chemistry panels were routinely monitored. As of a mean of 6 months, 16/20 patients were still alive. The 16 survivors had significantly higher NK function than baseline (p < .01 for each) and TNF-alpha levels in all four cell populations studied (p < .01 for each). Total mercaptans (p < .01) and TNF-alpha receptor levels were significantly reduced (p < .01). It was also observed

  4. Monte-Carlo dosimetry on a realistic cell monolayer geometry exposed to alpha particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberet, Ph; Vianna, F.; Karamitros, M.; Brun, T.; Gordillo, N.; Moretto, Ph; Incerti, S.; Seznec, H.


    The energy and specific energy absorbed in the main cell compartments (nucleus and cytoplasm) in typical radiobiology experiments are usually estimated by calculations as they are not accessible for a direct measurement. In most of the work, the cell geometry is modelled using the combination of simple mathematical volumes. We propose a method based on high resolution confocal imaging and ion beam analysis (IBA) in order to import realistic cell nuclei geometries in Monte-Carlo simulations and thus take into account the variety of different geometries encountered in a typical cell population. Seventy-six cell nuclei have been imaged using confocal microscopy and their chemical composition has been measured using IBA. A cellular phantom was created from these data using the ImageJ image analysis software and imported in the Geant4 Monte-Carlo simulation toolkit. Total energy and specific energy distributions in the 76 cell nuclei have been calculated for two types of irradiation protocols: a 3 MeV alpha particle microbeam used for targeted irradiation and a 239Pu alpha source used for large angle random irradiation. Qualitative images of the energy deposited along the particle tracks have been produced and show good agreement with images of DNA double strand break signalling proteins obtained experimentally. The methodology presented in this paper provides microdosimetric quantities calculated from realistic cellular volumes. It is based on open-source oriented software that is publicly available.

  5. Monte-Carlo dosimetry on a realistic cell monolayer geometry exposed to alpha particles.


    Barberet, Ph; Vianna, F; Karamitros, M; Brun, T; Gordillo, N; Moretto, Ph; Incerti, S; Seznec, H


    The energy and specific energy absorbed in the main cell compartments (nucleus and cytoplasm) in typical radiobiology experiments are usually estimated by calculations as they are not accessible for a direct measurement. In most of the work, the cell geometry is modelled using the combination of simple mathematical volumes. We propose a method based on high resolution confocal imaging and ion beam analysis (IBA) in order to import realistic cell nuclei geometries in Monte-Carlo simulations and thus take into account the variety of different geometries encountered in a typical cell population. Seventy-six cell nuclei have been imaged using confocal microscopy and their chemical composition has been measured using IBA. A cellular phantom was created from these data using the ImageJ image analysis software and imported in the Geant4 Monte-Carlo simulation toolkit. Total energy and specific energy distributions in the 76 cell nuclei have been calculated for two types of irradiation protocols: a 3 MeV alpha particle microbeam used for targeted irradiation and a ²³⁹Pu alpha source used for large angle random irradiation. Qualitative images of the energy deposited along the particle tracks have been produced and show good agreement with images of DNA double strand break signalling proteins obtained experimentally. The methodology presented in this paper provides microdosimetric quantities calculated from realistic cellular volumes. It is based on open-source oriented software that is publicly available. PMID:22456322

  6. Effect of coacervated alpha-elastin on proliferation of vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells.


    Ito, S; Ishimaru, S; Wilson, S E


    The arterial wall injury associated with arterial graft implantation causes smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in the media to migrate and proliferate in the intima at the graft-artery junction resulting in anastomotic intimal hyperplasia (AIH). An important step in developing a small-diameter prosthesis may be to stimulate endothelialization and thereby inhibit AIH. In this study, we investigated the effect of coacervated and crosslinked alpha-elastin on proliferation of SMCs and endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro. Coacervation is an important step in the conversion of proelastin to make an elastin fiber in vivo. SMCs and ECs were prepared from porcine aortic media and endothelium, respectively. SMCs and ECs (three to five passages, 4 x 10[4] cells/well) were seeded onto 12 well plates, coated and crosslinked with 0 or 10 mg/mL of coacervated alpha-elastin. After the 1st, 2nd, or 3rd day of cultivation, proliferation was assayed by scintillation counting of [3H]-thymidine incorporation. For the 4th day only, 0, 0.1, 1, 10 mg/mL concentration of coacervated alpha-elastin was coated and crosslinked. SMC proliferation (1st, 2nd day: p<0.005; 3rd, 4th day: p<0.0001) was significantly inhibited over time and dose dependently, eg, 0.1 mg/mL (45.7+/-2.3%: % of control p<0.005), 1 mg/mL (5.9+/-0.7%, p<0.0005), 10 mg/mL (2.8+/-0.4%, p<0.0005). EC proliferation was inhibited over time by 10 mg/mL of coacervated alpha-elastin (2nd, 3rd day: p<0.005; 4th day: p<0.0001), but proliferation (132.8+/-9.9%: % of control p=NS) was stimulated by 0.1 mg/mL of coacervated alpha-elastin. These results suggest that coating and crosslinking a coacervated alpha-elastin into the structure of arterial prosthesis may inhibit AIH and stimulate endothelialization. PMID:9555932

  7. Costimulation-dependent modulation of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by ligand stimulation of V alpha 14 NK T cells.


    Pál, E; Tabira, T; Kawano, T; Taniguchi, M; Miyake, S; Yamamura, T


    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a Th1 cell-mediated autoimmune disease that can be protected against by stimulating regulatory cells. Here we examined whether EAE can be purposefully modulated by stimulating Valpha14 NK T cells with the CD1d-restricted ligand alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GC). EAE induced in wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice was not appreciably altered by injection of alpha-GC. However, EAE induced in IL-4 knockout mice and IFN-gamma knockout mice was enhanced or suppressed by alpha-GC, respectively. This indicates that the IL-4 and IFN-gamma triggered by alpha-GC may play an inhibitory or enhancing role in the regulation of EAE. We next studied whether NK T cells of wild-type mice may switch their Th0-like phenotype toward Th1 or Th2. Notably, in the presence of blocking B7.2 (CD86) mAb, alpha-GC stimulation could bias the cytokine profile of NK T cells toward Th2, whereas presentation of alpha-GC by CD40-activated APC induced a Th1 shift of NK T cells. Furthermore, transfer of the alpha-GC-pulsed APC preparations suppressed or enhanced EAE according to their ability to polarize NK T cells toward Th2 or Th1 in vitro. These results have important implications for understanding the role of NK T cells in autoimmunity and for designing a therapeutic strategy targeting NK T cells. PMID:11123351

  8. Binding of RANTES, MCP-1, MCP-3, and MIP-1alpha to cells in human skin.

    PubMed Central

    Hub, E.; Rot, A.


    Based on their ability to induce leukocyte chemotaxis and adhesion to endothelial cells (ECs), chemokines have been implicated in driving inflammatory leukocyte emigration. Recently, it was suggested that chemokines can accomplish their pro-emigratory role more effectively while being bound to the luminal surface of the ECs. Previously, such binding was demonstrated in situ in human skin for the prototype alpha-chemokine interleukin (IL)-8. Here we used an in situ binding assay to investigate the binding characteristics of several beta-chemokines in intact human skin. RANTES, MCP-1, and MCP-3 bound, similar to IL-8, in a specific saturable manner to the ECs of venules and small veins but not arteries or capillaries. RANTES inhibited MCP-1 and MCP-3 binding and vice versa, indicating that the EC binding sites are shared among these beta-chemokines; moreover, IL-8 and RANTES cross-competed for each other's binding, suggesting that the same chemokine binding sites are used by members of alpha- and beta-chemokine subfamilies. Conversely, MIP-1alpha did not bind to the ECs and did not compete for binding of RANTES. Analogous to IL-8, all of the tested beta-chemokines bound to the resident dermal cells. As a novel aspect of chemokine interaction with cells in normal skin, we observed specific, saturable binding of RANTES, MCP-1, and MCP-3 but not MIP-1alpha or IL-8 to the ECs of dermal afferent lymphatic vessels. RANTES, MCP-1, and MCP-3 also cross-competed for each other's binding to lymphatics, suggesting a common binding site with a novel chemokine binding profile. We suggest that the chemokine binding to the ECs of lymphatics may be involved in the process of leukocyte entry into the afferent lymphatic vessels. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9502417

  9. Rotavirus spike protein VP5* binds alpha2beta1 integrin on the cell surface and competes with virus for cell binding and infectivity.


