Sample records for als disease progression

  1. RandomForest4Life: a Random Forest for predicting ALS disease progression.

    PubMed

    Hothorn, Torsten; Jung, Hans H

    2014-09-01

    We describe a method for predicting disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. The method was developed as a submission to the DREAM Phil Bowen ALS Prediction Prize4Life Challenge of summer 2012. Based on repeated patient examinations over a three- month period, we used a random forest algorithm to predict future disease progression. The procedure was set up and internally evaluated using data from 1197 ALS patients. External validation by an expert jury was based on undisclosed information of an additional 625 patients; all patient data were obtained from the PRO-ACT database. In terms of prediction accuracy, the approach described here ranked third best. Our interpretation of the prediction model confirmed previous reports suggesting that past disease progression is a strong predictor of future disease progression measured on the ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS). We also found that larger variability in initial ALSFRS scores is linked to faster future disease progression. The results reported here furthermore suggested that approaches taking the multidimensionality of the ALSFRS into account promise some potential for improved ALS disease prediction. PMID:25141076

  2. EGFR Inhibitor Erlotinib Delays Disease Progression but Does Not Extend Survival in the SOD1 Mouse Model of ALS

    PubMed Central

    Le Pichon, Claire E.; Dominguez, Sara L.; Solanoy, Hilda; Ngu, Hai; Lewin-Koh, Nicholas; Chen, Mark; Eastham-Anderson, Jeffrey; Watts, Ryan; Scearce-Levie, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that causes progressive paralysis due to motor neuron death. Several lines of published evidence suggested that inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling might protect neurons from degeneration. To test this hypothesis in vivo, we treated the SOD1 transgenic mouse model of ALS with erlotinib, an EGFR inhibitor clinically approved for oncology indications. Although erlotinib failed to extend ALS mouse survival it did provide a modest but significant delay in the onset of multiple behavioral measures of disease progression. However, given the lack of protection of motor neuron synapses and the lack of survival extension, the small benefits observed after erlotinib treatment appear purely symptomatic, with no modification of disease course. PMID:23638043

  3. Therapeutic AAV9-mediated Suppression of Mutant SOD1 Slows Disease Progression and Extends Survival in Models of Inherited ALS

    PubMed Central

    Foust, Kevin D; Salazar, Desirée L; Likhite, Shibi; Ferraiuolo, Laura; Ditsworth, Dara; Ilieva, Hristelina; Meyer, Kathrin; Schmelzer, Leah; Braun, Lyndsey; Cleveland, Don W; Kaspar, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) resulting in progressive motor neuron death through one or more acquired toxicities. Involvement of wild-type SOD1 has been linked to sporadic ALS, as misfolded SOD1 has been reported in affected tissues of sporadic patients and toxicity of astrocytes derived from sporadic ALS patients to motor neurons has been reported to be reduced by lowering the synthesis of SOD1. We now report slowed disease onset and progression in two mouse models following therapeutic delivery using a single peripheral injection of an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) encoding an shRNA to reduce the synthesis of ALS-causing human SOD1 mutants. Delivery to young mice that develop aggressive, fatal paralysis extended survival by delaying both disease onset and slowing progression. In a later-onset model, AAV9 delivery after onset markedly slowed disease progression and significantly extended survival. Moreover, AAV9 delivered intrathecally to nonhuman primates is demonstrated to yield robust SOD1 suppression in motor neurons and glia throughout the spinal cord and therefore, setting the stage for AAV9-mediated therapy in human clinical trials. PMID:24008656

  4. Plasma Neurofilament Heavy Chain Levels Correlate to Markers of Late Stage Disease Progression and Treatment Response in SOD1G93A Mice that Model ALS

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ching-Hua; Petzold, Axel; Kalmar, Bernadett; Dick, James; Malaspina, Andrea; Greensmith, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder characterised by progressive degeneration of motor neurons leading to death, typically within 3–5 years of symptom onset. The diagnosis of ALS is largely reliant on clinical assessment and electrophysiological findings. Neither specific investigative tools nor reliable biomarkers are currently available to enable an early diagnosis or monitoring of disease progression, hindering the design of treatment trials. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, using the well-established SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS and a new in-house ELISA method, we have validated that plasma neurofilament heavy chain protein (NfH) levels correlate with both functional markers of late stage disease progression and treatment response. We detected a significant increase in plasma levels of phosphorylated NfH during disease progression in SOD1G93A mice from 105 days onwards. Moreover, increased plasma NfH levels correlated with the decline in muscle force, motor unit survival and, more significantly, with the loss of spinal motor neurons in SOD1 mice during this critical period of decline. Importantly, mice treated with the disease modifying compound arimoclomol had lower plasma NfH levels, suggesting plasma NfH levels could be validated as an outcome measure for treatment trials. Conclusions/Significance These results show that plasma NfH levels closely reflect later stages of disease progression and therapeutic response in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS and may potentially be a valuable biomarker of later disease progression in ALS. PMID:22815892

  5. A Pilot Trial of Pioglitazone HCl and Tretinoin in ALS: Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers to Monitor Drug Efficacy and Predict Rate of Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Todd D.; Bowser, Robert; Hank, Nicole C.; Gately, Stephen; Stephan, Dietrich; Saperstein, David S.; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To determine if therapy with pioglitazone HCl and tretinoin could slow disease progression in patients with ALS. Levels of tau and pNFH in the cerebrospinal fluid were measured to see if they could serve as prognostic indicators. Methods. 27 subjects on stable doses of riluzole were enrolled. Subjects were randomized to receive pioglitazone 30?mg/d and tretinoin 10?mg/BID for six months or two matching placebos. ALSFRS-R scores were followed monthly. At baseline and at the final visit, lumbar punctures (LPs) were performed to measure cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker levels. Results. Subjects treated with tretinoin, pioglitazone, and riluzole had an average rate of decline on the ALSFRS-R scale of ?1.02 points per month; subjects treated with placebo and riluzole had a rate of decline of ?.86 (P = .18). Over six months of therapy, CSF tau levels decreased in subjects randomized to active treatment and increased in subjects on placebo. Further higher levels of pNF-H at baseline correlated with a faster rate of progression. Conclusion. ALS patients who were treated with tretinoin and pioglitazone demonstrated no slowing on their disease progression. Interestingly, the rate of disease progression was strongly correlated with levels of pNFH in the CSF at baseline. PMID:22830016

  6. A Novel Acylaminoimidazole Derivative, WN1316, Alleviates Disease Progression via Suppression of Glial Inflammation in ALS Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Yoshiko; Yasutake, Kaori; Inoue, Satoshi; Hirayama, Noriaki; Ikeda, Joh-E

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset motor neuron degenerative disease. Given that oxidative stress and resulting chronic neuronal inflammation are thought to be central pathogenic, anti-oxidative agents and modulators of neuronal inflammation could be potential therapies for ALS. We report here that the novel small molecular compound, 2-[mesityl(methyl)amino]-N-[4-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl] acetamide trihydrochloride (WN1316) selectively suppresses oxidative stress-induced cell death and neuronal inflammation in the late-stage ALS mice. WN1316 has high blood-brain-barrier permeability and water solubility, and boosts both neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) which governed glutathione (GSH)-related anti-oxidation pathway protecting motor neurons against oxidative injuries. Post-onset oral administration of low dose (1–100 µg/kg/day) WN1316 in ALS(SOD1H46R) and ALS(SOD1G93A) mice resulted in sustained improved motor function and post onset survival rate. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed less DNA oxidative damage and motor neuronal inflammation as well as repression of both microgliosis and astrocytosis, concomitant down regulation of interleukin-1? and inducible nitric oxide synthase, and preservation of the motoneurons in anterior horn of lumbar spinal cord and skeletal muscle (quadriceps femoris). Thus, WN1316 would be a novel therapeutic agent for ALS. PMID:24498180

  7. Progress on diabetic cerebrovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Houguang; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lu, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic cerebrovascular diseases are defined as cerebral vascular diseases induced by diabetes with sugar, fat and a series of nutrient substance metabolic disorders, resulting in intracranial large and small vessel diseases. About 20%-40% patients with type 2 diabetes suffer from cerebral blood vessel diseases. Diabetic cerebrovascular diseases are the main causes of death in patients with diabetes mellitus. The major clinical manifestations are asymptomatic cerebral atherosclerosis, stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and acute cerebral vascular disease. The pathogenesis, clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of diabetic cerebrovascular disease are obviously different from non-diabetic cerebral vascular diseases. This paper will focus on the diabetic cerebrovascular disease, including its latest research progress. Diabetic cerebral large vascular disease and diabetic cerebral small vessel disease will be reviewed here. PMID:25428668

  8. Lou Gehrig's Disease (ALS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 10% will survive more than 10 years. Stephen Hawking has been living with Lou Gehrig's disease for ... term survivor of the disease. Born in England, Hawking is a famous physicist who furthered our understanding ...

  9. Rab11 in Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Bhuin, Tanmay; Roy, Jagat Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Membrane/protein trafficking in the secretory/biosynthetic and endocytic pathways is mediated by vesicles. Vesicle trafficking in eukaryotes is regulated by a class of small monomeric GTPases: the Rab protein family. Rab proteins represent the largest branch of the Ras superfamily GTPases, and have been concerned in a variety of intracellular vesicle trafficking and different intracellular signalling pathways. Rab11 (a subfamily of the Ypt/Rab gene family), an evolutionarily conserved ubiquitously expressed subfamily of Rab GTPases, has been implicated in regulating vesicular trafficking through the recycling of endosomes. Rabs have been grouped into different subfamilies based on the distinct unambiguous sequence motifs. Three members: Rab11a, Rab11b and Rab25 make up the Rab11 GTPase subfamily. In this review article, we describe an overview over Rab11 subfamily with a brief structural aspect and its roles in implicating different disease progression. PMID:25815277

  10. Onset and Progression in Inherited ALS Determined by Motor Neurons and Microglia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Séverine Boillée; Koji Yamanaka; Christian S. Lobsiger; Neal G. Copeland; Nancy A. Jenkins; George Kassiotis; George Kollias; Don W. Cleveland

    2006-01-01

    Dominant mutations in superoxide dismutase cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive paralytic disease characterized by loss of motor neurons. With the use of mice carrying a deletable mutant gene, expression within motor neurons was shown to be a primary determinant of disease onset and of an early phase of disease progression. Diminishing the mutant levels in microglia had little

  11. Complement activation in progressive renal disease

    PubMed Central

    Fearn, Amy; Sheerin, Neil Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and the cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The replacement of functioning nephrons by fibrosis is characteristic of progressive disease. The pathways that lead to fibrosis are not fully understood, although chronic non-resolving inflammation in the kidney is likely to drive the fibrotic response that occurs. In patients with progressive CKD there is histological evidence of inflammation in the interstitium and strategies that reduce inflammation reduce renal injury in pre-clinical models of CKD. The complement system is an integral part of the innate immune system but also augments adaptive immune responses. Complement activation is known to occur in many diverse renal diseases, including glomerulonephritis, thrombotic microangiopathies and transplant rejection. In this review we discuss current evidence that complement activation contributes to progression of CKD, how complement could cause renal inflammation and whether complement inhibition would slow progression of renal disease. PMID:25664245

  12. Shading reduces coral-disease progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Muller; R. van Woesik

    2009-01-01

    The growing incidence of tropical-marine diseases is attributed to increases in pathogen prevalence and virulence associated with global warming. Additionally, the compromised-host hypothesis suggests that rising ocean temperatures may increase disease activity by making the corals more susceptible to ubiquitous pathogens. We tested the effects of reducing irradiance stress on coral-disease progression rates by shading corals showing signs consistent with

  13. Shading reduces coral-disease progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Muller; R. van Woesik

    2009-01-01

    The growing incidence of tropical-marine diseases is attributed to increases in pathogen prevalence and virulence associated\\u000a with global warming. Additionally, the compromised-host hypothesis suggests that rising ocean temperatures may increase disease\\u000a activity by making the corals more susceptible to ubiquitous pathogens. We tested the effects of reducing irradiance stress\\u000a on coral-disease progression rates by shading corals showing signs consistent with

  14. Slowly progressive apraxia in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Green, R C; Goldstein, F C; Mirra, S S; Alazraki, N P; Baxt, J L; Bakay, R A

    1995-01-01

    Slowly progressive apraxia due to Alzheimer's disease was encountered in a 66 year old, right handed man whose initial impairments included coordinated movements of the left hand and some features of the alien hand syndrome. Over four years, the patient developed progressively worsening deficits of memory and language. A biopsy of his right temporal lobe showed numerous plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Pronounced right parietal lobe hypoperfusion on serial SPECT suggests involvement of this region in contralateral praxis. Images PMID:7673964

  15. Proteasome inhibitors in progressive renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Coppo, Rosanna

    2014-02-01

    Proteasome (PS) is a sophisticated protein degradation machinery comprising a 20S proteolytic core particle provided with caspase-like, trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like activities on ubiquitinilated proteins. The products of this selective, complex, controlled and strictly coordinated system play a crucial role in cell cycle progression and apoptosis; activation of transcription factors, cytokines and chemokines; degradation and generation of MHC class I-presented peptides. PS has recently emerged as a promising drug target in cancer therapy, and bortezomib has been approved for refractory multiple myeloma. PS proteolysis is crucial for the degradation of the inhibitory protein IkB of nuclear factor kB (NF-kB), and hence, an interesting field of research has been developed on possible benefits of drugs with anti-PS activity in disease conditions with hyper-expression of NF-kB. PS inhibitors are being adopted in pilot studies in antibody-mediated renal rejection and in AL amyloidosis, with increasing scientific interest in possible applications in lupus, IgA nephropathy, idiopathic nephrotic syndrome and renal fibrosis. The most often used PS inhibitor, bortezomib, has a severe peripheral neurotoxicity, and the search for effective and less toxic PS-targeted drugs is a challenging area also in nephrology. PMID:24493867

  16. The Axis of Progression of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tartakoff, Alan M; Wu, Di

    2014-01-01

    Starting with genetic or environmental perturbations, disease progression can involve a linear sequence of changes within individual cells. More often, however, a labyrinth of branching consequences emanates from the initial events. How can one repair an entity so fine and so complex that its organization and functions are only partially known? How, given the many redundancies of metabolic pathways, can interventions be effective before the last redundant element has been irreversibly damaged? Since progression ultimately proceeds beyond a point of no return, therapeutic goals must target earlier events. A key goal is therefore to identify early changes of functional importance. Moreover, when several distinct genetic or environmental causes converge on a terminal phenotype, therapeutic strategies that focus on the shared features seem unlikely to be useful – precisely because the shared events lie relatively downstream along the axis of progression. We therefore describe experimental strategies that could lead to identification of early events, both for cancer and for other diseases. PMID:25374458

  17. Targeting the progression of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    George, J L; Mok, S; Moses, D; Wilkins, S; Bush, A I; Cherny, R A; Finkelstein, D I

    2009-03-01

    By the time a patient first presents with symptoms of Parkinson's disease at the clinic, a significant proportion (50-70%) of the cells in the substantia nigra (SN) has already been destroyed. This degeneration progresses until, within a few years, most of the cells have died. Except for rare cases of familial PD, the initial trigger for cell loss is unknown. However, we do have some clues as to why the damage, once initiated, progresses unabated. It would represent a major advance in therapy to arrest cell loss at the stage when the patient first presents at the clinic. Current therapies for Parkinson's disease focus on relieving the motor symptoms of the disease, these unfortunately lose their effectiveness as the neurodegeneration and symptoms progress. Many experimental approaches are currently being investigated attempting to alter the progression of the disease. These range from replacement of the lost neurons to neuroprotective therapies; each of these will be briefly discussed in this review. The main thrust of this review is to explore the interactions between dopamine, alpha synuclein and redox-active metals. There is abundant evidence suggesting that destruction of SN cells occurs as a result of a self-propagating series of reactions involving dopamine, alpha synuclein and redox-active metals. A potent reducing agent, the neurotransmitter dopamine has a central role in this scheme, acting through redox metallo-chemistry to catalyze the formation of toxic oligomers of alpha-synuclein and neurotoxic metabolites including 6-hydroxydopamine. It has been hypothesized that these feed the cycle of neurodegeneration by generating further oxidative stress. The goal of dissecting and understanding the observed pathological changes is to identify therapeutic targets to mitigate the progression of this debilitating disease. PMID:19721815

  18. Managing progressive renal disease before dialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To enhance awareness of issues affecting patients with chronic renal failure and to provide guidance for primary care practitioners managing such patients. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Randomized trials establish the efficacy of blood pressure control and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in slowing the progression of chronic renal disease. Some randomized trials and many prospective studies address management of anemia, hyperparathyroidism, and multidisciplinary predialysis care. The benefits of lipid lowering are suggested by randomized trials among patients without renal disease. MAIN MESSAGE: Progression of renal failure, particularly in patients with proteinuria, can be slowed by lowering blood pressure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are more beneficial than other antihypertensives in this situation. Partial correction of anemia with iron, erythropoietin, or androgens can improve quality of life and potentially prevent cardiac disease. Renal bone disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism can be prevented in part by early dietary phosphate restriction, use of calcium-containing phosphate binders, and activated vitamin D. Correction of acidosis could improve protein metabolism and bone and cardiovascular health. Treatment of hyperlipidemia might reduce cardiovascular disease. Early involvement of a nephrology-based multidisciplinary team has the potential to reduce morbidity and costs, enhance patients' knowledge of their condition, and prolong the period before dialysis is required. CONCLUSIONS: Care of patients with progressive renal failure is complex and requires attention to detail. Family doctors play a vital role in these efforts and should be involved in all aspects of care. PMID:10216796

  19. Interstitial lung disease: progress and problems

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, S J

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease involves all areas of medicine as it often occurs in patients with comorbidities or as a consequence of systemic diseases and their treatment. Typically the physician is faced with a breathless patient, a diffusely abnormal chest radiograph, and a wide differential diagnosis. Progress has been made in using high resolution computed tomography as the key investigation in characterising the pattern and extent of the disease. Bronchoalveolar lavage is particularly important in excluding infection as a cause of diffuse lung infiltrates. Surgical lung biopsies have led to a new classification system for the range of histopathological patterns of disease that were previously known by the collective term cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Problems persist in deciding when a surgical lung biopsy is clinically justified, in understanding the pathogenesis of these diseases, and in finding more effective treatments. PMID:16891438

  20. Progression of Glomerular and Tubular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Woroniecki, Robert P.; Schnaper, H. William

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease may be stimulated by many different etiologies, but its progression involves a common, yet complex, series of events that lead to the replacement of normal tissue with scar. These events include altered physiology within the kidney leading to abnormal hemodynamics, chronic hypoxia, inflammation, cellular dysfunction and activation of fibrogenic biochemical pathways. The end result is the replacement of normal structures with extracellular matrix. Treatments are presently focused on delaying or preventing such progression, and are largely nonspecific. In pediatrics, such therapy is further complicated by both pathophysiological issues that render children a unique population. PMID:19615562

  1. PDGF and the progression of renal disease.

    PubMed

    Boor, Peter; Ostendorf, Tammo; Floege, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Progressive renal diseases represent a global medical problem, in part because we currently lack effective treatment strategies. Inhibition of platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) might represent one such novel strategy. PDGFs are required for normal kidney development by the recruitment of mesenchymal cells to both glomeruli and the interstitium. PDGFs are expressed in renal mesenchymal cells and, upon injury, in epithelial and infiltrating cells. They exert autocrine and paracrine effects on PDGF receptor-bearing mesenchymal cells, i.e. mesangial cells, fibroblasts and vascular smooth-muscle cells, which are crucially involved in progressive renal diseases. Proliferation but also migration and activation of these mesenchymal cells are the major effects mediated by PDGFs. These actions predefine the major roles of PDGFs in renal pathology, particularly in mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis and interstitial fibrosis. Whereas for the former, the role of PDGFs is very well described and established, the latter is increasingly better documented as well. An involvement of PDGFs in other renal diseases, e.g. acute kidney injury, vascular injury and hypertensive as well as diabetic nephropathy, is less well established or presently unknown. Nevertheless, PDGFs represent a promising therapeutic option for progressive renal diseases, especially those characterized by mesangial cell proliferation and interstitial fibrosis. Clinical studies are eagerly awaited, in particular, since several drugs inhibiting PDGF signalling are available for clinical testing. PMID:24493869

  2. Unsupervised Learning of Disease Progression Models IBM Research

    E-print Network

    , and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, usually progress slowly over a long period of time, causing Chronic diseases usually progress slowly over time. For example, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Yorktown Heights, NY fwang@us.ibm.com ABSTRACT Chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's Disease, Diabetes

  3. Protein carbonylation, cellular dysfunction, and disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Dalle-Donne, Isabella; Aldini, Giancarlo; Carini, Marina; Colombo, Roberto; Rossi, Ranieri; Milzani, Aldo

    2006-01-01

    Carbonylation of proteins is an irreversible oxidative damage, often leading to a loss of protein function, which is considered a widespread indicator of severe oxidative damage and disease-derived protein dysfunction. Whereas moderately carbonylated proteins are degraded by the proteasomal system, heavily carbonylated proteins tend to form high-molecular-weight aggregates that are resistant to degradation and accumulate as damaged or unfolded proteins. Such aggregates of carbonylated proteins can inhibit proteasome activity. A large number of neurodegenerative diseases are directly associated with the accumulation of proteolysis-resistant aggregates of carbonylated proteins in tissues. Identification of specific carbonylated protein(s) functionally impaired and development of selective carbonyl blockers should lead to the definitive assessment of the causative, correlative or consequential role of protein carbonylation in disease onset and/or progression, possibly providing new therapeutic aproaches. PMID:16796807

  4. Aortic regurgitation: disease progression and management.

    PubMed

    Goldbarg, Seth H; Halperin, Jonathan L

    2008-05-01

    Aortic regurgitation (AR) is a common valvular heart disease that unless appropriately managed is associated with morbidity and mortality. Left ventricular (LV) mechanics and aortic impedance are the main determinants of outcome in patients with AR and govern clinical management. Mild and moderate AR in individuals with normal LV dimensions are both generally benign. In the absence of symptoms and before LV dimensions increase, even severe AR is not generally associated with increased morbidity or mortality. Once LV enlargement occurs, however, symptoms and/or a decline in ejection fraction can develop, and both represent an indication for surgical intervention. Disease progression occurs at a variable rate, and is often insidious. Hence, symptoms do not correlate with objective evidence of ventricular dysfunction. Exercise testing can help highlight symptoms related to valve dysfunction. Asymptomatic patients with severe AR and preserved LV function can benefit from vasodilator drug therapy. Several agents from this class can reduce AR severity, but results are inconsistent. In this Review, we examine the epidemiology of AR in terms of the interplay between arterial and ventricular forces marking progression of disease over time, and analyze the practice guidelines regarding diagnosis and treatment. PMID:18364707

  5. Genetic architecture of human fibrotic diseases: disease risk and disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Gardet, Agnès; Zheng, Timothy S.; Viney, Joanne L.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic studies of human diseases have identified multiple genetic risk loci for various fibrotic diseases. This has provided insights into the myriad of biological pathways potentially involved in disease pathogenesis. These discoveries suggest that alterations in immune responses, barrier function, metabolism and telomerase activity may be implicated in the genetic risks for fibrotic diseases. In addition to genetic disease-risks, the identification of genetic disease-modifiers associated with disease complications, severity or prognosis provides crucial insights into the biological processes implicated in disease progression. Understanding the biological processes driving disease progression may be critical to delineate more effective strategies for therapeutic interventions. This review provides an overview of current knowledge and gaps regarding genetic disease-risks and genetic disease-modifiers in human fibrotic diseases. PMID:24391588

  6. Crevicular Fluid Biomarkers and Periodontal Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Min; Braun, Thomas M.; Ramseier, Christoph A.; Sugai, Jim V.; Giannobile, William V.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Assess the ability of a panel of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) biomarkers as predictors of periodontal disease progression (PDP). Materials and Methods 100 individuals participated in a 12-month longitudinal investigation and categorized into 4 groups according to their periodontal status. GCF, clinical parameters, and saliva were collected bi-monthly. Sub-gingival plaque and serum were collected bi-annually. For 6 months, no periodontal treatment was provided. At 6-months, patients received periodontal therapy and continued participation from 6-12 months. GCF samples were analyzed by ELISA for MMP-8, MMP-9, OPG, CRP and IL-1?. Differences in median levels of GCF biomarkers were compared between stable and progressing participants using Wilcoxon Rank Sum test (p=0.05). Clustering algorithm was used to evaluate the ability of oral biomarkers to classify patients as either stable or progressing. Results Eighty-three individuals completed the 6-month monitoring phase. With the exception of GCF C-reactive protein, all biomarkers were significantly higher in the PDP group compared to stable patients. Clustering analysis showed highest sensitivity levels when biofilm pathogens and GCF biomarkers were combined with clinical measures, 74% (95% CI = 61,86). Conclusions Signature of GCF fluid-derived biomarkers combined with pathogens and clinical measures provides a sensitive measure for discrimination of PDP (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00277745). PMID:24303954

  7. Research Progress of Moyamoya Disease in Children

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Jianmin; Wu, Wei; Yang, Zhongxi; Yu, Jinlu

    2015-01-01

    During the onset of Moyamoya disease (MMD), progressive occlusion occurs at the end of the intracranial internal carotid artery, and compensatory net-like abnormal vessels develop in the skull base, generating the corresponding clinical symptoms. MMD can affect both children and adults, but MMD in pediatric patients exhibits distinct clinical features, and the treatment prognoses are different from adult patients. Children are the group at highest risk for MMD. In children, the disease mainly manifests as ischemia, while bleeding is the primary symptom in adults. The pathogenesis of MMD in children is still unknown, and some factors are distinct from those in adults. MMD in children could result in progressive, irreversible nerve functional impairment, and an earlier the onset corresponds to a worse prognosis. Therefore, active treatment at an early stage is highly recommended. The treatment methods for MMD in children mainly include indirect and direct surgeries. Indirect surgeries mainly include multiple burr-hole surgery (MBHS), encephalomyosynangiosis (EMS), and encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS); direct surgeries mainly include intra- and extracranial vascular reconstructions that primarily consist of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis. Indirect surgery, as a treatment for MMD in children, has shown a certain level of efficacy. However, a standard treatment approach should combine both indirect and direct procedures. Compared to MMD in adults, the treatment and prognosis of MMD in children has higher clinical significance. If the treatment is adequate, a satisfactory outcome is often achieved. PMID:26180513

  8. Sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt Disease Presenting as Primary Progressive Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, David Y.; Dunkelberger, Diana L.; Henry, Maya; Haman, Aissatou; Greicius, Michael D.; Wong, Katherine; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Geschwind, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report the clinical, neuropsychological, linguistic, imaging, and neuropathological features of a unique case of sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease in which the patient presented with a logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia. Design Case report. Setting Large referral center for atypical memory and aging disorders, particularly Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease. Patient Patient presenting with logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia initially thought to be due to Alzheimer disease. Results Despite the long, slow 3.5-year course, the patient was shown to have pathology-proven sporadic Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease. Conclusions These findings expand the differential of primary progressive aphasia to include prion disease. PMID:23400721

  9. Alzheimer disease: progress or profit? Claire Mount & Christian Downton

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Alzheimer disease: progress or profit? Claire Mount & Christian Downton Alzheimer disease people worldwide currently have dementia;Alzheimer disease affects about 18 million of them1. Increasing age is the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer disease. Its prevalence approxi- mately doubles every

  10. Structural imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease: predicting disease progression

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Structural imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease: predicting disease the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database (www of Alzheimer's disease (AD) may allow earlier detection and refined pre- diction

  11. Biomarkers of progression in mirroring models of Parkinson's disease

    E-print Network

    Han, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Couteur DG et al, Pesticides and Parkinson’s disease. BiomedB, YuF, Parkinson’s disease mortality and pesticide exposurePesticides directly accelerate the rate of ? - synuclein fibril formation: a possible factor in Parkinson’

  12. Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research Finds Link Between Statin Use and Progressive Muscle Disease Each year, millions of Americans take statins, ... people these benefits come at a cost: widespread muscle pain that persists as long as the drugs ...

  13. Posttraumatic Growth and HIV Disease Progression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milam, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between posttraumatic growth (PTG; perceiving positive changes since diagnosis) and disease status, determined by changes in viral load and CD4 count over time, was examined among 412 people living with HIV. In controlled multiple regression models, PTG was not associated with disease status over time for the entire sample.…

  14. Posttraumatic Growth and HIV Disease Progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Milam

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between posttraumatic growth (PTG; perceiving positive changes since diagnosis) and disease status, determined by changes in viral load and CD4 count over time, was examined among 412 people living with HIV. In controlled multiple regression models, PTG was not associated with disease status over time for the entire sample. However, there were significant associations for certain subgroups. PTG

  15. Biomarkers of progression in mirroring models of Parkinson's disease

    E-print Network

    Han, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Couteur DG et al, Pesticides and Parkinson’s disease. BiomedYuF, Parkinson’s disease mortality and pesticide exposure inPesticides directly accelerate the rate of ? - synuclein fibril formation: a possible factor in Parkinson’s disease.

  16. Microglial Activation Correlates with Disease Progression and Upper Motor Neuron Clinical Symptoms in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Brettschneider, Johannes; Toledo, Jon B.; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M.; Elman, Lauren; McCluskey, Leo; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.; Trojanowski, John Q.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated clinicopathological correlates of upper motor neuron (UMN) damage in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and analyzed if the presence of the C9ORF72 repeat expansion was associated with alterations in microglial inflammatory activity. Methods Microglial pathology was assessed by IHC with 2 different antibodies (CD68, Iba1), myelin loss by Kluver-Barrera staining and myelin basic protein (MBP) IHC, and axonal loss by neurofilament protein (TA51) IHC, performed on 59 autopsy cases of ALS including 9 cases with C9ORF72 repeat expansion. Results Microglial pathology as depicted by CD68 and Iba1 was significantly more extensive in the corticospinal tract (CST) of ALS cases with a rapid progression of disease. Cases with C9ORF72 repeat expansion showed more extensive microglial pathology in the medulla and motor cortex which persisted after adjusting for disease duration in a logistic regression model. Higher scores on the clinical UMN scale correlated with increasing microglial pathology in the cervical CST. TDP-43 pathology was more extensive in the motor cortex of cases with rapid progression of disease. Conclusions This study demonstrates that microglial pathology in the CST of ALS correlates with disease progression and is linked to severity of UMN deficits. PMID:22720079

  17. Markers predicting progression of human immunodeficiency virus-related disease.

    PubMed Central

    Tsoukas, C M; Bernard, N F

    1994-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) interacts with the immune system throughout the course of infection. For most of the disease process, HIV activates the immune system, and the degree of activation can be assessed by measuring serum levels of molecules such as beta 2-microglobulin and neopterin, as well as other serum and cell surface phenotype markers. The levels of some of these markers correlate with clinical progression of HIV disease, and these markers may be useful as surrogate markers for development of clinical AIDS. Because the likelihood and timing of development of clinical AIDS following seroconversion, for any particular individual, are not readily predictable, the use of nonclinical disease markers has become critically important to patient management. Surrogate markers of HIV infection are, by definition, measurable traits that correlate with disease progression. An ideal marker should identify patients at highest risk of disease progression, provide information on how long an individual has been infected, help in staging HIV disease, predict development of opportunistic infections associated with AIDS, monitor the therapeutic efficacy of immunomodulating or antiviral treatments, and the easily quantifiable, reliable, clinically available, and affordable. This review examines the current state of knowledge and the role of surrogate markers in the natural history and treatment of HIV infection. The clinical usefulness of each marker is assessed with respect to the criteria outlined for the ideal surrogate marker for HIV disease progression. PMID:8118788

  18. Suppressed autophagy flux in skeletal muscle of an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model during disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yajuan; Ma, Changling; Yi, Jianxun; Wu, Shaoping; Luo, Guo; Xu, Xiulong; Lin, Pei?Hui; Sun, Jun; Zhou, Jingsong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Accumulation of abnormal protein inclusions is implicated in motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Autophagy, an intracellular process targeting misfolded proteins and damaged organelles for lysosomal degradation, plays crucial roles in survival and diseased conditions. Efforts were made to understand the role of autophagy in motor neuron degeneration and to target autophagy in motor neuron for ALS treatment. However, results were quite contradictory. Possible autophagy defects in other cell types may also complicate the results. Here, we examined autophagy activity in skeletal muscle of an ALS mouse model G93A. Through overexpression of a fluorescent protein LC3?RFP, we found a basal increase in autophagosome formation in G93A muscle during disease progression when the mice were on a regular diet. As expected, an autophagy induction procedure (starvation plus colchicine) enhanced autophagy flux in skeletal muscle of normal mice. However, in response to the same autophagy induction procedure, G93A muscle showed significant reduction in the autophagy flux. Immunoblot analysis revealed that increased cleaved caspase?3 associated with apoptosis was linked to the cleavage of several key proteins involved in autophagy, including Beclin?1, which is an essential molecule connecting autophagy and apoptosis pathways. Taking together, we provide the evidence that the cytoprotective autophagy pathway is suppressed in G93A skeletal muscle and this suppression may link to the enhanced apoptosis during ALS progression. The abnormal autophagy activity in skeletal muscle likely contributes muscle degeneration and disease progression in ALS. PMID:25602021

  19. ALS Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ALS New ALS Therapy Target Highlights Role of RNA Processing in the Disease The ALS Association to Present at BIO, World Biotechnology Convention Critical Protein Measurement Means Progress Toward ...

  20. Predicting the severity of motor neuron disease progression using electronic health record data with a cloud computing Big Data approach

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kyung Dae; El-Ghazawi, Tarek; Kim, Dongkyu; Morizono, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Motor neuron diseases (MNDs) are a class of progressive neurological diseases that damage the motor neurons. An accurate diagnosis is important for the treatment of patients with MNDs because there is no standard cure for the MNDs. However, the rates of false positive and false negative diagnoses are still very high in this class of diseases. In the case of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), current estimates indicate 10% of diagnoses are false-positives, while 44% appear to be false negatives. In this study, we developed a new methodology to profile specific medical information from patient medical records for predicting the progression of motor neuron diseases. We implemented a system using Hbase and the Random forest classifier of Apache Mahout to profile medical records provided by the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials Database (PRO-ACT) site, and we achieved 66% accuracy in the prediction of ALS progress. PMID:25580472

  1. Drug Development for Alzheimer's Disease: Recent Progress

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Wonjin

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of dementia, is characterized by two major pathological hallmarks: amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Based on these two indicators, an amyloid cascade hypothesis was proposed, and accordingly, most current therapeutic approaches are now focused on the removal of ?-amyloid peptides (A? from the brain. Additionally, strategies for blocking tau hyperphosphorylation and aggregation have been suggested, including the development of drugs that can block the formation of tangles. However, there are no true disease-modifying drugs in the current market, though many drugs based on theories other than A? and tau pathology are under development. The purpose of this review was to provide information on the current development of AD drugs and to discuss the issues related to drug development. PMID:22110351

  2. Alcohol’s Role in HIV Transmission and Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Pandrea, Ivona; Happel, Kyle I.; Amedee, Angela M.; Bagby, Gregory J.; Nelson, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use has negative effects on HIV disease progression through several mechanisms, including transmission, viral replication, host immunity, and treatment efficacy. Research with animal models has explored the effect of alcohol intake on several aspects of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) disease progression. Data suggest that the increased SIV levels observed in alcohol-consuming animals may represent an increase in virus production as opposed to a decrease in host defense. Results also suggest that changes in nutritional balance and metabolism, as a possible consequence of a proinflammatory state, together with increased virus production in animals consuming alcohol, accelerate SIV and possibly HIV disease progression. Further studies using the animal model are necessary. PMID:23584062

  3. Disease origin and progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an immunology perspective.

    PubMed

    Malaspina, Andrea; Puentes, Fabiola; Amor, Sandra

    2015-03-01

    The immune system is inextricably linked with many neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating neuromuscular disorder affecting motor cell function with an average survival of 3 years from symptoms onset. In ALS, there is a dynamic interplay between the resident innate immune cells, that is, microglia and astrocytes, which may become progressively harmful to motor neurons. Although innate and adaptive immune responses are associated with progressive neurodegeneration, in the early stages of ALS immune activation pathways are primarily considered to be beneficial promoting neuronal repair of the damaged tissues, though a harmful effect of T cells at this stage of disease has also been observed. In addition, although auto-antibodies against neuronal antigens are present in ALS, it is unclear whether these arise as a primary or secondary event to neuronal damage, and whether the auto-antibodies are indeed pathogenic. Understanding how the immune system contributes to the fate of motor cells in ALS may shed light on the triggers of disease as well as on the mechanisms contributing to the propagation of the pathology. Immune markers may also act as biomarkers while pathways involved in immune action may be targets of new therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the modalities by which the immune system senses the core pathological process in motor neuron disorders, focusing on tissue-specific immune responses in the neuromuscular junction and in the neuroaxis observed in affected individuals and in animal models of ALS. We elaborate on existing data on the immunological fingerprint of ALS that could be used to identify clues on the disease origin and patterns of progression. PMID:25344935

  4. State of progress in treating cystic fibrosis respiratory disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Since the discovery of the gene associated with cystic fibrosis (CF), there has been tremendous progress in the care of patients with this disease. New therapies have entered the market and are part of the standard treatment of patients with CF, and have been associated with marked improvement in survival. Now there are even more promising therapies directed at different components of the pathophysiology of this disease. In this review, our current knowledge of the pathophysiology of lung disease in patients with CF is described, along with the current treatment of CF lung disease, and the therapies in development that offer great promise to our patients. PMID:22883684

  5. A Table of Areas Under Disease Progress Curves. 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Dennis A.; Wilcoxson, Roy D.

    1980-01-01

    [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] A TABLE OF AREAS UNDER DISEASE PROGRESS CURVES Technical Bullet in Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Texas A & M University System- [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] A TABLE OF AREAS UNDER D I S E A S E... s e v e r i t y r e a d i n g was t h e l a s t r e a d i n g used i n d e t e r m i n i n g AUDPC . Fig. 1 Example of Manual Calculation of Area Under the Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC). 80 0 4 8 Days Motes Were Taken Rectangle...

  6. Imaging nigral pathology and clinical progression in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Du, Guangwei; Lewis, Mechelle M.; Sen, Suman; Wang, Jianli; Shaffer, Michele L.; Styner, Martin; Yang, Qing X.; Huang, Xuemei

    2012-01-01

    Background The pattern of dopamine cell loss in Parkinson's disease is known to be prominent in the ventrolateral and caudal substantia nigra, but less severe in the dorsal and rostral region. Both diffusion tensor imaging and R2* relaxometry of the substantia nigra have been reported as potential markers for Parkinson's disease, but their relative ability to mark disease progression and differences in pathophysiological bases remains unclear. Methods High resolution T2-weigthed, R2*, and diffusion tensor imaging were obtained from 28 controls and 40 Parkinson's disease subjects [15 early-stage (disease duration?1 year), 14 mid-stage (duration 2-5 years), and 11 late-stage (duration>5 years)]. Fractional anisotropy and R2* values in both rostral and caudal substantia nigra were obtained for all subjects, and clinical measures (disease duration; levodopa-equivalent daily dosage; “off”-drug Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score) were obtained for Parkinson's subjects. Results There was no correlation between fractional anisotropy and clinical measures, whereas R2* was strongly associated with disease progression. Compared to controls, fractional anisotropy in caudal substantia nigra was significantly decreased in Parkinson's disease patients of all stages, whereas in rostral substantia nigra it was decreased significantly only in the late-stage group. R2* in both substantia nigra regions was significantly increased in the mid-stage and late-stage, but not early-stage, of Parkinson's disease subjects. Conclusions These findings suggest that fractional anisotropy changes may mark early pathological changes in caudal substantia nigra, whereas the changes in R2* may more closely track Parkinson's disease's clinical progression after symptom onset. PMID:23008179

  7. Plasma neurofilament heavy chain levels and disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: insights from a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ching-Hua; Petzold, Axel; Topping, Jo; Allen, Kezia; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Clarke, Jan; Pearce, Neil; Kuhle, Jens; Giovannoni, Gavin; Fratta, Pietro; Sidle, Katie; Fish, Mark; Orrell, Richard; Howard, Robin; Greensmith, Linda; Malaspina, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of longitudinal plasma neurofilament heavy chain protein (NfH) levels as an indicator of clinical progression and survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods A cross-sectional study involving 136 clinically heterogeneous patients with ALS and 104 healthy and neurological controls was extended to include a prospective analysis of 74 of these ALS cases, with samplings at approximately 3-month intervals in a follow-up period of up to 3?years. We analysed the correlation between longitudinal NfH-phosphoform levels and disease progression. Temporal patterns of NfH changes were evaluated using multilevel linear regression. Results Baseline plasma NfH levels were higher than controls only in patients with ALS with short disease duration to baseline sampling. Compared with controls, fast-progressing patients with ALS, particularly those with a short diagnostic latency and disease duration, had higher plasma NfH levels at an early stage and lower levels closer to end-stage disease. Lower NfH levels between visits were associated with rapid functional deterioration. We also detected antibodies against NfH, NfH aggregates and NfH cleavage products. Conclusions Disease progression in ALS involves defined trajectories of plasma NfH levels, reflecting speed of neurological decline and survival. Intervisit plasma NfH changes are also indicative of disease progression. This study confirms that longitudinal measurements of NfH plasma levels are more informative than cross-sectional studies, where the time of sampling may represent a bias in the interpretation of the results. Autoantibodies against NfH aggregates and NfH cleavage products may explain the variable expression of plasma NfH with disease progression. Trail registration number NIHRID6160. PMID:25009280

  8. Prospective Study of Atherosclerotic Disease Progression in the Renal Artery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. Caps; Claudio Perissinotto; R. Eugene Zierler; Nayak L. Polissar; Robert O. Bergelin; Michael J. Tullis; Kim Cantwell-Gab; Robert C. Davidson; D. Eugene

    Background—The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of and the risk factors associated with progression of renal artery disease in individuals with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS). Methods and Results—Subjects with $1 ARAS were monitored with serial renal artery duplex scans. A total of 295 kidneys in 170 patients were monitored for a mean of 33 months.

  9. MARKOV CELLULAR AUTOMATA AS MODELS FOR CHRONIC DISEASE PROGRESSION

    E-print Network

    Hawkins, Jane M.

    to model chronic illness 9 3.1. Adding the probability measure to a topological Markov CA 11 3.2. MedicalMARKOV CELLULAR AUTOMATA AS MODELS FOR CHRONIC DISEASE PROGRESSION JANE HAWKINS AND DONNA MOLINEK to a chronic condi- tion, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). We show

  10. Progress in Research on Phytophthora Diseases of Forest Trees

    E-print Network

    Front cover: Crown of a Fagus sylvatica tree, killed by the invasive Phytophthora kernoviaei Progress in Research on Phytophthora Diseases of Forest Trees Proceedings of the Third Brasier, Thomas Jung and Wolfgang Oßwald Forest Research, Farnham, Surrey, UK #12;ii © Crown Copyright

  11. Imaging and CFD in the analysis of vascular disease progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Saloner; Gabriel Acevedo-Bolton; Vitaliy Rayz; Max Wintermark; Alastair Martin; Brad Dispensa; William Young; Michael Lawton; Joseph Rapp; Liang-Der Jou

    2006-01-01

    Conventional evaluation of the significance of vascular disease has focused on estimates of geometric factors. There is now substantial interest in investigating whether the onset and progression of vascular pathology can be related to hemodynamic factors. Current imaging modalities have excellent capabilities in delineating the geometric boundaries of the vascular lumen. Advanced non-invasive imaging modalities such as Multi Detector CT

  12. Disruption of gut homeostasis by opioids accelerates HIV disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jingjing; Sindberg, Gregory M.; Roy, Sabita

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative studies during the past 30 years have established the correlation between opioid abuse and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Further studies also demonstrate that opioid addiction is associated with faster progression to AIDS in patients. Recently, it was revealed that disruption of gut homeostasis and subsequent microbial translocation play important roles in pathological activation of the immune system during HIV infection and contributes to accelerated disease progression. Similarly, opioids have been shown to modulate gut immunity and induce gut bacterial translocation. This review will explore the mechanisms by which opioids accelerate HIV disease progression by disrupting gut homeostasis. Better understanding of these mechanisms will facilitate the search for new therapeutic interventions to treat HIV infection especially in opioid abusing population.

  13. Structural imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease: predicting disease progression.

    PubMed

    Eskildsen, Simon F; Coupé, Pierrick; Fonov, Vladimir S; Pruessner, Jens C; Collins, D Louis

    2015-01-01

    Optimized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) may allow earlier detection and refined prediction of the disease. In addition, they could serve as valuable tools when designing therapeutic studies of individuals at risk of AD. In this study, we combine (1) a novel method for grading medial temporal lobe structures with (2) robust cortical thickness measurements to predict AD among subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from a single T1-weighted MRI scan. Using AD and cognitively normal individuals, we generate a set of features potentially discriminating between MCI subjects who convert to AD and those who remain stable over a period of 3 years. Using mutual information-based feature selection, we identify 5 key features optimizing the classification of MCI converters. These features are the left and right hippocampi gradings and cortical thicknesses of the left precuneus, left superior temporal sulcus, and right anterior part of the parahippocampal gyrus. We show that these features are highly stable in cross-validation and enable a prediction accuracy of 72% using a simple linear discriminant classifier, the highest prediction accuracy obtained on the baseline Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative first phase cohort to date. The proposed structural features are consistent with Braak stages and previously reported atrophic patterns in AD and are easy to transfer to new cohorts and to clinical practice. PMID:25260851

  14. Cortical Processing of Swallowing in ALS Patients with Progressive Dysphagia – A Magnetoencephalographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Teismann, Inga K.; Warnecke, Tobias; Suntrup, Sonja; Steinsträter, Olaf; Kronenberg, Linda; Ringelstein, E. Bernd; Dengler, Reinhard; Petri, Susanne; Pantev, Christo; Dziewas, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare disease causing degeneration of the upper and lower motor neuron. Involvement of the bulbar motor neurons often results in fast progressive dysphagia. While cortical compensation of dysphagia has been previously shown in stroke patients, this topic has not been addressed in patients suffering from ALS. In the present study, we investigated cortical activation during deglutition in two groups of ALS patients with either moderate or severe dysphagia. Whole-head MEG was employed on fourteen patients with sporadic ALS using a self-paced swallowing paradigm. Data were analyzed by means of time-frequency analysis and synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM). Group analysis of individual SAM data was performed using a permutation test. We found a reduction of cortical swallowing related activation in ALS patients compared to healthy controls. Additionally a disease-related shift of hemispheric lateralization was observed. While healthy subjects showed bilateral cortical activation, the right sensorimotor cortex was predominantly involved in ALS patients. Both effects were even stronger in the group of patients with severe dysphagia. Our results suggest that bilateral degeneration of the upper motor neuron in the primary motor areas also impairs further adjusted motor areas, which leads to a strong reduction of ‘swallowing related’ cortical activation. While both hemispheres are affected by the degeneration a relatively stronger activation is seen in the right hemisphere. This right hemispheric lateralization of volitional swallowing observed in this study may be the only sign of cortical plasticity in dysphagic ALS patients. It may demonstrate compensational mechanisms in the right hemisphere which is known to predominantly coordinate the pharyngeal phase of deglutition. These results add new aspects to our understanding of the pathophysiology of dysphagia in ALS patients and beyond. The compensational mechanisms observed could be relevant for future research in swallowing therapies. PMID:21625445

  15. Recent Progress of Imaging Agents for Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoai; Cai, Huawei; Ge, Ran; Li, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common progressive, neurodegenerative brain disease that is promoted by mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, protein aggregation and proteasome dysfunction in the brain. Compared with computer tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), non-invasive nuclear radiopharmaceuticals have great significance for the early diagnosis of PD due to their high sensitivity and specificity in atypical and preclinical cases. Based on the development of coordination chemistry and chelator design, radionuclides may be delivered to lesions by attaching to PD-related transporters and receptors, such as dopamine, serotonin, and others. In this review, we comprehensively detailed the current achievements in radionuclide imaging in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25977680

  16. Targeting the Progression of Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    George, J.L; Mok, S; Moses, D; Wilkins, S; Bush, A.I; Cherny, R.A; Finkelstein, D.I

    2009-01-01

    By the time a patient first presents with symptoms of Parkinson’s disease at the clinic, a significant proportion (50-70%) of the cells in the substantia nigra (SN) has already been destroyed. This degeneration progresses until, within a few years, most of the cells have died. Except for rare cases of familial PD, the initial trigger for cell loss is unknown. However, we do have some clues as to why the damage, once initiated, progresses unabated. It would represent a major advance in therapy to arrest cell loss at the stage when the patient first presents at the clinic. Current therapies for Parkinson’s disease focus on relieving the motor symptoms of the disease, these unfortunately lose their effectiveness as the neurodegeneration and symptoms progress. Many experimental approaches are currently being investigated attempting to alter the progression of the disease. These range from replacement of the lost neurons to neuroprotective therapies; each of these will be briefly discussed in this review. The main thrust of this review is to explore the interactions between dopamine, alpha synuclein and redox-active metals. There is abundant evidence suggesting that destruction of SN cells occurs as a result of a self-propagating series of reactions involving dopamine, alpha synuclein and redox-active metals. A potent reducing agent, the neurotransmitter dopamine has a central role in this scheme, acting through redox metallo-chemistry to catalyze the formation of toxic oligomers of alpha-synuclein and neurotoxic metabolites including 6-hydroxydopamine. It has been hypothesized that these feed the cycle of neurodegeneration by generating further oxidative stress. The goal of dissecting and understanding the observed pathological changes is to identify therapeutic targets to mitigate the progression of this debilitating disease. PMID:19721815

  17. gems: An R Package for Simulating from Disease Progression Models

    PubMed Central

    Blaser, Nello; Vizcaya, Luisa Salazar; Estill, Janne; Zahnd, Cindy; Kalesan, Bindu; Egger, Matthias; Gsponer, Thomas; Keiser, Olivia

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical models of disease progression predict disease outcomes and are useful epidemiological tools for planners and evaluators of health interventions. The 𝖱 package gems is a tool that simulates disease progression in patients and predicts the effect of different interventions on patient outcome. Disease progression is represented by a series of events (e.g., diagnosis, treatment and death), displayed in a directed acyclic graph. The vertices correspond to disease states and the directed edges represent events. The package gems allows simulations based on a generalized multistate model that can be described by a directed acyclic graph with continuous transition-specific hazard functions. The user can specify an arbitrary hazard function and its parameters. The model includes parameter uncertainty, does not need to be a Markov model, and may take the history of previous events into account. Applications are not limited to the medical field and extend to other areas where multistate simulation is of interest. We provide a technical explanation of the multistate models used by gems, explain the functions of gems and their arguments, and show a sample application.

  18. Rapidly progressive dementias and the treatment of human prion diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2012-01-01

    Importance of the field Rapidly progressive dementia (RPD) has many possible etiologies and definitive treatment is reliant upon an accurate diagnosis from an appropriate diagnostic work-up. A large portion of the neurodegenerative causes of RPD are due to prion diseases (e.g., Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease). The study of prion diseases, for which there is no currently available treatment, has public health implications and is becoming increasingly more relevant to our understanding of other protein misfolding disorders including Alzheimer’s disease, frontotemporal degeneration, and Parkinson’s disease. Areas covered in this review This article begins with an overview of the etiologies and diagnostic work-up of RPD followed by a detailed review of the literature concerning the treatment of human prion diseases (1971 to present). What the reader will gain The reader will understand the differential diagnosis and work-up of RPD as it pertains to its treatment, as well as an in-depth understanding of treatments of human prion diseases. Take home message An accurate diagnosis of the cause of RPD is of paramount importance when determining appropriate treatment. Most studies of the treatment for human prion diseases are case reports or case series, and results from only one randomized, placebo-controlled study have been reported in the literature (flupirtine). Studies have been hindered by disease heterogeneity and lack of standardized outcome measures. Although no effective prion disease treatment has been revealed through these studies, they provide important considerations for future studies. PMID:21091283

  19. Dyslipidemia and the progression of renal disease in chronic renal failure patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALEIX CASES; ELISABET COLL

    2005-01-01

    Dyslipidemia and the progression of renal disease in chronic renal failure patients Dyslipidemia is a common complication of progressive kidney disease and contributes to the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Recent evidence also suggests a role for dyslipidemia in the development and progression of renal disease. Experimental studies have demonstrated that lipids may induce

  20. Nutrient enrichment enhances black band disease progression in corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, Joshua D.; Richardson, Laurie L.

    2006-11-01

    Infectious diseases are recognized as significant contributors to the dramatic loss of corals observed worldwide. However, the causes of increased coral disease prevalence and severity are not well understood. One potential factor is elevated nutrient concentration related to localized anthropogenic activities such as inadequate waste water treatment or terrestrial runoff. In this study the effect of nutrient enrichment on the progression of black band disease (BBD) was investigated using both in situ and laboratory experiments. Experimental increases in localized nutrient availability using commercial time release fertilizer in situ resulted in doubling of BBD progression and coral tissue loss in the common reef framework coral Siderastrea siderea. Laboratory experiments in which artificially infected S. siderea colonies were exposed to increased nitrate concentrations (up to 3 ?M) demonstrated similar increases in BBD progression. These findings provide evidence that the impacts of this disease on coral populations are exacerbated by nutrient enrichment and that management to curtail excess nutrient loading may be important for reducing coral cover loss due to BBD.

  1. Evidence that soyasaponin Bb retards disease progression in a murine model of polycystic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana J Philbrick; Dominique P Bureau; F William Collins; Bruce J Holub

    2003-01-01

    Evidence that soyasaponin Bb retards disease progression in a murine model of polycystic kidney disease.BackgroundWe reported a lessened cyst growth in the pcy mouse model of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) when mice were fed a soy protein isolate (SPI)–based diet and hypothesized that the soyasaponins may be associated with this therapeutic effect. The effects of feeding a saponin-enriched alcohol extract

  2. Ploidy status rarely changes in myeloma patients at disease progression.

    PubMed

    Chng, W J; Winkler, J M; Greipp, P R; Jalal, S M; Bergsagel, P L; Chesi, M; Trendle, M C; Ahmann, G J; Henderson, K; Blood, E; Oken, M M; Hulbert, A; Van Wier, S A; Santana-Dávila, R; Kyle, R A; Gertz, M A; Lacy, M Q; Dispenzieri, A; Fonseca, R

    2006-03-01

    Hyperdiploid and non-hyperdiploid multiple myeloma represents distinct biological entities characterized by different patterns of genetic changes. We sought to determine whether ploidy category (non-hyperdiploid versus hyperdiploid) remains stable over time from diagnosis to progression. Of the 43 patients studied (39 by flow cytometry DNA index and 4 by a FISH-based index), only five (12%) altered their ploidy status at progression. In three of these patients, the change may possibly be attributable to technical artifacts because of the low absolute change in DNA index. For those who retain their ploidy subtypes, the DNA index change minimally (3.75+/-4.87%). It would appear that the initiating genetic events underlying hyperdiploid and non-hyperdiploid MM that marks them out as distinct entities continue to dominate and persist during disease evolution and progression. PMID:16111750

  3. Resource use in decompensated heart failure by disease progression categories.

    PubMed

    Kane-Gill, Sandra L; Seybert, Amy L; Lazar, Jessica; Shatzer, Melanie B; Saul, Melissa I; Kirisci, Levent; Murali, Srinivas

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the total hospital resource use for decompensated heart failure according to disease progression categories. Clinical and cost information was obtained from an electronic data repository and chart review. During the 1-year period from June 2002 to June 2003, qualified patients were categorized based on disease progression as (1) new onset, (2) known heart failure, or (3) readmission. The primary outcome variables were total hospital resource use and resource use by services. Analysis of variance, Scheffé analysis for pairwise comparisons, and chi-square analysis were performed to determine differences among groups. Total hospitalization costs are similar whether it is a new diagnosis of heart failure, known diagnosis, or readmission. Among the 3 categories, 5 services contained statistically significant differences in costs (P<.05): echocardiography, electrophysiology, neurodiagnostic, nuclear cardiology, and pharmacy. Careful analysis of hospital resource use by services for heart failure patients provides opportunities for institutional cost containment. PMID:17268207

  4. Characterizing early Alzheimer's disease and disease progression using hippocampal volume and arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze

    2014-01-01

    Searching for biomarkers sensitive to early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its progression has been a research priority for two decades. MRI has been increasingly used for this endeavor because of its capability of detecting both structural and functional brain patterns without injecting external contrast agent or radioactive tracers. Recent work has shown sensitivity of hippocampal volume and regional cerebral blood flow for differentiating prodromal AD from normal controls as well as AD. This review provides a summary for the existing literature describing the applications of either or both modalities in early AD studies as well as disease progression assessment. The various findings in the reviewed studies lead to a conclusion of assessing hippocampal volume and arterial spin labeling cerebral blood flow as potential markers for disease detection, and progression monitoring though longitudinal studies are still lacking to fully examine their sensitivity and specificity. PMID:25182742

  5. Predicting progression of Alzheimer's disease using ordinal regression.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Orla M; Westman, Eric; Marquand, Andre F; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Tsolaki, Magda; K?oszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Lovestone, Simon; Williams, Steve C R; Simmons, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to predicting disease progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD)--multivariate ordinal regression--which inherently models the ordered nature of brain atrophy spanning normal aging (CTL) to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD. Ordinal regression provides probabilistic class predictions as well as a continuous index of disease progression--the ORCHID (Ordinal Regression Characteristic Index of Dementia) score. We applied ordinal regression to 1023 baseline structural MRI scans from two studies: the US-based Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the European based AddNeuroMed program. Here, the acquired AddNeuroMed dataset was used as a completely independent test set for the ordinal regression model trained on the ADNI cohort providing an optimal assessment of model generalizability. Distinguishing CTL-like (CTL and stable MCI) from AD-like (MCI converters and AD) resulted in balanced accuracies of 82% (cross-validation) for ADNI and 79% (independent test set) for AddNeuroMed. For prediction of conversion from MCI to AD, balanced accuracies of 70% (AUC of 0.75) and 75% (AUC of 0.81) were achieved. The ORCHID score was computed for all subjects. We showed that this measure significantly correlated with MMSE at 12 months (? =? -0.64, ADNI and ? = ?-0.59, AddNeuroMed). Additionally, the ORCHID score can help fractionate subjects with unstable diagnoses (e.g. reverters and healthy controls who later progressed to MCI), moderately late converters (12-24 months) and late converters (24-36 months). A comparison with results in the literature and direct comparison with a binary classifier suggests that the performance of this framework is highly competitive. PMID:25141298

  6. Predicting Progression of Alzheimer’s Disease Using Ordinal Regression

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Orla M.; Westman, Eric; Marquand, Andre F.; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Tsolaki, Magda; K?oszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Lovestone, Simon; Williams, Steve C. R.; Simmons, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to predicting disease progression in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) – multivariate ordinal regression – which inherently models the ordered nature of brain atrophy spanning normal aging (CTL) to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD. Ordinal regression provides probabilistic class predictions as well as a continuous index of disease progression – the ORCHID (Ordinal Regression Characteristic Index of Dementia) score. We applied ordinal regression to 1023 baseline structural MRI scans from two studies: the US-based Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and the European based AddNeuroMed program. Here, the acquired AddNeuroMed dataset was used as a completely independent test set for the ordinal regression model trained on the ADNI cohort providing an optimal assessment of model generalizability. Distinguishing CTL-like (CTL and stable MCI) from AD-like (MCI converters and AD) resulted in balanced accuracies of 82% (cross-validation) for ADNI and 79% (independent test set) for AddNeuroMed. For prediction of conversion from MCI to AD, balanced accuracies of 70% (AUC of 0.75) and 75% (AUC of 0.81) were achieved. The ORCHID score was computed for all subjects. We showed that this measure significantly correlated with MMSE at 12 months (??=?–0.64, ADNI and ??=?–0.59, AddNeuroMed). Additionally, the ORCHID score can help fractionate subjects with unstable diagnoses (e.g. reverters and healthy controls who later progressed to MCI), moderately late converters (12–24 months) and late converters (24–36 months). A comparison with results in the literature and direct comparison with a binary classifier suggests that the performance of this framework is highly competitive. PMID:25141298

  7. A transcriptional network underlies susceptibility to kidney disease progression.

    PubMed

    Laouari, Denise; Burtin, Martine; Phelep, Aurélie; Bienaime, Frank; Noel, Laure-Hélène; Lee, David C; Legendre, Christophe; Friedlander, Gérard; Pontoglio, Marco; Terzi, Fabiola

    2012-08-01

    The molecular networks that control the progression of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) are poorly defined. We have recently shown that the susceptibility to development of renal lesions after nephron reduction is controlled by a locus on mouse chromosome 6 and requires epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. Here, we identified microphthalmia-associated transcription factor A (MITF-A), a bHLH-Zip transcription factor, as a modifier of CKD progression. Sequence analysis revealed a strain-specific mutation in the 5' UTR that decreases MITF-A protein synthesis in lesion-prone friend virus B NIH (FVB/N) mice. More importantly, we dissected the molecular pathway by which MITF-A modulates CKD progression. MITF-A interacts with histone deacetylases to repress the transcription of TGF-?, a ligand of EGFR, and antagonizes transactivation by its related partner, transcription factor E3 (TFE3). Consistent with the key role of this network in CKD, Tgfa gene inactivation protected FVB/N mice from renal deterioration after nephron reduction. These data are relevant to human CKD, as we found that the TFE3/MITF-A ratio was increased in patients with damaged kidneys. Our study uncovers a novel transcriptional network and unveils novel potential prognostic and therapeutic targets for preventing human CKD progression. PMID:22711280

  8. Trinucleotide repeat length and progression of illness in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Kieburtz, K; MacDonald, M; Shih, C; Feigin, A; Steinberg, K; Bordwell, K; Zimmerman, C; Srinidhi, J; Sotack, J; Gusella, J

    1994-11-01

    The genetic defect causing Huntington's disease (HD) has been identified as an unstable expansion of a trinucleotide (CAG) repeat sequence within the coding region of the IT15 gene on chromosome 4. In 50 patients with manifest HD who were evaluated prospectively and uniformly, we examined the relationship between the extent of the DNA expansion and the rate of illness progression. Although the length of CAG repeats showed a strong inverse correlation with the age at onset of HD, there was no such relationship between the number of CAG repeats and the rate of clinical decline. These findings suggest that the CAG repeat length may influence or trigger the onset of HD, but other genetic, neurobiological, or environmental factors contribute to the progression of illness and the underlying pace of neuronal degeneration. PMID:7853373

  9. Weight Loss Interventions and Progression of Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Neil G; Canney, Aoife L; le Roux, Carel W

    2015-08-01

    Progressive renal impairment (diabetic kidney disease (DKD)) occurs in upwards of 40 % of patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. Means of attenuating the progression of DKD focus on amelioration of risk factors. Visceral obesity is implicated as a causative agent in impaired metabolic and cardiovascular control in T2DM, and various approaches primarily targeting weight have been examined for their impact on markers of renal injury and dysfunction in DKD. The current report summarises the evidence base for the impact of surgical, lifestyle and pharmacological approaches to weight loss on renal end points in DKD. The potential for a threshold of weight loss more readily achievable by surgical intervention to be a prerequisite for renal improvement is highlighted. Comparing efficacious non-surgical weight loss strategies with surgical strategies in appropriately powered and controlled prospective studies is a priority for the field. PMID:26122095

  10. Vitamin A and HIV infection: disease progression, mortality, and transmission.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, C M; Kuhn, L; Stein, Z

    2000-10-01

    Among HIV-infected individuals, many nutritional factors that influence disease progress, mortality, and transmission are not well understood. Of particular interest is the role of vitamin A. The benefits of vitamin A have been recognized since ancient times by Egyptian physicians who successfully treated night blindness with vitamin A. Contemporary scientists have since recognized the importance of vitamin A and have provided evidence that it may help in repairing damaged mucosal surfaces; what remains unclear, however, is its role during HIV infection. In this review, we examine the evidence provided in both observational studies and randomized controlled trials that assessed the effect of vitamin A during HIV infection. PMID:11127968

  11. Monitoring coagulation proteins during progression of liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hessien, Mohamed; Ayad, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Wafaa M; ulArab, Batoul Izz

    2015-04-01

    This work was designated to monitor the coagulation abnormalities associated with the gradual progression of liver diseases. The study included fifty patients; forty were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis with different stages categorized according to the Childs-Pugh classification and another ten patients were diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Haemostatic variables including fibrinogen (FI), calcium (FIV), transglutaminase (FXIII), prothrombin time (PT) and platelet count were estimated in patients and compared with the baseline levels of healthy subjects (n = 10). The results demonstrated that the fibrinogen level was progressively decreased, whereas PT was progressively prolonged in Child A, Child B and Child C groups. The maximum deterioration was observed in HCC patients. Calcium significantly increased in mild (Child A) and moderate (Child B) but not in Child C cirrhosis and HCC patients. FXIII level did not show any significant changes in cirrhotic patients compared to healthy group. Some of the haemostatic variables we investigated were correlated with serum albumin and bilirubin but not with aminotransferases (ALT and AST). The results indicated that the haemostatic abnormalities in fibrinogen, calcium and PT (but not FXIII) were deteriorated in parallel with the gradual regression of the constitutional function of liver. PMID:25883431

  12. Directed Progression Brain Networks in Alzheimer's Disease: Properties and Classification

    PubMed Central

    Young, Karl; Asif, Danial; Jutla, Inderjit; Liang, Michael; Wilson, Scott; Landsberg, Adam S.; Schuff, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article introduces a new approach in brain connectomics aimed at characterizing the temporal spread in the brain of pathologies like Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main instrument is the development of “directed progression networks” (DPNets), wherein one constructs directed edges between nodes based on (weakly) inferred directions of the temporal spreading of the pathology. This stands in contrast to many previously studied brain networks where edges represent correlations, physical connections, or functional progressions. In addition, this is one of a few studies showing the value of using directed networks in the study of AD. This article focuses on the construction of DPNets for AD using longitudinal cortical thickness measurements from magnetic resonance imaging data. The network properties are then characterized, providing new insights into AD progression, as well as novel markers for differentiating normal cognition (NC) and AD at the group level. It also demonstrates the important role of nodal variations for network classification (i.e., the significance of standard deviations, not just mean values of nodal properties). Finally, the DPNets are utilized to classify subjects based on their global network measures using a variety of data-mining methodologies. In contrast to most brain networks, these DPNets do not show high clustering and small-world properties. PMID:24901258

  13. Cellular Transplantation Alters the Disease Progression in Becker's Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Alok; Sane, Hemangi; Bhagawanani, Khushboo; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Badhe, Prerna

    2013-01-01

    Becker's Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) is a dystrophinopathy manifested as progressive muscle degeneration. Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells (BMMNCs) have shown some myogenic potential. The paracrine effects of the BMMNCs reduce the inflammation and are thought to reduce muscle degeneration. We treated a 39 year old dental surgeon suffering from BMD. Muscle strength was reduced when measured using modified Medical Research Council's Manual Muscle Testing (mMRC-MMT). Static sitting balance was poor. He was wheelchair dependent for ambulation and moderately independent in Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score was 93. Musculoskeletal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI-MSK) showed moderate fatty infiltration in the muscles. Three cellular transplantations were carried out. Clinical assessment and the investigations were repeated. Progressive increase in the muscle strength was noted. Ambulation was independent using push-knee splints and minimal assistance when weary. Static and dynamic balance in sitting and standing improved. FIM score increased from 93 to 105. There was no increase in the degree of fatty infiltration, as seen on the MRI-MSK. The case study provides evidence for the putative benefits of cellular therapy in altering the disease progression in BMD. It also suggests augmented clinical benefits of combination of cellular therapy and rehabilitation. PMID:23841012

  14. Cellular Transplantation Alters the Disease Progression in Becker's Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Alok; Paranjape, Amruta; Sane, Hemangi; Bhagawanani, Khushboo; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Badhe, Prerna

    2013-01-01

    Becker's Muscular Dystrophy (BMD) is a dystrophinopathy manifested as progressive muscle degeneration. Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells (BMMNCs) have shown some myogenic potential. The paracrine effects of the BMMNCs reduce the inflammation and are thought to reduce muscle degeneration. We treated a 39 year old dental surgeon suffering from BMD. Muscle strength was reduced when measured using modified Medical Research Council's Manual Muscle Testing (mMRC-MMT). Static sitting balance was poor. He was wheelchair dependent for ambulation and moderately independent in Activities of Daily Living (ADL). Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score was 93. Musculoskeletal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI-MSK) showed moderate fatty infiltration in the muscles. Three cellular transplantations were carried out. Clinical assessment and the investigations were repeated. Progressive increase in the muscle strength was noted. Ambulation was independent using push-knee splints and minimal assistance when weary. Static and dynamic balance in sitting and standing improved. FIM score increased from 93 to 105. There was no increase in the degree of fatty infiltration, as seen on the MRI-MSK. The case study provides evidence for the putative benefits of cellular therapy in altering the disease progression in BMD. It also suggests augmented clinical benefits of combination of cellular therapy and rehabilitation. PMID:23841012

  15. Multifactorial assessment of predictors for prevention of periodontal disease progression.

    PubMed

    Ehmke, Benjamin; Beikler, Thomas; Haubitz, Imme; Karch, Helge; Flemmig, Thomas Frank

    2003-12-01

    Univariate approaches have identified single factors influencing periodontal disease progression. The aim of this explorative approach was to assess the influence of various predictive factors responsible for the prevention of periodontal disease progression in the same patient sample. Patients with untreated chronic periodontitis underwent subgingival debridement alone or in combination with adjunctive antimicrobial therapy (systemic amoxicillin and metronidazole/7 days plus supragingival CHX irrigation). Supportive periodontal therapy was performed over a 24-month period. As predictors, clinical, microbial, immunological, and genetic parameters were assessed. The primary outcome variable was the percentage of teeth without attachment loss >/=2 mm over the study period (stability of attachment). At 24 months, multiple regression analysis identified adjunctive antimicrobial therapy for teeth with initially at least one site showing a pocket probing depth of >/=7 mm and IgG(4) reactivity against a 110-kDa protein of A. actinomycetemcomitans at teeth with initial pocket probing depths

