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Sample records for alpha1 proteinase inhibitor

  1. Ozone inactivation of human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.A.

    1980-06-01

    Ozone decreased the trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase inhibitory activities of human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor both in plasma and in solutions of the pure inhibitor. The total loss of porcine elastase inhibitory activity required 18 mol of ozone/mol of pure alpha 1-PI and approximately 850 mol of ozone/mol of alpha 1-PI in plasma. A corresponding loss of the ability to inhibit human leukocyte elastase was observed. Inactivated alpha 1-PI contains four residues of methionine sulfoxide, in addition to oxidized tryosine and tryptophan. Electrophoretic analysis demonstrated that the ozone-inactivated alpha 1-PI did not form normal complexes with serine proteinases. These findings suggest that the inhalation of ozone could inactivate alpha 1-PI on the airspace side of the lung to create a localized alpha 1-PI deficiency, which might contribute to the development of emphysema.

  2. [Effect of adrenal stress on activity of proteinase and alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor in rats].

    PubMed

    Samokhina, L M; Kaliman, P A

    1994-01-01

    The effect of adrenal stress on the proteinase and alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor activities in blood serum and cytosols of the rat organs were investigated. The reliable change was marked only in the alpha-1-PI level research of lung tissue cytosol. The proteolysis suppression was revealed in the heart and kidney tissue, while the proteolysis activation was revealed in serum and less in the lung tissue cytosol. Changes in proteinase level in the myocardium and kidney tissue play the primary role in respect to those of the other research liquids under study. PMID:7747353

  3. Secretory leukoprotease inhibitor: partnering alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor to combat pulmonary inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Bingle, L.; Tetley, T. D.

    1996-01-01

    Secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) is a low molecular weight serine proteinase inhibitor, notably of neutrophil elastase (NE), which is synthesised and secreted by the pulmonary epithelium. SLPI plays an important role in limiting NE-induced pulmonary inflammation and, significantly, it also possesses anti-HIV activity. SLPI is a significant component of the anti-NE shield in the lung which has different reactivity from, and is therefore complementary to, the anti-NE action of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI). Inhaled recombinant SLPI (rSLPI) could prove beneficial in partnership with alpha 1-PI in the treatment of a number of inflammatory lung disorders including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, and adult respiratory distress syndrome. PMID:8994529

  4. Resistance of horse alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor to perchloric acid denaturation and a simplified purification procedure resulting therefrom.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, A; Hägeli, G; von Fellenberg, R

    1986-11-21

    Addition of perchloric acid (6.4% w/v final concentration) to horse alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor or to horse plasma neither precipitated nor inactivated alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor. None of the isoinhibitors of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor was altered by dilute perchloric acid. This unexpected behavior led to a simplified procedure for the purification of horse alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, consisting of removal of the bulk of plasma proteins, by perchloric acid precipitation and by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 and G-200. The resulting preparations of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor were immunogenically pure. The simplified purification procedure permitted the immunochemical comparison of the isoinhibitors of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, which proved to be immunologically identical. PMID:3022814

  5. OZONE EFFECTS ON ALPHA-1-PROTEINASE INHIBITOR IN VIVO: BLOOD PLASMA INHIBITORY ACTIVITY IS UNCHANGED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The possible oxidative inactivation of human blood plasma alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (PI) by inhaled ozone was assessed. Eleven male volunteers (non-smokers) were exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone for four hours on two consecutive days and ten control subjects were exposed to air under ...

  6. INHALED ALPHA1-PROTEINASE INHIBITOR THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Gaggar, Amit; Chen, Junliang; Chmiel, James F; Dorkin, Henry L; Flume, Patrick A; Griffin, Rhonda; Nichols, David; Donaldson, Scott H

    2016-01-01

    Background Inhaled alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (PI) is known to reduce neutrophil elastase burden in some patients with CF. This phase 2a study was designed to test inhaled Alpha-1 HC, a new aerosolized alpha1-PI formulation, in CF patients. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and evaluated the safety of 100 or 200 mg of inhaled Alpha-1 HC once daily for 3 weeks in subjects with CF. Thirty adult subjects were randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive Alpha-1 HC or placebo. Results Drug delivery was confirmed by a dose-dependent increase in the sputum alpha1-PI. Seven (20.0%) of the 35 adverse events in the 100-mg dose group, 3 (13.0%) of 23 in the 200-mg dose group, and 4 (14.3%) of 28 in the placebo group were drug-related in these subjects. One serious adverse event occurred in 1 subject within each group. Conclusions Alpha-1 HC inhalation was safe and well tolerated. PMID:26321218

  7. Effect of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on the neutrophil promoted inactivation of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Dallegri, F; Ottonello, L; Dapino, P; Sacchetti, C

    1992-03-01

    We investigated the effect of some nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (aspirin, naproxen and nimesulide) on the ability of neutrophils to oxidatively inactivate the alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (A1PI). Nimesulide prevented the inactivation of A1PI by effectively scavenging the hypochlorous acid released by neutrophils. Aspirin and naproxen were completely ineffective. We suggest that the antiinflammatory effect of nimesulide may be due at least in part to the rescue of A1PI from neutrophil oxidative attack. The rescue of A1PI may in fact alter the elastase-A1PI balance in favor of the inhibitor, with resulting tissue protection. PMID:1578457

  8. Isolation and characterization of human plasma alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and a conformational study of its interaction with proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Saklatvala, J; Wood, G C; White, D D

    1976-01-01

    1. alpha 1-Proteinase inhibitor was isolated from human plasma by a five-step procedure. Isoelectric focusing showed that six components focused between pH4.85 and 4.95. 2. The mol.wt. of the inhibitor was 52000 by sedimentation equilibrium and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The amino acid and carbohydrate compositions of the inhibitor were also determined. 3. The far-u.v.c.d. (circular-dichroism) spectrum indicated that the inhibitor had about 36% alpha-helical content. 4. The loss of proteinase-inhibitory activity when the inhibitor was exposed to pH values less than 5.0 or greater than 10.5 was accompanied by small changes in the far-u.v.c.d. spectrum and large changes in the near-u.v.c.d. spectrum. The change at alkaline pH was associated with ionization of tyrosine residues. 5. Interaction of inhibitor with chymotrypsin caused perturbation of the c.d. spectrum and this was used to follow the interaction and show a 1:1 stoicheiometry. 6. C.d., electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing showed that the inhibitor-enzyme complex is degraded by free enzyme. 7. Parallel studies with trypsin indicated that it too forms a 1:1 complex with inhibitor and is degraded by excess of enzyme. Images PLATE 2 PLATE 3 PLATE 4 PLATE 5 PLATE 6 PLATE 1 PMID:9069

  9. Comparative cleavage sites within the reactive-site loop of native and oxidized alpha1-proteinase inhibitor by selected bacterial proteinases.

    PubMed

    Rapala-Kozik, M; Potempa, J; Nelson, D; Kozik, A; Travis, J

    1999-10-01

    Human alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1-PI) is responsible for the tight control of neutrophil elastase activity which, if down regulated, may cause local excessive tissue degradation. Many bacterial proteinases can inactivate alpha1-PI by hydrolytic cleavage within its reactive site, resulting in the down regulation of elastase, and this mechanism is likely to contribute to the connective tissue damage often associated with bacterial infections. Another pathway of the inactivation of alpha1-PI is reversible and involves oxidation of a critical active-site methionine residue that may influence inhibitor susceptibility to proteolytic inactivation. Hence, the aim of this work was to determine whether this oxidation event might affectthe rate and pattern of the cleavage of the alpha1-PI reactive-site loop by selected bacterial proteinases, including thermolysin, aureolysin, serralysin, pseudolysin, Staphylococcus aureus serine proteinase, streptopain, and periodontain. A shift of cleavage specificity was observed after alpha1-PI oxidation, with a preference for the Glu354-Ala355 bond by most of the proteinases tested. Only aureolysin and serralysin cleave the oxidized form of alpha1-PI faster than the native inhibitor, suggesting that bacteria which secrete these metalloproteinases may specifically take advantage of the host defense oxidative mechanism to accelerate elimination of alpha1-PI and, consequently, tissue degradation by neutrophil elastase. PMID:10595584

  10. Purification and characterization of a novel cysteine proteinase (periodontain) from Porphyromonas gingivalis. Evidence for a role in the inactivation of human alpha1-proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D; Potempa, J; Kordula, T; Travis, J

    1999-04-30

    Periodontal disease is characterized by inflammation of the periodontium manifested by recruitment of neutrophils, which can degranulate, releasing powerful proteinases responsible for destruction of connective tissues, and eventual loss of tooth attachment. Although the presence of host proteinase inhibitors (serpins) should minimize tissue damage by endogenous proteinases, this is not seen clinically, and it has been speculated that proteolytic inactivation of serpins may contribute to progression of the disease. A major pathogen associated with periodontal disease is the Gram-negative anaerobe Porphyromonas gingivalis, and in this report, we describe a novel proteinase that has been isolated from culture supernatants of this organism that is capable of inactivating the human serpin, alpha1-proteinase inhibitor, the primary endogenous regulator of human neutrophil elastase. This new enzyme, referred to as periodontain, belongs to the cysteine proteinase family based on inhibition studies and exists as a 75-kDa heterodimer. Furthermore, periodontain shares significant homology to streptopain, a proteinase from Streptococcus pyogenes, and prtT, a putative proteinase from P. gingivalis. Clearly, the presence of this enzyme, which rapidly inactivates alpha1-proteinase inhibitor, could result in elevated levels of human neutrophil elastase clinically detected in periodontal disease and should be considered as a potential virulence factor for P. gingivalis. PMID:10212191

  11. Alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor is more sensitive to inactivation by cigarette smoke than is leukocyte elastase

    SciTech Connect

    Janoff, A.; Dearing, R.

    1982-10-01

    Aqueous solutions of gas phase cigarette smoke were incubated with pure human leukocyte elastase or with crude human leukocyte granule extract, and the effects on enzyme activity were determined using a synthetic amide substrate. Simultaneously, the same smoke solutions were incubated with 10% human serum under identical conditions, and the effects on serum inhibition of purified or crude leukocyte elastase were similarly measured. In addition, aqueous solutions of unfractionated cigarette smoke were incubated with leukocyte elastase or serum, and the abilities of the smoke-treated enzyme to digest elastin and of the smoke-treated serum to inhibit elastin digestion were determined. Both experimental protocols showed that serum elastase-inhibiting capacity (primarily caused by alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor) is more susceptible to inactivation by aqueous solutions of cigarette smoke than is leukocyte elastase, suggesting that elastase inhibition (rather than elastase activity) may be predominantly suppressed by cigarette smoke inhalation in vivo.

  12. The drug 5-aminosalicylic acid rescues alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor from the neutrophil oxidative inactivation. A possible contribution to its therapeutic action in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, L; Dapino, P; Pastorino, G; Vitale, E; Dallegri, F

    1992-01-01

    The glycoprotein alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor is the specific inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, a major tissue-damaging protease. When incubated with activated neutrophils, alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor lost its pancreatic porcine elastase inhibitory capacity and became incapable of forming a sodium dodecyl sulphate-stable complex with pancreatic porcine elastase. Inhibitors and scavengers of neutrophil-derived reactive oxygen species outlined the crucial role of hypochlorous acid in the alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor inactivation. Moreover, the drug 5-aminosalicylic acid prevented the inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, when the capacity of 5-aminosalicylic acid to rescue alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor from the neutrophil-derived attack was plotted as a function of the 5-aminosalicylic acid ability to scavenge neutrophil-derived hypochlorous acid, a positive linear relationship was found. Thus, our results provide a direct evidence that 5-aminosalicylic acid is able to prevent the oxidative inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by neutrophils. Therefore, we suggest that the drug has the potential to limit the elastase-mediated damage of colonic connective tissue by creating a microenvironment of active alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor around the neutrophils. PMID:1521714

  13. Development and evaluation of an ELISA for quantification of human alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor in complex biological mixtures.

    PubMed

    Karnaukhova, Elena; Golding, Basil; Ophir, Yakir

    2007-10-01

    Human alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor(1) (alpha(1)-PI) is the most abundant serine protease inhibitor in plasma. Its major function is inhibition of neutrophil elastase in lungs. alpha(1)-PI deficiency may result in severe, ultimately fatal emphysema. Three plasma-derived (pd-) alpha(1)-PI products are licensed in the US for replacement therapy of deficient patients. The recombinant versions (r-alpha(1)-PI), proposed as alternatives to pd-alpha(1)-PI products, have been under intensive investigation. For accurate determination of alpha(1)-PI from different sources and in various forms, there is an obvious need for reliable standardized assays for alpha(1)-PI quantification and potency measurements. As a part of our multi-step research focused on alpha(1)-PI structure-function investigation, we have established a simple and reproducible double-sandwich ELISA based on commercially available polyclonal antibodies. The developed ELISA allows the quantification of both pd-alpha(1)-PI and r-alpha(1)-PI in various complex matrices. A validation of the ELISA was performed with the working range of the assay (3.1-50 ng/ml) established on the bases of the following parameters: linearity (3-100 ng/ml, r(2)=0.995); accuracy (87.3-114.6% recovery); intra-assay precision (%CV, 2.8%); inter-assay plate-to-plate precision (3.9% per day and 4.1% day-to-day); detection limit (1.10 ng/ml); and quantification limit (3.34 ng/ml). The analytical performance of the alpha(1)-PI ELISA indicates that this assay can be used for monitoring concentration levels of alpha(1)-PI in multi-component biological matrices, based on the following: (a) quantification of r-alpha(1)-PI in various fermentation mixtures (E. coli and A. niger); (b) investigation of alpha(1)-PI enzymatically digested in the conditions of harsh fungal proteolysis; (c) evaluation of thermally polymerized alpha(1)-PI; (d) quantification of alpha(1)-PI in human serum; and (e) comparative quantification of alpha(1)-PI in commercially

  14. The anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide rescues alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor from oxidative inactivation by phagocytosing neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Dallegri, F; Ottonello, L; Dapino, P; Bevilacqua, M

    1992-01-01

    When neutrophils are recruited to tissue sites and exposed to phagocytosable targets, they release oxidants which may be responsible for the local inactivation of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (A1PI). Consequently, A1PI becomes incapable of inhibiting the proteolytic activity of elastase, released at the same time by neutrophils as a result of leakage from phagocytic vacuoles. In the present paper we show that phagocytosing neutrophils inactivate A1PI via a process inhibitable by chemical agents known to interfere with the hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-generating myeloperoxidase pathway. The anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide (NMS), which is able to efficiently limit the extracellular availability of HOCl in the neutrophil surroundings, was found to prevent the inactivation of A1PI by neutrophils. The results provide evidence for a possible way to control neutrophil elastase activity by rescuing its natural inhibitor (A1PI) at inflamed tissue sites during infectious and noninfectious processes. PMID:1579712

  15. Inflammatory mediators and modulators released in organ culture from rabbit skin lesions produced in vivo by sulfur mustard. III. Electrophoretic protein fractions, trypsin-inhibitory capacity, alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, and alpha 1- and alpha 2-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors of culture fluids and serum.

    PubMed Central

    Harada, S.; Dannenberg, A. M.; Vogt, R. F.; Myrick, J. E.; Tanaka, F.; Redding, L. C.; Merkhofer, R. M.; Pula, P. J.; Scott, A. L.

    1987-01-01

    This is the third report in a series on the inflammatory mediators and modulators released in organ culture from skin lesions of various ages, which were produced in vivo in rabbits by the military vesicant, sulfur mustard (SM). It describes the electrophoretic protein fractions and trypsin-inhibitory capacities of the various culture fluids and the amounts of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and alpha-macroglobulin proteinase inhibitors in these fluids. With one-dimensional electrophoresis, the albumin and beta-globulin fractions of protein in culture fluids varied little with the development and healing of the SM lesions. These fractions proportionally resembled the corresponding fractions found in serum. The alpha 1-globulin fraction was proportionally smaller than the corresponding fractions of serum as the lesions healed. The alpha 2-globulin fraction was proportionally smaller than the corresponding fractions of serum at all stages of lesion development and healing. The gamma-globulin fraction was proportionally larger as the lesions healed. With two-dimensional electrophoresis, about 68%, 46%, and 35% of the protein spots in culture fluids from representative 1-day and 6-day SM lesions and normal skin, respectively, matched those from serum. In each case, the large, diffuse, serum albumin spot represented about two-thirds of the protein present. Thus, gravimetrically, in normal skin and in both developing and healing lesions, the extracellular proteins were 80-90% of serum origin. The trypsin-inhibitory capacity (TIC) per milligram protein in the culture fluids of healing lesions was markedly less than the TIC per milligram protein in the fluids of peak lesions. This decrease correlates well with the decrease found in the alpha 1-globulin fraction, which contains alpha 1-antiproteinase (alpha 1-PI) (and alpha 1-macroglobulin [alpha 1M] in rabbits). The alpha 1PI and the alpha 1M-alpha 2M proteinase inhibitors were identified in the culture fluids by means of

  16. Intravenous administration of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor in patients of PiZ and PiM phenotype. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, K.M.; Smith, R.M.; Spragg, R.G.; Tisi, G.M.

    1988-06-24

    Nine patients with moderate pulmonary emphysema, six of PiZ phenotype and three of PiM phenotype, have received a single intravenous infusion of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (human) (A1PI), in a dose of 60 mg/kg over a 30-minute period. They also received a tracer dose (300 microCi) of /sup 131/I-labeled A1PI. No active or passive immunization against hepatitis was given. No acute toxicity was observed. Compared with baseline data, significant elevations of serum A1PI (measured both antigenically and as anti-elastase activity) occurred, with a serum half-life approximating 110 hours. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, obtained 48 hours after infusion, reflected a significant increase in A1PI concentration versus baseline bronchoalveolar lavage fluid values. Serial gamma camera images of the lungs confirmed persistence of enhanced lung radioactivity for several days. Urinary desmosine excretion did not change following A1PI infusion. During the period of follow-up thus far, no patient has had chronic toxicity, results of liver function tests have been stable, and there has been no development of hepatitis B antigen or antibodies to hepatitis B surface or core antigens.

  17. Expression screening of bacterial libraries of recombinant alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor variants for candidates with thrombin inhibitory capacity.

    PubMed

    Bhakta, Varsha; Gierczak, Richard F; Sheffield, William P

    2013-12-01

    Exhaustive mutagenesis studies of the reactive centre loop (RCL), a key structural component of proteins belonging to the serpin superfamily of protease inhibitors, are complicated by the size of the RCL, serpin conformational complexity, and, for most serpins, the lack of a serpin-dependent phenotype of expressing cells. Here, we describe a thrombin capture assay that distinguished thrombin-inhibitory recombinant human alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (API M358R) from non-inhibitory API variants in Escherichia coli lysates prepared from either single clones or pools. Binding of API proteins in the lysates to thrombin immobilized on microtiter plate wells was quantified via colour generated by a peroxidase-coupled anti-API antibody. Bacterial expression plasmids encoding inhibitory API M358R were mixed 1:99 with plasmids encoding non-inhibitory API T345R/M358R and the resulting library screened in pools of 10. All above-background signals arising from pools or subsequently re-probed single clones were linked to the presence of plasmids encoding API M358R. Screening of a portion of another expression library encoding hypervariable API with all possibilities at codons 352-358 also yielded only novel, thrombin-inhibitory variants. Probing a smaller library expressing all possible codons at Ala347 yielded the wild type, 6 different functional variants, one partially active variant, and two variants with no thrombin-inhibitory activity. API antigen levels varied considerably less among Ala347 variants than activity levels, and comparison of rate constants of inhibition of purified API variants to their corresponding thrombin capture assay lysate values was used to establish the sensitivity and specificity of the assay. The results indicate that the approach is sufficiently robust to correctly identify functional versus non-functional candidates in API expression libraries, and could be of value in systematically probing structure/function relationships not only in the API

  18. [Proteinase-proteinase inhibitor complex in rats under oxidative stress caused by administration of cobalt chloride].

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A; Samokhin, A A; Samokhina, L M

    2000-01-01

    Mechanisms of proteinase-inhibitor proteinase system response was estimated following of cobalt chloride injection. The increase proteinase activity, which led to significant decrease of alpha-2-macroglobulin (alpha-2-MG) level was established that indicated to the removal of the proteinase in complex with alpha-2-MG from the organism. Increase of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha-1-PI) trypsin-inhibitory activity in the kidneys testify about removal of oxidative alpha-1-PI. PMID:10979565

  19. Inactivation of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor by neutrophil metalloproteinases. Crucial role of the myeloperoxidase system and effects of the anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, L; Dapino, P; Dallegri, F

    1993-01-01

    Supernatants, obtained from normal neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), challenged with opsonized zymosan (OPZ), were found to inactivate the PMN elastase inhibitor, alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (A1PI). As the supernatants were treated with methionine to quench residual oxidants, primarily chloramines, the observed inactivation of A1PI appears to be due to enzymes. The activity of the supernatants was in fact inhibited by metal-chelators and by the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP), which is consistent with the intervention of metalloproteinases. Supernatants from normal PMN triggered by OPZ in the presence of inhibitors of the myeloperoxidase (MPO) system as well as supernatants from MPO-deficient PMN were inactive but displayed the capacity of inactivating A1PI after treatment with the metalloproteinases activator 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate. These data suggest that the A1PI inactivation is due to metalloenzymes released by PMN as latent molecules, in turn activated by the MPO system. The MPO-dependent autoactivation of latent metalloenzymes by PMN, with consequent A1PI inactivation, was inhibited by the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide (NMS). As PMN-derived HOCl is well known to inactivate A1PI directly, through a process previously shown to be inhibitable by NMS, the present results suggest: (1) both the oxidative and proteolytic inactivation of A1PI depend on the HOCl-generating MPO system; (2) the tissue-destructive activity of PMN elastase could be controlled by interfering pharmacologically with the PMN-MPO system, directly and indirectly responsible for the breakdown of the tissue antielastase screen. PMID:8385794

  20. Oncostatin M, but not interleukin-6 or leukemia inhibitory factor, stimulates expression of alpha1-proteinase inhibitor in A549 human alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sallenave, J M; Tremblay, G M; Gauldie, J; Richards, C D

    1997-06-01

    Alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (A1-Pi) is the main serine proteinase inhibitor found in human plasma and is a potent elastase inhibitor in various tissues, including lung. A1-Pi is expressed and induced in liver during inflammatory responses but can also be produced by epithelial cells. Since hepatocyte A1-Pi production is stimulated by interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other gp130-cytokines, such as leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) and oncostatin M (OM), we investigated the role of these cytokines in regulating A1-Pi in lung epithelial cells. We show that OM, a monocyte and T cell product, can specifically and potently induce A1-Pi production in lung-derived A549 alveolar (epithelial) cells, as well as in liver-derived HepG2 cells. Both A1-Pi protein (as detected by ELISA and Western blots) and mRNA levels were enhanced 20-fold to 30-fold in A549 cells. OM was also able to stimulate the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in these cells. Interestingly, other members of the IL-6 family (IL-6 and LIF) had little or no effect on A549 cells, and proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) also had no stimulatory effect on A1-Pi synthesis in A549 cells. Costimulation with IL-1 beta resulted in a decrease in A1-Pi production from OM-stimulated A549 cells. However, IL-6 production was synergistically enhanced. OM was also able to stimulate A1-Pi production from a bronchial epithelial primary cell line, whereas an intestinal epithelial cell line HT29 responded to IL-6 but not OM. These results suggest that lung levels A1-Pi could be derived not only from liver and inflammatory cells but also from epithelial cells, which can be upregulated on stimulation by OM. This may have implications for regulation of local activity of human neutrophil elastase (HNE) in such diseases as emphysema and cystic fibrosis. PMID:9198001

  1. Insect cell production of a secreted form of human alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor as a bifunctional protein which inhibits neutrophil elastase and has growth factor-like activities.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Heather; Sandoval, Carolyn; Oblin, Colette; Difalco, Marcos R; Congote, L Fernando

    2002-01-31

    alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor (API) is a potential therapeutic agent in all diseases in which elastase released by neutrophils has to be effectively neutralized. We ligated the cDNA of human API to the C-terminal section of an insulin-like growth factor II analogue (BOMIGF), known to be properly folded and secreted in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. The BOMIGF-API chimera was recovered from the incubation medium of the infected cells. It shared the properties of both IGFs and API. It inhibited neutrophil elastase and formed SDS-stable complexes with the enzyme. The attachment of the large API protein to the C-terminal end of the 10 kDa IGF analogue did not destroy the IGF-mediated stimulation of thymidine incorporation into bovine fetal erythroid cells. We tested the capacity of the chimera to affect fibronectin-dependent TF-1 cell migration. BOMIGF-API significantly restored TF-1 cell migration in the presence of elastase, which is the enzyme of burn wound fluid most probably involved in fibronectin degradation. Some of the beneficial uses for this chimera may include all instances for which inhibition of elastase-mediated extracellular matrix destruction as well as stimulation of cell migration and proliferation are required for tissue repair. PMID:11690693

  2. A study of the effects of altering the sites for N-glycosylation in alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor variants M and S.

    PubMed Central

    Samandari, T.; Brown, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    alpha-1-Proteinase inhibitor (A1Pi) is a monomeric secreted protein glycosylated at asparagines 46, 83, and 247. For this study cDNAs for M (normal) and S (Glu264-->Val) variants of A1Pi were altered by site-directed mutagenesis to produce the combinations of single, double, and triple mutants that can be generated by changing the codons normally specifying these Asn residues to encode Gln. The fates of the mutant proteins were followed in transiently transfected COS-1 cells. All variants with altered glycosylation sites are secreted at reduced rates, are partially degraded, accumulate intracellularly, and some form Nonidet P-40-insoluble aggregates. The carbohydrate attached at Asn83 seems to be of particular importance to the export of both A1PiM and A1PiS from the endoplasmic reticulum. All mutations affecting glycosylation of A1PiS notably reduce secretion, cause formation of insoluble aggregates, and influence degradation of the altered proteins. The variant of A1PiS missing all three glycosylation sites is poorly secreted, is incompletely degraded, and accumulates in unusual perinuclear vesicles. These studies show that N-linked oligosaccharides in A1Pi are vital to its efficient export from the endoplasmic reticulum and that the consequences of changing the normal pattern of glycosylation vary depending upon the sites altered and the variant of A1Pi bearing these alterations. PMID:8401226

  3. Comparison of mammalian and bacterial expression library screening to detect recombinant alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor variants with enhanced thrombin inhibitory capacity.

    PubMed

    Gierczak, Richard F; Bhakta, Varsha; Xie, Michael; Sheffield, William P

    2015-08-20

    Serpins are a widely distributed family of serine proteases. A key determinant of their specificity is the reactive centre loop (RCL), a surface motif of ∼20 amino acids in length. Expression libraries of variant serpins could be rapidly probed with proteases to develop novel inhibitors if optimal systems were available. The serpin variant alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor M358R (API M358R) inhibits the coagulation protease thrombin, but at sub-maximal rates compared to other serpins. Here we compared two approaches to isolate functional API variants from serpin expression libraries, using the same small library of API randomized at residue 358 (M358X): flow cytometry of transfected HEK 293 cells expressing membrane-displayed API; and a thrombin capture assay (TCA) performed on pools of bacterial lysates expressing soluble API. No enrichment for specific P1 residues was observed when the RCL codons of the 1% of sorted transfected 293 cells with the highest fluorescent thrombin-binding signals were subcloned and sequenced. In contrast, screening of 16 pools of bacterial API-expressing transformants led to the facile identification of API M358R and M358K as functional variants. Kinetic characterization showed that API M358R inhibited thrombin 17-fold more rapidly than API M358K. Reducing the incubation time with immobilized thrombin improved the sensitivity of TCA to detect supra-active API M358R variants and was used to screen a hypervariable library of API variants expressing 16 different amino acids at residues 352-357. The most active variant isolated, with TLSATP substituted for FLEAI, inhibited thrombin 2.9-fold more rapidly than API M358R. Our results indicate that flow cytometric approaches used in protein engineering of antibodies are not appropriate for serpins, and highlight the utility of the optimized TCA for serpin protein engineering. PMID:26043905

  4. Phage display of the serpin alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor randomized at consecutive residues in the reactive centre loop and biopanned with or without thrombin.

    PubMed

    Scott, Benjamin M; Matochko, Wadim L; Gierczak, Richard F; Bhakta, Varsha; Derda, Ratmir; Sheffield, William P

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the power of phage display technology to identify variant proteins with novel properties in large libraries, it has only been previously applied to one member of the serpin superfamily. Here we describe phage display of human alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (API) in a T7 bacteriophage system. API M358R fused to the C-terminus of T7 capsid protein 10B was directly shown to form denaturation-resistant complexes with thrombin by electrophoresis and immunoblotting following exposure of intact phages to thrombin. We therefore developed a biopanning protocol in which thrombin-reactive phages were selected using biotinylated anti-thrombin antibodies and streptavidin-coated magnetic beads. A library consisting of displayed API randomized at residues 357 and 358 (P2-P1) yielded predominantly Pro-Arg at these positions after five rounds of thrombin selection; in contrast the same degree of mock selection yielded only non-functional variants. A more diverse library of API M358R randomized at residues 352-356 (P7-P3) was also probed, yielding numerous variants fitting a loose consensus of DLTVS as judged by sequencing of the inserts of plaque-purified phages. The thrombin-selected sequences were transferred en masse into bacterial expression plasmids, and lysates from individual colonies were screening for API-thrombin complexing. The most active candidates from this sixth round of screening contained DITMA and AAFVS at P7-P3 and inhibited thrombin 2.1-fold more rapidly than API M358R with no change in reaction stoichiometry. Deep sequencing using the Ion Torrent platform confirmed that over 800 sequences were significantly enriched in the thrombin-panned versus naïve phage display library, including some detected using the combined phage display/bacterial lysate screening approach. Our results show that API joins Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) as a serpin amenable to phage display and suggest the utility of this approach for the selection of "designer

  5. [Effect of pentoxyphylline on certain indicators of the proteinase-proteinase inhibitor system in rats upon administration of cycloheximide].

    PubMed

    Samokhin, A A; Kaliman, P A; Samokhinka, L M

    2001-01-01

    The pentoxifylline influence on neutral proteinase, alpha-2-macroglobulin, trypsin-alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor and elastaseinhibitory activity under cycloheximide injection has been investigated. Two hours after cycloheximide injection the activity of neutral proteinases increases in rats serum, lungs, heart, liver and kidneys. The preliminary injection of pentoxifylline prevents increase of neutral proteinases activity. Cycloheximide also decreases alpha-2-macroglobulin activity in serum and liver and trypsin-, elastaseinhibitory activity of alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor in all investigated organs. At using pentoxifylline the alpha-2-macroglobulin activity doesn't change in liver and increases in serum in comparison with only cycloheximide and there are no observed any alpha-1 inhibitor proteinase activity changes in rats serum and organs. PMID:12035527

  6. Plasma levels of alpha1-antichymotrypsin and secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor in healthy and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) subjects with and without severe α1-antitrypsin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Camilla; Westin, Ulla; Wallmark, Anders; Piitulainen, Eeva; Sveger, Tomas; Janciauskiene, Sabina M

    2007-01-01

    Background Individuals with severe Z α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency have a considerably increased risk of developing chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). It has been hypothesized that compensatory increases in levels of other protease inhibitors mitigate the effects of this AAT deficiency. We analysed plasma levels of AAT, α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in healthy (asymptomatic) and COPD subjects with and without AAT deficiency. Methods Studied groups included: 71 asymptomatic AAT-deficient subjects (ZZ, n = 48 and SZ, n = 23, age 31 ± 0.5) identified during Swedish neonatal screening for AAT deficiency between 1972 and 1974; age-matched controls (MM, n = 57, age 30.7 ± 0.6); older asymptomatic ZZ (n = 10); healthy MM (n = 20, age 53 ± 9.6); and COPD patients (ZZ, n = 10, age 47.4 ± 11 and MM, n = 10, age 59.4 ± 6.7). Plasma levels of SLPI, AAT and ACT were analysed using ELISA and immunoelectrophoresis. Results No significant difference was found in plasma ACT and SLPI levels between the healthy MM and the ZZ or SZ subjects in the studied groups. Independent of the genetic variant, subjects with COPD (n = 19) had elevated plasma levels of SLPI and ACT relative to controls (n = 153) (49.5 ± 7.2 vs 40.7 ± 9.1 ng/ml, p < 0.001 and 0.52 ± 0.19 vs 0.40 ± 0.1 mg/ml, p < 0.05, respectively). Conclusion Our findings show that plasma levels of ACT and SLPI are not elevated in subjects with genetic AAT deficiency compared MM controls and do not appear to compensate for the deficiency of plasma AAT. PMID:17261175

  7. [Character of changes in indicators of proteinase and proteinase inhibitor activity in gastroenterological pathology in children].

    PubMed

    Dovgun, O B; Tebloeva, L T; Shumeĭko, N K; Rudenskaia, G N

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine trypsin-lake proteinase activity, chymotrypsin-like proteinase activity, trypsin, alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 2-macroglobulin levels in blood serum at the children with gastroenterological pathology. These parameters did not chang at the children with functional disorder of stomach and duodenum. The stable balance between proteinases and inhibitors was determined only at the duration of the disease not more 5 years. The absence of normal levels these enzymes after traditional treatment was explain the necessity to continue the therapy at home with control of enzymes' levels. PMID:9703629

  8. Characterization of serine/cysteine protease inhibitor alpha1-antitripsin from meconium-instilled rabbit lungs.

    PubMed

    Zagariya, A M; Bhat, R; Zhabotynsky, E; Chari, G; Navale, S; Xu, Q; Keiderling, T A; Vidyasagar, D

    2005-09-01

    We have recently purified from meconium-instilled rabbit lungs a novel serine proteinase inhibitor, with an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa, which we assign to be alpha1-antitripsin. We hypothesize that serpin may attenuate pulmonary inflammation and improve surfactant function after meconium aspiration. Alpha1-antitripsin is a member of the proteinase inhibitor (serpin) superfamily and inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, and it can be identified as a member of the family by its amino acid sequence due to the high degree of conserved residues. Alpha1-antitripsin is synthesized by epithelial cells, macrophages, monocytes, and neutrophils. Deficiency in alpha1-antitripsin leads to exposure of lungs to uncontrolled proteolytic attack from neutrophil elastase or other damaging factors culminating in lung destruction and cell apoptosis. We hypothesize that accumulation of alpha1-antitripsin in the lungs serves as a predisposed protection against meconium-induced lung injury. In this paper, we show how this knowledge can lead to the development of novel therapeutic approaches for treatment of MAS. PMID:15962329

  9. Novel proteinase inhibitor promotes resistance to insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) and its protein are identified in response to insect feeding on B. vulgaris seedlings. BvSTI is cloned into an expression vector with constitutive promoter and transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plants to assess BvSTI’s ability to ...

  10. Ozone effects on inhibitors of human neutrophil proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.E.; Stack, M.S.; Johnson, D.A.

    1987-02-15

    The effects of ozone on human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (A-1-PI), alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (A-1-Achy), bronchial leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (BLPI), and Eglin C were studied using in vitro exposures in phosphate-buffered solutions. Following ozone exposure, inhibitory activities against human neutrophil elastase (HNE) and/or cathepsin G (Cat G) were measured. Exposure of A-1-PI to 50 mol O3/mol protein resulted in a complete loss of HNE inhibitory activity, whereas A-1-Achy lost only 50% of its Cat G inhibitory activity and remained half active even after exposure to 250 mol of O3. At 40 mol O3/mol protein, BLPI lost 79% of its activity against HNE and 87% of its Cat G inhibitory activity. Eglin C, a leech-derived inhibitor, lost 81% of its HNE inhibitory activity and 92% of its ability to inhibit Cat G when exposed to 40 mol O3/mol. Amino acid analyses of ozone-exposed inhibitors showed destruction of Trp, Met, Tyr, and His with as little as 10 mol O3/mol protein, and higher levels of O3 resulted in more extensive oxidation of susceptible residues. The variable ozone susceptibility of the different amino acid residues in the four proteins indicated that oxidation was a function of protein structure, as well as the inherent susceptibility of particular amino acids. Exposure of A-1-PI and BLPI in the presence of the antioxidants, Trolox C (water soluble vitamin E) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C), showed that antioxidant vitamins may protect proteins from oxidative inactivation by ozone. Methionine-specific modification of BLPI reduced its HNE and Cat G inhibitory activities. Two moles of N-chlorosuccinimide per mole of BLPI methionine caused an 80% reduction in activity against Cat G, but only a 40% reduction in HNE inhibitory activity.

  11. Pathobiochemical significance of granulocyte elastase complexed with proteinase inhibitors: effect on glycosaminoglycan metabolism in cultured synovial cells.

    PubMed

    Kleesiek, K; van de Leur, E; Reinards, R; Greiling, H

    1987-03-01

    Interactions between elastase inhibitor complexes and synovial cells are of special interest, since, in chronic joint diseases, granulocytes release large amounts of elastase into the synovial fluid and connective tissue, where the proteinase is bound to alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and alpha 2-macroglobulin. To study the effect of elastase-alpha 2-macroglobulin and elastase-alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor complexes on the glycosaminoglycan metabolism of cultured synovial cells, we determined the distribution of [3H]glucosamine-labelled hyaluronate, which represents the main synthesized glycosaminoglycan, and of 35SO4(2-)-labelled chondroitin sulphate into the intracellular, pericellular and extracellular compartments of the cell culture. Exposure of the synovial cells to elastase-alpha 2-macroglobulin complexes leads to an enhanced synthesis and secretion of hyaluronate, and chondroitin sulphate, and also induces a rise of the fibronectin concentration in the medium. Analogous but less pronounced effects are observed in the presence of elastase-alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor complexes. Native uncomplexed elastase, however, causes no significant changes in hyaluronate metabolism. An increase of prostaglandin E2 in the culture medium during incubation with elastase inhibitor complexes occurs in parallel to the stimulatory effect on glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Our results demonstrate that elastase, whose enzymic activity is inactivated by the formation of complexes with alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor or alpha 2-macroglobulin, nevertheless acts as an inflammatory mediator, which in vitro induces metabolic changes closely resembling the in vivo findings in inflammatory joint diseases. PMID:2439645

  12. Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor is preferentially increased in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sallenave, J M; Donnelly, S C; Grant, I S; Robertson, C; Gauldie, J; Haslett, C

    1999-05-01

    Inappropriate release of proteases from inflammatory and stromal cells can lead to destruction of the lung parenchyma. Antiproteinases such as alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1-Pi), secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) and elastase-specific inhibitor (elafin) control excess production of human neutrophil elastase. In the present study, the concentrations of alpha1-Pi, SLPI and elafin found in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from control subjects, patients at risk of developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and patients with established ARDS were determined. Levels of all three inhibitors were raised in patients compared with normal subjects. SLPI was increased in the group of patients who were at risk of ARDS and went on to develop the condition, compared with the "at-risk" group who did not progress to ARDS (p=0.0083). Alpha1-Pi and elafin levels were similar in these two populations. In patients with established ARDS, both alpha1-Pi and SLPI levels were significantly increased, compared to patients at risk of ARDS who did (p=0.0089) or did not (p=0.0003) progress to ARDS. The finding of increased antiproteinases shortly before the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome provide further evidence for enhanced inflammation prior to clinical disease. PMID:10414400

  13. A low molecular weight proteinase inhibitor produced by T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Ganea, D; Teodorescu, M; Dray, S

    1986-01-01

    A low molecular weight (MW) proteinase inhibitor, between 6500 and 21,500 MW, appeared in the supernatant of rabbit spleen cells cultured at high density for 24 hr. The inhibitor inhibited the enzymatic activity of trypsin for both a high MW natural substrate, fibrinogen, and for a low MW artificial substrate, Chromozym TRY. The low MW proteinase inhibitor is protein in nature and is different, in terms of specificity for enzymes, MW and sensitivity to different physical or chemical treatments, from aprotinin, a low MW proteinase inhibitor (6500 MW) of bovine origin, and from the soybean trypsin inhibitor, a relatively high MW proteinase inhibitor (21,500 MW). The inhibitor was found in the supernatant of purified T cells but not B cells, and its production was increased in the presence of an optimal concentration of Con A. The possibility that this proteinase inhibitor has a role in the regulation of trypsin-like proteinases involved to the immune response remains to be investigated. Images Figure 4 PMID:2417942

  14. Molecular dynamic and docking interaction study of Heterodera glycines serine proteinase with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Prasad, C V S Siva; Gupta, Saurabh; Gaponenko, Alex; Tiwari, Murlidhar

    2013-08-01

    Many plants do produce various defense proteins like proteinase inhibitors (PIs) to protect them against various pests. PIs function as pseudosubstrates of digestive proteinase, which inhibits proteolysis in pests and leads to amino acid deficiency-based mortality. This work reports the structural interaction studies of serine proteinase of Heterodera glycines (SPHG) with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor (VMPI). 3D protein structure modeling, validation of SPHG and VMPI, and their putative protein-protein binding sites were predicted. Protein-protein docking followed by molecular dynamic simulation was performed to find the reliable confirmation of SPHG-VMPI complex. Trajectory analysis of each successive conformation concludes better interaction of first loop in comparison with second loop. Lysine residues of first loop were actively participating in complex formation. Overall, this study discloses the structural aspects and interaction mechanisms of VMPI with SPHG, and it would be helpful in the development of pest-resistant genetically modified crops. PMID:23813339

  15. Short-term variability of biomarkers of proteinase activity in patients with emphysema associated with type Z alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Stolk, Jan; Veldhuisen, Barbara; Annovazzi, Laura; Zanone, Chiara; Versteeg, Elly M; van Kuppevelt, Toine H; Nieuwenhuizen, Willem; Iadarola, Paolo; Luisetti, Maurizio

    2005-01-01

    Background The burden of proteinases from inflammatory cells in the lung of subjects with type Pi ZZ of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is higher than in those without the deficiency. Cross-sectional studies have shown increased levels of biomarkers of extracellular matrix degradation in vivo. Longitudinal variability of these biomarkers is unknown but desirable for clinical studies with proteinase inhibitors. Methods We measured three different types of biomarkers, including desmosines, elastase-formed fibrinogen fragments and heparan sulfate epitope JM403, in plasma and urine for a period of 7 weeks in a group of 12 patients who participated in a placebo-controlled study to assess the safety of a single inhalation of hyaluronic acid. Results Effect of study medication on any of the biomarkers was not seen. Baseline desmosines in plasma and urine correlated with baseline CO diffusion capacity (R = 0.81, p = 0.01 and R = 0.65, p = 0.05). Mean coefficient of variation within patients (CVi) for plasma and urine desmosines was 18.7 to 13.5%, respectively. Change in urinary desmosine levels correlated significantly with change in plasma desmosine levels (R = 0.84, p < 0.01). Mean CVi for fibrinogen fragments in plasma was 20.5% and for JM403 in urine was 27.8%. No correlations were found between fibrinogen fragments or JM403 epitope and desmosines. Conclusion We found acceptable variability in our study parameters, indicating the feasibility of their use in an evaluation of biochemical efficacy of alpha-1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy in Pi Z subjects. PMID:15927063

  16. Oxidized mucus proteinase inhibitor: a fairly potent neutrophil elastase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Boudier, C; Bieth, J G

    1994-01-01

    N-chlorosuccinimide oxidizes one of the methionine residues of mucus proteinase inhibitor with a second-order rate constant of 1.5 M-1.s-1. Cyanogen bromide cleavage and NH2-terminal sequencing show that the modified residue is methionine-73, the P'1 component of the inhibitor's active centre. Oxidation of the inhibitor decreases its neutrophil elastase inhibitory capacity but does not fully abolish it. The kinetic parameters describing the elastase-oxidized inhibitor interaction are: association rate constant kass. = 2.6 x 10(5) M-1.s-1, dissociation rate constant kdiss. = 2.9 x 10(-3) s-1 and equilibrium dissociation constant Ki = 1.1 x 10(-8) M. Comparison with the native inhibitor indicates that oxidation decreases kass. by a factor of 18.8 and increases kdiss. by a factor of 6.4, and therefore leads to a 120-fold increase in Ki. Yet, the oxidized inhibitor may still act as a potent elastase inhibitor in the upper respiratory tract where its concentration is 500-fold higher than Ki, i.e. where the elastase inhibition is pseudo-irreversible. Experiments in vitro with fibrous human lung elastin, the most important natural substrate of elastase, support this view: 1.35 microM elastase is fully inhibited by 5-6 microM oxidized inhibitor whether the enzyme-inhibitor complex is formed in the presence or absence of elastin and whether elastase is pre-adsorbed on elastin or not. PMID:7945266

  17. Biospecific haemosorbents based on proteinase inhibitor. II. Efficiency of biospecific antiproteinase haemosorbent 'Ovosorb' in complex treatment of experimental generalized purulent peritonitis and acute destructive pancreatitis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Platé, N A; Kirkovsky, V V; Antiperovich, O F; Nicolaichik, V V; Valueva, T A; Sinilo, S B; Moin, V M; Lobacheva, G A

    1994-03-01

    The biospecific antiproteinase haemosorbent (BAH) 'Ovosorb' containing, in the bulk of polyacryamide gel, the ovomucoid from whites of duck eggs, was used for a complex treatment of the experimental generalized purulent peritonitis and acute destructive pancreatitis in dogs. The efficiency of BAH was manifested in the significant reduction of lethality of the experimental animals, a more rapid liquidation of proteinasaemia, normalization in plasma of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and protein metabolism. Thus, by eliminating proteinases from circulation, Ovosorb contributes to the cessation of imbalance in the proteinase-inhibitor system and is efficient in the therapy of pathological states related to this imbalance. PMID:8031989

  18. Identification and characterization of alpha-I-proteinase inhibitor from common carp sarcoplasmic proteins.

    PubMed

    Siriangkanakun, Siriphon; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Yongsawadigul, Jirawat

    2016-02-01

    Purification of proteinase inhibitor from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) sarcoplasmic proteins resulted in 2.8% yield with purification fold of 111. Two inhibitors, namely inhibitor I and II, exhibited molecular mass of 47 and 52 kDa, respectively, based on non-reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Both inhibitors I and II were identified to be alpha-1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) based on LC-MS/MS. They were glycoproteins and molecular mass after peptide-N-glycosidase F treatment was 38 and 45 kDa, respectively. The N-glycosylation sites of both inhibitors were determined to be at N214 and N226. The inhibitors specifically inhibited trypsin. The common carp α1-PI showed high thermal stability with denaturation temperatures of 65.43 and 73.31 °C, which were slightly less than those of ovomucoid. High stability toward NaCl was also evident up to 3M. The common carp α1-PI effectively reduced autolytic degradation of bigeye snapper surimi at the concentration as low as 0.025%. PMID:26304452

  19. Molecular mechanisms of antithrombin-heparin regulation of blood clotting proteinases. a paradigm for understanding proteinase regulation by serpin family protein proteinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Steven T.; Richard, Benjamin; Izaguirre, Gonzalo; Schedin-Weiss, Sophia; Gettins, Peter G. W.

    2010-01-01

    Serpin family protein proteinase inhibitors regulate the activity of serine and cysteine proteinases by a novel conformational trapping mechanism that may itself be regulated by cofactors to provide a finely-tuned time and location-dependent control of proteinase activity. The serpin, antithrombin, together with its cofactors, heparin and heparan sulfate, perform a critical anticoagulant function by preventing the activation of blood clotting proteinases except when needed at the site of a vascular injury. Here, we review the detailed molecular understanding of this regulatory mechanism that has emerged from numerous X-ray crystal structures of antithrombin and its complexes with heparin and target proteinases together with mutagenesis and functional studies of heparin-antithrombin-proteinase interactions in solution. Like other serpins, antithrombin achieves specificity for its target blood clotting proteinases by presenting recognition determinants in an exposed reactive center loop as well as in exosites outside the loop. Antithrombin reactivity is repressed in the absence of its activator because of unfavorable interactions that diminish the favorable RCL and exosite interactions with proteinases. Binding of a specific heparin or heparan sulfate pentasaccharide to antithrombin induces allosteric activating changes that mitigate the unfavorable interactions and promote template bridging of the serpin and proteinase. Antithrombin has thus evolved a sophisticated means of regulating the activity of blood clotting proteinases in a time and location-dependent manner that exploits the multiple conformational states of the serpin and their differential stabilization by glycosaminoglycan cofactors. PMID:20685328

  20. Proteinase inhibitor homologues as potassium channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Lancelin, J M; Foray, M F; Poncin, M; Hollecker, M; Marion, D

    1994-04-01

    We report here the NMR structure of dendrotoxin I, a powerful potassium channel blocker from the venom of the African Elapidae snake Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (black mamba), calculated from an experimentally-derived set of 719 geometric restraints. The backbone of the toxin superimposes on bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) with a root-mean-square deviation of < 1.7 A. The surface electrostatic potential calculated for dendrotoxin I and BPTI, reveal an important difference which might account for the differences in function of the two proteins. These proteins may provide examples of adaptation for specific and diverse biological functions while at the same time maintaining the overall three-dimensional structure of a common ancestor. PMID:7544683

  1. An electroblotting, two-step procedure for the detection of proteinases and the study of proteinase/inhibitor complexes in gelatin-containing polyacrylamide gels.

    PubMed

    Visal-Shah, S; Vrain, T C; Yelle, T C; Nguyen-Quoc, B; Michaud, D

    2001-08-01

    A two-step gelatin/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (gelatin/PAGE) procedure was devised for the detection of proteinases and the study of proteinase/inhibitor interactions in complex biological extracts. The proteins are first resolved by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE under reducing or nonreducing conditions, and electrotransferred into a 0.75 mm-thick accompanying polyacrylamide slab gel containing 0.1% w/v porcine gelatin. The active proteinase bands are developed by a gelatin proteolysis step in the accompanying gel in the presence or absence of diagnostic proteinase inhibitors, allowing the assessment of proteinase classes and the visual discrimination of inhibitor-'sensitive' and -'insensitive' proteinases in complex extracts. Alternatively, protein extracts are preincubated with specific reversible inhibitors before electrophoresis, allowing a rapid discrimination of strong and weak interactions implicating proteinases and reversible inhibitors. In comparison with the standard gelatin/PAGE procedure, that involves copolymerization of gelatin with acrylamide in the resolving gel, this new procedure simplifies proteinase patterns, avoids overestimation of proteinase numbers in complex extracts, and allows in certain conditions the estimation of proteinase molecular weights. Stem bromelain (EC 3.4.22.32), bovine trypsin (EC 3.4.21.4), papain (EC 3.4.22.2), and the extracellular (digestive) cysteine proteinases of five herbivorous pests are used as model enzymes to illustrate the usefulness of this approach in detecting proteinases and in studying their interactions with specific proteinaceous inhibitors potentially useful in biotechnology. PMID:11545387

  2. [Occurrence and function of a proteinase inhibitor in the hemolymph of insects].

    PubMed

    Hanschke, R; Hanschke, M

    1975-01-01

    The presence of proteinase inhibitor has been proved in the hemolymph of a number of insect species from seven different insect orders. The amount of proteinase inhibitor in the hemolymph significantly increases after injection of inactivated bacteria into the hemocoelom of Galleria mellonella-larvae. Moreover the larvae show an increased resistance against normally lethal concentrations of trypsin, chymotrypsin, pronase P and extracellular proteinase produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is discussed that the proteinase inhibitor is one of the factors acting in the antibacterial defense system in the hemolymph of Galleria mellonella-larvae. PMID:811027

  3. The synthesis of inhibitors for processing proteinases and their action on the Kex2 proteinase of yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Angliker, H; Wikstrom, P; Shaw, E; Brenner, C; Fuller, R S

    1993-01-01

    Peptidyl chloromethane and sulphonium salts containing multiple Arg and Lys residues were synthesized as potential inhibitors of prohormone and pro-protein processing proteinases. The potencies of these compounds were assayed by measuring the kinetics of inactivation of the yeast Kex2 proteinase, the prototype of a growing family of eukaryotic precursor processing proteinases. The most potent inhibitor, Pro-Nvl-Tyr-Lys-Arg-chloromethane, was based on cleavage sites in the natural Kex2 substrate pro-alpha-factor. This inhibitor exhibited a Ki of 3.7 nM and a second-order inactivation rate constant (k2/Ki) of 1.3 x 10(7) M-1.s-1 comparable with the value of kcat./Km obtained with Kex2 for the corresponding peptidyl methylcoumarinylamide substrate. The enzyme exhibited sensitivity to the other peptidyl chloromethanes over a range of concentrations, depending on peptide sequence and alpha-amino decanoylation, but was completely resistant to peptidyl sulphonium salts. Kinetics of inactivation by these new inhibitors of a set of 'control' proteinases, including members of both the trypsin and subtilisin families, underscored the apparent specificity of the compounds most active against Kex2 proteinase. PMID:8328974

  4. [Effect of quercetin on some indicators of the proteinase-proteinase inhibitor system in rats upon administration of cobalt chloride to them].

    PubMed

    Kaliman, P A; Samokhin, A A; Samokhina, L M

    2001-01-01

    The results of quercetin effect on some changes of proteinase--proteinase inhibitor system parameters in rats under cobalt chloride injection are shown. It was established that preliminary quercetin administration prevened neutral proteinase activation and alpha-2-macroglobulin activity decreasing after 2 h of cobalt chloride influence. PMID:12199071

  5. Two wound-inducible soybean cysteine proteinase inhibitors have greater insect digestive proteinase inhibitory activities than a constitutive homolog.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Botella, M A; Subramanian, L; Niu, X; Nielsen, S S; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M

    1996-08-01

    Diverse functions for three soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CysPIs) are inferred from unique characteristics of differential regulation of gene expression and inhibitory activities against specific Cys proteinases. Based on northern blot analyses, we found that the expression in leaves of one soybean CysPI gene (L1) was constitutive and the other two (N2 and R1) were induced by wounding or methyl jasmonate treatment. Induction of N2 and R1 transcript levels in leaves occurred coincidentally with increased papain inhibitory activity. Analyses of kinetic data from bacterial recombinant CysPI proteins indicated that soybean CysPIs are noncompetitive inhibitors of papain. The inhibition constants against papain of the CysPIs encoded by the wound and methyl jasmonate-inducible genes (57 and 21 nM for N2 and R1, respectively) were 500 to 1000 times lower than the inhibition constant of L1 (19,000 nM). N2 and R1 had substantially greater inhibitory activities than L1 against gut cysteine proteinases of the third-instar larvae of western corn rootworm and Colorado potato beetle. Cysteine proteinases were the predominant digestive proteolytic enzymes in the guts of these insects at this developmental stage. N2 and R1 were more inhibitory than the epoxide trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamide-(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) against western corn rootworm gut proteinases (50% inhibition concentration = 50, 200, and 7000 nM for N2, R1, and E-64, respectively). However, N2 and R1 were less effective than E-64 against the gut proteinases of Colorado potato beetle. These results indicate that the wound-inducible soybean CysPIs, N2 and R1, function in host plant defense against insect predation, and that substantial variation in CysPI activity against insect digestive proteinases exists among plant CysPI proteins. PMID:8756506

  6. Two wound-inducible soybean cysteine proteinase inhibitors have greater insect digestive proteinase inhibitory activities than a constitutive homolog.

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Y; Botella, M A; Subramanian, L; Niu, X; Nielsen, S S; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M

    1996-01-01

    Diverse functions for three soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CysPIs) are inferred from unique characteristics of differential regulation of gene expression and inhibitory activities against specific Cys proteinases. Based on northern blot analyses, we found that the expression in leaves of one soybean CysPI gene (L1) was constitutive and the other two (N2 and R1) were induced by wounding or methyl jasmonate treatment. Induction of N2 and R1 transcript levels in leaves occurred coincidentally with increased papain inhibitory activity. Analyses of kinetic data from bacterial recombinant CysPI proteins indicated that soybean CysPIs are noncompetitive inhibitors of papain. The inhibition constants against papain of the CysPIs encoded by the wound and methyl jasmonate-inducible genes (57 and 21 nM for N2 and R1, respectively) were 500 to 1000 times lower than the inhibition constant of L1 (19,000 nM). N2 and R1 had substantially greater inhibitory activities than L1 against gut cysteine proteinases of the third-instar larvae of western corn rootworm and Colorado potato beetle. Cysteine proteinases were the predominant digestive proteolytic enzymes in the guts of these insects at this developmental stage. N2 and R1 were more inhibitory than the epoxide trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamide-(4-guanidino)butane (E-64) against western corn rootworm gut proteinases (50% inhibition concentration = 50, 200, and 7000 nM for N2, R1, and E-64, respectively). However, N2 and R1 were less effective than E-64 against the gut proteinases of Colorado potato beetle. These results indicate that the wound-inducible soybean CysPIs, N2 and R1, function in host plant defense against insect predation, and that substantial variation in CysPI activity against insect digestive proteinases exists among plant CysPI proteins. PMID:8756506

  7. Potent and selective nonpeptidic inhibitors of procollagen C-proteinase.

    PubMed

    Fish, Paul V; Allan, Gillian A; Bailey, Simon; Blagg, Julian; Butt, Richard; Collis, Michael G; Greiling, Doris; James, Kim; Kendall, Jackie; McElroy, Andrew; McCleverty, Dawn; Reed, Charlotte; Webster, Robert; Whitlock, Gavin A

    2007-07-26

    6-Cyclohexyl-N-hydroxy-3-(1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)hexanamides were previously disclosed as inhibitors of procollagen C-proteinase (PCP) culminating in the identification of amide 1. Our objective was to discover a second inhibitor that would have improved affinity for PCP and to optimize properties for transepidermal delivery (TED) to intact skin. Further investigation of this template identified a number of potent PCP inhibitors (IC50 values of 2-6 nM) with improved TED flux. Sulfonamide 56 had excellent PCP enzyme activity when measured with a peptide substrate (Ki 8.7 nM) or with the endogenous substrate procollagen (IC50 3.4 nM) and demonstrates excellent selectivity over MMPs involved in wound healing (>10 000-fold). In the fibroplasia model, 56 inhibited deposition of insoluble collagen by 76 +/- 2% at 10 microM and was very effective at penetrating human skin in vitro with a TED flux of 1.5 microg/cm2/h, which compares favorably with values for agents that are known to penetrate skin well in vivo. Based on this profile, 56 (UK-421,045) was selected as a candidate for further preclinical evaluation as a topically applied, dermal anti-scarring agent. PMID:17591762

  8. Digestive Duet: Midgut Digestive Proteinases of Manduca sexta Ingesting Nicotiana attenuata with Manipulated Trypsin Proteinase Inhibitor Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Jorge A.; Giri, Ashok P.; Jongsma, Maarten A.; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2008-01-01

    Background The defensive effect of endogenous trypsin proteinase inhibitors (NaTPIs) on the herbivore Manduca sexta was demonstrated by genetically altering NaTPI production in M. sexta's host plant, Nicotiana attenuata. To understand how this defense works, we studied the effects of NaTPI on M. sexta gut proteinase activity levels in different larval instars of caterpillars feeding freely on untransformed and transformed plants. Methodology/ Principal Findings Second and third instars larvae that fed on NaTPI-producing (WT) genotypes were lighter and had less gut proteinase activity compared to those that fed on genotypes with either little or no NaTPI activity. Unexpectedly, NaTPI activity in vitro assays not only inhibited the trypsin sensitive fraction of gut proteinase activity but also halved the NaTPI-insensitive fraction in third-instar larvae. Unable to degrade NaTPI, larvae apparently lacked the means to adapt to NaTPI in their diet. However, caterpillars recovered at least part of their gut proteinase activity when they were transferred from NaTPI-producing host plants to NaTPI-free host plants. In addition extracts of basal leaves inhibited more gut proteinase activity than did extracts of middle stem leaves with the same protein content. Conclusions/ Significance Although larvae can minimize the effects of high NaTPI levels by feeding on leaves with high protein and low NaTPI activity, the host plant's endogenous NaTPIs remain an effective defense against M. sexta, inhibiting gut proteinase and affecting larval performance. PMID:18431489

  9. Human plasma alpha-cysteine proteinase inhibitor. Purification by affinity chromatography, characterization and isolation of an active fragment.

    PubMed Central

    Gounaris, A D; Brown, M A; Barrett, A J

    1984-01-01

    Human plasma alpha-cysteine proteinase inhibitor (alpha CPI) was purified by a two-stage method: affinity chromatography on S-carboxymethyl-papain-Sepharose, and high-resolution anion-exchange chromatography. The protein was obtained as a form of Mr about 64 000 and material of higher Mr (about 100 000). In sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis with reduction, both forms showed a major component of Mr 64 000. An antiserum was raised against alpha CPI, and 'rocket' immunoassays showed the mean concentration in sera from 19 individuals to be 35.9 mg/dl. Both low-Mr and high-Mr forms of alpha CPI were confirmed to be sialoglycoproteins by the decrease in electrophoretic mobility after treatment with neuraminidase. alpha CPI was shown immunologically to be distinct from antithrombin III and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, two serine proteinase inhibitors from plasma with somewhat similar Mr values. alpha CPI was also distinct from cystatins A and B, the two intracellular low-Mr cysteine proteinase inhibitors from human liver. Complexes of alpha CPI with papain were detectable in immunoelectrophoresis, but dissociated to free enzyme and intact inhibitor in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The stoichiometry of binding of papain was close to 1:1 for both low-Mr and high-Mr forms. alpha CPI was found to be a tight-binding inhibitor of papain and human cathepsins H and L (Ki 34 pM, 1.1 nM and 62 pM respectively). By contrast, inhibition of cathepsin B was much weaker, Ki being about 35 microM. Dipeptidyl peptidase I also was weakly inhibited. Digestion of alpha CPI with bromelain gave rise to an inhibitory fragment of Mr about 22 000, which was isolated. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6548132

  10. Triacontanol negatively modulates the jasmonic acid-stimulated proteinase inhibitors in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Ramanarayan, Krishnamurthy; Swamy, Gangadharamurthy Sivakumar

    2004-04-01

    Triacontanol (TRIA), a long chain aliphatic alcohol (C30H61OH) reverses the effect of jasmonic acid (JA) in inducing proteinase inhibitors (PIs) in tomato leaves. Porcine pancreas trypsin and Spodoptera litura gut proteinases were inhibited in the presence of leaf proteins treated with JA, and TRIA partially reverses this effect. Spodoptera litura larvae fed with tomato leaves treated with JA were reduced in body weight and TRIA is able to partially reverse this JA-induced effect. These results reflect the partial reversal effect of TRIA in down regulating the JA-induced production of proteinase inhibitors. PMID:15128037

  11. Purification and partial characterization of α1-proteinase inhibitor in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Parambeth, Joseph Cyrus; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Steiner, Jörg M.

    2015-01-01

    Fecal alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) concentration has been to diagnose enteric protein loss in dogs and cats. Chronic lymphocytic enteritis is commonly seen in the marmoset (C. jaccus) and is characterized by hypoalbuminemia. As a prelude to immunoassay development for detecting enteric protein loss, marmoset serum α1-PI was purified using immunoaffinity chromatography and ceramic hydroxyapatite chromatography. Partial characterization was performed by reducing gel electrophoresis and enzyme inhibitory assays. Protein identity was confirmed with peptide mass fingerprinting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Molecular mass, relative molecular mass, and isoelectric point for marmoset α1-PI were 54 kDa, 51677, and 4.8-5.4, respectively. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase inhibitory activity were observed. N-terminal amino acid sequence for marmoset α1-PI was EDPQGDAAQKMDTSHH. In conclusion, marmoset α1-PI was successfully purified from serum with an overall yield of 12% using a rapid and efficient method. Purified marmoset α1-PI has characteristics similar to those of α1-PI reported for other species. PMID:25745866

  12. Partial purification and characterization of an inhibitor from newborn-rat epidermis with activity against the proteinase of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae.

    PubMed Central

    Tzeng, S; McKerrow, J H; Jeong, K; Fukuyama, K; Epstein, W L

    1982-01-01

    The penetration of cercariae through the skin initiates infection of the host with the human trematode parasite Schistosoma mansoni. Many larvae fail to migrate into the living epidermal cell layer. In order to determine if chemical as well as mechanical barriers to cercarial skin penetration exist, inhibitory activity of epidermal cell extracts against the proteinase obtained from cercarial secretions was assayed. An inhibitor was purified 50-fold by gel filtration on Sephadex G 75 and cation exchange chromatography at pH 5.8 and 4.9. The inhibitor has a relative molecular mass (Mr) of approx. 40 000-53 000. Oxidation of the inhibitor with N-chlorosuccinimide eliminated its inhibitory activity and thus indicated a critical methionine residue. The inhibitor was active against a wide spectrum of serine proteinases: porcine pancreatic elastase, human granulocyte elastase, bovine trypsin, and bovine alpha-chymotrypsin. However, no inhibition was detected against papain or clostridial collagenase. The inhibitor did not cross react with antiserum to human or rat serum alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor. Images Fig. 3. PMID:7165704

  13. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa secretory product pyocyanin inactivates alpha1 protease inhibitor: implications for the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis lung disease.

    PubMed

    Britigan, B E; Railsback, M A; Cox, C D

    1999-03-01

    Alpha1 Protease inhibitor (alpha1PI) modulates serine protease activity in the lung. Reactive oxygen species inactivate alpha1PI, and this process has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of forms of lung injury. An imbalance of protease-antiprotease activity is also detected in the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis-associated lung disease who are infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa secretes pyocyanin, which, through its ability to redox cycle, induces cells to generate reactive oxygen species. We tested the hypothesis that redox cycling of pyocyanin could lead to inactivation of alpha1PI. When alpha1PI was exposed to NADH and pyocyanin, a combination that results in superoxide production, alpha1PI lost its ability to form an inhibitory complex with both porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) and trypsin. Similarly, addition of pyocyanin to cultures of human airway epithelial cells to which alpha1PI was also added resulted in a loss of the ability of alpha1PI to form a complex with PPE or trypsin. Neither superoxide dismutase, catalase, nor dimethylthiourea nor depletion of the media of O2 to prevent formation of reactive oxygen species blocked pyocyanin-mediated inactivation of alpha1PI. These data raise the possibility that a direct interaction between reduced pyocyanin and alpha1PI is involved in the process. Consistent with this possibility, pretreatment of alpha1PI with the reducing agent beta-mercaptoethanol also inhibited binding of trypsin to alpha1PI. These data suggest that pyocyanin could contribute to lung injury in the P. aeruginosa-infected airway of cystic fibrosis patients by decreasing the ability of alpha1PI to control the local activity of serine proteases. PMID:10024562

  14. Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor is a major leukocyte elastase inhibitor in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Sallenave, J M; Si Tahar, M; Cox, G; Chignard, M; Gauldie, J

    1997-06-01

    Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) is the main neutrophil elastase (HLE) inhibitor found in the upper airways during pulmonary inflammation. It has been shown to be synthesized and secreted in vitro by epithelial cells and has been localized in tracheal glands and bronchiolar epithelial cells by immunocytochemistry. In this study, using immunodetection and immunopurification techniques with specific anti-SLPI immunoglobulin G (IgG), we show that SLPI is present as a native 14-kDa molecule in neutrophil cytosol. In addition, we demonstrate that SLPI is the major inhibitor of HLE present in neutrophil cytosol because pre-incubation with specific anti-SLPI IgG was able to inhibit completely the anti-HLE activity of the cytosol. SLPI can be secreted (probably in an inactive form) by neutrophils and its secretion is enhanced when the cells are stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). Elafin, an elastase-specific inhibitor, is also present in minute amounts in neutrophil cytosol and its secretion can be up-regulated. The presence of SLPI in the cytosol of neutrophils may serve as a protective screen against proteinases spilling from azurophilic granules. An alternative or supplementary role may be the maintenance of a differentiated phenotype. PMID:9201260

  15. Expression of human α1-proteinase inhibitor in Aspergillus niger

    PubMed Central

    Karnaukhova, Elena; Ophir, Yakir; Trinh, Loc; Dalal, Nimish; Punt, Peter J; Golding, Basil; Shiloach, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Background Human α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI), also known as antitrypsin, is the most abundant serine protease inhibitor (serpin) in plasma. Its deficiency is associated with development of progressive, ultimately fatal emphysema. Currently in the United States, α1-PI is available for replacement therapy as an FDA licensed plasma-derived (pd) product. However, the plasma source itself is limited; moreover, even with efficient viral inactivation steps used in manufacture of plasma products, the risk of contamination from emerging viruses may still exist. Therefore, recombinant α1-PI (r-α1-PI) could provide an attractive alternative. Although r-α1-PI has been produced in several hosts, protein stability in vitro and rapid clearance from the circulation have been major issues, primarily due to absent or altered glycosylation. Results We have explored the possibility of expressing the gene for human α1-PI in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger (A. niger), a system reported to be capable of providing more "mammalian-like" glycosylation patterns to secretable proteins than commonly used yeast hosts. Our expression strategy was based on fusion of α1-PI with a strongly expressed, secreted leader protein (glucoamylase G2), separated by dibasic processing site (N-V-I-S-K-R) that provides in vivo cleavage. SDS-PAGE, Western blot, ELISA, and α1-PI activity assays enabled us to select the transformant(s) secreting a biologically active glycosylated r-α1-PI with yields of up to 12 mg/L. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) analysis further confirmed that molecular mass of the r-α1-PI was similar to that of the pd-α1-PI. In vitro stability of the r-α1-PI from A. niger was tested in comparison with pd-α1-PI reference and non-glycosylated human r-α1-PI from E. coli. Conclusion We examined the suitability of the filamentous fungus A. niger for the expression of the human gene for α1-PI, a medium size glycoprotein of high

  16. Purification and characterization of elastase-specific inhibitor. Sequence homology with mucus proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Sallenave, J M; Ryle, A P

    1991-01-01

    Elastase-specific inhibitor (ESI) was purified from sputum of patients with chronic bronchitis and compared with mucus proteinase inhibitor (MPI, BrI) isolated, without the use of affinity chromatography on an enzyme, from non-purulent sputum of a patient with bronchial carcinoma. The N-terminal sequence of 27 residues of the latter was determined and showed serine as the only N-terminus. The partial N-terminal amino-acid sequence of ESI shows some homology with MPI, especially around the reactive site of MPI for human neutrophil elastase. This region could therefore be the reactive site of ESI. The thermodynamic and kinetic constants of the reactions of ESI with human neutrophil elastase and with porcine pancreatic elastase show that ESI is a fast-acting inhibitor. PMID:2039600

  17. The synthesis of peptidylfluoromethanes and their properties as inhibitors of serine proteinases and cysteine proteinases.

    PubMed Central

    Rauber, P; Angliker, H; Walker, B; Shaw, E

    1986-01-01

    A synthesis of peptidylfluoromethanes is described that utilizes the conversion of phthaloyl amino acids into their fluoromethane derivatives. These can be deblocked and elongated. The inactivation of chymotrypsin by Cbz-Phe-CH2F (benzyloxycarbonylphenylalanylfluoromethane) was found to be considerably slower than that of the analogous chloromethane. The fluoromethane analogue inactivates chymotrypsin with an overall rate constant that is 2% of that observed for the inactivation of the enzyme with the chloromethane. However, the result is the same. The reagent complexes in a substrate-like manner, with Ki = 1.4 X 10(-4) M, and alkylates the active-centre histidine residue. Cbz-Phe-Phe-CH2F and Cbz-Phe-Ala-CH2F were investigated as inactivators of the cysteine proteinase cathepsin B. The difference in reactivity between fluoromethyl ketones and chloromethyl ketones is less pronounced in the case of the cysteine proteinase than for the serine proteinase. Covalent bond formation takes place in this case also, as demonstrated by the use of a radiolabelled reagent. PMID:3827817

  18. Salicylic Acid Inhibits Synthesis of Proteinase Inhibitors in Tomato Leaves Induced by Systemin and Jasmonic Acid.

    PubMed Central

    Doares, S. H.; Narvaez-Vasquez, J.; Conconi, A.; Ryan, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), previously shown to inhibit proteinase inhibitor synthesis induced by wounding, oligouronides (H.M. Doherty, R.R. Selvendran, D.J. Bowles [1988] Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 33: 377-384), and linolenic acid (H. Pena-Cortes, T. Albrecht, S. Prat, E.W. Weiler, L. Willmitzer [1993] Planta 191: 123-128), are shown here to be potent inhibitors of systemin-induced and jasmonic acid (JA)-induced synthesis of proteinase inhibitor mRNAs and proteins. The inhibition by SA and ASA of proteinase inhibitor synthesis induced by systemin and JA, as well as by wounding and oligosaccharide elicitors, provides further evidence that both oligosaccharide and polypeptide inducer molecules utilize the octadecanoid pathway to signal the activation of proteinase inhibitor genes. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) leaves were pulse labeled with [35S]methionine, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the inhibitory effects of SA are shown to be specific for the synthesis of a small number of JA-inducible proteins that includes the proteinase inhibitors. Previous results have shown that SA inhibits the conversion of 13S-hydroperoxy linolenic acid to 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, thereby inhibiting the signaling pathway by blocking synthesis of JA. Here we report that the inhibition of synthesis of proteinase inhibitor proteins and mRNAs by SA in both light and darkness also occurs at a step in the signal transduction pathway, after JA synthesis but preceding transcription of the inhibitor genes. PMID:12228577

  19. Limited proteolysis by macrophage elastase inactivities human. cap alpha. /sub 1/-proteinase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Banda, M.J.; Clark, E.J.; Werb, Z.