    Graham, Kate L; Takada, Yoshikazu; Coulson, Barbara S


    Rotaviruses recognize several cell-surface molecules, including the alpha2beta1 integrin, and the processes of rotavirus cell attachment and entry appear to be multifactorial. The VP5* subunit of the rotavirus spike protein VP4 contains the alpha2beta1 ligand sequence Asp-Gly-Glu at residues 308-310. Binding to alpha2beta1 and infectivity of monkey rotavirus strain RRV and human rotavirus strain Wa, but not porcine rotavirus strain CRW-8, are inhibited by peptides containing Asp-Gly-Glu. Asp308 and Gly309 are necessary for the binding of RRV VP5* (aa 248-474) to expressed I domain of the alpha2 integrin subunit. Here, the ability of RRV VP5* to bind cells and affect rotavirus-integrin interactions was determined. Interestingly, VP5* bound to cells at 4 and 37 degrees C, both via alpha2beta1 and independently of this integrin. Prior VP5* binding at 37 degrees C eliminated RRV binding to cellular alpha2beta1 and reduced RRV and Wa infectivity in MA104 cells by 38-46 %. VP5* binding did not affect the infectivity of CRW-8. VP5* binding at 4 degrees C did not affect permissive-cell infection by RRV, indicating an energy requirement for VP5* competition with virus for infectivity. Mutagenesis of VP5* Asp308 and Gly309 eliminated VP5* binding to alpha2beta1 and the VP5* inhibition of rotavirus cell binding and infection, but not alpha2beta1-independent cell binding by VP5*. These studies show for the first time that expressed VP5* binds cell-surface alpha2beta1 using Asp308 and Gly309 and inhibits the infection of homologous and heterologous rotaviruses that use alpha2beta1 as a receptor. PMID:16603530

  10. Role of alpha 5 beta 1 integrin in TGF-beta 1-costimulated CD8+ T cell growth and apoptosis.


    Rich, S; Van Nood, N; Lee, H M


    TGF-beta 1 regulates cell growth, differentiation, and adhesion and is a potent immunosuppressant, in part through its well-recognized growth-inhibitory effects. However, certain T cell subsets, particularly of naive phenotype, can instead be costimulated to proliferate by TGF-beta 1. We have previously demonstrated that naive murine CD8+ T cells, TCR activated by platebound anti-CD3 Ab or SEB superantigen, are growth stimulated by TGF-beta 1, acquire a memory phenotype, express elevated IL-10 and TGF-beta 1, and cause T cell growth inhibition as effector CD8+ T cells. TGF-beta 1 causes growth among certain nonlymphoid cells in part by inducing or mimicking integrin activation. The present studies thus addressed mediation of TGF-beta 1-dependent growth and survival of anti-CD3-triggered CD8+ T cells via beta 1 integrins. TGF-beta 1 reduced anti-CD3-activated alpha 4 beta 1 integrin expression and constitutive adhesion to fibronectin, while initial alpha 5 beta 1 expression was heightened and adhesive function sustained. Fibronectin-based RGD peptides that bind alpha 5 beta 1 integrins and alpha 5 or beta 1 integrin chain-specific Abs blocked TGF-beta 1-dependent proliferation, while connecting segment-1 peptide that binds alpha 4 beta 1 integrin and alpha 4 chain-specific Abs had no effect. Cross-linked alpha 5- but not alpha 4-specific Ab mimicked TGF-beta 1 function by costimulating CD8+ T cell growth. TGF-beta 1 also caused RGD peptide-sensitive CD8+ T cell aggregation. Additionally, TGF-beta 1-costimulated proliferation correlated with TGF-beta 1 protection of CD8+ T cells from anti-CD3-induced apoptosis. RGD peptides and alpha 5 integrin-specific Ab abolished TGF-beta 1 prevention of activation-induced apoptosis. Therefore, TGF-beta 1 costimulates CD8+ T cell growth via activation of the alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and/or its ligand and supports sustained growth at least in part by alpha 5 beta 1-mediated protection from activation-induced apoptosis. PMID:8816397

  11. Spontaneous expression of a low affinity Fc receptor for IgA (Fc alpha R) on human B cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Millet, I; Briere, F; Vincent, C; Rousset, F; Andreoni, C; De Vries, J E; Revillard, J P


    Expression of receptors for IgA (Fc alpha Rs) was investigated on a panel of 35 human B cell lines by labelling with human secretory IgA (0.5 mg/ml) and flow cytometry analysis after staining with fluoresceinated goat anti-human secretory component and/or anti-alpha chain F(ab')2 fragments. Receptors for IgA could be demonstrated on one out of nine Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, three out of five myeloma cell lines and five out of 21 lymphoblastoid cell lines. The percentage of Fc alpha R-positive cells within the same B cell line varied upon repeated examination. Human dimeric IgA1 lambda myeloma protein revealed the same number of IgA receptor positive cells as did secretory IgA, whereas monomeric IgA did not bind to Fc alpha R. Detection of Fc alpha R was not inhibited when the tests were carried out in the presence of human dimeric IgG, IgM, asialo-orosomucoid, and secretory component but it was abrogated by pre-treatment of the cells with trypsin. The binding characteristics of Fc alpha Rs were studied on the myeloma cell line Esteve, using 125I-labelled human dimeric IgA and secretory IgA. The binding was dose-dependent with rapid kinetics and specific inhibition by unlabelled secretory IgA. Scatchard plot analysis resulted in an equilibrium constant K ranging from 3.2 to 4.7 x 10(6) M/l. No correlation was observed between Fc alpha R expression and differentiation stage, monoclonality, polyclonality of the cell lines, or Ig class produced by the B cells. PMID:2788048

  12. Retroviral interleukin 1alpha gene transfer in bone marrow stromal cells in a primate model: induction of myelopoiesis stimulation.


    de Revel, Thierry; Becard, Nicolas; Sorg, Tania; Rousseau, Sandrine; Spano, Jean Philippe; Thiebot, Hugues; Methali, Magid; Gras, Gabriel; Le Grand, Roger; Dormont, Dominique


    Effects of interleukin 1-alpha (IL-1alpha), a proinflammatory cytokine with pleiotropic activity, in the myelopoietic setting, is mainly linked to its ability to increase haematopoietic growth factor production by bone marrow stromal cells. In order to minimize systemic effects of IL-1alpha therapy, we proposed a model of retroviral IL-1alpha gene transfer within bone marrow stromal cells in the macaque cynomolgus. Invitro, 10-15% of bone marrow stromal cells was effectively transduced by retroviral vector (murine Moloney leukaemia virus-derived) expressing IL-1alpha/LacZ, or LacZ alone as control marker, as assessed by betaGal staining. IL-1alpha gene expression was upregulated [semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)] within the transduced cells and the cell supernatant showed an increased production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage (GM)-CSF (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and an increased clonogenic activity (colony-forming cell assay). Ex vivo autologous expanded IL-1alpha/LacZ transduced bone marrow stromal cells were reinfused in two macaques (and two control animals for LacZ alone as controls), without clinical systemic toxicity; LacZ expression by RT-PCR was detected in one animal of each group between d 4 and 9. A slight increase of the peripheral blood leucocyte counts (both polymorphonuclear cells and monocytes) of the two animals transduced with IL-1alpha/LacZ was observed within 10 d, indicating stimulation of myelopoiesis. PMID:12181061

  13. Halogenated benzimidazole carboxamides target integrin alpha4 beta1 on T and B cell lymphomas3456

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Richard D.; Natarajan, Arutselvan; Lau, Edmond Y.; Andrei, Mirela; Solano, Danielle M.; Lightstone, Felice C.; DeNardo, Sally J.; Lam, Kit S.; Kurth, Mark J.


