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1

Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children.  

PubMed

Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

Kita, Yosuke; Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

2013-12-01

2

Altered brain activity for phonological manipulation in dyslexic Japanese children  

PubMed Central

Because of unique linguistic characteristics, the prevalence rate of developmental dyslexia is relatively low in the Japanese language. Paradoxically, Japanese children have serious difficulty analysing phonological processes when they have dyslexia. Neurobiological deficits in Japanese dyslexia remain unclear and need to be identified, and may lead to better understanding of the commonality and diversity in the disorder among different linguistic systems. The present study investigated brain activity that underlies deficits in phonological awareness in Japanese dyslexic children using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We developed and conducted a phonological manipulation task to extract phonological processing skills and to minimize the influence of auditory working memory on healthy adults, typically developing children, and dyslexic children. Current experiments revealed that several brain regions participated in manipulating the phonological information including left inferior and middle frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, and bilateral basal ganglia. Moreover, dyslexic children showed altered activity in two brain regions. They showed hyperactivity in the basal ganglia compared with the two other groups, which reflects inefficient phonological processing. Hypoactivity in the left superior temporal gyrus was also found, suggesting difficulty in composing and processing phonological information. The altered brain activity shares similarity with those of dyslexic children in countries speaking alphabetical languages, but disparity also occurs between these two populations. These are initial findings concerning the neurobiological impairments in dyslexic Japanese children. PMID:24052613

Yamamoto, Hisako; Oba, Kentaro; Terasawa, Yuri; Moriguchi, Yoshiya; Uchiyama, Hitoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Koeda, Tatsuya; Inagaki, Masumi

2013-01-01

3

Altered brain activation during visuomotor integration in chronic active cannabis users: relationship to cortisol levels.  

PubMed

Cannabis is the most abused illegal substance in the United States. Alterations in brain function and motor behavior have been reported in chronic cannabis users, but the results have been variable. The current study aimed to determine whether chronic active cannabis use in humans may alter psychomotor function, brain activation, and hypothalamic-pituitary-axis (HPA) function in men and women. Thirty cannabis users (16 men, 14 women, 18-45 years old) and 30 nondrug user controls (16 men, 14 women, 19-44 years old) were evaluated with neuropsychological tests designed to assess motor behavior and with fMRI using a 3 Tesla scanner during a visually paced finger-sequencing task, cued by a flashing checkerboard (at 2 or 4 Hz). Salivary cortisol was measured to assess HPA function. Male, but not female, cannabis users had significantly slower performance on psychomotor speed tests. As a group, cannabis users had greater activation in BA 6 than controls, while controls had greater activation in the visual area BA 17 than cannabis users. Cannabis users also had higher salivary cortisol levels than controls (p = 0.002). Chronic active cannabis use is associated with slower and less efficient psychomotor function, especially in male users, as indicated by a shift from regions involved with automated visually guided responses to more executive or attentional control areas. The greater but altered brain activities may be mediated by the higher cortisol levels in the cannabis users, which in turn may lead to less efficient visual-motor function. PMID:22159107

King, George R; Ernst, Thomas; Deng, Weiran; Stenger, Andrew; Gonzales, Rachael M K; Nakama, Helenna; Chang, Linda

2011-12-01

4

Altered host behaviour and brain serotonergic activity caused by acanthocephalans: evidence for specificity  

PubMed Central

Manipulative parasites can alter the phenotype of intermediate hosts in various ways. However, it is unclear whether such changes are just by-products of infection or adaptive and enhance transmission to the final host. Here, we show that the alteration of serotonergic activity is functionally linked to the alteration of specific behaviour in the amphipod Gammarus pulex infected with acanthocephalan parasites. Pomphorhynchus laevis and, to a lesser extent, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis altered phototactism, but not geotactism, in G. pulex, whereas the reverse was true for Polymorphus minutus. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) injected to uninfected G. pulex mimicked the altered phototactism, but had no effect on geotactism. Photophilic G. pulex infected with P. laevis or P. tereticollis showed a 40% increase in brain 5-HT immunoreactivity compared to photophobic, uninfected individuals. In contrast, brain 5-HT immunoreactivity did not differ between P. minutus-infected and uninfected G. pulex. Finally, brain 5-HT immunoreactivity differed significantly among P. tereticollis-infected individuals in accordance with their degree of manipulation. Our results demonstrate that altered 5-HT activity is not the mere consequence of infection by acanthocephalans but is specifically linked to the disruption of host photophobic behaviour, whereas the alteration of other behaviours such as geotactism may rely on distinct physiological routes. PMID:17015346

Tain, Luke; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Cezilly, Frank

2006-01-01

5

First demonstration that brain CYP2D-mediated opiate metabolic activation alters analgesia in vivo  

PubMed Central

The response to centrally-acting drugs is highly variable between individuals and does not always correlate with plasma drug levels. Drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes in the brain may contribute to this variability by affecting local drug and metabolite concentrations. CYP2D metabolizes codeine to the active morphine metabolite. We investigate the effect of inhibiting brain, and not liver, CYP2D activity on codeine-induced analgesia. Rats received intracerebroventricular injections of CYP2D inhibitors (20 ?g propranolol or 40 ?g propafenone) or vehicle controls. Compared to vehicle-pretreated rats, inhibitor-pretreated rats had: a) lower analgesia in the tail-flick test (p<0.05) and lower areas under the analgesia-time curve (p<0.02) within the first hour after 30 mg/kg subcutaneous codeine, b) lower morphine concentrations and morphine to codeine ratios in the brain (p<0.02 and p<0.05, respectively), but not in plasma (p>0.6 and p>0.7, respectively), tested at 30 min after 30 mg/kg subcutaneous codeine, and c) lower morphine formation from codeine ex vivo by brain membranes (p<0.04), but not by liver microsomes (p>0.9). Analgesia trended toward a correlation with brain morphine concentrations (p=0.07) and correlated with brain morphine to codeine ratios (p<0.005), but not with plasma morphine concentrations (p>0.8) or plasma morphine to codeine ratios (p>0.8). Our findings suggest that brain CYP2D affects brain morphine levels after peripheral codeine administration, and may thereby alter codeine's therapeutic efficacy, side-effect profile and abuse liability. Brain CYPs are highly variable due to genetics, environmental factors and age, and may therefore contribute to interindividual variation in the response to centrally-acting drugs. PMID:23623752

Zhou, Kaidi; Khokhar, Jibran Y.; Zhao, Bin; Tyndale, Rachel F.

2013-01-01

6

Altered temporal variance and neural synchronization of spontaneous brain activity in anesthesia.  

PubMed

Recent studies at the cellular and regional levels have pointed out the multifaceted importance of neural synchronization and temporal variance of neural activity. For example, neural synchronization and temporal variance has been shown by us to be altered in patients in the vegetative state (VS). This finding nonetheless leaves open the question of whether these abnormalities are specific to VS or rather more generally related to the absence of consciousness. The aim of our study was to investigate the changes of inter- and intra-regional neural synchronization and temporal variance of resting state activity in anesthetic-induced unconsciousness state. Applying an intra-subject design, we compared resting state activity in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) between awake versus anesthetized states in the same subjects. Replicating previous studies, we observed reduced functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) and thalamocortical network in the anesthetized state. Importantly, intra-regional synchronization as measured by regional homogeneity (ReHo) and temporal variance as measured by standard deviation (SD) of the BOLD signal were significantly reduced in especially the cortical midline regions, while increased in the lateral cortical areas in the anesthetized state. We further found significant frequency-dependent effects of SD in the thalamus, which showed abnormally high SD in Slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz) in the anesthetized state. Our results show for the first time of altered temporal variance of resting state activity in anesthesia. Combined with our findings in the vegetative state, these findings suggest a close relationship between temporal variance, neural synchronization and consciousness. Hum Brain Mapp 35:5368-5378, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24867379

Huang, Zirui; Wang, Zhiyao; Zhang, Jianfeng; Dai, Rui; Wu, Jinsong; Li, Yuan; Liang, Weimin; Mao, Ying; Yang, Zhong; Holland, Giles; Zhang, Jun; Northoff, Georg

2014-11-01

7

Alterations in Regional Homogeneity of Spontaneous Brain Activity in Late-Life Subthreshold Depression  

PubMed Central

The early detection of major depression in elderly individuals who are at risk of developing the disease is of prime importance when it comes to the prevention of geriatric depression. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine changes in regional homogeneity (ReHo) of spontaneous activity in late-life subthreshold depression (StD), and we evaluated the sensitivity/specificity performance of these changes. Nineteen elderly individuals with StD and 18 elderly controls underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. The ReHo approach was employed to examine whether StD was related to alterations in resting-state neural activity, in the form of abnormal regional synchronization. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and the Fisher stepwise discriminant analysis were used to evaluate the sensitivity/specificity characteristics of the ReHo index in discriminating between the StD subjects and normal controls. The results demonstrated that, compared to controls, StD subjects display lower ReHo in the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left postcentral gyrus (PCG), and left middle frontal and inferior temporal gyri, as well as higher ReHo in the bilateral insula and right DLPFC. The left PCG and the right DLPFC, OFC, and posterior insula, together reported a predictive accuracy of 91.9%. These results suggest that the regional activity coherence was changed in the resting brain of StD subjects, and that these alterations may serve as potential markers for the early detection of StD in late-life depression. PMID:23301035

Yu, Jing; He, Yong; Li, Juan

2013-01-01

8

Alterations in enterocyte mitochondrial respiratory function and enzyme activities in gastrointestinal dysfunction following brain injury  

PubMed Central

AIM: To determine the alterations in rat enterocyte mitochondrial respiratory function and enzyme activities following traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Fifty-six male SD rats were randomly divided into seven groups (8 rats in each group): a control group (rats with sham operation) and traumatic brain injury groups at 6, 12, 24 h, days 2, 3, and 7 after operation. TBI models were induced by Feendy’s free-falling method. Mitochondrial respiratory function (respiratory control ratio and ADP/O ratio) was measured with a Clark oxygen electrode. The activities of respiratory chain complex?I-IV and related enzymes were determined by spectrophotometry. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the mitochondrial respiratory control ratio (RCR) declined at 6 h and remained at a low level until day 7 after TBI (control, 5.42 ± 0.46; 6 h, 5.20 ± 0.18; 12 h, 4.55 ± 0.35; 24 h, 3.75 ± 0.22; 2 d, 4.12 ± 0.53; 3 d, 3.45 ± 0.41; 7 d, 5.23 ± 0.24, P < 0.01). The value of phosphate-to-oxygen (P/O) significantly decreased at 12, 24 h, day 2 and day 3, respectively (12 h, 3.30 ± 0.10; 24 h, 2.61 ± 0.21; 2 d, 2.95 ± 0.18; 3 d, 2.76 ± 0.09, P < 0.01) compared with the control group (3.46 ± 0.12). Two troughs of mitochondrial respiratory function were seen at 24 h and day 3 after TBI. The activities of mitochondrial complex?I?(6 h: 110 ± 10, 12 h: 115 ± 12, 24 h: 85 ± 9, day 2: 80 ± 15, day 3: 65 ± 16, P < 0.01) and complex II (6 h: 105 ± 8, 12 h: 110 ± 92, 24 h: 80 ± 10, day 2: 76 ± 8, day 3: 68 ± 12, P < 0.01) were increased at 6 h and 12 h following TBI, and then significantly decreased at 24 h, day 2 and day 3, respectively. However, there were no differences in complex?I?and II activities between the control and TBI groups. Furthermore, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity was significantly decreased at 6 h and continued up to 7 d after TBI compared with the control group (6 h: 90 ± 8, 12 h: 85 ± 10, 24 h: 65 ± 12, day 2: 60 ± 9, day 3: 55 ± 6, day 7: 88 ± 11, P < 0.01). The changes in ?-ketoglutaric dehydrogenase (KGDH) activity were similar to PDH, except that the decrease in KGDH activity began at 12 h after TBI (12 h: 90 ± 12, 24 h: 80 ± 9, day 2: 76 ± 15, day 3: 68 ± 7, day 7: 90 ± 13, P < 0.01). No significant change in malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity was observed. CONCLUSION: Rat enterocyte mitochondrial respiratory function and enzyme activities are inhibited following TBI. Mitochondrial dysfunction may play an important role in TBI-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. PMID:25071356

Zhu, Ke-Jun; Huang, Hong; Chu, Hui; Yu, Hang; Zhang, Shi-Ming

2014-01-01

9

Dolichol alters brain membrane functions  

SciTech Connect

It has been well demonstrated that there is a direct correlation between increase in dolichol level in brain and aging. An abnormally high level of dolichol was found in brain tissue of patients with pathological aging disorders. The aim of this study is to examine the physiological significance of dolichol affecting membrane transport activity and phospholipid acyl group turnover. Dolichol added to synaptic plasma membranes resulted in a biphasic effect on (Na/sup +/, K/sup +/)-ATPase, i.e., an enhancement of activity at low concentrations (5 ..mu..g/125 mg protein) and an inhibition of activity at high concentrations (40-100 ..mu..g). To probe the membrane acyl group turnover, the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-arachidonate into plasma membrane phospholipids was examined in the presence and absence of dolichol. Dolichol elicited an increase in the incorporation of label into phospholipids. However, the effects varied depending on whether BSA is present. In the absence of BSA, the increase in labeling of phosphatidylinositols is higher than that of phosphatidylcholines. These results suggest that dolichols, when inserted into membranes, may alter membrane functions.

Sun, G.Y.; Sun, A.Y.; Schroeder, F.; Wood, G.; Strong, R.

1986-03-05

10

Differential alteration of phospholipase A 2 activities in brain of patients with schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently reported that the activity of a calcium-independent subtype of phospholipase A2 is increased in blood of patients with schizophrenia. The present investigation examined whether similar changes take place in brain of patients with this disorder, and for comparison, in patients with bipolar disorder. The activity of two classes of PLA2, calcium-stimulated and independent, were assayed in autopsied temporal,

Brian M Ross; Sylvie Turenne; Anna Moszczynska; Jerry J Warsh; Stephen J Kish

1999-01-01

11

Alzheimer Disease Alters the Relationship of Cardiorespiratory Fitness With Brain Activity During the Stroop Task  

PubMed Central

Background Despite mounting evidence that physical activity has positive benefits for brain and cognitive health, there has been little characterization of the relationship between cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness and cognition-associated brain activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The lack of evidence is particularly glaring for diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD) that degrade cognitive and functional performance. Objective The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between regional brain activity during cognitive tasks and CR fitness level in people with and without AD. Design A case-control, single-observation study design was used. Methods Thirty-four individuals (18 without dementia and 16 in the earliest stages of AD) completed maximal exercise testing and performed a Stroop task during fMRI. Results Cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with anterior cingulate activity in the participants without dementia (r=?.48, P=.05) and unassociated with activation in those with AD (P>.7). Weak associations of CR fitness and middle frontal cortex were noted. Limitations The wide age range and the use of a single task in fMRI rather than multiple tasks challenging different cognitive capacities were limitations of the study. Conclusions The results offer further support of the relationship between CR fitness and regional brain activity. However, this relationship may be attenuated by disease. Future work in this area may provide clinicians and researchers with interpretable and dependable regional fMRI biomarker signatures responsive to exercise intervention. It also may shed light on mechanisms by which exercise can support cognitive function. PMID:23559521

Gayed, Matthew R.; Honea, Robyn A.; Savage, Cary R.; Hobbs, Derek; Burns, Jeffrey M.

2013-01-01

12

Traumatic alterations in GABA signaling disrupt hippocampal network activity in the developing brain  

PubMed Central

Severe head trauma causes widespread neuronal shear injuries and acute seizures. Shearing of neural processes might contribute to seizures by disrupting the transmembrane ion gradients that subserve normal synaptic signaling. To test this possibility, we investigated changes in intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl?]i) associated with the widespread neural shear injury induced during preparation of acute brain slices. In hippocampal slices and intact hippocampal preparations from immature CLM-1 mice, increases in [Cl?]i correlated with disruption of neural processes and biomarkers of cell injury. Traumatized neurons with higher [Cl?]i demonstrated excitatory GABA signaling, remained synaptically active, and facilitated network activity as assayed by the frequency of extracellular action potentials and spontaneous network-driven oscillations. These data support a more inhibitory role for GABA in the unperturbed immature brain, demonstrate the utility of the acute brain slice preparation for the study of the consequences of trauma, and provide potential mechanisms for both GABA-mediated excitatory network events in the slice preparation and early post-traumatic seizures. PMID:22442068

Dzhala, Volodymyr; Valeeva, Guzel; Glykys, Joseph; Khazipov, Rustem; Staley, Kevin

2012-01-01

13

Frequency Dependent Alterations in Regional Homogeneity of Baseline Brain Activity in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Low frequency oscillations are essential in cognitive function impairment in schizophrenia. While functional connectivity can reveal the synchronization between distant brain regions, the regional abnormalities in task-independent baseline brain activity are less clear, especially in specific frequency bands. Here, we used a regional homogeneity (ReHo) method combined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate low frequency spontaneous neural activity in the three different frequency bands (slow-5?0.01–0.027 Hz; slow-4?0.027–0.08 Hz; and typical band: 0.01–0.08 Hz) in 69 patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy controls. Compared with controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited decreased ReHo in the precentral gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and posterior insula, whereas increased ReHo in the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Significant differences in ReHo between the two bands were found in fusiform gyrus and superior frontal gyrus (slow-4> slow-5), and in basal ganglia, parahippocampus, and dorsal middle prefrontal gyrus (slow-5> slow-4). Importantly, we identified significant interaction between frequency bands and groups in the inferior occipital gyrus and caudate body. This study demonstrates that ReHo changes in schizophrenia are widespread and frequency dependent. PMID:23483911

Wang, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Liu, Chih-Min; Liu, Chen-Chung; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Chien, Yi-Ling; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

2013-01-01

14

Early and Later Life Stress Alter Brain Activity and Sleep in Rats  

PubMed Central

Exposure to early life stress may profoundly influence the developing brain in lasting ways. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with early life adversity may involve neural changes reflected in EEG power as a measure of brain activity and disturbed sleep. The main aim of the present study was for the first time to characterize possible changes in adult EEG power after postnatal maternal separation in rats. Furthermore, in the same animals, we investigated how EEG power and sleep architecture were affected after exposure to a chronic mild stress protocol. During postnatal day 2–14 male rats were exposed to either long maternal separation (180 min) or brief maternal separation (10 min). Long maternally separated offspring showed a sleep-wake nonspecific reduction in adult EEG power at the frontal EEG derivation compared to the brief maternally separated group. The quality of slow wave sleep differed as the long maternally separated group showed lower delta power in the frontal-frontal EEG and a slower reduction of the sleep pressure. Exposure to chronic mild stress led to a lower EEG power in both groups. Chronic exposure to mild stressors affected sleep differently in the two groups of maternal separation. Long maternally separated offspring showed more total sleep time, more episodes of rapid eye movement sleep and higher percentage of non-rapid eye movement episodes ending in rapid eye movement sleep compared to brief maternal separation. Chronic stress affected similarly other sleep parameters and flattened the sleep homeostasis curves in all offspring. The results confirm that early environmental conditions modulate the brain functioning in a long-lasting way. PMID:23922857

Mrdalj, Jelena; Pallesen, Stale; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Murison, Robert; Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bj?rn; Gr?nli, Janne

2013-01-01

15

Altered Brain Activation in Ventral Frontal-Striatal Regions Following a 16-week Pharmacotherapy in Unmedicated Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have reported that cognitive inflexibility associated with impairments in a frontal-striatal circuit and parietal region is a core cognitive deficit of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have examined progressive changes in these regions following clinical improvement in obsessive-compulsive symptoms. To determine if treatment changes the aberrant activation pattern associated with task switching in OCD, we examined the activation patterns in brain areas after treatment. The study was conducted on 10 unmedicated OCD patients and 20 matched controls using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment improved the clinical symptoms measured by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and behavioral flexibility indicated by the switching cost. At baseline, OCD showed significantly less activation in the dorsal and ventral frontal-striatal circuit and parietal regions under the task-switch minus task-repeat condition compared with controls. After treatment, the neural responses in the ventral frontal-striatal circuit in OCD were partially normalized, whereas the activation deficit in dorsal frontoparietal regions that mediate shifting attention or behavioral flexibility persisted. It is suggested that altered brain activation in ventral frontal-striatal regions in OCD patients is associated with their cognitive flexibility and changes in these regions may underlie the pathophysiology of OCD. PMID:21532859

Han, Ji Yeon; Kang, Do-Hyung; Gu, Bon-Mi; Jung, Wi Hoon; Choi, Jung-Seok; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Jang, Joon Hwan

2011-01-01

16

Altered baseline brain activity in children with ADHD revealed by resting-state functional MRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), functional neuroimaging studies have revealed abnormalities in various brain regions, including prefrontal-striatal circuit, cerebellum, and brainstem. In the current study, we used a new marker of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), amplitude of low-frequency (0.01–0.08Hz) fluctuation (ALFF) to investigate the baseline brain function of this disorder. Thirteen boys with ADHD (13.0±1.4 years)

Zang Yu-Feng; He Yong; Zhu Chao-Zhe; Cao Qing-Jiu; Sui Man-Qiu; Liang Meng; Tian Li-Xia; Jiang Tian-Zi; Wang Yu-Feng

2007-01-01

17

Can Media Multitasking Alter Your Brain?  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Can Media Multitasking Alter Your Brain? The more wired you ... News) -- Multitasking with smartphones, laptop computers and other media devices could change the structure of your brain, ...

18

Altered Brain Activation During Action Imitation and Observation in Schizophrenia: A Translational Approach  

E-print Network

neuron system function in schizophrenia. Method: Sixteen medicated schizophre- nia patients and 16 specific for imitation in schizophrenia. Relative to healthy sub- jects, patients had reduced activity mechanisms. Schizophrenia patients typically perform poorly on social cognitive tasks involving theory

Park, Sohee

19

Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies demonstrated that primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is associated with abnormal brain structure; however, little is known about the changes in the local synchronization of spontaneous activity. The main objective of this study was to investigate spontaneous brain activity in patients with POAG using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis based on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-nine POAG patients and forty-one age- and gender- matched healthy controls were finally included in the study. ReHo values were used to evaluate spontaneous brain activity and whole brain voxel-wise analysis of ReHo was carried out to detect differences by region in spontaneous brain activity between groups. Compared to controls, POAG patients showed increased ReHo in the right dorsal anterior cingulated cortex, the bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the right cerebellar anterior lobe, and decreased ReHo in the bilateral calcarine, bilateral precuneus gryus, bilateral pre/postcentral gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule and left cerebellum posterior lobe. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore the relationships between clinical measures and ReHo by region showed significant group differences in the POAG group. Negative correlations were found between age and the ReHo values of the superior frontal gyrus (r?=??0.323, p?=?0.045), left calcarine (r?=??0.357, p?=?0.026) and inferior parietal lobule (r?=??0.362, p?=?0.024). A negative correlation was found between the ReHo values of the left precuneus and the cumulative mean defect (r?=??0.400, p?=?0.012). Conclusions POAG was associated with abnormal brain spontaneous activity in some brain regions and such changed regional activity may be associated with clinical parameters. Spontaneous brain activity may play a role in POAG initiation and progression. PMID:24586822

Lin, Fuchun; Chen, Zhiqi; Yan, Xiaoqin; Hao, Yonghong; Zhu, Wenzhen; Zhang, Hong

2014-01-01

20

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Human ecstasy (MDMA) polydrug users have altered brain  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL INVESTIGATION Human ecstasy (MDMA) polydrug users have altered brain activation during-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012 Abstract Rationale Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) polydrug ecstasy use with semantic memory per- formance and brain activation in ecstasy polydrug users. Methods

Park, Sohee

21

Age-related learning and memory deficits in rats: role of altered brain neurotransmitters, acetylcholinesterase activity and changes in antioxidant defense system.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress from generation of increased reactive oxygen species or free radicals of oxygen has been reported to play an important role in the aging. To investigate the relationship between the oxidative stress and memory decline during aging, we have determined the level of lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and activity of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) in brain and plasma as well as biogenic amine levels in brain from Albino-Wistar rats at age of 4 and 24 months. The results showed that the level of lipid peroxidation in the brain and plasma was significantly higher in older than that in the young rats. The activities of antioxidant enzymes displayed an age-dependent decline in both brain and plasma. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were found to be significantly decreased in brain and plasma of aged rats. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was also significantly decreased in plasma of aged rats; however, a decreased tendency (non-significant) of SOD in brain was also observed. AChE activity in brain and plasma was significantly decreased in aged rats. Learning and memory of rats in the present study was assessed by Morris Water Maze (MWM) and Elevated plus Maze (EPM) test. Short-term memory and long-term memory was impaired significantly in older rats, which was evident by a significant increase in the latency time in MWM and increase in transfer latency in EPM. Moreover, a marked decrease in biogenic amines (NA, DA, and 5-HT) was also found in the brain of aged rats. In conclusion, our data suggest that increased oxidative stress, decline of antioxidant enzyme activities, altered AChE activity, and decreased biogenic amines level in the brain of aged rats may potentially be involved in diminished memory function. PMID:24771014

Haider, Saida; Saleem, Sadia; Perveen, Tahira; Tabassum, Saiqa; Batool, Zehra; Sadir, Sadia; Liaquat, Laraib; Madiha, Syeda

2014-06-01

22

Gestational exposure to cadmium alters crucial offspring rat brain enzyme activities: the role of cadmium-free lactation.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to shed more light on the effects of gestational (in utero) exposure to cadmium (Cd) on crucial brain enzyme activities of Wistar rat offspring, as well as to assess the potential protective/restorative role that a Cd-free lactation might have on these effects. In contrast to earlier findings of ours regarding the pattern of effects that adult-onset exposure to Cd has on brain AChE, Na(+),K(+)- and Mg(2+)-ATPase activities, as well as in contrast to similar experimental approaches implementing the sacrificing mode of anaesthesia, in utero exposure to Cd-chloride results in increased AChE and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities in the newborn rat brain homogenates that were ameliorated through a Cd-free lactation (as assessed in the brain of 21-day-old offspring). Mg(2+)-ATPase activity was not found to be significantly modified under the examined experimental conditions. These findings could provide the basis for a further evaluation of the herein discussed neurotoxic effects of in utero exposure to Cd, in a brain region-specific manner. PMID:23981373

Liapi, Charis; Stolakis, Vasileios; Zarros, Apostolos; Zissis, Konstantinos M; Botis, John; Al-Humadi, Hussam; Tsakiris, Stylianos

2013-11-01

23

Right prefrontal brain activation due to Stroop interference is altered in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder — A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common finding in school children. Because it was suggested to be related to frontal lobe dysfunction, we hypothesized that brain activation would be altered during an event-related color–word matching Stroop task in comparison to a healthy control group. Twelve medication-free boys suffering from attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder were compared with 12 education- and age-matched healthy boys.

Sonya Jourdan Moser; Simone Cutini; Peter Weber; Matthias L. Schroeter

2009-01-01

24

Hypersexuality or altered sexual preference following brain injury.  

PubMed

Eight patients are described in whom either hypersexuality (four cases) or change in sexual preference (four cases) occurred following brain injury. In this series disinhibition of sexual activity and hypersexuality followed medial basal-frontal or diencephalic injury. This contrasted with the patients demonstrating altered sexual preference whose injuries involved limbic system structures. In some patients altered sexual behaviour may be the presenting or dominant feature of brain injury. PMID:3746322

Miller, B L; Cummings, J L; McIntyre, H; Ebers, G; Grode, M

1986-08-01

25

Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Patients with Parkinson's Disease Accompanied by Depressive Symptoms, as Revealed by Regional Homogeneity and Functional Connectivity in the Prefrontal-Limbic System  

PubMed Central

As patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are at high risk for comorbid depression, it is hypothesized that these two diseases are sharing common pathogenic pathways. Using regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity approaches, we characterized human regional brain activity at resting state to examine specific brain networks in patients with PD and those with PD and depression (PDD). This study comprised 41 PD human patients and 25 normal human subjects. The patients completed the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and were further divided into two groups: patients with depressive symptoms and non-depressed PD patients (nD-PD). Compared with the non-depressed patients, those with depressive symptoms exhibited significantly increased regional activity in the left middle frontal gyrus and right inferior frontal gyrus, and decreased ReHo in the left amygdala and bilateral lingual gyrus. Brain network connectivity analysis revealed decreased functional connectivity within the prefrontal-limbic system and increased functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortex and lingual gyrus in PDD compared with the nD-PD group. In summary, the findings showed regional brain activity alterations and disruption of the mood regulation network in PDD patients. The pathogenesis of PDD may be attributed to abnormal neural activity in multiple brain regions. PMID:24404185

Su, Meilan; Li, Rong; Zou, Dezhi; Han, Yu; Wang, Xuefeng; Cheng, Oumei

2014-01-01

26

Source-based neurofeedback methods using EEG recordings: training altered brain activity in a functional brain source derived from blind source separation  

PubMed Central

A developing literature explores the use of neurofeedback in the treatment of a range of clinical conditions, particularly ADHD and epilepsy, whilst neurofeedback also provides an experimental tool for studying the functional significance of endogenous brain activity. A critical component of any neurofeedback method is the underlying physiological signal which forms the basis for the feedback. While the past decade has seen the emergence of fMRI-based protocols training spatially confined BOLD activity, traditional neurofeedback has utilized a small number of electrode sites on the scalp. As scalp EEG at a given electrode site reflects a linear mixture of activity from multiple brain sources and artifacts, efforts to successfully acquire some level of control over the signal may be confounded by these extraneous sources. Further, in the event of successful training, these traditional neurofeedback methods are likely influencing multiple brain regions and processes. The present work describes the use of source-based signal processing methods in EEG neurofeedback. The feasibility and potential utility of such methods were explored in an experiment training increased theta oscillatory activity in a source derived from Blind Source Separation (BSS) of EEG data obtained during completion of a complex cognitive task (spatial navigation). Learned increases in theta activity were observed in two of the four participants to complete 20 sessions of neurofeedback targeting this individually defined functional brain source. Source-based EEG neurofeedback methods using BSS may offer important advantages over traditional neurofeedback, by targeting the desired physiological signal in a more functionally and spatially specific manner. Having provided preliminary evidence of the feasibility of these methods, future work may study a range of clinically and experimentally relevant brain processes where individual brain sources may be targeted by source-based EEG neurofeedback. PMID:25374520

White, David J.; Congedo, Marco; Ciorciari, Joseph

2014-01-01

27

Altered baseline brain activity in children with bipolar disorder during mania state: a resting-state study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown abnormal functional connectivity in regions involved in emotion processing and regulation in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Recent studies indicate, however, that task-dependent neural changes only represent a small fraction of the brain’s total activity. How the brain allocates the majority of its resources at resting state is still unknown. We used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method of fMRI to explore the spontaneous neuronal activity in resting state in PBD patients. Methods Eighteen PBD patients during the mania phase and 18 sex-, age- and education-matched healthy subjects were enrolled in this study and all patients underwent fMRI scanning. The ALFF method was used to compare the resting-state spontaneous neuronal activity between groups. Correlation analysis was performed between the ALFF values and Young Mania Rating Scale scores. Results Compared with healthy controls, PBD patients presented increased ALFF in bilateral caudate and left pallidum as well as decreased ALFF in left precuneus, left superior parietal lobule, and bilateral inferior occipital gyrus. Additionally, ALFF values in left pallidum were positively correlated with Young Mania Rating Scale score in PBD. Conclusion The abnormal resting-state neuronal activities of the basal ganglia, parietal cortex, and occipital cortex may play an important role in the pathophysiology in PBD patients. PMID:24570585

Lu, Dali; Jiao, Qing; Zhong, Yuan; Gao, Weijia; Xiao, Qian; Liu, Xiaoqun; Lin, Xiaoling; Cheng, Wentao; Luo, Lanzhu; Xu, Chuanjian; Lu, Guangming; Su, Linyan

2014-01-01

28

Altered Baseline Brain Activity with 72 h of Simulated Microgravity - Initial Evidence from Resting-State fMRI  

PubMed Central

To provide the basis and reference to further insights into the neural activity of the human brain in a microgravity environment, we discuss the amplitude changes of low-frequency brain activity fluctuations using a simulated microgravity model. Twelve male participants between 24 and 31 years old received resting-state fMRI scans in both a normal condition and after 72 hours in a ?6° head down tilt (HDT). A paired sample t-test was used to test the amplitude differences of low-frequency brain activity fluctuations between these two conditions. With 72 hours in a ?6° HDT, the participants showed a decreased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in the left thalamus compared with the normal condition (a combined threshold of P<0.005 and a minimum cluster size of 351 mm3 (13 voxels), which corresponded with the corrected threshold of P<0.05 determined by AlphaSim). Our findings indicate that a gravity change-induced redistribution of body fluid may disrupt the function of the left thalamus in the resting state, which may contribute to reduced motor control abilities and multiple executive functions in astronauts in a microgravity environment. PMID:23285086

Huang, Zhiping; Xi, Yibin; Zhang, Qianru; Zhu, Tianli; Liu, Xufeng

2012-01-01

29

Altered brain activation during response inhibition and error processing in subjects with Internet gaming disorder: a functional magnetic imaging study.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impulsivity and brain correlates of response inhibition and error processing among subjects with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). We evaluated the response inhibition and error processing by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in subjects with IGD and controls. Twenty-six men with IGD for at least 2 years and 23 controls with no history of IGD were recruited as the IGD and control groups, respectively. All subjects performed the event-related designed Go/No-go task under fMRI and completed questionnaires related to Internet addiction and impulsivity. The IGD group exhibited a higher score for impulsivity than the control group. The IGD group also exhibited higher brain activation when processing response inhibition over the left orbital frontal lobe and bilateral caudate nucleus than controls. Both the IGD and control groups exhibited activation of the insula and anterior cingulate cortex during error processing. The activation over the right insula was lower in the subjects with IGD than the control group. Our results support the fact that the fronto-striatal network involved in response inhibition, and the salience network, anchored by the anterior cingulate and insula, contributes to error processing. Further, adults with IGD have impaired insular function in error processing and greater activation of the fronto-striatal network in order to maintain their response inhibition performance. PMID:24469099

Ko, Chih-Hung; Hsieh, Tsyh-Jyi; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Ju-Yu; Wang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Gin-Chung

2014-12-01

30

Altered Calcium Signaling Following Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Cell death and dysfunction after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by a primary phase, related to direct mechanical disruption of the brain, and a secondary phase which consists of delayed events initiated at the time of the physical insult. Arguably, the calcium ion contributes greatly to the delayed cell damage and death after TBI. A large, sustained influx of calcium into cells can initiate cell death signaling cascades, through activation of several degradative enzymes, such as proteases and endonucleases. However, a sustained level of intracellular free calcium is not necessarily lethal, but the specific route of calcium entry may couple calcium directly to cell death pathways. Other sources of calcium, such as intracellular calcium stores, can also contribute to cell damage. In addition, calcium-mediated signal transduction pathways in neurons may be perturbed following injury. These latter types of alterations may contribute to abnormal physiology in neurons that do not necessarily die after a traumatic episode. This review provides an overview of experimental evidence that has led to our current understanding of the role of calcium signaling in death and dysfunction following TBI. PMID:22518104

Weber, John T.

2012-01-01

31

Activation Changes in Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia guttata) Brain Areas Evoked by Alterations of the Earth Magnetic Field  

PubMed Central

Many animals are able to perceive the earth magnetic field and to use it for orientation and navigation within the environment. The mechanisms underlying the perception and processing of magnetic field information within the brain have been thoroughly studied, especially in birds, but are still obscure. Three hypotheses are currently discussed, dealing with ferromagnetic particles in the beak of birds, with the same sort of particles within the lagena organs, or describing magnetically influenced radical-pair processes within retinal photopigments. Each hypothesis is related to a well-known sensory organ and claims parallel processing of magnetic field information with somatosensory, vestibular and visual input, respectively. Changes in activation within nuclei of the respective sensory systems have been shown previously. Most of these previous experiments employed intensity enhanced magnetic stimuli or lesions. We here exposed unrestrained zebra finches to either a stationary or a rotating magnetic field of the local intensity and inclination. C-Fos was used as an activity marker to examine whether the two treatments led to differences in fourteen brain areas including nuclei of the somatosensory, vestibular and visual system. An ANOVA revealed an overall effect of treatment, indicating that the magnetic field change was perceived by the birds. While the differences were too small to be significant in most areas, a significant enhancement of activation by the rotating stimulus was found in a hippocampal subdivision. Part of the hyperpallium showed a strong, nearly significant, increase. Our results are compatible with previous studies demonstrating an involvement of at least three different sensory systems in earth magnetic field perception and suggest that these systems, probably less elaborated, may also be found in nonmigrating birds. PMID:22679515

Keary, Nina; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

2012-01-01

32

Copper deficiency in neonatal mice alters brain catecholamine levels  

SciTech Connect

Copper (Cu) deficiency was investigated in Swiss albino mice to develop a model that alters brain catecholamine metabolism without serious growth impairment. Cu deficiency was induced by feeding a diet low in Cu to dams beginning either 7 days (d) prior, 4d prior, 4d after, or on the day of parturition. All 4-week-old male Cu-deficient ({minus}Cu) offspring were anemic and exhibited biochemical characteristics of Cu deficiency when compared to their respective +Cu control mice. However, the best model, which resulted in altered catecholamine metabolism characterized by elevation of dopamine (DA) and depression in norepinephrine (NE) in brain, heart, and spleen, was when treatment began 4d prior to birth. Body and brain weight were not altered. However, levels of Cu in brain and liver of {minus}Cu mice were markedly reduced to 21% and 31% of those measured in +Cu controls, respectively. Furthermore, brain NE and DA concentrations of {minus}Cu mice were 72% and 132% of those quantified in +Cu offspring, respectively. A plausible explanation is that dietary Cu deficiency results in lower activity of brain dopamine-{beta}-monooxygenase, the Cu dependent enzyme that catalyzes conversion of DA to NE. It is not yet known if these changes in Ne and DA pool size altered the quantity or characteristics of the neuronal catecholamine receptors, and more importantly, whether or not the observed changes are reversible by nutritional intervention.

Bailey, W.R.; Prohaska, J.R. (Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth (United States))

1991-03-15

33

Early Adolescence as a Critical Window During Which Social Stress Distinctly Alters Behavior and Brain Norepinephrine Activity  

PubMed Central

Many neural programs that shape behavior become established during adolescence. Adverse events at this age can have enduring consequences for both adolescent and adult mental health. Here we show that repeated social stress at different stages of adolescent development differentially affects rat behavior and neuronal activity. Early-adolescent (PND 28, EA), mid-adolescent (PND 42, MA), and adult (PND 63) rats were subjected to resident-intruder social stress (7 days) and behavior was examined 24–72?h later. In EA rats selectively, resident-intruder stress increased proactive responses in the defensive burying and forced swim tests. In adult rats, resident-intruder stress decreased burying behavior regardless of whether the animal was stressed as an adult or during early adolescence. As the locus coeruleus (LC)–norepinephrine system has been implicated in proactive defense behaviors, LC neuronal activity was quantified in separate cohorts. Stressed EA rats had elevated spontaneous LC discharge rates and diminished responses to sensory stimuli compared with controls. Microinjection of a CRF antagonist into the LC selectively inhibited neurons of stressed EA rats, suggesting that EA social stress induces tonic CRF release onto LC neurons, shifting the mode of discharge to an activated state that promotes active defensive behaviors. In all adult groups, resident-intruder stress resulted in an increased phasic response to sensory stimuli with no change in spontaneous rates. MA was a transition period during which social stress did not affect behavior or LC activity. The results suggest that social stress interacts with the brain norepinephrine system to regulate defensive strategies in an age-dependent manner. PMID:21178981

Bingham, Brian; McFadden, Kile; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Bhatnagar, Seema; Beck, Sheryl; Valentino, Rita

2011-01-01

34

Altered likelihood of brain activation in attention and working memory networks in patients with multiple sclerosis: An ALE meta-analysis?  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease, frequently affecting attention and working memory functions. Functional imaging studies investigating those functions in MS patients are hard to compare, as they include heterogeneous patient groups and use different paradigms for cognitive testing. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in neuronal activation between MS patients and healthy controls performing attention and working memory tasks. Two meta-analyses of previously published fMRI studies investigating attention and working memory were conducted for MS patients and healthy controls, respectively. Resulting maps were contrasted to compare brain activation in patients and healthy controls. Significantly increased brain activation in the inferior parietal lobule and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was detected for healthy controls. In contrast, higher neuronal activation in MS patients was obtained in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the right premotor area. With this meta-analytic approach previous results of investigations examining cognitive function using fMRI are summarized and compared. Therefore a more general view on cognitive dysfunction in this heterogeneous disease is enabled. PMID:24056084

Kollndorfer, K.; Krajnik, J.; Woitek, R.; Freiherr, J.; Prayer, D.; Schopf, V.

2013-01-01

35

When "altering brain function" becomes "mind control"  

PubMed Central

Functional neurosurgery has seen a resurgence of interest in surgical treatments for psychiatric illness. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) technology is the preferred tool in the current wave of clinical experiments because it allows clinicians to directly alter the functions of targeted brain regions, in a reversible manner, with the intent of correcting diseases of the mind, such as depression, addiction, anorexia nervosa, dementia, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These promising treatments raise a critical philosophical and humanitarian question. “Under what conditions does ‘altering brain function’ qualify as ‘mind control’?” In order to answer this question one needs a definition of mind control. To this end, we reviewed the relevant philosophical, ethical, and neurosurgical literature in order to create a set of criteria for what constitutes mind control in the context of DBS. We also outline clinical implications of these criteria. Finally, we demonstrate the relevance of the proposed criteria by focusing especially on serendipitous treatments involving DBS, i.e., cases in which an unintended therapeutic benefit occurred. These cases highlight the importance of gaining the consent of the subject for the new therapy in order to avoid committing an act of mind control.

Koivuniemi, Andrew; Otto, Kevin

2014-01-01

36

Benevolent sexism alters executive brain responses.  

PubMed

Benevolence is widespread in our societies. It is defined as considering a subordinate group nicely but condescendingly, that is, with charity. Deleterious consequences for the target have been reported in the literature. In this experiment, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to identify whether being the target of (sexist) benevolence induces changes in brain activity associated with a working memory task. Participants were confronted by benevolent, hostile, or neutral comments before and while performing a reading span test in an fMRI environment. fMRI data showed that brain regions associated previously with intrusive thought suppression (bilateral, dorsolateral, prefrontal, and anterior cingulate cortex) reacted specifically to benevolent sexism compared with hostile sexism and neutral conditions during the performance of the task. These findings indicate that, despite being subjectively positive, benevolence modifies task-related brain networks by recruiting supplementary areas likely to impede optimal cognitive performance. PMID:23660680

Dardenne, Benoit; Dumont, Muriel; Sarlet, Marie; Phillips, Christophe; Balteau, Evelyne; Degueldre, Christian; Luxen, André; Salmon, Eric; Maquet, Pierre; Collette, Fabienne

2013-07-10

37

Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men  

MedlinePLUS

... the RSNA Annual Meeting November 30, 2011 Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men CHICAGO— ... fMRI) analysis of long-term effects of violent video game play on the brain has found changes ...

38

Sustained administration of bupropion alters the neuronal activity of serotonin, norepinephrine but not dopamine neurons in the rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bupropion is widely used in the treatment of depression. There are, however, limited data on its long-term effects on monoaminergic neurons and therefore the mechanism of its delayed onset of action is at present not well understood. The present study was conducted to examine the effects of prolonged bupropion administration on the firing activity of dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), locus

Mostafa El Mansari; Ramez Ghanbari; Shannon Janssen; Pierre Blier

2008-01-01

39

Genetic variants of FOXP2 and KIAA0319/TTRAP/THEM2 locus are associated with altered brain activation in distinct language-related regions.  