  16. Low-dose weekly methotrexate for progressive neuropsychiatric manifestations in Behcet's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shunsei Hirohata; Hiroko Suda; Takashi Hashimoto

    1998-01-01

    The most serious central nervous system (CNS) manifestation in Behcet's disease is a slowly progressive dementia (progressive NB), which may ultimately lead to the deterioration of the personality of patients. An open trial was designed to investigate the efficacy of low dose weekly methotrexate (MTX) therapy for progressive NB. Six patients with Behcet's disease, whose neuropsychiatric manifestations were judged to

  17. Abnormal Olfaction in Parkinson's Disease Is Related to Faster Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Cavaco, Sara; Gonçalves, Alexandra; Mendes, Alexandre; Vila-Chã, Nuno; Moreira, Inês; Fernandes, Joana; Damásio, Joana; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Bastos Lima, António

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. A possible association between olfactory dysfunction and Parkinson's disease (PD) severity has been a topic of contention for the past 40 years. Conflicting reports may be partially explained by procedural differences in olfactory assessment and motor symptom evaluation. Methods. One hundred and sixty-six nondemented PD patients performed the Brief-Smell Identification Test and test scores below the estimated 20th percentile as a function of sex, age, and education (i.e., 80% specificity) were considered demographically abnormal. Patients underwent motor examination after 12?h without antiparkinsonian medication. Results. Eighty-two percent of PD patients had abnormal olfaction. Abnormal performance on the Brief-Smell Identification Test was associated with higher disease severity (i.e., Hoehn and Yahr, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III, Freezing of Gait questionnaire, and levodopa equivalent dose), even when disease duration was taken into account. Conclusions. Abnormal olfaction in PD is associated with increased severity and faster disease progression. PMID:26136625

  18. IgA nephropathy factors that predict and accelerate progression to end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lan; Guo, Feng-Ling; Zhou, Jin; Zhao, Ya-Juan

    2014-04-01

    IgA nephropathy (IgAN) or Berger's disease is a slowly progressing disease that leads to end-stage renal disease in 50 % of the patients within 25 years of the disease. However, several factors are associated with the accelerated progression of this disease causing early development of end-stage disease. Persistent proteinuria or hematuria, poorly controlled hypertension, elevated serum creatinine and prevalent glomerulosclerosis are some of the risk factors that expedite the deteriorative effects of IgAN. Thus, the progression of the disease can be delayed if the associated risk factors are handled and addressed in the nick of time. PMID:24046272

  19. Biomarkers for disease progression and AAV therapeutic efficacy in feline Sandhoff disease.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Allison M; Gray-Edwards, Heather L; Shirley, Jamie L; McCurdy, Victoria J; Colaco, Alexandria N; Randle, Ashley N; Christopherson, Pete W; Bird, Allison C; Johnson, Aime K; Wilson, Diane U; Hudson, Judith A; De Pompa, Nicholas L; Sorjonen, Donald C; Brunson, Brandon L; Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Platt, Frances M; Baker, Henry J; Cox, Nancy R; Sena-Esteves, Miguel; Martin, Douglas R

    2015-01-01

    The GM2 gangliosidoses, Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) and Sandhoff disease (SD), are progressive neurodegenerative disorders that are caused by a mutation in the enzyme ?-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex). Due to the recent emergence of novel experimental treatments, biomarker development has become particularly relevant in GM2 gangliosidosis as an objective means to measure therapeutic efficacy. Here we describe blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and electrodiagnostic methods for evaluating disease progression in the feline SD model and application of these approaches to assess AAV-mediated gene therapy. SD cats were treated by intracranial injections of the thalami combined with either the deep cerebellar nuclei or a single lateral ventricle using AAVrh8 vectors encoding feline Hex. Significantly altered in untreated SD cats, blood and CSF based biomarkers were largely normalized after AAV gene therapy. Also reduced after treatment were expansion of the lysosomal compartment in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and elevated activity of secondary lysosomal enzymes. MRI changes characteristic of the gangliosidoses were documented in SD cats and normalized after AAV gene therapy. The minimally invasive biomarkers reported herein should be useful to assess disease progression of untreated SD patients and those in future clinical trials. PMID:25284324

  20. Identification of potential biomarkers of disease progression in bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Federico Carlos; Bigi, Fabiana; Soria, Marcelo Abel

    2014-08-15

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains an important animal and zoonotic disease in many countries. The diagnosis of bTB is based on tuberculin skin test and IFN-? release assays (IGRA). Positive animals are separated from the herd and sacrificed. The cost of this procedure is difficult to afford for developing countries with high prevalence of bTB; therefore, the improvement of diagnostic methods and the identification of animals in different stages of the disease will be helpful to control the infection. To identify biomarkers that can discriminate between tuberculin positive cattle with and without tuberculosis lesions (ML+ and ML-, respectively), we assessed a group of immunological parameters with three different classification methods: lineal discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) and K nearest neighbors (k-nn). For this purpose, we used data from 30 experimentally infected cattle. All the classifiers (LDA, QDA and k-nn) selected IL-2 and IL-17 as the most discriminatory variables. The best classification method was LDA using IL-17 and IL-2 as predictors. The addition of IL-10 to LDA improves the performance of the classifier to discriminate ML-individuals (93.3% vs. 86.7%). Thus, the expression of IL-17, IL-2 and, in some cases, IL-10 would serve as an additional tool to study disease progression in herds with a history of bTB. PMID:24856732

  1. [An autopsied case of progressive supranuclear palsy presenting with slow progression and unusually prolonged disease duration].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Yasushi; Mori, Keiko; Ito, Masumi; Mimuro, Maya; Yoshida, Mari

    2012-01-01

    A 55-year-old Japanese female with no family history of neurological disease showed gait disturbance with rigidity and resting tremor. She was initially diagnosed with Parkinson's disease, but neither laterality of symptoms nor levodopa benefit were observed. The parkinsonism and gait freezing progressed unusually slowly and she experienced frequent falls 17 years after the onset of symptoms. When neurologic examination revealed vertical gaze palsy, masked face, bradykinesia and dominant axial rigidity, the diagnosis was modified to progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Retrocollis, grasp reflex, and bilateral Babinski's sign developed, but resting tremor disappeared. Gastrostomy was performed 22 years after onset, after which she was still capable of walking with assistance. Tracheotomy was not performed. The patient died of an acute subarachnoid hemorrhage 24 years after onset at the age of 79. On autopsy, the brain weighed 1,050 g and showed frontal lobe atrophy. Coronal cerebral slices showed atrophy of the globus pallidus and subthalamic nucleus. Tegmental atrophy of the brainstem and depigmentation of the substantia nigra were observed. Neuropathologic examination showed severe neuron loss with gliosis in the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, and tegmentum of the brainstem. The Purkinje neuron layer and cerebellar dentate nucleus showed mild neuron loss. Globose-type neurofibrillary tangles were widespread, particularly in the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, nucleus of oculomotor nerve, locus ceruleus, and cerebellar dentate nucleus. Glial fibrillary tangles (coiled body and tuft-shaped astrocyte) and argyrophilic threads were also widespread, particularly in the frontal lobe and basal ganglia. Lewy bodies were not observed. Although, the pathologic findings were consistent with PSP, Gallyas-positive and tau-positive structures were generally small in number. According to the clinicopathological findings, we speculate that this case showed a distinct subtype of PSP with a slowly progressive clinical course and generally mild tau deposition. PMID:22453039

  2. Remnant nephron physiology and the progression of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Schnaper, H. William

    2013-01-01

    In chronic kidney disease, ongoing failure of individual nephrons leads to the progressive loss of renal function. This process results in part from a cellular and molecular response to injury that represents an attempt to maintain homeostasis but instead initiates a program that damages the nephron. As nephrons are lost, compensation by the remaining nephrons exacerbates glomerular pathophysiology. Delivery of excessive amounts of biologically active molecules to the distal nephron and tubulointerstitium generates inflammation and cellular dedifferentiation. Energy requirements of hyperfunctioning nephrons exceed the metabolic substrate available to the renal tubule, and inadequacy of the local vascular supply promotes hypoxia/ischemia and consequent acidosis and reactive oxygen species generation. In this way, mechanisms activated to maintain biological balance ultimately lead to demise of the nephron. PMID:23715783

  3. Disease progression continues in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and effective subthalamic nucleus stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Hilker, R; Portman, A; Voges, J; Staal, M; Burghaus, L; van Laar, T; Koulousakis, A; Maguire, R; Pruim, J; de Jong, B M; Herholz, K; Sturm, V; Heiss, W; Leenders, K

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Glutamate mediated excitotoxicity of the hyperactive subthalamic nucleus (STN) has been reported to contribute to nigral degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Deep brain stimulation of the STN (STN DBS), in its role as a highly effective treatment of severe PD motor complications, has been thought to inhibit STN hyperactivity and therefore decrease progression of PD. Methods: In a prospective two centre study, disease progression was determined by means of serial 18F-fluorodopa (F-dopa) positron emission tomography (PET) in 30 patients with successful STN DBS over the first 16 (SD 6) months after surgery. Results: Depending on the method of PET data analysis used in the two centres, annual progression rates relative to baseline were 9.5–12.4% in the caudate and 10.7–12.9% in the putamen. Conclusions: This functional imaging study is the first to demonstrate a continuous decline of dopaminergic function in patients with advanced PD under clinically effective bilateral STN stimulation. The rates of progression in patients with STN DBS were within the range of previously reported data from longitudinal imaging studies in PD. Therefore this study could not confirm the neuroprotective properties of DBS in the STN target. PMID:16107354

  4. Epigenetic changes in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Bradley-Whitman, M. A.; Lovell, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a key intermediate of DNA demethylation, is driven by the ten eleven translocation (TET) family of proteins that oxidize 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5hmC. To determine whether methylation/demethylation status is altered during the progression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), levels of TET1, 5mC and subsequent intermediates, including 5hmC, 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) were quantified in nuclear DNA from the hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus (HPG) and the cerebellum of 5 age-matched normal controls, 5 subjects with preclinical AD (PCAD) and 7 late-stage AD (LAD) subjects by immunochemistry. The results showed significantly (p < 0.05) increased levels of TET1, 5mC, and 5hmC in the HPG of PCAD and LAD subjects. In contrast, levels of 5fC and 5caC were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased in the HPG of PCAD and LAD subjects. Overall, the data suggest altered methylation/demethylation patterns in vulnerable brain regions prior to the onset of clinical symptoms in AD suggesting a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:24012631

  5. Role of inflammation in HIV-1 disease progression and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Ipp, Hayley; Zemlin, Annalise E; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Glashoff, Richard H

    2014-04-01

    Inflammation and immune activation have been thrust to center stage in the understanding of HIV-1 disease pathogenesis and progression. Early work demonstrated that heightened levels of immune activation correlated with the extent of CD4?+?T cell death in lymphoid tissue; however, this concept was not incorporated into the general view of disease pathogenesis. Since these early studies, the extension of life for patients on combination antiretroviral therapies (cART) has heralded a new era of non-AIDS-related diseases and incomplete restoration of immune function. The common link appears to be ongoing inflammation and immune activation. Thus, despite good control of viral loads, persons living with HIV (PLWH) remain at increased risk of inflammatory-associated complications such as cardiovascular disease and certain cancers. HIV-specific mechanisms as well as non-specific generalized responses to infection contribute to ongoing activation of the immune system. An early loss of gastrointestinal (GI) tract mucosal integrity, the pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu, co-infections and marked destruction of lymph node architecture are all factors contributing to the ongoing activation of the immune system as well as impaired immune recovery. It is becoming increasingly evident that the CD4 count and viral load do not provide a complete picture of the underlying state of the immune system. Heightened levels of inflammatory markers have been shown to predict increased mortality and other adverse events. Therefore, it will be important to incorporate these markers into management algorithms as soon as possible. This is particularly relevant in resource-poor countries where difficulties in cART roll-out and access are still encountered and, therefore, a mechanism for prioritizing individuals for therapy would be of value. This review will focus on the closely inter-related concepts of immune activation and inflammation. Both are broad concepts involving the interaction of various key players in the immune system. Importantly, immune activation promotes inflammation and thrombosis and similarly, inflammation and thrombosis induce immune activation. These concepts are thus intricately linked. Studies highlighting the potentially harmful effects of ongoing inflammation/immune activation are reviewed and the contributions of the GI tract "damage" and other co-infections such as CMV are explored. The complications resulting from persistent immune activation include enhanced CD4?+?T cell death, lymphoid tissue destruction, and various pathologies related to chronic inflammation. Ultimately, we envision that the long-term management of the disease will incorporate both the identification and the amelioration of the potentially harmful effects of ongoing immune activation and inflammation. PMID:24479745

  6. Predicting progression from cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease with the Disease State Index.

    PubMed

    Hall, Anette; Mattila, Jussi; Koikkalainen, Juha; Lötjonen, Jyrki; Wolz, Robin; Scheltens, Philip; Frisoni, Giovanni; Tsolaki, Magdalini; Nobili, Flavio; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Minthon, Lennart; Frölich, Lutz; Hampel, Harald; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Soininen, Hilkka

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Disease State Index (DSI) method when predicting progression to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), amnestic or non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, naMCI). The DSI model measures patients' similarity to diagnosed cases based on available data, such as cognitive tests, the APOE genotype, CSF biomarkers and MRI. We applied the DSI model to data from the DESCRIPA cohort, where non-demented patients (N=775) with different subtypes of cognitive impairment were followed for 1 to 5 years. Classification accuracies for the subgroups were calculated with the DSI using leave-one-out crossvalidation. The DSI's classification accuracy in predicting progression to AD was 0.75 (AUC=0.83) in the total population, 0.70 (AUC=0.77) for aMCI and 0.71 (AUC=0.76) for naMCI. For a subset of approximately half of the patients with high or low DSI values, accuracy reached 0.86 (all), 0.78 (aMCI), and 0.85 (naMCI). For patients with MRI or CSF biomarker data available, theywere 0.78 (all), 0.76 (aMCI) and 0.76 (naMCI), while for clear cases the accuracies rose to 0.90 (all), 0.83 (aMCI) and 0.91 (naMCI). The results show that the DSI model can distinguish between clear and ambiguous cases, assess the severity of the disease and also provide information on the effectiveness of different biomarkers. While a specific test or biomarker may confound analysis for an individual patient, combining several different types of tests and biomarkers could be able to reveal the trajectory of the disease and improve the prediction of AD progression. PMID:25523428

  7. Late-onset frontotemporal dementia associated with progressive supranuclear palsy\\/argyrophilic grain disease\\/Alzheimer’s disease pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Rippon; B. F. Boeve; J. E. Parisi; D. W. Dickson; R. I. Ivnik; C. R. Jack; M. Hutton; M. Baker; K. A. Josephs; D. S. Knopman; R. C. Petersen

    2005-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is typically manifested by vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, frequent falls early in the disease course, axial rigidity and poor response to levodopa. Prominent anterograde memory dysfunction with subsequent impairment in other cognitive domains is characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). No clear clinical syndrome has been identified in argyrophilic grain disease (AGD). Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is characterized

  8. Treatment Discontinuation and Disease Progression with Injectable Disease-Modifying Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Salter, Amber R.; Tyry, Tuula; Sun, Jennifer; You, Xiaojun; Laforet, Genevieve; Campagnolo, Denise

    2013-01-01

    Injectable first-line disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis (MS) are generally prescribed for continuous use. Accordingly, the various factors that influence patient persistence with treatment and that can lead some patients to switch medications or discontinue treatment may affect clinical outcomes. Using data from the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) database, this study evaluated participants' reasons for discontinuation of injectable DMTs as well as the relationship between staying on therapy and sustained patient-reported disease progression and annualized relapse rates. Participants selected their reason(s) for discontinuation from among 16 possible options covering the categories of efficacy, safety, tolerability, and burden, with multiple responses permitted. Both unadjusted data and data adjusted for baseline age, disease duration, disability, and sex were evaluated. Discontinuation profiles varied among DMTs. Participants on intramuscular interferon beta-1a (IM IFN?-1a) and glatiramer acetate (GA) reported the fewest discontinuations based on safety concerns, although GA was associated with reports of higher burden and lower efficacy than other therapies. Difficulties with tolerability were more often reported as a reason for discontinuing subcutaneous (SC) IFN?-1a than as a reason for discontinuing IM IFN?-1a, GA, or SC IFN?-1b. In the persistent therapy cohort, less patient-reported disability progression was reported with IM IFN?-1a treatment than with SC IFN?-1a, IFN?-1b, or GA. These findings have relevance to clinical decision making and medication compliance in MS patient care. PMID:24453783

  9. Disease Progression Among Untreated HIV-Infected Patients in South Ethiopia: Implications for Patient Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Degu Jerene; Bernt Lindtjørn

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: The natural course of HIV disease progression among resource-poor patient populations has not been clearly defined. OBJECTIVE: To describe predictors of HIV disease progression as seen at an outpatient clinic in a resource-limited setting in rural Ethiopia. DESIGN: This prospective cohort study included all adult HIV patients who visited an outpatient clinic at Arba Minch hospital in South Ethiopia

  10. Progressive neuronal degeneration of childhood with liver disease (Alpers' disease) presenting in young adults.

    PubMed Central

    Harding, B N; Alsanjari, N; Smith, S J; Wiles, C M; Thrush, D; Miller, D H; Scaravilli, F; Harding, A E

    1995-01-01

    Two unrelated and previously healthy girls, aged 17 and 18, presented with a subacute encephalopathy, visual and sensory symptoms and signs, and prominent seizures that were difficult to control. Brain MRI showed lesions (high signal on T2 weighted images) in the occipital lobes and thalamus; EEG showed slow wave activity with superimposed polyspikes. Inexorable downhill progression led to death in hepatic failure within eight months of onset. Histopathological findings in both patients ((a) chronic hepatitis with prominent bile duct proliferation, fatty change, and fibrosis; (b) in the brain a patchy destruction of the cerebral cortex, predominantly involving striate cortex) were characteristic of progressive neuronal degeneration of childhood with liver disease--Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome--a rare autosomal recessive disorder usually seen in infants and young children. Images PMID:7897414

  11. Saliva/Pathogen Biomarker Signatures and Periodontal Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, J.S.; Morelli, T.; Braun, T.; Ramseier, C.A.; Herr, A.E.; Sugai, J.V.; Shelburne, C.E.; Rayburn, L.A.; Singh, A.K.; Giannobile, W.V.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the role of saliva-derived biomarkers and periodontal pathogens during periodontal disease progression (PDP). One hundred human participants were recruited into a 12-month investigation. They were seen bi-monthly for saliva and clinical measures and bi-annually for subtraction radiography, serum and plaque biofilm assessments. Saliva and serum were analyzed with protein arrays for 14 pro-inflammatory and bone turnover markers, while qPCR was used for detection of biofilm. A hierarchical clustering algorithm was used to group study participants based on clinical, microbiological, salivary/serum biomarkers, and PDP. Eighty-three individuals completed the six-month monitoring phase, with 44 exhibiting PDP, while 39 demonstrated stability. Participants assembled into three clusters based on periodontal pathogens, serum and salivary biomarkers. Cluster 1 members displayed high salivary biomarkers and biofilm; 82% of these individuals were undergoing PDP. Cluster 2 members displayed low biofilm and biomarker levels; 78% of these individuals were stable. Cluster 3 members were not discriminated by PDP status; however, cluster stratification followed groups 1 and 2 based on thresholds of salivary biomarkers and biofilm pathogens. The association of cluster membership to PDP was highly significant (p < 0.0002). The use of salivary and biofilm biomarkers offers potential for the identification of PDP or stability (ClinicalTrials.gov number, CT00277745). PMID:21406610

  12. [Progress in the basic and clinical aspects of Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yoshikuni

    2004-11-01

    We report a review on progress in the etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). We also report the long-term prognosis of PD patients seen in our clinic. Modern research on the pathogenesis started after the discovery of MPTP. We found inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by MPTP and MPP+. Mitochondrial respiratory failure induces oxidative damage to high molecular weight substances. Both mitochondrial failure and oxidative stress are important triggers of apoptosis. We found TUNEL positive nigral neurons in PD patients suggesting involvement of apoptosis in the pathogenesis. Interaction of genetic risk factors and environmental neurotoxins has been implicated in the etiology of PD. While we were investigating MnSOD gene polymorphism in PD patients, we found a young onset autosomal recessive PD family that was linked to the MnSOD locus. Subsequent linkage analysis on 13 families of young onset autosomal recessive families disclosed the linkage of this disease to the telomeric region of the long arm of chromosome 6 (6q25.2-27). Then we were lucky enough to find a patient who had a deletion of one of the microsatellite markers (D6S305) that we were using in the linkage analysis. We thought this marker might be located within the disease gene and this was the case. We screened the Keio BAC library with this marker, and eventually we cloned a novel gene encompassing 1.4 Mb; we named it parkin. The coding region consisted of 1,395 base pairs. The parkin protein had an unique sequence in that there was a 30% homology in the amino terminal region and two RING-finger motives on the carboxy terminal side. This unique structure suggested that the parkin protein was related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Parkin protein turned out to be an ubiquitin-protein ligase. Numbers of parkin-interacting proteins were reported in the literature and accumulation of parkin-substrates is likely to be the cause for the nigral neuronal death in this familial PD. Regarding the prognosis of PD, we analyzed the patients who visited our clinic from January 1, 1989 to December 31, 2002. The total of patients recruited was 1,772. The average age of onset was 57.2 years. Mean levodopa dose at the final examination was 479 mg/day. The most common initial symptom was tremor which was seen in 51% of the patients. Total percentage of patients who had tremor during the course of the disease was 75%. Long-term prognosis was evaluated on a subgroup of the patients who visited our clinic within 5 years from the onset and Hoehn and Yahr stage III or less when first seen. Analysis was done by the Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Percentages of patients who reached Hoehn and Yahr III 5, 10, and 15 years after the onset were 24%, 46%, and 65%, respectively. Percentages of patients who developed wearing off fluctuations were 5, 10, and 15 years after the start of levodopa were 18%, 46%, and 55%, respectively. Overall mortality on the total investigated patients was 7.9%. When compared to the age at death of Japanese population, mortality of men PD patients became very close to that of the general population in the year 2003. However, that in women PD patients showed significantly shorter survival compared to Japanese female population. Average ages of onset and the death were essentially similar between men and women PD patients. Survival curves to reach stage III and wearing off showed slightly but significantly faster time courses for women compared to those of men. This was an unexpected observation and its mechanism was discussed. It is our conclusion that overall prognosis of PD patients is improving and both patients and treating physicians should take an optimistic attitude to the disease. PMID:15651281

  13. Evidence for Angiogenesis in Parkinson’s disease, Incidental Lewy Body disease, and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Bradaric, Brinda Desai; Patel, Aditiben; Schneider, Julie A.; Carvey, Paul M.; Hendey, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis has not been extensively studied in Parkinson’s disease (PD) despite being associated with other neurodegenerative disorders. Post-mortem human brain tissues were obtained from subjects with pathologically confirmed Parkinson’s disease (PD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), a rapidly progressing Parkinsonian-like disorder. Tissues were also obtained from subjects with incidental Lewy body disease (iLBD) who had Lewy bodies in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) but had not been diagnosed with PD and age-matched controls without Lewy body pathology. The SNpc, putamen, locus ceruleus (LC) and midfrontal cortex were examined for integrin ?v?3, a marker for angiogenesis, along with vessel number and activated microglia. All parkinsonian syndromes had greater ?v?3 in the LC and the SNpc, while only PD and PSP subjects had elevated ?v?3 in the putamen compared to controls. PD and PSP subjects also had increases in microglia number and activation in the SNpc suggesting a link between inflammation and clinical disease. Microglia activation in iLBD subjects was limited to the LC, an area involved at an early stage of PD. Likewise, iLBD subjects did not differ from controls in ?v?3 staining in the putamen, a late area of involvement in PD. The presence of ?v?3 reactive vessels in PD and its syndromes is indicative of newly created vessels that have not likely developed the restrictive properties of the blood brain barrier. Such angiogenic vessels could contribute to neuroinflammation by failing to protect the parenchyma from peripheral immune cells and inflammatory or toxic factors in the peripheral circulation. PMID:21748523

  14. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and neurological disease modeling: progress and promises

    PubMed Central

    Marchetto, Maria C.; Brennand, Kristen J.; Boyer, Leah F.; Gage, Fred H.

    2011-01-01

    The systematic generation of neurons from patients with neurological disorders can provide important insights into disease pathology, progression and mechanism. This review will discuss recent progress in modeling neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and highlight some of the current challenges in the field. Combined with other technologies previously used to study brain disease, iPSC modeling has the promise to influence modern medicine on several fronts: early diagnosis, drug development and effective treatment. PMID:21828073

  15. Markers of Arterial Stiffness Are Risk Factors for Progression to End-Stage Renal Disease among Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Stages 4 and 5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten W. Taal; Mhairi K. Sigrist; Apostolos Fakis; Richard J. Fluck; Christopher W. McIntyre

    2007-01-01

    Background: Factors associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. The impact of vascular disease on CKD progression is, however, less well studied. Methods: We examined the effect of markers of vascular disease on the risk of progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in 35 patients with CKD stages 4–5. Superficial femoral

  16. Urine Podocyte mRNAs, Proteinuria, and Progression in Human Glomerular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wickman, Larysa; Afshinnia, Farsad; Wang, Su Q.; Yang, Yan; Wang, Fei; Chowdhury, Mahboob; Graham, Delia; Hawkins, Jennifer; Nishizono, Ryuzoh; Tanzer, Marie; Wiggins, Jocelyn; Escobar, Guillermo A.; Rovin, Bradley; Song, Peter; Gipson, Debbie; Kershaw, David

    2013-01-01

    Model systems demonstrate that progression to ESRD is driven by progressive podocyte depletion (the podocyte depletion hypothesis) and can be noninvasively monitored through measurement of urine pellet podocyte mRNAs. To test these concepts in humans, we analyzed urine pellet mRNAs from 358 adult and pediatric kidney clinic patients and 291 controls (n=1143 samples). Compared with controls, urine podocyte mRNAs increased 79-fold (P<0.001) in patients with biopsy-proven glomerular disease and a 50% decrease in kidney function or progression to ESRD. An independent cohort of patients with Alport syndrome had a 23-fold increase in urinary podocyte mRNAs (P<0.001 compared with controls). Urinary podocyte mRNAs increased during active disease but returned to baseline on disease remission. Furthermore, urine podocyte mRNAs increased in all categories of glomerular disease evaluated, but levels ranged from high to normal, consistent with individual patient variability in the risk for progression. In contrast, urine podocyte mRNAs did not increase in polycystic kidney disease. The association between proteinuria and podocyturia varied markedly by glomerular disease type: a high correlation in minimal-change disease and a low correlation in membranous nephropathy. These data support the podocyte depletion hypothesis as the mechanism driving progression in all human glomerular diseases, suggest that urine pellet podocyte mRNAs could be useful for monitoring risk for progression and response to treatment, and provide novel insights into glomerular disease pathophysiology. PMID:24052633

  17. Haematuria Increases Progression of Advanced Proteinuric Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yuste, Claudia; Rubio-Navarro, Alfonso; Barraca, Daniel; Aragoncillo, Inés; Vega, Almudena; Abad, Soraya; Santos, Alba; Macias, Nicolás; Mahillo, Ignacio; Gutiérrez, Eduardo; Praga, Manuel; Egido, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Background Haematuria has been traditionally considered as a benign hallmark of some glomerular diseases; however new studies show that haematuria may decrease renal function. Objective To determine the influence of haematuria on the rate of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in 71 proteinuric patients with advanced CKD (baseline eGFR <30 mL/min) during 12 months of follow-up. Results The mean rate of decline in eGFR was higher in patients with both haematuria and proteinuria (haemoproteinuria, HP, n=31) than in patients with proteinuria alone (P patients, n=40) (-3.8±8.9 vs 0.9±9.5 mL/min/1.73m2/year, p<0.05, respectively). The deleterious effect of haematuria on rate of decline in eGFR was observed in patients <65 years (-6.8±9.9 (HP) vs. 0.1±11.7 (P) mL/min/1.73m2/year, p<0.05), but not in patients >65 years (-1.2±6.8 (HP) vs. 1.5±7.7 (P) mL/min/1.73m2/year). Furthermore, the harmful effect of haematuria on eGFR slope was found patients with proteinuria >0.5 g/24 h (-5.8±6.4 (HP) vs. -1.37± 7.9 (P) mL/min/1.73m2/year, p<0.05), whereas no significant differences were found in patients with proteinuria < 0.5 g/24 h (-0.62±7.4 (HP) vs. 3.4±11.1 (P) mL/min/1.73m2/year). Multivariate analysis reported that presence of haematuria was significantly and independently associated with eGFR deterioration after adjusting for traditional risk factors, including age, serum phosphate, mean proteinuria and mean serum PTH (?=-4.316, p=0.025). Conclusions The presence of haematuria is closely associated with a faster decrease in renal function in advanced proteinuric CKD patients, especially in younger CKD patients with high proteinuria levels; therefore this high risk subgroup of patients would benefit of intensive medical surveillance and treatment. PMID:26016848

  18. Evaluating the Predictive Power of Multivariate Tensor-based Morphometry in Alzheimers Disease Progression via Convex

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yalin

    Evaluating the Predictive Power of Multivariate Tensor-based Morphometry in Alzheimers Disease ABSTRACT Prediction of Alzheimers disease (AD) progression based on baseline measures allows us. They showed that this can be used in predicting cognitive outcomes of Alzheimers Disease Neuroimaging

  19. Exploration of Anaemia as a Progression Factor in African Americans with Cardiovascular Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the higher incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) among African Americans, whites in the United States population have a higher prevalence of chronic kidney disease. This may be due, in part, to a faster rate of progression to ESRD among African Americans with kidney disease. Anemia i...

  20. Disentangling the Normal Aging from the Pathological Alzheimer's Disease Progression on

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Disentangling the Normal Aging from the Pathological Alzheimer's Disease Progression on Cross for the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 1 Project Team Asclepios, INRIA Sophia Antipolis, France 2 of patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the contribution of different biological processes

  1. Medicare Patients with Cardiovascular Disease Have a High Prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease and a High Rate of Progression to End-Stage Renal Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM M. MCCLELLAN; ROBERT D. LANGSTON; RODNEY PRESLEY

    2004-01-01

    The risk of progression to ESRD among individuals with cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well defined. The purpose of this study was to describe the risk of ESRD among patients with cardiovascular disease. Charts were abstracted for randomly selected hospitalized Medicare beneficiaries with a diagnosis of either congestive heart failure (CHF) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI).

  2. Does increased water intake prevent disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease?

    PubMed Central

    Higashihara, Eiji; Nutahara, Kikuo; Tanbo, Mitsuhiro; Hara, Hidehiko; Miyazaki, Isao; Kobayashi, Kuninori; Nitatori, Toshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Background The clinical effects of increased water intake on autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) progression are unknown. Methods ADPKD patients with creatinine clearance ?50 mL/min/1.73 m2 were divided into high (H-, n = 18) and free (F-, n = 16) water-intake groups, mainly according to their preference. Prior to the study, 30 patients underwent annual evaluation of total kidney volume (TKV) and 24-h urine for an average of 33 months. During the 1-year study period, TKV and 24-h urine were analyzed at the beginning and end of the study and every 4 months, respectively. Results During the pre-study period, urine volume (UV) in the H-group was higher (P = 0.034), but TKV and kidney function and their slopes were not significantly different between the two groups. After the study commenced, UV further increased (P < 0.001) in the H-group but not in the F-group. During the study period, TKV and kidney function slopes were not significantly different between the two groups (primary endpoint). Plasma copeptin was lower (P = 0.024) in the H-group than in the F-group. TKV and kidney function slopes became worse (P = 0.047 and 0.011, respectively) after high water intake (H-group) but not in the F-group. High UV was associated with increased urine sodium, and urine sodium positively correlated with the % TKV slope (P = 0.014). Conclusions Although the main endpoint was not significant, high water intake enhanced disease progression in the H-group when compared with the pre-study period. These findings necessitate a long-term randomized study before drawing a final conclusion. PMID:24739484

  3. Association of foot and ankle characteristics with progression of venous disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tanner I; Forbang, Nketi I; Criqui, Michael H; Allison, Matthew A

    2015-04-01

    Although risk factors have been identified for the cross-sectional prevalence of venous disease, few studies have investigated risk factors for venous disease progression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between foot and ankle characteristics and the progression of venous disease. A total of 1025 participants from the San Diego Population Study were assessed at baseline and at follow-up 11 years later. Risk factors were assessed by questionnaire and physical measurements, while venous disease was determined by physical examination and Duplex ultrasound. Change in venous disease from baseline to 11-year follow-up was characterized as stable or progression. Those with venous disease progression were less likely to spend increased time lying per day, more likely to have a history of hypertension, lie supine for a surgical procedure greater than an hour, and report an occupation that was professional, technical, administrative, or management. Those with a normal arch reported the greatest degree of plantar flexion. In multivariable logistic regression, including adjustment for weight-bearing arch characteristics, greater dorsiflexion (per 5 degrees) was significantly associated with progression of venous disease (OR = 1.11, p = 0.01). A weight-bearing flat arch compared to a weight-bearing normal arch was of borderline significance as a protective factor against progression of venous disease with adjustment for dorsiflexion (OR = 0.56, p = 0.07). Our results indicate that the ability to have higher levels of dorsiflexion is a risk factor for the progression of venous disease, and suggest a role for connective tissue laxity in the pathogenesis of venous disease. PMID:25832598

  4. Ploidy status rarely changes in myeloma patients at disease progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Chng; J. M. Winkler; P. R. Greipp; S. M. Jalal; P. L. Bergsagel; M. Chesi; M. C. Trendle; G. J. Ahmann; K. Henderson; E. Blood; M. M. Oken; A. Hulbert; S. A. Van Wier; R. Santana-Dávila; R. A. Kyle; M. A. Gertz; M. Q. Lacy; A. Dispenzieri; R. Fonseca

    2006-01-01

    Hyperdiploid and non-hyperdiploid multiple myeloma represents distinct biological entities characterized by different patterns of genetic changes. We sought to determine whether ploidy category (non-hyperdiploid versus hyperdiploid) remains stable over time from diagnosis to progression. Of the 43 patients studied (39 by flow cytometry DNA index and 4 by a FISH-based index), only five (12%) altered their ploidy status at progression.

  5. Association of survival and disease progression with chromosomal instability: A genomic exploration of colorectal cancer

    E-print Network

    Sheffer, Michal

    During disease progression the cells that comprise solid malignancies undergo significant changes in gene copy number and chromosome structure. Colorectal cancer provides an excellent model to study this process. To indentify ...

  6. Weight preserving image registration for monitoring disease progression in lung CT.

    PubMed

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lol, Pechin; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger; Nielsen, Mads; de Bruijne, Marleen

    2008-01-01

    We present a new image registration based method for monitoring regional disease progression in longitudinal image studies of lung disease. A free-form image registration technique is used to match a baseline 3D CT lung scan onto a following scan. Areas with lower intensity in the following scan compared with intensities in the deformed baseline image indicate local loss of lung tissue that is associated with progression of emphysema. To account for differences in lung intensity owing to differences in the inspiration level in the two scans rather than disease progression, we propose to adjust the density of lung tissue with respect to local expansion or compression such that the total weight of the lungs is preserved during deformation. Our method provides a good estimation of regional destruction of lung tissue for subjects with a significant difference in inspiration level between CT scans and may result in a more sensitive measure of disease progression than standard quantitative CT measures. PMID:18982686

  7. Association between IgG4-related disease and progressively transformed germinal centers of lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuharu; Inoue, Dai; Asano, Naoko; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Asaoku, Hideki; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Morito, Toshiaki; Okumura, Hirokazu; Ishizawa, Shin; Matsui, Shoko; Miyazono, Takayoshi; Takeuchi, Tamotsu; Kuroda, Naoto; Orita, Yorihisa; Takagawa, Kiyoshi; Kojima, Masaru; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2012-07-01

    Progressively transformed germinal centers is a benign condition of unknown pathogenesis characterized by a distinctive variant form of reactive follicular hyperplasia in lymph nodes. We recently reported Ig G4-related disease in progressively transformed germinal centers. However, no large case series has been reported and clinicopathologic findings remain unclear. Here, we report 40 Japanese patients (28 men, 12 women; median age, 56 years) with progressively transformed germinal centers of the lymph nodes who fulfilled the histological diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease (IgG4(+) progressively transformed germinal centers), with asymptomatic localized lymphadenopathy involving the submandibular nodes in 24, submandibular and cervical nodes in 14, cervical nodes only in 1, and cervical and supraclavicular nodes in 1. In all, 16 (52%) of 31 examined patients had allergic disease. Histologically, the lymph nodes demonstrated uniform histological findings, namely marked follicular hyperplasia with progressively transformed germinal centers, and localization of the majority of IgG4(+) plasma cells in the germinal centers. Serum IgG4, serum IgE and peripheral blood eosinophils were elevated in 87%, 92% and 53% of examined patients, respectively. Eighteen patients subsequently developed extranodal lesions (including five who developed systemic disease), which on histological examination were consistent with IgG4-related disease. IgG4(+) progressively transformed germinal centers presents with uniform clinicopathological features of asymptomatic localized submandibular lymphadenopathy, which persists and/or relapses, and sometimes progresses to extranodal lesions or systemic disease. Nine patients were administered steroid therapy when the lesions progressed, to which all responded well. We suggest that IgG4(+) progressively transformed germinal centers should be included in the IgG4-related disease spectrum. PMID:22481280

  8. Helping, AdvAncing, MAking progress in pHysicAl THerApy into the Future

    E-print Network

    Weber, David J.

    Helping, AdvAncing, MAking progress in pHysicAl THerApy FAll 2010 PROFICIO Stepping into the Future Researchof #12;Helping, AdvAncing, MAking progress in pHysicAl THerApy FALL 2010 | issUe 19 PROFICIO Proficio is a publication of the University of Maryland School of Medicine's Department of Physical Therapy

  9. Blood pressure and progression of chronic kidney disease: Importance of systolic, diastolic, or diurnal variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evelyn Mentari; Mahboob Rahman

    2004-01-01

    Several studies show that systolic blood pressure is an important predictor of renal disease progression, just as it is linked\\u000a with cardiovascular consequences in hypertension. In contrast, particularly in older patients, diastolic blood pressure was\\u000a not independently associated with risk of kidney disease progression in the same studies. Pulse pressure has been shown to\\u000a be equivalent in predicting renal outcomes,

  10. Chemokines and chemokine receptors are involved in the resolution or progression of renal disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Joachim Anders; Volker Vielhauer; Detlef Schlöndorff

    2003-01-01

    Chemokines and chemokine receptors are involved in the resolution or progression of renal disease. Locally secreted chemokines mediate leukocyte recruitment during the initiation and amplification phase of renal inflammation. In turn, the infiltrating leukocytes contribute to renal damage by releasing inflammatory and profibrotic factors. Rapid down modulation of the chemokine signal will support resolution of acute inflammation, whereas progression occurs

  11. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms Are Associated with Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edmond Teng; Po H. Lu; Jeffrey L. Cummings

    2007-01-01

    Background: Neuropsychiatric disturbances are common in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Depression and apathy may identify a subset of MCI subjects at higher risk of progression to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, it remains uncertain whether a broader spectrum of psychopathology is associated with progression to AD. Methods: Fifty-one MCI subjects were assessed for neuropsychiatric symptoms using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Subjects were

  12. Genetic Biomarkers for ALS Disease in Transgenic SOD1G93A Mice

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Ana C.; Manzano, Raquel; Atencia-Cibreiro, Gabriela; Oliván, Sara; Muñoz, María J.; Zaragoza, Pilar; Cordero-Vázquez, Pilar; Esteban-Pérez, Jesús; García-Redondo, Alberto; Osta, Rosario

    2012-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms of both familial and sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are unknown, although growing evidence suggests that skeletal muscle tissue is a primary target of ALS toxicity. Skeletal muscle biopsies were performed on transgenic SOD1G93A mice, a mouse model of ALS, to determine genetic biomarkers of disease longevity. Mice were anesthetized with isoflurane, and three biopsy samples were obtained per animal at the three main stages of the disease. Transcriptional expression levels of seventeen genes, Ankrd1, Calm1, Col19a1, Fbxo32, Gsr, Impa1, Mef2c, Mt2, Myf5, Myod1, Myog, Nnt, Nogo A, Pax7, Rrad, Sln and Snx10, were tested in each muscle biopsy sample. Total RNA was extracted using TRIzol Reagent according to the manufacturer's protocol, and variations in gene expression were assayed by real-time PCR for all of the samples. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the linear correlation between transcriptional expression levels throughout disease progression and longevity. Consistent with the results obtained from total skeletal muscle of transgenic SOD1G93A mice and 74-day-old denervated mice, five genes (Mef2c, Gsr, Col19a1, Calm1 and Snx10) could be considered potential genetic biomarkers of longevity in transgenic SOD1G93A mice. These results are important because they may lead to the exploration of previously unexamined tissues in the search for new disease biomarkers and even to the application of these findings in human studies. PMID:22412900

  13. miR-181b is a biomarker of disease progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Visone, Rosa; Veronese, Angelo; Rassenti, Laura Z; Balatti, Veronica; Pearl, Dennis K; Acunzo, Mario; Volinia, Stefano; Taccioli, Cristian; Kipps, Thomas J; Croce, Carlo M

    2011-09-15

    MicroRNAs play a crucial role in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We investigated whether microRNAs can discriminate patients with a progressive disease from patients with a stable disease. We analyzed microRNA expression on leukemic cells isolated from 358 sequential samples of 114 patients with either stable or progressive disease. We found that during the course of the disease the expression values of miR-181b, the most dysregulated microRNA, decreased in samples of patients with a progressive (P < .001, training and validation sets) but not in samples of patients with a stable disease (P = .3, training set; P = .2, validation set) over time. A drop of ? 50% between sequential samples and/or a miR-181b value ? 0.005 at the starting time point were significant to differentiate progressive from stable disease (P = .004, training set; P < .001, validation set). These parameters were associated with high risk of requiring treatment (risk ratio, 5.8; 95% confidence interval, 2.5-14.9). We also observed that miR-181b targets Mcl-1 protein and that the decrease of its expression inversely correlated with increased protein levels of MCL1 and BCL2 target genes. We conclude that parameters defined on the basis of the miR-181b expression values specify disease progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and are associated with clinical outcome. PMID:21636858

  14. Association of survival and disease progression with chromosomal instability: A genomic exploration of colorectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michal Sheffer; Manny D. Bacolod; Or Zuk; Sarah F. Giardina; Hanna Pincas; Francis Barany; Philip B. Paty; William L. Gerald; Daniel A. Notterman; Eytan Domany

    2009-01-01

    During disease progression the cells that comprise solid malignancies undergo significant changes in gene copy number and chromosome structure. Colorectal cancer provides an excellent model to study this process. To indentify and characterize chromosomal abnormalities in colorectal cancer, we performed a statistical analysis of 299 expression and 130 SNP arrays profiled at different stages of the disease, including normal tissue,

  15. From secondary to primary prevention of progressive renal disease: The case for screening for albuminuria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul E. de Jong; Barry M. Brenner

    2004-01-01

    From secondary to primary prevention of progressive renal disease: The case for screening for albuminuria. Many subjects nowadays present with end-stage renal failure and its attendant cardiovascular complications without known prior renal damage. In this report we review the evidence available to strongly suggest that the present practice of secondary prevention in those with known prior renal disease should be

  16. Expression of MAGE genes in ocular melanoma during progression from primary to metastatic disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter W. Chen; Timothy G. Murray; Toshihiko Uno; Michael L. Salgaller; Rajender Reddy; Bruce R. Ksander

    1997-01-01

    Primary melanomas that form within the eye have a unique pattern of disease progression as compared with melanomas that form within the skin. A high percentage of patients (approximately 50%) develop metastatic tumors that occur predominately in the liver. An unusual characteristic of ocular melanomas is the prolonged disease-free interval that extends for many years between the development of primary

  17. Disease progression in patients with single, large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletions

    PubMed Central

    Grady, John P.; Campbell, Georgia; Ratnaike, Thiloka; Blakely, Emma L.; Falkous, Gavin; Nesbitt, Victoria; Schaefer, Andrew M.; McNally, Richard J.; Gorman, Grainne S.; Taylor, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Single, large-scale deletions of mitochondrial DNA are a common cause of mitochondrial disease and cause a broad phenotypic spectrum ranging from mild myopathy to devastating multi-system syndromes such as Kearns-Sayre syndrome. Studies to date have been inconsistent on the value of putative predictors of clinical phenotype and disease progression such as mutation load and the size or location of the deletion. Using a cohort of 87 patients with single, large-scale mitochondrial DNA deletions we demonstrate that a variety of outcome measures such as COX-deficient fibre density, age-at-onset of symptoms and progression of disease burden, as measured by the Newcastle Mitochondrial Disease Adult Scale, are significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the size of the deletion, the deletion heteroplasmy level in skeletal muscle, and the location of the deletion within the genome. We validate these findings with re-analysis of 256 cases from published data and clarify the previously conflicting information of the value of these predictors, identifying that multiple regression analysis is necessary to understand the effect of these interrelated predictors. Furthermore, we have used mixed modelling techniques to model the progression of disease according to these predictors, allowing a better understanding of the progression over time of this strikingly variable disease. In this way we have developed a new paradigm in clinical mitochondrial disease assessment and management that sidesteps the perennial difficulty of ascribing a discrete clinical phenotype to a broad multi-dimensional and progressive spectrum of disease, establishing a framework to allow better understanding of disease progression. PMID:24277717

  18. Progress in Early Diagnosis of Sickle Cell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Howard A.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses the basis of sickle cell Anemia, including: a description of the diseased blood, genetic implications, recognition of symptoms in infancy, the need for implementation of wide screening procedures, and the future prospects of a cure. (AJ)

  19. Association between mycobacterial genotypes and disease progression in Mycobacterium avium pulmonary infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kikuchi; A. Watanabe; K. Gomi; T. Sakakibara; K. Nishimori; H. Daito; S. Fujimura; R. Tazawa; A. Inoue; M. Ebina; Y. Tokue; M. Kaku; T. Nukiwa

    2009-01-01

    Background:Non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease, most commonly caused by Mycobacterium avium infection, tends to show variable disease progression, and significant disease predictors have not been adequately established.Methods:Variable numbers of tandem repeats (VNTR) were evaluated in 16 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) loci from M avium isolates cultured from respiratory specimens obtained from 2005 to 2007. Specifically, the association between VNTR profiles

  20. Resting-state functional connectivity as a marker of disease progression in Parkinson's disease: A longitudinal MEG study?

    PubMed Central

    Olde Dubbelink, Kim T.E.; Stoffers, Diederick; Deijen, Jan Berend; Twisk, Jos W.R.; Stam, Cornelis J.; Hillebrand, Arjan; Berendse, Henk W.

    2013-01-01

    The assessment of resting-state functional connectivity has become an important tool in studying brain disease mechanisms. Here we use magnetoencephalography to longitudinally evaluate functional connectivity changes in relation to clinical measures of disease progression in Parkinson's disease (PD). Using a source-space based approach with detailed anatomical mapping, functional connectivity was assessed for temporal, prefrontal and high order sensory association areas known to show neuropathological changes in early clinical disease stages. At baseline, early stage, untreated PD patients (n = 12) had lower parahippocampal and temporal delta band connectivity and higher temporal alpha1 band connectivity compared to controls. Longitudinal analyses over a 4-year period in a larger patient group (n = 43) revealed decreases in alpha1 and alpha2 band connectivity for multiple seed regions that were associated with motor or cognitive deterioration. In the earliest clinical stages of PD, delta and alpha1 band resting-state functional connectivity is altered in temporal cortical regions. With disease progression, a reversal of the initial changes in alpha1 and additional decreases in alpha2 band connectivity evolving in a more widespread cortical pattern. These changes in functional connectivity appear to reflect clinically relevant phenomena and therefore hold promise as a marker of disease progression, with potential predictive value for clinical outcome. PMID:24179812

  1. Dynamic load at baseline can predict radiographic disease progression in medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, T; Wada, M; Kawahara, H; Sato, M; Baba, H; Shimada, S

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that dynamic load at baseline can predict radiographic disease progression in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: During 1991–93 baseline data were collected by assessment of pain, radiography, and gait analysis in 106 patients referred to hospital with medial compartment knee OA. At the six year follow up, 74 patients were again examined to assess radiographic changes. Radiographic disease progression was defined as more than one grade narrowing of minimum joint space of the medial compartment. Results: In the 32 patients showing disease progression, pain was more severe and adduction moment was higher at baseline than in those without disease progression (n=42). Joint space narrowing of the medial compartment during the six year period correlated significantly with the adduction moment at entry. Adduction moment correlated significantly with mechanical axis (varus alignment) and negatively with joint space width and pain score. Logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of progression of knee OA increased 6.46 times with a 1% increase in adduction moment. Conclusions: The results suggest that the baseline adduction moment of the knee, which reflects the dynamic load on the medial compartment, can predict radiographic OA progression at the six year follow up in patients with medial compartment knee OA. PMID:12079903

  2. Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients: Factors Determining Progression to Lower Respiratory Tract Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yae-Jean; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Waghmare, Alpana; Walsh, Edward E.; Falsey, Ann R.; Kuypers, Jane; Cent, Anne; Englund, Janet A.; Boeckh, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background.?Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract disease (LRD) is a life-threatening complication in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Lymphopenia has been associated with an increased risk of progression from upper respiratory tract infection (URI) to LRD. Methods.?This study retrospectively analyzed the significance of lymphocyte engraftment dynamics, lung function, smoking history, corticosteroids, antiviral treatment, viral subtypes, and RSV-specific neutralizing antibodies for the progression to LRD in 181 HCT recipients with RSV URI. Results.?In multivariable models, smoking history, conditioning with high-dose total body irradiation, and an absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) ?100/mm3 at the time of URI onset were significantly associated with disease progression. No progression occurred in patients with ALCs of >1000/mm3 at URI onset. Lymphocyte engraftment dynamics were similar in progressors and nonprogressors. Pre- and posttransplant donor and posttransplant recipient RSV subtype-specific neutralizing antibody levels, RSV viral subtypes, and corticosteroids also were not significantly associated with LRD progression. Conclusions.?Host and transplant related factors appear to determine the risk of progression to LRD more than viral factors. Dysfunctional cell-mediated immunity appears to be important in the pathogenesis of progressive RSV disease after HCT. A characterization of RSV-specific T-cell immunity is warranted. PMID:24368837

  3. Pharmacogenetics: Progress, pitfalls and clinical potential for coronary heart disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve E. Humphries; Aroon Hingorani

    2006-01-01

    Much has been written about the potential of pharmacogenetic testing to inform therapy based on an individual's genetic makeup, and to decide the most effective choice of available drugs, or to avoid dangerous side effects. Currently, there is little hard data for either in the field of cardiovascular disease. The usual approach has been opportunistic use of drug trials in

  4. Epidemic progression on networks based on disease generation time.

    PubMed

    Davoudi, Bahman; Moser, Flavia; Brauer, Fred; Pourbohloul, Babak

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the time evolution of disease spread on a network and present an analytical framework using the concept of disease generation time. Assuming a susceptible-infected-recovered epidemic process, this network-based framework enables us to calculate in detail the number of links (edges) within the network that are capable of producing new infectious nodes (individuals), the number of links that are not transmitting the infection further (non-transmitting links), as well as the number of contacts that individuals have with their neighbours (also known as degree distribution) within each epidemiological class, for each generation period. Using several examples, we demonstrate very good agreement between our analytical calculations and the results of computer simulations. PMID:23889499

  5. Enzyme replacement therapy attenuates disease progression in a canine model of late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN2 disease).

    PubMed

    Katz, Martin L; Coates, Joan R; Sibigtroth, Christine M; Taylor, Jacob D; Carpentier, Melissa; Young, Whitney M; Wininger, Fred A; Kennedy, Derek; Vuillemenot, Brian R; O'Neill, Charles A

    2014-11-01

    Using a canine model of classical late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN2 disease), a study was conducted to evaluate the potential pharmacological activity of recombinant human tripeptidyl peptidase-1 (rhTPP1) enzyme replacement therapy administered directly to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CLN2 disease is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder resulting from mutations in CLN2, which encodes the soluble lysosomal enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase-1 (TPP1). Infants with mutations in both CLN2 alleles develop normally but in the late-infantile/early-childhood period undergo progressive neurological decline accompanied by pronounced brain atrophy. The disorder, a form of Batten disease, is uniformly fatal, with clinical signs starting between 2 and 4 years of age and death usually occurring by the early teenage years. Dachshunds homozygous for a null mutation in the canine ortholog of CLN2 (TPP1) exhibit a similar disorder that progresses to end stage at 10.5-11 months of age. Administration of rhTPP1 via infusion into the CSF every other week, starting at approximately 2.5 months of age, resulted in dose-dependent significant delays in disease progression, as measured by delayed onset of neurologic deficits, improved performance on a cognitive function test, reduced brain atrophy, and increased life span. Based on these findings, a clinical study evaluating the potential therapeutic value of rhTPP1 administration into the CSF of children with CLN2 disease has been initiated. PMID:24938720

  6. Enzyme replacement therapy attenuates disease progression in a canine model of late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN2 disease)

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Martin L; Coates, Joan R; Sibigtroth, Christine M; Taylor, Jacob D; Carpentier, Melissa; Young, Whitney M; Wininger, Fred A; Kennedy, Derek; Vuillemenot, Brian R; O'Neill, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    Using a canine model of classical late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN2 disease), a study was conducted to evaluate the potential pharmacological activity of recombinant human tripeptidyl peptidase-1 (rhTPP1) enzyme replacement therapy administered directly to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CLN2 disease is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder resulting from mutations in CLN2, which encodes the soluble lysosomal enzyme tripeptidyl peptidase-1 (TPP1). Infants with mutations in both CLN2 alleles develop normally but in the late-infantile/early-childhood period undergo progressive neurological decline accompanied by pronounced brain atrophy. The disorder, a form of Batten disease, is uniformly fatal, with clinical signs starting between 2 and 4 years of age and death usually occurring by the early teenage years. Dachshunds homozygous for a null mutation in the canine ortholog of CLN2 (TPP1) exhibit a similar disorder that progresses to end stage at 10.5–11 months of age. Administration of rhTPP1 via infusion into the CSF every other week, starting at approximately 2.5 months of age, resulted in dose-dependent significant delays in disease progression, as measured by delayed onset of neurologic deficits, improved performance on a cognitive function test, reduced brain atrophy, and increased life span. Based on these findings, a clinical study evaluating the potential therapeutic value of rhTPP1 administration into the CSF of children with CLN2 disease has been initiated. PMID:24938720

  7. Mechanisms of Copper Ion Mediated Huntington's Disease Progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan H. Fox; Jibrin A. Kama; Gregory Lieberman; Raman Chopra; Kate Dorsey; Vanita Chopra; Irene Volitakis; Robert A. Cherny; Ashley I. Bush; Steven Hersch; Katrina Gwinn-Hardy

    2007-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by a dominant polyglutamine expansion within the N-terminus of huntingtin protein and results in oxidative stress, energetic insufficiency and striatal degeneration. Copper and iron are increased in the striata of HD patients, but the role of these metals in HD pathogenesis is unknown. We found, using inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy, that elevations of copper and iron

  8. Selective Stimulation of VEGFR2 Accelerates Progressive Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Waichi; Tanabe, Katsuyuki; Kosugi, Tomoki; Hudkins, Kelly; Lanaspa, Miguel A.; Zhang, Li; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Li, Qiuhong; Long, David A.; Alpers, Charles E.; Nakagawa, Takahiko

    2011-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) can play both beneficial and deleterious roles in renal diseases, where its specific function might be determined by nitric oxide bioavailability. The complexity of VEGF-A in renal disease could in part be accounted for by the distinct roles of its two receptors; VEGFR1 is involved in the inflammatory responses, whereas VEGFR2 predominantly mediates angiogenesis. Because nondiabetic chronic renal disease is associated with capillary loss, we hypothesized that selective stimulation of VEGFR2 could be beneficial in this setting. However, VEGFR2 activation may be deleterious in the presence of nitric oxide deficiency. We systematically overexpressed a mutant form of VEGF-A binding only VEGFR2 (Flk-sel) using an adeno-associated virus-1 vector in wild-type and eNOS knockout mice and then induced renal injury by uninephrectomy. Flk-sel treatment increased angiogenesis and lowered blood pressure in both mouse types. Flk-sel overexpression caused mesangial injury with increased proliferation associated with elevated expression of PDGF, PDGF-? receptor, and VEGFR2; this effect was greater in eNOS knockout than in wild-type mice. Flk-sel also induced tubulointerstitial injury, with some tubular epithelial cells expressing ?-smooth muscle actin, indicating a phenotypic evolution toward myofibroblasts. In conclusion, prestimulation of VEGFR2 can potentiate subsequent renal injury in mice, an effect enhanced in the setting of nitric oxide deficiency. PMID:21640973

  9. The Riddle of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Progression From Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver to Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Mithun; Mitnala, Shasikala; Vishnubhotla, Ravi K.; Mukherjee, Rathin; Reddy, Duvvur N.; Rao, Padaki N.

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is an emerging global epidemic which progresses to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis in a subset of subjects. Various reviews have focused on the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of NAFLD. This review highlights specifically the triggers implicated in disease progression from NAFL to NASH. The integrating role of genes, dietary factors, innate immunity, cytokines and gut microbiome have been discussed.

  10. The Riddle of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Progression From Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver to Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mithun; Mitnala, Shasikala; Vishnubhotla, Ravi K; Mukherjee, Rathin; Reddy, Duvvur N; Rao, Padaki N

    2015-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is an emerging global epidemic which progresses to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis in a subset of subjects. Various reviews have focused on the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of NAFLD. This review highlights specifically the triggers implicated in disease progression from NAFL to NASH. The integrating role of genes, dietary factors, innate immunity, cytokines and gut microbiome have been discussed. PMID:26155043

  11. Identifying informative risk factors and predicting bone disease progression via deep belief networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Li, Xiaoyi; Ramanathan, Murali; Zhang, Aidong

    2014-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease which frequently causes death, permanent disability, and loss of quality of life in the geriatric population. Identifying risk factors for the disease progression and capturing the disease characteristics have received increasing attentions in the health informatics research. In data mining area, risk factors are features of the data and diagnostic results can be regarded as the labels to train a model for a regression or classification task. We develop a general framework based on the heterogeneous electronic health records (EHRs) for the risk factor (RF) analysis that can be used for informative RF selection and the prediction of osteoporosis. The RF selection is a task designed for ranking and explaining the semantics of informative RFs for preventing the disease and improving the understanding of the disease. Predicting the risk of osteoporosis in a prospective and population-based study is a task for monitoring the bone disease progression. We apply a variety of well-trained deep belief network (DBN) models which inherit the following good properties: (1) pinpointing the underlying causes of the disease in order to assess the risk of a patient in developing a target disease, and (2) discriminating between patients suffering from the disease and without the disease for the purpose of selecting RFs of the disease. A variety of DBN models can capture characteristics for different patient groups via a training procedure with the use of different samples. The case study shows that the proposed method can be efficiently used to select the informative RFs. Most of the selected RFs are validated by the medical literature and some new RFs will attract interests across the medical research. Moreover, the experimental analysis on a real bone disease data set shows that the proposed framework can successfully predict the progression of osteoporosis. The stable and promising performance on the evaluation metrics confirms the effectiveness of our model. PMID:24979059

  12. Integrative analysis reveals disease-associated genes and biomarkers for prostate cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is one of the most common complex diseases with high leading cause of death in men. Identifications of prostate cancer associated genes and biomarkers are thus essential as they can gain insights into the mechanisms underlying disease progression and advancing for early diagnosis and developing effective therapies. Methods In this study, we presented an integrative analysis of gene expression profiling and protein interaction network at a systematic level to reveal candidate disease-associated genes and biomarkers for prostate cancer progression. At first, we reconstructed the human prostate cancer protein-protein interaction network (HPC-PPIN) and the network was then integrated with the prostate cancer gene expression data to identify modules related to different phases in prostate cancer. At last, the candidate module biomarkers were validated by its predictive ability of prostate cancer progression. Results Different phases-specific modules were identified for prostate cancer. Among these modules, transcription Androgen Receptor (AR) nuclear signaling and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signalling pathway were shown to be the pathway targets for prostate cancer progression. The identified candidate disease-associated genes showed better predictive ability of prostate cancer progression than those of published biomarkers. In context of functional enrichment analysis, interestingly candidate disease-associated genes were enriched in the nucleus and different functions were encoded for potential transcription factors, for examples key players as AR, Myc, ESR1 and hidden player as Sp1 which was considered as a potential novel biomarker for prostate cancer. Conclusions The successful results on prostate cancer samples demonstrated that the integrative analysis is powerful and useful approach to detect candidate disease-associate genes and modules which can be used as the potential biomarkers for prostate cancer progression. The data, tools and supplementary files for this integrative analysis are deposited at http://www.ibio-cn.org/HPC-PPIN/. PMID:25080090

  13. Renal Gene and Protein Expression Signatures for Prediction of Kidney Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Wenjun; Eichinger, Felix; Bitzer, Markus; Oh, Jun; McWeeney, Shannon; Berthier, Celine C.; Shedden, Kerby; Cohen, Clemens D.; Henger, Anna; Krick, Stefanie; Kopp, Jeffrey B.; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Dikman, Steven; Schröppel, Bernd; Thomas, David B.; Schlondorff, Detlef; Kretzler, Matthias; Böttinger, Erwin P.

    2009-01-01

    Although chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common, only a fraction of CKD patients progress to end-stage renal disease. Molecular predictors to stratify CKD populations according to their risk of progression remain undiscovered. Here we applied transcriptional profiling of kidneys from transforming growth factor-?1 transgenic (Tg) mice, characterized by heterogeneity of kidney disease progression, to identify 43 genes that discriminate kidneys by severity of glomerular apoptosis before the onset of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in 2-week-old animals. Among the genes examined, 19 showed significant correlation between mRNA expression in uninephrectomized left kidneys at 2 weeks of age and renal disease severity in right kidneys of Tg mice at 4 weeks of age. Gene expression profiles of human orthologs of the 43 genes in kidney biopsies were highly significantly related (R2 = 0.53; P < 0.001) to the estimated glomerular filtration rates in patients with CKD stages I to V, and discriminated groups of CKD stages I/II and III/IV/V with positive and negative predictive values of 0.8 and 0.83, respectively. Protein expression patterns for selected genes were successfully validated by immunohistochemistry in kidneys of Tg mice and kidney biopsies of patients with IgA nephropathy and CKD stages I to V, respectively. In conclusion, we developed novel mRNA and protein expression signatures that predict progressive renal fibrosis in mice and may be useful molecular predictors of CKD progression in humans. PMID:19465643

  14. Slowly progressing lower motor neuron disease caused by a novel duplication mutation in exon 1 of the SOD1 gene.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akinori; Kuru, Satoshi; Hineno, Akiyo; Kobayashi, Chinatsu; Kinoshita, Tomomi; Miyazaki, Daigo; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2014-10-01

    Familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis accounts for about 5% of all cases of the neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Genetic mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) have been associated with one kind of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS1). We identified a novel duplication mutation in exon 1 of the SOD1 gene in a Japanese family whose members had lower motor neuron diseases. The patients showed slow disease progression, with the onset of lower limb muscle weakness and exertional dyspnea. Some patients had mild motor and sensory neuropathy and/or bladder dysfunction, which is further evidence that SOD1 mutation results in a predominantly lower motor neuron phenotype. PMID:24838187

  15. Postradiation imaging changes in the CNS: how can we differentiate between treatment effect and disease progression?

    PubMed

    Walker, Amanda J; Ruzevick, Jake; Malayeri, Ashkan A; Rigamonti, Daniele; Lim, Michael; Redmond, Kristin J; Kleinberg, Lawrence

    2014-05-01

    A familiar challenge for neuroradiologists and neuro-oncologists is differentiating between radiation treatment effect and disease progression in the CNS. Both entities are characterized by an increase in contrast enhancement on MRI and present with similar clinical signs and symptoms that may occur either in close temporal proximity to the treatment or later in the disease course. When radiation-related imaging changes or clinical deterioration are mistaken for disease progression, patients may be subject to unnecessary surgery and/or a change from otherwise effective therapy. Similarly, when disease progression is mistaken for treatment effect, a potentially ineffective therapy may be continued in the face of progressive disease. Here we describe the three types of radiation injury to the brain based on the time to development of signs and symptoms--acute, subacute and late--and then review specific imaging changes after intensity-modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery and brachytherapy. We provide an overview of these phenomena in the treatment of a wide range of malignant and benign CNS illnesses. Finally, we review the published data regarding imaging techniques under investigation to address this well-known problem. PMID:24947265

  16. Development assistance for neglected tropical diseases: progress since 2009.

    PubMed

    Liese, Bernhard H; Houghton, Natalia; Teplitskaya, Lyubov

    2014-09-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) is an umbrella term for a diverse group of debilitating infections that represent the most common afflictions for 2.7 billion people living on less than US$2 per day. Major efforts have recently re-focused attention on NTDs, including structured advocacy by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, technical and political support by WHO and large-scale drug donation programs by pharmaceutical companies. An analysis of the Official Development Assistance (ODA) for NTDs in 2009 showed that Development Assistance Committee members and multilateral donors had largely ignored funding NTD control projects. This study reviews the changes since 2009 and finds an increased engagement by pharmaceutical manufacturers through drug donation programs substantially increased by the 'London Declaration' in 2012, a focused effort of 77 public and private partners on control or elimination of the 10 most common NTDs, but no increase in ODA for NTDs between 2008 and 2012. The allocation of ODA still does not reflect the respective importance of these diseases. PMID:25096331

  17. Osteoarthritis in the XXIst Century: Risk Factors and Behaviours that Influence Disease Onset and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Aiello, Flavia Concetta; Szychlinska, Marta Anna; Di Rosa, Michelino; Castrogiovanni, Paola; Mobasheri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a growing public health problem across the globe, affecting more than half of the over 65 population. In the past, OA was considered a wear and tear disease, leading to the loss of articular cartilage and joint disability. Nowadays, thanks to advancements in molecular biology, OA is believed to be a very complex multifactorial disease. OA is a degenerative disease characterized by “low-grade inflammation” in cartilage and synovium, resulting in the loss of joint structure and progressive deterioration of cartilage. Although the disease can be dependent on genetic and epigenetic factors, sex, ethnicity, and age (cellular senescence, apoptosis and lubricin), it is also associated with obesity and overweight, dietary factors, sedentary lifestyle and sport injuries. The aim of this review is to highlight how certain behaviors, habits and lifestyles may be involved in the onset and progression of OA and to summarize the principal risk factors involved in the development of this complicated joint disorder. PMID:25785564

  18. Progression of Parkinson's disease as evaluated by Hoehn and Yahr stage transition times.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying Jiao; Wee, Hwee Lin; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Seah, Soo Hoon; Au, Wing Lok; Lau, Puay Ngoh; Pica, Emmanuel Camara; Li, Shu Chuen; Luo, Nan; Tan, Louis C S

    2010-04-30

    This study was carried out to evaluate progression in Parkinson's disease (PD) by analyzing time taken to transit from one Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stage to the next stage and to investigate the variables that would be associated with H&Y transition times using a large PD database that contained prospectively collected information. Data were obtained from the movement disorder database of the National Neuroscience Institute in Singapore. Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival analysis was adopted to investigate the time taken to progress through various H&Y stages. Cox regression analysis was used to examine the association between the baseline variables at the entry point of each H&Y stage and the progression to the next stage. A total of 695 patients (mean age: 65.2, male: 57.3%) were studied. Using KM analysis, the median time taken to transit from H&Y stage 1 to 2, 2 to 2.5, 2.5 to 3 were 20, 62, and 25 months, respectively; whereas the median time taken to progress from stage 3 to 4 and 4 to 5 were 24 and 26 months, respectively. Cox regression analysis revealed that older age-at-diagnosis, longer PD duration, and higher Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor scores at baseline were associated with a significantly faster progression through various H&Y stages. Gender and ethnicity were not associated with disease progression. In conclusion, H&Y transition time is a useful measure of disease progression in PD and may be utilized in clinical studies evaluating therapeutic interventions and prognostic factors in PD. PMID:20213822

  19. Progress on conformal microwave array applicators for heating chestwall disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauffer, P. R.; Maccarini, P. F.; Juang, T.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Gaeta, C. J.; Schlorff, J. L.; Milligan, A. J.

    2007-02-01

    Previous studies have reported the computer modeling, CAD design, and theoretical performance of single and multiple antenna arrays of Dual Concentric Conductor (DCC) square slot radiators driven at 915 and 433 MHz. Subsequently, practical CAD designs of microstrip antenna arrays constructed on thin and flexible printed circuit board (PCB) material were reported which evolved into large Conformal Microwave Array (CMA) sheets that could wrap around the surface of the human torso for delivering microwave energy to large areas of superficial tissue. Although uniform and adjustable radiation patterns have been demonstrated from multiple element applicators radiating into simple homogeneous phantom loads, the contoured and heterogeneous tissue loads typical of chestwall recurrent breast cancer have required additional design efforts to achieve good coupling and efficient heating from the increasingly larger conformal array applicators used to treat large area contoured patient anatomy. Thus recent work has extended the theoretical optimization of DCC antennas to improve radiation efficiency of each individual aperture and reduce mismatch reflections, radiation losses, noise, and cross coupling of the feedline distribution network of large array configurations. Design improvements have also been incorporated into the supporting bolus structure to maintain effective coupling of DCC antennas into contoured anatomy and to monitor and control surface temperatures under the entire array. New approaches for non-invasive monitoring of surface and sub-surface tissue temperatures under each independent heat source are described that make use of microwave radiometry and flexible sheet grid arrays of thermal sensors. Efforts to optimize the clinical patient interface and move from planar rectangular shapes to contoured vest applicators that accommodate entire disease in a larger number of patients are summarized. By applying heat more uniformly to large areas of contoured anatomy, the CMA applicator resulting from these enhancements should expand the number of patients that can benefit from effective heating of superficial disease in combination with radiation or chemotherapy.