    Integrin alpha-4 beta-1 (alpha4 beta1, alpha(4)beta(1), α4β1) is an attractive but poorly understood target for selective diagnosis and treatment of T and B cell lymphomas. This report focuses on the rapid microwave preparation, structure-activity relationships and biological evaluation of medicinally pertinent benzimidazole heterocycles as integrin α4β1 antagonists. We documented tumor uptake of derivatives labelled with I-125 in xenograft murine models of B-cell lymphoma. Molecular homology models of integrin α4β1 predicted that docked halobenzimidazole carboxamides have the halogen atom in a suitable orientation for halogen-hydrogen bonding. The high affinity halogenated ligands identified offer attractive tools for medicinal and biological use, including fluoro and iodo derivatives with potential radiodiagnostic (18F) or radiotherapeutic (131I) applications, or chloro and bromo analogues that could provide structural insights into integrin-ligand interactions through photoaffinity, cross-linking/mass spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallographic studies. PMID:20530664

  14. DNA binding of Pd(TC3), a conformable cationic porphyrin with a long-lived triplet state.


    Ghimire, Srijana; Bork, Matthew A; Zhang, Hanyu; Fanwick, Phillip E; Zeller, Matthias; Choi, Jong Hyun; McMillin, David R


    The goal of this work has been to synthesize and investigate Pd(TC3), an intercalating porphyrin that has conformable substituents capable of groove binding to B-form DNA. (TC3 denotes the doubly deprotonated form of 5,10,15,20-tetra[3-(3'-methylimidazolium-1'-yl)prop-1-yl]porphyrin.) Palladium(ii) is an apt choice for the central metal ion because it remains strictly four-coordinate and provides for a luminescent triplet excited state with a long lifetime. The DNA hosts are hairpin-forming sequences programmed to differ in base composition. Luminescence, absorbance, and circular dichroism results are consistent with the idea that congruent structural reorganization takes place at the host and ligand during uptake. Photoexcitation of DNA-bound Pd(TC3) generates a comparatively modest steady state concentration of singlet oxygen, due to a relatively slow reaction with molecular oxygen in solution. The sheer size of the substituent groups disfavors quenching, but groove-binding interactions compound the problem by inhibiting mobility. The results show how ligand design affects adduct structure as well as function. PMID:27534907

  15. Isolation of human alpha 2HS-glycoprotein synthesized by Sf9 cells.


    Lörincz, Z; Kalabay, L; Cseh, S; Závodszky, P; Arnaud, P; Jakab, L


    The human alpha 2HS-glycoprotein is a negative acute phase protein synthesized by hepatocytes. Because of its fragility and the difficulty of its purification, we used recombinant DNA techniques to produce the protein in order to investigate its biological effects. The cDNA coding for the whole alpha 2HS-glycoprotein from human liver library had been cloned into the baculovirus expression vector system using the pVL 1392 transfer vector and Sf9 cells. The recombinant protein was synthesized in the Sf9 cells and was isolated on a hydroxiapatite column from the culture medium. Western blot analysis indicated that the cells synthesized large quantities of the recombinant human protein. The molecular mass of the recombinant AHSG was the same as that of the protein in human plasma but was slightly lower than that of AHSG in the cell culture supernatants of HepG2 and higher than that of AHSG from Hep3B cell cultures, respectively. PMID:9873947

  16. Detailed 8-transistor SRAM cell analysis for improved alpha particle radiation hardening in nanometer technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bota, Sebastià A.; Torrens, Gabriel; Verd, Jaume; Segura, Jaume


    Eight-transistor (8T) cells were introduced to improve variability tolerance, cell stability and low-voltage operation in high-speed SRAM caches by decoupling the read and write design requirements. Altogether, 8T-SRAM can be designed without significant area penalty over 6T-SRAM. Ionizing radiation effects are nowadays a major concern for reliability and dependability of emerging electronic SRAM devices, even for sea-level applications. In this paper we demonstrate from experimental results that the 8T-SRAM also exhibits an enhanced overall intrinsic tolerance to alpha particle radiation even though its critical charge values are smaller than conventional 6T cells. We have experimentally found that the soft error rate measured in accelerated experiments with alpha particles in SRAM devices implemented in a 65 nm CMOS is 56% better for 8T cells with respect to standard 6T-cells. Even more, we show that this value can be increased up to a 200% through transistor sizing optimization.

  17. Prostaglandin F{sub 2{alpha}} regulates cytokine responses of mast cells through the receptors for prostaglandin E

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Izumi; Hishinuma, Takanori; Suzuki, Kaori; Owada, Yuji; Kitanaka, Noriko; Kondo, Hisatake; Goto, Junichi; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Ono, Masao


    There is an increasing body of evidence that prostanoids modulate mast cell functions and contribute to the development of allergic inflammation. The present study aimed to identify an undetermined function of prostaglandin (PG) F{sub 2{alpha}} in mast cell activation and the signaling mechanism involved in it. Simultaneous quantification of prostanoids by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry revealed the constitutive release of PGF{sub 2{alpha}}, thromboxane B{sub 2}, and 6-keto-PGF{sub 1{alpha}} from bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Upon activation of BMMCs by lipopolysaccharide, the cytokine production in BMMCs was enhanced when the culture was supplemented with PGF{sub 2{alpha}}. However, F prostanoid receptor-a selective receptor for PGF{sub 2{alpha}}-was not detected in BMMCs. Further investigations performed using prostanoid receptor antagonists revealed an alternative mechanism wherein the receptors for PGE species-E prostanoid receptors-mediated the PGF{sub 2{alpha}} signal in BMMCs. The present study provides an insight into a novel function of PGF{sub 2{alpha}}, i.e., an autocrine accelerator for mast cell activation.

  18. Neuroprotective Effects of Alpha-Mangostin on MPP+-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Janhom, Prachya; Dharmasaroja, Permphan


    In vitro studies have shown that extracts from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) act as antioxidants and cytoprotective agents against oxidative damage. The protective effect of alpha-mangostin, the major xanthone found in the pericarp of the mangosteen, in cellular models of Parkinson's disease (PD), has not been investigated. This study aims to investigate whether alpha-mangostin could protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from MPP+-induced apoptosis. The effects of alpha-mangostin on MPP+-induced cell death were evaluated with a cell viability assay, staining for nuclear DNA morphology, flow cytometry for apoptotic cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, quantitative real-time PCR for the expression of p53, Bax, and Bcl-2, and western blot analysis for cleaved caspase-3. Concomitant treatment with alpha-mangostin attenuated the effect of MPP+ on cell viability and apoptotic cell death. Alpha-mangostin reduced ROS formation induced by MPP+. Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio and expression of p53 were significantly lower in cells cocultured with alpha-mangostin and MPP+. The cotreated cells showed a significant decrease in activated caspase-3 compared with MPP+ treatment alone. Our data suggest that cytoprotection of alpha-mangostin against MPP+-induced apoptosis may be associated with the reduction of ROS production, modulating the balance of pro- and antiapoptotic genes, and suppression of caspase-3 activation. PMID:26357513

  19. Neuroprotective Effects of Alpha-Mangostin on MPP(+)-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells.


    Janhom, Prachya; Dharmasaroja, Permphan


    In vitro studies have shown that extracts from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) act as antioxidants and cytoprotective agents against oxidative damage. The protective effect of alpha-mangostin, the major xanthone found in the pericarp of the mangosteen, in cellular models of Parkinson's disease (PD), has not been investigated. This study aims to investigate whether alpha-mangostin could protect SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells from MPP(+)-induced apoptosis. The effects of alpha-mangostin on MPP(+)-induced cell death were evaluated with a cell viability assay, staining for nuclear DNA morphology, flow cytometry for apoptotic cells and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, quantitative real-time PCR for the expression of p53, Bax, and Bcl-2, and western blot analysis for cleaved caspase-3. Concomitant treatment with alpha-mangostin attenuated the effect of MPP(+) on cell viability and apoptotic cell death. Alpha-mangostin reduced ROS formation induced by MPP(+). Bax/Bcl-2 expression ratio and expression of p53 were significantly lower in cells cocultured with alpha-mangostin and MPP(+). The cotreated cells showed a significant decrease in activated caspase-3 compared with MPP(+) treatment alone. Our data suggest that cytoprotection of alpha-mangostin against MPP(+)-induced apoptosis may be associated with the reduction of ROS production, modulating the balance of pro- and antiapoptotic genes, and suppression of caspase-3 activation. PMID:26357513

  20. Mutagenic effects of a single and an exact number of alpha particles in mammalian cells.


    Hei, T K; Wu, L J; Liu, S X; Vannais, D; Waldren, C A; Randers-Pehrson, G


    One of the main uncertainties in risk estimation for environmental radon exposure using lung cancer data from underground miners is the extrapolation from high- to low-dose exposure where multiple traversal is extremely rare. The biological effects of a single alpha particle are currently unknown. Using the recently available microbeam source at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility at Columbia University, we examined the frequencies and molecular spectrum of S1- mutants induced in human-hamster hybrid (A(L)) cells by either a single or an exact number of alpha particles. Exponentially growing cells were stained briefly with a nontoxic concentration of Hoechst dye for image analysis, and the location of individual cells was computer-monitored. The nucleus of each cell was irradiated with either 1,2,4, or 8 alpha particles at a linear energy transfer of 90 keV/microm consistent with the energy spectrum of domestic radon exposure. Although single-particle traversal was only slightly cytotoxic to A(L) cells (survival fraction approximately 0.82), it was highly mutagenic, and the induced mutant fraction averaged 110 mutants per 10(5) survivors. In addition, both toxicity and mutant induction were dose-dependent. Multiplex PCR analysis of mutant DNA showed that the proportion of mutants with multilocus deletions increased with the number of particle traversals. These data provide direct evidence that a single a particle traversing a nucleus will have a high probability of resulting in a mutation and highlight the need for radiation protection at low doses. PMID:9108052

  1. Mutagenic effects of a single and an exact number of alpha particles in mammalian cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hei, T. K.; Wu, L. J.; Liu, S. X.; Vannais, D.; Waldren, C. A.; Randers-Pehrson, G.