PubMed

Recent advances have been made in the genetics of two human communication skills: speaking and reading. Mutations of the FOXP2 gene cause a severe form of language impairment and orofacial dyspraxia, while single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within a KIAA0319/TTRAP/THEM2 gene cluster and affecting the KIAA0319 gene expression are associated with reading disability. Neuroimaging studies of clinical populations point to partially distinct cerebral bases for language and reading impairments. However, alteration of FOXP2 and KIAA0319/TTRAP/THEM2 polymorphisms on typically developed language networks has never been explored. Here, we genotyped and scanned 94 healthy subjects using fMRI during a reading task. We studied the correlation of genetic polymorphisms with interindividual variability in brain activation and functional asymmetry in frontal and temporal cortices. In FOXP2, SNPs rs6980093 and rs7799109 were associated with variations of activation in the left frontal cortex. In the KIAA0319/TTRAP/THEM2 locus, rs17243157 was associated with asymmetry in functional activation of the superior temporal sulcus (STS). Interestingly, healthy subjects bearing the KIAA0319/TTRAP/THEM2 variants previously identified as enhancing the risk of dyslexia showed a reduced left-hemispheric asymmetry of the STS. Our results confirm that both FOXP2 and KIAA0319/TTRAP/THEM2 genes play an important role in human language development, but probably through different cerebral pathways. The observed cortical effects mirror previous fMRI results in developmental language and reading disorders, and suggest that a continuum may exist between these pathologies and normal interindividual variability. PMID:22262880

Pinel, Philippe; Fauchereau, Fabien; Moreno, Antonio; Barbot, Alexis; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Le Bihan, Denis; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Bourgeron, Thomas; Dehaene, Stanislas

2012-01-18

40

Mapping Structural Brain Alterations in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent technical developments have made it feasible to comprehensively assess brain anatomy in psychiatric populations. Objective: To describe the structural brain alterations detected in the magnetic resonance images of a large se- ries of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using imaging procedures that allow the evaluation of vol- ume changes throughout the brain. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Referral OCD

Jesus Pujol; Carles Soriano-Mas; Pino Alonso; Narcõ ´ s Cardoner; Jose M. Menchon; Joan Deus; Julio Vallejo

2004-01-01

41

Prenatal hypoxia-ischemia alters expression and activity of nitric oxide synthase in the young rat brain and causes learning deficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is known to possibly impair learning and memory. Our previous studies have demonstrated that prenatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) decreases NOS expression and NOS activity in the neonatal rat brain. To investigate whether effects of prenatal HI on NOS expression continue and whether prenatal HI affects learning and memory in young rats, NOS expression and NOS

Zhengwei Cai; Feng Xiao; Buyean Lee; Ian A Paul; Philip G Rhodes

1999-01-01

42

RESEARCH Open Access Brain white matter microstructure alterations in  

E-print Network

RESEARCH Open Access Brain white matter microstructure alterations in adolescent rhesus monkeys maltreatment to study the long-term effects of this early life stress on brain white matter integrity during: Diffusion tensor imaging and tract based spatial statistics were used to investigate white matter integrity

Maestripieri, Dario

43

Transcranial magnetic stimulation induces alterations in brain monoamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been suggested as a possible therapeutic tool in depression. In behavioral models of depression, magnetic stimulation induced similar effects to those of electroconvulsive shock. This study demonstrates the effect of a single session of rapid TMS on tissue monoamines in rat brain. Alterations in monoamines were selective and specific in relation to brain areas and

D. Ben-Shachar; R. H. Belmaker; N. Grisaru; E. Klein

1997-01-01

44

Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility  

MedlinePLUS

... of Addiction Frontiers 2010 A Fresh Look at Dopamine Release and Uptake Connectivity of the Human Brain ... tomography (PET) imaging, methamphetamine-exposed monkeys had fewer dopamine transporters and D 2 receptors in the putamen ...

45

Hyaluronan Deficiency Due to Has3 Knock-Out Causes Altered Neuronal Activity and Seizures via Reduction in Brain Extracellular Space  

PubMed Central

Hyaluronan (HA), a large anionic polysaccharide (glycosaminoglycan), is a major constituent of the extracellular matrix of the adult brain. To address its function, we examined the neurophysiology of knock-out mice deficient in hyaluronan synthase (Has) genes. Here we report that these Has mutant mice are prone to epileptic seizures, and that in Has3?/? mice, this phenotype is likely derived from a reduction in the size of the brain extracellular space (ECS). Among the three Has knock-out models, namely Has3?/?, Has1?/?, and Has2CKO, the seizures were most prevalent in Has3?/? mice, which also showed the greatest HA reduction in the hippocampus. Electrophysiology in Has3?/? brain slices demonstrated spontaneous epileptiform activity in CA1 pyramidal neurons, while histological analysis revealed an increase in cell packing in the CA1 stratum pyramidale. Imaging of the diffusion of a fluorescent marker revealed that the transit of molecules through the ECS of this layer was reduced. Quantitative analysis of ECS by the real-time iontophoretic method demonstrated that ECS volume was selectively reduced in the stratum pyramidale by ?40% in Has3?/? mice. Finally, osmotic manipulation experiments in brain slices from Has3?/? and wild-type mice provided evidence for a causal link between ECS volume and epileptiform activity. Our results provide the first direct evidence for the physiological role of HA in the regulation of ECS volume, and suggest that HA-based preservation of ECS volume may offer a novel avenue for development of antiepileptogenic treatments. PMID:24790187

Arranz, Amaia M.; Perkins, Katherine L.; Irie, Fumitoshi; Lewis, David P.; Hrabe, Jan; Xiao, Fanrong; Itano, Naoki; Kimata, Koji

2014-01-01

46

Brain structural and functional alterations in patients with unilateral hearing loss.  

PubMed

Alterations of brain structure and functional connectivity have been described in patients with hearing impairments due to distinct pathogenesis; however, the influence of unilateral hearing loss (UHL) on brain morphology and regional brain activity is still not completely understood. In this study, we aim to investigate regional brain structural and functional alterations in patients with UHL. T1-weighted volumetric images and task-free fMRIs were acquired from 14 patients with right-sided UHL (pure tone average ? 40 dB HL) and 19 healthy controls. Hearing ability was assessed by pure tone audiometry. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed to detect brain regions with changed gray matter volume or white matter volume in UHL. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was calculated to analyze brain activity at the baseline and was compared between two groups. Compared with controls, UHL patients showed decreased gray matter volume in bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus, left superior/middle/inferior temporal gyrus, and right parahippocampal gyrus and lingual gyrus. Meanwhile, patients showed significantly decreased ALFF in bilateral precuneus, left inferior parietal lobule, and right inferior frontal gyrus and insula and increased ALFF in right inferior and middle temporal gyrus. These findings suggest that chronic UHL could induce brain morphological changes and is associated with aberrant baseline brain activity. PMID:25093284

Yang, Ming; Chen, Hua-Jun; Liu, Bin; Huang, Zhi-Chun; Feng, Yuan; Li, Jing; Chen, Jing-Ya; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Ji, Hui; Feng, Xu; Zhu, Xin; Teng, Gao-Jun

2014-10-01

47

Acute or chronic stress induce cell compartment-specific phosphorylation of glucocorticoid receptor and alter its transcriptional activity in Wistar rat brain  

PubMed Central

Chronic stress and impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR) feedback are important factors for the compromised hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis activity. We investigated the effects of chronic 21 day isolation of Wistar rats on the extrinsic negative feedback part of HPA axis: hippocampus (HIPPO) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). In addition to serum corticosterone (CORT), we followed GR subcellular localization, GR phosphorylation at serine 232 and serine 246, expression of GR regulated genes: GR, CRF and brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF), and activity of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and Cdk5 kinases that phosphorylate GR. These parameters were also determined in animals subjected to acute 30?min immobilization, which was taken as ‘normal’ adaptive response to stress. In isolated animals, we found decreased CORT, whereas in animals exposed to acute immobilization, CORT was markedly increased. Even though the GR was predominantly localized in the nucleus of HIPPO and PFC in acute, but not in chronic stress, the expression of GR, CRF, and BDNF genes was similarly regulated under both acute and chronic stresses. Thus, the transcriptional activity of GR under chronic isolation did not seem to be exclusively dependent on high serum CORT levels nor on the subcellular location of the GR protein. Rather, it resulted from the increased Cdk5 activation and phosphorylation of the nuclear GR at serine 232 and the decreased JNK activity reflected in decreased phosphorylation of the nuclear GR at serine 246. Our study suggests that this nuclear isoform of hippocampal and cortical GR may be related to hypocorticism i.e. HPA axis hypoactivity under chronic isolation stress. PMID:19406955

Adzic, Miroslav; Djordjevic, Jelena; Djordjevic, Ana; Niciforovic, Ana; Demonacos, Constantinos; Radojcic, Marija; Krstic-Demonacos, Marija

2009-01-01

48

Altered intrinsic regional brain activity in male patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have demonstrated that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with abnormal brain structural deficits. However, little is known about the changes in local synchronization of spontaneous activity in patients with OSA. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate spontaneous brain activity in patients with OSA compared with good sleepers (GSs) using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Twenty-five untreated male patients with severe OSA and 25 male GSs matched for age and years of education were included in this study. The ReHo method was calculated to assess the strength of local signal synchrony and was compared between the two groups. The observed mean ReHo values were entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software to assess their correlation with behavioral performance. Results Compared with GSs, patients with OSA showed significantly lower ReHo in the right medial frontal gyrus (BA11), right superior frontal gyrus (BA10), right cluster of the precuneus and angular gyrus (BA39), and left superior parietal lobule (BA7), and higher ReHo in the right posterior lobe of the cerebellum, right cingulate gyrus (BA23), and bilateral cluster covering the lentiform nucleus, putamen, and insula (BA13). The lower mean ReHo value in the right cluster of the precuneus and angular gyrus had a significant negative correlation with sleep time (r=?0.430, P=0.032), and higher ReHo in the right posterior lobe of the cerebellum showed a significant positive correlation with stage 3 sleep (r=0.458, P=0.021) and in the right cingulate gyrus showed a significant positive correlation with percent rapid eye movement sleep (r=0.405, P=0.045). Conclusion Patients with OSA showed significant regional spontaneous activity deficits in default mode network areas. The ReHo method is a useful noninvasive imaging tool for detection of early changes in cerebral ReHo in patients with OSA.

Peng, De-Chang; Dai, Xi-Jian; Gong, Hong-Han; Li, Hai-Jun; Nie, Xiao; Zhang, Wei

2014-01-01

49

Altered Resting State Brain Networks in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra leading to dysfunctional cortico-striato-thalamic-cortical loops. In addition to the characteristic motor symptoms, PD patients often show cognitive impairments, affective changes and other non-motor symptoms, suggesting system-wide effects on brain function. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph-theory based analysis methods to investigate altered whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity in PD patients (n?=?37) compared to healthy controls (n?=?20). Global network properties indicated less efficient processing in PD. Analysis of brain network modules pointed to increased connectivity within the sensorimotor network, but decreased interaction of the visual network with other brain modules. We found lower connectivity mainly between the cuneus and the ventral caudate, medial orbitofrontal cortex and the temporal lobe. To identify regions of altered connectivity, we mapped the degree of intrinsic functional connectivity both on ROI- and on voxel-level across the brain. Compared to healthy controls, PD patients showed lower connectedness in the medial and middle orbitofrontal cortex. The degree of connectivity was also decreased in the occipital lobe (cuneus and calcarine), but increased in the superior parietal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, supramarginal gyrus and supplementary motor area. Our results on global network and module properties indicated that PD manifests as a disconnection syndrome. This was most apparent in the visual network module. The higher connectedness within the sensorimotor module in PD patients may be related to compensation mechanism in order to overcome the functional deficit of the striato-cortical motor loops or to loss of mutual inhibition between brain networks. Abnormal connectivity in the visual network may be related to adaptation and compensation processes as a consequence of altered motor function. Our analysis approach proved sensitive for detecting disease-related localized effects as well as changes in network functions on intermediate and global scale. PMID:24204812

Gottlich, Martin; Munte, Thomas F.; Heldmann, Marcus; Kasten, Meike; Hagenah, Johann; Kramer, Ulrike M.

2013-01-01

50

Brain Gym. Simple Activities for Whole Brain Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains simple movements and activities that are used with students in Educational Kinesiology to enhance their experience of whole brain learning. Whole brain learning through movement repatterning and Brain Gym activities enable students to access those parts of the brain previously unavailable to them. These movements of body and…

Dennison, Paul E.; Dennison, Gail E.

51

Altered Neurocircuitry in the Dopamine Transporter Knockout Mouse Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma membrane transporters for the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine modulate the dynamics of these monoamine neurotransmitters. Thus, activity of these transporters has significant consequences for monoamine activity throughout the brain and for a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gene knockout (KO) mice that reduce or eliminate expression of each of these monoamine transporters have provided a

Xiaowei Zhang; Elaine L. Bearer; Benoit Boulat; F. Scott Hall; George R. Uhl; Russell E. Jacobs; Olivier Jacques Manzoni

2010-01-01

52

Altered lipid metabolism in brain injury and disorders.  

PubMed

Deregulated lipid metabolism may be of particular importance for CNS injuries and disorders, as this organ has the highest lipid concentration next to adipose tissue. Atherosclerosis (a risk factor for ischemic stroke) results from accumulation of LDL-derived lipids in the arterial wall. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1), secretory phospholipase A2 IIA and lipoprotein-PLA2 are implicated in vascular inflammation. These inflammatory responses promote atherosclerotic plaques, formation and release of the blood clot that can induce ischemic stroke. TNF-alpha and IL-1 alter lipid metabolism and stimulate production of eicosanoids, ceramide, and reactive oxygen species that potentiate CNS injuries and certain neurological disorders. Cholesterol is an important regulator of lipid organization and the precursor for neurosteroid biosynthesis. Low levels of neurosteroids were related to poor outcome in many brain pathologies. Apolipoprotein E is the principal cholesterol carrier protein in the brain, and the gene encoding the variant Apolipoprotein E4 is a significant risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. Parkinson's disease is to some degree caused by lipid peroxidation due to phospholipases activation. Niemann-Pick diseases A and B are due to acidic sphingomyelinase deficiency, resulting in sphingomyelin accumulation, while Niemann-Pick disease C is due to mutations in either the NPC1 or NPC2 genes, resulting in defective cholesterol transport and cholesterol accumulation. Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating condition of the CNS. Inhibiting phospholipase A2 attenuated the onset and progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The endocannabinoid system is hypoactive in Huntington's disease. Ethyl-eicosapetaenoate showed promise in clinical trials. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis causes loss of motorneurons. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition reduced spinal neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis transgenic mice. Eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation provided improvement in schizophrenia patients, while the combination of (eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid) provided benefit in bipolar disorders. The ketogenic diet where >90% of calories are derived from fat is an effective treatment for epilepsy. Understanding cytokine-induced changes in lipid metabolism will promote novel concepts and steer towards bench-to-bedside transition for therapies. PMID:18751914

Adibhatla, Rao Muralikrishna; Hatcher, J F

2008-01-01

53

Brain responses to altered auditory feedback during musical keyboard production: an fMRI study.  

PubMed

Alterations of auditory feedback during piano performance can be profoundly disruptive. Furthermore, different alterations can yield different types of disruptive effects. Whereas alterations of feedback synchrony disrupt performed timing, alterations of feedback pitch contents can disrupt accuracy. The current research tested whether these behavioral dissociations correlate with differences in brain activity. Twenty pianists performed simple piano keyboard melodies while being scanned in a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. In different conditions they experienced normal auditory feedback, altered auditory feedback (asynchronous delays or altered pitches), or control conditions that excluded movement or sound. Behavioral results replicated past findings. Neuroimaging data suggested that asynchronous delays led to increased activity in Broca's area and its right homologue, whereas disruptive alterations of pitch elevated activations in the cerebellum, area Spt, inferior parietal lobule, and the anterior cingulate cortex. Both disruptive conditions increased activations in the supplementary motor area. These results provide the first evidence of neural responses associated with perception/action mismatch during keyboard production. PMID:24513403

Pfordresher, Peter Q; Mantell, James T; Brown, Steven; Zivadinov, Robert; Cox, Jennifer L

2014-03-27

54

Fueling and imaging brain activation  

PubMed Central

Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models. PMID:22612861

Dienel, Gerald A

2012-01-01

55

Preterm birth and structural brain alterations in early adulthood  

PubMed Central

Alterations in cortical development and impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes have been described following very preterm (VPT) birth in childhood and adolescence, but only a few studies to date have investigated grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) maturation in VPT samples in early adult life. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) we studied regional GM and WM volumes in 68 VPT-born individuals (mean gestational age 30 weeks) and 43 term-born controls aged 19–20 years, and their association with cognitive outcomes (Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Visual Reproduction test of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised) and gestational age. Structural MRI data were obtained with a 1.5 Tesla system and analysed using the VBM8 toolbox in SPM8 with a customized study-specific template. Similarly to results obtained at adolescent assessment, VPT young adults compared to controls demonstrated reduced GM volume in temporal, frontal, insular and occipital areas, thalamus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Increases in GM volume were noted in medial/anterior frontal gyrus. Smaller subcortical WM volume in the VPT group was observed in temporal, parietal and frontal regions, and in a cluster centred on posterior corpus callosum/thalamus/fornix. Larger subcortical WM volume was found predominantly in posterior brain regions, in areas beneath the parahippocampal and occipital gyri and in cerebellum. Gestational age was associated with GM and WM volumes in areas where VPT individuals demonstrated GM and WM volumetric alterations, especially in temporal, parietal and occipital regions. VPT participants scored lower than controls on measures of IQ, executive function and non-verbal memory. When investigating GM and WM alterations and cognitive outcome scores, subcortical WM volume in an area beneath the left inferior frontal gyrus accounted for 14% of the variance of full-scale IQ (F = 12.9, p < 0.0001). WM volume in posterior corpus callosum/thalamus/fornix and GM volume in temporal gyri bilaterally, accounted for 21% of the variance of executive function (F = 9.9, p < 0.0001) and WM in the posterior corpus callosum/thalamus/fornix alone accounted for 17% of the variance of total non-verbal memory scores (F = 9.9, p < 0.0001). These results reveal that VPT birth continues to be associated with altered structural brain anatomy in early adult life, although it remains to be ascertained whether these changes reflect neurodevelopmental delays or long lasting structural alterations due to prematurity. GM and WM alterations correlate with length of gestation and mediate cognitive outcome. PMID:25379430

Nosarti, Chiara; Nam, Kie Woo; Walshe, Muriel; Murray, Robin M.; Cuddy, Marion; Rifkin, Larry; Allin, Matthew P.G.

2014-01-01

56

The Epoch Times | Cocaine Alters Brain Cells, Impairs Impulse Control < Back to previous page  

E-print Network

The Epoch Times | Cocaine Alters Brain Cells, Impairs Impulse Control > Health Cocaine Alters Brain Cells, Impairs Impulse Control Reuters Oct 18, 2006 NEW YORK--A number in Atlanta, show that cocaine use negatively affects the functioning of neurons (cells located in the brain

Goldstein, Rita

57

Common DNA methylation alterations in multiple brain regions in autism.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly common neurodevelopmental disorders defined clinically by a triad of features including impairment in social interaction, impairment in communication in social situations and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests, with considerable phenotypic heterogeneity among individuals. Although heritability estimates for ASD are high, conventional genetic-based efforts to identify genes involved in ASD have yielded only few reproducible candidate genes that account for only a small proportion of ASDs. There is mounting evidence to suggest environmental and epigenetic factors play a stronger role in the etiology of ASD than previously thought. To begin to understand the contribution of epigenetics to ASD, we have examined DNA methylation (DNAm) in a pilot study of postmortem brain tissue from 19 autism cases and 21 unrelated controls, among three brain regions including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex and cerebellum. We measured over 485,000 CpG loci across a diverse set of functionally relevant genomic regions using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and identified four genome-wide significant differentially methylated regions (DMRs) using a bump hunting approach and a permutation-based multiple testing correction method. We replicated 3/4 DMRs identified in our genome-wide screen in a different set of samples and across different brain regions. The DMRs identified in this study represent suggestive evidence for commonly altered methylation sites in ASD and provide several promising new candidate genes. PMID:23999529

Ladd-Acosta, C; Hansen, K D; Briem, E; Fallin, M D; Kaufmann, W E; Feinberg, A P

2014-08-01

58

Hematoporphyrin derivative induced photodamage to brain tumor cells: Alterations in subcellular membranes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoinduced structural and functional changes were studied in the subcellular membranes isolated from HpD treated cells. Changes in the limiting anisotropy of lipid specific probes 1,6,Diphenyl-1,3,5,hexatriene (DPH) and 1-(4-Trimethyl ammonium 1,6 diphenyl)-1,3,5,hexatriene toulene sulphonate (TMA-DPH) incorporated into the membrane were used to assess the structural alterations while changes in the activity of the marker enzymes were used to assess the functional alterations. Our results suggest that damage to the endoplasmic reticulum may play an important role in the photosensitization of brain tumor cells.

Sreenivasan, Rajesh; Joshi, Preeti G.; Joshi, Nanda B.

1997-01-01

59

Alterations of brain circuits in Down syndrome murine models.  

PubMed

Trisomy 21, also referred to Down syndrome (DS), is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation, affecting 1 each 800-1000 newborn children all over the world. DS is a complex disease, determined by an extra copy of human chromosome 21 that causes an imbalanced gene dose effect. The syntenies that exist between mouse chromosomes 10, 16, and 17 and human chromosome 21 offer the opportunity for a genotype-phenotype correlation and several mouse models of DS have been developed to improve our knowledge about cognitive disabilities and brain alterations. We present here the different murine models available up to now and we discuss the neural alterations that have been described in these strains. The largest amount of studies involved the so called Ts65Dn mouse showing early alterations of nitrergic, noradrenergic and cholinergic systems at the level of the basal forebrain. Neurogenesis and spine formations are decreased in the hippocampus, as well as the whole size of the cerebellum and the number of granule cells. PMID:21946025

Gotti, Stefano; Caricati, Egidio; Panzica, GianCarlo

2011-12-01

60

Antenatal Maternal Stress Alters Functional Brain Responses In Adult Offspring During Conditioned Fear  

PubMed Central

Antenatal maternal stress has been shown in rodent models and in humans to result in altered behavioral and neuroendocrine responses, yet little is known about its effects on functional brain activation. Pregnant female rats received a daily foot-shock stress or sham-stress two days after testing plug-positive and continuing for the duration of their pregnancy. Adult male offspring (age 14 weeks) with and without prior maternal stress (MS) were exposed to an auditory fear conditioning (CF) paradigm. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was assessed during recall of the tone cue in the nonsedated, nontethered animal using the 14C-iodoantipyrine method, in which the tracer was administered intravenously by remote activation of an implantable minipump. Regional CBF distribution was examined by autoradiography and analyzed by statistical parametric mapping in the three-dimensionally reconstructed brains. Presence of fear memory was confirmed by behavioral immobility (‘freezing’). Corticosterone plasma levels during the CF paradigm were measured by ELISA in a separate group of rats. Antenatal MS exposure altered functional brain responses to the fear conditioned cue in adult offspring. Rats with prior MS exposure compared to those without demonstrated heightened fear responsivity, exaggerated and prolonged corticosterone release, increased functional cerebral activation of limbic/paralimbic regions (amygdala, ventral hippocampus, insula, ventral striatum, nucleus acumbens), the locus coeruleus, and white matter, and deactivation of medial prefrontal cortical regions. Dysregulation of corticolimbic circuits may represent risk factors in the future development of anxiety disorders and associated alterations in emotional regulation. PMID:21300034

Sadler, Theodore R.; Nguyen, Peter T.; Yang, Jun; Givrad, Tina K.; Mayer, Emeran A.; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Hinton, David R.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

2011-01-01

61

Cortisol's effects on hippocampal activation in depressed patients are related to alterations in memory formation  

E-print Network

Cortisol's effects on hippocampal activation in depressed patients are related to alterations Keywords: Hippocampus Cortisol Memory Depression fMRI Emotion a b s t r a c t Many investigators have hypothesized that brain response to cortisol is altered in depression. However, neural activation in response

Wisconsin at Madison, University of

62

Analysis of functional pathways altered after mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Concussive injury (or mild traumatic brain injury; mTBI) can exhibit features of focal or diffuse injury patterns. We compared and contrasted the cellular and molecular responses after mild controlled cortical impact (mCCI; a focal injury) or fluid percussion injury (FPI; a diffuse injury) in rats. The rationale for this comparative analysis was to investigate the brain's response to mild diffuse versus mild focal injury to identify common molecular changes triggered by these injury modalities and to determine the functional pathways altered after injury that may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Microarrays containing probes against 21,792 unique messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were used to investigate the changes in cortical mRNA expression levels at 3 and 24?h postinjury. Of the 354 mRNAs with significantly altered expression levels after mCCI, over 89% (316 mRNAs) were also contained within the mild FPI (mFPI) data set. However, mFPI initiated a more widespread molecular response, with over 2300 mRNAs differentially expressed. Bioinformatic analysis of annotated gene ontology molecular function and biological pathway terms showed a significant overrepresentation of genes belonging to inflammation, stress, and signaling categories in both data sets. We therefore examined changes in the protein levels of a panel of 23 cytokines and chemokines in cortical extracts using a Luminex-based bead immunoassay and detected significant increases in macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1? (CCL3), GRO-KC (CXCL1), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1?, and IL-6. Immunohistochemical localization of MIP-1? and IL-1? showed marked increases at 3?h postinjury in the cortical vasculature and microglia, respectively, that were largely resolved by 24?h postinjury. Our findings demonstrate that both focal and diffuse mTBI trigger many shared pathobiological processes (e.g., inflammatory responses) that could be targeted for mechanism-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:22913729

Redell, John B; Moore, Anthony N; Grill, Raymond J; Johnson, Daniel; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Yin; Dash, Pramod K

2013-05-01

63

Alterations in Brain and Immune Function Produced by Mindfulness RICHARD J. DAVIDSON, PHD, JON KABAT-ZINN, PHD, JESSICA SCHUMACHER, MS, MELISSA ROSENKRANZ, BA,  

E-print Network

Alterations in Brain and Immune Function Produced by Mindfulness Meditation RICHARD J. DAVIDSON performed a randomized, controlled study on the effects on brain and immune function of a well with healthy employees. Methods: We measured brain electrical activity before and immediately after, and then 4

Hunter, David

64

Experimental traumatic brain injury alters ethanol consumption and sensitivity.  

PubMed

Abstract Altered alcohol consumption patterns after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can lead to significant impairments in TBI recovery. Few preclinical models have been used to examine alcohol use across distinct phases of the post-injury period, leaving mechanistic questions unanswered. To address this, the aim of this study was to describe the histological and behavioral outcomes of a noncontusive closed-head TBI in the mouse, after which sensitivity to and consumption of alcohol were quantified, in addition to dopaminergic signaling markers. We hypothesized that TBI would alter alcohol consumption patterns and related signal transduction pathways that were congruent to clinical observations. After midline impact to the skull, latency to right after injury, motor deficits, traumatic axonal injury, and reactive astrogliosis were evaluated in C57BL/6J mice. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) accumulation was observed in white matter tracts at 6, 24, and 72?h post-TBI. Increased intensity of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity was observed by 24?h, primarily under the impact site and in the nucleus accumbens, a striatal subregion, as early as 72?h, persisting to 7 days, after TBI. At 14 days post-TBI, when mice were tested for ethanol sensitivity after acute high-dose ethanol (4?g/kg, intraperitoneally), brain-injured mice exhibited increased sedation time compared with uninjured mice, which was accompanied by deficits in striatal dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein, 32?kDa (DARPP-32) phosphorylation. At 17 days post-TBI, ethanol intake was assessed using the Drinking-in-the-Dark paradigm. Intake across 7 days of consumption was significantly reduced in TBI mice compared with sham controls, paralleling the reduction in alcohol consumption observed clinically in the initial post-injury period. These data demonstrate that TBI increases sensitivity to ethanol-induced sedation and affects downstream signaling mediators of striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission while altering ethanol consumption. Examining TBI effects on ethanol responsitivity will improve our understanding of alcohol use post-TBI in humans. PMID:24934382

Lowing, Jennifer L; Susick, Laura L; Caruso, James P; Provenzano, Anthony M; Raghupathi, Ramesh; Conti, Alana C

2014-10-15

65

Altered Pattern of Spontaneous Brain Activity in the Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: A Resting-State Functional MRI Study with Regional Homogeneity Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the pattern of spontaneous neural activity in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with and without neurocognitive dysfunction using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) with a regional homogeneity (ReHo) algorithm. Materials and Methods rs-fMRI data were acquired in 36 ESRD patients (minimal nephro-encephalopathy [MNE], n?=?19, 13 male, 37±12.07 years; non-nephro-encephalopathy [non-NE], n?=?17, 11 male, 38±12.13 years) and 20 healthy controls (13 male, 7 female, 36±10.27 years). Neuropsychological (number connection test type A [NCT-A], digit symbol test [DST]) and laboratory tests were performed in all patients. The Kendall's coefficient of concordance (KCC) was used to measure the regional homogeneity for each subject. The regional homogeneity maps were compared using ANOVA tests among MNE, non-NE, and healthy control groups and post hoc t -tests between each pair in a voxel-wise way. A multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between ReHo index and NCT-A, DST scores, serum creatinine and urea levels, disease and dialysis duration. Results Compared with healthy controls, both MNE and non-NE patients showed decreased ReHo in the multiple areas of bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal lobes. Compared with the non-NE, MNE patients showed decreased ReHo in the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL), medial frontal cortex (MFC) and left precuneus (PCu). The NCT-A scores and serum urea levels of ESRD patients negatively correlated with ReHo values in the frontal and parietal lobes, while DST scores positively correlated with ReHo values in the bilateral PCC/precuneus, MFC and inferior parietal lobe (IPL) (all P<0.05, AlphaSim corrected). No significant correlations were found between any regional ReHo values and disease duration, dialysis duration and serum creatinine values in ESRD patients (all P>0.05, AlphaSim corrected). Conclusion Diffused decreased ReHo values were found in both MNE and non-NE patients. The progressively decreased ReHo in the default mode network (DMN), frontal and parietal lobes might be trait-related in MNE. The ReHo analysis may be potentially valuable for elucidating neurocognitive abnormalities of ESRD patients and detecting the development from non-NE to MNE. PMID:23990958

Zhong, Jianhui; Qi, Rongfeng; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming

2013-01-01

66

Reduced brain functional reserve and altered functional connectivity in patients with multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Cognitive dysfunction (affecting particularly attention and working memory) occurs early in patients with multiple sclerosis. Previous studies have focused on identifying potentially adaptive functional reorganization through recruitment of new brain regions that could limit expression of these deficits. However, lesion studies remind us that functional specializations in the brain make certain brain regions necessary for a given task. We therefore have asked whether altered functional interactions between regions normally recruited provide an alternative adaptive mechanism with multiple sclerosis pathology. We used a version of the n-back task to probe working memory in patients with early multiple sclerosis. We applied a functional connectivity analysis to test whether relationships between relative activations in different brain regions change in potentially adaptive ways with multiple sclerosis. We studied 21 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls with 3T functional MRI. The two groups performed equally well on the task. Task-related activations were found in similar regions for patients and controls. However, patients showed relatively reduced activation in the superior frontal and anterior cingulate gyri (P > 0.01). Patients also showed a variable, but generally substantially smaller increase in activation than healthy controls with greater task complexity, depending on the specific brain region assessed (P < 0.001). Functional connectivity analysis defined further differences not apparent from the univariate contrast of the task-associated activation patterns. Control subjects showed significantly greater correlations between right dorsolateral prefrontal and superior frontal/anterior cingulate activations (P < 0.05). Patients showed correlations between activations in the right and left prefrontal cortices, although this relationship was not significant in healthy controls (P < 0.05). We interpret these results as showing that, while cognitive processing in the task appears to be performed using similar brain regions in patients and controls, the patients have reduced functional reserve for cognition relevant to memory. Functional connectivity analysis suggests that altered inter-hemispheric interactions between dorsal and lateral prefrontal regions may provide an adaptive mechanism that could limit clinical expression of the disease distinct from recruitment of novel processing regions. Together, these results suggest that therapeutic enhancement of the coherence of interactions between brain regions normally recruited (functional enhancement), as well as recruitment of alternative areas or use of complementary cognitive strategies (both forms of adaptive functional change), may limit expression of cognitive impairments in multiple sclerosis. PMID:16251214

Cader, Sarah; Cifelli, Alberto; Abu-Omar, Yasir; Palace, Jacqueline; Matthews, Paul M

2006-02-01

67

Transcriptional profiling reveals that C5a alters microRNA in brain endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disturbance is a crucial occurrence in many neurological diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Our previous studies showed that experimental lupus serum altered the integrity of the mouse brain endothelial layer, an important constituent of the BBB. Complement activation occurs in lupus with increased circulating complement components. Using a genomics approach, we identified the microRNA (miRNA) altered in mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd3) by lupus serum and the complement protein, C5a. Of the 318 miRNA evaluated, 23 miRNAs were altered by lupus serum and 32 were altered by C5a alone compared with controls. Seven miRNAs (P < 0·05) were differentially expressed by both treatments: mmu-miR-133a*, mmu-miR-193*, mmu-miR-26b, mmu-miR-28*, mmu-miR-320a, mmu-miR-423-3p and mmu-miR-509-5p. The microarray results were validated by quantitative RT-PCR. In line with the in vitro results, expression of miR-26b and miR-28* were also significantly up-regulated in lupus mouse brain which was reduced by C5a receptor inhibition. Target prediction analysis revealed miR gene targets encoding components involved in inflammation, matrix arrangement, and apoptosis, pathways known to play important roles in central nervous system lupus. Our findings suggest that the miRNAs reported in this study may represent novel therapeutic targets in central nervous system lupus and other similar neuroinflammatory settings. PMID:24801999

Eadon, Michael T; Jacob, Alexander; Cunningham, Patrick N; Quigg, Richard J; Garcia, Joe G N; Alexander, Jessy J

2014-11-01

68

Consumption of Fermented Milk Product With Probiotic Modulates Brain Activity  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND & AIMS Changes in gut microbiota have been reported to alter signaling mechanisms, emotional behavior, and visceral nociceptive reflexes in rodents. However, alteration of the intestinal microbiota with antibiotics or probiotics has not been shown to produce these changes in humans. We investigated whether consumption of a fermented milk product with probiotic (FMPP) for 4 weeks by healthy women altered brain intrinsic connectivity or responses to emotional attention tasks. METHODS Healthy women with no gastrointestinal or psychiatric symptoms were randomly assigned to groups given FMPP (n = 12), a nonfermented milk product (n = 11, controls), or no intervention (n = 13) twice daily for 4 weeks. The FMPP contained Bifidobacterium animalis subsp Lactis, Streptococcus thermophiles, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Lactococcus lactis subsp Lactis. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after the intervention to measure brain response to an emotional faces attention task and resting brain activity. Multivariate and region of interest analyses were performed. RESULTS FMPP intake was associated with reduced task-related response of a distributed functional network (49% cross-block covariance; P = .004) containing affective, viscerosensory, and somatosensory cortices. Alterations in intrinsic activity of resting brain indicated that ingestion of FMPP was associated with changes in midbrain connectivity, which could explain the observed differences in activity during the task. CONCLUSIONS Four-week intake of an FMPP by healthy women affected activity of brain regions that control central processing of emotion and sensation. PMID:23474283

TILLISCH, KIRSTEN; LABUS, JENNIFER; KILPATRICK, LISA; JIANG, ZHIGUO; STAINS, JEAN; EBRAT, BAHAR; GUYONNET, DENIS; LEGRAIN-RASPAUD, SOPHIE; TROTIN, BEATRICE; NALIBOFF, BRUCE; MAYER, EMERAN A.

2013-01-01

69

Alcohol-induced oxidative/nitrosative stress alters brain mitochondrial membrane properties.  

PubMed

Chronic alcohol consumption causes numerous biochemical and biophysical changes in the central nervous system, in which mitochondria is the primary organelle affected. In the present study, we hypothesized that alcohol alters the mitochondrial membrane properties and leads to mitochondrial dysfunction via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Alcohol-induced hypoxia further enhances these effects. Administration of alcohol to rats significantly increased the mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation with decreased SOD2 mRNA and protein expression was decreased, while nitric oxide (NO) levels and expression of iNOS and nNOS in brain cortex were increased. In addition, alcohol augmented HIF-1? mRNA and protein expression in the brain cortex. Results from this study showed that alcohol administration to rats decreased mitochondrial complex I, III, IV activities, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity and cardiolipin content with increased anisotropic value. Cardiolipin regulates numerous enzyme activities, especially those related to oxidative phosphorylation and coupled respiration. In the present study, decreased cardiolipin could be ascribed to ROS/RNS-induced damage. In conclusion, alcohol-induced ROS/RNS is responsible for the altered mitochondrial membrane properties, and alcohol-induced hypoxia further enhance these alterations, which ultimately leads to mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:23212448

Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Kavitha, Godugu; Saradamma, Bulle; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula

2013-03-01

70

Alteration and Reorganization of Functional Networks: A New Perspective in Brain Injury Study  

PubMed Central

Plasticity is the mechanism underlying the brain’s potential capability to compensate injury. Recently several studies have shown how functional connections among the brain areas are severely altered by brain injury and plasticity leading to a reorganization of the networks. This new approach studies the impact of brain injury by means of alteration of functional interactions. The concept of functional connectivity refers to the statistical interdependencies between physiological time series simultaneously recorded in various areas of the brain and it could be an essential tool for brain functional studies, being its deviation from healthy reference an indicator for damage. In this article, we review studies investigating functional connectivity changes after brain injury and subsequent recovery, providing an accessible introduction to common mathematical methods to infer functional connectivity, exploring their capabilities, future perspectives, and clinical uses in brain injury studies. PMID:21960965

Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Bajo, Ricardo; Cuesta, Pablo; Villacorta-Atienza, Jose Antonio; Paul, Nuria; Garcia-Prieto, Juan; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

2011-01-01

71

Perinatal exposure to lead: reduction in alterations of brain mitochondrial antioxidant system with calcium supplement.  

PubMed

Lead (Pb) is a potent neurotoxicant that causes several neurochemical and behavioral alterations. Previous studies showed that the gestational and lactational exposure to Pb reduces the cholinergic and aminergic systems, and behavior of rats. The present study was designed to examine the protective effects of calcium supplementation against Pb-induced oxidative stress in cerebellum and hippocampus of brain at postnatal day (PND) 21, PND 28, PND 35, and PND 60. Pregnant rats were exposed to 0.2 % Pb (Pb acetate in drinking water) from gestational day 6 (GD 6) and pups were exposed through maternal milk till weaning (PND 21). We found that the activity of serum ceruloplasmin oxidase (Cp), mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), copper zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and xanthine oxidase (XO) enzyme activities were decreased, whereas the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased in the cerebellum and hippocampus of Pb-exposed rats. These changes were more prominent at PND 35 and greater in hippocampus compared to cerebellum. Among the enzyme activities, Mn-SOD and Cu/Zn-SOD showed maximum decrease compared to GPx, CAT, XO, and Cp. Furthermore, 0.02 % calcium supplementation together with 0.2 % Pb significantly reversed the Pb-induced alterations in the enzyme activities, and MDA levels. In conclusion, these data suggest that early life exposure to Pb induce alterations in the mitochondrial antioxidant system of brain regions which remain for long even after Pb exposure has stopped. Calcium supplementation may potentially be beneficial in treating Pb toxicity in the developing rat brain. PMID:25161091

Gottipolu, Rajarami Reddy; Davuljigari, Chand Basha

2014-12-01

72

Right Brain Activities to Improve Analytical Thinking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Schools tend to have a built-in bias toward left brain activities (tasks that are linear and sequential in nature), so the introduction of right brain activities (functions related to music, rhythm, images, color, imagination, daydreaming, dimensions) brings a balance into the classroom and helps those students who may be right brain oriented. To…

Lynch, Marion E.

73

Ketogenic diet alters dopaminergic activity in the mouse cortex.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to determine if the ketogenic diet altered basal levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in mice. The catecholamines dopamine (DA) and norephinephrine (NE) and the indolamine serotonin (5HT) were quantified postmortem in six different brain regions of adult mice fed a ketogenic diet for 3 weeks. The dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA) were also measured. Tissue punches were collected bilaterally from the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, nucleus accumbens, anterior caudate-putamen, posterior caudate-putamen and the midbrain. Dopaminergic activity, as measured by the dopamine metabolites to dopamine content ratio - ([DOPAC]+[HVA])/[DA] - was significantly increased in the motor and somatosensory cortex regions of mice fed the ketogenic diet when compared to those same areas in brains of mice fed a normal diet. These results indicate that the ketogenic diet alters the activity of the meso-cortical dopaminergic system, which may contribute to the diet's therapeutic effect in reducing epileptic seizure activity. PMID:24769322

Church, William H; Adams, Ryan E; Wyss, Livia S

2014-06-13

74

Alteration of Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity by Retroviral Infection  

PubMed Central

The blood–brain barrier (BBB), which forms the interface between the blood and the cerebral parenchyma, has been shown to be disrupted during retroviral-associated neuromyelopathies. Human T Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1) Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with BBB breakdown. The BBB is composed of three cell types: endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Although astrocytes have been shown to be infected by HTLV-1, until now, little was known about the susceptibility of BBB endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection and the impact of such an infection on BBB function. We first demonstrated that human cerebral endothelial cells express the receptors for HTLV-1 (GLUT-1, Neuropilin-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans), both in vitro, in a human cerebral endothelial cell line, and ex vivo, on spinal cord autopsy sections from HAM/TSP and non-infected control cases. In situ hybridization revealed HTLV-1 transcripts associated with the vasculature in HAM/TSP. We were able to confirm that the endothelial cells could be productively infected in vitro by HTLV-1 and that blocking of either HSPGs, Neuropilin 1 or Glut1 inhibits this process. The expression of the tight-junction proteins within the HTLV-1 infected endothelial cells was altered. These cells were no longer able to form a functional barrier, since BBB permeability and lymphocyte passage through the monolayer of endothelial cells were increased. This work constitutes the first report of susceptibility of human cerebral endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection, with implications for HTLV-1 passage through the BBB and subsequent deregulation of the central nervous system homeostasis. We propose that the susceptibility of cerebral endothelial cells to retroviral infection and subsequent BBB dysfunction is an important aspect of HAM/TSP pathogenesis and should be considered in the design of future therapeutics strategies. PMID:19008946

Afonso, Philippe V.; Ozden, Simona; Cumont, Marie-Christine; Seilhean, Danielle; Cartier, Luis; Rezaie, Payam; Mason, Sarah; Lambert, Sophie; Huerre, Michel; Gessain, Antoine; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Pique, Claudine

2008-01-01

75

Effects of organoselenium compounds on early and late brain biochemical alterations in sepsis-survivor rats.  