  20. Clinical-pathological correlations of coronary disease progression and regression.

    PubMed

    Fuster, V; Badimon, J J; Badimon, L

    1992-12-01

    The initiation of atherosclerosis may result from blood flow oscillatory shear stress in certain vascular sites (bending points, bifurcations, etc.) producing chronic minimal injury resulting in functional alteration of the arterial endothelium type I injury; experimentally, this is potentiated by atherogenic risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, immunocomplexes, viral infections, and tobacco smoke. Such minimal injury leads to accumulation of lipid and monocytes (macrophages), and subsequently, toxic products released by the macrophages produce damage of the intimal surface with denuding endothelium type II injury or damage, which attracts platelets; all of these cells release growth factors, prompting migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells and producing a "fibro-intimal lesion" or the outside of the capsule of a predominant "lipid lesion." The lipid lesions surrounded by a thin capsule tend to be small and rupture easily, causing type III injury or damage; that is, they are soft and weak, contain large numbers of macrophages, which may release collagenase and elastase to form abscesses, and by their location, are under the effect of flow shear forces. After plaque disruption there is thrombus formation; when thrombi are small, they can become organized and contribute to the growth of the atherosclerotic plaque; when thrombi are large and occlusive, they lead to the acute coronary syndromes. New data suggest that, at the time of plaque disruption, certain "thrombogenic" risk factors modulate the degree of thrombogenicity and, thereby, the growth of the plaque versus the various acute coronary syndromes. Aside from the need for better understanding of the basic biology of atherogenesis, emphasis on identifying and modifying the primary atherogenic and thrombogenic risk factors should continue for primary prevention. Also, new approaches should focus on the identification, stabilization, and regression of the small "lipid plaques" prone to rupture (these are not necessarily angiographically apparent), as well as on the use of better and safer antithrombotic agents for prevention of progression. PMID:1424042

  1. Urine Protein Analysis and Correlation of Urinary Biomarkers with Renal Disease Progression in Dogs with X-Linked Hereditary Nephropathy 

    E-print Network

    Nabity, Mary B.

    2012-02-14

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major cause of illness in dogs, and it is commonly caused by glomerular diseases that result in proteinuria and a progressive decline in renal function. Despite the importance of glomerular lesions...

  2. Phase progression of ?-Al2O3 nanoparticles synthesized in a solvent-deficient environment.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stacey J; Amin, Samrat; Woodfield, Brian F; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Campbell, Branton J

    2013-04-15

    Our simple and uniquely cost-effective solvent-deficient synthetic method produces 3-5 nm Al2O3 nanoparticles which show promise as improved industrial catalyst-supports. While catalytic applications are sensitive to the details of the atomic structure, a diffraction analysis of alumina nanoparticles is challenging because of extreme size/microstrain-related peak broadening and the similarity of the diffraction patterns of various transitional Al2O3 phases. Here, we employ a combination of X-ray pair-distribution function (PDF) and Rietveld methods, together with solid-state NMR and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis-mass spectrometry (TG/DTA-MS), to characterize the alumina phase-progression in our nanoparticles as a function of calcination temperature between 300 and 1200 °C. In the solvent-deficient synthetic environment, a boehmite precursor phase forms which transitions to ?-Al2O3 at an extraordinarily low temperature (below 300 °C), but this ?-Al2O3 is initially riddled with boehmite-like stacking-fault defects that steadily disappear during calcination in the range from 300 to 950 °C. The healing of these defects accounts for many of the most interesting and widely reported properties of the ?-phase. PMID:23557087

  3. Prediction, progression, and outcomes of chronic kidney disease in older adults.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sharon; Halter, Jeffrey B; Hazzard, William R; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Horne, Frances McFarland; Kaysen, George A; Kusek, John W; Nayfield, Susan G; Schmader, Kenneth; Tian, Ying; Ashworth, John R; Clayton, Charles P; Parker, Ryan P; Tarver, Erika D; Woolard, Nancy F; High, Kevin P

    2009-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a large and growing problem among aging populations. Although progression of chronic kidney disease to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a costly and important clinical event with substantial morbidity, it appears less frequently in aging people compared with cardiovascular mortality. The measurement of kidney function and management of kidney disease in older individuals remain challenging, partly because the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying age-related decline in kidney function, the interactions between age and other risk factors in renal progression, and the associations of chronic kidney disease with other comorbidities in older people are understudied and poorly understood. The Association of Specialty Professors, the American Society of Nephrology, the American Geriatrics Society, the National Institute on Aging, and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases held a workshop, summarized in this article, to review what is known about chronic kidney disease, identify research gaps and resources available to address them, and identify priority areas for future research. Answers to emerging research questions will support the integration of geriatrics and nephrology and thus improve care for older patients at risk for chronic kidney disease. PMID:19470680

  4. Byssinosis and small airways disease: Terminal progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of byssinosis and small-airway disease, pulmonary-function measurements including helium and oxygen flow volume curves were made on 470 cotton mill employees exposed to various dust levels. The employees in these cotton mills had been screened previously for pulmonary abnormalities, and some employees had moved to work areas with lower dust levels. Results showed that there was no significant increase in bronchitis or byssinosis in the dust areas nor were there any significant decreases in the percentages of normal forced vital capacity (PFVC) or forced expiratory volume in 1 second (PFEV1) in the dusty areas. These results differ from those reported from mills in which no previous pulmonary testing had been conducted. A strong smoking/tenure/dust exposure interaction on PFVC and PFEV1 was found, with the long-tenured, high-dust-exposure, smokers having the lowest PFVC and PFEV1. There was no significant increase in small airways abnormalities with increased dust and smoking, but the mean change in the density dependence ratio is too small to have clinical significance.

  5. Superficial venous thrombosis: disease progression and evolving treatment approaches

    PubMed Central

    Litzendorf, Maria E; Satiani, Bhagwan

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of superficial venous thrombosis (SVT) has recently shifted as increasing evidence suggests a higher than initially recognized rate of recurrence as well as concomitant deep venous thrombosis. Traditional therapies aimed at symptom control and disruption of the saphenofemoral junction are being called into question. The incidence of deep venous thrombosis has been reported to be 6%–40%, with symptomatic pulmonary embolism occurring in 2%–13% of patients. Asymptomatic pulmonary embolism is said to occur in up to one third of patients with SVT based on lung scans. The role of anticoagulation, including newer agents, is being elucidated, and surgical disruption of the saphenofemoral junction, while still an option for specific cases, is less frequently used as first-line treatment. The individual risk factors, including history of prior episodes of SVT, the presence of varicosities, and provoking factors including malignancy and hypercoagulable disorders, must all be considered to individualize the treatment plan. Given the potential morbidity of untreated SVT, prompt recognition and understanding of the pathophysiology and sequelae are paramount for clinicians treating patients with this disease. A personalized treatment plan must be devised for individual patients because the natural history varies by risk factor, presence or absence of DVT, and extent of involvement. PMID:21966221

  6. Progress and prospects: Immunobiology of gene therapy for neurodegenerative disease: prospects and risks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M M McMenamin; M J A Wood; MJA Wood

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy for neurological, and in particular neurodegenerative, disease is now a reality. A number of early phase clinical trials have been completed and several are currently in progress. In view of this, it is critically important to evaluate the immunological risk associated with neurological gene therapy, which has clear implications for trial safety and efficacy. Moreover, it is imperative

  7. Progress towards understanding the neurobiology of Batten disease or neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan D. Cooper

    2003-01-01

    Purpose of review The identification of genes mutated in the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses has accelerated research into the mechanisms that underlie these fatal autosomal recessive storage disorders, which are often referred to as Batten disease. This review summarizes progress in this field since October 2001, describing advances in cell biology, the characterization of new animal models of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis,

  8. Non-monotonic reorganization of brain networks with Alzheimer's disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, HyoungKyu; Yoo, Kwangsun; Na, Duk L.; Seo, Sang Won; Jeong, Jaeseung; Jeong, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identification of stage-specific changes in brain network of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is critical for rationally designed therapeutics that delays the progression of the disease. However, pathological neural processes and their resulting changes in brain network topology with disease progression are not clearly known. Methods: The current study was designed to investigate the alterations in network topology of resting state fMRI among patients in three different clinical dementia rating (CDR) groups (i.e., CDR = 0.5, 1, 2) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and age-matched healthy subject groups. We constructed density networks from these 5 groups and analyzed their network properties using graph theoretical measures. Results: The topological properties of AD brain networks differed in a non-monotonic, stage-specific manner. Interestingly, local and global efficiency and betweenness of the network were rather higher in the aMCI and AD (CDR 1) groups than those of prior stage groups. The number, location, and structure of rich-clubs changed dynamically as the disease progressed. Conclusions: The alterations in network topology of the brain are quite dynamic with AD progression, and these dynamic changes in network patterns should be considered meticulously for efficient therapeutic interventions of AD.

  9. Brain Substrates of Learning and Retention in Mild Cognitive Impairment Diagnosis and Progression to Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Ling; Bondi, Mark W.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; McEvoy, Linda K.; Hagler, Donald J., Jr.; Jacobson, Mark W.; Dale, Anders M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the underlying qualitative features of memory deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can provide critical information for early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study sought to investigate the utility of both learning and retention measures in (a) the diagnosis of MCI, (b) predicting progression to AD, and (c)…

  10. Subnetwork-based analysis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia identifies pathways that associate with disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Han-Yu; Rassenti, Laura; Salcedo, Michelle; Licon, Kate; Kohlmann, Alexander; Haferlach, Torsten; Foà, Robin

    2012-01-01

    The clinical course of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is heterogeneous. Several prognostic factors have been identified that can stratify patients into groups that differ in their relative tendency for disease progression and/or survival. Here, we pursued a subnetwork-based analysis of gene expression profiles to discriminate between groups of patients with disparate risks for CLL progression. From an initial cohort of 130 patients, we identified 38 prognostic subnetworks that could predict the relative risk for disease progression requiring therapy from the time of sample collection, more accurately than established markers. The prognostic power of these subnetworks then was validated on 2 other cohorts of patients. We noted reduced divergence in gene expression between leukemia cells of CLL patients classified at diagnosis with aggressive versus indolent disease over time. The predictive subnetworks vary in levels of expression over time but exhibit increased similarity at later time points before therapy, suggesting that degenerate pathways apparently converge into common pathways that are associated with disease progression. As such, these results have implications for understanding cancer evolution and for the development of novel treatment strategies for patients with CLL. PMID:22837534

  11. Subnetwork-based analysis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia identifies pathways that associate with disease progression.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Han-Yu; Rassenti, Laura; Salcedo, Michelle; Licon, Kate; Kohlmann, Alexander; Haferlach, Torsten; Foà, Robin; Ideker, Trey; Kipps, Thomas J

    2012-09-27

    The clinical course of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is heterogeneous. Several prognostic factors have been identified that can stratify patients into groups that differ in their relative tendency for disease progression and/or survival. Here, we pursued a subnetwork-based analysis of gene expression profiles to discriminate between groups of patients with disparate risks for CLL progression. From an initial cohort of 130 patients, we identified 38 prognostic subnetworks that could predict the relative risk for disease progression requiring therapy from the time of sample collection, more accurately than established markers. The prognostic power of these subnetworks then was validated on 2 other cohorts of patients. We noted reduced divergence in gene expression between leukemia cells of CLL patients classified at diagnosis with aggressive versus indolent disease over time. The predictive subnetworks vary in levels of expression over time but exhibit increased similarity at later time points before therapy, suggesting that degenerate pathways apparently converge into common pathways that are associated with disease progression. As such, these results have implications for understanding cancer evolution and for the development of novel treatment strategies for patients with CLL. PMID:22837534

  12. [Research progress on the efficacy, metabolism and bioavailability of mebendazole in hydatid disease].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong-Shan; Zhang, Hao-Bing

    2009-12-01

    Mebendazole is currently used in the treatment of hydatid disease. Its poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract and low bioavailability aroused further research on new formulations of mebendazole to increase the bioavailability and improve the therapeutic efficacy. This review summarizes the recent research progress. PMID:20232637

  13. Pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) eradication progress and program costs in Ohio, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steen Bech-Nielsen; Gary L. Bowman; Gay Y. Miller; Kathleen A. Orloski-Snider; Ralph H. Burkholder; Stephen J. Dodaro

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document how the Ohio pseudorabies (PRV) (Aujeszky's disease) eradication program has progressed to its current status from its initiation in 1977 to the present, as well as to project the year and program costs of eradication of PRV from Ohio, based on a retrospective study of data retrieved from records available on swine

  14. Parkinson's disease symptoms are differentially affected by massage therapy vs. progressive muscle relaxation: a pilot study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Hernandez-Reif; Tiffany Field; Shay Largie; Christy Cullen; Julia Beutler; Chris Sanders; William Weiner; Dinorah Rodriguez-Bateman; Lisette Zelaya; Saul Schanber; Cynthia Kuhn

    2002-01-01

    Sixteen adults diagnosed with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (M age=58) received 30-min massage therapy or progressive muscle relaxation exercise sessions twice a week for 5 weeks (10 sessions total). Physicians rated participants in the massage therapy group as improved in daily living activities by the end of the study. The massaged group also rated themselves as improved in daily functioning, and

  15. Unveiling Clusters of RNA Transcript Pairs Associated with Markers of Alzheimer’s Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Arefin, Ahmed Shamsul; Mathieson, Luke; Johnstone, Daniel; Berretta, Regina; Moscato, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Background One primary goal of transcriptomic studies is identifying gene expression patterns correlating with disease progression. This is usually achieved by considering transcripts that independently pass an arbitrary threshold (e.g. p<0.05). In diseases involving severe perturbations of multiple molecular systems, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), this univariate approach often results in a large list of seemingly unrelated transcripts. We utilised a powerful multivariate clustering approach to identify clusters of RNA biomarkers strongly associated with markers of AD progression. We discuss the value of considering pairs of transcripts which, in contrast to individual transcripts, helps avoid natural human transcriptome variation that can overshadow disease-related changes. Methodology/Principal Findings We re-analysed a dataset of hippocampal transcript levels in nine controls and 22 patients with varying degrees of AD. A large-scale clustering approach determined groups of transcript probe sets that correlate strongly with measures of AD progression, including both clinical and neuropathological measures and quantifiers of the characteristic transcriptome shift from control to severe AD. This enabled identification of restricted groups of highly correlated probe sets from an initial list of 1,372 previously published by our group. We repeated this analysis on an expanded dataset that included all pair-wise combinations of the 1,372 probe sets. As clustering of this massive dataset is unfeasible using standard computational tools, we adapted and re-implemented a clustering algorithm that uses external memory algorithmic approach. This identified various pairs that strongly correlated with markers of AD progression and highlighted important biological pathways potentially involved in AD pathogenesis. Conclusions/Significance Our analyses demonstrate that, although there exists a relatively large molecular signature of AD progression, only a small number of transcripts recurrently cluster with different markers of AD progression. Furthermore, considering the relationship between two transcripts can highlight important biological relationships that are missed when considering either transcript in isolation. PMID:23029078

  16. Rapid Disease Progression With Delay in Treatment of Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Nasiruddin [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Kestin, Larry Llyn, E-mail: lkestin@beaumont.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Grills, Inga Siiner; Battu, Madhu; Fitch, Dwight Lamar [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Wong, Ching-yee Oliver [Department of Nuclear Medicine, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Margolis, Jeffrey Harold [Department of Medical Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Chmielewski, Gary William; Welsh, Robert James [Department of Thoracic Surgery, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To assess rate of disease progression from diagnosis to initiation of treatment for Stage I-IIIB non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Forty patients with NSCLC underwent at least two sets of computed tomography (CT) and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) scans at various time intervals before treatment. Progression was defined as development of any new lymph node involvement, site of disease, or stage change. Results: Median time interval between first and second CT scans was 13.4 weeks, and between first and second PET scans was 9.0 weeks. Median initial primary maximum tumor dimension (MTD) was 3.5 cm (0.6-8.5 cm) with a median standardized uptake value (SUV) of 13.0 (1.7-38.5). The median MTD increased by a median of 1.0 cm (mean, 1.6 cm) between scans for a median relative MTD increase of 35% (mean, 59%). Nineteen patients (48%) progressed between scans. Rate of any progression was 13%, 31%, and 46% at 4, 8, and 16 weeks, respectively. Upstaging occurred in 3%, 13%, and 21% at these intervals. Distant metastasis became evident in 3%, 13%, and 13% after 4, 8, and 16 weeks, respectively. T and N stage were associated with progression, whereas histology, grade, sex, age, and maximum SUV were not. At 3 years, overall survival for Stage III patients with vs. without progression was 18% vs. 67%, p = 0.05. Conclusions: With NSCLC, treatment delay can lead to disease progression. Diagnosis, staging, and treatment initiation should be expedited. After 4-8 weeks of delay, complete restaging should be strongly considered.

  17. Impact of restenosis and disease progression on clinical outcome after multivessel stenting in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Loutfi, Mohamed; Mulvihill, Niall T; Boccalatte, Marco; Farah, Bruno; Fajadet, Jean; Marco, Jean

    2003-04-01

    Clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is significantly worse in diabetic patients in comparison to nondiabetic patients. The subset of diabetic patients in the ARTS trial treated with multivessel stenting had the lowest 1-year event-free survival. We examined our experience of multivessel PCI in diabetics to assess clinical outcome outside clinical trials and to determine if repeat revascularizations are the result of restenosis or the progression of nontreated disease. Between January 2000 and December 2001, we performed multivessel PCI in 99 diabetic patients. Our group was well matched with those in the ARTS trial, with mean age of 69 +/- 8 years, male sex 70%, hypertension 68%, hypercholesterolemia 51%, and mean LV ejection fraction 60%. The mean number of diseased segments treated was 2.8 +/- 0.9 and 56% of the patients had three-vessel disease. There were 2.3 +/- 0.6 stents implanted per patient. Target vessels included the LAD in 90%, LCx in 77%, and the RCA in 87% of cases. The in-hospital MACE rate was 8%, which included eight nonfatal MI but no deaths or repeat revascularizations. After a mean follow-up of 14 +/- 8 months, there were 4 deaths (4%), no further MIs, and 21 (21%) repeat revascularizations (2 CABG; 19 PCI), giving a 1-year event-free survival of 67%. There were 18 repeat revascularizations (2 CABG; 16 PCI) for restenosis, but in 9 of the 18 (50%) patients treatment was also required for progression of disease. Three further patients had PCI for symptomatic disease progression without restenosis. Thus, disease progression contributed to 57% of repeat revascularization procedures. The medium- and longer-term success of multivessel PCI in diabetic patients is limited principally by the need for repeat revascularization. However, it is important to realize that these revascularizations are performed not only for restenosis but also for disease progression in more than 50% of patients. Consequently, even if drug-eluting stent technology can eliminate restenosis, disease progression will continue to impact the clinical outcome of diabetic patients after PCI. PMID:12652493

  18. Hierarchical kernel mixture models for the prediction of AIDS disease progression using HIV structural gp120 profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul D Yoo; Yung Shwen Ho; Jason Ng; Michael Charleston; Nitin K Saksena; Pengyi Yang; Albert Y Zomaya

    2010-01-01

    Changes to the glycosylation profile on HIV gp120 can influence viral pathogenesis and alter AIDS disease progression. The characterization of glycosylation differences at the sequence level is inadequate as the placement of carbohydrates is structurally complex. However, no structural framework is available to date for the study of HIV disease progression. In this study, we propose a novel machine-learning based

  19. Activation of Notch3 in Glomeruli Promotes the Development of Rapidly Progressive Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    El Machhour, Fala; Keuylian, Zela; Kavvadas, Panagiotis; Dussaule, Jean-Claude; Chatziantoniou, Christos

    2015-07-01

    Notch3 expression is found in the glomerular podocytes of patients with lupus nephritis or focal segmental GN but not in normal kidneys. Here, we show that activation of the Notch3 receptor in the glomeruli is a turning point inducing phenotypic changes in podocytes promoting renal inflammation and fibrosis and leading to disease progression. In a model of rapidly progressive GN, Notch3 expression was induced by several-fold in podocytes concurrently with disease progression. By contrast, mice lacking Notch3 expression were protected because they exhibited less proteinuria, uremia, and inflammatory infiltration. Podocyte outgrowth from glomeruli isolated from wild-type mice during the early phase of the disease was higher than outgrowth from glomeruli of mice lacking Notch3. In vitro studies confirmed that podocytes expressing active Notch3 reorganize their cytoskeleton toward a proliferative/migratory and inflammatory phenotype. We then administered antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeting Notch3 or scramble control oligodeoxynucleotides in wild-type mice concomitant to disease induction. Both groups developed chronic renal disease, but mice injected with Notch3 antisense had lower values of plasma urea and proteinuria and inflammatory infiltration. The improvement of renal function was accompanied by fewer deposits of fibrin within the glomeruli and by decreased peritubular inflammation. Finally, abnormal Notch3 staining was observed in biopsy samples of patients with crescentic GN. These results demonstrate that abnormal activation of Notch3 may be involved in the progression of renal disease by promoting migratory and proinflammatory pathways. Inhibiting Notch3 activation could be a novel, promising approach to treat GN. PMID:25421557

  20. Elevated free nitrotyrosine levels, but not protein-bound nitrotyrosine or hydroxyl radicals, throughout amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like disease implicate tyrosine nitration as an aberrant in vivo property of one familial ALS-linked superoxide dismutase 1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Bruijn, L I; Beal, M F; Becher, M W; Schulz, J B; Wong, P C; Price, D L; Cleveland, D W

    1997-07-01

    Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1; EC 1.15.1.1) are responsible for a proportion of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) through acquisition of an as-yet-unidentified toxic property or properties. Two proposed possibilities are that toxicity may arise from imperfectly folded mutant SOD1 catalyzing the nitration of tyrosines [Beckman, J. S., Carson, M., Smith, C. D. & Koppenol, W. H. (1993) Nature (London) 364, 584] through use of peroxynitrite or from peroxidation arising from elevated production of hydroxyl radicals through use of hydrogen peroxide as a substrate [Wiedau-Pazos, M., Goto, J. J., Rabizadeh, S., Gralla, E. D., Roe, J. A., Valentine, J. S. & Bredesen, D. E. (1996) Science 271, 515-518]. To test these possibilities, levels of nitrotyrosine and markers for hydroxyl radical formation were measured in two lines of transgenic mice that develop progressive motor neuron disease from expressing human familial ALS-linked SOD1 mutation G37R. Relative to normal mice or mice expressing high levels of wild-type human SOD1, 3-nitrotyrosine levels were elevated by 2- to 3-fold in spinal cords coincident with the earliest pathological abnormalities and remained elevated in spinal cord throughout progression of disease. However, no increases in protein-bound nitrotyrosine were found during any stage of SOD1-mutant-mediated disease in mice or at end stage of sporadic or SOD1-mediated familial human ALS. When salicylate trapping of hydroxyl radicals and measurement of levels of malondialdehyde were used, there was no evidence throughout disease progression in mice for enhanced production of hydroxyl radicals or lipid peroxidation, respectively. The presence of elevated nitrotyrosine levels beginning at the earliest stages of cellular pathology and continuing throughout progression of disease demonstrates that tyrosine nitration is one in vivo aberrant property of this ALS-linked SOD1 mutant. PMID:9207139

  1. Progress with anti-tumor necrosis factor therapeutics for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carlos; Allocca, Mariangela; Danese, Silvio; Fiorino, Gionata

    2015-01-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is a valid, effective and increasingly used option in inflammatory bowel disease management. Nevertheless, further knowledge and therapeutic indications regarding these drugs are still evolving. Anti-TNF therapy may be essential to achieve recently proposed end points, namely mucosal healing, prevention of bowel damage and prevention of patient's disability. Anti-TNF drugs are also suggested to be more effective in early disease, particularly in early Crohn's disease. Moreover, its efficacy for prevention of postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease is still debated. Costs and adverse effects, the relevance of drug monitoring and the possibility of anti-TNF therapy withdrawal in selected patients are still debated issues. This review aimed to describe and discuss the most relevant data about the progress with anti-TNF therapy for the management of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25713992

  2. Disease progression model for Clinical Dementia Rating–Sum of Boxes in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s subjects from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Samtani, Mahesh N; Raghavan, Nandini; Novak, Gerald; Nandy, Partha; Narayan, Vaibhav A

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this analysis was to develop a nonlinear disease progression model, using an expanded set of covariates that captures the longitudinal Clinical Dementia Rating Scale–Sum of Boxes (CDR–SB) scores. These were derived from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative ADNI-1 study, of 301 Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment patients who were followed for 2–3 years. Methods The model describes progression rate and baseline disease score as a function of covariates. The covariates that were tested fell into five groups: a) hippocampal volume; b) serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers; c) demographics and apolipoprotein Epsilon 4 (ApoE4) allele status; d) baseline cognitive tests; and e) disease state and comedications. Results Covariates associated with baseline disease severity were disease state, hippocampal volume, and comedication use. Disease progression rate was influenced by baseline CSF biomarkers, Trail-Making Test part A score, delayed logical memory test score, and current level of impairment as measured by CDR–SB. The rate of disease progression was dependent on disease severity, with intermediate scores around the inflection point score of 10 exhibiting high disease progression rate. The CDR–SB disease progression rate in a typical patient, with late mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer’s disease, was estimated to be approximately 0.5 and 1.4 points/year, respectively. Conclusions In conclusion, this model describes disease progression in terms of CDR–SB changes in patients and its dependency on novel covariates. The CSF biomarkers included in the model discriminate mild cognitive impairment subjects as progressors and nonprogressors. Therefore, the model may be utilized for optimizing study designs, through patient population enrichment and clinical trial simulations. PMID:24926196

  3. High resolution radiographic and fine immunologic definition of TB disease progression in the rhesus macaque.

    PubMed

    Lewinsohn, David M; Tydeman, Ian S; Frieder, Marisa; Grotzke, Jeff E; Lines, Rebecca A; Ahmed, Sheela; Prongay, Kamm D; Primack, Steven L; Colgin, Lois M A; Lewis, Anne D; Lewinsohn, Deborah A

    2006-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in non-human primates parallels human tuberculosis, and provides a valuable vaccine evaluation model. However, this model is limited by the availability of real-time, non-invasive information regarding disease progression. Consequently, we have combined computed tomography scanning with enumeration of antigen-specific T cell responses. Four rhesus monkeys were infected with M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv (1000 cfu) in the right lower lobe via a bronchoscope. All uniformly developed progressive tuberculosis, and required euthanasia at 12 weeks. Computed tomography scanning provided detailed real-time imaging of disease progression. At necropsy, computed tomography and pathohistologic findings were tightly correlated, and characteristic of human disease. Immunologic monitoring demonstrated progressive evolution of high frequency M. tuberculosis-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell responses. Peripheral blood effector cell frequencies were similar to those observed in tissues. In summary, computed tomography scanning in conjunction with immunologic monitoring provides a non-invasive, accurate, and rapid assessment of tuberculosis in the non-human primate. PMID:16952476

  4. CTSH regulates ?-cell function and disease progression in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients

    PubMed Central

    Fløyel, Tina; Brorsson, Caroline; Nielsen, Lotte B.; Miani, Michela; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner; Friedrichsen, Martin; Overgaard, Anne Julie; Berchtold, Lukas A.; Wiberg, Anna; Poulsen, Pernille; Hansen, Lars; Rosinger, Silke; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Ram, Ramesh; Nguyen, Quang; Mehta, Munish; Morahan, Grant; Concannon, Patrick; Bergholdt, Regine; Nielsen, Jens H.; Reinheckel, Thomas; von Herrath, Matthias; Vaag, Allan; Eizirik, Decio Laks; Mortensen, Henrik B.; Størling, Joachim; Pociot, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Over 40 susceptibility loci have been identified for type 1 diabetes (T1D). Little is known about how these variants modify disease risk and progression. Here, we combined in vitro and in vivo experiments with clinical studies to determine how genetic variation of the candidate gene cathepsin H (CTSH) affects disease mechanisms and progression in T1D. The T allele of rs3825932 was associated with lower CTSH expression in human lymphoblastoid cell lines and pancreatic tissue. Proinflammatory cytokines decreased the expression of CTSH in human islets and primary rat ?-cells, and overexpression of CTSH protected insulin-secreting cells against cytokine-induced apoptosis. Mechanistic studies indicated that CTSH exerts its antiapoptotic effects through decreased JNK and p38 signaling and reduced expression of the proapoptotic factors Bim, DP5, and c-Myc. CTSH overexpression also up-regulated Ins2 expression and increased insulin secretion. Additionally, islets from Ctsh?/? mice contained less insulin than islets from WT mice. Importantly, the TT genotype was associated with higher daily insulin dose and faster disease progression in newly diagnosed T1D patients, indicating agreement between the experimental and clinical data. In line with these observations, healthy human subjects carrying the T allele have lower ?-cell function, which was evaluated by glucose tolerance testing. The data provide strong evidence that CTSH is an important regulator of ?-cell function during progression of T1D and reinforce the concept that candidate genes for T1D may affect disease progression by modulating survival and function of pancreatic ?-cells, the target cells of the autoimmune assault. PMID:24982147

  5. Decreased hepatotoxic bile acid composition and altered synthesis in progressive human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, April D. [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Novak, Petr [Biology Centre ASCR, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Ceske Budejovice 37001 (Czech Republic); Shipkova, Petia; Aranibar, Nelly; Robertson, Donald; Reily, Michael D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lu, Zhenqiang [The Arizona Statistical Consulting Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Lehman-McKeeman, Lois D. [Pharmaceutical Candidate Optimization, Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Cherrington, Nathan J., E-mail: cherrington@pharmacy.arizona.edu [University of Arizona, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Bile acids (BAs) have many physiological roles and exhibit both toxic and protective influences within the liver. Alterations in the BA profile may be the result of disease induced liver injury. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease characterized by the pathophysiological progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The hypothesis of this study is that the ‘classical’ (neutral) and ‘alternative’ (acidic) BA synthesis pathways are altered together with hepatic BA composition during progression of human NAFLD. This study employed the use of transcriptomic and metabolomic assays to study the hepatic toxicologic BA profile in progressive human NAFLD. Individual human liver samples diagnosed as normal, steatosis, and NASH were utilized in the assays. The transcriptomic analysis of 70 BA genes revealed an enrichment of downregulated BA metabolism and transcription factor/receptor genes in livers diagnosed as NASH. Increased mRNA expression of BAAT and CYP7B1 was observed in contrast to decreased CYP8B1 expression in NASH samples. The BA metabolomic profile of NASH livers exhibited an increase in taurine together with elevated levels of conjugated BA species, taurocholic acid (TCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA). Conversely, cholic acid (CA) and glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) were decreased in NASH liver. These findings reveal a potential shift toward the alternative pathway of BA synthesis during NASH, mediated by increased mRNA and protein expression of CYP7B1. Overall, the transcriptomic changes of BA synthesis pathway enzymes together with altered hepatic BA composition signify an attempt by the liver to reduce hepatotoxicity during disease progression to NASH. - Highlights: ? Altered hepatic bile acid composition is observed in progressive NAFLD. ? Bile acid synthesis enzymes are transcriptionally altered in NASH livers. ? Increased levels of taurine and conjugated bile acids are observed in NASH. ? Hepatic bile acid synthesis shifts toward the alternative pathway in NASH.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid cortisol and clinical disease progression in MCI and dementia of Alzheimer's type.

    PubMed

    Popp, Julius; Wolfsgruber, Steffen; Heuser, Isabella; Peters, Oliver; Hüll, Michael; Schröder, Johannes; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Lewczuk, Piotr; Schneider, Anja; Jahn, Holger; Luckhaus, Christian; Perneczky, Robert; Frölich, Lutz; Wagner, Michael; Maier, Wolfgang; Wiltfang, Jens; Kornhuber, Johannes; Jessen, Frank

    2015-02-01

    Increased peripheral and central nervous system cortisol levels have been reported in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may reflect dysfunction of cerebral components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, brain exposure to high cortisol concentrations may also accelerate disease progression and cognitive decline. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether HPA-axis dysregulation occurs at early clinical stages of AD and whether plasma and CSF cortisol levels are associated with clinical disease progression. Morning plasma and CSF cortisol concentrations were obtained from the subjects with AD dementia, mild cognitive impairment of AD type (MCI-AD), MCI of other type (MCI-O), and controls with normal cognition included in a multicenter study from the German Dementia Competence Network. A clinical and neuropsychological follow-up was performed in a subgroup of participants with MCI-AD, MCI-O, and AD dementia. CSF cortisol concentrations were increased in the subjects with AD dementia or MCI-AD compared with subjects with MCI-O or normal cognition. After controlling for possible confounders including CSF measures of amyloid beta1-42 and total tau, higher baseline CSF cortisol levels were associated with faster clinical worsening and cognitive decline in MCI-AD. The findings suggest that HPA-axis dysregulation occurs at the MCI stage of AD and may accelerate disease progression and cognitive decline. PMID:25435336

  7. Association of plasma clusterin concentration with severity, pathology, and progression in Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Thambisetty, Madhav; Simmons, Andrew; Velayudhan, Latha; Hye, Abdul; Campbell, James; Zhang, Yi; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Westman, Eric; Kinsey, Anna; Güentert, Andreas; Proitsi, Petra; Powell, John; Causevic, Mirsada; Killick, Richard; Lunnon, Katie; Lynham, Steven; Broadstock, Martin; Choudhry, Fahd; Howlett, David R.; Williams, Robert J.; Sharp, Sally I.; Mitchelmore, Cathy; Tunnard, Catherine; Leung, Rufina; Foy, Catherine; O'Brien, Darragh; Breen, Gerome; Furney, Simon; Ward, Malcolm; Kloszewska, Iwona; Mecocci, Patrizia; Soininen, Hilkka; Tsolaki, Magda; Vellas, Bruno; Hodges, Angela; Murphy, Declan; Parkins, Sue; Richardson, Jill; Resnick, Susan M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Wong, Dean F.; Zhou, Yun; Muehlboeck, Sebastian; Evans, Alan; Francis, Paul T.; Spenger, Christian; Lovestone, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Context Blood-based analytes as indicators of pathological processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Objective Combined proteomic and neuroimaging approach to identify plasma proteins associated with AD pathology. Design Discovery-phase proteomic experiments to identify plasma proteins associated with correlates of AD pathology including evidence of atrophy using neuroimaging and more rapid clinical progression, followed by replication using quantitative immunoassay. Extension studies in older non-demented humans using 11C-PiB amyloid imaging and transgenic mice with amyloid pathology. Setting Multi-center European study, AddNeuroMed, and the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) in United States. Participants AD patients, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects and healthy controls with standardized clinical assessments and structural neuroimaging. Plasma samples from non-demented older BLSA participants with brain amyloid imaging by PET. Main outcome measures Association of plasma proteins with brain atrophy, disease severity and rate of clinical progression. Extension studies in man and transgenic mice tested association between plasma proteins and brain amyloid. Results Clusterin/apolipoprotein-J was associated with atrophy of the entorhinal cortex, baseline disease severity and rapid clinical progression in AD. Increased plasma concentration of clusterin was predictive of greater beta amyloid (A?) burden in the medial temporal lobe. Subjects with AD had increased clusterin mRNA in blood but there was no effect of SNPs in the gene encoding clusterin (CLU) with gene or protein expression. Finally, APP/PS1 transgenic mice showed increased plasma clusterin, age-dependent increase in brain clusterin and amyloid and clusterin co-localisation in plaques. Conclusions Clusterin/apolipoprotein-J is a known amyloid chaperone associated with Alzheimer's disease severity, pathology and progression. Increased plasma concentration of clusterin is also associated with greater burden of fibrillar A? in the brain. These results demonstrate an important role of clusterin in the pathogenesis of AD and suggest that alterations in amyloid chaperone proteins may be a biologically relevant peripheral signature of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20603455

  8. Modelling disease progression in Alzheimer's disease: a review of modelling methods used for cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Green, Colin

    2007-01-01

    The literature reporting economic evaluations related to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has developed over the last decade. Most analyses have used economic models to estimate the cost effectiveness of drugs for the treatment of AD. This review considers the range of methods used in the published cost-effectiveness literature to model AD progression and the effect of interventions on the progression of AD. The review builds on and updates an earlier systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies on drugs for AD. Systematic and rigorous methods were used to search the literature for economic evaluations estimating the cost effectiveness of donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine or memantine in AD. The literature search covered a wide range of electronic databases (e.g. MEDLINE, EMBASE), and included literature from the inception of databases up to the end of 2005. The search identified 22 published economic evaluations. An outline and brief critical review of the identified studies is provided, and thereafter the methods used to model disease progression were considered in more detail. The review employs recent guidance on good practice in decision-analytic modelling in HTA to critically review the modelling methods used. Using this guidance, the models are assessed against the broad criteria of model structure, data inputs and assessment of uncertainty and inconsistency. Concerns were noted over the model structure employed in all models. The reliance on cognitive scores to model AD, the progression of the disease, and the effect of treatment on costs and consequences is regarded as a serious limitation in almost all of the studies identified. There are also limitations over the data used to populate published models, especially around the failure of studies to document and establish the basis for the modelling of treatment effects. It is also clear that studies modelling AD progression, and subsequently the cost effectiveness of treatment, have not addressed uncertainty or consistency (internal and/or external) in sufficient detail. Further research is required on more appropriate methods for the modelling of AD progression. In the meantime, future economic evaluations of treatment need to be more explicit on the methods used to model AD, and the data used to populate models. PMID:17803333

  9. Focal association between wall shear stress and clinical coronary artery disease progression.

    PubMed

    Timmins, Lucas H; Molony, David S; Eshtehardi, Parham; McDaniel, Michael C; Oshinski, John N; Samady, Habib; Giddens, Don P

    2015-01-01

    Wall shear stress (WSS) has been investigated as a potential prospective marker to identify rapidly progressing coronary artery disease (CAD) and potential for lesions to acquire vulnerable characteristics. Previous investigations, however, are limited by a lack of understanding of the focal association between WSS and CAD progression (i.e., data are notably spatially averaged). Thus, the aim of this investigation was to examine the focal association between WSS and coronary atherosclerosis progression, and compare these results to those determined by spatial averaging. Five patients with CAD underwent baseline and 6-month follow-up angiographic and virtual histology-intravascular ultrasound imaging to quantify CAD progression. Patient-specific computational fluid dynamics models were constructed to compute baseline WSS values, which were either averaged around the entire artery circumference or examined in focal regions (sectors). Analysis of data within each sector (n = 3871) indicated that circumferentially averaged and sector WSS values were statistically different (p < 0.05) and exhibited poor agreement (concordance correlation coefficient = 0.69). Furthermore, differences were observed between the analysis techniques when examining the association of WSS and CAD progression. This investigation highlights the importance of examining spatially heterogeneous variables at a focal level to reduce the affect of data reduction and warrants implementation in a larger clinical study to determine the predictive power in prospectively identifying rapidly progressing and/or vulnerable coronary plaques. PMID:25316593

  10. High citrate diet delays progression of renal insufficiency in the ClC5 knockout mouse model of Dent's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    VALERIU CEBOTARU; SADHANA KAUL; OLIVIER DEVUYST; HUI CAI; LORRAINE RACUSEN; WILLIAM B GUGGINO; SANDRA E GUGGINO

    2005-01-01

    High citrate diet delays progression of renal insufficiency in the ClC-5 knockout mouse model of Dent's disease.BackgroundDent's disease, an X-linked renal tubular disorder, is characterized by low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis, and progressive renal failure. Dent's disease results from mutations of the voltage-gated chloride channel CLC-5.MethodsWe studied the effect of zero and high citrate diet on renal function of ClC-5

  11. Autoimmune disease leading to pulmonary AL amyloidosis and pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ellender, Claire M; McLean, Catriona; Williams, Trevor J; Snell, Gregory I; Whitford, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    A 33-year-old woman with past history of Sjögren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus presented with dyspnea and syncope secondary to pulmonary hypertension. After progressive symptoms over 4 years, she received bilateral lung transplantation. Histopathology of the explanted lungs showed isolated pulmonary amyloid light-chain amyloidosis and pulmonary cysts. No evidence of systemic amyloidosis was found at the time of transplantation. Seven years post lung transplantation, she remains well with no evidence of systemic amyloidosis recurrence. PMID:26090118

  12. Ion channel genes and human neurological disease: Recent progress, prospects, and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Edward C.; Jan, Lily Yeh

    1999-01-01

    What do epilepsy, migraine headache, deafness, episodic ataxia, periodic paralysis, malignant hyperthermia, and generalized myotonia have in common? These human neurological disorders can be caused by mutations in genes for ion channels. Many of the channel diseases are “paroxysmal disorders” whose principal symptoms occur intermittently in individuals who otherwise may be healthy and active. Some of the ion channels that cause human neurological disease are old acquaintances previously cloned and extensively studied by channel specialists. In other cases, however, disease-gene hunts have led the way to the identification of new channel genes. Progress in the study of ion channels has made it possible to analyze the effects of human neurological disease-causing channel mutations at the level of the single channel, the subcellular domain, the neuronal network, and the behaving organism. PMID:10220366

  13. HIV-1 DNA predicts disease progression and post-treatment virological control.

    PubMed

    Williams, James P; Hurst, Jacob; Stöhr, Wolfgang; Robinson, Nicola; Brown, Helen; Fisher, Martin; Kinloch, Sabine; Cooper, David; Schechter, Mauro; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Fidler, Sarah; Carrington, Mary; Babiker, Abdel; Weber, Jonathan; Koelsch, Kersten K; Kelleher, Anthony D; Phillips, Rodney E; Frater, John

    2014-01-01

    In HIV-1 infection, a population of latently infected cells facilitates viral persistence despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). With the aim of identifying individuals in whom ART might induce a period of viraemic control on stopping therapy, we hypothesised that quantification of the pool of latently infected cells in primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) would predict clinical progression and viral replication following ART. We measured HIV-1 DNA in a highly characterised randomised population of individuals with PHI. We explored associations between HIV-1 DNA and immunological and virological markers of clinical progression, including viral rebound in those interrupting therapy. In multivariable analyses, HIV-1 DNA was more predictive of disease progression than plasma viral load and, at treatment interruption, predicted time to plasma virus rebound. HIV-1 DNA may help identify individuals who could safely interrupt ART in future HIV-1 eradication trials. PMID:25217531

  14. Advancing Drug Innovation for Neglected Diseases—Criteria for Lead Progression

    PubMed Central

    Nwaka, Solomon; Ramirez, Bernadette; Brun, Reto; Maes, Louis; Douglas, Frank; Ridley, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The current drug R&D pipeline for most neglected diseases remains weak, and unlikely to support registration of novel drug classes that meet desired target product profiles in the short term. This calls for sustained investment as well as greater emphasis in the risky upstream drug discovery. Access to technologies, resources, and strong management as well as clear compound progression criteria are factors in the successful implementation of any collaborative drug discovery effort. We discuss how some of these factors have impacted drug discovery for tropical diseases within the past four decades, and highlight new opportunities and challenges through the virtual North–South drug discovery network as well as the rationale for greater participation of institutions in developing countries in product innovation. A set of criteria designed to facilitate compound progression from screening hits to drug candidate selection is presented to guide ongoing efforts. PMID:19707561

  15. Iron and copper in progressive demyelination - New lessons from Skogholt's disease.

    PubMed

    Aspli, Klaus Thanke; Flaten, Trond Peder; Roos, Per M; Holmøy, Trygve; Skogholt, Jon H; Aaseth, Jan

    2015-07-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms of progressive demyelinating disorders including multiple sclerosis are incompletely understood. Increasing evidence indicates a role for trace metals in the progression of several neurodegenerative disorders. The study of Skogholt disease, a recently discovered demyelinating disease affecting both the central and peripheral nervous system, might shed some light on the mechanisms underlying demyelination. Cerebrospinal fluid iron and copper concentrations are about four times higher in Skogholt patients than in controls. The transit into cerebrospinal fluid of these elements from blood probably occurs in protein bound form. We hypothesize that exchangeable fractions of iron and copper are further transferred from cerebrospinal fluid into myelin, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of demyelination. Free or weakly bound iron and copper ions may exert their toxic action on myelin by catalyzing production of oxygen radicals. Similarities to demyelinating processes in multiple sclerosis and other myelinopathies are discussed. PMID:25563774

  16. Progression of Parkinson’s Disease following Thalamic Deep Brain Stimulation for Tremor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Tarsy; Lisa Scollins; Kristin Corapi; Siobhan O’Herron; Diana Apetauerova; Thorkild Norregaard

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the long-term effect of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on motor symptoms and progression of Parkinson’s disease (PD) in PD patients treated for resting and postural\\/action tremor. Thalamic DBS was performed in 17 patients with treatment-resistant resting and postural\\/action tremor. Nine patients were available for follow-up examination a mean of 5.5 years after surgery. Three had tremor-dominant PD.

  17. The role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the progression of chronic kidney disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GIUSEPPE REMUZZI; NORBERTO PERICO; MANUEL MACIA; PIERO RUGGENENTI

    2005-01-01

    The role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the progression of chronic kidney disease The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is a well known regulator of blood pressure (BP) and determinant of target-organ damage. It controls fluid and electrolyte balance through coordinated effects on the heart, blood vessels, and Kidneys. Angiotensin II (AII) is the main effector of the RAAS and exerts its vasoconstrictor

  18. Disease impact in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia: More than meets the eye

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bart W. Smits; Jiske Fermont; Cathérine C. S. Delnooz; Joke S. Kalkman; Gijs Bleijenberg; Baziel G. M. van Engelen

    2011-01-01

    We determined the extent of disease impact in 28 patients with genetically confirmed chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and compared the outcomes to those of matched myotonic dystrophy type I patients.CPEO patients reported a high frequency of severe fatigue (67.9%), pain (96.2%), depression (32.1%) and dependency in daily life (46.4%). The frequency and extent of depression were significantly higher than

  19. Progression to end-stage renal disease in children with posterior urethral valves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Drozdz; M. Drozdz; N. Gretz; K. Möhring; O. Mehls; K. Schärer

    1998-01-01

    .   Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in boys with congenital posterior urethral valves (PUV) have much improved in past\\u000a decades, but the impact of these changes on the progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has rarely been investigated.\\u000a We followed renal function in 20 boys with PUV from diagnosis to ESRD. From the first observation period (1969–1978) to the\\u000a second period

  20. Host and Viral Genetic Correlates of Clinical Definitions of HIV1 Disease Progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Concepción Casado; Sara Colombo; Andri Rauch; Raquel Martínez; Huldrych F. Günthard; Soledad Garcia; Carmen Rodríguez; Jorge Del Romero; Amalio Telenti; Cecilio López-Galíndez; Jean-Pierre Vartanian

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundVarious patterns of HIV-1 disease progression are described in clinical practice and in research. There is a need to assess the specificity of commonly used definitions of long term non-progressor (LTNP) elite controllers (LTNP-EC), viremic controllers (LTNP-VC), and viremic non controllers (LTNP-NC), as well as of chronic progressors (P) and rapid progressors (RP).Methodology and Principal FindingsWe re-evaluated the HIV-1 clinical

  1. Characterization of host genetic expression patterns in HIV-infected individuals with divergent disease progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    María Salgado; Pedro López-Romero; Sergio Callejas; Mariola López; Pablo Labarga; Ana Dopazo; Vincent Soriano; Berta Rodés

    2011-01-01

    The course of HIV-1 infection shows a variety of clinical phenotypes with an important involvement of host factors. We compare host gene expression patterns in CD3+ T cells from two of these phenotypes: long-term non-progressor patients (LTNP) and matched control patients with standard HIV disease progression. Array analysis revealed over-expression of 322 genes in progressors and 136 in LTNP. Up-regulated

  2. Serum inflammatory markers and clinical\\/MRI markers of disease progression in multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Giovannoni; D. H. Miller; N. A. Losseff; M. Sailer; N. Lewellyn-Smith; A. J. Thompson; E. J. Thompson

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether mean serum levels of inflammatory markers when measured serially correlate with\\u000a disease progression or putative MRI markers of axonal loss in a cohort of well-characterised multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.\\u000a Serial serum levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1),\\u000a nitric oxide metabolites nitrate and nitrite (NOx),

  3. New pathways to renal damage: role of ADMA in retarding renal disease progression.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Seiji; Yamagishi, Sho-Ichi; Okuda, Seiya

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, increasing evidence has been found that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a strong cardiovascular risk factor, and therefore, the concept of cardiorenal association is well recognized. One possible factor that could explain this link seems to be endothelial dysfunction. It is widely recognized that endothelial dysfunction plays important roles in both the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. In addition, we have come to understand that endothelial dysfunction may be a causative factor for proteinuria and/or progression of CKD. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a naturally occurring L-arginine analogue found in plasma and various types of tissues, acting as an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in vivo. Plasma levels of ADMA are elevated in patients with CKD and have been found to be a strong biomarker or predictor for future cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as the progression of renal injury. These findings suggest that elevation of ADMA-mediated endothelial dysfunction may be a missing link between CVD and CKD. In this review, we discuss the biology of ADMA, especially focusing on its role in the progression of CKD. PMID:20349427

  4. -374 T/A RAGE Polymorphism Is Associated with Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Subjects Affected by Nephrocardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Baragetti, Ivano; Norata, Giuseppe Danilo; Sarcina, Cristina; Baragetti, Andrea; Rastelli, Francesco; Buzzi, Laura; Grigore, Liliana; Garlaschelli, Katia; Pozzi, Claudio; Catapano, Alberico Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients present elevated advanced glycation end products (AGEs) blood levels. AGEs promote inflammation through binding to their receptor (RAGE), located on the membrane of mesangial cells, endothelial cells and macrophages. Several genetic polymorphisms influence RAGE transcription, expression and activity, including the substitution of a thymine with an adenine (T/A) in the position -374 of the gene promoter of RAGE. Our study investigates the role of -374 T/A RAGE polymorphism in CKD progression in subjects affected by nephrocardiovascular disease. Methods 174 patients (119 males (68.4%) mean age 67.2±0.88 years; 55 females (31.6%): mean age 65.4±1.50 years) affected by mild to moderate nephrocardiovascular CKD were studied. Each subject was prospectively followed for 84 months, every 6–9 months. The primary endpoint of the study was a rise of serum creatinine concentrations above 50% of basal values or end stage renal disease. Results Carriers of the A/A and T/A genotype presented higher plasma levels of interleukin 6 (A/A 29.5±15.83; T/A 30.0±7.89, vs T/T 12.3±5.04 p?=?0.01 for both) and Macrophages chemoattractant protein 1 (A/A 347.1±39.87; T/A 411.8±48.41, vs T/T 293.5±36.20, p?=?0.04 for both) than T/T subjects. Carriers of the A allele presented a faster CKD progression than wild type patients (Log-Rank test: Chi square?=?6.84, p?=?0,03). Cox regression showed that -374 T/A RAGE polymorphism (p?=?0.037), albuminuria (p?=?0.01) and LDL cholesterol (p?=?0.038) were directly associated with CKD progression. HDL cholesterol (p?=?0.022) and BMI (p?=?0.04) were inversely related to it. No relationship was found between circulating RAGE and renal function decline. Conclusions -374 T/A RAGE polymorphism could be associated with CKD progression and inflammation. Further studies should confirm this finding and address whether inhibiting RAGE downstream signalling would be beneficial for CKD progression. PMID:23593165

  5. A longitudinal EEG study of Alzheimer's disease progression based on a complex network approach.

    PubMed

    Morabito, Francesco Carlo; Campolo, Maurizio; Labate, Domenico; Morabito, Giuseppe; Bonanno, Lilla; Bramanti, Alessia; de Salvo, Simona; Marra, Angela; Bramanti, Placido

    2015-03-01

    A complex network approach is combined with time dynamics in order to conduct a space-time analysis applicable to longitudinal studies aimed to characterize the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in individual patients. The network analysis reveals how patient-specific patterns are associated with disease progression, also capturing the widespread effect of local disruptions. This longitudinal study is carried out on resting electroence phalography (EEGs) of seven AD patients. The test is repeated after a three months' period. The proposed methodology allows to extract some averaged information and regularities on the patients' cohort and to quantify concisely the disease evolution. From the functional viewpoint, the progression of AD is shown to be characterized by a loss of connected areas here measured in terms of network parameters (characteristic path length, clustering coefficient, global efficiency, degree of connectivity and connectivity density). The differences found between baseline and at follow-up are statistically significant. Finally, an original topographic multiscale approach is proposed that yields additional results. PMID:25655033

  6. The effects of electroshock on immune function and disease progression in juvenile spring chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanderKooi, S.P.; Maule, A.G.; Schreck, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Although much is known about the effects of electroshock on fish physiology, consequences to the immune system and disease progression have not received attention. Our objectives were to determine the effects of electroshock on selected immune function in juvenile spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, the mechanism of any observed alteration, and the effects of electroshock on disease progression. We found that the ability of anterior kidney leukocytes to generate antibody-producing cells (APC) was suppressed 3 h after a pulsed-DC electroshock (300 V, 50 Hz, 8 ms pulse width) but recovered within 24 h. This response was similar in timing and magnitude to that of fish subjected to an acute handling stress. The mechanism of suppression is hypothesized to be via an elevation of plasma cortisol concentrations in response to stress. Other monitored immune functions, skin mucous lysozyme levels, and respiratory burst activity were not affected by exposure to electroshock. The progression of a Renibacterium salmoninarum (RS) infection may have been altered after exposure to an electroshock. The electroshock did not affect infection severity or the number of mortalities, but may have accelerated the time to death. The limited duration of APC suppression and lack of effects on lysozyme and respiratory burst, as well as infection severity and mortality levels in RS-infected fish, led us to conclude that electrofishing under the conditions we tested is a safe procedure in regards to immunity and disease.

  7. Aggregated  -synuclein activates microglia: a process leading to disease progression in Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zhang; Tongguang Wang; Zhong Pei; David S. Miller; Xuefei Wu; Michelle L. Block; Belinda Wilson; Wanqin Zhang; Yong Zhou; Jau-Shyong Hong; Jing Zhang

    2005-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that an inflammatory process in the substantia nigra, characterized by activation of resident microglia, likely either initiates or aggravates nigral neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). To study the mechanisms by which nigral microglia are activated in PD, the potential role of -synuclein (a major component of Lewy bodies that can cause neurodegeneration when aggregated)

  8. Progress in AlInN-GaN Bragg reflectors: Application to a microcavity light emitting diode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Dorsaz; J.-F. Carlin; S. Gradecak; M. Ilegems

    2005-01-01

    We report on the progress in the growth of highly reflective AlInN-GaN distributed Bragg reflectors deposited by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Al1-xInxN layers with an In content around x~0.17 are lattice-matched to GaN, thus avoiding strain-related issues in the mirror while keeping a high refractive index contrast of about 7%. Consequently, a reflectivity value as high as 99.4% at 450

  9. UPDRS ACTIVITY OF DAILY LIVING SCORE AS MARKER OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE PROGRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Madaline B.; Wylie, Scott A.; Frysinger, Robert C.; Patrie, James T.; Huss, Diane S.; Currie, Lillian J.; Wooten, G. Frederick

    2011-01-01

    The Activities of Daily Living (ADL) subscore of the UPDRS captures the impact of Parkinson’s Disease (PD) on daily function and may be less affected than other subsections by variability associated with drug cycle and motor fluctuations. We examined UPDRS mentation, ADL and motor subscores in 888 patients with idiopathic PD. Multiple linear regression analyses determined the association between disease duration and UPDRS subscores as a function of medication status at examination and in a subset of patients with multiple examinations. Independent of medication status and across cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, ADL subscores showed a stronger and more stable association with disease duration than other UPDRS subscores after adjusting for age of disease onset. The association between disease duration and the motor subscore depended on medication status. The strong association between ADL subscore and disease duration in PD suggests that this measure may serve as a better marker of disease progression than signs and symptoms assessed in other UPDRS sections. PMID:18951537

  10. Differential Virulence and Disease Progression following Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Infection of the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    PubMed Central

    Via, Laura E.; Weiner, Danielle M.; Schimel, Daniel; Lin, Philana Ling; Dayao, Emmanuel; Tankersley, Sarah L.; Cai, Ying; Coleman, M. Teresa; Tomko, Jaime; Paripati, Praveen; Orandle, Marlene; Kastenmayer, Robin J.; Tartakovsky, Michael; Rosenthal, Alexander; Portevin, Damien; Eum, Seok Yong; Lahouar, Saher; Gagneux, Sebastien; Young, Douglas B.; Flynn, JoAnne L.

    2013-01-01

    Existing small-animal models of tuberculosis (TB) rarely develop cavitary disease, limiting their value for assessing the biology and dynamics of this highly important feature of human disease. To develop a smaller primate model with pathology similar to that seen in humans, we experimentally infected the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) with diverse strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis of various pathogenic potentials. These included recent isolates of the modern Beijing lineage, the Euro-American X lineage, and M. africanum. All three strains produced fulminant disease in this animal with a spectrum of progression rates and clinical sequelae that could be monitored in real time using 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT). Lesion pathology at sacrifice revealed the entire spectrum of lesions observed in human TB patients. The three strains produced different rates of progression to disease, various extents of extrapulmonary dissemination, and various degrees of cavitation. The majority of live births in this species are twins, and comparison of results from siblings with different infecting strains allowed us to establish that the infection was highly reproducible and that the differential virulence of strains was not simply host variation. Quantitative assessment of disease burden by FDG-PET/CT provided an accurate reflection of the pathology findings at necropsy. These results suggest that the marmoset offers an attractive small-animal model of human disease that recapitulates both the complex pathology and spectrum of disease observed in humans infected with various M. tuberculosis strain clades. PMID:23716617

  11. Funding agencies and disease organizations: resources and recommendations to facilitate ALS clinical research.

    PubMed

    Chad, David A; Bidichandani, Sanjay; Bruijn, Lucie; Capra, J Donald; Dickie, Brian; Ferguson, John; Figlewicz, Denise; Forsythe, Melissa; Kaufmann, Petra; Kirshner, Annette; Monti, William

    2013-05-01

    Ten groups presented their perspectives on facilitating clinical research in ALS including four federal agencies, four disease organizations, one foundation and one advocacy group. The federal agencies (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Office of Rare Diseases Research, Department of Defense) encourage fostering a team approach between pre-clinical and clinical research investigators, coordinating with patient groups in the early phases of clinical studies, enhancing private and public partnerships, and investigating the interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental exposure. The disease organizations (Muscular Dystrophy Association, ALS Association, ALS Society of Canada, and the Motor Neurone Disease Association UK) support fellowship training programs to develop ALS clinician scientists, and encourage work on the epidemiology of ALS, on genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that are relevant to ALS pathogenesis, on developing ALS registries and biobanks, and building bridges of collaboration among study groups. The Foundation supports innovative projects, including stem-cell research, and Patient Advocacy is committed to supporting excellence in ALS research and patient care, and believes strongly in enhancing communication between patients and members of the research community. PMID:23678881

  12. Cycad neurotoxins, consumption of flying foxes, and ALS-PDC disease in Guam.

    PubMed

    Cox, Paul Alan; Sacks, Oliver W

    2002-03-26

    The Chamorro people of Guam have been afflicted with a complex of neurodegenerative diseases (now known as ALS-PDC) with similarities to ALS, AD, and PD at a far higher rate than other populations throughout the world. Chamorro consumption of flying foxes may have generated sufficiently high cumulative doses of plant neurotoxins to result in ALS-PDC neuropathologies, since the flying foxes forage on neurotoxic cycad seeds. PMID:11914415

  13. Vitamin D Deficiency Aggravates Chronic Kidney Disease Progression after Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Janaína Garcia; de Bragança, Ana Carolina; Canale, Daniele; Shimizu, Maria Heloisa Massola; Sanches, Talita Rojas; Moysés, Rosa Maria Affonso; Andrade, Lúcia; Seguro, Antonio Carlos; Volpini, Rildo Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite a significant improvement in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD), its incidence and prevalence has been increasing over the years. Progressive renal fibrosis is present in CKD and involves the participation of several cytokines, including Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1). Besides cardiovascular diseases and infections, several studies show that Vitamin D status has been considered as a non-traditional risk factor for the progression of CKD. Given the importance of vitamin D in the maintenance of essential physiological functions, we studied the events involved in the chronic kidney disease progression in rats submitted to ischemia/reperfusion injury under vitamin D deficiency (VDD). Methods Rats were randomized into four groups: Control; VDD; ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI); and VDD+IRI. At the 62 day after sham or IRI surgery, we measured inulin clearance, biochemical variables and hemodynamic parameters. In kidney tissue, we performed immunoblotting to quantify expression of Klotho, TGF-?, and vitamin D receptor (VDR); gene expression to evaluate renin, angiotensinogen, and angiotensin-converting enzyme; and immunohistochemical staining for ED1 (macrophages), type IV collagen, fibronectin, vimentin, and ?-smooth mucle actin. Histomorphometric studies were performed to evaluate fractional interstitial area. Results IRI animals presented renal hypertrophy, increased levels of mean blood pressure and plasma PTH. Furthermore, expansion of the interstitial area, increased infiltration of ED1 cells, increased expression of collagen IV, fibronectin, vimentin and ?-actin, and reduced expression of Klotho protein were observed. VDD deficiency contributed to increased levels of plasma PTH as well as for important chronic tubulointerstitial changes (fibrosis, inflammatory infiltration, tubular dilation and atrophy), increased expression of TGF-?1 and decreased expression of VDR and Klotho protein observed in VDD+IRI animals. Conclusion Through inflammatory pathways and involvement of TGF-?1 growth factor, VDD could be considered as an aggravating factor for tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis progression following acute kidney injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:25222475

  14. Research progress on flavonoids isolated from traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jianjun; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Liu, Yang

    2013-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe condition in aging countries. The currently used drugs including donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, and memantine are effective in managing the symptoms. However, they are hardly capable of preventing, halting, or reversing the disease. In the long history of development of traditional Chinese medicine, much experience has accumulated and is summarized in treatment of diseases that correspond to the concept of AD. In recent years, exploration of natural active ingredients from medicinal herbs for treatment of AD has attracted substantial attention. Some flavonoids have been revealed to have a variety of biological actions such as scavenging free radicals, inhibiting neuron apoptosis, and nurturing neuronal cells that constitute the basis for treatment of AD. In this article, we review recent research progress on flavonoids isolated from traditional Chinese medicine against AD and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25343094

  15. Research progress on flavonoids isolated from traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jianjun; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Liu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Summary Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe condition in aging countries. The currently used drugs including donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, and memantine are effective in managing the symptoms. However, they are hardly capable of preventing, halting, or reversing the disease. In the long history of development of traditional Chinese medicine, much experience has accumulated and is summarized in treatment of diseases that correspond to the concept of AD. In recent years, exploration of natural active ingredients from medicinal herbs for treatment of AD has attracted substantial attention. Some flavonoids have been revealed to have a variety of biological actions such as scavenging free radicals, inhibiting neuron apoptosis, and nurturing neuronal cells that constitute the basis for treatment of AD. In this article, we review recent research progress on flavonoids isolated from traditional Chinese medicine against AD and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25343094

  16. Differential expression and processing of matrix metalloproteinase 19 marks progression of gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Cervinková, M; Horák, P; Kanchev, I; Mat?j, R; Fanta, J; Sequens, R; Kašpárek, P; Sarnová, L; Ture?ková, J; Sedlá?ek, R

    2014-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), responsible for extracellular matrix remodelling and processing of numerous soluble and cell-surface proteins, appear to play important roles in pathogenesis of gastrointestinal diseases. MMPs influence migration of inflammatory cells, mucosal destruction, matrix deposition and degradation. In this study, we analysed the expression of MMP-19 in the main forms of gastrointestinal diseases including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and colorectal carcinoma. We identified prominent MMP-19 expression in unaffected areas of intestinal epithelia and macrophages but not in other cells or tissues. Abundant expression of MMP-19 was also found in the endothelium of blood and lymphatic vessels of inflamed intestinal tissue. High MMP-19 immunoreactivity was also associated with macrophages in inflamed areas and myenteric plexuses. In comparison to the intestinal epithelium, all these cell types and compartments appeared to express MMP-19 irrespective of the disease pathogenesis and progression. Intestinal epithelia exhibited striking differential immunoreactivity for MMP-19. While immunoreactivity of monoclonal antibody recognizing the propeptide domain declined in virtually all IBD and colorectal carcinoma samples, other polyclonal antibodies against the hinge region and propetide domain did not show such an obvious decrease. Additional Western blotting analysis revealed that the antibodies against MMP-19 recognize differently processed forms of this MMP. The disappearance of immunoreactivity of the monoclonal anti-propeptide domain antibody does not mean down-regulation of MMP-19, but processing of the immature form. As this processing likely leads to the activation of this MMP, the differential staining pattern may be an important sign of disease progression. PMID:25056434

  17. Pharmacological Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease: Is it Progressing Adequately?

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Between 1993 and 2000 four acetylcholinesterase inhibitors were marketed as a symptomatic treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), as well as memantine in 2003. Current research is focused on finding drugs that favorably modify the course of the disease. However, their entrance into the market does not seem to be imminent. Research Development: The aim of AD research is to find substances that inhibit certain elements of the AD pathogenic chain (beta- and gamma-secretase inhibitors, alpha-secretase stimulants, beta-amyloid aggregability reducers or disaggregation and elimination inductors, as well as tau-hyperphosphorylation, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage reducers, among other action mechanisms). Demonstrating a disease’s retarding effect demands longer trials than those necessary to ascertain symptomatic improvement. Besides, a high number of patients (thousands of them) is necessary, all of which turns out to be difficult and costly. Furthermore, it would be necessary to count on diagnosis and progression markers in the disease’s pre-clinical stage, markers for specific phenotypes, as well as high-selectivity molecules acting only where necessary. In order to compensate these difficulties, drugs acting on several defects of the pathogenic chain or showing both symptomatic and neuroprotective action simultaneously are being researched. Conclusions: There are multiple molecules used in research to modify AD progression. Although it turns out to be difficult to obtain drugs with sufficient efficacy so that their marketing is approved, if they were achieved they would lead to a reduction of AD prevalence. PMID:19461897

  18. Comparison of cognitive and UHDRS measures in monitoring disease progression in Huntington’s disease: a 12-month longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Progressive cognitive decline is a feature of Huntington’s disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative movement disorder. Comprehensive neuropsychological testing is the ‘gold standard’ to establish cognitive status but is often impractical in time-constrained clinics. The study evaluated the utility of brief cognitive tests (MMSE and MoCA), UHDRS measures and a comprehensive neuropsychological tests battery in monitoring short-term disease progression in HD. Twenty-two manifest HD patients and 22 matched controls were assessed at baseline and 12-month. A linear mixed-effect model showed that although the HD group had minimal change in overall global cognition after 12 months, they did show a significant decline relative to the control group. The controls exhibited a practice effect in most of the cognitive domain scores over time. Cognitive decline at 12-month in HD was found in the executive function domain but the effect of this on global cognitive score was masked by the improvement in their language domain score. The varying practice effects by cognitive domain with repeated testing indicates the importance of comparing HD patients to control group in research trials and that cognitive progression over 12 months in HD should not be judged by changes in global cognitive score. The three brief cognitive tests effectively described cognition of HD patients on cross-sectional analysis. The UHDRS cognitive component, which focuses on testing executive function and had low variance over time, is a more reliable brief substitute for comprehensive neuropsychological testing than MMSE and MoCA in monitoring cognitive changes in HD patients after 12 months. PMID:25053996

  19. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers and the general public. WHO has developed global and regional oral health databanks for surveillance, and international projects have designed oral health indicators for use in oral health information systems for assessing the quality of oral health care and surveillance systems. Modern oral health information systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease and in health promotion may assist countries to implement effective public health programmes to the benefit of the poor and disadvantaged population groups worldwide. PMID:16211160

  20. Using biomarkers to stage disease progression in a lethal mousepox model treated with CMX001

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Scott; Schriewer, Jill; Oberle, Christina; Robertson, Alice; Lanier, Randall; Painter, George; Buller, R Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background The emergence of human monkeypox and the potential use of recombinant variola and monkeypox viruses as biological terrorist agents have necessitated the development of therapeutic and prophylactic therapies. The primary, or index, cases of smallpox and/or human monkeypox will likely be identified by a characteristic rash. Effective biomarkers will be required to monitor disease progression, guide the choice of therapeutic intervention strategies and evaluate their efficacies. To address this we have evaluated several biomarkers of disease in a lethal mousepox model. Methods The efficacy of a single dose of a hexadecyloxypropyl ester of cidofovir (CMX001) at 20, 25 and 30 mg/ kg doses administered on days 4, 5, 6 and 7 post-infection was evaluated in A/Ncr mice intranasally infected with low doses of ectromelia virus (<20 plaque-forming units). Mice were monitored for weight loss, blood interferon-? levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase, viral DNA copies and neutrophilia levels to stage disease progression. Results We have used these biomarkers to establish the optimal dosing regimen for treatment and reveal that a single dose of 25 mg/kg of CMX001 can be efficacious at treating lethal mousepox when administered on days 4 or 5 post-infection. This dose significantly reduces ALT, interferon-? and DNA copies found in the blood of infected animals. Conclusions A single dose regimen of CMX001 is efficacious at treating mousepox. Disease progression and antiviral efficacy can be monitored using several biomarkers that could readily be used in the case of a human monkeypox or smallpox outbreak. PMID:19043920

  1. Vgf is a novel biomarker associated with muscle weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), with a potential role in disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhong; Lange, Dale J; Ho, Lap; Bonini, Sara; Shao, Belinda; Salton, Stephen R; Thomas, Sunil; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2008-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. Previous proteomic evidence revealed that the content of certain peptide fragments including Vgf-derived peptide aa 398-411 (Vgf(398-411)) of the precursor Vgf protein in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) correctly identified patients with ALS from normal and disease controls. Using quantitative ELISA immunoassay we found that the CSF levels of Vgf decreases with muscle weakness in patients with ALS. In SOD1 G93A transgenic mice, loss of full-length Vgf content in CSF, serum and in SMI-32 immunopositive spinal cord motor neurons is noted in asymptomatic animals (approximately 75 days old) and continues to show a progressive decline as animals weaken. In vitro studies show that viral-mediated exogenous Vgf expression in primary mixed spinal cord neuron cultures attenuates excitotoxic injury. Thus, while Vgf may be a reliable biomarker of progression of muscle weakness in patients with ALS, restoration of Vgf expression in spinal cord motor neurons may therapeutically rescue spinal cord motorneurons against excitotoxic injury. PMID:18432310

  2. Vgf is a novel biomarker associated with muscle weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), with a potential role in disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhong; Lange, Dale J.; Ho, Lap; Bonini, Sara; Shao, Belinda; Salton, Stephen R.; Thomas, Sunil; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2008-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. Previous proteomic evidence revealed that the content of certain peptide fragments including Vgf-derived peptide aa 398-411 (Vgf398-411) of the precursor Vgf protein in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) correctly identified patients with ALS from normal and disease controls. Using quantitative ELISA immunoassay we found that the CSF levels of Vgf decreases with muscle weakness in patients with ALS. In SOD1 G93A transgenic mice, loss of full-length Vgf content in CSF, serum and in SMI-32 immunopositive spinal cord motor neurons is noted in asymptomatic animals (approximately 75 days old) and continues to show a progressive decline as animals weaken. In vitro studies show that viral-mediated exogenous Vgf expression in primary mixed spinal cord neuron cultures attenuates excitotoxic injury. Thus, while Vgf may be a reliable biomarker of progression of muscle weakness in patients with ALS, restoration of Vgf expression in spinal cord motor neurons may therapeutically rescue spinal cord motorneurons against excitotoxic injury. PMID:18432310

  3. Phenotypic transition of microglia into astrocyte-like cells associated with disease onset in a model of inherited ALS

    PubMed Central

    Trias, Emiliano; Díaz-Amarilla, Pablo; Olivera-Bravo, Silvia; Isasi, Eugenia; Drechsel, Derek A.; Lopez, Nathan; Bradford, C. Samuel; Ireton, Kyle E.; Beckman, Joseph S.; Barbeito, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Microglia and reactive astrocytes accumulate in the spinal cord of rats expressing the Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked SOD1 G93A mutation. We previously reported that the rapid progression of paralysis in ALS rats is associated with the appearance of proliferative astrocyte-like cells that surround motor neurons. These cells, designated as Aberrant Astrocytes (AbA cells) because of their atypical astrocytic phenotype, exhibit high toxicity to motor neurons. However, the cellular origin of AbA cells remains unknown. Because AbA cells are labeled with the proliferation marker Ki67, we analyzed the phenotypic makers of proliferating glial cells that surround motor neurons by immunohistochemistry. The number of Ki67 +AbA cells sharply increased in symptomatic rats, displaying large cell bodies with processes embracing motor neurons. Most were co-labeled with astrocytic marker GFAP concurrently with the microglial markers Iba1 and CD163. Cultures of spinal cord prepared from symptomatic SOD1 G93A rats yielded large numbers of microglia expressing Iba1, CD11b, and CD68. Cells sorted for CD11b expression by flow cytometry transformed into AbA cells within two weeks. During these two weeks, the expression of microglial markers largely disappeared, while GFAP and S100? expression increased. The phenotypic transition to AbA cells was stimulated by forskolin. These findings provide evidence for a subpopulation of proliferating microglial cells in SOD1 G93A rats that undergo a phenotypic transition into AbA cells after onset of paralysis that may promote the fulminant disease progression. These cells could be a therapeutic target for slowing paralysis progression in ALS. PMID:24399933

  4. Phenotypic transition of microglia into astrocyte-like cells associated with disease onset in a model of inherited ALS.