    1980-12-01

    Ever since the initial description of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-proteinase inhibitor (..cap alpha../sub 1/PI), the role of this plasma glycoprotein and its allelic polymorphism in disease and in healthy physiology has been the subject of much investigation, ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI inactivates a number of serine proteinases, including granulocyte elastase, and thus affords protection from the connective tissue degradation mediated by this class of proteinases. Because an imbalance in the ratio between ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI and proteinase may contribute to the development of destructive lung diseases, proteinases have been implicated in the pathogenesis of pulmonary emphysema. Both macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes have been implicated in disruption of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI-proteinase balance. In this report, a new mechanism for alteration of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI-proteinase balance is demonstrated. It was found that the purified form of macrophage elastase catalytically degrades and inactivates ..cap alpha../sub 1/PI so that it no longer inhibits the elastinolytic activity of granulocyte elastase.

  20. Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in the midgut of Phlebotomus papatasi

    PubMed Central

    Sigle, Leah Theresa; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important disease vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania, as well as bacteria and viruses. Following studies of the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi, the principal vector of Leishmania major, two non-classical Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors were identified (PpKzl1 and PpKzl2). Analyses of expression profiles indicated that PpKzl1 and PpKzl2 transcripts are both regulated by blood-feeding in the midgut of P. papatasi and are also expressed in males, larva and pupa. We expressed a recombinant PpKzl2 in a mammalian expression system (CHO-S free style cells) that was applied to in vitro studies to assess serine proteinase inhibition. Recombinant PpKzl2 inhibited α-chymotrypsin to 9.4% residual activity and also inhibited α-thrombin and trypsin to 33.5% and 63.9% residual activity, suggesting that native PpKzl2 is an active serine proteinase inhibitor and likely involved in regulating digestive enzymes in the midgut. Early stages of Leishmania are susceptible to killing by digestive proteinases in the sandfly midgut. Thus, characterising serine proteinase inhibitors may provide new targets and strategies to prevent transmission of Leishmania. PMID:24037187

  1. Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors in the midgut of Phlebotomus papatasi.

    PubMed

    Sigle, Leah Theresa; Ramalho-Ortigão, Marcelo

    2013-09-01

    Sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are important disease vectors of parasites of the genus Leishmania, as well as bacteria and viruses. Following studies of the midgut transcriptome of Phlebotomus papatasi, the principal vector of Leishmania major, two non-classical Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitors were identified (PpKzl1 and PpKzl2). Analyses of expression profiles indicated that PpKzl1 and PpKzl2 transcripts are both regulated by blood-feeding in the midgut of P. papatasi and are also expressed in males, larva and pupa. We expressed a recombinant PpKzl2 in a mammalian expression system (CHO-S free style cells) that was applied to in vitro studies to assess serine proteinase inhibition. Recombinant PpKzl2 inhibited α-chymotrypsin to 9.4% residual activity and also inhibited α-thrombin and trypsin to 33.5% and 63.9% residual activity, suggesting that native PpKzl2 is an active serine proteinase inhibitor and likely involved in regulating digestive enzymes in the midgut. Early stages of Leishmania are susceptible to killing by digestive proteinases in the sandfly midgut. Thus, characterising serine proteinase inhibitors may provide new targets and strategies to prevent transmission of Leishmania. PMID:24037187

  2. LEKTI domain 15 is a functional Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Vitzithum, Klaus; Lauber, Thomas; Kreutzmann, Peter; Schulz, Axel; Sommerhoff, Christian P; Rösch, Paul; Marx, Ute C

    2008-01-01

    The multidomain proteinase inhibitor LEKTI (lympho-epithelial Kazal-type related inhibitor) consists of 15 potential serine proteinase inhibitory domains. In various diseases such as the severe skin disorder Netherton syndrome as well as atopy, defects in the gene encoding LEKTI have been identified that generate premature termination codons of translation, suggesting a specific role of the COOH-terminal part of LEKTI in healthy individuals. We overexpressed and purified a sequence comprising the 15th domain of LEKTI for further characterisation. Here, we present a high yield expression system for recombinant production and efficient purification of LEKTI domain 15 as a highly soluble protein with a uniform disulfide pattern that is identical to that of other known Kazal-type inhibitors. Also, the expected P1P1' site was confirmed. LEKTI domain 15 is a well-structured protein as verified by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and a tight-binding and stable inhibitor of the serine proteinase trypsin. These findings confirm the designation of domain 15 as a proteinase inhibitor of the Kazal family. PMID:17936012

  3. Insect and wound induced GUS gene expression from a Beta vulgaris proteinase inhibitor gene promoter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inducible gene promoters that are specifically activated by pathogen invasion or insect pest attack are needed for effective expression of resistance genes to control plant diseases. In the present study, a promoter from a serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI) shown to be up-regulated in resist...

  4. Insect resistance to sugar beet pests mediated by a Beta vulgaris proteinase inhibitor transgene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We transformed sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) hairy roots and Nicotiana benthamiana plants with a Beta vulgaris root gene (BvSTI) that codes for a serine proteinase inhibitor. BvSTI is a root gene cloned from the F1016 breeding line that has moderate levels of resistance to the sugar beet root maggot ...

  5. Successive Use of Non-Host Plant Proteinase Inhibitors Required for Effective Inhibition of Helicoverpa armigera Gut Proteinases and Larval Growth1

    PubMed Central

    Harsulkar, Abhay M.; Giri, Ashok P.; Patankar, Aparna G.; Gupta, Vidya S.; Sainani, Mohini N.; Ranjekar, Prabhakar K.; Deshpande, Vasanti V.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the efficacy of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) from three host plants (chickpea [Cicer arietinum], pigeonpea [Cajanus cajan], and cotton [Gossypium arboreum]) and three non-host (groundnut [Arachis hypogea], winged bean [Psophocarpus tetragonolobus], and potato [Solanum tuberosum]) in retarding the growth of Helicoverpa armigera larvae, a devastating pest of important crop plants. Enzyme assays and electrophoretic analysis of interaction of H. armigera gut proteinases (HGPs) with PIs revealed that non-host PIs inhibited HGP activity efficiently whereas host PIs were ineffective. In the electrophoretic assay, trypsin inhibitor activity bands were detected in all of the host and non-host plants, but HGP inhibitor activity bands were present only in non-host plants (except cotton in the host plant group). H. armigera larvae reared on a diet containing non-host PIs showed growth retardation, a reduction in total and trypsin-like proteinase activity, and the production of inhibitor-insensitive proteinases. Electrophoretic analysis of PI-induced HGP showed differential regulation of proteinase isoforms. Interestingly, HGP activity induced in response to dietary potato PI-II was inhibited by winged bean PIs. The optimized combination of potato PI-II and winged bean PIs identified in the present study and their proposed successive use has potential in developing H. armigera-resistant transgenic plants. PMID:10517841

  6. Effects of E-64, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor, on cowpea weevil growth, development, and fecundity

    SciTech Connect

    Murdock, L.L.; Shade, R.E.; Pomeroy, M.A.

    1988-06-01

    E-64, a specific inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, was incorporated into artificial seeds at low levels (0.01-0.25% by weight). It prolonged developmental time and increased mortality of the larval cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.), in direct proportion to its concentration in the artificial seeds. The fecundity of females emerging from the artificial seeds was significantly decreased by E-64 concentrations of 0.06% and higher. These observations are compatible with the hypothesis that the midgut cysteine proteinase in C. maculatus is essential for normal growth and development.

  7. Altered Expression of Brain Proteinase-Activated Receptor-2, Trypsin-2 and Serpin Proteinase Inhibitors in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Michael J; Durrenberger, Pascal F; Gentleman, Steve M; Walls, Andrew F; Dexter, David T

    2015-09-01

    Neuroinflammation is thought to contribute to cell death in neurodegenerative disorders, but the factors involved in the inflammatory process are not completely understood. Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) expression in brain is increased in Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, but the status of PAR2 in Parkinson's disease is unknown. This study examined expression of PAR2 and endogenous proteinase activators (trypsin-2, mast cell tryptase) and proteinase inhibitors (serpin-A5, serpin-A13) in areas vulnerable and resistant to neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease at different Braak α-synuclein stages of the disease in post-mortem brain. In normal aged brain, expression of PAR-2, trypsin-2, and serpin-A5 and serpin-A13 was found in neurons and microglia, and alterations in the amount of immunoreactivity for these proteins were found in some brain regions. Namely, there was a decrease in neurons positive for serpin-A5 in the dorsal motor nucleus, and serpin-A13 expression was reduced in the locus coeruleus and primary motor cortex, while expression of PAR2, trypsin-2 and both serpins was reduced in neurons within the substantia nigra. There was an increased number of microglia that expressed serpin-A5 in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and elevated numbers of microglia that expressed serpin-A13 in the substantia nigra of late Parkinson's disease cases. The number of microglia that expressed trypsin-2 increased in primary motor cortex of incidental Lewy body disease cases. Analysis of Parkinson's disease cases alone indicated that serpin-A5 and serpin-A13, and trypsin-2 expression in midbrain and cerebral cortex was different in cases with a high incidence of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and psychosis compared to those with low levels of these treatment-induced side effects. This study showed that there was altered expression in brain of PAR2 and some proteins that can control its function in Parkinson's disease. Given the role of PAR2 in

  8. Discovery of an Inhibitor of Z-Alpha1 Antitrypsin Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Estenson, Kasey Noel; Baudry, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Polymerization of the Z variant alpha-1-antitrypsin (Z-α1AT) results in the most common and severe form of α1AT deficiency (α1ATD), a debilitating genetic disorder whose clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic to fatal liver and/or lung disease. As the altered conformation of Z-α1AT and its attendant aggregation are responsible for pathogenesis, the polymerization process per se has become a major target for the development of therapeutics. Based on the ability of Z-α1AT to aggregate by recruiting the reactive center loop (RCL) of another Z-α1AT into its s4A cavity, we developed a high-throughput screening assay that uses a modified 6-mer peptide mimicking the RCL to screen for inhibitors of Z-α1AT polymer growth. A subset of compounds from the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) with molecular weights ranging from 300 to 700 Da, was used to evaluate the assay’s capabilities. The inhibitor S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioguanosine was identified as a lead compound and its ability to prevent Z-α1AT polymerization confirmed by secondary assays. To further investigate the binding location of S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioguanosine, an in silico strategy was pursued and the intermediate α1AT M* state modeled to allow molecular docking simulations and explore various potential binding sites. Docking results predict that S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioguanosine can bind at the s4A cavity and at the edge of β-sheet A. The former binding site would directly block RCL insertion whereas the latter site would prevent β-sheet A from expanding between s3A/s5A, and thus indirectly impede RCL insertion. Altogether, our investigations have revealed a novel compound that inhibits the formation of Z-α1AT polymers, as well as in vitro and in silico strategies for identifying and characterizing additional blocking molecules of Z-α1AT polymerization. PMID:25961288

  9. Three low molecular weight cysteine proteinase inhibitors of human seminal fluid: purification and enzyme kinetic properties.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vikash Kumar; Chhikara, Nirmal; Gill, Kamaldeep; Dey, Sharmistha; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2013-08-01

    The cystatins form a superfamily of structurally related proteins with highly conserved structural folds. They are all potent, reversible, competitive inhibitors of cysteine proteinases (CPs). Proteins from this group present differences in proteinase inhibition despite their high level of structural similarities. In this study, three cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CPIs) of low molecular weight were isolated from human seminal fluid (HSF) by affinity chromatography on carboxymethyl (CM)-papain-Sepharose column, purified using various chromatographic procedures and checked for purity on sodium-dodecyl PAGE (SDS-PAGE). Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of flight-mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) identified these proteins as cystatin 9, cystatin SN, and SAP-1 (an N-terminal truncated form of cystatin S). All three CPIs suppressed the activity of papain potentially and showed remarkable heat stability. Interestingly SAP-1 also inhibits the activity of trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, and PSA (prostate specific antigen) and acts as a cross-class protease inhibitor in in vitro studies. Using Surface Plasmon Resonance, we have also observed that SAP-1 shows a significant binding with all these proteases. These studies suggest that SAP-1 is a cross-class inhibitor that may regulate activity of various classes of proteases within the reproductive systems. To our knowledge, this is the first report about purification of CPIs from HSF; the identification of such proteins could provide better insights into the physiological processes and offer intimation for further research. PMID:23619703

  10. Structure of equine infectious anemia virus proteinase complexed with an inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Gustchina, A.; Kervinen, J.; Powell, D. J.; Zdanov, A.; Kay, J.; Wlodawer, A.

    1996-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), the causative agent of infectious anemia in horses, is a member of the lentiviral family. The virus-encoded proteinase (PR) processes viral polyproteins into functional molecules during replication and it also cleaves viral nucleocapsid protein during infection. The X-ray structure of a complex of the 154G mutant of EIAV PR with the inhibitor HBY-793 was solved at 1.8 A resolution and refined to a crystallographic R-factor of 0.136. The molecule is a dimer in which the monomers are related by a crystallographic twofold axis. Although both the enzyme and the inhibitor are symmetric, the interactions between the central part of the inhibitor and the active site aspartates are asymmetric, and the inhibitor and the two flaps are partially disordered. The overall fold of EIAV PR is very similar to that of other retroviral proteinases. However, a novel feature of the EIAV PR structure is the appearance of the second alpha-helix in the monomer in a position predicted by the structural template for the family of aspartic proteinases. The parts of the EIAV PR with the highest resemblance to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 PR include the substrate-binding sites; thus, the differences in the specificity of both enzymes have to be explained by enzyme-ligand interactions at the periphery of the active site as well. PMID:8844837

  11. alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin is the human plasma inhibitor of macrophage ectoenzymes that cleave pro-macrophage stimulating protein.

    PubMed

    Skeel, A; Leonard, E J

    2001-06-15

    Macrophage stimulating protein (MSP) is secreted as 78-kDa single chain pro-MSP, which is converted to biologically active, disulfide-linked alphabeta chain MSP by cleavage at Arg(483)-Val(484). Murine resident peritoneal macrophages have two cell surface proteolytic activities that cleave pro-MSP. One is a pro-MSP convertase, which cleaves pro-MSP to active MSP; the other degrades pro-MSP. The degrading protease is inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor or by low concentrations of blood plasma, which allows the convertase to cleave pro-MSP to MSP. Using pro-MSP cleavage as the assay, we purified the inhibitor from human plasma. The bulk of the plasma protein was removed by salting out and by isoelectric precipitation of albumin. Highly purified inhibitor was then obtained in three steps: dye-ligand binding and elution, ion exchange chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography gel filtration. After SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transfer to a polyvinylidene membrane, N-terminal sequencing of the product identified it as alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin. The mean concentration of alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin in human plasma is 7 micrometer. At this concentration, alpha(1)-antichymotrypsin inhibits both macrophage enzymes. A concentration of 0.4 micrometer, which is in the expected concentration range in extracellular fluid, preferentially inhibits the degrading enzyme, which allows for cleavage to active MSP by the pro-MSP convertase. PMID:11274154

  12. A substitution of cysteine for glycine 748 of the alpha 1 chain produces a kink at this site in the procollagen I molecule and an altered N-proteinase cleavage site over 225 nm away.

    PubMed

    Vogel, B E; Doelz, R; Kadler, K E; Hojima, Y; Engel, J; Prockop, D J

    1988-12-15

    In previous work (Vogel, B. E., Minor, R. R., Freund, M., and Prockop, D. J. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 14737-14744), we identified a single-base mutation that converted the glycine at position 748 of the alpha 1 chain of type I procollagen to a cysteine in a proband with a lethal variant of osteogenesis imperfecta. In addition to posttranslational overmodification, the abnormal molecules displayed decreased thermal stability and a decreased rate of secretion. An unexplained finding was that procollagen was poorly processed to pCcollagen in postconfluent cultures of skin fibroblasts. Here, we show that the procollagen synthesized by the proband's cells is resistant to cleavage by procollagen N-proteinase, a conformation-sensitive enzyme. Since the only detectable defect in the molecule was the cysteine for glycine substitution, we assembled several space-filling models to try to explain how the structure of the N-proteinase cleavage site can be affected by an amino acid substitution over 700 amino acid residues or 225 nm away. The models incorporated a phase shift of a tripeptide unit in one or both of the alpha 1 chains. The most satisfactory models produced a flexible kink of 30 degrees or 60 degrees at the site of the cysteine substitution. Therefore, we examined the procollagen by electron microscopy. About 25% of the molecules had a kink not seen in control samples, and the kink was at the site of the cysteine substitution. PMID:3198624

  13. Snake venoms. The amino acid sequences of two proteinase inhibitor homologues from Dendroaspis angusticeps venom.

    PubMed

    Joubert, F J; Taljaard, N

    1980-05-01

    Toxins C13S1C3 and C13S2C3 from D. angusticeps venom were purified by gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography. Whereas C13S1C3 contains 57 amino acids, C13S2C3 contains 59 but each include six half-cystine residues. The complete primary structure of the low toxicity proteins have been elucidated. The sequences and the invariant residues of toxins C13S1C3 and C13S2C3 from D. angusticeps venom resemble, respectively, those of the proteinase inhibitor homologues K and I from D. polylepis polylepis venom and they are also homologous to the active proteinase inhibitors from various sources. In C13S1C3 and K the active site lysyl residue of active bovine pancreatic proteinase inhibitor is conserved but the site residue alanine, is replaced by lysine. In C13S2C3 and I the active site residue is replaced by tyrosine. PMID:7429422

  14. Enzymatic response of the eucalypt defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) to a bis-benzamidine proteinase Inhibitor. i.

    PubMed

    Marinho-Prado, Jeanne Scardini; Lourenção, A L; Guedes, R N C; Pallini, A; Oliveira, J A; Oliveira, M G A

    2012-10-01

    Ingestion of proteinase inhibitors leads to hyperproduction of digestive proteinases, limiting the bioavailability of essential amino acids for protein synthesis, which affects insect growth and development. However, the effects of proteinase inhibitors on digestive enzymes can lead to an adaptive response by the insect. In here, we assessed the biochemical response of midgut proteinases from the eucalypt defoliator Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll) to different concentrations of berenil, a bis-benzamidine proteinase inhibitor, on eucalyptus. Eucalyptus leaves were immersed in berenil solutions at different concentrations and fed to larvae of T. arnobia. Mortality was assessed daily. The proteolytic activity in the midgut of T. arnobia was assessed after feeding on plants sprayed with aqueous solutions of berenil, fed to fifth instars of T. arnobia for 48 h before midgut removal for enzymatic assays. Larvae of T. arnobia were able to overcome the effects of the lowest berenil concentrations by increasing their trypsin-like activity, but not as berenil concentration increased, despite the fact that the highest berenil concentration resulted in overproduction of trypsin-like proteinases. Berenil also prevented the increase of the cysteine proteinases activity in response to trypsin inhibition. PMID:23950094

  15. Uniquely Regulated Proteinase Inhibitor I Gene in a Wild Tomato Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Wingate, Vincent P. M.; Ryan, Clarence A.

    1991-01-01

    A uniquely regulated proteinase inhibitor I gene was isolated from the wild tomato species Lycopersicon peruvianum (L.) Mill. (LA 107) and characterized. The inhibitor gene is wound-inducible in leaves and is expressed in unripe fruit during development. The gene (λ clone 1) is present on a 15.5 kilobase pair Sal 1-SalI genomic DNA fragment. Southern blot analysis of L. peruvianum genomic DNA shows only one strongly hybridizing DNA fragment to probes derived from λ clone 1. S1 nuclease protection experiments and Northern analyses confirm that this gene is both wound-inducible in leaves and developmentally regulated in young unripe fruit. These observations are supported by comparisons of the 5′-flanking DNA sequences of the L. peruvianum inhibitor I gene with known elicitor responsive cis-acting sequences. The transcriptional regulation of the λ clone 1 inhibitor I gene in leaves of wounded plants and in developing unripe fruit indicates that the gene contains unique complex regulating elements. These elements respond to both environmental and developmental tissue-specific signals that can regulate proteinase inhibitor synthesis to protect the tissues of this wild species of tomato against predators and pathogens. ImagesFigure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:16668426

  16. Competitive inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by p-aminobenzamidine, a serine proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Venturini, G; Menegatti, E; Ascenzi, P

    1997-03-01

    p-Aminobenzamidine competitively inhibits bovine trypsin, human and bovine thrombin, and human plasmin, all of which act on substrates containing preferentially the L-arginyl side chain at their P1 position. Considering the structural and functional similarity between p-aminobenzamidine and the L-arginyl side chain in trypsin-like serine proteinases, we investigated the interaction of p-aminobenzamidine with mouse brain nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which uses L-arginine as the substrate for generating NO and L-citrulline. p-Aminobenzamidine is a competitive NOS inhibitor (Ki = 1.2 x 10(-4) M, at pH 7.5 and 37.0 degrees C), but not an NO precursor. Therefore, p-aminobenzamidine affects the NO production and the trypsin-like serine proteinase action. PMID:9125158

  17. A trypsin-like proteinase in the midgut of Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae): purification, characterization, and host plant inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Mina; Zibaee, Arash; Sendi, Jalal Jalali

    2014-01-01

    A trypsin-like proteinase was purified and characterized in the midgut of Ectomyelois ceratoniae. A purification process that used Sepharyl G-100 and DEAE-cellulose fast flow chromatographies revealed a proteinase with specific activity of 66.7 μmol/min/mg protein, recovery of 27.04 and purification fold of 23.35. Molecular weight of the purified protein was found to be 35.8 kDa. Optimal pH and temperature were obtained 9 and 20°C for the purified trypsin proteinase, respectively. The purified enzyme was significantly inhibited by PMSF, TLCK, and SBTI as specific inhibitors of trypsins in which TLCK showed the highest inhibitory effect. Trypsin proteinase inhibitors were extracted from four varieties of pomegranate including Brait, Torsh-Sabz, May-Khosh, and Shirin by ion exchange chromatography. It was found that fractions 17-20 of Brait; fractions 18 and 21-26 of Torsh-Sabz; fractions 1-7, 11-17, and 19-21 of May-Khosh and fraction 8 for Shirin showed presence of trypsin inhibitor in these host. Comparison of their inhibitory effects on the purified trypsin proteinase of E. ceratoniae demonstrated that fractions from May-khosh variety had the highest effect on the enzyme among other extracted fractions. Characterization of serine proteinases of insects mainly trypsins is one of the promising methods to decrease population and damages via extracting their inhibitors and providing resistant varieties. PMID:24338707

  18. Alpha-1 antitrypsin reduces ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha-1antitrypsin (AAT) is a multifunctional protein with proteinase inhibitor and anti-inflammatory activities. Recent studies showed that AAT has therapeutic effect for diseases associated with inflammation, such as type 1 diabetes and arthritis. Proinflammatory cytokines are primary mediators of...

  19. Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional response upon immune stimulation.

    PubMed

    Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Wan, Qiang; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-01

    Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. Proteinase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the activity of the respective proteinases. Among serine proteinase inhibitors, kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are widely found in mammals, avians, and a variety of invertebrates. In this study, we describe the identification of a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (Ab-KPI) from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, which is presumably involved in innate immunity. The full-length cDNA of Ab-KPI includes 600 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-KPI contains a putative 17-amino acid signal peptide and two tandem kazal domains with high similarity to other kazal-type SPIs. Each kazal domain consists of reactive site (P1) residue containing a leucine (L), and a threonine (T) located in the second amino acid position after the second conserved cysteine of each domain. Temporal expression of Ab-KPI was assessed by real time quantitative PCR in hemocytes and mantle tissue following bacterial and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge, and tissue injury. At 6 h post-bacterial and -VHSV challenge, Ab-KPI expression in hemocytes was increased 14-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared to control samples. The highest up-regulations upon tissue injury were shown at 9 h and 12 h in hemocytes and mantle, respectively. The transcriptional modulation of Ab-KPI following bacterial and viral challenges and tissue injury indicates that it might be involved in immune defense as well as wound healing process in abalone. PMID:23859879

  20. Biochemical features, molecular biology and clinical relevance of the human 15-domain serine proteinase inhibitor LEKTI.

    PubMed

    Walden, Michael; Kreutzmann, Peter; Drögemüller, Katrin; John, Harald; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Hans-Jürgen, Mägert

    2002-01-01

    Based on the isolation of a 55 amino acid peptide from human hemofiltrate, we cloned the cDNA for a novel human 15-domain serine proteinase inhibitor termed LEKTI. A trypsin-inhibiting activity was demonstrated for three different domains. High levels of expression of the corresponding gene were detected in oral mucosa, followed by the tonsils, parathyroid glands, thymus, and trachea. Hovnanian and coworkers recently found that certain mutations within the LEKTI gene are linked to the severe congenital disease Netherton syndrome and atopic manifestations (including asthma). Thus, a future therapeutic use of LEKTI is conceivable. PMID:12437098

  1. Determination of human serum alpha1-acid glycoprotein and albumin binding of various marketed and preclinical kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zsila, Ferenc; Fitos, Ilona; Bencze, Gyula; Kéri, György; Orfi, László

    2009-01-01

    There are about 380 protein kinase inhibitors in drug development as of today and 15 drugs have been marketed already for the treatment of cancer. This time 139 validated kinase targets are in the focus of drug research of pharmaceutical companies and big efforts are made for the development of new, druglike kinase inhibitors. Plasma protein binding is an important factor of the ADME profiling of a drug compound. Human serum albumin (HSA) and alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AAG) are the most relevant drug carriers in blood plasma. Since previous literature data indicated that AAG is the principal plasma binding component of some kinase inhibitors the present work focuses on the comprehensive evaluation of AAG binding of a series of marketed and experimental kinase inhibitors by using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy approach. HSA binding was also evaluated by affinity chromatography. Protein binding interactions of twenty-six kinase inhibitors are characterized. The contribution of AAG and HSA binding data to the pharmacokinetic profiles of the investigated therapeutic agents is discussed. Structural, biological and drug binding properties of AAG as well as the applicability of the CD method in studying drug-protein binding interactions are also briefly reviewed. PMID:19519376

  2. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds.

    PubMed

    Patil, Dipak N; Chaudhry, Anshul; Sharma, Ashwani K; Tomar, Shailly; Kumar, Pravindra

    2009-07-01

    A Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor has been purified from tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seeds. SDS-PAGE analysis of a purified sample showed a homogeneous band corresponding to a molecular weight of 21 kDa. The protein was identified as a Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor based on N-terminal amino-acid sequence analysis. It was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method using PEG 6000. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 37.2, b = 77.1, c = 129.1 A. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.7 A. Preliminary crystallographic analysis indicated the presence of one proteinase inhibitor molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a solvent content of 44%. PMID:19574654

  3. Coexpression of potato type I and II proteinase inhibitors gives cotton plants protection against insect damage in the field

    PubMed Central

    Dunse, K. M.; Stevens, J. A.; Lay, F. T.; Gaspar, Y. M.; Heath, R. L.; Anderson, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Potato type I and II serine protease inhibitors are produced by solanaceous plants as a defense mechanism against insects and microbes. Nicotiana alata proteinase inhibitor (NaPI) is a multidomain potato type II inhibitor (pin II) that is produced at high levels in the female reproductive tissues of the ornamental tobacco, Nicotiana alata. The individual inhibitory domains of NaPI target the major classes of digestive enzymes, trypsin and chymotrypsin, in the gut of lepidopteran larval pests. Although consumption of NaPI dramatically reduced the growth and development of a major insect pest, Helicoverpa punctigera, we discovered that surviving larvae had high levels of chymotrypsin activity resistant to inhibition by NaPI. We found a potato type I inhibitor, Solanum tuberosum potato type I inhibitor (StPin1A), was a strong inhibitor of the NaPI-resistant chymotrypsin activity. The combined inhibitory effect of NaPI and StPin1A on H. armigera larval growth in the laboratory was reflected in the increased yield of cotton bolls in field trials of transgenic plants expressing both inhibitors. Better crop protection thus is achieved using combinations of inhibitors in which one class of proteinase inhibitor is used to match the genetic capacity of an insect to adapt to a second class of proteinase inhibitor. PMID:20696895

  4. Molecular cloning, sequencing and expression of a serine proteinase inhibitor gene from Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Pszenny, V; Angel, S O; Duschak, V G; Paulino, M; Ledesma, B; Yabo, M I; Guarnera, E; Ruiz, A M; Bontempi, E J

    2000-04-15

    A cDNA clone from a Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite cDNA library encoding a serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) was isolated. The 1376 bp cDNA sequence encodes a 294 amino acid protein with a putative signal peptide of 23 amino acids resulting in a mature protein with a predicted mass of 30,190 Da and a pI of 4.86. This protein has internal sequence similarity of residues 30-66, 114-150, 181-217 and 247-283 indicating a four-domain structure. The four domains exhibit high identity to serine proteinase inhibitors belonging to the non-classical Kazal-type family. The gene is single copy in the tachyzoite haploid genome of RH strain and was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Several introns were identified. The sequence encoding the mature protein was amplified by PCR, cloned into the pQE30 vector and expressed in Escherichia coli. Specific antiserum generated against the recombinant protein was used in immunoblot assay and two bands of 38 and 42 kDa were detected in a whole parasite homogenate. The recombinant protein showed trypsin-inhibitory activity, one of the two potential specificities. We discuss the possible roles that T. gondii serpin(s) may play in the survival of the tachyzoites in the host. PMID:10779600

  5. [Features of clinical course and proteinase inhibitor balance in tears in eye burns of different localization (an experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Chesnokova, N B; Malarpv, P V; Beznos, O V

    2001-01-01

    Chemical burns of the eye of different location (cornea, corneal fragment with adjacent conjunctiva, and limbus) were studied in experiments. Clinical picture and changes in the lacrimal proteinase inhibitor balance were analyzed. Burn disease is less severe and the number of complications is less if a fragment of the cornea with adjacent conjunctiva and a fragment of the limbus are injured than in case of a corneal burn of the same depth and area. Burn of the total limbus area is a severe injury involving essential shifts in the proteinase inhibitor balance, leading to deep organic changes in the cornea and inner structures of the eye, eventuating in its subatrophy. PMID:11510165

  6. Cloning eleven midgut trypsin cDNAs and evaluating the interaction of proteinase inhibitors with Cry1Ac against the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Midgut trypsins are associated with Bt protoxin activation and toxin degradation. Proteinase inhibitors have potential insecticidal toxicity against a wide range of insect species. Proactive action to examine trypsin gene profiles and proteinase inhibitors for interaction with Bt toxin is necessary ...

  7. The evolution of a genetic locus encoding small serine proteinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Clauss, Adam; Lilja, Hans; Lundwall, Åke

    2007-01-01

    We previously identified a locus on human chromosome 20 that encompasses 14 genes of postulated WFDC-type proteinase inhibitors with a potential role in innate immunity. In an extended study, homologous loci are here described on mouse chromosome 2, rat chromosome 3, and dog chromosome 24. As in humans, the murine and canine loci are divided into two sub-loci separated by 0.2 Mb. The majority of genes are conserved in all species, but there are also species-specific gains and losses of genes, e.g., several duplications have yielded four SLPI genes in the rat and, most surprisingly, there is no murine elafin gene. Two human pseudogenes were identified due to the discovery of functional rodent genes. The conservation of different WFDC domains varies considerably, and it is hypothesized that this reflects a dual role of WFDC inhibitors in natural immunity, which is directed both against microbes and proinflammatory cells. PMID:15950183

  8. Trypsin-like proteinase and its endogenous inhibitor from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Biological activity.

    PubMed

    Burtseva, T I; Loenko, Y N

    1999-09-01

    A trypsin-like proteinase (YPTP) and its endogenous inhibitor (ITYP) were isolated from the culture filtrate of the pathogenic bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, and their biological activities were studied. YPTP was found to be highly toxic for random-bred white mice. Under in vitro conditions the proteolytic enzyme destroyed protective proteins of the immune system of the animals--IgG, IgA, and proteins of the complement system (CIq, C3, and C5)--and, consequently, was a pathogenetic factor in yersinioses. The inhibitor ITYP was shown to manifest antibacterial activity against virulent forms of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium. The ITYP preparation was harmless and nontoxic. PMID:10521713

  9. Secretion of mucus proteinase inhibitor and elafin by Clara cell and type II pneumocyte cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sallenave, J M; Silva, A; Marsden, M E; Ryle, A P

    1993-02-01

    The regulation of proteinases secreted by neutrophils is very important for the prevention of tissue injury. We recently described the isolation of elafin from bronchial secretions, a new elastase-specific inhibitor that is also found in the skin of patients with psoriasis. In this study, we investigated the secretion of elafin and mucus proteinase inhibitor (MPI), another inhibitor showing sequence similarity with elafin, in two lung carcinoma cell lines, NCI-H322 and A549, which have features of Clara cells and type II alveolar cells, respectively. The results presented show that the two inhibitors are produced when the cells are cultured either in serum-free or in serum-containing media. MPI was detected immunologically as a unique molecule of M(r) 14 kD, in accordance with previous studies. Conversely, one or two elafin-immunoreactive species were detected depending on the cell line: a 12- to 14-kD species was observed in the A549 cell line, regardless of the culture conditions, whereas in the NCI-H322 cell line we detected a 6-kD species in serum-containing (10% fetal calf serum) conditions and a 12- to 14-kD species in serum-free conditions. The 12- to 14-kD molecule probably represents an active precursor of elafin. Whether the cleavage of the 12- to 14-kD precursor giving rise to the elafin molecule is of any physiologic significance is not known. In showing for the first time that MPI and elafin (and its precursor) are secreted by the A549 cell line, this report implicates the type II alveolar cell in the defense of the peripheral lung against the neutrophil elastase secreted during inflammation. PMID:8427705

  10. Regulation of factor IXa in vitro in human and mouse plasma and in vivo in the mouse. Role of the endothelium and the plasma proteinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, H.E.; Trapp, H.G.; Griffith, M.J.; Roberts, H.R.; Pizzo, S.V.

    1984-06-01

    The regulation of human Factor IXa was studied in vitro in human and mouse plasma and in vivo in the mouse. In human plasma, approximately 60% of the /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was bound to antithrombin III (ATIII) by 2 h, with no binding to alpha 2-macroglobulin or alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, as assessed by gel electrophoresis and IgG- antiproteinase inhibitor-Sepharose beads. In the presence of heparin, virtually 100% of the /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was bound to ATIII by 1 min. The distribution of /sup 125/I-Factor IXa in mouse plasma was similar. The clearance of /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was rapid (50% clearance in 2 min) and biphasic and was inhibited by large molar excesses of ATIII-thrombin and alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor-trypsin, but not alpha 2-macro-globulin-trypsin; it was also inhibited by large molar excesses of diisopropylphosphoryl - (DIP-) Factor Xa, DIP-thrombin, and Factor IX, but not by prothrombin or Factor X. The clearance of Factor IX was also rapid (50% clearance in 2.5 min) and was inhibited by a large molar excess of Factor IX, but not by large molar excesses of Factor X, prothrombin, DIP-Factor Xa, or DIP-thrombin. Electrophoresis and IgG- antiproteinase inhibitor-Sepharose bead studies confirmed that by 2 min after injection into the murine circulation, 60% of the /sup 125/I-Factor IXa was bound to ATIII. Organ distribution studies with /sup 125/I-Factor IXa demonstrated that most of the radioactivity was in the liver. These studies suggest that Factor IXa binds to at least two classes of binding sites on endothelial cells. One site apparently recognizes both Factors IX and IXa, but not Factor X, Factor Xa, prothrombin, or thrombin. The other site recognizes thrombin, Factor Xa, and Factor IXa, but not the zymogen forms of these clotting factors. After this binding, Factor IXa is bound to ATIII and the complex is cleared from the circulation by hepatocytes.

  11. Functional Characterization of Cucumis metuliferus Proteinase Inhibitor Gene (CmSPI) in Potyviruses Resistance.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Mei-Hsiu; Lin, Yu-Tsung; Chung, Chien-Hung; Ku, Hsin-Mei

    2015-07-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are ubiquitous proteins that block the active center or interact allosterically with proteinases and are involved in plant physiological processes and defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The CmSPI gene identified from Cucumis metuliferus encodes a serine type PI (8 kDa) that belongs to potato I type family. To evaluate the effect of silencing CmSPI gene on Papaya ringspot virus resistance, RNA interference (RNAi) with an inter-space hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct was introduced into a PRSV-resistant C. metuliferus line. CmSPI was down-regulated in CmSPI RNAi transgenic lines in which synchronously PRSV symptoms were evident at 21 day post inoculation. Alternatively, heterogeneous expression of CmSPI in Nicotiana benthamiana was also conducted and showed that CmSPI can provide resistance to Potato virus Y, another member of Potyvirus, in transgenic N. benthamiana lines. This study demonstrated that CmSPI plays an important role in resistant function against potyviruses in C. metuliferus and N. benthamiana. PMID:26184285

  12. [Conformational stability of serine proteinase inhibitor from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa].

    PubMed

    Vakorina, T I; Gladkikh, I N; Monastyrnaia, M M; Kozlovskaia, E P

    2011-01-01

    The influence of different environmental values of the pH and temperature on the spatial organization of serine proteinase inhibitor from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa (=Radianthus macrodactylus) on the level of tertiary and secondary structure was studied by CD spectroscopy. The molecule InhVJ was shown to possess a high conformational thermo- and pH-stability. We determined the point of conformational thermotransition of polypeptide (70 degrees C) after which the molecule gets denaturational stable state with conservation of 80% proteinase inhibitory activity. The significant partial reversible changes of molecule spatial organization were established to occur at the level of tertiary structure in the process of acid-base titration in the range of pH 11.0-13.0. This can be explained by of ionization of tyrosine residues. The molecule InhVJ is conformationally stable at the low pH values (2.0). The quenching of tyrosine residues by acrylamide showed that two of these residues are accessible to the quencher in full, while the third part is available. PMID:21899045

  13. Functional Characterization of Cucumis metuliferus Proteinase Inhibitor Gene (CmSPI) in Potyviruses Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Su, Mei-Hsiu; Lin, Yu-Tsung; Chung, Chien-Hung; Ku, Hsin-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are ubiquitous proteins that block the active center or interact allosterically with proteinases and are involved in plant physiological processes and defense responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The CmSPI gene identified from Cucumis metuliferus encodes a serine type PI (8 kDa) that belongs to potato I type family. To evaluate the effect of silencing CmSPI gene on Papaya ringspot virus resistance, RNA interference (RNAi) with an inter-space hairpin RNA (ihpRNA) construct was introduced into a PRSV-resistant C. metuliferus line. CmSPI was down-regulated in CmSPI RNAi transgenic lines in which synchronously PRSV symptoms were evident at 21 day post inoculation. Alternatively, heterogeneous expression of CmSPI in Nicotiana benthamiana was also conducted and showed that CmSPI can provide resistance to Potato virus Y, another member of Potyvirus, in transgenic N. benthamiana lines. This study demonstrated that CmSPI plays an important role in resistant function against potyviruses in C. metuliferus and N. benthamiana. PMID:26184285

  14. Effects of cysteine proteinase inhibitors scN and E-64 on southern corn rootworm larval development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern corn rootworm (SCRW) can be a serious pest of peanut pods. A laboratory bioassay was developed to test feeding cysteine proteinase inhibitors soyacystatin N (scN) and E-64 against southern corn rootworm reared on artificial diet to determine the effects on larvae development and mortal...

  15. Computational study of some benzamidine-based inhibitors of thrombin-like snake venom proteinases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, Elsa S.; Nascimento, Marco A. C.; Ramos, Maria João

    Pit viper venoms contain a number of serine proteinases that, despite their observed coagulant thrombin-like action in vitro, exhibit a paradoxical benign defibrinogenating (anticoagulant) action in vivo, with clinical applications in preventing thrombi and improved blood circulation. Considering that several benzamidine-based inhibitors, some highly selective to thrombin, also inhibit the enzymatic activity of such venombins, the modeling of their enzyme-inhibitor interactions could provide valuable information on the topological factors that determine the divergences in activity. The first step, and the object of the present study, was to derive the necessary set of parameters, consistent with the CHARMM force field, and to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on a few selected representatives of the inhibitors in question under physiological conditions. Bonding and van der Waals parameters were derived by analogy to similar ones in the existing force field. Net atomic charges were obtained with a restrained fitting to the molecular electrostatic potential generated at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. The parameters were refined to reproduce the available experimental geometries and crystal data, and the MD simulations of the free inhibitors in aqueous solution at 298 K provided an insightful description of their available conformational space.

  16. Protein inhibitors of serine proteinases: role of backbone structure and dynamics in controlling the hydrolysis constant.

    PubMed

    Song, Jikui; Markley, John L

    2003-05-13

    Standard mechanism protein inhibitors of serine proteinases bind as substrates and are cleaved by cognate proteinases at their reactive sites. The hydrolysis constant for this cleavage reaction at the P(1)-P(1)' peptide bond (K(hyd)) is determined by the relative concentrations at equilibrium of the "intact" (uncleaved, I) and "modified" (reactive site cleaved, I*) forms of the inhibitor. The pH dependence of K(hyd) can be explained in terms of a pH-independent term, K(hyd) degrees, plus the proton dissociation constants of the newly formed amino and carboxylate groups at the cleavage site. Two protein inhibitors that differ from one another by a single residue substitution have been found to have K(hyd) degrees values that differ by a factor of 5 [Ardelt, W., and Laskowski, M., Jr. (1991) J. Mol. Biol. 220, 1041-1052]: turkey ovomucoid third domain (OMTKY3) has K(hyd) degrees = 1.0, and Indian peafowl ovomucoid third domain (OMIPF3), which differs from OMTKY3 by the substitution P(2)'-Tyr(20)His, has K(hyd) degrees = 5.15. What mechanism is responsible for this small difference? Is it structural (enthalpic) or dynamic (entropic)? Does the mutation affect the free energy of the I state, the I* state, or both? We have addressed these questions through NMR investigations of the I and I forms of OMTKY3 and OMIPF3. Information about structure was derived from measurements of NMR chemical shift changes and trans-hydrogen-bond J-couplings; information about dynamics was obtained through measurements of (15)N relaxation rates and (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear NOEs with model-free analysis of the results. Although the I forms of each variant are more dynamic than the corresponding I forms, the study revealed no appreciable difference in the backbone dynamics of either intact inhibitor (OMIPF3 vs OMTKY3) or modified inhibitor (OMIPF3* vs OMTKY3*). Instead, changes in chemical shifts and trans-hydrogen-bond J-couplings suggested that the K(hyd) degrees difference arises from

  17. Serine leucocyte proteinase inhibitor-treated monocyte inhibits human CD4(+) lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed

    Guerrieri, Diego; Tateosian, Nancy L; Maffía, Paulo C; Reiteri, Romina M; Amiano, Nicolás O; Costa, María J; Villalonga, Ximena; Sanchez, Mercedes L; Estein, Silvia M; Garcia, Verónica E; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Chuluyan, Héctor E

    2011-08-01

    Serine leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) is the main serine proteinase inhibitor produced by epithelial cells and has been shown to be a pleiotropic molecule with anti-inflammatory and microbicidal activities. However, the role of SLPI on the adaptive immune response is not well established. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of SLPI on lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were treated with mitogens plus SLPI and proliferation was assessed by [(3) H]thymidine uptake. The SLPI decreased the lymphocyte proliferation induced by interleukin-2 (IL-2) or OKT3 monoclonal antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition was not observed when depleting monocytes from the PBMC and it was restored by adding monocytes and SLPI. SLPI-treated monocyte slightly decreased MHC II and increased CD18 expression, and secreted greater amounts of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the cell culture supernatants. SLPI-treated monocyte culture supernatant inhibited the CD4(+) lymphocyte proliferation but did not affect the proliferation of CD8(+) cells. Moreover, IL-2 increased T-bet expression and the presence of SLPI significantly decreased it. Finally, SLPI-treated monocyte culture supernatant dramatically decreased interferon-γ but increased IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the presence of IL-2-treated T cells. Our results demonstrate that SLPI target monocytes, which in turn inhibit CD4 lymphocyte proliferation and T helper type 1 cytokine secretion. Overall, these results suggest that SLPI is an alarm protein that modulates not only the innate immune response but also the adaptive immune response. PMID:21574992

  18. Serine leucocyte proteinase inhibitor-treated monocyte inhibits human CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Guerrieri, Diego; Tateosian, Nancy L; Maffía, Paulo C; Reiteri, Romina M; Amiano, Nicolás O; Costa, María J; Villalonga, Ximena; Sanchez, Mercedes L; Estein, Silvia M; Garcia, Verónica E; Sallenave, Jean-Michel; Chuluyan, Héctor E

    2011-01-01

    Serine leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) is the main serine proteinase inhibitor produced by epithelial cells and has been shown to be a pleiotropic molecule with anti-inflammatory and microbicidal activities. However, the role of SLPI on the adaptive immune response is not well established. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of SLPI on lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were treated with mitogens plus SLPI and proliferation was assessed by [3H]thymidine uptake. The SLPI decreased the lymphocyte proliferation induced by interleukin-2 (IL-2) or OKT3 monoclonal antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition was not observed when depleting monocytes from the PBMC and it was restored by adding monocytes and SLPI. SLPI-treated monocyte slightly decreased MHC II and increased CD18 expression, and secreted greater amounts of IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the cell culture supernatants. SLPI-treated monocyte culture supernatant inhibited the CD4+ lymphocyte proliferation but did not affect the proliferation of CD8+ cells. Moreover, IL-2 increased T-bet expression and the presence of SLPI significantly decreased it. Finally, SLPI-treated monocyte culture supernatant dramatically decreased interferon-γ but increased IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10 in the presence of IL-2-treated T cells. Our results demonstrate that SLPI target monocytes, which in turn inhibit CD4 lymphocyte proliferation and T helper type 1 cytokine secretion. Overall, these results suggest that SLPI is an alarm protein that modulates not only the innate immune response but also the adaptive immune response. PMID:21574992

  19. Antifeedant effects of proteinase inhibitors on feeding behaviors of adult western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera).

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hak; Mullin, Christopher A

    2003-04-01

    Low-molecular-weight peptidyl proteinase inhibitors (PIs) including leupeptin, calpain inhibitor I, and calpeptin were found to be potent antifeedants for adult western corn rootworm (WCR) against the phagostimulation of cucurbitacin B (Cuc B) or a corn pollen extract (CPE). Leupeptin was the strongest (ED50 = 0.36 and 0.55 nmol/disk for Cuc B and CPE, respectively) among PIs tested with an antifeedant potency much stronger than the steroid progesterone (ED50 = 2.29 and 5.05 nmol/disk for Cuc B and CPE, respectively), but slightly less than the reference alkaloid, strychnine (ED50 = 0.17 and 0.37 nmol/disk for Cuc B and CPE, respectively). All active PIs contain a di- or tripeptidyl aldehyde moiety, indicating that PIs exert their antifeedant effects by covalent interaction with putative sulfhydryl (SH) groups on taste receptors as do these PIs with cysteine proteinases. However, opposite inhibition potency against Cuc B versus CPE by two thiol-group reducing agents, DTT and L-cysteine, and the results with other cysteine-modifying reagents obscure the net functional role of SH groups at WCR taste chemoreceptors. Surprisingly, the model phagostimulant for diabroticites, Cuc B, was more easily counteracted by these feeding deterrents than the stimulants present in CPE. Three-dimensional structure-antifeedant relationships for the PIs suggest that a novel taste chemoreception mechanism exists for these peptidyl aldehydes or that they fit partially into a strychnine binding pocket on protein chemoreceptors. Favorable economic benefit may be achieved if PIs are discovered to be useful in adult WCR control, since both pre- and postingestive sites would be targeted. PMID:12775144

  20. Inactivation of α1-proteinase inhibitor by Candida albicans aspartic proteases favors the epithelial and endothelial cell colonization in the presence of neutrophil extracellular traps.

    PubMed

    Gogol, Mariusz; Ostrowska, Dominika; Klaga, Kinga; Bochenska, Oliwia; Wolak, Natalia; Aoki, Wataru; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi; Kozik, Andrzej; Rapala-Kozik, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Candida albicans, a causative agent of opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, uses ten secreted aspartic proteases (SAPs) to deregulate the homeostasis of the host organism on many levels. One of these deregulation mechanisms involves a SAP-dependent disturbance of the control over proteolytic enzymes of the host by a system of dedicated proteinase inhibitors, with one important example being the neutrophil elastase and alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (A1PI). In this study, we found that soluble SAPs 1-4 and the cell membrane-anchored SAP9 efficiently cleaved A1PI, with the major cleavage points located at the C-terminal part of A1PI in a close vicinity to the reactive-site loop that plays a critical role in the inhibition mechanism. Elastase is released by neutrophils to the environment during fungal infection through two major processes, a degranulation or formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NET). Both, free and NET-embedded elastase forms, were found to be controlled by A1PI. A local acidosis, resulting from the neutrophil activity at the infection sites, favors A1PI degradation by SAPs. The deregulation of NET-connected elastase affected a NET-dependent damage of epithelial and endothelial cells, resulting in the increased susceptibility of these host cells to candidal colonization. Moreover, the SAP-catalyzed cleavage of A1PI was found to decrease its binding affinity to a proinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-8. The findings presented here suggest a novel strategy used by C. albicans for the colonization of host tissues and overcoming the host defense. PMID:26641639

  1. A serine proteinase inhibitor isolated from Tamarindus indica seeds and its effects on the release of human neutrophil elastase.

    PubMed

    Fook, J M S L L; Macedo, L L P; Moura, G E D D; Teixeira, F M; Oliveira, A S; Queiroz, A F S; Sales, M P

    2005-05-01

    Proteinaceous inhibitors with high inhibitory activities against human neutrophil elastase (HNE) were found in seeds of the Tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica). A serine proteinase inhibitor denoted PG50 was purified using ammonium sulphate and acetone precipitation followed by Sephacryl S-300 and Sephadex G-50 gel filtration chromatographies. Inhibitor PG50 showed a Mr of 14.9 K on Sephadex G-50 calibrated column and a Mr of 11.6 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PG50 had selective activity while cysteine proteinases (papain and bromelain) and serine proteinases (porcine pancreatic elastase and bovine chymotrypsin) were not inhibited, it was strongly effective against serine proteinases such as bovine trypsin and isolated human neutrophil elastase. The IC50 value was determined to be 55.96 microg.mL-1. PG50 showed neither cytotoxic nor haemolytic activity on human blood cells. After pre-incubation of PG50 with cytochalasin B, the exocytosis of elastase was initiated using PAF and fMLP. PG50 exhibited different inhibition on elastase release by PAF, at 44.6% and on release by fMLP, at 28.4%. These results showed that PG50 preferentially affected elastase release by PAF stimuli and this may indicate selective inhibition on PAF receptors. PMID:15820500

  2. Synthesis of the proteinase inhibitor LEKTI domain 6 by the fragment condensation method and regioselective disulfide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Vasileiou, Zoe; Barlos, Kostas K; Gatos, Dimitrios; Adermann, Knut; Deraison, Celine; Barlos, Kleomenis

    2010-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors are of high pharmaceutical interest and are drug candidates for a variety of indications. Specific kallikrein inhibitors are important for their antitumor activity and their potential application to the treatment of skin diseases. In this study we describe the synthesis of domain 6 of the kallikrein inhibitor Lympho-Epithilial Kazal-Type Inhibitor (LEKTI) by the fragment condensation method and site-directed cystine bridge formation. To obtain the linear LEKTI precursor, the condensation was best performed in solution, coupling the protected fragment 1-22 to 23-68. This method yielded LEKTI domain 6 of high purity and equipotent to the recombinantly produced peptide. PMID:20069636

  3. Embryonic Dorsal-Ventral Signaling: Secreted Frizzled-Related Proteins as Inhibitors of Tolloid Proteinases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hojoon X.; Ambrosio, Andrea L.; Reversade, Bruno; De Robertis, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Here we report an unexpected role for the secreted Frizzled-related protein (sFRP) Sizzled/Ogon as an inhibitor of the extracellular proteolytic reaction that controls BMP signaling during Xenopus gastrulation. Microinjection experiments suggest that the Frizzled domain of Sizzled regulates the activity of Xolloid-related (Xlr), a metalloproteinase that degrades Chordin, through the following molecular pathway: Szl ┤ Xlr ┤ Chd ┤ BMP → P-Smad1 → Szl. In biochemical assays, the Xlr proteinase has similar affinities for its endogenous substrate Chordin and for its competitive inhibitor Sizzled, which is resistant to enzyme digestion. Extracellular levels of Sizzled and Chordin in the gastrula embryo and enzyme reaction constants were all in the 10−8 M range, consistent with a physiological role in the regulation of dorsal-ventral patterning. Sizzled is also a natural inhibitor of BMP1, a Tolloid metalloproteinase of medical interest. Furthermore, mouse sFRP2 inhibited Xlr, suggesting a wider role for this molecular mechanism. PMID:16413488

  4. Inhibition of antigen- and lectin-induced proliferation of rat spleen cells by a Taenia taeniaeformis proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Leid, R W; Suquet, C M; Perryman, L E

    1984-01-01

    Rat splenic lymphocytes, cultured in vitro for 3 days in the presence of a larval cestode proteinase inhibitor, exhibited a marked suppression of proliferation when stimulated with Con A, PHA, PWM and ovalbumin. Reduced responsiveness was observed over a full range of concentrations of Con A (16-fold), PHA (50-fold), PWM (four-fold) and ovalbumin (16-fold). These results indicated that the inhibitory action could not be overcome by increasing the mitogen or antigen doses beyond optimal levels. This suppressive effect disappeared when the Taenia taeniaeformis proteinase inhibitor was added 20 h after the initiation of culture, suggesting that the inhibitor affects lymphocyte blastogenesis during the early stages of lymphocyte activation. PMID:6744668

  5. Effects of a potato cysteine proteinase inhibitor on midgut proteolytic enzyme activity and growth of the southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Fabrick, J; Behnke, C; Czapla, T; Bala, K; Rao, A G; Kramer, K J; Reeck, G R

    2002-04-01

    The major proteinase activity in extracts of larval midguts from the southern corn rootworm (SCR), Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi, was identified as a cysteine proteinase that prefers substrates containing an arginine residue in the P1 position. Gelatin-zymogram analysis of the midgut proteinases indicated that the artificial diet-fed SCR, corn root-fed SCR, and root-fed western corn rootworms (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) possess a single major proteinase with an apparent molecular mass of 25kDa and several minor proteinases. Similar proteinase activity pH profiles were exhibited by root-fed and diet-fed rootworms with the optimal activity being slightly acidic. Rootworm larvae reared on corn roots exhibited significantly less caseinolytic activity than those reared on the artificial diet. Midgut proteolytic activity from SCR was most sensitive to inhibition by inhibitors of cysteine proteinases. Furthermore, rootworm proteinase activity was particularly sensitive to inhibition by a commercial protein preparation from potato tubers (PIN-II). One of the proteins, potato cysteine proteinase inhibitor-10', PCPI-10', obtained from PIN-II by ion-exchange chromatography, was the major source of inhibitory activity against rootworm proteinase activity. PCPI-10' and E-64 were of comparable potency as inhibitors of southern corn rootworm proteinase activity (IC(50) =31 and 35nM, respectively) and substantially more effective than chicken egg white cystatin (IC(50) =121nM). Incorporation of PCPI-10' into the diet of SCR larvae in feeding trials resulted in a significant increase in mortality and growth inhibition. We suggest that expression of inhibitors such as PCPI-10' by transgenic corn plants in the field is a potentially attractive method of host plant resistance to these Diabrotica species. PMID:11886775

  6. Isolation, Cloning and Structural Characterisation of Boophilin, a Multifunctional Kunitz-Type Proteinase Inhibitor from the Cattle Tick

    PubMed Central

    Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Almeida, Carla; Calisto, Bárbara M.; Friedrich, Thomas; Mentele, Reinhard; Stürzebecher, Jörg; Fuentes-Prior, Pablo; Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Inhibitors of coagulation factors from blood-feeding animals display a wide variety of structural motifs and inhibition mechanisms. We have isolated a novel inhibitor from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, one of the most widespread parasites of farm animals. The inhibitor, which we have termed boophilin, has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Mature boophilin is composed of two canonical Kunitz-type domains, and inhibits not only the major procoagulant enzyme, thrombin, but in addition, and by contrast to all other previously characterised natural thrombin inhibitors, significantly interferes with the proteolytic activity of other serine proteinases such as trypsin and plasmin. The crystal structure of the bovine α-thrombin·boophilin complex, refined at 2.35 Å resolution reveals a non-canonical binding mode to the proteinase. The N-terminal region of the mature inhibitor, Q16-R17-N18, binds in a parallel manner across the active site of the proteinase, with the guanidinium group of R17 anchored in the S1 pocket, while the C-terminal Kunitz domain is negatively charged and docks into the basic exosite I of thrombin. This binding mode resembles the previously characterised thrombin inhibitor, ornithodorin which, unlike boophilin, is composed of two distorted Kunitz modules. Unexpectedly, both boophilin domains adopt markedly different orientations when compared to those of ornithodorin, in its complex with thrombin. The N-terminal boophilin domain rotates 9° and is displaced by 6 Å, while the C-terminal domain rotates almost 6° accompanied by a 3 Å displacement. The reactive-site loop of the N-terminal Kunitz domain of boophilin with its P1 residue, K31, is fully solvent exposed and could thus bind a second trypsin-like proteinase without sterical restraints. This finding explains the formation of a ternary thrombin·boophilin·trypsin complex, and suggests a mechanism for prothrombinase inhibition in vivo. PMID:18286181

  7. Increased expression of the secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor in Wegener's granulomatosis

    PubMed Central

    OHLSSON, S; FALK, R; YANG, J J; OHLSSON, K; SEGELMARK, M; WIESLANDER, J

    2003-01-01

    The secretory leucocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) is a low molecular weight, tissue-specific inhibitor of proteases, such as elastase and cathepsin G. It is the major local protease inhibitor in the upper airways. Proteinase 3, the main autoantigen in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), can degrade SLPI proteolytically. In addition, SLPI is sensitive to oxidative inactivation by myeloperoxidase-generated free oxygen radicals. SLPI also has an antimicrobial capacity that can be of interest, as infection is considered to play a role in the pathogenesis of WG. This study focuses on SLPI expression in patients suffering from WG, something that to our knowledge has not been explored hitherto. Serum samples and nasal biopsies were obtained from 12 Swedish WG patients, while buffy coats were obtained from 33 American WG patients. SLPI levels in serum were measured by means of ELISA and the protein was detected by means of immunohistochemistry in nasal biopsies. mRNA expression was studied by means of in situ hybridization on nasal biopsies and RT-PCR on leucocytes. IL-6 or ESR were measured as markers of inflammatory activity. Cystatin C or creatinine was measured as a marker of renal filtration. White blood cell counts were registered. In serum, we found close to normal SLPI levels, without any correlation to IL-6. Two patients had greatly elevated values, both of them suffering from severe renal engagement. Strong SLPI mRNA expression was found in nasal biopsies. RT-PCR on leucocyte mRNA showed normal or greatly elevated expression of SLPI mRNA, correlating with disease activity. Leukocyte SLPI expression seems to be up-regulated in active WG. Serum levels were measured in a small number of patients and were found to be close to normal. Lack of correlation to the acute phase response indicates a specific regulation. This might be linked to an altered protease/antiprotease balance. These findings could indicate that SLPI locally participates in the anti-inflammatory and

  8. Potato type I and II proteinase inhibitors: modulating plant physiology and host resistance.

    PubMed

    Turra, David; Lorito, Matteo

    2011-08-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) are a large and complex group of plant proteins. Members of the potato type I (Pin1) and II (Pin2) proteinase inhibitor families are among the first and most extensively characterized plant PIs. Many insects and phytopathogenic microorganisms use intracellular and extracellular serine proteases playing important roles in pathogenesis. Plants, however, are able to fight these pathogens through the activation of an intricate defence system that leads to the accumulation of various PIs, including Pin1 and Pin2. Several transgenic plants over-expressing members of the Pin1 and Pin2 families have been obtained in the last twenty years and their enhanced defensive capabilities demonstrated against insects, fungi and bacteria. Furthermore, Pin1 and Pin2 genetically engineered plants showed altered regulation of different plant physiological processes (e.g., dehydratation response, programmed cell death, plant growth, trichome density and branching), supporting an endogenous role in various plant species in addition to the well established defensive one. This review summarizes the current knowledge about Pin1 and Pin2 structure, the role of these proteins in plant defence and physiology, and their potential exploitation in biotechnology. PMID:21418020

  9. Neutrophil elastase reduces secretion of secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor (SLPI) by lung epithelial cells: role of charge of the proteinase-inhibitor complex

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Anita L; Dafforn, Timothy; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Stockley, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Background Secretory leukoproteinase inhibitor (SLPI) is an important inhibitor of neutrophil elastase (NE), a proteinase implicated in the pathogenesis of lung diseases such as COPD. SLPI also has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, but the concentration of SLPI in lung secretions in COPD varies inversely with infection and the concentration of NE. A fall in SLPI concentration is also seen in culture supernatants of respiratory cells exposed to NE, for unknown reasons. We investigated the hypothesis that SLPI complexed with NE associates with cell membranes in vitro. Methods Respiratory epithelial cells were cultured in the presence of SLPI, varying doses of proteinases over time, and in different experimental conditions. The likely predicted charge of the complex between SLPI and proteinases was assessed by theoretical molecular modelling. Results We observed a rapid, linear decrease in SLPI concentration in culture supernatants with increasing concentration of NE and cathepsin G, but not with other serine proteinases. The effect of NE was inhibited fully by a synthetic NE inhibitor only when added at the same time as NE. Direct contact between NE and SLPI was required for a fall in SLPI concentration. Passive binding to cell culture plate materials was able to remove a substantial amount of SLPI both with and without NE. Theoretical molecular modelling of the structure of SLPI in complex with various proteinases showed a greater positive charge for the complex with NE and cathepsin G than for other proteinases, such as trypsin and mast cell tryptase, that also bind SLPI but without reducing its concentration. Conclusion These data suggest that NE-mediated decrease in SLPI is a passive, charge-dependent phenomenon in vitro, which may correlate with changes observed in vivo. PMID:18699987

  10. Conformational changes of ovine α-1-proteinase inhibitor: The influence of heparin binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Gowda, Lalitha R.

    2008-11-01

    α-1-Proteinase inhibitor (α-1-PI), the archetypal serpin causes rapid, irreversible stoichiometric inhibition of redundant circulating serine proteases and is associated with emphysema, inflammatory response and maintenance of protease-inhibitor equilibrium in vascular and peri-vascular spaces. A homogenous preparation of heparin octasaccharide binds to ovine and human α-1-PI and enhances their protease inhibitory activity phenomenally. Size-exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering experiments reveal that ovine α-1-PI undergoes a decrease in the Stokes' radius upon heparin binding. A strong binding; characterizes this α-1-PI-heparin interaction as revealed by the binding constant ( Kα) 1.98 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M and 2.1 ± 0.2 × 10 -6 M determined by fluorescence spectroscopy and equilibrium dialysis, respectively. The stoichiometry of heparin binding to ovine α-1-PI was 1.1 ± 0.2:1. The Stern-Volmer constants ( Ksv) for heparin activated ovine and human α-1-PI were found to be 5.13 × 10 -6 M and 5.67 × 10 -6 M, respectively, significantly higher than the native inhibitors. FTIR and CD spectroscopy project the systematic structural reorientations that α-1-PI undergoes upon heparin binding characterized by a decrease in α-helical content and a concomitant increase in β-turn and random coil elements. It is likely that these conformational changes result in the movement of the α-1-PI reactive site loop into an extended structure that is better poised to combat the cognate protease and accelerate the inhibition.

  11. Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor from Clitoria fairchildiana seeds: Isolation, biochemical properties and insecticidal potential.

    PubMed

    Dantzger, Miriam; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Scorsato, Valéria; Aparicio, Ricardo; Marangoni, Sergio; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    Herein described is the biochemical characterisation, including in vitro and in vivo assays, for a proteinase inhibitor purified from Clitoria fairchildiana seeds (CFPI). Purification was performed by hydrophobic interaction and gel filtration chromatography. Kinetic studies of the purified inhibitor showed a competitive-type inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin, with an inhibition stoichiometry of 1:1 for both enzymes. The inhibition constants against trypsin and chymotrypsin were 3.3 × 10(-10) and 1.5 × 10(-10)M, respectively, displaying a tight binding property. SDS-PAGE showed that CFPI has a single polypeptide chain with an apparent molecular mass of 15 kDa under non-reducing conditions. However, MALDI-TOF analysis demonstrated a molecular mass of 7.973 kDa, suggesting that CFPI is dimeric in solution. The N-terminal sequence of CFPI showed homology with members of the Bowman-Birk inhibitor family. CFPI remained stable to progressive heating for 30 min to each temperature range of 37 up to 100 °C and CD analysis exhibited no changes in spectra at 207 nm after heating at 90 °C and subsequent cooling. Moreover, CFPI was active over a wide pH range (2-10). In contrast, reduction with DTT resulted in a loss of inhibitory activity against trypsin and chymotrypsin. CFPI also exhibited significant inhibitory activity against larval midgut trypsin enzymes from Anagasta kuehniella (76%), Diatraea saccharalis (59%) and Heliothis virescens (49%). Its insecticidal properties were further analysed by bioassays and confirmed by negative impact on A. kuehniella development. PMID:26330217

  12. Rhabdovirus-induced apoptosis in a fish cell line is inhibited by a human endogenous acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Björklund, H V; Johansson, T R; Rinne, A

    1997-01-01

    To determine the mechanisms of cell death in rhabdovirus-infected cells, we studied the infection of the epithelial papilloma of carp cell line with spring viremia of carp virus. Studies using electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed changes in cell morphology and DNA fragmentation indicative of apoptosis. The virus-induced apoptosis was inhibited in cells treated with a human endogenous acid cysteine proteinase inhibitor. PMID:9188644

  13. Opposite Effects on Spodoptera littoralis Larvae of High Expression Level of a Trypsin Proteinase Inhibitor in Transgenic Plants1

    PubMed Central

    De Leo, Francesca; Bonadé-Bottino, Michel A.; Ceci, Luigi R.; Gallerani, Raffaele; Jouanin, Lise

    1998-01-01

    This work illustrates potential adverse effects linked with the expression of proteinase inhibitor (PI) in plants used as a strategy to enhance pest resistance. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) and Arabidopsis [Heynh.] ecotype Wassilewskija) transgenic plants expressing the mustard trypsin PI 2 (MTI-2) at different levels were obtained. First-instar larvae of the Egyptian cotton worm (Spodoptera littoralis Boisd.) were fed on detached leaves of these plants. The high level of MTI-2 expression in leaves had deleterious effects on larvae, causing mortality and decreasing mean larval weight, and was correlated with a decrease in the leaf surface eaten. However, larvae fed leaves from plants expressing MTI-2 at the low expression level did not show increased mortality, but a net gain in weight and a faster development compared with control larvae. The low MTI-2 expression level also resulted in increased leaf damage. These observations are correlated with the differential expression of digestive proteinases in the larval gut; overexpression of existing proteinases on low-MTI-2-expression level plants and induction of new proteinases on high-MTI-2-expression level plants. These results emphasize the critical need for the development of a PI-based defense strategy for plants obtaining the appropriate PI-expression level relative to the pest's sensitivity threshold to that PI. PMID:9808744

  14. Inactivation of bronchial mucous proteinase inhibitor by cigarette smoke and phagocyte-derived oxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Carp, H.; Janoff, A.

    1980-08-01

    Freshly prepared aqueous solutions of cigarette smoke suppressed the elastase inhibitory capacity (EIC) of the acid-stable proteinase inhibitor present in bronchial mucus (BMPi) and human seminal plasma (HUSI-I). Thin-layer gel-immunofiltration analysis of mixtures of smoke-treated BMPi and human leukocyte elastase showed decreased elastase: BMPi complexes, increased uncomplexed BMPi and increased free elastase. Phenolic antioxidants prevented the suppression of the EIC of BMPi or HUSI-I by cigarette smoke. In addition, treatment of BMPi or HUSI-I with chemical oxidants caused a similar suppression of EIC. Furthermore, treatment of BMPi or HUSI-I with the phagocyte-derived oxidizing system, myeloperoxidase + H2O2 + Cl-, suppressed EIC. Finally, the functional activity of BMPi was significantly reduced in tracheal aspirates of human smokers compared to that of nonsmokers. These results support the hypothesis that local inactivation of BMPi in the conducting airways of the lung by inhaled cigarette smoke or by phagocyte-derived oxidants may play a role in the pathogenesis of obstructive lung disease in smokers.