PubMed

Studies have consistently reported the participation of oxidative stress, energetic metabolism impairment, and creatine kinase (CK) activity alterations in rat brain in early times in an animal model of sepsis and persist for up to 10 days. We have assessed the antioxidant effects of administration of Ebselen (Eb) e diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 two organoselenium compounds on brain oxidative stress, energetic metabolism, and CK activity 12, 24 h, and 10 days after sepsis by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP) in rats. Male Wistar rats underwent either sham operation or CLP and were treated with oral injection of Eb (50 mg/kg) or (PhSe)2 (50 mg/kg) or vehicle. 12, 24 h, and 10 days after CLP, the rats were sacrificed, and samples from brain (hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, and cortex) were obtained and assayed for thiobarbituric acid reactive species and protein carbonyls formation, mitochondrial respiratory chain, and CK activity. We observed in the results a reduction of oxidative damage to lipids and proteins in the different cerebral structures studied and times with the administration of (PhSe)2; however, Eb seems to exert the same effect. Such changes are reflected in the assessment of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes by reversing the decreased activity of the complex caused by the model of CLP and CK activity. Our data provide the first experimental demonstration that (PhSe)2 was able to reduce the brain dysfunction associated with CLP-induced sepsis in rats, by decreasing oxidative stress parameters mitochondrial dysfunction and CK activity in early times and in late time. PMID:24824533

Silvestre, Fernanda; Danielski, Lucinéia Gainski; Michels, Monique; Florentino, Drielly; Vieira, Andriele; Souza, Luana; Cardoso, Larissa Colonetti; Schraiber, Rosiane; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza; Vuolo, Francieli; da Rocha, Joao Batista; Barichello, Tatiana; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Petronilho, Fabricia

2014-11-01

76

Rat brain docosahexaenoic acid metabolism is not altered by a 6 day intracerebral ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide  

PubMed Central

In a rat model of neuroinflammation, produced by a 6-day intracerebral ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we reported that the brain concentrations of non-esterified brain arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 n-6) and its eicosanoid products PGE2 and PGD2 were increased, as were AA turnover rates in certain brain phospholipids and the activity of AA-selective cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). The activity of Ca2+-independent iPLA2, which is thought to be selective for the release of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) from membrane phospholipid, was unchanged. In the present study, we measured parameters of brain DHA metabolism in comparable artificial cerebrospinal fluid (control) and LPS-infused rats. In contrast to the reported changes in markers of AA metabolism, the brain non-esterified DHA concentration and DHA turnover rates in individual phospholipids were not significantly altered by LPS infusion. The formation rates of AA-CoA and DHA-CoA in a microsomal brain fraction were also unaltered by the LPS infusion. These observations indicate that LPS-treatment upregulates markers of brain AA but not DHA metabolism. All of which are consistent with other evidence that suggest different sets of enzymes regulate AA and DHA recycling within brain phospholipids and that only selective increases in brain AA metabolism occur following a 6 day LPS infusion. PMID:20026368

Rosenberger, Thad A.; Villacreses, Nelly E.; Weis, Margaret T.; Rapoport, Stanley I.

2010-01-01

77

Altered brain sodium channel transcript levels in human epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal, and perhaps pathological, characteristics of neuronal excitability are related to the distribution and density of voltage-gated ion channels such as the sodium channel. We studied normal and epileptic human brain using the ligase detection reaction to measure the relative quantities of mRNAs encoding sodium channel subtypes 1 and 2. Normal brains exhibited characteristic 1:2 ratios which varied by brain

Anthony J. Lombardo; Ruben Kuzniecky; Richard E. Powers; George B. Brown

1996-01-01

78

Intrahippocampal Infusion of Crotamine Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Alters Plasma and Brain Biochemical Parameters.  

PubMed

Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h or 21 days after infusion. Plasma and brain tissue were collected for biochemical analysis. Complete blood count, creatinine, urea, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), creatine-kinase (CK), creatine kinase-muscle B (CK-MB) and oxidative parameters (assessed by DNA damage and micronucleus frequency in leukocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in plasma and brain) were quantified. Unpaired and paired t-tests were used for comparisons between saline and crotamine groups, and within groups (24 h vs. 21 days), respectively. After 24 h crotamine infusion promoted an increase of urea, GOT, GPT, CK, and platelets values (p ? 0.01), while red blood cells, hematocrit and leukocytes values decreased (p ? 0.01). Additionally, 21 days after infusion crotamine group showed increased creatinine, leukocytes, TBARS (plasma and brain), carbonyl (plasma and brain) and micronucleus compared to the saline-group (p ? 0.01). Our findings show that crotamine infusion alter hematological parameters and cardiac markers, as well as oxidative parameters, not only in the brain, but also in the blood, indicating a systemic pro-inflammatory and toxicological activity. A further scientific attempt in terms of preserving the beneficial activity over toxicity is required. PMID:25380458

Gonçalves, Rithiele; Vargas, Liane S; Lara, Marcus V S; Güllich, Angélica; Mandredini, Vanusa; Ponce-Soto, Luis; Marangoni, Sergio; Dal Belo, Cháriston A; Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B

2014-01-01

79

Neural Activity and the Development of Brain  

E-print Network

Neural Activity and the Development of Brain Circuits Carsten D Hohnke, Massachusetts Institute, Massachusetts, USA The development of highly interconnected circuits in the brain relies on patterns of neural of fidelity during development? Among brain systems, the question has been addressed most extensively

Sur, Mriganka

80

Developmental Hypothyroidism Alters Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Expression in Adulthood.  

EPA Science Inventory

Severe developmental thyroid hormone (TH) insufficiency results in alterations in brain structure/function and lasting behavioral impairments. Environmental toxicants reduce circulating levels of TH, but the disruption is modest and the doseresponse relationships of TH and neuro...

81

Correlation between platelet and brain PLA(2) activity.  

PubMed

The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes have been implicated in several neuropsychiatry disorders and activity alterations have been described in brain and platelet. Since brain tissue is not readily available for the measurement of PLA2 activity, it would be of interest to test directly whether PLA2 activities in both tissues are correlated. We performed this task assessing PLA2 activity in platelets and hippocampus collected simultaneously from 19 patients undergoing temporal lobectomy for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Our findings suggest that total PLA2 activity in platelets may reflect the total activity of the enzyme in the brain (rs=0.59, p=0.008). However in our sample no correlations were found between the subgroups of the enzyme in brain and in platelets. This lack of correlations may be due to different effects of drug treatment on the PLA2 subtypes. In face of the difficulty to obtain brain tissues from living patients, further studies with larger drug-free samples are warranted to clarify whether the use of platelets is a reliable strategy to reflect the subtypes of PLA2 activity in the brain. PMID:23880350

Talib, Leda L; Valente, Kette D; Vincentiis, Silvia; Gattaz, Wagner F

2013-09-01

82

Epileptic seizures induce structural and functional alterations on brain tissue membranes.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is characterized by disruption of balance between cerebral excitation and inhibition, leading to recurrent and unprovoked convulsions. Studies are still underway to understand mechanisms lying epileptic seizures with the aim of improving treatment strategies. In this context, the research on brain tissue membranes gains importance for generation of epileptic activities. In order to provide additional information for this field, we have investigated the effects of pentylenetetrazol-induced and audiogenetically susceptible epileptic seizures on structure, content and function of rat brain membrane components using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The findings have shown that both two types of epileptic seizures stimulate the variations in the molecular organization of membrane lipids, which have potential to influence the structures in connection with functions of membrane proteins. Moreover, less fluid lipid structure and a decline in content of lipids obtained from the ratio of CH3 asym/lipid, CH2 asym/lipid, CO/lipid, and olefinicCH/lipid and the areas of the PO2 symmetric and asymmetric modes were observed. Moreover, based on IR data the changes in the conformation of proteins were predicted by neural network (NN) analysis, and displayed as an increase in random coil despite a decrease in beta sheet. Depending on spectral parameters, we have successfully differentiated treated samples from the control by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. In summary, FT-IR spectroscopy may offer promising attempt to identify compositional, structural and functional alterations in brain tissue membranes resulting from epileptic activities. PMID:25194682

Turker, Sevgi; Severcan, Mete; Ilbay, Gul; Severcan, Feride

2014-12-01

83

Effects of Cathepsin B and L Inhibition on Postischemic Protein Alterations in the Brain  

PubMed Central

The effects of selective inhibition of cathepsins B and L on postischemic protein alterations in the brain were investigated in a rat model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Cathepsin B activity increased predominantly in the subcortical region of the ischemic hemisphere where the levels of collapsing mediator response protein 2, heat shock cognate 70 kDa protein, 60 kDa heat shock protein, protein disulfide isomerase A3 and albumin, were found to be significantly elevated. Postischemic treatment with Cbz-Phe-Ser(OBzl)-CHN2, cysteine protease inhibitor 1 (CP-1), reduced infarct volume, neurological deficits and cathepsin B activity as well as the amount of heat shock proteins and albumin found in the brain. Our data strongly suggests that the decrease in heat shock protein levels and the significant reduction of serum albumin leakage into the brain following acute treatment with CP-1 is indicative of less secondary ischemic damage, which ultimately, is related to less cerebral tissue loss and improved neurological recovery of the animals. PMID:18060871

Anagli, John; Abounit, Kadija; Stemmer, Paul; Han, Yuxia; Allred, Lisa; Weinsheimer, Shantel; Movsisyan, Ashkhen; Seyfried, Donald

2009-01-01

84

Chronic hyperammonemia alters protein phosphorylation and glutamate receptor-associated signal transduction in brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is substantial evidence that hyperammonemia is one of the main factors contributing to the neurological alterations found in hepatic encephalopathy. The mechanisms by which chronic moderate hyperammonemia affects brain function involves alterations in neurotransmission at different steps. This article reviews the effects of hyperammonemia on phosphorylation of key brain proteins involved in neurotransmission (the microtubule-associated protein (MAP-2), Na+\\/K+-ATPase and

Regina Corbalán; Mariluz Hernández-Viadel; Marta Llansola; Carmina Montoliu; Vicente Felipo

2002-01-01

85

In vivo evidence of global and focal brain alterations in anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain alterations are known to be associated with anorexia nervosa (AN) and tend to be distributed across brain structures, with only a few reports describing focal damage. Magnetic resonance images of 21 anorexic patients with different disease duration and 27 control subjects were acquired and compared using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Patients had a significant reduction of total white matter (WM)

Andrea Boghi; Sara Sterpone; Stefano Sales; Federico D'Agata; Gianni Boris Bradac; Giuseppina Zullo; Donato Munno

2011-01-01

86

Probing Brain Reward System Function in Major Depressive Disorder: Altered Response to Dextroamphetamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The state of the brain reward system in major depressive disorder was assessed with dextroam- phetamine, which probes the release of dopamine within the mesocorticolimbic system, a major component of the brain reward system, and produces measurable behav- ioral changes, including rewarding effects (eg, eupho- ria). We hypothesized that depressed individuals would exhibit an altered response to dextroamphetamine due

Lescia K. Tremblay; Claudio A. Naranjo; Laura Cardenas; Nathan Herrmann; Usoa E. Busto

2002-01-01

87

r Human Brain Mapping 00:000000 (2012) r Key Functional Circuitry Altered in Schizophrenia  

E-print Network

r Human Brain Mapping 00:000­000 (2012) r Key Functional Circuitry Altered in Schizophrenia functional and structural changes in the brain in schizophrenia are of most importance, although the main schizophrenia patients, and func- tional connectivity changes were analyzed using resting-state fMRI data from

Feng, Jianfeng

88

Perinatal Risk Factors Altering Regional Brain Structure in the Preterm Infant  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neuroanatomical structure appears to be altered in preterm infants, but there has been little insight into the major perinatal risk factors associated with regional cerebral structural alterations. MR images were taken to quantitatively compare regional brain tissue volumes between term and preterm infants and to investigate associations between…

Thompson, Deanne K.; Warfield, Simon K.; Carlin, John B.; Pavlovic, Masa; Wang, Hong X.; Bear, Merilyn; Kean, Michael J.; Doyle, Lex W.; Egan, Gary F.; Inder, Terrie E.

2007-01-01

89

Chronic Alcohol Drinking Alters Neuronal Dendritic Spines in the Brain Reward Center Nucleus Accumbens  

E-print Network

Zhou et al 1 Chronic Alcohol Drinking Alters Neuronal Dendritic Spines in the Brain Reward Center Running Title: Chronic Alcohol Alters Neurodendritic Structure 9 figures and 1 table Send all of Neuroscience For Peer Review Only #12;Zhou et al 2 ABSTRACT Alcohol is known to affect glutamate transmission

New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

90

Sustained deep-tissue pain alters functional brain connectivity  

PubMed Central

Recent functional brain connectivity studies have contributed to our understanding of the neurocircuitry supporting pain perception. However, evoked-pain connectivity studies have employed cutaneous and/or brief stimuli, which induce sensations that differ appreciably from the clinical pain experience. Sustained myofascial pain evoked by pressure cuff affords an excellent opportunity to evaluate functional connectivity change to more clinically-relevant sustained deep-tissue pain. Connectivity in specific networks known to be modulated by evoked pain (sensorimotor, salience, dorsal attention, fronto-parietal control and default mode networks; SMN, SLN, DAN, FCN and DMN) was evaluated with functional-connectivity MRI, both at rest and during a sustained (6-minute) pain state in healthy adults. We found that pain was stable with no significant changes of subjects’ pain ratings over the stimulation period. Sustained pain reduced connectivity between the SMN and the contralateral leg primary sensorimotor (S1/M1) representation. Such SMN-S1/M1 connectivity decreases were also accompanied by and correlated with increased SLN-S1/M1 connectivity, suggesting recruitment of activated S1/M1 from SMN to SLN. Sustained pain also increased DAN connectivity to pain processing regions such as mid-cingulate cortex, posterior insula and putamen. Moreover, greater connectivity during pain between contralateral S1/M1 and posterior insula, thalamus, putamen, and amygdala, was associated with lower cuff pressures needed to reach the targeted pain sensation. These results demonstrate that sustained pain disrupts resting S1/M1 connectivity by shifting it to a network known to process stimulus salience. Furthermore, increased connectivity between S1/M1 and both sensory and affective processing areas may be an important contribution to inter-individual differences in pain sensitivity. PMID:23718988

Kim, Jieun; Loggia, Marco L.; Edwards, Robert; Wasan, Ajay D.; Gollub, Randy L.; Napadow, Vitaly

2013-01-01

91

Myelin alters the inflammatory phenotype of macrophages by activating PPARs  

PubMed Central

Background Foamy macrophages, containing myelin degradation products, are abundantly found in active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Recent studies have described an altered phenotype of macrophages after myelin internalization. However, mechanisms by which myelin affects the phenotype of macrophages and how this phenotype influences lesion progression remain unclear. Results We demonstrate that myelin as well as phosphatidylserine (PS), a phospholipid found in myelin, reduce nitric oxide production by macrophages through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? (PPAR?/?). Furthermore, uptake of PS by macrophages, after intravenous injection of PS-containing liposomes (PSLs), suppresses the production of inflammatory mediators and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. The protective effect of PSLs in EAE animals is associated with a reduced immune cell infiltration into the central nervous system and decreased splenic cognate antigen specific proliferation. Interestingly, PPAR?/? is activated in foamy macrophages in active MS lesions, indicating that myelin also activates PPAR?/? in macrophages in the human brain. Conclusion Our data show that myelin modulates the phenotype of macrophages by PPAR activation, which may subsequently dampen MS lesion progression. Moreover, our results suggest that myelin-derived PS mediates PPAR?/? activation in macrophages after myelin uptake. The immunoregulatory impact of naturally-occurring myelin lipids may hold promise for future MS therapeutics. PMID:24252308

2013-01-01

92

Altered effective connectivity of default model brain network underlying amnestic MCI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the transitional, heterogeneous continuum from healthy elderly to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have shown that brain functional activity in the default mode network (DMN) is impaired in MCI patients. However, the altered effective connectivity of the DMN in MCI patients remains largely unknown. The present study combined an independent component analysis (ICA) approach with Granger causality analysis (mGCA) to investigate the effective connectivity within the DMN in 12 amnestic MCI patients and 12 age-matched healthy elderly. Compared to the healthy control, the MCI exhibited decreased functional activity in the posterior DMN regions, as well as a trend towards activity increases in anterior DMN regions. Results from mGCA further supported this conclusion that the causal influence projecting to the precuneus/PCC became much weaker in MCI, while stronger interregional interactions emerged within the frontal-parietal cortices. These findings suggested that abnormal effective connectivity within the DMN may elucidate the dysfunctional and compensatory processes in MCI brain networks.

Yan, Hao; Wang, Yonghui; Tian, Jie

2012-02-01

93

Repeated Stimulus Exposure Alters the Way Sound Is Encoded in the Human Brain  

PubMed Central

Auditory training programs are being developed to remediate various types of communication disorders. Biological changes have been shown to coincide with improved perception following auditory training so there is interest in determining if these changes represent biologic markers of auditory learning. Here we examine the role of stimulus exposure and listening tasks, in the absence of training, on the modulation of evoked brain activity. Twenty adults were divided into two groups and exposed to two similar sounding speech syllables during four electrophysiological recording sessions (24 hours, one week, and up to one year later). In between each session, members of one group were asked to identify each stimulus. Both groups showed enhanced neural activity from session-to-session, in the same P2 latency range previously identified as being responsive to auditory training. The enhancement effect was most pronounced over temporal-occipital scalp regions and largest for the group who participated in the identification task. The effects were rapid and long-lasting with enhanced synchronous activity persisting months after the last auditory experience. Physiological changes did not coincide with perceptual changes so results are interpreted to mean stimulus exposure, with and without being paired with an identification task, alters the way sound is processed in the brain. The cumulative effect likely involves auditory memory; however, in the absence of training, the observed physiological changes are insufficient to result in changes in learned behavior. PMID:20421969

Tremblay, Kelly L.; Inoue, Kayo; McClannahan, Katrina; Ross, Bernhard

2010-01-01

94

Early brain injury alters the blood-brain barrier phenotype in parallel with ?-amyloid and cognitive changes in adulthood.  

PubMed

Clinical studies suggest that traumatic brain injury (TBI) hastens cognitive decline and development of neuropathology resembling brain aging. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption following TBI may contribute to the aging process by deregulating substance exchange between the brain and blood. We evaluated the effect of juvenile TBI (jTBI) on these processes by examining long-term alterations of BBB proteins, ?-amyloid (A?) neuropathology, and cognitive changes. A controlled cortical impact was delivered to the parietal cortex of male rats at postnatal day 17, with behavioral studies and brain tissue evaluation at 60 days post-injury (dpi). Immunoglobulin G extravasation was unchanged, and jTBI animals had higher levels of tight-junction protein claudin 5 versus shams, suggesting the absence of BBB disruption. However, decreased P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on cortical blood vessels indicates modifications of BBB properties. In parallel, we observed higher levels of endogenous rodent A? in several brain regions of the jTBI group versus shams. In addition at 60?dpi, jTBI animals displayed systematic search strategies rather than relying on spatial memory during the water maze. Together, these alterations to the BBB phenotype after jTBI may contribute to the accumulation of toxic products, which in turn may induce cognitive differences and ultimately accelerate brain aging. PMID:23149553

Pop, Viorela; Sorensen, Dane W; Kamper, Joel E; Ajao, David O; Murphy, M Paul; Head, Elizabeth; Hartman, Richard E; Badaut, Jérôme

2013-02-01

95

Alterations of Amino Acid Level in Depressed Rat Brain  

PubMed Central

Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and ?-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-?-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid and L-?-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant. PMID:25352755

Yang, Pei; Li, Xuechun; Tian, Jingchen; Jing, Fu; Qu, Changhai; Lin, Longfei; Zhang, Hui

2014-01-01

96

Alterations of amino Acid level in depressed rat brain.  

PubMed

Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and ?-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-?-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, ?-amino-n-butyric acid and L-?-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant. PMID:25352755

Yang, Pei; Li, Xuechun; Ni, Jian; Tian, Jingchen; Jing, Fu; Qu, Changhai; Lin, Longfei; Zhang, Hui

2014-10-01

97

Altered oscillatory brain dynamics after repeated traumatic stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Repeated traumatic experiences, e.g. torture and war, lead to functional and structural cerebral changes, which should be detectable in cortical dynamics. Abnormal slow waves produced within circumscribed brain regions during a resting state have been associated with lesioned neural circuitry in neurological disorders and more recently also in mental illness. METHODS: Using magnetoencephalographic (MEG-based) source imaging, we mapped abnormal

Iris-Tatjana Kolassa; Christian Wienbruch; Frank Neuner; Maggie Schauer; Martina Ruf; Michael Odenwald; Thomas Elbert

2007-01-01

98

Dopaminergic Challenge With Bromocriptine One Month After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Altered Working Memory and BOLD Response  

PubMed Central

Catecholamines, particularly dopamine, modulate working memory (WM). Altered sensitivity to dopamine might play a role in WM changes observed after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thirty-one healthy controls (HC) and 26 individuals with mild TBI (MTBI) 1 month after injury were challenged with bromocriptine versus placebo before administration of a verbal WM functional MRI task. Bromocriptine was associated with improved WM performance in the HC but not the MTBI group. On bromocriptine, the MTBI group showed increased activation outside of a task-specific region of interest. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that individuals with MTBI have altered responsivity to dopamine. PMID:21948888

McAllister, Thomas W.; Flashman, Laura A.; McDonald, Brenna C.; Ferrell, Richard B.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Yanofsky, Norman N.; Grove, Margaret R.; Saykin, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

99

Alterations of telomere length in human brain tumors.  

PubMed

Telomeres at the ends of human chromosomes consist of tandem hexametric (TTAGGG)n repeats, which protect them from degradation. At each cycle of cell division, most normal somatic cells lose approximately 50-100 bp of the terminal telomeric repeat DNA. Precise prediction of growth and estimation of the malignant potential of brain tumors require additional markers. DNA extraction was performed from the 51 frozen tissues, and a non-radioactive chemiluminescent assay was used for Southern blotting. One sample t-test shows highly significant difference in telomere length in meningioma and astrocytoma with normal range. According to our results, higher grades of meningioma and astrocytoma tumors show more heterogeneity in telomere length, and also it seems shortening process of telomeres is an early event in brain tumors. PMID:20373057

Kheirollahi, Majid; Mehrazin, Masoud; Kamalian, Naser; Mehdipour, Parvin

2011-09-01

100

Alterations of telomere length in human brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telomeres at the ends of human chromosomes consist of tandem hexametric (TTAGGG)n repeats, which protect them from degradation. At each cycle of cell division, most normal somatic cells lose approximately\\u000a 50–100 bp of the terminal telomeric repeat DNA. Precise prediction of growth and estimation of the malignant potential of\\u000a brain tumors require additional markers. DNA extraction was performed from the 51

Majid Kheirollahi; Masoud Mehrazin; Naser Kamalian; Parvin Mehdipour

101

Protein kinase activators alter glial cholesterol esterification  

SciTech Connect

Similar to nonneural tissues, the activity of glial acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase is controlled by a phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mechanism. Manipulation of cyclic AMP content did not alter the cellular cholesterol esterification, suggesting that cyclic AMP is not a bioregulator in this case. Therefore, the authors tested the effect of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on cellular cholesterol esterification to determine the involvement of protein kinase C. PMA has a potent effect on cellular cholesterol esterification. PMA depresses cholesterol esterification initially, but cells recover from inhibition and the result was higher cholesterol esterification, suggesting dual effects of protein kinase C. Studies of other phorbol analogues and other protein kinase C activators such as merezein indicate the involvement of protein kinase C. Oleoyl-acetyl glycerol duplicates the effect of PMA. This observation is consistent with a diacyl-glycerol-protein kinase-dependent reaction. Calcium ionophore A23187 was ineffective in promoting the effect of PMA. They concluded that a calcium-independent and protein C-dependent pathway regulated glial cholesterol esterification.

Jeng, I.; Dills, C.; Klemm, N.; Wu, C.

1986-05-01

102

Brain activation during executive processes in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia patients show some deficits in executive processes (impaired behavioural performance and abnormal brain functioning). The aim of this study is to explore the brain activity of schizophrenia patients during different inhibitory tasks. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate to investigate the restraint and deletion aspects of inhibition in 19 patients with schizophrenia and 12 normal subjects during

Aurélie Royer; Fabien Christian Georges Schneider; Anne Grosselin; Jacques Pellet; Fabrice-Guy Barral; Bernard Laurent; Denis Brouillet; François Lang

2009-01-01

103

Anger Style, Psychopathology, and Regional Brain Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and\\/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain

Jennifer L. Stewart; Rebecca Levin-Silton; Sarah M. Sass; Wendy Heller; Gregory A. Miller

2008-01-01

104

Activities That Build the Young Child's Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents 350 classroom-tested activities for use with children to create an environment that will stimulate young children's brains. Designed to be used by families, classroom teachers, family childcare providers, or others caring for young children, the book includes information on current brain research and describes interest areas in…

Gellens, Suzanne R.

105

Tests for Distributed, Nonfocal Brain Activations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most approaches to detecting changes in functional brain images assume that activations are focal or very localized. However, the brain's response to cognitive of sensorimotor challenge may be spatially or anatomically distributed. In this paper we consider the use-fulness of a test based on the mean sum of squares of statistical parametric maps. The performance of this test is evaluated

K. J. Worsley; J. B. Poline; A. C. Vandal; K. J. Friston

1995-01-01

106

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 alters expression of tight junction-associated proteins in brain microvascular endothelial cells.  

PubMed

The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) is recognized to mediate extravasation of mononuclear leukocytes into the brain during a variety of neuroinflammatory conditions. In large part produced by parenchymal neural cells during these disease states, it is unclear how this chemokine can stimulate the migration of circulating leukocytes that lie behind the highly impermeant blood-brain barrier (BBB). Based on the premise that disruption of tight junctions (TJs) could foster leukocyte extravasation, experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that MCP-1 alters the expression and/or distribution of the TJ-associated proteins zonulae occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) comprising the BBB. Exposure to MCP-1 caused a loss in immunostaining of ZO-1 at inter-endothelial junctional regions in both cultured BMEC and isolated brain microvessels, as well as a similar effect on occludin in cultured BMEC, but did not alter occludin staining in microvessels. In cellular fractionation experiments, ZO-1 associated predominantly with the detergent-resistant cytoskeletal framework (CSK) in both cultured BMEC and brain microvessels, while a slimmer majority of occludin partitioned with the CSK. Following MCP-1 exposure, ZO-1 was reduced in the CSK fraction of cultured BMEC and microvessels, with a shift of ZO-1 to the detergent-soluble fraction in both cases. Occludin exhibited a similar pattern of MCP-1-induced loss and shift from the CSK in cultured BMEC, but remained nearly constant in microvessels. Lastly, expression of caveolin-1, a major structural component of membrane microdomains thought to be functionally complexed with TJs, was additionally altered by MCP-1 treatment of both cultured BMEC and microvessels. These results indicate that, in addition to its chemotactic activity, MCP-1 might alter BBB integrity during CNS inflammation. PMID:14709405

Song, Li; Pachter, Joel S

2004-01-01

107

Altered functional and structural brain network organization in autism.  

PubMed

Structural and functional underconnectivity have been reported for multiple brain regions, functional systems, and white matter tracts in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Although recent developments in complex network analysis have established that the brain is a modular network exhibiting small-world properties, network level organization has not been carefully examined in ASD. Here we used resting-state functional MRI (n = 42 ASD, n = 37 typically developing; TD) to show that children and adolescents with ASD display reduced short and long-range connectivity within functional systems (i.e., reduced functional integration) and stronger connectivity between functional systems (i.e., reduced functional segregation), particularly in default and higher-order visual regions. Using graph theoretical methods, we show that pairwise group differences in functional connectivity are reflected in network level reductions in modularity and clustering (local efficiency), but shorter characteristic path lengths (higher global efficiency). Structural networks, generated from diffusion tensor MRI derived fiber tracts (n = 51 ASD, n = 43 TD), displayed lower levels of white matter integrity yet higher numbers of fibers. TD and ASD individuals exhibited similar levels of correlation between raw measures of structural and functional connectivity (n = 35 ASD, n = 35 TD). However, a principal component analysis combining structural and functional network properties revealed that the balance of local and global efficiency between structural and functional networks was reduced in ASD, positively correlated with age, and inversely correlated with ASD symptom severity. Overall, our findings suggest that modeling the brain as a complex network will be highly informative in unraveling the biological basis of ASD and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24179761

Rudie, J D; Brown, J A; Beck-Pancer, D; Hernandez, L M; Dennis, E L; Thompson, P M; Bookheimer, S Y; Dapretto, M

2012-01-01

108

Brain metabolite alterations and cognitive dysfunction in early Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by early cognitive decline that progresses at later stages to dementia and severe movement disorder. HD is caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine triplet-repeat expansion mutation in the Huntingtin gene, allowing early diagnosis by genetic testing. This study aimed to identify the relationship of N-acetylaspartate and other brain metabolites to cognitive function in HD-mutation carriers by using high-field-strength magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 7 Tesla. Twelve individuals with the HD mutation in premanifest or early-stage disease versus 12 healthy controls underwent (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (7.2 mL voxel in the posterior cingulate cortex) at 7 Tesla, and also T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging. All participants received standardized tests of cognitive functioning including the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and standardized quantified neurological examination within an hour before scanning. Individuals with the HD mutation had significantly lower posterior cingulate cortex N-acetylaspartate (-9.6%, P = .02) and glutamate (-10.1%, P = .02) levels than did controls. In contrast, in this small group, measures of brain morphology including striatal and ventricle volumes did not differ significantly. Linear regression with Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores revealed significant correlations with N-acetylaspartate (r(2) = 0.50, P = .01) and glutamate (NAA) (r(2) = 0.64, P = .002) in HD subjects. Our data suggest a relationship between reduced N-acetylaspartate and glutamate levels in the posterior cingulate cortex with cognitive decline in the early stages of HD. N-acetylaspartate and glutamate magnetic resonance spectroscopy signals of the posterior cingulate cortex region may serve as potential biomarkers of disease progression or treatment outcome in HD and other neurodegenerative disorders with early cognitive dysfunction, when structural brain changes are still minor. PMID:22649062

Unschuld, Paul G; Edden, Richard A E; Carass, Aaron; Liu, Xinyang; Shanahan, Megan; Wang, Xin; Oishi, Kenichi; Brandt, Jason; Bassett, Susan S; Redgrave, Graham W; Margolis, Russell L; van Zijl, Peter C M; Barker, Peter B; Ross, Christopher A

2012-06-01

109

Phylogenetic Origins of Early Alterations in Brain Region Proportions  

PubMed Central

Adult galliform birds (e.g. chickens) exhibit a relatively small telencephalon and a proportionately large optic tectum compared with parrots and songbirds. We previously examined the embryonic origins of these adult species differences and found that the optic tectum is larger in quail than in parakeets and songbirds at early stages of development, prior to tectal neurogenesis onset. The aim of this study was to determine whether a proportionately large presumptive tectum is a primitive condition within birds or a derived feature of quail and other galliform birds. To this end, we examined embryonic brains of several avian species (emus, parrots, songbirds, waterfowl, galliform birds), reptiles (3 lizard species, alligators, turtles) and a monotreme (platypuses). Brain region volumes were estimated from serial Nissl-stained sections. We found that the embryos of galliform birds and lizards exhibit a proportionally larger presumptive tectum than all the other examined species. The presumptive tectum of the platypus is unusually small. The most parsimonious interpretation of these data is that the expanded embryonic tectum of lizards and galliform birds is a derived feature in both of these taxonomic groups. PMID:20332607

Charvet, Christine J.; Sandoval, Alexis L.; Striedter, Georg F.

2010-01-01

110

Altered resting state functional brain network topology in chemotherapy-treated breast cancer survivors  

PubMed Central

Many women with breast cancer, especially those treated with chemotherapy, experience cognitive decline due in part to neurotoxic brain injury. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest widespread brain structural abnormalities pointing to disruption of large-scale brain networks. We applied resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theoretical analysis to examine the connectome in breast cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy relative to healthy comparison women. Compared to healthy females, the breast cancer group displayed altered global brain network organization characterized by significantly decreased global clustering as well as disrupted regional network characteristics in frontal, striatal and temporal areas. Breast cancer survivors also showed significantly increased self-report of executive function and memory difficulties compared to healthy females. These results suggest that topological organization of both global and regional brain network properties may be disrupted following breast cancer and chemotherapy. This pattern of altered network organization is believed to result in reduced efficiency of parallel information transfer. This is the first report of alterations in large-scale functional brain networks in this population and contributes novel information regarding the neurobiologic mechanisms underlying breast cancer-related cognitive impairment. PMID:22820143

Bruno, Jennifer; Hosseini, SM Hadi; Kesler, Shelli

2012-01-01

111

Altered Small-World Brain Networks in Schizophrenia Patients during Working Memory Performance  

PubMed Central

Impairment of working memory (WM) performance in schizophrenia patients (SZ) is well-established. Compared to healthy controls (HC), SZ patients show aberrant blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activations and disrupted functional connectivity during WM performance. In this study, we examined the small-world network metrics computed from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected as 35 HC and 35 SZ performed a Sternberg Item Recognition Paradigm (SIRP) at three WM load levels. Functional connectivity networks were built by calculating the partial correlation on preprocessed time courses of BOLD signal between task-related brain regions of interest (ROIs) defined by group independent component analysis (ICA). The networks were then thresholded within the small-world regime, resulting in undirected binarized small-world networks at different working memory loads. Our results showed: 1) at the medium WM load level, the networks in SZ showed a lower clustering coefficient and less local efficiency compared with HC; 2) in SZ, most network measures altered significantly as the WM load level increased from low to medium and from medium to high, while the network metrics were relatively stable in HC at different WM loads; and 3) the altered structure at medium WM load in SZ was related to their performance during the task, with longer reaction time related to lower clustering coefficient and lower local efficiency. These findings suggest brain connectivity in patients with SZ was more diffuse and less strongly linked locally in functional network at intermediate level of WM when compared to HC. SZ show distinctly inefficient and variable network structures in response to WM load increase, comparing to stable highly clustered network topologies in HC. PMID:22701611

He, Hao; Sui, Jing; Yu, Qingbao; Turner, Jessica A.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Sponheim, Scott R.; Manoach, Dara S.; Clark, Vincent P.; Calhoun, Vince D.

2012-01-01

112

Persistent behavioral impairments and alterations of brain dopamine system after early postnatal administration of thimerosal in rats.  

PubMed

The neurotoxic organomercurial thimerosal (THIM), used for decades as vaccine preservative, is a suspected factor in the pathogenesis of some neurodevelopmental disorders. Previously we showed that neonatal administration of THIM at doses equivalent to those used in infant vaccines or higher, causes lasting alterations in the brain opioid system in rats. Here we investigated neonatal treatment with THIM (at doses 12, 240, 1440 and 3000 ?g Hg/kg) on behaviors, which are characteristically altered in autism, such as locomotor activity, anxiety, social interactions, spatial learning, and on the brain dopaminergic system in Wistar rats of both sexes. Adult male and female rats, which were exposed to the entire range of THIM doses during the early postnatal life, manifested impairments of locomotor activity and increased anxiety/neophobia in the open field test. In animals of both sexes treated with the highest THIM dose, the frequency of prosocial interactions was reduced, while the frequency of asocial/antisocial interactions was increased in males, but decreased in females. Neonatal THIM treatment did not significantly affect spatial learning and memory. THIM-exposed rats also manifested reduced haloperidol-induced catalepsy, accompanied by a marked decline in the density of striatal D? receptors, measured by immunohistochemical staining, suggesting alterations to the brain dopaminergic system. Males were more sensitive than females to some neurodisruptive/neurotoxic actions of THIM. These data document that early postnatal THIM administration causes lasting neurobehavioral impairments and neurochemical alterations in the brain, dependent on dose and sex. If similar changes occur in THIM/mercurial-exposed children, they could contribute do neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:21549155

Olczak, Mieszko; Duszczyk, Michalina; Mierzejewski, Pawel; Meyza, Ksenia; Majewska, Maria Dorota

2011-09-30

113

Pain reactivity in Alzheimer patients with different degrees of cognitive impairment and brain electrical activity deterioration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain perception and autonomic responses to pain are known to be altered in dementia, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) whose cognitive status was assessed through the Mini Mental State Examination test and whose brain electrical activity was measured by means of quantitative electroencephalography. After assessment of both cognitive impairment and brain electrical

Fabrizio Benedetti; Claudia Arduino; Sergio Vighetti; Giovanni Asteggiano; Luisella Tarenzi; Innocenzo Rainero

2004-01-01

114

Subtle Alterations in Brain Anatomy May Change an Individual's Personality in Chronic Pain  

PubMed Central

It is well established that gross prefrontal cortex damage can affect an individual’s personality. It is also possible that subtle prefrontal cortex changes associated with conditions such as chronic pain, and not detectable until recent advances in human brain imaging, may also result in subtle changes in an individual’s personality. In an animal model of chronic neuropathic pain, subtle prefrontal cortex changes including altered basal dendritic length, resulted in altered decision making ability. Using multiple magnetic resonance imaging techniques, we found in humans, although gray matter volume and on-going activity were unaltered, chronic neuropathic pain was associated with reduced free and bound proton movement, indicators of subtle anatomical changes, in the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and mediodorsal thalamus. Furthermore, proton spectroscopy revealed an increase in neural integrity in the medial prefrontal cortex in neuropathic pain patients, the degree of which was significantly correlated to the personality temperament of novelty seeking. These data reveal that even subtle changes in prefrontal cortex anatomy may result in a significant change in an individual’s personality. PMID:25291361

Gustin, Sylvia M.; McKay, Jamie G.; Petersen, Esben T.; Peck, Chris C.; Murray, Greg M.; Henderson, Luke A.

2014-01-01

115

Brain grey matter volume alterations in late-life depression  

PubMed Central

Background Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have demonstrated that grey matter abnormalities are involved in the pathophysiology of late-life depression (LLD), but the findings are inconsistent and have not been quantitatively reviewed. The aim of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis that integrated the reported VBM studies, to determine consistent grey matter alterations in individuals with LLD. Methods A systematic search was conducted to identify VBM studies that compared patients with LLD and healthy controls. We performed a meta-analysis using the effect size signed differential mapping method to quantitatively estimate regional grey matter abnormalities in patients with LLD. Results We included 9 studies with 11 data sets comprising 292 patients with LLD and 278 healthy controls in our meta-analysis. The pooled and subgroup meta-analyses showed robust grey matter reductions in the right lentiform nucleus extending into the parahippocampus, the hippocampus and the amygdala, the bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the right subcallosal gyrus as well as a grey matter increase in the right lingual gyrus. Meta-regression analyses showed that mean age and the percentage of female patients with LLD were not significantly related to grey matter changes. Limitations The analysis techniques, patient characteristics and clinical variables of the studies included were heterogeneous, and most participants were medicated. Conclusion The present meta-analysis is, to our knowledge, the first to overcome previous inconsistencies in the VBM studies of LLD and provide robust evidence for grey matter alterations within fronto–striatal–limbic networks, thereby implicating them in the pathophysiology of LLD. The mean age and the percentage of female patients with LLD did not appear to have a measurable impact on grey matter changes, although we cannot rule out the contributory effects of medication. PMID:24949867

Du, Mingying; Liu, Jia; Chen, Ziqi; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Jing; Kuang, Weihong; Yang, Yanchun; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Dong; Bi, Feng; Kendrick, Keith Maurice; Gong, Qiyong

2014-01-01

116

Brain arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid cascades are selectively altered by drugs, diet and disease.  

PubMed

Metabolic cascades involving arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) within brain can be independently targeted by drugs, diet and pathological conditions. Thus, AA turnover and brain expression of AA-selective cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)), but not DHA turnover or expression of DHA-selective Ca(2+)-independent iPLA(2), are reduced in rats given agents effective against bipolar disorder mania, whereas experimental excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation selectively increase brain AA metabolism. Furthermore, the brain AA and DHA cascades are altered reciprocally by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deprivation in rats. DHA loss from brain is slowed and iPLA(2) expression is decreased, whereas cPLA(2) and COX-2 are upregulated, as are brain concentrations of AA and its elongation product, docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Positron emission tomography (PET) has shown that the normal human brain consumes 17.8 and 4.6 mg/day, respectively, of AA and DHA, and that brain AA consumption is increased in Alzheimer disease patients. In the future, PET could help to determine how human brain AA or DHA consumption is influenced by diet, aging or disease. PMID:18973997

Rapoport, Stanley I

2008-01-01

117

DRR regulates AKT activation to drive brain cancer invasion.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and invasive adult brain cancer. The rapid invasion of cancer cells into the normal brain is a major cause of treatment failure, yet the mechanisms that regulate this process are poorly understood. We have identified a novel mechanism of brain cancer invasion. We show that downregulated in renal cell carcinoma (DRR), which is newly expressed in invasive gliomas, recruits AKT to focal adhesions. This DRR- induced pathological relocalization of AKT bypasses commonly altered upstream signaling events and leads to AKT activation and invasion. We also developed an oligonucleotide therapeutic that reduces DRR expression and prevents glioma invasion in an in vivo preclinical model of the disease. Our findings identify DRR as a novel GBM target and show that oligonucleotides targeting DRR is a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of DRR-positive GBMs. PMID:24141773

Dudley, A; Sater, M; Le, P U; Trinh, G; Sadr, M S; Bergeron, J; Deleavey, G F; Bedell, B; Damha, M J; Petrecca, K

2014-10-01

118

Altered processing of sweet taste in the brain of diet soda drinkers.  

PubMed

Artificially sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, and it has been hypothesized that considerable exposure to nonnutritive sweeteners may be associated with impaired energy regulation. The reward system plays an integral role in modulating energy intake, but little is known about whether habitual use of artificial sweetener (i.e., diet soda consumption) may be related to altered reward processing of sweet taste in the brain. To investigate this, we examined fMRI response after a 12-hour fast to sucrose (a nutritive sweetener) and saccharin (a nonnutritive sweetener) during hedonic evaluation in young adult diet soda drinkers and non-diet soda drinkers. Diet soda drinkers demonstrated greater activation to sweet taste in the dopaminergic midbrain (including ventral tegmental area) and right amygdala. Saccharin elicited a greater response in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 47) relative to sucrose in non-diet soda drinkers. There was no difference in fMRI response to the nutritive or nonnutritive sweetener for diet soda drinkers. Within the diet soda drinkers, fMRI activation of the right caudate head in response to saccharin was negatively associated with the amount of diet sodas consumed per week; individuals who consumed a greater number of diet sodas had reduced caudate head activation. These findings suggest that there are alterations in reward processing of sweet taste in individuals who regularly consume diet soda, and this is associated with the degree of consumption. These findings may provide some insight into the link between diet soda consumption and obesity. PMID:22583859

Green, Erin; Murphy, Claire

2012-11-01

119

Alterations in Brain Connectivity Underlying Beta Oscillations in Parkinsonism  

PubMed Central

Cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits are severely disrupted by the dopamine depletion of Parkinson's disease (PD), leading to pathologically exaggerated beta oscillations. Abnormal rhythms, found in several circuit nodes are correlated with movement impairments but their neural basis remains unclear. Here, we used dynamic causal modelling (DCM) and the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat model of PD to examine the effective connectivity underlying these spectral abnormalities. We acquired auto-spectral and cross-spectral measures of beta oscillations (10–35 Hz) from local field potential recordings made simultaneously in the frontal cortex, striatum, external globus pallidus (GPe) and subthalamic nucleus (STN), and used these data to optimise neurobiologically plausible models. Chronic dopamine depletion reorganised the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuit, with increased effective connectivity in the pathway from cortex to STN and decreased connectivity from STN to GPe. Moreover, a contribution analysis of the Parkinsonian circuit distinguished between pathogenic and compensatory processes and revealed how effective connectivity along the indirect pathway acquired a strategic importance that underpins beta oscillations. In modelling excessive beta synchrony in PD, these findings provide a novel perspective on how altered connectivity in basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits reflects a balance between pathogenesis and compensation, and predicts potential new therapeutic targets to overcome dysfunctional oscillations. PMID:21852943

Moran, Rosalyn J.; Mallet, Nicolas; Litvak, Vladimir; Dolan, Raymond J.; Magill, Peter J.; Friston, Karl J.; Brown, Peter

2011-01-01

120

Genetic deletion of Rheb1 in the brain reduces food intake and causes hypoglycemia with altered peripheral metabolism.  