    PubMed

    Trias, Emiliano; Díaz-Amarilla, Pablo; Olivera-Bravo, Silvia; Isasi, Eugenia; Drechsel, Derek A; Lopez, Nathan; Bradford, C Samuel; Ireton, Kyle E; Beckman, Joseph S; Barbeito, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Microglia and reactive astrocytes accumulate in the spinal cord of rats expressing the Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-linked SOD1 (G93A) mutation. We previously reported that the rapid progression of paralysis in ALS rats is associated with the appearance of proliferative astrocyte-like cells that surround motor neurons. These cells, designated as Aberrant Astrocytes (AbA cells) because of their atypical astrocytic phenotype, exhibit high toxicity to motor neurons. However, the cellular origin of AbA cells remains unknown. Because AbA cells are labeled with the proliferation marker Ki67, we analyzed the phenotypic makers of proliferating glial cells that surround motor neurons by immunohistochemistry. The number of Ki67 (+)AbA cells sharply increased in symptomatic rats, displaying large cell bodies with processes embracing motor neurons. Most were co-labeled with astrocytic marker GFAP concurrently with the microglial markers Iba1 and CD163. Cultures of spinal cord prepared from symptomatic SOD1 (G93A) rats yielded large numbers of microglia expressing Iba1, CD11b, and CD68. Cells sorted for CD11b expression by flow cytometry transformed into AbA cells within two weeks. During these two weeks, the expression of microglial markers largely disappeared, while GFAP and S100? expression increased. The phenotypic transition to AbA cells was stimulated by forskolin. These findings provide evidence for a subpopulation of proliferating microglial cells in SOD1 (G93A) rats that undergo a phenotypic transition into AbA cells after onset of paralysis that may promote the fulminant disease progression. These cells could be a therapeutic target for slowing paralysis progression in ALS. PMID:24399933

  5. Rapidly progressive atypical parkinsonism associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and motor neuron disease

    PubMed Central

    Espay, Alberto J; Spina, Salvatore; Houghton, David J; Murrell, Jill R; de Courten-Myers, Gabrielle M; Ghetti, Bernardino; Litvan, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report the rare but distinct clinical and neuropathological phenotype of non-familial, rapidly progressive parkinsonism and dementia associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration with motor neuron disease (FTLD-MND). Methods Subjects included two 70-year-old women presenting with rapidly progressive severe postural instability, axial-predominant parkinsonism, oculomotor dysfunction and frontal-predominant dementia with language impairment and pseudobulbar palsy. One had diffuse weakness without signs of lower motor neuron disease. Post-mortem evaluations included immunohistochemistry with antiphospho-TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) and genetic analysis of the TARDBP and PGRN genes. Results Subjects died within 14 months from symptom onset. TDP-43-positive neuronal intracytoplasmic inclusions were prominent in the primary motor cortex, granule cell layer of the hippocampus, and several cranial and spinal cord nuclei. TDP-43 globular glial inclusions (GGI) were identified in one case. There were no mutations in PGRN or TARDBP genes. Conclusions FTLD-MND due to TDP-43-proteinopathy should be considered in patients with rapidly progressive parkinsonism and dementia phenotype, especially when aphasia and/or weakness are also present. PMID:20587488

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid ?-synuclein predicts cognitive decline in Parkinson disease progression in the DATATOP cohort.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Tessandra; Liu, Changqin; Ginghina, Carmen; Cain, Kevin C; Auinger, Peggy; Cholerton, Brenna; Shi, Min; Zhang, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Most patients with Parkinson disease (PD) develop both cognitive and motor impairment, and biomarkers for progression are urgently needed. Although ?-synuclein is altered in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with PD, it is not known whether it predicts motor or cognitive deterioration. We examined clinical data and ?-synuclein in >300 unmedicated patients with PD who participated in the deprenyl and tocopherol antioxidative therapy of parkinsonism (DATATOP) study, with up to 8 years of follow-up. Longitudinal measures of motor and cognitive function were studied before (phase 1) and during (phase 2) levodopa therapy; cerebrospinal fluid was collected at the beginning of each phase. Correlations and linear mixed models were used to assess ?-synuclein association with disease severity and prediction of progression in the subsequent follow-up period. Despite decreasing ?-synuclein (phase 1 to phase 2 change of -0.05 ± 0.21 log-transformed values, P < 0.001), no correlations were observed between ?-synuclein and motor symptoms. Longitudinally, lower ?-synuclein predicted better preservation of cognitive function by several measures [Selective Reminding Test total recall ?-synuclein × time interaction effect coefficient, -0.12 (P = 0.037); delayed recall, -0.05 (P = 0.002); New Dot Test, -0.03 (P = 0.002)]. Thus, ?-synuclein, although not clinically useful for motor progression, might predict cognitive decline, and future longitudinal studies should include this outcome for further validation. PMID:24625392

  7. Changes in network activity with the progression of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chaorui; Tang, Chengke; Feigin, Andrew; Lesser, Martin; Ma, Yilong; Pourfar, Michael; Dhawan, Vijay; Eidelberg, David

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with abnormal activity in spatially distributed neural systems mediating the motor and cognitive manifestations of this disorder. Metabolic PET studies have demonstrated that this illness is characterized by a set of reproducible functional brain networks that correlate with these clinical features. The time at which these abnormalities appear is unknown, as is their relationship to concurrent clinical and dopaminergic indices of disease progression. In this longitudinal study, 15 early stage PD patients (age 58.0 ± 10.2 years; Hoehn and Yahr Stage 1.2 ± 0.3) were enrolled within 2 years of diagnosis. The subjects underwent multitracer PET imaging at baseline, 24 and 48 months. At each timepoint they were scanned with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to assess longitudinal changes in regional glucose utilization and in the expression of the PD-related motor (PDRP) and cognitive metabolic covariance patterns (PDCP). At each timepoint the subjects also underwent PET imaging with [18F]-fluoropropyl ?CIT (FP-CIT) to quantify longitudinal changes in caudate and putamen dopamine transporter (DAT) binding. Regional metabolic changes across the three timepoints were localized using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Longitudinal changes in regional metabolism and network activity, caudate/putamen DAT binding, and Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor ratings were assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA). Relationships between these measures of disease progression were assessed by computing within-subject correlation coefficients. We found that disease progression was associated with increasing metabolism in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and internal globus pallidus (GPi) (P<0.001), as well as in the dorsal pons and primary motor cortex (P<0.0001). Advancing disease was also associated with declining metabolism in the prefrontal and inferior parietal regions (P<0.001). PDRP expression was elevated at baseline relative to healthy control subjects (P<0.04), and increased progressively over time (P<0.0001). PDCP activity also increased with time (P<0.0001). However, these changes in network activity were slower than for the PDRP (P<0.04), reaching abnormal levels only at the final timepoint. Changes in PDRP activity, but not PDCP activity, correlated with concurrent declines in striatal DAT binding (P<0.01) and increases in motor ratings (P<0.005). Significant within-subject correlations (P<0.01) were also evident between the latter two progression indices. The early stages of PD are associated with progressive increases and decreases in regional metabolism at key nodes of the motor and cognitive networks that characterize the illness. Potential disease-modifying therapies may alter the time course of one or both of these abnormal networks. PMID:17470495

  8. Potential Drugs and Methods for Preventing or Delaying the Progression of Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Youssef

    2012-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant inherited and progressive neurodegenerative disorder with motor dysfunction and cognitive deficits. Although, there are no treatments to delay the appearance and the progression of HD, there are potential drugs currently in preclinical and clinical trials that are focused on HD therapy. The signaling pathways involved in HD are not yet clearly elucidated; however, expression of mutant huntingtin protein is considered a key factor in the induction and/or progression of HD. The demonstration that the onset and progression of HD in models of transgenic mice, in particular, are delayed or improved by the application of neurotrophic factors has emphasized their importance in neuroprotection in HD. In addition, other compounds targeting the HD gene or mutant huntingtin protein are currently in preclinical and clinical testing and may show promising neuroprotective effects. There are current patented drugs that are currently being considered as potential therapeutics for HD. These patented drugs may provide promising therapy for HD. PMID:21585328

  9. MR of brain involvement in progressive facial hemiatrophy (Romberg disease): Reconsideration of a syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Terstegge, K.; Hosten, N. (Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany)); Kunath, B. (Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurologie, Dresden (Germany)); Felber, S.; Henkes, H. (Universitaetskliniken der Universitaet Homburg (Germany)); Speciali, J.G. (Universidade de Sao Paolo (Brazil))

    1994-01-01

    To gain further insight into the pathogenesis of progressive facial hemiatrophy, a sporadic disease of unclear etiology characterized by shrinking and deformation of one side of the face. We investigated possible brain involvement. MR of the head and face was performed in three female patients with progressive facial hemiatrophy. The central-nervous-system findings were correlated to a clinical protocol and a review of the literature. One patient with epilepsy had abnormal brain findings confined to the cerebral hemisphere homolateral to the facial hemiatrophy. These consisted of monoventricular enlargement, meningocortical dysmorphia, and white-matter changes. These MR findings, and corresponding neuroradiologic data disclosed by the review, indicate that homolateral hemiatrophy occasionally occurs in a subgroup of patients with progressive facial hemiatrophy. The MR features do not seem consistent with an underlying simple or nutritive atrophic process. We propose chronic localized meningoencephalitis with vascular involvement as a possible underlying cause of the occasional brain involvement in progressive facial hemiatrophy. 29 refs., 2 figs.

  10. Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the proximal femur: natural history and predisposing factors for disease progression.

    PubMed

    Han, I; Choi, E S; Kim, H-S

    2014-05-01

    Monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the proximal femur has a variable clinical course, despite its reported limited tendency to progress. We investigated the natural history and predisposing factors for progression of dysplasia in a group of 76 patients with a mean follow-up of 8.5 years (2.0 to 15.2). Of these, 31 (41%) presented with an asymptomatic incidental lesion while 45 (59%) presented with pain or a pathological fracture. A group of 23 patients (30%) underwent early operative treatment for pain (19: 25%) or pathological fracture (4: 5%). Of the 53 patients who were initially treated non-operatively, 45 (85%) remained asymptomatic but eight (15%) needed surgery because of pain or fracture. The progression-free survival of the observation group was 81% (sd 6.4%) at five-years follow-up. An initial presentation of pain (p < 0.001), a limp (p < 0.001), radiological evidence of microfracture (p = 0.001) and younger age (< 17 years) (p = 0.016) were significant predisposing factors for disease progression. The risk of experiencing pain or pathological fracture is considerable in monostotic fibrous dysplasia of the proximal femur. Patients presenting with pain, a limp or radiological evidence of microfracture have a high chance of needing surgical treatment. PMID:24788504

  11. Hierarchical kernel mixture models for the prediction of AIDS disease progression using HIV structural gp120 profiles.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Paul D; Shwen Ho, Yung; Ng, Jason; Charleston, Michael; Saksena, Nitin K; Yang, Pengyi; Zomaya, Albert Y

    2010-01-01

    Changes to the glycosylation profile on HIV gp120 can influence viral pathogenesis and alter AIDS disease progression. The characterization of glycosylation differences at the sequence level is inadequate as the placement of carbohydrates is structurally complex. However, no structural framework is available to date for the study of HIV disease progression. In this study, we propose a novel machine-learning based framework for the prediction of AIDS disease progression in three stages (RP, SP, and LTNP) using the HIV structural gp120 profile. This new intelligent framework proves to be accurate and provides an important benchmark for predicting AIDS disease progression computationally. The model is trained using a novel HIV gp120 glycosylation structural profile to detect possible stages of AIDS disease progression for the target sequences of HIV+ individuals. The performance of the proposed model was compared to seven existing different machine-learning models on newly proposed gp120-Benchmark_1 dataset in terms of error-rate (MSE), accuracy (CCI), stability (STD), and complexity (TBM). The novel framework showed better predictive performance with 67.82% CCI, 30.21 MSE, 0.8 STD, and 2.62 TBM on the three stages of AIDS disease progression of 50 HIV+ individuals. This framework is an invaluable bioinformatics tool that will be useful to the clinical assessment of viral pathogenesis. PMID:21143806

  12. Exercise Does Not Attenuate Early Coronary Artery Disease Progression in a Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A.; Kreutzer, Kurt V.; Rush, James W. E.; Turk, James R.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to examine the effects of high fat (HF) diet and subsequent exercise training (Ex) on coronary arteries of an animal model of early stage coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesized that HF diet would induce early stage disease and promote a pro-atherogenic coronary phenotype, while Ex would blunt disease progression and induce a healthier anti-inflammatory environment reflected by increased expression of antioxidant capacity and decreased expression of inflammatory markers in both the macro and microvasculature of the coronary circulation. Methods Immunohistochemistry in left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary arteries (RCA), and immunoblots in LAD and left ventricular (LV) arterioles were used to characterize effects of HF diet and Ex on the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Results Our results revealed that HF diet promoted a pro-atherogenic coronary endothelial cell phenotype as evidenced by the endothelial expression of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. Ex did not significantly alter any of these immunohistochemical markers in conduit arteries; however, Ex did increase antioxidant protein content in LV arterioles. Conclusions We conclude that, at this early stage of CAD, Ex did not seem to modify vascular cell phenotypes of conduit coronary arteries from pro- to a more favorable anti-atherogenic status; however, Ex increased antioxidant protein content in coronary arterioles. These findings also support the idea that endothelial phenotype expression follows different patterns in the macro and microvasculature of the coronary circulation. PMID:21685817

  13. Disruption of IKAROS activity in primitive chronic-phase CML cells mimics myeloid disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Philip A.; Knapp, David J. H. F.; Miller, Paul H.; Kannan, Nagarajan; Sloma, Ivan; Heel, Kathy; Babovic, Sonja; Bulaeva, Elizabeth; Rabu, Gabrielle; Terry, Jefferson; Druker, Brian J.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Loeb, Keith R.; Radich, Jerald P.; Erber, Wendy N.

    2015-01-01

    Without effective therapy, chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) evolves into an acute leukemia (blast crisis [BC]) that displays either myeloid or B-lymphoid characteristics. This transition is often preceded by a clinically recognized, but biologically poorly characterized, accelerated phase (AP). Here, we report that IKAROS protein is absent or reduced in bone marrow blasts from most CML patients with advanced myeloid disease (AP or BC). This contrasts with primitive CP-CML cells and BCR-ABL1–negative acute myeloid leukemia blasts, which express readily detectable IKAROS. To investigate whether loss of IKAROS contributes to myeloid disease progression in CP-CML, we examined the effects of forced expression of a dominant-negative isoform of IKAROS (IK6) in CP-CML patients’ CD34+ cells. We confirmed that IK6 disrupts IKAROS activity in transduced CP-CML cells and showed that it confers on them features of AP-CML, including a prolonged increased output in vitro and in xenografted mice of primitive cells with an enhanced ability to differentiate into basophils. Expression of IK6 in CD34+ CP-CML cells also led to activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 and transcriptional repression of its negative regulators. These findings implicate loss of IKAROS as a frequent step and potential diagnostic harbinger of progressive myeloid disease in CML patients. PMID:25370416

  14. Do Positive Psychosocial Factors Predict Disease Progression in HIV-1? A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Ironson, Gail H.; Hayward, H’sien

    2008-01-01

    Adding to a traditional stress perspective, behavioral medicine has been focusing increasingly on investigating the potential impact of positive psychosocial factors on disease course in HIV. Dispositional optimism, active coping, and spirituality show the most evidence for predicting slower disease progression, although the data are not entirely consistent. Findings for the role of social support are mixed, although indications are that it may be particularly helpful at later stages of illness. Many of the other constructs (positive affect, finding meaning, emotional expression/processing, openness, extraversion, conscientiousness, altruism, and self-efficacy) have only been examined in one or two studies; results are preliminary but suggestive of protective effects. Plausible behavioral and biological mechanisms are discussed (including health behaviors, neurohormones, and immune measures) as well as suggestions for clinicians, limitations, future directions, and a discussion of whether these constructs can be changed. In conclusion, investigating the importance and usefulness of positive psychosocial factors in predicting disease progression in HIV is in its beginning scientific stages and shows good initial evidence and future promise. PMID:18541905

  15. Reduced Protein C Activity Might be Associated With Progression of Peripheral Arterial Disease.

    PubMed

    Komai, Hiroyoshi; Shindo, Shunya; Sato, Masahiro; Ogino, Hitoshi

    2015-07-01

    We evaluated the effect of reduced activities of protein C (PC) and protein S (PS) on the progression of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We measured PC and PS activities in 106 patients with PAD and 44 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in the same period. The incidences of PC deficiency in PAD and AAA were 4.7% and 4.5%, respectively, and those of PS were 14.1% and 11.4%, respectively; these incidences were much higher than those in the normal population. The PC and PS activities were significantly lower in patients having critical limb ischemia (CLI) than in patients with intermittent claudication. In particular, lower PC activity and female gender were determinant factors of CLI in multivariate logistic regression analysis. We suggest that PC deficiency is an independent predictor for the progression of CLI. PMID:25115555

  16. Indexing Disease Progression at Study Entry with Individuals At-Risk for Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Long, Jeffrey D.; Mills, James A.; Warner, John H.; Lu, Wenjing; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2011-01-01

    The identification of clinical and biological markers of disease in persons at risk for Huntington Disease (HD) has increased in efforts to better quantify and characterize the epoch of prodrome prior to clinical diagnosis. Such efforts are critical in the design and implementation of clinical trials for HD so that interventions can occur at a time most likely to increase neuronal survival and maximize daily functioning. A prime consideration in the examination of prodromal individuals is their proximity to diagnosis. It is necessary to quantify proximity so that individual differences in key marker variables can be properly interpreted. We take a data-driven approach to develop an index that can be viewed as a proxy for time to HD diagnosis known as the CAG-Age Product Scaled or CAPS. CAPS is an observed utility variable computed for all genetically at-risk individuals based on age at study entry and CAG repeat length. Results of a longitudinal receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed that CAPS had a relatively strong ability to predict individuals who became diagnosed, especially in the first 2 years. Bootstrap validation provided evidence that CAPS computed on a new sample from the same population could have similar discriminatory power. Cutoffs for the empirical CAPS distribution can be used to create a classification for mutation-positive individuals (Low-Med-High) that is useful for comparison with the naturally occurring mutation-negative Control group. The classification is an improvement over the one currently in use as it is based on observed data rather than model-based estimated values. PMID:21858921

  17. Variable course of primary simian immunodeficiency virus infection in lymph nodes: relation to disease progression.

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, L; Cumont, M C; Montagnier, L; Hurtrel, B

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the dynamics of spread of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in the lymphoid organs, we sequentially analyzed the viral burden in lymph nodes (LN) of eight rhesus macaques inoculated intravenously with a high or low dose of the pathogenic SIVmac 251 isolate. For each animal, four axillary or inguinal LN were collected during the first weeks of infection and a fifth LN was taken 6 or 8 months later to estimate disease progression. Measurement of SIV RNA by in situ hybridization showed that all of the macaques studied had a phase of acute viral replication in LN between 7 and 14 days postinoculation which paralleled that observed in the blood. In a second phase, productive infection was controlled and viral particles were trapped in the germinal centers that developed in LN. While the peaks of productive infection were similar for the eight animals, marked differences in the numbers of productively infected cells that persisted in LN after primary infection were seen. Differences were less pronounced in the blood, where productive infection was efficiently controlled in all cases. The persistence of productively infected cells in LN after primary infection was found to be associated with more rapid disease progression, as measured by the decrease of the T4/T8 ratio and the occurrence of clinical signs. However, the persistence of a significant level of viral particles in germinal centers was observed even in animals that remained healthy over a 1- to 2-year observation period. This study indicates that the course of primary SIV infection in LN is variable, and it suggests that the initial capacity of the host to control productive infection in LN may determine the rate of disease progression. Images PMID:7916061

  18. Risk Models to Predict Chronic Kidney Disease and Its Progression: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; Kengne, Andre P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common, and associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and end-stage renal disease, which are potentially preventable through early identification and treatment of individuals at risk. Although risk factors for occurrence and progression of CKD have been identified, their utility for CKD risk stratification through prediction models remains unclear. We critically assessed risk models to predict CKD and its progression, and evaluated their suitability for clinical use. Methods and Findings We systematically searched MEDLINE and Embase (1 January 1980 to 20 June 2012). Dual review was conducted to identify studies that reported on the development, validation, or impact assessment of a model constructed to predict the occurrence/presence of CKD or progression to advanced stages. Data were extracted on study characteristics, risk predictors, discrimination, calibration, and reclassification performance of models, as well as validation and impact analyses. We included 26 publications reporting on 30 CKD occurrence prediction risk scores and 17 CKD progression prediction risk scores. The vast majority of CKD risk models had acceptable-to-good discriminatory performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve>0.70) in the derivation sample. Calibration was less commonly assessed, but overall was found to be acceptable. Only eight CKD occurrence and five CKD progression risk models have been externally validated, displaying modest-to-acceptable discrimination. Whether novel biomarkers of CKD (circulatory or genetic) can improve prediction largely remains unclear, and impact studies of CKD prediction models have not yet been conducted. Limitations of risk models include the lack of ethnic diversity in derivation samples, and the scarcity of validation studies. The review is limited by the lack of an agreed-on system for rating prediction models, and the difficulty of assessing publication bias. Conclusions The development and clinical application of renal risk scores is in its infancy; however, the discriminatory performance of existing tools is acceptable. The effect of using these models in practice is still to be explored. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23185136

  19. Host Genetic Factors Associated with Symptomatic Primary HIV Infection and Disease Progression among Argentinean Seroconverters

    PubMed Central

    Coloccini, Romina Soledad; Dilernia, Dario; Ghiglione, Yanina; Turk, Gabriela; Laufer, Natalia; Rubio, Andrea; Socías, María Eugenia; Figueroa, María Inés; Sued, Omar; Cahn, Pedro; Salomón, Horacio; Mangano, Andrea; Pando, María Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    Background Variants in HIV-coreceptor C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) and Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are the most important host genetic factors associated with HIV infection and disease progression. Our aim was to analyze the association of these genetic factors in the presence of clinical symptoms during Primary HIV Infection (PHI) and disease progression within the first year. Methods Seventy subjects diagnosed during PHI were studied (55 symptomatic and 15 asymptomatic). Viral load (VL) and CD4 T-cell count were evaluated. HIV progression was defined by presence of B or C events and/or CD4 T-cell counts <350 cell/mm3. CCR5 haplotypes were characterized by polymerase chain reaction and SDM-PCR-RFLP. HLA-I characterization was performed by Sequencing. Results Symptoms during PHI were significantly associated with lower frequency of CCR5-CF1 (1.8% vs. 26.7%, p?=?0.006). Rapid progression was significantly associated with higher frequency of CCR5-CF2 (16.7% vs. 0%, p?=?0.024) and HLA-A*11 (16.7% vs. 1.2%, p?=?0.003) and lower frequency of HLA-C*3 (2.8% vs. 17.5%, p?=?0.035). Higher baseline VL was significantly associated with presence of HLA-A*11, HLA-A*24, and absence of HLA-A*31 and HLA-B*57. Higher 6-month VL was significantly associated with presence of CCR5-HHE, HLA-A*24, HLA-B*53, and absence of HLA-A*31 and CCR5-CF1. Lower baseline CD4 T-cell count was significantly associated with presence of HLA-A*24/*33, HLA-B*53, CCR5-CF2 and absence of HLA-A*01/*23 and CCR5-HHA. Lower 6-month CD4 T-cell count was associated with presence of HLA-A*24 and HLA-B*53, and absence of HLA-A*01 and HLA-B*07/*39. Moreover, lower 12-month CD4 T-cell count was significantly associated with presence of HLA-A*33, HLA-B*14, HLA-C*08, CCR5-CF2, and absence of HLA-B*07 and HLA-C*07. Conclusion Several host factors were significantly associated with disease progression in PHI subjects. Most results agree with previous studies performed in other groups. However, some genetic factor associations are being described for the first time, highlighting the importance of genetic studies at a local level. PMID:25406087

  20. Rate of progression of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease: effect of butyrylcholinesterase K gene variation

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, C; Ballard, C; Lehmann, D; Smith, A; Beaumont, H; Day, I; Khan, M; Lovestone, S; McCulley, M; Morris, C; Munoz, D; O'Brien, K; Russ, C; Del Ser, T; Warden, D

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the K variant allele of butyrylcholinesterase have a slower rate of cognitive decline than those without the K variant allele of butyrylcholinesterase. Method: The cognitive status of 339 community based subjects with AD was assessed with the Mini Mental State Examination at baseline and yearly over a three year follow up period. The rates of cognitive decline of subjects with and without the K variant allele were compared. Result: Presence of the K allele was associated with a slower average rate of cognitive decline in subjects with severe AD. Conclusions: This finding is consistent with the suggestion that the K variant of butyrylcholinesterase has an important role in disease progression in AD, and this may have implications for treatment. PMID:15834019

  1. Current progresses on nanodelivery systems for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases: Alzheimer's and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Silva, A C; González-Mira, E; Lobo, J M Sousa; Amaral, M H

    2013-01-01

    Currently Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia are both well-established neuropsychiatric diseases. Nonetheless, the treatment of these disorders is not unanimous and fully effective. As a consequence, several approaches have been studied to improve patient's conditions. In this context, the development of new drug nanodelivery systems to increase drug bioavailability and reduce adverse effects has been claimed as a good option. Among these systems we focus on the ones that seem to be most promising, such as lipidbased systems (e.g. liposomes, nanoemulsions and lipid nanoparticles), drug nanocrystals, polymeric nanoparticles and micelles. Moreover, the application of these systems by means of alternative administration routes is also discussed. Regardless of the satisfactory results and the associated progresses that have been done in the last years, more studies are required to quickly licence the application of drug nanodelivery systems in human medicines. PMID:23489198

  2. Bilateral dissemination of malignant pleural mesothelioma via iatrogenic buffalo chest: a rare route of disease progression.

    PubMed

    Ikezoe, Kohei; Tanaka, Eisaku; Tanizawa, Kiminobu; Hashimoto, Seishu; Shindo, Toru; Noma, Satoshi; Kobashi, Yoichiro; Taguchi, Yoshio

    2012-09-01

    Buffalo chest refers to the pleuro-pleural communication that results in a single pleural cavity. Iatrogenic buffalo chest can occur following heart or heart-lung transplantation and other major thoracic surgeries. We present the case of malignant pleural mesothelioma in which iatrogenic buffalo chest after extended thymectomy caused bilateral pneumothoraces and contralateral dissemination of the disease. The free communication between bilateral pleural cavities had facilitated the rapid progression of tumor and the consequent bilateral malignant pleural effusions had made the management of disease much more difficult, leading to the early fatal outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first case of buffalo chest that was associated with bilateral malignant pleural effusions. PMID:22580971

  3. Polycystic kidney disease in SBM transgenic mice: role of c-myc in disease induction and progression.

    PubMed Central

    Trudel, M.; Barisoni, L.; Lanoix, J.; D'Agati, V.

    1998-01-01

    SBM mouse is a unique transgenic model of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) produced by dysregulation of c-myc in the kidneys. Our previous demonstration that c-myc is overexpressed in human autosomal polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) prompted us to investigate the pathogenetic role of c-myc in the induction and progression of the cystogenic phenotype in our mouse model. In young SBM kidneys, c-myc was two- to threefold increased with persistent expression levels into adulthood, an age when c-myc is normally undetectable. In situ hybridization analysis of the c-myc transgene demonstrated intense signal specifically overlying glomerular and tubular epithelium of developing cysts in fetal and young kidneys. Increased expression of c-myc correlated with the initiation and progression of the PKD phenotype as evidenced by early tubular and glomerular cysts at E16.5. Cyst number and size increased with age, with co-development of glomerular and tubular epithelial hyperplasia. Consistently, the mean renal proliferative index was increased approximately 5- to 20-fold in noncystic and cystic tubules of newborn SBM animals compared with littermate controls. Similarly, in fetal and newborn kidneys the tubular apoptotic indices were increased approximately three- to ninefold over controls. Both proliferation and apoptotic rates in cystic tubules approached levels in developing tubules from the normal nephrogenic zone. We conclude that the pathogenesis of PKD hinges on a critical imbalance in c-myc regulation of the opposing processes of cell proliferation and apoptosis, recapitulating the cellular phenomena in developing fetal kidney. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9422539

  4. Pro-A-type natriuretic peptide and pro-adrenomedullin predict progression of chronic kidney disease: the MMKD Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin Dieplinger; Thomas Mueller; Barbara Kollerits; Joachim Struck; Eberhard Ritz; Arnold von Eckardstein; Meinhard Haltmayer; Florian Kronenberg

    2009-01-01

    A-type natriuretic peptide (ANP) and adrenomedullin (ADM) are potent hypotensive, diuretic, and natriuretic peptides involved in maintaining cardiovascular and renal homeostasis. We conducted a prospective 7-year study of 177 nondiabetic patients with primary chronic kidney disease to see if ANP and ADM plasma concentrations predict the progression of their disease, using novel sandwich immunoassays covering the midregional epitopes of the

  5. Long-Term Nonsense Suppression Therapy Moderates MPS I-H Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Gwen; Dai, Yanying; Du, Ming; Belakhov, Valery; Kandasamy, Jeyakumar; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Baasov, Timor; Bedwell, David M.; Keeling, Kim M.

    2014-01-01

    Nonsense suppression therapy is a therapeutic approach aimed at treating genetic diseases caused by in-frame premature termination codons (PTCs; also commonly known as nonsense mutations). This approach utilizes compounds that suppress translation termination at PTCs, which allows translation to continue and partial levels of deficient protein function to be restored. We hypothesize that suppression therapy can attenuate the lysosomal storage disease mucopolysaccharidosis type I-Hurler (MPS I-H), the severe form of ?-L-iduronidase deficiency. ?-L-iduronidase participates in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) catabolism and its insufficiency causes progressive GAG accumulation and onset of the MPS I-H phenotype, which consists of multiple somatic and neurological defects. 60-80% of MPS I-H patients carry a nonsense mutation in the IDUA gene. We previously showed that 2-week treatment with the designer aminoglycoside NB84 restored enough ?-L-iduronidase function via PTC suppression to reduce tissue GAG accumulation in the Iduatm1Kmke MPS I-H mouse model, which carries a PTC homologous to the human IDUA-W402X nonsense mutation. Here we report that long-term NB84 administration maintains ?-L-iduronidase activity and GAG reduction in Iduatm1Kmke mice throughout a 28-week treatment period. Examination of more complex MPS I-H phenotypes in Iduatm1Kmke mice following 28-week NB84 treatment revealed significant moderation of the disease in multiple tissues, including the brain, heart and bone, that are resistant to current MPS I-H therapies. This study represents the first demonstration that long-term nonsense suppression therapy can moderate progression of a genetic disease. PMID:24411223

  6. Predictors of progression to severe Alzheimer’s disease in an incidence sample

    PubMed Central

    Rabins, Peter V.; Schwartz, Sarah; Black, Betty S.; Corcoran, Christopher; Fauth, Elizabeth; Mielke, Michele; Christensen, Jessica; Lyketsos, Constantine; Tschanz, JoAnn

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about factors influencing time to severe Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods Incident cases of AD in the Cache County Memory Study were identified. Severe AD was defined as Mini-Mental State Examination score of ?10 or Clinical Dementia Rating Scale score of 3; cases with either Mini-Mental State Examination score of ?16 or Clinical Dementia Rating <2 were not categorized as severe AD. Kaplan–Meier, log-rank tests, and Cox analyses were used to identify demographic, clinical, and genetic correlates of time to progression to severe AD. Results Sixty-eight of 335 cases of incident AD developed severe dementia. In bivariate analyses, female gender, less than high school education, at least one clinically significant Neuropsychiatric Inventory domain at baseline, and the youngest and oldest ages exhibited shorter time to severe AD. In competing risk analysis, subjects with mild or at least one clinically significant Neuropsychiatric Inventory domain score, and subjects with worse health were more likely to progress to severe dementia or death. Conclusions Demographic and clinical variables predict progression to severe AD. Further study should examine whether these relationships are causal or correlational. PMID:23123228

  7. Brain ERP components predict which individuals progress to Alzheimer’s disease and which do not

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Robert M.; McCrary, John W.; Gardner, Margaret N.; Sandoval, Tiffany C.; Guillily, Maria D.; Reilly, Lindsey A.; DeGrush, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Predicting which individuals will progress to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is important in both clinical and research settings. We used brain Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) obtained in a perceptual/cognitive paradigm with various processing demands to predict which individual Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) subjects will develop AD versus which will not. ERP components, including P3, memory “storage” component, and other earlier and later components, were identified and measured by Principal Components Analysis. When measured for particular task conditions, a weighted set of eight ERP component_conditions performed well in discriminant analysis at predicting later AD progression with good accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The predictions for most individuals (79%) had high posterior probabilities and were accurate (88%). This method, supported by a cross-validation where the prediction accuracy was 70–78%, features the posterior probability for each individual as a method of determining the likelihood of progression to AD. Empirically obtained prediction accuracies rose to 94% when the computed posterior probabilities for individuals were 0.90 or higher (which was found for 40% of our MCI sample). PMID:20005599

  8. Hypertension accelerates the progression of Alzheimer-like pathology in a mouse model of the disease.

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, Diana; Poittevin, Marine; Dere, Ekrem; Broquères-You, Dong; Bonnin, Philippe; Benessiano, Joëlle; Pocard, Marc; Mariani, Jean; Kubis, Nathalie; Merkulova-Rainon, Tatyana; Lévy, Bernard I

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrovascular impairment is frequent in patients with Alzheimer disease and is believed to influence clinical manifestation and severity of the disease. Cardiovascular risk factors, especially hypertension, have been associated with higher risk of developing Alzheimer disease. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the hypertension, Alzheimer disease cross talk, we established a mouse model of dual pathology by infusing hypertensive doses of angiotensin II into transgenic APPPS1 mice overexpressing mutated human amyloid precursor and presenilin 1 proteins. At 4.5 months, at the early stage of disease progression, only hypertensive APPPS1 mice presented impairment of temporal order memory performance in the episodic-like memory task. This cognitive deficit was associated with an increased number of cortical amyloid deposits (223±5 versus 207±5 plaques/mm(2); P<0.05) and a 2-fold increase in soluble amyloid levels in the brain and in plasma. Hypertensive APPPS1 mice presented several cerebrovascular alterations, including a 25% reduction in cerebral microvessel density and a 30% to 40% increase in cerebral vascular amyloid deposits, as well as a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor A expression in the brain, compared with normotensive APPPS1 mice. Moreover, the brain levels of nitric oxide synthase 1 and 3 and the nitrite/nitrate levels were reduced in hypertensive APPPS1 mice (by 49%, 34%, and 33%, respectively, compared with wild-type mice; P<0.05). Our results indicate that hypertension accelerates the development of Alzheimer disease-related structural and functional alterations, partially through cerebral vasculature impairment and reduced nitric oxide production. PMID:25331846

  9. Impeded progression of Friend disease in mice by an inhibitor of retroviral proteases.

    PubMed

    Lai, M H; Tang, J; Wroblewski, V; Dee, A G; Margolin, N; Vlahos, C; Bowdon, B; Buckheit, R; Colacino, J; Hui, K Y

    1993-01-01

    The protease of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is essential for the processing of GAG and POL polyproteins and maturation of the virus particles. Using recombinant protease and a truncated GAG polyprotein as substrate, we developed a Western blot assay for the evaluation of inhibitors of the enzyme. Two statine-based inhibitors of the enzyme, KH161 and KH164, were effective in blocking the replication of HIV-1 in acutely infected human T4 lymphoid cells, with potency approaching that of zidovudine (ZDV) when tested in parallel. In chronically infected cells, the production of infectious virus was inhibited by KH161 and KH164, while ZDV was ineffective. Both KH161 and KH164 were also active as antivirals against the replication of murine leukemia virus (MLV) in cultured mouse cells. In an animal model of a murine retroviral disease, KH164 was shown to inhibit in a dose-dependent manner the progression of the disease induced by Friend virus complex (a mixture of Friend MLV and spleen focus-forming virus). The results suggest that the progression of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) may be impeded by inhibitors of HIV-1 protease. PMID:8093263

  10. Host and Viral Genetic Correlates of Clinical Definitions of HIV-1 Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Andri; Martínez, Raquel; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Garcia, Soledad; Rodríguez, Carmen; del Romero, Jorge; Telenti, Amalio; López-Galíndez, Cecilio

    2010-01-01

    Background Various patterns of HIV-1 disease progression are described in clinical practice and in research. There is a need to assess the specificity of commonly used definitions of long term non-progressor (LTNP) elite controllers (LTNP-EC), viremic controllers (LTNP-VC), and viremic non controllers (LTNP-NC), as well as of chronic progressors (P) and rapid progressors (RP). Methodology and Principal Findings We re-evaluated the HIV-1 clinical definitions, summarized in Table 1, using the information provided by a selected number of host genetic markers and viral factors. There is a continuous decrease of protective factors and an accumulation of risk factors from LTNP-EC to RP. Statistical differences in frequency of protective HLA-B alleles (p-0.01), HLA-C rs9264942 (p-0.06), and protective CCR5/CCR2 haplotypes (p-0.02) across groups, and the presence of viruses with an ancestral genotype in the “viral dating” (i.e., nucleotide sequences with low viral divergence from the most recent common ancestor) support the differences among principal clinical groups of HIV-1 infected individuals. Conclusions A combination of host genetic and viral factors supports current clinical definitions that discriminate among patterns of HIV-1 progression. The study also emphasizes the need to apply a standardized and accepted set of clinical definitions for the purpose of disease stratification and research. PMID:20552027

  11. Nijmegen paediatric CDG rating scale: a novel tool to assess disease progression.

    PubMed

    Achouitar, Samira; Mohamed, Miski; Gardeitchik, Thatjana; Wortmann, Saskia B; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Ensenauer, Regina; de Baulny, Hélène Ogier; Õunap, Katrin; Martinelli, Diego; de Vries, Maaike; McFarland, Robert; Kouwenberg, Dorus; Theodore, Miranda; Wijburg, Frits; Grünewald, Stephanie; Jaeken, Jaak; Wevers, Ron A; Nijtmans, Leo; Elson, Joanna; Morava, Eva

    2011-08-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of clinically heterogeneous inborn errors of metabolism. At present, treatment is available for only one CDG, but potential treatments for the other CDG are on the horizon. It will be vitally important in clinical trials of such agents to have a clear understanding of both the natural history of CDG and the corresponding burden of disability suffered by patients. To date, no multicentre studies have attempted to document the natural history of CDG. This is in part due to the lack of a reliable assessment tool to score CDG's diverse clinical spectrum. Based on our earlier experience evaluating disease progression in disorders of oxidative phosphorylation, we developed a practical and semi-quantitative rating scale for children with CDG. The Nijmegen Paediatric CDG Rating Scale (NPCRS) has been validated in 12 children, offering a tool to objectively monitor disease progression. We undertook a successful trial of the NPCRS with a collaboration of nine experienced physicians, using video records of physical and neurological examination of patients. The use of NPCRS can facilitate both longitudinal and natural history studies that will be essential for future interventions. PMID:21541726

  12. Higher NK cell IFN-? production is associated with delayed HIV disease progression in LTNPs.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yongjun; Zhou, Fangyuan; Tian, Yao; Zhang, Zining; Kuang, Rongmei; Liu, Jing; Han, Xiaoxu; Hu, Qinghai; Xu, Junjie; Shang, Hong

    2013-11-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are important effectors of the innate immune system that help control viral infections and tumorigenesis. However, the relationship between NK cell function and HIV disease progression remains poorly defined. In this study, we examined the function of NK cells in Chinese patients who were HIV-infected but treatment-naïve. These individuals include primary HIV-infected patients (PHIs), typical progressors (TPs), and long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs). We observed an increase of CD56(dim) NK cells in PHIs, but the production of interferon-gamma (IFN-?) and CD107a expression in PHIs were not altered compared with normal control subjects (NCs). However, the NK cells from LTNPs exhibited increased activities in IFN-? production, CD107a expression and granzyme B change after K562 stimulation compared with NCs. Furthermore, the percentage of IFN-?(+)CD107a(-) NK cells in LTNPs was higher than that in TPs, PHIs and NCs; levels of IFN-? production in LTNP NK cells exhibited an inverse correlation with viral loads. Similar correlations, however, were not observed in the PHI and TP groups. Taken together, these data demonstrate that enhanced NK cell function may contribute to the control of HIV infection, and increased IFN-? secretion may be associated with delayed disease progression. PMID:23996459

  13. Features of alpha-synuclein that could explain the progression and irreversibility of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Scarlet; Pacheco, Carla; Peters, Christian; Opazo, Carlos M; Aguayo, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein is a presynaptic protein expressed throughout the central nervous system, and it is the main component of Lewy bodies, one of the histopathological features of Parkinson's disease (PD) which is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder. The conformational flexibility of ?-synuclein allows it to adopt different conformations, i.e., bound to membranes or form aggregates, the oligomers are believed to be the more toxic species. In this review, we will focus on two major features of ?-synuclein, transmission and toxicity, that could help to understand the pathological characteristics of PD. One important feature of ?-synuclein is its ability to be transmitted from neuron to neuron using mechanisms such as endocytosis, plasma membrane penetration or through exosomes, thus propagating the Lewy body pathology to different brain regions thereby contributing to the progressiveness of PD. The second feature of ?-synuclein is that it confers cytotoxicity to recipient cells, principally when it is in an oligomeric state. This form causes mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, proteasome impairment, disruption of plasma membrane and pore formation that lead to apoptosis pathway activation and consequent cell death. The complexity of ?-synuclein oligomerization and formation of toxic species could be a major factor for the irreversibility of PD and could also explain the lack of successful therapies to halt the disease. PMID:25805964

  14. Crosstalk between the Unfolded Protein Response and NF-?B-Mediated Inflammation in the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Gaile L.; Dickhout, Jeffrey G.

    2015-01-01

    The chronic inflammatory response is emerging as an important therapeutic target in progressive chronic kidney disease. A key transcription factor in the induction of chronic inflammation is NF-?B. Recent studies have demonstrated that sustained activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) can initiate this NF-?B signaling phenomenon and thereby induce chronic kidney disease progression. A key factor influencing chronic kidney disease progression is proteinuria and this condition has now been demonstrated to induce sustained UPR activation. This review details the crosstalk between the UPR and NF-?B pathways as pertinent to chronic kidney disease. We present potential tools to study this phenomenon as well as potential therapeutics that are emerging to regulate the UPR. These therapeutics may prevent inflammation specifically induced in the kidney due to proteinuria-induced sustained UPR activation. PMID:25977931

  15. Expression of Muscle-Specific MiRNA 206 in the Progression of Disease in a Murine SMA Model

    PubMed Central

    Valsecchi, Valeria; Boido, Marina; De Amicis, Elena; Piras, Antonio; Vercelli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a severe neuromuscular disease, the most common in infancy, and the third one among young people under 18 years. The major pathological landmark of SMA is a selective degeneration of lower motor neurons, resulting in progressive skeletal muscle denervation, atrophy, and paralysis. Recently, it has been shown that specific or general changes in the activity of ribonucleoprotein containing micro RNAs (miRNAs) play a role in the development of SMA. Additionally miRNA-206 has been shown to be required for efficient regeneration of neuromuscular synapses after acute nerve injury in an ALS mouse model. Therefore, we correlated the morphology and the architecture of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of quadriceps, a muscle affected in the early stage of the disease, with the expression levels of miRNA-206 in a mouse model of intermediate SMA (SMAII), one of the most frequently used experimental model. Our results showed a decrease in the percentage of type II fibers, an increase in atrophic muscle fibers and a remarkable accumulation of neurofilament (NF) in the pre-synaptic terminal of the NMJs in the quadriceps of SMAII mice. Furthermore, molecular investigation showed a direct link between miRNA-206-HDAC4-FGFBP1, and in particular, a strong up-regulation of this pathway in the late phase of the disease. We propose that miRNA-206 is activated as survival endogenous mechanism, although not sufficient to rescue the integrity of motor neurons. We speculate that early modulation of miRNA-206 expression might delay SMA neurodegenerative pathway and that miRNA-206 could be an innovative, still relatively unexplored, therapeutic target for SMA. PMID:26030275

  16. The fundamental role of mechanical properties in the progression of cancer disease and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mierke, Claudia Tanja

    2014-07-01

    The role of mechanical properties in cancer disease and inflammation is still underinvestigated and even ignored in many oncological and immunological reviews. In particular, eight classical hallmarks of cancer have been proposed, but they still ignore the mechanics behind the processes that facilitate cancer progression. To define the malignant transformation of neoplasms and finally reveal the functional pathway that enables cancer cells to promote cancer progression, these classical hallmarks of cancer require the inclusion of specific mechanical properties of cancer cells and their microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix as well as embedded cells such as fibroblasts, macrophages or endothelial cells. Thus, this review will present current cancer research from a biophysical point of view and will therefore focus on novel physical aspects and biophysical methods to investigate the aggressiveness of cancer cells and the process of inflammation. As cancer or immune cells are embedded in a certain microenvironment such as the extracellular matrix, the mechanical properties of this microenvironment cannot be neglected, and alterations of the microenvironment may have an impact on the mechanical properties of the cancer or immune cells. Here, it is highlighted how biophysical approaches, both experimental and theoretical, have an impact on the classical hallmarks of cancer and inflammation. It is even pointed out how these biophysical approaches contribute to the understanding of the regulation of cancer disease and inflammatory responses after tissue injury through physical microenvironmental property sensing mechanisms. The recognized physical signals are transduced into biochemical signaling events that guide cellular responses, such as malignant tumor progression, after the transition of cancer cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype or an inflammatory response due to tissue injury. Moreover, cell adaptation to mechanical alterations, in particular the understanding of mechano-coupling and mechano-regulating functions in cell invasion, appears as an important step in cancer progression and inflammatory response to injuries. This may lead to novel insights into cancer disease and inflammatory diseases and will overcome classical views on cancer and inflammation. In addition, this review will discuss how the physics of cancer and inflammation can help to reveal whether cancer cells will invade connective tissue and metastasize or how leukocytes extravasate and migrate through the tissue. In this review, the physical concepts of cancer progression, including the tissue basement membrane a cancer cell is crossing, its invasion and transendothelial migration as well as the basic physical concepts of inflammatory processes and the cellular responses to the mechanical stress of the microenvironment such as external forces and matrix stiffness, are presented and discussed. In conclusion, this review will finally show how physical measurements can improve classical approaches that investigate cancer and inflammatory diseases, and how these physical insights can be integrated into classical tumor biological approaches. PMID:25006689

  17. Upregulation of SATB1 Is Associated with Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness and Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Sanjeev; Sharma, Haripaul; Abbas, Ata; MacLennan, Gregory T.; Fu, Pingfu; Danielpour, David; Gupta, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Disease aggressiveness remains a critical factor to the progression of prostate cancer. Transformation of epithelial cells to mesenchymal lineage, associated with the loss of E-cadherin, offers significant invasive potential and migration capability. Recently, Special AT-rich binding protein (SATB1) has been linked to tumor progression. SATB1 is a cell-type restricted nuclear protein, which functions as a tissue-specific organizer of DNA sequences during cellular differentiation. Our results demonstrate that SATB1 plays significant role in prostate tumor invasion and migration and its nuclear localization correlates with disease aggressiveness. Clinical specimen analysis showed that SATB1 was predominantly expressed in the nucleus of high-grade tumors compared to low-grade tumor and benign tissue. A progressive increase in the nuclear levels of SATB1 was observed in cancer tissues compared to benign specimens. Similarly, SATB1 protein levels were higher in a number of prostate cancer cells viz. HPV-CA-10, DU145, DUPro, PC-3, PC-3M, LNCaP and C4-2B, compared to non-tumorigenic PZ-HPV-7 cells. Nuclear expression of SATB1 was higher in biologically aggressive subclones of prostate cancer cells with their respective parental cell lines. Furthermore, ectopic SATB1 transfection conferred increased cell motility and invasiveness in immortalized human prostate epithelial PZ-HPV-7 cells which correlated with the loss of E-cadherin expression. Consequently, knockdown of SATB1 in highly aggressive human prostate cancer PC-3M cells inhibited invasiveness and tumor growth in vivo along with increase in E-cadherin protein expression. Our findings demonstrate that SATB1 has ability to promote prostate cancer aggressiveness through epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID:23308245

  18. IL-17 Signaling Accelerates the Progression of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Harley, Isaac TW; Stankiewicz, Traci E; Giles, Daniel A; Softic, Samir; Flick, Leah M; Cappelletti, Monica; Sheridan, Rachel; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Steinbrecher, Kris A; Sartor, R Balfour; Kohli, Rohit; Karp, Christopher L; Divanovic, Senad

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation plays a central pathogenic role in the pernicious metabolic and end-organ sequelae of obesity. Among these sequelae, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most common chronic liver disease in the developed world. The twinned observations that obesity is associated with increased activation of the interleukin (IL)-17 axis and that this axis can regulate liver damage in diverse contexts prompted us to address the role of IL-17RA signaling in the progression of NAFLD. We further examined whether microbe-driven IL-17A regulated NAFLD development and progression. We show here that IL-17RA?/? mice respond to high-fat diet stress with significantly greater weight gain, visceral adiposity, and hepatic steatosis than wild-type controls. However, obesity-driven lipid accumulation was uncoupled from its end-organ consequences in IL-17RA?/? mice, which exhibited decreased steatohepatitis, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-oxidase enzyme expression, and hepatocellular damage. Neutralization of IL-17A significantly reduced obesity-driven hepatocellular damage in wild-type mice. Further, colonization of mice with segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB), a commensal that induces IL-17A production, exacerbated obesity-induced hepatocellular damage. In contrast, SFB depletion protected from obesity-induced hepatocellular damage. Conclusion: These data indicate that obesity-driven activation of the IL-17 axis is central to the development and progression of NAFLD to steatohepatitis and identify the IL-17 pathway as a novel therapeutic target in this condition. (Hepatology 2014;59:1830–1839) PMID:24115079

  19. Role of chemokine and cytokine polymorphisms in the progression of HIV-1 disease.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Supriya D; Agosto-Mojica, Anardi; Aalinkeel, Ravikumar; Reynolds, Jessica L; Nair, Bindukumar B; Sykes, Donald E; Martinez, Jeffery; Adams, Joshua; Singh, Neha; Bernstein, Zale; Hsiao, Chiu-bin; Schwartz, Stanley A

    2010-05-28

    Allelic variants of the genes for chemokine receptors and their natural ligands, the chemokines, and cytokines can affect HIV-1 disease progression. This study investigates the level of expression of the CCR5-Delta32, CCR2b-641, RANTES In1.1C, SDF-1 3'A, IL-10-5'-592A and IL-4-589T alleles in two unique HIV-1 infected patient cohorts that represent the two distinct stages of disease progression, namely rapid progressors (RPs) and long term non-progressors (LTNPs) (n=12/group) were recruited. Quantitation of the gene expression of CCR5-Delta32, CCR2b-641, RANTES In1.1C, SDF-1 3'A, IL-10-5'-592A and IL-4-589T in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML) isolated from patients was performed by real time, quantitative (Q)-PCR using DNA was isolated from PBML. We observed that expression of these HIV-protective alleles was generally greater in the LTNP cohort than the RP cohort. LTNPs expressed more of the protective chemokine, SDF-1alpha than RPs, and no statistically significant difference was observed in RANTES production between the LTNPs and RPs. The LTNPs expressed significantly less amounts of cytokines IL-10 and IL-4 as compared to the RPs. Our results demonstrate that gene polymorphisms for CCR5-Delta32, CCR2b-641, RANTES In1.1C, SDF-1 3'A, IL-10-5'-592A and IL-4-589T may be used as clinical markers to predict progression of HIV-1 infections. PMID:20416280

  20. Epigenetic inactivation of DLX4 is associated with disease progression in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing-Dong; Wang, Yu-Xin; Zhang, Ting-Juan; Yang, Dong-Qin; Yao, Dong-Ming; Guo, Hong; Yang, Lei; Ma, Ji-Chun; Wen, Xiang-Mei; Yang, Jing; Lin, Jiang; Qian, Jun

    2015-08-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation of various genes has been identified to be associated with disease progression in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Our study was intended to investigate DLX4 methylation pattern in different clinical stages of CML and further determine its role in regulating DLX4 expression. Real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing PCR were applied to detect DLX4 methylation. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) was used for demethylation studies. DLX4 was significantly hypermethylated in CML patients (P = 0.002) especially in blastic phase (BC) stage (P < 0.001) as compared with controls. Moreover, DLX4 methylation level in BC stage was significantly higher than in chronic phase (CP) stage (P < 0.001). DLX4 methylation density was significantly increased during the progression of CML among the tested two patients (P < 0.001). DLX4 hypermethylation occurred with the highest incidence in BC stage (83%), lower incidence in acute phase (AP) stage (43%), and the lowest incidence in CP stage (26%) (P = 0.001). Moreover, t(9; 22) with additional alteration cases had significantly higher frequency of DLX4 hypermethylation compared with the other cytogenetics (P = 0.010). Significantly negative correlation was observed between DLX4 methylation and DLX4-TV2 (the shorter DLX4 isoform) expression (R = -0.382, P = 0.001, n = 78) but not between DLX4 methylation and BP1 (the longer DLX4 isoform) expression (R = 0.134, P = 0.244, n = 78) in CML patients. Both DLX4-TV2 and BP1 mRNA were significantly increased after 5-aza-dC treatment in K562 cell line (P < 0.001). Our study indicated that hypermethylation of DLX4 correlated with disease progression of CML. Moreover, DLX4 expression was regulated by its methylation in CML. PMID:26086097

  1. Methylation and decreased expression of SHP-1 are related to disease progression in chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinghua; Yang, Lin; Pan, Yuxia; Yang, Jingci; Shang, Yintao; Luo, Jianmin

    2014-05-01

    Despite the unprecedented success of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in treating chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), some patients nevertheless progress to advanced stages of the disease. Thus far, the biological basis leading to CML progression remains poorly understood. SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) is reported to bind to p210BCR?ABL1 and to function as a tumor suppressor. Furthermore, its substrates have been found to be essential for p210BCR-ABL1 leukemogenesis or CML progression. In the present study, we found that SHP-1 mRNA and protein levels were markedly decreased in patients in the accelerated and blastic phases of CML (AP-CML and BP-CML) compared to those in the chronic phase (CP-CML). In vitro, we demonstrated that overexpression of SHP-1 reduced p210BCR-ABL1 protein expression and activity in the K562 CML cell line and negatively regulated the AKT, MAPK, MYC and JAK2/STAT5 signaling pathways. Moreover, using a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) assay, abnormal methylation of the SHP-1 gene promoter region was found both in K562 cells and bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood (PB) cells from AP-CML and BP-CML patients. In conclusion, our findings suggest that decreased expression levels of SHP-1 caused by aberrant promoter hypermethylation may play a key role in the progression of CML by dysregulating BCR-ABL1, AKT, MAPK, MYC and JAK2/STAT5 signaling. PMID:24647617

  2. Metabolic Tumor Burden Predicts for Disease Progression and Death in Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Percy; Weerasuriya, Dilani K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Lavori, Philip W. [Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Quon, Andrew [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Hara, Wendy; Maxim, Peter G.; Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Wakelee, Heather A. [Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Donington, Jessica S. [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Graves, Edward E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Loo, Billy W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)], E-mail: BWLoo@Stanford.edu

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: In lung cancer, stage is an important prognostic factor for disease progression and survival. However, stage may be simply a surrogate for underlying tumor burden. Our purpose was to assess the prognostic value of tumor burden measured by {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging. Patients and Methods: We identified 19 patients with lung cancer who had staging PET-CT scans before any therapy, and adequate follow-up (complete to time of progression for 18, and death for 15 of 19). Metabolically active tumor regions were segmented on pretreatment PET scans semi-automatically using custom software. We determined the relationship between times to progression (TTP) and death (OS) and two PET parameters: total metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and standardized uptake value (SUV). Results: The estimated median TTP and OS for the cohort were 9.3 months and 14.8 months. On multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, an increase in MTV of 25 ml (difference between the 75th and 25th percentiles) was associated with increased hazard of progression and of death (5.4-fold and 7.6-fold), statistically significant (p = 0.0014 and p = 0.001) after controlling for stage, treatment intent (definitive or palliative), age, Karnofsky performance status, and weight loss. We did not find a significant relationship between SUV and TTP or OS. Conclusions: In this study, high tumor burden assessed by PET MTV is an independent poor prognostic feature in lung cancer, promising for stratifying patients in randomized trials and ultimately for selecting risk-adapted therapies. These results will need to be validated in larger cohorts with longer follow-up, and evaluated prospectively.

  3. Association of survival and disease progression with chromosomal instability: a genomic exploration of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Sheffer, Michal; Bacolod, Manny D; Zuk, Or; Giardina, Sarah F; Pincas, Hanna; Barany, Francis; Paty, Philip B; Gerald, William L; Notterman, Daniel A; Domany, Eytan

    2009-04-28

    During disease progression the cells that comprise solid malignancies undergo significant changes in gene copy number and chromosome structure. Colorectal cancer provides an excellent model to study this process. To indentify and characterize chromosomal abnormalities in colorectal cancer, we performed a statistical analysis of 299 expression and 130 SNP arrays profiled at different stages of the disease, including normal tissue, adenoma, stages 1-4 adenocarcinoma, and metastasis. We identified broad (> 1/2 chromosomal arm) and focal (< 1/2 chromosomal arm) events. Broad amplifications were noted on chromosomes 7, 8q, 13q, 20, and X and broad deletions on chromosomes 4, 8p, 14q, 15q, 17p, 18, 20p, and 22q. Focal events (gains or losses) were identified in regions containing known cancer pathway genes, such as VEGFA, MYC, MET, FGF6, FGF23, LYN, MMP9, MYBL2, AURKA, UBE2C, and PTEN. Other focal events encompassed potential new candidate tumor suppressors (losses) and oncogenes (gains), including CCDC68, CSMD1, POLR1D, and PMEPA1. From the expression data, we identified genes whose expression levels reflected their copy number changes and used this relationship to impute copy number changes to samples without accompanying SNP data. This analysis provided the statistical power to show that deletions of 8p, 4p, and 15q are associated with survival and disease progression, and that samples with simultaneous deletions in 18q, 8p, 4p, and 15q have a particularly poor prognosis. Annotation analysis reveals that the oxidative phosphorylation pathway shows a strong tendency for decreased expression in the samples characterized by poor prognosis. PMID:19359472

  4. Association of survival and disease progression with chromosomal instability: A genomic exploration of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sheffer, Michal; Bacolod, Manny D.; Zuk, Or; Giardina, Sarah F.; Pincas, Hanna; Barany, Francis; Paty, Philip B.; Gerald, William L.; Notterman, Daniel A.; Domany, Eytan

    2009-01-01

    During disease progression the cells that comprise solid malignancies undergo significant changes in gene copy number and chromosome structure. Colorectal cancer provides an excellent model to study this process. To indentify and characterize chromosomal abnormalities in colorectal cancer, we performed a statistical analysis of 299 expression and 130 SNP arrays profiled at different stages of the disease, including normal tissue, adenoma, stages 1–4 adenocarcinoma, and metastasis. We identified broad (> 1/2 chromosomal arm) and focal (< 1/2 chromosomal arm) events. Broad amplifications were noted on chromosomes 7, 8q, 13q, 20, and X and broad deletions on chromosomes 4, 8p, 14q, 15q, 17p, 18, 20p, and 22q. Focal events (gains or losses) were identified in regions containing known cancer pathway genes, such as VEGFA, MYC, MET, FGF6, FGF23, LYN, MMP9, MYBL2, AURKA, UBE2C, and PTEN. Other focal events encompassed potential new candidate tumor suppressors (losses) and oncogenes (gains), including CCDC68, CSMD1, POLR1D, and PMEPA1. From the expression data, we identified genes whose expression levels reflected their copy number changes and used this relationship to impute copy number changes to samples without accompanying SNP data. This analysis provided the statistical power to show that deletions of 8p, 4p, and 15q are associated with survival and disease progression, and that samples with simultaneous deletions in 18q, 8p, 4p, and 15q have a particularly poor prognosis. Annotation analysis reveals that the oxidative phosphorylation pathway shows a strong tendency for decreased expression in the samples characterized by poor prognosis. PMID:19359472

  5. The HD mutation causes progressive lethal neurological disease in mice expressing reduced levels of huntingtin.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, W; Hurlbert, M S; Hilditch-Maguire, P; Wadghiri, Y Z; Wheeler, V C; Cohen, S I; Joyner, A L; MacDonald, M E; Turnbull, D H

    2001-10-15

    Huntingtin is an essential protein that with mutant polyglutamine tracts initiates dominant striatal neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease (HD). To assess the consequences of mutant protein when huntingtin is limiting, we have studied three lines of compound heterozygous mice in which both copies of the HD gene homolog (Hdh) were altered, resulting in greatly reduced levels of huntingtin with a normal human polyglutamine length (Q20) and/or an expanded disease-associated segment (Q111): Hdh(neoQ20)/Hdh(neoQ20), Hdh(neoQ20)/Hdh(null) and Hdh(neoQ20)/Hdh(neoQ111). All surviving mice in each of the three lines were small from birth, and had variable movement abnormalities. Magnetic resonance micro-imaging and histological evaluation showed enlarged ventricles in approximately 50% of the Hdh(neoQ20)/Hdh(neoQ111) and Hdh(neoQ20)/Hdh(null) mice, revealing a developmental defect that does not worsen with age. Only Hdh(neoQ20)/Hdh(neoQ111) mice exhibited a rapidly progressive movement disorder that, in the absence of striatal pathology, begins with hind-limb clasping during tail suspension and tail stiffness during walking by 3-4 months of age, and then progresses to paralysis of the limbs and tail, hypokinesis and premature death, usually by 12 months of age. Thus, dramatically reduced huntingtin levels fail to support normal development in mice, resulting in reduced body size, movement abnormalities and a variable increase in ventricle volume. On this sensitized background, mutant huntingtin causes a rapid neurological disease, distinct from the HD-pathogenic process. These results raise the possibility that therapeutic elimination of huntingtin in HD patients could lead to unintended neurological, as well as developmental side-effects. PMID:11709539

  6. Discordant Impact of HLA on Viral Replicative Capacity and Disease Progression in Pediatric and Adult HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Adland, Emily; Paioni, Paolo; Thobakgale, Christina; Laker, Leana; Mori, Luisa; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Csala, Anna; Clapson, Margaret; Flynn, Jacquie; Novelli, Vas; Hurst, Jacob; Naidoo, Vanessa; Shapiro, Roger; Huang, Kuan-Hsiang Gary; Frater, John; Prendergast, Andrew; Prado, Julia G; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D; Carrington, Mary; Jooste, Pieter; Goulder, Philip J R

    2015-06-01

    HLA class I polymorphism has a major influence on adult HIV disease progression. An important mechanism mediating this effect is the impact on viral replicative capacity (VRC) of the escape mutations selected in response to HLA-restricted CD8+ T-cell responses. Factors that contribute to slow progression in pediatric HIV infection are less well understood. We here investigate the relationship between VRC and disease progression in pediatric infection, and the effect of HLA on VRC and on disease outcome in adult and pediatric infection. Studying a South African cohort of >350 ART-naïve, HIV-infected children and their mothers, we first observed that pediatric disease progression is significantly correlated with VRC. As expected, VRCs in mother-child pairs were strongly correlated (p = 0.004). The impact of the protective HLA alleles, HLA-B*57, HLA-B*58:01 and HLA-B*81:01, resulted in significantly lower VRCs in adults (p<0.0001), but not in children. Similarly, in adults, but not in children, VRCs were significantly higher in subjects expressing the disease-susceptible alleles HLA-B*18:01/45:01/58:02 (p = 0.007). Irrespective of the subject, VRCs were strongly correlated with the number of Gag CD8+ T-cell escape mutants driven by HLA-B*57/58:01/81:01 present in each virus (p = 0.0002). In contrast to the impact of VRC common to progression in adults and children, the HLA effects on disease outcome, that are substantial in adults, are small and statistically insignificant in infected children. These data further highlight the important role that VRC plays both in adult and pediatric progression, and demonstrate that HLA-independent factors, yet to be fully defined, are predominantly responsible for pediatric non-progression. PMID:26076345

  7. Discordant Impact of HLA on Viral Replicative Capacity and Disease Progression in Pediatric and Adult HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Adland, Emily; Paioni, Paolo; Thobakgale, Christina; Laker, Leana; Mori, Luisa; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Csala, Anna; Clapson, Margaret; Flynn, Jacquie; Novelli, Vas; Hurst, Jacob; Naidoo, Vanessa; Shapiro, Roger; Huang, Kuan-Hsiang Gary; Frater, John; Prendergast, Andrew; Prado, Julia G.; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Walker, Bruce D.; Carrington, Mary; Jooste, Pieter; Goulder, Philip J. R.

    2015-01-01

    HLA class I polymorphism has a major influence on adult HIV disease progression. An important mechanism mediating this effect is the impact on viral replicative capacity (VRC) of the escape mutations selected in response to HLA-restricted CD8+ T-cell responses. Factors that contribute to slow progression in pediatric HIV infection are less well understood. We here investigate the relationship between VRC and disease progression in pediatric infection, and the effect of HLA on VRC and on disease outcome in adult and pediatric infection. Studying a South African cohort of >350 ART-naïve, HIV-infected children and their mothers, we first observed that pediatric disease progression is significantly correlated with VRC. As expected, VRCs in mother-child pairs were strongly correlated (p = 0.004). The impact of the protective HLA alleles, HLA-B*57, HLA-B*58:01 and HLA-B*81:01, resulted in significantly lower VRCs in adults (p<0.0001), but not in children. Similarly, in adults, but not in children, VRCs were significantly higher in subjects expressing the disease-susceptible alleles HLA-B*18:01/45:01/58:02 (p = 0.007). Irrespective of the subject, VRCs were strongly correlated with the number of Gag CD8+ T-cell escape mutants driven by HLA-B*57/58:01/81:01 present in each virus (p = 0.0002). In contrast to the impact of VRC common to progression in adults and children, the HLA effects on disease outcome, that are substantial in adults, are small and statistically insignificant in infected children. These data further highlight the important role that VRC plays both in adult and pediatric progression, and demonstrate that HLA-independent factors, yet to be fully defined, are predominantly responsible for pediatric non-progression. PMID:26076345

  8. 8OHdG as a marker for Huntington disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jeffrey D.; Matson, Wayne R.; Juhl, Andrew R.; Leavitt, Blair R.; Paulsen, Jane S.