  15. Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

    2012-06-01

    Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes. Plants showing vigorous PPT resistance were obtained by a series concentration selection for PPT resistance and subsequent regeneration of leaf explants dissected from the putative chimera. Transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and genomic Southern blotting, which showed that the bar and pinII genes were integrated into the plant genome. Double haploid homozygous transgenic plants were obtained by microspore culture. The pinII expression was detected using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and detection of PINII protein content in the transgenic homozygous lines. Insect-feeding trials using the larvae of cabbage worm (Pieris rapae) and the larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) showed higher larval mortality, stunted larval development, and lower pupal weights, pupation rates, and eclosion rates in most of the transgenic lines in comparison with the corresponding values in the non-transformed wild-type line. PMID:23136521

  16. Development and bioassay of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing potato proteinase inhibitor II gene

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junjie; Liu, Fan; Yao, Lei; Luo, Chen; Yin, Yue; Wang, Guixiang; Huang, Yubi

    2012-01-01

    Lepidopteran larvae are the most injurious pests of Chinese cabbage production. We attempted the development of transgenic Chinese cabbage expressing the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (pinII) and bioassayed the pest-repelling ability of these transgenic plants. Cotyledons with petioles from aseptic seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated in vitro transformation. Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 contained the binary vector pBBBasta-pinII-bar comprising pinII and bar genes. Plants showing vigorous PPT resistance were obtained by a series concentration selection for PPT resistance and subsequent regeneration of leaf explants dissected from the putative chimera. Transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR and genomic Southern blotting, which showed that the bar and pinII genes were integrated into the plant genome. Double haploid homozygous transgenic plants were obtained by microspore culture. The pinII expression was detected using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and detection of PINII protein content in the transgenic homozygous lines. Insect-feeding trials using the larvae of cabbage worm (Pieris rapae) and the larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) showed higher larval mortality, stunted larval development, and lower pupal weights, pupation rates, and eclosion rates in most of the transgenic lines in comparison with the corresponding values in the non-transformed wild-type line. PMID:23136521

  17. Structural and inhibitory properties of a plant proteinase inhibitor containing the RGD motif.

    PubMed

    Nakahata, Adriana M; Bueno, Norlene R; Rocha, Hugo A O; Franco, Célia R C; Chammas, Roger; Nakaie, Clovis R; Jasiulionis, Miriam G; Nader, Helena B; Santana, Lucimeire A; Sampaio, Misako U; Oliva, Maria Luiza V

    2006-12-15

    Purified from Bauhinia rufa seeds, BrTI is a Kunitz proteinase inhibitor that contains the RGD sequence. BrTI inhibits trypsin (K(iapp) 2.9 nM) and human plasma kallikrein (K(iapp) 14.0 nM) but not other related enzymes. The synthetic peptide YLEPVARGDGGLA-NH(2) (70 microM) inhibited the adhesion to fibronectin of B16F10 (high-metastatic B16 murine mouse melanoma cell line) and of Tm5 (murine melanoma cell lines derived from a non-tumorigenic lineage of pigmented murine melanocytes, melan-a). YLEPVARGEGGLA-NH(2) in which Asp(9) was changed into Glu does not affect the cell attachment. Moreover, this peptide was functional only when the sequence present in the native protein was preserved, since YLIPVARGDGGLA-NH(2) in which Glu(3) was changed into Ile does not interfere with B16F10 and was less effective on Tm5 cell line adhesion. Neither YLEPVARGDGGLA-NH(2), YLIPVARGDGGLA-NH(2) or YLEPVARGEGGLA-NH(2) inhibit the interaction of RAEC (endothelial cell line from rabbit aorta) with fibronectin. PMID:16846639

  18. Regulation of secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) and elastase-specific inhibitor (ESI/elafin) in human airway epithelial cells by cytokines and neutrophilic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sallenave, J M; Shulmann, J; Crossley, J; Jordana, M; Gauldie, J

    1994-12-01

    The regulation of the activity of potentially harmful proteinases secreted by neutrophils during inflammation is important for the prevention of excessive tissue injury. Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI), also called antileukoprotease (ALP) or mucus proteinase inhibitor (MPI), is a serine proteinase inhibitor that has been found in a variety of mucous secretions and that is secreted by bronchial epithelial cells. We recently reported the presence of SLPI and of an elastase-specific inhibitor (ESI), also called elafin, in the supernatants of two cell lines, NCI-H322 and A549, which have features of Clara cells and type II alveolar cells, respectively. We showed in addition that epithelial cell lines produce the elastase-specific inhibitor as a 12 to 16 kD precursor of the elafin molecule (6 kD) called pre-elafin. In the present study, we show that NCI-H322 cells produced higher amounts of both inhibitors than A549 cells and that basal production of SLPI in both cell lines is higher than the production of elafin/pre-elafin. In addition, we show that interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor induce significant SLPI expression and are major inducers of elafin/pre-elafin expression. Moreover, induction is greater in A549 cells than in NCI-H322 cells. The implications of these findings for the peripheral airways are twofold: (1) alveolar epithelial cells may respond to cytokines secreted during the onset of inflammation by increasing their antiprotease shield; (2) elafin/pre-elafin seems to be a true local "acute phase reactant" whereas SLPI, in comparison, may be less responsive to local inflammatory mediators. PMID:7946401

  19. N-terminal extension of the yeast IA3 aspartic proteinase inhibitor relaxes the strict intrinsic selectivity.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Tim J; Phylip, Lowri H; Bur, Daniel; Wyatt, David M; Berry, Colin; Kay, John

    2007-07-01

    Yeast IA(3) aspartic proteinase inhibitor operates through an unprecedented mechanism and exhibits a remarkable specificity for one target enzyme, saccharopepsin. Even aspartic proteinases that are very closely similar to saccharopepsin (e.g. the vacuolar enzyme from Pichia pastoris) are not susceptible to significant inhibition. The Pichia proteinase was selected as the target for initial attempts to engineer IA(3) to re-design the specificity. The IA(3) polypeptides from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces castellii differ considerably in sequence. Alterations made by deletion or exchange of the residues in the C-terminal segment of these polypeptides had only minor effects. By contrast, extension of each of these wild-type and chimaeric polypeptides at its N-terminus by an MK(H)(7)MQ sequence generated inhibitors that displayed subnanomolar potency towards the Pichia enzyme. This gain-in-function was completely reversed upon removal of the extension sequence by exopeptidase trimming. Capture of the potentially positively charged aromatic histidine residues of the extension by remote, negatively charged side-chains, which were identified in the Pichia enzyme by modelling, may increase the local IA(3) concentration and create an anchor that enables the N-terminal segment residues to be harboured in closer proximity to the enzyme active site, thus promoting their interaction. In saccharopepsin, some of the counterpart residues are different and, consistent with this, the N-terminal extension of each IA(3) polypeptide was without major effect on the potency of interaction with saccharopepsin. In this way, it is possible to convert IA(3) polypeptides that display little affinity for the Pichia enzyme into potent inhibitors of this proteinase and thus broaden the target selectivity of this remarkable small protein. PMID:17608726

  20. The M358R variant of α(1)-proteinase inhibitor inhibits coagulation factor VIIa.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, William P; Bhakta, Varsha

    2016-02-12

    The naturally occurring M358R mutation of the plasma serpin α1-proteinase inhibitor (API) changes both its cleavable reactive centre bond to Arg-Ser and the efficacy with which it inhibits different proteases, reducing the rate of inhibition of neutrophil elastase, and enhancing that of thrombin, factor XIa, and kallikrein, by several orders of magnitude. Although another plasma serpin with an Arg-Ser reactive centre, antithrombin (AT), has been shown to inhibit factor VIIa (FVIIa), no published data are available with respect to FVIIa inhibition by API M358R. Recombinant bacterially-expressed API M358R and plasma-derived AT were therefore compared using gel-based and kinetic assays of FVIIa integrity and activity. Under pseudo-first order conditions of excess serpin over protease, both AT and API M358R formed denaturation-resistant inhibitory complexes with FVIIa in reactions accelerated by TF; AT, but not API M358R, also required heparin for maximal activity. The second order rate constant for heparin-independent API M358R-mediated FVIIa inhibition was determined to be 7.8 ± 0.8 × 10(2) M(-1)sec(-1). We conclude that API M358R inhibits FVIIa by forming inhibitory complexes of the serpin type more rapidly than AT in the absence of heparin. The likely 20-fold excess of API M358R over AT in patient plasma during inflammation raises the possibility that it could contribute to the hemorrhagic tendencies manifested by rare individuals expressing this mutant serpin. PMID:26797521

  1. Inducible expression of a fusion gene encoding two proteinase inhibitors leads to insect and pathogen resistance in transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Quilis, Jordi; López-García, Belén; Meynard, Donaldo; Guiderdoni, Emmanuel; San Segundo, Blanca

    2014-04-01

    Plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are considered as candidates for increased insect resistance in transgenic plants. Insect adaptation to PI ingestion might, however, compromise the benefits received by transgenic expression of PIs. In this study, the maize proteinase inhibitor (MPI), an inhibitor of insect serine proteinases, and the potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor (PCI) were fused into a single open reading frame and introduced into rice plants. The two PIs were linked using either the processing site of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1B precursor protein or the 2A sequence from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Expression of each fusion gene was driven by the wound- and pathogen-inducible mpi promoter. The mpi-pci fusion gene was stably inherited for at least three generations with no penalty on plant phenotype. An important reduction in larval weight of Chilo suppressalis fed on mpi-pci rice, compared with larvae fed on wild-type plants, was observed. Expression of the mpi-pci fusion gene confers resistance to C. suppressalis (striped stem borer), one of the most important insect pest of rice. The mpi-pci expression systems described may represent a suitable strategy for insect pest control, better than strategies based on the use of single PI genes, by preventing insect adaptive responses. The rice plants expressing the mpi-pci fusion gene also showed enhanced resistance to infection by the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, the causal agent of the rice blast disease. Our results illustrate the usefulness of the inducible expression of the mpi-pci fusion gene for dual resistance against insects and pathogens in rice plants. PMID:24237606

  2. Proteinase treatment of intact hepatic mitochondria has differential effects on inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase by different inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Kashfi, K; Cook, G A

    1992-01-01

    Proteolysis of intact mitochondria by Nagarse (subtilisin BPN') and papain resulted in limited loss of activity of the outer-membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase, but much greater loss of sensitivity to inhibition by malonyl-CoA. In contrast with a previous report [Murthy & Pande (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 378-382], we found that trypsin had no effect on malonyl-CoA sensitivity. Even when 80% of activity was destroyed by trypsin, there was no difference in the malonyl-CoA sensitivity of the enzyme remaining. Trypsin caused release of the intermembrane-space enzyme adenylate kinase, indicating loss of integrity of the mitochondrial outer membrane, whereas Nagarse and papain caused no release of that enzyme. Citrate synthase was not released by any of the three proteinases, indicating no damage to the mitochondrial inner membrane. When we examined the effects of proteolysis on the inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase by a wide variety of inhibitors having different mechanisms of inhibition, we found differential proteolytic effects that were specific for those inhibitors (malonyl-CoA and hydroxyphenylglyoxylate) that have their inhibitory potencies diminished by changes in physiological state. Both of those inhibitors protected carnitine palmitoyltransferase from the effects of proteolysis, but did not inhibit the proteinases directly. Inhibition by two other inhibitors (DL-2-bromopalmitoyl-CoA and N-benzyladriamycin 14-valerate) was not altered by proteinase treatment, even when most of the enzyme activity had been destroyed. Inhibition by glyburide, which is minimally affected by physiological state, was affected only to a slight extent at the highest concentration of trypsin tested. Proteolysis by Nagarse appeared to produce loss of co-operativity in malonyl-CoA inhibition. The effects of proteolysis are discussed and compared with changes in Ki occurring with changing physiological states. PMID:1554374

  3. The primary structure and characterization of carbohydrate chains of the extracellular glycoprotein proteinase inhibitor from latex of Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Odani, S; Yokokawa, Y; Takeda, H; Abe, S; Odani, S

    1996-10-01

    A secretory proteinase inhibitor was isolated from the latex of green fruits of papaya (Carica papaya). The protein exhibited stoichiometric inhibition of bovine trypsin and alpha-chymotrypsin by the same site or overlapping binding sites. The complete covalent structure consisting of 184 amino acids and two disulfide bonds was determined by protein analysis. During the structural analysis, a procedure was established to separate very hydrophilic peptides by reverse-phase HPLC. The result revealed that the latex protein belongs to an extensively diverse plant protein family that includes inhibitors of serine, cysteine and aspartic proteases, a taste-modifying protein, wound responsive proteins, storage proteins, amylase inhibitors and even an oxidoreductase. In this superfamily, the latex proteinase inhibitor is most similar to the curious protein, miraculin, which makes sour food taste sweet. Two carbohydrate chains, each probably composed of (mannose)5, (xylose)1, (fucose)0-2, and (N-acetylglucosamine)2 residues, were attached to asparagine 84 and 90. Mass-spectrometric and compositional analysis suggested that they may represent a new class of plant xylose-containing carbohydrate chains with five mannose residues. PMID:8898891

  4. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Information > Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Explore this section to learn more about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, including a description of the disorder ...

  5. Effects of proteinase inhibitor from Adenanthera pavonina seeds on short- and long term larval development of Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Daniele Yumi; Jacobowski, Ana Cristina; de Souza, Antônio Pancrácio; Cardoso, Marlon Henrique; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues

    2015-05-01

    Currently, one of the major global public health concerns is related to the transmission of dengue/yellow fever virus by the vector Aedes aegypti. The most abundant digestive enzymes in Ae. aegypti midgut larvae are trypsin and chymotrypsin. Since protease inhibitors have the capacity to bind to and inhibit the action of insect digestive proteinases, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of Adenanthera pavonina seed proteinase inhibitor (ApTI) on Ae. aegypti larvae, as well as a possible mechanism of adaptation. ApTI had a significant effect on Ae. aegypti larvae exposed to a non-lethal concentration of ApTI during short- and long-duration assays, decreasing survival, weight and proteinase activities of midgut extracts of larvae. The zymographic profile of ApTI demonstrated seven bands; three bands apparently have trypsin-like activity. Moreover, the peritrophic membrane was not disrupted. The enzymes of ApTI-fed larvae were found to be sensitive to ApTI and to have a normal feedback mechanism; also, the larval digestive enzymes were not able to degrade the inhibitor. In addition, ApTI delayed larval development time. Histological studies demonstrated a degeneration of the microvilli of the posterior midgut region epithelium cells, hypertrophy of the gastric caeca cells and an augmented ectoperitrophic space in larvae. Moreover, Ae. aegypti larvae were incapable of overcoming the negative effects of ApTI, indicating that this inhibitor might be used as a promising agent against Ae. aegypti. In addition, molecular modeling and molecular docking studies were also performed in order to construct three-dimensional theoretical models for ApTI, trypsin and chymotrypsin from Ae. aegypti, as well as to predict the possible interactions and affinity values for the complexes ApTI/trypsin and ApTI/chymotrypsin. In this context, this study broadens the base of our understanding about the modes of action of proteinase inhibitors in insects, as well as the way insects

  6. Predicting the reactivity of proteins from their sequence alone: Kazal family of protein inhibitors of serine proteinases

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Stephen M.; Lu, Wuyuan; Qasim, M. A.; Anderson, Stephen; Apostol, Izydor; Ardelt, Wojciech; Bigler, Theresa; Chiang, Yi Wen; Cook, James; James, Michael N. G.; Kato, Ikunoshin; Kelly, Clyde; Kohr, William; Komiyama, Tomoko; Lin, Tiao-Yin; Ogawa, Michio; Otlewski, Jacek; Park, Soon-Jae; Qasim, Sabiha; Ranjbar, Michael; Tashiro, Misao; Warne, Nicholas; Whatley, Harry; Wieczorek, Anna; Wieczorek, Maciej; Wilusz, Tadeusz; Wynn, Richard; Zhang, Wenlei; Laskowski, Michael

    2001-01-01

    An additivity-based sequence to reactivity algorithm for the interaction of members of the Kazal family of protein inhibitors with six selected serine proteinases is described. Ten consensus variable contact positions in the inhibitor were identified, and the 19 possible variants at each of these positions were expressed. The free energies of interaction of these variants and the wild type were measured. For an additive system, this data set allows for the calculation of all possible sequences, subject to some restrictions. The algorithm was extensively tested. It is exceptionally fast so that all possible sequences can be predicted. The strongest, the most specific possible, and the least specific inhibitors were designed, and an evolutionary problem was solved. PMID:11171964

  7. Differential expression of soybean cysteine proteinase inhibitor genes during development and in response to wounding and methyl jasmonate.

    PubMed Central

    Botella, M A; Xu, Y; Prabha, T N; Zhao, Y; Narasimhan, M L; Wilson, K A; Nielsen, S S; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M

    1996-01-01

    Three cysteine proteinase inhibitor cDNA clones (pL1, pR1, and pN2) have been isolated from a soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) embryo library. The proteins encoded by the clones are between 60 and 70% identical and contain the consensus QxVxG motif and W residue in the appropriate spatial context for interaction with the cysteine proteinase papain. L1, R1, and N2 mRNAs were differentially expressed in different organs of plants (juvenile and mature) and seedlings, although N2 mRNA was constitutive only in flowers. R1 and N2 transcripts were induced by wounding or methyl jasmonate (M-JA) treatment in local and systemic leaves coincident with increased papain inhibitory activity, indicating a role for R1 and N2 in plant defense. The L1 transcript was constitutively expressed in leaves and was induced slightly by M-JA treatment in roots. Unlike the chymotrypsin/trypsin proteinase inhibitor II gene (H. Peña-Cortés, J. Fisahn, L. Willmitzer [1995] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 4106-4113), expression of the soybean genes was only marginally induced by abscisic acid and only in certain tissues. Norbornadiene, a competitive inhibitor of ethylene binding, abolished the wounding or M-JA induction of R1 and N2 mRNAs but not the accumulation of the wound-inducible vspA transcript. Presumably, ethylene binding to its receptor is involved in the wound inducibility of R1 and N2 but not vspA mRNAs. Bacterial recombinant L1 and R1 proteins, expressed as glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins, exhibited substantial inhibitory activities against vicilin peptidohydrolase, the major thiol endopeptidase in mung bean seedlings. Recombinant R1 protein had much greater cysteine proteinase inhibitor activity than recombinant L1 protein, consistent with the wound inducibility of the R1 gene and its presumed role in plant defense. PMID:8938418

  8. Structural and functional aspects of papain-like cysteine proteinases and their protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Turk, B; Turk, V; Turk, D

    1997-01-01

    Cysteine proteinases are widely distributed among living organisms. According to the most recent classifications (Rawlings and Barrett, 1993, 1994), they can be subdivided on the basis of sequence homology into 14 or even 20 different families, the most important being the papain and the calpain families. The papain-like cysteine proteinases are the most abundant among the cysteine proteinases. The family consists of papain and related plant proteinases such as chymopapain, caricain, bromelain, actinidin, ficin, and aleurain, and the lysosomal cathepsins B, H, L, S, C and K. Most of these enzymes are relatively small proteins with Mr values in the range 20000-35000 (reviewed in Brocklehurst et al., 1987; Polgar, 1989; Rawlings and Barrett, 1994; Berti and Storer, 1995), with the exception of cathepsin C, which is an oligomeric enzyme with Mr approximately 200000 (Metrione et al., 1970; Dolenc et al., 1995). A number of cysteine proteinases are located within lysosomes. Four of them, cathepsins B, C, H and L, are ubiquitous in lysosomes of animals, whereas cathepsin S has a more restricted localisation (Barrett and Kirschke, 1981; Kirschke and Wiederanders, 1994). The enzymes, except cathepsin C, are endopeptidases (reviewed in Kirschke et al., 1995), although cathepsin B was found also to be a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase (Aronson and Barrett, 1978) and cathepsin H also an aminopeptidase (Koga et al., 1992). Cathepsin C is a dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, but at higher pH it exhibits also dipeptidyl transferase activity (reviewed in Kirschke et al., 1995). Among the lysosomal cysteine proteinases, cathepsin L was found to be the most active in degradation of protein substrates, such as collagen, elastin and azocasein (Barrett and Kirschke, 1981; Maciewicz et al., 1987; Mason et al., 1989), arid cathepsin B the most abundant (Kirschke and Barrett, 1981). All the enzymes are optimally active at slightly acidic pH, although their pH optima for degradation of synthetic

  9. Functional analysis of the 3' control region of the potato wound-inducible proteinase inhibitor II gene.

    PubMed Central

    An, G; Mitra, A; Choi, H K; Costa, M A; An, K; Thornburg, R W; Ryan, C A

    1989-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitor genes are expressed strongly in specific plant tissues under both developmental and environmental regulation. We have studied the role of the 3' control region of the potato proteinase inhibitor II gene (PI-II) that is inducible in leaves in response to herbivore attacks or other severe wounding. Comparison of the terminator from the PI-II gene with two different terminators from the 6b and 7 genes, driven by a common PI-II promoter-cat fusion molecule, indicated that the PI-II terminator provided the most efficient expression of cat. The PI-II terminator also caused a significantly elevated cat gene expression driven by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. The increase in the level of expression is probably not due to the presence of an enhancer element in the PI-II terminator region, but to cis-acting elements involved in mRNA processing or stability. Both transient and stable transformation analyses of the deletion mutants in the 3'-flanking sequence indicated that about a 100-base pair DNA fragment surrounding the polyadenylation site is essential for the efficient gene expression. This region seems to consist of several regulatory elements, including the conserved sequence, CGTGTCTT, which is located 9 bases downstream from the polyadenylation site. The elements appear to contribute to the increased stability of mRNAs containing the PI-II terminator. PMID:2535459

  10. Cloning of a Locusta cDNA encoding a precursor peptide for two structurally related proteinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kromer, E; Nakakura, N; Lagueux, M

    1994-03-01

    Two peptides of respectively 35 and 36 residues were recently isolated from Locusta migratoria and their full structural characteristics were established by Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. These peptides were subsequently shown to have a proteinase inhibiting activity. We report here the cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a 92-residue precursor with three distinct domains: (I) a typical signal peptide of 19 residues; (II) the peptide sequence of the 35-residue inhibitor separated by a Lys-Arg dipeptide cleavage site from (III) the peptide sequence of the 36-residue inhibitor. We show by Northern blot analysis that the gene encoding this precursor is mainly transcribed in the cells of the fat body. PMID:8019577

  11. SDZ PRI 053, an orally bioavailable human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteinase inhibitor containing the 2-aminobenzylstatine moiety.

    PubMed Central

    Billich, A; Fricker, G; Müller, I; Donatsch, P; Ettmayer, P; Gstach, H; Lehr, P; Peichl, P; Scholz, D; Rosenwirth, B

    1995-01-01

    A series of inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteinase containing the 2-aralkyl-amino-substituted statine moiety as a novel transition-state analog was synthesized, with the aim to obtain compounds which combine anti-HIV potency with oral bioavailability. The reduced-size 2-aminobenzylstatine derivative SDZ PRI 053, which contains 2-(S)-amino-3-(R)-hydroxyindane in place of an amino acid amide, is a potent and orally bioavailable inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. The antiviral activity of SDZ PRI 053 was demonstrated in various cell lines, in primary lymphocytes, and in primary monocytes, against laboratory strains as well as clinical HIV-1 isolates (50% effective dose = 0.028 to 0.15 microM). Cell proliferation was impaired only at 100- to 300-fold-higher concentrations. The mechanism of antiviral action of the proteinase inhibitor SDZ PRI 0.53 was demonstrated to be inhibition of gag precursor protein processing. The finding that the inhibitory potency of SDZ PRI 053 in chronic virus infection, determined by p24 release, was considerably lower than that in de novo infection may be explained by the fact that the virus particles produced in the presence of SDZ PRI 053 are about 50-fold less infectious than those from untreated cultures. Upon intravenous administration, half-lives in blood of 100 and 32 min in mice and rats, respectively, were measured. Oral bioavailability of SDZ PRI 053 in rodents was 20 to 60%, depending on the dose. In mice, rats, and dogs, the inhibitor levels after oral administration remained far above the concentrations needed to efficiently block HIV replication in vitro for a prolonged period. This compound is thus a promising candidate for clinical use in HIV disease. PMID:7492076

  12. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (an-tee-TRIP-sin) deficiency, or AAT ... as it relates to lung disease. Overview Alpha-1 antitrypsin, also called AAT, is a protein made ...

  13. Growth and development of Colorado potato beetle larvae, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, on potato plants expressing the oryzacystatin II proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cingel, Aleksandar; Savić, Jelena; Vinterhalter, Branka; Vinterhalter, Dragan; Kostić, Miroslav; Jovanović, Darka Šešlija; Smigocki, Ann; Ninković, Slavica

    2015-08-01

    Plant proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are attractive tools for crop improvement and their heterologous expression can enhance insect resistance in transgenic plants. PI oryzacystatin II (OCII), isolated from rice, showed potential in controlling pests that utilize cysteine proteinases for protein digestion. To evaluate the applicability of the OCII gene in enhancing plant defence, OCII-transformed potatoes were bioassayed for resistance to Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say). Feeding on transformed leaves of potato cultivars Desiree and Jelica significantly affected larval growth and development, but did not change mortality rates. During the L2 and L3 developmental stages larvae consumed the OCII-transformed foliage faster as compared to the nontransformed control. Also these larvae reached the prepupal stage (end of L4 stage) 2 days earlier than those fed on control leaves. However, the total amounts of consumed OCII-transformed leaves were up to 23% lower than of control, and the maximal weights of prepupal larvae were reduced by up to 18% as compared to larvae fed on nontransformed leaves. The reduction in insect fitness reported in this study in combination with other control measures, could lead to improved CPB resistance management in potato. PMID:25820664

  14. N-Arylacyl O-sulfonated aminoglycosides as novel inhibitors of human neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and proteinase 3.

    PubMed

    Craciun, Ioana; Fenner, Amanda M; Kerns, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    The balance between neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs) and protease inhibitors (PIs) in the lung is a critical determinant for a number of chronic inflammatory lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis and acute lung injury. During activation at inflammatory sites, excessive release of NSPs such as human neutrophil elastase (HNE), proteinase 3 (Pr3) and cathepsin G (CatG), leads to destruction of the lung matrix and continued propagation of acute inflammation. Under normal conditions, PIs counteract these effects by inactivating NSPs; however, in chronic inflammatory lung diseases, there are insufficient amounts of PIs to mitigate damage. Therapeutic strategies are needed to modulate excessive NSP activity for the clinical management of chronic inflammatory lung diseases. In the study reported here, a panel of N-arylacyl O-sulfonated aminoglycosides was screened to identify inhibitors of the NSPs. Dose-dependent inhibitors for each individual serine protease were identified. Select compounds were found to inhibit multiple NSPs, including one lead structure that is shown to inhibit all three NSPs. Two lead compounds identified during the screen for each individual NSP were further characterized as partial mixed inhibitors of CatG. Concentration-dependent inhibition of protease-mediated detachment of lung epithelial cells is demonstrated. PMID:26850997

  15. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic studies of a wound-inducible proteinase inhibitor I gene in Lycopersicon species.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Brown, W E; Graham, J S; Pearce, G; Fox, E A; Dreher, T W; Ahern, K G; Pearson, G D; Ryan, C A

    1986-10-01

    A gene coding for proteinase inhibitor I, whose expression is induced in tomato leaves (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Bonny Best) in response to wounding or insect attacks, was isolated from a genomic library and characterized. The nucleotide sequence revealed that the gene is complete and encodes the sequence of an inhibitor I cDNA that was previously isolated from a cDNA library prepared from wound-induced mRNA from tomato leaves. This gene is located 13.1 kilobase pairs (kbp) upstream from an inhibitor II gene. The wound-inducible gene is interrupted by two intervening sequences of 445 and 404 bp, situated within the codons of amino acids 17 and 47, respectively, of the open reading frame. In addition to the presence of putative regulatory sequences, TATAAA and CCACT, two copies of an imperfect direct repeat approximately 100 bp long were identified in the 5'-flanking region. Phylogenetic comparisons of wound-inducible inhibitor I genes within the genomes of various Lycopersicon species revealed that the repeat is found in seven ancestral species of tomato. PMID:3463966

  16. Wound-inducible nuclear protein binds DNA fragments that regulate a proteinase inhibitor II gene from potato.

    PubMed Central

    Palm, C J; Costa, M A; An, G; Ryan, C A

    1990-01-01

    Deletion analysis from the 3' to the 5' end of the promoter region of the wound-inducible potato proteinase inhibitor IIK gene has identified a 421-base sequence at -136 to -557 that is necessary for expression. Utilizing DNA band-shift assays, a 10-base sequence within the 421-base region was found to bind a nuclear protein from wounded tomato leaves. This 10-base sequence is adjacent to an 8-base consensus sequence at -147 to -155 that is present in the promoter region of several elicitor-inducible genes from various other plants. The evidence suggests that a complex set of cis- and trans-acting elements within the -136 to -165 region of the potato IIK gene may be involved with the signaling mechanisms that regulate the inducibility of this gene in response to pest and pathogen attacks. Images PMID:2405385

  17. A four-domain Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor from Solen grandis is implicated in immune response.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiumei; Yang, Jialong; Yang, Jianmin; Liu, Xiangquan; Liu, Meijun; Yang, Dinglong; Xu, Jie; Hu, Xiaoke

    2012-12-01

    Serine proteinase inhibitor (SPI) serves as a negative regulator in immune signal pathway by restraining the activities of serine proteinase (SP) and plays an essential role in the innate immunity. In the present study, a Kunitz-type SPI was identified from the mollusk razor clam Solen grandis (designated as SgKunitz). The full-length cDNA of SgKunitz was of 1284 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 768 bp. The ORF encoded four Kunitz domains, and their amino acids were well conserved when compared with those in other Kunitz-type SPIs, especially the six cysteines involved in forming of three disulfide bridges in each domain. In addition, the tertiary structure of all the four domains adopted a typical model of Kunitz-type SPI family, indicating SgKunitz was a new member of Kunitz-type SPI superfamily. The mRNA transcripts of SgKunitz were detected in all tested tissues of razor clam, including muscle, mantle, gonad, gill, hepatopancreas and hemocytes, and with the highest expression level in gill. When the razor clams were stimulated by LPS, PGN or β-1, 3-glucan, the expression level of SgKunitz mRNA in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.01), suggesting SgKunitz might involved in the processes of inhibiting the activity of SPs during the immune responses triggered by various pathogens. Furthermore, the recombinant protein of SgKunitz could effectively inhibit the activities of SP trypsin and chymotrypsin in vitro. The present results suggested SgKunitz could serve as an inhibitor of SP involving in the immune response of S. grandis, and provided helpful evidences to understand the regulation mechanism of immune signal pathway in mollusk. PMID:23022284

  18. Proteinase-antiproteinase balance in tracheal aspirates from neonates.

    PubMed

    Sluis, K B; Darlow, B A; Vissers, M C; Winterbourn, C C

    1994-02-01

    We wanted to identify the inhibitors of neutrophil elastase, quantify their activities in the upper airways of neonates, and relate these to the presence of active elastase and the likelihood of elastolytic injury occurring due to inhibitory capacity being overwhelmed. Activities of neutrophil elastase and its inhibitors were measured in tracheal aspirates from 17 infants, 10 of whom subsequently developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia. All aspirates contained immunologically detectable alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI), but their inhibitory capacity against neutrophil elastase ranged from being undetectable to being in excess of the amount of alpha 1-PI detected immunologically. When the alpha 1-PI was removed from each of the aspirates, using a specific antibody, from 0-50% of the original activity remained, indicating the presence of another elastase inhibitor. Its properties were consistent with it being the low molecular mass, secretory leucoproteinase inhibitor (SLPI), also known as bronchial antileucoproteinase. The alpha 1-PI was from 0-100% active. Most of the inactive inhibitor was shown by western blotting to be complexed with elastase, with a small amount of cleaved material. There was no evidence of major oxidative inactivation. Free elastase was detected in only three of the aspirates; these had little or no detectable elastase inhibitory capacity, and most of their alpha 1-PI was complexed. Elastase load, comprising the sum of free and complexed elastase, correlated closely with myeloperoxidase activity, a recognized marker of inflammatory activity. Active SLPI levels showed a positive correlation with gestational age (r = 0.66). We conclude that most neutrophil elastase in the upper airways of ventilated infants is complexed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7909297

  19. Basis for the Specificity and Activation of the Serpin Protein Z-dependent Proteinase Inhibitor (ZPI) as an Inhibitor of Membrane-associated Factor Xa

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xin; Dementiev, Alexey; Olson, Steven T.; Gettins, Peter G.W.

    2012-12-13

    The serpin ZPI is a protein Z (PZ)-dependent specific inhibitor of membrane-associated factor Xa (fXa) despite having an unfavorable P1 Tyr. PZ accelerates the inhibition reaction {approx}2000-fold in the presence of phospholipid and Ca{sup 2+}. To elucidate the role of PZ, we determined the x-ray structure of Gla-domainless PZ (PZ{sub {Delta}GD}) complexed with protein Z-dependent proteinase inhibitor (ZPI). The PZ pseudocatalytic domain bound ZPI at a novel site through ionic and polar interactions. Mutation of four ZPI contact residues eliminated PZ binding and membrane-dependent PZ acceleration of fXa inhibition. Modeling of the ternary Michaelis complex implicated ZPI residues Glu-313 and Glu-383 in fXa binding. Mutagenesis established that only Glu-313 is important, contributing {approx}5-10-fold to rate acceleration of fXa and fXIa inhibition. Limited conformational change in ZPI resulted from PZ binding, which contributed only {approx}2-fold to rate enhancement. Instead, template bridging from membrane association, together with previously demonstrated interaction of the fXa and ZPI Gla domains, resulted in an additional {approx}1000-fold rate enhancement. To understand why ZPI has P1 tyrosine, we examined a P1 Arg variant. This reacted at a diffusion-limited rate with fXa, even without PZ, and predominantly as substrate, reflecting both rapid acylation and deacylation. P1 tyrosine thus ensures that reaction with fXa or most other arginine-specific proteinases is insignificant unless PZ binds and localizes ZPI and fXa on the membrane, where the combined effects of Gla-Gla interaction, template bridging, and interaction of fXa with Glu-313 overcome the unfavorability of P1 Tyr and ensure a high rate of reaction as an inhibitor.

  20. Inhibitors and Antibody Fragments as Potential Anti-Inflammatory Therapeutics Targeting Neutrophil Proteinase 3 in Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Brice; Lesner, Adam; Guarino, Carla; Wysocka, Magdalena; Kellenberger, Christine; Watier, Hervé; Specks, Ulrich; Gauthier, Francis; Jenne, Dieter E

    2016-07-01

    Proteinase 3 (PR3) has received great scientific attention after its identification as the essential antigenic target of antineutrophil cytoplasm antibodies in Wegener's granulomatosis (now called granulomatosis with polyangiitis). Despite many structural and functional similarities between neutrophil elastase (NE) and PR3 during biosynthesis, storage, and extracellular release, unique properties and pathobiological functions have emerged from detailed studies in recent years. The development of highly sensitive substrates and inhibitors of human PR3 and the creation of PR3-selective single knockout mice led to the identification of nonredundant roles of PR3 in cell death induction via procaspase-3 activation in cell cultures and in mouse models. According to a study in knockout mice, PR3 shortens the lifespan of infiltrating neutrophils in tissues and accelerates the clearance of aged neutrophils in mice. Membrane exposure of active human PR3 on apoptotic neutrophils reprograms the response of macrophages to phagocytosed neutrophils, triggers secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and undermines immune silencing and tissue regeneration. PR3-induced disruption of the anti-inflammatory effect of efferocytosis may be relevant for not only granulomatosis with polyangiitis but also for other autoimmune diseases with high neutrophil turnover. Inhibition of membrane-bound PR3 by endogenous inhibitors such as the α-1-protease inhibitor is comparatively weaker than that of NE, suggesting that the adverse effects of unopposed PR3 activity resurface earlier than those of NE in individuals with α-1-protease inhibitor deficiency. Effective coverage of PR3 by anti-inflammatory tools and simultaneous inhibition of both PR3 and NE should be most promising in the future. PMID:27329045

  1. Proteomic analysis reveals suppression of bark chitinases and proteinase inhibitors in citrus plants affected by the citrus sudden death disease.

    PubMed

    Cantú, M D; Mariano, A G; Palma, M S; Carrilho, E; Wulff, N A

    2008-10-01

    Citrus sudden death (CSD) is a disease of unknown etiology that greatly affects sweet oranges grafted on Rangpur lime rootstock, the most important rootstock in Brazilian citriculture. We performed a proteomic analysis to generate information related to this plant pathogen interaction. Protein profiles from healthy, CSD-affected and CSD-tolerant stem barks, were generated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The protein spots were well distributed over a pI range of 3.26 to 9.97 and a molecular weight (MW) range from 7.1 to 120 kDa. The patterns of expressed proteins on 2-DE gels made it possible to distinguish healthy barks from CSD-affected barks. Protein spots with MW around 30 kDa and pI values ranging from 4.5 to 5.2 were down-regulated in the CSD-affected root-stock bark. This set of protein spots was identified as chitinases. Another set of proteins, ranging in pI from 6.1 to 9.6 with an MW of about 20 kDa, were also suppressed in CSD-affected rootstock bark; these were identified as miraculin-like proteins, potential trypsin inhibitors. Down-regulation of chitinases and proteinase inhibitors in CSD-affected plants is relevant since chitinases are well-known pathogenesis-related protein, and their activity against plant pathogens is largely accepted. PMID:18943454

  2. Estimation of plasma esterolytic activity and it's in vitro inhibition by proteinase inhibitors during acute pancreatitis in the human.

    PubMed Central

    Worthington, K. J.; Cuschieri, A.

    1976-01-01

    The plasma esterolytic activity was measured using benzyol arginine ethyl ester (BAEe) in the peripheral venous blood of patients with acute pancreatitis, normal healthy volunteers and a contrast group of patients with acute intrabdominal inflammations other than acute pancreatitis. The plasma esterolytic activity was significantly elevated in the pancreatitis group. This activity was maximal during the first 48 hours of the illness and remained elevated for a further 8 days thereafter. Aprotinin in a dose of 2000 K.I. u/0-3 ml plasma did not completely inhibit this esterolytic activity, although it resulted in a more substantial inhibition than either ovomucoid or soy bean inhibitor. It is concluded that pancreatic enzymes are released into the circulation during acute pancreatitis and that Aprotinin does not completely inhibit this proteolytic activity. This polyvalent proteinase inhibitor should therefore be administered in much higher dosage than that used hitherto in acute pancreatitis. The plasma esterolytic activity seems to be of diagnostic value in acute pancreatitis. PMID:1083738

  3. Isolation and primary structure of proteinase inhibitors from Erythrina variegata (Linn.) var. Orientalis seeds.

    PubMed

    Kouzuma, Y; Suetake, M; Kimura, M; Yamasaki, N

    1992-11-01

    The Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, and chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI were isolated from the seeds of Erythrina variegata. The proteins were extracted from a defatted meal of seeds with 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 0.15 M NaCl, and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Q-Sepharose column chromatographies. The stoichiometry of trypsin inhibitors with trypsin was estimated to be 1:1, while that of chymotrypsin inhibitor with chymotrypsin was 1:2, judging from the titration patterns of their inhibitory activities. The complete amino acids of the two trypsin inhibitors were sequenced by protein chemical methods. The proteins ETIa and ETIb consist of 172 and 176 amino acid residues and have M(r) 19,242 and M(r) 19,783, respectively, and share 112 identical amino acid residues, which is 65% identity. They show structural features characteristic of the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (i.e., identical residues at about 45% with soybean trypsin inhibitor STI). Furthermore, the trypsin inhibitors show a significant homology to the storage proteins, sporamin, in sweet potato and the taste-modifying protein, miraculin, in miracle fruit, having about 30% identical residues. PMID:1369077

  4. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... measures the level of the protein AAT in blood. Alpha-1 antitrypsin phenotype testing evaluates the amount and type of AAT being produced and compares it to normal patterns. Alpha-1 antitrypsin genotype testing ( DNA testing) can ...

  5. Alpha-1 antitrypsin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003715.htm Alpha-1 antitrypsin test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a laboratory test to measure the ...

  6. The role of secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor and elafin (elastase-specific inhibitor/skin-derived antileukoprotease) as alarm antiproteinases in inflammatory lung disease.

    PubMed

    Sallenave, J M

    2000-01-01

    Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor and elafin are two low-molecular-mass elastase inhibitors that are mainly synthesized locally at mucosal sites. It is thought that their physicochemical properties allow them to efficiently inhibit target enzymes, such as neutrophil elastase, released into the interstitium. Historically, in the lung, these inhibitors were first purified from secretions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. This suggested that they might be important in controlling excessive neutrophil elastase release in these pathologies. They are upregulated by 'alarm signals' such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor and have been shown to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, so that they have joined the growing list of antimicrobial 'defensin-like' peptides produced by the lung. Their site of synthesis and presumed functions make them very attractive candidates as potential therapeutic agents under conditions in which the excessive release of elastase by neutrophils might be detrimental. Because of its natural tropism for the lung, the use of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer is extremely promising in such applications. PMID:11667971

  7. The role of secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor and elafin (elastase-specific inhibitor/skin-derived antileukoprotease) as alarm antiproteinases in inflammatory lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Sallenave, Jean-Michel

    2000-01-01

    Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor and elafin are two low-molecular-mass elastase inhibitors that are mainly synthesized locally at mucosal sites. It is thought that their physicochemical properties allow them to efficiently inhibit target enzymes, such as neutrophil elastase, released into the interstitium. Historically, in the lung, these inhibitors were first purified from secretions of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. This suggested that they might be important in controlling excessive neutrophil elastase release in these pathologies. They are upregulated by 'alarm signals' such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides, and cytokines such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor and have been shown to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, so that they have joined the growing list of antimicrobial 'defensin-like' peptides produced by the lung. Their site of synthesis and presumed functions make them very attractive candidates as potential therapeutic agents under conditions in which the excessive release of elastase by neutrophils might be detrimental. Because of its natural tropism for the lung, the use of adenovirus-mediated gene transfer is extremely promising in such applications. PMID:11667971

  8. The refined 2.4 A X-ray crystal structure of recombinant human stefin B in complex with the cysteine proteinase papain: a novel type of proteinase inhibitor interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, M T; Laber, B; Bode, W; Huber, R; Jerala, R; Lenarcic, B; Turk, V

    1990-01-01

    A stoichiometric complex of human stefin B and carboxymethylated papain has been crystallized in a trigonal crystal form. Data to 2.37 A resolution were collected using the area detector diffractometer FAST. The crystal structure of the complex has been solved by Patterson search techniques using papain as search model. Starting from the structure of chicken cystatin, the stefin structure was elucidated through cycles of model building and crystallographic refinement. The current crystallographic R factor is 0.19. Like cystatin, the stefin molecule consists of a five stranded beta-sheet wrapped around a five turn alpha-helix, but with an additional carboxy terminal strand running along the convex side of the sheet. Topological equivalence of stefin and cystatin reveal the previous sequence alignment to be incorrect in part, through deletion of the intermediate helix. The conserved residues form a tripartite wedge, which slots into the papain active site as proposed through consideration of the tertiary structures of the individual components (Bode et al., 1988). The main interactions are provided by the amino terminal 'trunk' (occupying the 'unprimed' subsites of the enzyme), and by the first hairpin loop, containing the highly conserved QVVAG sequence, with minor contributions from the second hairpin loop. The carboxyl terminus of stefin provides an additional interaction region with respect to cystatin. The interaction is dominated by hydrophobic contacts. Inhibition by the cysteine proteinase inhibitors is fundamentally different to that observed for the serine proteinase inhibitors. Images Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 8. PMID:2347312

  9. The Plant-Derived Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein Proteinase Inhibitor (rBbKI) Attenuates Elastase-Induced Emphysema in Mice.

    PubMed

    Martins-Olivera, Bruno Tadeu; Almeida-Reis, Rafael; Theodoro-Júnior, Osmar Aparecido; Oliva, Leandro Vilela; Neto Dos Santos Nunes, Natalia; Olivo, Clarice Rosa; Vilela de Brito, Marlon; Prado, Carla Máximo; Leick, Edna Aparecida; Martins, Mílton de Arruda; Oliva, Maria Luiza Vilela; Righetti, Renato Fraga; Tibério, Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo

    2016-01-01

    Background. Elastase mediates important oxidative actions during the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, few resources for the inhibition of elastase have been investigated. Our study evaluated the ability of the recombinant plant derived Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein proteinase Inhibitor (rBbKI) to modulate elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation. Methods. C57Bl/6 mice were given intratracheal elastase (ELA group) or saline (SAL group) and were treated intraperitoneally with rBbKI (ELA-rBbKI and SAL-rBbKI groups). At day 28, the following analyses were performed: (I) lung mechanics, (II) exhaled nitric oxide (ENO), (III) bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and (IV) lung immunohistochemical staining. Results. In addition to decreasing mechanical alterations and alveolar septum disruption, rBbKI reduced the number of cells in the BALF and decreased the cellular expression of TNF-α, MMP-9, MMP-12, TIMP-1, eNOS, and iNOS in airways and alveolar walls compared with the ELA group. rBbKI decreased the volume proportion of 8-iso-PGF2α, collagen, and elastic fibers in the airways and alveolar walls compared with the ELA group. A reduction in the number of MUC-5-positive cells in the airway walls was also observed. Conclusion. rBbKI reduced elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling. rBbKI may be a potential pharmacological tool for COPD treatment. PMID:27528793

  10. The Plant-Derived Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein Proteinase Inhibitor (rBbKI) Attenuates Elastase-Induced Emphysema in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Olivera, Bruno Tadeu; Theodoro-Júnior, Osmar Aparecido; Oliva, Leandro Vilela; Neto dos Santos Nunes, Natalia; Olivo, Clarice Rosa; Vilela de Brito, Marlon; Prado, Carla Máximo; Leick, Edna Aparecida; Martins, Mílton de Arruda

    2016-01-01

    Background. Elastase mediates important oxidative actions during the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, few resources for the inhibition of elastase have been investigated. Our study evaluated the ability of the recombinant plant derived Bauhinia bauhinioides Kallikrein proteinase Inhibitor (rBbKI) to modulate elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation. Methods. C57Bl/6 mice were given intratracheal elastase (ELA group) or saline (SAL group) and were treated intraperitoneally with rBbKI (ELA-rBbKI and SAL-rBbKI groups). At day 28, the following analyses were performed: (I) lung mechanics, (II) exhaled nitric oxide (ENO), (III) bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and (IV) lung immunohistochemical staining. Results. In addition to decreasing mechanical alterations and alveolar septum disruption, rBbKI reduced the number of cells in the BALF and decreased the cellular expression of TNF-α, MMP-9, MMP-12, TIMP-1, eNOS, and iNOS in airways and alveolar walls compared with the ELA group. rBbKI decreased the volume proportion of 8-iso-PGF2α, collagen, and elastic fibers in the airways and alveolar walls compared with the ELA group. A reduction in the number of MUC-5-positive cells in the airway walls was also observed. Conclusion. rBbKI reduced elastase-induced pulmonary inflammation and extracellular matrix remodeling. rBbKI may be a potential pharmacological tool for COPD treatment. PMID:27528793

  11. Complexes between tissue-type plasminogen activator and proteinase inhibitors in human plasma, identified with an immunoradiometric assay

    SciTech Connect

    Rijken, D.C.; Juhan-Vague, I.; Collen, D.

    1983-02-01

    Extrinsic (tissue-type) plasminogen activator antigen in human plasma, as measured by a two-site immunoradiometric assay, is composed of a fibrin-adsorbable and a nonadsorbable fraction. Gel filtration on Ultrogel AcA 44 in 1.6M KSCN of the fibrin-adsorbable fraction showed a peak with M/sub r/ approx. =70,000, which contained plasminogen activator activity and was assumed to represent free extrinsic plasminogen activator. The nonadsorbable fraction showed a broad peak with M/sub r/ approx. =140,000 without plasminogen activator activity. Overnight incubation at 37/sup 0/C of postexercise plasma revealed a shift of the M/sub r/ approx. =70,000 peak to the M/sub r/ approx. =140,000 position, suggesting that the M/sub r/ approx. =140,000 peak consists of extrinsic plasminogen activator-protease inhibitor complex(es). ..cap alpha../sub 2/-Antiplasmin is the main inhibitor of extrinsic plasminogen activator in plasma and is probably responsible for the generation of the M/sub r/ approx. =140,000 component. A possible involvement of other plasma proteinase inhibitors was explored by incubation of /sup 125/I-labeled extrinsic plasminogen activator in ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antiplasmin-depleted plasma. A complex was formed with a t1/2 of about 1 hr, which was identified by immunoprecipitation as extrinsic plasminogen activator-..cap alpha../sub 2/-antiplasmin complex. Additional evidence for the presence of extrinsic plasminogen activator complexes with ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antiplasmin and ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin in plasma was obtained from two-site immunoradiometric assays. It was concluded that plasma contains both free extrinsic plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator complexes with ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antiplasmin and ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin. These complexes are also present in plasma collected on the active site inhibitor, D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH/sub 2/Cl, at rest and after exercise and are therefore assumed to circulate in vivo. (JMT)

  12. Variation of proteins and proteinases in Entamoeba histolytica lysates containing a protease inhibitor.

    PubMed

    López-Revilla, R; Jiménez-Delgadillo, B; Canto-Ortiz, L; Chávez-Dueñas, L

    1992-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-lysates of E. histolytica trophozoites were analyzed by electrophoresis in simple and gelatin-containing ("substrate") SDS-polyacrylamide gels. In simple gels, boiled lysates with para hydroxymercuribenzoate (pHMB) had a complex pattern of apparently undegraded proteins; boiled lysates without pHMB showed a major 30 kDa and four minor (43, 46, 63 and 117 kDa) proteins, whereas unheated lysates displayed only the 117 kDa protein. Using substrate gels no gelatinases were detected in heated lysates; unheated lysates without pHMB showed a major 30 kDa and three minor (33, 46 and 68 kDa) gelatinases, whereas those with pHMB presented a major 56 kDa and two minor (70 and 105 kDa) gelatinases. Three caseinase peaks were separated by Sephadex G-75 chromatography from unheated lysates: peak I contained 46, 56 and 117 kDa pHMB-sensitive gelatinases and peaks II and III contained smaller pHMB-resistant caseinases. We conclude that proteins remaining in lysates after SDS-induced proteolysis appear to be mainly proteases relatively resistant to self-digestion whose type and amount changes with the conditions of lysis and the presence of inhibitors; this is exemplified by the finding of the major gelatinase of lysates with pHMB being larger (56 kDa) than in lysates lacking the inhibitor (30 kDa). PMID:1340329

  13. Ubiquitin-protein conjugates accumulate in the lysosomal system of fibroblasts treated with cysteine proteinase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, F J; Osborn, N U; Wassell, J A; Heggie, P E; Laszlo, L; Mayer, R J

    1989-01-01

    Mouse fibroblasts (3T3-L1 cells) accumulate detergent- and salt-insoluble aggregates of proteins conjugated to ubiquitin when incubated in the presence of inhibitors of lysosomal cysteine cathepsins, including E-64. These ubiquitin-protein conjugates co-fractionate with lysosomes on density gradients and are found in multivesicular dense bodies which by electron microscopy appear to be engaged in microautophagy. Both E-64 and ammonium chloride increase the intracellular concentration of free ubiquitin, but only E-64 leads to the formation of insoluble lysosomal ubiquitin-protein conjugates. The results are discussed in relation to the possible intracellular roles of ubiquitin conjugation. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. p52-a PMID:2557825

  14. Occurrence of two distinct types of tissue inhibitors of metallo-proteinases-2 in Fugu rubripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Yoshihiro; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Tohru; Mizuta, Shohshi; Yoshinaka, Reiji

    2005-07-01

    In this study, genes of two distinct tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) from Japanese puffer fish Fugu rubripes, Fugu TIMP-2a and TIMP-2b, were cloned. The open reading frames of Fugu TIMP-2a and TIMP-2b cDNAs are composed of 660 and 657 nucleotides and 220 and 219 amino acids, respectively. Both Fugu TIMP-2s contain 12 cysteine residues, which might form six disulfide bonds as in other animals’ TIMP-2s. Reverse-transcribed polymerase chain reaction analysis showed the mRNAs of Fugu TIMP-2a and TIMP-2b to be expressed in some tissues examined with different expression patterns. These findings suggest that the two distinct Fugu TIMP-2s might perform different functions in Fugu tissues.

  15. AFM Imaging Reveals Topographic Diversity of Wild Type and Z Variant Polymers of Human α1-Proteinase Inhibitor

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gaczynska, Maria; Karpowicz, Przemyslaw; Stuart, Christine E.; Norton, Malgorzata G.; Teckman, Jeffrey H.; Marszal, Ewa; Osmulski, Pawel A.

    2016-03-23

    α1-Proteinase inhibitor (antitrypsin) is a canonical example of the serpin family member that binds and inhibits serine proteases. The natural metastability of serpins is crucial to carry out structural rearrangements necessary for biological activity. However, the enhanced metastability of the mutant Z variant of antitrypsin, in addition to folding defect, may substantially contribute to its polymerization, a process leading to incurable serpinopathy. The metastability also impedes structural studies on the polymers. There are no crystal structures of Z monomer or any kind of polymers larger than engineered wild type (WT) trimer. Our understanding of polymerization mechanisms is based on biochemicalmore » data using in vitro generated WT oligomers and molecular simulations. Here we applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to compare topography of monomers, in vitro formed WT oligomers, and Z type polymers isolated from transgenic mouse liver. We found the AFM images of monomers closely resembled an antitrypsin outer shell modeled after the crystal structure. We confirmed that the Z variant demonstrated higher spontaneous propensity to dimerize than WT monomers. We also detected an unexpectedly broad range of different types of polymers with periodicity and topography depending on the applied method of polymerization. Short linear oligomers of unit arrangement similar to the Z polymers were especially abundant in heat-treated WT preparations. Long linear polymers were a prominent and unique component of liver extracts. However, the liver preparations contained also multiple types of oligomers of topographies undistinguishable from those found inWT samples polymerized with heat, low pH or guanidine hydrochloride treatments. In conclusion, we established that AFM is an excellent technique to assess morphological diversity of antitrypsin polymers, which is important for etiology of serpinopathies. These data also support previous, but controversial models of in vivo

  16. AFM Imaging Reveals Topographic Diversity of Wild Type and Z Variant Polymers of Human α1-Proteinase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Gaczynska, Maria; Karpowicz, Przemyslaw; Stuart, Christine E.; Norton, Malgorzata G.; Teckman, Jeffrey H.; Marszal, Ewa; Osmulski, Pawel A.

    2016-01-01

    α1-Proteinase inhibitor (antitrypsin) is a canonical example of the serpin family member that binds and inhibits serine proteases. The natural metastability of serpins is crucial to carry out structural rearrangements necessary for biological activity. However, the enhanced metastability of the mutant Z variant of antitrypsin, in addition to folding defect, may substantially contribute to its polymerization, a process leading to incurable serpinopathy. The metastability also impedes structural studies on the polymers. There are no crystal structures of Z monomer or any kind of polymers larger than engineered wild type (WT) trimer. Our understanding of polymerization mechanisms is based on biochemical data using in vitro generated WT oligomers and molecular simulations. Here we applied atomic force microscopy (AFM) to compare topography of monomers, in vitro formed WT oligomers, and Z type polymers isolated from transgenic mouse liver. We found the AFM images of monomers closely resembled an antitrypsin outer shell modeled after the crystal structure. We confirmed that the Z variant demonstrated higher spontaneous propensity to dimerize than WT monomers. We also detected an unexpectedly broad range of different types of polymers with periodicity and topography depending on the applied method of polymerization. Short linear oligomers of unit arrangement similar to the Z polymers were especially abundant in heat-treated WT preparations. Long linear polymers were a prominent and unique component of liver extracts. However, the liver preparations contained also multiple types of oligomers of topographies undistinguishable from those found in WT samples polymerized with heat, low pH or guanidine hydrochloride treatments. In conclusion, we established that AFM is an excellent technique to assess morphological diversity of antitrypsin polymers, which is important for etiology of serpinopathies. These data also support previous, but controversial models of in vivo

  17. Fitness benefits of trypsin proteinase inhibitor expression in Nicotiana attenuata are greater than their costs when plants are attacked.

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Jorge A; Baldwin, Ian T

    2004-01-01

    Background The commonly invoked cost-benefit paradigm, central to most of functional biology, explains why one phenotype cannot be optimally fit in all environments; yet it is rarely tested. Trypsin proteinase inhibitors (TPIs) expression in Nicotiana attenuata is known to decrease plant fitness when plants compete with unattacked conspecifics that do not produce TPIs and also to decrease the performance of attacking herbivores. Results In order to determine whether the putative benefits of TPI production outweigh its cost, we transformed N. attenuata to silence endogenous TPI production or restore it in a natural mutant that was unable to produce TPIs. We compared the lifetime seed production of N. attenuata genotypes of the same genetic background with low or no TPI to that of genotypes with high TPI levels on which M. sexta larvae were allowed to feed freely. Unattacked low TPI-producing genotypes produced more seed capsules than did plants with high TPI levels. Caterpillar attack reduced seed capsule production in all genotypes and reversed the pattern of seed capsule production among genotypes. M. sexta larvae attacking genotypes with high TPI activity consumed more TPI, less protein, and move later to the young leaves. Larval masses were negatively correlated (R2 = 0.56) with seed capsule production per plant. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the fitness benefits of TPI production outweigh their costs in greenhouse conditions, when plants are attacked and that despite the ongoing evolutionary interactions between plant and herbivore, TPI-mediated decreases in M. sexta performance translates into a fitness benefit for the plant. PMID:15304198

  18. Pharmacokinetics of Hedgehog Pathway Inhibitor Vismodegib (GDC-0449) in Patients with Locally Advanced or Metastatic Solid Tumors: the Role of Alpha-1-Acid Glycoprotein Binding

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Richard A.; Lum, Bert L.; Cheeti, Sravanthi; Jin, Jin Yan; Jorga, Karin; Von Hoff, Daniel D.; Rudin, Charles M.; Reddy, Josina C.; Low, Jennifer A.; LoRusso, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In a phase I trial for patients with refractory solid tumors, hedgehog pathway inhibitor vismodegib (GDC-0449) showed little decline in plasma concentrations over 7 days after a single oral dose and nonlinearity with respect to dose and time after single and multiple dosing. We studied the role of GDC-0449 binding to plasma protein alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) to better understand these unusual pharmacokinetics. Experimental Design Sixty-eight patients received GDC-0449 at 150 (n = 41), 270 (n = 23), or 540 (n = 4) mg/d, with pharmacokinetic (PK) sampling at multiple time points. Total and unbound (dialyzed) GDC-0449 plasma concentrations were assessed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, binding kinetics by surface plasmon resonance–based microsensor, and AAG levels by ELISA. Results A linear relationship between total GDC-0449 and AAG plasma concentrations was observed across dose groups (R2 = 0.73). In several patients, GDC-0449 levels varied with fluctuations in AAG levels over time. Steady-state, unbound GDC-0449 levels were less than 1% of total, independent of dose or total plasma concentration. In vitro, GDC-0449 binds AAG strongly and reversibly (KD = 13 μmol/L) and human serum albumin less strongly (KD = 120 μmol/L). Simulations from a derived mechanistic PK model suggest that GDC-0449 pharmacokinetics are mediated by AAG binding, solubility-limited absorption, and slow metabolic elimination. Conclusions GDC-0449 levels strongly correlated with AAG levels, showing parallel fluctuations of AAG and total drug over time and consistently low, unbound drug levels, different from previously reported AAG-binding drugs. This PK profile is due to high-affinity, reversible binding to AAG and binding to albumin, in addition to solubility-limited absorption and slow metabolic elimination properties. PMID:21300760

  19. Interaction of new kinase inhibitors cabozantinib and tofacitinib with human serum alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. A comprehensive spectroscopic and molecular Docking approach.

    PubMed

    Ajmal, Mohammad Rehan; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Alam, Parvez; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-04-15

    In the current study we have investigated the interaction of newly approved kinase inhibitors namely Cabozantinib (CBZ) and Tofacitinib (TFB) with human Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AAG) under simulated physiological conditions using fluorescence quenching measurements, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering and molecular docking methods. CBZ and TFB binds to AAG with significant affinity and the calculated binding constant for the drugs lie in the order of 10(4). With the increase in temperature the binding constant values decreased for both CBZ and TFB. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from AAG to CBZ and TFB suggested the fluorescence intensity of AAG was quenched by the two studied drugs via the formation of a non-fluorescent complex in the static manner. The molecular distance r value calculated from FRET is around 2 nm for both drugs, fluorescence spectroscopy data was employed for the study of thermodynamic parameters, standard Gibbs free energy change at 300 K was calculated as -5.234 kcal mol(-1) for CBZ-AAG interaction and -6.237 kcal mol(-1) for TFB-AAG interaction, standard enthalpy change and standard entropy change for CBZ-AAG interaction are -9.553 kcal mol(-1) and -14.618 cal mol(-1) K(-1) respectively while for AAG-TFB interaction, standard enthalpy and standard entropy change was calculated as 4.019 kcal mol(-1) and 7.206 cal mol(-1) K(-1) respectively. Protein binding of the two drugs caused the tertiary structure alterations. Dynamic light scattering measurements demonstrated the reduction in the hydrodynamic radii of the protein. Furthermore molecular docking results suggested the Hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding were the interactive forces in the binding process of CBZ to AAG while in case of TFB only hydrophobic interactions were found to be involved, overlap of the binding site for two studied drugs on the AAG molecule was revealed by docking results. PMID:26851488

  20. Interaction of new kinase inhibitors cabozantinib and tofacitinib with human serum alpha-1 acid glycoprotein. A comprehensive spectroscopic and molecular Docking approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajmal, Mohammad Rehan; Abdelhameed, Ali Saber; Alam, Parvez; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2016-04-01

    In the current study we have investigated the interaction of newly approved kinase inhibitors namely Cabozantinib (CBZ) and Tofacitinib (TFB) with human Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AAG) under simulated physiological conditions using fluorescence quenching measurements, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering and molecular docking methods. CBZ and TFB binds to AAG with significant affinity and the calculated binding constant for the drugs lie in the order of 104. With the increase in temperature the binding constant values decreased for both CBZ and TFB. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from AAG to CBZ and TFB suggested the fluorescence intensity of AAG was quenched by the two studied drugs via the formation of a non-fluorescent complex in the static manner. The molecular distance r value calculated from FRET is around 2 nm for both drugs, fluorescence spectroscopy data was employed for the study of thermodynamic parameters, standard Gibbs free energy change at 300K was calculated as - 5.234 kcal mol- 1 for CBZ-AAG interaction and - 6.237 kcal mol- 1 for TFB-AAG interaction, standard enthalpy change and standard entropy change for CBZ-AAG interaction are - 9.553 kcal mol- 1 and - 14.618 cal mol- 1K- 1 respectively while for AAG-TFB interaction, standard enthalpy and standard entropy change was calculated as 4.019 kcal mol- 1 and 7.206 cal mol- 1K- 1 respectively. Protein binding of the two drugs caused the tertiary structure alterations. Dynamic light scattering measurements demonstrated the reduction in the hydrodynamic radii of the protein. Furthermore molecular docking results suggested the Hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonding were the interactive forces in the binding process of CBZ to AAG while in case of TFB only hydrophobic interactions were found to be involved, overlap of the binding site for two studied drugs on the AAG molecule was revealed by docking results.

  1. Biotin-labelled peptidyl diazomethane inhibitors derived from the substrate-like sequence of cystatin: targeting of the active site of cruzipain, the major cysteine proteinase of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Lalmanach, G; Mayer, R; Serveau, C; Scharfstein, J; Gauthier, F

    1996-01-01

    Biotin-labelled peptidyl diazomethane inhibitors of cysteine proteinases, based on the N-terminal substrate-like segment of human cystatin C, a natural inhibitor of cysteine proteinases, were synthesized. These synthetic derivatives were tested as irreversible inhibitors of cruzipain, the major cysteine proteinase of Trypanosoma cruzi, to compare the kinetics of the inhibition of the parasite proteinase with that of the mammalian cathepsins B and L. The accessibility of the active sites of these proteinases to these probes was also investigated. The inhibition of cruzipain by Biot-LVG-CHN2 (where Biot represents biotinyl and L,V and G are single-letter amino acid residue abbreviations) and Biot-Ahx-LVG-CHN2 (where Ahx represents 6-aminohexanoic acid) was similar to that of unlabelled inhibitor. Biotin labelling of the inhibitor slowed the inhibition of both cathepsin B and cathepsin L. Adding a spacer arm (Ahx) between the biotin and the peptide moiety of the derivative increased the inhibition of cathepsin B but not that of cathepsin L. The discrimination provided by this spacer is probably due to differences in the topologies of the binding sites of proteinases, a feature that can be exploited to improve targeting of individual cysteine proteinases. Analysis of the blotted proteinases revealed marked differences in the accessibility of extravidin-peroxidase conjugate to the proteinase-bound biotinylated inhibitor. Cruzipain molecules exposed to Biot-LVG-CHN2 or Biot-Ahx-LVG-CHN2 were readily identified, but the reaction was much stronger when the enzyme was treated with the spacer-containing inhibitor. In contrast with the parasite enzyme, rat cathepsin B and cathepsin L treated with either Biot-LVG-CHN2 or Biot-Ahx-LVG-CHN2 produced no detectable bands. Papain, the archetype of this family of proteinases, was poorly labelled with Biot-LVG-CHN2, but strong staining was obtained with Biot-Ahx-LVG-CHN2. These findings suggest that optimized biotinylated

  2. Bmcystatin, a cysteine proteinase inhibitor characterized from the tick Boophilus microplus

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, Cassia A.; Sasaki, Sergio D.; Tanaka, Aparecida S. . E-mail: Tanaka.bioq@epm.br

    2006-08-18

    The bovine tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is a blood-sucking animal, which is responsible for Babesia spp and Anaplasma marginale transmission for cattle. From a B. microplus fat body cDNA library, 465 selected clones were sequenced randomly and resulted in 60 Contigs. An open reading frame (ORF) contains 98 amino acids named Bmcystatin, due to 70% amino acid identity to a classical type 1 cystatin from Ixodes scapularis tick (GenBank Accession No. DQ066227). The Bmcystatin amino acid sequence analysis showed two cysteine residues, theoretical pI of 5.92 and M{sub r} of 11kDa. Bmcystatin gene was cloned in pET 26b vector and the protein expressed using bacteria Escherichia coli BL21 SI. Recombinant Bmcystatin (rBmcystatin) purified by affinity chromatography on Ni-NTA-agarose column and ionic exchange chromatography on HiTrap Q column presented molecular mass of 11kDa, by SDS-PAGE and the N-terminal amino acid sequenced revealed unprocessed N-terminal containing part of pelB signal sequence. Purified rBmcystatin showed to be a C1 cysteine peptidase inhibitor with K{sub i} value of 0.1 and 0.6nM for human cathepsin L and VTDCE (vitellin degrading cysteine endopeptidase), respectively. The rBmcystatin expression analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the amplification of a specific DNA sequence (294bp) in the fat body and ovary cDNA preparation. On the other hand, a protein band was detected in the fat body, ovary, and the salivary gland extracts using anti-Bmcystatin antibody by Western blot. The present results suggest a possible role of Bmcystatin in the ovary, even though the gene was cloned from the fat body, which could be another site of this protein synthesis.

  3. Recombinant pro-regions from papain and papaya proteinase IV-are selective high affinity inhibitors of the mature papaya enzymes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, M A; Baker, K C; Briggs, G S; Connerton, I F; Cummings, N J; Pratt, K A; Revell, D F; Freedman, R B; Goodenough, P W

    1995-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes require the presence of their pro-regions for correct folding. Of the four proteolytic enzymes from Carica papaya, papain and papaya proteinase IV (PPIV) have 68% sequence identity. We find that their pro-regions are even more similar, exhibiting 73.6% identity. cDNAs encoding the pro-regions of these two proteinases have been expressed in Escherichia coli independently from their mature enzymes. The recombinant pro-regions of papain and PPIV have been shown to be high affinity inhibitors of all four of the mature native papaya cysteine proteinases. Their inhibition constants are in the range 10(-6) - 10(-9) M. PPIV was inhibited two to three orders of magnitude less effectively than papain, chymopapain and caricain. The pro-region of PPIV, however, inhibited its own mature enzyme more effectively than did the pro-region of papain. Alignment of the sequences of the four papaya enzymes shows that there is a highly variable section towards the C-terminal of the pro-region. This region may therefore confer selectivity to the pro-regions for the individual proteolytic enzymes. PMID:7770454

  4. Modification of the proteinase/anti-proteinase balance in the respiratory tract of Sprague-Dawley rats after single intratracheal instillation of benzo[A]pyrene-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles.

    PubMed

    Garçon, G; Campion, J; Hannothiaux, M H; Boutin, A C; Venembre, P; Balduyck, M; Haguenoer, J M; Shirali, P

    2000-01-01

    Available data suggest that repeated concurrent exposure to haematite (Fe(2)O(3)) and benzo[A]pyrene (B[A]P) results in a decreased latency and an increased incidence of lung tumours in rodents compared to exposure to B[A]P alone. Moreover, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed by the lung cells themselves and/or by activated inflammatory cells may possibly contribute to the development of pulmonary disorders such as cancer formation. In order to investigate the precise role of iron in the injury induced by B[A]P-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles, we tend to address the hypothesis that Fe(2)O(3) and B[A]P, alone or in association, can induce oxidative stress conditions (malondialdehyde) and/or inflammatory reactions (interleukin-6) and thereby disrupt the proteinase/anti-proteinase balance (cathepsins B and L, polynuclear neutrophil (PNN) elastase, alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (alpha(1)PI) and its inhibitory capacity) in the rat respiratory tract. Thus, Fe(2)O(3) or B[A]P-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles produce oxidative stress conditions through not only iron-catalysed oxidative reactions but also inflammatory processes. However, B[A]P initiates only inflammatory responses. These pollutants generate increased levels of proteases and decrease the concentrations of free alpha(1)PI. There is also a clear relationship between the partial inactivation of alpha(1)PI and the occurrence of ROS after exposure to Fe(2)O(3), alone or as a carrier of B[A]P. Hence, the proteinase/anti-proteinase balance might be more disrupted by Fe(2)O(3) or B[A]P-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles than by B[A]P alone. These results suggest a mechanism that can explain why B[A]P-coated onto Fe(2)O(3) particles are more injurious than B[A]P alone. PMID:10942902

  5. Identification of proteinaceous inhibitors of a cysteine proteinase (an Arg-specific gingipain) from Porphyromonas gingivalis in rice grain, using targeted-proteomics approaches.

    PubMed

    Taiyoji, Mayumi; Shitomi, Yasuyuki; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Saitoh, Eiichi; Ohtsubo, Sadami

    2009-11-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is known to be a major etiologic agent in the onset and progression of chronic periodontitis. Among various virulence factors that this bacterium produces, Arg- and Lys-specific cysteine proteinases (gingipains) are believed to be major determinants of the pathogenicity of P. gingivalis. Here, we report on our finding that there are inhibitors of these cysteine proteinases in a rice protein fraction. Comprehensive affinity chromatography and MS analyses resulted in the identification of 17 Arg-gingipain (Rgp)-interacting proteins in the rice endosperm. Of these, four proteins (i.e., a 26 kDa globulin, a plant lipid transfer/trypsin-alpha amylase inhibitor, the RA17 seed allergen, and an alpha amylase/trypsin inhibitor) were estimated to account for 90% of the Rgp inhibitory activity in the rice protein fraction, using a two-dimensional gel system of double-layer reverse zymography. In addition, a synthetic peptide derived from an Rgp-interacting protein, cyanate hydratase, could inhibit the growth of P. gingivalis and showed inhibitory activity against both the Arg- and Lys-gingipains. These results suggest that these rice proteins may be useful as nutraceutical ingredients for the prevention and management of periodontal diseases. PMID:19691286

  6. Succinyl hydroxamates as potent and selective non-peptidic inhibitors of procollagen C-proteinase: design, synthesis, and evaluation as topically applied, dermal anti-scarring agents.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Simon; Fish, Paul V; Billotte, Stephane; Bordner, Jon; Greiling, Doris; James, Kim; McElroy, Andrew; Mills, James E; Reed, Charlotte; Webster, Robert

    2008-12-15

    Succinyl hydroxamates 1 and 2 are disclosed as novel series of potent and selective inhibitors of procollagen C-proteinase (PCP) which may have potential as anti-fibrotic agents. Carboxamide 7 demonstrated good PCP inhibition and had excellent selectivity over MMPs involved in wound healing. In addition, 7 was effective in a cell-based model of collagen deposition (fibroplasia model) and was very effective at penetrating human skin in vitro. Compound 7 (UK-383,367) was selected as a candidate for evaluation in clinical studies as a topically applied, dermal anti-scarring agent. PMID:18945617

  7. [Alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes and alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Ikunobu; Suzuki, Fumiko; Tanaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Hatsumi; Morishima, Shigeru

    2006-03-01

    Alpha(1)-adrenoceptors are widely distributed in the human body and play important physiologic roles. Three alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha(1A), alpha(1B) and alpha(1D)) have been cloned and show different pharmacologic profiles. In addition, a putative alpha(1)-adrenoceptor (alpha(1L) subtype) has also been proposed. Recently, three drugs (tamsulosin, naftopidil, and silodosin) have been developed in Japan for the treatment of urinary obstruction in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this review, we describe recent alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subclassifications and the pharmacologic characteristics (subtype selectivity and clinical relevance) of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists. PMID:16518082

  8. [Extracellular proteinases of filamentous fungi as potential markers of phytopathogenesis].

    PubMed

    Dunaevskiĭ, Ia E; Gruban', T N; Beliakova, G A; Belozerskiĭ, M A

    2006-01-01

    The presence of proteins in the culture liquid of filamentous fungi under study was found to induce the secretion of proteinases. The inhibitory analysis of the major extracellular proteinases of the saprotrophic fungus Trichoderma harzianum and the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata showed that they both belong to the group of serine proteinases. The substrate specificity of these proteinases and their sensitivity to inhibitors suggest that the enzyme of T. harzianum is a subtilisin-like proteinase and the enzyme of A. alternata is a trypsin-like proteinase. This difference between the proteinases may reflect the physiological difference between their producers (saprotroph and phytopathogen). PMID:17205798

  9. Negative effects of a nonhost proteinase inhibitor of ~19.8 kDa from Madhuca indica seeds on developmental physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner).

    PubMed

    Jamal, Farrukh; Singh, Dushyant; Pandey, Prabhash K

    2014-01-01

    An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI) on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8 kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5 µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75 µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a K i value of 4.1 × 10(-10) M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% w/w) showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 1.5% w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50) was 1.0% w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants. PMID:25298962

  10. Negative Effects of a Nonhost Proteinase Inhibitor of ~19.8 kDa from Madhuca indica Seeds on Developmental Physiology of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Farrukh; Singh, Dushyant; Pandey, Prabhash K.