PubMed

Excessive food/energy intake is linked to obesity and metabolic disorders, such as diabetes. The hypothalamus in the brain plays a critical role in the control of food intake and peripheral metabolism. The signaling pathways in hypothalamic neurons that regulate food intake and peripheral metabolism need to be better understood for developing pharmacological interventions to manage eating behavior and obesity. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a serine/threonine kinase, is a master regulator of cellular metabolism in different cell types. Pharmacological manipulations of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) activity in hypothalamic neurons alter food intake and body weight. Our previous study identified Rheb1 (Ras homolog enriched in brain 1) as an essential activator of mTORC1 activity in the brain. Here we examine whether central Rheb1 regulates food intake and peripheral metabolism through mTORC1 signaling. We find that genetic deletion of Rheb1 in the brain causes a reduction in mTORC1 activity and impairs normal food intake. As a result, Rheb1 knockout mice exhibit hypoglycemia and increased lipid mobilization in adipose tissue and ketogenesis in the liver. Our work highlights the importance of central Rheb1 signaling in euglycemia and energy homeostasis in animals. PMID:24451134

Yang, Wanchun; Jiang, Wanxiang; Luo, Liping; Bu, Jicheng; Pang, Dejiang; Wei, Jing; Du, Chongyangzi; Xia, Xiaoqiang; Cui, Yiyuan; Liu, Shuang; Mao, Qing; Chen, Mina

2014-01-01

121

Low levels of copper disrupt brain amyloid-? homeostasis by altering its production and clearance  

PubMed Central

Whereas amyloid-? (A?) accumulates in the brain of normal animals dosed with low levels of copper (Cu), the mechanism is not completely known. Cu could contribute to A? accumulation by altering its clearance and/or its production. Because Cu homeostasis is altered in transgenic mice overexpressing A? precursor protein (APP), the objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of Cu-induced A? accumulation in brains of normal mice and then to explore Cu’s effects in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. In aging mice, accumulation of Cu in brain capillaries was associated with its reduction in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), an A? transporter, and higher brain A? levels. These effects were reproduced by chronic dosing with low levels of Cu via drinking water without changes in A? synthesis or degradation. In human brain endothelial cells, Cu, at its normal labile levels, caused LRP1-specific down-regulation by inducing its nitrotyrosination and subsequent proteosomal-dependent degradation due in part to Cu/cellular prion protein/LRP1 interaction. In APPsw/0 mice, Cu not only down-regulated LRP1 in brain capillaries but also increased A? production and neuroinflammation because Cu accumulated in brain capillaries and, unlike in control mice, in the parenchyma. Thus, we have demonstrated that Cu’s effect on brain A? homeostasis depends on whether it is accumulated in the capillaries or in the parenchyma. These findings should provide unique insights into preventative and/or therapeutic approaches to control neurotoxic A? levels in the aging brain. PMID:23959870

Singh, Itender; Sagare, Abhay P.; Coma, Mireia; Perlmutter, David; Gelein, Robert; Bell, Robert D.; Deane, Richard J.; Zhong, Elaine; Parisi, Margaret; Ciszewski, Joseph; Kasper, R. Tristan; Deane, Rashid

2013-01-01

122

Magnetic resonance elastography reveals altered brain viscoelasticity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis?  

PubMed Central

Cerebral magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) measures the viscoelastic properties of brain tissues in vivo. It was recently shown that brain viscoelasticity is reduced in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), highlighting the potential of cerebral MRE to detect tissue pathology during neuroinflammation. To further investigate the relationship between inflammation and brain viscoelasticity, we applied MRE to a mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced and monitored by MRE in a 7-tesla animal MRI scanner over 4 weeks. At the peak of the disease (day 14 after immunization), we detected a significant decrease in both the storage modulus (G?) and the loss modulus (G?), indicating that both the elasticity and the viscosity of the brain are reduced during acute inflammation. Interestingly, these parameters normalized at a later time point (day 28) corresponding to the clinical recovery phase. Consistent with this, we observed a clear correlation between viscoelastic tissue alteration and the magnitude of perivascular T cell infiltration at both day 14 and day 28. Hence, acute neuroinflammation is associated with reduced mechanical cohesion of brain tissues. Moreover, the reduction of brain viscoelasticity appears to be a reversible process, which is restored when inflammation resolves. For the first time, our study has demonstrated the applicability of cerebral MRE in EAE, and showed that this novel imaging technology is highly sensitive to early tissue alterations resulting from the inflammatory processes. Thus, MRE may serve to monitor early stages of perivascular immune infiltration during neuroinflammation. PMID:24179740

Riek, Kerstin; Millward, Jason M.; Hamann, Isabell; Mueller, Susanne; Pfueller, Caspar F.; Paul, Friedemann; Braun, Jürgen; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Sack, Ingolf

2012-01-01

123

Altered brain response to verbal learning following sleep deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sleep deprivation on the neural substrates of cognition are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the effects of 35 hours of sleep deprivation on cerebral activation during verbal learning in normal young volunteers. On the basis of a previous hypothesis, we predicted that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) would be less responsive to

Sean P. A. Drummond; Gregory G. Brown; J. Christian Gillin; John L. Stricker; Eric C. Wong; Richard B. Buxton

2000-01-01

124

BACE1 deficiency causes altered neuronal activity and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY BACE1 is required for the release of ?–amyloid (A?) in vivo, and inhibition of BACE1 activity is targeted for reducing A? generation in Alzheimer's patients. In order to further our understanding of the safe use of BACE1 inhibitors in human patients, we aimed to study the physiological functions of BACE1 by characterizing BACE1–null mice. Here we report the finding of spontaneous behavioral seizures in BACE1–null mice. Electroencephalographic recordings revealed abnormal spike-wave discharges in BACE1–null mice, and kainic acid-induced seizures also occurred more frequently in BACE1–null mice compared to their wild-type littermates. Biochemical and morphological studies showed that axonal and surface levels of Nav1.2 were significantly elevated in BACE1–null mice, consistent with the increased fast sodium channel current recorded from BACE1–null hippocampal neurons. Patch-clamp recording also showed altered intrinsic firing properties of isolated BACE1–null hippocampal neurons. Furtherover, population spikes were significantly increased in BACE1–null brain slices, indicating hyperexcitability of BACE1–null neurons. Together, our results suggest that increased sodium channel activity contributes to the epileptic behaviors observed in BACE1–null mice. The knowledge from this study is crucial for the development of BACE1 inhibitors for Alzheimer's therapy and to the applicative study of epilepsy. PMID:20592204

Hu, Xiangyou; Zhou, Xiangdong; He, Wanxia; Yang, Jun; Xiong, Wenchen; Wong, Philip; Wilson, Christopher G.; Yan, Riqiang

2010-01-01

125

Directional Connectivity between Frontal and Posterior Brain Regions Is Altered with Increasing Concentrations of Propofol  

PubMed Central

Recent studies using electroencephalography (EEG) suggest that alteration of coherent activity between the anterior and posterior brain regions might be used as a neurophysiologic correlate of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness. One way to assess causal relationships between brain regions is given by renormalized partial directed coherence (rPDC). Importantly, directional connectivity is evaluated in the frequency domain by taking into account the whole multichannel EEG, as opposed to time domain or two channel approaches. rPDC was applied here in order to investigate propofol induced changes in causal connectivity between four states of consciousness: awake (AWA), deep sedation (SED), loss (LOC) and return of consciousness (ROC) by gathering full 10/20 system human EEG data in ten healthy male subjects. The target-controlled drug infusion was started at low rate with subsequent gradual stepwise increases at 10 min intervals in order to carefully approach LOC (defined as loss of motor responsiveness to a verbal stimulus). The direction of the causal EEG-network connections clearly changed from AWA to SED and LOC. Propofol induced a decrease (p?=?0.002–0.004) in occipital-to-frontal rPDC of 8-16 Hz EEG activity and an increase (p?=?0.001–0.040) in frontal-to-occipital rPDC of 10–20 Hz activity on both sides of the brain during SED and LOC. In addition, frontal-to-parietal rPDC within 1–12 Hz increased in the left hemisphere at LOC compared to AWA (p?=?0.003). However, no significant changes were detected between the SED and the LOC states. The observed decrease in back-to-front EEG connectivity appears compatible with impaired information flow from the posterior sensory and association cortices to the executive prefrontal areas, possibly related to decreased ability to perceive the surrounding world during sedation. The observed increase in the opposite (front-to-back) connectivity suggests a propofol concentration dependent association and is not directly related to the level of consciousness per se. PMID:25419791

Maksimow, Anu; Silfverhuth, Minna; Långsjö, Jaakko; Kaskinoro, Kimmo; Georgiadis, Stefanos; Jääskeläinen, Satu; Scheinin, Harry

2014-01-01

126

Superoxide Dismutase Activities in Aging Rat Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in cerebral cortex of rat during aging are reported. The specific activity of cytosol SOD (Cu\\/Zn dismutase) decreases progressively from the 1st to the 30th month of postnatal life, whereas the specific activity of mitochondrial SOD increases with age. The alterations in the two enzymatic forms of SOD in the cerebral cortex of rat during

A. Vanella; E. Geremia; G. D’Urso; P. Tiriolo; I. Di Silvestro; R. Grimaldi; R. Pinturo

1982-01-01

127

Decreased activity and increased aggregation of brain calcineurin during aging.  

PubMed

Age-related decline in strength of synaptic transmission and memory formation has been attributed to age-associated increases in the activity of calcineurin (Cn) in hippocampus neurons. In the present study, we examined how brain Cn activity, Cn subunit levels, and Cn protein oxidation were changing during the aging process. Cn activity decreased with advancing age in three brain subcellular fractions, homogenate, cytosol, and synaptic membranes, obtained from F344/BNF1 rats of 5-6, 22-24, and 34-36 months of age. Cn activity also decreased during aging in homogenate, cytosol, and a nerve ending-enriched fraction from the hippocampus. Cn protein levels in homogenate and cytosol, as determined by the immune reactivity of its subunits A and B, were not altered during aging. But, in synaptic membranes, there was an age-related decrease in CnA levels, but not of CnB. Another important observation was that of an oxidative modification of CnA, not CnB, with increasing age. Such modification caused the formation of large aggregates of CnA. Aggregate formation was due to SH-group oxidation as the monomeric form of CnA was recovered upon disulfide reduction of the proteins with dithiothreitol. The age-related formation of aggregates of the catalytic subunit of Cn was suggestive of a correlation between aggregate formation and diminished enzyme activity. The loss of Cn activity may alter signal transduction at synapses during the aging process. PMID:16150427

Agbas, Abdulbaki; Zaidi, Asma; Michaelis, Elias K

2005-10-12

128

Altering cannabinoid signaling during development disrupts neuronal activity  

E-print Network

interneurons neonates drug abuse Marijuana (cannabis) abuse during pregnancy represents a major health problem signaling impairs oviductal transport of embryos (1). Further- more, children of cannabis users display of the brain (2, 3). The action of cannabis in the adult brain includes the activation of presynaptic G protein

Cossart, Rosa

129

Chronic noise stress-induced alterations of glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid and their metabolism in the rat brain.  

PubMed

Chronic stress induces neurochemical changes that include neurotransmitter imbalance in the brain. Noise is an environmental factor inducing stress. Chronic noise stress affects monoamine neurotransmitter systems in the central nervous system. The effect on other excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter systems is not known. The aim was to study the role of chronic noise stress on the glutamatergic and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic systems of the brain. Female Wistar rats (155 ± 5 g) were unintentionally exposed to noise due to construction (75-95 db, 3-4 hours/day, 5 days a week for 7-8 weeks) in the vicinity of the animal care facility. Glutamate/GABA levels and their metabolic enzymes were evaluated in different rat brain regions (cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum) and compared with age and gender matched nonexposed rats. Chronic noise stress decreased glutamate levels and glutaminase activity 27% and 33% in the cortex, 15% and 24% in the cerebellum. Glutamate levels increased 10% in the hippocampus, 28% in striatum and glutaminase activity 15% in striatum. Glutamine synthetase activity increased significantly in all brain regions studied, that is, cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cerebellum (P < 0.05). Noise stress-increased GABA levels and glutamate alpha decarboxylase activity 20% and 45% in the cortex, 13% and 28% in the hippocampus respectively. GABA levels and glutamate alpha decarboxylase activity decreased 15% and 14%, respectively in the striatum. GABA transaminase activity was significantly reduced in the cortex (55%), hippocampus (17%), and cerebellum (33%). Chronic noise stress differentially affected glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter systems in the rat brain, which may alter glutamate and GABA neurotransmission. PMID:25387529

Kazi, Amajad Iqbal; Oommen, Anna

2014-01-01

130

Brain-Specific Overexpression of Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Alters Monoaminergic Neurotransmission and Decreases Sensitivity to Amphetamine  

PubMed Central

Trace amines (TAs) such as ?-phenylethylamine, p-tyramine, or tryptamine are biogenic amines found in the brain at low concentrations that have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, depression, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. TAs are ligands for the recently identified trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), an important modulator of monoamine neurotransmission. Here, we sought to investigate the consequences of TAAR1 hypersignaling by generating a transgenic mouse line overexpressing Taar1 specifically in neurons. Taar1 transgenic mice did not show overt behavioral abnormalities under baseline conditions, despite augmented extracellular levels of dopamine and noradrenaline in the accumbens nucleus (Acb) and of serotonin in the medial prefrontal cortex. In vitro, this was correlated with an elevated spontaneous firing rate of monoaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, dorsal raphe nucleus, and locus coeruleus as the result of ectopic TAAR1 expression. Furthermore, Taar1 transgenic mice were hyposensitive to the psychostimulant effects of amphetamine, as it produced only a weak locomotor activation and failed to alter catecholamine release in the Acb. Attenuating TAAR1 activity with the selective partial agonist RO5073012 restored the stimulating effects of amphetamine on locomotion. Overall, these data show that Taar1 brain overexpression causes hyposensitivity to amphetamine and alterations of monoaminergic neurotransmission. These observations confirm the modulatory role of TAAR1 on monoamine activity and suggest that in vivo the receptor is either constitutively active and/or tonically activated by ambient levels of endogenous agonist(s). PMID:22763617

Revel, Florent G; Meyer, Claas A; Bradaia, Amyaouch; Jeanneau, Karine; Calcagno, Eleonora; Andre, Cedric B; Haenggi, Markus; Miss, Marie-Therese; Galley, Guido; Norcross, Roger D; Invernizzi, Roberto W; Wettstein, Joseph G; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Hoener, Marius C

2012-01-01

131

Evidence for altered opioid activity in patients with cancer.  

PubMed Central

Endogenous opioid peptides have been shown to be involved in the regulation of tumour growth. At present, however, no data are available about the secretion of opioid peptides in cancer patients. To draw some preliminary conclusions on opioid brain function in human neoplasms, we evaluated hypophyseal hormone responses to the administration of a met-enkephalin analogue, FK 33-824. The study included 14 patients affected by early or advanced neoplastic disease, 12 healthy subjects and 7 patients with a chronic medical illness other than cancer. FK 33-824 was given intravenously at a dose of 0.3 mg. Venous blood samples were collected at zero time, and 30, 60 and 120 min after drug administration. In each sample, PRL, GH, LH, cortisol and beta-endorphin levels were measured by RIA. In all normal subjects and in patients with non-neoplastic chronic illness, FK 33-824 induced a rise in PRL and GH levels, and a decrease in LH, cortisol and beta-endorphin. A normal endocrine response to FK 33-824 was seen in our cancer patient only, while in the other cases with tumour no hormonal changes or a paradoxical response were seen after FK 33-824. Based on the fact that an abnormal endocrine response to FK 33-824 has been described in hypothalamic-pituitary disorders, in which anomalous brain opioid activity has been demonstrated, these results suggest the existence of an altered function of the opioid system in cancer patients, the clinical importance of which remains to be determined. PMID:2963662

Lissoni, P.; Barni, S.; Paolorossi, F.; Crispino, S.; Rovelli, F.; Ferri, L.; Delitala, G.; Tancini, G.

1987-01-01

132

Thinking Patterns, Brain Activity and Strategy Choice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we analyzed the relationship between thinking patterns, behavior and associated brain activity. Subjects completed a self-report assessing whether they could voluntarily stop thinking or not, and were then divided into two groups: those with the ability to stop thinking and those without. We measured subjects' brain activity using magnetoencephalography while giving them a series of tasks intended to encourage or discourage spontaneous thinking. Our findings revealed differences between the two groups in terms of which portions of the brain were active during the two types of task. A second questionnaire confirmed a relationship between the ability to stop thinking and strategy choices in a dilemma game. We found that subjects without the ability to stop thinking had a tendency to choose cooperative behavior.

Nishimura, Kazuo; Okada, Akira; Inagawa, Michiyo; Tobinaga, Yoshikazu

2012-03-01

133

Radiation-Induced Alterations in Mouse Brain Development Characterized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify regions of altered development in the mouse brain after cranial irradiation using longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: Female C57Bl/6 mice received a whole-brain radiation dose of 7 Gy at an infant-equivalent age of 2.5 weeks. MRI was performed before irradiation and at 3 time points following irradiation. Deformation-based morphometry was used to quantify volume and growth rate changes following irradiation. Results: Widespread developmental deficits were observed in both white and gray matter regions following irradiation. Most of the affected brain regions suffered an initial volume deficit followed by growth at a normal rate, remaining smaller in irradiated brains compared with controls at all time points examined. The one exception was the olfactory bulb, which in addition to an early volume deficit, grew at a slower rate thereafter, resulting in a progressive volume deficit relative to controls. Immunohistochemical assessment revealed demyelination in white matter and loss of neural progenitor cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone. Conclusions: MRI can detect regional differences in neuroanatomy and brain growth after whole-brain irradiation in the developing mouse. Developmental deficits in neuroanatomy persist, or even progress, and may serve as useful markers of late effects in mouse models. The high-throughput evaluation of brain development enabled by these methods may allow testing of strategies to mitigate late effects after pediatric cranial irradiation.

Gazdzinski, Lisa M.; Cormier, Kyle [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)] [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Lu, Fred G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada); Lerch, Jason P. [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada) [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Nieman, Brian J., E-mail: bjnieman@phenogenomics.ca [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

2012-12-01

134

Altered adrenergic receptor signaling following traumatic brain injury contributes to working memory dysfunction  

PubMed Central

The prefrontal cortex is highly vulnerable to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and its structural and/or functional alterations as a result of TBI can give rise to persistent working memory (WM) dysfunction. Using a rodent model of TBI, we have described profound WM deficits following TBI that are associated with increases in prefrontal catecholamine (both dopamine and norepinephrine) content. In this study, we examined if enhanced norepinephrine signaling contributes to TBI-associated WM dysfunction. We demonstrate that administration of ?1 adrenoceptor antagonists, but not ?2A agonist, at 14 days post-injury significantly improved WM performance. mRNA analysis revealed increased levels of ?1A, but not ?1B or ?1D, adrenoceptor in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of brain-injured rats. As ?1A and 1B adrenoceptor promoters contain putative cAMP response element (CRE) sequences, we therefore examined if CRE-binding protein (CREB) actively engages these sequences in order to increase receptor gene transcription following TBI. Our results show that the phosphorylation of CREB is enhanced in the mPFC at time points during which increased ?1A mRNA expression was observed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays using mPFC tissue from injured animals indicated increased phospho-CREB binding to the CRE sites of ?1A ,but not ?1B, promoter compared to that observed in uninjured controls. To address the translatability of our findings, we tested the efficacy of the FDA-approved ?1 antagonist Prazosin and observed that this drug improves WM in injured animals. Taken together, these studies suggest that enhanced CREB-mediated expression of ?1 adrenoceptor contributes to TBI-associated WM dysfunction, and therapies aimed at reducing ?1 signaling may be useful in the treatment of TBI-associated WM deficits in humans. PMID:20974230

Kobori, Nobuhide; Hu, Bingqian; Dash, Pramod K.

2010-01-01

135

Patients with Chronic Visceral Pain Show Sex-Related Alterations in Intrinsic Oscillations of the Resting Brain  

PubMed Central

Abnormal responses of the brain to delivered and expected aversive gut stimuli have been implicated in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a visceral pain syndrome occurring more commonly in women. Task-free resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can provide information about the dynamics of brain activity that may be involved in altered processing and/or modulation of visceral afferent signals. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation is a measure of the power spectrum intensity of spontaneous brain oscillations. This approach was used here to identify differences in the resting-state activity of the human brain in IBS subjects compared with healthy controls (HCs) and to identify the role of sex-related differences. We found that both the female HCs and female IBS subjects had a frequency power distribution skewed toward high frequency to a greater extent in the amygdala and hippocampus compared with male subjects. In addition, female IBS subjects had a frequency power distribution skewed toward high frequency in the insula and toward low frequency in the sensorimotor cortex to a greater extent than male IBS subjects. Correlations were observed between resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent signal dynamics and some clinical symptom measures (e.g., abdominal discomfort). These findings provide the first insight into sex-related differences in IBS subjects compared with HCs using resting-state fMRI. PMID:23864686

Hong, Jui-Yang; Kilpatrick, Lisa A.; Labus, Jennifer; Gupta, Arpana; Jiang, Zhiguo; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Stains, Jean; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Ebrat, Bahar; Smith, Suzanne; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce

2013-01-01

136

Chronic exposure to delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol fails to irreversibly alter brain cannabinoid receptors.  

PubMed

The effects of chronic delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) and marijuana administration on the properties of brain cannabinoid receptor populations of the rat and monkey, respectively, were examined in this study. It was determined that the properties of the cannabinoid receptors in the striatum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, and brainstem/spinal cord of the rat do not appear to be irreversibly altered by chronic exposure to delta 9-THC. Similarly, the cannabinoid receptors in the caudate, prefrontal cortex, and cerebellum of the monkey do not appear to be irreversibly altered by chronic exposure to marijuana smoke. PMID:1649662

Westlake, T M; Howlett, A C; Ali, S F; Paule, M G; Scallet, A C; Slikker, W

1991-03-22

137

Ketogenic Diet Prevents Alterations in Brain Metabolism in Young but not Adult Rats after Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Previous studies have shown that the change of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc) in response to traumatic brain injury (TBI) is different in young (PND35) and adult rats (PND70), and that prolonged ketogenic diet treatment results in histological and behavioral neuroprotection only in younger rat brains. However, the mechanism(s) through which ketones act in the injured brain and the biochemical markers of their action remain unknown. Therefore, the current study was initiated to: 1) determine the effect of injury on the neurochemical profile in PND35 compared to PND70 rats; and 2) test the effect of early post-injury administration of ketogenic diet on brain metabolism in PND35 versus PND70 rats. The data show that alterations in energy metabolites, amino acid, and membrane metabolites were not evident in PND35 rats on standard diet until 24?h after injury, when the concentration of most metabolites was reduced from sham-injured values. In contrast, acute, but transient deficits in energy metabolism were measured at 6?h in PND70 rats, together with deficits in N-acetylaspartate that endured until 24?h. Administration of a ketogenic diet resulted in significant increases in plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate (?OHB) levels. Similarly, brain ?OHB levels were significantly elevated in all injured rats, but were elevated by 43% more in PND35 rats compared to PND70 rats. As a result, ATP, creatine, and phosphocreatine levels at 24?h after injury were significantly improved in the ketogenic PND35 rats, but not in the PND70 group. The improvement in energy metabolism in the PND35 brains was accompanied by the recovery of NAA and reduction of lactate levels, as well as amelioration of the deficits of other amino acids and membrane metabolites. These results indicate that the PND35 brains are more resistant to the injury, indicated by a delayed deficit in energy metabolism. Moreover, the younger brains revert to ketones metabolism more quickly than do the adult brains, resulting in better neurochemical and cerebral metabolic recovery after injury. PMID:21635175

Prins, Mayumi L.; Hovda, David A.; Harris, Neil G.

2011-01-01

138

Altered Balance of Proteolytic Isoforms of Pro-Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Autism  

PubMed Central

Defects in synaptic development and plasticity may lead to autism. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. BDNF is synthesized as a precursor, pro-BDNF, which can be processed into either a truncated form or into mature BDNF. Previous studies reported increased BDNF-immunoreactive protein in autism, but the mechanism of this increase has not been investigated. We examined BDNF mRNA by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and BDNF protein by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in postmortem fusiform gyrus tissue from 11 patients with autism and 14 controls. BDNF mRNA levels were not different in the autism versus control samples, but total BDNF-like immunoreactive protein, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was greater in autism than in controls. Western blotting revealed greater pro-BDNF and less truncated BDNF in autism compared with controls. These data demonstrate that increased levels of BDNF-immunoreactive protein in autism are not transcriptionally driven. Increased pro-BDNF and reduced truncated BDNF are consistent with defective processing of pro-BDNF to its truncated form. Distortion of the balance among the 3 BDNF isoforms, each of which may exhibit different biological activities, could lead to changes in connectivity and synaptic plasticity and, hence, behavior. Thus, imbalance in proteolytic isoforms is a possible new mechanism for altered synaptic plasticity leading to autism. PMID:22437340

Garcia, Kristine L.P.; Yu, Guanhua; Nicolini, Chiara; Michalski, Bernadeta; Garzon, Diego J.; Chiu, Victor S.; Tongiorgi, Enrico; Szatmari, Peter; Fahnestock, Margaret

2012-01-01

139

Altered balance of proteolytic isoforms of pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor in autism.  

PubMed

Defects in synaptic development and plasticity may lead to autism. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. BDNF is synthesized as a precursor, pro-BDNF, which can be processed into either a truncated form or into mature BDNF. Previous studies reported increased BDNF-immunoreactive protein in autism, but the mechanism of this increase has not been investigated. We examined BDNF mRNA by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and BDNF protein by Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in postmortem fusiform gyrus tissue from 11 patients with autism and 14 controls. BDNF mRNA levels were not different in the autism versus control samples, but total BDNF-like immunoreactive protein, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was greater in autism than in controls. Western blotting revealed greater pro-BDNF and less truncated BDNF in autism compared with controls. These data demonstrate that increased levels of BDNF-immunoreactive protein in autism are not transcriptionally driven. Increased pro-BDNF and reduced truncated BDNF are consistent with defective processing of pro-BDNF to its truncated form. Distortion of the balance among the 3 BDNF isoforms, each of which may exhibit different biological activities, could lead to changes in connectivity and synaptic plasticity and, hence, behavior. Thus, imbalance in proteolytic isoforms is a possible new mechanism for altered synaptic plasticity leading to autism. PMID:22437340

Garcia, Kristine L P; Yu, Guanhua; Nicolini, Chiara; Michalski, Bernadeta; Garzon, Diego J; Chiu, Victor S; Tongiorgi, Enrico; Szatmari, Peter; Fahnestock, Margaret

2012-04-01

140

Maternal deprivation induces depressive-like behaviour and alters neurotrophin levels in the rat brain.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to evaluate the behavioral and molecular effects of maternal deprivation in adult rats. To this aim, male rats deprived and non-deprived were assessed in the forced swimming and open-field tests in adult phase. In addition adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) levels was assessed in serum and brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and nerve growth factor (NGF) protein levels were assessed in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. We observed that maternal deprivation increased immobility time, and decreased climbing time, without affecting locomotor activity. ACTH circulating levels were increased in maternal deprived rats. Additionally, BDNF protein levels were reduced in the amygdala and NT-3 and NGF were reduced in both hippocampus and amygdala in maternal deprived rats, compared to control group. In conclusion, our results support the idea that behavioral, ACTH circulating levels and neurotrophins levels altered in maternal deprivation model could contribute to stress-related diseases, such as depression. PMID:21161589

Réus, Gislaine Z; Stringari, Roberto B; Ribeiro, Karine F; Cipriano, Andreza L; Panizzutti, Bruna S; Stertz, Laura; Lersch, Camila; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João

2011-03-01

141

Mosaic evolution and adaptive brain component alteration under domestication seen on the background of evolutionary theory.  

PubMed

Brain sizes and brain component sizes of five domesticated pigeon breeds including homing (racing) pigeons are compared with rock doves (Columba livia) based on an allometric approach to test the influence of domestication on brain and brain component size. Net brain volume, the volumes of cerebellum and telencephalon as a whole are significantly smaller in almost all domestic pigeons. Inside the telencephalon, mesopallium, nidopallium (+ entopallium + arcopallium) and septum are smaller as well. The hippocampus is significantly larger, particularly in homing pigeons. This finding is in contrast to the predictions of the 'regression hypothesis' of brain alteration under domestication. Among the domestic pigeons homing pigeons have significantly larger olfactory bulbs. These data are interpreted as representing a functional adaptation to homing that is based on spatial cognition and sensory integration. We argue that domestication as seen in domestic pigeons is not principally different from evolution in the wild, but represents a heuristic model to understand the evolutionary process in terms of adaptation and optimization. PMID:18032887

Rehkämper, Gerd; Frahm, Heiko D; Cnotka, Julia

2008-01-01

142

The enteric bacterial metabolite propionic acid alters brain and plasma phospholipid molecular species: further development of a rodent model of autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Gastrointestinal symptoms and altered blood phospholipid profiles have been reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most of the phospholipid analyses have been conducted on the fatty acid composition of isolated phospholipid classes following hydrolysis. A paucity of information exists on how the intact phospholipid molecular species are altered in ASD. We applied ESI/MS to determine how brain and blood intact phospholipid species were altered during the induction of ASD-like behaviors in rats following intraventricular infusions with the enteric bacterial metabolite propionic acid. Animals were infused daily for 8?days, locomotor activity assessed, and animals killed during the induced behaviors. Propionic acid infusions increased locomotor activity. Lipid analysis revealed treatment altered 21 brain and 30 blood phospholipid molecular species. Notable alterations were observed in the composition of brain SM, diacyl mono and polyunsaturated PC, PI, PS, PE, and plasmalogen PC and PE molecular species. These alterations suggest that the propionic acid rat model is a useful tool to study aberrations in lipid metabolism known to affect membrane fluidity, peroxisomal function, gap junction coupling capacity, signaling, and neuroinflammation, all of which may be associated with the pathogenesis of ASD. PMID:22747852

2012-01-01

143

Alterations in the sense of time, space, and body in the mindfulness-trained brain: a neurophenomenologically-guided MEG study  

PubMed Central

Meditation practice can lead to what have been referred to as “altered states of consciousness.”One of the phenomenological characteristics of these states is a joint alteration in the sense of time, space, and body. Here, we set out to study the unique experiences of alteration in the sense of time and space by collaborating with a select group of 12 long-term mindfulness meditation (MM) practitioners in a neurophenomenological setup, utilizing first-person data to guide the neural analyses. We hypothesized that the underlying neural activity accompanying alterations in the sense of time and space would be related to alterations in bodily processing. The participants were asked to volitionally bring about distinct states of “Timelessness” (outside time) and “Spacelessness” (outside space) while their brain activity was recorded by MEG. In order to rule out the involvement of attention, memory, or imagination, we used control states of “Then” (past) and “There” (another place). MEG sensors evidencing alterations in power values were identified, and the brain regions underlying these changes were estimated via spatial filtering (beamforming). Particularly, we searched for similar neural activity hypothesized to underlie both the state of “Timelessness” and “Spacelessness.” The results were mostly confined to the theta band, and showed that: (1) the “Then”/“There” overlap yielded activity in regions related to autobiographic memory and imagery (right posterior parietal lobule (PPL), right precentral/middle frontal gyrus (MFG), bilateral precuneus); (2) “Timelessness”/“Spacelessness” conditions overlapped in a different network, related to alterations in the sense of the body (posterior cingulate, right temporoparietal junction (TPJ), cerebellum); and (3) phenomenologically-guided neural analyses enabled us to dissociate different levels of alterations in the sense of the body. This study illustrates the utility of employing experienced contemplative practitioners within a neurophenomenological setup for scientifically characterizing a self-induced altered sense of time, space and body, as well as the importance of theta activity in relation with these altered states. PMID:24348455

Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Dor-Ziderman, Yair; Glicksohn, Joseph; Goldstein, Abraham

2013-01-01

144

Brain Activity on Navigation in Virtual Environments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed the cognitive processing that takes place in virtual environments by measuring electrical brain activity using Fast Fourier Transform analysis. University students performed the same task in a real and a virtual environment, and eye movement measurements showed that all subjects were more attentive when navigating in the virtual world.…

Mikropoulos, Tassos A.

2001-01-01

145

Astrocyte activation in working brain: Energy supplied by minor substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose delivered to brain by the cerebral circulation is the major and obligatory fuel for all brain cells, and assays of functional activity in working brain routinely focus on glucose utilization. However, these assays do not take into account the contributions of minor substrates or endogenous fuel consumed by astrocytes during brain activation, and emerging evidence suggests that glycogen, acetate,

Gerald A. Dienel; Nancy F. Cruz

2006-01-01

146

Alpha-2 Adrenergic Challenge with Guanfacine One Month after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Altered Working Memory and BOLD Response  

PubMed Central

Alterations in working memory (WM) are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Frontal catecholaminergic systems, including the alpha-2 adrenergic system, modulate WM function and may be affected in TBI. We hypothesized that administration of an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist might improve WM after mild TBI (MTBI). Thirteen individuals with MTBI one month after injury and 14 healthy controls (HC) were challenged with guanfacine and placebo prior to administration of a verbal WM functional MRI task. Guanfacine was associated with improved WM performance in the MTBI but not the HC group. On guanfacine the MTBI group showed increased activation within a WM task-specific region of interest. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alterations in WM after MTBI may be improved with the alpha-2 agonist guanfacine. PMID:21767584

McAllister, Thomas W.; McDonald, Brenna C.; Flashman, Laura A.; Ferrell, Richard B.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Yanofsky, Norman N.; Grove, Margaret R.; Saykin, Andrew J.

2011-01-01

147

Cholinergic receptor alterations in the brain stem of spinal cord injured rats.  

PubMed

Cholinergic receptors in upper motor neurons of brain stem control locomotion and coordination. Present study unravels cholinergic alterations in brain stem during spinal cord injury to understand signalling pathway changes which may be associated with spinal cord injury mediated motor deficits. We evaluated cholinergic function in brain stem by studying the expression of choline acetyl transferase and acetylcholine esterase. We quantified metabotropic muscarinic cholinergic receptors by receptor assays for total muscarinic, muscarinic M1 and M3 receptor subunits, gene expression studies using Real Time PCR and confocal imaging using FITC tagged secondary antibodies. The gene expression of ionotropic nicotinic cholinergic receptors and confocal imaging were also studied. The results from our study showed metabolic disturbance in cholinergic pathway as choline acetyl transferase is down regulated and acetylcholine esterase is up regulated in spinal cord injury group. The significant decrease in muscarinic receptors showed by decreased receptor number along with down regulated gene expression and confocal imaging accounts for dysfunction of metabotropic acetylcholine receptors in spinal cord injury group. Ionotropic acetylcholine receptor alterations were evident from the decreased gene expression of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and confocal imaging. The motor coordination was analysed by Grid walk test which showed an increased foot slips in spinal cord injured rats. The significant reduction in brain stem cholinergic function might have intensified the motor dysfunction and locomotor disabilities. PMID:23184186

Romeo, Chinthu; Raveendran, Anju Thoppil; Sobha, Nandhu Mohan; Paulose, Cheramadathukuzhiyil Scaria

2013-02-01

148

Electromagnetic imaging of dynamic brain activity  

SciTech Connect

Neural activity in the brain produces weak dynamic electromagnetic fields that can be measured by an array of sensors. Using a spatio-temporal modeling framework, we have developed a new approach to localization of multiple neural sources. This approach is based on the MUSIC algorithm originally developed for estimating the direction of arrival of signals impinging on a sensor array. We present applications of this technique to magnetic field measurements of a phantom and of a human evoked somatosensory response. The results of the somatosensory localization are mapped onto the brain anatomy obtained from magnetic resonance images.

Mosher, J.; Leahy, R. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Lewis, P.; Lewine, J.; George, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Singh, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

1991-12-31

149

Electromagnetic imaging of dynamic brain activity  

SciTech Connect

Neural activity in the brain produces weak dynamic electromagnetic fields that can be measured by an array of sensors. Using a spatio-temporal modeling framework, we have developed a new approach to localization of multiple neural sources. This approach is based on the MUSIC algorithm originally developed for estimating the direction of arrival of signals impinging on a sensor array. We present applications of this technique to magnetic field measurements of a phantom and of a human evoked somatosensory response. The results of the somatosensory localization are mapped onto the brain anatomy obtained from magnetic resonance images.

Mosher, J.; Leahy, R. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Lewis, P.; Lewine, J.; George, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Singh, M. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

1991-01-01

150

Cigarette smoke induces DNA damage and alters base-excision repair and tau levels in the brain of neonatal mice.  

PubMed

The prenatal and perinatal periods of brain development are especially vulnerable to insults by environmental agents. Early life exposure to cigarette smoke (CS), which contains both genotoxicants and oxidants, is considered an important risk factor for both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Yet, little is known regarding the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms. In the present study, neonatal Swiss ICR (CD-1) albino mice were exposed to various concentrations of CS for 4 weeks and the brain examined for lipid peroxides, DNA damage, base-excision repair (BER) enzymes, apoptosis, and levels of the microtubule protein tau. CS induced a dose-dependent increase in both malondialdehyde and various types of DNA damage, including single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks, and DNA-protein cross-links. However, the CS-induced DNA damage in the brain returned to basal levels 1 week after smoking cessation. CS also modulated the activity and distribution of the BER enzymes 8-oxoguanine-DNA-glycosylase (OGG1) and apyrimidinic/apurinic endonuclease (APE1) in several brain regions. Normal tau (i.e., three-repeat tau, 3R tau) and various pathological forms of tau were also measured in the brain of CS-exposed neonatal mice, but only 3R tau and tau phosphorylated at serine 199 were significantly elevated. The oxidative stress, genomic dysregulation, and alterations in tau metabolism caused by CS during a critical period of brain development could explain why CS is an important risk factor for both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders appearing in later life. PMID:21778470

La Maestra, Sebastiano; Kisby, Glen E; Micale, Rosanna T; Johnson, Jessica; Kow, Yoke W; Bao, Gaobin; Sheppard, Clayton; Stanfield, Sarah; Tran, Huong; Woltjer, Randall L; D'Agostini, Francesco; Steele, Vernon E; De Flora, Silvio

2011-10-01

151

IRRADIATION ALTERS MMP-2/TIMP-2 SYSTEM AND COLLAGEN TYPE IV DEGRADATION IN BRAIN  

PubMed Central

Purpose Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is one of major consequences of radiation-induced normal tissue injury in the central nervous system. In the present study, we examined the effects of whole brain irradiation on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in the brain. Methods and Materials Animals received either whole brain irradiation (a single dose of 10 Gy ?-rays or a fractionated dose of 40 Gy ?-rays total) or sham-irradiation, and were maintained for 4, 8, and 24 h following irradiation. The mRNA expression levels of MMPs and TIMPs in the brain were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The functional activity of MMPs was measured by in situ zymography and degradation of ECM was visualized by collagen type IV immunofluorescence staining. Results A significant increase in mRNA expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 was observed in irradiated brains compared to sham-irradiated controls. In situ zymography revealed a strong gelatinolytic activity in the brain 24 h post-irradiation and the enhanced gelatinolytic activity mediated by irradiation was significantly attenuated in the presence of anti-MMP-2 antibody. A significant reduction in collagen type IV immunoreactivity was also detected in the brain at 24 h after irradiation. In contrast, the levels of collagen type IV were not significantly changed at 4 and 8 h after irradiation compared with the sham-irradiated controls. Conclusions The present study demonstrates for the first time that radiation induces an imbalance between MMP-2 and TIMP-2 levels and suggests that degradation of collagen type IV, a major ECM component of BBB basement membrane, may have a role in the pathogenesis of brain injury. PMID:22429332

Lee, Won Hee; Warrington, Junie P.; Sonntag, William E.; Lee, Yong Woo

2011-01-01

152

Temporal organization of ongoing brain activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing brain activity results from the mutual interaction of hundred billions non-linear units and represents a significant part of the overall brain activity. Although its complex dynamics has been widely investigated, a large number of fundamental questions are still open, many of them concerning its temporal structure. Why does a certain population of neurons fires synchronously? Are these synchronized bursts following each other randomly or are they correlated according to some organizing principle? Far from addressing the fundamental problem of its functions, in the present article we focus on the problem of temporal correlations of ongoing cortical activity. We first overview the major features of its temporal structure and review recent experimental results, with particular emphasis on alternative approaches inspired in the theory of stochastic processes; then we introduce a neuronal network model inspired in self organized criticality and compare numerical results with experimental findings.

Lombardi, F.; de Arcangelis, L.

2014-10-01

153

Ionizing radiation alters beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity in brain but not blood  

SciTech Connect

Previous behavioral and pharmacological studies have implicated endorphins in radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity of the C57BL/6J mouse. However, the endogenous opiate(s) responsible for this behavioral change have not been identified. The present study measured beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (beta-END-LI) in brain, blood, and combined brain and pituitary samples from irradiated and sham-irradiated C57BL/6J mice. After radiation exposure, levels of beta-END-LI decreased significantly in the brain. A similar, but not statistically significant, decline was measured in combined brain and pituitary samples. Concentrations of blood beta-END-LI were not changed by irradiation. These radiogenic changes in beta-END-LI are in some ways similar to those observed after other stresses. However, radiation-induced locomotor hyperactivity may be mediated more by alterations of beta-END-LI in the brain than in the periphery. Other endogenous opiate systems may also contribute to this behavioral change in the C57BL/6J mouse.

Mickley, G.A.; Stevens, K.E.; Moore, G.H.; Deere, W.; White, G.A.; Gibbs, G.L.; Mueller, G.P.

1983-12-01

154

Words in the brain: lexical determinants of word-induced brain activity  

E-print Network

Words in the brain: lexical determinants of word-induced brain activity Lee Osterhout*, Mark Allen Abstract Many studies have shown that open- and closed-class words elicit different patterns of brain. Introduction Is the brain response to words determined primarily by their linguistic functions

Coulson, Seana

155

Long-term sequelae of severe sepsis: cognitive impairment and structural brain alterations – an MRI study (LossCog MRI)  

PubMed Central

Background The number of patients with cognitive impairment after sepsis or septic shock is high. However, the underlying neurophysiological basis of sepsis induced cognitive impairment is not fully understood. Methods/Design This is a prospective, controlled observational study. We are in the process of recruiting 25 survivors of severe sepsis or septic shock who will be investigated with functional MRI (fMRI), T1-weighted MRI und Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) as well as Magnetoencephalography (MEG). Furthermore, patients will undergo neuropsychological evaluation using the DemTect and the clock drawing tests. In addition, verbal and declarative memory is assessed by the Verbal Learning and Memory Test. The primary aim is to determine the volumetry of the amygdala and the hippocampus. The secondary aim is to analyze the relationship between cognitive tests and MEG, and the (f)MRI results. Moreover, a between-group comparison will be evaluated to an age-matched group of healthy controls. Discussion In a previous MEG study, we observed a significant slowing of the prominent background activity in sepsis survivors and hepatic encephalopathy patients in particular shortly after discharge from the ICU. Intriguingly, the rhythmic brain activity after visual flickering stimulation was altered in sepsis survivors in comparison to age-matched healthy volunteers. We propose that this desynchronization is based on affected underlying neuronal responses between various interconnected brain regions. The current project will analyze whether the modifications are related to a damage of the fibers connecting different brain regions or to a disturbance of the functional interaction between different brain regions or even due to an atrophy of certain brain regions. Trial registration “Langzeitfolgen nach schwerer Sepsis: Kognitive Beeinträchtigungen und strukturelle Veränderungen am Gehirn, eine MRT Studie”; German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00005484). PMID:25027645

2014-01-01

156

Classification of whole brain fMRI activation patterns  

E-print Network

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an imaging technology which is primarily used to perform brain activation studies by measuring neural activity in the brain. It is an interesting question whether patterns ...

Balc?, Serdar Kemal

2008-01-01

157

Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?  