    2013-01-01

    Leukocyte 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG) is an indicator of oxidative stress, impaired metabolism, and mitochondrial dysfunction, features that have been implicated in Huntington disease (HD). Increased levels of 8OHdG have been reported in the caudate, parietal cortex, and peripherally in the serum and leukocytes, in patients diagnosed with HD. However, little is known about levels in prodromal patients and changes that might occur as the disease progresses. To address these issues, 8OHdG was tracked over time for a subset of participants enrolled in the PREDICT-HD study. Participants were stratified into four groups based on proximity to HD diagnosis at study entry: Controls (gene-negative individuals), Low (low probability of near future diagnosis), Medium, and High. Blood samples were analyzed using Liquid Chromatography Electrochemical Array, and for comparison purposes, a separate cross-sectional sample was analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry. Longitudinal data analysis showed that initial status (at study entry) and annual rate of change varied as a function of proximity group, adjusting for sex, education, age at study entry, and site effects. Overall levels were lowest for the Control group and highest for the High group, and the rate of increase varied in a similar manner. The finding that 8OHdG concentrations increased as a function of proximity to projected disease diagnosis and duration indicates support for the continued assessment of 8OHdG as a robust clinical HD biomarker. PMID:22414782

  9. Chronic follicular bronchiolitis requires antigen-specific regulatory T cell control to prevent fatal disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Erica G.; Haribhai, Dipica; Jeschke, Jonathan C.; Co, Dominic O.; Ziegelbauer, Jennifer; Yan, Ke; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Mishra, Manoj K.; Simpson, Pippa; Salzman, Nita H.; Williams, Calvin B.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study regulatory T (Treg) cell control of chronic autoimmunity in a lymphoreplete host, we created and characterized a new model of autoimmune lung inflammation that targets the medium and small airways. We generated transgenic mice that express a chimeric membrane protein consisting of hen egg lysozyme (mHEL) and a hemoglobin (Hb) epitope tag under the control of the Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP) promoter, which largely limited transgene expression to the respiratory bronchioles. When CCSP-mHEL/Hb transgenic mice were crossed to N3.L2 TCR transgenic mice that recognize the Hb epitope, the bigenic progeny developed dense, pseudo-follicular lymphocytic peribronchiolar infiltrates that resembled the histological pattern of follicular bronchiolitis. Aggregates of activated IFN-?- and IL-17A-secreting CD4+ T cells as well as B cells surrounded the airways. Lung pathology was similar in Ifng?/? and Il17a?/? mice, indicating that either cytokine is sufficient to establish chronic disease. A large number of antigen-specific Treg cells accumulated in the lesions and Treg cell-depletion in the affected mice led to an interstitial spread of the disease that ultimately proved fatal. Thus Treg cells act to restrain autoimmune responses, resulting in an organized and controlled chronic pathological process rather than a progressive disease. PMID:24163409

  10. 8OHdG as a marker for Huntington disease progression.

    PubMed

    Long, Jeffrey D; Matson, Wayne R; Juhl, Andrew R; Leavitt, Blair R; Paulsen, Jane S

    2012-06-01

    Leukocyte 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG) is an indicator of oxidative stress, impaired metabolism, and mitochondrial dysfunction, features that have been implicated in Huntington disease (HD). Increased levels of 8OHdG have been reported in the caudate, parietal cortex, and peripherally in the serum and leukocytes, in patients diagnosed with HD. However, little is known about levels in prodromal patients and changes that might occur as the disease progresses. To address these issues, 8OHdG was tracked over time for a subset of participants enrolled in the PREDICT-HD study. Participants were stratified into four groups based on proximity to HD diagnosis at study entry: Controls (gene-negative individuals), Low (low probability of near-future diagnosis), Medium, and High. Blood samples were analyzed using Liquid Chromatography Electrochemical Array, and for comparison purposes, a separate cross-sectional sample was analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with multiple-reaction-monitoring mass spectrometry. Longitudinal data analysis showed that initial status (at study entry) and annual rate of change varied as a function of proximity group, adjusting for sex, education, age at study entry, and site effects. Overall levels were lowest for the Control group and highest for the High group, and the rate of increase varied in a similar manner. The finding that 8OHdG concentrations increased as a function of proximity to projected disease diagnosis and duration indicates support for the continued assessment of 8OHdG as a robust clinical HD biomarker. PMID:22414782

  11. PNPLA3 genetic variation in alcoholic steatosis and liver disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Hampe, Jochen; Trépo, Eric; Datz, Christian; Romeo, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) accounts for the majority of chronic liver diseases in Western countries, and alcoholic cirrhosis is among the premier causes of liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver-related mortality causes. Studies in different genders and ethnic groups, as well as in twins provide strong evidence for a significant contribution of host genetic factors to liver disease development in drinkers. The intense quest for genetic modifiers of alcohol-induced fibrosis progression have identified and repeatedly confirmed a genetic polymorphism in the gene coding for patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3; adiponutrin; rs738409 C/G, M148I) as a risk factor for alcoholic cirrhosis and its related complication, HCC, in different populations. Although carriership of one or both mutated PNPLA3 alleles does not explain the entire liver phenotypic variability in drinkers, it clearly represents one of the strongest single genetic modulators in a complex trait such as ALD. As more genetic data supporting its important role aggregates, novel insight as to PNPLA3’s function and that of its genetic variation in liver injury is unveiled pointing to an important novel pathway in alcohol-mediated hepatic lipid turnover with strong implications on inflammation, extra cellular matrix remodelling, and hepatocarcinogenesis. Future study shall decipher whether the gathered knowledge can be translated into therapeutic benefits of patients.

  12. Direct evidence of progressive cardiac dysfunction in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Nigel I.; Sawiak, Stephen J.; Buonincontri, Guido; Niu, Youguo; Kane, Andrew D.; Carpenter, T. Adrian; Giussani, Dino A.; Morton, A. Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The gene carrying the mutation causing Huntington’s disease (HD) is not brain specific, and there is increasing evidence for peripheral, as well as brain pathology in this disorder. Here, we used in vivo and ex vivo techniques to assess the cardiac function of mice transgenic for the HD mutation. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the beating heart, we show that abnormalities previously reported in end-stage mice are present by the mid-stages of the disease. We also found abnormalities that have not been hitherto reported, including changes in cardiac efficiency and a mechanical distortion of the beating heart. Using the Langendorff preparation, we show reduced coronary blood flow, impaired myocardial contractility and reduced left ventricular developed pressure in HD mouse hearts. Together, our findings suggest that there is significant pathology of the HD mouse heart, even by the mid stages of disease. These are likely to contribute not only to the demise, but also to the progressive decline of the HD mouse. HD is characterised by cognitive as well as motor impairments. Given that previous clinical research has demonstrated that cardiac failure is a major risk factor for HD patients, and the risk of cognitive symptoms markedly increases in patients with heart failure, we suggest that closer attention should be paid to cardiovascular symptoms in HD patients. PMID:24339845

  13. Rapid progressive interstitial lung disease as initial manifestation of primary Sjögren’s syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yihua; Yi, Qun; Cheng, Deyun

    2014-01-01

    Primary Sjögren’s syndrome is a chronic inflammatory disorder with many extraglandular organ systems involved, including the lungs. Diffuse interstitial lung disease is the most serious form of lung involvement. Parenchymal lung involvement in primary Sjögren’s syndrome is usually manifested by cough and/or slowly progressive dyspnea and most of the cases present as chronic course. We describe here a case of primary Sjögren’s syndrome who presented as rapid progressive interstitial lung disease. Improvement was obtained with treatment of corticosteroids and ventilatory support at early time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report documenting primary Sjögren’s syndrome initially presenting as rapid progressive interstitial lung disease and it enriches our understanding of the clinical manifestations of primary Sjögren’s syndrome. PMID:25664130

  14. Distinctive cytokine, chemokine, and antibody responses in Echinococcus multilocularis-infected patients with cured, stable, or progressive disease.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiangsheng; Grüner, Beate; Lechner, Christian J; Kern, Peter; Soboslay, Peter T

    2014-06-01

    Metacestode larvae of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis can cause alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a severe parasitic disease in man, which, if it remains untreated, may cause organ failure and death. Spontaneous and parasite antigen-induced cellular responses were studied in patients with cured, stable, and progressive AE to differentiate the response profiles between the distinct states of infection. Antibody reactivity was evaluated in AE patients with cured, stable, and progressive disease. The spontaneous cellular release of pro-inflammatory IL-31 and IL-33 was clearly depressed in all AE patients, while regulatory IL-27, anti-inflammatory SDF-1/CXCL12, and eosinophil granulocyte attracting Eotaxin-1, Eotaxin-2, and Eotaxin-3 (CCL11, CCL24, CCL26) were enhanced with disease progression. Such distinctive response profiles could be applied for monitoring of AE disease progression or regression. E. multilocularis metacestode (Em) antigens (entire metacestode EmAg as well as EmVesicles) stimulated in vitro IL-31, IL-33, Eotaxin-1, Eotaxin-3, and CXCL12 cytokine and chemokine responses, which were similarly present in all AE patient groups, while regulatory IL-27 was suppressed and pro-inflammatory Eotaxin-2 was enhanced. E. multilocularis metacestode-specific IgG1, IgG3, and IgE responses progressively diminished with regression from active to stable and cured AE. IgG2 and IgG4 reactivity remained similarly high in stable and progressive cases, and lessened only with cured AE. Antibody reactivity against E. multilocularis vesicle antigen distinctively separated between cured, stable, or progressive AE, with the exception of IgG4. In sum, the combined and longitudinal study of several cytokines and chemokines, together with the evaluation of E. multilocularis vesicle-specific antibody responses, should provide a better understanding of the immune response during progression and regression of AE, and may help to improve the staging of AE patients. PMID:24509604

  15. Phenotype Variation in Human Immunodeficiency virus Type 1 Transmission and Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) infects target cells through interaction with the CD4 molecule and chemokine receptors, mainly CCR5 and CXCR4. Viral isolates can be phenotypically classified based on the co-receptor they utilize to infect target cells. Thus, R5 and X4 virus use respectively CCR5 and CXCR4, whereas R5X4 virus can use either CCR5 or CXCR4. This review describes the central role played by co-receptor expression and usage for HIV-1 cell tropism, transmission and pathogenesis. We discuss various hypotheses proposed to explain the preferential transmission of R5 viruses and the mechanisms driving the change of HIV-1 co-receptor usage in the course of infection. Recent insights in the intrinsic variability of R5 viruses and their role in influencing disease progression in both adults and children are also discussed. PMID:19893208

  16. On the central role of brain connectivity in neurodegenerative disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Iturria-Medina, Yasser; Evans, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased brain connectivity, in all its variants, is often considered an evolutionary advantage by mediating complex sensorimotor function and higher cognitive faculties. Interaction among components at all spatial scales, including genes, proteins, neurons, local neuronal circuits and macroscopic brain regions, are indispensable for such vital functions. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that, from the microscopic to the macroscopic levels, such connections might also be a conduit for in intra-brain disease spreading. For instance, cell-to-cell misfolded proteins (MP) transmission and neuronal toxicity are prominent connectivity-mediated factors in aging and neurodegeneration. This article offers an overview of connectivity dysfunctions associated with neurodegeneration, with a specific focus on how these may be central to both normal aging and the neuropathologic degenerative progression. PMID:26052284

  17. Endometriosis in adolescents is a hidden, progressive and severe disease that deserves attention, not just compassion

    PubMed Central

    Brosens, I.; Gordts, S.; Benagiano, G.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis in the adolescent has, in recent years, been discovered to be a challenging problem in gynaecology. Although the pain may start at a young age, even before the onset of menstruation, the diagnosis by laparoscopy is almost always postponed for several years, by which time destructive lesions have affected the tubo-ovarian structures and severely compromised fecundability. Several factors may play a role, but one important reason for this disease progression is likely to be the delay in diagnosis. Therefore, transvaginal ultrasounds and transvaginal access with a less invasive needle endoscopy are recommended for exploration of the pelvis, diagnosis of endometriosis and treatment at an early stage before severe lesions develop. PMID:23739215

  18. Endometriosis in adolescents is a hidden, progressive and severe disease that deserves attention, not just compassion.

    PubMed

    Brosens, I; Gordts, S; Benagiano, G

    2013-08-01

    Endometriosis in the adolescent has, in recent years, been discovered to be a challenging problem in gynaecology. Although the pain may start at a young age, even before the onset of menstruation, the diagnosis by laparoscopy is almost always postponed for several years, by which time destructive lesions have affected the tubo-ovarian structures and severely compromised fecundability. Several factors may play a role, but one important reason for this disease progression is likely to be the delay in diagnosis. Therefore, transvaginal ultrasounds and transvaginal access with a less invasive needle endoscopy are recommended for exploration of the pelvis, diagnosis of endometriosis and treatment at an early stage before severe lesions develop. PMID:23739215

  19. Natural progression of renal function in the elderly: analysis of poor prognosis factors associated with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Heras, Manuel; García-Cosmes, Pedro; Fernández-Reyes, María J; Sánchez, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years a debate has emerged on the range of normal renal function and the rate at which renal disease progresses in the elderly. In this review we analysed, on the basis of the results of the study Ancianos con enfermedad renal crónica del Hospital General de Segovia (Elderly people with chronic kidney disease of the Hospital General de Segovia), the poor prognosis factors associated with this disease: proteinuria, episodes of acute renal failure and heart failure, and the role of uric acid. Elderly people with chronic kidney disease who present these poor prognosis factors may benefit from follow-up by Nephrology. PMID:23897177

  20. Clinical Predictors of Conduction Disease Progression in Type I Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Nazarian, Saman; Wagner, Kathryn R.; Caffo, Brian S.; Tomaselli, Gordon F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with type I myotonic muscular dystrophy (DM1) are at risk for sudden death due to atrioventricular conduction block. We sought to characterize the trends and predictors of time dependent electrocardiographic (ECG) variations in patients with DM1. Methods Seventy patients with DM1 underwent standard electrocardiography at first evaluation and routine and symptom prompted follow-up. Individual variations in ECG conduction intervals were assessed using spaghetti plots. Clinical predictors of conduction disease progression were assessed using multivariate random effects regression models of panel data clustered by patient and adjusted for heart rate. Results Substantial individual variability was noted in time dependent changes in PR, QRS, and QTc intervals of patients with DM1. Changes in the QTc interval were closely associated with prolongation of the QRS interval. Age, the presence of paroxysmal atrial flutter or fibrillation, and the number of cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) repeats were independent positive predictors of time dependent PR and QRS prolongation during long-term follow-up. Female sex was negatively associated with PR prolongation but positively associated with QTc prolongation. Lower left ventricular ejection fraction was associated with greater QRS interval progression during long-term follow-up but was not predictive of PR interval progression. Conclusions Patients with DM1 can develop rapid changes in cardiac conduction intervals. Paroxysmal atrial flutter or fibrillation, older age, and larger CTG expansions predict greater time dependent PR and QRS interval prolongation and warrant particular attention in the arrhythmic evaluation of this high risk patient subset. PMID:20946286

  1. Primary IgA nephropathy with low histologic grade and disease progression: is there a "point of no return"?

    PubMed

    Lai, Fernand Mac-Moune; Szeto, Cheuk Chun; Choi, Paul Cheung Lung; Li, Philip Kam Tao; Tang, Nelson Leung Sang; Chow, Kai Ming; Lui, Siu Fai; Wong, Teresa Yuk Hwa; Ho, Kelvin K L; To, Ka Fai

    2002-02-01

    Histologic low-grade chronic renal lesions in 144 adults with primary immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy were correlated with clinical parameters of disease progression over a median follow-up of 93 months. Using chronicity-based histologic grading, 50, 59, and 35 patients were glomerular grade (GG) 1a, GG1b, and GG2; 83 and 61 patients were tubulointerstitial grade (TIG) 1 and TIG2; and 25 patients had hyaline arteriolosclerosis. On follow-up, GG and TIG were predictive of disease progression by impairment of renal function, development of hypertension, and significant proteinuria (>1 g/d). Hyaline arteriolosclerosis correlated only with the development of hypertension. Histologic lesions GG1a or TIG1 predicted a significant low risk for disease progression compared with other renal lesions, regardless of the renal manifestation at the time of biopsy. Combined GG1a, TIG1, and isolated hematuria at the time of biopsy enhanced the sensitivity to determine early IgA nephropathy and to define a nonearly cohort with a higher risk of disease progression appropriate for recruitment into clinical therapeutic trials within realistic time frames. The significant risk of progression in other low-grade lesions, such as GG1b or TIG2, suggests that the point of no return in IgA nephropathy may occur much earlier than perceived and that delayed biopsy in these patients no longer may be justified. PMID:11840383

  2. Correlation of fibrinogen-like protein 2 with disease progression in patients with severe acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    YE, XIAOHUA; HUAI, JIAPING; CHEN, RENPIN; DING, JIN; CHEN, YANPING; CAI, ZHENZHAI

    2014-01-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that fibrinogen-like protein 2 (fgl2) is expressed on the surface of macrophages, T cells and endothelial cells and directly cleaves prothrombin to thrombin. The present study was designed to examine fgl2 expression in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and its correlation with disease progression. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 25 patients with SAP, 37 patients with mild acute pancreatitis (MAP) and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. Paraffin sections of pancreas were obtained from 18 postoperative patients with SAP between 2003 and 2012. Human fgl2 (hfgl2) gene expression was determined in the PBMCs by real-time PCR. A monoclonal antibody against hfgl2 was applied to detect hfgl2 protein expression in the pancreatic tissues as well as in the PBMCs by immunohistochemical staining. The levels of hfgl2 expression in the PBMCs from the 25 patients with SAP were markedly upregulated compared with the other groups, whereas no significant difference between the MAP group and healthy controls was observed. hfgl2 expression in the PBMCs and pancreatic tissues was detectable through using immunohistochemistry and was demonstrated to be specifically localized to the endothelium of microvessels and inflammatory infiltrative cells in the areas of acute focal, confluent necrosis. There were positive correlations between hfgl2 expression in the PBMCs and the severity of SAP, as indicated by scores of Ranson and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II. The results suggest that hfgl2 is involved in the pathogenesis of SAP and hfgl2 levels may serve as a biomarker during disease progression. PMID:24348769

  3. Recent cigarette smoking and HIV disease progression: No evidence of an association

    PubMed Central

    Kabali, Conrad; Cheng, Debbie M.; Brooks, Daniel; Bridden, Carly; Horsburgh, Robert; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    The association between smoking and HIV disease progression has been examined in several studies; however, findings have been inconsistent. We examined the effect of recent cigarette smoking on CD4+ T cell count/µL (CD4 count) and HIV RNA concentration (HIV viral load [VL]) among two HIV-infected cohorts with alcohol problems in Massachusetts in the periods 1997–2001 and 2001–2006 using a prospective cohort design and linear mixed models. Smoking groups were defined as: minimal or non-smokers, light smokers, moderate smokers and heavy smokers. Age, alcohol use, injection drug use, depressive symptoms, gender, annual income, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence were considered as potential confounders. Among 462 subjects, no significant differences in CD4 count or viral load were found between smoking groups. Using minimal or non-smokers as the reference group, the adjusted mean differences in CD4 count were: 8.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): ?17.4, 33.8) for heavy smokers; ?0.1 (95% CI: ?25.4, 5.1) for moderate smokers; and ?2.6 (95% CI: ?28.3, 3.0) for light smokers. For log10 VL, the adjusted differences were: 0.03 (95% CI: ?0.12, 0.17) for heavy smokers; ?0.06 (95% CI: ?0.20, 0.08) for moderate smokers; and 0.14 (95% CI ?0.01, 0.28) for light smokers. This study did not find an association between smoking cigarettes and HIV disease progression as measured by CD4 cell count and VL. PMID:21400309

  4. Measuring Alzheimer Disease Progression with Transition Probabilities: Estimates from NACC-UDS

    PubMed Central

    Spackman, D.E.; Kadiyala, S.; Neumann, P.J.; Veenstra, D.L.; Sullivan, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Estimate the probabilities, for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, of transitioning between stages of disease severity (mild, moderate, severe, dead) and care settings (community, institutional). Methods Data were compiled by the National Alzheimer Coordinating Center. The main analyses were limited to 3,852 patients who were >50 years old, diagnosed with possible/probable AD and had at least two center visits. A multinomial logistic model accounting for patient and center level correlation was used to calculate transition probabilities between stages of the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Separately we calculated the probabilities of being institutionalized based on CDR stage. Both analyses controlled for baseline age, time between visits, sex, marital status, whether white, whether Hispanic and number of years of education. Results The annual probabilities of dying for patients in mild, moderate and severe health states were 5.5%, 21.5% and 48.0%, respectively, while the annual probabilities for institutionalization were 1.2%, 3.4% and 6.6%, respectively. The majority of mild and moderate patients remain in the same health state after one year, 77.4% and 50.1% respectively. Progressing patients are most likely to transition one stage, but 1.3% of mild patients become severe in one year. Some patients revert to lower severity stages, 7% from moderate to mild. Conclusions Transition probabilities to higher CDR stages and to institutionalization are lower than those published previously, but the probability of death is higher. These results are useful for understanding AD progression and can be used in simulation models to evaluate costs and compare new treatments or policies. PMID:22175655

  5. Subthalamic Nucleus Neuronal Firing Rate Increases with Parkinson’s Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Remple, Michael S.; Bradenham, Courtney H.; Kao, C. Chris; Charles, P. David; Neimat, Joseph S.; Konrad, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic cells in the central nervous system, in particular the substantia nigra, resulting in an unrelenting loss of motor and non-motor function. Animal models of PD reveal hyperactive neurons in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) that have increased firing rates and bursting activity compared to controls. Although STN activity has been characterized in advanced stage PD patients, it has not been described in early stage PD patients. Here we present the results of STN neuronal recordings from early stage PD patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage II) enrolled in an ongoing clinical trial compared to recordings from age and sex matched advanced PD patients. STN neurons had a significantly lower firing rate in early versus advanced PD (28.7Hz vs. 36.3Hz; p<0.01). The overall activity of the STN was also significantly lower in early versus late PD, as measured by background neuronal noise (12.4mV vs. 14.0mV; p <0.05). No significant difference was identified between groups in the bursting or variability of neuronal firing in the STN, as measured by a burst index or the interspike interval coefficient of variability. The results suggest that neuronal firing in STN increases with PD progression. PMID:21542021

  6. Contingent Negative Variation Is Associated with Cognitive Dysfunction and Secondary Progressive Disease Course in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Idiman, Fethi; Idiman, Egemen; Ozakbas, Serkan; Karakas, Sirel; Bruce, Jared

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The relationship between contingent negative variation (CNV), which is an event-related potential, and cognition in multiple sclerosis (MS) has not been examined previously. The primary objective of the present study was thus to determine the association between CNV and cognition in a sample of MS patients. Methods The subjects of this study comprised 66 MS patients [50 with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) and 16 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS)] and 40 matched healthy volunteers. A neuropsychological battery was administered to all of the subjects; CNV recordings were made from the Cz, Fz, and Pz electrodes, and the amplitude and area under the curve (AUC) were measured at each electrode. Results RRMS patients exhibited CNVs with lower amplitudes and smaller AUCs than the controls at Pz. SPMS patients exhibited CNVs with lower amplitudes and smaller AUCs than the controls, and CNVs with a smaller amplitude than the RRMS patients at both Cz and Pz. After correcting for multiple comparisons, a lower CNV amplitude at Pz was significantly associated with worse performance on measures of speed of information processing, verbal fluency, verbal learning, and verbal recall. Conclusions CNV may serve as a marker for disease progression and cognitive dysfunction in MS. Further studies with larger samples and wider electrode coverage are required to fully assess the value of CNV in these areas. PMID:25324878

  7. Exon skipping restores dystrophin expression, but fails to prevent disease progression in later stage dystrophic dko mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Cloer, C; Lu, P; Milazi, S; Shaban, M; Shah, S N; Marston-Poe, L; Moulton, H M; Lu, Q L

    2014-09-01

    Antisense therapy with both chemistries of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) and 2'-O-methyl phosphorothioate has demonstrated the capability to induce dystrophin expression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients in phase II-III clinical trials with benefit in muscle functions. However, potential of the therapy for DMD at different stages of the disease progression is not understood. In this study, we examined the effect of peptide-conjugated PMO (PPMO)-mediated exon skipping on disease progression of utrophin-dystrophin-deficient mice (dko) of four age groups (21-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50+ days), representing diseases from early stage to advanced stage with severe kyphosis. Biweekly intravenous (i.v.) administration of the PPMO restored the dystrophin expression in nearly 100% skeletal muscle fibers in all age groups. This was associated with the restoration of dystrophin-associated proteins including functional glycosylated dystroglycan and neuronal nitric synthase. However, therapeutic outcomes clearly depended on severity of the disease at the time the treatment started. The PPMO treatment alleviated the disease pathology and significantly prolonged the life span of the mice receiving treatment at younger age with mild phenotype. However, restoration of high levels of dystrophin expression failed to prevent disease progression to the mice receiving treatment when disease was already at advanced stage. The results could be critical for design of clinical trials with antisense therapy to DMD. PMID:24942628

  8. Exon skipping restores dystrophin expression, but fails to prevent disease progression in later stage dystrophic dko mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, B; Cloer, C; Lu, P; Milazi, S; Shaban, M; Shah, SN; Marston-Poe, L; Moulton, HM; Lu, QL

    2014-01-01

    Antisense therapy with both chemistries of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PMOs) and 2?-O-methyl phosphorothioate has demonstrated the capability to induce dystrophin expression in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients in phase II–III clinical trials with benefit in muscle functions. However, potential of the therapy for DMD at different stages of the disease progression is not understood. In this study, we examined the effect of peptide-conjugated PMO (PPMO)-mediated exon skipping on disease progression of utrophin-dystrophin-deficient mice (dko) of four age groups (21–29, 30–39, 40–49 and 50+ days), representing diseases from early stage to advanced stage with severe kyphosis. Biweekly intravenous (i.v.) administration of the PPMO restored the dystrophin expression in nearly 100% skeletal muscle fibers in all age groups. This was associated with the restoration of dystrophin-associated proteins including functional glycosylated dystroglycan and neuronal nitric synthase. However, therapeutic outcomes clearly depended on severity of the disease at the time the treatment started. The PPMO treatment alleviated the disease pathology and significantly prolonged the life span of the mice receiving treatment at younger age with mild phenotype. However, restoration of high levels of dystrophin expression failed to prevent disease progression to the mice receiving treatment when disease was already at advanced stage. The results could be critical for design of clinical trials with antisense therapy to DMD. PMID:24942628

  9. Effect of Creatine Monohydrate on Clinical Progression in Patients With Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE There are no treatments available to slow or prevent the progression of Parkinson disease, despite its global prevalence and significant health care burden. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease program was established to promote discovery of potential therapies. OBJECTIVE To determine whether creatine monohydrate was more effective than placebo in slowing long-term clinical decline in participants with Parkinson disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS The Long-term Study 1, a multicenter, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 1:1 randomized efficacy trial. Participants were recruited from 45 investigative sites in the United States and Canada and included 1741 men and women with early (within 5 years of diagnosis) and treated (receiving dopaminergic therapy) Parkinson disease. Participants were enrolled from March 2007 to May 2010 and followed up until September 2013. INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomized to placebo or creatine (10 g/d) monohydrate for a minimum of 5 years (maximum follow-up, 8 years). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was a difference in clinical decline from baseline to 5-year follow-up, compared between the 2 treatment groups using a global statistical test. Clinical status was defined by 5 outcome measures: Modified Rankin Scale, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, PDQ-39 Summary Index, Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living scale, and ambulatory capacity. All outcomes were coded such that higher scores indicated worse outcomes and were analyzed by a global statistical test. Higher summed ranks (range, 5–4775) indicate worse outcomes. RESULTS The trial was terminated early for futility based on results of a planned interim analysis of participants enrolled at least 5 years prior to the date of the analysis (n = 955). The median follow-up time was 4 years. Of the 955 participants, the mean of the summed ranks for placebo was 2360 (95% CI, 2249–2470) and for creatine was 2414 (95% CI, 2304–2524). The global statistical test yielded t1865.8 = ?0.75 (2-sided P = .45). There were no detectable differences (P < .01 to partially adjust for multiple comparisons) in adverse and serious adverse events by body system. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with early and treated Parkinson disease, treatment with creatine monohydrate for at least 5 years, compared with placebo did not improve clinical outcomes. These findings do not support the use of creatine monohydrate in patients with Parkinson disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00449865 PMID:25668262

  10. Variants in ZNRD1 Gene Predict HIV-1/AIDS Disease Progression in a Han Chinese Population in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Ju; Lan, Yu-Ching; Hung, Chien-Hui; Lin, Ting-Hsu; Huang, Shao-Mei; Liao, Chiu-Chu; Lin, Cheng-Wen; Lai, Chih-Ho; Tien, Ni; Liu, Xiang; Ho, Mao-Wang; Chien, Wen-Kuei; Chen, Jin-Hua; Wang, Jen-Hsien; Tsai, Fuu-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Patients demonstrate notable variations in disease progression following human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We aimed to identify ZNRD1 and RNF39 genetic variants linked to AIDS progression. We conducted a genetic association study in HIV-1-infected Han Chinese patients residing in Taiwan. The clinical characteristics of 143 HIV-1-infected patients were measured, and patients were split into 2 groups: AIDS progression and AIDS non-progression. Genotyping of ZNRD1 and RNF39 was performed in all participants. We found that patients in the AIDS progression group had higher HIV-1 viral loads and lower CD4 cell counts than did patients in the AIDS non-progression group. The frequency of the AA genotype of ZNRD1 (rs16896970) was lower in the AIDS progression group than in the AIDS non-progression group. Patients with AA genotypes had lower levels of HIV-1 viral loads and higher levels of CD4 cell counts than did patients with AG+GG genotypes. AIDS progression in patients with the AA group is significantly different from that in patients with the AG and GG groups by using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The hazard ratio for progression was lower in the AA group than in the AG and GG groups. We identified a SNP that contributes to AIDS progression in HIV-1-infected patients in this population. This SNP had a significant protective influence on AIDS progression, and polymorphisms of the ZNRD1 gene may play a role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection. PMID:23874430

  11. Expression profiling of cervical cancers in Indian women at different stages to identify gene signatures during progression of the disease

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Asha; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Kannan, Sadhana; Deodhar, Kedar; Shrivastava, Shyam K; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan; Mulherkar, Rita

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide, with developing countries accounting for >80% of the disease burden. Although in the West, active screening has been instrumental in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer, disease management is hampered due to lack of biomarkers for disease progression and defined therapeutic targets. Here we carried out gene expression profiling of 29 cervical cancer tissues from Indian women, spanning International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages of the disease from early lesion (IA and IIA) to progressive stages (IIB and IIIA–B), and identified distinct gene expression signatures. Overall, metabolic pathways, pathways in cancer and signaling pathways were found to be significantly upregulated, while focal adhesion, cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction and WNT signaling were downregulated. Additionally, we identified candidate biomarkers of disease progression such as SPP1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), STK17A, and DUSP1 among others that were validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in the samples used for microarray studies as well in an independent set of 34 additional samples. Integrative analysis of our results with other cervical cancer profiling studies could facilitate the development of multiplex diagnostic markers of cervical cancer progression. PMID:24403257

  12. Bone marrow stroma CD40 expression correlates with inflammatory mast cell infiltration and disease progression in splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Franco, Giovanni; Guarnotta, Carla; Frossi, Barbara; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Boveri, Emanuela; Gulino, Alessandro; Fuligni, Fabio; Rigoni, Alice; Porcasi, Rossana; Buffa, Salvatore; Betto, Elena; Florena, Ada Maria; Franco, Vito; Iannitto, Emilio; Arcaini, Luca; Pileri, Stefano Aldo; Pucillo, Carlo; Colombo, Mario Paolo; Sangaletti, Sabina; Tripodo, Claudio

    2014-03-20

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a mature B-cell neoplasm characterized by rather indolent clinical course. However, nearly one third of patients experience a rapidly progressive disease with a dismal outcome. Despite the characterization of clone genetics and the recognition of deregulated immunologic stimulation in the pathogenesis of SMZL, little is known about microenvironment dynamics and their potential biological influence on disease outcome. Here we investigate the effect of stroma-intrinsic features on SMZL disease progression by focusing on the microenvironment of the bone marrow (BM), which represents an elective disease localization endorsing diagnostic and prognostic relevance. We show that the quality of the BM stromal meshwork of SMZL infiltrates correlates with time to progression. In particular, we describe the unfavorable prognostic influence of dense CD40 expression by BM stromal cells, which involves the contribution of CD40 ligand (CD40L)-expressing bystander mast cells infiltrating SMZL BM aggregates. The CD40/CD40L-assisted crosstalk between mesenchymal stromal cells and mast cells populating the SMZL microenvironment finds correlation in p53(-/-) mice developing SMZL and contributes to the engendering of detrimental proinflammatory conditions. Our study highlights a dynamic interaction, playing between nonneoplastic elements within the SMZL niche, toward disease progression. PMID:24452203

  13. MicroRNA-124 slows down the progression of Huntington’s disease by promoting neurogenesis in the striatum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tian; Im, Wooseok; Mook-Jung, Inhee; Kim, Manho

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-124 contributes to neurogenesis through regulating its targets, but its expression both in the brain of Huntington’s disease mouse models and patients is decreased. However, the effects of microRNA-124 on the progression of Huntington’s disease have not been reported. Results from this study showed that microRNA-124 increased the latency to fall for each R6/2 Huntington’s disease transgenic mouse in the rotarod test. 5-Bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) staining of the striatum shows an increase in neurogenesis. In addition, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha protein levels in the striatum were increased and SRY-related HMG box transcription factor 9 protein level was decreased. These findings suggest that microRNA-124 slows down the progression of Huntington’s disease possibly through its important role in neuronal differentiation and survival. PMID:26109954

  14. Variability in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: differences in disease progression in hyperglycemic and normoglycemic animals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xi; DuBois, Debra C; Sukumaran, Siddharth; Ayyar, Vivaswath; Jusko, William J; Almon, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Both obesity and chronic inflammation are often associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat (fa/fa) is an obese animal model frequently used in type 2 diabetes research. The current study determines whether chronic administration (from 5 weeks of age through 24 weeks of age) of salsalate, a salicylate with anti-inflammatory properties, would be effective in mitigating diabetes disease progression in ZDF rats. Although a trend existed for lower blood glucose in the salsalate-treated group, significant differences were obscured by high animal-level variability. However, even in the non-drug-treated group, not all ZDF rats became diabetic as expected. Therefore, animals were parsed into two groups, regardless of drug treatment: normoglycemic ZDF rats, which maintained blood glucose profiles identical to nondiabetic Zucker lean rats (ZLRs), and hyperglycemic ZDF rats, which exhibited progressive elevation in blood glucose. To ascertain the differences between ZDF rats that became hyperglycemic and those that did not, relevant physiological indices and expression levels of adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper messenger RNAs in adipose tissue were measured at sacrifice. Plasma C-reactive protein concentrations and expression levels of cytokine and glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper messenger RNAs suggested more prevalent chronic inflammation in hyperglycemic animals. Early elevation of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, was present in both ZDF groups, with the rate of its age-related decline faster in hyperglycemic animals. The most marked difference between the two groups of ZDF animals was in insulin output. Although the two ZDF populations had very similar elevated plasma insulin concentrations for the first 10 weeks, after that time, plasma insulin decreased markedly in the animals that became hyperglycemic, whereas it remained high in the normoglycemic ZDF rats. Thus, hyperglycemic ZDF animals exhibit both insulin resistance and progressive beta cell failure, whereas normoglycemic ZDF rats exhibit a lesser degree of insulin resistance that does not progress to beta cell failure. In these respects, the normoglycemic ZDF rats appear to revert back to a phenotype that strongly resembles that of nondiabetic Zucker fatty rats from which they were derived. PMID:25419150

  15. Disease impact in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia: more than meets the eye.

    PubMed

    Smits, Bart W; Fermont, Jiske; Delnooz, Cathérine C S; Kalkman, Joke S; Bleijenberg, Gijs; van Engelen, Baziel G M

    2011-04-01

    We determined the extent of disease impact in 28 patients with genetically confirmed chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and compared the outcomes to those of matched myotonic dystrophy type I patients. CPEO patients reported a high frequency of severe fatigue (67.9%), pain (96.2%), depression (32.1%) and dependency in daily life (46.4%). The frequency and extent of depression were significantly higher than in DM1 patients (32.1% vs. 7.1%, p=0.040; mean Beck's depression inventory for primary care score 3.8±3.5 vs. 1.3±1.4, p=0.001), as were fatigue severity, pain intensity and extent of functional impairments. CPEO patients with polymerase gamma-1 mutations reported more functional impairments than those with mitochondrial DNA mutations. Disease impact was however not influenced by most clinical features. The present results help physicians to identify and to treat the factors that influence quality of life in CPEO patients and to provide symptomatic treatment where needed. PMID:21236670

  16. Impact of cognitive reserve on the progression of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Osone, Akira; Arai, Reiko; Hakamada, Rina; Shimoda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    Aim The present study aimed to investigate whether cognitive reserve (CR), referring here to education and premorbid intelligence (IQ), is associated with the risk for progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods A total of 51 patients with MCI and 59 patients with AD were prospectively enrolled for assessment with the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Japanese version of the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, the Japanese version of the Nelson Adult Reading Test (JART), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), adjusting for sex, age at diagnosis, age at onset and duration of illness. Results SPECT findings showed hypoperfusion in the posterior cingulate gyri and precunei, suggesting that the participants were in the early or mild stage of AD or MCI. Voxel-based morphometry MRI showed no statistical differences between the two groups in gray matter loss in the entorhinal and hippocampal areas; however, multiple logistic regression analysis showed a significant difference in premorbid IQ measured with JART. Conclusion Despite the limitations of the cross-sectional design, the findings suggest that premorbid intellectual function might explain the discrepancy in clinical status between MCI and AD patients with a similar magnitude of brain pathology and comorbid medical disorders. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; 15: 428–434. PMID:24730644

  17. Progression of Parkinson's disease pathology is reproduced by intragastric administration of rotenone in mice.

    PubMed

    Pan-Montojo, Francisco; Anichtchik, Oleg; Dening, Yanina; Knels, Lilla; Pursche, Stefan; Jung, Roland; Jackson, Sandra; Gille, Gabriele; Spillantini, Maria Grazia; Reichmann, Heinz; Funk, Richard H W

    2010-01-01

    In patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), the associated pathology follows a characteristic pattern involving inter alia the enteric nervous system (ENS), the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV), the intermediolateral nucleus of the spinal cord and the substantia nigra, providing the basis for the neuropathological staging of the disease. Here we report that intragastrically administered rotenone, a commonly used pesticide that inhibits Complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, is able to reproduce PD pathological staging as found in patients. Our results show that low doses of chronically and intragastrically administered rotenone induce alpha-synuclein accumulation in all the above-mentioned nervous system structures of wild-type mice. Moreover, we also observed inflammation and alpha-synuclein phosphorylation in the ENS and DMV. HPLC analysis showed no rotenone levels in the systemic blood or the central nervous system (detection limit [rotenone]<20 nM) and mitochondrial Complex I measurements showed no systemic Complex I inhibition after 1.5 months of treatment. These alterations are sequential, appearing only in synaptically connected nervous structures, treatment time-dependent and accompanied by inflammatory signs and motor dysfunctions. These results strongly suggest that the local effect of pesticides on the ENS might be sufficient to induce PD-like progression and to reproduce the neuroanatomical and neurochemical features of PD staging. It provides new insight into how environmental factors could trigger PD and suggests a transsynaptic mechanism by which PD might spread throughout the central nervous system. PMID:20098733

  18. Characterization of host genetic expression patterns in HIV-infected individuals with divergent disease progression.

    PubMed

    Salgado, María; López-Romero, Pedro; Callejas, Sergio; López, Mariola; Labarga, Pablo; Dopazo, Ana; Soriano, Vincent; Rodés, Berta

    2011-03-01

    The course of HIV-1 infection shows a variety of clinical phenotypes with an important involvement of host factors. We compare host gene expression patterns in CD3+ T cells from two of these phenotypes: long-term non-progressor patients (LTNP) and matched control patients with standard HIV disease progression. Array analysis revealed over-expression of 322 genes in progressors and 136 in LTNP. Up-regulated genes in progressors were mainly implicated in the regulation of DNA replication, cell cycle and DNA damage stimulus and mostly localized into cellular organelles. In contrast, most up-regulated genes in LTNP were located at the plasmatic membrane and involved in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, negative control of apoptosis or regulation of actin cytoskeleton. Regarding gene interactions, a higher number of viral genes interacting with cellular factors were seen in progressors. Our study offers new comparative insights related to disease status and can distinguish differentiated patterns of gene expression among clinical phenotypes. PMID:21239032

  19. Association of relative telomere length with progression of chronic kidney disease in two cohorts: effect modification by smoking and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Raschenberger, Julia; Kollerits, Barbara; Ritchie, James; Lane, Beverley; Kalra, Philip A; Ritz, Eberhard; Kronenberg, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly progressive disease. We studied the association between relative telomere length (RTL) and CKD progression and tested whether this association is modified by smoking and diabetes mellitus. RTL was measured by qPCR in two prospective cohort studies, the MMKD-Study (n?=?166) and the CRISIS-Study (n?=?889) with a median follow-up of 4.5 and 2.8 years, respectively. Progression was defined as doubling of baseline serum creatinine (MMKD-Study) and/or end stage renal disease (both studies). 59 and 105 of the patients from MMKD and CRISIS experienced a progression of CKD. Mean standardized pooled RTL was 0.74?±?0.29. In the meta-analysis shorter RTL at baseline showed a borderline association with CKD progression (HR?=?1.07 [95%CI 1.00-1.15]; p?=?0.06). We observed an effect modification of RTL and CKD progression by smoking and diabetes (p-values of interaction p?=?0.02 and p?=?0.09, respectively). Each 0.1 unit shorter RTL was significantly associated with an increased hazard for CKD progression in active-smokers by 44% (HR?=?1.44 [1.16-1.81]; p?=?0.001) and in patients with diabetes mellitus by 16% (HR?=?1.16 [1.01-1.34]; p?=?0.03). Estimates were adjusted for baseline age, sex, proteinuria and GFR. This study in two independent cohorts reinforces that RTL is a marker and potentially a pathogenetic factor for CKD progression. PMID:26149682

  20. Association of relative telomere length with progression of chronic kidney disease in two cohorts: effect modification by smoking and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Raschenberger, Julia; Kollerits, Barbara; Ritchie, James; Lane, Beverley; Kalra, Philip A.; Ritz, Eberhard; Kronenberg, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a highly progressive disease. We studied the association between relative telomere length (RTL) and CKD progression and tested whether this association is modified by smoking and diabetes mellitus. RTL was measured by qPCR in two prospective cohort studies, the MMKD-Study (n?=?166) and the CRISIS-Study (n?=?889) with a median follow-up of 4.5 and 2.8 years, respectively. Progression was defined as doubling of baseline serum creatinine (MMKD-Study) and/or end stage renal disease (both studies). 59 and 105 of the patients from MMKD and CRISIS experienced a progression of CKD. Mean standardized pooled RTL was 0.74?±?0.29. In the meta-analysis shorter RTL at baseline showed a borderline association with CKD progression (HR?=?1.07 [95%CI 1.00–1.15]; p?=?0.06). We observed an effect modification of RTL and CKD progression by smoking and diabetes (p-values of interaction p?=?0.02 and p?=?0.09, respectively). Each 0.1 unit shorter RTL was significantly associated with an increased hazard for CKD progression in active-smokers by 44% (HR?=?1.44 [1.16–1.81]; p?=?0.001) and in patients with diabetes mellitus by 16% (HR?=?1.16 [1.01–1.34]; p?=?0.03). Estimates were adjusted for baseline age, sex, proteinuria and GFR. This study in two independent cohorts reinforces that RTL is a marker and potentially a pathogenetic factor for CKD progression. PMID:26149682

  1. Inhibition of mTOR with sirolimus slows disease progression in Han:SPRD rats with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia R. Wahl; Andreas L. Serra; Michel Le Hir; Klaus D. Molle; Michael N. Hall; Rudolf P. Wuthrich

    2006-01-01

    Background. Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by dysregulated tubular epithelial cell growth, resulting in the forma- tion of multiple renal cysts and progressive renal failure. To date, there is no effective treatment for ADPKD. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an atypical protein kinase and a central controller of cell growth and proliferation. We examined the

  2. Ratajczak et al. BCL2 expression in CD105 positive neoangiogenic cells and tumor progression in

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in lymphoma progression. In squamous cell carcinoma, endothelial BCL2 expression induces a cross squamous cell carcinoma, a crosstalk between endothelial and tumor cells mediated by BCL2 through VEGF and its receptors has been recently identified 8 . In a murine model of xenografted human squamous cell

  3. Postnatal progression of bone disease in the cervical spines of mucopolysaccharidosis I dogs

    PubMed Central

    Chiaro, Joseph A; Baron, Matthew D; del Alcazar, Chelsea; O’Donnell, Patricia; Shore, Eileen M; Elliott, Dawn M; Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E; Smith, Lachlan J

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by deficient ?-L-iduronidase activity leading to accumulation of poorly degraded dermatan and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). MPS I is associated with significant cervical spine disease, including vertebral dysplasia, odontoid hypoplasia, and accelerated disc degeneration, leading to spinal cord compression and kypho-scoliosis. The objective of this study was to establish the nature and rate of progression of cervical vertebral bone disease in MPS I using a canine model. Methods C2 vertebrae were obtained post-mortem from normal and MPS I dogs at 3, 6 and 12 months-of-age. Morphometric parameters and mineral density for the vertebral trabecular bone and odontoid process were determined using micro-computed tomography. Vertebrae were then processed for paraffin histology, and cartilage area in both the vertebral epiphyses and odontoid process were quantified. Results Vertebral bodies of MPS I dogs had lower trabecular bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), trabecular number (Tb.N) and bone mineral density (BMD) than normals at all ages. For MPS I dogs, BV/TV, Tb.Th and BMD plateaued after 6 months-of-age. The odontoid process appeared morphologically abnormal for MPS I dogs at 6 and 12 months-of-age, although BV/TV and TMD were not significantly different from normals. MPS I dogs had significantly more cartilage in the vertebral epiphyses at both 3 and 6 months-of-age. At 12 months-of-age, epiphyseal growth plates in normal dogs were absent, but in MPS I dogs they persisted. Conclusions In this study we report reduced trabecular bone content and mineralization, and delayed cartilage to bone conversion in MPS I dogs from 3 months-of-age, which may increase vertebral fracture risk and contribute to progressive deformity. The abnormalities of the odontoid process we describe likely contribute to increased incidence of atlanto-axial subluxation observed clinically. Therapeutic strategies that enhance bone formation may decrease incidence of spine disease in MPS I patients. PMID:23563357

  4. microRNAs with different functions and roles in disease development and as potential biomarkers of diabetes: progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Seyhan, Attila A

    2015-04-21

    Biomarkers provide information on early detection of diseases, in determining individuals at risk of developing complications or subtyping individuals for disease phenotypes. In addition, biomarkers may lead to better treatment strategies, personalized therapy, and improved outcome. A major gap in the field of biomarker development is that we have not identified appropriate (minimally invasive, life-style independent and informative) biomarkers for the underlying disease process(es) that can be measured in readily accessible samples (e.g. serum, plasma, blood, urine). miRNAs function as regulators in wide ranging cellular and physiological functions and also participate in many physiopathological processes and thus have been linked to many diseases including diabetes, metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and autoimmunity. Many miRNAs have been shown to have predictive value as potential biomarkers in a variety of diseases including diabetes, which are detectable in some instances many years before the manifestation of disease. Although some technical challenges still remain, due to their availability in the circulation, relative stability, and ease of detection; miRNAs have emerged as a promising new class of biomarkers to provide information on early detection of disease, monitoring disease progression, in determining individual's risk of developing complications or subtyping individuals for disease phenotypes, and to monitor response to therapeutic interventions. As a final note, most of the miRNAs reported in the literature have not yet been validated in sufficiently powered and longitudinal studies for specificity for that particular disease. PMID:25765998

  5. A Progress Report on Flexible Neurotransmitters Sensors H. Cao, C. M. Nguyen, A-L. Li, Y. Peng, and J-C. Chiao

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    A Progress Report on Flexible Neurotransmitters Sensors H. Cao, C. M. Nguyen, A-L. Li, Y. Peng, and J-C. Chiao Introduction: L-glutamate, which is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in vivo. In this work, the progress on our implantable probes for sensing neurotransmitters and recording

  6. Oscillation of Angiogenesis and Vascular Dropout in Progressive Human Vascular Disease. [Vascular Pattern as Useful Read-Out of Complex Molecular Signaling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    When analyzed by VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software, vascular patterns provide useful integrative read-outs of complex, interacting molecular signaling pathways. Using VESGEN, we recently discovered and published our innovative, surprising findings that angiogenesis oscillated with vascular dropout throughout progression of diabetic retinopathy, a blinding vascular disease. Our findings provide a potential paradigm shift in the current prevailing view on progression and treatment of this disease, and a new early-stage window of regenerative therapeutic opportunities. The findings also suggest that angiogenesis may oscillate with vascular disease in a homeostatic-like manner during early stages of other inflammatory progressive diseases such as cancer and coronary vascular disease.

  7. Slow Disease Progression in a C57BL/6 Pten-Deficient Mouse Model of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Robert U.; Haverkamp, Jessica M.; Thedens, Daniel R.; Cohen, Michael B.; Ratliff, Timothy L.; Henry, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate-specific deletion of Pten in mice has been reported to recapitulate histological progression of human prostate cancer. To improve on this model, we introduced the conditional ROSA26 luciferase reporter allele to monitor prostate cancer progression via bioluminescence imaging and extensively backcrossed mice onto the albino C57BL/6 genetic background to address variability in tumor kinetics and to enhance imaging sensitivity. Bioluminescence signal increased rapidly in Ptenp?/? mice from 3 to 11 weeks, but was much slower from 11 to 52 weeks. Changes in bioluminescence signal were correlated with epithelial proliferation. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed progressive increases in prostate volume, which were attributed to excessive fluid retention in the anterior prostate and to expansion of the stroma. Development of invasive prostate cancer in 52-week-old Ptenp?/? mice was rare, indicating that disease progression was slowed relative to that in previous reports. Tumors in these mice exhibited a spontaneous inflammatory phenotype and were rapidly infiltrated by myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Although Ptenp?/? tumors responded to androgen withdrawal, they failed to exhibit relapsed growth for up to 1 year. Taken together, these data identify a mild prostate cancer phenotype in C57BL/6 prostate-specific Pten-deficient mice, reflecting effects of the C57BL/6 genetic background on cancer progression. This model provides a platform for noninvasive assessment of how genetic and environmental risk factors may affect disease progression. PMID:21703427

  8. HorTICULTUrAL & ForEST CroPS 2014 Commercial Small Fruit: Diseases and Insects 2-1

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    HorTICULTUrAL & ForEST CroPS 2014 Commercial Small Fruit: Diseases and Insects 2-1 Diseases in the control of various common diseases and insects. Differences may exist among them in their effectiveness control (modifying crop production procedures to suppress problems), physical control (exclusion and hand

  9. Presence of specific MHC Class II expressed alleles associates with clinical disease in ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV) infected sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genetic tool hypothesized to predict which OPPV infected sheep will progress to debilitating clinical disease is MHC Class II Ovis aries (Ovar)-DRB1. Previously, fifteen Ovar-DRB1 beta 1 expressed alleles were identified in a ewe-lamb flock of 32 originating from an Idaho flock using RT-PCR, clon...

  10. Progressive Cognitive Deficit, Motor Impairment and Striatal Pathology in a Transgenic Huntington Disease Monkey Model from Infancy to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Anthony W. S.; Prucha, Melinda S.; Hu, Yijuan; Chi, Tim; Moran, Sean; Rahim, Tayeb; Li, Shihua; Li, Xiaojiang; Zola, Stuart M.; Testa, Claudia M.; Mao, Hui; Villalba, Rosa; Smith, Yoland; Zhang, Xiaodong; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2015-01-01

    One of the roadblocks to developing effective therapeutics for Huntington disease (HD) is the lack of animal models that develop progressive clinical traits comparable to those seen in patients. Here we report a longitudinal study that encompasses cognitive and motor assessment, and neuroimaging of a group of transgenic HD and control monkeys from infancy to adulthood. Along with progressive cognitive and motor impairment, neuroimaging revealed a progressive reduction in striatal volume. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 48 months of age revealed a decrease of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), further suggesting neuronal damage/loss in the striatum. Postmortem neuropathological analyses revealed significant neuronal loss in the striatum. Our results indicate that HD monkeys share similar disease patterns with HD patients, making them potentially suitable as a preclinical HD animal model. PMID:25966278

  11. Dynamic changes in cerebello-thalamo-cortical motor circuitry during progression of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sen, S; Kawaguchi, A; Truong, Y; Lewis, M M; Huang, X

    2010-03-17

    Both the basal ganglia and cerebellum are known to influence cortical motor and motor-associated areas via the thalamus. Whereas striato-thalamo-cortical (STC) motor circuit dysfunction has been implicated clearly in Parkinson's disease (PD), the role of the cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) motor circuit has not been well defined. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a convenient tool for studying the role of the CTC in vivo in PD patients, but large inter-individual differences in fMRI activation patterns require very large numbers of subjects in order to interpret data from cross-sectional, case control studies. To understand the role of the CTC during PD progression, we obtained longitudinal fMRI 2 years apart from 5 PD (57+/-8 yr) and five Controls (57+/-9 yr) performing either externally- (EG) or internally-guided (IG) sequential finger movements. All PD subjects had unilateral motor symptoms at baseline, but developed bilateral symptoms at follow-up. Within-group analyses were performed by comparing fMRI activation patterns between baseline and follow-up scans. Between-group comparisons were made by contrasting fMRI activation patterns generated by the more-affected and less-affected hands of PD subjects with the mean of the dominant and non-dominant hands of Controls. Compared to baseline, Controls showed changes in CTC circuits, but PD subjects had increased recruitment of both cortical motor-associated and cerebellar areas. Compared to Controls, PD subjects demonstrated augmented recruitment of CTC circuits over time that was statistically significant when the IG task was performed by the hand that transitioned from non-symptomatic to symptomatic. This longitudinal fMRI study demonstrates increased recruitment of the CTC motor circuit concomitant with PD progression, suggesting a role of the CTC circuit in accommodation to, or pathophysiology of, PD. PMID:20034546

  12. Abnormalities associated with progressive aortic vascular dysfunction in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Ameer, Omar Z.; Boyd, Rochelle; Butlin, Mark; Avolio, Alberto P.; Phillips, Jacqueline K.

    2015-01-01

    Increased stiffness of large arteries in chronic kidney disease (CKD) has significant clinical implications. This study investigates the temporal development of thoracic aortic dysfunction in a rodent model of CKD, the Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK) rat. Animals aged 12 and 18 weeks were studied alongside age-matched Lewis controls (total n = 94). LPK rodents had elevated systolic blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy and progressively higher plasma creatinine and urea. Relative to Lewis controls, LPK exhibited reduced maximum aortic vasoconstriction (Rmax) to noradrenaline at 12 and 18 weeks, and to K+ (12 weeks). Sensitivity to noradrenaline was greater in 18-week-old LPK vs. age matched Lewis (effective concentration 50%: 24 × 10?9 ± 78 × 10?10 vs. 19 × 10?8 ± 49 × 10?9, P < 0.05). Endothelium-dependent (acetylcholine) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside) relaxation was diminished in LPK, declining with age (12 vs. 18 weeks Rmax: 80 ± 8% vs. 57 ± 9% and 92 ± 6% vs. 70 ± 9%, P < 0.05, respectively) in parallel with the decline in renal function. L-Arginine restored endothelial function in LPK, and L-NAME blunted acetylcholine relaxation in all groups. Impaired nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was recovered with L-Arginine plus L-NAME in 12, but not 18-week-old LPK. Aortic calcification was increased in LPK rats, as was collagen I/III, fibronectin and NADPH-oxidase subunit p47 (phox) mRNAs. Overall, our observations indicate that the vascular abnormalities associated with CKD are progressive in nature, being characterized by impaired vascular contraction and relaxation responses, concurrent with the development of endothelial dysfunction, which is likely driven by evolving deficits in NO signaling. PMID:26042042

  13. Which Neuropsychological Tests Predict Progression to Alzheimer’s Disease in Hispanics?

    PubMed Central

    Weissberger, Gali H.; Salmon, David P.; Bondi, Mark W.; Gollan, Tamar H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate which neuropsychological tests predict eventual progression to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in both Hispanic and non-Hispanic individuals. Although our approach was exploratory, we predicted that tests that underestimate cognitive ability in healthy aging Hispanics might not be sensitive to future cognitive decline in this cultural group. Method We compared first-year data of 22 older adults (11 Hispanic) who were diagnosed as cognitively normal but eventually developed AD (decliners), to 60 age- and education-matched controls (27 Hispanic) who remained cognitively normal. To identify tests that may be culturally biased in our sample, we compared Hispanic with non-Hispanic controls on all tests and asked which tests were sensitive to future decline in each cultural group. Results Compared to age-, education-, and gender-matched non-Hispanic controls, Hispanic controls obtained lower scores on tests of language, executive function, and some measures of global cognition. Consistent with our predictions, some tests identified non-Hispanic, but not Hispanic, decliners (vocabulary, semantic fluency). Contrary to our predictions, a number of tests on which Hispanics obtained lower scores than non-Hispanics nevertheless predicted eventual progression to AD in both cultural groups (e.g., Boston Naming Test [BNT], Trails A and B). Conclusions Cross-cultural variation in test sensitivity to decline may reflect greater resistance of medium difficulty items to decline and bilingual advantages that initially protect Hispanics against some aspects of cognitive decline commonly observed in non-Hispanics with preclinical AD. These findings highlight a need for further consideration of cross-cultural differences in neuropsychological test performance and development of culturally unbiased measures. PMID:23688216

  14. Tumor Necrosis on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Correlates with Aggressive Histology and Disease Progression in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Beddy, Peter; Genega, Elizabeth M; Ngo, Long; Hindman, Nicole; Wei, Jesse; Bullock, Andrea; Bhatt, Rupal S; Atkins, Michael B; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To correlate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) with the histopathological features and disease progression. Material and Methods IRB approval for this retrospective study was obtained; patient consent was not required. The initial staging MRIs of 75 patients with histologically confirmed ccRCC were retrospectively reviewed. The imaging was assessed by two radiologists for the presence of tumor necrosis, cystic degeneration, intracellular fat, hemorrhage, retroperitoneal collaterals and renal vein thrombosis. Quantitative analysis for the MRI presence of intracellular lipid within tumors was performed. MRI findings were correlated with histopathologic findings of clear cell percentage, alveolar and tubular growth pattern and disease progression. Statistical associations were evaluated with non-parametric univariable analyses and multivariable logistic regression models. Results Correlation between MRI and histopathologic features was performed in 75 patients whereas follow-up data was available for progression analysis in 68 patients. The presence of tumor necrosis, retroperitoneal collaterals and renal vein thrombosis on MRI were significantly associated with low percentage of tumor cells with clear cytoplasm (p<0.01) and with metastatic disease at presentation or disease progression (p<0.01). At multivariable analysis, necrosis remained as the only feature statistically associated with disease progression (p=0.03, adjusted odds ratio=27.7, CI 95%=1.4–554.7 for reader one and p=0.02, adjusted odds ratio=29.3, CI 95%=1.7–520.8 for reader two). Conclusion Necrosis in ccRCC on MRI correlates with the histopathological finding of lower percentage of tumor cells with clear cytoplasm and is a poor prognostic indicator irrespective of tumor size. PMID:24145001

  15. TDP-43 Proteinopathy and ALS: Insights into Disease Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Scotter, Emma L; Chen, Han-Jou; Shaw, Christopher E

    2015-04-01

    Therapeutic options for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are currently limited. However, recent studies show that almost all cases of ALS, as well as tau-negative frontotemporal dementia (FTD), share a common neuropathology characterized by the deposition of TAR-DNA binding protein (TDP)-43-positive protein inclusions, offering an attractive target for the design and testing of novel therapeutics. Here we demonstrate how diverse environmental stressors linked to stress granule formation, as well as mutations in genes encoding RNA processing proteins and protein degradation adaptors, initiate ALS pathogenesis via TDP-43. We review the progressive development of TDP-43 proteinopathy from cytoplasmic mislocalization and misfolding through to macroaggregation and the addition of phosphate and ubiquitin moieties. Drawing from cellular and animal studies, we explore the feasibility of therapeutics that act at each point in pathogenesis, from mitigating genetic risk using antisense oligonucleotides to modulating TDP-43 proteinopathy itself using small molecule activators of autophagy, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, or the chaperone network. We present the case that preventing the misfolding of TDP-43 and/or enhancing its clearance represents the most important target for effectively treating ALS and frontotemporal dementia. PMID:25652699

  16. THE NEXT ALS BREAKTHROUGH COULD BE YOURS Prize4Life Awards Prizes for ALS Biomarker Challenge to InnoCentive

    E-print Network

    Grishok, Alla

    THE NEXT ALS BREAKTHROUGH COULD BE YOURS Prize4Life Awards Prizes for ALS Biomarker Challenge to InnoCentive Solvers Extends $1Million Challenge Seeking ALS Biomarker WALTHAM, Mass. ­ April 28, 2009 for the Prize4Life ALS Biomarker Challenge, which seeks a biomarker for measuring disease progression in ALS

  17. Bioenergetic and oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allen C. Bowling; M. Flint Beal

    1995-01-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for several common neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and Huntington's disease (HD). Recent studies have implicated mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the aging process and also in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. In brain and other tissues, aging is associated with progressive impairment of mitochondrial

  18. Role of calcium in the progression of renal disease: experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Kramer, H J; Meyer-Lehnert, H; Mohaupt, M

    1992-05-01

    Intracellular calcium mediates a wide array of cell functions in mesenchymal as well as in epithelial and endothelial cells. These comprise regulation of vascular tone, cell proliferation and synthesis of prostanoids and cytokines. Therefore, it is not surprising that a substantial body of evidence has emerged to suggest a crucial role of calcium in the initiation and perpetuation of renal disease. Increased deposition of calcium was found in the renal cortex of rats with remnant kidney and in kidney tissue of patients with end-stage renal failure. Calcium plays an important role in altered intrarenal and glomerular hemodynamics with increased glomerular wall tension as well as in cellular proliferation and in recurrent ischemic events leading to glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Besides hemodynamic mechanisms, additional calcium-dependent mechanisms must be considered for glomerular hypertrophy and/or mesangial proliferation to develop, namely the role of growth factors, prostanoids and cytokines. Their signals include receptor-regulated production of inositol-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol and the consecutive stimulation of protein kinase C and the Na/H-antiport. Full activation of this antiport, which raises intracellular pH and thereby stimulates protooncogenes, again requires the presence of calcium. Recurrent focal glomerular ischemia may result in cellular and mitochondrial calcium overload that may interfere with cellular energy metabolism. Calcium also activates proteinases and the production of oxidants to enhance neutrophil-mediated cell injury. These deleterious effects of calcium may initiate and perpetuate the progression of renal disease and eventually lead to end-stage renal failure. PMID:1614063

  19. Theoretical and Practical Progress of New Heliostat by Chen et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kribus, A.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, Chen and his team were active in the theoretical and practical study of a new heliostat for the use of solar energy. This work represents the first innovation in the area of heliostats after many years of little progress. The mathematical development of the tracking and concentration optics principles, and the practical implementation and demonstration of the technology, are both very interesting advances in this field. Many applications are possible for this technology such as generation of solar electricity and solar industrial process heat.

  20. Weight-Related Effects on Disease Progression in the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-Term Treatment Against Cirrhosis Trial

    PubMed Central

    EVERHART, JAMES E.; LOK, ANNA S.; KIM, HAE-YOUNG; MORGAN, TIMOTHY R.; LINDSAY, KAREN L.; CHUNG, RAYMOND T.; BONKOVSKY, HERBERT L.; GHANY, MARC G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS With the limited efficacy of current therapy for chronic hepatitis C, modifiable risk factors for liver disease progression are important to identify. Because obesity is associated with liver disease, we examined the effects of weight-related conditions on disease outcomes in the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-Term Treatment Against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) trial. METHODS Of 1050 patients, 985 could be evaluated for predefined progression of liver disease not related to hepatocellular carcinoma. Clinical outcomes were determined over 3.5 years for all patients and progression to cirrhosis on protocol biopsy among patients who had bridging fibrosis (56.5% of cohort) at entry. RESULTS At study entry, median body mass index was high (29.2 kg/m2) and accompanied by other weight-related conditions, including diabetes (24.9%), high median waist circumference, and insulin resistance (by updated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; HOMA2-IR). Among noninvasive measures, HOMA2-IR was most strongly associated with outcomes with hazard ratio (HR) of 1.26 per quartile increase (95% CI, 1.09 –1.45). Presence of steatosis on baseline biopsy was associated with an increased outcome rate among patients with bridging fibrosis (P < .0001) and a decreased rate among patients with cirrhosis (P = .006). Presence of Mallory bodies was associated with outcomes (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.10 –2.31) as was significant weight change of ?5% in the first year after randomization (HR, 1.25 per category increase in weight, 95% CI, 1.01–1.55). CONCLUSIONS Insulin resistance, histologic features of fatty liver disease, and weight change were associated with outcomes of chronic hepatitis C. Improvement in these weight-related factors might modify disease progression. PMID:19445938

  1. HIV infection--induced posttranslational modification of T cell signaling molecules associated with disease progression.

    PubMed Central

    Stefanová, I; Saville, M W; Peters, C; Cleghorn, F R; Schwartz, D; Venzon, D J; Weinhold, K J; Jack, N; Bartholomew, C; Blattner, W A; Yarchoan, R; Bolen, J B; Horak, I D

    1996-01-01

    In attempt to elucidate the mechanism of the HIV infection induced T cell unresponsiveness, we studied signal-transducing molecules proximal to the T cell receptor (TCR) in T lymphocytes of HIV-infected individuals. Total amounts of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) Lck, Fyn, and ZAP-70 and the zeta chain of the TCR were found significantly decreased in T cells of symptomatic/AIDS patients as well as in T cells of individuals in acute and early asymptomatic stages of HIV infection. Unexpectedly, the detection of Lck, Fyn, and ZAP-70 was reversed after the treatment of cell lysates with dithiothreitol. This suggests that PTKs Lck, Fyn, and ZAP-70 were modified by a mechanism altering the status of sulfhydryl groups. Moreover, this mechanism seems to affect selectively T cells of HIV infected patients since B cell PTKs Syk and Lyn were detected structurally and functionally intact. Interestingly, similar alterations of signaling molecules were not detected in T cells of HIV-infected long-term asymptomatic individuals. Modification of T cell PTKs may thus underlie the HIV-induced impairment of lymphocyte function and may potentially predict disease progression. PMID:8823293

  2. Balancing disfigurement and fear of disease progression: Patient perceptions of HIV body fat redistribution.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, N R; Neidig, J L; Wu, A W; Gifford, A L; Holmes, W C

    2006-10-01

    This study was conducted to identify and describe the perceived morphologic changes of body fat redistribution and related distress among persons taking combination antiretroviral therapy. Six focus group interviews were conducted in four different US cities with men and women (n = 58) who reported antiretroviral-related symptoms of body fat loss and/or gain. Interview data were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and systematically analysed using inductive techniques. Physical discomfort and impairment and psychological and social distress were reported across sex, sexual orientation and geographic subgroups. While participants acknowledged that antiretroviral drugs were keeping them alive, there was tension between the desire for life-sustaining treatment and optimal quality of life. Some participants engaged in harmful heath behaviours in an attempt to control bodily changes (e.g. non-adherence to antiretroviral regimen). Participants feared that fat loss represented disease progression and worried that visible changes would lead to unintentional disclosure of their HIV status. Although a potential source of support, healthcare providers were commonly perceived as ignoring and, in so doing, discrediting patient distress. Participants recognised the limitations of current lipodystrophy treatment options, yet a cure for the syndrome seemed less important to them in the short term than simply being listened to and the powerful, but oblique sources of distress addressed. PMID:16971273

  3. [Applications and progress of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic microimaging in bone disease research].