    One of the main uncertainties in risk estimation for environmental radon exposure using lung cancer data from underground miners is the extrapolation from high- to low-dose exposure where multiple traversal is extremely rare. The biological effects of a single alpha particle are currently unknown. Using the recently available microbeam source at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility at Columbia University, we examined the frequencies and molecular spectrum of S1- mutants induced in human-hamster hybrid (A(L)) cells by either a single or an exact number of alpha particles. Exponentially growing cells were stained briefly with a nontoxic concentration of Hoechst dye for image analysis, and the location of individual cells was computer-monitored. The nucleus of each cell was irradiated with either 1,2,4, or 8 alpha particles at a linear energy transfer of 90 keV/microm consistent with the energy spectrum of domestic radon exposure. Although single-particle traversal was only slightly cytotoxic to A(L) cells (survival fraction approximately 0.82), it was highly mutagenic, and the induced mutant fraction averaged 110 mutants per 10(5) survivors. In addition, both toxicity and mutant induction were dose-dependent. Multiplex PCR analysis of mutant DNA showed that the proportion of mutants with multilocus deletions increased with the number of particle traversals. These data provide direct evidence that a single a particle traversing a nucleus will have a high probability of resulting in a mutation and highlight the need for radiation protection at low doses.

  2. Alpha fetoprotein plays a critical role in promoting metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma cells.


    Lu, Yan; Zhu, Mingyue; Li, Wei; Lin, Bo; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Xie, Xieju; Guo, Junli; Li, Mengsen


    A high level of serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is positively associated with human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) carcinogenesis and metastasis; however, the function of AFP in HCC metastasis is unknown. This study has explored the effects of AFP on regulating metastatic and invasive capacity of human HCC cells. Forty-seven clinical patients' liver samples were collected and diagnosed; HCC cells line, Bel 7402 cells (AFP-producing) and liver cancer cell line cells (non-AFP-producing) were selected to analyse the role of AFP in the metastasis of HCC cells. The results indicated that high serum concentration of AFP was positively correlated with HCC intrahepatic, lymph nodes and lung metastasis. Repressed expression of AFP significantly inhibited the capability of migration and invasion of Bel 7402 cells, expression of keratin 19 (K19), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), matrix metalloproteinase 2/9 (MMP2/9) and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) were also down-regulated in Bel 7402 cells; migration and invasion, expression of K19, EpCAM, MMP2/9 and CXCR4 were significantly enhanced when HLE cells were transfected with AFP-expressed vector. The results demonstrated that AFP plays a critical role in promoting metastasis of HCC; AFP promoted HCC cell invasion and metastasis via up-regulating expression of metastasis-related proteins. Thus, AFP may be used as a novel therapeutic target for treating HCC patients. PMID:26756858

  3. A delta T-cell receptor deleting element transgenic reporter construct is rearranged in alpha beta but not gamma delta T-cell lineages.

    PubMed Central

    Shutter, J; Cain, J A; Ledbetter, S; Rogers, M D; Hockett, R D


    T cells can be divided into two groups on the basis of the expression of either alpha beta or gamma delta T-cell receptors (TCRs). Because the TCR delta chain locus lies within the larger TCR alpha chain locus, control of the utilization of these two receptors is important in T-cell development, specifically for determination of T-cell type: rearrangement of the alpha locus results in deletion of the delta coding segments and commitment to the alpha beta lineage. In the developing thymus, a relative site-specific recombination occurs by which the TCR delta chain gene segments are deleted. This deletion removes all D delta, J delta, and C delta genes and occurs on both alleles. This delta deletional mechanism is evolutionarily conserved between mice and humans. Transgenic mice which contain the human delta deleting elements and as much internal TCR delta chain coding sequence as possible without allowing the formation of a complete delta chain gene were developed. Several transgenic lines showing recombinations between deleting elements within the transgene were developed. These lines demonstrate that utilization of the delta deleting elements occurs in alpha beta T cells of the spleen and thymus. These recombinations are rare in the gamma delta population, indicating that the machinery for utilization of delta deleting elements is functional in alpha beta T cells but absent in gamma delta T cells. Furthermore, a discrete population of early thymocytes containing delta deleting element recombinations but not V alpha-to-J alpha rearrangements has been identified. These data are consistent with a model in which delta deletion contributes to the implementation of a signal by which the TCR alpha chain locus is rearranged and expressed and thus becomes an alpha beta T cell. PMID:8524269

  4. New pterocarpanquinones: synthesis, antineoplasic activity on cultured human malignant cell lines and TNF-alpha modulation in human PBMC cells.


    Netto, Chaquip D; da Silva, Alcides J M; Salustiano, Eduardo J S; Bacelar, Thiago S; Riça, Ingred G; Cavalcante, Moises C M; Rumjanek, Vivian M; Costa, Paulo R R


    A new pterocarpanquinone (5a) was synthesized through a palladium catalyzed oxyarylation reaction and was transformed, through electrophilic substitution reaction, into derivatives 5b-d. These compounds showed to be active against human leukemic cell lines and human lung cancer cell lines. Even multidrug resistant cells were sensitive to 5a, which presented low toxicity toward peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) cells and decreased the production of TNF-alpha by these cells. In the laboratory these pterocarpanquinones were reduced by sodium dithionite in the presence of thiophenol at physiological pH, as NAD(P)H quinone oxidoredutase-1 (NQO1) catalyzed two-electron reduction, and the resulting hydroquinone undergo structural rearrangements, leading to the formation of Michael acceptors, which were intercepted as adducts of thiophenol. These results suggest that these compounds could be activated by bioreduction. PMID:20117936

  5. Two novel, putatively cell wall-associated and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored alpha-glucanotransferase enzymes of Aspergillus niger.


    van der Kaaij, R M; Yuan, X-L; Franken, A; Ram, A F J; Punt, P J; van der Maarel, M J E C; Dijkhuizen, L


    In the genome sequence of Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88, three genes were identified with high similarity to fungal alpha-amylases. The protein sequences derived from these genes were different in two ways from all described fungal alpha-amylases: they were predicted to be glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchored, and some highly conserved amino acids of enzymes in the alpha-amylase family were absent. We expressed two of these enzymes in a suitable A. niger strain and characterized the purified proteins. Both enzymes showed transglycosylation activity on donor substrates with alpha-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds and at least five anhydroglucose units. The enzymes, designated AgtA and AgtB, produced new alpha-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds and therefore belong to the group of the 4-alpha-glucanotransferases (EC Their reaction products reached a degree of polymerization of at least 30. Maltose and larger maltooligosaccharides were the most efficient acceptor substrates, although AgtA also used small nigerooligosaccharides containing alpha-(1,3)-glycosidic bonds as acceptor substrate. An agtA knockout of A. niger showed an increased susceptibility towards the cell wall-disrupting compound calcofluor white, indicating a cell wall integrity defect in this strain. Homologues of AgtA and AgtB are present in other fungal species with alpha-glucans in their cell walls, but not in yeast species lacking cell wall alpha-glucan. Possible roles for these enzymes in the synthesis and/or maintenance of the fungal cell wall are discussed. PMID:17496125

  6. Paxillin binding to the alpha 4 integrin subunit stimulates LFA-1 (integrin alpha L beta 2)-dependent T cell migration by augmenting the activation of focal adhesion kinase/proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2.