    2014-01-01

    An affinity purified trypsin inhibitor from the seed flour extracts of Madhuca indica (MiTI) on denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that MiTI consisted of a single polypeptide chain with molecular mass of ~19.8 kDa. MiTI inhibited the total proteolytic and trypsin-like activities of the midgut proteinases of Helicoverpa armigera larvae by 87.51% and 76.12%, respectively, at concentration of 5 µg/mL with an IC50 of 1.75 µg/mL against trypsin like midgut proteinases. The enzyme kinetic studies demonstrated that MiTI is a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 4.1 × 10−10 M for Helicoverpa trypsin like midgut proteinases. In vivo experiments with different concentrations of MiTI in artificial diet (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% w/w) showed an effective downfall in the larval body weight and an increase in larval mortality. The concentration of MiTI in the artificial diet to cause 50% mortality (LD50) of larvae was 1.5% w/w and that to cause reduction in mass of larvae by 50% (ED50) was 1.0% w/w. Nutritional indices observations suggest the toxic and adverse effects of MiTI on the growth and development of H. armigera larvae. The results suggest a strong bioinsecticidal potential of affinity purified MiTI which can be exploited in insect pest management of crop plants. PMID:25298962

  11. Adaptation of the behaviour of an aspartic proteinase inhibitor by relocation of a lysine residue by one helical turn.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Tim J; Wyatt, David M; Phylip, Lowri H; Berry, Colin; Bur, Daniel; Kay, John

    2006-08-01

    In addition to self-inhibition of aspartic proteinase zymogens by their intrinsic proparts, the activity of certain members of this enzyme family can be modulated through active-site occupation by extrinsic polypeptides such as the small IA3 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The unprecedented mechanism by which IA3 helicates to inhibit its sole target aspartic proteinase locates an i, i+4 pair of charged residues (Lys18+Asp22) on an otherwise-hydrophobic face of the amphipathic helix. The nature of these residues is not crucial for effective inhibition, but re-location of the lysine residue by one turn (+4 residues) in the helical IA3 positions its side chain in the mutant IA3-proteinase complex in an orientation essentially identical to that of the key lysine residue in zymogen proparts. The binding of the extrinsic mutant IA3 shows pH dependence reminiscent of that required for the release of intrinsic zymogen proparts so that activation can occur. PMID:16895485

  12. Reactive oxygen species and anti-proteinases.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Tooba; Zia, Mohammad Khalid; Ali, Syed Saqib; Rehman, Ahmed Abdur; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Fahim Halim

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause damage to macromolecules such as proteins, lipids and DNA and alters their structure and function. When generated outside the cell, ROS can induce damage to anti-proteinases. Anti-proteinases are proteins that are involved in the control and regulation of proteolytic enzymes. The damage caused to anti-proteinase barrier disturbs the proteinase-anti-proteinases balance and uncontrolled proteolysis at the site of injury promotes tissue damage. Studies have shown that ROS damages anti-proteinase shield of the body by inactivating key members such as alpha-2-macroglobulin, alpha-1-antitrypsin. Hypochlorous acid inactivates α-1-antitrypsin by oxidizing a critical reactive methionine residue. Superoxide and hypochlorous acid are physiological inactivators of alpha-2-macroglobulin. The damage to anti-proteinase barrier induced by ROS is a hallmark of diseases such as atherosclerosis, emphysema and rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, understanding the behaviour of ROS-induced damage to anti-proteinases may helps us in development of strategies that could control these inflammatory reactions and diseases. PMID:26699123

  13. Active Trafficking of Alpha 1 Antitrypsin across the Lung Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Lockett, Angelia D.; Brown, Mary Beth; Santos-Falcon, Nieves; Rush, Natalia I.; Oueini, Houssam; Oberle, Amber J.; Bolanis, Esther; Fragoso, Miryam A.; Petrusca, Daniela N.; Serban, Karina A.; Schweitzer, Kelly S.; Presson Jr., Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The homeostatic lung protective effects of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) may require the transport of circulating proteinase inhibitor across an intact lung endothelial barrier. We hypothesized that uninjured pulmonary endothelial cells transport A1AT to lung epithelial cells. Purified human A1AT was rapidly taken up by confluent primary rat pulmonary endothelial cell monolayers, was secreted extracellularly, both apically and basolaterally, and was taken up by adjacent rat lung epithelial cells co-cultured on polarized transwells. Similarly, polarized primary human lung epithelial cells took up basolaterally-, but not apically-supplied A1AT, followed by apical secretion. Evidence of A1AT transcytosis across lung microcirculation was confirmed in vivo by two-photon intravital microscopy in mice. Time-lapse confocal microscopy indicated that A1AT co-localized with Golgi in the endothelium whilst inhibition of the classical secretory pathway with tunicamycin significantly increased intracellular retention of A1AT. However, inhibition of Golgi secretion promoted non-classical A1AT secretion, associated with microparticle release. Polymerized A1AT or A1AT supplied to endothelial cells exposed to soluble cigarette smoke extract had decreased transcytosis. These results suggest previously unappreciated pathways of A1AT bidirectional uptake and secretion from lung endothelial cells towards the alveolar epithelium and airspaces. A1AT trafficking may determine its functional bioavailablity in the lung, which could be impaired in individuals exposed to smoking or in those with A1AT deficiency. PMID:24743137

  14. Elafin/elastase-specific inhibitor in bronchoalveolar lavage of normal subjects and farmer's lung.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, G M; Sallenave, J M; Israél-Assayag, E; Cormier, Y; Gauldie, J

    1996-10-01

    Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) and alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha1(PI)) cannot fully explain the total neutrophil elastase (NE) inhibitory capacity detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, suggesting the existence of other NE inhibitor(s). In the present study, we measured the concentrations of elafin, a newly described, low-molecular-weight serine proteinase inhibitor, SLPI, and alpha1(PI) in BAL fluids from eight healthy subjects, 13 asymptomatic farmers, seven farmers with active farmer's lung (FL), and seven farmers with previous (Ex) FL. In addition to SLPI and alpha1(PI), elafin was present in BAL fluids from control subjects and asymptomatic farmers, 13 (7-31) and 12 (7-67) mmol/mol of albumin (median and range) respectively. Elafin concentration increased significantly to 105 (38-207) mmol/mol of albumin in farmers with active FL and was also elevated in farmers with Ex FL. Elafin levels were highly correlated with lung inflammatory cell numbers, especially lymphocytes, and the decrease in single-breath diffusion capacity (DLCO). Elafin and SLPI were linked to yet uncharacterized proteins in BAL fluids. In conclusion, elafin is a constituent of BAL fluid from normal subjects and is found in enhanced concentrations in FL and in farmers with lymphocytic alveolitis. This suggests that elafin may play a role in lung homeostasis and inflammation. PMID:8887613

  15. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  16. Activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1999-08-10

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  17. Activation of progelatinase A (MMP-2) by neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3: a role for inflammatory cells in tumor invasion and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Shamamian, P; Schwartz, J D; Pocock, B J; Monea, S; Whiting, D; Marcus, S G; Mignatti, P

    2001-11-01

    Gelatinase A (MMP-2), a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) involved in tumor invasion and angiogenesis, is secreted as an inactive zymogen (proMMP-2) and activated by proteolytic cleavage. Here we report that polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-derived elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3 activate proMMP-2 through a mechanism that requires membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) expression. Immunoprecipitation of human PMN-conditioned medium with a mixture of antibodies to elastase, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3 abolished proMMP-2 activation, whereas individual antibodies were ineffective. Incubation of HT1080 cells with either purified PMN elastase or cathepsin G or proteinase-3 resulted in dose-and time-dependent proMMP-2 activation. Addition of PMN-conditioned medium to MT1-MMP expressing cells resulted in increased proMMP-2 activation and in vitro invasion of extracellular matrix (ECM), but had no effect with cells that express no MT1-MMP. MMP-2 activation by PMN-conditioned medium or purified elastase was blocked by the elastase inhibitor alpha(1)-antitrypsin but not by Batimastat, an MMP inhibitor, showing that elastase activation of MMP-2 is not mediated by MMP activities. The PMN-conditioned medium-induced increase in cell invasion was blocked by Batimastat as well as by alpha(1)-antitrypsin, showing that PMN serine proteinases trigger a proteinase cascade that entails proMMP-2 activation: this gelatinase is the downstream effector of the proinvasive activity of PMN proteinases. These findings indicate a novel role for PMN-mediated inflammation in a variety of tissue remodeling processes including tumor invasion and angiogenesis. PMID:11598905

  18. Cystatins may confer viral resistance in plants by inhibition of a virus-induced cell death phenomenon in which cysteine proteinases are active: cloning and molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding cysteine-proteinase inhibitor (celostatin) from Celosia cristata (crested cock's comb).

    PubMed

    Gholizadeh, Ashraf; Santha, Ittiaparambu Mana; Kohnehrouz, Bahram Baghban; Lodha, Madan Lal; Kapoor, Harish Chander

    2005-12-01

    Cystatins (cysteine proteinase inhibitors) have been recently used in plants as antiviral strategy against those viruses whose replication involves cysteine proteinase activity. We proposed an idea that cystatins may confer resistance by inhibition of a virus-induced cell-death phenomenon in which cysteine proteinases are active. To test this idea, a full-length cDNA library was constructed from the preflowering stage of Celosia cristata (crested cock's comb) leaves, and a cDNA clone with cystatin domain was isolated using an oligonucleotide probe designed on the basis of the conserved peptide of plant cystatins. It was expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system as a fusion protein. The purified recombinant product, termed 'celostatin' (Celosia cystatin), inhibited the enzymatic activity of papain indicating its cystatin activity and prevented TMV (tobacco mosaic virus)-induced hypersensitive-response cell death in Nicotiana glutinosa (a wild species of tobacco) leaves by 65-70% at the concentration of approx. 50 ng/ml. It also offered resistance against TMV and caused normal growth of the test plant. Since the activity of cysteine proteinases is not involved in the TMV replication process, we speculated that inhibition of the hypersensitive response by celostatin may be due to the inactivation of proteolysis involved in the plant cell death programme, a phenomenon that has already been reported in animal systems. PMID:15842197

  19. Isolation and characterization of selective and potent human Fab inhibitors directed to the active-site region of the two-component NS2B-NS3 proteinase of West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Shiryaev, Sergey A; Radichev, Ilian A; Ratnikov, Boris I; Aleshin, Alexander E; Gawlik, Katarzyna; Stec, Boguslaw; Frisch, Christian; Knappik, Achim; Strongin, Alex Y

    2010-05-01

    There is a need to develop inhibitors of mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including WNV (West Nile virus). In the present paper, we describe a novel and efficient recombinant-antibody technology that led us to the isolation of inhibitory high-affinity human antibodies to the active-site region of a viral proteinase. As a proof-of-principal, we have successfully used this technology and the synthetic naive human combinatorial antibody library HuCAL GOLD(R) to isolate selective and potent function-blocking active-site-targeting antibodies to the two-component WNV NS (non-structural protein) 2B-NS3 serine proteinase, the only proteinase encoded by the flaviviral genome. First, we used the wild-type enzyme in antibody screens. Next, the positive antibody clones were counter-screened using an NS2B-NS3 mutant with a single mutation of the catalytically essential active-site histidine residue. The specificity of the antibodies to the active site was confirmed by substrate-cleavage reactions and also by using proteinase mutants with additional single amino-acid substitutions in the active-site region. The selected WNV antibodies did not recognize the structurally similar viral proteinases from Dengue virus type 2 and hepatitis C virus, and human serine proteinases. Because of their high selectivity and affinity, the identified human antibodies are attractive reagents for both further mutagenesis and structure-based optimization and, in addition, for studies of NS2B-NS3 activity. Conceptually, it is likely that the generic technology reported in the present paper will be useful for the generation of active-site-specific antibody probes for multiple enzymes. PMID:20156198

  20. Molecular characterization and mapping of murine genes encoding three members of the stefin family of cysteine proteinase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Tsui, F.W.L.; Hingwo Tsui; Mok, S. Toronto Hospital, Ontario ); Mlinaric, I.; Siminovitch, K.A. Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario ); Copeland, N.G.; Gilbert, D.J.; Jenkins, N.A. )

    1993-03-01

    Stefins or Type 1 cystatins belong to a large, evolutionarily conserved protein superfamily, the members of which inhibit the papain-like cysteine proteinases. The authors report here on the molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of three newly identified members of the murine stefin gene family. These genes, designated herein as mouse stefins 1, 2, and 3, were isolated on the basis of their relatively increased expression in moth-eaten viable compared to normal congenic mouse bone marrow cells. The open reading frames of the stefin cDNAs encode proteins of approximately 11.5 kDa that show between 50 and 92% identity to sequences of stefins isolated from various other species. Data from Southern analysis suggest that the murine stefin gene family encompasses at least 6 and possible 10-20 membranes, all of which appear to be clustered in the genome. Analysis of interspecific backcross mice indicates that the genes encoding the three mouse stefins all map to mouse chromosome 16, a localization that is consistent with the recent assignment of the human stefin A gene to a region of conserved homology between human chromosome 3q and the proximal region of mouse chromosome 16. 51 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Potential Use of Proteinase Inhibitors, Avidin, and Other Bio-reagents for Synergizing Bt Performance and Delaying Resistance Development to Bt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After being ingested by target insects, the insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) need to go through a proteolytic process by insect midgut proteinases to become activated. At the same time, Bt can be hydrolyzed and degraded by midgut proteinases to become non-toxic to target insect...

  2. Changes in tissue distribution of rat alpha 1-macroglobulin and pregnancy-associated alpha 1-glycoprotein after inflammatory injury.

    PubMed Central

    Zorin, N. A.; Zhabin, S. G.; Belogorlova, T. I.; Chirikova, T. S.; Krayushkina, N. A.; Lykova, O. F.

    1994-01-01

    Antiserum against rat alpha 1-macroglobulin (alpha 1MG) was produced in rabbits. Antiserum against rat pregnancy-associated alpha 1-glycoprotein (PAG) was obtained by immunization with a partly purified PAG preparation and absorption of the serum with male rat serum. Acute inflammation was produced in non-pregnant female rats by a single intramuscular injection of turpentine. The concentrations of both macroglobulins in the serum and in tissue extracts were measured by rocket immunoelectrophoresis at various times up to 7 days after injury. Inflammation produced in the rats resulted in moderately elevated serum levels of these proteins soon after injury. At first, alpha 1MG levels in a number of tissues (heart, lung, kidney, spleen, pancreas, uterus and ovary) were depressed markedly; they then stabilized. The elevated serum concentrations of alpha 1MG remained unchanged during inflammation. The store of PAG in the tissues was rapidly depleted and its serum level decreased to a normal value 7 days after injury. Our findings indicate that alpha 1MG plays a more important role in maintenance of the proteinase inhibitory potential in the rat than does PAG. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7537521

  3. DNA structures decorated with cathepsin G/secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor stimulate IFNI production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Skrzeczynska-Moncznik, Joanna; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka; Banas, Magdalena; Kwitniewski, Mateusz; Zabieglo, Katarzyna; Kapinska-Mrowiecka, Monika; Dubin, Adam; Cichy, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and neutrophils are detected in psoriatic skin lesions and implicated in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. pDCs specialize in the production of type I interferon (IFNI), a cytokine that plays an important role in chronic autoimmune-like inflammation, including psoriasis. Here, we demonstrate that IFNI production in pDCs is stimulated by DNA structures containing the neutrophil serine protease cathepsin G (CatG) and the secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), which is a controlling inhibitor of serine proteases. We also demonstrate the presence of neutrophil-derived DNA structures containing CatG and SLPI in lesional skin samples from psoriasis patients. These findings suggest a previously unappreciated role for CatG in psoriasis by linking CatG and its inhibitor SLPI to the IFNI-dependent regulation of immune responses by pDCs in psoriatic skin. PMID:23885335

  4. Suspecting and Testing for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency-An Allergist's and/or Immunologist's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Craig, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a hereditary, monogenic disorder with no unique clinical features. AATD can be difficult to diagnose as patients commonly present with respiratory symptoms often mistaken for other respiratory syndromes such as asthma or smoking-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition, symptoms related to AATD may also affect other organs, including the liver, vasculature, and skin. The severity of AATD varies between individuals, and in severe cases, the irreversible lung damage can develop into emphysema. Early diagnosis is critical to enable the implementation of lifestyle changes and therapeutic options that can slow further deterioration of pulmonary tissue. Once AATD is suspected, a range of tests are available (serum alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor [A1-PI] level measurement, phenotyping, genotyping, gene sequencing) for confirming AATD. Currently, intravenous infusion of A1-PI is the only therapy that directly addresses the underlying cause of AATD, and has demonstrated efficacy in a recent randomized, placebo-controlled trial. This review discusses the etiology, testing, and management of AATD from the allergist's and/or immunologist's perspective. It aims to raise awareness of the condition among physicians who care for people with obstructive lung disorders and are therefore likely to see patients with obstructive lung disease that may, in fact, prove to be AATD. PMID:26032475

  5. MOLECULAR CLONING OF TRYPSIN-LIKE CDNAS AND COMPARISON OF PROTEINASE ACTIVITIES IN THE SALIVARY GLANDS AND GUT OF THE TARNISHED PLANT BUG LYGUS LINEOLARIS (HEMIPTERA: MIRIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using specific proteinase inhibitors, we demonstrated that serine proteinases in the tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris, are major proteinases in both salivary glands and gut tissues. Gut proteinases were less sensitive to inhibition than proteinases from the salivary glands. Up to 80% azocaseina...

  6. 12-o-Tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-differentiated U937 cells express a macrophage-like profile of neutral proteinases. High levels of secreted collagenase and collagenase inhibitor accompany low levels of intracellular elastase and cathepsin G.

    PubMed

    Welgus, H G; Connolly, N L; Senior, R M

    1986-05-01

    Human monocytic tumor cells of the U937 cell line contain substantial quantities of two neutrophil neutral proteinases, elastase and cathepsin G, raising the question of whether their presence reflects an expression of transformation or whether normal monocytes undergo a developmental stage in which they produce certain neutrophil proteinases. To address this issue, we examined U937 cells for production of collagenase, since human alveolar macrophages release fibroblast-like collagenase, an enzyme that is distinct from neutrophil collagenase. Using an immunoassay that utilized antibody to skin fibroblast collagenase, we found that U937 cells secreted barely detectable quantities of enzyme, 10-12 ng/10(6) cells per 24 h, under basal conditions. Upon incubation with 10 nM 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), however, collagenase release increased 200-fold, comparable to the amount secreted by phorbol-stimulated human fibroblasts. Metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation confirmed the enhanced synthesis of U937 cell collagenase upon TPA exposure. This enzyme activity further resembled fibroblast collagenase and differed from neutrophil collagenase by exhibiting preferential cleavage of monomeric type III collagen relative to type I. As previously observed with human alveolar macrophages, U937 cells also released a protein identical to the collagenase inhibitor produced by human skin fibroblasts, a molecule not associated with neutrophils. Release of this inhibitor increased 10-fold with TPA exposure. In contrast to collagenase and collagense inhibitor, TPA-treated U937 cells contained only 10-15% as much elastase and cathepsin G activities as control cells. Thus, TPA-induced differentiation modified the presence of these enzymes in the direction of their content in normal monocytes. Since the neutral proteinase profile of undifferentiated U937 cells resembles that of neutrophils and changes markedly after cellular differentiation to one that is

  7. Characterization and gene sequence of the precursor of elafin, an elastase-specific inhibitor in bronchial secretions.

    PubMed

    Sallenave, J M; Silva, A

    1993-04-01

    Human bronchial mucous secretions have been shown to contain inhibitors of serine proteinases secreted by neutrophils. The role of these inhibitors is probably to control the enzymes secreted in the airways and in the lung interstitium. Three of these inhibitors have been identified and characterized: alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor, mucus proteinase inhibitor, and elafin. The elafin molecule, a 6.0 kD inhibitor of serine proteinases shows homology with mucus proteinase inhibitor. We recently isolated both molecules in bronchial secretions. In this report, we present evidence for the existence of a precursor of the elafin molecule. We have cloned and sequenced the gene for this precursor and show that it is composed of three exons. The coding information for a 117 amino acid precursor protein of elafin (inclusive of the signal peptide) is contained in the first two exons. This was confirmed at the mRNA and protein levels. By Northern Blot analysis we detected a 800 bp long product, and by immunoaffinity we detected in sputum and in cultured epithelial cell supernatant (NCI-H322 cell line) a 12 kD protein species cross-reacting with anti-elafin IgG. The finding of possible cross-linking function for the precursor in addition to its antiproteinase activity indicates a possible role for this molecule as a cross-linker agent in the extracellular matrix. PMID:8476637

  8. Role for different cell proteinases in cancer invasion and cytolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, S.; Beck, G.; DiStefano, J. F.; Lysik, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The crucial role of non-plasminogen dependent serine proteinases is tissue invasive and cytolytic functions of Walker 256 cancer cells has been documented using a rat urinary bladder invasion and a 125I-labelled fibroblast cytolysis assay. The invasive capacity of these cancer cells was abrogated by non toxic concentrations of the serine proteinase inhibitors, diisopropylfluorophosphate and phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, but not by metallo or cysteine proteinase inhibitors. Although tumour cell collagenase activity and plasminogen activator were demonstrated, these proteolytic enzymes were not essential in these in vitro assays. These results suggest that different categories of proteinases play specific roles in the complicated process of cancer invasion. PMID:2992566

  9. The 2.5 A X-ray crystal structure of the acid-stable proteinase inhibitor from human mucous secretions analysed in its complex with bovine alpha-chymotrypsin.

    PubMed Central

    Grütter, M G; Fendrich, G; Huber, R; Bode, W

    1988-01-01

    Orthorhombic crystals of the complex formed between bovine alpha-chymotrypsin and a recombinant human mucous proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) were grown. Data to 2.3 A resolution were collected on the area-detector diffractometer FAST. The crystal structure of the complex was solved by Patterson search techniques using chymotrypsin as a search model. A cyclic procedure of modeling and crystallographic refinement enabled the determination of the SLPI structure. The current crystallographic R-value is 0.19. SLPI has a boomerang-like shape with both wings comprising two well separated domains of similar architecture. In each domain the polypeptide chain is arranged like a stretched spiral. Two internal strands form a regular beta-hairpin loop which is accompanied by two external strands linked by the proteinase binding segment. The polypeptide segment of each domain is interconnected by four disulfide bridges with a connectivity pattern hitherto unobserved. The reactive site loop of the second domain has elastase and chymotrypsin binding properties. It contains the scissile peptide bond between Leu72I and Met73I and has a similar conformation to that observed in other serine proteinase protein inhibitors. Eight residues of this loop, two of the adjacent hairpin loop, the C-terminal segment and Trp30I are in direct contact with the cognate enzyme. The binding loop of the first domain (probably with anti-trypsin activity) is disordered due to proteolytic cleavage occurring in the course of crystallization. PMID:3366116

  10. Knock-down of transcript abundance of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor genes in white clover (Trifolium repens) reveals a redundancy and diversity of gene function.

    PubMed

    Islam, Afsana; Leung, Susanna; Burgess, Elisabeth P J; Laing, William A; Richardson, Kim A; Hofmann, Rainer W; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2015-12-01

    The transcriptional regulation of four phylogenetically distinct members of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) genes isolated from white clover (Trifolium repens; designated Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5) has been investigated to determine their wider functional role. The four genes displayed differential transcription during seed germination, and in different tissues of the mature plant, and transcription was also ontogenetically regulated. Heterologous over-expression of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5 in Nicotiana tabacum retarded larval growth of the herbivore Spodoptera litura, and an increase in the transcription of the pathogenesis-related genes PR1 and PR4 was observed in the Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI4 over-expressing lines. RNA interference (RNAi) knock-down lines in white clover displayed significantly altered vegetative growth phenotypes with inhibition of shoot growth and a stimulation of root growth, while knock-down of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2 and Tr-KPI5 transcript abundance also retarded larval growth of S. litura. Examination of these RNAi lines revealed constitutive stress-associated phenotypes as well as altered transcription of cellular signalling genes. These results reveal a functional redundancy across members of the KPI gene family. Further, the regulation of transcription of at least one member of the family, Tr-KPI2, may occupy a central role in the maintenance of a cellular homeostasis. PMID:26377591

  11. Serum and fecal canine α1-proteinase inhibitor concentrations reflect the severity of intestinal crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, Romy M; Parnell, Nolie K; Grützner, Niels; Mansell, Joanne; Berghoff, Nora; Schellenberg, Stefan; Reusch, Claudia E; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) protein loss, due to lymphangiectasia or chronic inflammation, can be challenging to diagnose. This study evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of serum and fecal canine α1-proteinase inhibitor (cα1PI) concentrations to detect crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation in dogs. Serum and fecal cα1PI concentrations were measured in 120 dogs undergoing GI tissue biopsies, and were compared between dogs with and without crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for dichotomous outcomes. Serial serum cα1PI concentrations were also evaluated in 12 healthy corticosteroid-treated dogs. Serum cα1PI and albumin concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with crypt abscesses and/or lacteal dilation than in those without (both P <0.001), and more severe lesions were associated with lower serum cα1PI concentrations, higher 3 days-mean fecal cα1PI concentrations, and lower serum/fecal cα1PI ratios. Serum and fecal cα1PI, and their ratios, distinguished dogs with moderate or severe GI crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation from dogs with only mild or none such lesions with moderate sensitivity (56-92%) and specificity (67-81%). Serum cα1PI concentrations increased during corticosteroid administration. We conclude that serum and fecal α1PI concentrations reflect the severity of intestinal crypt abscesses/lacteal dilation in dogs. Due to its specificity for the GI tract, measurement of fecal cα1PI appears to be superior to serum cα1PI for diagnosing GI protein loss in dogs. In addition, the serum/fecal cα1PI ratio has an improved accuracy in hypoalbuminemic dogs, but serum cα1PI concentrations should be carefully interpreted in corticosteroid-treated dogs. PMID:26631946

  12. Leukocyte Cell Surface Proteinases: Regulation of Expression, Functions, and Mechanisms of Surface Localization

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Caroline A.

    2008-01-01

    A number of proteinases are expressed on the surface of leukocytes including members of the serine, metallo-, and cysteine proteinase superfamilies. Some proteinases are anchored to the plasma membrane of leukocytes by a transmembrane domain or a glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol (GPI) anchor. Other proteinases bind with high affinity to classical receptors, or with lower affinity to integrins, proteoglycans, or other leukocyte surface molecules. Leukocyte surface levels of proteinases are regulated by: 1) cytokines, chemokines, bacterial products, and growth factors which stimulate synthesis and/or release of proteinase by cells; 2) the availability of surface binding sites for proteinases; and/or 3) internalization or shedding of surface-bound proteinases. The binding of proteinases to leukocyte surfaces serves many functions including: 1) concentrating the activity of proteinases to the immediate pericellular environment; 2) facilitating pro-enzyme activation; 3) increasing proteinase stability and retention in the extracellular space; 4) regulating leukocyte function by proteinases signaling through cell surface binding sites or other surface proteins; and 5) protecting proteinases from inhibition by extracellular proteinase inhibitors. There is strong evidence that membrane-associated proteinases on leukocytes play critical roles in wound healing, inflammation, extracellular matrix remodeling, fibrinolysis, and coagulation. This review will outline the biology of membrane-associated proteinases expressed by leukocytes and their roles in physiologic and pathologic processes. PMID:18329945

  13. Detecting Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stoller, James K

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a widely underrecognized condition, with evidence of persisting long diagnostic delays and patients' frequent need to see multiple physicians before initial diagnosis. Reasons for underrecognition include inadequate understanding of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency by physicians and allied health care providers; failure to implement available, guideline-based practice recommendations; and the belief that effective therapy is unavailable. Multiple studies have described both the results of screening and targeted detection of individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, with both varying strategies employed to identify at-risk individuals and varying results of testing. Also, various strategies to enhance detection of affected individuals have been examined, including use of the electronic medical record to prompt testing and empowerment of allied health providers, especially respiratory therapists, to promote testing for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Such efforts are likely to enhance detection with the expected result that the harmful effects of delayed diagnosis can be mitigated. PMID:27564667

  14. Well-Known and Less Well-Known Functions of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin. Its Role in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Other Disease Developments.

    PubMed

    Janciauskiene, Sabina; Welte, Tobias

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) is an acute-phase protein, and is best known as an inhibitor of the serine proteases, specifically, neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3, and cathepsin G. The discovery of the connection between inherited A1AT deficiency and emphysema resulted in the concept of a proteinase-antiproteinase imbalance to explain the pathogenic mechanisms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as the concomitant development of augmentation therapy with plasma-purified human A1AT. This proteinase-antiproteinase imbalance concept has been difficult to prove, as no single mechanism can account for the complex pathology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. New studies have begun to characterize A1AT as an antiinflammatory and an immunoregulatory protein, independent of its antiprotease activity. We recently found that A1AT binds to free fatty acids, and it is this form of A1AT that induces the expression and release of angiopoietin-like protein 4, a protein associated with dyslipidemia and inflammation. This latter finding further strengthens the idea that describing A1AT therapy as antiserine protease is perhaps an oversimplification. The preliminary findings suggest that A1AT could be used for the management of diseases not necessarily related to inherited A1ATD, and points toward a need for more detailed investigations into the relationships between the concentration, structure, and function of A1AT protein. PMID:27564662

  15. Inhibition of proteinase K by phosphorylated sugars.

    PubMed

    Orstan, A; Gafni, A

    1991-11-01

    Proteolysis of lactate dehydrogenase, aldolase and the synthetic substrate N-succinylalanylalanylalanyl-p-nitroanilide by proteinase K is inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-1,6-biphosphate. Analysis of the kinetic data obtained with the synthetic substrate indicates that the inhibition is a mixed-type and that more than one inhibitor molecule binds to proteinase K. Glucose and fructose are ineffective as inhibitors. In the presence of 0.2-4 mM fructose-1,6-biphosphate, aldolase becomes more susceptible to proteolysis, probably as a result of a conformational change induced by the substrate. PMID:1815500

  16. Oncostatin M induced alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) gene expression in Hep G2 cells is mediated by a 3' enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Kevin; Marsters, Peter; Morley, Stephen; van Gent, Diana; Hejazi, Ala; Backx, Matt; Thorpe, Emma R K; Kalsheker, Noor

    2002-01-01

    alpha(1)-Antitrypsin (AAT) is the major serine proteinase inhibitor (SERPIN A1) in human plasma. Its target proteinase is neutrophil elastase and its main physiological function is protection of the lower respiratory tract from the destructive effects of neutrophil elastase during an inflammatory response. Circulating levels of AAT rise 2-3-fold during inflammation and the liver produces most of this increase. The cytokines oncostatin M (OSM) and interleukin-6 have been shown to be mainly responsible for this effect, which is mediated via the interaction of cytokine-inducible transcription factors with regulatory elements within the gene. In the present study, we report for the first time that OSM stimulation of hepatocyte AAT occurs via an interaction between the hepatocyte promoter and an OSM-responsive element at the 3'-end of the AAT gene. This effect is mediated by the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 ('STAT 3') binding to an OSM-responsive element (sequence TTCTCTTAA), and this site is distinct from, but close to, a previously reported interleukin-6-responsive element. PMID:11936950

  17. A protein structural approach to the solution of biological problems: alpha 1-antitrypsin as a recent example.

    PubMed

    Lomas, D A; Carrell, R W

    1993-09-01

    alpha 1-Antitrypsin is a circulating serine proteinase inhibitor that protects the lungs against proteolysis by the enzyme neutrophil elastase. Most northern Europeans have only the normal M form, but some 4% are heterozygotes for the Z deficiency mutant. This mutant is characterized by the substitution of a positively charged lysine residue for a negatively charged glutamic acid at position 342 and results in normal gene translation but reduced protein secretion into the plasma. The plasma levels of antitrypsin in homozygotes are only 15% of normal, the other 85% being retained in the endoplasmic reticulum of the hepatocyte. This review describes the effect of the Z mutation on the structure and function of antitrypsin and illustrates the importance of understanding protein structure in solving the mechanism of Z antitrypsin retention within the liver. We demonstrate that antitrypsin accumulation in the liver results from a unique interaction between antitrypsin molecules. The Z mutation perturbs the gap between the third and fifth strands of the A sheet, allowing the reactive center loop of one molecule to insert into the A sheet of a second. This loop-sheet polymerization results in the formation of chains of protein which form insoluble inclusions in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in hepatocellular damage and cirrhosis. In addition, the Z mutation results in a distortion of the circular dichroic spectrum, a rearrangement of the reactive center loop with respect to the A sheet, and a reduction in association rate constant with the cognate proteinase neutrophil elastase. PMID:8214081

  18. Differential subcellular targeting of recombinant human α₁-proteinase inhibitor influences yield, biological activity and in planta stability of the protein in transgenic tomato plants.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shweta; Agarwal, Saurabh; Sanyal, Indraneel; Jain, G K; Amla, D V

    2012-11-01

    The response of protein accumulation site on yield, biological activity and in planta stability of therapeutic recombinant human proteinase inhibitor (α₁-PI) was analyzed via targeting to different subcellular locations, like endoplasmic reticulum (ER), apoplast, vacuole and cytosol in leaves of transgenic tomato plants. In situ localization of the recombinant α₁-PI protein in transgenic plant cells was monitored by immunohistochemical staining. Maximum accumulation of recombinant α₁-PI in T₀ and T₁ transgenic tomato plants was achieved from 1.5 to 3.2% of total soluble protein (TSP) by retention in ER lumen, followed by vacuole and apoplast, whereas cytosolic targeting resulted into degradation of the protein. The plant-derived recombinant α₁-PI showed biological activity for elastase inhibition, as monitored by residual porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) activity assay and band-shift assay. Recombinant α₁-PI was purified from transgenic tomato plants with high yield, homogeneity and biological activity. Purified protein appeared as a single band of ∼48-50 kDa on SDS-PAGE with pI value ranging between 5.1 and 5.3. Results of mass spectrometry and optical spectroscopy of purified recombinant α₁-PI revealed the structural integrity of the recombinant protein comparable to native serum α₁-PI. Enzymatic deglycosylation and lectin-binding assays with the purified recombinant α₁-PI showed compartment-specific N-glycosylation of the protein targeted to ER, apoplast and vacuole. Conformational studies based on urea-induced denaturation and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy revealed relatively lower stability of the recombinant α₁-PI protein, compared to its serum counterpart. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of plant derived recombinant and human plasma-purified α₁-PI in rat, by intravenous route, revealed significantly faster plasma clearance and lower area under curve (AUC) of recombinant protein. Our data suggested significance of

  19. Phosphorylation and desensitization of alpha1d-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed Central

    García-Sáinz, J A; Vázquez-Cuevas, F G; Romero-Avila, M T

    2001-01-01

    In rat-1 fibroblasts stably expressing rat alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors, noradrenaline and PMA markedly decreased alpha(1d)-adrenoceptor function (noradrenaline-elicited increases in calcium in whole cells and [(35)S]guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate binding in membranes), suggesting homologous and heterologous desensitizations. Photoaffinity labelling, Western blotting and immunoprecipitation identified alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors as a broad band of 70-80 kDa. alpha(1d)-Adrenoceptors were phosphorylated in the basal state and noradrenaline and PMA increased it. The effect of noradrenaline was concentration-dependent (EC(50) 75 nM), rapid (maximum at 1 min) and transient. Phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation was concentration-dependent (EC(50) 25 nM), slightly slower (maximum at 5 min) and stable for at least 60 min. Inhibitors of protein kinase C decreased the effect of phorbol esters but not that of noradrenaline. Evidence of cross-talk of alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors with receptors endogenously expressed in rat-1 fibroblasts was given by the ability of endothelin, lysophosphatidic acid and bradykinin to induce alpha(1d)-adrenoceptor phosphorylation. In summary, it is shown for the first time here that alpha(1d)-adrenoceptors are phosphoproteins and that receptor phosphorylation is increased by the natural ligand, noradrenaline, by direct activation of protein kinase C and via cross-talk with other receptors endogenously expressed in rat-1 fibroblasts. Receptor phosphorylation has functional repercussions. PMID:11171057

  20. [The interaction of human alpha 1-antitrypsin with human plasmin].

    PubMed

    Sakurama, S

    1984-01-01

    The interaction of alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) with plasmin was investigated, and the molecular weight of the inhibitor was also re-evaluated. The value of molecular weight of alpha 1-AT determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) method showed a difference depending on the presence or absence of the reducing agent, resulting in 72,000 dalton before reduction and 59,000 dalton after reduction. Conclusively, the molecular weight of alpha 1-AT was appropriate to be 59,000 dalton from considering the molecular shape of the protein. The interaction of alpha 1-AT with plasmin was analysed by SDS-PAGE method. Unreduced analysis revealed that two kinds of complexes with different molecular weight (the major of 155,000 dalton and the minor of 140,000 dalton) were formed time dependently, suggesting that the former was a native complex and the latter was a degraded product. Reduced analysis disclosed that the light chain of plasmin involved the complex formation with the inhibitor, and a peptide of 16,000 dalton appeared during the reaction. From these observations, the mechanism of action was summarized as follows. First, alpha 1-AT inhibited all of the plasmin activities by forming a 1: 1 stoichiometric complex with the enzyme, presumably with the active center of the enzyme, whose complex is undissociable in the presence of denaturing or reducing agents or both. Secondly, the native complex broke into a degraded product and a released peptide by limited proteolysis with the free plasmin which existed in the reaction mixture even with an excess of alpha 1-AT due to the reaction of complex formation being time consuming. The clinical significance of alpha 1-AT on fibrinolysis was also subject for discussion. PMID:6232193

  1. Gamma globulin, Evan's blue, aprotinin A PLA2 inhibitor, tetracycline and antioxidants protect epithelial cells against damage induced by synergism among streptococcal hemolysins, oxidants and proteinases: relation to the prevention of post-streptococcal sequelae and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, I; Sadovnic, M

    1998-11-01

    An in vitro model was employed to study the potential role of streptococcal extra-cellular products, rich in streptolysin O, in cellular injury as related to streptococcal infections and post-streptococcal sequelae. Extra-cellular products (EXPA) rich in streptolysin O were isolated from type 4, group A hemolytic streptococci grown in a chemostat, in a synthetic medium. EXPA induced moderate cytopathogenic changes in monkey kidney epithelial cells and in rat heart cells pre-labeled with 3H-arachidonate. However very strong toxic effects were induced when EXP was combined with oxidants (glucose oxides generated H2O2, AAPH-induced peroxyl radical (ROO.), NO generated by sodium nitroprusside) and proteinases (plasmin, trypsin). Cell killing was distinctly synergistic in nature. Cell damage induced by the multi-component cocktails was strongly inhibited either by micromolar amounts of gamma globulin, and Evan's blue which neutralized SLO activity, by tetracycline, trasylol (aprotinin), epsilon amino caproic acid and by soybean trypsin inhibitor, all proteinase inhibitors as well as by a non-penetrating PLA2 inhibitor A. The results suggest that fasciitis, myositis and sepsis resulting from infections with hemolytic streptococci might be caused by a coordinated 'cross-talk' among microbial, leukocyte and additional host-derived pro-inflammatory agents. Since attempts to prolong lives of septic patients by the exclusive administration of single antagonists invariably failed, it is proposed that the administration of 'cocktails' of putative inhibitors against major pro-inflammatory agonizes generated in inflammation and infection might protect against the deleterious effects caused by the biochemical and pharmacological cascades which are known to be activated in sepsis. PMID:9848686

  2. Multiple forms of calcium-dependent proteinase in crustacean muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.; Skinner, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Four calcium-dependent proteinase (CDP) activities in lobster muscles have been resolved by high performance liquid chromatography. These activities differ in molecular weight and net charge. Though optimum activity occurred at high (5 and 10 mM) calcium at pH 6.8, the enzymes differ in activation at lower calcium concentrations. Only one of the CDPs is active at 100 ..mu..M calcium; none are active at 10 ..mu..M and below. Although all four CDPs are inhibited by the cysteine proteinase inhibitors leupeptin, E-64, and iodoacetamide, they show a differential response to the aspartic proteinase inhibitor pepstatin and the serine proteinase inhibitor PMSF. In contrast to CDPs from vertebrate tissues, crustacean muscles contain multiple forms that require calcium at millimolar levels. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  3. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an inherited disease. "Inherited" ... have AAT deficiency inherit two faulty AAT genes, one from each parent. These genes tell cells in ...

  4. How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency has no cure, but its ... of these treatments are the same as the ones used for a lung disease called COPD (chronic ...

  5. The primary structure of bdellin B-3 from the leech Hirudo medicinalis. Bdellin B-3 is a compact proteinase inhibitor of a "non-classical" Kazal type. It is present in the leech in a high molecular mass form.

    PubMed

    Fink, E; Rehm, H; Gippner, C; Bode, W; Eulitz, M; Machleidt, W; Fritz, H

    1986-12-01

    A proteinase inhibitor was isolated from extracts of the leech Hirudo medicinalis by gel filtration and anion exchange chromatography. This inhibitor is similar to the bdellins in that it blocks the activity of trypsin, plasmin and sperm acrosin but has a molecular mass, as estimated by SDS polyacrylamide electrophoresis, of about 20 kDa, whereas the bdellins have molecular masses in the range 5-6 kDa. It is therefore designated as high-molecular mass bdellin B-3 (HMB). The amino-acid sequence of the inhibitor was elucidated as far as position 56. This revealed that the molecule consists of a bdellin B-3 moiety, corresponding to the N-terminal 46 residues, which is then extended at the C-terminus by a polypeptide chain of the composition Asx15, Glx25, Gly6, Val, His26-27 and Lys4. It has been formerly concluded from a partial amino-acid sequence that bdellin B-3 is a Kazal-type inhibitor. However, the complete sequence of bdellin B-3, represented by the N-terminal 46 residues of HMB, discloses that bdellin B-3 is a non-classical Kazal-type inhibitor when the number of amino-acid residues between half-cystines are considered. Presuming that formation of disulfide bridges principally follows the same pattern as in classical Kazal-type inhibitors the bdellin B-3 molecule was modeled based on the known three-dimensional structure of the third ovomucoid domains. This showed that a compact arrangement of the peptide chain of bdellin B-3 is conceivable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3828073

  6. Preclinical pharmacology of alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Martin, D J

    1999-01-01

    The implication of a single adrenoceptor subtype in the contractility of prostatic and urethral smooth muscle cells led to the concept that drugs with selectivity for this subtype may exhibit functional uroselectivity. Comparison of the affinities of the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists revealed that few compounds show selectivity for one of the three cloned alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes (alpha1a/A, alpha1b/B, alpha1d/D) whereas most of them had a similar affinity for the three subtypes. Moreover, data supporting a relationship between selectivity for the alpha1a/A-adrenoceptor subtype and functional uroselectivity are still lacking and recent data challenged the relevance of the selectivity for a given cloned alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype in predicting functional uroselectivity. In vivo data showed that alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists without adrenoceptor subtype selectivity, like alfuzosin or to a minor extent doxazosin, showed functional uroselectivity whereas prazosin and terazosin were not shown to be uroselective. Compounds considered to be selective for the alpha1a/A-adrenoceptor, like tamsulosin or 5-Me-urapidil, did not show functional uroselectivity since they modified urethral and blood pressures in a manner which was not correlated to their selectivity for the cloned alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes. Meanwhile, the identification in prostatic tissue, of a new sub-family of alpha1-adrenoceptors with low affinity for prazosin and denominated alpha1L gave rise to numerous studies. However, its functional role as well as the affinity of the known antagonists for this receptor subtype remains to be clarified. In conclusion, the existing alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists have different pharmacological profiles in vivo which are yet not predictable from their receptor pharmacology based on the actual state of knowledge of the alpha1-adrenoceptor classification. PMID:10393471

  7. The action of calcium channel blockers on recombinant L-type calcium channel alpha1-subunits.

    PubMed

    Morel, N; Buryi, V; Feron, O; Gomez, J P; Christen, M O; Godfraind, T

    1998-11-01

    1. CHO cells expressing the alpha(1C-a) subunit (cardiac isoform) and the alpha(1C-b) subunit (vascular isoform) of the voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channel were used to investigate whether tissue selectivity of Ca2+ channel blockers could be related to different affinities for alpha1C isoforms. 2. Inward current evoked by the transfected alpha1 subunit was recorded by the patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration. 3. Neutral dihydropyridines (nifedipine, nisoldipine, (+)-PN200-110) were more potent inhibitors of alpha(1C-)b-subunit than of alpha(1C-a)-subunit. This difference was more marked at a holding potential of -100 mV than at -50 mV. SDZ 207-180 (an ionized dihydropyridine) exhibited the same potency on the two isoforms. 4. Pinaverium (ionized non-dihydropyridine derivative) was 2 and 4 fold more potent on alpha(1C-a) than on alpha(1C-b) subunit at Vh of -100 mV and -50 mV, respectively. Effects of verapamil were identical on the two isoforms at both voltages. 5. [3H]-(+)-PN 200-110 binding experiments showed that neutral dihydropyridines had a higher affinity for the alpha(1C-b) than for the alpha(1C-a) subunit. SDZ 207-180 had the same affinity for the two isoforms and pinaverium had a higher affinity for the alpha(1C-a) subunit than for the alpha(1C-b) subunit. 6. These results indicate marked differences among Ca2+ channel blockers in their selectivity for the alpha(1C-a) and alpha(1C-b) subunits of the Ca2+ channel. PMID:9846638

  8. [A case report of hereditary angioedema and studies on the serum components of complement, C1-inactivator and proteinase inhibitors during edema attack].

    PubMed

    Mikami, A; Kohno, M

    1987-05-01

    Sixteen years old girl was admitted because of for the past ten years' frequent edema attack and abdominal pain. Laboratory examination revealed hypocomplementemia, marked depletion of the fourth component of complement and low level of C1-inactivator. Familial studies revealed that her mother was also hypocomplementemic and in low level of C1-inactivator. Serial studies performed on the alterlation of components of complement, C1-inactivator, alpha 1-antitrypsin, antithrombin III, and alpha 2-macroglobulin during edema attack. The fourth component of complement and C1-inactivator were markedly depleted in remission and attack. Remarkable depletion was found in antithrombin III and esterase inhibition activity of C1-inactivator during attack. In contrast, alpha 1-antitrypsin and alpha 2-macroglobulin did not change. The present study may explain that Hageman factor fragments, activated by C1s, promotes kinin generation via kalikrein activation. And the condition that complete functional deficiency of C1-inactivator was main role in this circuit. Fibrynolysis and late components of complement was less influence on edema attack. PMID:3610041

  9. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin and Lung Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Serban, Karina A; Petrache, Irina

    2016-04-01

    Discovery of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) as the principal circulating inhibitor of neutrophil elastase was critical to the appreciation of protease/antiprotease imbalance involvement in the pathogenesis of emphysema. Additional targets of A1AT have been uncovered, along with their contribution to alveolar wall destruction induced by cigarette smoke exposure. We highlight in this report mechanisms of A1AT antiapoptotic effects on structural lung endothelial cells. This function was largely dependent on uptake of the protein from the circulation via clathrin- and, in part, caveolae-mediated endocytosis and on specific interactions with cysteine proteases such as capsase-3, -6, and -7. Exposures to cigarette smoke diminished A1AT intracellular uptake and its anticaspase action, suggesting that even in A1AT-suficient individuals, cigarette smoke may weaken the serpin's endothelial prosurvival effect. In addition, cigarette smoke exposure or genetic mutations known to induce posttranslational modifications such as oxidation or polymerization may alter A1AT bidirectional intracellular traffic in endothelial cells and thus determine its functional bioavailability in certain lung compartments. Uncovering and harnessing the A1AT canonical and noncanonical mechanisms will advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of emphysema and may provide means to improve the effectiveness of therapies in both A1AT-sufficient and A1AT-deficient individuals. PMID:27115949

  10. Delivery of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin to Airways.

    PubMed

    Griese, Matthias; Scheuch, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Treatment with exogenous alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), a potent serine protease inhibitor, was developed originally for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with AAT deficiency; however, other lung conditions involving neutrophilic inflammation and proteolytic tissue injury related to neutrophil elastase and other serine proteases may also be considered for AAT therapy. These conditions include bronchiectasis caused by primary ciliary dyskinesia, cystic fibrosis, and other diseases associated with an increased free elastase activity in the airways. Inhaled AAT may be a viable option to counteract proteolytic tissue damage. This form of treatment requires efficient drug delivery to the targeted pulmonary compartment. Aerosol technology meeting this requirement is currently available and offers an alternative therapeutic approach to systemic AAT administration. To date, early studies in humans have shown biochemical efficacy and have established the safety of inhaled AAT. However, to bring aerosol AAT therapy to patients, large phase 3 protocols in carefully selected patient populations (i.e., subgroups of patients with AAT deficiency, cystic fibrosis, or other lung diseases with bronchiectasis) will be needed with clinical end points in addition to the measurement of proteolytic activity in the airway. The outcomes likely will have to include lung function, lung structure assessed by computed tomography imaging, disease exacerbations, health status, and mortality. PMID:27564672

  11. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α-induced Proteolytic Activation of Pro-matrix Metalloproteinase-9 by Human Skin Is Controlled by Down-regulating Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 and Mediated by Tissue-associated Chymotrypsin-like Proteinase*

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuan-Ping; Nien, Yih-Dar; Garner, Warren L.

    2008-01-01

    The proteolytic activation of pro-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 by conversion of the 92-kDa precursor into an 82-kDa active form has been observed in chronic wounds, tumor metastasis, and many inflammation-associated diseases, yet the mechanistic pathway to control this process has not been identified. In this report, we show that the massive expression and activation of MMP-9 in skin tissue from patients with chronically unhealed wounds could be reconstituted in vitro with cultured normal human skin by stimulation with transforming growth factor-β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. We dissected the mechanistic pathway for TNF-α induced activation of pro-MMP-9 in human skin. We found that proteolytic activation of pro-MMP-9 was mediated by a tissue-associated chymotrypsin-like proteinase, designated here as pro-MMP-9 activator (pM9A). This unidentified activator specifically converted pro-MMP-9 but not pro-MMP-2, another member of the gelatinase family. The tissue-bound pM9A was steadily expressed and not regulated by TNF-α, which indicated that the cytokine-mediated activation of pro-MMP-9 might be regulated at the inhibitor level. Indeed, the skin constantly secreted tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 at the basal state. TNF-α, but not transforming growth factor-β, down-regulated this inhibitor. The TNF-α-mediated activation of pro-MMP-9 was tightly associated with down-regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in a dose-dependent manner. To establish this linkage, we demonstrate that the recombinant tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 could block the activation of pro-MMP-9 by either the intact skin or skin fractions. Thus, these studies suggest a novel regulation for the proteolytic activation of MMP-9 in human tissue, which is mediated by tissue-bound activator and controlled by down-regulation of a specific inhibitor. PMID:12004062

  12. A new class of potent reversible inhibitors of metallo-proteinases: C-terminal thiol-peptides as zinc-coordinating ligands.

    PubMed

    Peters, K; Jahreis, G; Kotters, E M

    2001-10-01

    A number of substrate analogous peptides containing a phosphoramidate, phosphonate ester, hydroxamate, carboxylate or sulfhydryl group are known to be inhibitors of thermolysin and other metalloproteinases. According to the specificity, most of the inhibitors mimic the prime site of the active center. Hitherto, peptidyl derivatives with a thiol group at the C-terminus have not been described. We have synthesized the protected cysteamides Ac-Ala-Ala-CA-SH and Z-Aa1-Aa2-CA-SH (Aa1: Ala, Pro; Aa2: Ala, Leu). The binding of these thiol peptide inhibitors to the metalloproteinases is characterized first by the coordination of the thiolate group of the inhibitor to the catalytic zinc ion and second by the subsite interaction of the peptide ligand in the active site of the enzyme. All peptide derivatives were competitive inhibitors of the zinc metalloproteinase thermolysin. The strongest inhibition was found with Z-Pro-Leu-CA-SH (Ki = 30 microM). Substitution of the N-protecting benzyloxycarbonyl residue towards the acetyl group in the peptide inhibitor, the inhibition constant decreased about 25 times. PMID:11916139

  13. Midgut proteinases of Sitotroga cerealella (Oliver) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae): Characterization and relationship to resistance in cereals

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Lan.

    1989-01-01

    Midgut proteinases are vital to the insects which digest ingested food in the midgut. Insect midgut proteinases, therefore, have been considered as possible targets for the control of insect pests. Proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors are very attractive for their potential use in developing insect resistant plant varieties via genetic engineering. Sitotroga cerealella is one of the major storage pests of cereals, and no antibiotic resistance in wheat against this insect has been identified to date. A series of diagnostic inhibitors, thiol-reducing agents and a metal-ion chelator were used in the identification of proteinases in crude extracts from S. cerealella larval midguts with both protein and ester substrates. The partial inhibition of proteolytic activity in crude midgut extract toward ({sup 3}H)-methemoglobin by pepstatin A suggested the presence of another proteinase which was sensitive to pepstatin A. The optimum pH range for the proteolytic activity, however, indicated that the major midgut proteinases were not carboxyl proteinases. Two proteinases were successfully purified by a combination of fractionation with ammonium sulfate, gel permeation and anion exchange chromatography. Characterization of the enzymes with the purified enzyme preparations confirmed that the two major proteinases were serine endoproteinases with trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like specificities respectively. Bioassays were conducted using the artificial seeds to test naturally occurring proteinaceous proteinase inhibitors of potential value. Soybean trypsin inhibitor and the Bowman-Birk proteinase inhibitor had adverse effects on the development of the insect. A predictive model was constructed to evaluate effects of seed resistance in conjunction with other control methods on S. cerealella population dynamics.

  14. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Inherited Emphysema)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 protein in the blood with normal alpha-1 antitrypsin from healthy plasma donors. It is given in a vein (IV). The dose is adjusted based on body weight. This treatment is often given once a week. There are three ... the management of Alpha-1 related emphysema includes: • Exercise and a healthy lifestyle ...

  15. Alpha1-antitrypsin suppresses TNF-alpha and MMP-12 production by cigarette smoke-stimulated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Churg, Andrew; Wang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Rong D; Meixner, Scott C; Pryzdial, Edward L G; Wright, Joanne L

    2007-08-01

    We have previously observed that mice exposed to cigarette smoke and treated with exogenous alpha(1)-antitrypsin (A1AT) were protected against the development of emphysema and against smoke-induced increases in serum TNF-alpha. To investigate possible mechanisms behind this latter observation, we cultured alveolar macrophages lavaged from C57 mice. Smoke-conditioned medium caused alveolar macrophages to increase secretion of macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12) and TNF-alpha, and this effect was suppressed in a dose-response fashion by addition of A1AT. Macrophages from animals exposed to smoke in vivo and then lavaged also failed to increase MMP-12 and TNF-alpha secretion when the animals were pretreated with A1AT. Because proteinase activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) is known to control MMP-12 release, macrophages were treated with the G protein-coupled receptor inhibitor, pertussis toxin; this suppressed both TNF-alpha and MMP-12 release, while a PAR-1 agonist (TRAP) increased TNF-alpha and MMP-12 release. Smoke-conditioned medium caused increased release of the prothrombin activator, tissue factor, from macrophages. Hirudin, a thrombin inhibitor, and aprotinin, an inhibitor of plasmin, reduced smoke-mediated TNF-alpha and MMP-12 release, and A1AT inhibited both plasmin and thrombin activity in a cell-free functional assay. These findings extend our previous suggestion that TNF-alpha production by alveolar macrophages is related to MMP-12 secretion. They also suggest that A1AT can inhibit thrombin and plasmin in blood constituents that leak into the lung after smoke exposure, thereby preventing PAR-1 activation and MMP-12/TNF-alpha release, and decreasing smoke-mediated inflammatory cell influx. PMID:17395890

  16. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency: Beyond the Protease/Antiprotease Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Cosio, Manuel G; Bazzan, Erica; Rigobello, Chiara; Tinè, Mariaenrica; Turato, Graziella; Baraldo, Simonetta; Saetta, Marina

    2016-08-01

    From the discovery that alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) was an effective inhibitor of neutrophil elastase originated the classic paradigm of protease/antiprotease imbalance, linking lung destruction to the unopposed effect of proteases in patients with the deficiency. Notwithstanding its importance as an antiprotease, it has become evident that alpha-1 antitrypsin has important antiinflammatory and immune-regulatory activities, which may be critically involved in lung destruction. We review here recent evidence showing that, indeed, an important adaptive immune reaction is present in lungs with AAT deficiency, similar to the one seen in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with normal AAT. On the basis of recent evidence from epidemiological, clinical, and pathogenetic studies, it is likely time to move on from the original protease/antiprotease hypothesis for the production of emphysema toward a more complex paradigm, involving the antiinflammatory and immune modulating functions of AAT. PMID:27564665

  17. Genetics Home Reference: alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... and genetic modifiers of emphysema risk. Thorax. 2004 Mar;59(3):259-64. Review. Citation on PubMed ... alpha}1-antitrypsin deficiency. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Mar 23;169(6):546-50. doi: 10.1001/ ...

  18. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  19. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Carl W.; Mangel, Walter F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying said peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described.

  20. Co-factor activated recombinant adenovirus proteinases

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.W.; Mangel, W.F.

    1996-08-06

    This application describes methods and expression constructs for producing activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases. Purified activatable recombinant adenovirus proteinases and methods of purification are described. Activated adenovirus proteinases and methods for obtaining activated adenovirus proteinases are further included. Isolated peptide cofactors of adenovirus proteinase activity, methods of purifying and identifying the peptide cofactors are also described. Antibodies immunoreactive with adenovirus proteinases, immunospecific antibodies, and methods for preparing them are also described. Other related methods and materials are also described. 29 figs.

  1. Predicting proteinase specificities from free energy calculations.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Seble Merid; Olufsen, Magne; Smalås, Arne O; Brandsdal, Bjørn O

    2006-10-01

    The role of the primary binding residue (P1) in complexes between three different subtilases (subtilisin Carlsberg, thermitase and proteinase K) and their canonical protein inhibitor eglin c have been studied by free energy calculations. Based on the crystal structures of eglin c in complex with subtilisin Carlsberg and thermitase, and a homology model of the eglin c-proteinase K complex, a total of 57 mutants have been constructed and docked into their host proteins. The binding free energy was then calculated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with the linear interaction energy (LIE) method for all complexes differing only in the nature of the amino acid at the P1 position. LIE calculations for 19 different complexes for each subtilase were thus carried out excluding proline. The effects of substitutions at the P1 position on the binding free energies are found to be very large, and positively charged residues (Arg, Lys and His) are particularly deleterious for all three enzymes. The charged variants of the acidic side chains are found to bind more favorably as compared to their protonated states in all three subtilases. Furthermore, hydrophobic amino acids are accommodated most favorably at the S1-site in all three enzymes. Comparison of the three series of binding free energies shows only minor differences in the 19 computed relative binding free energies among these subtilases. This is further reflected in the correlation coefficient between the 23 relative binding free energies obtained, including the possible protonation states of ionizable side chains, but excluding the P1 Pro, for subtilisin Carlsberg versus thermitase (0.95), subtilisin versus proteinase K (0.94) and thermitase versus proteinase K (0.96). PMID:16386933

  2. Proteinases in the joint: clinical relevance of proteinases in joint destruction

    PubMed Central

    Rengel, Yvonne; Ospelt, Caroline; Gay, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    Proteinases are involved in essential steps in cartilage and bone homeostasis. Consequently, efforts have been made to establish their potential role in the pathology of rheumatic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and spondyloarthritis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are sensitive markers of disease severity and response to treatment, and therefore they have potential in the assessment of rheumatic diseases. Despite disappointing early results with synthetic inhibitors of MMPs, there is still much scope for developing effective and safe MMPs inhibitors, and consequently to deliver new options to inhibit joint destruction. PMID:18001502

  3. [Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Camelier, Aquiles A; Winter, Daniel Hugo; Jardim, José Roberto; Barboza, Carlos Eduardo Galvão; Cukier, Alberto; Miravitlles, Marc

    2008-07-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a recently identified genetic disease that occurs almost as frequently as cystic fibrosis. It is caused by various mutations in the SERPINA1 gene, and has numerous clinical implications. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is mainly produced in the liver and acts as an antiprotease. Its principal function is to inactivate neutrophil elastase, preventing tissue damage. The mutation most commonly associated with the clinical disease is the Z allele, which causes polymerization and accumulation within hepatocytes. The accumulation of and the consequent reduction in the serum levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin cause, respectively, liver and lung disease, the latter occurring mainly as early emphysema, predominantly in the lung bases. Diagnosis involves detection of low serum levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin as well as phenotypic confirmation. In addition to the standard treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, specific therapy consisting of infusion of purified alpha-1 antitrypsin is currently available. The clinical efficacy of this therapy, which appears to be safe, has yet to be definitively established, and its cost-effectiveness is also a controversial issue that is rarely addressed. Despite its importance, in Brazil, there are no epidemiological data on the prevalence of the disease or the frequency of occurrence of deficiency alleles. Underdiagnosis has also been a significant limitation to the study of the disease as well as to appropriate treatment of patients. It is hoped that the creation of the Alpha One International Registry will resolve these and other important issues. PMID:18695797

  4. Alpha1-antichymotrypsin activity correlates with and may modulate matrix metalloproteinase-9 in human acute wounds.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Matthew J; Han, Yuan-Ping; Garner, Warren L

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays a central role in many physiologic processes including acute and the chronic wounds. MMP-9 is not routinely expressed in healthy tissues but is promptly expressed as a proenzyme and converted into active enzyme after tissue injury. The mechanisms involved, including the activators and inhibitors for this enzyme in human tissue remain largely obscure. We recently identified alpha1-antichymotrypsin (alpha1-ACT), an acute phase factor, as a potent inhibitor controlling activation of pro-MMP-9 by human skin. The aim of this study is to establish the clinical relevance of the inhibitor in cutaneous wound healing. Fluids from acute burn blisters and conditioned media from skin explants of burn patients were analyzed. We observed that the presence pro-MMP-9 and its activation correlated with the proximity to and degree of injury. Early after trauma, massive levels of wound alpha1-ACT were associated with an absence of pro-MMP-9 activation. Conversely, the active MMP-9 occurs simultaneously with inactivation of alpha1-ACT. Our results suggest a role for alpha1-ACT as a physiologic inhibitor of MMP-9 activation in human wound healing. PMID:19660051

  5. Molecular characterization of two kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor genes in the surf clam Mesodesma donacium exposed to Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Aguayo, Waleska; Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2013-06-01

    This study reports two kazal-type serine protease inhibitors (KPI) identified in a cDNA library from the surf clam Mesodesma donacium, and characterized through Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). The KPIs, denoted as MdSPI-1 and MdSPI-2, presented full sequences of 1139 bp and 781 bp respectively. MdSPI-1 had a 5'untranslated region (UTR) of 175 bp, a 3'UTR of 283 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 681 pb that encodes for 227 amino acids. MdSPI-2 showed a 5'UTR of 70 bp, a 3'UTR of 279 bp and an ORF of 432 bp that encodes for 144 amino acids. Both sequences presented two kazal-type tandem domains. Phylogenetic analysis of MdSPI-1 and MdSPI-2 shows a main clade composed by other bivalve species and closely related crustaceans. Real time PCR analysis showed that MdSPI-1 is mainly up-regulated in mantle, foot, gills and muscle tissues, while MdSPI-2 is expressed principally in foot tissue. Moreover, to evaluate the immune response of MdSPI-1 and MdSPI-2, infections with Vibrio anguillarum were performed. Herein, MdSPI-1 and MdSPI-2 transcription expression were significantly up-regulated at 2 and 8 h post-challenge. Our results suggest that MdSPI-1 and MdSPI-2 are important humoral factors of innate immunity in M. donacium. PMID:23528874

  6. The analysis of estrogen receptor-α positive breast cancer stem-like cells unveils a high expression of the serpin proteinase inhibitor PI-9: Possible regulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lauricella, Marianna; Carlisi, Daniela; Giuliano, Michela; Calvaruso, Giuseppe; Cernigliaro, Cesare; Vento, Renza; D'Anneo, Antonella

    2016-07-01

    Breast cancer stem cells seem to play important roles in breast tumor recurrence and endocrine therapy resistance, although the underlying mechanisms have not been well established. Moreover, in some tumor systems the immunosurveillance failure against cancer cells has been related to the presence of the granzyme B inhibitor PI-9. This study explored the status of PI-9 in tumorspheres isolated from estrogen receptor-α positive (ERα+) breast cancer MCF7 cells. Studies were performed in tertiary tumorspheres which possess high levels of stemness markers (Nanog, Oct3/4 and Sox2) and self-renewal ability. The exposure to estrogens (17-β estradiol and genistein) increased the number and sizes of tumorspheres, promoting cell proliferation as demonstrated by the increase in the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The study of the three isoforms (66, 46 and 36 kDa) of ERα disclosed that tertiary tumorspheres exhibit a marked increase in ERα36, while the level of ERα66, which is highly expressed in MCF7 cells, declines. Although it is known that PI-9 is a transcriptional target of ERα66, surprisingly in tertiary tumorspheres, despite the reduced level of ERα66, the protein and mRNA content of PI-9 is higher than in MCF7 cells. Treatment with estrogens further increased PI-9 level while decreased that of ERα66 isoform thus excluding the involvement of this receptor isoform in the event. Moreover, our studies also provided evidence that tertiary tumorspheres express elevated levels of CXCR4 and phospho-p38, suggesting that the high PI-9 content might be ascribed to the activation of the proliferative CXCR4/phospho-p38 axis. Taken together, these events could supply a selective advantage to breast cancer stem cells by interfering with immunosurveillance systems and open up the avenue to new possible targets for breast cancer treatment. PMID:27121069

  7. Effects of leupeptin on proteinase and germination of castor beans

    SciTech Connect

    Alpi, A.; Beevers, H.

    1981-10-01

    Leupeptin, tripeptide inhibitor of some proteinases, was shown previously to maintain the stability of several enzymes (isocitrate lyase, fumarase, and catalase) in crude extracts of castor bean endosperm. This reagent is now shown to inhibit the breakdown of water-soluble and crystalloid-storage proteins of the protein bodies isolated from castor beans by the SH-proteinase and it also inhibits the endopeptidase from mung beans. When suitably introduced into the endosperm of dry castor beans it strongly inhibits germination and seedling development. Application of leupeptin to endosperm halves removed from the seed prevents the normal development of enzymes concerned with gluconeogenesis from fat and drastically curtails sugar production. The results suggest that the SH-proteinase is intimately involved in the mobilization of storage proteins.

  8. Elastase-induced emphysema: retention of instilled proteinase in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Sandhaus, R.A.; Janoff, A.

    1982-11-01

    Airway instillation of proteinases with the ability to degrade elastin has been used to produce disease in the rat analogous to human pulmonary emphysema. This study examined the retention, localization, and fate of endotracheally instilled elastase using /sup 125/I labeled enzyme and immunoperoxidase histochemistry. Porcine pancreatic elastase labeled with /sup 125/I was detected in rat lungs through 96 h after instillation; over half of the label was still present after 7 h. Similar results were obtained when elastase was reacted with a specific, catalytic site inactivator prior to instillation. Trypsin and denatured elastase, however, were cleared much more rapidly from the lung (less than half of the label present after 30 min). When lungs were homogenized after instillation of active elastase, the soluble fraction contained elastase bound to rat alpha1-antitrypsin. In addition, a small amount of label (less than 10%) appeared bound to insoluble components for extended periods of time. Using immunoperoxidase histochemistry, it was found that exogenous elastase was rapidly contained with pulmonary alveolar macrophages, as well as associated with alveolar septums and other parenchymal structures. Similar results were obtained with elastase from both porcine pancreas and human neutrophils. These results suggest that exogenous elastase in the rat, and perhaps endogenous elastolytic enzymes in humans, may have several fates in the lungs: complex formation with endogenous inhibitors, containment within the macrophage, and/or association with connective tissue targets.

  9. Cefoperazone prevents the inactivation of alpha(1)-antitrypsin by activated neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Dallegri, F; Dapino, P; Arduino, N; Bertolotto, M; Ottonello, L

    1999-09-01

    At sites of neutrophilic inflammation, tissue injury by neutrophil elastase is favored by phagocyte-induced hypochlorous acid-dependent inactivation of the natural elastase inhibitor alpha(1)-antitrypsin. In the present study, cefoperazone prevented alpha(1)-antitrypsin inactivation by neutrophils and reduced the recovery of hypochlorous acid from these cells. Moreover, the antibiotic reduced the free elastase activity in a neutrophil suspension supplemented with alpha(1)-antitrypsin without affecting the cells' ability to release elastase. These data suggest that the drug inactivates hypochlorous acid before its reaction with alpha(1)-antitrypsin, thereby permitting the antiprotease-mediated blockade of released elastase. In conclusion, cefoperazone appears to have the potential for limiting elastase-antielastase imbalances, attenuating the related tissue injury at sites of inflammation. PMID:10471586

  10. Ubiquitin ligase gp78 increases solubility and facilitates degradation of the Z variant of {alpha}-1-antitrypsin

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Yuxian; Ballar, Petek; Fang, Shengyun . E-mail: fangs@umbi.umd.edu

    2006-11-03

    Deficiency of circulating {alpha}-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is the most widely recognized abnormality of a proteinase inhibitor that causes lung disease. AAT-deficiency is caused by mutations of the AAT gene that lead to AAT protein retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Moreover, the mutant AAT accumulated in the ER predisposes the homozygote to severe liver injuries, such as neonatal hepatitis, juvenile cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the fact that mutant AAT protein is subject to ER-associated degradation (ERAD), yeast genetic studies have determined that the ubiquitination machinery, Hrd1/Der3p-cue1p-Ubc7/6p, which plays a prominent role in ERAD, is not involved in degradation of mutant AAT. Here we report that gp78, a ubiquitin ligase (E3) pairing with mammalian Ubc7 for ERAD, ubiquitinates and facilitates degradation of ATZ, the classic deficiency variant of AAT having a Z mutation (Glu 342 Lys). Unexpectedly, gp78 over-expression also significantly increases ATZ solubility. p97/VCP, an AAA ATPase essential for retrotranslocation of misfolded proteins from the ER during ERAD, is involved in gp78-mediated degradation of ATZ. Surprisingly, unlike other ERAD substrates that cause ER stress leading to apoptosis when accumulated in the ER, ATZ, in fact, increases cell proliferation when over-expressed in cells. This effect can be partially inhibited by gp78 over-expression. These data indicate that gp78 assumes multiple unique quality control roles over ATZ, including the facilitation of degradation and inhibition of aggregation of ATZ.

  11. Proteolytic inactivation of alpha-1-antitrypsin by human neutrophils: involvement of multiple and interlinked cell responses to phagocytosable targets.