    PubMed

    Yin, Jian-Hua; Huang, Feng-Ling; Qian, Zhi-Yu; Xie, Jie-Ru

    2014-02-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) and microimaging technique have been integrated together to evolve into Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging (FTIRI) system. This system can provide not only the morphological information of the sample by visible image and FTIR image, but also the abundant information on the spectral, component and structure of specimen by FTIRS, especially of the heterogeneous solid mixture. The richer and more visualized information obtained by FTIRI greatly raised the research efficiency and usability of the spectral technique in biomedicine, pharmacology, forensic medicine, material science and chemistry, etc. The present paper depicts FTIRI development process, system structure, imaging principle and mode selection; and then introduces that FTIRI opened a new area of investigation for biomedicine, namely, research on bone disease by FTIRI. Then the paper illustrates the related research findings and progress in FTIRI use for osteopetrosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, osteoporosis and osteomalacia, as well as a couple of limitations. The prospective study for FTIRI in biomedical research field is also addressed. PMID:24822397

  4. Evaluating Chagas disease progression and cure through blood-derived biomarkers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Requena-Méndez, Ana; López, Manuel Carlos; Angheben, Andrea; Izquierdo, Luis; Ribeiro, Isabela; Pinazo, Maria-Jesús; Gascon, Joaquim; Muñoz, José

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews the usefulness of various types of blood-derived biomarkers that are currently being studied to predict the progression of Chagas disease in patients with the indeterminate form, to assess the efficacy of antiparasitic drugs and to identify early cardiac and gastrointestinal damage. The authors used a search strategy based on MEDLINE, Cochrane Library Register for systematic review, EmBase, Global Health and LILACS databases. Out of 1716 screened articles, only 166 articles were eligible for final inclusion. The authors classified the biomarkers according to their biochemical structure and primary biological activity in four groups: i) markers of inflammation and cellular injury, ii) metabolic biomakers, iii) prothrombotic biomarkers and iv) markers derived from specific antigens of the parasite. Several potential biomarkers might have clinical potential for the detection of early cardiopathy. Such capacity is imperative in order to detect high-risk patients who require intensive monitoring and earlier therapy. Prospective studies with longer follow-ups are needed for the appraisal of biomarkers assessing clinical or microbiological cure after therapy. At the same time, studies evaluating more than one biomarker are useful to compare the efficacy among them given the lack of a recognized gold standard. PMID:24053276

  5. Urinary Uromodulin Excretion Predicts Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease Resulting from IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jingjing; Chen, Yuqing; Liu, Ying; Shi, Sufang; Wang, Suxia; Li, Xueying; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Background Uromodulin, or Tamm-Horsfall protein, is the most abundant urinary protein in healthy individuals. Recent studies have suggested that uromodulin may play a role in chronic kidney diseases. We examined an IgA nephropathy cohort to determine whether uromodulin plays a role in the progression of IgA nephropathy. Methods A total of 344 IgA nephropathy patients were involved in this study. Morphological changes were evaluated with the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) measured the urinary uromodulin level on the renal biopsy day. Follow up was done regularly on 185 patients. Time-average blood pressure, time-average proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and eGFR decline rate were caculated. Association between the urinary uromodulin level and the eGFR decline rate was analyzed with SPSS 13.0. Results We found that lower baseline urinary uromodulin levels (P?=?0.03) and higher time-average proteinuria (P?=?0.04) were risk factors for rapid eGFR decline in a follow-up subgroup of the IgA nephropathy cohort. Urinary uromodulin level was correlated with tubulointerstitial lesions (P?=?0.016). Patients that had more tubular atrophy/interstitial fibrosis on the surface had lower urinary uromodulin levels (P?=?0.02). Conclusions Urinary uromodulin level is associated with interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy and contributes to eGFR decline in IgA nephropathy. PMID:23990922

  6. Pain in multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy compared to Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Kass-Iliyya, Lewis; Kobylecki, Christopher; McDonald, Kathryn R; Gerhard, Alexander; Silverdale, Monty A

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain is a common nonmotor symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD). The pathophysiology of pain in PD is not well understood. Pain characteristics have rarely been studied in atypical parkinsonian disorders such as Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP). Aim of the study We aimed to evaluate pain intensity, location, and associated symptoms in atypical parkinsonian disorders compared to PD. Methods Twenty-one patients with MSA, 16 patients with PSP, and 65 patients with PD were screened for pain using question 1.9 of the MDS-UPDRS. Pain intensity was quantified using the short form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SFMPQ). Pain locations were documented. Motor disability was measured using UPDRS-III. Affective symptoms were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results Pain was significantly more common and more severe in PD and MSA compared to PSP (P < 0.01). Pain locations were similar with limb pain being the most common followed by neck and back pain. Pain intensity correlated with HADS scores but not motor severity. Conclusions Pain is more common and more intense in PD and MSA than PSP. Differences in distribution of neurodegenerative pathologies may underlie these differential pain profiles. PMID:25874161

  7. Hepatitis C virus molecular evolution: Transmission, disease progression and antiviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Preciado, Maria Victoria; Valva, Pamela; Escobar-Gutierrez, Alejandro; Rahal, Paula; Ruiz-Tovar, Karina; Yamasaki, Lilian; Vazquez-Chacon, Carlos; Martinez-Guarneros, Armando; Carpio-Pedroza, Juan Carlos; Fonseca-Coronado, Salvador; Cruz-Rivera, Mayra

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents an important public health problem worldwide. Reduction of HCV morbidity and mortality is a current challenge owned to several viral and host factors. Virus molecular evolution plays an important role in HCV transmission, disease progression and therapy outcome. The high degree of genetic heterogeneity characteristic of HCV is a key element for the rapid adaptation of the intrahost viral population to different selection pressures (e.g., host immune responses and antiviral therapy). HCV molecular evolution is shaped by different mechanisms including a high mutation rate, genetic bottlenecks, genetic drift, recombination, temporal variations and compartmentalization. These evolutionary processes constantly rearrange the composition of the HCV intrahost population in a staging manner. Remarkable advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanism controlling HCV replication have facilitated the development of a plethora of direct-acting antiviral agents against HCV. As a result, superior sustained viral responses have been attained. The rapidly evolving field of anti-HCV therapy is expected to broad its landscape even further with newer, more potent antivirals, bringing us one step closer to the interferon-free era. PMID:25473152

  8. The Influence of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes on Periodontal Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Demmer, Ryan T.; Holtfreter, Birte; Desvarieux, Moïse; Jacobs, David R.; Kerner, Wolfgang; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Kocher, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore associations between diabetes etiology (type 1 diabetes mellitus [T1DM] vs. T2DM) and glycemic control in the prediction of 5-year periodontal status change. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) is a population-based stratified sample of German men and women. Healthy participants and those determined to have T2DM arose from the SHIP cohort, and T1DM participants were recruited from diabetes clinics in the catchment area that gave rise to SHIP. Dentate participants (n = 2,626; 53% women; 20–81 years of age) were included. Diabetes was determined via physician diagnosis and/or HbA1c ?6.5% (uncontrolled diabetes >7.0%). Examiners blinded to diabetes status performed random half-mouth periodontal examinations, assessing probing depth (PD) and attachment loss (AL) (four sites/tooth) at baseline and follow-up. Participants were categorized into six groups as follows: 1) diabetes free (n = 2,280), 2) incident T2DM (n = 79), 3) controlled T2DM (n = 80), 4) uncontrolled T2DM (n = 72), 5) controlled T1DM (n = 43), and 6) uncontrolled T1DM (n = 72). In multivariable regressions, mean PD change (?MPD), mean AL change (?MAL), or incident tooth-loss values were regressed across the aforementioned diabetes categories. RESULTS Mean (SD) ?MPD and ?MAL values among all participants were ?0.08 ± 0.5 mm and 0.08 ± 1.03 mm, respectively, and 34% lost one or more teeth. Relative to diabetes-free participants, those with uncontrolled T2DM experienced greater ?MPD ± SE (P < 0.05), whereas participants with either uncontrolled T1DM or uncontrolled T2DM realized greater ?MAL (P < 0.05). Uncontrolled T1DM and T2DM were both associated with an increased risk of future tooth loss (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Diabetes control, but not etiology, was associated with future tooth loss and accelerated AL progression. PMID:22855731

  9. Identity experience among progressive gay Muslims in North America: a qualitative study within Al-Fatiha.

    PubMed

    Minwalla, Omar; Rosser, B R Simon; Feldman, Jamie; Varga, Christine

    2005-03-01

    This qualitative study aims to document the identity experience of progressive gay Muslim men in a North American context. Six in-depth interviews, supplemented with participant observation, were conducted of gay Muslim men who attended an international conference for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning (LGBTQ) Muslims. For progressive gay Muslims such as these, a Muslim identity appears three-dimensional (religious, ethno-cultural, and color) when integrated with a gay identity. As a religious identity, gay Muslim's relationship to Allah (God) and a reinterpretation of the Qur'an and traditional condemnation of homosexuality appears necessary. As a cultural identity, East-West ethno-cultural differences that impact on homo-sociality and gay identity construction, marriage and the impact of coming out on the Eastern family and siblings emerged as critical issues. As a color identity, internalized racism, dating relationships and social dynamics within gay subculture as Muslims of color in a white dominant context appear key challenges. PMID:16864192

  10. Mitigating preventable chronic disease: Progress report of the Cleveland Clinic's Lifestyle 180 program

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Poor lifestyle choices are key in development and progression of preventable chronic diseases. The purpose of the study was to design and test a program to mitigate the physical and fiscal consequences of chronic diseases. Methods Here we report the outcomes for 429 participants with one or more chronic conditions, including obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus, many of whom had failed traditional disease management programs, who enrolled into a comprehensive lifestyle intervention. The Lifestyle 180 program integrates nutrition, physical activity and stress management interventions and was conducted at the Wellness Institute of the Cleveland Clinic, United States. An intensive 6 week immersion course, with 8 hours of group instruction per week, was followed by 3 follow-up, 4 hour-long sessions over the course of 6 months. Results Changes in biometric (weight, height, waist circumference, resting heart rate and blood pressure) and laboratory variables (fasting lipid panel, blood glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, ultra sensitive C-reactive protein) at 6 months were compared with baseline (pre-post analysis). At week 30, biometric and laboratory data were available for 244 (57%) and 299 (70%) participants, respectively. These had a mean ± SD reduction in weight (6.8 ± 6.9 kg, P < 0.001), waist circumference (6.1 ± 7.3 cm, P < 0.001), glucose (4.5 ± 29.6 mg/dL or 0.25 ± 1.64 mmol/L, P = 0.009), triglycerides (26.4 ± 58.5 mg/dL or 0.30 ± 0.66 mmol/L, P < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) (7.9 ± 25.1 mg/dL or 0.2 ± 0.65 mmol/L, P < 0.001), hemoglobin A1c (HgbA1c) (0.20 ± 0.64%, P = 0.001), insulin (3.8 ± 11 microU/ml or 26.6 ± 76.4 ?mol, P < 0.001) and ultra sensitive C-reactive protein (US - CRP) (0.9 ± 4.8 mg/dL or 7.3 ± 40.2 nmol/L, P = 0.012), an increase in mean high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (3.7 ± 8.4 mg/dL or 0.1 ± 0.22, P < 0.001), and decreased use of medications. Conclusion Implementation of a comprehensive lifestyle modification program among adults with common chronic conditions results in significant and clinically meaningful improvements in biometric and laboratory outcomes after 6 months. PMID:22112436

  11. Progress in the Modeling of NiAl-Based Alloys Using the BFS Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Ferrante, John; Garg, Anita

    1997-01-01

    The BFS method has been applied to the study of NiAl-based materials to assess the effect of alloying additions on structure. Ternary, quaternary and even pent-alloys based on Ni-rich NiAl with additions of Ti, Cr and Cu were studied. Two approaches were used, Monte Carlo simulations to determine ground state structures and analytical calculations of high symmetry configurations which give physical insight into preferred bonding. Site occupancy energetics for ternary and the more complicated case of quaternary additions were determined, and solubility limits and precipitate formation with corresponding information concerning structure and lattice parameter were also 'observed' computationally. The method was also applied to determine the composition of alloy surfaces and interfaces. Overall, the results demonstrate that the BFS method for alloys is a powerful tool for alloy design and with its simplicity and obvious advantages can be used to complement any experimental alloy design program.

  12. Investigation of the phenotypic and genotypic determinants of disease susceptibility and progression in Crohn’s Disease 

    E-print Network

    Phillips, Anne Mairead

    2011-07-05

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), encompassing Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Their aetiology is not fully understood but is thought ...

  13. Serum fibrosis markers are associated with liver disease progression in non-responder patients with chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Robert J.; Dienstag, Jules L.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Sterling, Richard K.; Naishadham, Deepa; Goodman, Zachary D.; Lok, Anna S. F.; Wright, Elizabeth C.; Su, Grace L.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to explore the association of serum fibrosis marker levels with the risk of clinical and histological disease progression in a large cohort of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) DESIGN/SETTING 462 prior non-responders to peginterferon and ribavirin enrolled in the randomized phase of the Hepatitis C Antiviral Long-term Treatment against Cirrhosis (HALT-C) Trial had baseline and annual serum samples tested for hyaluronic acid (HA), n-terminal peptide of procollagen type 3, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1, and YKL-40. OUTCOME MEASURES All patients underwent a pretreatment liver biopsy and follow-up biopsies at years 2 and 4. Histological progression was defined as a ? 2 point increase in Ishak fibrosis score in non-cirrhotic patients. Clinical outcomes included development of decompensation, hepatocellular cancer, death, or an increase in the CTP score to ? 7. RESULTS Mean patient age was 49.5 years and 39% had histological cirrhosis at entry. Baseline HA, YKL-40 and TIMP-1 levels combined with other laboratory parameters were all significantly associated with clinical outcomes in the 69 (15%) patients with disease progression (p< 0.0001). The best multivariate model to predict clinical outcomes included baseline bilirubin, albumin, INR, and YKL-40 levels. All of the baseline serum fibrosis marker levels were also significantly associated with histological fibrosis progression that developed in 70 (33%) of the 209 non-cirrhotic patients (p < 0.0001). However, baseline HA and platelet counts were best at predicting histological progression (AUC = 0.663). CONCLUSION Pretreatment serum fibrosis marker levels are significantly increased in CHC patients at risk of clinical and histological disease progression. If validated in additional cohorts, measurement of these markers could help identify CHC patients who would benefit from more frequent and intensive monitoring. PMID:20675691

  14. CD49d and CD26 are independent prognostic markers for disease progression in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ibrahem, Lamia; Elderiny, Wesam E; Elhelw, Loie; Ismail, Mohamed

    2015-08-01

    CLL is characterized by extremely variable clinical course. Several prognostic factors can predict disease progression and therapeutic outcomes in those patients. The aim was to evaluate the use of CD49d and CD26 as independent prognostic markers in CLL patients. The present study measured surface expression of CD49d and CD26 by three-color flow cytometry in a series of 103 untreated CLL patients. We evaluated the prognostic role of CD49d and CD26 to predict the risk of lymphocyte doubling, disease progression and overall survival. We confirmed that CD49d and CD26 were significant predictors of lymphocyte doubling(P<0.001 for both markers) and disease progression (P<0.001 for both markers) but insignificant for overall survival(P=0.303 and 0.519 respectively. Multivariate analysis between clinical parameters and flow cytometry markers revealed that CD49d and CD26 are independent prognostic markers for lymphocyte doubling (HR=1.487 P=007 and HR=2.248, P=0.014 respectively) and progression to a more advanced stage (HR=3.191, P=0.049 and HR=7.887, P=0.003). Also, concordant expression of both markers was found to improve their predictive power. Many studies reported that CD49d and CD26 combined analysis was found to improve their power to predict the risk of lymphocyte doubling and disease progression.CD49d and CD26 have independent prognostic value and we suggest its use as a part of routine panel for prognostic stratification of CLL. PMID:26142332

  15. Rapid and Progressive Regional Brain Atrophy in CLN6 Batten Disease Affected Sheep Measured with Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sawiak, Stephen J.; Perumal, Sunthara Rajan; Rudiger, Skye R.; Matthews, Loren; Mitchell, Nadia L.; McLaughlan, Clive J.; Bawden, C. Simon; Palmer, David N.; Kuchel, Timothy; Morton, A. Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Variant late-infantile Batten disease is a neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis caused by mutations in CLN6. It is a recessive genetic lysosomal storage disease characterised by progressive neurodegeneration. It starts insidiously and leads to blindness, epilepsy and dementia in affected children. Sheep that are homozygous for a natural mutation in CLN6 have an ovine form of Batten disease Here, we used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging to track brain changes in 4 unaffected carriers and 6 affected Batten disease sheep. We scanned each sheep 4 times, between 17 and 22 months of age. Cortical atrophy in all sheep was pronounced at the baseline scan in all affected Batten disease sheep. Significant atrophy was also present in other brain regions (caudate, putamen and amygdala). Atrophy continued measurably in all of these regions during the study. Longitudinal MRI in sheep was sensitive enough to measure significant volume changes over the relatively short study period, even in the cortex, where nearly 40% of volume was already lost at the start of the study. Thus longitudinal MRI could be used to study the dynamics of progression of neurodegenerative changes in sheep models of Batten disease, as well as to assess therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26161747

  16. Investigating the biochemical progression of liver disease through fibrosis, cirrhosis, dysplasia, and hepatocellular carcinoma using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreedhar, Hari; Pant, Mamta; Ronquillo, Nemencio R.; Davidson, Bennett; Nguyen, Peter; Chennuri, Rohini; Choi, Jacqueline; Herrera, Joaquin A.; Hinojosa, Ana C.; Jin, Ming; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Guzman, Grace; Walsh, Michael J.

    2014-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of primary hepatic carcinoma. HCC ranks the fourth most prevalent malignant tumor and the third leading cause of cancer related death in the world. Hepatocellular carcinoma develops in the context of chronic liver disease and its evolution is characterized by progression through intermediate stages to advanced disease and possibly even death. The primary sequence of hepatocarcinogenesis includes the development of cirrhosis, followed by dysplasia, and hepatocellular carcinoma.1 We addressed the utility of Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging, both as a diagnostic tool of the different stages of the disease and to gain insight into the biochemical process associated with disease progression. Tissue microarrays were obtained from the University of Illinois at Chicago tissue bank consisting of liver explants from 12 transplant patients. Tissue core biopsies were obtained from each explant targeting regions of normal, liver cell dysplasia including large cell change and small cell change, and hepatocellular carcinoma. We obtained FT-IR images of these tissues using a modified FT-IR system with high definition capabilities. Firstly, a supervised spectral classifier was built to discriminate between normal and cancerous hepatocytes. Secondly, an expanded classifier was built to discriminate small cell and large cell changes in liver disease. With the emerging advances in FT-IR instrumentation and computation there is a strong drive to develop this technology as a powerful adjunct to current histopathology approaches to improve disease diagnosis and prognosis.

  17. Clinically meaningful parameters of progression and long-term outcome of Parkinson disease: An international consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Puschmann, Andreas; Brighina, Laura; Markopoulou, Katerina; Aasly, Jan; Chung, Sun Ju; Frigerio, Roberta; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios; Kõks, Sulev; Krüger, Rejko; Siuda, Joanna; Wider, Christian; Zesiewicz, Theresa A; Maraganore, Demetrius M

    2015-07-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is associated with a clinical course of variable duration, severity, and a combination of motor and non-motor features. Recent PD research has focused primarily on etiology rather than clinical progression and long-term outcomes. For the PD patient, caregivers, and clinicians, information on expected clinical progression and long-term outcomes is of great importance. Today, it remains largely unknown what factors influence long-term clinical progression and outcomes in PD; recent data indicate that the factors that increase the risk to develop PD differ, at least partly, from those that accelerate clinical progression and lead to worse outcomes. Prospective studies will be required to identify factors that influence progression and outcome. We suggest that data for such studies is collected during routine office visits in order to guarantee high external validity of such research. We report here the results of a consensus meeting of international movement disorder experts from the Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) consortium, who convened to define which long-term outcomes are of interest to patients, caregivers and clinicians, and what is presently known about environmental or genetic factors influencing clinical progression or long-term outcomes in PD. We propose a panel of rating scales that collects a significant amount of phenotypic information, can be performed in the routine office visit and allows international standardization. Research into the progression and long-term outcomes of PD aims at providing individual prognostic information early, adapting treatment choices, and taking specific measures to provide care optimized to the individual patient's needs. PMID:25952959

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cellular RNA load and splicing patterns predict disease progression in a longitudinally studied cohort.

    PubMed Central

    Michael, N L; Mo, T; Merzouki, A; O'Shaughnessy, M; Oster, C; Burke, D S; Redfield, R R; Birx, D L; Cassol, S A

    1995-01-01

    We report the results of a longitudinal study of RNA splicing patterns in 31 early-stage human immunodeficiency virus disease patients with an average follow-up time of 3 years. Eighteen patients showed no evidence for disease progression, whereas 13 patients either showed a > or = 50% reduction in baseline CD4 count or developed opportunistic infections. Levels of unspliced, tat, rev, and nef mRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were measured by a reverse transcriptase-quantitative, competitive PCR assay. Viral RNA was detected in all patients at all time points. All 13 rapid progressors had viral RNA loads that were > or = 1 log unit greater than those of the slow progressors. In addition, seven of the rapid progressors showed a reduction of more than threefold in the ratio of spliced to unspliced RNA over the 3 years of follow-up. Conversely, two slow progressors with intermediate levels of viral RNA showed no splicing shift. These results confirm earlier observations that viral RNA is uniformly expressed in early-stage patients. We further show that cellular RNA viral load is predictive of disease progression. Importantly, the shift from a predominately spliced or regulatory viral mRNA pattern to a predominately unspliced pattern both is associated with disease progression and adds predictive utility to measurement of either RNA class alone. PMID:7853528

  19. The role of non-coding RNAs in diabetic nephropathy: potential applications as biomarkers for disease development and progression.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, M Lucrecia; Distefano, Johanna K

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy, a progressive kidney disease that develops secondary to diabetes, is the major cause of chronic kidney disease in developed countries, and contributes significantly to increased morbidity and mortality among individuals with diabetes. Although the causes of diabetic nephropathy are not fully understood, recent studies demonstrate a role for epigenetic factors in the development of the disease. For example, non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules, including microRNAs (miRNAs), have been shown to be functionally important in modulating renal response to hyperglycemia and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Characterization of miRNA expression in diabetic nephropathy from studies of animal models of diabetes, and in vitro investigations using different types of kidney cells also support this role. The goal of this review, therefore, is to summarize the current state of knowledge of specific ncRNAs involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy, with a focus on the potential role of miRNAs to serve as sensitive, non-invasive biomarkers of kidney disease and progression. Non-coding RNAs are currently recognized as potentially important regulators of genes involved in processes related to the development of diabetic nephropathy, and as such, represent viable targets for both clinical diagnostic strategies and therapeutic intervention. PMID:23102915

  20. Targeting of sodium-glucose cotransporters with phlorizin inhibits polycystic kidney disease progression in Han:SPRD rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueqi; Zhang, Suhua; Liu, Yang; Spichtig, Daniela; Kapoor, Sarika; Koepsell, Hermann; Mohebbi, Nilufar; Segerer, Stephan; Serra, Andreas L; Rodriguez, Daniel; Devuyst, Olivier; Mei, Changlin; Wüthrich, Rudolf P

    2013-11-01

    Renal tubular epithelial cell proliferation and transepithelial cyst fluid secretion are key features in the progression of polycystic kidney disease (PKD). As the role of the apical renal sodium-glucose cotransporters in these processes is not known, we tested whether phlorizin inhibits cyst growth and delays renal disease progression in a rat model of PKD. Glycosuria was induced by subcutaneous injection of phlorizin in male heterozygous (Cy/+) and wild-type Han:SPRD rats. Phlorizin induced immediate and sustained glycosuria and osmotic diuresis in these rats. Cy/+ rats treated with phlorizin for 5 weeks showed a significant increase in creatinine clearance, a lower 2-kidneys/body weight ratio, a lower renal cyst index, and reduced urinary albumin excretion as compared with vehicle-treated Cy/+ rats. Measurement of Ki67 staining found significantly lower cell proliferation in dilated tubules and cysts of Cy/+ rats treated with phlorizin, as well as a marked inhibition of the activated MAP kinase pathway. In contrast, the mTOR pathway remained unaltered. Phlorizin dose dependently inhibited MAP kinase in cultured tubular epithelial cells from Cy/+ rats. Thus, long-term treatment with phlorizin significantly inhibits cystic disease progression in a rat model of PKD. Hence, induction of glycosuria and osmotic diuresis (glycuresis) by renal sodium-glucose cotransporters inhibition could have a therapeutic effect in polycystic kidney disease. PMID:23715121

  1. Chromogranin A as a predictor of radiological disease progression in neuroendocrine tumours

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Roberta Elisa; Garcia-Hernandez, Jorge; Meyer, Tim; Thirlwell, Christina; Watkins, Jennifer; Martin, Nicholas Guy; Caplin, Martyn Evan

    2015-01-01

    Background Chromogranin A (CgA) is the best established neuroendocrine biomarker. This study was aimed at investigating the prognostic value of CgA as a predictor of radiological disease progression in neuroendocrine tumour (NET) patients. Methods Patients with metastatic NETs and evidence of radiological progression (RP) according to RECIST 1.1 were identified from a NET database. Plasma CgA levels were measured 6 and 12 months before RP and at the event of RP. CgA was measured with the Supra-regional-Assay-Service radioimmunoassay (Hammersmith Hospital). Results A total of 152 patients were evaluated including 91 midgut NETs and 61 pancreatic NETs (PNETs). Of these, 56 were G1 NETs, 65 G2, 10 G3, 21 of unknown histology. For all NETs, there was a positive trend in terms of increase of CgA values 6 months prior to RP compared to 12 months before RP. Subgroup analysis at first episode of RP showed that for PNETs there was evidence of a difference in the median CgA levels. CgA 6 months before RP was 100 pmol/L [interquartile 1 (Q1) =53 and Q3 =286.25 pmol/L) and 12 months before was 52 pmol/L (Q1 =36.25 and Q3 =128 pmol/L), W=52, P=0.48. This observation was not confirmed in midgut NETs, where median CgA 6 months before RP was 389.5 pmol/L (Q1 =131.5 and Q3 =791.5 pmol/L) and 12 months before was 319 pmol/L (Q1 =158 and Q3 =753 pmol/L), W=191, P=0.39]. Low grade tumours (G1) had a median CgA value at 6 months significantly higher than at 12 months [181 (Q1 =56.25, Q3 =624) vs. 149.5 (Q1 =44, Q3 =247.25) pmol/L, W=70, P=0.48]. Conclusions CgA seems to have predictive value 6 months prior to RP for PNETs and G1 tumours. Further prospective analyses are needed to enable more definitive conclusions.

  2. Letter Report Documenting Progress of Second Generation ATF FeCrAl Alloy Fabrication

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto,, Y. [ORNL] [ORNL; Yang, Y. [ORNL] [ORNL; Field, K. G. [ORNL] [ORNL; Terrani, K. [ORNL] [ORNL; Pint, B. A. [ORNL] [ORNL; Snead, L. L. [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-06-10

    Development of the 2nd generation ATF FeCrAl alloy has been initiated, and a candidate alloy was selected for trial tube fabrication through hot-extrusion and gun-drilling processes. Four alloys based on Fe-13Cr-4.5Al-0.15Y in weight percent were newly cast with minor alloying additions of Mo, Si, Nb, and C to promote solid-solution and second-phase precipitate strengthening. The alloy compositions were selected with guidance from computational thermodynamic tools. The lab-scale heats of ~ 600g were arc-melted and drop-cast, homogenized, hot-forged and -rolled, and then annealed producing plate shape samples. An alloy with Mo and Nb additions (C35MN) processed at 800°C exhibits very fine sub-grain structure with the sub-grain size of 1-3?m which exhibited more than 25% better yield and tensile strengths together with decent ductility compared to the other FeCrAl alloys at room temperature. It was found that the Nb addition was key to improving thermal stability of the fine sub-grain structure. Optimally, grains of less than 30 microns are desired, with grains up to and order of magnitude in desired produced through Nb addition. Scale-up effort of the C35MN alloy was made in collaboration with a commercial cast company who has a capability of vacuum induction melting. A 39lb columnar ingot with ~81mm diameter and ~305mm height (with hot-top) was commercially cast, homogenized, hot-extruded, and annealed providing 10mm-diameter bar-shape samples with the fine sub-grain structure. This commercial heat proved consistent with materials produced at ORNL at the lab-scale. Tubes and end caps were machined from the bar sample and provided to another work package for the ATF-1 irradiation campaign in the milestone M3FT-14OR0202251.

  3. Assessing resistance types and levels to epidemic diseases from the analysis of disease progress curves: Principles and application to potato late blight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Andrivon; R. Pellé; D. Ellissèche

    2006-01-01

    Both race-specific (RS) and race-non-specific (RNS) resistances exist in potato against the late blight pathogenPhytophthora infestans. Because these resistance types do not have the same epidemiological effects, their presence, alone or combined, in potato\\u000a genotypes can be deduced from the analysis of disease progress curves from field experiments, a type of data commonly available\\u000a to potato breeders, and their comparison

  4. Inhibition of the Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Promotes Albuminuria in Mice with Progressive Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Oliver; Jansen, Felix; Mieth, Anja; Barbosa-Sicard, Eduardo; Pliquett, Rainer U.; Babelova, Andrea; Morisseau, Christophe; Hwang, Sung H.; Tsai, Cindy; Hammock, Bruce D.; Schaefer, Liliana; Geisslinger, Gerd; Amann, Kerstin; Brandes, Ralf P.

    2010-01-01

    Epoxyeicotrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450-dependent anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory derivatives of arachidonic acid, which are highly abundant in the kidney and considered reno-protective. EETs are degraded by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and sEH inhibitors are considered treatment for chronic renal failure (CRF). We determined whether sEH inhibition attenuates the progression of CRF in the 5/6-nephrectomy model (5/6-Nx) in mice. 5/6-Nx mice were treated with a placebo, an ACE-inhibitor (Ramipril, 40 mg/kg), the sEH-inhibitor cAUCB or the CYP-inhibitor fenbendazole for 8 weeks. 5/6-Nx induced hypertension, albuminuria, glomerulosclerosis and tubulo-interstitial damage and these effects were attenuated by Ramipril. In contrast, cAUCB failed to lower the blood pressure and albuminuria was more severe as compared to placebo. Plasma EET-levels were doubled in 5/6 Nx-mice as compared to sham mice receiving placebo. Renal sEH expression was attenuated in 5/6-Nx mice but cAUCB in these animals still further increased the EET-level. cAUCB also increased 5-HETE and 15-HETE, which derive from peroxidation or lipoxygenases. Similar to cAUCB, CYP450 inhibition increased HETEs and promoted albuminuria. Thus, sEH-inhibition failed to elicit protective effects in the 5/6-Nx model and showed a tendency to aggravate the disease. These effects might be consequence of a shift of arachidonic acid metabolism into the lipoxygenase pathway. PMID:20694143

  5. Candidate blood proteome markers of Alzheimer's disease onset and progression: a systematic review and replication study.

    PubMed

    Kiddle, Steven J; Sattlecker, Martina; Proitsi, Petroula; Simmons, Andrew; Westman, Eric; Bazenet, Chantal; Nelson, Sally K; Williams, Stephen; Hodges, Angela; Johnston, Caroline; Soininen, Hilkka; K?oszewska, Iwona; Mecocci, Patrizia; Tsolaki, Magda; Vellas, Bruno; Newhouse, Stephen; Lovestone, Simon; Dobson, Richard J B

    2014-01-01

    A blood-based protein biomarker, or set of protein biomarkers, that could predict onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) would have great utility; potentially clinically, but also for clinical trials and especially in the selection of subjects for preventative trials. We reviewed a comprehensive list of 21 published discovery or panel-based (> 100 proteins) blood proteomics studies of AD, which had identified a total of 163 candidate biomarkers. Few putative blood-based protein biomarkers replicate in independent studies but we found that some proteins do appear in multiple studies; for example, four candidate biomarkers are found to associate with AD-related phenotypes in five independent research cohorts in these 21 studies: ?-1-antitrypsin, ?-2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein E, and complement C3. Using SomaLogic's SOMAscan proteomics technology, we were able to conduct a large-scale replication study for 94 of the 163 candidate biomarkers from these 21 published studies in plasma samples from 677 subjects from the AddNeuroMed (ANM) and the Alzheimer's Research UK/Maudsley BRC Dementia Case Registry at King's Health Partners (ARUK/DCR) research cohorts. Nine of the 94 previously reported candidates were found to associate with AD-related phenotypes (False Discovery Rate (FDR) q-value < 0.1). These proteins show sufficient replication to be considered for further investigation as a biomarker set. Overall, we show that there are some signs of a replicable signal in the range of proteins identified in previous studies and we are able to further replicate some of these. This suggests that AD pathology does affect the blood proteome with some consistency. PMID:24121966

  6. Helicoverpa armigera granulovirus interference with progression of H. zea nucleopolyhedrovirus disease in H. zea larvae.

    PubMed

    Hackett, K J; Boore, A; Deming, C; Buckley, E; Camp, M; Shapiro, M

    2000-02-01

    Capsular proteins from Helicoverpa armigera granulovirus (HaGV) have previously been shown to enhance H. armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaSNPV) infection in H. armigera larvae. Yet, HaGV and HaS-NPV, as viable viruses, interfered with one another. In our study, we have examined the effects of co-infection of the slow-killing virus HaGV with the fast-killing virus Helicoverpa zea NPV (HzSNPV) on H. zea larvae. The mortality parameter measured was survival time. Virus stocks had 50% lethal concentrations of 3.2x10(-9) g HaGV-infected cadavers (GVC) (HaGV) and 32 occlusion bodies (HzSNPV) per cup. Average survival times were 16.8 and 5.5 days for larvae treated with HaGV and HzSNPV, respectively; death of HzSNPV-treated larvae was as early as 72 h posttreatment. In co-infection experiments in which larvae were treated concurrently with both viruses, the viruses competed in typical fashion for host resources. However, interference with disease progression in HzSNPV-fed larvae occurred even when HaGV was fed to larvae up to 36 h after the NPV, a time at which NPV infection should have been well established in host larvae. At death, co-infected larvae were observed microscopically to be filled with HaGV granules rather than HzSNPV polyhedra. The time study results imply that HaGV might be outcompeting HzSNPV by inhibiting its replication. We also observed that H. zea larvae treated with high dosages of HaGV (> or =3x10(-5) g GVC) were initially stunted but had survival times similar to those of larvae treated with lower dosages. PMID:10772322

  7. APOE ?4 increases the risk of progression from amnestic mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease among ethnic Chinese in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei-Ning Wang; Chen-Jee Hong; Ker-Neng Lin; Hsiu-Chih Liu; Wei-Ta Chen

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the effect of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 in the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) in ethnic Chinese people in Taiwan.MethodsSubjects older than 60 years with normal cognition, MCI or AD were enrolled from the memory clinic from 2000 to 2008. Normal ageing and MCI subjects were evaluated with clinical and neuropsychological examinations

  8. Meeting information needs of patients with incurable progressive disease and their families in South Africa and Uganda: multicentre qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucy Selman; Irene J Higginson; Godfrey Agupio; Natalya Dinat; Julia Downing; Liz Gwyther; Thandi Mashao; Keletso Mmoledi; Anthony P Moll; Lydia Mpanga Sebuyira; Barbara Panajatovic; Richard Harding

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To explore the information needs of patients with progressive, life limiting disease and their family caregivers in South Africa and Uganda and to inform clinical practice and policy in this emerging field.Design Semistructured qualitative interview study.Setting Four palliative care services in South Africa and one in Uganda, covering rural, urban, and peri-urban locations.Participants 90 patients and 38 family caregivers

  9. Quantitative Electroretinogram Measures of Phototransduction in Cone and Rod Photoreceptors Normal Aging, Progression With Disease, and Test-Retest Variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Birch; Donald C. Hood; Kirsten G. Locke; Dennis R. Hoffman; Radoul T. Tzekov

    Results: Phototransduction efficiency, as indexed by the sensitivity variable (S), decreased with age for cone and rod-only responses, whereas maximum cone and rod pho- toresponses (RmP3) remained constant. In patients with XLRP tested annually for 4 years, RmP3 for rods and, to a lesser extent, cones declined with disease progression, whereas S remained stable. The test-retest variability in the a-wave

  10. Human extraocular muscles in mitochondrial diseases: comparing chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia with Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Carta; V Carelli; T D’Adda; F N Ross-Cisneros; A A Sadun

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To compare the ultrastructural aspects of human extraocular muscles in two types of mitochondrial disease: chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON).Methods: Muscle samples of the medial rectus obtained from surgery in a sporadic case of CPEO associated with deleted mitochondrial DNA, and post mortem in a case of 3460\\/ND1 LHON were processed for electron

  11. Effects of variant rs346473 in ARHGAP24 gene on disease progression of HBV infection in han Chinese population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lifeng Liu; Jinjian Yao; Jin Li; Jinliang Zhang; Jinling Yu; Xiaorui Jiang; Shuzhen Sun; Qing Liu; Ying Chang; Yongwen He; Jusheng Lin

    2011-01-01

    Summary  Host genetic, environmental and viral factors are classified as three categories that determine clinical outcomes of hepatitis\\u000a B virus (HBV) infection. The objective of this study was to detect the associations between polymorphisms rs346473 and rs346482\\u000a in Rho GTPase-activating protein 24 (ARHGAP24) gene and disease progression of HBV infection in Han Chinese population. These\\u000a two SNPs were found by our

  12. A case of necrotizing vasculitis with panniculitis, during sorafenib treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, appeared in disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Ragazzi, Moira; Asensio, Nuria Maria; Pagano, Maria; Gnoni, Roberta; Boni, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and is the third most common cause of death from cancer. Sorafenib is the only drug which improves survival in first line advanced HCC. Sorafenib has been associated with several dermatologic toxicities and toxic effects have been related to a better treatment response. We report the case of a well-circumscribed panniculitis and necrotizing vasculitis due to sorafenib, appeared in disease progression in a man affected by advanced HCC. PMID:25436135

  13. Red cell exchange transfusion halts progressive proliferative sickle cell retinopathy in a teenaged patient with hemoglobin SC disease.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Christopher M; Siringo, Frank; Olson, Jeffrey L; Capocelli, Kelly E; Ambruso, Daniel R; Nuss, Rachelle

    2015-04-01

    A male with sickle SC disease presented at age 8 years with proliferative sickle cell retinopathy (PSCR) and bilateral vitreous hemorrhage which spontaneously resolved, then recurred at 13 years of age. Despite conventional therapy with repeated pan-retinal photocoagulation and pars plana vitrectomy, he developed progressive PSCR and recurrent vitreous hemorrhage over the next 30 months. We describe the successful use of chronic red cell exchange transfusion (RCE) to preserve his vision and stabilize the retinopathy. PMID:25631233

  14. Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive neurodegenera-tive disorder that affects at least 1% of people by age 70 (13).

    E-print Network

    Hayar, Abdallah

    History Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive neurodegenera- tive disorder that affects to the development of motor complications including wearing-off (the Diagnosis and treatment of Parkinson disease, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Parkinson disease (PD

  15. Usefulness of the computed tomography and magnetic resonance in evaluation of progress of treatment of the neoplasmatic diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Myga-Porosi?o, Jolanta; Borowiak, Hanna; Sraga, Wojciech; Jackowska, Zuzanna; Serafin, Magdalena; Kluczewska, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Neoplastmatic diseases constitute about 1% diseases in children in Poland, what makes about 1200 new incidents during one year. Fast diagnosis in those illnesses is crucial in treatment results. The point of this work was to value usefulness of CT and MRI in diagnostics of neoplasmatic diseases in children. Material/Methods: The retrospective study involved 121 children examined in CT and MRI because of suspicion or during treatment of neoplasmatic disease. Together 184 CT and 119 MRI examination were performed. Eventually in 106 children neoplasmatic disease was diagnosed. In 16 cases neoplasm was excluded. Results: In the analyzed group of patients acute lymphoblastic and non lymphoblastic leukemia was diagnosed in 68 children (55.7%); among them mycosis was identified after radiological examinations in 7 cases (10.3%). 8 children (6.6%) with non Hodgkin lymphoma and 11 (9%) with Hodgkin lymphoma were examined. Nephroblastoma was found after MRI and CT in 6 cases (4.9%). Presence of tumors, that were classified histopatologically as PNET, was confirmed in 4 children. In 15 cases after MRI and CT neoplasmatic disease was excluded. Conclusions: Depending on the kind of sickness MRI and CT may fulfill basic or subsidiary role in diagnostic and estimating the progress of treatment in neoplasmatic diseases among children. PMID:23049581

  16. Differing patterns of striatal sup 18 F-dopa uptake in Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and progressive supranuclear palsy

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, D.J.; Ibanez, V.; Sawle, G.V.; Quinn, N.; Lees, A.J.; Mathias, C.J.; Bannister, R.; Marsden, C.D.; Frackowiak, R.S. (Hammersmith Hospital, London (England))

    1990-10-01

    Using positron emission tomography (PET), we studied regional striatal 18F-dopa uptake in 16 patients with L-dopa-responsive Parkinson's disease (PD), 18 patients with multiple system atrophy, and 10 patients with progressive supranuclear palsy. Results were compared with those of 30 age-matched normal volunteers. The patients with PD showed significantly reduced mean uptake of 18F-dopa in the caudate and putamen compared to controls, but while function in the posterior part of the putamen was severely impaired (45% of normal), function in the anterior part of the putamen and in the caudate was relatively spared (62% and 84% of normal). Mean 18F-dopa uptake in the posterior putamen was depressed to similar levels in all patients. Unlike patients with PD, the patients with progressive supranuclear palsy showed equally severe impairment of mean 18F-dopa uptake in the anterior and posterior putamen. Caudate 18F-dopa uptake was also significantly lower in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy than in patients with PD, being depressed to the same level as that in the putamen. Mean 18F-dopa uptake values in the anterior putamen and caudate in patients with multiple system atrophy lay between PD and progressive supranuclear palsy levels. Locomotor disability of individual patients with PD or multiple system atrophy correlated with decline in striatal 18F-dopa uptake, but this was not the case for the patients with progressive supranuclear palsy. We conclude that patients with PD have selective nigral pathological features with relative preservation of the dopaminergic function in the anterior putamen and caudate, whereas there is progressively more extensive nigral involvement in multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy.

  17. Biomarker Report from the Phase II Lamotrigine Trial in Secondary Progressive MS – Neurofilament as a Surrogate of Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Gnanapavan, Sharmilee; Grant, Donna; Morant, Steve; Furby, Julian; Hayton, Tom; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; Leoni, Valerio; Marta, Monica; Brenner, Robert; Palace, Jacqueline; Miller, David H.; Kapoor, Raj; Giovannoni, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Objective Lamotrigine trial in SPMS was a randomised control trial to assess whether partial blockade of sodium channels has a neuroprotective effect. The current study was an additional study to investigate the value of neurofilament (NfH) and other biomarkers in predicting prognosis and/or response to treatment. Methods SPMS patients who attended the NHNN or the Royal Free Hospital, UK, eligible for inclusion were invited to participate in the biomarker study. Primary outcome was whether lamotrigine would significantly reduce detectable serum NfH at 0-12, 12–24 and 0–24 months compared to placebo. Other serum/plasma and CSF biomarkers were also explored. Results Treatment effect by comparing absolute changes in NfH between the lamotrigine and placebo group showed no difference, however based on serum lamotrigine adherence there was significant decline in NfH (NfH 12–24 months p?=?0.043, Nfh 0–24 months p?=?0.023). Serum NfH correlated with disability: walking times, 9-HPT (non-dominant hand), PASAT, z-score, MSIS-29 (psychological) and EDSS and MRI cerebral atrophy and MTR. Other biomarkers explored in this study were not found to be significantly associated, aside from that of plasma osteopontin. Conclusions The relations between NfH and clinical scores of disability and MRI measures of atrophy and disease burden support NfH being a potential surrogate endpoint complementing MRI in neuroprotective trials and sample sizes for such trials are presented here. We did not observe a reduction in NfH levels between the Lamotrigine and placebo arms, however, the reduction in serum NfH levels based on lamotrigine adherence points to a possible neuroprotective effect of lamotrigine on axonal degeneration. PMID:23936370

  18. Glial and neuronal tau pathology in tauopathies: characterization of disease-specific phenotypes and tau pathology progression.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Isidre; López-González, Irene; Carmona, Margarita; Arregui, Laura; Dalfó, Esther; Torrejón-Escribano, Benjamin; Diehl, Roberta; Kovacs, Gabor G

    2014-01-01

    Tauopathies are degenerative diseases characterized by the accumulation of phosphorylated tau in neurons and glial cells. With some exceptions, tau deposits in neurons are mainly manifested as pretangles and tangles unrelated to the tauopathy. It is thought that abnormal tau deposition in neurons occurs following specific steps, but little is known about the progression of tau pathology in glial cells in tauopathies. We compared tau pathology in different astrocyte phenotypes and oligodendroglial inclusions with that in neurons in a large series of tauopathies, including progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, argyrophilic grain disease, Pick disease, frontotemporal lobar degenerations (FTLD) associated with mutations in the tau gene, globular glial tauopathy (GGT), and tauopathy in the elderly. Our findings indicate that disease-specific astroglial phenotypes depend on i) the primary amino acid sequence of tau (mutated tau, 3Rtau, and 4Rtau); ii) phospho-specific sites of tau phosphorylation, tau conformation, tau truncation, and ubiquitination in that order (which parallel tau modifications related to pretangle and tangle stages in neurons); and iii) modifications of the astroglial cytoskeleton. In contrast to astrocytes, coiled bodies in oligodendrocytes have similar characteristics whatever the tauopathy, except glial globular inclusions in GGT, and coiled bodies and globular oligodendroglial inclusions in FTLD-tau/K317M. These observations indicate that tau pathology in glial cells largely parallels, but is not identical to, that in neurons in many tauopathies. PMID:24335532

  19. Associations of HLA class I antigen specificities and haplotypes with disease progression in HIV-1-infected Hans in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhao, Bin; Han, Xiaoxu; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Baogui; Lu, Chunming; Zhang, Min; Liu, Jing; Chen, Ou; Hu, Qinghai; Jiang, Fanming; Shang, Hong

    2013-12-01

    The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequencies, which differ among various ethnic populations, may result in population-specific effects on HIV-1 disease progression. No large-scale study has yet been conducted on the Chinese population. In this study, HLA class I antigen specificities were determined in a cohort including 105 long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) and 321 typical progressors (TPs), who were recruited from HIV-1-infected Northern Han Chinese, to determine the associations between certain HLA types and HIV-1 disease progression. The frequencies of HLA class I specificities and haplotypes among the two groups were compared using binary logistic stepwise regression. Results showed that HLA-A(?)30-B(?)13-C(?)06 (OR = 0.387, P = 0.019) and B(?)67 (OR = 0.134, P = 0.005) were associated with a long-term non-progressing condition, and C(?)01 (OR = 2.539, P = 0.050) was overrepresented in TPs after adjusting for non-genetic factors (sex, age, the location of patients, HIV subtype and the route of infection). The influence of HLA homozygosity on HIV disease progression was also analyzed. However, homozygosity at HLA-A, HLA-B or HLA-C conferred no observable disadvantage in our study population (P = 0.730, 0.246 and 0.445, respectively). These findings suggest that the host's genetics make important contributions to HIV viral control and may help to develop peptide-based vaccines for this population. PMID:24012585

  20. Minimally Invasive Early Operative Treatment of Progressive Foot and Ankle Deformity Associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

    PubMed

    Boffeli, Troy J; Tabatt, Jessica A

    2014-08-14

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a neuromuscular disorder that commonly results in a predictable pattern of progressive bilateral lower extremity weakness, numbness, contracture, and deformity, including drop foot, loss of ankle eversion strength, dislocated hammertoes, and severe cavus foot deformity. Late stage reconstructive surgery will be often necessary if the deformity becomes unbraceable or when neuropathic ulcers have developed. Reconstructive surgery for Charcot-Marie-Tooth deformity is generally extensive and sometimes staged. Traditional reconstructive surgery involves a combination of procedures, including tendon lengthening or transfer, osteotomy, and arthrodesis. The described technique highlights our early surgical approach, which involves limited intervention before the deformity becomes rigid, severe, or disabling. We present 2 cases to contrast our early minimally invasive technique with traditional late stage reconstruction. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease affects different muscles at various stages of disease progression. As 1 muscle becomes weak, the antagonist will overpower it and cause progressive deformity. The focus of the early minimally invasive approach is to decrease the forces that cause progressive deformity yet maintain function, where possible. Our goal has been to maintain a functional and braceable foot and ankle, with the hope of avoiding or limiting the extent of future major reconstructive surgery. The presented cases highlight the patient selection criteria, the ideal timing of early surgical intervention, the procedure selection criteria, and operative pearls. The early minimally invasive approach includes plantar fasciotomy, Achilles tendon lengthening, transfer of the peroneus longus to the fifth metatarsal, Hibbs and Jones tendon transfer, and hammertoe repair of digits 1 to 5. PMID:25131389

  1. Stimulation of endothelin B receptors by IRL-1620 decreases the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Briyal, S; Nguyen, C; Leonard, M; Gulati, A

    2015-08-20

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by severe cognitive impairment that ultimately leads to death. Endothelin (ET) and its receptors have been considered as therapeutic targets for AD. Recent studies in our lab have shown that stimulation of ETB receptors provide significant neuroprotection following A?1-40 administration. It is possible that IRL-1620 may be neuroprotective due to angiogenesis. However, the effect of IRL-1620 on neurovascular remodeling following A?1-40 administration has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of stimulation of ETB receptors by IRL-1620 on vascular and neuronal growth factors after A?1-40 administration. Rats were treated with A?1-40 (day 1, 7 and 14) in the lateral cerebral ventricles using stereotaxically implanted cannula and received three intravenous injections of IRL-1620 (an ETB agonist), and/or BQ788 (an ETB antagonist) at 2-h interval on day 8; experiments were performed on day 15. Rats were sacrificed for estimation of brain ETB receptors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) expression using immunofluorescence and Western blot. In the Morris swim task, amyloid-? (A?)-treated rats showed a significant (p<0.0001) impairment in spatial memory. Rats treated with IRL-1620 significantly (p<0.001) reduced the cognitive impairment induced by A?. BQ788 treatment completely blocked IRL-1620-induced improvement in cognitive impairment. IRL-1620 treatment enhanced the number of blood vessels labeled with VEGF compared to vehicle treatment. Additionally, cells showed increased (p<0.001) positive staining for NGF in IRL-1620-treated animals. ETB, VEGF and NGF protein expression significantly (p<0.001) increased in the brain of IRL-1620-treated rats as compared to vehicle. Pretreatment with BQ788 blocked the effects of IRL-1620, thus confirming the role of ETB receptors in the neurovascular remodeling actions of IRL-1620. Results of the present study demonstrate that IRL-1620 improves both acquisition (learning) and retention (memory) on the water maze task and enhances angiogenic and neurogenic remodeling. These findings indicate that the ETB receptor may be a novel therapeutic target for AD and other neurovascular degenerative disorders. PMID:26022359

  2. CD4 recovery on antiretroviral therapy is associated with decreased progression to liver disease among hepatitis C virus-infected injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey P; Horsburgh, C Robert; Williams, Paige L; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Nunes, David; Cotton, Deborah; Seage, George R

    2015-01-01

    Background. ?Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection accelerates liver disease progression in individuals with chronic hepatitis C. We evaluated the associations of CD4, HIV RNA, and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-induced CD4 recovery with liver diagnoses in a prospective cohort of injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods. ?We evaluated 383 coinfected IDUs in the Boston area, prospectively observed for a median of 1.8 years. Liver disease progression included the first occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, variceal bleeding, ascites, encephalopathy, or death due to hepatic failure. Multivariable-adjusted extended Cox models were specified to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for comparisons of CD4, change in CD4 (from nadir), and HIV RNA with respect to liver disease progression events. Results. ?Twenty-four persons experienced a liver disease progression event over 1155 person-years (2.1 per 100 person-years), including 20 deaths attributed to end-stage liver disease (1.7 per 100 person-years). CD4 at baseline and over follow-up strongly predicted liver disease progression (baseline CD4 <200 vs ?200: HR = 5.23, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.30-11.92; time-updated CD4 <200 vs ?200: HR = 11.79, 95% CI, 4.47-31.07). Nadir CD4 was also a strong indicator (<100 vs ?100: HR = 3.52, 95% CI, 1.54-8.06). A lack of CD4 recovery (failure to increase 100 cells over nadir) among ART initiators was associated with increased risk (HR = 7.69; 95% CI, 2.60-22.69). Human immunodeficiency virus RNA was not significantly associated with liver disease progression. Conclusions. ?Impaired immune function was highly predictive of liver disease progression in this cohort of IDUs, and a lack of CD4 recovery on ART was associated with increased risk of progression to HCV-associated liver disease. PMID:26034769

  3. CD4 Recovery on Antiretroviral Therapy Is Associated With Decreased Progression to Liver Disease Among Hepatitis C Virus-Infected Injecting Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jeffrey P.; Horsburgh, C. Robert; Williams, Paige L.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Nunes, David; Cotton, Deborah; Seage, George R.

    2015-01-01

    Background.?Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection accelerates liver disease progression in individuals with chronic hepatitis C. We evaluated the associations of CD4, HIV RNA, and antiretroviral therapy (ART)-induced CD4 recovery with liver diagnoses in a prospective cohort of injecting drug users (IDUs). Methods.?We evaluated 383 coinfected IDUs in the Boston area, prospectively observed for a median of 1.8 years. Liver disease progression included the first occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma, variceal bleeding, ascites, encephalopathy, or death due to hepatic failure. Multivariable-adjusted extended Cox models were specified to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for comparisons of CD4, change in CD4 (from nadir), and HIV RNA with respect to liver disease progression events. Results.?Twenty-four persons experienced a liver disease progression event over 1155 person-years (2.1 per 100 person-years), including 20 deaths attributed to end-stage liver disease (1.7 per 100 person-years). CD4 at baseline and over follow-up strongly predicted liver disease progression (baseline CD4 <200 vs ?200: HR = 5.23, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.30–11.92; time-updated CD4 <200 vs ?200: HR = 11.79, 95% CI, 4.47–31.07). Nadir CD4 was also a strong indicator (<100 vs ?100: HR = 3.52, 95% CI, 1.54–8.06). A lack of CD4 recovery (failure to increase 100 cells over nadir) among ART initiators was associated with increased risk (HR = 7.69; 95% CI, 2.60–22.69). Human immunodeficiency virus RNA was not significantly associated with liver disease progression. Conclusions.?Impaired immune function was highly predictive of liver disease progression in this cohort of IDUs, and a lack of CD4 recovery on ART was associated with increased risk of progression to HCV-associated liver disease.

  4. High Frequencies of Polyfunctional CD8+ NK Cells in Chronic HIV-1 Infection Are Associated with Slower Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Fareed; Hong, Henoch S.; Jäckel, Marc; Jablonka, Alexandra; Lu, I-Na; Bhatnagar, Nupur; Eberhard, Johanna M.; Bollmann, Benjamin A.; Ballmaier, Matthias; Zielinska-Skowronek, Margot; Schmidt, Reinhold E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Natural killer (NK) cells are effector and regulatory innate immune cells and play a critical role in the first line of defense against various viral infections. Although previous reports have indicated the vital contributions of NK cells to HIV-1 immune control, nongenetic NK cell parameters directly associated with slower disease progression have not been defined yet. In a longitudinal, retrospective study of 117 untreated HIV-infected subjects, we show that higher frequencies as well as the absolute numbers of CD8+ CD3? lymphocytes are linked to delayed HIV-1 disease progression. We show that the majority of these cells are well-described blood NK cells. In a subsequent cross-sectional study, we demonstrate a significant loss of CD8+ NK cells in untreated HIV-infected individuals, which correlated with HIV loads and inversely correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. CD8+ NK cells had modestly higher frequencies of CD57-expressing cells than CD8? cells, but CD8+ and CD8? NK cells showed no differences in the expression of a number of activating and inhibiting NK cell receptors. However, CD8+ NK cells exhibited a more functional profile, as detected by cytokine production and degranulation. IMPORTANCE We demonstrate that the frequency of highly functional CD8+ NK cells is inversely associated with HIV-related disease markers and linked with delayed disease progression. These results thus indicate that CD8+ NK cells represent a novel NK cell-derived, innate immune correlate with an improved clinical outcome in HIV infection. PMID:25122796

  5. Association of rs1800471 polymorphism of TGFB1 gene with chronic kidney disease occurrence and progression and hypertension appearance

    PubMed Central

    Gumprecht, Janusz; Adamczyk, Piotr; Górczy?ska-Kosiorz, Sylwia; ?ywiec, Joanna; Grzeszczak, W?adys?aw

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1) is a cytokine involved in the process of pathological tissue sclerosis, which is part of the pathophysiological mechanism of end stage renal disease development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1800471 of the TGFB1 gene with chronic kidney disease (CKD) occurrence and progression as well as hypertension appearance. Material and methods It was a case-control study where 109 patients with CKD and 111 very old people were enrolled. The association of the studied polymorphism with mentioned diseases was assessed in the whole study group as well as in the subgroups stratified according to the underlying etiology of CKD: nephropathy in type 1 diabetes (n = 13), chronic glomerulonephritis (n = 50) and chronic interstitial nephritis (n = 46). Results No association of CKD progression with rs1800471 polymorphism was observed. The C allele was identified as the one associated with higher risk of the disease occurrence in the dominant model of inheritance (p = 0.035). The C allele in women, opposite to male gender, was associated with higher risk of CKD development (p = 0.038). GG genotype was associated with elevated risk of hypertension appearance (p = 0,0021). Conclusions Due to the lack of accordance with previously performed studies it is still impossible to state an unequivocal conclusion regarding the association between rs1800471 polymorphism of the TGFB1 gene and risk of CKD occurrence and progression as well as hypertension appearance. That is why it is necessary to perform further studies in this field. PMID:23671432

  6. Bayesian Modeling of Incidence and Progression of Disease from CrossSectional Data

    E-print Network

    West, Mike

    sectional data. This research is motivated by the study of uterine leiomyoma (fibroids). The condition can but also rate of progression in severity (quantified by length of the uterus and size/number of fibroids

  7. Functional variants of MIF, INFG and TFNA genes are not associated with disease susceptibility or hearing loss progression in patients with Ménière's disease.

    PubMed

    Gázquez, Irene; Moreno, Antonia; Requena, Teresa; Ohmen, Jeff; Santos-Perez, Sofia; Aran, Ismael; Soto-Varela, Andres; Pérez-Garrigues, Herminio; López-Nevot, Alicia; Batuecas, Angel; Friedman, Rick A; López-Nevot, Miguel A; López-Escamez, Jose A

    2013-03-01

    Variability in acute immune response genes could determine susceptibility or prognosis for Ménière's disease (MD). The cytokines tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?), macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) and interferon ? (INF?) are proinflammatory cytokines of the innate immune response. These cytokines mediate inflammation and have been previously associated with the inflammatory process in several autoimmune diseases. We investigated the association between functional allelic variants of MIF (rs35688089), IFNG (rs2234688) and TNFA (rs1800629) in patients with MD. In addition to testing these variants for an association with disease, we also tested for an association with clinical aspects of disease progression, such as persistence of vertigo and the sensorineural hearing loss. A total of 580 patients with diagnosis of definite MD, according to the diagnostic scale of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, and 552 healthy controls were included. DNA samples from a set of 291 American patients were used to confirm the results obtained in the MIF gene in our Spanish cohort. Although we found a significant association with the allele containing five repeats of CATT within the MIF gene in patients with MD in the Spanish cohort [corrected p = 0.008, OR = 0.69 (95 % CI, 0.54-0.88)], this finding could not be replicated in the American set. Moreover, no genetic associations for variants in either the TNFA or IFNG genes and MD were found. These results support the conclusion that functional variants of MIF, INFG, and TFNA genes are not associated with disease susceptibility or hearing loss progression in patients with MD. PMID:23179933

  8. A farnesyltransferase inhibitor prevents both the onset and late progression of cardiovascular disease in a progeria mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Capell, Brian C.; Olive, Michelle; Erdos, Michael R.; Cao, Kan; Faddah, Dina A.; Tavarez, Urraca L.; Conneely, Karen N.; Qu, Xuan; San, Hong; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Chen, Xiaoyan; Avallone, Hedwig; Kolodgie, Frank D.; Virmani, Renu; Nabel, Elizabeth G.; Collins, Francis S.

    2008-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is the most dramatic form of human premature aging. Death occurs at a mean age of 13 years, usually from heart attack or stroke. Almost all cases of HGPS are caused by a de novo point mutation in the lamin A (LMNA) gene that results in production of a mutant lamin A protein termed progerin. This protein is permanently modified by a lipid farnesyl group, and acts as a dominant negative, disrupting nuclear structure. Treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) has been shown to prevent and even reverse this nuclear abnormality in cultured HGPS fibroblasts. We have previously created a mouse model of HGPS that shows progressive loss of vascular smooth muscle cells in the media of the large arteries, in a pattern that is strikingly similar to the cardiovascular disease seen in patients with HGPS. Here we show that the dose-dependent administration of the FTI tipifarnib (R115777, Zarnestra) to this HGPS mouse model can significantly prevent both the onset of the cardiovascular phenotype as well as the late progression of existing cardiovascular disease. These observations provide encouraging evidence for the current clinical trial of FTIs for this rare and devastating disease. PMID:18838683

  9. Effects of temperature on disease progression and swimming stamina in Ichthyophonus-infected rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Hershberger, P.; Sanders, G.; Winton, J.

    2009-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were infected with Ichthyophonus sp. and held at 10 ??C, 15 ??C and 20 ??C for 28 days to monitor mortality and disease progression. Infected fish demonstrated more rapid onset of disease, higher parasite load, more severe host tissue reaction and reduced mean-day-to-death at higher temperature. In a second experiment, Ichthyophonus-infected fish were reared at 15 ??C for 16 weeks then subjected to forced swimming at 10 ??C, 15 ??C and 20 ??C. Stamina improved significantly with increased temperature in uninfected fish; however, this was not observed for infected fish. The difference in performance between infected and uninfected fish became significant at 15 ??C (P = 0.02) and highly significant at 20 ??C (P = 0.005). These results have implications for changes in the ecology of fish diseases in the face of global warming and demonstrate the effects of higher temperature on the progression and severity of ichthyophoniasis as well as on swimming stamina, a critical fitness trait of salmonids. This study helps explain field observations showing the recent emergence of clinical ichthyophoniasis in Yukon River Chinook salmon later in their spawning migration when water temperatures were high, as well as the apparent failure of a substantial percentage of infected fish to successfully reach their natal spawning areas. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Intrahepatic transplantation of adipose?derived stem cells attenuates the progression of non?alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fan; Liao, Naishun; Zheng, Youshi; Wang, Yingchao; Gao, Yunzhen; Wang, Sen; Jiang, Yi; Liu, Xiaolong

    2015-09-01

    Non?alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the major causes of chronic liver injury affecting the general health of various populations. In the present study, adipose tissue?derived stem cells (ADSCs), which were isolated from the adipose tissues of Sprague?Dawley rats, were transplanted into the liver of high?fat?diet?induced NAFLD rats via the portal vein to attenuate the disease progression of NAFLD. The results demonstrated that ADSC transplantation reduced the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and fatty acids, and reduced the content of malondialdehyde in the liver homogenates. By contrast, ADSC transplantation caused a significant increase in superoxide dismutase activity. These data suggested that the ADSC transplantation improved the liver function, and reduced lipid metabolism and oxidative stress. In addition, the hepatic pathological changes were decelerated, lipid accumulation was reduced, and serum levels of the pro?inflammatory factors, tumor necrosis factor?? and interleukin?6, were downregulated by the ADSC transplantation. Taken together, transplantation with ADSCs attenuates the disease progression of high?fat?diet induced NAFLD, therefore, may offer a potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of NAFLD. PMID:26018346

  11. Malignant vascular disease of the kidney: Nature of the lesions, mediators of disease progression, and the case for bilateral nephrectomy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piero Ruggenenti; Giuseppe Remuzzi

    1996-01-01

    A case of thrombotic microangiopathy presenting as a hemolytic uremic syndrome complicated by untreatable hypertension and ultimately requiring bilateral nephrectomy is discussed. Severe hypertension and renal failure may complicate the course of vascular diseases of the kidney, including thrombotic microangiopathy, chronic hypertension, and scleroderma. Toxins, pressure stress, and immune material may trigger the initial injury to vascular endothelium. The malignant

  12. Progressive hearing loss in Fabry’s disease: a case report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian M. Barras; Raphaël Maire

    2006-01-01

    Fabry’s disease is a chromosomal X-linked inherited disease, which causes a lack of the lysosomal alpha-galactosidase A enzyme leading to a cellular accumulation of glycosphingolipids. This accumulation leads to various clinical disorders, including inner ear lesions, with sensorineural hearing loss and dizziness. This article proposes to describe a clinical case of a patient suffering from Fabry’s disease with inner ear

  13. Human Biomarker Discovery and Predictive Models for Disease Progression for Idiopathic Pneumonia Syndrome Following Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation*

    PubMed Central

    Schlatzer, Daniela M.; Dazard, Jean-Eudes; Ewing, Rob M.; Ilchenko, Serguei; Tomcheko, Sara E.; Eid, Saada; Ho, Vincent; Yanik, Greg; Chance, Mark R.; Cooke, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is the only curative therapy for many malignant and nonmalignant conditions. Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) is a frequently fatal complication that limits successful outcomes. Preclinical models suggest that IPS represents an immune mediated attack on the lung involving elements of both the adaptive and the innate immune system. However, the etiology of IPS in humans is less well understood. To explore the disease pathway and uncover potential biomarkers of disease, we performed two separate label-free, proteomics experiments defining the plasma protein profiles of allogeneic SCT patients with IPS. Samples obtained from SCT recipients without complications served as controls. The initial discovery study, intended to explore the disease pathway in humans, identified a set of 81 IPS-associated proteins. These data revealed similarities between the known IPS pathways in mice and the condition in humans, in particular in the acute phase response. In addition, pattern recognition pathways were judged to be significant as a function of development of IPS, and from this pathway we chose the lipopolysaccaharide-binding protein (LBP) protein as a candidate molecular diagnostic for IPS, and verified its increase as a function of disease using an ELISA assay. In a separately designed study, we identified protein-based classifiers that could predict, at day 0 of SCT, patients who: 1) progress to IPS and 2) respond to cytokine neutralization therapy. Using cross-validation strategies, we built highly predictive classifier models of both disease progression and therapeutic response. In sum, data generated in this report confirm previous clinical and experimental findings, provide new insights into the pathophysiology of IPS, identify potential molecular classifiers of the condition, and uncover a set of markers potentially of interest for patient stratification as a basis for individualized therapy. PMID:22337588

  14. AA Amyloidosis in a patient with glycogen storage disorder and progressive chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Jonathan; Kumar, Nicola; Horsfield, Catherine; Jayawardene, Satish

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 glycogen storage diseases (GSD) are inherited metabolic diseases caused by defects in the activity of the glucose-6-phosphate transporter. We present the case of a 40-year-old male with glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD1b) who was referred to our nephrology service for evaluation of his chronic kidney disease and found to have AA amyloid deposition on renal biopsy. Amyloid is a described complication of GSD1b. As the treatment of GSD has improved, patients are surviving longer and are now presenting more frequently to adult services. It is important that clinicians are aware of the possible renal complications of GSD1b.