PubMed Central

Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 min each: (i) high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task), (ii) moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task), (iii) low mental exertion (watching a movie). In each condition, mental exertion was combined with 10 intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 min). Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. PMID:25309404

Rozand, Vianney; Pageaux, Benjamin; Marcora, Samuele M.; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Lepers, Romuald

2014-01-01

158

Cholesterol retention in Alzheimer's brain is responsible for high ?- and ?-secretase activities and A? production  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by overproduction of A? derived from APP cleavage via ?- and ?-secretase pathway. Recent evidence has linked altered cholesterol metabolism to AD pathogenesis. In this study, we show that AD brain had significant cholesterol retention and high ?- and ?-secretase activities as compared to age-matched non-demented controls (ND). Over one-half of AD patients had an apoE4 allele but none of the ND. ?- and ?-secretase activities were significantly stimulated in vitro by 40 and 80 µm cholesterol in AD and ND brains, respectively. Both secretase activities in AD brain were more sensitive to cholesterol (40 µm) than those of ND (80 µm). Filipin-stained cholesterol overlapped with BACE and A? in AD brain sections. Cholesterol (10–80 µM) added to N2a cultures significantly increased cellular cholesterol, ?- and ?-secretase activities and A? secretion. Similarly, addition of cholesterol (20–80 µM) to cell lysates stimulated both in vitro secretase activities. Ergosterol slightly decreased ?-secretase activity at 20–80 µM, but strongly inhibited ?-secretase activity at 40 µM. Cholesterol depletion reduced cellular cholesterol, ?-secretase activity and A? secretion. Transcription factor profiling shows that several key nuclear receptors involving cholesterol metabolism were significantly altered in AD brain, including decreased LXR-?, PPAR and TR, and increased RXR. Treatment of N2a cells with LXR, RXR or PPAR agonists strongly stimulated cellular cholesterol efflux to HDL and reduced cellular cholesterol and ?-/?-secretase activities. This study provides direct evidence that cholesterol homeostasis is impaired in AD brain and suggests that altered levels or activities of nuclear receptors may contribute to cholesterol retention which likely enhances ?- and ?-secretase activities and A? production in human brain. PMID:18086530

Xiong, Huaqi; Callaghan, Debbie; Jones, Aimee; Walker, Douglas G.; Lue, Lih-Fen; Beach, Thomas G.; Sue, Lucia I.; Woulfe, John; Xu, Huaxi; Stanimirovic, Danica B.; Zhang, Wandong

2009-01-01

159

Gregarious desert locusts have substantially larger brains with altered proportions compared with the solitarious phase  

PubMed Central

The behavioural demands of group living and foraging have been implicated in both evolutionary and plastic changes in brain size. Desert locusts show extreme phenotypic plasticity, allowing brain morphology to be related to very different lifestyles in one species. At low population densities, locusts occur in a solitarious phase that avoids other locusts and is cryptic in appearance and behaviour. Crowding triggers the transformation into the highly active gregarious phase, which aggregates into dense migratory swarms. We found that the brains of gregarious locusts have very different proportions and are also 30 per cent larger overall than in solitarious locusts. To address whether brain proportions change with size through nonlinear scaling (allometry), we conducted the first comprehensive major axis regression analysis of scaling relations in an insect brain. This revealed that phase differences in brain proportions arise from a combination of allometric effects and deviations from the allometric expectation (grade shifts). In consequence, gregarious locusts had a larger midbrain?optic lobe ratio, a larger central complex and a 50 per cent larger ratio of the olfactory primary calyx to the first olfactory neuropile. Solitarious locusts invest more in low-level sensory processing, having disproportionally larger primary visual and olfactory neuropiles, possibly to gain sensitivity. The larger brains of gregarious locusts prioritize higher integration, which may support the behavioural demands of generalist foraging and living in dense and highly mobile swarms dominated by intense intraspecific competition. PMID:20507896

Ott, Swidbert R.; Rogers, Stephen M.

2010-01-01

160

Effects of Chronic Marijuana Use on Brain Activity During Monetary Decision-Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marijuana (MJ) acutely acts on cannabinoid receptors that are found in numerous brain regions, including those involved in reward processing and decision-making. However, it remains unclear how long-term, chronic MJ use alters reward-based decision-making. In the present study, using [15O]water PET imaging, we measured brain activity in chronic MJ users, who underwent monitored abstinence from MJ for approximately 24 h

Jatin G Vaidya; Robert I Block; Daniel S O'Leary; Laura B Ponto; Mohamed M Ghoneim; Antoine Bechara

2012-01-01

161

Alterations in brain temperatures as a possible cause of migraine headache.  

PubMed

Migraine is a debilitating disease with a recurring generally unilateral headache and concomitant symptoms of nausea, vomiting and photo- and/or phonophobia that affects some 11-18% of the population. Most of the mechanisms previously put forward to explain the attacks have been questioned or give an explanation only some of the symptoms. Moreover, the best drugs for treatment are still the 20-year-old triptans, which have serious limitations as regards both efficacy and tolerability. As the dura and some cranial vessels are the only intracranial structures capable of pain sensations, a vascular theory of migraine emerged, but has been debated. Recent theories identified the hyperexcitability of structures involved in pain transmission, such as the trigeminal system or the cortex, or an abnormal modulatory function of the brainstem. However, there is ongoing scientific debate concerning these theories, neither of which is fully capable of explaining the occurrence of a migraine attack. The present article puts forward a hypothesis of the possibility of abnormal temperature regulation in certain regions or the overall brain in migraineurs, the attack being a defense mechanism to prevent neuronal damage. Few examinations have been made of temperature regulation in the human brain. It lacks the carotid rete, a vascular heat exchanger that serves in many animals to provide constant brain temperature. The human brain contains a high density of neurons with a considerable energy demand that is converted to heat. The human brain has a higher temperature than other parts of the body and needs continuous cooling. Recent studies revealed unexpectedly great variations in temperature of various structures of the brain and considerable changes in response to functional activation. There is various evidence in support of the hypothesis that accumulated heat in some structure or the overall brain may be behind the symptoms observed, such as a platelet abnormality, a decreased serotonin content, and dural "inflammation" including vasodilation and brainstem activation. The hypothesis postulates that a migraine attack serves to restore the brain temperature. Abnormally low temperatures in the brain can also result in headache. Surprisingly, no systematic examination of brain temperature changes in migraineurs has been published. Certain case reports support the present hypothesis. Various noninvasive technologies (e.g. MR) capable of monitoring brain temperature are available. If a systematic examination of local brain temperature revealed abnormalities in structures presumed to be involved in migraine, that would increase our understanding of the disease and trigger the development of improved treatment. PMID:24581675

Horváth, Csilla

2014-05-01

162

Physical activity, air pollution and the brain.  

PubMed

This review introduces an emerging research field that is focused on studying the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise on cognition, with specific attention to the impact on concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inflammatory markers. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that regular physical activity enhances cognition, and evidence suggests that BDNF, a neurotrophin, plays a key role in the mechanism. Today, however, air pollution is an environmental problem worldwide and the high traffic density, especially in urban environments and cities, is a major cause of this problem. During exercise, the intake of air pollution increases considerably due to an increased ventilation rate and particle deposition fraction. Recently, air pollution exposure has been linked to adverse effects on the brain such as cognitive decline and neuropathology. Inflammation and oxidative stress seem to play an important role in inducing these health effects. We believe that there is a need to investigate whether the well-known benefits of regular physical activity on the brain also apply when physical activity is performed in polluted air. We also report our findings about exercising in an environment with ambient levels of air pollutants. Based on the latter results, we hypothesize that traffic-related air pollution exposure during exercise may inhibit the positive effect of exercise on cognition. PMID:25119155

Bos, Inge; De Boever, Patrick; Int Panis, Luc; Meeusen, Romain

2014-11-01

163

Altered brain protein expression profiles are associated with molecular neurological dysfunction in the PKU mouse model.  

PubMed

Phenylketonuria (PKU), if not detected and treated in newborns, causes severe neurological dysfunction and cognitive and behavioral deficiencies. Despite the biochemical characterization of PKU, the molecular mechanisms underlying PKU-associated brain dysfunction remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to gain insights into the pathogenesis of this neurological damage by analyzing protein expression profiles in brain tissue of Black and Tan BRachyury-PahEnu2 mice (a mouse model of PKU). We compared the cerebral protein expression of homozygous PKU mice with that of their heterozygous counterparts using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis analysis, and identified 21 differentially expressed proteins, four of which were over-expressed and 17 under-expressed. An in silico bioinformatic approach indicated that protein under-expression was related to neuronal differentiation and dendritic growth, and to such neurological disorders as progressive motor neuropathy and movement disorders. Moreover, functional annotation analyses showed that some identified proteins were involved in oxidative metabolism. To further investigate the proteins involved in the neurological damage, we validated two of the proteins that were most strikingly under-expressed, namely, Syn2 and Dpysl2, which are involved in synaptic function and neurotransmission. We found that Glu2/3 and NR1 receptor subunits were over-expressed in PKU mouse brain. Our results indicate that differential expression of these proteins may be associated with the processes underlying PKU brain dysfunction, namely, decreased synaptic plasticity and impaired neurotransmission. We identified a set of proteins whose expression is affected by hyperphenylalaninemia. We think that phenylketonuria (PKU) brain dysfunction also depends on reduced Syn2 and Dpysl2 levels, increased Glu2/3 and NR1 levels, and decreased Pkm, Ckb, Pgam1 and Eno1 levels. These findings finally confirm that alteration in synaptic function, in transmission and in energy metabolism underlie brain damage provoked by hyperphenylalaninemias. PMID:24548049

Imperlini, Esther; Orrù, Stefania; Corbo, Claudia; Daniele, Aurora; Salvatore, Francesco

2014-06-01

164

Exploring the motivational brain: effects of implicit power motivation on brain activation  

E-print Network

Exploring the motivational brain: effects of implicit power motivation on brain activation the hypothesis that implicit power motivation (nPower), in interaction with power incentives, influences activation of brain systems mediating motivation. Twelve individuals low (lowest quartile) and 12 individuals

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

165

Cell Type Specific Analysis of Human Brain Transcriptome Data to Predict Alterations in Cellular Composition  

PubMed Central

The central nervous system (CNS) is composed of hundreds of distinct cell types, each expressing different subsets of genes from the genome. High throughput gene expression analysis of the CNS from patients and controls is a common method to screen for potentially pathological molecular mechanisms of psychiatric disease. One mechanism by which gene expression might be seen to vary across samples would be alterations in the cellular composition of the tissue. While the expressions of gene ‘markers’ for each cell type can provide certain information of cellularity, for many rare cell types markers are not well characterized. Moreover, if only small sets of markers are known, any substantial variation of a marker’s expression pattern due to experiment conditions would result in poor sensitivity and specificity. Here, our proposed method combines prior information from mice cell-specific transcriptome profiling experiments with co-expression network analysis, to select large sets of potential cell type-specific gene markers in a systematic and unbiased manner. The method is efficient and robust, and identifies sufficient markers for further cellularity analysis. We then employ the markers to analytically detect changing cellular composition in human brain. Application of our method to temporal human brain microarray data successfully detects changes in cellularity over time that roughly correspond to known epochs of human brain development. Furthermore, application of our method to human brain samples with the neurodevelopmental disorder of autism supports the interpretation that the changes in astrocytes and neurons might contribute to the disorder. PMID:25340014

Xu, Xiaoxiao; Nehorai, Arye; Dougherty, Joseph

2013-01-01

166

Long-duration transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation alters small-world brain functional networks.  

PubMed

Acupuncture, which is recognized as an alternative and complementary treatment in Western medicine, has long shown efficiencies in chronic pain relief, drug addiction treatment, stroke rehabilitation and other clinical practices. The neural mechanism underlying acupuncture, however, is still unclear. Many studies have focused on the sustained effects of acupuncture on healthy subjects, yet there are very few on the topological organization of functional networks in the whole brain in response to long-duration acupuncture (longer than 20 min). This paper presents a novel study on the effects of long-duration transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on the small-world properties of brain functional networks. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to construct brain functional networks of 18 healthy subjects (9 males and 9 females) during the resting state. All subjects received both TEAS and minimal TEAS (MTEAS) and were scanned before and after each stimulation. An altered functional network was found with lower local efficiency and no significant change in global efficiency for healthy subjects after TEAS, while no significant difference was observed after MTEAS. The experiments also showed that the nodal efficiencies in several paralimbic/limbic regions were altered by TEAS, and those in middle frontal gyrus and other regions by MTEAS. To remove the psychological effects and the baseline, we compared the difference between diffTEAS (difference between after and before TEAS) and diffMTEAS (difference between after and before MTEAS). The results showed that the local efficiency was decreased and that the nodal efficiencies in frontal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus and hippocampus gyrus were changed. Based on those observations, we conclude that long-duration TEAS may modulate the short-range connections of brain functional networks and also the limbic system. PMID:23684242

Zhang, Yue; Jiang, Yin; Glielmi, Christopher B; Li, Longchuan; Hu, Xiaoping; Wang, Xiaoying; Han, Jisheng; Zhang, Jue; Cui, Cailian; Fang, Jing

2013-09-01

167

Increased Brain Activity May Compensate for Amyloid Pathology in Older Brains  

MedlinePLUS

Increased brain activity may compensate for amyloid pathology in older brains September 15, 2014 Researchers have long wondered why some older people remain cognitively normal despite having abnormal levels of beta- ...

168

Altered spontaneous neural activity in first-episode, unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

Abnormal brain function is presumed to be a pathophysiological aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, the underlying patterns of spontaneous neural activity have been poorly characterized and replicated to date. In this study, we applied a novel approach of fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) to investigate the alteration of spontaneous neural activity in MDD. Sixteen first-episode, unmedicated patients with MDD and 16 healthy controls were recruited and subjected to resting-state fMRI scans to measure the fALFF across the whole brain. Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients exhibited decreased fALFF in the right angular gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right putamen, right precuneus, and the right superior temporal gyrus. Differences in fALFF between MDD patients and controls indicated that altered spontaneous neural activity was distributed across a number of specific brain regions among MDD patients. These atypical functional regions may help explain some of the neural processes underlying the clinical symptoms accompanying MDD. PMID:25229945

Shen, Ting; Qiu, Meihui; Li, Chao; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Zhiguo; Wang, Biao; Jiang, Kaida; Peng, Daihui

2014-11-12

169

The Impact of Glial Activation in the Aging Brain  

PubMed Central

The past decade or so has witnessed a rekindling of interest in glia requiring a re-evaluation of the early descriptions of astrocytes as merely support cells, and microglia as adopting either a resting state or an activated state in a binary fashion. We now know that both cell types contribute to the optimal functioning of neurons in the healthy brain, and that altered function of either cell impacts on neuronal function and consequently cognitive function. The evidence indicates that both astrocytic and microglial phenotype change with age and that the shift from the resting state is associated with deterioration in synaptic function. In this review, we consider the rapidly-expanding array of functions attributed to these cells and focus on evaluating the changes in cell activation that accompany ageing. PMID:22396865

Lynch, Aileen M.; Murphy, Kevin J.; Deighan, Brian F.; O'Reilly, Julie-Ann.; Gun'ko, Yuri K.; Cowley, Thelma R.; Gonzalez-Reyes, Rodrigo E.; Lynch, Marina A.

2010-01-01

170

TITLE: Prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation alters activation and connectivity in cortical and subcortical reward systems: A tDCS-fMRI study  

E-print Network

to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in some contexts--notably prefrontal stimulation, where the TMS pulseTITLE: Prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation alters activation and connectivity, Human Brain Mapping #12;IN PRESS, HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING Abstract Transcranial direct current stimulation

Thompson-Schill, Sharon

171

Altered behavioral phenotypes in soluble epoxide hydrolase knockout mice: effects of traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

After traumatic brain injury (TBI), arachidonic acid (ArA) is released from damaged cell membranes and metabolized to many bioactive eicosanoids, including several epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2, sEH) appears to be the predominant pathway for EET metabolism to less active dihydroxyeicosatrienoates (DHETs). Prior studies indicate that brain levels of EETs increase transiently after TBI and EETs have antiinflammatory and neuroprotective activities which may benefit the injured brain. If the net effect of increased EET levels in the injured brain is beneficial to recovery, then Ephx2 gene disruption would be expected to enhance elevated EET levels and improve recovery in the injured brain. Thus, Ephx2-KO (Ephx2(-/-) bred onto pure C57Bl/6 background) mice were compared to wild-type controls in a unilateral controlled cortical impact model of TBI. Before injury, animals behaved comparably in open field activity and neurologic reflexes. Interestingly, the Ephx2-KO mice showed improved motor coordination on a beam walk task, yet showed indications of defective learning in a test of working spatial memory. After surgery, brain-injured Ephx2-KO mice again had less of a deficit in the beam walk than wild-type, and the difference in latency (post-pre) showed a trend of protection for Ephx2-KO mice after TBI. Brain-injured mice showed no genotype differences in working memory. Surprisingly, sham-operated Ephx2-KO mice exhibited an injured phenotype for working memory, compared to sham-operated wild-type mice. Brain eicosanoid levels were measured using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 20 eicosanoids evaluated, only 8,9-EET was elevated in the Ephx2-KO cerebral cortex (37 d post-surgery, in both sham and injured). Tissue DHET levels were below the limit of quantification. These results reflect a significant contribution of sEH deficiency in coordination of ambulatory movements and working spatial memory in the mouse. Further investigation of differential sEH expression and EET levels at earlier time points and across other brain regions may shed light on these behavioral differences. PMID:22922090

Strauss, Kenneth I; Gruzdev, Artiom; Zeldin, Darryl C

2013-01-01

172

Localized Brain Volume and White Matter Integrity Alterations in Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa  

PubMed Central

Objective The neurobiological underpinnings of anorexia nervosa (AN) are poorly understood. In this study we tested whether brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) in adolescents with AN would show alterations comparable to adults. Method We used magnetic resonance imaging to study GM and WM volume, and diffusion tensor imaging to assess fractional anisotropy for WM integrity in 19 adolescents with AN and 22 controls. Results Individuals with AN showed greater left orbitofrontal, right insular, and bilateral temporal cortex GM, as well as temporal lobe WM volumes compared to controls. WM integrity in adolescents with AN was lower (lower fractional anisotropy) in fornix, posterior frontal, and parietal areas, but higher in anterior frontal, orbitofrontal, and temporal lobes. In individuals with AN, orbitofrontal GM volume correlated negatively with sweet taste pleasantness. An additional comparison of this study cohort with adult individuals with AN and healthy controls supported greater orbitofrontal cortex and insula volumes in AN across age groups. Conclusions This study indicates larger orbitofrontal and insular GM volumes, as well as lower fornix WM integrity in adolescents with AN, similar to adults. The pattern of larger anteroventral GM and WM volume as well as WM integrity, but lower WM integrity in posterior frontal and parietal regions may indicate that developmental factors such as GM pruning and WM growth could contribute to brain alterations in AN. The negative correlation between taste pleasantness and orbitofrontal cortex volume in individuals with AN could contribute to food avoidance in this disorder. PMID:24074473

Frank, Guido K.W.; Shott, Megan E.; Hagman, Jennifer O.; Yang, Tony T.

2014-01-01

173

Chronic scream sound exposure alters memory and monoamine levels in female rat brain.  

PubMed

Chronic scream sound alters the cognitive performance of male rats and their brain monoamine levels, these stress-induced alterations are sexually dimorphic. To determine the effects of sound stress on female rats, we examined their serum corticosterone levels and their adrenal, splenic, and thymic weights, their cognitive performance and the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites in the brain. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats, with and without exposure to scream sound (4h/day for 21day) were tested for spatial learning and memory using a Morris water maze. Stress decreased serum corticosterone levels, as well as splenic and adrenal weight. It also impaired spatial memory but did not affect the learning ability. Monoamines and metabolites were measured in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), striatum, hypothalamus, and hippocampus. The dopamine (DA) levels in the PFC decreased but the homovanillic acid/DA ratio increased. The decreased DA and the increased 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels were observed in the striatum. Only the 5-HIAA level increased in the hypothalamus. In the hippocampus, stress did not affect the levels of monoamines and metabolites. The results suggest that scream sound stress influences most physiologic parameters, memory, and the levels of monoamine neurotransmitter and their metabolites in female rats. PMID:24952268

Hu, Lili; Zhao, Xiaoge; Yang, Juan; Wang, Lumin; Yang, Yang; Song, Tusheng; Huang, Chen

2014-10-01

174

Regulation of brain aromatase activity in rats  

SciTech Connect

The distribution and regulation of aromatase activity in the adult rat brain with a sensitive in vitro assay that measures the amount of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O formed during the conversion of (1 beta-/sup 3/H)androstenedione to estrone. The rate of aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) was linear with time up to 1 h, and with tissue concentrations up to 5 mgeq/200 microliters incubation mixture. The enzyme demonstrated a pH optimum of 7.4 and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.04 microns. The greatest amount of aromatase activity was found in amygdala and HPOA from intact male rats. The hippocampus, midbrain tegmentum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and anterior pituitary all contained negligible enzymatic activity. Castration produced a significant decrease in aromatase activity in the HPOA, but not in the amygdala or cerebral cortex. The HPOAs of male rats contained significantly greater aromatase activity than the HPOAs of female rats. In females, this enzyme activity did not change during the estrous cycle or after ovariectomy. Administration of testosterone to gonadectomized male and female rats significantly enhanced HPOA aromatase activities to levels approximating those found in HPOA from intact males. Therefore, the results suggest that testosterone, or one of its metabolites, is a major steroidal regulator of HPOA aromatase activity in rats.

Roselli, C.E.; Ellinwood, W.E.; Resko, J.A.

1984-01-01

175

Exercise Challenge in Gulf War Illness Reveals Two Subgroups with Altered Brain Structure and Function  

PubMed Central

Nearly 30% of the approximately 700,000 military personnel who served in Operation Desert Storm (1990–1991) have developed Gulf War Illness, a condition that presents with symptoms such as cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, debilitating fatigue and chronic widespread pain that implicate the central nervous system. A hallmark complaint of subjects with Gulf War Illness is post-exertional malaise; defined as an exacerbation of symptoms following physical and/or mental effort. To study the causal relationship between exercise, the brain, and changes in symptoms, 28 Gulf War veterans and 10 controls completed an fMRI scan before and after two exercise stress tests to investigate serial changes in pain, autonomic function, and working memory. Exercise induced two clinical Gulf War Illness subgroups. One subgroup presented with orthostatic tachycardia (n?=?10). This phenotype correlated with brainstem atrophy, baseline working memory compensation in the cerebellar vermis, and subsequent loss of compensation after exercise. The other subgroup developed exercise induced hyperalgesia (n?=?18) that was associated with cortical atrophy and baseline working memory compensation in the basal ganglia. Alterations in cognition, brain structure, and symptoms were absent in controls. Our novel findings may provide an understanding of the relationship between the brain and post-exertional malaise in Gulf War Illness. PMID:23798990

Rayhan, Rakib U.; Stevens, Benson W.; Raksit, Megna P.; Ripple, Joshua A.; Timbol, Christian R.; Adewuyi, Oluwatoyin; VanMeter, John W.; Baraniuk, James N.

2013-01-01

176

Characterizing structural association alterations within brain networks in normal aging using Gaussian Bayesian networks  

PubMed Central

Recent multivariate neuroimaging studies have revealed aging-related alterations in brain structural networks. However, the sensory/motor networks such as the auditory, visual and motor networks, have obtained much less attention in normal aging research. In this study, we used Gaussian Bayesian networks (BN), an approach investigating possible inter-regional directed relationship, to characterize aging effects on structural associations between core brain regions within each of these structural sensory/motor networks using volumetric MRI data. We then further examined the discriminability of BN models for the young (N = 109; mean age =22.73 years, range 20–28) and old (N = 82; mean age =74.37 years, range 60–90) groups. The results of the BN modeling demonstrated that structural associations exist between two homotopic brain regions from the left and right hemispheres in each of the three networks. In particular, compared with the young group, the old group had significant connection reductions in each of the three networks and lesser connection numbers in the visual network. Moreover, it was found that the aging-related BN models could distinguish the young and old individuals with 90.05, 73.82, and 88.48% accuracy for the auditory, visual, and motor networks, respectively. Our findings suggest that BN models can be used to investigate the normal aging process with reliable statistical power. Moreover, these differences in structural inter-regional interactions may help elucidate the neuronal mechanism of anatomical changes in normal aging. PMID:25324771

Guo, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yan; Chen, Kewei; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Jiacai; Li, Ke; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li

2014-01-01

177

Brain Structural Alterations in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Patients with Autogenous and Reactive Obsessions  

PubMed Central

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a clinically heterogeneous condition. Although structural brain alterations have been consistently reported in OCD, their interaction with particular clinical subtypes deserves further examination. Among other approaches, a two-group classification in patients with autogenous and reactive obsessions has been proposed. The purpose of the present study was to assess, by means of a voxel-based morphometry analysis, the putative brain structural correlates of this classification scheme in OCD patients. Ninety-five OCD patients and 95 healthy controls were recruited. Patients were divided into autogenous (n?=?30) and reactive (n?=?65) sub-groups. A structural magnetic resonance image was acquired for each participant and pre-processed with SPM8 software to obtain a volume-modulated gray matter map. Whole-brain and voxel-wise comparisons between the study groups were then performed. In comparison to the autogenous group, reactive patients showed larger gray matter volumes in the right Rolandic operculum. When compared to healthy controls, reactive patients showed larger volumes in the putamen (bilaterally), while autogenous patients showed a smaller left anterior temporal lobe. Also in comparison to healthy controls, the right middle temporal gyrus was smaller in both patient subgroups. Our results suggest that autogenous and reactive obsessions depend on partially dissimilar neural substrates. Our findings provide some neurobiological support for this classification scheme and contribute to unraveling the neurobiological basis of clinical heterogeneity in OCD. PMID:24098688

Subirà, Marta; Alonso, Pino; Segalàs, Cinto; Real, Eva; López-Solà, Clara; Pujol, Jesús; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Harrison, Ben J.; Menchón, José M.; Cardoner, Narcís; Soriano-Mas, Carles

2013-01-01

178

Brain Alterations and Clinical Symptoms of Dementia in Diabetes: A?/Tau-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence suggests that diabetes affects cognitive function and increases the incidence of dementia. However, the mechanisms by which diabetes modifies cognitive function still remains unclear. Morphologically, diabetes is associated with neuronal loss in the frontal and temporal lobes including the hippocampus, and aberrant functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex and medial frontal/temporal gyrus. Clinically, diabetic patients show decreased executive function, information processing, planning, visuospatial construction, and visual memory. Therefore, in comparison with the characteristics of AD brain structure and cognition, diabetes seems to affect cognitive function through not only simple AD pathological feature-dependent mechanisms but also independent mechanisms. As an A?/tau-independent mechanism, diabetes compromises cerebrovascular function, increases subcortical infarction, and might alter the blood–brain barrier. Diabetes also affects glucose metabolism, insulin signaling, and mitochondrial function in the brain. Diabetes also modifies metabolism of A? and tau and causes A?/tau-dependent pathological changes. Moreover, there is evidence that suggests an interaction between A?/tau-dependent and independent mechanisms. Therefore, diabetes modifies cognitive function through A?/tau-dependent and independent mechanisms. Interaction between these two mechanisms forms a vicious cycle. PMID:25250014

Sato, Naoyuki; Morishita, Ryuichi

2014-01-01

179

Exercise challenge in Gulf War Illness reveals two subgroups with altered brain structure and function.  

PubMed

Nearly 30% of the approximately 700,000 military personnel who served in Operation Desert Storm (1990-1991) have developed Gulf War Illness, a condition that presents with symptoms such as cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, debilitating fatigue and chronic widespread pain that implicate the central nervous system. A hallmark complaint of subjects with Gulf War Illness is post-exertional malaise; defined as an exacerbation of symptoms following physical and/or mental effort. To study the causal relationship between exercise, the brain, and changes in symptoms, 28 Gulf War veterans and 10 controls completed an fMRI scan before and after two exercise stress tests to investigate serial changes in pain, autonomic function, and working memory. Exercise induced two clinical Gulf War Illness subgroups. One subgroup presented with orthostatic tachycardia (n?=?10). This phenotype correlated with brainstem atrophy, baseline working memory compensation in the cerebellar vermis, and subsequent loss of compensation after exercise. The other subgroup developed exercise induced hyperalgesia (n?=?18) that was associated with cortical atrophy and baseline working memory compensation in the basal ganglia. Alterations in cognition, brain structure, and symptoms were absent in controls. Our novel findings may provide an understanding of the relationship between the brain and post-exertional malaise in Gulf War Illness. PMID:23798990

Rayhan, Rakib U; Stevens, Benson W; Raksit, Megna P; Ripple, Joshua A; Timbol, Christian R; Adewuyi, Oluwatoyin; VanMeter, John W; Baraniuk, James N

2013-01-01

180

Characterizing structural association alterations within brain networks in normal aging using Gaussian Bayesian networks.  

PubMed

Recent multivariate neuroimaging studies have revealed aging-related alterations in brain structural networks. However, the sensory/motor networks such as the auditory, visual and motor networks, have obtained much less attention in normal aging research. In this study, we used Gaussian Bayesian networks (BN), an approach investigating possible inter-regional directed relationship, to characterize aging effects on structural associations between core brain regions within each of these structural sensory/motor networks using volumetric MRI data. We then further examined the discriminability of BN models for the young (N = 109; mean age =22.73 years, range 20-28) and old (N = 82; mean age =74.37 years, range 60-90) groups. The results of the BN modeling demonstrated that structural associations exist between two homotopic brain regions from the left and right hemispheres in each of the three networks. In particular, compared with the young group, the old group had significant connection reductions in each of the three networks and lesser connection numbers in the visual network. Moreover, it was found that the aging-related BN models could distinguish the young and old individuals with 90.05, 73.82, and 88.48% accuracy for the auditory, visual, and motor networks, respectively. Our findings suggest that BN models can be used to investigate the normal aging process with reliable statistical power. Moreover, these differences in structural inter-regional interactions may help elucidate the neuronal mechanism of anatomical changes in normal aging. PMID:25324771

Guo, Xiaojuan; Wang, Yan; Chen, Kewei; Wu, Xia; Zhang, Jiacai; Li, Ke; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li

2014-01-01

181

Specific and Evolving Resting-State Network Alterations in Post-Concussion Syndrome Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Post-concussion syndrome has been related to axonal damage in patients with mild traumatic brain injury, but little is known about the consequences of injury on brain networks. In the present study, our aim was to characterize changes in functional brain networks following mild traumatic brain injury in patients with post-concussion syndrome using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. We investigated 17 injured patients with persistent post-concussion syndrome (under the DSM-IV criteria) at 6 months post-injury compared with 38 mild traumatic brain injury patients with no post-concussion syndrome and 34 healthy controls. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging examinations at the subacute (1–3 weeks) and late (6 months) phases after injury. Group-wise differences in functional brain networks were analyzed using graph theory measures. Patterns of long-range functional networks alterations were found in all mild traumatic brain injury patients. Mild traumatic brain injury patients with post-concussion syndrome had greater alterations than patients without post-concussion syndrome. In patients with post-concussion syndrome, changes specifically affected temporal and thalamic regions predominantly at the subacute stage and frontal regions at the late phase. Our results suggest that the post-concussion syndrome is associated with specific abnormalities in functional brain network that may contribute to explain deficits typically observed in PCS patients. PMID:23755237

Messe, Arnaud; Caplain, Sophie; Pelegrini-Issac, Melanie; Blancho, Sophie; Levy, Richard; Aghakhani, Nozar; Montreuil, Michele; Benali, Habib; Lehericy, Stephane

2013-01-01

182

Role of synaptosomal enzymatic alterations and drug treatment in brain aging.  

PubMed

The activity patterns of enzyme linked to energy transduction are measured as an estimate of the energy potential capacity of the brain during aging. Early investigations provided information on age-related modifications in the apparent activity of these enzymes in the brain as a whole without taking into account the anatomical, morphological, and functional heterogeneity of the discrete brain regions, the metabolic compartments, and their different time course of aging processes. These considerations prompted the investigators to focus their efforts on subcellular organelles, representative of metabolic compartments, isolated from selected brain regions. In the present study, to better elucidate the role of the synaptic compartment during aging, the maximum rate (Vmax) of enzymes involved in energy metabolic pathways is evaluated in synaptosomes isolated from the cerebral cortex of rats aged 4, 12, and 24 months. The potential catalytic activity of phosphofructokinase and citrate synthase is not affected by aging. In contrast, the Vmax of pyruvate dehydrogenase and particularly of cytochrome oxidase decreases in aged rats. A marked increase is found in the Vmax of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in 24-month-old rats and could support the availability of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for antiperoxidative processes. Pretreatments of the animals with certain drugs are performed in order to check the responsiveness of the tissue and the plasticity of enzyme proteins during aging. Papaverine (acting on macrocirculation) is ineffective, but raubasine (acting on microcirculation and metabolism) and almitrine (acting on oxygen availability) both interfere with the potential activity of some of the enzymes tested. Their influence differs with the age of the animal and are in agreement with their action on brain carbohydrate and phospholipid metabolism. PMID:1965531

Curti, D; Benzi, G

1990-01-01

183

Altered Neural Activity and Emotions Following Right Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Stroke of the right MCA is common. Such strokes often have consequences for emotional experience, but these can be subtle. In such cases diagnosis is difficult because emotional awareness (limiting reporting of emotional changes) may be affected. The present study sought to clarify the mechanisms of altered emotion experience after right MCA stroke. It was predicted that after right MCA stroke the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a brain region concerned with emotional awareness, would show reduced neural activity. Methods Brain activity during presentation of emotional stimuli was measured in six patients with stable stroke, and in 12 age and gender matched non-lesion comparisons using positron emission tomography and the [15O]H2O autoradiographic method. Results MCA stroke was associated with weaker pleasant experience and decreased activity ipsilaterally in the ACC. Other regions involved in emotional processing including thalamus, dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex showed reduced activity ipsilaterally. Dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex, association visual cortex and cerebellum showed reduced activity contralaterally. Experience from unpleasant stimuli was unaltered and was associated with decreased activity only in the left midbrain. Conclusions Right MCA stroke may reduce experience of pleasant emotions by altering brain activity in limbic and paralimbic regions distant from the area of direct damage, in addition to changes due to direct tissue damage to insula and basal ganglia. The knowledge acquired in this study begins to explain the mechanisms underlying emotional changes following right MCA stroke. Recognizing these changes may improve diagnoses, management and rehabilitation of right MCA stroke victims. PMID:20656512

Paradiso, Sergio; Anderson, Beth M.; Boles Ponto, Laura L.; Tranel, Daniel; Robinson, Robert G.

2010-01-01

184

Anger Style, Psychopathology, and Regional Brain Activity  

PubMed Central

Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain asymmetry. The present study explored these issues by comparing resting regional electroencephalographic activity in participants high in trait anger who differed in anger expression style (high anger-in, high anger-out, both) and participants low in trait anger, with depression and anxiety systematically assessed. Trait anger, not anger-in or anger-out, predicted left-biased asymmetry at medial frontal EEG sites. The anger-in group reported higher levels of anxious apprehension than did the anger-out group. Furthermore, anxious apprehension moderated the relationship between trait anger, anger-in, and asymmetry in favor of the left hemisphere. Results suggest that motivational direction is not always the driving force behind the relationship of anger and left frontal asymmetry. Findings also support a distinction between anxious apprehension and anxious arousal. PMID:18837620

Stewart, Jennifer L.; Levin, Rebecca L.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

2010-01-01

185

Protective effect of resveratrol on fluoride induced alteration in protein and nucleic acid metabolism, DNA damage and biogenic amines in rat brain.  

PubMed

Fluoride, a well-established environmental carcinogen, has been found to cause various neurodegenerative diseases in human. Sub-acute exposure to fluoride at a dose of 20mg/kgb.w./day for 30 days caused significant alteration in pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant status of brain tissue as reflected by perturbation of reduced glutathione content, increased lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, nitric oxide and free hydroxyl radical production and decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes. Decreased proteolytic and transaminase enzymes' activities, protein and nucleic acid contents and associated DNA damage were observed in the brain of fluoride intoxicated rats. The neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin level was also significantly altered after fluoride exposure. Protective effect of resveratrol on fluoride-induced metabolic and oxidative dysfunctions was evaluated. Resveratrol was found to inhibit changes in metabolic activities restoring antioxidant status, biogenic amine level and structural organization of the brain. Our findings indicated that resveratrol imparted antioxidative role in ameliorating fluoride-induced metabolic and oxidative stress in different regions of the brain. PMID:25233527

Pal, Sudipta; Sarkar, Chaitali

2014-09-01

186

Manganese superoxide dismutase deficiency exacerbates ischemic brain damage under hyperglycemic conditions by altering autophagy.  

PubMed

Both preischemic hyperglycemia and suppression of SOD2 activity aggravate ischemic brain damage. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of SOD2 mutation on ischemic brain damage and its relation to the factors involved in autophagy regulation in hyperglycemic wild-type (WT) and heterozygous SOD2 knockout (SOD2(-/+)) mice subjected to 30-min transient focal ischemia. The brain samples were analyzed at 5 and 24 h after recirculation for ischemic lesion volume, superoxide production, and oxidative DNA damage and protein levels of Beclin 1, damage-regulated autophagy modulator (DRAM), and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3). The results revealed a significant increase in infarct volume in hyperglycemic SOD2(-/+) mice, and this was accompanied with an early (5 h) significant rise in superoxide production and reduced SOD2 activity in SOD2(-/+) mice as compared to WT mice. The superoxide production is associated with oxidative DNA damage as indicated by colocalization of the dihydroethidium (DHE) signal with 8-OHdG fluorescence in SOD2(-/+) mice. In addition, while ischemia in WT hyperglycemics increased the levels of autophagy markers Beclin 1, DRAM, and LC3, ischemia in hyperglycemic, SOD2-deficient mice suppressed the levels of autophagy stimulators. These results suggest that SOD2 knockdown exacerbates ischemic brain damage under hyperglycemic conditions via increased oxidative stress and DNA oxidation. Such effect is associated with suppression of autophagy regulators. PMID:21720543

Mehta, Suresh L; Lin, Yanling; Chen, Wenge; Yu, Fengshan; Cao, Luyi; He, Qingping; Chan, Pak H; Li, P Andy

2011-03-01

187

Brain Activity with Reading Sentences and Emoticons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we describe a person's brain activity when he/she sees an emoticon at the end of a sentence. An emoticon consists of some characters that resemble the human face and expresses a sender's emotion. With the help of a computer network, we use e-mail, messenger, avatars and so on, in order to convey what we wish to, to a receiver. Moreover, we send an emotional expression by using an emoticon at the end of a sentence. In this research, we investigate the effect of an emoticon as nonverbal information, using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that the right and left inferior frontal gyrus were activated and we detect a sentence with an emoticon as the verbal and nonverval information.

Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki

188

Effects of a Carbohydrate Supplement upon Resting Brain Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose is a major energy source for the brain, and along with several monosaccharide derivatives as components of brain gangliosides, they play important roles in neurologic function. However, there is little information available on the role of glucose and other monosaccharides on resting brain activity. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a single dose of a carbohydrate

CHENGHUA WANG; JOANNE S. SZABO; ROSCOE A. DYKMAN

2004-01-01

189

Behavioral/Cognitive Spontaneous Brain Activity Predicts Learning Ability of  

E-print Network

Behavioral/Cognitive Spontaneous Brain Activity Predicts Learning Ability of Foreign Sounds Noelia Barcelona, Spain Can learning capacity of the human brain be predicted from initial spontaneous functional contribute to predict learning ability and to understand how learning modifies the functioning of the brain

Deco, Gustavo

190

Causal interaction following the alteration of target region activation during motor imagery training using real-time fMRI  

PubMed Central

Motor imagery training is an effective approach for motor skill learning and motor function rehabilitation. As a novel method of motor imagery training, real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) enables individuals to acquire self-control of localized brain activation, achieving desired changes in behavior. The regulation of target region activation by rtfMRI often alters the activation of related brain regions. However, the interaction between the target region and these related regions is unclear. The Granger causality model (GCM) is a data-driven method that can explore the causal interaction between brain regions. In this study, we employed rtfMRI to train subjects to regulate the activation of the ipsilateral dorsal premotor area (dPMA) during motor imagery training, and we calculated the causal interaction of the dPMA with other motor-related regions based on the GCM. The results demonstrated that as the activity of the dPMA changed during rtfMRI training, the interaction of the target region with other related regions became significantly altered, and behavioral performance was improved after training. The altered interaction primarily exhibited as an increased unidirectional interaction from the dPMA to the other regions. These findings support the dominant role of the dPMA in motor skill learning via rtfMRI training and may indicate how activation of the target region interacts with the activation of other related regions. PMID:24379775

Zhao, Xiaojie; Zhang, Hang; Song, Sutao; Ye, Qing; Guo, Jia; Yao, Li

2013-01-01

191

Altered 8-oxoguanine glycosylase in mild cognitive impairment and late-stage Alzheimer's disease brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is increased in the brain in late-stage Alzheimer's disease (LAD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). To determine if decreased base-excision repair contributes to these elevations, we measured oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1) protein and incision activities in nuclear and mitochondrial fractions from frontal (FL), temporal (TL), and parietal (PL) lobes from 8 MCI and 7 LAD patients, and 6

Changxing Shao; Shuling Xiong; Guo-Min Li; Liya Gu; Guogen Mao; William R. Markesbery; Mark A. Lovell

2008-01-01

192

Decreased activity and increased aggregation of brain calcineurin during aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related decline in strength of synaptic transmission and memory formation has been attributed to age-associated increases in the activity of calcineurin (Cn) in hippocampus neurons. In the present study, we examined how brain Cn activity, Cn subunit levels, and Cn protein oxidation were changing during the aging process. Cn activity decreased with advancing age in three brain subcellular fractions, homogenate,

Abdulbaki Agbas; Asma Zaidi; Elias K. Michaelis

2005-01-01

193

Ionic transporter activity in astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes during brain ischemia.  

PubMed

Glial cells constitute a large percentage of cells in the nervous system. During recent years, a large number of studies have critically attributed to glia a new role which no longer reflects the long-held view that glia constitute solely a silent and passive supportive scaffolding for brain cells. Indeed, it has been hypothesized that glia, partnering neurons, have a much more actively participating role in brain function. Alteration of intraglial ionic homeostasis in response to ischemic injury has a crucial role in inducing and maintaining glial responses in the ischemic brain. Therefore, glial transporters as potential candidates in stroke intervention are becoming promising targets to enhance an effective and additional therapy for brain ischemia. In this review, we will describe in detail the role played by ionic transporters in influencing astrocyte, microglia, and oligodendrocyte activity and the implications that these transporters have in the progression of ischemic lesion. PMID:23549380

Annunziato, Lucio; Boscia, Francesca; Pignataro, Giuseppe

2013-07-01

194

Do Exercise and Physical Activity Protect the Brain?  

MedlinePLUS

... and Physical Activity Protect the Brain? Exercise and physical activity have many benefits. Studies show they are good ... a healthy lifestyle that includes a healthy diet, physical activity, appropriate weight, and not smoking can maintain and ...

195

[The information theory of brain systemic activity].  

PubMed

Information equivalents of initial requirements and their satisfaction are shown to induce formation of discrete information systemoquanta of psychic activity on morphofunctional structures of the action result acceptor in the course of build-up of cerebral archtectonics of the functional systems governing the behaviour and psychic activity. Consecutive stages of induction of information systemoquanta of action result acceptors are described. Predominant motivations are supposed to play the leading role in the psychic activity through their involvement in the induction of information systemoquanta and their retrieval from memory. The role of emotions in the subjective information estimation of systemic cerebral activity is considered. It is argued that parameters of achievement of adaptive results by a subject are imprinted on acceptor structures via reverse afferentation in the form of specific information images. Enrichment of action results acceptors with information and extraction of information systemoquanta by prevailing motivations are believed to make up the basis of consciousness and thinking. The hypothesis of holographic organization of acceptors of the results of systemic brain action is considered. PMID:22312900

Sudakov, K V

2011-01-01

196

Altered phospholipid molecular species and glycolipid composition in brain, liver and fibroblasts of Zellweger syndrome.  