    PubMed

    Ottonello, L; Dapino, P; Scirocco, M; Dallegri, F; Sacchetti, C

    1994-01-01

    Neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) can inactivate the PMN-elastase inhibitor alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) proteolytically, by using metalloproteinases normally stored as zymogens in myeloperoxidase (MPO)-negative granules. Supernatants from opsonized zymosan (OPZ)-triggered human PMN cleaved and inactivated human A1AT through a process inhibitable by metal-chelators, suggesting that the interaction of PMN with OPZ leads to the extracellular availability of active metalloenzymes. During OPZ-triggering, PMN used approximately 80% of the generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to produce HOCl by means of the MPO pathway, while the remainder was catabolized by PMN themselves. No H2O2 was available as free compound in the extracellular environment and hydroxyl (.OH) or .OH-like radicals were not generated. The selective deletion of single components of the HOCl-generating MPO pathway resulted in the generation of PMN supernatants free of active metalloenzymes but rich of the corresponding zymogens. Similar results were obtained by replacing normal PMN with cells from a patient with hereditary MPO deficiency. No evidence was obtained for the intervention or contribution of .OH-like radicals, serine-proteinases and oxidized glutathione in the transformation of the zymogens into enzymes able to inactivate A1AT. On concluding, PMN undergoing phagocytosis release MPO in amount sufficient to handle the extracellular pool of the generated H2O2 entirely, leading to the generation of equimolar amounts of HOCl. In turn, HOCl or a similar compound derived from it interacts with concomitantly released metallozymogens, switching on their A1AT inactivating potential without the apparent contribution of other PMN-derived molecules.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187807

  12. Corticosteroid-binding globulin cleavage is paradoxically reduced in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: Implications for cortisol homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Nenke, Marni A; Holmes, Mark; Rankin, Wayne; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J

    2016-01-15

    High-affinity corticosteroid-binding globulin (haCBG) is cleaved by neutrophil elastase (NE) resulting in permanent transition to the low cortisol-binding affinity form (laCBG), thereby increasing cortisol availability at inflammatory sites. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is the major inhibitor of NE. AAT deficiency (AATD) predisposes patients to early-onset emphysema due to increased proteolytic destruction from the inherent proteinase-antiproteinase imbalance. We hypothesized that AATD may result in increased CBG cleavage in vivo. We collected demographic data and blood samples from 10 patients with AATD and 28 healthy controls measuring total CBG and haCBG levels by parallel in-house ELISAs, as well as AAT, total and free cortisol levels. haCBG was higher (median [range]); 329 [210-551] vs. 250 [175-365] nmol/L; P<0.005, and laCBG lower; 174 [68-229] vs. 220 [119-348] nmol/L; P=0.016 in the AATD group, compared with controls. The ratio of haCBG:total CBG was also higher in AATD; 72 [53-83] vs. 54 [41-72] %; P=0.0001). There was a negative correlation between haCBG:total CBG and AAT levels (P<0.05, R=-0.64). Paradoxically, proteolytic cleavage of CBG was reduced in AATD, despite the recognized increase in NE activity. This implies that NE activity is not the mechanism for systemic CBG cleavage in basal, low inflammatory conditions. Relatively low levels of laCBG may have implications for cortisol action in AATD. PMID:26522656

  13. Roles for proteinases in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Caroline A

    2008-01-01

    Since the early 1960s, a compelling body of evidence has accumulated to show that proteinases play critical roles in airspace enlargement in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, until recently the causative enzymes and their exact roles in pathologic processes in COPD have not been clear. Recent studies of gene-targeted mice in murine models of COPD have confirmed roles for proteinases not only in airspace enlargement, but also in airway pathologies in COPD. These studies have also shed light on the specific proteinases involved in COPD pathogenesis, and the mechanisms by which these proteinases injure the lung. They have also identified important interactions between different classes of proteinases, and between proteinases and other molecules that amplify lung inflammation and injury. This review will discuss the biology of proteinases and the mechanisms by which they contribute to the pathogenesis of COPD. In addition, I will discuss the potential of proteinase inhibitors and anti-inflammatory drugs as new treatment strategies for COPD patients. PMID:18686734

  14. Alpha 1D- and alpha 1A-adrenoceptors mediate contraction in rat renal artery.

    PubMed

    Villalobos-Molina, R; López-Guerrero, J J; Ibarra, M

    1997-03-19

    To investigate the alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtype(s) mediating contraction in rat renal artery, we have compared the effect of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists, 5-methylurapidil, BMY 7378 (8-(2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl) ethyl) 8-azaspiro (4.5) decane-7,9-dione 2HCl) and chloroethylclonidine on functional responses to noradrenaline. A clear blockade by chloroethylclonidine (10(-4) M) of noradrenaline-induced contraction was observed and, along with this effect. pKB values of 9.12 and 8.40 for BMY 7378 and 9.75 and 10.06 for 5-methylurapidil were obtained, indicating that the renal artery expresses the alpha 1D-adrenoceptor subtype as the one involved in contraction and not only the alpha 1A subtype as has been reported. PMID:9098691

  15. Challenges and Prospects for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Joanna; Wandtke, Tomasz; Kopinski, Piotr; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a protease inhibitor belonging to the serpin family. A number of identified mutations in the SERPINA1 gene encoding this protein result in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). A decrease in AAT serum concentration or reduced biological activity causes considerable risk of chronic respiratory and liver disorders. As a monogenic disease, AATD appears to be an attractive target for gene therapy, particularly for patients with pulmonary dysfunction, where augmentation of functional AAT levels in plasma might slow down respiratory disease development. The short AAT coding sequence and its activity in the extracellular matrix would enable an increase in systemic serum AAT production by cellular secretion. In vitro and in vivo experimental AAT gene transfer with gamma-retroviral, lentiviral, adenoviral, and adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has resulted in enhanced AAT serum levels and a promising safety profile. Human clinical trials using intramuscular viral transfer with AAV1 and AAV2 vectors of the AAT gene demonstrated its safety, but did not achieve a protective level of AAT >11 μM in serum. This review provides an in-depth critical analysis of current progress in AATD gene therapy based on viral gene transfer. The factors affecting transgene expression levels, such as site of administration, dose and type of vector, and activity of the immune system, are discussed further as crucial variables for optimizing the clinical effectiveness of gene therapy in AATD subjects. PMID:26413996

  16. alpha1B-Adrenergic receptor phosphorylation and desensitization induced by transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Avila, M Teresa; Flores-Jasso, C Fabián; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

    2002-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induced alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor phosphorylation in Rat-1 fibroblasts stably expressing these adrenoceptors. This effect of TGF-beta was rapid, reaching a maximum within 30 min and decreasing thereafter, and concentration-dependent (EC(50) 0.3 pM). The phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002, and the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine, Ro 318220 and bisindolylmaleimide, blocked the effect of this growth factor. alpha(1B)-Adrenergic receptor phosphorylation was associated with desensitization, as indicated by a reduction in the adrenergic-mediated production of [(3)H]inositol phosphates. Phosphorylation of alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptors by TGF-beta was also observed in Cos-1 cells transfected with the receptor. Co-transfection of the dominant-negative mutant of the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (Deltap85) inhibited the phosphorylation of alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptors induced by TGF-beta. Our results indicate that activation of TGF-beta receptors induces alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor phosphorylation and desensitization. The data suggest that phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase C play key roles in this effect of TGF-beta. PMID:12234252

  17. alpha1B-Adrenergic receptor phosphorylation and desensitization induced by transforming growth factor-beta.

    PubMed

    Romero-Avila, M Teresa; Flores-Jasso, C Fabián; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

    2002-12-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induced alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor phosphorylation in Rat-1 fibroblasts stably expressing these adrenoceptors. This effect of TGF-beta was rapid, reaching a maximum within 30 min and decreasing thereafter, and concentration-dependent (EC(50) 0.3 pM). The phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002, and the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine, Ro 318220 and bisindolylmaleimide, blocked the effect of this growth factor. alpha(1B)-Adrenergic receptor phosphorylation was associated with desensitization, as indicated by a reduction in the adrenergic-mediated production of [(3)H]inositol phosphates. Phosphorylation of alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptors by TGF-beta was also observed in Cos-1 cells transfected with the receptor. Co-transfection of the dominant-negative mutant of the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (Deltap85) inhibited the phosphorylation of alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptors induced by TGF-beta. Our results indicate that activation of TGF-beta receptors induces alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptor phosphorylation and desensitization. The data suggest that phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase C play key roles in this effect of TGF-beta. PMID:12234252

  18. Cross-talk between receptors with intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and alpha1b-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen Medina, L; Vázquez-Prado, J; García-Sáinz, J A

    2000-01-01

    The effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) on the phosphorylation and function of alpha(1b)-adrenoceptors transfected into Rat-1 fibroblasts was studied. EGF and PDGF increased the phosphorylation of these adrenoceptors. The effect of EGF was blocked by tyrphostin AG1478 and that of PDGF was blocked by tyrphostin AG1296, inhibitors of the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activities of the receptors for these growth factors. Wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, blocked the alpha(1b)-adrenoceptor phosphorylation induced by EGF but not that induced by PDGF. Inhibition of protein kinase C blocked the adrenoceptor phosphorylation induced by EGF and PDGF. The ability of noradrenaline to increase [(35)S]guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate ([(35)S]GTP[S]) binding in membrane preparations was used as an index of the functional coupling of the alpha(1b)-adrenoceptors and G-proteins. Noradrenaline-stimulated [(35)S]GTP[S] binding was markedly decreased in membranes from cells pretreated with EGF or PDGF. Our data indicate that: (i) activation of EGF and PDGF receptors induces phosphorylation of alpha(1b)-adrenoceptors, (ii) phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is involved in the EGF response, but does not seem to play a major role in the action of PDGF, (iii) protein kinase C mediates this action of both growth factors and (iv) the phosphorylation of alpha(1b)-adrenoceptors induced by EGF and PDGF is associated with adrenoceptor desensitization. PMID:10947955

  19. Gene Therapy for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Chiuchiolo, Maria J; Crystal, Ronald G

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, characterized by low plasma levels of the serine protease inhibitor AAT, is associated with emphysema secondary to insufficient protection of the lung from neutrophil proteases. Although AAT augmentation therapy with purified AAT protein is efficacious, it requires weekly to monthly intravenous infusion of AAT purified from pooled human plasma, has the risk of viral contamination and allergic reactions, and is costly. As an alternative, gene therapy offers the advantage of single administration, eliminating the burden of protein infusion, and reduced risks and costs. The focus of this review is to describe the various strategies for AAT gene therapy for the pulmonary manifestations of AAT deficiency and the state of the art in bringing AAT gene therapy to the bedside. PMID:27564673

  20. Activation of Proteinase 3 Contributes to Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Toonen, Erik JM; Mirea, Andreea-Manuela; Tack, Cees J; Stienstra, Rinke; Ballak, Dov B; van Diepen, Janna A; Hijmans, Anneke; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Dokter, Wim H; Pham, Christine TN; Netea, Mihai G; Dinarello, Charles A; Joosten, Leo AB

    2016-01-01

    Activation of inflammatory pathways is known to accompany development of obesity-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. In addition to caspase-1, the neutrophil serine proteases proteinase 3, neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G are able to process the inactive proinflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 to their bioactive forms, thereby regulating inflammatory responses. In this study, we investigated whether proteinase 3 is involved in obesity-induced development of insulin resistance and NAFLD. We investigated the development of NAFLD and insulin resistance in mice deficient for neutrophil elastase/proteinase 3 and neutrophil elastase/cathepsin G and in wild-type mice treated with the neutrophil serine proteinase inhibitor human α-1 antitrypsin. Expression profiling of metabolically relevant tissues obtained from insulin-resistant mice showed that expression of proteinase 3 was specifically upregulated in the liver, whereas neutrophil elastase, cathepsin G and caspase-1 were not. Neutrophil elastase/proteinase 3-deficient mice showed strongly reduced levels of lipids in the liver after being fed a high-fat diet. Moreover, these mice were resistant to high–fat–diet-induced weight gain, inflammation and insulin resistance. Injection of proteinase 3 exacerbated insulin resistance in caspase-1–/– mice, indicating that proteinase 3 acts independently of caspase-1. Treatment with α-1 antitrypsin during the last 10 d of a 16-wk high-fat diet reduced hepatic lipid content and decreased fasting glucose levels. We conclude that proteinase 3 is involved in NAFLD and insulin resistance and that inhibition of proteinase 3 may have therapeutic potential. PMID:27261776

  1. α-1-Antitrypsin variants and the proteinase/antiproteinase imbalance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Sinden, Nicola J.; Baker, Michael J.; Smith, David J.; Kreft, Jan-Ulrich; Dafforn, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    The excessive activities of the serine proteinases neutrophil elastase and proteinase 3 are associated with tissue damage in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Reduced concentrations and/or inhibitory efficiency of the main circulating serine proteinase inhibitor α-1-antitrypsin result from point mutations in its gene. In addition, α-2-macroglobulin competes with α-1-antitrypsin for proteinases, and the α-2-macroglobulin-sequestered enzyme can retain its catalytic activity. We have studied how serine proteinases partition between these inhibitors and the effects of α-1-antitrypsin mutations on this partitioning. Subsequently, we have developed a three-dimensional reaction-diffusion model to describe events occurring in the lung interstitium when serine proteinases diffuse from the neutrophil azurophil granule following degranulation and subsequently bind to either α-1-antitrypsin or α-2-macroglobulin. We found that the proteinases remained uninhibited on the order of 0.1 s after release and diffused on the order of 10 μm into the tissue before becoming sequestered. We have shown that proteinases sequestered to α-2-macroglobulin retain their proteolytic activity and that neutrophil elastase complexes with α-2-macroglobulin are able to degrade elastin. Although neutrophil elastase is implicated in the pathophysiology of emphysema, our results highlight a potentially important role for proteinase 3 because of its greater concentration in azurophil granules, its reduced association rate constant with all α-1-antitrypsin variants studied here, its greater diffusion distance, time spent uninhibited following degranulation, and its greater propensity to partition to α-2-macroglobulin where it retains proteolytic activity. PMID:25416382

  2. Who Is at Risk for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. Who Is at Risk for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency occurs in all ethnic groups. ... it doesn't mean that you'll develop one of the diseases related to the condition. Some ...

  3. Identification and characterization of cysteine proteinases of Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S C; Kumar, R; Kumar, S; Tatu, U; Singh, R K; Gupta, A K

    2011-09-01

    Trypanosoma evansi is a causative agent of 'surra', a common haemoprotozoan disease of livestock in India causing high morbidity and mortality in disease endemic areas. The proteinases released by live and dead trypanosomes entail immunosuppression in the infected host, which immensely contribute in disease pathogenesis. Cysteine proteinases are identified in the infectious cycle of trypanosomes such as cruzain from Trypanosoma cruzi, rhodesain or brucipain from Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and congopain from Trypanosoma congelense. These enzymes localised in lysosome-like organelles, flagellar pocket and on cell surface, which play a critical role in the life cycle of protozoan parasites, viz. in host invasion, nutrition and alteration of the host immune response. The paper describes the identification of cysteine proteinases of T. evansi lysate, activity profile at different pH optima and inhibition pattern using a specific inhibitor, besides the polypeptide profile of an antigen. Eight proteinases of T. evansi were identified in the molecular weight (MW) ranges of 28-170 kDa using gelatin substrate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (GS-PAGE), and of these proteinases, six were cysteine proteinases, as they were inhibited by L-3-carboxy-2,3-transepoxypropionyl-lecuylamido (4-guanidino)-butane (E-64), a specific inhibitor. These proteolytic enzymes were most reactive in acidic pH between 3.0 and 5.5 in the presence of dithiothreitol and completely inactive at alkaline pH 10.0. Similarly, the GS-PAGE profile of the serum samples of rats infected with T. evansi revealed strong proteolytic activity only at the 28-kDa zone at pH 5.5, while no proteolytic activity was observed in serum samples of uninfected rats. Further, the other zones of clearance, which were evident in T. evansi antigen zymogram, could not be observed in the serum samples of rats infected with T. evansi. The polypeptide pattern of the whole cell lysate antigen revealed 12-15 polypeptide bands

  4. Isolation and characterization of a serine proteinase specific to human C3b from human erythrocyte membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Charriaut, C.; Krikorian, L.; Barel, M.; Frade, R.

    1986-03-05

    In a previous report, they have shown that human C3b bound through CR1 to human erythrocytes is cleaved by a membrane proteinase activity. Following the molecular analysis of this proteinase activity, they have purified it by a four step procedure: ammonium sulfate precipitation, biogel filtration, fluid phase electrophoresis and hydroxylapatite chromatography. The highly purified proteinase was labeled by /sup 125/I iodine or /sup 3/H-DFP and analyzed by gel electrophoresis: a single band membrane component was characterized by its apparent molecular weight of 57 K or 60 K, under non reducing or reducing conditions respectively and was called p 57. Its reactivity with /sup 3/H-DFP and the inhibition by PMSF of the proteinase activity indicate that p 57 is a serine proteinase. Moreover, it is sensitive to aprotinin and ..gamma..1-antitrypsin. This membrane proteinase presents a higher activity in the presence of detergent and cleaves both alpha and beta chains of human C3b. Polyclonal antibody prepared against this purified proteinase inhibits its activity. On the basis of its structure and its functions, i.e. molecular weight, antigenic properties, proteinase properties and proteinases inhibitors sensitivity, p57 is not related to CR1 or DAF, two others membrane components which react with human C3b and identified by others on human erythrocytes. These specific antibodies allow to analyze the presence of p57 on human cells.

  5. Sensitive, hydrosoluble, macromolecular fluorogenic substrates for human immunodeficiency virus 1 proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Anjuère, F; Monsigny, M; Lelièvre, Y; Mayer, R

    1993-01-01

    Hydrosoluble macromolecular fluorogenic substrates specific for the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) proteinase have been prepared. The fluoresceinyl peptide Ftc-epsilon-Ahx-Ser-Phe-Asn-Phe-Pro-Gln-Ile-Thr-(Gly)n, corresponding to the first cleavage site of HIV-1 gag-pol native precursor was linked to a water-soluble neutral (Lys)n derivative. The epsilon-aminohexanoyl residue (epsilon-Ahx) and the glycyl sequence were added in order to improve the stability of the substrate and the accessibility of the cleavage site to the HIV-1 proteinase respectively. This macro-molecular peptidic-substrate conjugate is significantly more water-soluble than the free peptide itself on a substrate molar concentration basis. The assay is based on the quantitative precipitation of the polymeric material by adding propan-2-ol whereas the fluorescent peptide moiety released upon proteolysis remains soluble in the supernatant. The proteinase activity is assessed by measuring the fluorescence of the supernatant. This assay allows the detection of a few fmol of HIV-1 proteinase, even in the presence of cell culture media, plasma or cell lysate and it gives accurate results within a large proteinase concentration range. The hydrosoluble macromolecular substrate is also suitable for determining the HIV-1 proteinase activity using 96-well microplates, allowing us to test accurately and rapidly numerous enzyme samples and/or the potency of new proteinase inhibitors. PMID:8489513

  6. Alpha 1-Antitrypsin Therapy Mitigated Ischemic Stroke Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moldthan, Huong L.; Hirko, Aaron C.; Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S.; Grant, Maria; Li, Zhimin; Peris, Joanna; Lu, Yuanqing; Elshikha, Ahmed; King, Michael A.; Hughes, Jeffrey A.; Song, Sihong

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the only effective therapy for acute ischemic stroke is the thrombolytic agent recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. α1-Antitrypsin, an endogenous inhibitor of serine proteinases and a primary acute phase protein with potent anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, antimicrobial and cytoprotective activities, could be beneficial in stroke.. The goal of this study was to test whether α1-antitrypsin could improve ischemic stroke outcome in an established rat model. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced in male rats via intracranial microinjection of endothelin-1. Five to ten minutes following stroke induction rats received either intracranial or intravenous delivery of human α1-antitrypsin. Cylinder and vibrissae tests were used to evaluate sensorimotor function before and 72 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Infarct volumes were examined via either 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride assay or magnetic resonance imaging 72 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Despite equivalent initial strokes, at 72 hours the infarct volumes of the human α1-antitrypsin treatment groups (local and systemic injection) were statistically significantly reduced by 83% and 63% (p<0.0001 and p < 0.05 respectively) compared with control rats. Human α1-antitrypsin significantly limited sensory motor systems deficits. Human α1-antitrypsin could be a potential novel therapeutic drug for the protection against neurodegeneration following ischemic stroke, but more studies are needed to investigate the protective mechanisms and efficacy in other animal models. PMID:24582784

  7. Characterization of proteinases in trypanosomatids.

    PubMed

    Branquinha, M H; Vermelho, A B; Goldenberg, S; Bonaldo, M C

    1994-02-01

    Proteinases are important factors in the pathogenicity of many parasitic diseases. In this study, the proteolytic activities of 10 trypanosomatids from five different genera (Crithidia, Phytomonas, Endotrypanum, Trypanosoma and Leishmania) were determined by SDS-PAGE containing copolymerized gelatin as substrate. In almost all species we could detect two proteolytic classes, cysteine- and metalloproteinases, based on the inhibition of their activities by E-64 and 1,10-phenanthroline, respectively. In all cases, the metalloproteinase activities did not change over a broad pH range (from 5.5 to 10). E. schaudinni, T. mega, T. dionisii, C. luciliae, C. fasciculata, C. oncopelti and C. guilhermei expressed one or two metalloproteinases of 45-66 kDa, whereas in P. serpens and P. hyssopifolia a double band of this endopeptidase was detected at 94 kDa. In contrast, no metalloproteinase activity was observed in L. tarentolae. The optimal pH for the cysteine-proteinase activities was acidic (about 5.5). In E. schaudinni, T. mega and in Crithidia sp., these proteinases had an apparent molecular weight of 66-94 kDa, while L. tarentolae expressed a broad band from 29 to 45 kDa. In Phytomonas sp., this class of endopeptidase showed a unique feature, in that major cysteine-proteinases were found at 29-66 kDa, but multiple, low-activity bands were detected from 116 to 200 kDa. The most striking characteristic, however, was the very intense cysteine-proteinase activity expressed by T. dionisii (29-66 kDa). We conclude that these differences in the proteolytic profiles could be useful markers to characterize and compare trypanosomatids. PMID:8081271

  8. Characterization of a Cell Envelope-Associated Proteinase Activity from Streptococcus thermophilus H-Strains

    PubMed Central

    Shahbal, Samaha; Hemme, Denis; Renault, Pierre

    1993-01-01

    The production and biochemical properties of cell envelope-associated proteinases from two strains of Streptococcus thermophilus (strains CNRZ 385 and CNRZ 703) were compared. No significant difference in proteinase activity was found for strain CNRZ 385 when cells were grown in skim milk medium and M17 broth. Strain CNRZ 703 exhibited a threefold-higher proteinase activity when cells were grown in low-heat skim milk medium than when grown in M17 broth. Forty-one percent of the total activity of CNRZ 385 was localized on the cell wall. The optimum pH for enzymatic activity at 37°C was around 7.0. Serine proteinase inhibitors, such as phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and diisopropylfluorophosphate, inhibited the enzyme activity in both strains. The divalents cations Ca2+, Mg2+, and Mn2+ were activators, while Zn2+ and Cu2+ were inhibitors. β-Casein was hydrolyzed more rapidly than αs1-casein. The results of DNA hybridization and immunoblot studies suggested that the S. thermophilus cell wall proteinase and the lactococcal proteinase are not closely related. Images PMID:16348841

  9. Alpha-1-Antitrypsin: A Novel Human High Temperature Requirement Protease A1 (HTRA1) Substrate in Human Placental Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Frochaux, Violette; Hildebrand, Diana; Talke, Anja; Linscheid, Michael W.; Schlüter, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    The human serine protease high temperature requirement A1 (HTRA1) is highly expressed in the placental tissue, especially in the last trimester of gestation. This suggests that HTRA1 is involved in placental formation and function. With the aim of a better understanding of the role of HTRA1 in the placenta, candidate substrates were screened in a placenta protein extract using a gel-based mass spectrometric approach. Protease inhibitor alpha-1-antitrypsin, actin cytoplasmic 1, tropomyosin beta chain and ten further proteins were identified as candidate substrates of HTRA1. Among the identified candidate substrates, alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) was considered to be of particular interest because of its important role as protease inhibitor. For investigation of alpha-1-antitrypsin as substrate of HTRA1 synthetic peptides covering parts of the sequence of alpha-1-antitrypsin were incubated with HTRA1. By mass spectrometry a specific cleavage site was identified after met-382 (AIPM382↓383SIPP) within the reactive centre loop of alpha-1-antitrypsin, resulting in a C-terminal peptide comprising 36 amino acids. Proteolytic removal of this peptide from alpha-1-antitrypsin results in a loss of its inhibitor function. Beside placental alpha-1-antitrypsin the circulating form in human plasma was also significantly degraded by HTRA1. Taken together, our data suggest a link between the candidate substrates alpha-1-antitrypsin and the function of HTRA1 in the placenta in the syncytiotrophoblast, the cell layer attending to maternal blood in the villous tree of the human placenta. Data deposition: Mass spectrometry (MS) data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000473. PMID:25329061

  10. Replacement therapy of alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. Reversal of protease-antiprotease imbalance within the alveolar structures of PiZ subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Gadek, J E; Klein, H G; Holland, P V; Crystal, R G

    1981-01-01

    The emphysema associated with the inherited serum deficiency of alpha 1-antitrypsin appears to result from an imbalance between neutrophil elastase and its major inhibitor within the alveolar structures. In the present study we assessed the feasibility of reversing this biochemical defect within the lung via parenteral replacement therapy with an alpha 1-antitrypsin concentrate of normal plasma. A 20--40% polyethylene glycol precipitate of pooled human donor plasma was used to obtain an enriched alpha 1-antitrypsin concentrate devoid of hepatitis B antigen and immunoglobulins. Using this material, five individuals with severe serum alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZ phenotype) and advanced emphysema received 4 g of alpha 1-antitrypsin intravenously at weekly intervals for four doses. During this period of weekly replacement therapy alpha 1-antitrypsin serum levels were maintained at greater than or equal to 70 mg/dl, the level likely required for effective antielastase protection of the lung. In addition, assessment of lower respiratory tract antielastase activity by bronchoalveolar lavage demonstrated that parenteral replacement of alpha 1-antitrypsin resulted in establishment of effective antielastase activity within the alveolar structures. There were no untoward side effects consequent to this approach to the replacement therapy of alpha 1-antitrypsin. These results demonstrate that the parenteral replacement of alpha 1-antitrypsin provides a means of obtaining elastase-antielastase balance within the lung of individuals with this serum protease inhibitor deficiency. PMID:7028785

  11. Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    alpha 1-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, also known as alpha 1-antiprotease inhibitor deficiency, is a disease caused by genetically determined AAT deficiency. It occurs as a result of inheritance of two protease inhibitor (PI) deficiency alleles from the AAT gene locus (designated PI) on chromosomal segment 14q32.1. The most common deficiency allele is PI*Z and a large majority of individuals with severe AAT deficiency are PI type ZZ. The disease occurs predominantly in white persons of European origin and its frequency in Europe and North America is comparable to that of cystic fibrosis (1 in 2000 to 1 in 7000.) Persons with AAT deficiency may have no clinical manifestations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with a high frequency of panacinar emphysema is the most prevalent clinical disorder associated with AAT deficiency and the most frequent cause of disability and death. Tobacco smoking is the major risk factor for developing COPD, which generally begins by the third decade of life, much earlier than "usual" COPD that occurs in AAT-replete individuals. Liver disease, the second most frequent clinical manifestation of AAT deficiency, typically presents as cholestasis in infancy but is usually not severe and generally remits by adolescence. Chronic liver disease develops infrequently, although AAT deficiency is the commonest cause of chronic liver disease in childhood. Cirrhosis and carcinoma of the liver affect at least 25% of AAT-deficient adults over the age of 50 years. AAT deficiency appears to be widely underdiagnosed and based on predicted gene frequencies even in the most intensely studied populations, only a small proportion of those predicted to have AAT deficiency have been diagnosed. Human AAT is available in limited quantity for augmentation therapy. This Memorandum summarizes the discussions and recommendations made by participants at a WHO meeting held in Geneva on 18-20 March 1996 to review existing knowledge about this highly prevalent

  12. House dust mite Der p 1 downregulates defenses of the lung by inactivating elastase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan; Farmer, Kinley; MacDonald, Louise; Kalsheker, Noor; Pritchard, Dave; Haslett, Chris; Lamb, Jonathan; Sallenave, J-M

    2003-09-01

    House dust mites (HDM) are the most common source of aeroallergens and in genetic susceptible individuals can cause symptoms ranging from atopic dermatitis to bronchial asthma. Der p 1, a major target of the human immune responses to HDM, through its enzymatic properties can modulate the adaptive immune system by the cleavage of CD23 and CD25. The consequences of this would be to promote allergic inflammatory responses. Furthermore, by disrupting epithelial tight junctions Der p 1 facilitates the transport of allergen across the epithelium. Here, we report that Der p 1 has additional effects on the innate defense mechanisms of the lung, by inactivating in vitro and ex vivo the elastase inhibitors human (h) alpha1-proteinase inhibitor (h-A1-Pi), mouse (m-), (but not human [h])-SLPI and h-elafin. We confirm that Der p 1 contain both cysteine and serine proteinases, and extend this finding to demonstrate for the first time that h-elafin is particularly sensitive to the biological activity of the latter. Because these elastase inhibitors have antimicrobial, as well as antielastase activity, our results suggest that inactivation of these innate components of the lung defense system by Der p 1 may increase the susceptibility of patients with allergic inflammation to infection. PMID:12689923

  13. The Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor in the Rabbit Heart

    PubMed Central

    Myagmar, Bat-Erdene; Swigart, Philip M.; Baker, Anthony J.; Simpson, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    The alpha-1A-adrenergic receptor (AR) subtype is associated with cardioprotective signaling in the mouse and human heart. The rabbit is useful for cardiac disease modeling, but data on the alpha-1A in the rabbit heart are limited. Our objective was to test for expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart. By quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) on mRNA from ventricular myocardium of adult male New Zealand White rabbits, the alpha-1B was 99% of total alpha-1-AR mRNA, with <1% alpha-1A and alpha-1D, whereas alpha-1A mRNA was over 50% of total in brain and liver. Saturation radioligand binding identified ~4 fmol total alpha-1-ARs per mg myocardial protein, with 17% alpha-1A by competition with the selective antagonist 5-methylurapidil. The alpha-1D was not detected by competition with BMY-7378, indicating that 83% of alpha-1-ARs were alpha-1B. In isolated left ventricle and right ventricle, the selective alpha-1A agonist A61603 stimulated a negative inotropic effect, versus a positive inotropic effect with the nonselective alpha-1-agonist phenylephrine and the beta-agonist isoproterenol. Blood pressure assay in conscious rabbits using an indwelling aortic telemeter showed that A61603 by bolus intravenous dosing increased mean arterial pressure by 20 mm Hg at 0.14 μg/kg, 10-fold lower than norepinephrine, and chronic A61603 infusion by iPRECIO programmable micro Infusion pump did not increase BP at 22 μg/kg/d. A myocardial slice model useful in human myocardium and an anthracycline cardiotoxicity model useful in mouse were both problematic in rabbit. We conclude that alpha-1A mRNA is very low in rabbit heart, but the receptor is present by binding and mediates a negative inotropic response. Expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart differ from mouse and human, but the vasopressor response is similar to mouse. PMID:27258143

  14. The Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor in the Rabbit Heart.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R Croft; Cowley, Patrick M; Singh, Abhishek; Myagmar, Bat-Erdene; Swigart, Philip M; Baker, Anthony J; Simpson, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    The alpha-1A-adrenergic receptor (AR) subtype is associated with cardioprotective signaling in the mouse and human heart. The rabbit is useful for cardiac disease modeling, but data on the alpha-1A in the rabbit heart are limited. Our objective was to test for expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart. By quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) on mRNA from ventricular myocardium of adult male New Zealand White rabbits, the alpha-1B was 99% of total alpha-1-AR mRNA, with <1% alpha-1A and alpha-1D, whereas alpha-1A mRNA was over 50% of total in brain and liver. Saturation radioligand binding identified ~4 fmol total alpha-1-ARs per mg myocardial protein, with 17% alpha-1A by competition with the selective antagonist 5-methylurapidil. The alpha-1D was not detected by competition with BMY-7378, indicating that 83% of alpha-1-ARs were alpha-1B. In isolated left ventricle and right ventricle, the selective alpha-1A agonist A61603 stimulated a negative inotropic effect, versus a positive inotropic effect with the nonselective alpha-1-agonist phenylephrine and the beta-agonist isoproterenol. Blood pressure assay in conscious rabbits using an indwelling aortic telemeter showed that A61603 by bolus intravenous dosing increased mean arterial pressure by 20 mm Hg at 0.14 μg/kg, 10-fold lower than norepinephrine, and chronic A61603 infusion by iPRECIO programmable micro Infusion pump did not increase BP at 22 μg/kg/d. A myocardial slice model useful in human myocardium and an anthracycline cardiotoxicity model useful in mouse were both problematic in rabbit. We conclude that alpha-1A mRNA is very low in rabbit heart, but the receptor is present by binding and mediates a negative inotropic response. Expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart differ from mouse and human, but the vasopressor response is similar to mouse. PMID:27258143

  15. Treatment of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Strange, Charlie; Beiko, Tatsiana

    2015-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a rare genetic disease that creates multiple unique phenotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. While bronchospasm, cough, dyspnea, and sputum production all occur with AATD, the phenotypic differences require a computed tomographic (CT) scan to decipher. The availability of augmentation therapy in the United States since 1989 has generated both controversy and evidence that informs the science of usual chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Because of the predominance of emphysema in AATD, much of the best evidence concerning biomarkers of emphysema progression comes from this population. Imaging measurement of emphysema progression, impact of emphysema phenotypes on hyperinflation and dynamic hyperinflation, and correlation with traditional spirometric measures of COPD progression are required to understand the impact of AAT therapies. These studies are important for better understanding of usual COPD pathogenesis. Significantly, there are no adequately powered research studies to determine if augmentation therapy is helpful for the non-emphysema phenotypes of AATD. Specifically, phenotypes of chronic bronchitis, asthma predominant disease, and bronchiectasis will require targeted research studies to define optimal therapy. PMID:26238635

  16. AN INACTIVE PRECURSOR OF STREPTOCOCCAL PROTEINASE

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Stuart D.; Dole, Vincent P.

    1947-01-01

    1. Streptococcal proteinase is derived from an inactive precursor found in culture filtrates of proteinase-producing streptococci. 2. The precursor can be converted into the proteinase by low concentrations of trypsin but not by chymotrypsin. 3. In cultures grown in suitable media the conversion of precursor to proteinase is effected autocatalytically. This reaction occurs under reducing conditions and is initiated by active proteinase present in low concentrations with the precursor. 4. The autocatalytic reaction is suppressed or retarded by conditions which decrease the activity of the proteinase, e.g. by growing cultures at 22°C. instead of at 37°C. or by growing them under markedly aerobic conditions. It is also retarded in the presence of casein. PMID:19871616

  17. New perspectives on basic mechanisms in lung disease. 6. Proteinase imbalance: its role in lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tetley, T D

    1993-01-01

    The hypothesis, some 30 years ago, that NE was the sole proteolytic agent responsible for the development of emphysema seems naive in retrospect. The availability of technology to measure NE facilitated the early research into the relationship between NE and lung disease. Despite an abundance of information on the activity of NE in the lung, it will probably require prospective studies in man with specific NE inhibitors or control at the gene level to establish a causal relationship between NE and lung disease. Parallel research has resulted in the isolation and characterisation of NE inhibitors other than PI and, indeed, alternative proteolytic enzymes that might contribute to lung disease. It is perhaps impossible now to think that a single proteinase, however omnipotent it may be, causes lung diseases as diverse as emphysema and fibrosis. An important aspect that is emerging is the interrelationship between proteolytic enzymes produced by different, or sometimes the same, cells that could potentiate tissue proteolysis. The evidence suggests that there is likely to be coordinated action between neutrophils, macrophages, and possibly mesenchymal proteinases which can activate or inactivate each other. In addition, one class of proteinases often appears able to proteolytically inactivate inhibitors of the opposite class, which presumably could amplify proteolysis if it occurred in vivo. Although the work on this aspect of proteinase activity is in its infancy, one suspects that part of the normal regulation of proteinase activity might include compartmentalisation. For example, the neutrophil stores proteinases before appropriate release and can inactivate PI to enable proteolytic action pericellularly, whereas degradation of extracellular matrix by macrophages requires interaction between the cell and matrix which is facilitated by cell receptor bound uPA. Disintegration of these "compartments" due to oedema, proteolysis, or for mechanical reasons could, firstly

  18. Alpha 1A-adrenoceptor-mediated contractile responses of the human vas deferens.

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, K.; Rosario, D. J.; Smith, D. J.; Chapple, C. R.; Uchiyama, T.; Chess-Williams, R.

    1995-01-01

    1. The predominant alpha 1-adrenoceptor mediating contractions of the human vas deferens has been characterised in vitro by use of subtype selective antagonists. 2. Responses of human epididymal vas deferens were obtained to phenylephrine in the presence of amine uptake inhibitors and propranolol. The effects of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists, 5-methylurapidil, oxymetazoline, WB4101, prazosin and chloroethylclonidine were examined and also the L-type calcium channel blocker, nifedipine. 3. 5-Methylurapidil, WB4101, oxymetazoline and prazosin acted as competitive antagonists of the responses to phenylephrine, yielding pA2 values of 8.8, 9.2, 7.7 and 8.8 respectively. All four antagonists produced Schild plots with slopes similar to unity and maximum responses to phenylephrine were not altered in the presence of any of the antagonists. 4. Tamsulosin (1 nM) caused rightward shifts of phenylephrine concentration-response curves yielding an apparent pKB value of 10.0. However, maximum responses were also reduced by 51% with this concentration of antagonist. 5. Incubation of tissues with chloroethylclonidine (100 microM for 40 min) failed to alter responses significantly but the presence of nifedipine (1 microM) reduced maximum responses to phenylephrine by 32%. 6. The high affinity of 5-methylurapidil, oxymetazoline and WB4101, together with the failure of chloroethylclonidine to antagonize responses, indicate that the predominant alpha 1-adrenoceptor mediating contraction of the human vas deferens has the characteristics previously described for the pharmacologically-defined alpha 1A-adrenoceptor. The data are also consistent with those described for the cloned alpha 1c-adrenoceptor subtype thereby supporting the hypothesis that the two receptors are identical. The human vas deferens therefore represents a readily accessible preparation for functional studies of the human alpha 1A-adrenoceptor. PMID:8564226

  19. Thiol-activated serine proteinases from nymphal hemolymph of the African migratory locust, Locusta migratoria migratorioides.

    PubMed

    Hanzon, Jacob; Smirnoff, Patricia; Applebaum, Shalom W; Mattoo, Autar K; Birk, Yehudith

    2003-02-01

    Two unique serine proteinase isoenzymes (LmHP-1 and LmHP-2) were isolated from the hemolymph of African migratory locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides) nymphs. Both have a molecular mass of about 23 kDa and are activated by thiol-reducing agents. PMSF abolishes enzymes activity only after thiol activation, while the cysteine proteinase inhibitors E-64, iodoacetamide, and heavy metals fail to inhibit the thiol-activated enzymes. The N-terminal sequence was determined for the more-abundant LmHP-2 isoenzyme. It exhibits partial homology to that of other insect serine proteinases and similar substrate specificity and inhibition by the synthetic and protein trypsin inhibitors pABA, TLCK, BBI, and STI. The locust trypsins LmHP-1 and LmHP-2 constitute a new category of serine proteases wherein the active site of the enzyme is exposed by thiol activation without cleavage of peptide bonds. PMID:12559979

  20. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Investigations Using Animal Models of Emphysema.

    PubMed

    Ni, Kevin; Serban, Karina A; Batra, Chanan; Petrache, Irina

    2016-08-01

    Animal models of disease help accelerate the translation of basic science discoveries to the bedside, because they permit experimental interrogation of mechanisms at relatively high throughput, while accounting for the complexity of an intact organism. From the groundbreaking observation of emphysema-like alveolar destruction after direct instillation of elastase in the lungs to the more clinically relevant model of airspace enlargement induced by chronic exposure to cigarette smoke, animal models have advanced our understanding of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) function. Experimental in vivo models that, at least in part, replicate clinical human phenotypes facilitate the translation of mechanistic findings into individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and with AAT deficiency. In addition, unexpected findings of alveolar enlargement in various transgenic mice have led to novel hypotheses of emphysema development. Previous challenges in manipulating the AAT genes in mice can now be overcome with new transgenic approaches that will likely advance our understanding of functions of this essential, lung-protective serine protease inhibitor (serpin). PMID:27564666

  1. Carboxy-terminal truncation of oryzacystatin II by oryzacystatin-insensitive insect digestive proteinases.

    PubMed

    Michaud, D; Cantin, L; Vrain, T C

    1995-10-01

    The biochemical interactions between digestive proteinases of the Coleoptera pest black vine weevil (Otiorynchus sulcatus) and two plant cysteine proteinase inhibitors, oryzacystatin I (OCI) and oryzacystatin II (OCII), were assessed using gelatin-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, OCI-affinity chromatography, and recombinant forms of the two plant inhibitors. The insect proteinases were resolved in gelatin-containing polyacrylamide gels as five major bands, only three of them being totally or partially inactivated by OCI and OCII. The maximal inhibitory effect of both OCs at pH 5.0 was estimated at 40% and the inhibition was stable with time despite the presence of OC-insensitive proteases, indicating the stability of the OCI and OCII effects. After removing OC-sensitive proteinases from the insect crude extract by OCI-affinity chromatography, the effects of the insect cystatin-insensitive proteases on the structural integrity of the free OCs were analyzed. While OCI remained stable, OCII was subjected to limited proteolysis leading to its gradual transformation into a approximately 10.5-kDa unstable intermediate, OCIIi. As shown by the degradation pattern of a glutathione S-transferase (GST)/OCII fusion protein, the appearance of OCIIi resulted from the C-terminal truncation of OCII. Either free or linked to GST, OCIIi was as active against papain and human cathepsin H as OCII, and the initial specificities of the inhibitor for these two cysteine proteinases were conserved after cleavage. Although these observations indicate the high conformational stability of OCII near its active (inhibitory) site, they also suggest a general conformational destabilization of this inhibitor following its initial cleavage, subsequently leading to its complete hydrolysis. This apparent susceptibility of OCII to proteolytic cleavage by the insect proteinases could have major implications when planning the use of this plant cystatin for insect pest control. PMID:7574723

  2. Alpha 1-adrenoceptors mediating contraction in arteries of normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats are of the alpha 1D or alpha 1A subtypes.

    PubMed

    Villalobos-Molina, R; Ibarra, M

    1996-03-18

    Alpha 1-Adrenoceptor subtypes mediating contraction in carotid, aorta, mesenteric and caudal arteries from both Wistar Kyoto (WKY) normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats were investigated by using the alpha 1A-adrenoceptor agonist methoxamine and antagonized with selective, competitive antagonists WB-4101, 5-methyl urapidil or BMY 7378 (8-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl)ethyl)-8-azaspiro(4,5)decane -7,9-dione dihydrochloride). Isometric tension changes were recorded after methoxamine addition to the arterial rings, and the effects of the antagonists determined. All the antagonists shifted to the right the concentration-response curve to methoxamine. pA2 values indicate that all arteries but caudal express the alpha 1D-adrenoceptor subtype, since BMY 7378 values were high in these arteries. Due to the high pA2 values for 5-methyl urapidil and WB-4101 and the low values for BMY 7378 we conclude that the tail artery expresses the alpha 1A and not the alpha 1B subtype. No differences were found between both strains of rats, suggesting that hypertension does not modify the alpha 1-adrenoceptors in conductance arteries. PMID:8846824

  3. Purification and characterization of a digestive cysteine proteinase from the American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    PubMed

    Laycock, M V; Hirama, T; Hasnain, S; Watson, D; Storer, A C

    1989-10-15

    A new cysteine proteinase was isolated from the digestive juice of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). The enzyme was purified by a combination of affinity and ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The cysteine proteinase accounted for 80% of the proteolytic activity in the lumen of the hepatopancreas. The most potent heavy-metal inhibitors were Hg, Cu, and Ag ions. Inhibition by organic proteinase inhibitors, including E-64 [L-trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamido-(4-guanidino)butane] and activation of the enzyme by 2-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol are characteristic of cysteine proteinases. Several similarities to papain are noted and include the N-terminal sequence, of which 22 of the first 28 amino acids are identical. Some notable differences are the higher Mr of 28,000 compared with 23,350 for papain, and the low isoelectric point (pI 4.5) of the lobster enzyme. The effects of pH and temperature on catalytic activity of the lobster proteinase were studied with benzyloxycarbonylalanine p-nitrophenyl ester as the substrate. The kcat./Km value was effectively temperature-independent between 10 and 60 degrees C. The pH-activity profile for the lobster enzyme revealed four apparent protonation states, of which only two are active. PMID:2597115

  4. Thymosin alpha1. SciClone Pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Billich, Andreas

    2002-05-01

    Thymosin alpha1 (Talpha1), a synthetic 28-amino acid peptide with multiple biological activities primarily directed towards immune response enhancement, was originally developed by Alpha 1 Biomedicals for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. SciClone developed and launched Talpha1, under the trade name Zadaxin, for the treatment of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. The drug is also being developed for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), hepatocellular carcinoma, AIDS and malignant melanoma. Talpha1 is able to potentiate the action of cytokines and also reduce the hematological toxicity of cytotoxic drug therapy (cyclophosphamide-, 5-fluorouracil-, dacarbazine- or ifosfamide-based regimens). These studies also demonstrated the mechanism of action of Talpha1 and its role as an immune system enhancer. By July 2001, it was in phase III trials in the US in combination with PEGylated interferon-alpha, and later the same month it was approved in the Philippines. SciClone received expanded approval for HBV and HCV infection in Mexico in July 2001. Talpha1 has been launched in Argentina, China, Peru, the Philippines and Singapore for the treatment of chronic HBV infection. The product subsequently received expanded approval for the treatment of both HBV and HCV infection in Argentina. Marketing approval was granted in India for HBV infection in February 2001. The company was working to expand this approval to include HCV infection. In March 2000, approval for treatment of HBV infection was granted in Thailand, Laos and Malta. Approval was also granted in Sri Lanka and Brunei in August 1999. In September 2000, SciClone announced that approval had been expanded to include the treatment of HCV infection as well as the previously approved HBV indication in both Peru and Sri Lanka. In January 1999, SciClone received approval for Talpha1 in Venezuela for the treatment of HBV and HCV infection. The company also filed a marketing

  5. The cysteine proteinases of the pineapple plant.

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, A D; Buttle, D J; Barrett, A J

    1990-01-01

    The pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) was shown to contain at least four distinct cysteine proteinases, which were purified by a procedure involving active-site-directed affinity chromatography. The major proteinase present in extracts of plant stem was stem bromelain, whilst fruit bromelain was the major proteinase in the fruit. Two additional cysteine proteinases were detected only in the stem: these were ananain and a previously undescribed enzyme that we have called comosain. Stem bromelain, fruit bromelain and ananain were shown to be immunologically distinct. Enzymic characterization revealed differences in both substrate-specificities and inhibition profiles. A study of the cysteine proteinase derived from the related bromeliad Bromelia pinguin (pinguinain) indicated that in many respects it was similar to fruit bromelain, although it was found to be immunologically distinct. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2327970

  6. The cysteine proteinases of the pineapple plant.

    PubMed

    Rowan, A D; Buttle, D J; Barrett, A J

    1990-03-15

    The pineapple plant (Ananas comosus) was shown to contain at least four distinct cysteine proteinases, which were purified by a procedure involving active-site-directed affinity chromatography. The major proteinase present in extracts of plant stem was stem bromelain, whilst fruit bromelain was the major proteinase in the fruit. Two additional cysteine proteinases were detected only in the stem: these were ananain and a previously undescribed enzyme that we have called comosain. Stem bromelain, fruit bromelain and ananain were shown to be immunologically distinct. Enzymic characterization revealed differences in both substrate-specificities and inhibition profiles. A study of the cysteine proteinase derived from the related bromeliad Bromelia pinguin (pinguinain) indicated that in many respects it was similar to fruit bromelain, although it was found to be immunologically distinct. PMID:2327970

  7. Identification of stable plant cystatin/nematode proteinase complexes using mildly denaturing gelatin/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Michaud, D; Cantin, L; Bonadé-Bottino, M; Jouanin, L; Vrain, T C

    1996-08-01

    The biochemical interactions between two cystatins from rice seeds, oryzacystatin I (OCI) and oryzacystatin II (OCII), and the cysteine proteinases from three plant parasitic nematodes, Meloidogyne hapla, M. incognita and M. javanica, were assessed using standard protease assays and mildly denaturing gelatin/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (gelatin/PAGE). Activity detected in extracts of preparasitic second-stage larvae (J2) from M. hapla was optimal at pH 5.5 and was inhibited in vitro by the cysteine proteinase inhibitors trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido-(4-guanidino) butane, hen egg cystatin, OCI, and OCII. As demonstrated by class-specific activity staining, all the activity measured between pH 3.5 and pH 7.5 was accounted for by a major proteinase form, Mhp1, and two minor forms, Mhp2 and Mhp3. Mhps were also detected in extracts and excretions of parasitic J2 and adult females, indicating their continuous expression throughout development of M. hapla, and their possible involvement in the extracellular degradation of proteins. Interestingly, the two plant cysteine proteinase inhibitors OCI and OCII showed different degrees of affinity for the major proteinase form, Mhp1. Both inhibitors almost completely inactivated this proteinase in native conditions but, unlike OCII, OCI conserved a high affinity for Mhp1 during mildly denaturing gelatin/PAGE, showing the differential stabilities of the OCI/Mhp1 and OCII/Mhp1 complexes. In contrast to Mhp1, the major cysteine proteinases detected in the two closely related species M. incognita and M. javanica were strongly inhibited by OCII, while the inhibition of OCI was partly prevented during electrophoresis. This species-related efficiency of plant cystatins against nematode cysteine proteinases could have practical implications when planning their use to control nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne. PMID:8874065

  8. Inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Community Counts Blood Safety Inhibitors Articles & Key Findings Free Materials Videos Starting the Conversation Playing it Safe A Look at Hemophilia Joint Range of Motion My Story Links to Other Websites ...

  9. Induction of a heparin-stimulated serine proteinase in sex accessory gland tumors of the Lobund-Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Michael J; Lind, Jeremy; Sinha, Akhouri A

    2015-08-01

    Induction of new proteinase activities that may process growth factors, modify cell surface receptors, cleave extracellular matrix proteins, etc. is considered fundamental in carcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to characterize a novel proteinase activity induced in sex accessory gland cancers (about 70% in seminal vesicles) of adult male Lobund-Wistar rats by a single injection of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU; 25mg/kg) followed by implanted testosterone propionate (45mg in silastic tubing every 2months) treatment for 10-14months. A 28kDa proteinase activity was detected in tumor extracts using SDS-gelatin gel zymography with incubations done without CaCl2. Its activity was stimulated 15 fold by heparin (optimal activity 1.5-3.0μg/lane) added to the tissue extract-SDS sample buffer prior to electrophoresis. No 28kDa heparin-stimulated proteinase (H-SP) was found in the dorsal, lateral and anterior (coagulating gland) prostate lobes or seminal vesicles of untreated adult rats, but there was a 26-30kDa Ca(2+)-independent proteinase activity in the ventral prostate that showed limited heparin stimulation. The 28kDa H-SP was completely inhibited by 1.0mM 4-(2-aminoethyl)benzenesulfonylfluoride (AESBF) indicating that it was a serine-type proteinase. Other types of proteinase inhibitors were without effect, including serine proteinase inhibitors benzamidine, tranexamic acid and ε-aminocaproic acid. Proteinase activities of about 28kDa were found with casein, fibrinogen or carboxymethylated transferrin as substrate, however, these activities were not stimulated by heparin. Similar levels of activities of the 28kDa H-SP were found in primary tumors and their metastases, but little/no activity was detected in serum, even from rats with large tumor volume and metastases. These data demonstrate overexpression of a heparin-stimulated 28kDa serine proteinase in the primary tumors of sex accessory gland cancers and their metastases. This proteinase either does not

  10. Alpha(1) adrenoceptor subtype selectivity. 3D-QSAR models for a new class of alpha(1) adrenoceptor antagonists derived from the novel antipsychotic sertindole.

    PubMed

    Balle, Thomas; Andersen, Kim; Søby, Karina Krøjer; Liljefors, Tommy

    2003-06-01

    Receptor-binding affinities for the alpha(1) adrenoceptor subtypes alpha(1a), alpha(1b) and alpha(1d) for a series of 39 alpha(1) adrenoceptor antagonists derived from the antipsychotic sertindole are reported. The SAR of the compounds with respect to affinity for the alpha(1a), alpha(1b) and alpha(1d) adrenoceptor subtypes as well as affinity obtained by an alpha(1) assay (rat brain membranes) were investigated using a 3D-QSAR approach based on the GRID/GOLPE methodology. Good statistics (r(2)=0.91-0.96; q(2)=0.65-0.73) were obtained with the combination of the water (OH2) and methyl (C3) probes. The combination of steric repulsion and electrostatic attractions explain the affinities of the included molecules. The adrenergic alpha(1a) receptor seems to be more tolerant to large substituents in the area between the indole 5- and 6-positions compared to the adrenergic alpha(1b) and alpha(1d) receptor subtypes. There seems to be minor differences in the position of areas in the alpha(1b) receptor compared to alpha(1a) and alpha(1d) receptors where electrostatic interaction between the molecules and the receptor (OH2 probe) contribute to increased affinity. These observations may be used in the design of new subtype selective compounds. In addition, the model based on biological data from an alpha(1) assay (rat brain membranes) resembles the model for the alpha(1b) adrenoceptor subtype. PMID:12676239

  11. High-molecular-mass multicatalytic proteinase complexes produced by the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia strain BR.

    PubMed Central

    Benoist, P; Müller, A; Diem, H G; Schwencke, J

    1992-01-01

    A major-high-molecular mass proteinase and seven latent minor proteinases were found in cell extracts and in concentrates of culture medium from Frankia sp. strain BR after nondenaturing electrophoresis in mixed gelatin-polyacrylamide gels. All of these complexes showed multicatalytic properties. Their molecular masses and their sedimentation coefficients varied from 1,300 kDa (28S) to 270 kDa (12S). The electroeluted 1,300-kDa proteinase complex dissociated into 11 low-molecular-mass proteinases (40 to 19 kDa) after sodium dodecyl sulfate activation at 30 degrees C and electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. All of these electroeluted proteinases hydrolyzed N-carbobenzoxy-Pro-Ala-Gly-Pro-4-methoxy-beta- naphthylamide, D-Val-Leu-Arg-4-methoxy-beta-naphthylamide, and Boc-Val-Pro-Arg-4-methyl-7-coumarylamide, whereas Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-4-methyl-7-coumarylamide was cleaved only by the six lower-molecular-mass proteinases (27.5 to 19 kDa). Examination by electron microscopy of uranyl acetate-stained, electroeluted 1,300- and 650-kDa intracellular and extracellular proteinase complexes showed ring-shaped and cylindrical particles (10 to 11 nm in diameter, 15 to 16 nm long) similar to those of eukaryotic prosomes and proteasomes. Polyclonal antibodies raised against rat skeletal muscle proteasomes cross-reacted with all of the high-molecular-mass proteinase complexes and, after denaturation of the electroeluted 1,300-kDa band, with polypeptides of 35 to 38, 65, and 90 kDa. Electrophoresis of the activated cell extracts under denaturing conditions revealed 11 to 17 gelatinases from 40 to 19 kDa, including the 11 proteinases of the 1,300-kDa proteinase complex. The inhibition pattern of these proteinases is complex. Thiol-reactive compounds and 1-10-phenanthroline strongly inhibited all of the proteinases, but inhibitors against serine-type proteinases were also effective for most of them. Images PMID:1537794

  12. Assessing the stability of cystatin/cysteine proteinase complexes using mildly-denaturing gelatin-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Michaud, D; Cantin, L; Raworth, D A; Vrain, T C

    1996-01-01

    A method for assessing the stability of cystatin/cysteine proteinase complexes using mildly-denaturing gelatin-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (gelatin-PAGE) is described. As suggested by the use of well-known cystatins (human stefins A and B, and oryzacystatins I and II) and the plant cysteine proteinase papain, the ability of cystatin/cysteine proteinase complexes to remain stable during electrophoresis is associated with the degree of affinity between the enzyme and the inhibitor (and inversely associated with the Ki values), at least with the disulfide bond-lacking cystatins. Complexes with Ki values > or = 10(-8) M (weak interactions) are partly or completely dissociated under the conditions used, while those with lower Ki values (strong interactions) remain stable. As shown by the differential effects of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatins I and II, against a cysteine proteinase present in crude (complex) extracts from a plant pest -- the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch), the gelatin-PAGE procedure is suitable for studying the ability of cystatins to form highly stable complexes with cysteine proteinases, without the need for prior purification steps. Considering the well-recognized potential of proteinase inhibitors for pest and pathogen control, this analytical approach will be useful for rapidly assessing the respective potential of various cystatins for protection of plants, animals, and humans. PMID:8907521

  13. Quinazoline-derived alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists induce prostate cancer cell apoptosis via an alpha1-adrenoceptor-independent action.

    PubMed

    Benning, Cynthia M; Kyprianou, Natasha

    2002-01-15

    Recent evidence suggests that the quinazoline-based alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, doxazosin and terazosin, exhibit a potent apoptotic effect against prostate tumor epithelial cells, whereas tamsulosin, a sulfonamide-based alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist, was ineffective in inducing a similar apoptotic effect against prostate cells (Cancer Res., 60: 4550-4555, 2000). In this study, to identify the precise molecular mechanism underlying this apoptosis induction, we examined whether doxazosin and terazosin (both piperazinyl quinazolines) affect prostate growth via an alpha1-adrenoceptor-independent action. Transfection-mediated overexpression of alpha1-adrenoceptor in human prostate cancer cells, DU-145 (that lack alpha1-adrenoceptor), did not alter the ability of prostate cancer cells to undergo apoptosis in response to quinazolines. Significantly enough, there was no modification of the apoptotic threshold of the androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells, LNCaP, to either quinazoline-based alpha1-agonist by androgens. Furthermore, human normal prostate epithelial cells exhibited a very low sensitivity to the apoptotic effects of doxazosin compared with that observed for the malignant prostate cells. These findings provide the first evidence that the apoptotic activity of the quinazoline-based alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists (doxazosin and terazosin) against prostate cancer cells is independent of: (a) their capacity to antagonize alpha1-adrenoceptors; and (b) the hormone sensitivity status of the cells. This may have potential therapeutic significance in the use of quinazoline-based alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists (already in clinical use for the treatment of hypertension and benign prostate hyperplasia) for the treatment of androgen-independent human prostate cancer. PMID:11809715

  14. Effect of alpha1-blockers on stentless ureteroscopic lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianguo; Liang, Yuxiang; Chen, Weihong; Xu, Shuxiong; Wang, Yuanlin; Hu, Jianxing; He, Hui-chan; Zhong, Wei-de; Sun, Zhaolin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the clinical efficiency of alpha1-adrenergic antagonists on stentless ureteroscopic lithotripsy treating uncomplicated lower ureteral stones. Materials and Methods From January 2007 to January 2013, 84 patients who have uncomplicated lower ureteral stones treated by ureteroscopic intracorporeal lithotripsy with the holmium laser were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups, group A (44 patients received indwelled double-J stents) and group B (40 patients were treated by alpha1-adrenergic antagonists without stents). All cases of group B were treated with alpha1 blocker for 1 week. Results The mean operative time of group A was significantly longer than group B. The incidences of hematuria, flank/abdominal pain, frequency/urgency after surgery were statistically different between both groups. The stone-free rate of each group was 100%. Conclusions The effect of alpha1-adrenergic antagonists is more significant than indwelling stent after ureteroscopic lithotripsy in treating uncomplicated lower ureteral stones. PMID:27136474

  15. How Can Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevented? You can't prevent alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency because the condition is inherited (passed from ... children through genes). If you inherit two faulty AAT genes, you'll have AAT deficiency. Even so, ...

  16. A plant defensive cystatin (soyacystatin) targets cathepsin L-like digestive cysteine proteinases (DvCALs) in the larval midgut of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera).

    PubMed

    Koiwa, H; Shade, R E; Zhu-Salzman, K; D'Urzo, M P; Murdock, L L; Bressan, R A; Hasegawa, P M

    2000-04-01

    Feeding bioassay results established that the soybean cysteine proteinase inhibitor N (soyacystatin N, scN) substantially inhibits growth and development of western corn rootworm (WCR), by attenuating digestive proteolysis [Zhao, Y. et al. (1996) Plant Physiol. 111, 1299-1306]. Recombinant scN was more inhibitory than the potent and broad specificity cysteine proteinase inhibitor E-64. WCR digestive proteolytic activity was separated by mildly denaturing SDS-PAGE into two fractions and in-gel assays confirmed that the proteinase activities of each were largely scN-sensitive. Since binding affinity to the target proteinase [Koiwa, H. et al. (1998) Plant J. 14, 371-380] governs the effectiveness of scN as a proteinase inhibitor and an insecticide, five peptides (28-33 kDa) were isolated from WCR gut extracts by scN affinity chromatographic separation. Analysis of the N-terminal sequence of these peptides revealed similarity to a cathepsin L-like cysteine proteinase (DvCAL1, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera cathepsin L) encoded by a WCR cDNA. Our results indicate that cathepsin L orthologs are pivotal digestive proteinases of WCR larvae, and are targets of plant defensive cystatins (phytocystatins), like scN. PMID:10760514

  17. alpha(1)-blockers for BPH: are there differences?

    PubMed

    de Mey, C

    1999-01-01

    alpha(1)-blockers are well established for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic obstruction (BPO), previously referred to as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The various available alpha(1)-blockers do not differ in terms of their clinical efficacy, but there are several indications that alpha(1)-blockers differ qualitatively with regard to their cardiovascular safety and tolerability, albeit the quantification of these differences is subject to several constraints and pitfalls. Clinical selectivity, i.e. the capacity of separating between desired urological and undesired (actually redundant) cardiovascular alpha(1)-blockade is not unlikely to relate to pharmacological selectivity (the relative preference to block the alpha(1A)- and alpha(1D)-adrenoceptor subtypes in vitro, whilst hardly blocking alpha(1B)-adrenoceptors). On the other hand, both clinical and pharmacological selectivity are not unequivocally reflected by experiments on so-called functional selectivity (in vivo experiments that differentiate urological and cardiovascular effects). Generally, alpha(1)-blockers that are efficacious in hypertension (doxazosin, terazosin, alfuzosin) are more likely to impair safety-relevant, physiological blood pressure control in normotensives with LUTS than tamsulosin, which does not reduce elevated blood pressure in comparison with placebo and has little effect on orthostatic blood pressure control. However, clinical selectivity and cardiovascular safety are also defined by the treatment regimen (dose, dosage interval, formulation, step-up dose-increments for treatment initiation, etc.) and by relevant patient-treatment interactions (co-morbidity and co-medication in particular). On the basis of the available information, tamsulosin administered once daily at a dose of 0.4 mg after breakfast (without step-up increments) can be accepted as a highly convenient and efficacious way to treat LUTS with a low cardiovascular

  18. Monoclonal antibodies to the two most basic papaya proteinases.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, P W; Kilshaw, P J; McEwan, F; Owen, A J

    1986-08-01

    The proteinases from Carica papaya include papain, isoenzymes of chymopapain and two proteinases A and B distinguished by their unusually high pI. The identity of one of the most basic proteinases has been questioned. The present report describes the preparation and characterisation of two monoclonal antibodies that react specifically with papaya proteinases A and B respectively and a third that identifies a common structural feature found in papain and proteinase A. PMID:3545314

  19. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate labeling of sperm-associated proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Odem, R.R.; Willand, J.L.; Polakoski, K.L. )

    1990-02-01

    Proteinase inhibitors have been shown to be capable of preventing various aspects of fertilization. Diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) is an irreversible inhibitor of trypsin-like enzymes that is commercially available in a radiolabeled form. The experiments described herein were designed to determine if DFP would prevent sperm function in live, motile sperm and to identify the sperm proteins bound with DFP. DFP at 5 mM concentrations had no observable effect on sperm motility, but inhibited the penetration of zona-free hamster ova by human sperm (5.5%) compared to controls (33.5%). Acid extracts of motile sperm that had been incubated with radiolabeled DFP and collected by the swim-up procedure demonstrated the presence of radiolabeled DFP, and the autoradiography of the sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels of these extracts localized the uptake of radiolabeled DFP to proteins in the molecular weight region of the proacrosin-acrosin system. Acid-extracted proteinases from semen samples incubated with DFP demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of both esterolytic hydrolysis of benzoyl-arginine ethyl ester on spectrophotometric analysis and proteolytic activity on gelatin SDS-PAGE zymography. DFP-labeled proteins were precipitated by highly specific antibodies to proacrosin. These results demonstrated that DFP is capable of inhibiting sperm function, and that it associates with the proacrosin-acrosin system in live motile sperm.

  20. Key features determining the specificity of aspartic proteinase inhibition by the helix-forming IA3 polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Tim J; Wyatt, David M; Phylip, Lowri H; Bur, Daniel; Harrison, Rebecca J; Berry, Colin; Kay, John

    2007-03-01

    The 68-residue IA(3) polypeptide from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essentially unstructured. It inhibits its target aspartic proteinase through an unprecedented mechanism whereby residues 2-32 of the polypeptide adopt an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation upon contact with the active site of the enzyme. This potent inhibitor (K(i) < 0.1 nm) appears to be specific for a single target proteinase, saccharopepsin. Mutagenesis of IA(3) from S. cerevisiae and its ortholog from Saccharomyces castellii was coupled with quantitation of the interaction for each mutant polypeptide with saccharopepsin and closely related aspartic proteinases from Pichia pastoris and Aspergillus fumigatus. This identified the charged K18/D22 residues on the otherwise hydrophobic face of the amphipathic helix as key selectivity-determining residues within the inhibitor and implicated certain residues within saccharopepsin as being potentially crucial. Mutation of these amino acids established Ala-213 as the dominant specificity-governing feature in the proteinase. The side chain of Ala-213 in conjunction with valine 26 of the inhibitor marshals Tyr-189 of the enzyme precisely into a position in which its side-chain hydroxyl is interconnected via a series of water-mediated contacts to the key K18/D22 residues of the inhibitor. This extensive hydrogen bond network also connects K18/D22 directly to the catalytic Asp-32 and Tyr-75 residues of the enzyme, thus deadlocking the inhibitor in position. In most other aspartic proteinases, the amino acid at position 213 is a larger hydrophobic residue that prohibits this precise juxtaposition of residues and eliminates these enzymes as targets of IA(3). The exquisite specificity exhibited by this inhibitor in its interaction with its cognate folding partner proteinase can thus be readily explained. PMID:17145748

  1. The Role of Neutrophils in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Cormac; Reeves, Emer P; McElvaney, Noel G

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is characterized by low levels of circulating alpha-1 antitrypsin and an increased risk for emphysema, liver disease, and panniculitis. The reduced levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin in AATD predispose the lung to unopposed proteolytic activity, predominantly from neutrophil-derived proteases, chiefly neutrophil elastase. This leads to emphysema. The mechanisms subtending the liver disease are less well understood, but are probably due to a "gain-of function" inflammatory process in the liver, stoked by intracellular retention of aberrantly folded alpha-1 antitrypsin. The panniculitis associated with AATD is most likely due to unopposed proteolytic activity in the skin. Although AATD has been traditionally viewed as a condition arising from a protease-antiprotease imbalance in the lung, it is increasingly recognized that AATD is an inflammatory disorder, both in the lung and in the extrapulmonary manifestations associated with the condition. This inflammation is predominantly neutrophil driven, and there are several alpha-1 antitrypsin-related mechanisms involved in potentiating this neutrophilic response. The rationale for AAT augmentation therapy in AATD is classically based on restoring the antiprotease balance in the lung, but its beneficial effects may also be exerted systemically, further exposing the pathogenesis of AATD-related disease and indicating a potential usage for alpha-1 antitrypsin in other inflammatory conditions. PMID:27564664

  2. Anti-epidermal-cell-surface pemphigus antibody detaches viable epidermal cells from culture plates by activation of proteinase.

    PubMed Central

    Farb, R M; Dykes, R; Lazarus, G S

    1978-01-01

    Immunoglobulin from pemphigus patients binds to the surface of mouse epidermal cells in culture. Cells incubated with the pemphigus antibody are easily detached from culture plates whereas cells incubated with serum from normal patients remain on the plate. Pemphigus antibody-mediated cell detachment is blocked by the addition of the proteinase inhibitors soybean trypsin inhibitor and alpha2-macroglobulin to the culture media. Detachable cells are viable, and activation of the complement cascade is not necessary for cell detachment. The anti-cell-surface antibody of pemphigus appears to disrupt adhesion between viable epidermal cells by activation of proteinase. Images PMID:272663

  3. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system....5420 Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-glycoproteins... alpha-1-glycoproteins (a group of plasma proteins found in the alpha-1 group when subjected...

  4. Alpha1-adrenoceptors in the guinea pig thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Y; Koike, K

    1999-01-01

    In the present study, we tried to determine which alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes are involved in the guinea pig thoracic aorta by using in vitro functional analysis. In first, we tried to estimate the pA2 values of some key alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists (prazosin, 5-methylurapidil, WB4101, BMY7378 and tamsulosin) against responses to norepinephrine in the thoracic aorta of guinea pigs. The concentration-response curves of norepinephrine were rightward shifted by the presence of prazosin, 5 methylurapidil, WB4101, BMY7378 and tamsulosin. The pA2 values for these antagonists against norepinephrine were 7.83, 7.78, 8.20, 5.73 and 9.57, respectively. In second, we tried to compare the estimated pA2 values obtained in the present study with reported pKi and pA2 values for cloned and native alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes. In rabbit mesenteric artery, trigone, urethra, prostate and human lower urinary tract which were proposed to contain the putative alpha1L-adenoceptor, we obtained the good correlation for the pA2 values reported in these tissues with pA2 values estimated in guinea pig thoracic aorta. Moreover, regression lines were close to the line of identity. These results suggest that the alpha1-adenoceptors mediating contraction of guinea pig thoracic aorta are similar pharmacologically to the putative alpha1L-adenoceptor subtype in rabbit mesenteric artery, trigone, urethra, prostate and human lower urinary tract. As a final point, guinea pig thoracic aorta may be able to use as a tool to develop the new alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist which is therapeutically advantageous in the treatment of urinary tract obstruction (e. g., in benign prostatic hyperplasia). PMID:10733154

  5. Mannosidase 2, alpha 1 deficiency is associated with ricin resistance in embryonic stem (ES) cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Hale, Christine; Goulding, Dave; Haslam, Stuart M; Tissot, Bérangère; Lindsay, Christopher; Michell, Stephen; Titball, Rick; Yu, Jun; Toribio, Ana Luisa; Rossi, Raffaella; Dell, Anne; Bradley, Allan; Dougan, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Host gene products required for mediating the action of toxins are potential targets for reversing or controlling their pathogenic impact following exposure. To identify such targets libraries of insertional gene-trap mutations generated with a PiggyBac transposon in Blm-deficient embryonic stem cells were exposed to the plant toxin, ricin. Resistant clones were isolated and genetically characterised and one was found to be a homozygous mutant of the mannosidase 2, alpha 1 (Man2α1) locus with a matching defect in the homologous allele. The causality of the molecular lesion was confirmed by removal of the transposon following expression of PB-transposase. Comparative glycomic and lectin binding analysis of the Man2α1 (-/-) ricin resistant cells revealed an increase in the levels of hybrid glycan structures and a reduction in terminal β-galactose moieties, potential target receptors for ricin. Furthermore, naïve ES cells treated with inhibitors of the N-linked glycosylation pathway at the mannosidase 2, alpha 1 step exhibited either full or partial resistance to ricin. Therefore, we conclusively identified mannosidase 2, alpha 1 deficiency to be associated with ricin resistance. PMID:21886775

  6. A triticale water-deficit-inducible phytocystatin inhibits endogenous cysteine proteinases in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka, Magdalena; Szewińska, Joanna; Mielecki, Marcin; Nykiel, Małgorzata; Imai, Ryozo; Bielawski, Wiesław; Orzechowski, Sławomir

    2015-02-01

    Water-deficit is accompanied by an increase in proteolysis. Phytocystatins are plant inhibitors of cysteine proteinases that belong to the papain and legumain family. A cDNA encoding the protein inhibitor TrcC-8 was identified in the vegetative organs of triticale. In response to water-deficit, increases in the mRNA levels of TrcC-8 were observed in leaf and root tissues. Immunoblot analysis indicated that accumulation of the TrcC-8 protein occurred after 72h of water-deficit in the seedlings. Using recombinant protein, inhibitory activity of TrcC-8 against cysteine proteases from triticale and wheat tissues was analyzed. Under water-deficit conditions, there are increases in cysteine proteinase activities in both plant tissues. The cysteine proteinase activities were inhibited by addition of the recombinant TrcC-8 protein. These results suggest a potential role for the triticale phytocystatin in modulating cysteine proteinase activities during water-deficit conditions. PMID:25462979

  7. The effects of SB 216469, an antagonist which discriminates between the alpha 1A-adrenoceptor and the human prostatic alpha 1-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed Central

    Chess-Williams, R.; Chapple, C. R.; Verfurth, F.; Noble, A. J.; Couldwell, C. J.; Michel, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    1. The affinity of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist SB 216469 (also known as REC 15/2739) has been determined at native and cloned alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes by radioligand binding and at functional alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes in isolated tissues. 2. In radioligand binding studies with [3H]-prazosin, SB 216469 had a high affinity at the alpha 1A-adrenoceptors of the rat cerebral cortex and kidney (9.5-9.8) but a lower affinity at the alpha 1B-adrenoceptors of the rat spleen and liver (7.7-8.2). 3. At cloned rat alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes transiently expressed in COS-1 cells and also at cloned human alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes stably transfected in Rat-1 cells, SB 216469 exhibited a high affinity at the alpha 1a-adrenoceptors (9.6-10.4) with a significantly lower affinity at the alpha 1b-adrenoceptor (8.0-8.4) and an intermediate affinity at the alpha 1d-adrenoceptor (8.7-9.2). 4. At functional alpha 1-adrenoceptors, SB 216469 had a similar pharmacological profile, with a high affinity at the alpha 1A-adrenoceptors of the rat vas deferens and anococcygeus muscle (pA2 = 9.5-10.0), a low affinity at the alpha 1B-adrenoceptors of the rat spleen (6.7) and guinea-pig aorta (8.0), and an intermediate affinity at the alpha 1D-adrenoceptors of the rat aorta (8.8). 5. Several recent studies have concluded that the alpha 1-adrenoceptor present in the human prostate has the pharmacological characteristics of the alpha 1A-adrenoceptor subtype. However, the affinity of SB 216469 at human prostatic alpha 1-adrenoceptors (pA2 = 8.1) determined in isolated tissue strips, was significantly lower than the values obtained at either the cloned alpha 1a-adrenoceptors (human, rat, bovine) or the native alpha 1A-adrenoceptors in radioligand binding and functional studies in the rat. 6. Our results with SB 216469, therefore, suggest that the alpha 1-adrenoceptor mediating contractile responses of the human prostate has properties which distinguish it from the cloned alpha 1a

  8. Characterization and cloning of metallo-proteinase in the excretory/secretory products of the infective-stage larva of Trichinella spiralis.