  15. Current progress in the management of rare diseases and orphan drugs in China

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Shiwei; Jin, Si

    2012-01-01

    Summary Currently, the issues of how to treat rare diseases and to improve accessibility to orphan drugs are arousing more and more concerns in China. Here we describe the push and pull incentive policies for rare diseases and orphan drugs and analyze the coverage and reimbursement level of rare diseases in the current Chinese medical insurance system. Three key obstacle factors that hinder Chinese patients' accessibility to timely drug treatment are summarized. Based on a comprehensive analysis, the measures of orphan drugs legislation, incentive mechanism, supply mechanism, and reimbursement mechanism are urgently expected to be established with the purpose of improving healthcare for patients with rare diseases in China. PMID:25343073

  16. Progression of diabetic nephropathy, risk of end-stage renal disease and mortality in patients with type-1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bentata, Yassamine; Haddiya, Intissar; Latrech, Hanane; Serraj, Kalid; Abouqal, Redouane

    2013-03-01

    Numerous studies have shown that diabetic nephropathy (DNP) is associated with an elevated risk of progression toward end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as well as increased cardiovascular mortality. The majority of these studies are from the developed countries. The factors leading to the progression of DNP may not be quite the same in the developing countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors of progression toward ESRD and mortality among type-1 diabetes (T1D) patients with DNP in a developing country. This prospective study was conducted enrolling 72 patients with T1D in September 2006, including T1D patients with DNP defined as microalbuminuria, proteinuria, and/or renal failure, and following them up for five years. The mean age was 29.5±7.5 years with a mean duration of diabetes of 17 (11-20) years. At the time of enrollment, 43.1% had arterial hypertension, 69.4% had proliferative retinopathy, 44.4 had clinical neuropathy, 25% lived in rural areas, and 51.4% had macroalbuminuria. Progression toward ESRD was observed in 34.7% of cases. In multivariate analysis, diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.006) and blood hemoglobin (P = 0.003) were identified as the risk factors associated with ESRD. Death occurred in 18.3% of cases, including 92.3% on hemodialysis with a median hemodialysis duration of six (1-60) months. In multivariate analysis, the ESRD was identified as risk factor for death (P <0.001). DNP due to T1D remains a disease involving a heavy burden of morbi-mortality and is difficult to manage in a developing country because of the low socioeconomic level of patients and the lack of reliable epidemiological data. PMID:23538374

  17. Correlation between cell free DNA levels and medical evaluation of disease progression in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Tug, Suzan; Helmig, Susanne; Menke, Julia; Zahn, Daniela; Kubiak, Thomas; Schwarting, Andreas; Simon, Perikles

    2014-01-01

    High levels of cell free DNA (cfDNA) in human blood plasma have been described in patients with autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of cfDNA in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and to assess fluctuations of cfDNA concentrations compared to the course of disease progression under standard treatment. Therefore, nuclear cfDNA concentrations in plasma were measured in 59 SLE patients and 59 healthy controls. Follow-up blood plasma was collected from 27 of the 59 SLE patients. Patients were characterised by clinical parameters (antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-dsDNA-antibodies, C3, C4, and CRP), SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) and medical therapy. Our results showed that cfDNA concentrations were significantly higher in SLE patients compared to healthy individuals. Levels of cfDNA assessed in serial samples correlated significantly with the medical evaluation of disease activity in SLE patients. Our results could implicate cfDNA as a global marker for disease activity. PMID:25243646

  18. Meta-analysis to test the association of HIV-1 nef amino acid differences and deletions with disease progression.

    PubMed

    Pushker, Ravindra; Jacqué, Jean-Marc; Shields, Denis C

    2010-04-01

    Previous relatively small studies have associated particular amino acid replacements and deletions in the HIV-1 nef gene with differences in the rate of HIV disease progression. We tested more rigorously whether particular nef amino acid differences and deletions are associated with HIV disease progression. Amino acid replacements and deletions in patients' consensus sequences were investigated for 153 progressor (P), 615 long-term nonprogressor (LTNP), and 2,311 unknown progressor sequences from 582 subtype B HIV-infected patients. LTNPs had more defective nefs (interrupted by frameshifts or stop codons), but on a per-patient basis there was no excess of LTNP patients with one or more defective nef sequences compared to the Ps (P = 0.47). The high frequency of amino acid replacement at residues S(8), V(10), I(11), A(15), V(85), V(133), N(157), S(163), V(168), D(174), R(178), E(182), and R(188) in LTNPs was also seen in permuted datasets, implying that these are simply rapidly evolving residues. Permutation testing revealed that residues showing the greatest excess over expectation (A(15), V(85), N(157), S(163), V(168), D(174), R(178), and R(188)) were not significant (P = 0.77). Exploratory analysis suggested a hypothetical excess of frameshifting in the regions (9)SVIG and (118)QGYF among LTNPs. The regions V(10) and (152)KVEEA of nef were commonly deleted in LTNPs. However, permutation testing indicated that none of the regions displayed significantly excessive deletion in LTNPs. In conclusion, meta-analysis of HIV-1 nef sequences provides no clear evidence of whether defective nef sequences or particular regions of the protein play a significant role in disease progression. PMID:20071583

  19. Blood plasma IgG Fc glycans are significantly altered in Alzheimer's disease and progressive mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Susanna L; Yang, Hongqian; Lyutvinskiy, Yaroslav; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Soininen, Hilkka; Zubarev, Roman A

    2014-01-01

    Blood-based anti-amyloid-? (A?) immunoglobulins (IgGs) and peripheral inflammation are factors correlating with development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). IgG functionality can drastically change from anti- to pro-inflammatory via alterations in the IgG-Fc N-glycan structure. Herein, we tested if IgG-Fc glycosylation in plasma is indeed altered during the development of AD. Samples from age-matched subjects of 23 controls, 58 patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (SMCI), 34 patients with progressive (P)MCI, and 31 patients with AD were investigated. Label-free shotgun proteomics was applied without glycoprotein enrichment. Glycans on peptides EEQYNSTYR (IgG1) and EEQFNSTFR (IgG2) were quantified, and their abundances were normalized to total IgGn glycoform abundance. Univariate and multivariate statistics were employed to investigate the correlations between the patients groups and the abundances of the IgG glycoforms as well as those of inflammatory mediating proteins. Significant differences (p ? 0.05) were found, with a lower abundance of complex galactosylated and sialylated forms in AD. For females, a decline in glycoform complexity correlated with disease progress but an inverse change was found in males prior to the onset of AD. Principal component analysis (PCA; Males: R(2)X(cum) = 0.65, Q(2)(cum) = 0.34; Females: R(2)X(cum) = 0.62, Q(2)(cum) = 0.36), confirmed the gender similarities (for controls, SMCI and AD) as well as differences (for PMCI), and showed a close correlation between pro-inflammatory protein markers, AD, female PMCI, and truncated IgG-Fc glycans. The differences observed between genders prior to the onset of AD may indicate a lower ability in females to suppress peripheral inflammation, which may lead to exacerbated disease progression. PMID:24028868

  20. Progress in research on tick?borne diseases: Theileriosis and heartwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Uilenberg; D. A. E. Dobbelaere; A. L. W. de Gee; H. T. Koch

    1993-01-01

    The rapid population growth in subsaharan Africa necessitates a great increase in animal production in the more humid zones. Vector?borne diseases occurring in these zones will assume more importance, but are difficult to control. They include theileriosis and heartwater. Recent developments in research on these diseases are presented. Indigenous animal populations in endemic areas, subjected to natural selection, are far

  1. The Cache County Study on Memory in Aging: Factors Affecting Risk of Alzheimer's disease and its Progression after Onset

    PubMed Central

    Tschanz, JoAnn T.; Norton, Maria C.; Zandi, Peter P.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2014-01-01

    The Cache County Study on Memory in Aging is a longitudinal, population-based study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. Initiated in 1995 and extending to 2013, the study has followed over 5,000 elderly residents of Cache County, Utah (USA) for over twelve years. Achieving a 90% participation rate at enrollment, and spawning two ancillary projects, the study has contributed to the literature on genetic, psychosocial and environmental risk factors for AD, late life cognitive decline, and the clinical progression of dementia after its onset. This paper describes the major study contributions to the literature on AD and dementia. PMID:24423221

  2. Dysarthria, progressive parkinsonian features and symmetric necrosis of putamen in a family with painful lipomas (Dercum disease variant).

    PubMed

    Kyllerman, M; Brandberg, G; Wiklund, L-M; Månsson, J-E

    2002-04-01

    We describe painful subcutaneous lipomatosis in four members of a two-generation family. Lipomas appeared in adulthood, were circumscribed, painful on touch and mainly localized to the trunk and proximal parts of the extremities. The disorder was associated with dysarthria, visual pursuit defect and progressive dystonia. MRI showed bilateral increasing cystic lesions in the basal parts of the putamen. No other abnormalities were detected. The lesions corresponded well with the clinical presentation in the patients. Investigation for mitochondrial disease with muscle biopsy and mitochondrial DNA gave normal results. No consistent biochemical changes were found. The disorder in this family was considered to differ from MERRF with lipomatous lesions and multiple symmetric lipomatosis but compatible with a Dercum disease variant. PMID:12075486

  3. Applications of condensed matter understanding to medical tissues and disease progression: Elemental analysis and structural integrity of tissue scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, D. A.; Farquharson, M. J.; Gundogdu, O.; Al-Ebraheem, Alia; Che Ismail, Elna; Kaabar, W.; Bunk, O.; Pfeiffer, F.; Falkenberg, G.; Bailey, M.

    2010-02-01

    The investigations reported herein link tissue structure and elemental presence with issues of environmental health and disease, exemplified by uptake and storage of potentially toxic elements in the body, the osteoarthritic condition and malignancy in the breast and other soft tissues. Focus is placed on application of state-of-the-art ionizing radiation techniques, including, micro-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (?-SXRF) and particle-induced X-ray emission/Rutherford backscattering mapping (?-PIXE/RBS), coherent small-angle X-ray scattering (cSAXS) and X-ray phase-contrast imaging, providing information on elemental make-up, the large-scale organisation of collagen and anatomical features of moderate and low atomic number media. For the particular situations under investigation, use of such facilities is allowing information to be obtained at an unprecedented level of detail, yielding new understanding of the affected tissues and the progression of disease.

  4. Metabolic responses to tumour disease and progression: tumour–host interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. CRAVO; L. M. GLÓRIA; I. CLARO

    2000-01-01

    The progressive nutritional deterioration frequently found in cancer patients, is often referred to as cancer cachexia. In contrast to starvation, where it is possible to reverse the body composition changes by the provision of extra calories, in cancer cachexia this reversal is not observed, suggesting that anorexia alone is unlikely to be responsible for this wasting syndrome. Over the past

  5. Histological Indications of a Progressive Snorers Disease in an Upper Airway Muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DANIELLE FRIBERG; TOR ANSVED; KRISTIAN BORG; BRITT CARLSSON-NORDLANDER; HÅKAN LARSSON; EVA SVANBORG

    1998-01-01

    The etiology of upper airway collapsibility in patients with snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) remains unclear. Local muscular abnormalities, including neurogenic lesions, could be a contributory factor. The aim of this study was to histologically evaluate the hypothesis of a progressive snorers dis- ease. Biopsies of palatopharyngeal muscle were obtained from 21 patients with habitual snoring and different degrees

  6. Ballooned neurons in progressive supranuclear palsy are usually due to concurrent argyrophilic grain disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Togo; Dennis W. Dickson

    2002-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a sporadic multisystem neurodegenerative disorder that is one of the major causes of parkinsonism, which shares common biochemical and genetic features with corticobasal degeneration (CBD). Ballooned neurons (BN) are one of the histopathologic hallmarks of CBD and their presence is a neuropathologic feature that helps differentiate PSP from CBD, since BN are uncommon in PSP.

  7. Progressive Impairment on Neuropsychological Tasks in a Longitudinal Study of Preclinical Alzheimer's Disease

    E-print Network

    Wixted, John T.

    Progressive Impairment on Neuropsychological Tasks in a Longitudinal Study of Preclinical Alzheimer. The authors report a detailed neuropsychological evaluation of 11 patients over the course of 3 years up the neuropsychological profile of 11 preclinical patients. These individuals were among a large group of older adult

  8. Treatment with trkC agonist antibodies delays disease progression in neuromuscular degeneration (nmd) mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rocio Ruiz; John Lin; Alison Forgie; Davide Foletti; David Shelton; Arnon Rosenthal; Lucia Tabares

    2005-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress type 1 (SMARD1) is a fatal autosomal recessive disorder seen in infants. It is characterized by lower motor neuron degeneration, progressive muscle paralysis and respiratory failure, for which no effective treatment exists. The phenotype of neuromuscular degeneration (nmd) mice closely resembles the human SMARD1. The identification of the mutated mouse gene in nmd mice

  9. A resistant starch fiber diet ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammation is a constant feature and a major mediator of CKD progression. It is, in part, driven by altered gut microbiome and disruption of intestinal epithelial barrier, events which are primarily caused by: 1- urea influx in the intestine resulting in dominance of urease-possessing bacteria; 2-...

  10. Parameters of Disease Progression in Long-Term Experimental Feline Retrovirus (Feline Immunodeficiency Virus and Feline Leukemia Virus) Infections: Hematology, Clinical Chemistry, and Lymphocyte Subsets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    REGINA HOFMANN-LEHMANN; EDGAR HOLZNAGEL; PETE OSSENT; ANDHANS LUTZ

    After several years of latency, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) cause fatal disease in the cat. The aim of this study was to determine laboratory parameters characteristic of disease progression which would allow a better description of the asymptomatic phase and a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the two infections. Therefore, experimentally infected cats (FIV

  11. Primary progressive apraxia of speech (AOS) in a patient with Pick's disease with Pick bodies: a neuropsychological and anatomical study and review of literatures

    PubMed Central

    Uyama, Naoto; Yokochi, Fusako; Bandoh, Mitsuaki; Mizutani, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    A 56-year-old right-handed man suffered from progressive apraxia of speech (AOS), characterized by agrammatism and buccofacial apraxia. He also became mute at the later stages of the disease progression. At autopsy, the left precentral gyrus, pars opercularis, and hippocampus showed severe atrophy. Pick bodies and Pick cells were observed. In this report, we also review previous case reports of AOS. Pick's disease is among the most commonly associated of the major diseases. Brain lesions associated with AOS may be found in regions such as the precentral gyrus and the pars opercularis in the left hemisphere. PMID:22500674

  12. Cortical Thickness, Surface Area and Volume Measures in Parkinson's Disease, Multiple System Atrophy and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Worker, Amanda; Blain, Camilla; Jarosz, Jozef; Chaudhuri, K. Ray; Barker, Gareth J.; Williams, Steven C. R.; Brown, Richard; Leigh, P. Nigel; Simmons, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objective Parkinson's disease (PD), Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) are neurodegenerative diseases that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The objective of the current study was to use surface-based analysis techniques to assess cortical thickness, surface area and grey matter volume to identify unique morphological patterns of cortical atrophy in PD, MSA and PSP and to relate these patterns of change to disease duration and clinical features. Methods High resolution 3D T1-weighted MRI volumes were acquired from 14 PD patients, 18 MSA, 14 PSP and 19 healthy control participants. Cortical thickness, surface area and volume analyses were carried out using the automated surface-based analysis package FreeSurfer (version 5.1.0). Measures of disease severity and duration were assessed for correlation with cortical morphometric changes in each clinical group. Results Results show that in PSP, widespread cortical thinning and volume loss occurs within the frontal lobe, particularly the superior frontal gyrus. In addition, PSP patients also displayed increased surface area in the pericalcarine. In comparison, PD and MSA did not display significant changes in cortical morphology. Conclusion These results demonstrate that patients with clinically established PSP exhibit distinct patterns of cortical atrophy, particularly affecting the frontal lobe. These results could be used in the future to develop a useful clinical application of MRI to distinguish PSP patients from PD and MSA patients. PMID:25463618

  13. Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1C disease coexisting with progressive multiple sclerosis: a study of an overlapping syndrome.

    PubMed

    Potulska-Chromik, Anna; Sinkiewicz-Darol, Elena; Kostera-Pruszczyk, Anna; Drac, Hanna; Kabzi?ska, Dagmara; Zakrzewska-Pniewska, Beata; Go??biowski, Marek; Kocha?ski, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1C disease (CMT1C) is a rare form of hereditary demyelinating neuropathy caused by mutations in the LITAF (lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-?) gene. CMT1C disease was mapped to chromosome 16p12-p 13.3. To date only a few mutations in the LITAF gene have been reported. Due to a small group of CMT1C reported patients, the phenotype of CMT1C is poorly characterized. CMT1C disease is a pure demyelinating neuropathy limited to the peripheral nervous system with a mild clinical course, manifesting without any additional symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, in this study, for the first time we present a three generational CMT1C family in which in the proband, CMT1C disease coexists with central demyelination fulfilling criteria of primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS). The coexistence of PPMS and CMT1C in one family may not result from a common pathogenetic trait, however only in the proband with central demyelination and CMT1C we have detected a -308G>A sequence variant in the promoter of the TNF-? gene. PMID:23319192

  14. Progress and prospects of engineered sequence-specific DNA modulating technologies for the management of liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nicholson, Samantha A; Moyo, Buhle; Arbuthnot, Patrick B

    2015-01-01

    Liver diseases are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. The hepatic illnesses, which include inherited metabolic disorders, hemophilias and viral hepatitides, are complex and currently difficult to treat. The maturation of gene therapy has heralded new avenues for developing effective intervention for these diseases. DNA modification using gene therapy is now possible and available technology may be exploited to achieve long term therapeutic benefit. The ability to edit DNA sequences specifically is of paramount importance to advance gene therapy for application to liver diseases. Recent development of technologies that allow for this has resulted in rapid advancement of gene therapy to treat several chronic illnesses. Improvements in application of derivatives of zinc finger proteins (ZFPs), transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs), homing endonucleases (HEs) and clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR associated (Cas) systems have been particularly important. These sequence-specific technologies may be used to modify genes permanently and also to alter gene transcription for therapeutic purposes. This review describes progress in development of ZFPs, TALEs, HEs and CRISPR/Cas for application to treating liver diseases. PMID:25937863

  15. Progressive loss of BDNF in a mouse model of Huntington's disease and rescue by BDNF delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiara Zuccato; Daniel Liber; Catarina Ramos; Alessia Tarditi; Dorotea Rigamonti; Marzia Tartari; Marta Valenza; Elena Cattaneo

    2005-01-01

    Huntingtin is a protein of 348kDa that is mutated in Huntington's disease (HD), a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorder. Previous data have led us to propose that aspects of the disease arise from both a loss of the neuroprotective function of the wild-type protein, and a toxic activity gained by the mutant protein. In particular, we have shown that wild-type huntingtin

  16. A Computer Software – Epitimulator® for Simulating Temporal Dynamics of Plant Disease Epidemic Progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan-zhong TAN; Cheng-wen LI; Chao-wei BI; Xian-chao SUN

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a computer software for simulating the temporal development of plant disease epidemics using Richards, logistic, Gompertz, monomolecular, and exponential functions, respectively, and for predicting disease with a fitted model. The software was programmed using Visual Basic (VB6.0) and packaged with the Wise Installation System. The Fibonacci (‘0.618') section strategy was used

  17. The dual roles of immunity in ALS: injury overrides protection.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Benjamin J; Bender, Diane E; Segal, Benjamin M; Feldman, Eva L

    2015-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons. Disease progression is accompanied by a multi-phased immune response, and recent studies indicate that the immune system is not simply a bystander during disease, but plays an active role in shaping ALS pathology. The role of the immune system during ALS progression is highly complex, however, as it has been found to have a role in both enhancing neurodegeneration as well as protecting the central nervous system. Previous reports have established that the immune response can therefore be separated into two distinct phases: a protective Type 2 response followed by a neurotoxic Type 1 response. This review will address the two phases of the immune response in ALS and describe their roles during disease progression. More importantly, it will also examine the likely sources of immune polarization that are responsible for shifting immunity from the protective T2 phase to the neurotoxic T1 phase. PMID:25726748

  18. Using body temperature, food and water consumption as biomarkers of disease progression in mice with E?-myc lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, J E; Butterworth, J; Perkins, N D; Bateson, M; Richardson, C A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Non-invasive biomarkers of disease progression in mice with cancer are lacking making it challenging to implement appropriate humane end points. We investigated whether body temperature, food and water consumption could be used to predict tumour burden. Methods: Thirty-six male, wild-type C57Bl/6 mice were implanted with subcutaneous RFID temperature sensors and inoculated with E?-myc tumours that infiltrate lymphoid tissue. Results: Decrease in body temperature over the course of the study positively predicted post-mortem lymph node tumour burden (R2=0.68, F(1,22)=44.8, P<0.001). At experimental and humane end points, all mice that had a mean decrease in body temperature of 0.7?°C or greater had lymph nodes heavier than 0.5?g (100% sensitivity), whereas a mean decrease in body temperature <0.7?°C always predicted lymph nodes lighter than 0.5?g (100% specificity). The mean decrease in food consumption in each cage also predicted mean post-mortem lymph node tumour burden at 3 weeks (R2=0.89, F(1,3)=23.2, P=0.017). Conclusion: Temperature, food and water consumption were useful biomarkers of disease progression in mice with lymphoma and could potentially be used more widely to monitor mice with other forms of cancer. PMID:24407190

  19. Marginal Structural Cox Models for Estimating the Association Between ?-Interferon Exposure and Disease Progression in a Multiple Sclerosis Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Mohammad Ehsanul; Gustafson, Paul; Petkau, John; Zhao, Yinshan; Shirani, Afsaneh; Kingwell, Elaine; Evans, Charity; van der Kop, Mia; Oger, Joel; Tremlett, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal observational data are required to assess the association between exposure to ?-interferon medications and disease progression among relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in the “real-world” clinical practice setting. Marginal structural Cox models (MSCMs) can provide distinct advantages over traditional approaches by allowing adjustment for time-varying confounders such as MS relapses, as well as baseline characteristics, through the use of inverse probability weighting. We assessed the suitability of MSCMs to analyze data from a large cohort of 1,697 relapsing-remitting MS patients in British Columbia, Canada (1995–2008). In the context of this observational study, which spanned more than a decade and involved patients with a chronic yet fluctuating disease, the recently proposed “normalized stabilized” weights were found to be the most appropriate choice of weights. Using this model, no association between ?-interferon exposure and the hazard of disability progression was found (hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.94). For sensitivity analyses, truncated normalized unstabilized weights were used in additional MSCMs and to construct inverse probability weight-adjusted survival curves; the findings did not change. Additionally, qualitatively similar conclusions from approximation approaches to the weighted Cox model (i.e., MSCM) extend confidence in the findings. PMID:24939980

  20. Activation of non-myogenic mesenchymal stem cells during the disease progression in dystrophic dystrophin/utrophin knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Jihee; Lu, Aiping; Tang, Ying; Wang, Bing; Huard, Johnny

    2015-07-01

    Ectopic calcification as well as fatty and fibrotic tissue accumulation occurs in skeletal muscle during the disease progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a degenerative muscle disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. The cellular origin and the environmental cues responsible for this ectopic calcification, fatty and fibrotic infiltration during the disease progression, however, remain unknown. Based on a previously published preplate technique, we isolated two distinct populations of muscle-derived cells from skeletal muscle: (i) a rapidly adhering cell population, which is non-myogenic, Pax7(-) and express the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) marker platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha; hence, we termed this population of cells non-myogenic MSCs (nmMSCs); and (ii) a slowly adhering cell population which is Pax7(+) and highly myogenic, termed muscle progenitor cells (MPCs). Previously, we demonstrated that the rapid progression of skeletal muscle histopathologies in dystrophin/utrophin knockout (dys(-/-) utro(-/-) dKO) mice is closely associated with a rapid depletion of the MPC population pool. In the current study, we showed that in contrast to the MPCs, the nmMSCs become activated during the disease progression in dKO mice, displaying increased proliferation and differentiation potentials (adipogenesis, osteogenesis and fibrogenesis). We also found that after co-culturing the dKO-nmMSCs with dKO-MPCs, the myogenic differentiation potential of the dKO-MPCs was reduced. This effect was found to be potentially mediated by the secretion of secreted frizzled-related protein 1 by the dKO-nmMSCs. We therefore posit that the rapid occurrence of fibrosis, ectopic calcification and fat accumulation, in dKO mice, is not only attributable to the rapid depletion of the MPC pool, but is also the consequence of nmMSC activation. Results from this study suggest that approaches to alleviate muscle weakness and wasting in DMD patients should not only target the myogenic MPCs but should also attempt to prevent the activation of the nmMSCs. PMID:25859011

  1. Pressure–cornea–vascular index (PCVI) for predicting disease progression in normal tension glaucoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dexter Y L Leung; Milko E Iliev; Poemen Chan; Nafees Baig; Stanley C C Chi; Clement C Y Tham; Dennis S C Lam

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundIt has been shown that the pressure-to-cornea index (PCI), which estimates the relative effects of intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT), may differentiate between glaucoma and non-glaucoma states. The authors investigated the utility of the pressure–cornea–vascular index (PCVI) in predicting field-progression in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG).MethodsPCVI was constructed from PCI (maximum IOP\\/CCT3) extended with risk factors

  2. Inhibition of the Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Promotes Albuminuria in Mice with Progressive Renal Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oliver Jung; Felix Jansen; Anja Mieth; Eduardo Barbosa-Sicard; Rainer U. Pliquett; Andrea Babelova; Christophe Morisseau; Sung H. Hwang; Cindy Tsai; Bruce D. Hammock; Liliana Schaefer; Gerd Geisslinger; Kerstin Amann; Ralf P. Brandes; Carmine Zoccali

    2010-01-01

    Epoxyeicotrienoic acids (EETs) are cytochrome P450-dependent anti-hypertensive and anti-inflammatory derivatives of arachidonic acid, which are highly abundant in the kidney and considered reno-protective. EETs are degraded by the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) and sEH inhibitors are considered treatment for chronic renal failure (CRF). We determined whether sEH inhibition attenuates the progression of CRF in the 5\\/6-nephrectomy model (5\\/6-Nx) in

  3. High amylose resistant starch diet ameliorates oxidative stress, inflammation, and progression of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Vaziri, Nosratola D; Liu, Shu-Man; Lau, Wei Ling; Khazaeli, Mahyar; Nazertehrani, Sohrab; Farzaneh, Seyed H; Kieffer, Dorothy A; Adams, Sean H; Martin, Roy J

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is a major mediator of CKD progression and is partly driven by altered gut microbiome and intestinal barrier disruption, events which are caused by: urea influx in the intestine resulting in dominance of urease-possessing bacteria; disruption of epithelial barrier by urea-derived ammonia leading to endotoxemia and bacterial translocation; and restriction of potassium-rich fruits and vegetables which are common sources of fermentable fiber. Restriction of these foods leads to depletion of bacteria that convert indigestible carbohydrates to short chain fatty acids which are important nutrients for colonocytes and regulatory T lymphocytes. We hypothesized that a high resistant starch diet attenuates CKD progression. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a chow containing 0.7% adenine for 2 weeks to induce CKD. Rats were then fed diets supplemented with amylopectin (low-fiber control) or high fermentable fiber (amylose maize resistant starch, HAM-RS2) for 3 weeks. CKD rats consuming low fiber diet exhibited reduced creatinine clearance, interstitial fibrosis, inflammation, tubular damage, activation of NFkB, upregulation of pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and pro-fibrotic molecules; impaired Nrf2 activity, down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes, and disruption of colonic epithelial tight junction. The high resistant starch diet significantly attenuated these abnormalities. Thus high resistant starch diet retards CKD progression and attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation in rats. Future studies are needed to explore the impact of HAM-RS2 in CKD patients. PMID:25490712

  4. Systems biology approach to identify transcriptome reprogramming and candidate microRNA targets during the progression of polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by cyst formation throughout the kidney parenchyma. It is caused by mutations in either of two genes, PKD1 and PKD2. Mice that lack functional Pkd1 (Pkd1-/-), develop rapidly progressive cystic disease during embryogenesis, and serve as a model to study human ADPKD. Genome wide transcriptome reprogramming and the possible roles of micro-RNAs (miRNAs) that affect the initiation and progression of cyst formation in the Pkd1-/- have yet to be studied. miRNAs are small, regulatory non-coding RNAs, implicated in a wide spectrum of biological processes. Their expression levels are altered in several diseases including kidney cancer, diabetic nephropathy and PKD. Results We examined the molecular pathways that modulate renal cyst formation and growth in the Pkd1-/- model by performing global gene-expression profiling in embryonic kidneys at days 14.5 and 17.5. Gene Ontology and gene set enrichment analysis were used to identify overrepresented signaling pathways in Pkd1-/- kidneys. We found dysregulation of developmental, metabolic, and signaling pathways (e.g. Wnt, calcium, TGF-? and MAPK) in Pkd1-/- kidneys. Using a comparative transcriptomics approach, we determined similarities and differences with human ADPKD: ~50% overlap at the pathway level among the mis-regulated pathways was observed. By using computational approaches (TargetScan, miRanda, microT and miRDB), we then predicted miRNAs that were suggested to target the differentially expressed mRNAs. Differential expressions of 9 candidate miRNAs, miRs-10a, -30a-5p, -96, -126-5p, -182, -200a, -204, -429 and -488, and 16 genes were confirmed by qPCR. In addition, 14 candidate miRNA:mRNA reciprocal interactions were predicted. Several of the highly regulated genes and pathways were predicted as targets of miRNAs. Conclusions We have described global transcriptional reprogramming during the progression of PKD in the Pkd1-/- model. We propose a model for the cascade of signaling events involved in cyst formation and growth. Our results suggest that several miRNAs may be involved in regulating signaling pathways in ADPKD. We further describe novel putative miRNA:mRNA signatures in ADPKD, which will provide additional insights into the pathogenesis of this common genetic disease in humans. PMID:21518438

  5. Number of Mutations Within CTL-Defined Epitopes of the Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Core Region is Associated With HBV Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Lyoo, Kwang Soo; Smith, Davey; Hur, Wonhee; Hong, Sung Woo; Sung, Pil Soo; Yoon, Seung Kew; Mehta, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    The virologic determinants of progressive liver disease associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) remain unclear. Previous investigations have associated HBV disease with specific mutations but this association may be confounded by HBV genotype, HLA haplotype of the infected individual or both. The association between non-synonymous mutations located within putative cytotoxic T-lymphocyte directed epitopes (CDE) of the HBV core region and disease states was investigated. Subjects infected with HBV were enrolled from a clinical cohort in Seoul, Korea, and HBV core gene sequences were analyzed for mutational patterns inside and outside of CDE with respect to subject demographics and HBV-related disease states. No specific mutation or pattern of mutations were associated with progressive disease states; however, individuals with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma had greater numbers of non-synonymous mutations within CDE when compared to those with chronic HBV infection who were HBeAg positive (P = 0.007 and 0.026, respectively). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that HBV disease progression is associated with viral escape mutations that are a marker of CTL activity. These data suggest that the number of non-synonymous mutations in the HBV core region may predict HBV disease progression better than any single mutation or pattern of mutations. PMID:22012714

  6. Lung disease associated with progressive systemic sclerosis. Assessment of interlobar variation by bronchoalveolar lavage and comparison with noninvasive evaluation of disease activity

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.S.; Smith, E.A.; Kinsella, M.; Schabel, S.I.; Silver, R.M. (Medical Univ. of South Carolina, Charleston (USA))

    1990-02-01

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), or scleroderma, is a disease of unknown etiology that involves many organ systems, including the lungs. The interstitial lung disease of systemic sclerosis is becoming an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. This process has been previously evaluated with single-site bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), gallium scanning, pulmonary function testing, and, occasionally, by open lung biopsy. As BAL has been shown to correlate well with open lung biopsy in systemic sclerosis, we sought to determine if single-site BAL accurately reflects alveolitis in a second site in the lung, and if BAL results correlate with other noninvasive tests of lung inflammation: gallium uptake, chest radiography, or arterial blood gas analysis. We performed 17 studies in 13 patients with scleroderma and found no significant lobar differences in lavage results or gallium scanning. By our criteria for normal versus active alveolitis, only two of 17 patient lavages would have been classified as normal by one side and abnormal by the other side. Although percent gallium uptake was equal bilaterally and supported the concept of alveolitis uniformity, gallium uptake intensity did not correlate with activity as measured by BAL. Furthermore, chest radiograph and arterial blood gas analysis did not correlate with BAL results or gallium scanning. We believe these data support the suitability of single-site lavage in the investigation of systemic-sclerosis-associated alveolitis and diminish the importance of gallium scanning in the investigation of systemic sclerosis pulmonary disease.

  7. Rationale and Design of the DIPAK 1 Study: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Assessing the Efficacy of Lanreotide to Halt Disease Progression in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Esther; Drenth, Joost P.H.; d’Agnolo, Hedwig; Casteleijn, Niek F.; de Fijter, Johan W.; Gevers, Tom J.; Kappert, Peter; Peters, Dorien J.M.; Salih, Mahdi; Soonawala, Darius; Spithoven, Edwin M.; Torres, Vicente E.; Visser, Folkert W.; Wetzels, Jack F.M.; Zietse, Robert; Gansevoort, Ron T.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are limited therapeutic options to slow the progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Recent clinical studies indicate that somatostatin analogues are promising for treating polycystic liver disease and potentially also for the kidney phenotype. We report on the design of the DIPAK 1 (Developing Interventions to Halt Progression of ADPKD 1) Study, which will examine the efficacy of the somatostatin analogue lanreotide on preservation of kidney function in ADPKD. Study Design The DIPAK 1 Study is an investigator-driven, randomized, multicenter, controlled, clinical trial. Setting & Participants We plan to enroll 300 individuals with ADPKD and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m2 who are aged 18-60 years. Intervention Patients will be randomly assigned (1:1) to standard care or lanreotide, 120 mg, subcutaneously every 28 days for 120 weeks, in addition to standard care. Outcomes Main study outcome is the slope through serial eGFR measurements starting at week 12 until end of treatment for lanreotide versus standard care. Secondary outcome parameters include change in eGFR from pretreatment versus 12 weeks after treatment cessation, change in kidney volume, change in liver volume, and change in quality of life. Measurements Blood and urine will be collected and questionnaires will be filled in following a fixed scheme. Magnetic resonance imaging will be performed for assessment of kidney and liver volume. Results Assuming an average change in eGFR of 5.2 ± 4.3 (SD) mL/min/1.73 m2 per year in untreated patients, 150 patients are needed in each group to detect a 30% reduction in the rate of kidney function loss between treatment groups with 80% power, 2-sided ? = 0.05, and 20% protocol violators and/or dropouts. Limitations The design is an open randomized controlled trial and measurement of our primary end point does not begin at randomization. Conclusions The DIPAK 1 Study will show whether subcutaneous administration of lanreotide every 4 weeks attenuates disease progression in patients with ADPKD. PMID:24342522

  8. Sustained Response and Prevention of Damage Progression in Patients With Neonatal-Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease Treated With Anakinra

    PubMed Central

    Sibley, Cailin H.; Plass, Nikki; Snow, Joseph; Wiggs, Edythe A.; Brewer, Carmen C.; King, Kelly A.; Zalewski, Christopher; Kim, H. Jeffrey; Bishop, Rachel; Hill, Suvimol; Paul, Scott M.; Kicker, Patrick; Phillips, Zachary; Dolan, Joseph G.; Widemann, Brigitte; Jayaprakash, Nalini; Pucino, Frank; Stone, Deborah L.; Chapelle, Dawn; Snyder, Christopher; Butman, John A.; Wesley, Robert; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela

    2012-01-01

    Objective Blocking interleukin-1 with anakinra in patients with the autoinflammatory syndrome neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) reduces systemic and organ-specific inflammation. However, the impact of long-term treatment has not been established. This study was undertaken to evaluate the long-term effect of anakinra on clinical and laboratory outcomes and safety in patients with NOMID. Methods We conducted a cohort study of 26 NOMID patients ages 0.80–42.17 years who were followed up at the NIH and treated with anakinra 1–5 mg/kg/day for at least 36 months. Disease activity was assessed using daily diaries, questionnaires, and C-reactive protein level. Central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, hearing, vision, and safety were evaluated. Results Sustained improvements in diary scores, parent’s/patient’s and physician’s global scores of disease activity, parent’s/patient’s pain scores, and inflammatory markers were observed (all P < 0.001 at 36 and 60 months). At 36 and 60 months, CNS inflammation was suppressed, with decreased cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell counts (P = 0.0026 and P = 0.0076, respectively), albumin levels, and opening pressures (P = 0.0012 and P < 0.001, respectively). Most patients showed stable or improved hearing. Cochlear enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging correlated with continued hearing loss. Visual acuity and peripheral vision were stable. Low optic nerve size correlated with poor visual field. Bony lesions progressed. Adverse events other than viral infections were rare, and all patients continued to receive the medication. Conclusion These findings indicate that anakinra provides sustained efficacy in the treatment of NOMID for up to 5 years, with the requirement of dose escalation. Damage progression in the CNS, ear, and eye, but not bone, is preventable. Anakinra is well tolerated overall. PMID:22294344

  9. Role of anthrax toxins in dissemination, disease progression, and induction of protective adaptive immunity in the mouse aerosol challenge model.

    PubMed

    Loving, Crystal L; Khurana, Taruna; Osorio, Manuel; Lee, Gloria M; Kelly, Vanessa K; Stibitz, Scott; Merkel, Tod J

    2009-01-01

    Anthrax toxins significantly contribute to anthrax disease pathogenesis, and mechanisms by which the toxins affect host cellular responses have been identified with purified toxins. However, the contribution of anthrax toxin proteins to dissemination, disease progression, and subsequent immunity after aerosol infection with spores has not been clearly elucidated. To better understand the role of anthrax toxins in pathogenesis in vivo and to investigate the contribution of antibody to toxin proteins in protection, we completed a series of in vivo experiments using a murine aerosol challenge model and a collection of in-frame deletion mutants lacking toxin components. Our data show that after aerosol exposure to Bacillus anthracis spores, anthrax lethal toxin was required for outgrowth of bacilli in the draining lymph nodes and subsequent progression of infection beyond the lymph nodes to establish disseminated disease. After pulmonary exposure to anthrax spores, toxin expression was required for the development of protective immunity to a subsequent lethal challenge. However, immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin G) titers to toxin proteins, prior to secondary challenge, did not correlate with the protection observed upon secondary challenge with wild-type spores. A correlation was observed between survival after secondary challenge and rapid anamnestic responses directed against toxin proteins. Taken together, these studies indicate that anthrax toxins are required for dissemination of bacteria beyond the draining lymphoid tissue, leading to full virulence in the mouse aerosol challenge model, and that primary and anamnestic immune responses to toxin proteins provide protection against subsequent lethal challenge. These results provide support for the utility of the mouse aerosol challenge model for the study of inhalational anthrax. PMID:18955474

  10. Disease progression in systemic sclerosis-overlap syndrome is significantly different from limited and diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Moinzadeh, Pia; Aberer, Elisabeth; Ahmadi-Simab, Keihan; Blank, Norbert; Distler, Joerg H W; Fierlbeck, Gerhard; Genth, Ekkehard; Guenther, Claudia; Hein, Ruediger; Henes, Joerg; Herich, Lena; Herrgott, Ilka; Koetter, Ina; Kreuter, Alexander; Krieg, Thomas; Kuhr, Kathrin; Lorenz, Hanns-Martin; Meier, Florian; Melchers, Inga; Mensing, Hartwig; Mueller-Ladner, Ulf; Pfeiffer, Christiane; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Sárdy, Miklós; Schmalzing, Marc; Sunderkoetter, Cord; Susok, Laura; Tarner, Ingo H; Vaith, Peter; Worm, Margitta; Wozel, Gottfried; Zeidler, Gabriele; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Ahrazoglu, Nil Mona

    2015-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc)-overlap syndromes are a very heterogeneous and remarkable subgroup of SSc-patients, who present at least two connective tissue diseases (CTD) at the same time, usually with a specific autoantibody status. Objectives To determine whether patients, classified as overlap syndromes, show a disease course different from patients with limited SSc (lcSSc) or diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc). Methods The data of 3240 prospectively included patients, registered in the database of the German Network for Systemic Scleroderma and followed between 2003 and 2013, were analysed. Results Among 3240 registered patients, 10% were diagnosed as SSc-overlap syndrome. Of these, 82.5% were female. SSc-overlap patients had a mean age of 48±1.2?years and carried significantly more often ‘other antibodies’ (68.0%; p<0.0001), including anti-U1RNP, -PmScl, -Ro, -La, as well as anti-Jo-1 and -Ku antibodies. These patients developed musculoskeletal involvement earlier and more frequently (62.5%) than patients diagnosed as lcSSc (32.2%) or dcSSc (43.3%) (p<0.0001). The onset of lung fibrosis and heart involvement in SSc-overlap patients was significantly earlier than in patients with lcSSc and occurred later than in patients with dcSSc. Oesophagus, kidney and PH progression was similar to lcSSc patients, whereas dcSSc patients had a significantly earlier onset. Conclusions These data support the concept that SSc-overlap syndromes should be regarded as a separate SSc subset, distinct from lcSSc and dcSSc, due to a different progression of the disease, different proportional distribution of specific autoantibodies, and of different organ involvement. PMID:24389298

  11. Renal expression of FGF23 in progressive renal disease of diabetes and the effect of ACE inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zanchi, Cristina; Locatelli, Monica; Benigni, Ariela; Corna, Daniela; Tomasoni, Susanna; Rottoli, Daniela; Gaspari, Flavio; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Zoja, Carlamaria

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic hormone mainly produced by bone that acts in the kidney through FGF receptors and Klotho. Here we investigated whether the kidney was an additional source of FGF23 during renal disease using a model of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Renal expression of FGF23 and Klotho was assessed in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and control lean rats at 2, 4, 6, 8 months of age. To evaluate whether the renoprotective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in this model was associated with changes in FGF23 and Klotho, ZDF rats received ramipril from 4, when proteinuric, to 8 months of age. FGF23 mRNA was not detectable in the kidney of lean rats, nor of ZDF rats at 2 months of age. FGF23 became measurable in the kidney of diabetic rats at 4 months and significantly increased thereafter. FGF23 protein localized in proximal and distal tubules. Renal Klotho mRNA and protein decreased during time in ZDF rats. As renal disease progressed, serum phosphate levels increased in parallel with decline of fractional phosphorus excretion. Ramipril limited proteinuria and renal injury, attenuated renal FGF23 upregulation and ameliorated Klotho expression. Ramipril normalized serum phosphate levels and tended to increase fractional phosphorus excretion. These data indicate that during progressive renal disease the kidney is a site of FGF23 production which is limited by ACE inhibition. Interfering pharmacologically with the delicate balance of FGF23 and phosphorus in diabetes may have implications in clinics. PMID:23967103

  12. Renal Expression of FGF23 in Progressive Renal Disease of Diabetes and the Effect of Ace Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Benigni, Ariela; Corna, Daniela; Tomasoni, Susanna; Rottoli, Daniela; Gaspari, Flavio; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Zoja, Carlamaria

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a phosphaturic hormone mainly produced by bone that acts in the kidney through FGF receptors and Klotho. Here we investigated whether the kidney was an additional source of FGF23 during renal disease using a model of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. Renal expression of FGF23 and Klotho was assessed in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and control lean rats at 2, 4, 6, 8 months of age. To evaluate whether the renoprotective effect of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in this model was associated with changes in FGF23 and Klotho, ZDF rats received ramipril from 4, when proteinuric, to 8 months of age. FGF23 mRNA was not detectable in the kidney of lean rats, nor of ZDF rats at 2 months of age. FGF23 became measurable in the kidney of diabetic rats at 4 months and significantly increased thereafter. FGF23 protein localized in proximal and distal tubules. Renal Klotho mRNA and protein decreased during time in ZDF rats. As renal disease progressed, serum phosphate levels increased in parallel with decline of fractional phosphorus excretion. Ramipril limited proteinuria and renal injury, attenuated renal FGF23 upregulation and ameliorated Klotho expression. Ramipril normalized serum phosphate levels and tended to increase fractional phosphorus excretion. These data indicate that during progressive renal disease the kidney is a site of FGF23 production which is limited by ACE inhibition. Interfering pharmacologically with the delicate balance of FGF23 and phosphorus in diabetes may have implications in clinics. PMID:23967103

  13. Role of complement component C4 in treatment response and disease progression in chronic hepatitis C patients.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, S J; Karra, V K; Bharali, R; Kar, P

    2015-08-01

    The basis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) evasion of immune system and its response to treatment is still elusive. There have been studies where the level of C4 has been found to be associated with HCV persistence and disease progression. This study aims to find out relationship between levels of C4 in serum, and its functional SNPs with response to treatment. The study included 84 patients with CHC who received treatment and 75 healthy controls. C4 expression, both at mRNA and protein level, was estimated by Real time and ELISA respectively. Its functional SNP's genotyped by AS-PCR. The mean ± SD baseline C4 levels between the disease and healthy cases was significantly different (1075.74 ± 65.25 vs 1593 ± 24.55 ng/mL, P < 0.001). The mean ± SD baseline C4 levels of CC, GC and GG genotype of rs2857009 in the healthy group were 1540.97 ± 7.87, 1599.53 ± 11.75 and 1604.86 ± 10.79 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.001), whereas the levels in the CHC group were 1022.81 ± 32.95, 1058.19 ± 55.02 and 1150.26 ± 14.64 ng/mL, respectively (P < 0.001). CC genotype resulted in decreased C4 mRNA levels compared to GG genotype in healthy group (3.81-fold) and CHC group (1.4-fold). The CC genotype of rs2857009 is associated with reduced expression of C4, both at mRNA and protein level. The C4 serum level at baseline and total protein were found to be independent predictors for treatment response. New predictive score using the above factors, a value of ?0.542 was found to predict positive response to treatment. Increased age, rs2857009 SNP and HCV genotype were associated with disease progression. PMID:25573496

  14. Influence of gut bacteria on development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hai, Ali; Abdallah, Ali; Malnick, Stephen Dh

    2015-06-28

    The intestine of the human contains a dynamic population of microbes that have a symbiotic relationship with the host. In addition, there is an effect of the intestinal microbiota on metabolism and digestion. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause worldwide of hepatic pathology and is thought to be the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. In this review we examine the effect of the human microbiome on the components and pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. We are now on the threshold of therapeutic interventions on the human microbiome in order to effect human disease including NAFLD. PMID:26140087

  15. Influence of gut bacteria on development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Abdul-Hai, Ali; Abdallah, Ali; Malnick, Stephen DH

    2015-01-01

    The intestine of the human contains a dynamic population of microbes that have a symbiotic relationship with the host. In addition, there is an effect of the intestinal microbiota on metabolism and digestion. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause worldwide of hepatic pathology and is thought to be the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. In this review we examine the effect of the human microbiome on the components and pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome. We are now on the threshold of therapeutic interventions on the human microbiome in order to effect human disease including NAFLD. PMID:26140087

  16. Patterns of Disease Progression in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients Treated With Antivascular Agents and Interferon: Impact of Therapy on Recurrence Patterns and Outcome Measures

    PubMed Central

    Plimack, Elizabeth R.; Tannir, Nizar; Lin, E; Bekele, B. Nebiyou; Jonasch, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background The standard of care for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has changed to favor targeted therapy over immunotherapy. Differences in patterns of progression between patients treated with these 2 modalities, and the impact of disease stabilization on outcome, were investigated. Methods Patients who progressed on first line antivascular therapy (AVT) or interferon were identified, and their medical records reviewed. Results A total of 162 patients met inclusion criteria for this analysis. Patients in the AVT group had better baseline performance status, fewer liver metastases, and more responses (CR + PR) compared with the interferon group. Both groups were equally likely to develop distant metastases; however, for patients in the AVT group, these new metastases were more likely to arise in the setting of controlled disease at baseline sites (18% vs 4%, P = .012). There was no difference in anatomic sites of progression between the 2 groups. Patients responding (CR + PR) to AVT trended toward longer progression-free survival (PFS) compared with patients with stable disease (SD) (P =.06). No difference between responders and SD was seen in the interferon group. Conclusions Patients with RCC treated with antivascular therapy were more likely to progress at new sites in the setting of stable disease at baseline sites, suggesting that AVT may be more effective at controlling existing sites of disease than it is at preventing new metastases. Patients with SD on AVT had shorter PFS compared with responders (CR + PR). Whether this relationship extends to overall survival requires further study. PMID:19241453

  17. Comparison of two progressive treadmill tests in patients with peripheral arterial disease.

    PubMed

    Riebe, D; Patterson, R B; Braun, C M

    2001-11-01

    In a vascular rehabilitation program, 28% of our frail elderly patients are unable to be tested with traditional progressive exercise protocols at program entry due to the high (2.0 miles/h or 3.2 km/h) initial treadmill speeds. The purpose of this investigation was to compare a new progressive treadmill protocol which has a reduced initial speed (1.0 mile/h or 1.6 km/h) to an established protocol performed at 2.0 miles/h (3.2 km/h) to determine the comparability and reproducibility of the new protocol. Eleven patients with arterial claudication performed three symptom-limited exercise tests in random order. Two tests used the new protocol while the remaining trial used the established protocol. Claudication pain was measured using a 5-point scale. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, minute ventilation, respiratory exchange ratio and blood pressure at peak exercise were similar among the three trials. There were strong intraclass correlations for peak oxygen consumption (r = 0.97), onset of claudication (r = 0.96) and maximum walking time (r = 0.98) between the two trials using the new protocol. There was also a significant correlation between the new protocol and the established protocol for peak oxygen consumption (r = 0.90) and maximum walking time (r = 0.89). The new progressive treadmill protocol represents a valid, reliable protocol for patients with arterial claudication. This protocol may be useful for testing patients with a low functional capacity so that clinically appropriate exercise prescriptions can be established and the efficacy of treatments can be determined. PMID:11958386

  18. Clinical core of the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative: Progress and plans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul S. Aisen; Ronald C. Petersen; Michael C. Donohue; Anthony Gamst; Rema Raman; Ronald G. Thomas; Sarah Walter; John Q. Trojanowski; Leslie M. Shaw; Laurel A. Beckett; Clifford R. Jack; William Jagust; Arthur W. Toga; Andrew J. Saykin; John C. Morris; Robert C. Green; Michael W. Weiner

    2010-01-01

    The Clinical Core of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has provided clinical, operational, and data management support to ADNI since its inception. This article reviews the activities and accomplishments of the core in support of ADNI aims. These include the enrollment and follow-up of more than 800 subjects in the three original cohorts: healthy controls, amnestic mild cognitive impairment

  19. Recent progress in the study of occupational lung diseases in Romania.

    PubMed Central

    Barhad, B; Pilat, L; Teculescu, D

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of occupational lung diseases in Romania in the last two decades. Work concerned with the effects of exposure to textile fibres, irritant gases and fumes in the chemical industry, welding fumes, asbestos, cadmium oxide, and the relation between dust exposure, pneumoconiosis, and chronic bronchitis is briefly presented. PMID:1093564

  20. Sudden oak death in California: Disease progression in oaks and tanoaks

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    and L. densiflorus, health failure analysis modeled by Weibull regression found a greater probability. Both Weibull and Cox Proportional Hazards regression were www.elsevier.com/locate/foreco Forest Ecology time estimated by Weibull regression models declined rapidly by disease category (asymptomatic

  1. Unipolar Depression and the Progression of Coronary Artery Disease: Toward an Integrative Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Ormel; Peter de Jonge

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite extensive research on the relationship between depression and coronary artery disease (CAD) after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS), causal interpretations are still difficult. This uncertainty has led to much confusion regarding screening and treatment for depression in CAD patients. Method: A critical and conceptual analysis of the pertinent literature, which elaborates the implications of the heterogeneity in symptom

  2. Inconsequential Effect of Nutritional Treatments on Huanglongbing Control, Fruit Quality, Bacterial Titer and Disease Progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of an enhanced nutritional programs (ENPs) to minimize the deleterious effects of the vector transmitted bacterial disease, citrus huanglongbing (HLB) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), has been a topic of considerable discussion and debate since the discovery of HLB in Flori...

  3. Influence of Premorbid IQ and Education on Progression of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. N. Pavlik; R. S. Doody; P. J. Massman; W. Chan

    2006-01-01

    Background: Lower education is associated with a higher risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Years of education and measures of general intellectual function (IQ) are highly correlated. It is important to determine whether there is a relationship between education and AD outcomes that is independent of IQ. Objective: To test the hypothesis that premorbid IQ is a stronger predictor of

  4. Patterns of cerebrospinal fluid pathology correlate with disease progression in multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Cepok; Marc Jacobsen; Sabine Schock; Bilal Omer; Steffi Jaekel; Inke Boddeker; Wolfgang H. Oertel; Norbert Sommer; Bernhard Hemmer

    2001-01-01

    Summary Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the CNS with, as yet, an unknown aetiology. Temporal profile, intensity and treatment responses are highly variable in multiple sclerosis suggesting pathogenetic heterogeneity. This hypothesis has been supported by histopathological studies disclosing at least four different subtypes of acute demyelinating lesions. Although stratification of multiple sclerosis patients into these

  5. The Effects of Statins on the Progression of Atherosclerotic Renovascular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching M. Cheung; Amit Patel; Nilam Shaheen; Sharon Cain; Helen Eddington; Janet Hegarty; Rachel J. Middleton; Alistair Cowie; Hari Mamtora; Philip A. Kalra

    2007-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: The aim was to examine the influence of statin therapy on the natural history of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (RAS). Methods: Our hospital atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD) database was analysed for patients who underwent repeat renal angiography during clinical follow-up. Patients with ?1 RAS lesion and ?4 months between baseline and repeat renal angiography were analysed. 79 patients were

  6. Therapeutic Considerations for Disease Progression in Multiple Sclerosis: Evidence, Experience, and Future Expectations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elliot M. Frohman; Olaf Stüve; Eva Havrdova; John Corboy; Anat Achiron; Robert Zivadinov; Per Soelberg Sorensen; J. Theodore Phillips; Brian Weinshenker; Kathleen Hawker; Hans-Peter Hartung; Lawrence Steinman; Scott Zamvil; Bruce A. C. Cree; Stephen Hauser; Howard Weiner; Michael K. Racke; Massimo Filippi

    2005-01-01

    n the management of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), providers are all faced with the highly formidable challenge of ascertaining whether, and to what degree, disease-modifying therapy is effective in the individual patient. While much has been learned in randomized, con- trolled clinical trials, we cannot simply extrapolate the outcomes of these initiatives and apply them to the care of

  7. The HD mutation causes progressive lethal neurological disease in mice expressing reduced levels of huntingtin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wojtek Auerbach; Marc S. Hurlbert; Paige Hilditch-Maguire; Youssef Zaim Wadghiri; Vanessa C. Wheeler; Sara I. Cohen; Alexandra L. Joyner; Marcy E. MacDonald; Daniel H. Turnbull

    2001-01-01

    Huntingtin is an essential protein that with mutant polyglutamine tracts initiates dominant striatal neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease (HD). To assess the consequences of mutant protein when huntingtin is limiting, we have studied three lines of compound heterozygous mice in which both copies of the HD gene homolog (Hdh) were altered, resulting in greatly reduced levels of huntingtin with a normal

  8. Current concepts in targeting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pharmacotherapy: making progress towards personalised management.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Prescott G; Agusti, Alvar; Roche, Nicolas; Singh, Dave; Martinez, Fernando J

    2015-05-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common, complex, and heterogeneous disorder that is responsible for substantial and growing morbidity, mortality, and health-care expense worldwide. Of imperative importance to decipher the complexity of COPD is to identify groups of patients with similar clinical characteristics, prognosis, or therapeutic needs, the so-called clinical phenotypes. This strategy is logical for research but might be of little clinical value because clinical phenotypes can overlap in the same patient and the same clinical phenotype could result from different biological mechanisms. With the goal to match assessment with treatment choices, the latest iteration of guidelines from the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease reorganised treatment objectives into two categories: to improve symptoms (ie, dyspnoea and health status) and to decrease future risk (as predicted by forced expiratory volume in 1 s level and exacerbations history). This change thus moves treatment closer to individualised medicine with available bronchodilators and anti-inflammatory drugs. Yet, future treatment options are likely to include targeting endotypes that represent subtypes of patients defined by a distinct pathophysiological mechanism. Specific biomarkers of these endotypes would be particularly useful in clinical practice, especially in patients in which clinical phenotype alone is insufficient to identify the underlying endotype. A few series of potential COPD endotypes and biomarkers have been suggested. Empirical knowledge will be gained from proof-of-concept trials in COPD with emerging drugs that target specific inflammatory pathways. In every instance, specific endotype and biomarker efforts will probably be needed for the success of these trials, because the pathways are likely to be operative in only a subset of patients. Network analysis of human diseases offers the possibility to improve understanding of disease pathobiological complexity and to help with the development of new treatment alternatives and, importantly, a reclassification of complex diseases. All these developments should pave the way towards personalised treatment of patients with COPD in the clinic. PMID:25943943

  9. Concordance of CCR5 Genotypes that Influence Cell-Mediated Immunity and HIV-1 Disease Progression Rates

    PubMed Central

    Catano, Gabriel; Chykarenko, Zoya A.; Mangano, Andrea; Anaya, J-M; Smith, Alison; Bologna, Rosa; Sen, Luisa; Clark, Robert A.; Lloyd, Andrew; Shostakovich-Koretskaya, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    We used cutaneous delayed-type hypersensitivity responses, a powerful in vivo measure of cell-mediated immunity, to evaluate the relationships among cell-mediated immunity, AIDS, and polymorphisms in CCR5, the HIV-1 coreceptor. There was high concordance between CCR5 polymorphisms and haplotype pairs that influenced delayed-type hypersensitivity responses in healthy persons and HIV disease progression. In the cohorts examined, CCR5 genotypes containing -2459G/G (HHA/HHA, HHA/HHC, HHC/HHC) or -2459A/A (HHE/HHE) associated with salutary or detrimental delayed-type hypersensitivity and AIDS phenotypes, respectively. Accordingly, the CCR5-?32 allele, when paired with non-?32-bearing haplotypes that correlate with low (HHA, HHC) versus high (HHE) CCR5 transcriptional activity, associates with disease retardation or acceleration, respectively. Thus, the associations of CCR5-?32 heterozygosity partly reflect the effect of the non-?32 haplotype in a background of CCR5 haploinsufficiency. The correlations of increased delayed-type hypersensitivity with -2459G/G-containing CCR5 genotypes, reduced CCR5 expression, decreased viral replication, and disease retardation suggest that CCR5 may influence HIV infection and AIDS, at least in part, through effects on cell-mediated immunity. PMID:21288827

  10. Frequent genetic differences between matched primary and metastatic breast cancer provide an approach to identification of biomarkers for disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Pop?awski, Andrzej B; Jankowski, Micha?; Erickson, Stephen W; Díaz de Ståhl, Teresita; Partridge, E Christopher; Crasto, Chiquito; Guo, Jingyu; Gibson, John; Menzel, Uwe; Bruder, Carl EG; Kaczmarczyk, Aneta; Benetkiewicz, Magdalena; Andersson, Robin; Sandgren, Johanna; Zegarska, Barbara; Ba?a, Dariusz; ?rutek, Ewa; Allison, David B; Piotrowski, Arkadiusz; Zegarski, Wojciech; Dumanski, Jan P

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in women and its metastatic spread is the principal reason behind the fatal outcome. Metastasis-related research of breast cancer is however underdeveloped when compared with the abundant literature on primary tumors. We applied an unexplored approach comparing at high resolution the genomic profiles of primary tumors and synchronous axillary lymph node metastases from 13 patients with breast cancer. Overall, primary tumors displayed 20% higher number of aberrations than metastases. In all but two patients, we detected in total 157 statistically significant differences between primary lesions and matched metastases. We further observed differences that can be linked to metastatic disease and there was also an overlapping pattern of changes between different patients. Many of the differences described here have been previously linked to poor patient survival, suggesting that this is a viable approach toward finding biomarkers for disease progression and definition of new targets useful for development of anticancer drugs. Frequent genetic differences between primary tumors and metastases in breast cancer also question, at least to some extent, the role of primary tumors as a surrogate subject of study for the systemic disease. PMID:20051991

  11. Neuroradiologic correlates of clinical disability and progression in the X-Linked leukodystrophy Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease

    PubMed Central

    Laukka, Jeremy J.; Stanley, Jeffrey A.; Garbern, James Y.; Trepanier, Angela; Hobson, Grace; Lafleur, Tori; Gow, Alexander; Kamholz, John

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether quantitative measure of magnetic resonance imaging data from patients with the inherited leukodystrophy, Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease (PMD) correlates with clinical severity or progression. Methods In our current work we have analyzed the clinical phenotypes and MRI scans of 51 male patients with PMD and 10 female carriers for whom the PLP1 genotype had been determined. In addition, we developed a 32-point functional disability scoring (FDS) system for PMD, and validated it for inter-rater reliability. Using conventional T1- and T2-weighted MRI images of the whole brain, we measured white matter and total brain volume (WMV and TBV), inter-caudate ratio (ICR), and corpus callosum area. Results There was a significant positive correlation of FDS with white matter fraction (WMV/TBV) and corpus callosum area. Also, when applying a median split based on FDS, patients with lower FDS showed reduced white matter fraction and corpus callosum area, and increased ICR compared to patients with relatively higher FDS, regardless of age. Conclusion Although this patient population is heterogeneous, with multiple genetic and molecular mechanisms causing PMD, these data imply that white matter atrophy is a major pathological determinant of the clinical disability in most patients. Development of reliable non-invasive quantitative biomarkers of disease activity would be useful not only for following the natural history of the disease, but also raising the potential for evaluating future therapies. PMID:24139698

  12. Tenascin-C, proliferation and subendothelial fibronectin in progressive pulmonary vascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, P. L.; Cowan, K. N.; Rabinovitch, M.

    1997-01-01

    Progressive pulmonary hypertension is characterized by smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration leading to occlusive arterial lesions. Previously, using cultured smooth muscle cells, we demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-dependent proliferation and migration are dependent on tenascin-C (Tn) and cellular fibronectin (Fn), respectively. In this study we applied immunohistochemistry to lung biopsy tissue from patients with congenital heart defects and pulmonary hypertension to determine how the distribution and intensity of Tn, EGF, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and Fn expression related to arterial abnormalities. With mildly increased wall thickness, minimal Tn, PCNA, and EGF was evident. With progressive hypertrophy, moderately intense foci of Tn were apparent in the adventitia, periendothelium, and occasionally the media but not consistently co-distributing with EGF and PCNA. With obstructive lesions, intense neointimal Tn expression co-localized with EGF and PCNA. Fn accumulation in the periendothelium increased with medial hypertrophy and became more widespread in a diffuse pattern with neointimal formation. The neointima was predominantly composed of alpha-smooth-muscle-actin-positive cells, occasional inflammatory cells with no evidence of apoptosis. These studies are consistent with Tn modulating EGF-dependent neointimal smooth muscle cell proliferation and Fn providing a gradient for smooth muscle cell migration from media to neointima. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:9094991

  13. Health insurance status is associated with periodontal disease progression among Gullah African Americans with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Marlow, Nicole M.; Slate, Elizabeth H.; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Fernandes, Jyotika K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Assess periodontal disease progression among Gullah-African-Americans with Type-2 diabetes-mellitus (T2DM) according to health insurance coverage. METHODS From an ongoing clinical trial among T2DM Gullah, we extracted a cohort that was previously enrolled in a cross-sectional study (N=93). Comparing prior exam to trial initiation, total tooth-sites/person with periodontal-disease-progression-events (evaluated separately: 2+mm of clinical-attachment-loss [CAL], 2+mm increased periodontal-probing-depths [PPD], bleeding-on-probing [BOP] emergence) were evaluated according to health insurance coverage using regression techniques appropriate for data with different counts of potential events per subject (varying tooth-sites available). We used negative-binomial regression techniques to account for overdispersion and fit multivariable models that also included baseline glycemic-control (poor: glycated-hemoglobin ?7%, well: glycated-hemoglobin <7%), history of established-periodontitis, age, gender, body-mass-index (BMI), annual income, and oral hygiene behaviors. Final models included health insurance status, other significant predictors, and any observed confounders. RESULTS Privately-insured were most prevalent (41.94%), followed by uninsured (23.66%), Medicare (19.35%), and Medicaid (15.05%). Those with poor-glycemic-control (65.59%) were more prevalent than well-controlled (34.41%). CAL-events ranged 0–58.8% tooth-sites/person (11.83±12.44%), while PPD-events ranged 0–44.2% (8.66±10.97%) and BOP-events ranged 0–95.8% (23.65±17.21%). Rates of CAL-events were increased among those who were uninsured (RR=1.75, p=0.02), Medicare-insured (RR=1.90, p=0.03), and Medicaid-insured (RR=1.89, p=0.06). CONCLUSIONS Increased access to healthcare, including dental services, may achieve reduction in chronic periodontal disease progression (as determined by CAL) for this study population. These results are very timely given the March 2010 passing of the U.S. healthcare reform bills. PMID:21774138

  14. HLA class I associations with rates of HIV-1 seroconversion and disease progression in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort.