PubMed

We studied the altered molecular species of lipids in brain and liver tissues, and fibroblasts from patients with Zellweger syndrome (ZS). ZS cerebellum samples contained a higher amount of sphingomyelin with shorter chain fatty acids compared to that in normal controls. The amount of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was less than half of that in controls, with the absence of the PE-type of plasmalogen. Gangliosides were accumulated in the brains and fibroblasts of ZS patients. To investigate whether or not impaired beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids and/or plasmalogen synthesis affects glycolipids metabolism, RNAi of peroxisomal acylCo-A oxidase (ACOX1) and glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (GNPAT) was performed using cultured neural cells. In neuronal F3-Ngn1 cells, ACOX1 and GNPAT silencing up-regulated ceramide galactosyltransferase (UGT8) mRNA expression, and down-regulated UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG). These results suggest that both impaired beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids and plasmalogen synthesis affect glycolipid metabolism in neuronal cells. PMID:23933200

Miyazaki, Celine; Saitoh, Makiko; Itoh, Masayuki; Yamashita, Sumimasa; Miyagishi, Makoto; Takashima, Sachio; Moser, Ann B; Iwamori, Masao; Mizuguchi, Masashi

2013-09-27

197

Mouse Brain PSA-NCAM Levels Are Altered by Graded-Controlled Cortical Impact Injury  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a worldwide endemic that results in unacceptably high morbidity and mortality. Secondary injury processes following primary injury are composed of intricate interactions between assorted molecules that ultimately dictate the degree of longer-term neurological deficits. One comparatively unexplored molecule that may contribute to exacerbation of injury or enhancement of recovery is the posttranslationally modified polysialic acid form of neural cell adhesion molecule, PSA-NCAM. This molecule is a critical modulator of central nervous system plasticity and reorganization after injury. In this study, we used controlled cortical impact (CCI) to produce moderate or severe TBI in the mouse. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analysis were used to track the early (2, 24, and 48 hour) and late (1 and 3 week) time course and location of changes in the levels of PSA-NCAM after TBI. Variable and heterogeneous short- and long-term increases or decreases in expression were found. In general, alterations in PSA-NCAM levels were seen in the cerebral cortex immediately after injury, and these reductions persisted in brain regions distal to the primary injury site, especially after severe injury. This information provides a starting point to dissect the role of PSA-NCAM in TBI-related pathology and recovery. PMID:22848850

Budinich, Craig S.; Chen, HuaZhen; Lowe, Dennell; Rosenberger, John G.; Bernstock, Joshua D.; McCabe, Joseph T.

2012-01-01

198

Alterations in fiber pathways reveal brain tumor typology: a diffusion tractography study  

PubMed Central

Conventional structural Magnetic Resonance (MR) techniques can accurately identify brain tumors but do not provide exhaustive information about the integrity of the surrounding/embedded white matter (WM). In this study, we used Diffusion-Weighted (DW) MRI tractography to explore tumor-induced alterations of WM architecture without any a priori knowledge about the fiber paths under consideration. We used deterministic multi-fiber tractography to analyze 16 cases of histologically classified brain tumors (meningioma, low-grade glioma, high-grade glioma) to evaluate the integrity of WM bundles in the tumoral region, in relation to the contralateral unaffected hemisphere. Our new tractographic approach yielded measures of WM involvement which were strongly correlated with the histopathological features of the tumor (r = 0.83, p = 0.0001). In particular, the number of affected fiber tracts were significantly (p = 0.0006) different among tumor types. Our method proposes a new application of diffusion tractography for the detection of tumor aggressiveness in those cases in which the lesion does not involve any major/known WM paths and when a priori information about the local fiber anatomy is lacking.

Ius, Tamara; Skrap, Miran; Fadiga, Luciano

2014-01-01

199

Peptidylglycine ?-amidating monooxygenase heterozygosity alters brain copper handling with region specificity.  

PubMed

Copper (Cu), an essential trace element present throughout the mammalian nervous system, is crucial for normal synaptic function. Neuronal handling of Cu is poorly understood. We studied the localization and expression of Atp7a, the major intracellular Cu transporter in the brain, and its relation to peptidylglycine ?-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), an essential cuproenzyme and regulator of Cu homeostasis in neuroendocrine cells. Based on biochemical fractionation and immunostaining of dissociated neurons, Atp7a was enriched in post-synaptic vesicular fractions. Cu followed a similar pattern, with ~ 20% of total Cu in synaptosomes. A mouse model heterozygous for the Pam gene (PAM+/?) was selectively Cu deficient in the amygdala. As in cortex and hippocampus, Atp7a and PAM expression overlap in the amygdala, with highest expression in interneurons. Messenger RNA levels of Atox-1 and Atp7a, which deliver Cu to the secretory pathway, were reduced in the amygdala but not in the hippocampus in PAM+/? mice, GABAB receptor mRNA levels were similarly affected. Consistent with Cu deficiency, dopamine ?-monooxygenase function was impaired as evidenced by elevated dopamine metabolites in the amygdala, but not in the hippocampus, of PAM+/? mice. These alterations in Cu delivery to the secretory pathway in the PAM+/? amygdala may contribute to the physiological and behavioral deficits observed. Atp7a, a Cu-transporting P-type ATPase, is localized to the trans-Golgi network and to vesicles distributed throughout the dendritic arbor. Tissue-specific alterations in Atp7a expression were found in mice heterozygous for peptidylglycine ?-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), an essential neuropeptide-synthesizing cuproenzyme. Atp7a and PAM are highly expressed in amygdalar interneurons. Reduced amygdalar expression of Atox-1 and Atp7a in PAM heterozygous mice may lead to reduced synaptic Cu levels, contributing to the behavioral and neurochemical alterations seen in these mice. PMID:24032518

Gaier, Eric D; Miller, Megan B; Ralle, Martina; Aryal, Dipendra; Wetsel, William C; Mains, Richard E; Eipper, Betty A

2013-12-01

200

Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase modulates NMDA receptor antagonist mediated alterations in the developing brain.  

PubMed

Exposure to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to induce neurodegeneration in newborn rats. However, in clinical practice the use of NMDA receptor antagonists as anesthetics and sedatives cannot always be avoided. The present study investigated the effect of the indirect cholinergic agonist physostigmine on neurotrophin expression and the extracellular matrix during NMDA receptor antagonist induced injury to the immature rat brain. The aim was to investigate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity, as well as expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after co-administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 (dizocilpine) and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor physostigmine. The AChE inhibitor physostigmine ameliorated the MK801-induced reduction of BDNF mRNA and protein levels, reduced MK801-triggered MMP-2 activity and prevented decreased TIMP-2 mRNA expression. Our results indicate that AChE inhibition may prevent newborn rats from MK801-mediated brain damage by enhancing neurotrophin-associated signaling pathways and by modulating the extracellular matrix. PMID:24595240

Bendix, Ivo; Serdar, Meray; Herz, Josephine; von Haefen, Clarissa; Nasser, Fatme; Rohrer, Benjamin; Endesfelder, Stefanie; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Spies, Claudia D; Sifringer, Marco

2014-01-01

201

Interpreting the effects of altered brain anatomical connectivity on fMRI functional connectivity: a role for computational neural modeling  

PubMed Central

Recently, there have been a large number of studies using resting state fMRI to characterize abnormal brain connectivity in patients with a variety of neurological, psychiatric, and developmental disorders. However, interpreting what the differences in resting state fMRI functional connectivity (rsfMRI-FC) actually reflect in terms of the underlying neural pathology has proved to be elusive because of the complexity of brain anatomical connectivity. The same is the case for task-based fMRI studies. In the last few years, several groups have used large-scale neural modeling to help provide some insight into the relationship between brain anatomical connectivity and the corresponding patterns of fMRI-FC. In this paper we review several efforts at using large-scale neural modeling to investigate the relationship between structural connectivity and functional/effective connectivity to determine how alterations in structural connectivity are manifested in altered patterns of functional/effective connectivity. Because the alterations made in the anatomical connectivity between specific brain regions in the model are known in detail, one can use the results of these simulations to determine the corresponding alterations in rsfMRI-FC. Many of these simulation studies found that structural connectivity changes do not necessarily result in matching changes in functional/effective connectivity in the areas of structural modification. Often, it was observed that increases in functional/effective connectivity in the altered brain did not necessarily correspond to increases in the strength of the anatomical connection weights. Note that increases in rsfMRI-FC in patients have been interpreted in some cases as resulting from neural plasticity. These results suggest that this interpretation can be mistaken. The relevance of these simulation findings to the use of functional/effective fMRI connectivity as biomarkers for brain disorders is also discussed. PMID:24273500

Horwitz, Barry; Hwang, Chuhern; Alstott, Jeff

2013-01-01

202

Mosaic Evolution and Adaptive Brain Component Alteration under Domestication Seen on the Background of Evolutionary Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brain sizes and brain component sizes of five domesticated pigeon breeds including homing (racing) pigeons are compared with rock doves (Columba livia) based on an allometric approach to test the influence of domestication on brain and brain component size. Net brain volume, the volumes of cerebellum and telencephalon as a whole are significantly smaller in almost all domestic pigeons. Inside

Gerd Rehkämper; Heiko D. Frahm; Julia Cnotka

2008-01-01

203

Alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the mouse hippocampus following acute but not repeated benzodiazepine treatment.  

PubMed

Benzodiazepines (BZs) are safe drugs for treating anxiety, sleep, and seizure disorders, but their use also results in unwanted effects including memory impairment, abuse, and dependence. The present study aimed to reveal the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the effects of BZs in the hippocampus (HIP), an area involved in drug-related plasticity, by investigating the regulation of immediate early genes following BZ administration. Previous studies have demonstrated that both brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and c-Fos contribute to memory- and abuse-related processes that occur within the HIP, and their expression is altered in response to BZ exposure. In the current study, mice received acute or repeated administration of BZs and HIP tissue was analyzed for alterations in BDNF and c-Fos expression. Although no significant changes in BDNF or c-Fos were observed in response to twice-daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of diazepam (10 mg/kg + 5 mg/kg) or zolpidem (ZP; 2.5 mg/kg + 2.5 mg/kg), acute i.p. administration of both triazolam (0.03 mg/kg) and ZP (1.0 mg/kg) decreased BDNF protein levels within the HIP relative to vehicle, without any effect on c-Fos. ZP specifically reduced exon IV-containing BDNF transcripts with a concomitant increase in the association of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) with BDNF promoter IV, suggesting that MeCP2 activity at this promoter may represent a ZP-specific mechanism for reducing BDNF expression. ZP also increased the association of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB) with BDNF promoter I. Future work should examine the interaction between ZP and DNA as the cause for altered gene expression in the HIP, given that BZs can enter the nucleus and intercalate into DNA directly. PMID:24367698

Licata, Stephanie C; Shinday, Nina M; Huizenga, Megan N; Darnell, Shayna B; Sangrey, Gavin R; Rudolph, Uwe; Rowlett, James K; Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh

2013-01-01

204

Alterations in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in the Mouse Hippocampus Following Acute but Not Repeated Benzodiazepine Treatment  

PubMed Central

Benzodiazepines (BZs) are safe drugs for treating anxiety, sleep, and seizure disorders, but their use also results in unwanted effects including memory impairment, abuse, and dependence. The present study aimed to reveal the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the effects of BZs in the hippocampus (HIP), an area involved in drug-related plasticity, by investigating the regulation of immediate early genes following BZ administration. Previous studies have demonstrated that both brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and c-Fos contribute to memory- and abuse-related processes that occur within the HIP, and their expression is altered in response to BZ exposure. In the current study, mice received acute or repeated administration of BZs and HIP tissue was analyzed for alterations in BDNF and c-Fos expression. Although no significant changes in BDNF or c-Fos were observed in response to twice-daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of diazepam (10 mg/kg + 5 mg/kg) or zolpidem (ZP; 2.5 mg/kg + 2.5 mg/kg), acute i.p. administration of both triazolam (0.03 mg/kg) and ZP (1.0 mg/kg) decreased BDNF protein levels within the HIP relative to vehicle, without any effect on c-Fos. ZP specifically reduced exon IV-containing BDNF transcripts with a concomitant increase in the association of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) with BDNF promoter IV, suggesting that MeCP2 activity at this promoter may represent a ZP-specific mechanism for reducing BDNF expression. ZP also increased the association of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB) with BDNF promoter I. Future work should examine the interaction between ZP and DNA as the cause for altered gene expression in the HIP, given that BZs can enter the nucleus and intercalate into DNA directly. PMID:24367698

Licata, Stephanie C.; Shinday, Nina M.; Huizenga, Megan N.; Darnell, Shayna B.; Sangrey, Gavin R.; Rudolph, Uwe; Rowlett, James K.; Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh

2013-01-01

205

Potential Moderators of Physical Activity on Brain Health  

PubMed Central

Age-related cognitive decline is linked to numerous molecular, structural, and functional changes in the brain. However, physical activity is a promising method of reducing unfavorable age-related changes. Physical activity exerts its effects on the brain through many molecular pathways, some of which are regulated by genetic variants in humans. In this paper, we highlight genes including apolipoprotein E (APOE), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) along with dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as potential moderators of the effect of physical activity on brain health. There are a growing number of studies indicating that physical activity might mitigate the genetic risks for disease and brain dysfunction and that the combination of greater amounts of DHA intake with physical activity might promote better brain function than either treatment alone. Understanding whether genes or other lifestyles moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive health is necessary for delineating the pathways by which brain health can be enhanced and for grasping the individual variation in the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on the brain and cognition. There is a need for future research to continue to assess the factors that moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive function. PMID:23304508

Leckie, Regina L.; Weinstein, Andrea M.; Hodzic, Jennifer C.; Erickson, Kirk I.

2012-01-01

206

Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings  

E-print Network

Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings of Nouns Tom M. Mitchell,1 * Svetlana associated with viewing several dozen concrete nouns. Once trained, the model predicts fMRI activation Just3 The question of how the human brain represents conceptual knowledge has been debated in many

207

Brief Communications Brain Monoamine Oxidase A Activity Predicts Trait  

E-print Network

Brief Communications Brain Monoamine Oxidase A Activity Predicts Trait Aggression Nelly Alia of this behavior. A potential neu- rochemical target is monoamine oxidase A (MAO A), an enzyme involved in metabolism of monoamines in brain and other or- gans (Shih and Thompson, 1999). MAO A catalytic activity re

Goldstein, Rita

208

Stress-Induced Asymmetric Frontal Brain Activity and Aggression Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impersonal stressors, not only interpersonal provocation, can instigate aggression through an associative network linking negative emotions to behavioral activation (L. Berkowitz, 1990). Research has not examined the brain mechanisms that are engaged by different types of stress and serve to promote hostility and aggression. The present study examined whether stress exposure elicits more left than right frontal brain activity implicated

Edelyn Verona; Naomi Sadeh; John J. Curtin

2009-01-01

209

Cerebral blood volume changes during brain activation.  

PubMed

Cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes significantly with brain activation, whether measured using positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), or optical microscopy. If cerebral vessels are considered to be impermeable, the contents of the skull incompressible, and the skull itself inextensible, task- and hypercapnia-related changes of CBV could produce intolerable changes of intracranial pressure. Because it is becoming clear that CBV may be useful as a well-localized marker of neural activity changes, a resolution of this apparent paradox is needed. We have explored the idea that much of the change in CBV is facilitated by exchange of water between capillaries and surrounding tissue. To this end, we developed a novel hemodynamic boundary-value model and found approximate solutions using a numerical algorithm. We also constructed a macroscopic experimental model of a single capillary to provide biophysical insight. Both experiment and theory model capillary membranes as elastic and permeable. For a realistic change of input pressure, a relative pipe volume change of 21±5% was observed when using the experimental setup, compared with the value of approximately 17±1% when this quantity was calculated from the mathematical model. Volume, axial flow, and pressure changes are in the expected range. PMID:22569192

Krieger, Steffen Norbert; Streicher, Markus Nikolar; Trampel, Robert; Turner, Robert

2012-08-01

210

Altered brain connectivity in 3-to 7-year-old children with autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is often described as a disorder of aberrant neural connectivity and/or aberrant hemispheric lateralization. Although it is important to study the pathophysiology of the developing ASD cortex, the physiological connectivity of the brain in young children with ASD under conscious conditions has not yet been described. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a noninvasive brain imaging technique that is practical for use in young children. MEG produces a reference-free signal and is, therefore, an ideal tool for computing the coherence between two distant cortical rhythms. Using a custom child-sized MEG, we recently reported that 5- to 7-year-old children with ASD (n = 26) have inherently different neural pathways than typically developing (TD) children that contribute to their relatively preserved performance of visual tasks. In this study, we performed non-invasive measurements of the brain activity of 70 young children (3-7 years old, of which 18 were aged 3-4 years), a sample consisting of 35 ASD children and 35 TD children. Physiological connectivity and the laterality of physiological connectivity were assessed using intrahemispheric coherence for 9 frequency bands. As a result, significant rightward connectivity between the parietotemporal areas, via gamma band oscillations, was found in the ASD group. As we obtained the non-invasive measurements using a custom child-sized MEG, this is the first study to demonstrate a rightward-lateralized neurophysiological network in conscious young children (including children aged 3-4 years) with ASD. PMID:24179793

Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Shitamichi, Kiyomi; Yoshimura, Yuko; Ueno, Sanae; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Munesue, Toshio; Nakatani, Hideo; Tsubokawa, Tsunehisa; Haruta, Yasuhiro; Oi, Manabu; Niida, Yo; Remijn, Gerard B; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Michio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio

2013-01-01

211

Maternal Inflammation Contributes to Brain Overgrowth and Autism-Associated Behaviors through Altered Redox Signaling in Stem and Progenitor Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary A period of mild brain overgrowth with an unknown etiology has been identified as one of the most common phenotypes in autism. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal inflammation during critical periods of embryonic development can cause brain overgrowth and autism-associated behaviors as a result of altered neural stem cell function. Pregnant mice treated with low-dose lipopolysaccharide at embryonic day 9 had offspring with brain overgrowth, with a more pronounced effect in PTEN heterozygotes. Exposure to maternal inflammation also enhanced NADPH oxidase (NOX)-PI3K pathway signaling, stimulated the hyperproliferation of neural stem and progenitor cells, increased forebrain microglia, and produced abnormal autism-associated behaviors in affected pups. Our evidence supports the idea that a prenatal neuroinflammatory dysregulation in neural stem cell redox signaling can act in concert with underlying genetic susceptibilities to affect cellular responses to environmentally altered cellular levels of reactive oxygen species.

Le Belle, Janel E.; Sperry, Jantzen; Ngo, Amy; Ghochani, Yasmin; Laks, Dan R.; López-Aranda, Manuel; Silva, Alcino J.; Kornblum, Harley I.

2014-01-01

212

ARCHIVAL REPORT Functional Brain Activation to Emotionally Valenced  

E-print Network

to patterns found in adults and adolescents with major depression. These patterns were most strongly related to as preschool-onset depression (PO-MDD) (4­7). Adults and adolescents with MDD show altered functional brain with a History of Preschool-Onset Major Depression Deanna M. Barch, Michael S. Gaffrey, Kelly N. Botteron, Andrew

213

Brain activation associated with active and passive lower limb stepping  

PubMed Central

Reports about standardized and repeatable experimental procedures investigating supraspinal activation in patients with gait disorders are scarce in current neuro-imaging literature. Well-designed and executed tasks are important to gain insight into the effects of gait-rehabilitation on sensorimotor centers of the brain. The present study aims to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel imaging paradigm, combining the magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible stepping robot (MARCOS) with sparse sampling functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure task-related BOLD signal changes and to delineate the supraspinal contribution specific to active and passive stepping. Twenty-four healthy participants underwent fMRI during active and passive, periodic, bilateral, multi-joint, lower limb flexion and extension akin to human gait. Active and passive stepping engaged several cortical and subcortical areas of the sensorimotor network, with higher relative activation of those areas during active movement. Our results indicate that the combination of MARCOS and sparse sampling fMRI is feasible for the detection of lower limb motor related supraspinal activation. Activation of the anterior cingulate and medial frontal areas suggests motor response inhibition during passive movement in healthy participants. Our results are of relevance for understanding the neural mechanisms underlying gait in the healthy. PMID:25389396

Jaeger, Lukas; Marchal-Crespo, Laura; Wolf, Peter; Riener, Robert; Michels, Lars; Kollias, Spyros

2014-01-01

214

Altered composition of polyunsaturated fatty acyl groups in phosphoglycerides of Down's syndrome fetal brain.  

PubMed

We have observed recently that in vitro lipoperoxidation is enhanced in Down's syndrome brain homogenates of prenatal age. As this may relate to the composition of polyunsaturated acyl groups (PUFA) in phospholipids, we have examined the PUFA of ethanolamine and serine phosphoglycerides (EPG and SPG), which are particularly rich in PUFA, in the same series of cerebral cortex specimens of Down's syndrome and age-matched control fetuses. Although the total percentages of PUFA in the two phosphoglycerides were not altered, compared with controls the ratio of PUFA of the (n-3) series to those of the (n-6) series was very significantly elevated in Down's syndrome, from 0.32 to 0.55 in EPG and from 0.60 to 0.97 in SPG. In particular, docosahexaenoyl, 22:6(n-3), groups were uniformly increased in Down's syndrome compared with controls by 54% and 33% in EPG and SPG, respectively, while arachidonoyl, 20:4(n-6), groups were decreased by 16% and 30%, respectively. Similar changes occur during normal development, but the (n-3) to (n-6) ratio of PUFA in these phosphoglycerides of Down's syndrome at the fifth month of gestation resembled that of normal human cerebral grey matter at term. However, other developmental indices related to PUFA composition were not significantly affected. It seems therefore that in the developing Down's syndrome brain there may be a distortion of the normal transformations of essential fatty acids and of their incorporation into phosphoglycerides. The disproportion between docosahexaenoyl and arachidonoyl groups in membrane phosphoglycerides during prenatal development in Down's syndrome may also result in disturbances of the proper functioning, and the ontogenetic integration, of membrane enzymes and transport processes. PMID:3156210

Brooksbank, B W; Martinez, M; Balazs, R

1985-03-01

215

Epigenetic Alterations in the Brain Associated with HIV-1 Infection and Methamphetamine Dependence  

PubMed Central

HIV involvement of the CNS continues to be a significant problem despite successful use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Drugs of abuse can act in concert with HIV proteins to damage glia and neurons, worsening the neurotoxicity caused by HIV alone. Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug, abuse of which has reached epidemic proportions and is associated with high-risk sexual behavior, increased HIV transmission, and development of drug resistance. HIV infection and METH dependence can have synergistic pathological effects, with preferential involvement of frontostriatal circuits. At the molecular level, epigenetic alterations have been reported for both HIV-1 infection and drug abuse, but the neuropathological pathways triggered by their combined effects are less known. We investigated epigenetic changes in the brain associated with HIV and METH. We analyzed postmortem frontal cortex tissue from 27 HIV seropositive individuals, 13 of which had a history of METH dependence, in comparison to 14 cases who never used METH. We detected changes in the expression of DNMT1, at mRNA and protein levels, that resulted in the increase of global DNA methylation. Genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation in a subset of cases, showed differential methylation on genes related to neurodegeneration; dopamine metabolism and transport; and oxidative phosphorylation. We provide evidence for the synergy of HIV and METH dependence on the patterns of DNA methylation on the host brain, which results in a distinctive landscape for the comorbid condition. Importantly, we identified new epigenetic targets that might aid in understanding the aggravated neurodegenerative, cognitive, motor and behavioral symptoms observed in persons living with HIV and addictions. PMID:25054922

Desplats, Paula; Dumaop, Wilmar; Cronin, Peter; Gianella, Sara; Woods, Steven; Letendre, Scott; Smith, David; Masliah, Eliezer; Grant, Igor

2014-01-01

216

Epigenetic alterations in the brain associated with HIV-1 infection and methamphetamine dependence.  

PubMed

HIV involvement of the CNS continues to be a significant problem despite successful use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Drugs of abuse can act in concert with HIV proteins to damage glia and neurons, worsening the neurotoxicity caused by HIV alone. Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug, abuse of which has reached epidemic proportions and is associated with high-risk sexual behavior, increased HIV transmission, and development of drug resistance. HIV infection and METH dependence can have synergistic pathological effects, with preferential involvement of frontostriatal circuits. At the molecular level, epigenetic alterations have been reported for both HIV-1 infection and drug abuse, but the neuropathological pathways triggered by their combined effects are less known. We investigated epigenetic changes in the brain associated with HIV and METH. We analyzed postmortem frontal cortex tissue from 27 HIV seropositive individuals, 13 of which had a history of METH dependence, in comparison to 14 cases who never used METH. We detected changes in the expression of DNMT1, at mRNA and protein levels, that resulted in the increase of global DNA methylation. Genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation in a subset of cases, showed differential methylation on genes related to neurodegeneration; dopamine metabolism and transport; and oxidative phosphorylation. We provide evidence for the synergy of HIV and METH dependence on the patterns of DNA methylation on the host brain, which results in a distinctive landscape for the comorbid condition. Importantly, we identified new epigenetic targets that might aid in understanding the aggravated neurodegenerative, cognitive, motor and behavioral symptoms observed in persons living with HIV and addictions. PMID:25054922

Desplats, Paula; Dumaop, Wilmar; Cronin, Peter; Gianella, Sara; Woods, Steven; Letendre, Scott; Smith, David; Masliah, Eliezer; Grant, Igor

2014-01-01

217

Alterations in Prefrontal-Limbic Functional Activation and Connectivity in Chronic Stress-Induced Visceral Hyperalgesia  

PubMed Central

Repeated water avoidance stress (WAS) induces sustained visceral hyperalgesia (VH) in rats measured as enhanced visceromotor response to colorectal distension (CRD). This model incorporates two characteristic features of human irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), VH and a prominent role of stress in the onset and exacerbation of IBS symptoms. Little is known regarding central mechanisms underlying the stress-induced VH. Here, we applied an autoradiographic perfusion method to map regional and network-level neural correlates of VH. Adult male rats were exposed to WAS or sham treatment for 1 hour/day for 10 days. The visceromotor response was measured before and after the treatment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) mapping was performed by intravenous injection of radiotracer ([14C]-iodoantipyrine) while the rat was receiving a 60-mmHg CRD or no distension. Regional CBF-related tissue radioactivity was quantified in autoradiographic images of brain slices and analyzed in 3-dimensionally reconstructed brains with statistical parametric mapping. Compared to sham rats, stressed rats showed VH in association with greater CRD-evoked activation in the insular cortex, amygdala, and hypothalamus, but reduced activation in the prelimbic area (PrL) of prefrontal cortex. We constrained results of seed correlation analysis by known structural connectivity of the PrL to generate structurally linked functional connectivity (SLFC) of the PrL. Dramatic differences in the SLFC of PrL were noted between stressed and sham rats under distension. In particular, sham rats showed negative correlation between the PrL and amygdala, which was absent in stressed rats. The altered pattern of functional brain activation is in general agreement with that observed in IBS patients in human brain imaging studies, providing further support for the face and construct validity of the WAS model for IBS. The absence of prefrontal cortex-amygdala anticorrelation in stressed rats is consistent with the notion that impaired corticolimbic modulation acts as a central mechanism underlying stress-induced VH. PMID:23527114

Wang, Zhuo; Ocampo, Marco A.; Pang, Raina D.; Bota, Mihail; Bradesi, Sylvie; Mayer, Emeran A.; Holschneider, Daniel P.

2013-01-01

218

Network-dependent modulation of brain activity during sleep.  

PubMed

Brain activity dynamically changes even during sleep. A line of neuroimaging studies has reported changes in functional connectivity and regional activity across different sleep stages such as slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. However, it remains unclear whether and how the large-scale network activity of human brains changes within a given sleep stage. Here, we investigated modulation of network activity within sleep stages by applying the pairwise maximum entropy model to brain activity obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging from sleeping healthy subjects. We found that the brain activity of individual brain regions and functional interactions between pairs of regions significantly increased in the default-mode network during SWS and decreased during REM sleep. In contrast, the network activity of the fronto-parietal and sensory-motor networks showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, in the three networks, the amount of the activity changes throughout REM sleep was negatively correlated with that throughout SWS. The present findings suggest that the brain activity is dynamically modulated even in a sleep stage and that the pattern of modulation depends on the type of the large-scale brain networks. PMID:24814208

Watanabe, Takamitsu; Kan, Shigeyuki; Koike, Takahiko; Misaki, Masaya; Konishi, Seiki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Miyahsita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki

2014-09-01

219

Brain region-specific altered expression and association of mitochondria-related genes in autism  

PubMed Central

Background Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. Methods For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), motor cortex (MC) and thalamus (THL)) from autism patients (n=8) and controls (n=10) were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA). Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct (??Ct) method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. Results Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2), neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL) and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27) showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066) and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990) showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The expression of DNAJC19, DNM1L, LRPPRC, SLC25A12, SLC25A14, SLC25A24 and TOMM20 were reduced in at least two of the brain regions of autism patients. Conclusions Our study, though preliminary, brings to light some new genes associated with MtD in autism. If MtD is detected in early stages, treatment strategies aimed at reducing its impact may be adopted. PMID:23116158

2012-01-01

220

Exposure to vehicle emissions results in altered blood brain barrier permeability and expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tight junction proteins in mice  

PubMed Central

Background Traffic-generated air pollution-exposure is associated with adverse effects in the central nervous system (CNS) in both human exposures and animal models, including neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. While alterations in the blood brain barrier (BBB) have been implicated as a potential mechanism of air pollution-induced CNS pathologies, pathways involved have not been elucidated. Objectives To determine whether inhalation exposure to mixed vehicle exhaust (MVE) mediates alterations in BBB permeability, activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -2 and ?9, and altered tight junction (TJ) protein expression. Methods Apolipoprotein (Apo) E?/? and C57Bl6 mice were exposed to either MVE (100 ?g/m3 PM) or filtered air (FA) for 6 hr/day for 30 days and resulting BBB permeability, expression of ROS, TJ proteins, markers of neuroinflammation, and MMP activity were assessed. Serum from study mice was applied to an in vitro BBB co-culture model and resulting alterations in transport and permeability were quantified. Results MVE-exposed Apo E?/? mice showed increased BBB permeability, elevated ROS and increased MMP-2 and ?9 activity, compared to FA controls. Additionally, cerebral vessels from MVE-exposed mice expressed decreased levels of TJ proteins, occludin and claudin-5, and increased levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin (IL)-1? in the parenchyma. Serum from MVE-exposed animals also resulted in increased in vitro BBB permeability and altered P-glycoprotein transport activity. Conclusions These data indicate that inhalation exposure to traffic-generated air pollutants promotes increased MMP activity and degradation of TJ proteins in the cerebral vasculature, resulting in altered BBB permeability and expression of neuroinflammatory markers. PMID:24344990

2013-01-01

221

Effects of a carbohydrate supplement upon resting brain activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucose is a major energy source for the brain, and along with several monosaccharide derivatives as components of brain gangliosides,\\u000a they play important roles in neurologic function. However, there is little information available on the role of glucose and\\u000a other monosaccharides on resting brain activity. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a single dose of a carbohydrate

Chenghua Wang; Joanne S. Szabo; Roscoe A. Dykman

2004-01-01

222

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS

Ru-Rong Ji; Carlos D. Aizenman; Charles M. Epstein; Dike Qiu; Justin C. Huang; Fabio Rupp

1998-01-01

223

Experimental mild traumatic brain injury induces functional alteration of the developing hippocampus.  

PubMed

It is estimated that approximately 1.5 million Americans suffer a traumatic brain injury (TBI) every year, of which approximately 80% are considered mild injuries. Because symptoms caused by mild TBI last less than half an hour by definition and apparently resolve without treatment, the study of mild TBI is often neglected resulting in a significant knowledge gap for this wide-spread problem. In this work, we studied functional (electrophysiological) alterations of the neonatal/juvenile hippocampus after experimental mild TBI. Our previous work reported significant cell death after in vitro injury >10% biaxial deformation. Here we report that biaxial deformation as low as 5% affected neuronal function during the first week after in vitro mild injury of hippocampal slice cultures. These results suggest that even very mild mechanical events may lead to a quantifiable neuronal network dysfunction. Furthermore, our results highlight that safe limits of mechanical deformation or tolerance criteria may be specific to a particular outcome measure and that neuronal function is a more sensitive measure of injury than cell death. In addition, the age of the tissue at injury was found to be an important factor affecting posttraumatic deficits in electrophysiological function, indicating a relationship between developmental status and vulnerability to mild injury. Our findings suggest that mild pediatric TBI could result in functional deficits that are more serious than currently appreciated. PMID:19923245

Yu, Zhe; Morrison, Barclay

2010-01-01

224

Experimental human endotoxemia enhances brain activity during social cognition.  

PubMed

Acute peripheral inflammation with corresponding increases in peripheral cytokines affects neuropsychological functions and induces depression-like symptoms. However, possible effects of increased immune responses on social cognition remain unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of experimentally induced acute inflammation on performance and neural responses during a social cognition task assessing Theory of Mind (ToM) ability. In this double-blind randomized crossover functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 18 healthy right-handed male volunteers received an injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.4 ng/kg) or saline, respectively. Plasma levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as mood ratings were analyzed together with brain activation during a validated ToM task (i.e. Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test). LPS administration induced pronounced transient increases in pro- (IL-6, TNF-?) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-1ra) cytokines as well as decreases in mood. Social cognition performance was not affected by acute inflammation. However, altered neural activity was observed during the ToM task after LPS administration, reflected by increased responses in the fusiform gyrus, temporo-parietal junction, superior temporal gyrus and precuneus. The increased task-related neural responses in the LPS condition may reflect a compensatory strategy or a greater social cognitive processing as a function of sickness. PMID:23547245

Kullmann, Jennifer S; Grigoleit, Jan-Sebastian; Wolf, Oliver T; Engler, Harald; Oberbeck, Reiner; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Forsting, Michael; Schedlowski, Manfred; Gizewski, Elke R

2014-06-01

225

Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings of Nouns  

E-print Network

Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings of Nouns Tom M. Mitchell, Svetlana V activation Mean activation is over 60 different stimuli The difference images are used during analysis - = Bottle Activation Mean Activation Bottle - Mean Bottle #12;7 Motivation for the Model #12;8 How Does

Matwin, Stan

226

Spontaneous and task-evoked brain activity negatively interact  

PubMed Central

A widely held assumption is that spontaneous and task-evoked brain activity sum linearly, such that the recorded brain response in each single trial is the algebraic sum of the constantly changing ongoing activity and the stereotypical evoked activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals acquired from normal humans, we show that this assumption is invalid. Across widespread cortices, evoked activity interacts negatively with ongoing activity, such that higher prestimulus baseline results in less activation or more deactivation. As a consequence of this negative interaction, trial-to-trial variability of cortical activity decreases following stimulus onset. We further show that variability reduction follows overlapping but distinct spatial pattern from that of task activation/deactivation and it contains behaviorally relevant information. These results favor an alternative perspective to the traditional dichotomous framework of ongoing and evoked activity – one that views the brain as a nonlinear dynamical system whose trajectory is tighter when performing a task; further, incoming sensory stimuli modulate the brain’s activity in a manner that depends on its initial state. We propose that across-trial variability may provide a new approach to brain mapping in the context of cognitive experiments. PMID:23486941

He, Biyu J.

2013-01-01

227

Nanotools for Neuroscience and Brain Activity Mapping  

E-print Network

Neuroscience is at a crossroads. Great effort is being invested into deciphering specific neural interactions and circuits. At the same time, there exist few general theories or principles that explain brain function. We ...

Alivisatos, A. Paul

228

Optical imaging of neural and hemodynamic brain activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical imaging technologies can be used to record neural and hemodynamic activity. Neural activity elicits physiological changes that alter the optical tissue properties. Specifically, changes in polarized light are concomitant with neural depolarization. We measured polarization changes from an isolated lobster nerve during action potential propagation using both reflected and transmitted light. In transmission mode, polarization changes were largest throughout the center of the nerve, suggesting that most of the optical signal arose from the inner nerve bundle. In reflection mode, polarization changes were largest near the edges, suggesting that most of the optical signal arose from the outer sheath. To overcome irregular cell orientation found in the brain, we measured polarization changes from a nerve tied in a knot. Our results show that neural activation produces polarization changes that can be imaged even without regular cell orientations. Neural activation expends energy resources and elicits metabolic delivery through blood vessel dilation, increasing blood flow and volume. We used spectroscopic imaging techniques combined with electrophysiological measurements to record evoked neural and hemodynamic responses from the auditory cortex of the rat. By using implantable optics, we measured responses across natural wake and sleep states, as well as responses following different amounts of sleep deprivation. During quiet sleep, evoked metabolic responses were larger compared to wake, perhaps because blood vessels were more compliant. When animals were sleep deprived, evoked hemodynamic responses were smaller following longer periods of deprivation. These results suggest that prolonged neural activity through sleep deprivation may diminish vascular compliance as indicated by the blunted vascular response. Subsequent sleep may allow vessels to relax, restoring their ability to deliver blood. These results also suggest that severe sleep deprivation or chronic sleep disturbances could push the vasculature to critical limits, leading to metabolic deficit and the potential for tissue trauma.

Schei, Jennifer Lynn

229

Predicting Human Brain Activity Associated with the Meanings of Nouns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The question of how the human brain represents conceptual knowledge has been debated in many scientific fields. Brain imaging studies have shown that different spatial patterns of neural activation are associated with thinking about different semantic categories of pictures and words (for example, tools, buildings, and animals). We present a computational model that predicts the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Tom M. Mitchell; Svetlana V. Shinkareva; Andrew Carlson; Kai-Min Chang; Vicente L. Malave; Robert A. Mason; Marcel Adam Just

2008-01-01

230

Imaging the Brain Activity Changes Underlying Impaired Visuospatial  

E-print Network

but interconnected brain regions. Here, we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the parietal cortices concurrent fMRI and magnetic brain stimulation during active task execution hold the potential to identify: functional magnetic resonance imaging, parietal cortex, simultaneous TMS-fMRI, transcranial magnetic

Wagner, Anthony

231

Physical activity, inflammation, and volume of the aging brain.  

PubMed

Physical activity influences inflammation, and both affect brain structure and Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. We hypothesized that older adults with greater reported physical activity intensity and lower serum levels of the inflammatory marker tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) would have larger regional brain volumes on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In 43 cognitively intact older adults (79.3±4.8 years) and 39 patients with AD (81.9±5.1 years at the time of MRI) participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study, we examined year-1 reported physical activity intensity, year-5 blood serum TNF? measures, and year-9 volumetric brain MRI scans. We examined how prior physical activity intensity and TNF? related to subsequent total and regional brain volumes. Physical activity intensity was measured using the modified Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activities questionnaire at year 1 of the study, when all subjects included here were cognitively intact. Stability of measures was established for exercise intensity over 9 years and TNF? over 3 years in a subset of subjects who had these measurements at multiple time points. When considered together, more intense physical activity intensity and lower serum TNF? were both associated with greater total brain volume on follow-up MRI scans. TNF?, but not physical activity, was associated with regional volumes of the inferior parietal lobule, a region previously associated with inflammation in AD patients. Physical activity and TNF? may independently influence brain structure in older adults. PMID:24836855

Braskie, M N; Boyle, C P; Rajagopalan, P; Gutman, B A; Toga, A W; Raji, C A; Tracy, R P; Kuller, L H; Becker, J T; Lopez, O L; Thompson, P M

2014-07-25

232

Alterations in blood-brain barrier function following acute hypertension: comparison of the blood-to-brain transfer of horseradish peroxidase with that of alpha-aminisobutyric acid  

SciTech Connect

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) selectively restricts the blood-to-brain passage of many solutes owing to unique properties of cerebrovascular endothelial cell membranes. To date, experimental study of the BBB has been accomplished primarily through the use of two different methodological approaches. Morphological studies have mostly employed large molecular weight (MW) tracers to detect morphological alterations underlying increased permeability. Physiological studies, employing smaller, more physiologic tracers have successfully described, quantitatively, certain functional aspects of blood-to-brain transfer. The current work attempts to merge these two approaches and to consider barrier function/dysfunction from both a morphological and a functional perspective. Specifically, the study compares in rats, following acute hypertension, the cerebrovascular passage of /sup 14/C-alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB) and that of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The blood-to-brain passage of AIB and HRP were compared following acute hypertension, with regard to both the distributions of the tracer extravasation patterns and the magnitude of tracer extravasation. The results of this study suggest that traditional morphological barrier studies alone do not reveal all aspects of altered barrier status and that multiple mechanisms underlying increased BBB permeability may operate simultaneously during BBB dysfunction.

Ellison, M.D.B.

1985-01-01

233

The Bile Acid-Sensitive Ion Channel (BASIC) Is Activated by Alterations of Its Membrane Environment  

PubMed Central

The bile acid-sensitive ion channel (BASIC) is a member of the DEG/ENaC family of ion channels. Channels of this family are characterized by a common structure, their physiological functions and modes of activation, however, are diverse. Rat BASIC is expressed in brain, liver and intestinal tract and activated by bile acids. The physiological function of BASIC and its mechanism of bile acid activation remain a puzzle. Here we addressed the question whether amphiphilic bile acids activate BASIC by directly binding to the channel or indirectly by altering the properties of the surrounding membrane. We show that membrane-active substances other than bile acids also affect the activity of BASIC and that activation by bile acids and other membrane-active substances is non-additive, suggesting that BASIC is sensitive for changes in its membrane environment. Furthermore based on results from chimeras between BASIC and ASIC1a, we show that the extracellular and the transmembrane domains are important for membrane sensitivity. PMID:25360526

Schmidt, Axel; Lenzig, Pia; Oslender-Bujotzek, Adrienne; Kusch, Jana; Dias Lucas, Susana; Gründer, Stefan; Wiemuth, Dominik

2014-01-01

234

Anoxic Versus Traumatic Brain Injury: Amount of Tissue Loss, Not Etiology, Alters Cognitive and Emotional Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in neuropsychology suggests that the etiology of a neurologic injury determines the neuropathological and neuropsychological changes. This study compared neuropsychological outcome in subjects who had traumatic brain injury (TBI) with subjects who had anoxic brain injury (ABI), who were matched for age, gender, and ventricle-to-brain ratio. There were no group differences for morphologic or neuropsychological measures. Both groups exhibited

Ramona O. Hopkins; David F. Tate; Erin D. Bigler

2005-01-01

235

Brain activation during mental rotation in school children and adults.  

PubMed

Mental rotation is a complex cognitive skill depending on the manipulation of mental representations. We aimed to investigate the maturing neuronal network for mental rotation by measuring brain activation in 20 children and 20 adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Our results indicate that brain activation patterns are very similar between children and adults. However, adults exhibit stronger activation in the left intraparietal sulcus compared to children. This finding suggests a shift of activation from a predominantly right parietal activation in children to a bilateral activation pattern in adults. Furthermore, adults show a deactivation of the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus, which is not observed in children. In conclusion, developmental changes of brain activation during mental rotation are leading to a bilateral parietal activation pattern and faster performance. PMID:17160371

Kucian, K; von Aster, M; Loenneker, T; Dietrich, T; Mast, F W; Martin, E

2007-01-01

236

Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI  

PubMed Central

In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps appear more (diffusively) distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness), complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix), and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity). To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic) epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70%) and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients. PMID:25161893

Gupta, Lalit; Besseling, René M.H.; Overvliet, Geke M.; Hofman, Paul A.M.; de Louw, Anton; Vaessen, Maarten J.; Aldenkamp, Albert P.; Ulman, Shrutin; Jansen, Jacobus F.A.; Backes, Walter H.

2014-01-01

237

Spatial heterogeneity analysis of brain activation in fMRI.  