    PubMed

    Lun, H M; Mak, C H; Ko, R C

    2003-05-01

    Inhibitor sensitivity assays using azocaesin and FTC-caesin as substrates showed that the excretory/secretory (E/S) products of the infective-stage larvae of Trichinella spiralis contained serine, metallo-, cysteine and aspartic proteinases. The activity of the metallo-proteinase was zinc ion dependent (within a range of ZnSO(4) concentrations). Gelatin-substrate gel electrophoresis revealed two bands of molecular mass 48 and 58 kDa which were sensitive to the metallo-proteinase inhibitor EDTA. The former peptide was probably a cleavage product of the latter. The authenticity of the 58 kDa metallo-proteinase as an E/S product was confirmed by immunoprecipitation. Using PCR and RACE reactions, a complete nucleotide sequence of the metallo-proteinase gene was obtained. It comprised 2,223 bp with an open reading frame encoding 604 amino acid residues. The 3' untranslated region consisted of 352 bp, including a polyadenylation signal AATAA. A consensus catalytic zinc-binding motif was present. The conserved domains suggest that the cloned metallo-proteinase belongs to the astacin family and occurs as a single copy gene with 11 introns and 10 exons. Cluster analysis showed that the sequence of the metallo-proteinase gene of T. spiralis resembles those of Caenorhabdites elegans and Strongyloides stercoralis. PMID:12743801

  9. Purification and characterization of a collagenolytic serine proteinase from the skeletal muscle of red sea bream (Pagrus major).

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Ping; Chen, Su-Hua; Liu, Guang-Ming; Yoshida, Asami; Zhang, Ling-Jing; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie

    2010-03-01

    A collagenolytic serine proteinase (CSP) was purified from red sea bream (Pagrus major) skeletal muscle to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate fractionation and chromatographies including DEAE-Sephacel, Phenyl Sepharose and Hydroxyapatite. The molecular mass of CSP was approximately 85 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration. Optimum temperature and pH of CSP were 40 degrees C and 8.0, respectively. CSP was specifically inhibited by serine proteinase inhibitors, while inhibitors to other type proteinases did not show much inhibitory effects. The K(m) and k(cat) values of CSP for Boc-Leu-Lys-Arg-MCA were 3.58 microM and 0.13 s(-1) at 37 degrees C, respectively. Furthermore, CSP hydrolyzed gelatin and native type I collagen effectively though its degradation on myosin heavy chain (MHC) was not significant, suggesting its involvement in the texture tenderization of fish muscle during the post-mortem stage. PMID:19945542

  10. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (a protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues. Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin helps protect tissues against proteolytic (protein-splitting) enzymes released during...

  11. Automated docking of {alpha}-(1,4)- and {alpha}-(1,6)-linked glucosyl trisaccharides in the glucoamylase active site

    SciTech Connect

    Countinho, P.M.; Reilly, P.J.; Dowd, M.K.

    1998-06-01

    Low-energy conformers of five {alpha}-(1,4)- and {alpha}-(1,6)-linked glucosyl trisaccharides were flexibly docked into the glucoamylase active site using AutoDock 2.2. To ensure that all significant conformational space was searched, the starting trisaccharide conformers for docking were all possible combinations of the corresponding disaccharide low-energy conformers. All docked trisaccharides occupied subsites {minus}1 and +1 in very similar modes to those of corresponding nonreducing-end disaccharides. For linear substrates, full binding at subsite +2 occurred only when the substrate reducing end was {alpha}-(1,4)-linked, with hydrogen-bonding with the hydroxy-methyl group being the only polar interaction there. Given the absence of other important interactions at this subsite, multiple substrate conformations are allowed. For the one docked branched substrate, steric hindrance in the {alpha}-(1,6)-glycosidic oxygen suggests that the active-site residues have to change position for hydrolysis to occur. Subsite +1 of the glucoamylase active site allows flexibility in binding but, at least in Aspergillus glucoamylases, subsite +2 selectively binds substrates {alpha}-(1,4)-linked between subsites +1 and +2. Enzyme engineering to limit substrate flexibility at subsite +2 could improve glucoamylase industrial properties.

  12. Digestive proteinase activity of the Khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium Everts (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

    PubMed

    Naveh, V Hosseini; Bandani, A R; Azmayeshfard, P; Hosseinkhani, S

    2005-01-01

    The khapra beetle, Trogoderma granarium, is one of the most important stored product pests worldwide. A study of digestive proteinases in T. granarium was performed to identify potential targets for proteinaceous biopesticides, such as proteinase inhibitors. The pH of guts was determined by addition of pH indicator solutions to broken open gut regions. The last instar larvae were dissected in cold distilled water and the whole guts were cleaned from adhering unwanted tissues. The pooled gut homogenates were centrifuged and the supernatants were used in the subsequent enzyme assay. Total proteinases activity of the gut homogenates was determined using the protein substrate azocasein. Optimal azocasein hydrolysis by luminal proteinases of the larvae of T. granarium was highly alkaline in pH 10-10.5, although the pH of luminal contents was slightly acidic (pH 6.5). The extract showed the highest activity at 55 degrees C (pH 6.5), 45 degrees C (pH 8) and 30 degrees C (pH 10). The proteolytic activity was strongly inhibited in the presence of phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride (82.33+/-4.37% inhibition). This inhibition was decreased with increasing of the pH of assay incubating medium. N-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (51.6+/-3.3% inhibition) and N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (27.23+/-4.37 % inhibition) showed inhibitory effect on proteolysis. Addition of thiol activators dithiothreitol and L-cysteine had not enhanced azocaseinolytic activity. The data suggest that protein digestion in the larvae of T. granarium is primarily dependent on serine proteinases; trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like proteinases. PMID:16628932

  13. Functional analysis of {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferase VI in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Qiya; Guo, Bin; Wang, Yingming; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Wenjun; Zhao, Shenan; Qiao, Shouyi; Wu, Yanhua

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human FUT6 is up-regulated in HCC tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of FUT6 promotes G0/G1-S transition and cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 confers a growth advantage in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 suppresses p21 expression through modulating PI3K/Akt signaling. -- Abstract: The {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferases (FUT) subfamily are key enzymes in cell surface antigen synthesis during various biological processes. A novel role of FUTs in tumorigenesis has been discovered recently, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized FUT6, a member of {alpha}1,3/4-FUT subfamily, in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In HCC tissues, the expression levels of FUT6 and its catalytic product SLe{sup x} were significantly up-regulated. Overexpression of FUT6 in HCC cells enhanced S-phase cell population, promoted cell growth and colony formation ability. Moreover, subcutaneously injection of FUT6-overexpressing cells in nude mice promoted cell growth in vivo. In addition, elevating FUT6 expression markedly induced intracellular Akt phosphorylation, and suppressed the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor p21. Bath application of the PI3K inhibitor blocked FUT6-induced Akt phosphorylation, p21 suppression and cell proliferation. Our results suggest that FUT6 plays an important role in HCC growth by regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  14. When activity requires breaking up: LEKTI proteolytic activation cascade for specific proteinase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Furio, Laetitia; Hovnanian, Alain

    2011-11-01

    Lymphoepithelial Kazal-type related inhibitor (LEKTI) is a multidomain proteinase inhibitor whose defective expression causes Netherton syndrome (NS). LEKTI is encoded by SPINK5, which is also a susceptibility gene for atopic disease. In this issue, Fortugno et al. report an elegant and thorough study of the LEKTI proteolytic activation process in which they identify the precise nature of the cleavage sites used and the bioactive fragments generated. They propose a proteolytic activation model in human skin and confirm differential inhibition of kallikrein (KLK) 5, 7, and 14 by the major physiological LEKTI fragments. They show that these bioactive fragments inhibit KLK-mediated proteolysis of desmoglein 1 (DSG1) and suggest a fine-tuned inhibition process controlling target serine proteinase (SP) activity. PMID:21997416

  15. Deficiency of a alpha-1-antitrypsin influences systemic iron homeostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Background: There is evidence that proteases and anti-proteases participate in the iron homeostasis of cells and living systems. We tested the postulate that alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) polymorphism and the consequent deficiency of this anti-protease in humans are asso...

  16. Purification and some physico-chemical and enzymic properties of a calcium ion-activated neutral proteinase from rabbit skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Azanza, Jean-Louis; Raymond, Jacques; Robin, Jean-Michel; Cottin, Patrick; Ducastaing, André

    1979-01-01

    Ca2+-activated neutral proteinase was purified from rabbit skeletal muscle by a method involving DEAE-Sephacel chromatography, affinity chromatography on organomercurial–Sepharose and gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200 and Sephadex G-150. The SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate)/polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis data show that the purified enzyme contains only one polypeptide chain of mol.wt. 73000. The purification procedure used allowed us to eliminate a contaminant containing two components of mol.wt. about 30000 each. Whole casein or α1-casein were hydrolysed with a maximum rate at 30°C, pH7.5, and with 5mm-CaCl2, but myofibrils were found to be a very susceptible substrate for this proteinase. This activity is associated with the destruction of the Z-discs, which is caused by the solubilization of the Z-line proteins. The activity of the proteinase in vitro is not limited to the removal of Z-line. SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis on larger plates showed the ability of the proteinase to degrade myofibrils more extensively than previously supposed. This proteolysis resulted in the production of a 30000-dalton component as well as in various other higher- and lower-molecular-weight peptide fragments. Troponin T, troponin I, α-tropomyosin, some high-molecular-weight proteins (M protein, heavy chain of myosin) and three unidentified proteins are degraded. Thus the number of proteinase-sensitive regions in the myofibrils is greater than as previously reported by Dayton, Goll, Zeece, Robson & Reville [(1976) Biochemistry 15, 2150–2158]. The Ca2+-activated neutral proteinase is not a chymotrypsin- or trypsin-like enzyme, but it reacted with all the classic thiol-proteinase inhibitors for cathepsin B, papain, bromelain and ficin. Thus the proteinase was proved to have an essential thiol group. Antipain and leupeptin are also inhibitors of the Ca2+-activated neutral proteinase. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:534501

  17. Correlation between mRNA levels and functional role of alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes in arteries: evidence of alpha1L as a functional isoform of the alpha1A-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed

    Martí, Daniel; Miquel, Raquel; Ziani, Khalid; Gisbert, Regina; Ivorra, M Dolores; Anselmi, Elsa; Moreno, Lucrecia; Villagrasa, Victoria; Barettino, Domingo; D'Ocon, Pilar

    2005-11-01

    The mRNA levels for the three alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes, alpha1A, alpha1B, and alpha1D, were quantified by real-time RT-PCR in arteries from Wistar rats. The alpha1D-adrenoceptor was prominent in both aorta (79.0%) and mesenteric artery (68.7%), alpha1A predominated in tail (61.7%) and small mesenteric artery (73.3%), and both alpha1A- and alpha1D-subtypes were expressed at similar levels in iliac artery. The mRNA levels of the alpha1B-subtype were a minority in all vessels (1.7-11.1%). Concentration-response curves of contraction in response to phenylephrine or relaxation in response to alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists on maximal sustained contraction induced by phenylephrine were constructed from control vessels and vessels pretreated with 100 micromol/l chloroethylclonidine (CEC) for 30 min. The significant decrease in the phenylephrine potency observed after CEC treatment together with the inhibitory potency displayed by 8-{2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-8-azaspiro (4,5) decane-7-dionedihydrochloride} (BMY-7378, an alpha1D-adrenoceptor antagonist) confirm the relevant role of alpha1D-adrenoceptors in aorta and iliac and proximal mesenteric arteries. The potency of 5-methylurapidil (an alpha1A-adrenoceptor antagonist) and the changes in the potency of both BMY-7378 and 5-methylurapidil after CEC treatment provided evidence of a mixed population of alpha1A- and alpha1D-adrenoceptors in iliac and distal mesenteric arteries. The low potency of prazosin (pIC50 < 9) as well as the high 5-methylurapidil potency in tail and small mesenteric arteries suggest the main role of alpha1A/alpha1L-adrenoceptors with minor participation of the alpha1D-subtype. The mRNA levels and CEC treatment corroborated this pattern and confirmed that the alpha1L-adrenoceptor could be a functional isoform of the alpha1A-subtype. PMID:15951348

  18. Unusual chromatographic behaviour and one-step purification of a novel membrane proteinase from Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Fricke, B; Buchmann, T; Friebe, S

    1995-11-01

    Cell envelopes of Bacillus cereus contain a casein-cleaving membrane proteinase (CCMP) and an insulin-cleaving membrane proteinase (ICMP), which differ in their substrate and inhibitor specificity from all Bacillus proteinases described previously. They remained localized in the cytoplasmic membrane after treatment with lysozyme and mutanolysin and they are strongly attached to the membrane compared with other known membrane proteinases. Only high a concentration of the Zwitterionic detergent sulfobetain SB-12 enabled an effective solubilization of both membrane proteinases. The usual conventional purification methods, such as chromatofocusing, ion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography in the presence of detergent concentrations beyond their critical micelle concentration, could not be applied to the purification, because the solubilized membrane proteinases bound strongly and irreversibly to the chromatographic matrix. In the search for other purification methods, we used a tentacle ion-exchanger (EMD trimethylaminoethyl-Fractogel) to reduce the hydrophobic interactions between the proteinases and the matrix. All contaminating proteins could be removed by a first gradient of sodium chloride without elution of CCMP; a second gradient with isopropanol and a decreasing salt concentration resulted in an efficiently purified CCMP. The ICMP was irreversibly denaturated. Purified CCMP is a member of the metalloproteinase family with a pH optimum in the neutral range and a temperature optimum of 40 degrees C, whose properties differ from the serine-type membrane proteinase of Bacillus subtilis described by Shimizu et al. [Agric. Biol. Chem., 47 (1983) 1775]. It consists of two subunits in sodiumdodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) under reducing conditions (Mr 53,000 and 65,000); however, the molecular mass of the purified enzyme could not be determined by size exclusion or SDS-PAGE, because the purified enzyme

  19. 21 CFR 866.5580 - Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system....5580 Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-lipoprotein... the alpha-1-lipoprotein (high-density lipoprotein) in serum and plasma. Measurement of...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5580 - Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system....5580 Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-lipoprotein... the alpha-1-lipoprotein (high-density lipoprotein) in serum and plasma. Measurement of...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5130 - Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system. 866....5130 Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-antitrypsin... the alpha-1-antitrypsin (a plasma protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues. The...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5580 - Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system....5580 Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-lipoprotein... the alpha-1-lipoprotein (high-density lipoprotein) in serum and plasma. Measurement of...

  3. Phage display selection of P1 mutants of BPTI directed against five different serine proteinases.

    PubMed

    Kiczak, L; Koscielska, K; Otlewski, J; Czerwinski, M; Dadlez, M

    1999-01-01

    The P1 position of protein inhibitors and oligopeptide substrates determines, to a large extent, association energy with many serine proteinases. To test the agreement of phage display selection with the existing thermodynamic data, a small library of all 20 P1 mutants of basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) was created, fused to protein III, and displayed on the surface of M13 phage. The wild type of displayed inhibitor monovalently and strongly inhibited trypsin with an association constant of Ka = 3 x 10(11) M(-1). The library was applied to select BPTI variants active against five serine proteinases of different specificity (bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin, human leukocyte and porcine pancreatic elastases, human azurocidin). The results of enrichment with four proteinases agreed well with the available thermodynamic data. In the case of azurocidin, the phage display selection allowed determination of the P1 specificity of this protein with the following frequencies for selected P1 variants: 43% Lys, 36% Leu, 7% Met, 7% Thr, 7% Gln. PMID:10064144

  4. Dependence of vascular permeability enhancement on cysteine proteinases in vesicles of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, T; Potempa, J; Pike, R N; Travis, J

    1995-01-01

    Infection with Porphyromonas gingivalis is strongly associated with adult periodontitis, and proteinases are considered to be important virulent factors of the bacterium. In order to investigate the function of proteinases in disease development we examined vesicles, a biological carrier of these enzymes, for the generation of vascular permeability enhancement (VPE) activity, believed to correlate with the exudation of gingival crevicular fluid. The vesicles generated VPE activity from human plasma in a dose-dependent manner which could be inhibited 90% by antipain, a specific inhibitor of the Arg-specific cysteine proteinases (Arg-gingipains [RGPs] from P. gingivalis. Incubation of vesicles with high-molecular-weight-kininogen (HMWK)-deficient plasma did not result in VPE activity. On this basis, RGPs associated with vesicles were assumed to be responsible for most of the VPE activity generation via plasma prekallikrein activation and subsequent bradykinin production. The secondary pathway for VPE activity production was dependent on the direct release of bradykinin from HMWK by the concerted action of RGP and a Lys-specific cysteine proteinase (Lys-gingipain [KGP]), also associated with vesicles. These results indicate that RGP and KGP are biologically important VPE factors acting either via prekallikrein activation (RGP) and/or HMWK cleavage (RGP and KGP) to release BK and, thereby, contributing to the production of gingival crevicular fluid at periodontal sites infected with P. gingivalis. PMID:7729914

  5. Rationale and Design of the Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis Study. Alpha-1 Protocol.

    PubMed

    Strange, Charlie; Senior, Robert M; Sciurba, Frank; O'Neal, Scott; Morris, Alison; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Bowler, Russell; Hochheiser, Harry S; Becich, Michael J; Zhang, Yingze; Leader, Joseph K; Methé, Barbara A; Kaminski, Naftali; Sandhaus, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    Severe deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin has a highly variable clinical presentation. The Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis α1 Study is a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study of adults older than age 35 years with PiZZ or PiMZ alpha-1 antitrypsin genotypes. It is designed to better understand if microbial factors influence this heterogeneity. Clinical symptoms, pulmonary function testing, computed chest tomography, exercise capacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) will be used to define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotypes that can be studied with an integrated systems biology approach that includes plasma proteomics; mouth, BAL, and stool microbiome and virome analysis; and blood microRNA and blood mononuclear cell RNA and DNA profiling. We will rely on global genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome datasets. Matched cohorts of PiZZ participants on or off alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy, PiMZ participants not on augmentation therapy, and control participants from the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study who match on FEV1 and age will be compared. In the primary analysis, we will determine if the PiZZ individuals on augmentation therapy have a difference in lower respiratory tract microbes identified compared with matched PiZZ individuals who are not on augmentation therapy. By characterizing the microbiome in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), we hope to define new phenotypes of COPD that explain some of the diversity of clinical presentations. As a unique genetic cause of COPD, AATD may inform typical COPD pathogenesis, and better understanding of it may illuminate the complex interplay between environment and genetics. Although the biologic approaches are hypothesis generating, the results may lead to development of novel biomarkers, better understanding of COPD phenotypes, and development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic trials in AATD and COPD

  6. Alpha1-Antitrypsin Attenuates Renal Fibrosis by Inhibiting TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jang-Hee; Ryu, Hye-Myung; Oh, Eun-Joo; Yook, Ju-Min; Ahn, Ji-Sun; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Choi, Ji-Young; Park, Sun-Hee; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Kim, Chan-Duck

    2016-01-01

    Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) exerts its anti-inflammatory effect through regulating the activity of serine proteinases. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of AAT against the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) mice and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. C57BL/6 mice with induced UUO were injected intraperitoneally with AAT (80 mg/Kg) or vehicle for 7 days. MDCK cells were treated with TGF-β1 (2 ng/mL) for 48 hours to induce EMT, and co-treated with AAT (10 mg/mL) to inhibit the EMT. Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining was used to estimate the extent of renal fibrosis in UUO mice. The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin, fibronectin, collagen I, and E-cadherin in MDCK cells and kidney tissue were evaluated. Masson's and Sirius red staining revealed that the area of renal fibrosis was significantly smaller in AAT treated UUO group compared with that of UUO and vehicle treated UUO groups. AAT treatment attenuated upregulation of Smad2/3 phosphorylation in UUO mouse model. Co-treatment of MDCK cells with TGF-β1 and AAT significantly attenuated the changes in the expression of α-SMA, vimentin, fibronectin, collagen I, and E-cadherin. AAT also decreased the phosphorylated Smad3 expression and the phosphorylated Smad3/Smad3 ratio in MDCK cells. AAT treatment inhibited EMT induced by TGF-β1 in MDCK cells and attenuated renal fibrosis in the UUO mouse model. The results of this work suggest that AAT could inhibit the process of EMT through the suppression of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling. PMID:27607429

  7. New Concepts in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Disease Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Stefan J; Ordóñez, Adriana; Dickens, Jennifer A; Chambers, Joseph E; Patel, Vruti; Dominicus, Caia S; Malzer, Elke

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is predominantly caused by point mutations that alter the protein's folding. These mutations fall into two broad categories: those that destabilize the protein dramatically and lead to its post-translational degradation and those that affect protein structure more subtly to promote protein polymerization within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This distinction is important because it determines the cell's response to each mutant. The severely misfolded mutants trigger an unfolded protein response (UPR) that promotes improved protein folding but can kill the cell in the chronic setting. In contrast, mutations that permit polymer formation fail to activate the UPR but instead promote a nuclear factor-κB-mediated ER overload response. The ability of polymers to increase a cell's sensitivity to ER stress likely explains apparent inconsistencies in the alpha-1 antitrypsin-signaling literature that have linked polymers with the UPR. In this review we discuss the use of mutant serpins to dissect each signaling pathway. PMID:27564663

  8. Biomarkers in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Turino, Gerard M; Ma, Shuren; Cantor, Jerome O; Lin, Yong Y

    2016-08-01

    Biomarkers of pathogenesis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can significantly accelerate drug development. In COPD related to alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, the role of neutrophil elastase and its inhibition by alpha-1 antitrypsin protein focused interest on elastin degradation and the development of pulmonary emphysema. Amino acids desmosine and isodesmosine are unique cross-links in mature elastin fibers and can serve as biomarkers of elastin degradation when measured in body fluids. This review gives a perspective on what has been learned by the earliest measurements of desmosine and isodesmosine followed by later studies using methods of increased sensitivity and specificity and the meaning for developing new therapies. Also included are brief statements on the biomarkers fibrinogen, CC-16, and Aa-Val-360 in COPD. PMID:27564670

  9. Selective action of two aporphines at alpha 1-adrenoceptors and potential-operated Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Ivorra, M D; Chuliá, S; Lugnier, C; D'Ocon, M P

    1993-02-01

    Contractions evoked by noradrenaline (1 microM) or a depolarizing solution of 60 mM KCl were concentration dependently depressed by the aporphine alkaloids (S)-boldine and (R)-apomorphine in rat aorta. Both drugs had a greater inhibitory potency on the contraction elicited by noradrenaline. Dose-response curves for noradrenaline were shifted to the right in presence of (S)-boldine. (R)-Apomorphine acted by a complex mechanism at alpha 1-adrenoceptors and its inhibitory effect was irreversible. The conformational features of these alkaloids may explain their different behaviour at alpha 1-adrenoceptors. In Ca(2+)-free solution, the alkaloids inhibited the contraction evoked by noradrenaline but did not modify (apomorphine) or increase (boldine) the contractile response induced by caffeine. Both alkaloids interacted with [3H]prazosin binding and with the benzothiazepine binding site of the Ca2+ entry receptor complex but had no effect at the dihydropyridine binding site in the rat cerebral cortex. Both drugs showed some selectivity as inhibitors of [3H]prazosin binding as opposed to [3H]d-cis diltiazem binding. (R)-Apomorphine slightly inhibited one of the two forms of the Ca(2+)-independent, low Km cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase (type IV), whereas it did not have a significant effect on the other phosphodiesterase forms. (S)-Boldine had negligible inhibitory effects on all phosphodiesterase forms. The present study provides evidence that (S)-boldine and (R)-apomorphine have interesting properties as Ca2+ entry blockers (through the benzothiazepine receptor site in the Ca2+ channel) and at alpha 1-adrenoceptors. PMID:8384112

  10. Mechanisms of alpha 1-adrenergic vascular desensitization in conscious dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiuchi, K.; Vatner, D. E.; Uemura, N.; Bigaud, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hempel, D. M.; Graham, R. M.; Vatner, S. F.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of alpha 1-adrenergic vascular desensitization, osmotic minipumps containing either saline (n = 9) or amidephrine mesylate (AMD) (n = 9), a selective alpha 1-adrenergic receptor agonist, were implanted subcutaneously in dogs with chronically implanted arterial and right atrial pressure catheters and aortic flow probes. After chronic alpha 1-adrenergic receptor stimulation, significant physiological desensitization to acute AMD challenges was observed, i.e., pressor and vasoconstrictor responses to the alpha 1-adrenergic agonist were significantly depressed (p < 0.01) compared with responses in the same dogs studied in the conscious state before pump implantation. However, physiological desensitization to acute challenges of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) in the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade was not observed for either mean arterial pressure (MAP) (30 +/- 7 versus 28 +/- 5 mm Hg) or total peripheral resistance (TPR) (29.8 +/- 4.9 versus 28.9 +/- 7.3 mm Hg/l per minute). In the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor plus ganglionic blockade after AMD pump implantation, physiological desensitization to NE was unmasked since the control responses to NE (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) before the AMD pumps were now greater (p < 0.01) than after chronic AMD administration for both MAP (66 +/- 5 versus 32 +/- 2 mm Hg) and TPR (42.6 +/- 10.3 versus 23.9 +/- 4.4 mm Hg/l per minute). In the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor, ganglionic, plus NE-uptake blockade after AMD pump implantation, desensitization was even more apparent, since NE (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) induced even greater differences in MAP (33 +/- 5 versus 109 +/- 6 mm Hg) and TPR (28.1 +/- 1.8 versus 111.8 +/- 14.7 mm Hg/l per minute). The maximal force of contraction induced by NE in the presence or absence of endothelium was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in vitro in mesenteric artery rings from AMD pump dogs

  11. Alpha1-adrenoreceptor in human hippocampus: binding and receptor subtype mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Szot, Patricia; White, Sylvia S; Greenup, J Lynne; Leverenz, James B; Peskind, Elaine R; Raskind, Murray A

    2005-10-01

    Alpha1-adrenoreceptors (AR), of which three subtypes exist (alpha1A-, alpha1B- and alpha1D-AR) are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the actions of norepinephrine and epinephrine both peripherally and centrally. In the CNS, alpha1-ARs are found in the hippocampus where animal studies have shown the ability of alpha1-AR agents to modulate long-term potentiation and memory; however, the precise distribution of alpha1-AR expression and its subtypes in the human brain is unknown making functional comparisons difficult. In the human hippocampus, 3H-prazosin (alpha1-AR antagonist) labels only the dentate gyrus (molecular, granule and polymorphic layers) and the stratum lucidum of the CA3 homogeneously. Human alpha1A-AR mRNA in the hippocampus is observed only in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer, while alpha1D-AR mRNA expression is observed only in the pyramidal cell layers of CA1, CA2 and CA3, regions where 3H-prazosin did not bind. alpha1B-AR mRNA is not expressed at detectable levels in the human hippocampus. These results confirm a difference in hippocampal alpha1-AR localization between rat and humans and further describe a difference in the localization of the alpha1A- and alpha1D-AR mRNA subtype between rats and humans. PMID:16039007

  12. Roles of the Picornaviral 3C Proteinase in the Viral Life Cycle and Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Di; Chen, Shun; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu

    2016-01-01

    The Picornaviridae family comprises a large group of non-enveloped viruses that have a major impact on human and veterinary health. The viral genome contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that can be processed by viral proteinases. The crucial 3C proteinases (3Cpros) of picornaviruses share similar spatial structures and it is becoming apparent that 3Cpro plays a significant role in the viral life cycle and virus host interaction. Importantly, the proteinase and RNA-binding activity of 3Cpro are involved in viral polyprotein processing and the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. In addition, 3Cpro can induce the cleavage of certain cellular factors required for transcription, translation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to modulate cell physiology for viral replication. Due to interactions between 3Cpro and these essential factors, 3Cpro is also involved in viral pathogenesis to support efficient infection. Furthermore, based on the structural conservation, the development of irreversible inhibitors and discovery of non-covalent inhibitors for 3Cpro are ongoing and a better understanding of the roles played by 3Cpro may provide insights into the development of potential antiviral treatments. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the structural features, multiple functions in the viral life cycle, pathogen host interaction, and development of antiviral compounds for 3Cpro is summarized. PMID:26999188

  13. Roles of the Picornaviral 3C Proteinase in the Viral Life Cycle and Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Di; Chen, Shun; Cheng, Anchun; Wang, Mingshu

    2016-01-01

    The Picornaviridae family comprises a large group of non-enveloped viruses that have a major impact on human and veterinary health. The viral genome contains one open reading frame encoding a single polyprotein that can be processed by viral proteinases. The crucial 3C proteinases (3C(pro)s) of picornaviruses share similar spatial structures and it is becoming apparent that 3C(pro) plays a significant role in the viral life cycle and virus host interaction. Importantly, the proteinase and RNA-binding activity of 3C(pro) are involved in viral polyprotein processing and the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. In addition, 3C(pro) can induce the cleavage of certain cellular factors required for transcription, translation and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to modulate cell physiology for viral replication. Due to interactions between 3C(pro) and these essential factors, 3C(pro) is also involved in viral pathogenesis to support efficient infection. Furthermore, based on the structural conservation, the development of irreversible inhibitors and discovery of non-covalent inhibitors for 3C(pro) are ongoing and a better understanding of the roles played by 3C(pro) may provide insights into the development of potential antiviral treatments. In this review, the current knowledge regarding the structural features, multiple functions in the viral life cycle, pathogen host interaction, and development of antiviral compounds for 3C(pro) is summarized. PMID:26999188

  14. Proteolytic inactivation of the leukocyte C5a receptor by proteinases derived from Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Jagels, M A; Travis, J; Potempa, J; Pike, R; Hugli, T E

    1996-01-01

    The anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis has been implicated as a primary causative agent in adult periodontitis. Several proteinases are produced by this bacterium, and it is suggested that they contribute to virulence and to local tissue injury resulting from infection by P. gingivalis. Cysteine proteinases with specificities to cleave either Arg-X or Lys-X peptide bonds (i.e., gingipains) have been characterized as predominant enzymes associated with vesicles shed from the surface of this bacterium. It has recently been demonstrated that these proteinases are capable of degrading the blood complement component C5, resulting in the generation of biologically active C5a. By using an affinity-purified rabbit antibody raised against residues 9 to 29 of the C5a receptor (C5aR; CD88), we demonstrate that noncysteinyl proteinases associated with vesicles obtained from P. gingivalis cleave the C5aR on human neutrophils. Proteolytic attack of the C5aR by enzymes from the P. gingivalis vesicles was inhibited by TPCK (tolylsullonyl phenylalanyl chloromethyl ketone), PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride), and dichloroisocoumarin, suggesting that serine proteinases are primarily responsible for this degradative activity. The purified vesicle proteinase Lys-gingipain but not Arg-gingipain also cleaved the N-terminal region of the C5aR on the human neutrophils. Lys-gingipain activity was essentially resistant to these inhibitors but was inhibited by TLCK (Nalpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone) and iodoacetamide. A synthetic peptide that mimics the N-terminal region of C5aR (residues 9 to 29; PDYGHY DDKDTLDLNTPVDKT) was readily cleaved by chymotrypsin but not by trypsin, despite the presence of two potential trypsin (i.e., lysyl-X) cleavage sites. The specific sites of cleavage in the C5aR 9-29 peptide were determined by mass spectroscopy for both chymotrypsin and Lys-gingipain digests. This analysis demonstrated that the C5aR peptide is susceptible to cleavage at

  15. Suppression of human prostate cancer cell growth by alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists doxazosin and terazosin via induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kyprianou, N; Benning, C M

    2000-08-15

    Recent evidence from our laboratory has demonstrated that alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists doxazosin and terazosin induced apoptosis in prostate epithelial and smooth muscle cells in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; J. Urol., 159: 1810-1815, 1998; J. Urol., 161: 2002-2007, 1999). In this study, we investigated the biological action of three alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, doxazosin, terazosin, and tamsulosin, against prostate cancer cell growth. The antigrowth effect of the three alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists was examined in two human prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and DU-145, and a prostate smooth muscle cell primary culture, SMC-1, on the basis of: (a) cell viability assay; (b) rate of DNA synthesis; and (c) induction of apoptosis. Our results indicate that treatment of prostate cancer cells with doxazosin or terazosin results in a significant loss of cell viability, via induction of apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, whereas tamsulosin had no effect on prostate cell growth. Neither doxazosin nor terazosin exerted a significant effect on the rate of cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells. Exposure to phenoxybenzamine, an irreversible inhibitor of alpha1-adrenoceptors, does not abrogate the apoptotic effect of doxazosin or terazosin against human prostate cancer or smooth muscle cells. This suggests that the apoptotic activity of doxazosin and terazosin against prostate cells is independent of their capacity to antagonize alpha1-adrenoceptors. Furthermore, an in vivo efficacy trial demonstrated that doxazosin administration (at tolerated pharmacologically relevant doses) in SCID mice bearing PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth. These findings demonstrate the ability of doxazosin and terazosin (but not tamsulosin) to suppress prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis without affecting cell proliferation. This evidence provides the rationale for targeting both

  16. Ethanol reduces GABAA alpha1 subunit receptor surface expression by a protein kinase Cgamma-dependent mechanism in cultured cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Suryanarayanan, Asha; Boyd, Kevin N; Comerford, Chris E; Lai, Marvin A; Ren, Qinglu; Morrow, A Leslie

    2010-05-01

    Prolonged ethanol exposure causes central nervous system hyperexcitability that involves a loss of GABAergic inhibition. We previously demonstrated that long-term ethanol exposure enhances the internalization of synaptic GABA(A) receptors composed of alpha1beta2/3gamma2 subunits. However, the mechanisms of ethanol-mediated internalization are unknown. This study explored the effect of ethanol on surface expression of GABA(A) alpha1 subunit-containing receptors in cultured cerebral cortical neurons and the role of protein kinase C (PKC) beta, gamma, and epsilon isoforms in their trafficking. Cultured neurons were prepared from rat pups on postnatal day 1 and maintained for 18 days. Cells were exposed to ethanol, and surface receptors were isolated by biotinylation and P2 fractionation, whereas functional analysis was conducted by whole-cell patch-clamp recording of GABA- and zolpidem-evoked responses. Ethanol exposure for 4 h decreased biotinylated surface expression of GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunits and reduced zolpidem (100 nM) enhancement of GABA-evoked currents. The PKC activator phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate mimicked the effect of ethanol, and the selective PKC inhibitor calphostin C prevented ethanol-induced internalization of these receptors. Ethanol exposure for 4 h also increased the colocalization and coimmunoprecipitation of PKCgamma with alpha1 subunits, whereas PKCbeta/alpha1 association and PKCepsilon/alpha1 colocalization were not altered by ethanol exposure. Selective PKCgamma inhibition by transfection of selective PKCgamma small interfering RNAs blocked ethanol-induced internalization of GABA(A) receptor alpha1 subunits, whereas PKCbeta inhibition using pseudo-PKCbeta had no effect. These findings suggest that ethanol exposure selectively alters PKCgamma translocation to GABA(A) receptors and PKCgamma regulates GABA(A) alpha1 receptor trafficking after ethanol exposure. PMID:20159950

  17. Smoking and intermediate alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency and lung function in middle-aged men.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, C; Eriksson, S; Dirksen, H

    1977-01-01

    Lung function was evaluated in a representative population sample of 50-year-0ld men living in one Swedish city. Twenty-four smoking and 15 non-smoking men heterozygous for alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency--that is, with the protease-inhibitor (Pi1 phenotype MZ--were carefully matched for weight and smoking habit with Pi M controls. The pulmonary function of non-smoking Pi MZ subjects did not differ from that of non-smoking Pi M controls. In contrast, smoking heterozygotes showed a significant loss of elastic recoil, enlarged residual volumes, and increased closing capacity but no signs of obstructive ventilatory impairment. Most smoking Pi MZ individuals reported mild exertional dyspnoea. PMID:303135

  18. Evaluation of the pharmacological selectivity profile of alpha 1 adrenoceptor antagonists at prostatic alpha 1 adrenoceptors: binding, functional and in vivo studies.

    PubMed Central

    Kenny, B. A.; Miller, A. M.; Williamson, I. J.; O'Connell, J.; Chalmers, D. H.; Naylor, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. The profile of a range of alpha 1 adrenoceptor antagonists was determined in vitro against cloned human alpha 1A, alpha 1B and alpha 1D adrenoceptors and against noradrenaline-mediated contractions of rat aorta and human prostate. The in vivo profile of compounds was determined in an anaesthetized dog model which allowed the simultaneous assessment of antagonist potency against phenylephrine-mediated increases in blood pressure and prostatic pressure. 2. The quinazoline antagonists, prazosin, doxazosin and alfuzosin displayed high affinity but were non selective for the three cloned human alpha 1 adrenoceptors. Indoramin and SNAP 1069 showed selectivity for alpha 1A and alpha 1B adrenoceptors relative to the alpha 1D subtype. Rec 15/2739, WB 4101, SL 89,0591, (+)- and (-)- tamsulosin showed selectivity for alpha 1A and alpha 1D adrenoceptors relative to the alpha 1B subtype. RS 17053 showed high affinity and selectivity for alpha 1A adrenoceptors (pKi 8.6) relative to alpha 1B (pKi = 7.3) and alpha 1D (pKi = 7.1) subtypes. 3. (+)-Tamsulosin, (-)-tamsulosin, SL 89,0591, Rec 15/2739, SNAP 1069 and RS 17053 appeared to act as competitive antagonists of noradrenaline-mediated contractions of rat aorta yielding pA2 affinity estimates which were similar to binding affinities at cloned human alpha 1D adrenoceptors. The following rank order was obtained: prazosin = (-)-tamsulosin > doxazosin > SL 89,0591 = (+)-tamsulosin > Rec 15/2739 > RS 17053 = SNAP 1069. 4. (-)-Tamsulosin was a very potent, insurmountable antagonist of noradrenaline-mediated contractions of human prostate, yielding an approximate pA2 estimate of 9.8 at 1 nM. The corresponding (+)-enantiomer was 30 fold weaker. SL 89,0591, SNAP 1069 and Rec 15/2739 yielded pA2 estimates which compared well with their alpha 1A binding affinities. The affinity estimate for prazosin on human prostate was lower than the corresponding binding affinity determined at alpha 1A adrenoceptors and RS 17053 was a very weak

  19. Purification and Characterization of a Keratinolytic Serine Proteinase from Streptomyces albidoflavus

    PubMed Central

    Bressollier, Philippe; Letourneau, François; Urdaci, Maria; Verneuil, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Streptomyces strain K1-02, which was identified as a strain of Streptomyces albidoflavus, secreted at least six extracellular proteases when it was cultured on feather meal-based medium. The major keratinolytic serine proteinase was purified to homogeneity by a two-step procedure. This enzyme had a molecular weight of 18,000 and was optimally active at pH values ranging from 6 to 9.5 and at temperatures ranging from 40 to 70°C. Its sensitivity to protease inhibitors, its specificity on synthetic substrates, and its remarkably high level of NH2-terminal sequence homology with Streptomyces griseus protease B (SGPB) showed that the new enzyme, designated SAKase, was homologous to SGPB. We tested the activity of SAKase with soluble and fibrous substrates (elastin, keratin, and type I collagen) and found that it was very specific for keratinous substrates compared to SGPB and proteinase K. PMID:10347045

  20. Modification of cystatin C activity by bacterial proteinases and neutrophil elastase in periodontitis.

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamson, M; Wikström, M; Potempa, J; Renvert, S; Hall, A

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To study the interaction between the human cysteine proteinase inhibitor, cystatin C, and proteinases of periodontitis associated bacteria. METHODS: Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from discrete periodontitis sites and their cystatin C content was estimated by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The interaction between cystatin C and proteolytic enzymes from cultured strains of the gingival bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was studied by measuring inhibition of enzyme activity against peptidyl substrates, by detection of break down patterns of solid phase coupled and soluble cystatin C, and by N-terminal sequence analysis of cystatin C products resulting from the interactions. RESULTS: Gingival crevicular fluid contained cystatin C at a concentration of approximately 15 nM. Cystatin C did not inhibit the principal thiol stimulated proteinase activity of P gingivalis. Instead, strains of P gingivalis and P intermedia, but not A actinomycetemcomitans, released cystatin C modifying proteinases. Extracts of five P gingivalis and five P intermedia strains all hydrolysed bonds in the N-terminal region of cystatin C at physiological pH values. The modified cystatin C resulting from incubation with one P gingivalis strain was isolated and found to lack the eight most N-terminal residues. The affinity of the modified inhibitor for cathepsin B was 20-fold lower (Ki 5 nM) than that of full length cystatin C. A 50 kDa thiol stimulated proteinase, gingipain R, was isolated from P gingivalis and shown to be responsible for the Arg8-bond hydrolysis in cystatin C. The cathepsin B inhibitory activity of cystatin C incubated with gingival crevicular fluid was rapidly abolished after Val10-bond cleavage by elastase from exudate neutrophils, but cleavage at the gingipain specific Arg8-bond was also demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: The physiological control of cathepsin B activity is impeded in

  1. Inhibition of IgA1 proteinases from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Hemophilus influenzae by peptide prolyl boronic acids.

    PubMed

    Bachovchin, W W; Plaut, A G; Flentke, G R; Lynch, M; Kettner, C A

    1990-03-01

    The alpha-aminoboronic acid analog of proline has been synthesized and incorporated into a number of peptides as the COOH-terminal residue. These peptide prolyl boronic acids are potent inhibitors of both the type 1 and type 2 IgA proteinases from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Hemophilus influenzae, but not of the functionally similar IgA proteinase from Streptococcus sanguis. The best inhibitors synthesized thus far have Ki values in the nanomolar range (4.0 to 60 nM). These results indicate that the N. gonorrhoeae and the H. influenzae enzymes belong to the serine protease family of proteolytic enzymes while that from S. sanguis does not. As a group, the IgA proteinases have been noted for their remarkable specificity; thus, the peptide prolyl boronic acids reported here are the first small synthetic molecules to exhibit a relatively high affinity for the active site of an IgA proteinase and are therefore the first to yield some insight into the active site structure and specificity requirements of these enzymes. PMID:2105953

  2. Inhibition of serine proteinases plasmin, trypsin, subtilisin A, cathepsin G, and elastase by LEKTI: a kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Mitsudo, Kenji; Jayakumar, Arumugam; Henderson, Ying; Frederick, Mitchell J; Kang, Ya'an; Wang, Mary; El-Naggar, Adel K; Clayman, Gary L

    2003-04-01

    The human LEKTI gene encodes a putative 15-domain serine proteinase inhibitor and has been linked to the inherited disorder known as Netherton syndrome. In this study, human recombinant LEKTI (rLEKTI) was purified using a baculovirus/insect cell expression system, and the inhibitory profile of the full-length rLEKTI protein was examined. Expression of LEKTI in Sf9 cells showed the presence of disulfide bonds, suggesting the maintenance of the tertiary protein structure. rLEKTI inhibited the serine proteinases plasmin, subtilisin A, cathepsin G, human neutrophil elastase, and trypsin, but not chymotrypsin. Moreover, rLEKTI did not inhibit the cysteine proteinase papain or cathepsin K, L, or S. Further, rLEKTI inhibitory activity was inactivated by treatment with 20 mM DTT, suggesting that disulfide bonds are important to LEKTI function. The inhibition of plasmin, subtilisin A, cathepsin G, elastase, and trypsin by rLEKTI occurred through a noncompetitive-type mechanism, with inhibitory constants (K(i)) of 27 +/- 5, 49 +/- 3, 67 +/- 6, 317 +/-36, and 849 +/- 55 nM, respectively. Thus, LEKTI is likely to be a major physiological inhibitor of multiple serine proteinases. PMID:12667078

  3. Tissue-specific expression of mast cell granule serine proteinases and their role in inflammation in the lung and gut

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Hugh R P; Pemberton, Alan D

    2002-01-01

    Serine proteinases with trypsin-like (tryptase) and chymotrypsin-like (chymase) properties are major constituents of mast cell granules. Several tetrameric tryptases with differing specificities have been characterized in humans, but only a single chymase. In other species there are larger families of chymases with distinct and narrow proteolytic specificities. Expression of chymases and tryptases varies between tissues. Human pulmonary and gastrointestinal mast cells express chymase at lower levels than tryptase, whereas rodent and ruminant gastrointestinal mast cells express uniquely mucosa-specific chymases. Local and systemic release of chymases and tryptases can be quantified by immunoassay, providing highly specific markers of mast cell activation. The expression and constitutive extracellular secretion of the mucosa-specific chymase, mouse mast cell proteinase-1 (mMCP-1), is regulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in vitro, but it is not clear how the differential expression of chymases and tryptases is regulated in other species. Few native inhibitors have been identified for tryptases but the tetramers dissociate into inactive subunits in the absence of heparin. Chymases are variably inhibited by plasma proteinase inhibitors and by secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) that is expressed in the airways. Tryptases and chymases promote vascular permeability via indirect and possibly direct mechanisms. They contribute to tissue remodelling through selective proteolysis of matrix proteins and through activation of proteinase-activated receptors and of matrix metalloproteinases. Chymase may modulate vascular tissues through its ability to process angiotensin-I to angiotensin-II. Mucosa-specific chymases promote epithelial permeability and are involved in the immune expulsion of intestinal nematodes. Importantly, granule proteinases released extracellularly contribute to the recruitment of inflammatory cells and may thus be involved in

  4. Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trials in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sandhaus, Robert A

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a condition caused by the inheritance of two mutated SERPINA1 gene alleles. Individuals with AATD are at increased risk of injury to the liver and lungs. The pulmonary manifestations include precocious onset of pulmonary emphysema and bronchiectasis. For nearly three decades, treatment has been available to individuals with emphysema caused by AATD, but this therapy-augmentation of plasma and tissue alpha-1 antitrypsin levels by intravenous administration of human plasma-derived protein-was approved by regulatory authorities based on its biochemical efficacy. This therapy appears to slow the progression of emphysema in patients with AATD. The medical, patient, and regulatory communities have sought assurance that this expensive therapy provides measurable clinical benefit. Documenting such benefit has been difficult because of the slow progression of the underlying lung disease in AATD, the rarity of this genetic condition, and the lack of direct quantitative measurements of emphysema progression. Over the past decade, quantitative computed tomography (CT) densitometry of the lungs has been found to correlate with severity and progression of emphysema. The recent publication of a well-powered, masked, placebo-controlled study using CT densitometry to evaluate the effectiveness of augmentation therapy at slowing the progression of emphysema has provided some assurance of the clinical efficacy of this therapy. PMID:27564674

  5. Astute, Assertive, and Alpha-1: Quantifying Empowerment in a Rare Genetic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Symma

    2008-01-01

    We investigated empowerment in the Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Alpha-1) community, a rare, genetic disease network in the United States. The research was motivated by nine years of observations in the community. After observing what seemed to be a heightened amount of activism among Alpha-1 community members, I had hypothesized that this…

  6. Modeling the interactions between alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors and their antagonists.

    PubMed

    Du, Lupei; Li, Minyong

    2010-09-01

    As crucial members of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, alpha (1)-adrenergic receptors (alpha(1)-ARs) are recognized to intervene the actions of endogenous catecholamines such as norepinephrine and epinephrine. So far three distinct alpha(1)-AR subtypes, alpha(1A), alpha(1B) and alpha(1D), have been characterized by functional analysis, radio-ligand binding and molecular biology studies. The alpha(1)-ARs are of therapeutic interest because of their distinct and critical roles in many physiological processes, containing hypertension, benign prostatic hyperplasia, smooth muscle contraction, myocardial inotropy and chronotropy, and hepatic glucose metabolism. Accordingly, designing subtype-selective antagonists for each of the three alpha(1)-AR subtypes has been an enthusiastic region of medicinal research. Even though a large number of studies on GPCRs have been conducted, understanding of how known antagonists bind to alpha(1)-ARs still remains sketchy and has been a serious impediment to search for potent and subtype-selective alpha(1)-AR antagonists because of the lack of detailed experimental structural knowledge. This review deliberates the simulation of alpha(1)-ARs and their interactions with antagonists by using ligand-based (pharmacophore identification and QSAR modeling) and structure-based (comparative modeling and molecular docking) approaches. Combined with experimental data, these computational attempts could improve our understanding of the structural basis of antagonist binding and the molecular basis of receptor activation, thus offering a more reasonable approach in the design of drugs targeting alpha(1)-ARs. PMID:20412040

  7. The simultaneous release by bone explants in culture and the parallel activation of procollagenase and of a latent neutral proteinase that degrades cartilage proteoglycans and denatured collagen.

    PubMed Central

    Vaes, G; Eeckhout, Y; Lenaers-Claeys, G; François-Gillet, C; Druetz, J E

    1978-01-01

    1. A latent neutral proteinase was found in culture media of mouse bone explants. Its accumulation during the cultures is closely parallel to that of procollagenase; both require the presence of heparin in the media. 2. Latent neutral proteinase was activated by several treatments of the media known to activate procollagenase, such as limited proteolysis by trypsin, chymotrypsin, plasmin or kallikrein, dialysis against 3 M-NaSCN at 4 degrees C and prolonged preincubation at 25 degrees C. Its activation often followed that of the procollagenase present in the same media. 3. Activation of neutral proteinase (as does that of procollagenase) by trypsin or plasmin involved two successive steps: the activation of a latent endogenous activator present in the media followed by the activation of neutral proteinase itself by that activator. 4. The proteinase degrades cartilage proteoglycans, denatured collagen (Azocoll) and casein at neutral pH; it is inhibited by EDTA, cysteine or serum. Collagenase is not inhibited by casein or Azocoll and is less resistant to heat or to trypsin than is the proteinase. Partial separation of the two enzymes was achieved by gel filtration of the media but not by fractional (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, by ion exchange or by affinity chromatography on Sepharose-collagen. These fractionations did not activate latent enzymes. 5. Trypsin activation decreases the molecular weight of both latent enzymes (60 000-70 000) by 20 000-30 000, as determined by gel filtration of media after removal of heparin. 6. The latency of both enzymes could be due either to a zymogen or to an enzyme-inhibitor complex. A thermostable inhibitor of both enzymes was found in some media. However, combinations of either enzyme with that inhibitor were not reactivated by trypsin, indicating that this inhibitor is unlikely to be the cause of the latency. PMID:208518

  8. An ECLIPSE View of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lomas, David A

    2016-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multicomponent condition that is estimated to become the third leading cause of death in 2020. The ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints) study, funded by GlaxoSmithKline, is an observational study designed to define outcomes that can be used as endpoints in clinical trials in individuals with COPD. It allowed us to describe the heterogeneity of COPD, the stability of the exacerbation phenotype, and the factors associated with a progressive decline in lung function and the progression of emphysema on computed tomography scans. The cohort was also used to define genetic factors and biomarkers associated with COPD and disease progression. This review considers how the results from ECLIPSE can inform our understanding of the lung disease associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. PMID:27564668

  9. Neutrophil Fates in Bronchiectasis and Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Russell, Derek W; Gaggar, Amit; Solomon, George M

    2016-04-01

    The neutrophil is a powerful cellular defender of the vulnerable interface between the environment and pulmonary tissues. This cell's potent weapons are carefully calibrated in the healthy state to maximize effectiveness in fighting pathogens while minimizing tissue damage and allowing for repair of what damage does occur. The three related chronic airway disorders of cystic fibrosis, non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency all demonstrate significant derangements of this homeostatic system that result in their respective pathologies. An important shared feature among them is the inefficient resolution of chronic inflammation that serves as a central means for neutrophil-driven lung damage resulting in disease progression. Examining the commonalities and divergences between these diseases in the light of their immunopathology is informative and may help guide us toward future therapeutics designed to modulate the neutrophil's interplay with the pulmonary environment. PMID:27115946

  10. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency: increasing awareness and improving diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Greulich, Timm; Vogelmeier, Claus F

    2016-02-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a hereditary disorder that is characterized by a low serum level of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT). The loss of anti-inflammatory and antiproteolytic functions, together with pro-inflammatory effects of polymerized AAT contribute to protein degradation and increased inflammation resulting in an increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema, especially in smokers. AATD is a rare disease that is significantly underdiagnosed. According to recent data that are based on extrapolations, in many countries only 5-15% of homozygous individuals have been identified. Furthermore, the diagnostic delay typically exceeds 5 years, resulting in an average age at diagnosis of about 45 years. Although the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society recommendations state that all symptomatic adults with persistent airway obstruction should be screened, these recommendations are not being followed. Potential reasons for that include missing knowledge about the disease and the appropriate tests, and the low awareness of physicians with regard to the disorder. Once the decision to initiate testing has been made, a screening test (AAT serum level or other) should be performed. Further diagnostic evaluation is based on the following techniques: polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for frequent and clinically important mutations, isoelectric focusing (IEF) with or without immunoblotting, and sequencing of the gene locus coding for AAT. Various diagnostic algorithms have been published for AATD detection (severe deficiency or carrier status). Modern laboratory approaches like the use of serum separator cards, a lateral flow assay to detect the Z-protein, and a broader availability of next-generation sequencing are recent advances, likely to alter existing algorithms. PMID:26341117

  11. Functional analysis of the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin {alpha}1 subunit in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Abair, Tristin D; Bulus, Nada; Borza, Corina; Sundaramoorthy, Munirathinam; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2008-10-15

    Integrin alpha1beta1, the major collagen type IV receptor, is expressed by endothelial cells and plays a role in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. Because the molecular mechanisms whereby this collagen IV receptor mediates endothelial cell functions are poorly understood, truncation and point mutants of the integrin alpha1 subunit cytoplasmic tail (amino acids 1137-1151) were generated and expressed into alpha1-null endothelial cells. We show that alpha1-null endothelial cells expressing the alpha1 subunit, which lacks the entire cytoplasmic tail (mutant alpha1-1136) or expresses all the amino acids up to the highly conserved GFFKR motif (mutant alpha1-1143), have a similar phenotype to parental alpha1-null cells. Pro(1144) and Leu(1145) were shown to be necessary for alpha1beta1-mediated endothelial cell proliferation; Lys(1146) for adhesion, migration, and tubulogenesis and Lys(1147) for tubulogenesis. Integrin alpha1beta1-dependent endothelial cell proliferation is primarily mediated by ERK activation, whereas migration and tubulogenesis require both p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt activation. Thus, distinct amino acids distal to the GFFKR motif of the alpha1 integrin cytoplasmic tail mediate activation of selective downstream signaling pathways and specific endothelial cell functions. PMID:18647959

  12. Cardiac Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors: Novel Aspects of Expression, Signaling Mechanisms, Physiologic Function, and Clinical Importance

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Timothy D.; Jensen, Brian C.; Baker, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors (AR) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have a crucial role in cardiac physiology in health and disease. Alpha1-ARs signal through Gαq, and signaling through Gq, for example, by endothelin and angiotensin receptors, is thought to be detrimental to the heart. In contrast, cardiac alpha1-ARs mediate important protective and adaptive functions in the heart, although alpha1-ARs are only a minor fraction of total cardiac ARs. Cardiac alpha1-ARs activate pleiotropic downstream signaling to prevent pathologic remodeling in heart failure. Mechanisms defined in animal and cell models include activation of adaptive hypertrophy, prevention of cardiac myocyte death, augmentation of contractility, and induction of ischemic preconditioning. Surprisingly, at the molecular level, alpha1-ARs localize to and signal at the nucleus in cardiac myocytes, and, unlike most GPCRs, activate “inside-out” signaling to cause cardioprotection. Contrary to past opinion, human cardiac alpha1-AR expression is similar to that in the mouse, where alpha1-AR effects are seen most convincingly in knockout models. Human clinical studies show that alpha1-blockade worsens heart failure in hypertension and does not improve outcomes in heart failure, implying a cardioprotective role for human alpha1-ARs. In summary, these findings identify novel functional and mechanistic aspects of cardiac alpha1-AR function and suggest that activation of cardiac alpha1-AR might be a viable therapeutic strategy in heart failure. PMID:24368739

  13. Activation of intracellular serine proteinase in Bacillus subtilis cells during sporulation.

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, T J; Shankweiler, G W; Hageman, J H

    1986-01-01

    Cells of Bacillus subtilis 168 (trpC2) growing and sporulating in a single chemically defined medium carried out intracellular protein degradation and increased their levels of intracellular serine protease-1 in a manner very similar to what had previously been reported for cells sporulating in nutrient broth. The results were interpreted to mean that these processes are intrinsic to sporulation rather than medium dependent. To determine the cause of these increases in specific activity of proteinases, we purified the protease, prepared rabbit immunoglobulins directed against it, and monitored changes in protease antigen levels by performing rocket immunoelectrophoresis. In cells sporulating in nutrient broth, the protease antigen levels increased about 7-fold, whereas the specific activity increased about 150-fold, for an activation of about 20-fold. In cells sporulating in the single chemically defined sporulation medium, the protease antigen increased about 10-fold, whereas the specific activity increased at least 400-fold, for an activation of about 40-fold. These results were interpreted to mean that a posttranslational event activated the protease in vivo; a previously described endogenous proteinase inhibitor was confirmed to be present in the strain used. Chloramphenicol added to the cultures inhibited both the increases in antigen levels and in the specific activity of the proteinase. PMID:3079745

  14. Picornaviral 3C cysteine proteinases have a fold similar to the chymotrypsin-like serine proteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Allaire,M.; Chernaia, M.; Malcolm, B.; James, M.

    1994-01-01

    The picornavirus family includes several pathogens such as poliovirus, rhinovirus (the major cause of the common cold), hepatitis A virus and the foot-and-mouth disease virus. Picornaviral proteins are expressed by direct translation of the genomic RNA into a single, large polyprotein precursor. Proteolysis of the viral polyprotein into the mature proteins is assured by the viral 3C enzymes, which are cysteine proteinases. Here we report the X-ray crystal structure at 2.3 {angstrom} resolution of the 3C proteinase from hepatitis A virus (HAV-3C). The overall architecture of HAV-3C reveals a fold resembling that of the chymotrypsin family of serine proteinases, which is consistent with earlier predictions. Catalytic residues include Cys 172 as nucleophile and His 44 as general base. The 3C cleavage specificity for glutamine residues is defined primarily by His 191. The overall structure suggests that an inter-molecular (trans) cleavage releases 3C and that there is an active proteinase in the polyprotein.

  15. [Alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype selectivity and organ specificity of silodosin (KMD-3213)].

    PubMed

    Tatemichi, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Kumi; Maezawa, Ayaka; Kobayashi, Mamoru; Yamazaki, Yoshinobu; Shibata, Nobuo

    2006-03-01

    The selectivity of silodosin (KMD-3213), an antagonist of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor (AR), to the subtypes (alpha(1A)-, alpha(1B)- and alpha(1D)-ARs) was examined by a receptor-binding study and a functional pharmacological study, and we compared its subtype-selectivity with those of other alpha(1)-AR antagonists. In the receptor-binding study, a replacement experiment using [(3)H]-prazosin was conducted using the membrane fraction of mouse-derived LM (tk-) cells in which each of three human alpha(1)-AR subtypes was expressed. In the functional pharmacological study, the following isolated tissues were used as representative organs with high distribution densities of alpha(1)-AR subtypes (alpha(1A)-AR: rabbit prostate, urethra and bladder trigone; alpha(1B)-AR: rat spleen; alpha(1D)-AR: rat thoracic aorta). Using the Magnus method, we studied the inhibitory effect of silodosin on noradrenaline-induced contraction, and compared it with those of tamsulosin hydrochloride, naftopidil and prazosin hydrochloride. Silodosin showed higher selectivity for the alpha(1A)-AR subtype than tamsulosin hydrochloride, naftopidil or prazosin hydrochloride (affinity was highest for tamsulosin hydrochloride, followed by silodosin, prazosin hydrochloride and naftopidil in that order). Silodosin strongly antagonized noradrenaline-induced contractions in rabbit lower urinary tract tissues (including prostate, urethra and bladder trigone, with pA(2) or pKb values of 9.60, 8.71 and 9.35, respectively). On the other hand, the pA(2) values for antagonism of noradrenaline-induced contractions in rat isolated spleen and rat isolated thoracic aorta were 7.15 and 7.88, respectively. Selectivity for lower urinary tract was higher for silodosin than for the other alpha(1)-AR antagonists. Our data suggest that silodosin has a high selectivity for the alpha(1A)-AR subtype and for the lower urinary tract. PMID:16518085

  16. Role of alpha-1 adrenoceptor subtypes mediating constriction of the rabbit ear thermoregulatory microvasculature.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Silver, W P; Koman, L A; Strandhoy, J W; Rosencrance, E; Gordon, S; Smith, T L

    2000-01-01

    An acute in vivo preparation of the microvasculature of the rabbit ear was used to evaluate the functional role of alpha1 (alpha1)-adrenoceptor subtypes in thermoregulatory microcirculation. The effect of alpha1-adrenoceptor subtype blockade on phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction was assessed with the alpha1A, alpha1B, and alpha1D-adrenoceptor-selective antagonists 5-methyl-urapidil (10(-8) M), chloroethylclonidine (10(-5) M), and 8-[2-[4(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-8-azaspirol[4.5]deca ne-7,9-dione dihydrochloride (BMY7378) (10(-6) M), respectively. The results demonstrated that pretreatment of the ear microvasculature with 5-methyl-urapidil or BMY7378 shifted the phenylephrine concentration-response curve rightward and significantly changed the log of the phenylephrine concentration, causing half-maximum stimulation (EC50) in arterioles (p < 0.05). BMY7378 shifted the phenylephrine concentration-response curve of the arteriovenous anastomoses about 100-fold rightward (p < 0.05). All three alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists eliminated the vasoconstrictive effects of phenylephrine on venules. The results indicate that the ear microvasculature has a heterogenous distribution of alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes. The alpha1A and alpha1D-adrenoceptor subtypes appear to have a greater influence on constrictive function in arterioles, whereas the alpha1D-adrenoceptor is the dominant constrictor of arteriovenous anastomoses. In general, the alpha1-adrenoceptor does not play a major vasoconstrictor role in venules. Chloroethylclonidine, an irreversible alpha1B-adrenoceptor antagonist, induced contractile responses in the ear microvasculature, probably due to its alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist effects. This study extended our understanding of the adrenergic receptor control mechanisms of a cutaneous thermoregulatory end organ characterized by two parallel perfusion circuits providing nutritional and thermoregulatory functions. PMID:10716292

  17. Naftopidil, a novel alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist, displays selective inhibition of canine prostatic pressure and high affinity binding to cloned human alpha1-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Takei, R; Ikegaki, I; Shibata, K; Tsujimoto, G; Asano, T

    1999-04-01

    The pharmacological profiles of the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists naftopidil, tamsulosin and prazosin were studied in an anesthetized dog model that allowed the simultaneous assessment of their antagonist potency against phenylephrine-mediated increases in prostatic pressure and mean blood pressure. The intravenous administration of each of these compounds dose-dependently inhibited phenylephrine-induced increases in prostatic pressure and mean blood pressure. To further assess the ability of the three compounds to inhibit phenylephrine-induced responses, the doses required to produce a 50% inhibition of the phenylephrine-induced increases in prostatic and mean blood pressure and the selectivity index obtained from the ratio of those two doses were determined for each test compound. Forty minutes after the intravenous administration of naftopidil, the selectivity index was 3.76, and those of tamsulosin and prazosin were 1.23 and 0.61, respectively. These findings demonstrated that naftopidil selectively inhibited the phenylephrine-induced increase in prostatic pressure compared with mean blood pressure in the anesthetized dog model. The selectivity of naftopidil for prostatic pressure was the most potent among the test compounds. In addition, using cloned human alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes, naftopidil was selective for the alpha1d-adrenoceptor with approximately 3- and 17-fold higher affinity than for the alpha1a- and alpha1b-adrenoceptor subtypes, respectively. The selectivity of naftopidil for prostatic pressure may be attributable to its high binding affinity for alpha1a- and alpha1d-adrenoceptor subtypes. PMID:10361884

  18. Secreted Aspartic Proteinase Family of Candida tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Zaugg, Christophe; Borg-von Zepelin, Margarete; Reichard, Utz; Sanglard, Dominique; Monod, Michel

    2001-01-01

    Medically important yeasts of the genus Candida secrete aspartic proteinases (Saps), which are of particular interest as virulence factors. Like Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis secretes in vitro one dominant Sap (Sapt1p) in a medium containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) as the sole source of nitrogen. Using the gene SAPT1 as a probe and under low-stringency hybridization conditions, three new closely related gene sequences, SAPT2 to SAPT4, encoding secreted proteinases were cloned from a C. tropicalis λEMBL3 genomic library. All bands identified by Southern blotting of EcoRI-digested C. tropicalis genomic DNA with SAPT1 could be assigned to a specific SAP gene. Therefore, the SAPT gene family of C. tropicalis is likely to contain only four members. Interestingly, the SAPT2 and SAPT3 gene products, Sapt2p and Sapt3p, which have not yet been detected in C. tropicalis cultures in vitro, were produced as active recombinant enzymes with the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris as an expression system. As expected, reverse transcriptase PCR experiments revealed a strong SAPT1 signal with RNA extracted from cells grown in BSA medium. However, a weak signal was obtained with all other SAPT genes under several conditions tested, showing that these SAPT genes could be expressed at a basic level. Together, these experiments suggest that the gene products Sapt2p, Sapt3p, and Sapt4p could be produced under conditions yet to be described in vitro or during infection. PMID:11119531

  19. Regulation of coronary vascular tone via redox modulation in the alpha1-adrenergic-angiotensin-endothelin axis of the myocardium.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Osamu; Kaneshiro, Takashi; Saitoh, Shu-ichi; Ishibashi, Toshiyuki; Maruyama, Yukio; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that alpha(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation of cardiac myocytes results in the production of an endothelin (ET)-releasing factor that stimulates the coronary vasculature to release ET and, by manipulating the redox state of cardiac and vascular cells, may influence the extent of alpha(1)-adrenergic-ET-1 vasoconstriction. Dihydroethidium (DHE) and dichlorodihydrofluorescein (DCF) intensities were increased by phenylephrine stimulation in isolated rat cardiac myocytes, which were enhanced by the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex I inhibitor rotenone (DHE: 20.4 +/- 1.2-fold and DCF: 25.2 +/- 0.9-fold, n = 8, P < 0.01, respectively) but not by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. Olmesartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, and enalaprilate did not change DHE and DCF intensities by phenylephrine. Next, we measured the vasoconstriction of isolated, pressurized rat coronary arterioles (diameter: 74 +/- 8 microm) in response to supernatant collected from isolated cardiac myocytes. The addition of supernatant from phenylephrine-stimulated myocytes to a 2-ml vessel bath (n = 8 each) caused volume-dependent vasoconstriction (500 microl: -14.8 +/- 2.2%). Olmesartan and TA0201, an ET type A receptor antagonist, converted vasoconstriction into vasodilation (8.5 +/- 1.2% and 10.5 +/- 0.5%, P < 0.01, respectively) in response to supernatant from phenylephrine-stimulated myocytes, which was eliminated with catalase. Vasoconstriction was weakened using supernatant from phenylephrine with rotenone-treated myocytes. Treatment of arterioles with apocynin to myocyte supernatant converted vasoconstriction into vasodilation (7.8 +/- 0.8%, P < 0.01). These results suggest that alpha(1)-adrenergic stimulation in cardiac myocytes produces angiotensin I and H(2)O(2) and that angiotensin releases ET-1 through NADPH oxidase in coronary arterioles. Thus, coronary vasoconstriction via the alpha-adrenergic-angiotensin-ET axis appears to require redox

  20. In vitro alpha1-adrenoceptor pharmacology of Ro 70-0004 and RS-100329, novel alpha1A-adrenoceptor selective antagonists.

    PubMed

    Williams, T J; Blue, D R; Daniels, D V; Davis, B; Elworthy, T; Gever, J R; Kava, M S; Morgans, D; Padilla, F; Tassa, S; Vimont, R L; Chapple, C R; Chess-Williams, R; Eglen, R M; Clarke, D E; Ford, A P

    1999-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, selective antagonism of the alpha1A-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction of lower urinary tract tissues may, via a selective relief of outlet obstruction, lead to an improvement in symptoms. The present study describes the alpha1-adrenoceptor (alpha1-AR) subtype selectivities of two novel alpha1-AR antagonists, Ro 70-0004 (aka RS-100975) and a structurally-related compound RS-100329, and compares them with those of prazosin and tamsulosin. Radioligand binding and second-messenger studies in intact CHO-K1 cells expressing human cloned alpha1A-, alpha1B- and alpha1D-AR showed nanomolar affinity and significant alpha1A-AR subtype selectivity for both Ro 70-0004 (pKi 8.9: 60 and 50 fold selectivity) and RS-100329 (pKi 9.6: 126 and 50 fold selectivity) over the alpha1B- and alpha1D-AR subtypes respectively. In contrast, prazosin and tamsulosin showed little subtype selectivity. Noradrenaline-induced contractions of human lower urinary tract (LUT) tissues or rabbit bladder neck were competitively antagonized by Ro 70-0004 (pA2 8.8 and 8.9), RS-100329 (pA2 9.2 and 9.2), tamsulosin (pA2 10.4 and 9.8) and prazosin (pA2 8.7 and 8.3 respectively). Affinity estimates for tamsulosin and prazosin in antagonizing alpha1-AR-mediated contractions of human renal artery (HRA) and rat aorta (RA) were similar to those observed in LUT tissues, whereas Ro 70-0004 and RS-100329 were approximately 100 fold less potent (pA2 values of 6.8/6.8 and 7.3/7.9 in HRA/RA respectively). The alpha1A-AR subtype selectivity of Ro 70-0004 and RS-100329, demonstrated in both cloned and native systems, should allow for an evaluation of the clinical utility of a 'uroselective' agent for the treatment of symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:10369480

  1. Subtype selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Forray; Noble

    1999-12-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is highly prevalent in the male population beyond the age of 60. Impairment of urinary flow due to prostate enlargement gives rise to symptoms of 'prostatism' that have a detrimental impact on the quality of life. The current trend in the management of symptomatic BPH favours pharmacotherapy as a first line option, while the number of surgical procedures being performed has experienced a steady decline during the last ten years. Among the pharmacological treatments, the use of alpha1-adrenoceptor blockers has demonstrated to be an effective treatment option for BPH. These agents reduce the adrenergic tone to the prostate and increase urinary flow, with a concomitant reduction of lower urinary tract symptoms. The alpha1-blockers currently approved include compounds such as alfuzosin, terazosin and doxazosin, originally developed for the treatment of hypertension, and more recently tamsulosin, an alpha1-subtype selective drug. The blockade of alpha1-adrenoceptors present in vascular smooth muscle is largely responsible for the most prominent side effects of current drugs, which can be severe and require patients dose titration. The limitation imposed by side effects naturally raises the possibility that complete blockade of prostatic alpha1 receptors is not attained at the maximum tolerated dose. The extensive efforts by the pharmaceutical industry towards the development of uroselective alpha1-blockers, is the subject of this review. Advances in the molecular cloning of genes encoding three alpha1-adrenoceptors led to the identification of the alpha1A-subtype as the predominant receptor responsible for the contraction of prostate smooth muscle. In preclinical animal models, selective alpha1A-antagonists have consistently been found to have minimal cardiovascular effects, thus providing a pharmacological rationale for uroselectivity. It has also become apparent, however, that uroselectivity can emerge in a poorly understood manner

  2. [Pathogenesis of liver disease in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency].