    PubMed

    Peterson, T A; Kimani, J; Wachihi, C; Bielawny, T; Mendoza, L; Thavaneswaran, S; Narayansingh, M J; Kariri, T; Liang, B; Ball, T B; Ngugi, E N; Plummer, F A; Luo, M

    2013-02-01

    Class I human leukocyte antigens (HLA) play an important role in the adaptive immune response by presenting antigens to CD8+ T cells. Studies have reported that several HLA class I alleles are associated with differential disease progression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, however, few class I associations with resistance or susceptibility to HIV-1 infection have been reported. We typed HLA-A, -B and -C of >1000 women enrolled in the Pumwani Sex Worker Cohort using a sequence-based typing method. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to identify alleles influencing seroconversion and disease progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (CD4?disease progression could contribute to the development of effective prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for HIV-1. PMID:23330720

  15. Evaluation of inheritance to leaf rust in wheat using area under disease progress curve.

    PubMed

    Lal Ahamed, M; Singh, S S; Sharma, J B; Ram, R B

    2004-01-01

    Six varieties, Kundan (K), Galvez-87 (G), Trap (T), Chris (C), Mango (M) and PBW-348 (P) along with fast ruster, Agra Local (AL), were screened for seedling reaction and adult pant response to leaf rust. Seedlings of all six varieties were susceptible while adult plants showed lower susceptability response than Agra Local. The F1s among the varieties, and also with Agra Local, showed the values lesser than the respective mid parental values for AUDPC suggesting a polygenic mode of inheritance. ANOVA for combining ability effects indicated variation due to the GCA and SCA effects, which indicated that both additive as well as non-additive type of genetic variances, govern AUDPC. The higher values for the GCA variance over the SCA variance indicated the predominance of an additive component over the dominance component for AUDPC. Significant values for GCA effects indicated that Kundan, Galvez-87 and Trap can be used as good general combiners for AUDPC. The crosses, KxAL, GxAL and TxAL showed significant sca effects for AUDPC, which indicated the predominance of non-additive gene effects in these crosses. Additive x additive and dominance x dominance components of the 5- parameter model were highly significant and contributed maximum extent compared to the additive and dominance components in the cross KxG, while dominance and dominance x dominance components contributed maximum in the remaining crosses. Under such a situation, improvement in the character may be expected through standard selection procedure, which may first exploit the additive gene effects and simultaneously care should be taken to see that the dominance effects are not dissipated, but rather they should be concentrated. PMID:15703050

  16. [Diabetes and end stage renal disease. Eight year progression in the Canton de Vaud, Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Stamm, C; Burnier, M; Zanchi, A

    2011-03-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the first cause of endstage renal disease. The demographic expansion, the increase in the incidence of diabetes and the prolonged survival rates explain the steep increase observed these last 30 years. In the United States, improved treatment has brought to a decline in the incidence of end-stage renal disease in the diabetic population since the mid nineties. We examined the change in prevalence of diabetics on dialysis from 2001 and 2009 in the Canton de Vaud, Switzerland. The prevalence of diabetics on dialysis increased from 18% to 31% in dialysis centers and increased from 1.1/1000 to 1.9/1000 in the diabetic population. These are strong indicators that efforts are needed to improve the renal outcome of patients with diabetic nephropathy. PMID:21462519

  17. Progress toward production of immunologic tolerance with no or minimal toxic immunosuppression for prevention of immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Good, R A

    2000-07-01

    With donor and recipient matched at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, peripheral lymphoid tissue transplantation can be carried out without producing a graft-versus-host reaction or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), thus correcting profound T cell immunodeficiencies of neonatally thymectomized mice. This analysis set the stage for clinical application of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) to provide for the first time cure of a human disease. With successful BMT, we cured immunologic deficiencies of a patient with XL severe combined immunodeficiency; thereafter we were the first to employ BMT to cure aplastic anemia. BMT regularly corrects immune and hematologic deficiencies caused by fatal irradiation without producing GVHD if the bone marrow (BM) used for the transplants has been purged of postthymic T cells. Over two decades in conjunction with Ikehara et al., we have shown that lethal total body irradiation (TBI) plus allogeneic BMT prevents or cures many organ-specific and systemic experimental autoimmune diseases. Animal models successfully treated by BMT include type I diabetes in nonobese diabetes (NOD) mice, type II diabetes in insulin-insensitive, glucose intolerant, diabetes mellitus (KK/Ay) mice, and autoimmune lupus erythematosus (LE) and glomerulonephritis in New Zealand Black x New Zealand White first generation hybrid (NZB x NZW)F1 females. El-Badri extended Ildstad's original research showing a high frequency of survival with a normal functioning immune system after stable mixed chimerism is produced by mixed BMT in C57BL/6 (normal long-lived black strain) mice transplanted with T cell-depleted marrow (TCDM) from BALB/c ("normal" long-lived strain) allogeneic donors and C57BL/6 syngeneic donors. We showed that osteoblasts act as facilitator cells for allogeneic BMT and promote engraftment of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells. Wang et al. then showed that the autoimmunities and fulminating renal disease of BXSB (C57BL x SB cross and selective lupus-like systemic autoimmunity) male mice was prevented and could be cured by transplantation using TCDM from both BALB/c (resistant) and BXSB (susceptible) strains given to BXSB recipients after lethal TBI. This treatment produced mixed BMT and a stable mixed chimerism, increased longevity, corrected all manifestations of autoimmunity, and cured fulminant glomerulonephritis in these recipients. These studies generated a new perspective on the potential usefulness of BM and stem cell transplants to cure major diseases that can possibly be treated by BMT. Mixed BMT from TCD BALB/c and BXSB mice cured autoimmunities and fulminant glomerulonephritis in BXSB mice. LE disease plus coronary vascular disease that occurs in (NZW x BXSB)F1 mice, along with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, is also cured in lethally irradiated (NZW x BXSB)F1 mice by BMT from C57BL/6 donors. Furthermore, hemolytic anemia, autoimmune phenomena, and hyalinizing glomerular renal disease of New Zealand Black (NZB) mice were prevented or cured by stem cell transplants using purified stem cells from MHC-matched DBA/2 donors or NZB donors. Consequently, we reasoned that autoimmunities reside in stem cells. More recently, we found that transplants of both BM cells and bones can completely and permanently prevent otherwise highly resistant autoimmune diseases of MRL/lpr lpr mice and an autoimmune polyarthritis of NZB/Kn mice. Ildstad concluded that lethal preparative measures would not be acceptable for preparations to treat autoimmune diseases, so we now employ a gentle method for producing stable mixed chimerism described by Sharabi and Sachs to achieve mixed marrow transplantation and mixed hematopoietic chimerism. Other diseases we are approaching using this gentle manipulation include two forms of diabetes: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) type I in NOD mice and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) type II in KK/Ay mice, atherosclerosis of apolipoprotein-E + kno PMID:10833246

  18. Redox reactions of neurotransmitters possibly involved in the progression of Parkinson's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Linert; G. N. L. Jameson

    2000-01-01

    In Parkinson’s Disease the neuromelanin in the substania nigra is known to contain considerably increased amounts of iron suggesting the presence of free, unprotected iron ions during its formation. Iron(II) is known to interact with peroxide via Fenton’s reaction producing OH-radicals or ferryl (Fe(IV)) species. This can readily oxidize the neurotransmitter dopamine to the neurotoxic 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) which is a

  19. Interfering with disease: a progress report on siRNA-based therapeutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Peter Vornlocher; John Maraganore; Antonin de Fougerolles; Judy Lieberman

    2007-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) quietly crept into biological research in the 1990s when unexpected gene-silencing phenomena in plants and flatworms first perplexed scientists. Following the demonstration of RNAi in mammalian cells in 2001, it was quickly realized that this highly specific mechanism of sequence-specific gene silencing might be harnessed to develop a new class of drugs that interfere with disease-causing or

  20. Progress in Understanding the Mechanisms of Neuronal Dysfunction and Degeneration in Parkinson’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. William Langston

    During the past 30 years, a number of different hypotheses on cause of neuronal degeneration and dysfunction in Parkinson’s\\u000a disease have been intensively investigated. Roles have been postulated for oxidative stress, excitotoxcity, nitric oxide,\\u000a mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation. The possibility of an environmental cause was highlighted by the discovery of\\u000a a simple molecule known as 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a compound that

  1. The increasing prevalence of Crohn's disease in industrialized societies: the price of progress?

    PubMed

    Wells, Ron W; Blennerhassett, Michael G

    2005-02-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is an idiopathic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal system. While inflammation can activate one of a number of specific branches of the immune system, CD promotes a T helper cell type 1 (Th1) profile. The prospect that CD is a form of Th1-dominant autoimmune disease is gaining acceptance, with support from the current use of immunosuppressants. Recently, convincing evidence that the various branches of the immune system have the ability to keep each other in check has suggested that the Th1 profile of CD may stem from a greatly reduced T helper cell type 2 (Th2) immune response. A strong Th2 immune response is a characteristic of the once prevalent enteric parasitic diseases, now nearly eradicated from industrial society. This has led to the acceptance of a hygiene hypothesis, which suggests that the inverse relationship between CD and the level of a society's industrialization is, in fact, causal - that the lack of parasitic infections causes a weakened systemic Th2 cytokine profile, leading to elevated Th1 cytokines and, ultimately, the development of spontaneous Th1-mediated diseases such as CD. Supporting this, it has been recently demonstrated that an experimentally-induced Th2 response can help moderate Th1-dominant events in both animal and human studies. Based on this recent and convincing work, the present review focuses on the role of immunoregulation in the development of CD, with particular emphasis on the potential use of Th2-promoting agents (such as helminths or cytokines) as therapeutics in the treatment or prevention of CD. PMID:15729428

  2. Quercetin prevents progression of disease in elastase\\/LPS-exposed mice by negatively regulating MMP expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shyamala Ganesan; Andrea N Faris; Adam T Comstock; Sangbrita S Chattoraj; Asamanja Chattoraj; John R Burgess; Jeffrey L Curtis; Fernando J Martinez; Suzanna Zick; Marc B Hershenson; Uma S Sajjan

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic bronchitis, emphysema and irreversible airflow limitation. These changes are thought to be due to oxidative stress and an imbalance of proteases and antiproteases. Quercetin, a plant flavonoid, is a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. We hypothesized that quercetin reduces lung inflammation and improves lung function in elastase\\/lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed mice which

  3. Mechanisms of renal injury and progression of renal disease in congenital obstructive nephropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Chevalier; Barbara A. Thornhill; Michael S. Forbes; Susan C. Kiley

    2010-01-01

    Congenital obstructive nephropathy accounts for the greatest fraction of chronic kidney disease in children. Genetic and nongenetic\\u000a factors responsible for the lesions are largely unidentified, and attention has been focused on minimizing obstructive renal\\u000a injury and optimizing long-term outcomes. The cellular and molecular events responsible for obstructive injury to the developing\\u000a kidney have been elucidated from animal models. These have

  4. Progression of the load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases in the State of Amazonas.

    PubMed

    Martins, Marilaine; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Moura, Marco Antonio Saboia; Santos, Eyde Cristianne Saraiva; Saraceni, Valéria; Saraiva, Maria Graças Gomes

    2015-01-01

    In the State of Amazonas, Brazil, urban expansion together with precarious basic sanitation conditions and human settlement on river banks has contributed to the persistence of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases. Time series of the recorded cases of cholera, typhoid fever, hepatitis A and leptospirosis are described, using data from different levels of the surveillance systems. The sources for intestinal parasitosis prevalence data (non-compulsory reporting in Brazil) were Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Literatura Latino-Americana (LILACS) and the annals of major scientific meetings. Relevant papers and abstracts in all languages were accessed by two independent reviewers. The references cited by each relevant paper were scrutinized to locate additional papers. Despite its initial dissemination across the entire State of Amazonas, cholera was controlled in 1998. The magnitude of typhoid fever has decreased; however, a pattern characterized by eventual outbreaks still remains. Leptospirosis is an increasing cause of concern in association with the annual floods. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites is high regardless of the municipality and the characteristics of areas and populations. The incidence of hepatitis A has decreased over the past decade. A comparison of older and recent surveys shows that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic diseases has remained constant. The load of waterborne and intestinal parasitic diseases ranks high among the health problems present in the State of Amazonas. Interventions aiming at basic sanitation and vaccination for hepatitis A were formulated and implemented, but assessment of their effectiveness in the targeted populations is still needed. PMID:26061370

  5. EMBO Workshop al fin del mundo: a meeting on membrane trafficking and its implication for polarity and diseases.

    PubMed

    Marzolo, María-Paz; Faundez, Victor; Galli, Thierry

    2015-07-01

    The EMBO worskhop at the "end of the world'" (al fin del mundo), a meeting on membrane trafficking and its implication for polarity and diseases, took place in the Chilean Patagonia surrounded by the landscapes once witnessed by Charles Darwin. The meeting showcased some of the best membrane trafficking science with an emphasis in neuroscience and disease models. Speakers from Europe, USA, South America and the graduate students behind it; embarked on an enthusiastic and eclectic dialog where a wide range of cell types, model genetic systems, and diseases where discussed. This meeting demonstrated the power of trafficking concepts to integrate diverse biology and to formulate mechanisms of normal and disease cells. PMID:26133153

  6. The natural history of, and risk factors for, progressive Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD): the Renal Impairment in Secondary care (RIISC) study; rationale and protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects up to 16% of the adult population and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. People at highest risk from progressive CKD are defined by a sustained decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and/or the presence of significant albuminuria/proteinuria and/or more advanced CKD. Accurate mapping of the bio-clinical determinants of this group will enable improved risk stratification and direct the development of better targeted management for people with CKD. Methods/Design The Renal Impairment In Secondary Care study is a prospective, observational cohort study, patients with CKD 4 and 5 or CKD 3 and either accelerated progression and/or proteinuria who are managed in secondary care are eligible to participate. Participants undergo a detailed bio-clinical assessment that includes measures of vascular health, periodontal health, quality of life and socio-economic status, clinical assessment and collection of samples for biomarker analysis. The assessments take place at baseline, and at six, 18, 36, 60 and 120 months; the outcomes of interest include cardiovascular events, progression to end stage kidney disease and death. Discussion The determinants of progression of chronic kidney disease are not fully understood though there are a number of proposed risk factors for progression (both traditional and novel). This study will provide a detailed bio-clinical phenotype of patients with high-risk chronic kidney disease (high risk of both progression and cardiovascular events) and will repeatedly assess them over a prolonged follow up period. Recruitment commenced in Autumn 2010 and will provide many outputs that will add to the evidence base for progressive chronic kidney disease. PMID:23617441

  7. Association between Hemoglobin Concentration and the Progression or Development of Albuminuria in Diabetic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Goji; Tanaka, Muhei; Osaka, Takafumi; Shiotsu, Yayoi; Narumiya, Hiromichi; Inoue, Mamoru; Nakano, Koji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2015-01-01

    Aims Anemia, which might contribute to pathogenesis of kidney dysfunction, is a common finding in patients with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate if hemoglobin concentration is associated with the degree of change in urinary albumin-creatinine ratio or the development of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We measured hemoglobin concentration in 470 (296 men and 174 women) consecutive type 2 diabetic patients without albuminuria. We performed a follow-up study to assess the progression or development of albuminuria, the interval of which was 3.0 years. Then we evaluated relationships between hemoglobin concentration and albuminuria, using multivariate linear regression analyses and logistic regression analyses. Results Eighty four patients developed albuminuria during follow-up duration. In multivariate analyses, hemoglobin concentration was negatively associated with a change in urinary albumin-creatinine ratio in men (ß = -0.259, P = 0.0002) and women (ß = -0.194, P = 0.030). Moreover, multivariate adjusted odds ratio associated with 1 g/L in hemoglobin for the development of albuminuria was 0.93 (95% confidence interval; 0.89-0.96) in men and 0.94 (95% confidence interval; 0.88-0.99) in women, respectively. And, multivariate analyses revealed that adjusted odds ratios for the development of albuminuria were 4.78 (95% confidence interval; 1.65-13.91) in men and 4.62 (95% confidence interval; 1.34-16.68) in women with anemia (hemoglobin < 130 g/L for men and < 120 g/L for women), which were higher than those without anemia. Conclusions Low hemoglobin concentration could be a predictor for the progression and development of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26023923

  8. Ataxia associated with Hashimoto's disease: progressive non-familial adult onset cerebellar degeneration with autoimmune thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Selim, M; Drachman, D

    2001-01-01

    Acquired cerebellar ataxia has been described with hypothyroidism, and is typically reversible by thyroid hormone replacement therapy. The cerebellar dysfunction has been attributed to metabolic and physiological effects of the endocrine disorder. In a few patients, however, ataxia has persisted despite thyroid replacement therapy. Other mechanisms may be involved in ataxia associated with thyroid disorders.?OBJECTIVE—To document progressive non-familial adult onset cerebellar degeneration (PNACD) occurring in six patients with raised antithyroid antibodies (Hashimoto's/autoimmune thyroiditis), and other autoimmune manifestations, in the absence of hypothyroidism; and to document the independence of the cerebellar disorder from the endocrine dysfunction.?METHODS—A case study of six patients with PNACD reviewing the clinical course and relation to endocrine and autoimmune status.?RESULTS—All six patients were euthyroid when they developed their symptoms; had raised antithyroid antibodies consistent with Hashimoto's autoimmune thyroiditis; and had strong personal or family histories of organ specific autoimmune diatheses. Brain MRI disclosed atrophy of the cerebellar vermis in four patients and olivopontocerebellar atrophy in two. Other possible causes of cerebellar degeneration were excluded. De novo treatment (two patients) or continued treatment (three patients) with L-thyroxine did not modify the progression of the ataxia.?CONCLUSIONS—Cerebellar degeneration in these patients with raised antithyroid antibodies may be immune mediated. The presence of antithyroid antibodies may signal or cause the autoimmune process producing cerebellar degeneration. "Hashimoto's associated ataxia" seems to represent a recognisable and not uncommon condition; a trial of immunomodulating therapy should be considered in these patients.?? PMID:11413268

  9. Role of HLA-B ?-3 domain amino acid position 194 in HIV disease progression.

    PubMed

    Grifoni, Alba; Montesano, Carla; Palma, Paolo; Salerno, Alfredo; Colizzi, Vittorio; Amicosante, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    HLA class I molecules play a role in the regulation of innate immune response. Therefore, the interaction of HLA class I molecules with different activating and inhibitory receptors leads to balancing the immune response. Among the different family of receptors, NK receptors KIR3DL1/S1 and LIR1, play a major role. Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of amino acid polymorphic positions of HLA class I molecules interacting with NK receptors in HIV progression. In order to minimize the influence of viral variability, a cohort of children with a nosocomial monophyletic HIV-1 infection from the Benghazi Children Hospital has been evaluated. To assess the role of single amino acid positions, we translated all HLA alleles in the different amino acid position polymorphisms. Interestingly, the polymorphism Val 194 located in the ?3-domain of HLA-B, resulted associated with LTNP (LTNP=73.08%, FP=34.78%; P<0.02). When Val is present at position 194, HLA-B is known to interact with the receptor LIR1 (ILT2/LILRB1/CD85j). Therefore, we analyzed the role of the polymorphism in position 194 in HLA-B/LIR1 interaction by homology molecular modeling. The change Val to Ile at position 194 alters significantly the network of interaction between the amino acid residues of HLA-B and LIR1. In conclusion, considering the limitation of the small population evaluated, polymorphisms outside the peptide binding region of the HLA class I molecule can play a key role in HIV progression through interaction with other immune-relevant receptors. PMID:23103378

  10. Antagonizing amyloid-?/calcium-sensing receptor signaling in human astrocytes and neurons: a key to halt Alzheimer's disease progression?

    PubMed

    Dal Prà, Ilaria; Chiarini, Anna; Armato, Ubaldo

    2015-02-01

    Astrocytes' roles in late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) promotion are important, since they survive soluble or fibrillar amyloid-? peptides (A?s) neurotoxic effects, undergo alterations of intracellular and intercellular Ca(2+) signaling and gliotransmitters release via the A?/?7-nAChR (?7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor) signaling, and overproduce/oversecrete newly synthesized A?42 oligomers, NO, and VEGF-A via the A?/CaSR (calcium-sensing receptor) signaling. Recently, it was suggested that the NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) inhibitor nitromemantine would block the synapse-destroying effects of A?/?7-nAChR signaling. Yet, this and the progressive extracellular accrual and spreading of A?42 oligomers would be stopped well upstream by NPS 2143, an allosteric CaSR antagonist (calcilytic). PMID:25883618

  11. Intrathecal transplantation of human neural stem cells overexpressing VEGF provide behavioral improvement, disease onset delay and survival extension in transgenic ALS mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D H Hwang; H J Lee; I H Park; J I Seok; B G Kim; I S Joo; S U Kim

    2009-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult onset motoneuron disease. The etiology and precise pathogenic mechanisms of the disease remain unknown, and there is no effective treatment. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has recently been shown to exert direct neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects in animal models of ALS. Here we show that intrathecal transplantation of immortalized human neural

  12. AIM1 and LINE-1 epigenetic aberrations in tumor and serum relate to melanoma progression and disease outcome.

    PubMed

    Hoshimoto, Sojun; Kuo, Christine T; Chong, Kelly K; Takeshima, Teh-Ling; Takei, Yoshiki; Li, Michelle W; Huang, Sharon K; Sim, Myung-Shin; Morton, Donald L; Hoon, Dave S B

    2012-06-01

    Aberrations in the methylation status of noncoding genomic repeat DNA sequences and specific gene promoter region are important epigenetic events in melanoma progression. Promoter methylation status in long interspersed nucleotide element-1 (LINE-1) and absent in melanoma-1 (AIM1; 6q21) associated with melanoma progression and disease outcome was assessed. LINE-1 and AIM1 methylation status was assessed in paraffin-embedded archival tissue (PEAT; n = 133) and in melanoma patients' serum (n = 56). LINE-1 U-Index (hypomethylation) and AIM1 were analyzed in microdissected melanoma PEAT sections. The LINE-1 U-Index of melanoma (n = 100) was significantly higher than that of normal skin (n = 14) and nevi (n = 12; P = 0.0004). LINE-1 U-Index level was elevated with increasing American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage (P<0.0001). AIM1 promoter hypermethylation was found in higher frequency (P = 0.005) in metastatic melanoma (65%) than in primary melanomas (38%). When analyzed, high LINE-1 U-Index and/or AIM1 methylation in melanomas were associated with disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) in stage I/II patients (P = 0.017 and 0.027, respectively). In multivariate analysis, melanoma AIM1 methylation status was a significant prognostic factor of OS (P = 0.032). Furthermore, serum unmethylated LINE-1 was at higher levels in both stage III (n = 20) and stage IV (n = 36) patients compared with healthy donors (n = 14; P = 0.022). Circulating methylated AIM1 was detected in patients' serum and was predictive of OS in stage IV patients (P = 0.009). LINE-1 hypomethylation and AIM1 hypermethylation have prognostic utility in both melanoma patients' tumors and serum. PMID:22402438

  13. Intervention with exercise restores motor deficits but not nigrostriatal loss in a progressive MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sconce, M D; Churchill, M J; Greene, R E; Meshul, C K

    2015-07-23

    Many studies have investigated exercise therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD) and have shown benefits in improving motor deficits. However, exercise does not slow down the progression of the disease or induce the revival of lost nigrostriatal neurons. To examine the dichotomy of behavioral improvement without the slowing or recovery of dopaminergic cell or terminal loss, we tested exercise therapy in an intervention paradigm where voluntary running wheels were installed half-way through our progressive PD mouse model. In our model, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is administered over 4weeks with increased doses each week (8, 16, 24, 32-kg/mg). We found that after 4weeks of MPTP treatment, mice that volunteered to exercise had behavioral recovery in several measures despite the loss of 73% and 53% tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) within the dorsolateral (DL) striatum and the substantia nigra (SN), respectively which was equivalent to the loss seen in the mice that did not exercise but were also administered MPTP for 4weeks. Mice treated with 4weeks of MPTP showed a 41% loss of vesicular monoamine transporter II (VMAT2), a 71% increase in the ratio of glycosylated/non-glycosylated dopamine transporter (DAT), and significant increases in glutamate transporters including VGLUT1, GLT-1, and excitatory amino acid carrier 1. MPTP mice that exercised showed recovery of all these biomarkers back to the levels seen in the vehicle group and showed less inflammation compared to the mice treated with MPTP for 4weeks. Even though we did not measure tissue dopamine (DA) concentration, our data suggest that exercise does not alleviate motor deficits by sparing nigrostriatal neurons, but perhaps by stabilizing the extraneuronal neurotransmitters, as evident by a recovery of DA and glutamate transporters. However, suppressing inflammation could be another mechanism of this locomotor recovery. Although exercise will not be a successful treatment alone, it could supplement other pharmaceutical approaches to PD therapy. PMID:25943481

  14. Downregulated miR-33b is a novel predictor associated with disease progression and poor prognosis in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Hao, Mu; Feng, Xiaoyan; Zang, Meirong; Qin, Yu; Yi, Shuhua; Li, Zengjun; Xu, Yan; Zhou, Lili; Sui, Weiwei; Deng, Shuhui; Zou, Dehui; Zhan, Fenghuang; Qiu, Lugui

    2015-07-01

    MiRNAs located at chromosome fragile sites play important roles in regulating critical genes associated with myeloma pathogenesis, disease progression and drug resistance. Our previous results have identified miR-33b (located in chromosome 17p) was one of the dysregulated miRNAs in the sera of newly diagnosed MM patients. However, little is known about its expression pattern in myeloma tumor cells and its prognostic value in MM patients. In the present study, we investigated the expression pattern of miR-33b in 58 newly diagnosed, 11 relapsed, 12 remission MM patients and 18 health donors by quantitative real-time PCR. Our results showed the expression of miR-33b was obviously down-regulated in newly diagnosed and relapsed MM patients compared to remission patients and health donors (p<0.001). Moreover, patients with del(13q), del(17p), t(4;14) and high-risk genetic abnormalities have lower expression levels of miR-33b compared to patients without those of abnormalities (p=0.032, 0.018, 0.034, 0.005). Survival analysis showed patients with miR-33b low expression had significantly shortened PFS (p=0.016) and OS (p=0.033) and might be associated with drug resistance to bortezomib-based treatment. Our data suggest that down-regulated miR-33b might be a novel predictor associated with disease progression and poor prognosis in MM. PMID:25975752

  15. The 16p13.3 (PDPK1) Genomic Gain in Prostate Cancer: A Potential Role in Disease Progression1

    PubMed Central

    Choucair, Khalil A; Guérard, Karl-Philippe; Ejdelman, Joshua; Chevalier, Simone; Yoshimoto, Maisa; Scarlata, Eleonora; Fazli, Ladan; Sircar, Kanishka; Squire, Jeremy A; Brimo, Fadi; Cunha, Isabela W; Aprikian, Armen; Gleave, Martin; Lapointe, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer death, and distinguishing aggressive from indolent tumors is a major challenge. Identification and characterization of genomic alterations associated with advanced disease can provide new markers of progression and better therapeutic approaches. METHODS: We performed fluorescence in situ hybridization to detect the copy number gain of chromosome 16p13.3 in 75 PCa samples including 10 lymph node (LN) metastases and their matched primary tumors, 9 samples of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and 46 additional primary PCa specimens with clinicopathologic parameters. RESULTS: We detected the gain in 5 of 10 LN metastases and 3 of 5 matched primary tumors, 3 of 9 CRPC samples, and 9 of 46 (20%) primary tumors where the 16p13.3 alteration was associated with high Gleason score and elevated preoperative prostate-specific antigen levels. The level of 16p13.3 gain was higher in LN metastasis and CRPC specimens compared to primary PCa. Chromosome mapping revealed the gain spans PDPK1 encoding the 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1). Knockdown of PDK1 in three PCa cell lines reduced migration without affecting growth and re-expressing PDK1 rescued motility. CONCLUSION: Our findings support a prognostic value of the 16p13.3 gain and a role of PDK1 in PCa progression through migration. PMID:23401739

  16. Extensive Analysis of Elastase-Induced Pulmonary Emphysema in Rats: ALP in the Lung, a New Biomarker for Disease Progression?

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Ken-ichiro; Koike, Eiko; Yanagisawa, Rie; Takano, Hirohisa

    2010-01-01

    It is accepted that pulmonary exposure of rodents to porcine pancreatic elastase (ELT) induces lesions that morphologically resemble human emphysema. Nonetheless, extensive analysis of this model has rarely been conducted. The present study was designed to extensively examine the effects of ELT on lung inflammation, cell damage, emphysematous change, and cholinergic reactivity in rats. Intratracheal administration of two doses of ELT induced 1) a proinflammatory response in the lung that was characterized by significant infiltration of macrophages and an increased level of interleukin-1? in lung homogenates, 2) lung cell damage as indicated by higher levels of total protein, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in lung homogenates, 3) emphysema-related morphological changes including airspace enlargement and progressive destruction of alveolar wall structures, and 4) airway responsiveness to methacholine including an augmented Rn value. In addition, ELT at a high dose was more effective than that at a low dose. This is the novel study to extensively analyze ELT-induced lung emphysema, and the analysis might be applied to future investigations that evaluate new therapeutic agents or risk factors for pulmonary emphysema. In particular, ALP in lung homogenates might be a new biomarker for the disease progression/exacerbation. PMID:20216950

  17. Primary CXCR4 co-receptor use in acute HIV infection leads to rapid disease progression in the AE subtype.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yanmei; Song, Yingxue; Kou, Buxin; Wang, Rui; Liu, Zhiying; Huang, Xiaojie; Chen, Dexi; Zhang, Tong; Wu, Hao

    2012-08-01

    This is a comparative study of HIV co-receptor usage in the early stages of HIV infection between two distinct patient groups, one with a low CD4 count (group 1), and the other with a high CD4 count (group 2). Group 1 progressed to a CD4 count below 200 cells/?L within 2 y, while group 2 had a CD4 count above 500 cells/?L within 2 y. Viral RNA was extracted from the plasma of these patients, and the C2-V5 region of the HIV-1 env genes were cloned and sequenced. The co-receptor usage was predicated based on V3 loop amino acid sequences using Geno2pheno and PSSM programs. Our results indicate that in acute HIV infection of rapid progressors (low CD4 count; group 1), the primary co-receptor usage is CXCR4, while in the high CD4 count group (group 2), the co-receptor usage is predominantly CCR5. One-year follow-up data from these patients showed no obvious change in HIV co-receptor usage in either group. Sequence analysis of patients from both study groups showed prevalence of the AE subtype, and therefore we can speculate that the CXCR4 co-receptor may be the primary HIV-1 co-receptor used in the HIV-1 AE subtype, and may be responsible for rapid HIV-1 disease progression in the MSM cohort. PMID:22783935

  18. Oxidative Stress during the Progression of ?-Amyloid Pathology in the Neocortex of the Tg2576 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Porcellotti, Sara; Fanelli, Francesca; Fracassi, Anna; Sepe, Sara; Cecconi, Francesco; Bernardi, Cinzia; Cimini, AnnaMaria; Cerù, Maria Paola; Moreno, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. Pathogenetic mechanisms, triggered by ?-amyloid (A?) accumulation, include oxidative stress, derived from energy homeostasis deregulation and involving mitochondria and peroxisomes. We here addressed the oxidative stress status and the elicited cellular response at the onset and during the progression of A? pathology, studying the neocortex of Tg2576 model of AD. Age-dependent changes of oxidative damage markers, antioxidant enzymes, and related transcription factors were analysed in relation to the distribution of A? peptide and oligomers, by a combined molecular/morphological approach. Nucleic acid oxidative damage, accompanied by defective antioxidant defences, and decreased PGC1? expression are already detected in 3-month-old Tg2576 neurons. Conversely, PPAR? is increased in these cells, with its cytoplasmic localization suggesting nongenomic, anti-inflammatory actions. At 6 months, when intracellular A? accumulates, PMP70 is downregulated, indicating impairment of fatty acids peroxisomal translocation and their consequent harmful accumulation. In 9-month-old Tg2576 neocortex, A? oligomers and acrolein deposition correlate with GFAP, GPX1, and PMP70 increases, supporting a compensatory response, involving astroglial peroxisomes. At severe pathological stages, when senile plaques disrupt cortical cytoarchitecture, antioxidant capacity is gradually lost. Overall, our data suggest early therapeutic intervention in AD, also targeting peroxisomes. PMID:25973140

  19. Aortic Arch Calcification Predicts the Renal Function Progression in Patients with Stage 3 to 5 Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yueh-Ting; Chou, Chia-An; Lee, Chien-Te

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The presence of aortic arch calcification (AoAC) and cardiomegaly on chest radiography has been demonstrated as important risk factors for cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the interrelationship among AoAC, cardiomegaly, and renal function progression remains unclear. The aim of this study is to assess whether AoAC and cardiomegaly are independently associated with the renal function progression in patients with stages 3–5 CKD. Methods. We retrospectively determined AoAC and cardiomegaly by chest X-ray in 237 patients, followed up for at least three years without entering dialysis and classified into 4 groups according to the presence or absence of AoAC and cardiomegaly. The change in renal function was measured by the slope of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results. Of the 237 patients, the rate of eGFR decline was significantly higher in the group with coexistence of AoAC and cardiomegaly than any other groups. Baseline AoAC and proteinuria were independently associated with eGFR decline. AoAC were independently determined by age, eGFR slope, and cardiomegaly. Conclusions. The coexistence of AoAC and cardiomegaly is associated with faster eGFR decline. AoAC is an independent determinant of renal outcomes in patients with CKD stages 3–5. PMID:25695046

  20. Gait Abnormalities and Progressive Myelin Degeneration in a New Murine Model of Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease with Tandem Genomic Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Kristi; Sakowski, Lauren; Sperle, Karen; Banser, Linda; Landel, Carlisle P.; Bessert, Denise A.; Skoff, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a hypomyelinating leukodystrophy caused by mutations of the proteolipid protein 1 gene (PLP1), which is located on the X chromosome and encodes the most abundant protein of myelin in the central nervous sytem. Approximately 60% of PMD cases result from genomic duplications of a region of the X chromosome that includes the entire PLP1 gene. The duplications are typically in a head-to-tail arrangement, and they vary in size and gene content. Although rodent models with extra copies of Plp1 have been developed, none contains an actual genomic rearrangement that resembles those found in PMD patients. We used mutagenic insertion chromosome engineering resources to generate the Plp1dup mouse model by introducing an X chromosome duplication in the mouse genome that contains Plp1 and five neighboring genes that are also commonly duplicated in PMD patients. The Plp1dup mice display progressive gait abnormalities compared with wild-type littermates. The single duplication leads to increased transcript levels of Plp1 and four of the five other duplicated genes over wild-type levels in the brain beginning the second postnatal week. The Plp1dup mice also display altered transcript levels of other important myelin proteins leading to a progressive degeneration of myelin. Our results show that a single duplication of the Plp1 gene leads to a phenotype similar to the pattern seen in human PMD patients with duplications. PMID:23864668

  1. Retarding the progression of chronic kidney disease with renin angiotensin system blockade.

    PubMed

    Limesh, M; Annigeri, R A; Mani, M K; Kowdle, P C; Rao, B Subba; Balasubramanian, S; Seshadri, R

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the effect of renin angiotensin system blockade (RASB) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) of diverse etiology. Two hundred and sixty-five consecutive CKD patients attending our renal clinic, with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 20-70 ml/min/1.73m(2) at baseline and a minimal follow-up of 1 year, were studied retrospectively. We devised a scoring system to quantify RASB, wherein the maximum dose of an agent recommended for control of hypertension was scored as 1. The renal endpoints studied were the rate of change in eGFR (?eGFR) and decline of eGFR>50%. The mean age was 48 ± 11.2 years and 69% were male. The mean duration of follow-up was 4 ± 2.7 years. The rate of ?eGFR was -1.5 ± 5.0 ml/min/1.73 m(2) per year in patients who received RASB (N=168) and -6.0 ± 5.4 in those who did not (N=97) (P<0.001). The incidence of decline of eGFR >50% was 11.3% with RASB and 24.7% without (P=0.003). In a subgroup of patients who received RASB, the incidence of decline of eGFR >50% was 17.8% in the low-dose RASB group (N=84, RASB score 0.63 ± 0.38) and 4.8% in the high-dose group (N=84, RASB score 2.5 ± 0.7) (P=0.001). RASB was associated with significantly better renoprotection in CKD of diverse etiology, even in nonproteinuric diseases. This effect appeared to be dose-dependent, with higher supramaximal doses exhibiting better renoprotection than the lower conventional doses. Our results make a strong case for use of aggressive RASB in all CKD patients to postpone end-stage renal disease. PMID:22787312

  2. Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Long-Term Non-Progression in HIV Disease.

    PubMed

    Zaunders, John; van Bockel, David

    2013-01-01

    Long-term non-progressors (LTNP) were identified after 10-15?years of the epidemic, and have been the subject of intense investigation ever since. In a small minority of cases, infection with nef/3'LTR deleted attenuated viral strains allowed control over viral replication. A common feature of LTNP is the readily detected proliferation of CD4 T-cells in vitro, in response to p24. In some cases, the responding CD4 T-cells have cytotoxic effector function and may target conserved p24 epitopes, similar to the CD8 T-cells described below. LTNP may also carry much lower HIV DNA burden in key CD4 subsets, presumably resulting from lower viral replication during primary infection. Some studies, but not others, suggest that LTNP have CD4 T-cells that are relatively resistant to HIV infection in vitro. One possible mechanism may involve up-regulation of the cell cycle regulator p21/waf in CD4 T-cells from LTNP. Delayed progression in Caucasian LTNP is also partly associated with heterozygosity of the ?32 CCR5 allele, probably through decreased expression of CCR5 co-receptor on CD4 T-cells. However, in approximately half of Caucasian LTNP, two host genotypes, namely HLA-B57 and HLA-B27, are associated with viral control. Immunodominant CD8 T-cells from these individuals target epitopes in p24 that are highly conserved, and escape mutations have significant fitness costs to the virus. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that these CD8 T-cells from LTNP, but not from HLA-B27 or HLA-B57 progressors, can cross-react with intermediate escape mutations, preventing full escape via compensatory mutations. Humoral immunity appears to play little part in LTNP subjects, since broadly neutralizing antibodies are rare, even amongst slow progressors. Recent genome-wide comparisons between LTNP and progressors have confirmed the HLA-B57, HLA-B27, and delta32 CCR5 allelic associations, plus indicated a role for HLA-C/KIR interactions, but have not revealed any new genotypes so far. Nevertheless, it is hoped that studying the mechanisms of intracellular restriction factors, such as the recently identified SAMHD1, will lead to a better understanding of non-progression. PMID:23630526

  3. Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Long-Term Non-Progression in HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zaunders, John; van Bockel, David

    2013-01-01

    Long-term non-progressors (LTNP) were identified after 10–15?years of the epidemic, and have been the subject of intense investigation ever since. In a small minority of cases, infection with nef/3?LTR deleted attenuated viral strains allowed control over viral replication. A common feature of LTNP is the readily detected proliferation of CD4 T-cells in vitro, in response to p24. In some cases, the responding CD4 T-cells have cytotoxic effector function and may target conserved p24 epitopes, similar to the CD8 T-cells described below. LTNP may also carry much lower HIV DNA burden in key CD4 subsets, presumably resulting from lower viral replication during primary infection. Some studies, but not others, suggest that LTNP have CD4 T-cells that are relatively resistant to HIV infection in vitro. One possible mechanism may involve up-regulation of the cell cycle regulator p21/waf in CD4 T-cells from LTNP. Delayed progression in Caucasian LTNP is also partly associated with heterozygosity of the ?32 CCR5 allele, probably through decreased expression of CCR5 co-receptor on CD4 T-cells. However, in approximately half of Caucasian LTNP, two host genotypes, namely HLA-B57 and HLA-B27, are associated with viral control. Immunodominant CD8 T-cells from these individuals target epitopes in p24 that are highly conserved, and escape mutations have significant fitness costs to the virus. Furthermore, recent studies have suggested that these CD8 T-cells from LTNP, but not from HLA-B27 or HLA-B57 progressors, can cross-react with intermediate escape mutations, preventing full escape via compensatory mutations. Humoral immunity appears to play little part in LTNP subjects, since broadly neutralizing antibodies are rare, even amongst slow progressors. Recent genome-wide comparisons between LTNP and progressors have confirmed the HLA-B57, HLA-B27, and delta32 CCR5 allelic associations, plus indicated a role for HLA-C/KIR interactions, but have not revealed any new genotypes so far. Nevertheless, it is hoped that studying the mechanisms of intracellular restriction factors, such as the recently identified SAMHD1, will lead to a better understanding of non-progression. PMID:23630526

  4. Calreticulin expression in infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas: relationships with disease progression and humoral immune responses.

    PubMed

    Kabbage, Maria; Trimeche, Mounir; Bergaoui, Sarra; Hammann, Philippe; Kuhn, Lauriane; Hamrita, Bechr; ben Nasr, Hela; Chaieb, Anouar; Chouchane, Lotfi; Chahed, Karim

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate calreticulin expression in infiltrating ductal breast carcinomas (IDCAs), as well as its relationships with clinicopathological parameters of the disease. Using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis/matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry investigation coupled to an immunohistochemical approach, we have assessed the expression of calreticulin in IDCAs, as well as in other types of breast tumors. The humoral immune response against calreticulin was estimated using a serological proteomics-based strategy. Proteomic analyses revealed an increased expression of calreticulin in IDCA tumors. Using immunohistochemistry, overexpression of calreticulin was confirmed in 51 additional tumor specimens. Statistical analyses revealed, however, no significant correlations between calreticulin expression and clinicopathological parameters of the disease including tumor stage, patient age, SBR grade, and lymph node metastasis occurrence. A significant association was found, however, with estrogen receptor status. This study demonstrates the upregulation of calreticulin in IDCA tissues which may highlight its involvement in breast cancer development. Our findings also support a link between calreticulin expression and estrogen transduction pathways. Our results do not, however, support the involvement of calreticulin in the development of a humoral immune response in IDCAs. PMID:23334957

  5. Identifying disease mutations in genomic medicine settings: current challenges and how to accelerate progress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The pace of exome and genome sequencing is accelerating, with the identification of many new disease-causing mutations in research settings, and it is likely that whole exome or genome sequencing could have a major impact in the clinical arena in the relatively near future. However, the human genomics community is currently facing several challenges, including phenotyping, sample collection, sequencing strategies, bioinformatics analysis, biological validation of variant function, clinical interpretation and validity of variant data, and delivery of genomic information to various constituents. Here we review these challenges and summarize the bottlenecks for the clinical application of exome and genome sequencing, and we discuss ways for moving the field forward. In particular, we urge the need for clinical-grade sample collection, high-quality sequencing data acquisition, digitalized phenotyping, rigorous generation of variant calls, and comprehensive functional annotation of variants. Additionally, we suggest that a 'networking of science' model that encourages much more collaboration and online sharing of medical history, genomic data and biological knowledge, including among research participants and consumers/patients, will help establish causation and penetrance for disease causal variants and genes. As we enter this new era of genomic medicine, we envision that consumer-driven and consumer-oriented efforts will take center stage, thus allowing insights from the human genome project to translate directly back into individualized medicine. PMID:22830651

  6. Progress towards the understanding and control of sugar beet rhizomania disease.

    PubMed

    McGrann, Graham R D; Grimmer, Michael K; Mutasa-Göttgens, Effie S; Stevens, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Rhizomania is a soil-borne disease that occurs throughout the major sugar beet growing regions of the world, causing severe yield losses in the absence of effective control measures. It is caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), which is transmitted by the obligate root-infecting parasite Polymyxa betae. BNYVV has a multipartite RNA genome with all natural isolates containing four RNA species, although some isolates have a fifth RNA. The larger RNA1 and RNA2 contain the housekeeping genes of the virus and are always required for infection, whereas the smaller RNAs are involved in pathogenicity and vector transmission. RNA5-containing isolates are restricted to Asia and some parts of Europe, and these isolates tend to be more aggressive. With no acceptable pesticides available to restrict the vector, the control of rhizomania is now achieved almost exclusively through the use of resistant cultivars. A single dominant resistance gene, Rz1, has been used to manage the disease worldwide in recent years, although this gene confers only partial resistance. More recently, new variants of BNYVV have evolved (both with and without RNA5) that are able to cause significant yield penalties on resistant cultivars. These isolates are not yet widespread, but their appearance has resulted in accelerated searches for new sources of resistance to both the virus and the vector. Combined virus and vector resistance, achieved either by conventional or transgenic breeding, offers the sugar beet industry a new approach in its continuing struggle against rhizomania. PMID:19161359

  7. Metabolic responses to tumour disease and progression: tumour-host interaction.

    PubMed

    Cravo, M L; Glória, L M; Claro, I

    2000-12-01

    The progressive nutritional deterioration frequently found in cancer patients, is often referred to as cancer cachexia. In contrast to starvation, where it is possible to reverse the body composition changes by the provision of extra calories, in cancer cachexia this reversal is not observed, suggesting that anorexia alone is unlikely to be responsible for this wasting syndrome. Over the past decades a number of studies have focused on the possible mediators which may be responsible for metabolic abnormalities observed in cancer patients. Pro-inflammatory cytokines have been strongly implicated, but evidence supporting such a direct role is lacking. Recently, exciting work regarding molecules produced by tumour cells, and which may induce lipolysis and proteolysis, has been published. There is also evidence that increased metabolism of host resources may provide substrates which might promote tumour growth. A number of studies have demonstrated that polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic and arachidonic acid, are able to promote tumour cell growth either by directly stimulating mitosis or by inhibiting apoptosis. Even more interesting is the discovery of antagonists of these catabolic factors such as eicosapentanoic acid for the lipolytic factor, which may play a role in the treatment of these patients in the near future. PMID:11104599

  8. Oxidative damage in the progression of chronic liver disease to hepatocellular carcinoma: An intricate pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cardin, Romilda; Piciocchi, Marika; Bortolami, Marina; Kotsafti, Andromachi; Barzon, Luisa; Lavezzo, Enrico; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Rodriguez-Castro, Kryssia Isabel; Rugge, Massimo; Farinati, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The histo-pathologic and molecular mechanisms leading to initiation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still ill-defined; however, there is increasing evidence that the gradual accumulation of mutations, genetic and epigenetic changes which occur in preneoplastic hepatocytes results in the development of dysplastic foci, nodules, and finally, overt HCC. As well as many other neoplasias, liver cancer is considered an “inflammatory cancer”, arising from a context of inflammation, and characterized by inflammation-related mechanisms that favor tumor cell survival, proliferation, and invasion. Molecular mechanisms that link inflammation and neoplasia have been widely investigated, and it has been well established that inflammatory cells recruited at these sites with ongoing inflammatory activity release chemokines that enhance the production of reactive oxygen species. The latter, in turn, probably have a major pathogenic role in the continuum starting from hepatitis followed by chronic inflammation, and ultimately leading to cancer. The relationship amongst chronic liver injury, free radical production, and development of HCC is explored in the present review, particularly in the light of the complex network that involves oxidative DNA damage, cytokine synthesis, telomere dysfunction, and microRNA regulation. PMID:24696595

  9. Adapting a scenario tree model for freedom from disease as surveillance progresses: the Canadian notifiable avian influenza model.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jette; El Allaki, Farouk; Vallières, André

    2014-05-01

    Scenario tree models with temporal discounting have been applied in four continents to support claims of freedom from animal disease. Recently, a second (new) model was developed for the same population and disease. This is a natural development because surveillance is a dynamic process that needs to adapt to changing circumstances - the difficulty is the justification for, documentation of, presentation of and the acceptance of the changes. Our objective was to propose a systematic approach to present changes to an existing scenario tree model for freedom from disease. We used the example of how we adapted the deterministic Canadian Notifiable Avian Influenza scenario tree model published in 2011 to a stochastic scenario tree model where the definition of sub-populations and the estimation of probability of introduction of the pathogen were modified. We found that the standardized approach by Vanderstichel et al. (2013) with modifications provided a systematic approach to make and present changes to an existing scenario tree model. We believe that the new 2013 CanNAISS scenario tree model is a better model than the 2011 model because the 2013 model included more surveillance data. In particular, the new data on Notifiable Avian Influenza in Canada from the last 5 years were used to improve input parameters and model structure. PMID:24588975

  10. Some challenges to progressive control of foot and mouth disease in Pakistan--findings of a pilot survey.

    PubMed

    Abbas, T; Younus, M; Muhmmad, S A; Ijaz, M; Shakoor, A

    2014-02-01

    Pakistan is at an initial stage for progressive control of foot and mouth disease (FMD). Understanding the risk factors for introduction, spread and persistence of the infection is important to design an evidence-based disease control programme. A rapid appraisal method was adopted, and a convenient sample of twenty commercial dairy farmers was interviewed. The following were considered to contribute in secondary transmission of infection: (i) intermediaries and service providers [animal health workers, animal traders and transporters, raw milk collectors, persons who remove skin of dead animals], (ii) places where animals come in close contact [livestock markets, animal fairs, communal grazing pastures, routes in villages where livestock move, watering points, animal transport vehicles], (iii) use of bulls immediately after recovery from FMD infection, (iv) range land/desert livestock production, (v) small holder sheep and goat production, (vi) purchase of replacement stock and fodder from infected locations. This article reveals contacts within and between villages, some of which may act as routes of transmission of FMD. The study suggests the need for zoosanitary education of the livestock keepers. PMID:22978294

  11. Evidence for chronic inflammation as a component of the interstitial lung disease associated with progressive systemic sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, G.A.; Bitterman, P.B.; Rennard, S.I.; Ferrans, V.J.; Crystal, R.G.

    1985-04-01

    Progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) is a generalized disorder characterized by fibrosis of many organs including the lung parenchyma. Unlike most other interstitial disorders, traditional concepts of the interstitial lung disease associated with PSS have held it to be a ''pure'' fibrotic disorder without a significant inflammatory component. To directly evaluate whether an active alveolitis is associated with this disorder, patients with chronic interstitial lung disease and PSS were studied by open lung biopsy, gallium-67 scanning, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Histologic evaluation of the biopsies demonstrated that the interstitial fibrosis of PSS is clearly associated with the presence of macrophages, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes, both in the interstitium and on the alveolar epithelial surface. Gallium-67 scans were positive in 77% of the patients, showing diffuse, primarily lower zone uptake, suggestive of active inflammation. Consistent with the histologic findings, bronchoalveolar lavage studies demonstrated a mild increase in the proportions of neutrophils and eosinophils with occasional increased numbers of lymphocytes. Importantly, alveolar macrophages from patients with PSS showed increased release of fibronectin and alveolar-macrophage-derived growth factor, mediators that together stimulate lung fibroblasts to proliferate, thus suggesting at least one mechanism modulating the lung fibrosis of these patients.

  12. Interplay among cytokines and T cell subsets in the progression and control of immune-mediated diseases.

    PubMed

    Moudgil, Kamal D

    2015-07-01

    Cytokines serve as key mediators of inflammation and tissue damage in a variety of immune-mediated disorders. The induction, progression, and resolution of inflammation in such disorders are characterized by a dynamic balance between both the pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as the pathogenic and protective T cell subsets. Over the past two decades, the roles of the interleukin-17 (IL-17) /IL-23 axis and the T helper 17 (Th17)/ T regulatory (Treg) cell balance in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity and other inflammatory diseases have extensively been analyzed, and their significance validated. However, these studies, coupled with others devoted to well-established Th1/Th2 cytokines, have unraveled some challenging issues including the dual action of cytokines and the plasticity of T cell subsets. Nevertheless, major positive advances have also been made regarding cytokines and T cell subsets as therapeutic targets/agents. In this special issue, "Cytokines in Immune Pathology and Therapy," leading experts have shared their research work and perspectives on the roles of cytokines in the development and control of immune-mediated diseases. An outline of 14 articles in the first volume is presented here. The second volume will follow soon. PMID:26026376

  13. Monitoring disease progression and treatment efficacy with circulating tumor cells in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Kai-Xuan; Zhang, Ze; Zhang, Da-Jin; Shi, Cheng-He; Xiong, Ming; Qu, Xiu-Hua; Zhao, Xiao-Hang

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether changes in circulating tumor cell (CTC) numbers reflect tumor progression and treatment efficacy in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A 47-year-old male patient with ESCC is presented in this case study. The patient was evaluated for a series of serum tumor markers and subjected to radiological examinations before and after surgery and during follow-up over the course of five years. In addition, the CTCs in 7.5 mL of peripheral blood were enriched by magnetic-activated cell sorting negative selection and identified by immunofluorescence staining. Serum tumor markers remained within normal ranges and were discordant with imaging scans during the follow-up. Initially, one CTC was detected in the peripheral blood sample, and 14 were observed seven days after the operation. After 12 wk, subcutaneous metastases and bone metastases occurred, and the number of CTCs increased to 84. After 48 wk, lung metastases were noted, and the CTC level was 21. At 104 wk, the number of CTCs was 14, and disease recurrence was detected by positron emission tomography-computed tomography. The CTC counts were in accord with the imaging studies at several time points. The additional information provided by CTC enumeration could thus facilitate monitoring of disease status and treatment efficacy and provide support for treatment decisions.

  14. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: past progress and anticipation of the future.

    PubMed

    Geda, Yonas E; Schneider, Lon S; Gitlin, Laura N; Miller, David S; Smith, Gwenn S; Bell, Joanne; Evans, Jovier; Lee, Michael; Porsteinsson, Anton; Lanctôt, Krista L; Rosenberg, Paul B; Sultzer, David L; Francis, Paul T; Brodaty, Henry; Padala, Prasad P; Onyike, Chiadikaobi U; Ortiz, Luis Agüera; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Bliwise, Donald L; Martin, Jennifer L; Vitiello, Michael V; Yaffe, Kristine; Zee, Phyllis C; Herrmann, Nathan; Sweet, Robert A; Ballard, Clive; Khin, Ni A; Alfaro, Cara; Murray, Patrick S; Schultz, Susan; Lyketsos, Constantine G

    2013-09-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are widespread and disabling. This has been known since Dr. Alois Alzheimer's first case, Frau Auguste D., presented with emotional distress and delusions of infidelity/excessive jealousy, followed by cognitive symptoms. Being cognizant of this, in 2010 the Alzheimer's Association convened a research roundtable on the topic of NPS in AD. A major outcome of the roundtable was the founding of a Professional Interest Area (PIA) within the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment (ISTAART). The NPS-PIA has prepared a series of documents that are intended to summarize the literature and provide more detailed specific recommendations for NPS research. This overview paper is the first of these living documents that will be updated periodically as the science advances. The overview is followed by syndrome-specific synthetic reviews and recommendations prepared by NPS-PIA workgroups on depression, apathy, sleep, agitation, and psychosis. PMID:23562430

  15. Progressive decrease in chaperone protein levels in a mouse model of Huntington's disease and induction of stress proteins as a therapeutic approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Hay; Kirupa Sathasivam; Bernd Stahl; Michael Marber; Ruben Mestril; Amarbirpal Mahal; Donna L. Smith; Ben Woodman; Gillian P. Bates

    2004-01-01

    The manipulation of chaperone levels has been shown to inhibit aggregation and\\/or rescue cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and cell culture models of Huntington's disease (HD) and other polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders. We show here that a progressive decrease in Hdj1, Hdj2, Hsp70, aSGT and bSGT brain levels likely contributes to disease pathogenesis in the R6\\/2 mouse

  16. Biochemical characterization of protein quality control mechanisms during disease progression in the C22 mouse model of CMT1A

    PubMed Central

    Chittoor, Vinita G.; Sooyeon, Lee; Rangaraju, Sunitha; Nicks, Jessica R.; Schmidt, Jordan T.; Madorsky, Irina; Narvaez, Diana C.; Notterpek, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) is a hereditary demyelinating neuropathy linked with duplication of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene. Transgenic C22 mice, a model of CMT1A, display many features of the human disease, including slowed nerve conduction velocity and demyelination of peripheral nerves. How overproduction of PMP22 leads to compromised myelin and axonal pathology is not fully understood, but likely involves subcellular alterations in protein homoeostatic mechanisms within affected Schwann cells. The subcellular response to abnormally localized PMP22 includes the recruitment of the ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS), autophagosomes and heat-shock proteins (HSPs). Here we assessed biochemical markers of these protein homoeostatic pathways in nerves from PMP22-overexpressing neuropathic mice between the ages of 2 and 12 months to ascertain their potential contribution to disease progression. In nerves of 3-week-old mice, using endoglycosidases and Western blotting, we found altered processing of the exogenous human PMP22, an abnormality that becomes more prevalent with age. Along with the ongoing accrual of misfolded PMP22, the activity of the proteasome becomes compromised and proteins required for autophagy induction and lysosome biogenesis are up-regulated. Moreover, cytosolic chaperones are consistently elevated in nerves from neuropathic mice, with the most prominent change in HSP70. The gradual alterations in protein homoeostatic response are accompanied by Schwann cell de-differentiation and macrophage infiltration. Together, these results show that while subcellular protein quality control mechanisms respond appropriately to the presence of the overproduced PMP22, with aging they are unable to prevent the accrual of misfolded proteins. PMID:24175617

  17. Voxel-based morphometry detects patterns of atrophy that help differentiate progressive supranuclear palsy and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Price, Shona; Paviour, Dominic; Scahill, Rachael; Stevens, John; Rossor, Martin; Lees, Andrew; Fox, Nick

    2004-10-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are neurodegenerative diseases with distinctive pathological appearances. Early clinical diagnosis can be difficult. MRI may help differentiate PSP from PD, but the differences are often only obvious with advanced disease. It would be useful to have an unbiased assessment of difference to guide visual assessment of MRI as an aid to clinical diagnosis. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) offers nonbiased, observer-independent morphometric MRI analysis. Our objectives were to assess structural differences between PSP, PD, and normal controls and test the clinical utility of the results. T1-weighted MR images in 12 patients with clinically diagnosed PSP, 12 with PD, and 12 age- and sex-matched controls were normalized to a common stereotaxic space and segmented into gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) then analyzed using VBM. MRI scans were reviewed by a neuroradiologist blinded to the clinical diagnosis and assigned to the "non-PSP" or "PSP" group based on regional differences highlighted using VBM. VBM revealed significant group differences between PSP and PD as well as PSP and controls, with tissue reduction demonstrated in the region of the cerebral peduncles and midbrain. With these regional differences as a guide, neuroradiological diagnosis achieved a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 79%. VBM did not detect dramatic changes in frontal regions despite significant frontal cognitive decline in the PSP group. Pathology in the basal ganglia rather than tissue loss in the frontal lobes could be responsible for this. This information may help in the differentiation of PSP in clinical practice. PMID:15488416

  18. Progress in Pediatrics in 2012: choices in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses.

    PubMed

    Caffarelli, Carlo; Santamaria, Francesca; Vottero, Alessandra; Bernasconi, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we summarize the progresses in allergy, endocrinology, gastroenterology, hematology, infectious diseases, neurology, nutrition and respiratory tract illnesses that have been published in The Italian Journal of Pediatrics in 2012. The induction of Treg activity by probiotics might be effective for promoting tolerance towards food allergens. Nasal cytology is useful in patients with rhinitis for diagnosing chronic non-allergic non-infectious diseases. Atopic eczema is associated both with an aberrant skin matrix and impaired systemic immune response. Therefore, isolated topical treatment may have suboptimal effect. Diagnostic work-up of exercise-induced anaphylaxis, including exercise challenge test, is necessary to reach a diagnosis. Studies may support a role for nutrition on prevention of asthma and cardiovascular diseases. Clinicians need to early identify adolescent menstrual abnormalities to minimize sequelae, and to promote health information. In Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B investigations include acetylcholinesterase study of rectal mucosa followed by the molecular analysis of RET mutation. Low adherence to gluten-free diet and osteopenia are common problems in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 and celiac disease. In infantile colic, laboratory tests are usually unnecessary and the treatment is based on reassurance. Prevalence of obesity and stunting is elucidated by several studies. Evidences are growing that dietetic measures are needed to prevent obesity in children with acute leukemia. Treatment studies for infectious diseases show promise for probiotics along with standard triple therapy in children with Helicobacter pilori infection, while zinc has no effect on pneumonia. Educational programs about the proper management of the febrile child are warranted. A new hour-specific total serum bilirubin nomogram has been shown to be able to predict newborns without hyperbilirubinemia after 48 to 72 hours of life. Newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy present ECG and cardiac enzymes alterations leading to reduced neonatal survival. Rehabilitation programs including sensory integration therapy and motor performance, may improve activities of daily life in children with developmental coordination disorder. Aerobic exercise training in addition to chest physiotherapy might be useful in children with cystic fibrosis. Studies on effectiveness of leukotriene receptor antagonists, alone or with other drugs in preschool wheezing are needed. PMID:23651601

  19. RNA-targeted Therapeutics for ALS.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linga V; Miller, Timothy M

    2015-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease leading to cell death of predominantly motor neurons. Despite extensive research in this disease, finding a way to slow the progress of the disease has been challenging. RNA-targeted therapeutic approaches, including small interfering RNA and antisense oligonucleotides are being developed for genetic forms of ALS. ALS provides an unique opportunity for the use of RNA inhibition strategies given a well-defined animal model, extensive available information regarding the causative genes, and recent experience in phase 1 clinical trial. PMID:25753730

  20. Pathological fractures in a patient with chronic lymphatic leucaemia without disease progression.

    PubMed

    Langenberg, Jasper C M; Bosman, Willem-Maarten; van den Bremer, Jephta; Ritchie, Ewan D

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of a 59-year-old woman with a medical history of upper leg pain and chronic lymphatic leucaemia (CLL), with known diffuse bone marrow infiltration and without signs of lymphatic or extra-lymphatic disease activity on positron emission tomography CT (PET-CT). She presented with multiple fractures of the pelvis, sacrum and left proximal femur as a result of a low energy fall. During admission, she sustained a non-traumatic fracture of the right proximal femur. Pathological fractures in patients with CLL are usually based on Richter's transformation or multiple myeloma. However, in the current case, a PET-CT and a bone marrow biopsy showed no signs of this. We did see a normoparathyroid hypercalcaemia in our patient, most likely caused by a CLL-based release of local osteoclast stimulating factors. A combination of fludarabine/cyclofosfamide/rituximab was started as treatment in combination with allopurinol and sodium bicarbonate to prevent further osteolysis. PMID:25716040

  1. ERG Cooperates with Androgen Receptor in Regulating Trefoil Factor 3 in Prostate Cancer Disease Progression123

    PubMed Central

    Rickman, David S; Chen, Ying-bei; Banerjee, Samprit; Pan, Yihang; Yu, Jindan; Vuong, Terry; Perner, Sven; Lafargue, Christopher J; Mertz, Kirsten D; Setlur, Sunita R; Sircar, Kanishka; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Bismar, Tarek A; Rubin, Mark A; Demichelis, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate the role of ETS gene fusions in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), we characterized the transcriptome of 54 CRPC tumor samples from men with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) emerged as the most highly differentially regulated gene with respect to ERG rearrangement status and resistance to hormone ablation therapy. Conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-polymerase chain reaction and ChIP followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed direct binding of ERG to ETS binding sites in the TFF3 promoter in ERG-rearranged prostate cancer cell lines. These results were confirmed in ERG-rearranged hormone-naive prostate cancer (HNPC) and CRPC tissue samples. Functional studies demonstrated that ERG has an inhibitory effect on TFF3 expression in hormone-naive cancer but not in the castration-resistant state. In addition, we provide evidence suggesting an effect of androgen receptor signaling on ERG-regulated TFF3 expression. Furthermore, TFF3 overexpression enhances ERG-mediated cell invasion in CRPC prostate cancer cells. Taken together, our findings reveal a novel mechanism for enhanced tumor cell aggressiveness resulting from ERG rearrangement in the castration-resistant setting through TFF3 gene expression. PMID:21170267

  2. Amyloid-modifying therapies for Alzheimer’s disease: therapeutic progress and its implications

    PubMed Central

    Milgram, Norton W.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia, affecting an estimated 4.8 million people in North America. For the past decade, the amyloid cascade hypothesis has dominated the field of AD research. This theory posits that the deposition of amyloid-beta protein (A?) in the brain is the key pathologic event in AD, which induces a series of neuropathological changes that manifest as cognitive decline and eventual dementia. Based on this theory, interventions that reduce A? burden in the brain would be expected to alleviate both the neuropathological changes and dementia, which characterize AD. Several diverse pharmacological strategies have been developed to accomplish this. These include inhibiting the formation of A?, preventing the aggregation of A? into insoluble aggregates, preventing the entry of A? into the brain from the periphery and enhancing the clearance of A? from the central nervous system. To date, no amyloid-modifying therapy has yet been successful in phase 3 clinical trials; however, several trials are currently underway. This article provides a review of the status of amyloid-modifying therapies and the implications for the amyloid cascade hypothesis. PMID:20640545

  3. Automated Classification to Predict the Progression of Alzheimer's Disease Using Whole-Brain Volumetry and DTI

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won Beom; Lee, Young Min; Kim, Young Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study proposes an automated diagnostic method to classify patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) of degenerative etiology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers. Methods Twenty-seven patients with subjective memory impairment (SMI), 18 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 27 patients with AD participated. MRI protocols included three dimensional brain structural imaging and diffusion tensor imaging to assess the cortical thickness, subcortical volume and white matter integrity. Recursive feature elimination based on support vector machine (SVM) was conducted to determine the most relevant features for classifying abnormal regions and imaging parameters, and then a factor analysis for the top-ranked factors was performed. Subjects were classified using nonlinear SVM. Results Medial temporal regions in AD patients were dominantly detected with cortical thinning and volume atrophy compared with SMI and MCI patients. Damage to white matter integrity was also accredited with decreased fractional anisotropy and increased mean diffusivity (MD) across the three groups. The microscopic damage in the subcortical gray matter was reflected in increased MD. Classification accuracy between pairs of groups (SMI vs. MCI, MCI vs. AD, SMI vs. AD) and among all three groups were 84.4% (±13.8), 86.9% (±10.5), 96.3% (±4.6), and 70.5% (±11.5), respectively. Conclusion This proposed method may be a potential tool to diagnose AD pathology with the current clinical criteria. PMID:25670951

  4. Renal Primordia Activate Kidney Regenerative Events in a Rat Model of Progressive Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Imberti, Barbara; Corna, Daniela; Rizzo, Paola; Xinaris, Christodoulos; Abbate, Mauro; Longaretti, Lorena; Cassis, Paola; Benedetti, Valentina; Benigni, Ariela; Zoja, Carlamaria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Morigi, Marina

    2015-01-01

    New intervention tools for severely damaged kidneys are in great demand to provide patients with a valid alternative to whole organ replacement. For repairing or replacing injured tissues, emerging approaches focus on using stem and progenitor cells. Embryonic kidneys represent an interesting option because, when transplanted to sites such as the renal capsule of healthy animals, they originate new renal structures. Here, we studied whether metanephroi possess developmental capacity when transplanted under the kidney capsule of MWF male rats, a model of spontaneous nephropathy. We found that six weeks post-transplantation, renal primordia developed glomeruli and tubuli able to filter blood and to produce urine in cyst-like structures. Newly developed metanephroi were able to initiate a regenerative-like process in host renal tissues adjacent to the graft in MWF male rats as indicated by an increase in cell proliferation and vascular density, accompanied by mRNA and protein upregulation of VEGF, FGF2, HGF, IGF-1 and Pax-2. The expression of SMP30 and NCAM was induced in tubular cells. Oxidative stress and apoptosis markedly decreased. Our study shows that embryonic kidneys generate functional nephrons when transplanted into animals with severe renal disease and at the same time activate events at least partly mimicking those observed in kidney tissues during renal regeneration. PMID:25811887

  5. From Pituitary Expansion to Empty Sella: Disease Progression in a Mouse Model of Autoimmune Hypophysitis

    PubMed Central

    Lupi, Isabella; Zhang, Jiangyang; Gutenberg, Angelika; Landek-Salgado, Melissa; Tzou, Shey-Cherng; Mori, Susumu

    2011-01-01

    Lymphocytic hypophysitis has a variable clinical course, where a swelling of the pituitary gland at presentation is thought to be followed by pituitary atrophy and empty sella. Data in patients, however, are scanty and contradictory. To better define the course of hypophysitis, we used an experimental model based on the injection of pituitary proteins into SJL mice. A cohort of 33 mice was divided into three groups: 18 cases were immunized with pituitary proteins emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant; six controls were injected with adjuvant only; and nine controls were left untreated. Mice were followed by cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for up to 300 d, for a total of 106 MRI scans, and killed at different time points to correlate radiological and pathological findings. Empty sella was defined as a reduction in pituitary volume greater than 2 sd below the mean volume. All immunized mice showed by MRI a significant expansion of pituitary volume during the early phases of the disease. The volume then decreased gradually in the majority of cases (14 of 18, 78%), reaching empty sella values by d 300 after immunization. In a minority of cases (four of 18, 22%), the decrease was so rapid and marked to induce a central area of necrosis accompanied by hemorrhages, mimicking the condition known in patients as pituitary apoplexy. No radiological or pathological changes were observed in controls. Overall, these findings indicate that the evolution of hypophysitis is complex but can lead, through different routes, to the development of empty sella. PMID:21862619

  6. Sentinel lymph node metastases in cancer: causes, detection and their role in disease progression.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, S D; Shah, R; Rosso, K

    2015-02-01

    Malignant tumors of ectodermal or endodermal origin may metastasize to the sentinel lymph node, the first lymph node encountered by tumor cells that enter lymphatics in the organ of origin. This pathway is enabled by the anatomy of the disease and the causes of metastasis are the result of complex interactions that include mechanical forces within the tumor and host tissues, and molecular factors initiated by tumor cell proliferation, elaboration of cytokines and changes in the tumor microenvironment. Mechanical stresses may influence complex biochemical, genetic and other molecular events and enhance the likelihood of metastasis. This paper summarizes our understanding of interacting molecular, anatomical and mechanical processes which facilitate metastasis to SLNs. Our understanding of these interacting events is based on a combination of clinical and basic science research, in vitro and in vivo, including studies in lymphatic embryology, anatomy, micro-anatomy, pathology, physiology, molecular biology and mechanobiology. The presence of metastatic tumor in the SLN is now more accurately identifiable and, based upon prospective clinical trials, paradigm-changing SLN biopsy has become the standard of clinical practice in breast cancer and melanoma. PMID:25444847

  7. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease: Past progress and anticipation of the future

    PubMed Central

    Geda, Yonas E.; Schneider, Lon S.; Gitlin, Laura N.; Miller, David S.; Smith, Gwenn S.; Bell, Joanne; Evans, Jovier; Lee, Michael; Porsteinsson, Anton; Lanctôt, Krista L.; Rosenberg, Paul B.; Sultzer, David L.; Francis, Paul T.; Brodaty, Henry; Padala, P. P.; Onyike, Chiadikaobi U.; Ortiz, L. Agüera; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Bliwise, Donald L.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Vitiello, Michael V.; Yaffe, Kristine; Zee, Phyllis C.; Herrmann, Nathan; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2013-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are widespread and disabling. This has been known since Dr. Alois Alzheimer’s first case, Frau Auguste D., presented with emotional distress and delusions of infidelity/excessive jealousy, followed by cognitive symptoms. Being cognizant of this, in 2010 the Alzheimer’s Association convened a Research Roundtable on the topic of NPS in AD. A major outcome of the Roundtable was the founding of a Professional Interest Area (PIA) within the International Society to Advance Alzheimer’s Research and Treatment (ISTAART). The NPS-PIA has prepared a series of documents that are intended to summarize the literature and provide more detailed specific recommendations for NPS research. This overview paper is the first of these living documents that will be updated periodically as the science advances. The overview is followed by syndrome specific synthetic reviews and recommendations prepared by NPS-PIA Workgroups on depression, apathy, sleep, agitation, and psychosis. PMID:23562430

  8. Genetic and epigenetic profiling of CLL disease progression reveals limited somatic evolution and suggests a relationship to memory-cell development

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E N; Ghia, E M; DeBoever, C M; Rassenti, L Z; Jepsen, K; Yoon, K-A; Matsui, H; Rozenzhak, S; Alakus, H; Shepard, P J; Dai, Y; Khosroheidari, M; Bina, M; Gunderson, K L; Messer, K; Muthuswamy, L; Hudson, T J; Harismendy, O; Barrett, C L; Jamieson, C H M; Carson, D A; Kipps, T J; Frazer, K A

    2015-01-01

    We examined genetic and epigenetic changes that occur during disease progression from indolent to aggressive forms of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) using serial samples from 27 patients. Analysis of DNA mutations grouped the leukemia cases into three categories: evolving (26%), expanding (26%) and static (47%). Thus, approximately three-quarters of the CLL cases had little to no genetic subclonal evolution. However, we identified significant recurrent DNA methylation changes during progression at 4752 CpGs enriched for regions near Polycomb 2 repressive complex (PRC2) targets. Progression-associated CpGs near the PRC2 targets undergo methylation changes in the same direction during disease progression as during normal development from naive to memory B cells. Our study shows that CLL progression does not typically occur via subclonal evolution, but that certain CpG sites undergo recurrent methylation changes. Our results suggest CLL progression may involve developmental processes shared in common with the generation of normal memory B cells. PMID:25860294

  9. Effect of Chronic Antioxidant Therapy with Superoxide Dismutase-Mimetic Drug, Tempol, on Progression of Renal Disease in Rats with Renal Mass Reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasmir Quiroz; Atilio Ferrebuz; Nosratola D. Vaziri; Bernardo Rodriguez-Iturbe

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation play a major role in the progression of renal damage and antioxidants are potentially useful therapeutic options in chronic renal disease. We investigated if treatment with tempol, a superoxide dismutase mimetic that has beneficial effects in several experimental models of hypertension and acute kidney injury, ameliorates the chronic renal damage resulting in renal mass reduction. Rats

  10. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection in a cohort of HIV positive long-term non-progressors: Possible protective effect of infecting HCV genotype on HIV disease progression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giulia Morsica; Sabrina Bagaglio; Silvia Ghezzi; Chiara Lodrini; Elisa Vicenzi; Elena Santagostino; Alessandro Gringeri; Marco Cusini; Guido Carminati; Giampaolo Bianchi; Laura Galli; Adriano Lazzarin; Guido Poli

    2007-01-01

    Background and objectiveHepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequent in HIV-positive subjects. We evaluated the potential impact of HCV coinfection and other determinants on HIV disease progression in a cohort of long-term non-progressors (LTNPs).

  11. Changes in remnant and high-density lipoproteins associated with hormone therapy and progression of coronary artery disease in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of hormone therapy (HT) on the plasma concentration of remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) subpopulations and the contribution of HT-related changes in these lipoproteins to the progression of coronary heart disease (CHD) were examined in 256 postmen...

  12. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    MedlinePLUS

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare brain disease. It affects brain cells that control the movement of your eyes. This leads to ... speech, vision and swallowing problems. Doctors sometimes confuse PSP with Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. PSP has ...

  13. p53 autoantibodies in patients with malignant mesothelioma: stability through disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Creaney, J; McLaren, B M; Stevenson, S; Musk, A W; Klerk, N de; Robinson, B W S; Lake, R A

    2001-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) generally occurs as a pleural tumour, related to the inhalation of asbestos fibres. It is highly aggressive and largely unresponsive to treatment. The incidence of MM is particularly high in Western Australia because of the extensive blue asbestos mining operations that occurred in the north of the state until 1966. MM is unusual in that mutations in the tumour suppressor gene p53 are rarely observed, whilst over-expression of p53 protein is common. As the level of antibodies directed against p53 is thought to be of prognostic value in some cancers and as MM is known to be immunogenic, we studied a cohort of Western Australian patients to determine the prevalence of anti-p53 antibodies and their value as diagnostic markers or prognostic indicators. 6/88 (7%) of patients had high titres (>2 SD above the mean of controls) of anti-p53 antibodies. There was no correlation between antibody titre and survival. Although 3/38 (8%) of sera obtained from patients exposed to asbestos but prior to a diagnosis of MM contained antibodies, the same proportion of sera obtained from patients exposed to asbestos but who remained disease free also contained antibodies (2/40; 8%). Sera collected sequentially demonstrated a profound temporal stability in the titre of anti-p53 antibodies in patients with MM throughout the course of their illness. These results show that anti-p53 antibodies are observed only at a low frequency in the sera of MM patients and where they do occur, their elicitation is an early event that may be unrelated to antigen load. The occurrence of anti-p53 antibodies does not serve as either a useful prognostic or diagnostic indicator in MM. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11139313

  14. Intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction participates in the progress of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jing-Wei; Tang, Hai-Ying; Zhao, Ting; Tan, Xiao-Yan; Bi, Jian; Wang, Bing-Yuan; Wang, Ying-De

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction is closely related to liver diseases, which implies impaired gut-liver axis may play a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. In our study, rats were divided into three groups: normal chow diet (NCD) group, high-fat diet (HFD) group and TNBS-induced colitis with high-fat diet (C-HFD) group. Liver tissues were obtained for histological observation and TNF-?, IL-6 mRNA determination and blood samples were collected for liver enzymes and LPS analysis. Ultrastructural changes of jejuna epithelium, SIBO and amounts of CD103+MHCII+DCs and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+T-regs in terms of percentage in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were observed by electron microscope, bacterial cultivation and flow cytometry, respectively. The results demonstrated the pathological characteristics accorded with nonalcoholic simple fatty liver (NAFL) and NASH in HFD group by week 8 and 12, respectively. Besides, the degree of hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis was more severe in C-HFD group compared with HFD-group at the same time point. NAFLD activity score (NAS), liver enzymes, concentration of LPS and mRNA expressions of TNF-?, IL-6 were higher significantly in C-HFD group compared with HFD and NCD group at week 4, 8 and 12, respectively. In HFD group, epithelium microvilli atrophy, disruptive tight junctions and SIBO were present, and these changes were more severe in NASH compared with NAFL. The percentage of CD103+MHCII+DCs and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+T-regs decreased significantly in NAFL and NASH compared with NCD group. Our conclusion was that gut-liver axis was impaired in NAFLD, which played crucial role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

  15. Leucomycin A3, a 16-membered macrolide antibiotic, inhibits influenza A virus infection and disease progression.

    PubMed

    Sugamata, Ryuichi; Sugawara, Akihiro; Nagao, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Koya; Hirose, Tomoyasu; Yamamoto, Ki-ichi; Oshima, Masamichi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Sunazuka, Toshiaki; Akagawa, Kiyoko S; ?mura, Satoshi; Nakayama, Toshinori; Suzuki, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    Severe respiratory disease arising from influenza virus infection has a high fatality rate. Neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of severe influenza-indu