PubMed

In many brain diseases it can be qualitatively observed that spatial patterns in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps appear more (diffusively) distributed than in healthy controls. However, measures that can quantitatively characterize this spatial distributiveness in individual subjects are lacking. In this study, we propose a number of spatial heterogeneity measures to characterize brain activation maps. The proposed methods focus on different aspects of heterogeneity, including the shape (compactness), complexity in the distribution of activated regions (fractal dimension and co-occurrence matrix), and gappiness between activated regions (lacunarity). To this end, functional MRI derived activation maps of a language and a motor task were obtained in language impaired children with (Rolandic) epilepsy and compared to age-matched healthy controls. Group analysis of the activation maps revealed no significant differences between patients and controls for both tasks. However, for the language task the activation maps in patients appeared more heterogeneous than in controls. Lacunarity was the best measure to discriminate activation patterns of patients from controls (sensitivity 74%, specificity 70%) and illustrates the increased irregularity of gaps between activated regions in patients. The combination of heterogeneity measures and a support vector machine approach yielded further increase in sensitivity and specificity to 78% and 80%, respectively. This illustrates that activation distributions in impaired brains can be complex and more heterogeneous than in normal brains and cannot be captured fully by a single quantity. In conclusion, heterogeneity analysis has potential to robustly characterize the increased distributiveness of brain activation in individual patients. PMID:25161893

Gupta, Lalit; Besseling, René M H; Overvliet, Geke M; Hofman, Paul A M; de Louw, Anton; Vaessen, Maarten J; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Ulman, Shrutin; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Backes, Walter H

2014-01-01

238

IMAGING BRAIN ACTIVATION: SIMPLE PICTURES OF COMPLEX BIOLOGY  

PubMed Central

Elucidation of biochemical, physiological, and cellular contributions to metabolic images of brain is important for interpretation of images of brain activation and disease. Discordant brain images obtained with [14C]deoxyglucose (DG) and [1- or 6-14C]glucose were previously ascribed to increased glycolysis and rapid [14C]lactate release from tissue, but direct proof of [14C]lactate release from activated brain structures is lacking. Analysis of factors contributing to images of focal metabolic activity evoked by monotonic acoustic stimulation of conscious rats reveals that labeled metabolites of [1- or 6-14C]glucose are quickly released from activated cells due to decarboxylation reactions, spreading via gap junctions, and efflux via lactate transporters. Label release from activated tissue accounts for most of the additional [14C]glucose consumed during activation compared to rest. Metabolism of [3,4-14C]glucose generates about four times more [14C]lactate compared to 14CO2 in extracellular fluid suggesting that most lactate is not locally oxidized. In brain slices, direct assays of lactate uptake from extracellular fluid demonstrate that astrocytes have faster influx and higher transport capacity than neurons. Also, lactate transfer from a single astrocyte to other gap junction-coupled astrocytes exceeds astrocyte-to-neuron lactate shuttling. Astrocytes and neurons have excess capacities for glycolysis, and oxidative metabolism in both cell types rises during sensory stimulation. The energetics of brain activation is quite complex and the proportion of glucose consumed by astrocytes and neurons, lactate generation by either cell type, and the contributions of both cell types to brain images during brain activation are likely to vary with the stimulus paradigm and activated pathways. PMID:19076439

Dienel, Gerald A.; Cruz, Nancy F.

2009-01-01

239

Alterations in apoptotic caspases and antioxidant enzymes in arsenic exposed rat brain regions: reversal effect of essential metals and a chelating agent.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) widely studied for its effects as a neurotoxicant. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of calcium, zinc or monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), either individually or in combination on As induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) of postnatal day (PND) 21, 28 and 3 months old rats. Arsenic exposure significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) with increase in glutathione s transferase (GST) while lipid peroxidation (LPx), arsenic levels, mRNA expression of caspase 3 and 9 were significantly increased in different brain regions. Arsenic induced alterations in these parameters were greater in PND 28 and more pronounced in cerebral cortex. From the results it is evident that combined supplementation of calcium and zinc along with MiADMSA would be most effective compared to individual administration in reducing arsenic induced neurotoxicity. PMID:24184500

Kadeyala, Praveen Kumar; Sannadi, Saritha; Gottipolu, Rajarami Reddy

2013-11-01

240

The Influence of Video Games on Adolescent Brain Activity.  

E-print Network

??The current study examined electrical brain activation in adolescent participants playing three different video games. Forty-five school aged children (M=14.3 years, SD=1.5) were randomly assigned… (more)

Lianekhammy, Joann

2014-01-01

241

Alterations in glutathione and amino acid concentrations after hypoxia-ischemia in the immature rat brain.  

PubMed

Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury involves an increased formation of reactive oxygen species. Key factors in the cellular protection against such agents are the GSH-associated reactions. In the present study we examined alterations in total glutathione and GSSG concentrations in mitochondria-enriched fractions and tissue homogenates from the cerebral cortex of 7-day-old rats at 0, 1, 3, 8, 14, 24 and 72 h after hypoxia-ischemia. The concentration of total glutathione was transiently decreased immediately after hypoxia-ischemia in the mitochondrial fraction, but not in the tissue, recovered, and then decreased both in mitochondrial fraction and homogenate after 14 h, reaching a minimum at 24 h after hypoxia-ischemia. The level of GSSG was approximately 4% of total glutathione and increased selectively in the mitochondrial fraction immediately after hypoxia-ischemia. The decrease in glutathione may be important in the development of cell death via impaired free radical inactivation and/or redox related changes. The effects of hypoxia-ischemia on the concentrations of selected amino acids varied. The levels of phosphoethanolamine, an amine previously reported to be released in ischemia, mirrored the changes in glutathione. GABA concentrations initially increased (0-3 h) followed by a decrease at 72 h. Glutamine levels increased, whereas glutamate and aspartate were unchanged up to 24 h after the insult. The results on total glutathione and GSSG are discussed in relation to changes in mitochondrial respiration and microtubule associated protein-2 (MAP2) which are reported on in accompanying paper [64]. PMID:11154760

Wallin, C; Puka-Sundvall, M; Hagberg, H; Weber, S G; Sandberg, M

2000-12-29

242

Altered expression of A? metabolism-associated molecules from d-galactose\\/AlCl 3 induced mouse brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cerebral deposition of amyloid-? peptide (A?) is a critical feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Either aluminium trichloride (Al) or d-galactose (d-gal) induces A? overproduction in rat or mouse brain and has been used to produce models of aging and AD. Here it is shown that mice treated with Al plus d-gal represent a good model of AD with altered expression

Yun Luo; Fengnan Niu; Zongzheng Sun; Wangsen Cao; Xin Zhang; Dening Guan; Zhimai Lv; Bing zhang; Yun Xu

2009-01-01

243

Resting-State Brain Activity in Adult Males Who Stutter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with

Yun Xuan; Chun Meng; Yanhui Yang; Chaozhe Zhu; Liang Wang; Qian Yan; Chunlan Lin; Chunshui Yu

2012-01-01

244

Isoflurane induces dose-dependent alterations in the cortical connectivity profiles and dynamic properties of the brain's functional architecture.  

PubMed

Despite their widespread use, the effect of anesthetic agents on the brain's functional architecture remains poorly understood. This is particularly true of alterations that occur beyond the point of induced unconsciousness. Here, we examined the distributed intrinsic connectivity of macaques across six isoflurane levels using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) following the loss of consciousness. The results from multiple analysis strategies showed stable functional connectivity (FC) patterns between 1.00% and 1.50% suggesting this as a suitable range for anesthetized nonhuman primate resting-state investigations. Dose-dependent effects were evident at moderate to high dosages showing substantial alteration of the functional topology and a decrease or complete loss of interhemispheric cortical FC strength including that of contralateral homologues. The assessment of dynamic FC patterns revealed that the functional repertoire of brain states is related to anesthesia depth and most strikingly, that the number of state transitions linearly decreases with increased isoflurane dosage. Taken together, the results indicate dose-specific spatial and temporal alterations of FC that occur beyond the typically defined endpoint of consciousness. Future work will be necessary to determine how these findings generalize across anesthetic types and extend to the transition between consciousness and unconsciousness. Hum Brain Mapp 35:5754-5775, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25044934

Hutchison, R Matthew; Hutchison, Melina; Manning, Kathryn Y; Menon, Ravi S; Everling, Stefan

2014-12-01

245

Letm1, the mitochondrial Ca2+/H+ antiporter, is essential for normal glucose metabolism and alters brain function in Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial metabolism, respiration, and ATP production necessitate ion transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Leucine zipper-EF-hand containing transmembrane protein 1 (Letm1), one of the genes deleted in Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome, encodes a putative mitochondrial Ca2+/H+ antiporter. Cellular Letm1 knockdown reduced Ca2+mito uptake, H+mito extrusion and impaired mitochondrial ATP generation capacity. Homozygous deletion of Letm1 in mice resulted in embryonic lethality before day 6.5 of embryogenesis and ?50% of the heterozygotes died before day 13.5 of embryogenesis. The surviving heterozygous mice exhibited altered glucose metabolism, impaired control of brain ATP levels, and increased seizure activity. We conclude that loss of Letm1 contributes to the pathology of Wolf–Hirschhorn syndrome in humans and may contribute to seizure phenotypes by reducing glucose oxidation and other specific metabolic alterations. PMID:23716663

Jiang, Dawei; Zhao, Linlin; Clish, Clary B.; Clapham, David E.

2013-01-01

246

Alterations in the basal ganglia in patients with brain tumours may be due to excessive iron deposition  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of iron in the brain is a common physiological process. However, alterations in the deposition of iron or other paramagnetic substances are associated with various diseases. In the present study, the deposition of paramagnetic substances in patients with brain tumours was evaluated using T2 relaxometry. A total of 23 patients with untreated tumours or with recurrent tumours following treatment, together with a group of 19 age-matched healthy controls, were examined using T2 relaxometry at 3T. The relaxation times in the basal ganglia, thalamus and white matter were evaluated. Significantly lower T2 relaxation times were identified in the basal ganglia and thalamus of the patients with tumours, as compared with those of the controls (P<0.05). No statistically significant difference was identified between patients with untreated or recurrent brain tumours. The reduction in T2 relaxation times in the brain tumour patients was possibly caused by the accumulation of iron, since iron homeostasis is known to be altered in patients with tumours. We propose that increased iron deposition is a consequence of a higher risk of oxidative stress caused by an increased iron concentration in the plasma or cerebrospinal fluid.

HERYNEK, VÍT; WAGNEROVÁ, DITA; MALUCELLI, ALBERTO; VYMAZAL, JOSEF; SAMEŠ, MARTIN; HÁJEK, MILAN

2015-01-01

247

Linking neuronal brain activity to the glucose metabolism  

PubMed Central

Background Energy homeostasis ensures the functionality of the entire organism. The human brain as a missing link in the global regulation of the complex whole body energy metabolism is subject to recent investigation. The goal of this study is to gain insight into the influence of neuronal brain activity on cerebral and peripheral energy metabolism. In particular, the tight link between brain energy supply and metabolic responses of the organism is of interest. We aim to identifying regulatory elements of the human brain in the whole body energy homeostasis. Methods First, we introduce a general mathematical model describing the human whole body energy metabolism. It takes into account the two central roles of the brain in terms of energy metabolism. The brain is considered as energy consumer as well as regulatory instance. Secondly, we validate our mathematical model by experimental data. Cerebral high-energy phosphate content and peripheral glucose metabolism are measured in healthy men upon neuronal activation induced by transcranial direct current stimulation versus sham stimulation. By parameter estimation we identify model parameters that provide insight into underlying neurophysiological processes. Identified parameters reveal effects of neuronal activity on regulatory mechanisms of systemic glucose metabolism. Results Our examinations support the view that the brain increases its glucose supply upon neuronal activation. The results indicate that the brain supplies itself with energy according to its needs, and preeminence of cerebral energy supply is reflected. This mechanism ensures balanced cerebral energy homeostasis. Conclusions The hypothesis of the central role of the brain in whole body energy homeostasis as active controller is supported. PMID:23988084

2013-01-01

248

GABAergic activities enhance macrophage inflammatory protein-1? release from microglia (brain macrophages) in postnatal mouse brain  

PubMed Central

Microglial cells (brain macrophages) invade the brain during embryonic and early postnatal development, migrate preferentially along fibre tracts to their final position and transform from an amoeboid to a ramified morphology. Signals by which the invading microglia communicate with other brain cells are largely unknown. Here, we studied amoeboid microglia in postnatal corpus callosum obtained from 6- to 8-day-old mice. These cells accumulated on the surface of acute brain slices. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed that the specific GABAA receptor agonist muscimol triggered a transient increase in conductance typical for inward rectifying potassium channels in microglia. This current increase was not mediated by microglial GABAA receptors since microglial cells removed from the slice surface no longer reacted and cultured microglia only responded when a brain slice was placed in their close vicinity. Muscimol triggered a transient increase in extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o) in brain slices and an experimental elevation of [K+]o mimicked the muscimol response in microglial cells. Moreover, in adult brain slices, muscimol led only to a minute increase in [K+]o and microglial cells failed to respond to muscimol. In turn, an increase in [K+]o stimulated the release of chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP1-?) from brain slices and from cultures of microglia but not astrocytes. Our observations indicate that invading microglia in early postnatal development sense GABAergic activities indirectly via sensing changes in [K+]o which results in an increase in MIP1-? release. PMID:19047202

Cheung, Giselle; Kann, Oliver; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Faerber, Katrin; Kettenmann, Helmut

2009-01-01

249

Age related alterations of adrenoreceptor activity in erythrocyte membrane.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was the investigation of age-related functional alterations of adrenoreceptors and the effect of agonist and antagonist drugs on age related adrenoreceptor activity in erythrocyte membrane. The impact of isopropanol and propanol on functional activity ?- adrenergic receptors in red blood cell membrane were studied in 50 practically healthy men--volunteers. (I group--75-89 years old, II group--22-30 years old). The EPR signals S1 and S2 were registered in red blood cell membrane samples after incubation with isopropanol and propanol respectively. It was found that decreasing sensitivity (functional activity) of red blood cells membrane adrenoreceptors comes with aging (S1old

Lomsadze, G; Khetsuriani, R; Arabuli, M; Intskirveli, N; Sanikidze, T

2011-06-01

250

Acute Stress Differentially Affects Aromatase Activity in Specific Brain Nuclei of Adult Male and Female Quail  

PubMed Central

The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction. PMID:21878510

Cornil, Charlotte A.; Balthazart, Jacques

2011-01-01

251

Acute stress differentially affects aromatase activity in specific brain nuclei of adult male and female quail.  

PubMed

The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction. PMID:21878510

Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

2011-11-01

252

Age-dependent alterations of corticostriatal activity in the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington's disease  

PubMed Central

Huntington disease is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder that produces motor, neuropsychiatric and cognitive deficits and is caused by an abnormal expansion of the CAG tract in the huntingtin (htt) gene. In humans, mutated htt induces a preferential loss of medium spiny neurons in the striatum, and to a lesser extent, a loss of cortical neurons as the disease progresses. The mechanisms causing these degenerative changes remain unclear but they may involve synaptic dysregulation. We examined the activity of the corticostriatal pathway using a combination of electrophysiological and optical imaging approaches in brain slices and acutely dissociated neurons from the YAC128 mouse model of Huntington disease. The results demonstrated biphasic age-dependent changes in corticostriatal function. At 1 month, before the behavioral phenotype develops, synaptic currents and glutamate release were increased. At 7 and 12 months, after the development of the behavioral phenotype, evoked synaptic currents were reduced. Glutamate release was decreased by 7 months and was markedly reduced by 12 months. These age-dependent alterations in corticostriatal activity were paralleled by a decrease in dopamine D2 receptor modulation of the presynaptic terminal. Taken together, these findings point to dynamic alterations at the corticostriatal pathway and emphasize that therapies directed toward preventing or alleviating symptoms need to be specifically designed depending on the stage of disease progression. PMID:19244517

Joshi, Prasad R.; Wu, Nan-Ping; Andre, Veronique M.; Cummings, Damian M.; Cepeda, Carlos; Joyce, John A.; Carroll, Jeffrey B.; Leavitt, Blair R.; Hayden, Michael R.; Levine, Michael S.; Bamford, Nigel S.

2009-01-01

253

The impact of microglial activation on blood-brain barrier in brain diseases  

PubMed Central

The blood-brain barrier (BBB), constituted by an extensive network of endothelial cells (ECs) together with neurons and glial cells, including microglia, forms the neurovascular unit (NVU). The crosstalk between these cells guarantees a proper environment for brain function. In this context, changes in the endothelium-microglia interactions are associated with a variety of inflammation-related diseases in brain, where BBB permeability is compromised. Increasing evidences indicate that activated microglia modulate expression of tight junctions, which are essential for BBB integrity and function. On the other hand, the endothelium can regulate the state of microglial activation. Here, we review recent advances that provide insights into interactions between the microglia and the vascular system in brain diseases such as infectious/inflammatory diseases, epilepsy, ischemic stroke and neurodegenerative disorders.

da Fonseca, Anna Carolina Carvalho; Matias, Diana; Garcia, Celina; Amaral, Rackele; Geraldo, Luiz Henrique; Freitas, Catarina; Lima, Flavia Regina Souza

2014-01-01

254

Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC) Brain Potential Changes.  

PubMed

Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts-which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation-of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest-besides some limitations-that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested "attention shift". Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed. PMID:25264675

Trimmel, Karin; Schätzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

2014-01-01

255

Acoustic Noise Alters Selective Attention Processes as Indicated by Direct Current (DC) Brain Potential Changes  

PubMed Central

Acoustic environmental noise, even of low to moderate intensity, is known to adversely affect information processing in animals and humans via attention mechanisms. In particular, facilitation and inhibition of information processing are basic functions of selective attention. Such mechanisms can be investigated by analyzing brain potentials under conditions of externally directed attention (intake of environmental information) versus internally directed attention (rejection of environmental stimuli and focusing on memory/planning processes). This study investigated brain direct current (DC) potential shifts—which are discussed to represent different states of cortical activation—of tasks that require intake and rejection of environmental information under noise. It was hypothesized that without background noise rejection tasks would show more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks and that under noise both kinds of tasks would show positive DC shifts as an expression of cortical inhibition caused by noise. DC potential shifts during intake and rejection tasks were analyzed at 16 standard locations in 45 persons during irrelevant speech or white noise vs. control condition. Without noise, rejection tasks were associated with more positive DC potential changes compared to intake tasks. During background noise, however, this difference disappeared and both kinds of tasks led to positive DC shifts. Results suggest—besides some limitations—that noise modulates selective attention mechanisms by switching to an environmental information processing and noise rejection mode, which could represent a suggested “attention shift”. Implications for fMRI studies as well as for public health in learning and performance environments including susceptible persons are discussed. PMID:25264675

Trimmel, Karin; Schatzer, Julia; Trimmel, Michael

2014-01-01

256

Glutamate dehydrogenase in brain mitochondria: do lipid modifications and transient metabolon formation influence enzyme activity?  

PubMed

Metabolism of glutamate, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in brain, is complex and of paramount importance to overall brain function. Thus, understanding the regulation of enzymes involved in formation and disposal of glutamate and related metabolites is crucial to understanding glutamate metabolism. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) is a pivotal enzyme that links amino acid metabolism and TCA cycle activity in brain and other tissues. The allosteric regulation of GDH has been extensively studied and characterized. Less is known about the influence of lipid modifications on GDH activity, and the participation of GDH in transient heteroenzyme complexes (metabolons) that can greatly influence metabolism by altering kinetic parameters and lead to channeling of metabolites. This review summarizes evidence for palmitoylation and acylation of GDH, information on protein binding, and information regarding the participation of GDH in transient heteroenzyme complexes. Recent studies suggest that a number of other proteins can bind to GDH altering activity and overall metabolism. It is likely that these modifications and interactions contribute additional levels of regulation of GDH activity and glutamate metabolism. PMID:21771624

McKenna, Mary C

2011-09-01

257

Oxaloacetate activates brain mitochondrial biogenesis, enhances the insulin pathway, reduces inflammation and stimulates neurogenesis.  

PubMed

Brain bioenergetic function declines in some neurodegenerative diseases, this may influence other pathologies and administering bioenergetic intermediates could have therapeutic value. To test how one intermediate, oxaloacetate (OAA) affects brain bioenergetics, insulin signaling, inflammation and neurogenesis, we administered intraperitoneal OAA, 1-2 g/kg once per day for 1-2 weeks, to C57Bl/6 mice. OAA altered levels, distributions or post-translational modifications of mRNA and proteins (proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1?, PGC1 related co-activator, nuclear respiratory factor 1, transcription factor A of the mitochondria, cytochrome oxidase subunit 4 isoform 1, cAMP-response element binding, p38 MAPK and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) in ways that should promote mitochondrial biogenesis. OAA increased Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin and P70S6K phosphorylation. OAA lowered nuclear factor ?B nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratios and CCL11 mRNA. Hippocampal vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA, doublecortin mRNA, doublecortin protein, doublecortin-positive neuron counts and neurite length increased in OAA-treated mice. (1)H-MRS showed OAA increased brain lactate, GABA and glutathione thereby demonstrating metabolic changes are detectable in vivo. In mice, OAA promotes brain mitochondrial biogenesis, activates the insulin signaling pathway, reduces neuroinflammation and activates hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:25027327

Wilkins, Heather M; Harris, Janna L; Carl, Steven M; E, Lezi; Lu, Jianghua; Eva Selfridge, J; Roy, Nairita; Hutfles, Lewis; Koppel, Scott; Morris, Jill; Burns, Jeffrey M; Michaelis, Mary L; Michaelis, Elias K; Brooks, William M; Swerdlow, Russell H

2014-12-15

258

Growth-related neural reorganization and the autism phenotype: a test of the hypothesis that altered brain growth leads to altered connectivity  

PubMed Central

Theoretical considerations, and findings from computational modeling, comparative neuroanatomy and developmental neuroscience, motivate the hypothesis that a deviant brain growth trajectory will lead to deviant patterns of change in cortico-cortical connectivity. Differences in brain size during development will alter the relative cost and effectiveness of short- and long-distance connections, and should thus impact the growth and retention of connections. Reduced brain size should favor long-distance connectivity; brain overgrowth should favor short-distance connectivity; and inconsistent deviations from the normal growth trajectory – as occurs in autism – should result in potentially disruptive changes to established patterns of functional and physical connectivity during development. To explore this hypothesis, neural networks which modeled inter-hemispheric interaction were grown at the rate of either typically developing children or children with autism. The influence of the length of the inter-hemispheric connections was analyzed at multiple developmental time-points. The networks that modeled autistic growth were less affected by removal of the inter-hemispheric connections than those that modeled normal growth – indicating a reduced reliance on long-distance connections – for short response times, and this difference increased substantially at approximately 24 simulated months of age. The performance of the networks showed a corresponding decline during development. And direct analysis of the connection weights showed a parallel reduction in connectivity. These modeling results support the hypothesis that the deviant growth trajectory in autism spectrum disorders may lead to a disruption of established patterns of functional connectivity during development, with potentially negative behavioral consequences, and a subsequent reduction in physical connectivity. The results are discussed in relation to the growing body of evidence of reduced functional and structural connectivity in autism, and in relation to the behavioral phenotype, particularly the developmental aspects. PMID:18171375

Lewis, John D.; Elman, Jeffrey L.

2009-01-01

259

Brain state-triggered stimulus delivery: An efficient tool for probing ongoing brain activity  

PubMed Central

What is the relationship between variability in ongoing brain activity preceding a sensory stimulus and subsequent perception of that stimulus? A challenge in the study of this key topic in systems neuroscience is the relative rarity of certain brain ‘states’—left to chance, they may seldom align with sensory presentation. We developed a novel method for studying the influence of targeted brain states on subsequent perceptual performance by online identification of spatiotemporal brain activity patterns of interest, and brain-state triggered presentation of subsequent stimuli. This general method was applied to an electroencephalography study of human auditory selective listening. We obtained online, time-varying estimates of the instantaneous direction of neural bias (towards processing left or right ear sounds). Detection of target sounds was influenced by pre-target fluctuations in neural bias, within and across trials. We propose that brain state-triggered stimulus delivery will enable efficient, statistically tractable studies of rare patterns of ongoing activity in single neurons and distributed neural circuits, and their influence on subsequent behavioral and neural responses. PMID:23275858

Andermann, ML; Kauramaki, J; Palomaki, T; Moore, CI; Hari, R; Jaaskelainen, IP; Sams, M

2012-01-01

260

Effect of acute exposure of triazophos on oxidative stress and histopathological alterations in liver, kidney and brain of Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Acute dose of organophosphorus pesticide Triazophos (O,O-diethyl O-1-phenyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl phosphorothioate; Tz) administered orally affects oxidative stress parameters and the histo-architecture of liver, kidney and brain tissues. The results indicate a dose dependent induction of oxidative stress as evident by increased malondialdehyde level and decreased antioxidant defense including glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity in rat liver, kidney and brain. AChE activity was found significantly decreased in the Tz treated groups as compared to the vehicle control (DMSO) group. Histopathological examination of liver, kidney and brain in Tz treated rats revealed medullary congestion and hydropic degeneration of hepatocytes in liver and medullary congestion in kidney. However, no significant histopathological changes were observed in brain tissues. PMID:25141545

Mohineesh; Raj, Jaya; Rajvanshi, A C; Dogra, T D; Raina, Anupuma

2014-08-01

261

Shiga toxin 1 induces on lipopolysaccharide-treated astrocytes the release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha that alter brain-like endothelium integrity.  

PubMed

The hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and renal dysfunction. The typical form of HUS is generally associated with infections by Gram-negative Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Endothelial dysfunction induced by Stx is central, but bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and neutrophils (PMN) contribute to the pathophysiology. Although renal failure is characteristic of this syndrome, neurological complications occur in severe cases and is usually associated with death. Impaired blood-brain barrier (BBB) is associated with damage to cerebral endothelial cells (ECs) that comprise the BBB. Astrocytes (ASTs) are inflammatory cells in the brain and determine the BBB function. ASTs are in close proximity to ECs, hence the study of the effects of Stx1 and LPS on ASTs, and the influence of their response on ECs is essential. We have previously demonstrated that Stx1 and LPS induced activation of rat ASTs and the release of inflammatory factors such as TNF-?, nitric oxide and chemokines. Here, we demonstrate that rat ASTs-derived factors alter permeability of ECs with brain properties (HUVECd); suggesting that functional properties of BBB could also be affected. Additionally, these factors activate HUVECd and render them into a proagregant state promoting PMN and platelets adhesion. Moreover, these effects were dependent on ASTs secreted-TNF-?. Stx1 and LPS-induced ASTs response could influence brain ECs integrity and BBB function once Stx and factors associated to the STEC infection reach the brain parenchyma and therefore contribute to the development of the neuropathology observed in HUS. PMID:22479186

Landoni, Verónica I; Schierloh, Pablo; de Campos Nebel, Marcelo; Fernández, Gabriela C; Calatayud, Cecilia; Lapponi, María J; Isturiz, Martín A

2012-01-01

262

Fibrinolytic Activity of Human Brain and Cerebrospinal Fluid  

PubMed Central

Fibrinolytic activity (FA) of brain tissue, meninges and choroid plexus from 41 human cadavers without intracranial disorders was studied by Astrup's biochemical method and Todd's histochemical method. FA of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) before and after pneumoencephalography (PEG) was also studied by Astrup's method. FA of human brain was higher in the adults than in the newborn and infants, and increased with ageing in infants. No significant difference was found among age groups in the adults. There was no detectable difference of FA in various regions of the brain. Higher FA was recognized in meninges and choroid plexus. Liquefaction of the extravasated blood in the subarachnoid space was considered to be produced by the high fibrinolytic activity of the meninges. The lysed zones on fibrin plate by Todd's method were found at the vessels of the brain tissue and meninges, especially at small blood vessels. FA was found to be localized at the vascular endothelial cells. The lytic areas in the adult brain were relatively larger than those in the newborn brain at the same incubation time. CSF produced small lysed zones on human fibrin plate. CSF and plasma after PEG showed larger lysed zones than those before PEG, and plasminogen activator and/or proactivator in CSF and plasma seemed to be increased after PEG. Plasmin activity was not found in CSF before and after PEG. ImagesFigs. 2-5 PMID:4243674

Takashima, S.; Koga, M.; Tanaka, K.

1969-01-01

263

Chronic ethanol alters network activity and endocannabinoid signaling in the prefrontal cortex.  

PubMed

Chronic use of alcohol is associated with structural and functional alterations in brain areas that subserve cognitive processes. Of particular importance is the prefrontal cortex (PFC) that is involved in higher order behaviors such as decision making, risk assessment and judgment. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie alcohol's effects on PFC function is important for developing strategies to overcome the cognitive deficits that may predispose individuals to relapse. Our previous studies showed that acutely applied ethanol inhibits network activity in slices of prefrontal cortex and that exogenous and endogenous cannabinoids modulate up-state dynamics. In the present study, we examined the effects of repeated alcohol exposure on cannabinoid regulation of up-states in slice cultures of the prefrontal cortex. Compared to controls, up-state duration, but not amplitude was enhanced when measured 4 days after a 10 day ethanol exposure (44 mM ethanol; equivalent to 0.2% blood ethanol). Administration of the CB1 agonist WIN 55,212-2 enhanced the amplitude of up-states in control cultures but not in those treated previously with ethanol. This lack of effect occurred in the absence of any noticeable change in CB1 receptor protein expression. Chronic ethanol treatment and withdrawal also blunted WIN's inhibition of electrically evoked GABA IPSCs in layer II/III pyramidal neurons but not those in layer V/VI. WIN inhibited the amplitude of spontaneous GABA IPSCs in both layers and the magnitude of this effect was not altered by ethanol treatment. However, in layer V/VI neurons, WIN's effect on sIPSC frequency was greater in ethanol treated cultures. WIN also inhibited electrically evoked NMDA EPSCs in both layer II/III and V/VI neurons but this action was unaffected by ethanol treatment and withdrawal. Overall, these results suggest that ethanol's down-regulation of cannabinoid signaling results in altered network activity in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:25100953

Pava, Matthew J; Woodward, John J

2014-01-01

264

Telomerase activity in human brain tumors: astrocytoma and meningioma.  

PubMed

Somatic cells do not have telomerase activity but immortalized cell lines and more than 85 % of the cancer cells show telomerase activation to prevent the telomere from progressive shortening. The activation of this enzyme has been found in a variety of human tumors and tumor-derived cell lines, but only few studies on telomerase activity in human brain tumors have been reported. Here, we evaluated telomerase activity in different grades of human astrocytoma and meningioma brain tumors. In this study, assay for telomerase activity performed on 50 eligible cases consisted of 26 meningioma, 24 astrocytoma according to the standard protocols. In the brain tissues, telomerase activity was positive in 39 (65 %) of 50 patients. One sample t test showed that the telomerase activity in meningioma and astrocytoma tumors was significantly positive entirely (P < 0.001). Also, grade I of meningioma and low grades of astrocytoma (grades I and II) significantly showed telomerase activity. According to our results, we suggest that activation of telomerase is an event that starts mostly at low grades of brain including meningioma and astrocytoma tumors. PMID:23512291

Kheirollahi, Majid; Mehrazin, Masoud; Kamalian, Naser; Mohammadi-asl, Javad; Mehdipour, Parvin

2013-05-01

265

PERINATAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AROCLOR 1016 OR 1254 DID NOT ALTER BRAIN CATECHOLAMINES NOR DELAYED ALTERNATION PERFORMANCE IN LONG EVANS RATS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several reports have indicated that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) altered development of biogenic amine systems in the brain, impaired behavioral performances and disrupted maturation of the thyroid axis. The current study examines whether these developmental effects of PCB ar...

266

Brain Temperature Alters Hydroxyl Radical Production During Cerebral Ischemia\\/Reperfusion in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective neuronal cell death in the CA1 pyramidal cells of the hippocampus and neurons of the dorsolateral striatum as a consequence of brain ischemia\\/reperfusion (IR) can be ameliorated with brain hypothermia. Since postischemic injury is mediated partially by chemical production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased ROS production may be one of the mechanisms responsible fair cerebral protection by hypothermia.

Ho Yeong Kil; Jing Zhang; Claude A. Piantadosi

1996-01-01

267

Regulation of prolactin in mice with altered hypothalamic melanocortin activity.  

PubMed

This study used two mouse models with genetic manipulation of the melanocortin system to investigate prolactin regulation. Mice with overexpression of the melanocortin receptor (MC-R) agonist, ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (Tg-MSH) or deletion of the MC-R antagonist agouti-related protein (AgRP KO) were studied. Male Tg-MSH mice had lower blood prolactin levels at baseline (2.9±0.3 vs. 4.7±0.7ng/ml) and after restraint stress (68±6.5 vs. 117±22ng/ml) vs. WT (p<0.05); however, pituitary prolactin content was not different. Blood prolactin was also decreased in male AgRP KO mice at baseline (4.2±0.5 vs. 7.6±1.3ng/ml) and after stress (60±4.5 vs. 86.1±5.7ng/ml) vs. WT (p<0.001). Pituitary prolactin content was lower in male AgRP KO mice (4.3±0.3 vs. 6.7±0.5?g/pituitary, p<0.001) vs. WT. No differences in blood or pituitary prolactin levels were observed in female AgRP KO mice vs. WT. Hypothalamic dopamine activity was assessed as the potential mechanism responsible for changes in prolactin levels. Hypothalamic tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA was measured in both genetic models vs. WT mice and hypothalamic dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) content were measured in male AgRP KO and WT mice but neither were significantly different. However, these results do not preclude changes in dopamine activity as dopamine turnover was not directly investigated. This is the first study to show that baseline and stress-induced prolactin release and pituitary prolactin content are reduced in mice with genetic alterations of the melanocortin system and suggests that changes in hypothalamic melanocortin activity may be reflected in measurements of serum prolactin levels. PMID:22800691

Dutia, Roxanne; Kim, Andrea J; Mosharov, Eugene; Savontaus, Eriika; Chua, Streamson C; Wardlaw, Sharon L

2012-09-01

268

Influence of altered gravity on brain cellular energy and plasma membrane metabolism of developing lower aquatic vertebrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochemical analyses of the brain of cichlid fish larvae, exposed for 7 days to increased acceleration of 3g (hyper-g), revealed an increase in energy availability (succinate dehydrogenase activity, SDH), and in mitochondrial energy transformation (creatine kinase, Mi_a-CK), but no changes in an energy consumptive process (high-affinity Ca^2+-ATPase). Brain glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) of developing fish was previously found to be increased after hyper-g exposure. Three respectively 5 hours thereafter dramatic fluctuations in enzyme activity were registered. Analysing the cytosolic or plasma membrane-located brain creatine kinase (BB-CK) of clawed toad larvae after long-term hyper-g exposure a significant increase in enzyme activity was demonstrated, whereas the activity of a high affinity Ca^2+-ATPase remained unaffected.

Slenzka, K.; Appel, R.; Kappel, Th.; Rahmann, H.

269

Comparison of laterality index of upper and lower limb movement using brain activated fMRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Asymmetry of bilateral cerebral function, i.e. laterality, is an important phenomenon in many brain actions such as motor functions. This asymmetry maybe altered in some clinical conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to delineate the laterality differences for upper and lower limbs in healthy subjects to compare this pattern with subjects suffering from MS in advance. Hence 9 Male healthy subjects underwent fMRI assessment, while they were asked to move their limbs in a predetermined pattern. The results showed that hands movement activates the brain with a significant lateralization in pre-motor cortex in comparison with lower limb. Also, dominant hands activate brain more lateralized than the non-dominant hand. In addition, Left basal ganglia were observed to be activated regardless of the hand used, While, These patterns of Brain activation was not detected in lower limbs. We hypothesize that this difference might be attributed to this point that hand is usually responsible for precise and fine voluntary movements, whereas lower limb joints are mainly responsible for locomotion, a function integrating voluntary and automatic bilateral movements.

Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Bolandzadeh, Niousha

2008-03-01

270

The influence of carbon dioxide on brain activity and metabolism in conscious humans.  

PubMed

A better understanding of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) effect on brain activity may have a profound impact on clinical studies using CO(2) manipulation to assess cerebrovascular reserve and on the use of hypercapnia as a means to calibrate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal. This study investigates how an increase in blood CO(2), via inhalation of 5% CO(2), may alter brain activity in humans. Dynamic measurement of brain metabolism revealed that mild hypercapnia resulted in a suppression of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) by 13.4% ± 2.3% (N=14) and, furthermore, the CMRO(2) change was proportional to the subject's end-tidal CO(2) (Et-CO(2)) change. When using functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to assess the changes in resting-state neural activity, it was found that hypercapnia resulted in a reduction in all fcMRI indices assessed including cluster volume, cross-correlation coefficient, and amplitude of the fcMRI signal in the default-mode network (DMN). The extent of the reduction was more pronounced than similar indices obtained in visual-evoked fMRI, suggesting a selective suppression effect on resting-state neural activity. Scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) studies comparing hypercapnia with normocapnia conditions showed a relative increase in low frequency power in the EEG spectra, suggesting that the brain is entering a low arousal state on CO(2) inhalation. PMID:20842164

Xu, Feng; Uh, Jinsoo; Brier, Matthew R; Hart, John; Yezhuvath, Uma S; Gu, Hong; Yang, Yihong; Lu, Hanzhang

2011-01-01

271

Electrodermal Activity in Patients with Unilateral Brain Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Electrodermal activity has been studied in patients with focal brain injury mainly to evaluate hypotheses about the relative\\u000a contribution of the two cerebral hemispheres to emotional processes. Theoretical proposals on this issue originated from the\\u000a clinical observations indicating different emotional reactions following damage in either hemisphere. Left brain damaged (LBD)\\u000a patients display what has been defined as a “catastrophic reaction”:

Pierluigi Zoccolotti; Carlo Caltagirone; Anna Pecchinenda I; Elio Troisi

272

Glutamate release by primary brain tumors induces epileptic activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epileptic seizures are a common and poorly understood comorbidity for individuals with primary brain tumors. To investigate peritumoral seizure etiology, we implanted human-derived glioma cells into severe combined immunodeficient mice. Within 14–18 d, glioma-bearing mice developed spontaneous and recurring abnormal electroencephalogram events consistent with progressive epileptic activity. Acute brain slices from these mice showed marked glutamate release from the tumor

Susan C Buckingham; Susan L Campbell; Brian R Haas; Vedrana Montana; Stefanie Robel; Toyin Ogunrinu; Harald Sontheimer

2011-01-01

273

Brain cellular and mitochondrial respiration in media of altered pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the effects of altered pH on cellular aerobic energy metabolism in the immature and adult rat cerebral cortex. Cerebral cortical slice respiration was measured polarographically in acid and alkaline media. In separate experiments, the extracellular pH was changed by altering the HCO3- concentration or the intracellular pH and extracellular pH were changed by altering

D. Holtzman; J. E. Olson; H. Nguyen; J. Hsu; N. Lewiston

1987-01-01

274

Multisensory stimuli elicit altered oscillatory brain responses at gamma frequencies in patients with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Deficits in auditory and visual unisensory responses are well documented in patients with schizophrenia; however, potential abnormalities elicited from multisensory audio-visual stimuli are less understood. Further, schizophrenia patients have shown abnormal patterns in task-related and task-independent oscillatory brain activity, particularly in the gamma frequency band. We examined oscillatory responses to basic unisensory and multisensory stimuli in schizophrenia patients (N = 46) and healthy controls (N = 57) using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Time-frequency decomposition was performed to determine regions of significant changes in gamma band power by group in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli relative to baseline levels. Results showed significant behavioral differences between groups in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli. In addition, time-frequency analysis revealed significant decreases and increases in gamma-band power in schizophrenia patients relative to healthy controls, which emerged both early and late over both sensory and frontal regions in response to unisensory and multisensory stimuli. Unisensory gamma-band power predicted multisensory gamma-band power differently by group. Furthermore, gamma-band power in these regions predicted performance in select measures of the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) test battery differently by group. These results reveal a unique pattern of task-related gamma-band power in schizophrenia patients relative to controls that may indicate reduced inhibition in combination with impaired oscillatory mechanisms in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25414652

Stone, David B.; Coffman, Brian A.; Bustillo, Juan R.; Aine, Cheryl J.; Stephen, Julia M.

2014-01-01

275

Alterations in alpha-adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptor binding in rat brain following nonionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Microwave radiation produces hyperthermia. The mammalian thermoregulatory system defends against changes in temperature by mobilizing diverse control mechanisms. Neurotransmitters play a major role in eliciting thermoregulatory responses. The involvement of adrenergic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors was investigated in radiation-induced hyperthermia. Rats were subjected to radiation at 700 MHz frequency and 15 mW/cm/sup 2/ power density and the body temperature was raised by 2.5 degrees C. Of six brain regions investigated only the hypothalamus showed significant changes in receptor states, confirming its pivotal role in thermoregulation. Adrenergic receptors, studied by (/sup 3/H)clonidine binding, showed a 36% decrease in binding following radiation after a 2.5 degrees C increase in body temperature, suggesting a mechanism to facilitate norepinephrine release. Norepinephrine may be speculated to maintain thermal homeostasis by activating heat dissipation. Muscarinic cholinergic receptors, studied by (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate binding, showed a 65% increase in binding at the onset of radiation. This may be attributed to the release of acetylcholine in the hypothalamus in response to heat cumulation. The continued elevated binding during the period of cooling after radiation was shut off may suggest the existence of an extra-hypothalamic heat-loss pathway.

Gandhi, V.C.; Ross, D.H.

1987-01-01

276

Brain responses to body image stimuli but not food are altered in women with bulimia nervosa  

PubMed Central

Background Research into the neural correlates of bulimia nervosa (BN) psychopathology remains limited. Methods In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 21 BN patients and 23 healthy controls (HCs) completed two paradigms: 1) processing of visual food stimuli and 2) comparing their own appearance with that of slim women. Participants also rated food craving and anxiety levels. Results Brain activation patterns in response to food cues did not differ between women with and without BN. However, when evaluating themselves against images of slim women, BN patients engaged the insula more and the fusiform gyrus less, compared to HCs, suggesting increased self-focus among women with BN whilst comparing themselves to a ‘slim ideal’. In these BN patients, exposure to food and body image stimuli increased self-reported levels of anxiety, but not craving. Conclusions Our findings suggest that women with BN differ from HCs in the way they process body image, but not in the way they process food stimuli. PMID:24238299

2013-01-01

277

596 Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 12:6, November-December 2004 Altered PET Functional Brain Responses  

E-print Network

the association between APOE ge- notype and brain activation during performance of cognitive tasks in healthy middle- aged and elderly subjects, and the results have been mixed. The authors investigated APOE, with the "activation" difference (TD­SD PET counts) as the dependent variable and the APOE genotype (presence versus ab

278

Fluctuations in Neuronal Activity: Clues to Brain Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recordings from neuronal preparations, either in vitro or in the intact brain, are characterized by fluctuations, what is commonly considered as "noise". Due to the current recording and analysis methods, it is not feasible to separate what we term noise, from the "meaningful" neuronal activity. We propose that fluctuations serve to maintain brain activity in an optimal state for cognitive processing, not allowing it to fall into long-term periodic behaviour. We have studied fluctuations in magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from normal subjects and epileptic patients, in electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from children with impact injury, as well as in intracerebral electrophysiological recordings in freely moving rats. Specifically, we have determined phase locking patterns between brain areas from these recordings, which display fluctuations at different scales. We submit the idea that the variability in phase synchronization affords a more complete search of all possible phase differences in a hypothetical phase-locking state space that contributes to brain information processing. In brain pathologies, like epileptiform activity here studied, different levels of fluctuations in phase synchrony may favour the generation of stable synchronized states that characterize epileptic seizures. While the border between noise and high-dimensional dynamics is fuzzy, the scrutiny of neuronal fluctuations at different levels will provide important insights to the unravelling of the relation between brain and behaviour.

Pérez Velazquez, José L.; Guevara, Ramón; Belkas, Jason; Wennberg, Richard; Senjanoviè, Goran; García Dominguez, Luis

2005-08-01

279

Synchronous brain activity across individuals underlies shared psychological perspectives  

PubMed Central

For successful communication, we need to understand the external world consistently with others. This task requires sufficiently similar cognitive schemas or psychological perspectives that act as filters to guide the selection, interpretation and storage of sensory information, perceptual objects and events. Here we show that when individuals adopt a similar psychological perspective during natural viewing, their brain activity becomes synchronized in specific brain regions. We measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) from 33 healthy participants who viewed a 10-min movie twice, assuming once a ‘social’ (detective) and once a ‘non-social’ (interior decorator) perspective to the movie events. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures (inter-subject correlations; ISCs) of functional MRI data. We used k-nearest-neighbor and support vector machine classifiers as well as a Mantel test on the ISC matrices to reveal brain areas wherein ISC predicted the participants' current perspective. ISC was stronger in several brain regions—most robustly in the parahippocampal gyrus, posterior parietal cortex and lateral occipital cortex—when the participants viewed the movie with similar rather than different perspectives. Synchronization was not explained by differences in visual sampling of the movies, as estimated by eye gaze. We propose that synchronous brain activity across individuals adopting similar psychological perspectives could be an important neural mechanism supporting shared understanding of the environment. PMID:24936687

Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Glerean, Enrico; Jaaskelainen, Iiro P.; Hyona, Jukka; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

2014-01-01

280

Brain modularity controls the critical behavior of spontaneous activity  

PubMed Central

The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure. PMID:24621482

Russo, R.; Herrmann, H. J.; de Arcangelis, L.