    PubMed

    Vogel, W; Braunsteiner, T; Dietze, O; Braunsteiner, H

    1990-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) is one of the most common lethal hereditary disorders. Approximately 5 to 10% of the general population carry an "at risk" gene for the development of liver disease or emphysema of the lung. Patients with A1ATD associated liver disease constitute a histologically and clinically heterogeneous group. The pathogenesis of the disease still remains to be elucidated. Recent experimental evidence produced in the transgenic mouse model is in favour of the engorgement hypothesis considering the deposition of amorphous A1AT in the hepatocytes the prime event causing liver disease. This theory, however, fails to explain the clinical observation of the presence of a number of other factors known to cause chronic liver disease in A1ATD patients. The latter observation is in support of the deficiency theory, which explains the pathogenesis of emphysema of the lung, and would point to A1ATD as a predisposition to acquire chronic disease. The meaning of the increased synthesis of stress proteins in patients with liver disease is still speculative. PMID:2092568

  3. Effect of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in cardiac pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Richard; Chaudhry, Mohammad

    2006-11-01

    Compelling evidence now exists that proves adrenergic blockade is at the center of neurohormonal antagonism in heart failure (HF). Catecholamines are well known to act through both beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptors (ARs), which mediate their effects through distinct receptor pathways. Beta-AR blockers are commonly used in the treatment of HF and have distinct receptor affinity profiles. The recent COMET trial comparing 2 important beta-blocking drugs showed a distinct advantage for carvedilol in decreasing the risk of mortality from HF. The mechanism of action for carvedilol differs from metoprolol tartrate in its ability to block both alpha- and beta-ARs, leading to renewed interest in the potential role of alpha-ARs in the progression of HF. In contrast, however, the ALLHAT study discontinued use of doxazosin, an alpha1-receptor blocker because of an increase in cardiovascular events among patients using this drug. The results of these studies appear to be in contrast with respect to the role of alpha-ARs in regards to cardiovascular pathophysiology. Further study of the alpha-receptor and understanding the role of alpha-ARs in HF is necessary to understand the therapeutic effect of alpha-blockade. This article reviews our understanding of the alpha-AR in HF. PMID:17070143

  4. Increase of mouse resistance to Candida albicans infection by thymosin alpha 1.

    PubMed Central

    Bistoni, F; Marconi, P; Frati, L; Bonmassar, E; Garaci, E

    1982-01-01

    Studies were carried out to assess the ability of thymosin alpha 1 to prolong the survival of mice challenged with Candida albicans. Two- to four-month-old mice were treated with graded doses of thymosin alpha 1 before, after, or before and after intravenous challenge with C. albicans. Significant resistance ot lethal infection was afforded by 100 micrograms of thymosin alpha 1 per kg given before or before and after challenge, whereas no protection was found in mice treated with thymosin alpha 1 administered at any dose level after inoculation. Pretreatment with thymosin alpha 1 also prevented the increased susceptibility to C. albicans infection of mice pretreated with cyclophosphamide on day -6. The results showed that thymosin alpha 1 was capable of protecting untreated or cyclophosphamide-pretreated mice from C. albicans infection at an optimal dose and schedule of administration. PMID:7085074

  5. A nuclear pathway for alpha 1-adrenergic receptor signaling in cardiac cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ardati, A; Nemer, M

    1993-01-01

    alpha 1-Adrenergic agonists and antagonists constitute an important class of therapeutic agents commonly used for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases like hypertension, congestive heart failure and supraventricular tachycardia. At the heart level, activation of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors is associated with marked morphological and genetic changes. These include enhancement of contractility, myocardial growth (hypertrophy) and release of the heart major secretory product, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF). However, the signal transduction pathways which link extracellular activation of the receptors to cellular and genetic changes are not well understood. Using primary cardiocyte cultures from neonate rat hearts, an alpha 1-adrenergic regulatory sequence has been identified in the 5' flanking region of the ANF gene. This sequence, which is necessary and sufficient for transcriptional activation in response to the alpha 1-specific agonist phenylephrine, interacts with novel zinc-dependent proteins which are induced by alpha 1-adrenergic stimulation. Consistent with a conserved regulatory mechanism, the alpha 1 response element is highly conserved between rodent, bovine and human ANF genes, and is also present in the promoter region of other alpha 1-responsive cardiac genes. The identification of a nuclear pathway for alpha 1-receptor signaling will be useful for elucidating the intracellular effectors of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. Images PMID:8262057

  6. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Therapy in Cystic Fibrosis and the Lung Disease Associated with Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    McElvaney, Noel G

    2016-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis and alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency are two of the commonest lethal hereditary lung diseases affecting white individuals. Although having quite different phenotypic extrapulmonary presentations, the lung disease associated with these conditions is exemplified by a neutrophil-dominated inflammation in which neutrophil elastase plays a major role. In AAT deficiency the diminution of the anti-neutrophil elastase protection, due to diminished AAT levels in the lung, predisposes the lung to an unopposed neutrophil elastase attack, whereas, in cystic fibrosis, the levels of AAT and other antiproteases are normal, but the neutrophil elastase burden is so large that it overwhelms the normal anti-neutrophil elastase protection. With this as background, it seems logical to augment the anti-neutrophil elastase defenses of the lung in both conditions using exogenous AAT. The type of AAT, the route of administration, and the physiologic, radiologic, and clinical readouts for this type of therapy are discussed, along with the similarities and differences between the two conditions and their responses to AAT therapy. PMID:27115956

  7. Neutrophilic panniculitis associated with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency: an update.

    PubMed

    Blanco, I; Lipsker, D; Lara, B; Janciauskiene, S

    2016-04-01

    Neutrophilic panniculitis associated with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a very rare disease. Its estimated prevalence is 1 in 1000 subjects with severe AATD (usually white individuals with a Pi*ZZ genotype). It is manifested clinically by painful recurrent ulcerating subcutaneous nodules, and characterized histologically by dense infiltrates of neutrophils in the deep dermis and connective-tissue septae, with secondary lobular panniculitis. It may be the only clinical manifestation of AATD, although it can also occur together with the classical pulmonary or hepatic manifestations of the disease. AATD-associated panniculitis is not only very rare but may also be significantly underdiagnosed. The physician managing a case of panniculitis with a clinical presentation suggestive of AATD and a compatible skin biopsy should measure serum AAT concentration and, if low, determine the AAT phenotype by isoelectric focusing. If uncertainty remains, the SERPINA1 gene should be sequenced to identify the genotype. If AATD is diagnosed, AATD testing of first-degree family members should be performed in order to take appropriate preventive and therapeutic measures, including genetic counselling, education on inheritance, risk arising from tobacco smoke, occupational exposure to pollutants and hepatotoxic substances, and the provision of information on clinical management. Cases of panniculitis in which conventional therapy with dapsone has failed may be managed with intravenous augmentative therapy using human AAT. The current manuscript addresses the fundamental concepts of the pathogenesis of AATD-associated panniculitis and describes the clinical presentation and management of cases in order to reduce underdiagnosis and improve outcomes. PMID:26595240

  8. Fractionation and purification of the thiol proteinases from papaya latex.

    PubMed

    Dekeyser, P M; De Smedt, S; Demeester, J; Lauwers, A

    1994-06-01

    Three cysteine proteinases, i.e. chymopapain, papaya proteinase IV and proteinase III, were purified to homogeneity from papaya latex using a combination of ion-exchange chromatography and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. During the purification procedure, the thiol-groups of the active center were reversibly blocked as mixed disulfides with 2-thiopyridone. Homogeneity was proved electrophoretically by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE and rechromatography on a Mono S 5/5 column at pH 5.0. PMID:7952030

  9. Kinetic analysis of papaya proteinase omega.

    PubMed

    Sumner, I G; Vaughan, A; Eisenthal, R; Pickersgill, R W; Owen, A J; Goodenough, P W

    1993-08-01

    Papaya proteinase omega (pp omega) has been purified from dried latex both by immunoaffinity and traditional methods. Kinetic analysis revealed that (1), the pp omega-catalysed hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-L-arginine p-nitroanilide (BApNA) has a lower specificity (kcat/Km) than the same reaction catalysed by papain; (2), the pp omega-catalysed hydrolysis of a tripeptide substrate having phenylalanine at the second position (S2-site) showed a more similar specificity to that catalysed by papain; (3), the significant difference between the two enzymes is that steady state kinetics with both L-BApNA and a tripeptide enables the identification in pp omega of other ionizations affecting binding. The active sites of papain and pp omega can therefore be distinguished by pH-dependence of kcat/Km. PMID:8393709

  10. Foot-and-mouth disease virus leader proteinase inhibits dsRNA-induced type I interferon transcription by decreasing interferon regulatory factor 3/7 in protein levels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dang; Fang, Liurong; Luo, Rui; Ye, Rui; Fang, Ying; Xie, Lilan; Chen, Huanchun; Xiao, Shaobo

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} FMDV L{sup pro} inhibits poly(I:C)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} mRNA expression. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits MDA5-mediated activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter. {yields} L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes. {yields} L{sup pro} inhibits IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter activation by decreasing IRF-3/7 in protein levels. {yields} The ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not necessary to inhibit IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} activation. -- Abstract: The leader proteinase (L{sup pro}) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) has been identified as an interferon-{beta} (IFN-{beta}) antagonist that disrupts the integrity of transcription factor nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). In this study, we showed that the reduction of double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} expression caused by L{sup pro} was also associated with a decrease of interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (IRF-3/7) in protein levels, two critical transcription factors for activation of IFN-{alpha}/{beta}. Furthermore, overexpression of L{sup pro} significantly reduced the transcription of multiple IRF-responsive genes including 2',5'-OAS, ISG54, IP-10, and RANTES. Screening L{sup pro} mutants indicated that the ability to process eIF-4G of L{sup pro} is not required for suppressing dsRNA-induced activation of the IFN-{alpha}1/{beta} promoter and decreasing IRF-3/7 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that, in addition to disrupting NF-{kappa}B, L{sup pro} also decreases IRF-3/7 expression to suppress dsRNA-induced type I IFN production, suggesting multiple strategies used by FMDV to counteract the immune response to viral infection.

  11. The synthesis and properties of peptidylmethylsulphonium salts with two cationic residues as potential inhibitors of prohormone processing.

    PubMed Central

    Zumbrunn, A; Stone, S; Shaw, E

    1988-01-01

    Peptidylmethylsulphonium salts incorporating consecutive basic residues at the C-terminus of the peptidyl portion such as -Arg-Arg-, -Arg-Lys-, -Lys-Lys- and -Lys-Arg- were synthesized and examined as proteinase inhibitors. Serine proteinases with a specificity directed towards hydrolysis at cationic residues were found to be unaffected by these derivatives. On the other hand, cysteine proteinases, cathepsin B and, in particular, clostripain were readily inactivated by affinity labelling. The reagents thus are of promise for the study of prohormone processing promoted by cysteine proteinases. PMID:3223967

  12. Comparison of guinea-pig, bovine and rat alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Büscher, R.; Heeks, C.; Taguchi, K.; Michel, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    1. To elucidate a possible role of species differences in the classification of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes, we have characterized the alpha 1-adrenoceptors in guinea-pig spleen, kidney and cerebral cortex and in bovine cerebral cortex using concentration-dependent alkylation by chloroethylclonidine and competitive binding with 5-methlurapidil, methoxamine, (+)-niguldipine, noradrenaline, oxymetazoline, phentolamine, SDZ NVI-085, tamsulosin and (+)-tamsulosin. Rat liver alpha 1B-adrenoceptors were studied for comparison. Chloroethylclonidine-sensitivity and (+)-niguldipine affinity were also compared at cloned rat and bovine alpha 1a-adrenoceptors. 2. Chloroethylclonidine concentration-dependently inactivated alpha 1-adrenoceptors in all five tissues. While chloroethylclonidine inactivated almost all alpha 1-adrenoceptors in rat liver and guinea-pig kidney and brain, 20-30% of alpha 1-adrenoceptors in guinea-pig spleen and bovine brain were resistant to alkylation by 10 microM chloroethylclonidine. With regard to concentration-dependency guinea-pig kidney and brain were approximately 10 fold less sensitive than guinea-pig spleen or rat liver. 3. In rat liver, all drugs tested competed for [3H]-prazosin binding with steep and monophasic curves. Drug affinities were relatively low and resembled most closely those of cloned rat alpha 1b-adrenoceptors. 4. In guinea-pig spleen, all drugs tested competed for [3H]-prazosin binding with steep and monophasic curves. Drug affinities were relatively low and resembled most closely those of cloned rat alpha 1b-adrenoceptors. 5. In guinea-pig kidney most drugs tested competed for [3H]-prazosin binding with steep and monophasic curves and had relatively low drug affinities close to those of cloned rat alpha 1b- and alpha 1d-adrenoceptors. However, noradrenaline and tamsulosin had consistently biphasic competition curves recognizing 36-39% high and 61-64% low affinity sites. 6. In guinea-pig cerebral cortex, all drugs tested

  13. Thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 follows a cooperative CRM1/calreticulin-mediated nuclear export pathway.

    PubMed

    Grespin, Matthew E; Bonamy, Ghislain M C; Roggero, Vincent R; Cameron, Nicole G; Adam, Lindsay E; Atchison, Andrew P; Fratto, Victoria M; Allison, Lizabeth A

    2008-09-12

    The thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 (TRalpha) exhibits a dual role as an activator or repressor of its target genes in response to thyroid hormone (T(3)). Previously, we have shown that TRalpha, formerly thought to reside solely in the nucleus bound to DNA, actually shuttles rapidly between the nucleus and cytoplasm. An important aspect of the shuttling activity of TRalpha is its ability to exit the nucleus through the nuclear pore complex. TRalpha export is not sensitive to treatment with the CRM1-specific inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB) in heterokaryon assays, suggesting a role for an export receptor other than CRM1. Here, we have used a combined approach of in vivo fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments, in vitro permeabilized cell nuclear export assays, and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays to investigate the export pathway used by TRalpha. We show that, in addition to shuttling in heterokaryons, TRalpha shuttles rapidly in an unfused monokaryon system as well. Furthermore, our data show that TRalpha directly interacts with calreticulin, and point to the intriguing possibility that TRalpha follows a cooperative export pathway in which both calreticulin and CRM1 play a role in facilitating efficient translocation of TRalpha from the nucleus to cytoplasm. PMID:18641393

  14. [Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Affects U0126-Induced Cytotoxicity in Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT116)].

    PubMed

    Ljujic, M; Mijatovic, S; Bulatovic, M Z; Mojic, M; Maksimovic-Ivanic, D; Radojkovic, D; Topic, A

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), an acute phase protein, is the principal circulatory anti-protease. This multifunctional protein is encoded by the SERPINA1 gene. Although AAT was recognised as a potential tumour marker, its role in cancer biology remains unknown. Given that it has been demonstrated that AAT has an anti-apoptotic property against non-malignant cells, we aimed to investigate whether AAT affects apoptosis in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116). The presence of AAT in the HCT116 cell culture antagonized cytotoxicity of blockers of MEK1/2, PI3K/Akt pathways as well as NF-κB. The dominantly recovered cell viability was observed in the co-treatment with MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. In addition, it was revealed that AAT almost completely abolished U0126-induced apoptosis through maintenance of the autophagy process. Our study revealed for the first time that the observed cyto-protection triggered by AAT was accompanied by sustained autophagy which opposed apoptosis. These results may contribute to understanding of the role of AAT in cancer development and evaluation of efficacy of cancer therapy. PMID:27028823

  15. Surface Zn-proteinase as a molecule for defense of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis promastigotes against cytolysis inside macrophage phagolysosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Seay, M B; Heard, P L; Chaudhuri, G

    1996-01-01

    The role of the surface membrane Zn-proteinase in protecting the cellular integrity of the macrophage parasite Leishmania mexicana amazonensis from intraphagolysosomal cytolysis was studied. These cells lose their infectivity to host macrophages after prolonged cultivation in axenic growth medium. The virulent and attenuated variants of the parasite cells were cloned. Failure of these attenuated parasite cells to survive inside macrophage phagolysosomes is associated with 20- to 50-fold reduction in the expression of surface gp63 protein. In situ inhibition of gp63 proteinase activity inside Leishmania-infected macrophage phagolysosomes with targeted delivery of an inhibitor of gp63 proteinase activity, 1,10-phenanthroline, selectively eliminated intracellular Leishmania amastigotes, further suggesting the importance of this proteinase in phagolysosomal survival of the parasite. An upstream sequence (US) of the gp63 gene was cloned in front of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene in plasmid pCATbasic. Transfection of L. mexicana amazonensis cells with this recombinant plasmid showed that expression of the CAT gene from this US is 15- to 20-fold higher in virulent clones than in avirulent clones of the parasite. Band shift analysis with the cloned US also showed that binding of protein(s) was 15- to 20-fold higher in virulent cell extract than in avirulent cell extract. Coating of attenuated cells or liposomes with proteolytically active gp63 protects them from degradation inside macrophage phagolysosomes. These results suggest a novel mechanism of survival of this phagolysosomal parasite with the help of its surface Zn-proteinase. PMID:8945556

  16. Purification and characterization of a new serine proteinase from Bacillus subtilis with specificity for amino acids at P1 and P2 positions.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, A; Yoshida, N; Noda, K; Ito, A

    1995-12-01

    A proteinase was purified 230-fold to apparent homogeneity from culture filtrates of Bacillus subtilis by a series of column chromatographies on DE52, DEAE-Toyopearl, Cellulofine GC200M, and Mono-Q, using Boc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ser-pNA as a substrate. The molecular weight of the proteinase was estimated to be 42,000 by SDS-PAGE in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. Studies on the substrate specificity with peptide p-nitroanilides and natural peptides revealed that this proteinase preferentially hydrolyzed the peptide bond on the carboxyl-terminal side of either serine or alanine residues at the P1 position and hydrophobic bulky amino acids at P2. It was most active at pH 9.5 for the hydrolysis of Boc-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ser-pNA. The enzyme was inactivated by diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP), but not by tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethylketone (TPCK) or by EDTA. Based on the reactivity toward substrates and inhibitors, this enzyme differs from elastase- or subtilisin-like proteinase, hence it is a new type of proteinase with specificity for amino acids at P1 and P2 positions. PMID:8519806

  17. Structural investigation of the alpha-1-antichymotrypsin: prostate-specific antigen complex by comparative model building.

    PubMed Central

    Villoutreix, B. O.; Lilja, H.; Pettersson, K.; Lövgren, T.; Teleman, O.

    1996-01-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), produced by prostate cells, provides an excellent serum marker for prostate cancer. It belongs to the human kallikrein family of enzymes, a second prostate-derived member of which is human glandular kallikrein-1 (hK2). Active PSA and hK2 are both 237-residue kallikrein-like proteases, based on sequence homology. An hK2 model structure based on the serine protease fold is presented and compared to PSA and six other serine proteases in order to analyze in depth the role of the surface-accessible loops surrounding the active site. The results show that PSA and hK2 share extensive structural similarity and that most amino acid replacements are centered on the loops surrounding the active site. Furthermore, the electrostatic potential surfaces are very similar for PSA and hK2. PSA interacts with at least two serine protease inhibitors (serpins): alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) and protein C inhibitor (PCI). Three-dimensional model structures of the uncleaved ACT molecule were developed based upon the recent X-ray structure of uncleaved antithrombin. The serpin was docked both to PSA and hK2. Amino acid replacements and electrostatic complementarities indicate that the overall orientation of the proteins in these complexes is reasonable. In order to investigate PSA's heparin interaction sites, electrostatic computations were carried out on PSA, hK2, protein C, ACT, and PCI. Two heparin binding sites are suggested on the PSA surface and could explain the enhanced complex formation between PSA and PCI, while inhibiting the formation of the ACT-PSA complex, PSA, hK2, and their preliminary complexes with ACT should facilitate the understanding and prediction of structural and functional properties for these important proteins also with respect to prostate diseases. PMID:8732755

  18. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is markedly decreased following pulmonary F. tularensis challenge.

    PubMed

    Chambers, James P; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Jupelli, Madhulika; Weintraub, Susan T; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L; Valdes, James J; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2011-01-01

    Neutrophils form the first line of defense during infection and are indispensable in this function. The neutrophil elastase is a key effector molecule of the innate immune system with potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, spirochaetes, and fungi. However, the release of neutrophil elastase during bacterial infection must be checked otherwise its release in the extracellular milieu will result in damage to surrounding tissues. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a small glycoprotein clade A serpine serine protease inhibitor and has been shown to increase in humans following bacterial and viral infection. Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of tularemia. Type A strains are the most virulent with an infectious dose as low as 10 colony forming units and a mortality rate of 30-60% among untreated cases of pneumonic tularemia. We report here significant reduction of this major inhibitor of the neutrophil elastase in plasma of F. tularensis LVS and F. tularensis (type A) SCHU S4 infected animals following pulmonary challenge. Associated with an imbalance of protease-antiprotease function at the alveolar level in lungs of infected animals, increased elastase activity was observed in lung lavage fluids accompanied by decrease lung function, i.e., loss of lung elastance with concomitant increase of pulmonary hysteresivity. Consistent with a competent acute phase response following F. tularensis LVS and F. tularensis (type A) SCHU S4 pulmonary challenge and proposed up-regulation of plasma haptoglobin during the course of the acute phase reaction, haptoglobin was observed significantly increased. These data suggest that unchecked neutrophil serine protease activity may arise from F. tularensis targeted reduction of plasma α(1)-antitrysin promoting lung tissue damage facilitating increased dissemination of this bacterium in infected animals. PMID:22919586

  19. Isolation and complete amino acid sequence of two fibrinolytic proteinases from the toxic Saturnid caterpillar Lonomia achelous.

    PubMed

    Amarant, T; Burkhart, W; LeVine, H; Arocha-Pinango, C L; Parikh, I

    1991-08-30

    The major toxic and fibrinolytic activity of the saliva and hemolymph of the larval form of Lonomia achelous was purified to homogeneity by a combination of metal chelate and affinity chromatography. Two apparent isozymes, Achelase I (213 amino acids, pIcalc = 10.55) and Achelase II (214 amino acids, pIcalc = 8.51), were sequenced by automated Edman degradation, and their C-termini confirmed by Fourier-transform mass spectrometry. The calculated molecular weights (22,473 and 22,727) correspond well to Mr estimates of 24,000 by SDS-PAGE. No carbohydrate was detected during sequencing. The enzymes degraded all three chains of fibrin, alpha greater than beta much greater than gamma, yielding a fragmentation pattern indistinguishable from that produced by trypsin. Chromogenic peptides S-2222 (Factor Xa and trypsin), S-2251 (plasmin), S-2302 (kallikrein) and S-2444 (urokinase) were substrates while S-2288 (broad range of serine proteinases including thrombin) was not hydrolyzed. Among a range of inhibitors Hg+2, aminophenylmercuriacetate, leupeptin, antipain and E-64 but not N-ethylmaleimide or iodoacetate abolished the activity of the purified isozymes against S-2444. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, soybean trypsin inhibitor and aprotinin were less effective. The presence of the classic catalytic triad (histidine-41, aspartate-86 and serine-189) suggests that Achelases I and II may be serine proteinases, but with a potentially free cysteine-185 which could react with thiol proteinase-directed reagents. PMID:1911844

  20. Molt cycle-associated changes in calcium-dependent proteinase activity that degrades actin and myosin in crustacean muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Mykles, D.L.; Skinner, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The role of calcium-dependent proteinase (CDP) in the proecdysial atrophy of crustacean claw muscle has been investigated. During atrophy the molar ratio of actin to myosin heavy chain decreased 31%, confirming earlier ultrastructural observations that the ratio of thin:thick myofilaments declined from 9:1 to 6:1 (D.L. Mykles and D.M. Skinner, 1981, J. Ultrastruct. Res. 75, 314 to 325). The release of TCA-soluble material in muscle homogenates at neutral pH was stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/ and completely inhibited by EGTA. The specific degradation of the major myofibrillar proteins (actin, myosin heavy and light chains, paramyosin, tropomyosin, troponin-T, and troponin-I) was demonstrated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Proteolytic activity was more than twofold greater in proecdysial muscle homogenates. Degradation of myofibrillar proteins was inhibited by EGTA, and the two inhibitors of crysteine proteinases, leupeptin, and antipain, but not pepstatin, an inhibitor of aspartic proteinases. Unlike CDPs from vertebrate muscle, the CDP(s) in crab claw muscle degrades actin and myosin in addition to other myofibrillar proteins.

  1. The Alpha-1D Is the Predominant Alpha-1-Adrenergic Receptor Subtype in Human Epicardial Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Brian C.; Swigart, Philip M.; Laden, Marie-Eve; DeMarco, Teresa; Hoopes, Charles; Simpson, Paul C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The goal was to identify alpha-1-adrenergic receptor (α1-AR) subtypes in human coronary arteries. Background The α1-ARs regulate human coronary blood flow. α1-ARs exist as three molecular subtypes, α1A, α1B, and α1D, and the α1D subtype mediates coronary vasoconstriction in the mouse. However, the α1A is thought to be the only subtype in human coronary arteries. Methods We obtained human epicardial coronary arteries and left ventricular (LV) myocardium from 19 transplant recipients and 6 unused donors (age 19–70 years; 68% male; 32% with coronary artery disease). We cultured coronary rings and human coronary smooth muscle cells. We assayed α1- and β-AR subtype mRNAs by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR; and subtype proteins, by radioligand binding and ERK activation. Results The α1D subtype was 85% of total coronary α1-AR mRNA and 75% of total α1-AR protein, and α1D stimulation activated ERK. In contrast, the α1D was low in LV myocardium. Total coronary α1-AR levels were one-third of β-ARs, which were 99% the β2 subtype. Conclusions The α1D subtype is predominant and functional in human epicardial coronary arteries, whereas the α1A and α1B are present at very low levels. This distribution is similar to the mouse, where myocardial α1A and α1B-ARs mediate beneficial functional responses, and coronary α1Ds mediate vasoconstriction. Thus, α1D-selective antagonists might mediate coronary vasodilation, without the negative cardiac effects of non-selective α1-AR antagonists in current use. Furthermore, it could be possible to selectively activate beneficial myocardial α1A and/or α1B-AR signaling without causing coronary vasoconstriction. PMID:19761933

  2. Bacterial proteinases as targets for the development of second-generation antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Travis, J; Potempa, J

    2000-03-01

    The emergence of bacterial pathogen resistance to common antibiotics strongly supports the necessity to develop alternative mechanisms for combating drug-resistant forms of these infective organisms. Currently, few pharmaceutical companies have attempted to investigate the possibility of interrupting metabolic pathways other than those that are known to be involved in cell wall biosynthesis. In this review, we describe multiple, novel roles for bacterial proteinases during infection using, as a specific example, the enzymes from the organism Porphyromonas gingivalis, a periodontopathogen, which is known to be involved in the development and progression of periodontal disease. In this manner, we are able to justify the concept of developing synthetic inhibitors against members of this class of enzymes as potential second-generation antibiotics. Such compounds could not only prove valuable in retarding the growth and proliferation of bacterial pathogens but also lead to the use of this class of inhibitors against invasion by other infective organisms. PMID:10708847

  3. Binding-site mutations in the alpha1 subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor convert the inhibitory metal ion Cu2+ into a positive modulator.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Tanja; Grudzinska, Joanna; Kuzmin, Dmitry; Betz, Heinrich; Laube, Bodo

    2009-01-01

    The divalent cation copper (Cu2+) has been shown to inhibit chloride currents mediated by the inhibitory glycine receptor (GlyR). Here, we analyzed Cu2+ inhibition of homo- and hetero-oligomeric GlyRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. No significant differences in Cu2+ inhibitory potency were found between alpha1, alpha2 and alpha3 GlyRs as well as heteromeric alpha1beta receptors. Furthermore, GlyR alpha1 mutations known to reduce inhibition or potentiation of GlyR currents by Zn2+ had no effect on Cu2+ inhibition. However, Cu2+ was found to competitively antagonize glycine binding, suggesting that Cu2+ binds at the agonist-binding site. Mutations within the glycine-binding site of the GlyR alpha1 subunit reduced the inhibitory potency of Cu2+ and led to an up to 4-fold potentiation of glycine-elicited currents by Cu2+. Molecular dynamics simulation suggests this to be due to increased Cu2+ binding energies. Our data show that GlyR binding-site mutations can convert inhibitors of agonist binding into highly effective positive modulators. PMID:18793654

  4. Alpha 1-antitrypsin levels and phenotypes and hepatitis B serology in liver cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Sparos, L.; Tountas, Y.; Chapuis-Cellier, C.; Theodoropoulos, G.; Trichopoulos, D.

    1984-01-01

    Serum levels of alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1 AT) were measured by radial immunodiffusion and phenotypes were determined by electrofocusing in acrylamide gel in 39 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) positive for serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), 41 patients with HCC negative for serum HBsAg, and 160 age- and sex-matched hospital controls. There was no difference between the control series and either of the two HCC groups with respect to alpha 1 AT phenotype pattern; also, there was no evidence of association between HCC and either the M2 allele or any of the alpha 1 AT deficiency phenotypes. However, HCC cases negative for HBsAg had significantly higher serum alpha 1 AT values (mean 665 +/- 26 mg 100 ml-1) than HCC cases positive for HBsAg (mean 571 +/- 23 mg 100 ml-1), who in turn, had significantly higher alpha 1 AT values than hospital controls (mean 434 +/- 13 mg 100 ml-1). These results indicate that in Greece, as in other high HCC incidence countries, genetically determined alpha 1 AT deficiency is not aetiologically important; the increase of serum alpha 1 AT is an important correlate of HCC with possible aetiologic significance and diagnostic potential and HBsAg-positive HCC and HBsAg-negative HCC are manifest differently as well as being aetiologically distinct. PMID:6326791

  5. Inhibitory capacity of alpha 1 antitrypsin in lung secretions: variability and the effect of drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, H M; Afford, S C; Stockley, R A

    1984-01-01

    The inhibitory function of alpha 1 antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) has been studied in the lung secretions of 31 patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis. The inhibitory capacity for a single sample showed a wide range (median 0.13 micrograms porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) inhibited per microgram alpha 1 antitrypsin; range 0-0.55 micrograms), and all but five of 86 samples studied were capable of inhibiting some porcine pancreatic elastase. No sample showed free elastase activity, however. The inhibitory capacity, studied in six patients over five consecutive days, varied daily within the same individual (coefficient of variation 9.0-108.9%). Corticosteroid treatment (40 mg prednisone daily) increased the inhibitory capacity of sputum alpha 1 antitrypsin in 10 patients (2p less than 0.05) from a median value of 0.13 micrograms PPE inhibited per microgram alpha 1AT (range 0.06-0.36) before treatment to 0.22 micrograms PPE inhibited per microgram alpha 1AT (range 0.09-0.65) after treatment. The inhibitory capacity of sputum was higher than in the corresponding bronchoalveolar lavage sample from the same patient (2p less than 0.05; n = 10). The median value for sputum was 0.22 micrograms PPE inhibited per microgram alpha 1AT (range 0-0.55) and the value for lavage fluid was 0.07 micrograms PPE inhibited per microgram alpha 1AT (range 0-0.27). PMID:6611602

  6. Antagonism of Lateral Amygdala Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors Facilitates Fear Conditioning and Long-Term Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzaro, Stephanie C.; Hou, Mian; Cunha, Catarina; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Cain, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Norepinephrine receptors have been studied in emotion, memory, and attention. However, the role of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in fear conditioning, a major model of emotional learning, is poorly understood. We examined the effect of terazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on cued fear conditioning. Systemic or intra-lateral amygdala…

  7. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in...

  8. 21 CFR 866.5130 - Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system. 866.5130 Section 866.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the alpha-1-antitrypsin (a plasma protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues. The...

  9. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system. 866.5080 Section 866.5080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... immunochemical techniques alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (a protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues....

  10. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in...

  12. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... electrophoresis) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of specific alpha-1-glycoproteins may aid in...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system. 866.5080 Section 866.5080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... immunochemical techniques alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (a protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues....

  14. 21 CFR 866.5130 - Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system. 866.5130 Section 866.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the alpha-1-antitrypsin (a plasma protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues. The...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system. 866.5080 Section 866.5080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... immunochemical techniques alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (a protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues....

  16. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system. 866.5080 Section 866.5080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... immunochemical techniques alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (a protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues....

  17. 21 CFR 866.5130 - Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system. 866.5130 Section 866.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the alpha-1-antitrypsin (a plasma protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues. The...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5130 - Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system. 866.5130 Section 866.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the alpha-1-antitrypsin (a plasma protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues. The...

  19. Structure-function relationships in the cysteine proteinases actinidin, papain and papaya proteinase omega. Three-dimensional structure of papaya proteinase omega deduced by knowledge-based modelling and active-centre characteristics determined by two-hydronic-state reactivity probe kinetics and kinetics of catalysis.

    PubMed Central

    Topham, C M; Salih, E; Frazao, C; Kowlessur, D; Overington, J P; Thomas, M; Brocklehurst, S M; Patel, M; Thomas, E W; Brocklehurst, K

    1991-01-01

    1. A model of the three-dimensional structure of papaya proteinase omega, the most basic cysteine proteinase component of the latex of papaya (Carica papaya), was built from its amino acid sequence and the two currently known high-resolution crystal structures of the homologous enzymes papain (EC 3.4.22.2) and actinidin (EC 3.4.22.14). The method used a knowledge-based approach incorporated in the COMPOSER suite of programs and refinement by using the interactive graphics program FRODO on an Evans and Sutherland PS 390 and by energy minimization using the GROMOS program library. 2. Functional similarities and differences between the three cysteine proteinases revealed by analysis of pH-dependent kinetics of the acylation process of the catalytic act and of the reactions of the enzyme catalytic sites with substrate-derived 2-pyridyl disulphides as two-hydronic-state reactivity probes are reported and discussed in terms of the knowledge-based model. 3. To facilitate analysis of complex pH-dependent kinetic data, a multitasking application program (SKETCHER) for parameter estimation by interactive manipulation of calculated curves and a simple method of writing down pH-dependent kinetic equations for reactions involving any number of reactive hydronic states by using information matrices were developed. 4. Papaya proteinase omega differs from the other two enzymes in the ionization characteristics of the common (Cys)-SH/(His)-Im+H catalytic-site system and of the other acid/base groups that modulate thiol reactivity towards substrate-derived inhibitors and the acylation process of the catalytic act. The most marked difference in the Cys/His system is that the pKa for the loss of the ion-pair state to form -S-/-Im is 8.1-8.3 for papaya proteinase omega, whereas it is 9.5 for both actinidin and papain. Papaya proteinase omega is similar to actinidin in that it lacks the second catalytically influential group with pKa approx. 4 present in papain and possesses a

  20. Structure-function relationships in the cysteine proteinases actinidin, papain and papaya proteinase omega. Three-dimensional structure of papaya proteinase omega deduced by knowledge-based modelling and active-centre characteristics determined by two-hydronic-state reactivity probe kinetics and kinetics of catalysis.

    PubMed

    Topham, C M; Salih, E; Frazao, C; Kowlessur, D; Overington, J P; Thomas, M; Brocklehurst, S M; Patel, M; Thomas, E W; Brocklehurst, K

    1991-11-15

    1. A model of the three-dimensional structure of papaya proteinase omega, the most basic cysteine proteinase component of the latex of papaya (Carica papaya), was built from its amino acid sequence and the two currently known high-resolution crystal structures of the homologous enzymes papain (EC 3.4.22.2) and actinidin (EC 3.4.22.14). The method used a knowledge-based approach incorporated in the COMPOSER suite of programs and refinement by using the interactive graphics program FRODO on an Evans and Sutherland PS 390 and by energy minimization using the GROMOS program library. 2. Functional similarities and differences between the three cysteine proteinases revealed by analysis of pH-dependent kinetics of the acylation process of the catalytic act and of the reactions of the enzyme catalytic sites with substrate-derived 2-pyridyl disulphides as two-hydronic-state reactivity probes are reported and discussed in terms of the knowledge-based model. 3. To facilitate analysis of complex pH-dependent kinetic data, a multitasking application program (SKETCHER) for parameter estimation by interactive manipulation of calculated curves and a simple method of writing down pH-dependent kinetic equations for reactions involving any number of reactive hydronic states by using information matrices were developed. 4. Papaya proteinase omega differs from the other two enzymes in the ionization characteristics of the common (Cys)-SH/(His)-Im+H catalytic-site system and of the other acid/base groups that modulate thiol reactivity towards substrate-derived inhibitors and the acylation process of the catalytic act. The most marked difference in the Cys/His system is that the pKa for the loss of the ion-pair state to form -S-/-Im is 8.1-8.3 for papaya proteinase omega, whereas it is 9.5 for both actinidin and papain. Papaya proteinase omega is similar to actinidin in that it lacks the second catalytically influential group with pKa approx. 4 present in papain and possesses a

  1. Isolation and characterization of recombinant Drosophila Copia aspartic proteinase.

    PubMed

    Athauda, Senarath B P; Yoshioka, Katsuji; Shiba, Tadayoshi; Takahashi, Kenji

    2006-11-01

    The wild type Copia Gag precursor protein of Drosophila melanogaster expressed in Escherichia coli was shown to be processed autocatalytically to generate two daughter proteins with molecular masses of 33 and 23 kDa on SDS/PAGE. The active-site motif of aspartic proteinases, Asp-Ser-Gly, was present in the 23 kDa protein corresponding to the C-terminal half of the precursor protein. The coding region of this daughter protein (152 residues) in the copia gag gene was expressed in E. coli to produce the recombinant enzyme protein as inclusion bodies, which was then purified and refolded to create the active enzyme. Using the peptide substrate His-Gly-Ile-Ala-Phe-Met-Val-Lys-Glu-Val-Asn (cleavage site: Phe-Met) designed on the basis of the sequence of the cleavage-site region of the precursor protein, the enzymatic properties of the proteinase were investigated. The optimum pH and temperature of the proteinase toward the synthetic peptide were 4.0 and 70 degrees C respectively. The proteolytic activity was increased with increasing NaCl concentration in the reaction mixture, the optimum concentration being 2 M. Pepstatin A strongly inhibited the enzyme, with a Ki value of 15 nM at pH 4.0. On the other hand, the active-site residue mutant, in which the putative catalytic aspartic acid residue was mutated to an alanine residue, had no activity. These results show that the Copia proteinase belongs to the family of aspartic proteinases including HIV proteinase. The B-chain of oxidized bovine insulin was hydrolysed at the Leu15-Tyr16 bond fairly selectively. Thus the recombinant Copia proteinase partially resembles HIV proteinase, but is significantly different from it in certain aspects. PMID:16813567

  2. The induction of proteinases in corn and soybean by anoxia

    SciTech Connect

    VanToai, T.; Hwang, Shihying )

    1989-04-01

    This study characterized the anaerobic changes in proteinase activities in corn and soybean roots and to investigate the possibility that these changes might contribute to the differential anaerobiosis tolerance of the two species. After 24 h of anoxia, crude protein extracts from H60 corn and Keller soybean root tips (10cm) were assayed for proteinase activities at pH range from 4.5 to 9.5. Turnover of aberrant proteins was studied in seedlings labelled with {sup 3}H-leucine for 12 h under: (a) puromycin (0.64 mM) in air, (b) ethanol (1%) in air, (c) nitrogen and (d) air. After the treatment, the labelled proteins remaining in roots were determined every 2 h for 6 h. In both corn and soybean, activities of alkali proteinases increased, and activities of acid proteinases declined under anoxia. Neutral proteinases increase in anoxic corn roots, but decline in anoxic soybean roots. The protein turnover rate in corn treated with puromycin, ethanol and nitrogen was much higher than in control roots. The protein turnover rate in soybean roots treated with puromycin, ethanol was similar to the rate of the control. The results indicated that: (a) anoxic corn can degrade aberrant proteins, but anoxic soybean cannot, (b) the degradation of aberrant proteins in anoxic corn is accomplished by neutral proteinases, and (c) the accumulation of aberrant proteins in soybean might contribute to the susceptibility of this species to anoxia.

  3. Radioligand binding studies of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes in rat heart.

    PubMed Central

    Michel, M. C.; Hanft, G.; Gross, G.

    1994-01-01

    1. In order to characterize the alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating positive inotropic effects of adrenaline (in the presence of propranolol) in rat right ventricular strips and the Ca2+ sources used to elicit them, we have used radioligand binding to identify the alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes present in rat heart and the alpha 1-adrenoceptor affinity and subtype-selectivity of various pharmacological tools. 2. Amitryptiline, mianserin, trimipramine, oxaprotiline, clonidine, chloroethylclonidine, phenoxybenzamine, BE 2254 and 8-OH-DPAT competed for [3H]-prazosin binding in rat heart, vas deferens, liver, spleen, cerebral cortex and hippocampus but none of them displayed detectable alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtype-selectivity; nitrendipine did not compete for [3H]-prazosin binding in concentrations up to 5 mumol 1(-1). 3. The alpha 1 A-adrenoceptor-selective, 5-methyl-urapidil, (+)-niguldipine, and to a lesser extent (-)-niguldipine competed for [3H]-prazosin binding in rat heart, vas deferens, cerebral cortex and hippocampus with shallow and biphasic curves; analysis of these curves demonstrated that rat heart contains alpha 1A-and alpha 1B-adrenoceptors in a 20:80 ratio. 4. Treatment of rat right ventricular strips with 100 mumol l-1 chloroethylclonidine for 30 min at 30 degrees C followed by 60 min washout reduced the number of alpha 1-adrenoceptors, as assessed by [3H]-prazosin saturation experiments, by 74%. Treatment with 100 mumol l(-1) CdCl2 did not affect number or affinity of cardiac alpha 1-adrenoceptors and combined treatment with chlorethylclonidine and CdCl2 reduced alpha 1-adrenoceptor number by 90%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7911718

  4. Loss of integrin alpha1beta1 ameliorates Kras-induced lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Macias-Perez, Ines; Borza, Corina; Chen, Xiwu; Yan, Xuexian; Ibanez, Raquel; Mernaugh, Glenda; Matrisian, Lynn M; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra

    2008-08-01

    The collagen IV binding receptor integrin alpha1beta1 has been shown to regulate lung cancer due to its proangiogenic properties; however, it is unclear whether this receptor also plays a direct role in promoting primary lung tumors. To investigate this possibility, integrin alpha1-null mice were crossed with KrasLA2 mice that carry an oncogenic mutation of the Kras gene (G12D) and develop spontaneous primary tumors with features of non-small cell lung cancer. We provide evidence that KrasLA2/alpha1-null mice have a decreased incidence of primary lung tumors and longer survival compared with KrasLA2/alpha1 wild-type controls. Tumors from KrasLA2/alpha1-null mice were also smaller, less vascularized, and exhibited reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis, as determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end staining, respectively. Moreover, tumors from the KrasLA2/alpha1-null mice showed diminished extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but enhanced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. Primary lung tumor epithelial cells isolated from KrasLA2/alpha1-null mice showed a significant decrease in anchorage-independent colony formation, collagen-mediated cell proliferation, ERK activation, and, most importantly, tumorigenicity when injected into nude mice compared with KrasLA2/alpha1 wild-type tumor cells. These results indicate that loss of the integrin alpha1 subunit decreases the incidence and growth of lung epithelial tumors initiated by oncogenic Kras, suggesting that both Kras and integrin alpha1beta1 cooperate to drive the growth of non-small cell lung cancer in vivo. PMID:18676835

  5. Evolutionary patterns of proteinase activity in attine ant fungus gardens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. Results We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH that the ants maintain in their fungus gardens, suggesting that the pH optimum of fungal proteinases may have changed after the irreversible domestication of evolutionary more derived fungal symbionts. This notion is also supported by buffering capacities of fungus gardens at pH 5.2 being remarkably high, and suggests that the fungal symbiont actively helps to maintain garden acidity at this specific level. Metalloproteinases dominated the activity profiles of lower attine gardens and may thus represent the ancestral type of proteinase production, whereas serine proteinase activity dominated the activity profiles of the higher attine gardens reared by Trachymyrmex and Sericomyrmex, suggesting that there may be trade-offs in the production of these enzyme classes. Remarkably, the single symbiont that is shared by species of the crown group of Atta and Acromyrmex leaf-cutting ants mostly showed metalloproteinase activity, suggesting that recurrent

  6. Developing novel anthelmintics from plant cysteine proteinases

    PubMed Central

    Behnke, Jerzy M; Buttle, David J; Stepek, Gillian; Lowe, Ann; Duce, Ian R

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal helminth infections of livestock and humans are predominantly controlled by treatment with three classes of synthetic drugs, but some livestock nematodes have now developed resistance to all three classes and there are signs that human hookworms are becoming less responsive to the two classes (benzimidazoles and the nicotinic acetylcholine agonists) that are licensed for treatment of humans. New anthelmintics are urgently needed, and whilst development of new synthetic drugs is ongoing, it is slow and there are no signs yet that novel compounds operating through different modes of action, will be available on the market in the current decade. The development of naturally-occurring compounds as medicines for human use and for treatment of animals is fraught with problems. In this paper we review the current status of cysteine proteinases from fruits and protective plant latices as novel anthelmintics, we consider some of the problems inherent in taking laboratory findings and those derived from folk-medicine to the market and we suggest that there is a wealth of new compounds still to be discovered that could be harvested to benefit humans and livestock. PMID:18761736

  7. Differential effects of angiostatin, endostatin and interferon-alpha(1) gene transfer on in vivo growth of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Indraccolo, S; Gola, E; Rosato, A; Minuzzo, S; Habeler, W; Tisato, V; Roni, V; Esposito, G; Morini, M; Albini, A; Noonan, D M; Ferrantini, M; Amadori, A; Chieco-Bianchi, L

    2002-07-01

    The administration of different angiogenesis inhibitors by gene transfer has been shown to result in inhibition of tumor growth in animal tumor models, but the potency of these genes has been only partially evaluated in comparative studies to date. To identify the most effective anti-angiogenic molecule for delivery by retroviral vectors, we investigated the effects of angiostatin, endostatin and interferon(IFN)-alpha(1) gene transfer in in vivo models of breast cancer induced neovascularization and tumor growth. Moloney leukemia virus-based retroviral vectors for expression of murine angiostatin, endostatin and IFN-alpha(1) were generated, characterized, and used to transduce human breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and MDA-MB435). Secretion of the recombinant proteins was confirmed by biological and Western blotting assays. Their production did not impair in vitro growth of these breast cancer cells nor their viability, and did not interfere with the expression of angiogenic factors. However, primary endothelial cell proliferation and migration in vitro were inhibited by supernatants of the transduced cells containing angiostatin, endostatin, and IFN-alpha(1). Stable gene transfer of the IFN-alpha(1) cDNA by retroviral vectors in both MCF7 and MDA-MB435 cells resulted in a marked and long-lasting inhibition of tumor growth in nude mice that was associated with reduced vascularization. Endostatin reduced the in vivo growth of MDA-MB435, but not MCF7 cells, despite similar levels of in vivo production, and angiostatin did not impair the in vivo growth of either cell line. These findings indicate heterogeneity in the therapeutic efficacy of angiostatic molecules delivered by viral vectors and suggest that gene therapy with IFN-alpha(1) and endostatin might be useful for treatment of breast cancer. PMID:12080381

  8. Pivotal role for alpha1-antichymotrypsin in skin repair.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Daniel C; Textoris, Christine; Oehme, Felix; Klaassen, Tobias; Goppelt, Andreas; Römer, Axel; Fugmann, Burkhard; Davidson, Jeffrey M; Werner, Sabine; Krieg, Thomas; Eming, Sabine A

    2011-08-19

    α1-Antichymotrypsin (α1-ACT) is a specific inhibitor of leukocyte-derived chymotrypsin-like proteases with largely unknown functions in tissue repair. By examining human and murine skin wounds, we showed that following mechanical injury the physiological repair response is associated with an acute phase response of α1-ACT and the mouse homologue Spi-2, respectively. In both species, attenuated α1-ACT/Spi-2 activity and gene expression at the local wound site was associated with severe wound healing defects. Topical application of recombinant α1-ACT to wounds of diabetic mice rescued the impaired healing phenotype. LC-MS analysis of α1-ACT cleavage fragments identified a novel cleavage site within the reactive center loop and showed that neutrophil elastase was the predominant protease involved in unusual α1-ACT cleavage and inactivation in nonhealing human wounds. These results reveal critical functions for locally acting α1-ACT in the acute phase response following skin injury, provide mechanistic insight into its function during the repair response, and raise novel perspectives for its potential therapeutic value in inflammation-mediated tissue damage. PMID:21693707

  9. Update on alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: New therapies.

    PubMed

    Lomas, David A; Hurst, John R; Gooptu, Bibek

    2016-08-01

    α1-Antitrypsin deficiency is characterised by the misfolding and intracellular polymerisation of mutant α1-antitrypsin within the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes. The retention of mutant protein causes hepatic damage and cirrhosis whilst the lack of an important circulating protease inhibitor predisposes the individuals with severe α1-antitrypsin deficiency to early onset emphysema. Our work over the past 25years has led to new paradigms for the liver and lung disease associated with α1-antitrypsin deficiency. We review here the molecular pathology of the cirrhosis and emphysema associated with α1-antitrypsin deficiency and show how an understanding of this condition provided the paradigm for a wider group of disorders that we have termed the serpinopathies. The detailed understanding of the pathobiology of α1-antitrypsin deficiency has identified important disease mechanisms to target. As a result, several novel parallel and complementary therapeutic approaches are in development with some now in clinical trials. We provide an overview of these new therapies for the liver and lung disease associated with α1-antitrypsin deficiency. PMID:27034252

  10. [Purification and properties of serine proteinases from European catfish Silurus glanis L. pancreas].

    PubMed

    Ulitina, N N; Khabliuk, V V; Proskuriakov, M T

    2005-01-01

    Three trypsin isoforms (designated as T1, T2, and T3), three chymotrypsin isoforms (Kh1, Kh2, and Kh3), and two elastase isoforms (E1 and E2) were isolated from the pancreas of European catfish Silurus glanis L. by salting out with (NH4)2SO4, gel chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE cellulose. Isoelectric points of the enzymes, determined by isoelectric focusing, amounted to 4.42 for T1, 5.64 for T2, 6.90 for T3, 4.93 for Khl, 5.23 for Kh2, 6.18 for Kh3, 6.17 for E1, and 8.48 for E2. Molecular weights of proteinases within each group were close and amounted to 30100 Da for trypsins, 39800 Da for chymotrypsins, and 24000 Da for elastases. The enzymes isolated displayed maximal activities at alkaline pH values. Inhibitor analysis demonstrated that all the proteinases isolated from European catfish pancreas belonged to the serine type. PMID:15859457

  11. Structure of the SARS coronavirus main proteinase as an active C{sub 2} crystallographic dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ting; Ooi, Amy; Lee, Hooi Chen; Wilmouth, Rupert; Liu, Ding Xiang; Lescar, Julien

    2005-11-01

    An orthorhombic crystal form of the SARS CoV main proteinase diffracting to a resolution of 1.9 Å is reported. The conformation of residues in the catalytic site indicates an active enzyme. The 34 kDa main proteinase (M{sup pro}) from the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) plays an important role in the virus life cycle through the specific processing of viral polyproteins. As such, SARS-CoV M{sup pro} is a key target for the identification of specific inhibitors directed against the SARS virus. With a view to facilitating the development of such compounds, crystals were obtained of the enzyme at pH 6.5 in the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 that diffract to a resolution of 1.9 Å. These crystals contain one monomer per asymmetric unit and the biologically active dimer is generated via the crystallographic twofold axis. The conformation of the catalytic site indicates that the enzyme is active in the crystalline form and thus suitable for structure-based inhibition studies.

  12. New aspartic proteinase of Ulysses retrotransposon from Drosophila virilis.

    PubMed

    Volkov, D A; Dergousova, N I; Rumsh, L D

    2004-06-01

    This work is focused on the investigation of a proteinase of Ulysses mobile genetic element from Drosophila virilis. The primary structure of this proteinase is suggested based on comparative analysis of amino acid sequences of aspartic proteinases from retroviruses and retrotransposons. The corresponding cDNA fragment has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The protein accumulated in inclusion bodies. The recombinant protein (12 kD) was subjected to refolding and purified by affinity chromatography on pepstatin-agarose. Proteolytic activity of the protein was determined using oligopeptide substrates melittin and insulin B-chain. It was found that the maximum of the proteolytic activity is displayed at pH 5.5 as for the majority of aspartic proteinases. We observed that hydrolysis of B-chain of insulin was totally inhibited by pepstatin A in the micromolar concentration range. The molecular weight of the monomer of the Ulysses proteinase was determined by MALDI-TOF mass-spectrometry. PMID:15236611

  13. Two distinct phases of apoptosis in mammary gland involution: proteinase-independent and -dependent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Leif R; Romer, John; Thomasset, Nicole; Solberg, Helene; Pyke, Charles; Bissell, Mina J; Dano, Keld; Werb, Zena

    1996-01-01

    Postlactational involution of the mammary gland is characterized by two distinct physiological events: apoptosis of the secretory, epithelial cells undergoing programmed cell death, and proteolytic degradation of the mammary gland basement membrane. We examined the spatial and temporal patterns of apoptotic cells in relation to those of proteinases during involution of the BALB/c mouse mammary gland. Apoptosis was almost absent during lactation but became evident at day 2 of involution, when {beta}-casein gene expression was still high. Apoptotic cells were then seen at least up to day 8 of involution, when {beta}-casein gene expression was being extinguished. Expression of sulfated glycoprotein-2 (SGP-2), interleukin-1{beta} converting enzyme (ICE) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 was upregulated at day 2, when apoptotic cells were seen initially. Expression of the matrix metalloproteinases gelatinase A and stromelysin-1 and the serine proteinase urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which was low during lactation, was strongly upregulated in parallel starting at day 4 after weaning, coinciding with start of the collapse of the lobulo-alveolar structures and the intensive tissue remodeling in involution. The major sites of mRNA synthesis for these proteinases were fibroblast-like cells in the periductal stroma and stromal cells surrounding the collapsed alveoli, suggesting that the degradative phase of involution is due to a specialized mesenchymal-epithelial interaction. To elucidate the functional role of these proteinases during involution, at the onset of weaning we treated mice systemically with the glucocorticoid hydrocortisone, which is known to inhibit mammary gland involution. Although the initial wave of apoptotic cells appeared in the lumina of the gland, the dramatic regression and tissue remodeling usually evident by day 5 was substantially inhibited by systemic treatment with hydrocortisone. mRNA and protein for gelatinase A, stromelysin

  14. Separation of functional domains for the alpha-1,4 and alpha-1,6 hydrolytic activities of a Bacillus amylopullulanase by limited proteolysis with papain.

    PubMed

    Ara, K; Igarashi, K; Hagihara, H; Sawada, K; Kobayashi, T; Ito, S

    1996-04-01

    An amylopullulanase (APase) from alkalophilic Bacillus sp. KSM-1378 hydrolyzes both alpha-1,6 linkages in pullulan and alpha-1,4 linkages in other polysaccharides, each maximally active at an alkaline pH, to generate oligosaccharides. We analyzed proteolytic fragments that were produced by exposing pure APase to various proteases, to identify its catalytic domain(s). The intact, pure 210-kDa APase was partially digested with papain for a short time, yielding simultaneously two smaller non-overlapping active fragments, designated amylose-hydrolyzing fragment (AHF114, 114 kDa) and pullulan-hydrolyzing fragment (PHF102, 102 kda). The two truncated protein fragments, each containing a single catalytic domain, were purified to homogeneity. The purified AHF114 and PHF102 had similar enzymatic properties to the amylase and pullulanase activities, respectively, of intact APase. The partial amino-terminal sequences of APase and AHF114 were both Glu-Thr-Gly-Asp-Lys-Arg-Ile-Glu-Phe-Ser-Tyr-Glu-Arg-Pro and that of PHF102 was Thr-Val-Pro-Leu-Ala-Leu-Val-Ser-Gly-Glu-Val-Leu-Ser-Asp-Lsy-Leu. These results were direct evidence that the alpha-1,6 and alpha-1,4 hydrolytic activities were associated with two different active sites in this novel enzyme. Our alkaline APase is obviously a "biheaded enzyme". PMID:8829530

  15. Induction of prostate apoptosis by alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists: mechanistic significance of the quinazoline component.

    PubMed

    Anglin, I E; Glassman, D T; Kyprianou, N

    2002-01-01

    alpha(1)-Adrenoceptor antagonists, have been documented to induce apoptosis and reduce prostate tumor vascularity in benign and malignant prostate cells. The quinazoline based alpha(1)-antagonists, doxazosin and terazosin but not tamsulosin (a sulphonamide derivative) suppress prostate growth without affecting cell proliferation. These quinazoline-mediated apoptotic effects occur via an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor independent mechanism potentially involving activation of the TGF-beta signal transduction pathway. This review discusses the current knowledge of the action of quinazoline-derived alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists in the benign and malignant prostate and their potential therapeutic use in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. Finally, a molecular pathway is proposed for their observed apoptotic function against prostate cells. Increased understanding of the action of these established and clinically accepted agents would provide a basis for the design of safe, effective therapeutic regimens in the treatment of prostatic diseases. PMID:12496995

  16. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? The ... ability to be physically active, and wheezing. These signs and symptoms most often begin between the ages ...

  17. Deficiency Mutations of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin. Effects on Folding, Function, and Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Imran; Saleh, Aarash D.; Dron, Louis; Regan-Mochrie, Gemma L.; Motamedi-Shad, Neda; Hurst, John R.; Gooptu, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    Misfolding, polymerization, and defective secretion of functional alpha-1 antitrypsin underlies the predisposition to severe liver and lung disease in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. We have identified a novel (Ala336Pro, Baghdad) deficiency variant and characterized it relative to the wild-type (M) and Glu342Lys (Z) alleles. The index case is a homozygous individual of consanguineous parentage, with levels of circulating alpha-1 antitrypsin in the moderate deficiency range, but is a biochemical phenotype that could not be classified by standard methods. The majority of the protein was present as functionally inactive polymer, and the remaining monomer was 37% active relative to the wild-type protein. These factors combined indicate an 85 to 95% functional deficiency, similar to that seen with ZZ homozygotes. Biochemical, biophysical, and computational studies further defined the molecular basis of this deficiency. These studies demonstrated that native Ala336Pro alpha-1 antitrypsin could populate the polymerogenic intermediate—and therefore polymerize—more readily than either wild-type alpha-1 antitrypsin or the Z variant. In contrast, folding was far less impaired in Ala336Pro alpha-1 antitrypsin than in the Z variant. The data are consistent with a disparate contribution by the “breach” region and “shutter” region of strand 5A to folding and polymerization mechanisms. Moreover, the findings demonstrate that, in these variants, folding efficiency does not correlate directly with the tendency to polymerize in vitro or in vivo. They therefore differentiate generalized misfolding from polymerization tendencies in missense variants of alpha-1 antitrypsin. Clinically, they further support the need to quantify loss-of-function in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency to individualize patient care. PMID:26091018

  18. Estrogen alters the diurnal rhythm of alpha 1-adrenergic receptor densities in selected brain regions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, N.G.; Wise, P.M.

    1987-11-01

    Norepinephrine regulates the proestrous and estradiol-induced LH surge by binding to alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. The density of alpha 1-receptors may be regulated by estradiol, photoperiod, and noradrenergic neuronal activity. We wished to determine whether alpha 1-receptors exhibit a diurnal rhythm in ovariectomized and/or estradiol-treated female rats, whether estradiol regulates alpha 1-receptors in those areas of brain involved with LH secretion and/or sexual behavior, and whether the concentrations of alpha-receptors vary inversely relative to previously reported norepinephrine turnover patterns. Young female rats, maintained on a 14:10 light-dark cycle were ovariectomized. One week later, half of them were outfitted sc with Silastic capsules containing estradiol. Groups of animals were decapitated 2 days later at 0300, 1000, 1300, 1500, 1800, and 2300 h. Brains were removed, frozen, and sectioned at 20 micron. Sections were incubated with (/sup 3/H)prazosin in Tris-HCl buffer, washed, dried, and exposed to LKB Ultrofilm. The densities of alpha 1-receptors were quantitated using a computerized image analysis system. In ovariectomized rats, the density of alpha 1-receptors exhibited a diurnal rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), and pineal gland. In SCN and MPN, receptor concentrations were lowest during the middle of the day and rose to peak levels at 1800 h. In the pineal gland, the density of alpha 1-receptors was lowest at middark phase, rose to peak levels before lights on, and remained elevated during the day. Estradiol suppressed the density of alpha 1 binding sites in the SCN, MPN, median eminence, ventromedial nucleus, and the pineal gland but had no effect on the lateral septum. Estrogen treatment altered the rhythm of receptor densities in MPN, median eminence, and the pineal gland.

  19. Deficiency Mutations of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin. Effects on Folding, Function, and Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Haq, Imran; Irving, James A; Saleh, Aarash D; Dron, Louis; Regan-Mochrie, Gemma L; Motamedi-Shad, Neda; Hurst, John R; Gooptu, Bibek; Lomas, David A

    2016-01-01

    Misfolding, polymerization, and defective secretion of functional alpha-1 antitrypsin underlies the predisposition to severe liver and lung disease in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. We have identified a novel (Ala336Pro, Baghdad) deficiency variant and characterized it relative to the wild-type (M) and Glu342Lys (Z) alleles. The index case is a homozygous individual of consanguineous parentage, with levels of circulating alpha-1 antitrypsin in the moderate deficiency range, but is a biochemical phenotype that could not be classified by standard methods. The majority of the protein was present as functionally inactive polymer, and the remaining monomer was 37% active relative to the wild-type protein. These factors combined indicate an 85 to 95% functional deficiency, similar to that seen with ZZ homozygotes. Biochemical, biophysical, and computational studies further defined the molecular basis of this deficiency. These studies demonstrated that native Ala336Pro alpha-1 antitrypsin could populate the polymerogenic intermediate-and therefore polymerize-more readily than either wild-type alpha-1 antitrypsin or the Z variant. In contrast, folding was far less impaired in Ala336Pro alpha-1 antitrypsin than in the Z variant. The data are consistent with a disparate contribution by the "breach" region and "shutter" region of strand 5A to folding and polymerization mechanisms. Moreover, the findings demonstrate that, in these variants, folding efficiency does not correlate directly with the tendency to polymerize in vitro or in vivo. They therefore differentiate generalized misfolding from polymerization tendencies in missense variants of alpha-1 antitrypsin. Clinically, they further support the need to quantify loss-of-function in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency to individualize patient care. PMID:26091018

  20. A Monoclonal Antibody (MCPR3-7) Interfering with the Activity of Proteinase 3 by an Allosteric Mechanism*

    PubMed Central

    Hinkofer, Lisa C.; Seidel, Susanne A. I.; Korkmaz, Brice; Silva, Francisco; Hummel, Amber M.; Braun, Dieter; Jenne, Dieter E.; Specks, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase 3 (PR3) is an abundant serine protease of neutrophil granules and a major target of autoantibodies (PR3 anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) in granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Some of the PR3 synthesized by promyelocytes in the bone marrow escapes the targeting to granules and occurs on the plasma membrane of naive and primed neutrophils. This membrane-associated PR3 antigen may represent pro-PR3, mature PR3, or both forms. To discriminate between mature PR3 and its inactive zymogen, which have different conformations, we generated and identified a monoclonal antibody called MCPR3-7. It bound much better to pro-PR3 than to mature PR3. This monoclonal antibody greatly reduced the catalytic activity of mature PR3 toward extended peptide substrates. Using diverse techniques and multiple recombinant PR3 variants, we characterized its binding properties and found that MCPR3-7 preferentially bound to the so-called activation domain of the zymogen and changed the conformation of mature PR3, resulting in impaired catalysis and inactivation by α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-antitrypsin). Noncovalent as well as covalent complexation between PR3 and α1-proteinase inhibitor was delayed in the presence of MCPR3-7, but cleavage of certain thioester and paranitroanilide substrates with small residues in the P1 position was not inhibited. We conclude that MCPR3-7 reduces PR3 activity by an allosteric mechanism affecting the S1′ pocket and further prime side interactions with substrates. In addition, MCPR3-7 prevents binding of PR3 to cellular membranes. Inhibitory antibodies targeting the activation domain of PR3 could be exploited as highly selective inhibitors of PR3, scavengers, and clearers of the PR3 autoantigen in granulomatosis with polyangiitis. PMID:23902773

  1. Practical and theoretical characterization of Inga laurina Kunitz inhibitor on the control of Homalinotus coriaceus.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Maria Lígia Rodrigues; Freire, Maria das Graças Machado; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Migliolo, Ludovico; de Oliveira, Caio Fernando Ramalho

    2011-02-01

    Digestive endoprotease activities of the coconut palm weevil, Homalinotus coriaceus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were characterized based on the ability of gut extracts to hydrolyze specific synthetic substrates, optimal pH, and hydrolysis sensitivity to protease inhibitors. Trypsin-like proteinases were major enzymes for H. coriaceus, with minor activity by chymotrypsin proteinases. More importantly, gut proteinases of H. coriaceus were inhibited by trypsin inhibitor from Inga laurina seeds. In addition, a serine proteinase inhibitor from I. laurina seeds demonstrated significant reduction of growth of H. coriaceus larvae after feeding on inhibitor incorporated artificial diets. Dietary utilization experiments show that 0.05% I. laurina trypsin inhibitor, incorporated into an artificial diet, decreases the consumption rate and fecal production of H. coriaceus larvae. Dietary utilization experiments show that 0.05% I. laurina trypsin inhibitor, incorporated into an artificial diet, decreases the consumption rate and fecal production of H. coriaceus larvae. We have constructed a three-dimensional model of the trypsin inhibitor complexed with trypsin. The model was built based on its comparative homology with soybean trypsin inhibitor. Trypsin inhibitor of I. laurina shows structural features characteristic of the Kunitz type trypsin inhibitor. In summary, these findings contribute to the development of biotechnological tools such as transgenic plants with enhanced resistance to insect pests. PMID:21094272

  2. Phase diagram of crystallization of Aspergillus niger acid proteinase A, a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Norio; Ataka, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Tomonari; Katsura, Tatsuo; Tanokura, Masaru

    1996-10-01

    Proteinase A from Aspergillus niger var. macrosporus is a non-pepsin-type acid proteinase with an extremely low isoelectric point (pI 3.3). The protein is crystallized from ammonium sulfate solutions of pH lower than 4. The crystallization is affected by the presence of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). We have studied the phase diagram of the crystallization of proteinase A in the absence and presence of DMSO, to clarify crystallization at such an extremely low pH and to study the effects of DMSO. The results indicate that the logarithm of protein solubility is a rectilinear function of ammonium sulfate concentration in both the absence and presence of DMSO. DMSO definitely lowers the solubility at relatively low concentrations of ammonium sulfate, but had little effect on protein solubility at higher concentrations of ammonium sulfate.

  3. The thiol proteinases from the latex of Carica papaya L. II. The primary structure of proteinase omega.

    PubMed

    Dubois, T; Kleinschmidt, T; Schnek, A G; Looze, Y; Braunitzer, G

    1988-08-01

    The complete primary structure of the proteinase omega isolated from the latex of the Carica papaya fruits is given. The polypeptide chain contains 216 amino-acid residues, the alignment of which was deduced from sequence analyses of the native enzyme, the tryptic, chymotryptic, peptic and thermolysinolytic peptides and facilitated due to the considerable degree of homology with papain and actinidin. The location of the three disulfide bridges could be established with the help of peptic and thermolysinolytic fragments. Proteinase omega shares 148 identical amino-acid residues (68.5%) with papain and 108 ones (50%) with actinidin, including the three disulfide bridges and the free cysteine residue required for activity, as well as most of the other amino-acid residues involved in the catalytic mechanism and two thirds of the glycine residues which are of structural significance. The homology with other cysteine proteinases of different origin is discussed. PMID:3063283

  4. Characterization of the hepatitis C virus-encoded serine proteinase: determination of proteinase-dependent polyprotein cleavage sites.

    PubMed Central

    Grakoui, A; McCourt, D W; Wychowski, C; Feinstone, S M; Rice, C M

    1993-01-01

    Processing of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) H strain polyprotein yields at least nine distinct cleavage products: NH2-C-E1-E2-NS2-NS3-NS4A-NS4B-NS5A-NS5B-CO OH. As described in this report, site-directed mutagenesis and transient expression analyses were used to study the role of a putative serine proteinase domain, located in the N-terminal one-third of the NS3 protein, in proteolytic processing of HCV polyproteins. All four cleavages which occur C terminal to the proteinase domain (3/4A, 4A/4B, 4B/5A, and 5A/5B) were abolished by substitution of alanine for either of two predicted residues (His-1083 and Ser-1165) in the proteinase catalytic triad. However, such substitutions have no observable effect on cleavages in the structural region or at the 2/3 site. Deletion analyses suggest that the structural and NS2 regions of the polyprotein are not required for the HCV NS3 proteinase activity. NS3 proteinase-dependent cleavage sites were localized by N-terminal sequence analysis of NS4A, NS4B, NS5A, and NS5B. Sequence comparison of the residues flanking these cleavage sites for all sequenced HCV strains reveals conserved residues which may play a role in determining HCV NS3 proteinase substrate specificity. These features include an acidic residue (Asp or Glu) at the P6 position, a Cys or Thr residue at the P1 position, and a Ser or Ala residue at the P1' position. Images PMID:8386278

  5. RBx 6198: a novel alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kamna; Naruganahalli, Krishna S; Gupta, Suman; Malhotra, Shivani; Tiwari, Atul; Hegde, Laxminarayan G; Jain, Sanjay; Sinha, Neelima; Gupta, Jung B; Chugh, Anita; Anand, Nitya; Ray, Abhijit

    2009-04-01

    The present study, investigates the effect of RBx 6198, 2-{3-[4-(2-Isopropoxy-phenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-propyl}-3a, 4, 7, 7a-tetrahydro-isoindole-1, 3,-dione, a novel alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, in both in vitro and in vivo test systems. RBx 6198 is a potent (nanomolar affinity) alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor antagonist with demonstrable uroselectivity in anaesthesized dog model. In radioligand binding studies using human recombinant receptors, RBx 6198 exhibited high selectivity (approximately 50 fold) for the alpha(1A)-adrenoceptor subtype as compared to alpha(1B)-adrenoceptor subtype. In order to assess tissue selectivity, the antagonistic effect of RBx 6198 on the phenylephrine induced contractile response of isolated rat prostate, spleen and aorta was characterized. RBx 6198 was 8 fold more potent in inhibiting phenylephrine-evoked contractions of isolated tissues compared to tamsulosin. However, the compound was non-selective for alpha(1A) vs. alpha(1D)-adrenoceptor like tamsulosin. In anaesthetized beagle dogs RBx 6198 suppressed the intraurethral pressure response to phenylephrine to a greater extent than the mean arterial pressure response thereby demonstrating uroselectivity consistent with in vitro binding and functional data. RBx 6198 was 6.4 fold more uroselective as compared to tamsulosin after i.v. route dose administration. Taken together all results from preclinical studies, it is suggested that RBx 6198 is a novel alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist that exhibited improved pharmacological profile over tamsulosin in both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:19239913

  6. Binding and functional characterization of alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes in the rat prostate.

    PubMed

    Hiraoka, Y; Ohmura, T; Oshita, M; Watanabe, Y; Morikawa, K; Nagata, O; Kato, H; Taniguchi, T; Muramatsu, I

    1999-01-29

    The alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes of rat prostate were characterized in binding and functional experiments. In binding experiments, [3H]tamsulosin bound to a single class of binding sites with an affinity (pKD) of 10.79+/-0.04 and Bmax of 87+/-2 fmol mg(-1) protein. This binding was inhibited by prazosin, 2-(2,6-dimethoxy-phenoxyethyl)-aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane hydrochloride (WB4101), 5-methylurapidil, alpha-ethyl-3,4,5,-trimethoxy-alpha-(3-((2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)ethyl)-amin o)-propyl)benzeneacetonitrile fumarate (HV723) and oxymetazoline with high efficacy, resulting in a good correlation with the binding characteristics of cloned alpha1a but not alpha1b and alpha1d-adrenoceptor subtypes. In functional studies, noradrenaline and oxymetazoline produced concentration-dependent contractions. These contractions were antagonized by tamsulosin, prazosin, WB4101 and 5-methylurapidil with an efficacy lower than that exhibited by these agents for inhibition of [3H]tamsulosin binding. The relationship between receptor occupancy and contractile amplitude revealed the presence of receptor reserve for noradrenaline, but the contraction induced by oxymetazoline was not in parallel with receptor occupation and developed after predicted receptor saturation. From these results, it is suggested that alpha1A-adrenoceptors are the dominant subtype in the rat prostate which can be detected with [3H]tamsulosin, but that the functional subtype mediating adrenergic contractions has the characteristics of the alpha1L-adrenoceptor subtype, having a lower affinity for prazosin and some other drugs than the alpha1A-adrenoceptor subtype. PMID:10064160

  7. Chlorhexidine prevents hypochlorous acid-induced inactivation of alpha1-antitrypsin.

    PubMed

    Montecucco, Fabrizio; Bertolotto, M; Ottonello, L; Pende, A; Dapino, P; Quercioli, A; Mach, F; Dallegri, F

    2009-11-01

    1. Chlorhexidine digluconate has been used as a topical antiseptic in the treatment of acne vulgaris and periodontitis. The acute phase of these diseases involves neutrophilic infiltration. Neutrophil activation and recruitment to inflammatory sites are crucial in both protection against bacterial infection and the induction of hystotoxic damage. Activated neutrophils release several enzymes, including elastase and myeloperoxidase (MPO), which contribute to tissue injury via direct toxic actions, the generation of oxidants and inactivation of protective factors, such as alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT). In the present study, we investigated whether chlorhexidine can modulate neutrophil-mediated histotoxicity. 2. Human primary neutrophils were isolated from healthy donors. Inactivation of alpha1-AT by neutrophils or hypochlorous acid (HOCl) was evaluated by spectrophotometry and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of its capacity to complex with porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). Neutrophil generation of HOCl, superoxide anion and MPO release were assessed spectrophometrically. 3. Chlorhexidine (0, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 micromol/L) dose-dependently prevented HOCl-induced inactivation of alpha1-AT and reduced HOCl recovery from phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-treated human neutrophils, but did not inhibit superoxide anion and MPO release. Chlorhexidine directly inhibited HOCl recovery from neutrophils and HOCl-induced inactivation of alpha1-AT in a cell-free assay. Accordingly, chlorhexidine reversed HOCl-mediated inhibition of alpha1-AT capacity to complex with PPE. 4. These data suggest that chlorhexidine prevents neutrophil-induced alpha1-AT inactivation via a direct inhibitory action on HOCl. Although highly speculative, the present study indicates that chlorhexidine may protect inflamed tissues not only through its antimicrobial properties, but also via a direct anti-inflammatory effect on neutrophil toxic products. PMID:19671069

  8. Pulmonary emphysema and proteolysis. 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.C.; Mittman, C. )

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 50 selections. Some of the titles are: Evaluation of Parenteral Administration of Recombinant DNA Produced Alpha-1-Antitrypsin to Primates; Properties of Mutant Forms of Alpha-1-Proteinase Inhibitor Prepared by Recombinant DNA Technology; Natural and Genetically Engineered Proteinase Inhibitors as Protective Agents against Connective Tissue Damage in an in Vitro System; and Structure, Genomic Organization and Tissue Distribution of Human Secretary Leukocyte-Protease Inhibitor (SLPI): A Potent Inhibitor of Neutrophil Elastase.