    Rose, David M; Liu, Shouchun; Woodside, Darren G; Han, Jaewon; Schlaepfer, David D; Ginsberg, Mark H


    Engagement of very late Ag-4 (integrin alpha(4)beta(1)) by ligands such as VCAM-1 markedly stimulates leukocyte migration mediated by LFA-1 (integrin alpha(L)beta(2)). This form of integrin trans-regulation in T cells requires the binding of paxillin to the alpha(4) integrin cytoplasmic domain. This conclusion is based on the abolition of trans-regulation in Jurkat T cells by an alpha(4) mutation (alpha(4)(Y991A)) that disrupts paxillin binding. Furthermore, cellular expression of an alpha(4)-binding fragment of paxillin that blocks the alpha(4)-paxillin interaction, selectively blocked VCAM-1 stimulation of alpha(L)beta(2)-dependent cell migration. The alpha(4)-paxillin association mediates trans-regulation by enhancing the activation of tyrosine kinases, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and/or proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (Pyk2), based on two lines of evidence. First, disruption of the paxillin-binding site in the alpha(4) tail resulted in much less alpha(4)beta(1)-mediated phosphorylation of Pyk2 and FAK. Second, transfection with cDNAs encoding C-terminal fragments of Pyk2 and FAK, which block the function of the intact kinases, blocked alpha(4)beta(1) stimulation of alpha(L)beta(2)-dependent migration. These results define a proximal protein-protein interaction of an integrin cytoplasmic domain required for trans-regulation between integrins, and establish that augmented activation of Pyk2 and/or FAK is an immediate signaling event required for the trans-regulation of integrin alpha(L)beta(2) by alpha(4)beta(1). PMID:12794117

  7. Alpha fetoprotein antagonizes apoptosis induced by paclitaxel in hepatoma cells in vitro.


    Zhu, Mingyue; Li, Wei; Lu, Yan; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Lin, Bo; Xie, Xieju; Guo, Junli; Li, Mengsen


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell resistance to the effects of paclitaxel has not been adequately addressed. In this study, we found that paclitaxel significantly inhibited the viability of HLE, Bel 7402 and L-02 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HLE cells and L-02 cells resisted the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel when transfected with pcDNA3.1-afp vectors. However, Bel 7402 cell sensitivity to paclitaxel was increased when transfected with alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-siRNA. Bel 7402 cell resistance to paclitaxel was associated with the expression of the "stemness" markers CD44 and CD133. Paclitaxel significantly inhibited growth and promoted apoptosis in HLE cells and L-02 cells by inducing fragmentation of caspase-3 and inhibiting the expression of Ras and Survivin, but pcDNA3.1-afp vectors prevented these effects. However, paclitaxel could not significantly promote the cleavage of caspase-3 or suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin in Bel 7402 cells. Silenced expression of AFP may be synergistic with paclitaxel to restrain proliferation and induce apoptosis, enhance cleavage of caspase-3, and suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin. Taken together, AFP may be an important molecule acting against paclitaxel-inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells via repressing the activity of caspase-3 and stimulating the expression of Ras and Survivin. Targeted inhibition of AFP expression after treatment with paclitaxel is an available strategy for the therapy of patients with HCC. PMID:27255186

  8. Alpha fetoprotein antagonizes apoptosis induced by paclitaxel in hepatoma cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingyue; Li, Wei; Lu, Yan; Dong, Xu; Chen, Yi; Lin, Bo; Xie, Xieju; Guo, Junli; Li, Mengsen


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell resistance to the effects of paclitaxel has not been adequately addressed. In this study, we found that paclitaxel significantly inhibited the viability of HLE, Bel 7402 and L-02 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HLE cells and L-02 cells resisted the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel when transfected with pcDNA3.1-afp vectors. However, Bel 7402 cell sensitivity to paclitaxel was increased when transfected with alpha fetoprotein (AFP)-siRNA. Bel 7402 cell resistance to paclitaxel was associated with the expression of the “stemness” markers CD44 and CD133. Paclitaxel significantly inhibited growth and promoted apoptosis in HLE cells and L-02 cells by inducing fragmentation of caspase-3 and inhibiting the expression of Ras and Survivin, but pcDNA3.1-afp vectors prevented these effects. However, paclitaxel could not significantly promote the cleavage of caspase-3 or suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin in Bel 7402 cells. Silenced expression of AFP may be synergistic with paclitaxel to restrain proliferation and induce apoptosis, enhance cleavage of caspase-3, and suppress the expression of Ras and Survivin. Taken together, AFP may be an important molecule acting against paclitaxel-inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells via repressing the activity of caspase-3 and stimulating the expression of Ras and Survivin. Targeted inhibition of AFP expression after treatment with paclitaxel is an available strategy for the therapy of patients with HCC. PMID:27255186

  9. Cell type-specific transcriptional regulation of the gene encoding importin-{alpha}1

    SciTech Connect

    Kamikawa, Yasunao; Yasuhara, Noriko; Yoneda, Yoshihiro; Department of Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University; JST, CREST, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871


    Importin-{alpha}1 belongs to a receptor family that recognizes classical nuclear localization signals. Encoded by Kpna2, this receptor subtype is highly expressed in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. In this study, we identified a critical promoter region in Kpna2 and showed that the expression of this gene is differentially regulated in ES cells and NIH3T3 cells. Conserved CCAAT boxes are required for Kpna2 promoter activity in both ES and NIH3T3 cells. Interestingly, deletion of the region from nucleotide position - 251 to - 179 bp resulted in a drastic reduction in Kpna2 transcriptional activity only in ES cells. This region contains Krueppel-like factor (Klf) binding sequences and is responsible for transactivation of the gene by Klf2 and Klf4. Accordingly, endogenous Kpna2 mRNA levels decreased in response to depletion of Klf2 and Klf4 in ES cells. Our results suggest that Klf2 and Klf4 function redundantly to drive high level of Kpna2 expression in ES cells. -- Research Highlights: {yields} We showed the cell type-specific transcriptional regulation of Kpna2 encoding importin-al. {yields} NF-Y binds the CCAAT boxes to activate Kpna2 transcription in NIH3T3 cells. {yields} Klf2 and Klf4 redundantly activate the expression of Kpna2 in ES cells.

  10. The endocytic protein alpha-Adaptin is required for numb-mediated asymmetric cell division in Drosophila.


    Berdnik, Daniela; Török, Tibor; González-Gaitán, Marcos; Knoblich, Juergen A


    During asymmetric cell division in Drosophila sensory organ precursor cells, the Numb protein localizes asymmetrically and segregates into one daughter cell, where it influences cell fate by repressing signal transduction via the Notch receptor. We show here that Numb acts by polarizing the distribution of alpha-Adaptin, a protein involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. alpha-Adaptin binds to Numb and localizes asymmetrically in a Numb-dependent fashion. Mutant forms of alpha-Adaptin that no longer bind to Numb fail to localize asymmetrically and cause numb-like defects in asymmetric cell division. Our results suggest a model in which Numb influences cell fate by downregulating Notch through polarized receptor-mediated endocytosis, since Numb also binds to the intracellular domain of Notch. PMID:12194853

  11. Tat-APE1/ref-1 protein inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced endothelial cell activation

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yun Jeong; Lee, Ji Young; Joo, Hee Kyoung; Kim, Hyo Shin; Lee, Sang Ki; Lee, Kwon Ho; Cho, Chung-Hyun; Park, Jin Bong; Jeon, Byeong Hwa


    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (APE1/ref-1) is a multifunctional protein involved both in DNA base excision repair and redox regulation. In this study we evaluated the protective role of Tat-mediated APE1/ref-1 transduction on the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}-activated endothelial activation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. To construct Tat-APE1/ref-1 fusion protein, human full length of APE1/ref-1 was fused with Tat-protein transduction domain. Purified Tat-APE1/ref-1 fusion protein efficiently transduced cultured endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner and reached maximum expression at 1 h after incubation. Transduced Tat-APE1/ref-1 showed inhibitory activity on the TNF-{alpha}-induced monocyte adhesion and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression in cultured endothelial cells. These results suggest Tat-APE1/ref-1 might be useful to reduce vascular endothelial activation or vascular inflammatory disorders.

  12. Apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in rat hepatocyte cell lines expressing hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed Central

    Guilhot, S.; Miller, T.; Cornman, G.; Isom, H. C.


    Three well differentiated SV40-immortalized rat hepatocyte cell lines, CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14, and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-producing cell lines derived from them were examined for sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV14 cells were co-transfected with a DNA construct containing a dimer of the HBV genome and the neo gene and selected in G418 to generate stable cell lines. Characterization of these cell lines indicated that they contain integrated HBV DNA, contain low molecular weight HBV DNA compatible with the presence of HBV replication intermediates, express HBV transcripts, and produce HBV proteins. The viability of CWSV1, CWSV2, and CWSV2 cells was not significantly altered when they were treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations as high as 20,000 U/ml. The HBV-expressing CWSV1 cell line, SV1di36, and the HBV-expressing CWSV14 cell line, SV14di208, were also not killed when treated with TNF-alpha. However, the HBV-expressing CWSV2 cell line, SV2di366, was extensively killed when treated with TNF-alpha at concentrations ranging from 200 to 20,000 U/ml. Analysis of several different HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines indicated that TNF-alpha killing depended upon the level of HBV expression. The TNF-alpha-induced cell killing in high HBV-producing CWSV2 cell lines was accompanied by the presence of an oligonucleosomal DNA ladder characteristic of apoptosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:8774135

  13. Integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein 1alpha (ICAP-1alpha ) interacts directly with the metastasis suppressor nm23-H2, and both proteins are targeted to newly formed cell adhesion sites upon integrin engagement.