  9. Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation of a cloned cardiac Ca2+ channel alpha 1 subunit (alpha 1C) expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Neely, A; Olcese, R; Wei, X; Birnbaumer, L; Stefani, E

    1994-01-01

    The alpha 1 subunit of cardiac Ca2+ channel, expressed alone or coexpressed with the corresponding beta subunit in Xenopus laevis oocytes, elicits rapidly inactivating Ca2+ currents. The inactivation has the following properties: 1) It is practically absent in external Ba2+; 2) it increases with Ca2+ current amplitudes; 3) it is faster at more negative potentials for comparable Ca2+ current amplitudes; 4) it is independent of channel density; and 5) it does not require the beta subunit. These findings indicate that the Ca2+ binding site responsible for inactivation is encoded in the alpha 1 subunit and suggest that it is located near the inner channel mouth but outside the membrane electric field. PMID:8075326

  10. Purification, characterization, and complete amino acid sequence of a trypsin inhibitor from amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) seeds.

    PubMed Central

    Valdes-Rodriguez, S; Segura-Nieto, M; Chagolla-Lopez, A; Verver y Vargas-Cortina, A; Martinez-Gallardo, N; Blanco-Labra, A

    1993-01-01

    A protein proteinase inhibitor was purified from a seed extract of amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) by precipitation with (NH4)2SO4, gel-filtration chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. It is a 69-amino acid protein with a high content of valine, arginine, and glutamic acid, but lacking in methionine. The inhibitor has a relative molecular weight of 7400 and an isoelectric point of 7.5. It is a serine proteinase inhibitor that recognizes chymotrypsin, trypsin, and trypsin-like proteinase activities extracted from larvae of the insect Prostephanus truncatus. This inhibitor belongs to the potato-I inhibitor family, showing the closest homology (59.5%) with the Lycopersicum peruvianum trypsin inhibitor, and (51%) with the proteinase inhibitor 5 extracted from the seeds of Cucurbita maxima. The position of the lysine-aspartic acid residues present in the active site of the amaranth inhibitor are found in almost the same relative position as in the inhibitor from C. maxima. PMID:8290633

  11. De-phosphorylation of TR{alpha}-1 by p44/42 MAPK inhibition enhances T{sub 3}-mediated GLUT5 gene expression in the intestinal cell line Caco-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, Kazuki; Sakaguchi, Naomi; Takabe, Satsuki; Goda, Toshinao . E-mail: gouda@fns1.u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp

    2007-08-10

    Thyroid hormone and p44/42 MAPK inactivation are important in intestinal differentiation. We demonstrated not only that treatment with p44/42 MAPK inhibitor U0126 in intestinal cell line Caco-2 cells reduced the phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues of TR{alpha}-1, but also that T{sub 3} and U0126 synergistically induced GLUT5 gene expression. EMSA demonstrated that the binding activity of TR{alpha}-1-RXR heterodimer on GLUT5-TRE in nuclear proteins of Caco-2 cells was synergistically enhanced by co-incubation in vitro with T{sub 3} and CIAP, which strongly de-phosphorylates proteins. ChIP and transfection assays revealed that co-treatment of T{sub 3} and U0126 induces TR{alpha}-1-RXR binding to GLUT5-TRE on the human GLUT5 enhancer region, and recruitment of the transcriptional complex in cells. These results suggest that inactivation of p44/42 MAPK enhances T{sub 3}-induced GLUT5 gene expression in Caco-2 cells through increasing TR{alpha}-1 transactivity and binding activity to the GLUT5-TRE, probably due to de-phosphorylation of TR{alpha}-1.

  12. Functional studies on alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating inotropic effects in rat right ventricle.

    PubMed Central

    Michel, M. C.; Hanft, G.; Gross, G.

    1994-01-01

    1. We have studied the alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes mediating inotropic effects of adrenaline in rat right ventricle and the Ca2+ sources used to elicit these effects. alpha 1A-Adrenoceptor-mediated contractile effects in rat vas deferens were studied for comparison in some cases. 2. Treatment with chloroethylclonidine did not affect the maximal beta-adrenoceptor-mediated inotropic effects in rat right ventricle or the maximal alpha 1A-adrenoceptor-mediated contractile effects in rat vas deferens; it did not alter the potency of isoprenaline in the ventricle and reduced the potency of the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists in vas deferens only slightly. Treatment of right ventricular strips with CdCl2 markedly reduced resting tension and enhanced maximal inotropic effects of isoprenaline but did not affect its potency. 3. Inactivation of cardiac alpha 1B-adrenoceptors by treatment with chloroethylclonidine slightly enhanced the maximal inotropic effects of the full agonist, adrenaline and of several partial agonists. 4. Schild analysis of inhibition experiments with the alpha 1A-adrenoceptor-selective antagonists, 5-methyl-urapidil and (+/-)-tamsulosin, demonstrated that adrenaline causes its inotropic effects mainly via the alpha 1B-adrenoceptor subtype. Schild analysis of 5-methyl-urapidil inhibition experiments in chloroethylclonidine-treated ventricles indicated that only alpha 1A-adrenoceptors mediate the inotropic effects of adrenaline following inactivation of the alpha 1B-adrenoceptors. 5. In control ventricles the organic Ca2+ entry blocker, nitrendipine and treatment with the inorganic Ca2+ entry blocker, CdCl2 did not reduce inotropic effects of adrenaline whereas ryanodine treatment inhibited them. In contrast, nitrendipine and CdCl2 treatment had major inhibitory effects in chloroethylclonidine-treated but lacked inhibitory effects in phenoxybenzamine-treated ventricular strips. 6. We conclude that inotropic effects of adrenaline in rat heart are mediated

  13. Posttranscriptional regulation of collagen alpha1(I) mRNA in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed Central

    Stefanovic, B; Hellerbrand, C; Holcik, M; Briendl, M; Aliebhaber, S; Brenner, D A

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic stellate cell (HSC) is the primary cell responsible for the dramatic increase in the synthesis of type I collagen in the cirrhotic liver. Quiescent HSCs contain a low level of collagen alpha1(I) mRNA, while activated HSCs contain about 60- to 70-fold more of this mRNA. The transcription rate of the collagen alpha1(I) gene is only two fold higher in activated HSCs than in quiescent HSCs. In assays using actinomycin D or 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole riboside collagen alpha1(I) mRNA has estimated half-lives of 1.5 h in quiescent HSCs and 24 h in activated HSCs. Thus, this 16-fold change in mRNA stability is primarily responsible for the increase in collagen alpha1(I) mRNA steady-state level in activated HSCs. We have identified a novel RNA-protein interaction targeted to the C-rich sequence in the collagen alpha1(I) mRNA 3' untranslated region (UTR). This sequence is localized 24 nucleotides 3' to the stop codon. In transient transfection experiments, mutation of this sequence diminished accumulation of an mRNA transcribed from a collagen alpha1(I) minigene and in stable transfections decreased the half-life of collagen alpha1(I) minigene mRNA. Binding to the collagen alpha1(I) 3' UTR is present in cytoplasmic extracts of activated but not quiescent HSCs. It contains as a subunit alphaCP, which is also found in the complex involved in stabilization of alpha-globin mRNA. The auxiliary factors necessary to promote binding of alphaCP to the collagen 3' UTR are distinct from the factors necessary for binding to the alpha-globin sequence. Since alphaCP is expressed in both quiescent and activated HSCs, these auxiliary factors are responsible for the differentially expressed RNA-protein interaction at the collagen alpha1(I) mRNA 3' UTR. PMID:9271398

  14. Cloning, expression and characterization of the proteinase from human herpesvirus 6.

    PubMed Central

    Tigue, N J; Matharu, P J; Roberts, N A; Mills, J S; Kay, J; Jupp, R

    1996-01-01

    After the U53 gene encoding the proteinase from human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) was sequenced, it was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the activity of the purified, recombinant HHV-6 proteinase was characterized quantitatively by using synthetic peptide substrates mimicking the release and maturation cleavage sites in the polyprotein precursors of HHV-6, human cytomegalovirus (CMV), murine CMV, and Epstein-Barr virus. Despite sharing 40% identity with other betaherpesvirus proteinases such as human CMV proteinase, the one-chain HHV-6 enzyme was distinguished from these two-chain proteinases by the absence of an internal autocatalytic cleavage site. PMID:8648756

  15. Analysis of the endoplasmic reticular Ca2+ requirement for alpha1-antitrypsin processing and transport competence.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, G R; Brostrom, C O; Brostrom, M A

    1997-01-01

    Depletion of Ca2+ sequestered within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of HepG2 hepatoma cells results in the luminal accumulation of immature alpha1-antitrypsin possessing Man8-9 GlcNAc2 oligosaccharide side chains. This study explores the basis for this arrest and describes consequent alterations in the size and rate of secretion of the complex endoglycosidase H-resistant form of the protein. Inhibition of glucosidase I and II with castanospermine or alpha-1,2-mannosidase with 1-deoxymannojirimycin produced altered ER processing intermediates that were rapidly secreted. Subsequent mobilization of ER Ca2+ stores resulted in the appearance and retention of slightly larger related forms of these intermediates. Retention of glycosylated intermediates was not ascribable to an association with alpha1,2-mannosidase or lectin-like chaperones, the intermediates were not degraded and all evidence of ER retention or size alterations produced by Ca2+ depletion was quickly reversed by Ca2+ restoration. Cells that were Ca2+ depleted for 2 h slowly secreted an abnormal slightly smaller complex oligosaccharide form of alpha1-antitrypsin at approximately the same rate as the non-glycosylated protein generated by treatment with tunicamycin. The hypothesis that Ca2+ affects the folding and ER transport competence of glycosylated forms of alpha1-antitrypsin is discussed. PMID:9271078

  16. Faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin as a marker of gastrointestinal disease in HIV antibody positive individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpstone, D; Rowbottom, A; Nelson, M; Gazzard, B

    1996-01-01

    Hypoalbuminaemia and diarrhoea are common complications of HIV infection and substantial causes of morbidity, but the specific intestinal pathologies that cause enteric protein loss have not been clearly defined. Two hundred and twenty stool samples from patients with a variety of HIV related conditions were analysed for faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin. Patients with intestinal Kaposi's sarcoma had a significantly raised faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin value and hypoalbuminaemia. A faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin value of greater than 0.3 mg/g wet stool has a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 76% for the diagnosis of intestinal Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV positive individuals. Patients with cytomegalovirus and bacterial enteritis had raised faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin values but levels were normal for all other intestinal pathologies compared with pathogen negative stool. The combination of faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin concentration greater than 0.2 mg/g, a negative stool culture for enteric bacteria, and the absence of palatal Kaposi's sarcoma has a sensitivity of 55% and specificity of 88% for the diagnosis of enteric cytomegalovirus infection. PMID:8801198

  17. Serine proteinases from barley malt may degrade beta-amylase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley seed proteinases are critically important to seed germination and malting in that they generate amino acids from seed N reserves, supporting embryo growth during germination and yeast fermentation during brewing. However, relatively little is known regarding the endogenous protein substrate ...

  18. FUSARIUM SPECIES SYNTHESIZE ALKALINE PROTEINASES IN INFESTED BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that is infested with Fusarium head blight (FHB, `scab') is unsuitable for malting and brewing because it may contain mycotoxins and has unacceptable malting quality. Fungal proteinases are apparently involved in plant-microbe interactions, because they degrade the storag...

  19. Gelatinase A (MMP-2) and cysteine proteinases are essential for the degradation of collagen in soft connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Creemers, L B; Jansen, I D; Docherty, A J; Reynolds, J J; Beertsen, W; Everts, V

    1998-04-01

    The degradation of soft connective tissue collagen is considered to depend on the activity of various proteolytic enzymes, particularly those belonging to the group of matrix metalloproteinases and cysteine proteinases. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of these enzymes to this process. Using a general inhibitor of MMPs (SC44463), collagen degradation was strongly inhibited, by about 40% after 24 h and up to 80% after 72 h of culturing. Blockage of cysteine proteinase activity (with leupeptin or E-64) reduced breakdown at these time intervals by 50% and 20%, respectively. Given the abundant presence of gelatinases--in particular gelatinase A (MMP-2)--in the tissue, the effect of an inhibitor selective for gelatinases (CT1166) was studied. Gelatinase inhibition resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of collagen breakdown up to 90% after 48 h. The ability of gelatinase A to degrade collagens was demonstrated by the induction of breakdown in devitalized explants by addition of activated gelatinase A, or by activation of endogenous enzyme with 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate. This latter effect was not found with plasmin, an activator of MMPs other than gelatinase A. Finally, the relevance of gelatinase A to the in vivo degradation of soft connective tissue collagen was implicated by the significant correlation found between its activity and the collagen turnover rates of four soft connective tissues (tooth pulp, periodontal ligament, molar gingiva and skin). We conclude that collagen degradation in soft connective tissue is mediated by MMPs and to a lesser extent by cysteine proteinases. Our data are the first to attach a key role to gelatinase A in this process. PMID:9628251

  20. Complete amino acid sequence of the lentil trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor LCI-1.7 and a discussion of atypical binding sites of Bowman-Birk inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Weder, Jürgen K P; Hinkers, Sabine C

    2004-06-30

    The complete primary structure of the lentil (Lens culinaris) trypsin-chymotrypsin inhibitor LCI-1.7 was determined by conventional methods in order to find relationships between partial sequences and the difference in action against human and bovine chymotrypsin. As other Bowman-Birk type inhibitors, LCI-1.7 contained 68 amino acid residues, seven disulfide bridges, and two reactive sites, Arg16-Ser17 for trypsin and Tyr42-Ser43 for chymotrypsin. Evaluation of sequence homologies showed that it belonged to the group III Bowman-Birk inhibitors. The atypical additional binding site of LCI-1.7 for human chymotrypsin was discussed and compared with such binding sites of two other Bowman-Birk inhibitors, the Bowman-Birk soybean proteinase inhibitor BBI, and the lima bean proteinase inhibitor LBI I, for human and bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin. A concept to reduce the action of these inhibitors against human enzymes by genetic engineering was proposed. PMID:15212472

  1. Prazosin, an alpha 1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the Lewis rat.

    PubMed Central

    Brosnan, C F; Goldmuntz, E A; Cammer, W; Factor, S M; Bloom, B R; Norton, W T

    1985-01-01

    Prazosin, an antagonist of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors, has been found to suppress the clinical and histological expression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the Lewis rat. Suppression was more significant in females than in males and was a dose-dependent phenomenon. Analysis of the effect of other adrenergic receptor antagonists supports the conclusion that the suppressive effect of prazosin is a consequence of blockade of the alpha 1-receptor since treatment with either the alpha 2-antagonist yohimbine or the beta-antagonist propranolol exacerbated the disease, whereas treatment with the long-acting mixed alpha 1/alpha 2-antagonist phenoxybenzamine had some suppressive activity. Treatment with prazosin was also able to suppress clinical and histological signs of EAE in animals sensitized by adoptive transfer with activated spleen or lymph node cells. Whether prazosin acts through altering vascular permeability or the immune response, or both, remains to be determined. Images PMID:2994053

  2. Rapid kinetic studies and structural determination of a cysteine proteinase mutant imply that residue 158 in caricain has a major effect upon the ability of the active site histidine to protonate a dipyridyl probe.

    PubMed

    Katerelos, N A; Goodenough, P W

    1996-11-26

    Cysteine proteinases are endopeptidases whose catalytic activity depends upon the nucleophilicity of the active site cysteine thiol group. An ion pair forms with an active site histidine. The presence in some cysteine proteinases of an aspartic acid close to the ion pair has been used as evidence of a "catalytic triad" as found in the serine proteinases. In these enzymes, the correct alignment of serine, histidine, and aspartate residues controls catalysis. However, the absence of the homologous aspartate residue in the mammalian cysteine proteinases cathepsins B and H argues against this pivotal role for aspartic acid. Instead, an Asn, physically close to the histidine in cysteine proteinases, has been proposed as a member of the catalytic triad. Protein engineering is being used to investigate these questions. In this study, the Asp158Glu mutant of the plant cysteine proteinase caricain was analyzed by stopped-flow rapid kinetics. The probe that was used was 2,2'-dipyridyl disulfide (2 PDS), and the profile of k versus pH gave results more closely allied to a small molecule active site model than the normal profile with cysteine proteinases. Multiple pKa's identified in the profile are as follows: pK1 = 3.4 (Cys 25), pK2 = 3.6, pK3 = 7.0, and pK4 = 8.6 (His 158). The structure of the enzyme with the bound inhibitor E64 was solved (R factor of 19.3%). Although the distance between the imadazolium and the surrounding charged amino acids is only slightly changed in the mutant, the reduced steady state activity and narrower pH range can be related to changes in the hydrogen-bonding capacity of the imadazolium. PMID:8942638

  3. Glomerular injury is exacerbated in diabetic integrin alpha1-null mice.

    PubMed

    Zent, R; Yan, X; Su, Y; Hudson, B G; Borza, D-B; Moeckel, G W; Qi, Z; Sado, Y; Breyer, M D; Voziyan, P; Pozzi, A

    2006-08-01

    Excessive glomerular collagen IV and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are key factors in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Integrin alpha1beta1, the major collagen IV receptor, dowregulates collagen IV and ROS production, suggesting this integrin might determine the severity of diabetic nephropathy. To test this possibility, wild-type and integrin alpha1-null mice were rendered diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ) (100 mg/kg single intraperitoneal injection), after which glomerular filtration rate (GFR), glomerular collagen deposition, and glomerular basement membrane (GBM) thickening were evaluated. In addition, ROS and collagen IV production by mesangial cells as well as their proliferation was measured in vitro. Diabetic alpha1-null mice developed worse renal disease than diabetic wild-type mice. A significant increase in GFR was evident in the alpha1-null mice at 6 weeks after the STZ injection; it started to decrease by week 24 and reached levels of non-diabetic mice by week 36. In contrast, GFR only increased in wild-type mice at week 12 and its elevation persisted throughout the study. Diabetic mutant mice also showed increased glomerular deposition of collagen IV and GBM thickening compared to diabetic wild-type mice. Primary alpha1-null mesangial cells exposed to high glucose produced more ROS than wild-type cells, which led to decreased proliferation and increased collagen IV synthesis, thus mimicking the in vivo finding. In conclusion, this study suggests that lack of integrin alpha1beta1 exacerbates the glomerular injury in a mouse model of diabetes by modulating GFR, ROS production, cell proliferation, and collagen deposition. PMID:16775606

  4. Snake venoms. The amino-acid sequence of trypsin inhibitor E of Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis (Black Mamba) venom.

    PubMed

    Joubert, F J; Strydom, D J

    1978-06-01

    Trypsin inhibitor E from black mamba venom comprises 59 amino acid residues in a single polypeptide chain, cross-linked by three intrachain disulphide bridges. The complete primary structure of inhibitor E was elucidated. The sequence is homologous with trypsin inhibitors from different sources. Unique among this homologous series of proteinase inhibitors, inhibitor E has an affinity for transition metal ions, exemplified here by Cu2 and Co2+. PMID:668688

  5. The use of alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists in lower urinary tract symptoms: beyond benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Nickel, J Curtis

    2003-09-01

    The first empirical use of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists in urology occurred about 25 years ago in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or LUTS/BPH. Today, many randomized, controlled trials have provided evidence for the efficacy and tolerability of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists in LUTS/BPH, and they are the most frequently used initial treatment option for this cause of LUTS. For many years, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists have also been used empirically in other types of lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD), such as chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and neurogenic LUTD (NLUTD). Several investigators have shown that alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists may be useful in patients with CP/CPPS. This was recently confirmed by a 6-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study evaluating the efficacy and safety of tamsulosin in 58 CP/CPPS patients. Further well-designed and -powered research into the use of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists in patients with CP/CPPS is currently ongoing. Several small-scale predominantly open-label studies have suggested that alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists may be of benefit in patients with NLUTD. Data from 2 recent large-scale studies with tamsulosin in patients with NLUTD caused by suprasacral spinal cord injury suggest that long-term tamsulosin treatment improves bladder storage and emptying and also reduces symptoms of autonomic dysreflexia. Tamsulosin has also shown promise in ameliorating (early) storage symptoms and urinary retention associated with transurethral microwave thermotherapy, external-beam radiotherapy, and brachytherapy. In BPH patients presenting with the ultimate form of LUTS-acute urinary retention-treatment with tamsulosin before catheter removal results in a higher success rate of catheter-free voiding. Finally, it seems that alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists may reduce the occurrence of urinary retention

  6. The core-specific lysosomal alpha(1-6)-mannosidase activity depends on aspartamidohydrolase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Haeuw, J F; Grard, T; Alonso, C; Strecker, G; Michalski, J C

    1994-01-01

    The substrate specificity of the core-specific rat liver lysosomal alpha(1-6)-mannosidase was investigated using mannosylated oligosaccharides and glycoasparagines. Hydrolysis of Man(alpha 1-6) linkage hydrolysis was demonstrated to follow the action of endoglycosidases, namely aspartyl-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase and endo-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase. The results are discussed with respect to the nature of the carbohydrate materials stored in the tissues and excreted in the urine from patients suffering from aspartylglucosaminuria and fucosidosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8110182

  7. Autoradiographic analysis of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors in the human brain postmortem. Effect of suicide

    SciTech Connect

    Gross-Isseroff, R.; Dillon, K.A.; Fieldust, S.J.; Biegon, A. )

    1990-11-01

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors, using tritiated prazosin as a ligand, was performed on 24 human brains postmortem. Twelve brains were obtained from suicide victims and 12 from matched controls. We found significant lower binding to alpha 1 receptors in several brain regions of the suicide group as compared with matched controls. This decrease in receptor density was evident in portions of the prefrontal cortex, as well as the temporal cortex and in the caudate nucleus. Age, sex, presence of alcohol, and time of death to autopsy did not affect prazosin binding, in our sample, as measured by autoradiography.

  8. Trials and Tribulations: An Industry Perspective on Conducting Registrational Trials in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Forshag, Mark S

    2016-08-01

    Registrational trials in rare and orphan diseases present complexities related to the identification of subjects, recruitment, logistical hurdles incumbent with far-flung study sites, and end points that are often less well defined than are those used in more common illnesses. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is an orphan disease of genetic origin that carries the additional challenges of variable penetration and slow disease progression. Registrational trials of augmentation therapy using plasma-derived alpha-1 antitrypsin carry all of the above-noted burdens, as well as competition from commercially available augmentation therapy in many countries. PMID:27564675

  9. Cross-talk between integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1 in renal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Abair, Tristin D.; Sundaramoorthy, Munirathinam; Chen, Dong; Heino, Jyrki; Ivaska, Johanna; Hudson, Billy G.; Sanders, Charles R.; Pozzi, Ambra; Zent, Roy

    2008-11-15

    The collagen-binding integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1 have profoundly different functions, yet they are often co-expressed in epithelial cells. When both integrins are expressed in the same cell, it has been suggested that {alpha}1{beta}1 negatively regulates integrin {alpha}2{beta}1-dependent functions. In this study we utilized murine ureteric bud (UB) epithelial cells, which express no functionally detectable levels of endogenous integrins {alpha}1{beta}1 and {alpha}2{beta}1, to determine the mechanism whereby this regulation occurs. We demonstrate that UB cells expressing integrin {alpha}2{beta}1, but not {alpha}1{beta}1 adhere, migrate and proliferate on collagen I as well as form cellular cords in 3D collagen I gels. Substitution of the transmembrane domain of the integrin {alpha}2 subunit with that of {alpha}1 results in decreased cell adhesion, migration and cord formation. In contrast, substitution of the integrin {alpha}2 cytoplasmic tail with that of {alpha}1, decreases cell migration and cord formation, but increases proliferation. When integrin {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 subunits are co-expressed in UB cells, the {alpha}1 subunit negatively regulates integrin {alpha}2{beta}1-dependent cord formation, adhesion and migration and this inhibition requires expression of both {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 tails. Thus, we provide evidence that the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of the {alpha}2 integrin subunit, as well as the {alpha}1 integrin subunit, regulate integrin {alpha}2{beta}1 cell function.

  10. Evidence for an age-dependent functional expression of alpha 1D-adrenoceptors in the rat vasculature.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, M; Terrón, J A; López-Guerrero, J J; Villalobos-Molina, R

    1997-03-19

    The role of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes, and their possible change with maturation, in alpha 1-adrenoceptor-induced pressor responses in the rat has not been established. Thus, the effects of the alpha 1D-, alpha 1A/1D- and alpha 1B/1D-adrenoceptor antagonists, BMY 7378 (8-(2-(4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl)ethyl) 8-azaspiro (4.5) decane-7,9-dione 2HCl), 5-methyl-urapidil and chloroethylclonidine, respectively, on the pressor responses induced by phenylephrine in 1- and 5-month-old pithed rats were investigated. The pressor responses induced by phenylephrine were competitively antagonized by both BMY 7378 and chloroethylclonidine in 5-month-old, but not in young immature animals; in marked contrast, 5-methylurapidil antagonized with similar potency the phenylephrine-induced pressor responses in animals of both ages. The present pharmacological data suggest that functional expression of alpha 1D-adrenoceptors in the rat resistance vessels increases with age; alpha 1A-, but not alpha 1B- or alpha 1D-adrenoceptors, seem to predominate in immature animals. These findings represent the first evidence that age-related changes in functional alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes occur in the systemic vasculature in vivo. PMID:9098690

  11. Neonatal alpha1-antitrypsin screening: parents' views and reactions 20 years after the identification of the deficiency state.

    PubMed

    Sveger, T; Thelin, T; McNeil, T F

    1999-03-01

    During 1972-74, 200000 Swedish neonates were screened for alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (alpha1ATD). The parents of the 22-23-y-old alpha1ATD children were asked about their views on the screening study, information and follow-up of their children as well as physical and psychosomatic problems, which were compared with a matched control (MC) group. Of the original 122 alpha1ATD and MC parents, 85 alpha1ATD and 89 MC parents decided to participate. The neonatal period was considered the best time for screening by 88% of the responding parents. The care of the alpha1ATD individuals was assessed as positive or very positive by 84% of the parents. About 70% of the parents thought that the awareness of their child's alpha1ATD had affected their lives, the most common comment being an increased consciousness of smoky and dusty environments. No significant difference between alpha1ATD and control parents was found concerning worry about the child's health and future. When asked about symptoms related to their mental health, no difference was found concerning headache, sleep problems, stomach troubles or tiredness. Alpha1ATD mothers had statistically significantly more anxiety than control mothers (chi2 p<0.01, Wilcoxon p<0.02). The knowledge derived from the present and previous parts of the alpha1AT screening study is important with regard to presymptomatic testing for adult-onset disease in children. PMID:10229044

  12. The NS3 proteinase domain of hepatitis C virus is a zinc-containing enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Stempniak, M; Hostomska, Z; Nodes, B R; Hostomsky, Z

    1997-01-01

    NS3 proteinase of hepatitis C virus (HCV), contained within the N-terminal domain of the NS3 protein, is a chymotrypsin-like serine proteinase responsible for processing of the nonstructural region of the HCV polyprotein. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of the NS3 proteinase to divalent metal ions, which is unusual behavior for this proteinase class. By using a cell-free coupled transcription-translation system, we found that HCV polyprotein processing can be activated by Zn2+ (and, to a lesser degree, by Cd2+, Pb2+, and Co2+) and inhibited by Cu2+ and Hg2+ ions. Elemental analysis of the purified NS3 proteinase domain revealed the presence of zinc in an equimolar ratio. The zinc content was unchanged in a mutated NS3 proteinase in which active-site residues His-57 and Ser-139 were replaced with Ala, suggesting that the zinc atom is not directly involved in catalysis but rather may have a structural role. Based on data from site-directed mutagenesis combined with zinc content determination, we propose that Cys-97, Cys-99, Cys-145, and His-149 coordinate the structural zinc in the HCV NS3 proteinase. A similar metal binding motif is found in 2A proteinases of enteroviruses and rhinoviruses, suggesting that these 2A proteinases and HCV NS3 proteinase are structurally related. PMID:9060645

  13. Alpha1L-adrenoceptors mediate contractions of the isolated mouse prostate.

    PubMed

    Gray, Katherine T; Ventura, Sabatino

    2006-07-01

    The subtype of alpha1-adrenoceptor mediating noradrenaline-induced contractile responses in isolated mouse prostate glands was investigated. Adrenoceptor agonists were able to produce concentration-dependent contractions with the following rank order of potency: adrenaline > or = noradrenaline > or = clonidine = phenylephrine > dopamine > or = isoprenaline. Concentration-response curves to noradrenaline of the prostatic smooth muscle were antagonised by prazosin, N-[2-(2-cyclopropylmethoxyphenoxy)ethyl]-5-chloro-alpha, alpha-dimethyl-1H-indole-3-ethanamine (RS-17053), 2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl)aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane (WB 4101), tamsulosin and yohimbine with mean antagonist affinity estimates (pA2 or apparent pKB) of 8.12+/-0.10, 6.56+/-0.11, 8.38+/-0.06, 10.14+/-0.19 and 7.38+/-1.36 respectively. Propranolol (1 microM) had no antagonist activity (P = 0.994, n = 6). Yohimbine (0.01, 0.1, 1 microM) had no antagonist activity in the presence of prazosin (0.1 microM) (P > or = 0.059). The results obtained indicate that alpha1-adrenoceptors mediate the contractile response in isolated preparations of the mouse prostate. Furthermore, the particular subtype of alpha1-adrenoceptor mediating the response to exogenously administered noradrenaline corresponds to the alpha1L-subtype, the same subtype as that which has been shown to mediate noradrenaline-induced contractile activity in the human prostate. PMID:16716294

  14. Regulation of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein synthesis by porcine hepatocytes in monolayer culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, ORM-1) is a highly glycosylated mammalian acute phase protein, which is synthesized primarily in the liver and represents the major serum protein in newborn pigs. Recent data have suggested that the pig is unique in that AGP is a negative acute phase protein in this ...

  15. Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein has immunomodulatory effects in neonatal swine adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is the most abundant protein in serum of neonatal swine. This protein functions as an immunomodulator in the pig. Recent work has demonstrated that adipose tissue can express AGP mRNA, as well as numerous cytokine mRNA. The present study was designed to determine i...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5580 - Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system. 866.5580 Section 866.5580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...-lipoprotein may aid in the diagnosis of Tangier disease (a hereditary disorder of fat metabolism)....

  17. 21 CFR 866.5580 - Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system. 866.5580 Section 866.5580 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...-lipoprotein may aid in the diagnosis of Tangier disease (a hereditary disorder of fat metabolism)....

  18. Centaurin-alpha1 and KIF13B kinesin motor protein interaction in ARF6 signalling.

    PubMed

    Kanamarlapudi, V

    2005-12-01

    The ARF (ADP-ribosylation factor) family of small GTPases regulate intracellular membrane trafficking by cycling between an inactive GDP- and an active GTP-bound form. Among the six known mammalian ARFs (ARF1-ARF6), ARF6 is the least conserved and plays critical roles in membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal dynamics near the cell surface. Since ARFs have undetectable levels of intrinsic GTP binding and hydrolysis, they are totally dependent on extrinsic GEFs (guanine nucleotide-exchange factors) for GTP binding and GAPs (GTPase-activating proteins) for GTP hydrolysis. We have recently isolated a novel KIF (kinesin) motor protein (KIF13B) that binds to centaurin-alpha1, an ARF6GAP that binds to the second messenger PIP3 [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3]. KIFs transport intracellular vesicles and recognize their cargo by binding to proteins (receptors) localized on the surface of the cargo vesicles. Identification of centaurin-alpha1 as a KIF13B interactor suggests that KIF13B may transport ARF6 and/or PIP3 using centaurin-alpha1 as its receptor. This paper reviews the studies carried out to assess the interaction and regulation of centaurin-alpha1 by KIF13B. PMID:16246098

  19. DHPR alpha1S subunit controls skeletal muscle mass and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Piétri-Rouxel, France; Gentil, Christel; Vassilopoulos, Stéphane; Baas, Dominique; Mouisel, Etienne; Ferry, Arnaud; Vignaud, Alban; Hourdé, Christophe; Marty, Isabelle; Schaeffer, Laurent; Voit, Thomas; Garcia, Luis

    2010-02-01

    The alpha1S subunit has a dual function in skeletal muscle: it forms the L-type Ca(2+) channel in T-tubules and is the voltage sensor of excitation-contraction coupling at the level of triads. It has been proposed that L-type Ca(2+) channels might also be voltage-gated sensors linked to transcriptional activity controlling differentiation. By using the U7-exon skipping strategy, we have achieved long-lasting downregulation of alpha1S in adult skeletal muscle. Treated muscles underwent massive atrophy while still displaying significant amounts of alpha1S in the tubular system and being not paralysed. This atrophy implicated the autophagy pathway, which was triggered by neuronal nitric oxide synthase redistribution, activation of FoxO3A, upregulation of autophagy-related genes and autophagosome formation. Subcellular investigations showed that this atrophy was correlated with the disappearance of a minor fraction of alpha1S located throughout the sarcolemma. Our results reveal for the first time that this sarcolemmal fraction could have a role in a signalling pathway determining muscle anabolic or catabolic state and might act as a molecular sensor of muscle activity. PMID:20033060

  20. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor: Binding and phosphoinositide breakdown in human myometrium

    SciTech Connect

    Breuiller-Fouche, M.; Doualla-Bell Kotto Maka, F.; Geny, B.; Ferre, F. )

    1991-07-01

    Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors were examined in both inner and outer layers of human pregnant myometrium using radioligand binding of (3H)prazosin. (3H)prazosin bound rapidly and reversibly to a single class of high affinity binding sites in myometrial membrane preparations. Scatchard analysis gave similar values of equilibrium dissociation constants in both myometrial layers. In contrast, more alpha-1 adrenergic receptors were detected in the outer layer than in the inner layer. Antagonist inhibited (3H)prazosin binding with an order of potency of prazosin greater than phentolamine greater than idazoxan. Competition experiments have also revealed that a stable guanine nucleotide decreases the apparent affinity of norepinephrine for myometrial (3H)prazosin binding sites. The functional status of these alpha-1 adrenergic receptors was also assessed by measuring the norepinephrine-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates in myometrial tissue. Norepinephrine produced a concentration-dependent accumulation of inositol phosphates in both myometrial layers. However, norepinephrine-induced increases in inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate were only observed in the outer layer. These results indicate that alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in human myometrium at the end of pregnancy are linked to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and that this response occurs mainly in the outer layer.

  1. Serendipity in discovery of proteasome inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Derek; Iqbal, Mohamed; Husten, Jean; Ator, Mark A; Chatterjee, Sankar

    2012-05-15

    Among its various catalytic activities, the 'chymotrypsin-like' activity of the proteasome, a large multicatalytic proteinase complex has emerged as the focus of drug discovery efforts in cancer therapy. Herein, a series of first generation (2S, 3R)-2-amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid derived proteasome inhibitors that were discovered serendipitously en route to original goal of generating a series of sterically constrained oxazoline derivatives has been reported. PMID:22503349

  2. Possible dopaminergic stimulation of locus coeruleus alpha1-adrenoceptors involved in behavioral activation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Quartermain, David; Dunn, Adrian J; Weinshenker, David; Stone, Eric A

    2008-07-01

    alpha(1)-Adrenoceptors of the locus coeruleus (LC) have been implicated in behavioral activation in novel surroundings, but the endogenous agonist that activates these receptors has not been established. In addition to the canonical activation of alpha(1)-receptors by norepinephrine (NE), there is evidence that dopamine (DA) may also activate certain brain alpha(1)-receptors. This study examined the contribution of DA to exploratory activity in a novel cage by determining the effect of infusion of various dopaminergic and adrenergic drugs into the mouse LC. It was found that the D2/D3 agonist, quinpirole, which selectively blocks the release of CNS DA, produced a dose-dependent and virtually complete abolition of exploration and all movement in the novel cage test. The quinpirole-induced inactivity was significantly attenuated by coinfusion of DA but not by the D1 agonist, SKF38390. Furthermore, the DA attenuation of quinpirole inactivity was blocked by coinfusion of the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, terazosin, but not by the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390. LC infusions of either quinpirole or terazosin also produced profound inactivity in DA-beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice that lack NE, indicating that their behavioral effects were not due to an alteration of the release or action of LC NE. Measurement of endogenous DA, NE, and 5HT and their metabolites in the LC during exposure to the novel cage indicated an increase in the turnover of DA and NE but not 5HT. These results indicate that DA is a candidate as an endogenous agonist for behaviorally activating LC alpha(1)-receptors and may play a role in the activation of this nucleus by novel surroundings. PMID:18435418

  3. AMP-activated protein kinase kinase: detection with recombinant AMPK alpha1 subunit.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Stephen R; O'Donnell, John B; Hammet, Andrew; Stapleton, David; Habinowski, Susan A; Means, Anthony R; Kemp, Bruce E; Witters, Lee A

    2002-05-10

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric serine/threonine protein kinase important for the responses to metabolic stress. It consists of a catalytic alpha subunit and two non-catalytic subunits, beta and gamma, and is regulated both by the allosteric action of AMP and by phosphorylation of the alpha and beta subunits catalyzed by AMPKK(s) and autophosphorylation. The Thr172 site on the alpha subunit has been previously characterized as an activating phosphorylation site. Using bacterially expressed AMPK alpha1 subunit proteins, we have explored the role of Thr172-directed AMPKKs in alpha subunit regulation. Recombinant alpha1 subunit proteins, representing the N-terminus, have been expressed as maltose binding protein (MBP) 6x His fusion proteins and purified to homogeneity by Ni(2+) chromatography. Both wild-type alpha1(1-312) and alpha1(1-312)T172D are inactive when expressed in bacteria, but the former can be fully phosphorylated (1 mol/mol) on Thr172 and activated by a surrogate AMPKK, CaMKKbeta. The corresponding AMPKalpha1(1-392), an alpha construct containing its autoinhibitory sequence, can be similarly phosphorylated, but it remains inactive. In an insulinoma cell line, either low glucose or 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) treatment leads to activation and T172 phosphorylation of endogenous AMPK. Under the same conditions of cell incubation, we have identified an AMPKK activity that both phosphorylates and activates the recombinant alpha1(1-312), but this Thr172-directed AMPKK activity is unaltered by low glucose or AICAR, indicating that it is constitutively active. PMID:12051742

  4. Cervical mucins carry alpha(1,2)fucosylated glycans that partly protect from experimental vaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Domino, Steven E; Hurd, Elizabeth A; Thomsson, Kristina A; Karnak, David M; Holmén Larsson, Jessica M; Thomsson, Elisabeth; Bäckström, Malin; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2009-12-01

    Cervical mucins are glycosylated proteins that form a protective cervical mucus. To understand the role of mucin glycans in Candida albicans infection, oligosaccharides from mouse cervical mucins were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cervical mucins carry multiple alpha(1-2)fucosylated glycans, but alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase Fut2-null mice are devoid of these epitopes. Epithelial cells in vaginal lavages from Fut2-null mice lacked Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-I) staining for alpha(1-2)fucosylated glycans. Hysterectomy to remove cervical mucus eliminated UEA-I and acid mucin staining in vaginal epithelial cells from wild type mice indicating the cervix as the source of UEA-I positive epithelial cells. To assess binding of alpha(1-2) fucosylated glycans on C. albicans infection, an in vitro adhesion assay was performed with vaginal epithelial cells from wild type and Fut2-null mice. Vaginal epithelial cells from Fut2-null mice were found to bind increased numbers of C. albicans compared to vaginal epithelial cells obtained from wild type mice. Hysterectomy lessened the difference between Fut2-null and wild type mice in binding of C. ablicans in vitro and susceptibility to experimental C. albicans vaginitis in vivo. We generated a recombinant fucosylated MUC1 glycanpolymer to test whether the relative protection of wild type mice compared to Fut2-null mice could be mimicked with exogenous mucin. While a small portion of the recombinant MUC1 epitopes displayed alpha(1-2)fucosylated glycans, the predominant epitopes were sialylated due to endogenous sialyltransferases in the cultured cells. Intravaginal instillation of recombinant MUC1 glycanpolymer partially reduced experimental yeast vaginitis suggesting that a large glycanpolymer, with different glycan epitopes, may affect fungal burden. PMID:19326211

  5. Alpha-1-Adrenergic Receptors in Heart Failure: The Adaptive Arm of the Cardiac Response to Chronic Catecholamine Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Brian C.; O'Connell, Timothy D.; Simpson, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) activated by catecholamines. The alpha-1A and alpha-1B subtypes are expressed in mouse and human myocardium, whereas the alpha-1D protein is found only in coronary arteries. There are far fewer alpha-1-ARs than beta-ARs in the non-failing heart, but their abundance is maintained or increased in the setting of heart failure, which is characterized by pronounced chronic elevation of catecholamines and b□eta-AR dysfunction. Decades of evidence from gain- and loss-of-function studies in isolated cardiac myocytes and numerous animal models demonstrate important adaptive functions for cardiac alpha-1-ARs, to include physiological hypertrophy, positive inotropy, ischemic preconditioning, and protection from cell death. Clinical trial data indicate that blocking alpha-1-ARs is associated with incident heart failure in patients with hypertension. Collectively, these findings suggest that alpha-1-AR activation might mitigate the well-recognized toxic effects of beta-ARs in the hyperadrenergic setting of chronic heart failure. Thus, exogenous cardioselective activation of alpha-1-ARs might represent a novel and viable approach to the treatment of heart failure. PMID:24145181

  6. Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors in heart failure: the adaptive arm of the cardiac response to chronic catecholamine stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Brian C; OʼConnell, Timothy D; Simpson, Paul C

    2014-04-01

    Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors (ARs) are G protein-coupled receptors activated by catecholamines. The alpha-1A and alpha-1B subtypes are expressed in mouse and human myocardium, whereas the alpha-1D protein is found only in coronary arteries. There are far fewer alpha-1-ARs than beta-ARs in the nonfailing heart, but their abundance is maintained or increased in the setting of heart failure, which is characterized by pronounced chronic elevation of catecholamines and beta-AR dysfunction. Decades of evidence from gain and loss-of-function studies in isolated cardiac myocytes and numerous animal models demonstrate important adaptive functions for cardiac alpha-1-ARs to include physiological hypertrophy, positive inotropy, ischemic preconditioning, and protection from cell death. Clinical trial data indicate that blocking alpha-1-ARs is associated with incident heart failure in patients with hypertension. Collectively, these findings suggest that alpha-1-AR activation might mitigate the well-recognized toxic effects of beta-ARs in the hyperadrenergic setting of chronic heart failure. Thus, exogenous cardioselective activation of alpha-1-ARs might represent a novel and viable approach to the treatment of heart failure. PMID:24145181

  7. The Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases Sap1 and Sap2 Cause Tissue Damage in an In Vitro Model of Vaginal Candidiasis Based on Reconstituted Human Vaginal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Martin; Bein, Matthias; Korting, Hans C.; Baur, Stefan; Hamm, Gerald; Monod, Michel; Beinhauer, Sabine; Hube, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Secreted aspartyl proteinases (Saps) contribute to the ability of Candida albicans to cause mucosal and disseminated infections. A model of vaginal candidiasis based on reconstituted human vaginal epithelium (RHVE) was used to study the expression and role of these C. albicans proteinases during infection and tissue damage of vaginal epithelium. Colonization of the RHVE by C. albicans SC5314 did not cause any visible epithelial damage 6 h after inoculation, although expression of SAP2, SAP9, and SAP10 was detected by reverse transcriptase PCR. However, significant epithelial damage was observed after 12 h, concomitant with the additional expression of SAP1, SAP4, and SAP5. Additional transcripts of SAP6 and SAP7 were detected at a later stage of the artificial infection (24 h). Similar SAP expression profiles were observed in three samples isolated from human patients with vaginal candidiasis. In experimental infection, secretion of antigens Sap1 to Sap6 by C. albicans was confirmed at the ultrastructural level by using polyclonal antisera raised against Sap1 to Sap6. Addition of the aspartyl proteinase inhibitors pepstatin A and the human immunodeficiency virus proteinase inhibitors ritonavir and amprenavir strongly reduced the tissue damage of the vaginal epithelia by C. albicans cells. Furthermore, SAP null mutants lacking either SAP1 or SAP2 had a drastically reduced potential to cause tissue damage even though SAP3, SAP4, and SAP7 were up-regulated in these mutants. In contrast the vaginopathic potential of mutants lacking SAP3 or SAP4 to SAP6 was not reduced compared to wild-type cells. These data provide further evidence for a crucial role of Sap1 and Sap2 in C. albicans vaginal infections. PMID:12761103

  8. Response of digestive cysteine proteinases from the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) and the black vine weevil (Otiorynchus sulcatus) to a recombinant form of human stefin A.

    PubMed

    Michaud, D; Nguyen-Quoc, B; Vrain, T C; Fong, D; Yelle, S

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the cystatins, human stefin A (HSA) and oryzacystatin I (OCI) on digestive cysteine proteinases of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the black vine weevil (BVW), Otiorynchus sulcatus, were assessed using complementary inhibition assays, cystatin-affinity chromatography, and recombinant forms of the two inhibitors. For both insects, either HSA and OCI used in excess (10 or 20 microM) caused partial and stable inhibition of total proteolytic (azocaseinase) activity, but unlike for OCI the HSA-mediated inhibitions were significantly increased when the inhibitor was used in large excess (100 microM). As demonstrated by complementary inhibition assays, this two-step inhibition of the insect proteases by HSA was due to the differential inactivation of two distinct cysteine proteinase populations in either insect extracts, the rapidly (strongly) inhibited population corresponding to the OCI-sensitive fraction. After removing the cystatin-sensitive proteinases from CPB and BVW midgut extracts using OCI- (or HSA-) affinity chromatography, the effects of the insect "non-target" proteases on the structural integrity of the two cystatins were assessed. While OCI remained essentially stable, HSA was subjected to hydrolysis without the accumulation of detectable stable intermediates, suggesting the presence of multiple exposed cleavage sites sensitive to the action of the insect proteases on this cystatin. This apparent susceptibility of HSA to proteolytic cleavage may partially explain its low efficiency to inactivate the insect OCI-insensitive cysteine proteinases when not used in large excess. It could also have major implications when planning the use of cystatin-expressing transgenic plants for the control of coleopteran pests. PMID:8920105

  9. Dental Enamel Development: Proteinases and Their Enamel Matrix Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, John D.

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on recent discoveries and delves in detail about what is known about each of the proteins (amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin) and proteinases (matrix metalloproteinase-20 and kallikrein-related peptidase-4) that are secreted into the enamel matrix. After an overview of enamel development, this review focuses on these enamel proteins by describing their nomenclature, tissue expression, functions, proteinase activation, and proteinase substrate specificity. These proteins and their respective null mice and human mutations are also evaluated to shed light on the mechanisms that cause nonsyndromic enamel malformations termed amelogenesis imperfecta. Pertinent controversies are addressed. For example, do any of these proteins have a critical function in addition to their role in enamel development? Does amelogenin initiate crystallite growth, does it inhibit crystallite growth in width and thickness, or does it do neither? Detailed examination of the null mouse literature provides unmistakable clues and/or answers to these questions, and this data is thoroughly analyzed. Striking conclusions from this analysis reveal that widely held paradigms of enamel formation are inadequate. The final section of this review weaves the recent data into a plausible new mechanism by which these enamel matrix proteins support and promote enamel development. PMID:24159389

  10. Structural characterization of the papaya cysteine proteinases at low pH.

    PubMed

    Huet, Joëlle; Looze, Yvan; Bartik, Kristin; Raussens, Vincent; Wintjens, René; Boussard, Paule

    2006-03-10

    Current control of gastrointestinal nematodes relies primarily on the use of synthetic drugs and encounters serious problems of resistance. Oral administration of plant cysteine proteinases, known to be capable of damaging nematode cuticles, has recently been recommended to overcome these problems. This prompted us to examine if plant cysteine proteinases like the four papaya proteinases papain, caricain, chymopapain, and glycine endopeptidase that have been investigated here can survive acidic pH conditions and pepsin degradation. The four papaya proteinases have been found to undergo, at low pH, a conformational transition that instantaneously converts their native forms into molten globules that are quite unstable and rapidly degraded by pepsin. As shown by activity measurements, the denatured state of these proteinases which finally results from acid treatment is completely irreversible. It is concluded that cysteine proteinases from plant origin may require to be protected against both acid denaturation and proteolysis to be effective in the gut after oral administration. PMID:16434027

  11. Neutrophil-derived Oxidants and Proteinases as Immunomodulatory Mediators in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Witko-Sarsat, V.

    1994-01-01

    Neutrophils generate potent microbicidal molecules via the oxygen-dependent pathway, leading to the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), and via the non-oxygen dependent pathway, consisting in the release of serine proteinases and metalloproteinases stored in granules. Over the past years, the concept has emerged that both ROI and proteinases can be viewed as mediators able to modulate neutrophil responses as well as the whole inflammatory process. This is well illustrated by the oxidative regulation of proteinase activity showing that oxidants and proteinases acts is concert to optimize the microbicidal activity and to damage host tissues. ROI and proteinases can modify the activity of several proteins involved in the control of inflammatory process. Among them, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-8, are elective targets for such a modulation. Moreover, ROI and proteinases are also able to modulate the adhesion process of neutrophils to endothelial cells, which is a critical step in the inflammatory process. PMID:18472951

  12. Mediation of noradrenaline-induced contractions of rat aorta by the alpha 1B-adrenoceptor subtype.

    PubMed Central

    Testa, R; Guarneri, L; Poggesi, E; Simonazzi, I; Taddei, C; Leonardi, A

    1995-01-01

    1. The subtypes of alpha 1-adrenoceptor mediating contractions to exogenous noradrenaline (NA) in rat aorta have been examined in both biochemical and functional studies. 2. Incubation of rat aortic membranes with the irreversible alpha 1B-adrenoceptor antagonist, chloroethylclonidine (CEC: 10 microM) did not change the KD of [3H]-prazosin binding in comparison to untreated membranes, but reduced by 88% the total number of binding sites (Bmax). 3. Contractions of rat aortic strips to NA after CEC (50 microM for 30 min) incubation followed by repetitive washing, showed a marked shift in the potency of NA and a partial reduction in the maximum response. The residual contractions to NA after CEC incubation were not affected by prazosin (10 nM). 4. The competitive antagonists prazosin, terazosin, (R)-YM-12617, phentolamine, 5-methylurapidil and spiperone inhibited contractions to NA with estimated pA2 values of 9.85, 8.54, 9.34, 7.71, 7.64 and 8.41, respectively. 5. The affinity of the same antagonists for the alpha 1A- and alpha 1B- adrenoceptors was evaluated by utilizing membranes from rat hippocampus pretreated with CEC, and rat liver, respectively. 5-Methylurapidil and phentolamine were confirmed as selective for the alpha 1A-adrenoceptors, whereas spiperone was alpha 1B-selective. 6. A significant correlation was found between the pA2 values of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists tested and their affinity for the alpha 1B-adrenoceptor subtype, but not for the alpha 1A-subtype. 7. In conclusion, these findings indicate that in rat aorta most of the contraction is mediated by alpha 1B-adrenoceptors, and that the potency (pA2) of an antagonist in this tissue should be related to its antagonistic effect on this subtype of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor population. PMID:7773533

  13. A selective alpha1D-adrenoreceptor antagonist inhibits human prostate cancer cell proliferation and motility "in vitro".

    PubMed

    Colciago, Alessandra; Mornati, Ornella; Ferri, Nicola; Castelnovo, Luca Franco; Fumagalli, Laura; Bolchi, Cristiano; Pallavicini, Marco; Valoti, Ermanno; Negri-Cesi, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The progression of prostate cancer (PC) to a metastatic hormone refractory disease is the major contributor to the overall cancer mortality in men, mainly because the conventional therapies are generally ineffective at this stage. Thus, other therapeutic options are needed as alternatives or in addition to the classic approaches to prevent or delay tumor progression. Catecholamines participate to the control of prostate cell functions by the activation of alpha1-adrenoreceptors (alpha1-AR) and increased sympathetic activity has been linked to PC development and evolution. Molecular and pharmacological studies identified three alpha1-AR subtypes (A, B and D), which differ in tissue distribution, cell signaling, pharmacology and physiological role. Within the prostate, alpha1A-ARs mainly control stromal cell functions, while alpha1B- and alpha1D- subtypes seem to modulate glandular epithelial cell growth. The possible direct contribution of alpha1D-ARs in tumor biology is supported by their overexpression in PC. The studies here presented investigate the "in vitro" antitumor action of A175, a selective alpha1D-AR antagonist we have recently obtained by modifying the potent, but not subtype-selective alpha1-AR antagonist (S)-WB4101, in the hormone-refractory PC3 and DU145 PC cell lines. The results indicate that A175 has an alpha1D-AR-mediated significant and dose-dependent antiproliferative action that possibly involves the induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, but not apoptosis. In addition, A175 reduces cell migration and adhesiveness to culture plates. In conclusion, our work clarified some cellular aspects promoted by alpha1D-AR activity modulation and supports a further pharmacological approach in the cure of hormone-refractory PC, by targeting specifically this AR subtype. PMID:26621245

  14. Activation of two new alpha(1,3)fucosyltransferase activities in Chinese hamster ovary cells by 5-azacytidine.

    PubMed Central

    Potvin, B; Stanley, P

    1991-01-01

    Several mammalian alpha(1,3)fucosyltransferases (alpha[1,3]Fuc-T) that synthesize carbohydrates containing alpha(1,3)fucosylated lactosamine units have been identified. Although Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells do not express alpha(1,3)Fuc-T activity, the rare mutants LEC11 and LEC12, isolated after mutagenesis or DNA transfection, each express an alpha(1,3)Fuc-T that may be distinguished by several criteria. Two new CHO mutants possessing alpha(1,3)Fuc-T activity (LEC29 and LEC30) have now been isolated after treatment of a CHO cell population with 5-azacytidine (5-AzaC), ethylnitrosourea (ENU), or 5-AzaC followed by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). Like LEC12, both mutants possess an N-ethylmaleimide-resistant alpha(1,3)Fuc-T activity that can utilize a variety of acceptors and both express the Lewis X (Lex) determinant (Gal beta[1,4](Fuc alpha[1,3])GlcNAc beta 1)) but not the sialyl alpha(2,3)Lex determinant on cell-surface carbohydrates. However, LEC29 and LEC30 may be distinguished from LEC11 and LEC12, as well as from each other, on the basis of their unique patterns of lectin resistance and their abilities to bind the VIM-2 monoclonal antibody that recognizes carbohydrates terminating in NeuNAc alpha(2,3)Gal beta(1,4)GlcNAc beta(1,3)Gal beta(1,4)(Fuc alpha[1,3])GlcNAc beta and also by the different in vitro substrate specificities and kinetic properties of their respective alpha(1,3)Fuc-T activities. The combined data provide good evidence that the LEC29 and LEC30 alpha(1,3)Fuc-Ts are novel transferases encoded by distinct gene products. PMID:1724918

  15. The alpha 1-adrenergic transduction system in hamster brown adipocytes. Release of arachidonic acid accompanies activation of phospholipase C.

    PubMed Central

    Schimmel, R J

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies of brown adipocytes identified an increased breakdown of phosphoinositides after selective alpha 1-adrenergic-receptor activation. The present paper reports that this response, elicited with phenylephrine in the presence of propranolol and measured as the accumulation of [3H]inositol phosphates, is accompanied by increased release of [3H]arachidonic acid from cells prelabelled with [3H]arachidonic acid. Differences between stimulated arachidonic acid release and formation of inositol phosphates included a requirement for extracellular Ca2+ for stimulated release of arachidonic acid but not for the formation of inositol phosphates and the preferential inhibition of inositol phosphate formation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The release of arachidonic acid in response to phenylephrine was associated with an accumulation of [3H]arachidonic acid-labelled diacylglycerol, and this response was not dependent on extracellular Ca2+ but was partially prevented by treatment with the phorbol ester. The release of arachidonic acid was also stimulated by melittin, which increases the activity of phospholipase A2, by ionophore A23187, by lipolytic stimulation with forskolin and by exogenous phospholipase C. The arachidonic acid response to phospholipase C was completely blocked by RHC 80267, an inhibitor of diacylglycerol lipase, but this inhibitor had no effect on release stimulated with melittin or A23187 and inhibited phenylephrine-stimulated release by only 40%. The arachidonate response to forskolin was additive with the responses to either phenylephrine or exogenous phospholipase C. These data indicate that brown adipocytes are capable of releasing arachidonic acid from neutral lipids via triacylglycerol lipolysis, and from phospholipids via phospholipase A2 or by the sequential activities of phospholipase C and diacylglycerol lipase. Our findings also suggest that the action of phenylephrine to promote the liberation of arachidonic acid utilizes both

  16. Expression of serine proteinase P186 of Arthrobotrys oligospora and analysis of its nematode-degrading activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hailong; Qiao, Jun; Meng, Qingling; Gong, Shasha; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Tianli; Tian, Lulu; Cai, Xuepeng; Luo, Jianxun; Chen, Chuangfu

    2015-12-01

    The nematode-trapping fungi possess a unique capability of predating and invading nematodes. As a representative nematode-trapping fungus, Arthrobotrys oligospora has been widely used to study the interactions between nematode-trapping fungi and their hosts. Serine proteinase is one of the important virulence factors during process of invasion of the nematode-trapping fungi into nematodes. In this study, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we amplified the gene sequence of serine proteinase 186 from A. oligospora, cloned it into pPIC9K vector and expressed it in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The expressed recombinant serine proteinase186 (reP186) was purified via Ni-affinity chromatography. The in vitro nematode-degrading activity of reP186 was analyzed. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis revealed that reP186 with molecular weight of 33 kDa was successfully obtained. ReP186 was capable of degrading a series of protein substrates including casein, gelatin, bovine serum albumin, denatured collagen and nematode cortical layer. The reP186 exhibited the maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 55 °C and was highly sensitive to the inhibitor, phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride. Treatment of Caenorhabditis elegans and Haemonchus contortus with reP186 for 12, 24 and 36 h, respectively, resulted in 62, 88 and 100 % of killing rates for C. elegans, and 52, 65 and 84 % of killing rates for H. contortus, respectively, indicating a relatively strong nematode-degrading bioactivity of reP186. PMID:26419902

  17. A role for alpha1 tubulin-expressing Müller glia in regeneration of the injured zebrafish retina.

    PubMed

    Fausett, Blake V; Goldman, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    Alpha1 tubulin (alpha1T) is a neuron-specific microtubule protein whose expression is induced in the developing and regenerating CNS. In the adult CNS, alpha1T expression remains high in neural progenitors. Transgenic zebrafish harboring a 1.7 kb alpha1T promoter fragment along with the first exon and intron express the transgene in a manner that recapitulates expression of the endogenous gene. We recently showed that this promoter mediates gene induction in retinal ganglion cells during optic nerve regeneration and in a subset of Müller glia that proliferate after retinal injury (Senut et al., 2004). To further characterize these Müller glia, we generated transgenic fish harboring an alpha1T promoter fragment that is specifically induced in these cells after retinal damage. Transgene expression, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling, and stem cell marker expression suggested that alpha1T-expressing Müller glia dedifferentiate and become multipotent in response to injury. In addition, green fluorescent protein and BrdU-mediated lineage tracing combined with retinal gene expression analysis indicated that alpha1T-expressing Müller glia were capable of generating retinal neurons and glia. These data strongly suggest alpha1T-expressing Müller glia dedifferentiate and mediate regeneration of the injured zebrafish retina. PMID:16763038

  18. Altered hepatic vasopressin and alpha 1-adrenergic receptors after chronic endotoxin infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, B.L.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1987-05-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are complicated by a number of hemodynamic and metabolic aberrations. These include catecholamine refractoriness and altered glucose metabolism. Recently, a nonshock rat model of continuous endotoxin infusion via an implanted osmotic pump was developed that reproduces some of the metabolic and cardiovascular findings of human sepsis. By using this model, we have found a decreased number of hepatic plasma membrane alpha 1-adrenergic and (Arg8)vasopressin receptors in rats continuously infused with endotoxin. There was a significant decrease in (/sup 3/H)prazosin (35 +/- 7%) and (/sup 3/H) (Arg8)vasopressin (43 +/- 8%) receptors after 30 h of continuous endotoxin infusion with no change in affinity. The ability of norepinephrine to form the high-affinity complex with alpha 1-adrenergic receptors was not altered after chronic endotoxin infusion. The results are consistent with the concept that alterations in receptor number might underlie certain of the metabolic consequences of chronic sepsis.

  19. Familial alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency cases that are diagnosed in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Atayan, Y; Çağın, Y F; Erdoğan, M A; Bestas, R; Aladag, M

    2016-01-01

    Alpha 1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder leading to severe lung and liver diseases worldwide. An accumulation of insoluble heterodimer AAT molecules in hepatocytes is the main cause of liver disorders. The most commonly detected allele worldwide is the PIMM allele, which fulfills the AAT function. The most common missing variant is PiZZ. Serum AAT level is a beneficial but not a reliable determinant for diagnosis. Liver biopsy yields more reliable results. AAT deficiency has no specific treatment. The only treatment modality in children with end stage liver disease is the hepatic transplant. We wanted to present in our article four cases from same family, diagnosed alpha-1 antitrypsindeficiency in adulthood. PMID:26852765

  20. Isoforms of alpha1E voltage-gated calcium channels in rat cerebellar granule cells--detection of major calcium channel alpha1-transcripts by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Schramm, M; Vajna, R; Pereverzev, A; Tottene, A; Klöckner, U; Pietrobon, D; Hescheler, J; Schneider, T

    1999-01-01

    In primary cultures of rat cerebellar granule cells, transcripts of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels have been amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and identified by sequencing of subcloned polymerase chain reaction products. In these neurons cultured for six to eight days in vitro, fragments of the three major transcripts alpha1C, alpha1A, and alpha1E are detected using degenerated oligonucleotide primer pairs under highly stringent conditions. Whole-cell Ca2+ current recordings from six to eight days in vitro granule cells show that most of the current is due to L-type (25%), P-type (33%) and R-type (30%) Ca2+ channels. These data support the correlation between alpha1A and P-type Ca2+ channels (G1) and between alpha1E and R-type channels (G2 and G3). By including specific primer pairs for alpha1E the complimentary DNA fragments of indicative regions of alpha1E isoforms are amplified corresponding to the three most variable regions of alpha1E, the 5'-end, the II/III-loop, and the central part of the 3'-end. Although the complementary DNA fragments of the 5'-end of rat alpha1E yield a uniform reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction product, its structure is unusual in the sense that it is longer than in the cloned rat alpha1E complementary DNA. It corresponds to the alpha1E isoform reported for mouse and human brain and is also expressed in cerebellum and cerebrum of rat brain as the major or maybe even the only variant of alpha1E. While fragments of a new rat alpha1E isoform are amplified from the 5'-end, three known fragments of the II/III-loop and two known isoforms homologue to the 3'-coding region are detected, which in the last case are discriminated by a 129 base pair insertion. The shift of the alpha1E expression from a pattern seen in cerebellum (alpha1Ee) to a pattern identified in other regions of the brain (alpha1E-3) is discussed. These data show that: (i) alpha1E is expressed in rat brain as a structural homologue to the

  1. Influences of the endothelium and hypoxia on alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated responses in the rabbit isolated pulmonary artery.

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, M. R.; McCulloch, K. M.; McGrath, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    1. The effects of the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, N omega-nitro-L-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 10(-4) M), mechanical disruption of the endothelium and hypoxia on contraction to noradrenaline (alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist), phenylephrine (alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist) and UK 14304 (alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist) were compared in the rabbit isolated pulmonary artery. The effects of the selective antagonists rauwolscine (10(-6) M, alpha 2-adrenoceptors) and prazosin (10(-7) M, alpha 1-adrenoceptors) on the contractions to noradrenaline before and after exposure to L-NAME were also assessed. 2. Noradrenaline, phenylephrine and UK 14304 all produced concentration-dependent increases in vascular tone. The responses to noradrenaline were sensitive to both rauwolscine and prazosin (effect of prazosin >> rauwolscine). L-NAME increased the potency of both noradrenaline and UK 14304, and also the maximum tension achieved. It had no effect on the responses to phenylephrine. After L-NAME, contractions to noradrenaline, although still sensitive to both rauwolscine and prazosin, were now more sensitive to inhibition by rauwolscine. 3. Endothelium removal augmented the potency and maximum contractions to noradrenaline, phenylephrine and UK 14304. 4. Hypoxia decreased both the potency of phenylephrine and its maximum contractile response, but increased the maximum response to noradrenaline without effecting responses to UK 14304. 5. In conclusion, in the rabbit pulmonary artery, augmentation of contractile responses to noradrenaline by L-NAME involves a potentiation of alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated contraction probably through an effect on the synthesis of endothelium-derived nitric oxide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8094023

  2. Relationship between alpha-1 receptors and cations in rat liver plasma membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of cations on binding of (/sup 3/H)-prazosin (PRZ), an alpha-1 specific antagonist, to alpha receptor sites in rat liver plasma membranes was examined. All cations tested were able to produce dose-dependent shifts to lower affinity binding sites for PRZ. The maximum number of binding sites was also observed to be altered. Inclusion of cations resulted in a slower observed rate constant for association as well as a delay in the dissociation of specifically bound PRZ following the addition of phentolamine. In contrast, the ability of (-)-norepinephrine to displace PRZ was enhanced by the addition of cations. The influence of alpha-1 receptor stimulation on Na/sup +//K/sup +/-ATPase activity in rat liver was examined by two methods - rat liver plasma membrane Na/sup +//K/sup +/-ATPase activity following liver perfusion in situ and /sup 86/Tb uptake in rat liver slices. The activity of the Na/sup +/ pump was found to be biphasic following exposure to phenylephrine (PE), an alpha-1 agonist. Stimulation (35%) was present over the first two minutes, while activity was inhibited over the interval of 5 to 10 minutes of continued PE exposure. Both phases were blocked by prazosin. The influence of DAG and protein kinase C (PKC) in alpha-1 receptor modulation of the Na/sup +/ pump was studied by employing 4-beta-phorbol (PMA), a phorbol ester which activates PKC. Perfusion of livers with PMA in situ or incubation with slices yielded inhibition of ATPase activity in membranes and /sup 86/Rb uptake in that was qualitatively and quantitatively similar to PE. These results suggest cations may influence receptor function in vivo and in vitro and the inhibitory effects of PE on the sodium pump may be mediated through PKC.

  3. Direct and remote modulation of L-channels in chromaffin cells: distinct actions on alpha1C and alpha1D subunits?

    PubMed

    Baldelli, Pietro; Hernández-Guijo, Jesus Miguel; Carabelli, Valentina; Novara, Monica; Cesetti, Tiziana; Andrés-Mateos, Eva; Montiel, Carmen; Carbone, Emilio

    2004-02-01

    Understanding precisely the functioning of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and their modulation by signaling molecules will help clarifying the Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms controlling exocytosis in chromaffin cells. In recent years, we have learned more about the various pathways through which Ca2+ channels can be up- or down-modulated by hormones and neurotransmitters and how these changes may condition chromaffin cell activity and catecolamine release. Recently, the attention has been focused on the modulation of L-channels (CaV 1), which represent the major Ca2+ current component in rat and human chromaffin cells. L-channels are effectively inhibited by the released content of secretory granules or by applying mixtures of exogenous ATP, opioids, and adrenaline through the activation of receptor-coupled G proteins. This unusual inhibition persists in a wide range of potentials and results from a direct (membrane-delimited) interaction of G protein subunits with the L-channels co-localized in membrane microareas. Inhibition of L-channels can be reversed when the cAMP/PKA pathway is activated by membrane permeable cAMP analog or when cells are exposed to isoprenaline (remote action), suggesting the existence of parallel and opposite effects on L-channel gating by distinctly activated membrane autoreceptors. Here, the authors review the molecular components underlying these two opposing signaling pathways and present new evidence supporting the presence of two L-channel types in rat chromaffin cells (alpha1C and alpha1D), which open new interesting issues concerning Ca(2+)-channel modulation. In light of recent findings on the regulation of exocytosis by Ca(2+)-channel modulation, the authors explore the possible role of L-channels in the autocontrol of catecholamine release. PMID:15034224

  4. Alternative splicing for the alpha1 subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase.

    PubMed Central

    Ritter, D; Taylor, J F; Hoffmann, J W; Carnaghi, L; Giddings, S J; Zakeri, H; Kwok, P Y

    2000-01-01

    Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), the receptor for nitric oxide, is a heterodimer consisting of alpha and beta subunits. We investigated the mRNA species for the alpha(1) subunit in human brain, heart, artery and immortalized B-lymphocytes. Three mRNA species were identified in these tissues. The major mRNA species contained the full expression sequence of the alpha(1) subunit. Two other types of mRNA were detected in which 5' sequences were deleted by splicing (506-590 and 412-590). Each of these deletions included the predicted translation start site, indicating that translation of these two alternatively spliced RNA species does not result in the production of full-length alpha(1) subunits. The relative amounts of the two mRNA species with deletions of the translation start site differed significantly between cell lines of immortalized B-lymphocytes from different individuals. sGC enzymic activity was significantly decreased in cellular extracts from cell lines with high proportions of mRNA species containing the deletion 506-590 when compared with extracts from cell lines that contained mostly mRNA without this deletion. PMID:10698711

  5. The stereospecificity of LY253352 for alpha 1-adrenoceptor binding sites in the brain and prostate.

    PubMed Central

    Lepor, H.; Baumann, M.; Shapiro, E.

    1988-01-01

    1. The stereospecificity of the enantiomers of LY253352, a potent and selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, were studied in the human prostate and canine brain using radioligand receptor binding methods. 2. The mean equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) in the canine brain and human prostatic adenoma was 84.4 pM and 65.4 pM, respectively. 3. The alpha 1-adrenoceptor density in the canine brain was approximately eight fold greater than in the human prostatic adenoma. 4. The mean Ki values of (-)-LY253352 and (+)-LY253352 in the prostate were 0.19 nM and 5.79 nM, respectively. 5. The mean Ki values of (-)-LY253352 and (+)-LY253352 in the brain were 0.29 nM and 34.7 nM, respectively. 6. This study indicates that the stereochemical specificity of the optical isomers of LY253352 is a manifestation of differential affinities of the enantiomers for alpha 1-adrenoceptor binding sites. 7. The differential affinities of (+)-LY253352 in the brain and prostate are suggestive of subtle unique properties of adrenoceptor binding sites in these tissues. PMID:2851347

  6. A comparison of the antagonistic activities of tamsulosin and terazosin against human vascular alpha1-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Harada, K; Ohmori, M; Kitoh, Y; Sugimoto, K; Fujimura, A

    1999-07-01

    Tamsulosin, a selective alpha1A-adrenoceptor antagonist, and terazosin, a non-selective one, are effective for the treatment of urinary disturbance due to benign prostatic hypertrophy. In the present study, their alpha1-adrenoceptor-blocking effects on blood vessels, which may cause orthostatic hypotension, were investigated in 10 healthy males. After the subjects took orally 0.2 mg of tamsulosin, 1 mg of terazosin or a lactate capsule as the control in a randomized cross-over fashion, their finger tip vasoconstrictor response to cold stimulation and vasoconstrictor response of the dorsal hand vein to increasing doses of phenylephrine were examined. The finger tip vasoconstrictor response was significantly reduced and the infusion rate of phenylephrine producing a half-maximal constriction was significantly increased by terazosin, but tamsulosin had no significant effect on these parameters. These data suggest that the usual dose of tamsulosin exerts little alpha1-adrenoceptor-blocking activity on blood vessels, and orthostatic episodes might be mild, if any, during the treatment with tamsulosin. PMID:10461765

  7. Modulatory role of a constitutively active population of alpha(1D)-adrenoceptors in conductance arteries.

    PubMed

    Ziani, Khalid; Gisbert, Regina; Noguera, Maria Antonia; Ivorra, Maria Dolores; D'Ocon, Pilar

    2002-02-01

    A constitutively active population of alpha(1D)-adrenoceptors in iliac and proximal, distal, and small mesenteric rat arteries was studied. The increase in resting tone (IRT) that