    Fournier, Henri-Noël; Dupé-Manet, Sandra; Bouvard, Daniel; Lacombe, Marie-Lise; Marie, Christiane; Block, Marc R; Albiges-Rizo, Corinne


    Cell adhesion-dependent signaling implicates cytoplasmic proteins interacting with the intracellular tails of integrins. Among those, the integrin cytoplasmic domain-associated protein 1alpha (ICAP-1alpha) has been shown to interact specifically with the beta(1) integrin cytoplasmic domain. Although it is likely that this protein plays an important role in controlling cell adhesion and migration, little is known about its actual function. To search for potential ICAP-1alpha-binding proteins, we used a yeast two-hybrid screen and identified the human metastatic suppressor protein nm23-H2 as a new partner of ICAP-1alpha. This direct interaction was confirmed in vitro, using purified recombinant ICAP-1alpha and nm23-H2, and by co-immunoprecipitation from CHO cell lysates over-expressing ICAP-1alpha. The physiological relevance of this interaction is provided by confocal fluorescence microscopy, which shows that ICAP-1alpha and nm23-H2 are co-localized in lamellipodia during the early stages of cell spreading. These adhesion sites are enriched in occupied beta(1) integrins and precede the formation of focal adhesions devoid of ICAP-1alpha and nm23-H2, indicating the dynamic segregation of components of matrix adhesions. This peripheral staining of ICAP-1alpha and nm23-H2 is only observed in cells spreading on fibronectin and collagen and is absent in cells spreading on poly-l-lysine, vitronectin, or laminin. This is consistent with the fact that targeting of both ICAP-1alpha and nm23-H2 to the cell periphery is dependent on beta(1) integrin engagement rather than being a consequence of cell adhesion. This finding represents the first evidence that the tumor suppressor nm23-H2 could act on beta(1) integrin-mediated cell adhesion by interacting with one of the integrin partners, ICAP-1alpha. PMID:11919189

  14. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha induces nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent TRPC1 expression in endothelial cells.


    Paria, Biman C; Malik, Asrar B; Kwiatek, Angela M; Rahman, Arshad; May, Michael J; Ghosh, Sankar; Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy


    We investigated the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in activating the store-operated Ca2+ channels in endothelial cells via the expression of transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) isoforms. We observed that TNF-alpha exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells resulted in TRPC1 mRNA and protein expression, whereas it had no effect on TRPC3, TRPC4, or TRPC5 expression. The TRPC1 expression was associated with increased Ca2+ influx after intracellular Ca2+ store depletion with either thrombin or thapsigargin. We cloned the 5'-regulatory region of the human TRPC1 (hTRPC1) gene which contained a TATA box and CCAAT sequence close to the transcription initiation site. We also identified four nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)-binding sites in the 5'-regulatory region. To address the contribution of NF-kappaB in the mechanism of TRPC1 expression, we determined the effects of TNF-alpha on expression of the reporter luciferase after transfection of hTRPC1 promoter-luciferase (hTRPC1-Pro-Luc) construct in the human dermal microvascular endothelial cell line. Reporter activity increased >4-fold at 4 h after TNF-alpha challenge. TNF-alpha-induced increase in reporter activity was markedly reduced by co-expression of either kinase-defective IKKbeta kinase mutant or non-phosphorylatable IkappaB mutant. Treatment with NEMO-binding domain peptide, which prevents NF-kappaB activation by selectively inhibiting IKKgamma interaction with IKK complex, also blocked the TNF-alpha-induced TRPC1 expression. Thus, TNF-alpha induces TRPC1 expression through an NF-kappaB-dependent pathway in endothelial cells, which can trigger augmented Ca2+ entry following Ca2+ store depletion. The augmented Ca2+ entry secondary to TRPC1 expression may be an important mechanism of endothelial injury induced by TNF-alpha. PMID:12855710

  15. Familial giant cell hepatitis associated with synthesis of 3 beta, 7 alpha-dihydroxy-and 3 beta,7 alpha, 12 alpha-trihydroxy-5-cholenoic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, P T; Leonard, J V; Lawson, A M; Setchell, K D; Andersson, S; Egestad, B; Sjövall, J


    Urinary bile acids from a 3-mo-old boy with cholestatic jaundice were analyzed by ion exchange chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). This suggested the presence of labile sulfated cholenoic acids with an allylic hydroxyl group, a conclusion supported by analysis using fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB-MS). The compounds detected by FAB-MS were separated by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The sulfated bile acids could be solvolyzed in acidified tetrahydrofuran, and glycine conjugates were partially hydrolyzed by cholylglycine hydrolase. Following solvolysis, deconjugation, and methylation with diazomethane, the bile acids were identified by GC-MS of trimethylsilyl derivatives. The major bile acids in the urine were 3 beta,7 alpha-dihydroxy-5-cholenoic acid 3-sulfate, 3 beta,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5-cholenoic acid monosulfate, and their glycine conjugates. Chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid were undetectable in urine and plasma. The family pedigree suggested that abnormal bile acid synthesis was an autosomal recessive condition leading to cirrhosis in early childhood. PMID:3470305

  16. Regulation of the human SLC25A20 expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in human hepatoblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, Keisuke; Takeuchi, Kentaro; Inada, Hirohiko; Yamasaki, Daisuke; The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 ; Ishimoto, Kenji; Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 ; Tanaka, Toshiya; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Doi, Takefumi; The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871; Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871


    Solute carrier family 25, member 20 (SLC25A20) is a key molecule that transfers acylcarnitine esters in exchange for free carnitine across the mitochondrial membrane in the mitochondrial {beta}-oxidation. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in the regulation of {beta}-oxidation. We previously established tetracycline-regulated human cell line that can be induced to express PPAR{alpha} and found that PPAR{alpha} induces the SLC25A20 expression. In this study, we analyzed the promoter region of the human slc25a20 gene and showed that PPAR{alpha} regulates the expression of human SLC25A20 via the peroxisome proliferator responsive element.

  17. Interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha-2a outpatient therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.


    Lipton, A; Harvey, H; Givant, E; Hopper, K; Lawler, J; Matthews, Y; Hirsh, M; Zeffren, J


    The combination of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-alpha-2a (IFN-alpha-2a) has synergistic bioactivity in numerous preclinical model systems. Thirty-nine patients with metastatic renal cell cancer were treated with continuous intravenous infusion IL-2 for 4-5 days plus intramuscular IFN-alpha-2a 2-3 days a week for 4 consecutive weeks. A 2- to 4-week rest period was permitted after each 4 weeks of treatment. Thirty-one of the 39 patients were assessable for response determination. Response rate (six complete+seven partial remissions) was 33.3% for all patients, or 41.9% when the analysis was restricted to the 31 evaluable patients. Three patients were unable to tolerate treatment due to anorexia, weight loss, and severe fatigue. This therapy was relatively well tolerated in the outpatient setting in the other patients despite fever, chills, fatigue, anorexia, and weight loss. There was no correlation of response with site of metastases or bulk of disease. PMID:8318497

  18. Heat shock proteins in the retina: Focus on HSP70 and alpha crystallins in ganglion cell survival.


    Piri, Natik; Kwong, Jacky M K; Gu, Lei; Caprioli, Joseph


    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) belong to a superfamily of stress proteins that are critical constituents of a complex defense mechanism that enhances cell survival under adverse environmental conditions. Cell protective roles of HSPs are related to their chaperone functions, antiapoptotic and antinecrotic effects. HSPs' anti-apoptotic and cytoprotective characteristics, their ability to protect cells from a variety of stressful stimuli, and the possibility of their pharmacological induction in cells under pathological stress make these proteins an attractive therapeutic target for various neurodegenerative diseases; these include Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, prion disease, and others. This review discusses the possible roles of HSPs, particularly HSP70 and small HSPs (alpha A and alpha B crystallins) in enhancing the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in optic neuropathies such as glaucoma, which is characterized by progressive loss of vision caused by degeneration of RGCs and their axons in the optic nerve. Studies in animal models of RGC degeneration induced by ocular hypertension, optic nerve crush and axotomy show that upregulation of HSP70 expression by hyperthermia, zinc, geranyl-geranyl acetone, 17-AAG (a HSP90 inhibitor), or through transfection of retinal cells with AAV2-HSP70 effectively supports the survival of injured RGCs. RGCs survival was also stimulated by overexpression of alpha A and alpha B crystallins. These findings provide support for translating the HSP70- and alpha crystallin-based cell survival strategy into therapy to protect and rescue injured RGCs from degeneration associated with glaucomatous and other optic neuropathies. PMID:27017896

  19. A single base mutation in an I-A alpha-chain gene alters T-cell recognition.


    Griffith, I J; Choi, E M; Glimcher, L H


    The interaction between the clonally selected T-cell antigen receptor, antigen, and Ia molecule is poorly understood at the molecular level. A cell line bearing an altered I-Ak alpha-chain (Ak alpha) molecule has been examined in order to provide more information about the relationship between Ia structure and function. The cell line, 3J9, was derived from the TA3 B-cell hybridoma through a series of negative and positive immunoselection steps. The 3J9 mutant lacked the binding site recognized by the Ak alpha-specific monoclonal antibody 39J and failed to present antigen to two T-cell hybridomas out of a large panel of I-Ak-restricted T-cell hybridomas examined. Sequence analysis of the mutant Ak alpha gene showed a single base transition (G----A) that resulted in a glutamic acid to lysine substitution at amino acid 75 of the alpha 1 domain. This mutation confirms the importance of amino acid 75 in the expression of the Ia.19 epitope, demonstrates the involvement of this region in the presentation of antigen to specific T cells, and provides a further example of the multiple functional domains on the Ia molecule that are involved in antigen presentation. PMID:3493486

  20. A single base mutation in an I-A alpha-chain gene alters T-cell recognition.

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, I J; Choi, E M; Glimcher, L H


    The interaction between the clonally selected T-cell antigen receptor, antigen, and Ia molecule is poorly understood at the molecular level. A cell line bearing an altered I-Ak alpha-chain (Ak alpha) molecule has been examined in order to provide more information about the relationship between Ia structure and function. The cell line, 3J9, was derived from the TA3 B-cell hybridoma through a series of negative and positive immunoselection steps. The 3J9 mutant lacked the binding site recognized by the Ak alpha-specific monoclonal antibody 39J and failed to present antigen to two T-cell hybridomas out of a large panel of I-Ak-restricted T-cell hybridomas examined. Sequence analysis of the mutant Ak alpha gene showed a single base transition (G----A) that resulted in a glutamic acid to lysine substitution at amino acid 75 of the alpha 1 domain. This mutation confirms the importance of amino acid 75 in the expression of the Ia.19 epitope, demonstrates the involvement of this region in the presentation of antigen to specific T cells, and provides a further example of the multiple functional domains on the Ia molecule that are involved in antigen presentation. PMID:3493486

  1. The effect of interferon-{alpha} on the expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 in human hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Flaman, Anathea S.; Gravel, Caroline; Hashem, Anwar M.; Tocchi, Monika; Li Xuguang


    Interferon {alpha} (IFN{alpha}) is used to treat malignancies and chronic viral infections. It has been found to decrease the rate of drug metabolism by acting on cytochrome P450 enzymes, but no studies have investigated the consequences of IFN{alpha} treatment on the CYP3A4 isoform, responsible for the metabolism of a majority of drugs. In this study, we have examined the effect of IFN{alpha} on CYP3A4 catalytic activity and expression in human hepatoma cells. We found that IFN{alpha} inhibits CYP3A4 activity and rapidly down-regulates the expression of CYP3A4, independent of de novo protein synthesis. Pharmacologic inhibitors and a dominant-negative mutant expression plasmid were used to dissect the molecular pathway required for CYP3A4 suppression, revealing roles for Jak1 and Stat1 and eliminating the involvement of the p38 mitogen-activated and extracellular regulated kinases. Treatment of hepatoma cells with IFN{alpha} did not affect the nuclear localization or relative abundance of Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, suggesting that the suppression of CYP3A4 by IFN{alpha} does not result from inhibitory Sp3 out-competing Sp1. To our knowledge, this is the first report that IFN{alpha} down-regulates CYP3A4 expression largely through the JAK-STAT pathway. Since IFN{alpha} suppresses CYP3A4 expression, caution is warranted when IFN{alpha} is administered in combination with CYP3A4 substrates to avoid the occurrence of adverse drug interactions.

  2. Overexpression of prothymosin alpha accelerates proliferation and retards differentiation in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, P; Viñuela, J E; Alvarez-Fernández, L; Buceta, M; Vidal, A; Domínguez, F; Gómez-Márquez, J


    Prothymosin alpha (ProTalpha) is an acidic nuclear protein the expression of which is related to the proliferation and differentiation processes in mammalian cells. In the present study we have stably transfected HL-60 cells, a biological system that allows the study of both proliferation and differentiation, with recombinant vectors encoding sense and antisense ProTalpha mRNA. In the HL-60 cell clones overexpressing ProTalpha we observed an acceleration in the growth rate, whereas expression of the antisense orientation showed the opposite effect. Moreover, cell-cycle analysis demonstrated that the G1-phase was shortened in the cells expressing the sense construct. Before studying how ProTalpha affects differentiation, we showed that the down-regulation of ProTalpha gene during differentiation occurs in all mammalian cell lines (HL-60, K562, U937, MEL C88, N2A and PC12) analysed. The biological effect evoked by the induction of the ProTalpha sense vector was the retardation of cell differentiation, although expression of the antisense construct showed no effect on differentiation. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that ProTalpha is directly implicated in cellular proliferation and that the maintenance of high levels of ProTalpha inside HL-60 cells is incompatible with their ability to differentiate. PMID:9560301

  3. Targeting of surface alpha-enolase inhibits the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chattaragada, Michelle S.; Rolla, Simona; Conti, Laura; Bestagno, Marco; Zentilin, Lorena; Yang, Sheng-Hui; Migliorini, Paola; Cappello, Paola; Burrone, Oscar; Novelli, Francesco


    Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly aggressive malignancy characterized by rapid progression, invasiveness and resistance to treatment. We have previously demonstrated that most PDAC patients have circulating antibodies against the glycolytic enzyme alpha-enolase (ENO1), which correlates with a better response to therapy and survival. ENO1 is a metabolic enzyme, also expressed on the cell surface where it acts as a plasminogen receptor. ENO1 play a crucial role in cell invasion and metastasis by promoting plasminogen activation into plasmin, a serine-protease involved in extracellular matrix degradation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ENO1 in PDAC cell invasion. We observed that ENO1 was expressed on the cell surface of most PDAC cell lines. Mouse anti-human ENO1 monoclonal antibodies inhibited plasminogen-dependent invasion of human PDAC cells, and their metastatic spreading in immunosuppressed mice was inhibited. Notably, a single administration of Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV)-expressing cDNA coding for 72/1 anti-ENO1 mAb reduced the number of lung metastases in immunosuppressed mice injected with PDAC cells. Overall, these data indicate that ENO1 is involved in PDAC cell invasion, and that administration of an anti-ENO1 mAb can be exploited as a novel therapeutic option to increase the survival of metastatic PDAC patients. PMID:25860938

  4. Osteogenic potential of alpha smooth muscle actin expressing muscle resident progenitor cells.


    Matthews, Brya G; Torreggiani, Elena; Roeder, Emilie; Matic, Igor; Grcevic, Danka; Kalajzic, Ivo


    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a pathological process where bone forms in connective tissues such as skeletal muscle. Previous studies have suggested that muscle-resident non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors are the likely source of osteoblasts and chondrocytes in HO. However, the previously identified markers of muscle-resident osteoprogenitors label up to half the osteoblasts within heterotopic lesions, suggesting other cell populations are involved. We have identified alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA) as a marker of osteoprogenitor cells in bone and periodontium, and of osteo-chondro progenitors in the periosteum during fracture healing. We therefore utilized a lineage tracing approach to evaluate whether αSMACreERT2 identifies osteoprogenitors in the muscle. We show that in the muscle, αSMACreERT2 labels both perivascular cells, and satellite cells. αSMACre-labeled cells undergo osteogenic differentiation in vitro and form osteoblasts and chondrocytes in BMP2-induced HO in vivo. In contrast, Pax7CreERT2-labeled muscle satellite cells were restricted to myogenic differentiation in vitro, and rarely contributed to HO in vivo. Our data indicate that αSMACreERT2 labels a large proportion of osteoprogenitors in skeletal muscle, and therefore represents another marker of muscle-resident cells with osteogenic potential under HO-inducing stimulus. In contrast, muscle satellite cells make minimal contribution to bone formation in vivo. PMID:26721734

  5. Autophagy-associated alpha-arrestin signaling is required for conidiogenous cell development in Magnaporthe oryzae

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Bo; Xu, Xiaojin; Chen, Guoqing; Zhang, Dandan; Tang, Mingzhi; Xu, Fei; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Bo


    Conidiation patterning is evolutionarily complex and mechanism concerning conidiogenous cell differentiation remains largely unknown. Magnaporthe oryzae conidiates in a sympodial way and uses its conidia to infect host and disseminate blast disease. Arrestins are multifunctional proteins that modulate receptor down-regulation and scaffold components of intracellular trafficking routes. We here report an alpha-arrestin that regulates patterns of conidiation and contributes to pathogenicity in M. oryzae. We show that disruption of ARRDC1 generates mutants which produce conidia in an acropetal array and ARRDC1 significantly affects expression profile of CCA1, a virulence-related transcription factor required for conidiogenous cell differentiation. Although germ tubes normally develop appressoria, penetration peg formation is dramatically impaired and Δarrdc1 mutants are mostly nonpathogenic. Fluorescent analysis indicates that EGFP-ARRDC1 puncta are well colocalized with DsRed2-Atg8, and this distribution profile could not be altered in Δatg9 mutants, suggesting ARRDC1 enters into autophagic flux before autophagosome maturation. We propose that M. oryzae employs ARRDC1 to regulate specific receptors in response to conidiation-related signals for conidiogenous cell differentiation and utilize autophagosomes for desensitization of conidiogenous receptor, which transmits extracellular signal to the downstream elements of transcription factors. Our investigation extends novel significance of autophagy-associated alpha-arrestin signaling to fungal parasites. PMID:27498554

  6. Autophagy-associated alpha-arrestin signaling is required for conidiogenous cell development in Magnaporthe oryzae.


    Dong, Bo; Xu, Xiaojin; Chen, Guoqing; Zhang, Dandan; Tang, Mingzhi; Xu, Fei; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Hua; Zhou, Bo


    Conidiation patterning is evolutionarily complex and mechanism concerning conidiogenous cell differentiation remains largely unknown. Magnaporthe oryzae conidiates in a sympodial way and uses its conidia to infect host and disseminate blast disease. Arrestins are multifunctional proteins that modulate receptor down-regulation and scaffold components of intracellular trafficking routes. We here report an alpha-arrestin that regulates patterns of conidiation and contributes to pathogenicity in M. oryzae. We show that disruption of ARRDC1 generates mutants which produce conidia in an acropetal array and ARRDC1 significantly affects expression profile of CCA1, a virulence-related transcription factor required for conidiogenous cell differentiation. Although germ tubes normally develop appressoria, penetration peg formation is dramatically impaired and Δarrdc1 mutants are mostly nonpathogenic. Fluorescent analysis indicates that EGFP-ARRDC1 puncta are well colocalized with DsRed2-Atg8, and this distribution profile could not be altered in Δatg9 mutants, suggesting ARRDC1 enters into autophagic flux before autophagosome maturation. We propose that M. oryzae employs ARRDC1 to regulate specific receptors in response to conidiation-related signals for conidiogenous cell differentiation and utilize autophagosomes for desensitization of conidiogenous receptor, which transmits extracellular signal to the downstream elements of transcription factors. Our investigation extends novel significance of autophagy-associated alpha-arrestin signaling to fungal parasites. PMID:27498554

  7. Targeted Cytoplasmic Irradiation with Alpha Particles Induces Mutations in Mammalian Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Li-Jun; Randers-Pehrson, Gerhard; Xu, An; Waldren, Charles A.; Geard, Charles R.; Yu, Zengliang; Hei, Tom K.


    Ever since x-rays were shown to induce mutation in Drosophila more than 70 years ago, prevailing dogma considered the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation, such as mutations and carcinogenesis, as being due mostly to direct damage to the nucleus. Although there was indication that alpha particle traversal through cellular cytoplasm was innocuous, the full impact remained unknown. The availability of the microbeam at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility of Columbia University made it possible to target and irradiate the cytoplasm of individual cells in a highly localized spatial region. By using dual fluorochrome dyes (Hoechst and Nile Red) to locate nucleus and cellular cytoplasm, respectively, thereby avoiding inadvertent traversal of nuclei, we show here that cytoplasmic irradiation is mutagenic at the CD59 (S1) locus of human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells, while inflicting minimal cytotoxicity. The principal class of mutations induced are similar to those of spontaneous origin and are entirely different from those of nuclear irradiation. Furthermore, experiments with radical scavenger and inhibitor of intracellular glutathione indicated that the mutagenicity of cytoplasmic irradiation depends on generation of reactive oxygen species. These findings suggest that cytoplasm is an important target for genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation, particularly radon, the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States. In addition, cytoplasmic traversal by alpha particles may be more dangerous than nuclear traversal, because the mutagenicity is accomplished by little or no killing of the target cells.

  8. Homeobox A7 stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation by up-regulating estrogen receptor-alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Huang, He-Feng; Leung, Peter C.K.


    Highlights: •HOXA7 regulates MCF7 cell proliferation. •HOXA7 up-regulates ERα expression. •HOXA7 mediates estrogen-induced MCF7 cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common hormone-dependent malignancy in women. Homeobox (HOX) transcription factors regulate many cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been reported to be associated with human reproductive cancers. Estradiol (E2) and its nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta, are known to play critical roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. However, an understanding of the potential relationship between HOXA7 and ER in breast cancer cells is limited. In this study, our results demonstrate that knockdown of HOXA7 in MCF7 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and ERα expression. In addition, HOXA7 knockdown attenuated E2-induced cell proliferation as well as progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The stimulatory effects of E2 on cell proliferation and PR expression were abolished by co-treatment with ICI 182780, a selective ERα antagonist. In contrast, overexpression of HOXA7 significantly stimulated cell proliferation and ERα expression. Moreover, E2-induced cell proliferation, as well as PR expression, was enhanced by the overexpression of HOXA7. Neither knockdown nor overexpression of HOXA7 affected the ER-beta levels. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating breast cancer cell proliferation via regulation of ERα expression. This finding contributes to our understanding of the role HOXA7 plays in regulating the proliferation of ER-positive cancer cells.

  9. The intermediate filament protein vimentin binds specifically to a recombinant integrin {alpha}2/{beta}1 cytoplasmic tail complex and co-localizes with native {alpha}2/{beta}1 in endothelial cell focal adhesions

    SciTech Connect

    Kreis, Stephanie; Schoenfeld, Hans-Joachim; Melchior, Chantal; Steiner, Beat; Kieffer, Nelly . E-mail:


    Integrin receptors are crucial players in cell adhesion and migration. Identification and characterization of cellular proteins that interact with their short {alpha} and {beta} cytoplasmic tails will help to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which integrins mediate bi-directional signaling across the plasma membrane. Integrin {alpha}2{beta}1 is a major collagen receptor but to date, only few proteins have been shown to interact with the {alpha}2 cytoplasmic tail or with the {alpha}2{beta}1 complex. In order to identify novel binding partners of a {alpha}2{beta}1cytoplasmic domain complex, we have generated recombinant GST-fusion proteins, incorporating the leucine zipper heterodimerization cassettes of Jun and Fos. To ascertain proper functionality of the recombinant proteins, interaction with natural binding partners was tested. GST-{alpha}2 and GST-Jun {alpha}2 bound His-tagged calreticulin while GST-{beta}1 and GST-Fos {beta}1 proteins bound talin. In screening assays for novel binding partners, the immobilized GST-Jun {alpha}2/GST-Fos {beta}1 heterodimeric complex, but not the single subunits, interacted specifically with endothelial cell-derived vimentin. Vimentin, an abundant intermediate filament protein, has previously been shown to co-localize with {alpha}v{beta}3-positive focal contacts. Here, we provide evidence that this interaction also occurs with {alpha}2{beta}1-enriched focal adhesions and we further show that this association is lost after prolonged adhesion of endothelial cells to collagen.

  10. Eicosapentaenoic acid inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in human keratinocytes, HaCaT cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyeon Ho; Lee, Youngae; Eun, Hee Chul Chung, Jin Ho


    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an omega-3 ({omega}-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), which has anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Some reports have demonstrated that EPA inhibits NF-{kappa}B activation induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in various cells. However, its detailed mode of action is unclear. In this report, we investigated whether EPA inhibits the expression of TNF-{alpha}-induced matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT). TNF-{alpha} induced MMP-9 expression by NF-{kappa}B-dependent pathway. Pretreatment of EPA inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression and p65 phosphorylation. However, EPA could not affect I{kappa}B-{alpha} phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of p65, and DNA binding activity of NF-{kappa}B. EPA inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced p65 phosphorylation through p38 and Akt inhibition and this inhibition was IKK{alpha}-dependent event. Taken together, we demonstrate that EPA inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced MMP-9 expression through inhibition of p38 and Akt activation.