2014-01-01

281

Peptide fibrils with altered stability, activity, and cell selectivity  

PubMed Central

Peptides have some unique and superior features compared to proteins. However, the use of peptides as therapeutics is hampered by their low stability and cell selectivity. In this study, a new lytic peptide (CL-1, FLGALFRALSRLL) was constructed. Under the physiological condition, peptide CL-1 self-assembled into dynamically stable aggregates with fibrils-like structures. Aggregated CL-1 demonstrated dramatically altered activity and stability in comparison with single molecule CL-1 and other lytic peptides: when incubated with co-cultured bacteria and tissue cells, CL-1 aggregates killed bacteria selectively but spared co-cultured human cells; CL-1 aggregates kept intact in human serum for more than five hours. Peptide-cell interaction studies performed on lipid monolayers and live human tissue cells revealed that in comparison with monomeric CL-1, aggregated CL-1 had decreased cell affinity and membrane insertion capability on tissue cells. A dynamic process involving aggregate dissociation and rearrangement seemed to be an essential step for membrane bound CL-1 aggregates to realize its cytotoxicity to tissue cells. Our study suggests that peptide aggregation could be as important as the charge and secondary structure of a peptide in affecting peptide-cell interactions. Controlling peptide self-assembly represents a new way to increase the stability and cell selectivity of bioactive peptides for wide biomedical applications. PMID:23713839

Chen, Long; Liang, Jun F.

2014-01-01

282

Functional MRI of the Brain in Women with Overactive Bladder: Brain Activation During Urinary Urgency  

PubMed Central

Objectives To identify abnormal function of the limbic cortex (LC) in response to urinary urgency among patients with Overactive Bladder (OAB) using brain functional MRI (fMRI) Methods 5 OAB subjects and 5 Controls underwent bladder filling and rated urgency sensations while fMRI measured activation in discrete volumes (voxels) within the brain. Changes in brain activation were related to bladder distension and individual subject’s rating of urgency via multiple regression analysis. Beta weights from regression equations were converted into percent signal change (PSC) for each voxel and PSC compared to the null hypothesis using T-tests. Significance threshold of P<.05 was applied along with a cluster size threshold of.32 ml (5 voxels). Results OAB patients showed increased brain activation in LC, specifically the insula (IN) and Anterior Cingulate Gyrus (ACG), associated with increased urgency. Urgency sensations during low volumes were associated with bilateral IN activation in OAB subjects (7,621 voxels right IN, 4,453 voxels left IN, mean beta weights .018 +/? .014 and .014 +/? .011) Minimal activation was present in Controls (790 voxels right IN, beta weight =.010 +/? .007). Urgency sensations during high volumes were associated with bilateral ACG activation in OAB subjects (2,304 voxels right IN, 5,005 voxels left IN, mean beta weights of 005 +/? .003 and 004+/?.003) without activation in Controls. Conclusions Urinary urgency in patients with OAB is associated with increased activation of the LC. This activation likely represents abnormal processing of sensory input in brain regions associated with emotional response to discomfort. PMID:21399722

Komesu, Yuko M.; Ketai, Loren H.; Mayer, Andrew R.; Teshiba, Terry M.; Rogers, Rebecca G.

2011-01-01

283

Brain activity and medical diagnosis: an EEG study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite new brain imaging techniques that have improved the study of the underlying processes of human decision-making, to the best of our knowledge, there have been very few studies that have attempted to investigate brain activity during medical diagnostic processing. We investigated brain electroencephalography (EEG) activity associated with diagnostic decision-making in the realm of veterinary medicine using X-rays as a fundamental auxiliary test. EEG signals were analysed using Principal Components (PCA) and Logistic Regression Analysis Results The principal component analysis revealed three patterns that accounted for 85% of the total variance in the EEG activity recorded while veterinary doctors read a clinical history, examined an X-ray image pertinent to a medical case, and selected among alternative diagnostic hypotheses. Two of these patterns are proposed to be associated with visual processing and the executive control of the task. The other two patterns are proposed to be related to the reasoning process that occurs during diagnostic decision-making. Conclusions PCA analysis was successful in disclosing the different patterns of brain activity associated with hypothesis triggering and handling (pattern P1); identification uncertainty and prevalence assessment (pattern P3), and hypothesis plausibility calculation (pattern P2); Logistic regression analysis was successful in disclosing the brain activity associated with clinical reasoning success, and together with regression analysis showed that clinical practice reorganizes the neural circuits supporting clinical reasoning. PMID:24083668

2013-01-01

284

Males and females differ in brain activation during cognitive tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine the effect of gender on regional brain activity, we utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a motor task and three cognitive tasks; a word generation task, a spatial attention task, and a working memory task in healthy male (n = 23) and female (n = 10) volunteers. Functional data were examined for group differences both in the number of pixels activated,

Emily C. Bell; Morgan C. Willson; Alan H. Wilman; Sanjay Dave; Peter H. Silverstone

2006-01-01

285

Transglutaminase activity is increased in Alzheimer's disease brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transglutaminase is a calcium-activated enzyme that crosslinks substrate proteins into insoluble, often filamentous aggregates resistant to proteases. Because the neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease have similar characteristics, and because tau protein, the major component of these tangles is an excellent substrate of transglutaminase in vitro, transglutaminase activity and levels were measured in control and Alzheimer's disease brain. Frozen prefrontal cortex

Gail V. W Johnson; Teresa M Cox; Jason P Lockhart; Marcus D Zinnerman; Michael L Miller; Richard E Powers

1997-01-01

286

Global Brain Gene Expression Analysis Links Glutamatergic and GABAergic Alterations to Suicide and Major Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Most studies investigating the neurobiology of depression and suicide have focused on the serotonergic system. While it seems clear that serotonergic alterations play a role in the pathogenesis of these major public health problems, dysfunction in additional neurotransmitter systems and other molecular alterations may also be implicated. Microarray expression studies are excellent screening tools to generate hypotheses about additional

Adolfo Sequeira; Firoza Mamdani; Carl Ernst; Marquis P. Vawter; William E. Bunney; Veronique Lebel; Sonia Rehal; Tim Klempan; Alain Gratton; Chawki Benkelfat; Guy A. Rouleau; Naguib Mechawar; Gustavo Turecki

2009-01-01

287

Altered protein kinase a in brain of learned helpless rats: effects of acute and repeated stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundStress-induced learned helplessness (LH) in animals serves as a model of behavioral depression and some aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder. We examined whether LH behavior is associated with alterations in protein kinase A (PKA), a critical phosphorylating enzyme, how long these alterations persist after inescapable shock (IS), and whether repetition of IS prolongs the duration of LH behavior and changes

Yogesh Dwivedi; Amal C Mondal; Pradeep K Shukla; Hooriyah S Rizavi; Jennifer Lyons

2004-01-01

288

AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylates retinoblastoma protein to control mammalian brain development.  

PubMed

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved metabolic sensor that responds to alterations in cellular energy levels to maintain energy balance. While its role in metabolic homeostasis is well documented, its role in mammalian development is less clear. Here we demonstrate that mutant mice lacking the regulatory AMPK beta1 subunit have profound brain abnormalities. The beta1(-/-) mice show atrophy of the dentate gyrus and cerebellum, and severe loss of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and myelination throughout the central nervous system. These abnormalities stem from reduced AMPK activity, with ensuing cell cycle defects in neural stem and progenitor cells (NPCs). The beta1(-/-) NPC deficits result from hypophosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb), which is directly phosphorylated by AMPK at Ser(804). The AMPK-Rb axis is utilized by both growth factors and energy restriction to increase NPC growth. Our results reveal that AMPK integrates growth factor signaling with cell cycle control to regulate brain development. PMID:19217427

Dasgupta, Biplab; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

2009-02-01

289

Brain arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid cascades are selectively altered by drugs, diet and disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolic cascades involving arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) within brain can be independently targeted by drugs, diet and pathological conditions. Thus, AA turnover and brain expression of AA-selective cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), but not DHA turnover or expression of DHA-selective Ca2+-independent iPLA2, are reduced in rats given agents effective against bipolar disorder mania, whereas experimental excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation

Stanley I. Rapoport

2008-01-01

290

Immune status and apoptosis activation during brain death.  

PubMed

The present study evaluates the role of the inflammatory status and apoptosis activation in the development of organ dysfunction after brain death using plasma assays and macroarray analysis on skeletal muscle biopsies to look for evidence of remote tissue damage in two intensive care units in France and one in Belgium. As controls, we used patients undergoing hip surgery and healthy volunteers. Causes of brain death in the 85 consecutive patients included in the study were cardiac arrest (n = 29; 34%), stroke (n = 42; 49%, with 38 patients having hemorrhagic stroke), and head injury (n = 14; 17%). Of the 85 patients, 45 donated 117 organs. Plasma endotoxin and cytokine levels indicated a marked systemic inflammatory response in brain-dead patients, which was strongest in the cardiac arrest group. Leukocyte dysfunction, as assessed by cytokines production in response to various stimuli, was noted in a subgroup of patients with brain death after stroke. Interestingly, skeletal muscle biopsies showed no increase in mRNAs for genes related to inflammation, whereas mRNAs for both antiapoptotic and proapoptotic genes were increased, the balance being in favor of apoptosis induction. The increased activation of the proapoptotic caspase 9 was further confirmed by Western blot. In conclusion, the presence of inflammation and apoptosis induction may explain the rapid organ dysfunction seen after brain death. Both abnormalities may play a role in organ dysfunction associated with brain death. However, the level of systemic inflammation or the presence of circulating endotoxin was not associated with lower graft survival. PMID:20407403

Adrie, Christophe; Monchi, Mehran; Fulgencio, Jean-Pierre; Cottias, Pascal; Haouache, Hakim; Alvarez-Gonzalvez, Antonio; Guerrini, Patrice; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Adib-Conquy, Minou

2010-04-01

291

Altered structural networks and executive deficits in traumatic brain injury patients.  

PubMed

Recent research on traumatic brain injury (TBI) has shown that impairments in cognitive and executive control functions are accompanied by a disrupted neural connectivity characterized by white matter damage. We constructed binary and weighted brain structural networks in 21 patients with chronic TBI and 17 healthy young adults utilizing diffusion tensor tractography and calculated topological properties of the networks using a graph theoretical method. Executive function was assessed with the local global task and the trail making task, requiring inhibition, updating, and switching. The results revealed that TBI patients were less successful than controls on the executive tasks, as shown by the higher reaction times, higher switch costs, and lower accuracy rates. Moreover, both TBI patients and controls exhibited a small world topology in their white matter networks. More importantly, the TBI patients demonstrated increased shortest path length and decreased global efficiency of the structural network. These findings suggest that TBI patients have a weaker globally integrated structural brain network, resulting in a limited capacity to integrate information across brain regions. Furthermore, we showed that the white matter networks of both groups contained highly connected hub regions that were predominately located in the parietal cortex, frontal cortex, and basal ganglia. Finally, we showed significant correlations between switching performance and network property metrics within the TBI group. Specifically, lower scores on the switching tasks corresponded to a lower global efficiency. We conclude that analyzing the structural brain network connectivity provides new insights into understanding cognitive control changes following brain injury. PMID:23232826

Caeyenberghs, K; Leemans, A; Leunissen, I; Gooijers, J; Michiels, K; Sunaert, S; Swinnen, S P

2014-01-01

292

Ultrastructural alterations of human cortical capillary basement membrane in human brain oedema.  

PubMed

The capillary basement membranes are examined in severe traumatic brain injuries, vascular malformation, congenital hydrocephalus and brain tumours. They exhibit homogeneous and nodular thickening, vacuolization, rarefaction, reduplication, and deposition of collagen fibers. Their average thickness varied according to the aetiology and severity of brain oedema. In moderate brain oedema the thickness ranged from 71.97 to 191.90 nm in width, and in patients with severe brain oedema it varied from 206.66 to 404.22 nm. The basement membrane complex appears apparently intact in moderate oedema, and shows glio-basal dissociation in severe oedema. In areas of highly increased cerebro-vascular permeability, the basement membrane shows matrix disorganization, reduplication, and bifurcations protruding toward the endothelial cells, and acting as abluminal transcapillary channels. In regions of total brain necrosis, its structural stability is lost showing loosening, dissolution and rupture. Basement membrane swelling is due to overhydration of its protein-complex glycoprotein matrix. The thickening, rarefaction and vacuolization are induced by the increased vacuolar and vesicular transendothelial transport. The degenerated basement membrane areas exhibit a finely granular precipitate interpreted as protein, proteoglycan, glycoprotein, and agrin degraded matrix. PMID:24729339

Castejón, Orlando José

2014-01-01

293

Brain dead donor kidneys are immunologically active: is intervention justified?  

PubMed

The improvement in the field of kidney transplantation, during the last decades, has brought kindey transplantation to the top of patient preference as the best kidney replacement therapy. The use of marginal kidney grafts, which are highly immunogenic has become common practice because of lack of kidney donors. Inflammatory activity in the kidneys after brain death is an ongoing phenomenon. The inappropriate treatment of brain dead donor may result to primary non function (PNF) of the graft, delayed graft function (DGF) or to long term graft dysfunction and shortened graft survival. Therefore correct handling of the brain dead donor is of paramount importance. The impact of various pharmacologic agents (catecholamines, glucocorticoids, carbamylated recombinant human erythropoietin, recombinant soluble P-selectin glycoprotein ligant, heme oxygenase-1, carbon monoxide, and mycophenolate mofetil) on the immunogenicity of brain dead donor kidneys is discussed. PMID:20011083

Vergoulas, G; Boura, P; Efstathiadis, G

2009-10-01

294

Brain dead donor kidneys are immunologically active: is intervention justified?  

PubMed Central

The improvement in the field of kidney transplantation, during the last decades, has brought kindey transplantation to the top of patient preference as the best kidney replacement therapy1. The use of marginal kidney grafts, which are highly immunogenic has become common practice because of lack of kidney donors. Inflammatory activity in the kidneys after brain death is an ongoing phenomenon. The inappropriate treatment of brain dead donor may result to primary non function (PNF) of the graft, delayed graft function (DGF) or to long term graft dysfunction and shortened graft survival. Therefore correct handling of the brain dead donor is of paramount importance. The impact of various pharmacologic agents (catecholamines, glucocorticoids, carbamylated recombinant human erythropoietin, recombinant soluble P-selectin glycoprotein ligant, heme oxygenase-1, carbon monoxide, and mycophenolate mofetil) on the immunogemicity of brain dead donor kidneys is discussed. PMID:20011083

Vergoulas, G; Boura, P; Efstathiadis, G

2009-01-01

295

Fetal functional brain age assessed from universal developmental indices obtained from neuro-vegetative activity patterns.  

PubMed

Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic) control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS) based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n?=?113 recordings in quiet sleep, n?=?286 in active sleep, and n?=?29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4-40.3 weeks of gestation) preclassified in quiet sleep (n?=?113, 63 females) and active sleep (n?=?286, 145 females) state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5). The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R(2) of training and validation set) of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications). We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA dependent fABAS values found in active sleep may reflect alterations in the universal developmental indices, namely fluctuation amplitude, complexity, and pattern formation that constitute fABAS. PMID:24058564

Hoyer, Dirk; Tetschke, Florian; Jaekel, Susan; Nowack, Samuel; Witte, Otto W; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Schneider, Uwe

2013-01-01

296

Maternal folic acid supplementation to dams on marginal protein level alters brain fatty acid levels of their adult offspring.  

PubMed

Studies on fetal programming of adult diseases have highlighted the importance of maternal nutrition during pregnancy. Folic acid and long-chain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) have independent effects on fetal growth. However, folic acid effects may also involve alteration of LC-PUFA metabolism. Because marginal deficiency of LC-PUFAs during critical periods of brain growth and development is associated with risks for adult diseases, it is highly relevant to investigate how maternal supplementation of such nutrients can alter brain fatty acid levels. We examined the impact of folic acid supplementation, conventionally used in maternal intervention, on brain essential fatty acid levels and plasma corticosterone concentrations in adult offspring at 11 months of age. Pregnant female rats from 4 groups (6 in each) were fed with casein diets either with 18 g protein/100 g diet (control diet) or treatment diets that were marginal in protein (MP), such as 12 g protein/100 g diet supplemented with 8 mg folic acid (FAS/MP), 12 g protein/100 g diet without folic acid (FAD/MP), or 12 g protein/100 g diet (MP) with 2 mg folic acid. Pups were weaned to a standard laboratory diet with 18 g protein/100 g diet. All male adult offspring in the FAS/MP group showed lower docosahexaenoic acid (P<.05) as compared with control adult offspring (6.04+/-2.28 vs 10.33+/-0.86 g/100 g fatty acids) and higher n-6/n-3 ratio (P<.05). Docosahexaenoic acid levels in FAS/MP adult offspring were also lower (P<.05) when compared with the MP group. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were higher (P<.05) in male adult offspring from the FAS/MP group compared with control as well as the MP adult offspring. Results suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation at MP intake decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid levels probably involving corticosterone increase. PMID:16631439

Rao, Shobha; Joshi, Sadhana; Kale, Anvita; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar; Mahadik, Sahebarao

2006-05-01

297

Zingiber Officinale Alters 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rat Brain  

PubMed Central

Objective: The spice Zingiber officinale or ginger possesses antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this traditional herbal medicine on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) induced neurotoxicity have not yet been studied. The present study considers the effects of Zingiber officinale on MDMA-induced spatial memory impairment and apoptosis in the hippocampus of male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 21 adult male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250 g) were classified into three groups (control, MDMA, and MDMA plus ginger). The groups were intraperitoneally administered 10 mg/kg MDMA, 10 mg/kg MDMA plus 100 mg/kg ginger extract, or 1 cc/kg normal saline as the control solution for one week (n=7 per group). Learning memory was assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) after the last administration. Finally, the brains were removed to study the cell number in the cornu ammonis (CA1) hippocampus by light microscope, Bcl-2 by immunoblotting, and Bax expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data was analyzed using SPSS 16 software and a one-way ANOVA test. Results: Escape latency and traveled distances decreased significantly in the MDMA plus ginger group relative to the MDMA group (p<0.001). Cell number increased in the MDMA plus ginger group in comparison to the MDMA group. Down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax were observed in the MDMA plus ginger group in comparison to the MDMA group (p<0.05). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that ginger consumption may lead to an improvement of MDMA-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:23508562

Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Dabaghian, Fataneh; Nejhadi, Akram; Fallah-huseini, Hassan; Choopani, Samira; Shekarriz, Nima; Molavi, Nima; Basirat, Arghavan; Mohammadzadeh Kazorgah, Farzaneh; Samzadeh-Kermani, Alireza; Soleimani Asl, Sara

2012-01-01

298

Overexpression of cerebral and hepatic cytochrome P450s alters behavioral activity of rat offspring following prenatal exposure to lindane  

SciTech Connect

Oral administration of different doses (0.0625, 0.125 or 0.25 mg/kg corresponding to 1/1400th, 1/700th or 1/350th of LD{sub 50}) of lindane to the pregnant Wistar rats from gestation days 5 to 21 were found to produce a dose-dependent increase in the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), 7-pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (PROD) and N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase (NDMA-d) in brain and liver of offspring postnatally at 3 weeks. The increase in the activity of CYP monooxygenases was found to be associated with the increase in the mRNA and protein expression of xenobiotic metabolizing CYP1A, 2B and 2E1 isoenzymes in the brain and liver of offspring. Dose-dependent alterations in the parameters of spontaneous locomotor activity in the offspring postnatally at 3 weeks have suggested that increase in CYP activity may possibly lead to the formation of metabolites to the levels that may be sufficient to alter the behavioral activity of the offspring. Interestingly, the inductive effect on cerebral and hepatic CYPs was found to persist postnatally up to 6 weeks in the offspring at the relatively higher doses (0.125 and 0.25 mg/kg) of lindane and up to 9 weeks at the highest dose (0.25 mg/kg), though the magnitude of induction was less than that observed at 3 weeks. Alterations in the parameters of spontaneous locomotor activity in the offspring postnatally at 6 and 9 weeks, though significant only in the offspring at 3 and 6-week of age, have further indicated that due to the reduced activity of the CYPs during the ontogeny, lindane and its metabolites may not be effectively cleared from the brain. The data suggest that low dose prenatal exposure to the pesticide has the potential to produce overexpression of xenobiotic metabolizing CYPs in brain and liver of the offspring which may account for the behavioral changes observed in the offspring.

Johri, Ashu; Yadav, Sanjay; Dhawan, Alok [Developmental Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, P. O. Box 80, M. G. Marg, Lucknow-226 001, U. P. (India); Parmar, Devendra [Developmental Toxicology Division, Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, P. O. Box 80, M. G. Marg, Lucknow-226 001, U. P. (India)], E-mail: parmar_devendra@hotmail.com

2007-12-15

299

Low brain allopregnanolone levels mediate flattened circadian activity associated with memory impairments in aged rats  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep and cognitive impairments are two of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders in the aged population. Age-related memory dysfunctions can result from alterations in sleep/wake circadian rhythm. However, the underlying mechanism of these alterations is unknown. Here, we demonstrate the role of alterations in brain steroid levels in age-related sleep-dependent memory impairment in rats. Methods Sleep/wake circadian activity and spatial memory performance were evaluated in adult, middle-aged, and aged rats, and steroid levels were measured in brain structures involved in mediating sleep-dependent memory processes using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The causal relationship between circadian activity and allopregnanolone levels was assessed using an inhibitor of allopregnanolone synthesis (indomethacin). Results Similar to observations in humans, a subpopulation of middle-aged and aged rats show flattened amplitude of circadian activity associated with impaired spatial long-term memory performance. Sleep-dependent memory dysfunction was associated with a low level of allopregnanolone in the hypothalamus, pedunculopontine nucleus, and ventral striatum. Inhibition of allopregnanolone synthesis in young rats decreased allopregnanolone in the hypothalamus and produced flattened amplitude of circadian activity similar to aged rats. Conclusions These findings identify brainstem and basal forebrain allopregnanolone as an essential endogenous substrate involved in mediating sleep-dependent memory function in young and aged rats. Allopregnanolone may play a critical role in preserving individuals from age-induced alterations in sleep and memory processes and may represent a novel target for attenuating age-related declines in sleep and memory. PMID:20471631

George, Olivier; Vallee, Monique; Vitiello, Sergio; Le Moal, Michel; Piazza, Pier-Vincenzo; Mayo, Willy

2010-01-01

300

Sustained Versus Transient Brain Responses in Schizophrenia: The Role of Intrinsic Neural Activity  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia patients (SZ) show early visual processing deficits in many, but not all, tasks. These deficits may be associated with dysregulation of intrinsic oscillatory activity that compromises signal-to-noise in the SZ brain. This question was studied using visual steady-state stimulation and post-steady-state presentation of transient visual stimuli. SZ had higher intrinsic oscillatory activity at the steady-state stimulation frequency (12.5 Hz) and at the 6.25 Hz subharmonic, showed a significant decrease in visual steady-state magnitude over 2 sec of stimulation, and were unable to promptly terminate the steady-state response following stimulation offset. If adjustment for levels of intrinsic brain activity were made, however, it would have appeared that SZ had activity of similar magnitude as healthy subjects following steady-state stimulus termination, indicating that such adjustments could substantially alter theoretical interpretations. Visual evoked potential abnormalities (N1/P2 amplitudes) present among SZ at the initiation of steady-state stimulation were less apparent in the 750 ms immediately following steady-state stimulation offset. Higher intrinsic oscillatory brain activity may be a fundamental characteristic of SZ that merits further evaluation for understanding this disorder’s neuropathological correlates and associated symptomatology. PMID:21839617

Ethridge, Lauren; Moratti, Stephan; Gao, Yuan; Keil, Andreas; Clementz, Brett A.

2011-01-01

301

Prefrontal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Alters Activation and Connectivity in Cortical and Subcortical Reward Systems: A tDCS-fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique used both experimentally and therapeutically to modulate regional brain function. However, few studies have directly measured the aftereffects of tDCS on brain activity or examined changes in task-related brain activity consequent to prefrontal tDCS. To investigate the neural effects of tDCS, we collected fMRI data from 22 human subjects, both at rest and while performing the Balloon Analog Risk Task (BART), before and after true or sham transcranial direct current stimulation. TDCS decreased resting blood perfusion in orbitofrontal cortex and the right caudate and increased task-related activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in response to losses but not wins or increasing risk. Network analysis showed that whole-brain connectivity of the right ACC correlated positively with the number of pumps subjects were willing to make on the BART, and that tDCS reduced connectivity between the right ACC and the rest of the brain. Whole-brain connectivity of the right DLPFC also correlated negatively with pumps on the BART, as prior literature would suggest. Our results suggest that tDCS can alter activation and connectivity in regions distal to the electrodes. PMID:24453107

Weber, Matthew J.; Messing, Samuel B.; Rao, Hengyi; Detre, John A.; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

2014-01-01

302

On a Mathematical Model of Brain Activities  

SciTech Connect

The procedure of recognition can be described as follows: There is a set of complex signals stored in the memory. Choosing one of these signals may be interpreted as generating a hypothesis concerning an 'expexted view of the world'. Then the brain compares a signal arising from our senses with the signal chosen from the memory leading to a change of the state of both signals. Furthermore, measurements of that procedure like EEG or MEG are based on the fact that recognition of signals causes a certain loss of excited neurons, i.e. the neurons change their state from 'excited' to 'nonexcited'. For that reason a statistical model of the recognition process should reflect both--the change of the signals and the loss of excited neurons. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given. In the present note it is not possible to present this approach in detail. In lieu we will sketch roughly a few of the basic ideas and structures of the proposed model of the recognition process (Section). Further, we introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces used in this approach. A more elaborate presentation including all proofs will be given in a series of some forthcoming papers. In this series also the procedures of creation of signals from the memory, amplification, accumulation and transformation of input signals, and measurements like EEG and MEG will be treated in detail.

Fichtner, K.-H. [Friedrich Schiller Unversity Jena, Institute of Applied Mathematics, E.-Abbe-Platz 2, 07743 Jena (Germany); Fichtner, L. [Friedrich Schiller Unversity Jena, Institute of Psychology, Am Steiger 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Freudenberg, W. [Brandenb. Techn. University Cottbus, Dep. of Mathematics, PO box 10 13 44, 03013 Cottbus (Germany); Ohya, M. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Information Science, Noda City, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)

2007-12-03

303

Mapping Functional Brain Activation Using [14C]-Iodoantipyrine in Male Serotonin Transporter Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

Background Serotonin transporter knockout mice have been a powerful tool in understanding the role played by the serotonin transporter in modulating physiological function and behavior. However, little work has examined brain function in this mouse model. We tested the hypothesis that male knockout mice show exaggerated limbic activation during exposure to an emotional stressor, similar to human subjects with genetically reduced transcription of the serotonin transporter. Methodology/Principal Findings Functional brain mapping using [14C]-iodoantipyrine was performed during recall of a fear conditioned tone. Regional cerebral blood flow was analyzed by statistical parametric mapping from autoradiographs of the three-dimensionally reconstructed brains. During recall, knockout mice compared to wild-type mice showed increased freezing, increased regional cerebral blood flow of the amygdala, insula, and barrel field somatosensory cortex, decreased regional cerebral blood flow of the ventral hippocampus, and conditioning-dependent alterations in regional cerebral blood flow in the medial prefrontal cortex (prelimbic, infralimbic, and cingulate). Anxiety tests relying on sensorimotor exploration showed a small (open field) or paradoxical effect (marble burying) of loss of the serotonin transporter on anxiety behavior, which may reflect known abnormalities in the knockout animal's sensory system. Experiments evaluating whisker function showed that knockout mice displayed impaired whisker sensation in the spontaneous gap crossing task and appetitive gap cross training. Conclusions This study is the first to demonstrate altered functional activation in the serotonin transporter knockout mice of critical nodes of the fear conditioning circuit. Alterations in whisker sensation and functional activation of barrel field somatosensory cortex extend earlier reports of barrel field abnormalities, which may confound behavioral measures relying on sensorimotor exploration. PMID:21886833

Pang, Raina D.; Wang, Zhuo; Klosinski, Lauren P.; Guo, Yumei; Herman, David H.; Celikel, Tansu; Dong, Hong Wei; Holschneider, Daniel P.

2011-01-01

304

Alterations in phospholipidomic profile in the brain of mouse model of depression induced by chronic unpredictable stress.  

PubMed

Depression is a worldwide disability disease associated with high morbidity and has increased dramatically in the last few years. The differential diagnosis and the definition of an individualized therapy for depression are hampered by the absence of specific biomarkers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phospholipidomic profile of the brain and myocardium in a mouse model of depression induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). The lipidomic profile was evaluated by thin layer and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry and lipid oxidation was estimated by FOX II assay. Antioxidant enzyme activity and the oxidized/reduced glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio were also evaluated. Results showed that chronic stress affects primarily the lipid profile of the brain, inducing an increase in lipid hydroperoxides, which was not detected in the myocardium. A significant decrease in phosphatidylinositol (PI) and in cardiolipin (CL) relative contents and also oxidation of CL and a significant increase of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were observed in the brain of mice after unpredictable chronic stress conditions. In the myocardium only an increase in PC content was observed. Nevertheless, both organs present a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio when compared to control groups, corroborating the occurrence of oxidative stress. The enzyme activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were found to be decreased in the myocardium and increased in the brain, while glutathione reductase (GR) was decreased in the brain. Our results indicate that in a mouse model for studying depression induced by CUS, the modification of the expression of oxidative stress-related enzymes did not prevent lipid oxidation in organs, particularly in the brain. These observations suggest that depression has an impact on the brain lipidome and that further studies are needed to better understand lipids role in depression and to evaluate their potential as future biomarkers. PMID:24814727

Faria, R; Santana, M M; Aveleira, C A; Simões, C; Maciel, E; Melo, T; Santinha, D; Oliveira, M M; Peixoto, F; Domingues, P; Cavadas, C; Domingues, M R M

2014-07-25

305

Regional distribution of SGLT activity in rat brain in vivo  

PubMed Central

Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) mRNAs have been detected in many organs of the body, but, apart from kidney and intestine, transporter expression, localization, and functional activity, as well as physiological significance, remain elusive. Using a SGLT-specific molecular imaging probe, ?-methyl-4-deoxy-4-[18F]fluoro-d-glucopyranoside (Me-4-FDG) with ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemistry, we mapped in vivo the regional distribution of functional SGLTs in rat brain. Since Me-4-FDG is not a substrate for GLUT1 at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in vivo delivery of the probe into the brain was achieved after opening of the BBB by an established procedure, osmotic shock. Ex vivo autoradiography showed that Me-4-FDG accumulated in regions of the cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex, caudate nucleus, putamen, amygdala, parietal cortex, and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Little or no Me-4-FDG accumulated in the brain stem. The regional accumulation of Me-4-FDG overlapped the distribution of SGLT1 protein detected by immunohistochemistry. In summary, after the BBB is opened, the specific substrate for SGLTs, Me-4-FDG, enters the brain and accumulates in selected regions shown to express SGLT1 protein. This localization and the sensitivity of these neurons to anoxia prompt the speculation that SGLTs may play an essential role in glucose utilization under stress such as ischemia. The expression of SGLTs in the brain raises questions about the potential effects of SGLT inhibitors under development for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:23151803

Yu, Amy S.; Hirayama, Bruce A.; Timbol, Gerald; Liu, Jie; Diez-Sampedro, Ana; Kepe, Vladimir; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Huang, Sung-Cheng

2013-01-01

306

A mutation in the HFE gene is associated with altered brain iron profiles and increased oxidative stress in mice.  

PubMed

Because of the increasing evidence that H63D HFE polymorphism appears in higher frequency in neurodegenerative diseases, we evaluated the neurological consequences of H63D HFE in vivo using mice that carry H67D HFE (homologous to human H63D). Although total brain iron concentration did not change significantly in the H67D mice, brain iron management proteins expressions were altered significantly. The 6-month-old H67D mice had increased HFE and H-ferritin expression. At 12 months, H67D mice had increased H- and L-ferritin but decreased transferrin expression suggesting increased iron storage and decreased iron mobilization. Increased L-ferritin positive microglia in H67D mice suggests that microglia increase iron storage to maintain brain iron homeostasis. The 6-month-old H67D mice had increased levels of GFAP, increased oxidatively modified protein levels, and increased cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression indicating increased metabolic and oxidative stress. By 12 months, there was no longer increased astrogliosis or oxidative stress. The decrease in oxidative stress at 12 months could be related to an adaptive response by nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) that regulates antioxidant enzymes expression and is increased in the H67D mice. These findings demonstrate that the H63D HFE impacts brain iron homeostasis, and promotes an environment of oxidative stress and induction of adaptive mechanisms. These data, along with literature reports on humans with HFE mutations provide the evidence to overturn the traditional paradigm that the brain is protected from HFE mutations. The H67D knock-in mouse can be used as a model to evaluate how the H63D HFE mutation contributes to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23429074

Nandar, Wint; Neely, Elizabeth B; Unger, Erica; Connor, James R

2013-06-01

307

Alterations in the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the rat brain following gamma knife surgery  

PubMed Central

Gamma knife surgery (GKS) is used for the treatment of various brain diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying brain injury following irradiation remain to be elucidated. Given that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is closely associated with pathological angiogenesis and the permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB), the present study was designed to analyze temporal alterations in VEGF expression in the cerebral cortex and the effect of VEGF on cerebral edema in rats following GKS. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to GKS at maximum doses of 60 Gy. Animals were sacrificed between 4 and 24 weeks after GKS. Immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were employed for detecting VEGF expression. The vessel density was measured by CD31+ cell count and vascular structures were examined using electron microscopy. Brain water content and BBB permeability were measured in the present study. VEGF expression in the irradiated cortex progressively increased until 16 weeks after GKS when the maximal expression was reached, and then gradually decreased to the control level 24 weeks after GKS. These findings were confirmed by RT-PCR. A mild decrease in vessel density was observed 4 weeks after GKS, followed by an increase in vessel density between 8 and 20 weeks later. Furthermore, previous studies also demonstrated vascular damage, opening of the BBB and an increase in brain water content occurring simultaneously. To the best of our knowledge, these data demonstrated for the first time dynamic changes in VEGF expression following GKS and also suggest the importance of VEGF expression in pathological angiogenesis and edema formation following GKS. PMID:25176344

CHENG, LEI; MA, LIN; REN, HECHENG; ZHAO, HONGWEI; PANG, YIQIANG; WANG, YONGHENG; WEI, MING

2014-01-01

308

Haploinsufficiency of interferon regulatory factor 6 alters brain morphology in the mouse.  

PubMed

Orofacial clefts are among the commonest birth defects. Among many genetic contributors to orofacial clefting, Interferon Regulatory Factor 6 (IRF6) is unique since mutations in this gene cause Van der Woude (VWS), the most common clefting syndrome. Furthermore, variants in IRF6 contribute to increased risk for non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P). Our previous work shows that individuals with either VWS or NSCL/P may have cerebral anomalies (larger anterior, smaller posterior regions), and a smaller cerebellum. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that disrupting Irf6 in the mouse will result in quantitative brain changes similar to those reported for humans with VWS and NSCL/P. Male mice heterozygous for Irf6 (Irf6(gt1/+); n = 9) and wild-type (Irf6(+/+) ; n = 6) mice at comparable age underwent a 4.7-T MRI scan to obtain quantitative measures of cortical and subcortical brain structures. There was no difference in total brain volume between groups. However, the frontal cortex was enlarged in the Irf6(gt1/+) mice compared to that of wild types (P = 0.028) while the posterior cortex did not differ. In addition, the volume of the cerebellum of Irf6(gt1/+) mice was decreased (P = 0.004). Mice that were heterozygous for Irf6 showed a similar pattern of brain anomalies previously reported in humans with VWS and NSCL/P. These structural differences were present in the absence of overt oral clefts. These results support a role for IRF6 in brain morphometry and provide evidence for a potential genetic link to abnormal brain development in orofacial clefting. PMID:24357509

Aerts, Andrea; DeVolder, Ian; Weinberg, Seth M; Thedens, Dan; Dunnwald, Martine; Schutte, Brian C; Nopoulos, Peg

2014-03-01

309

Medial prefrontal brain activation to anticipated reward and loss in obsessive-compulsive disorder?  

PubMed Central

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with dysfunctional brain activity in several regions which are also involved in the processing of motivational stimuli. Processing of reward and punishment appears to be of special importance to understand clinical symptoms. There is evidence for higher sensitivity to punishment in patients with OCD which raises the question how avoidance of punishment relates to activity within the brain's reward circuitry. We employed the monetary incentive delay task paradigm optimized for modeling the anticipation phase of immediate reward and punishment, in the context of a cross-sectional event-related FMRI study comparing OCD patients and healthy control participants (n = 19 in each group). While overall behavioral performance was similar in both groups, patients showed increased activation upon anticipated losses in a medial and superior frontal cortex region extending into the cingulate cortex, and decreased activation upon anticipated rewards. No evidence was found for altered activation of dorsal or ventral striatal regions. Patients also showed more delayed responses for anticipated rewards than for anticipated losses whereas the reverse was true in healthy participants. The medial prefrontal cortex has been shown to implement a domain-general process comprising negative affect, pain and cognitive control. This process uses information about punishment to control aversively motivated actions by integrating signals arriving from subcortical regions. Our results support the notion that OCD is associated with altered sensitivity to anticipated rewards and losses in a medial prefrontal region whereas there is no significant aberrant activation in ventral or dorsal striatal brain regions during processing of reinforcement anticipation. PMID:24179774

Kaufmann, C.; Beucke, J.C.; Preusse, F.; Endrass, T.; Schlagenhauf, F.; Heinz, A.; Juckel, G.; Kathmann, N.

2013-01-01

310

Low tryptophan diet decreases brain serotonin and alters response to apomorphine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of the serotoninergic system in the regulation of apomorphine-induced behavior, a behavior primarily controlled by dopaminergic neurotransmission, was investigated in rats fed on a low tryptophan diet since weaning. It was found that reductions in brain seritonin (5-HT) produced by diet result in decreased stereotypy after apomorphine administration. This indicates that although stereotyped behavior is primarily mediated by dopaminergic mechanisms, it can also be modulated by other neurotransmitter including 5-HT. It was also shown that changes in brain seritonin levels can affect psychomotor stimulant-induced hypothermia.

Sahakian, B. J.; Wurtman, R. J.; Barr, J. K.; Millington, W. R.; Chiel, H. J.

1979-01-01

311

Transient activation of dopaminergic neurons during development modulates visual responsiveness, locomotion and brain activity in a dopamine ontogeny model of schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

It has been observed that certain developmental environmental risk factors for schizophrenia when modeled in rodents alter the trajectory of dopaminergic development, leading to persistent behavioural changes in adults. This has recently been articulated as the “dopamine ontogeny hypothesis of schizophrenia”. To test one aspect of this hypothesis, namely that transient dopaminergic effects during development modulate attention-like behavior and arousal in adults, we turned to a small-brain model, Drosophila melanogaster. By applying genetic tools allowing transient activation or silencing of dopaminergic neurons in the fly brain, we investigated whether a critical window exists during development when altered dopamine (DA) activity levels could lead to impairments in arousal states in adult animals. We found that increased activity in dopaminergic neurons in later stages of development significantly increased visual responsiveness and locomotion, especially in adult males. This misallocation of visual salience and hyperactivity mimicked the effect of acute methamphetamine feeding to adult flies, suggesting up-regulated DA signaling could result from developmental manipulations. Finally, brain recordings revealed significantly reduced gamma-band activity in adult animals exposed to the transient developmental insult. Together, these data support the idea that transient alterations in DA signaling during development can permanently alter behavior in adults, and that a reductionist model such as Drosophila can be used to investigate potential mechanisms underlying complex cognitive disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:23299394

Calcagno, B; Eyles, D; van Alphen, B; van Swinderen, B

2013-01-01

312

Methamphetamine alters reference gene expression in nigra and striatum of adult rat brain.  

PubMed

The nigrostriatal dopaminergic system is a major lesion target for methamphetamine (MA), one of the most addictive and neurotoxic drugs of abuse. High doses of MA alter the expression of a large number of genes. Reference genes (RGs) are considered relatively stable and are often used as standards for quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) reactions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MA altered the expression of RGs and to identify the appropriate RGs for gene expression studies in animals receiving MA. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with high doses of MA or saline. Striatum and substantia nigra were harvested at 2h or 24h after MA administration. The expression and stability of 10 commonly used RGs were examined using qRT-PCR and then evaluated by geNorm and Normfinder. We found that MA altered the expression of selected RGs. These candidate RGs presented differential stability in the striatum and in substantia nigra at both 2h and 24h after MA injection. Selection of an unstable RG as a standard altered the significance of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression after MA administration. In conclusion, our data show that MA site- and time-dependently altered the expression of RGs in nigrostriatal dopaminergic system. These temporal and spatial factors should be considered when selecting appropriate RGs for interpreting the expression of target genes in animals receiving MA. PMID:24042092

He, Yi; Yu, Seongjin; Bae, Eunkyung; Shen, Hui; Wang, Yun

2013-12-01

313

Serotonin elicits long-lasting enhancement of rhythmic respiratory activity in turtle brain stems in vitro.  

PubMed

Brain stem preparations from adult turtles were used to determine how bath-applied serotonin (5-HT) alters respiration-related hypoglossal activity in a mature vertebrate. 5-HT (5-20 microM) reversibly decreased integrated burst amplitude by approximately 45% (P < 0.05); burst frequency decreased in a dose-dependent manner with 20 microM abolishing bursts in 9 of 13 preparations (P < 0.05). These 5-HT-dependent effects were mimicked by application of a 5-HT(1A) agonist, but not a 5-HT(1B) agonist, and were abolished by the broad-spectrum 5-HT antagonist, methiothepin. During 5-HT (20 microM) washout, frequency rebounded to levels above the original baseline for 40 min (P < 0.05) and remained above baseline for 2 h. A 5-HT(3) antagonist (tropesitron) blocked the post-5-HT rebound and persistent frequency increase. A 5-HT(3) agonist (phenylbiguanide) increased frequency during and after bath application (P < 0.05). When phenylbiguanide was applied to the brain stem of brain stem/spinal cord preparations, there was a persistent frequency increase (P < 0.05), but neither spinal-expiratory nor -inspiratory burst amplitude were altered. The 5-HT(3) receptor-dependent persistent frequency increase represents a unique model of plasticity in vertebrate rhythm generation. PMID:11717237

Johnson, S M; Wilkerson, J E; Henderson, D R; Wenninger, M R; Mitchell, G S

2001-12-01

314

PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS ALTERS NEUROTROPHIN IMMUNOREACTIVITY AND APOPTOSIS IN RAT BRAIN.  

EPA Science Inventory

In the present study, the effects of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos [CPF; O,O'diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothionate] on the regional distribution of three neurotrophic factors and on levels of apoptosis in gestational rat brain were characterized. P...

315

Characterization of the alteration of nutritional state in brain injury induced by fluid percussion in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivePatients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) undergo rapid weight loss with negative nitrogen balance and enhanced whole-body protein breakdown, with protein wasting causing morbidity and increased mortality. Many experimental models of TBI have been used to evaluate strategies to improve the outcome of these patients, but nutritional status has not been considered in experiments published to date, although this

Christophe Moinard; Nathalie Neveux; Nicolas Royo; Carine Genthon; Catherine Marchand-Verrecchia; Michel Plotkine; Luc Cynober

2005-01-01

316

Myelin Expression Is Altered in the Brains of Neonatal Rats Reared in a Fluctuating Oxygen Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Preterm infants receiving supplemental oxygen therapy experience frequent fluctuations in their blood oxygen levels, the magnitude of which has been associated with the incidence and severity of retinopathy of prematurity in such infants. Objective: Our objective was to investigate in a relevant animal model whether the immature brain with its poorly vascularised white matter might also be susceptible to

Kofi Sedowofia; David Giles; Jean Wade; Steve Cunningham; Janet R. McColm; Robert Minns; Neil McIntosh

2008-01-01

317

BRAIN CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY OF BOBWHITE ACUTELY EXPOSED TO CHLORPYRIFOS  

EPA Science Inventory

Northern bobwhite, Colinus virginianus, were orally dosed with the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos to examine effects on brain cholinesterase (AChE) activity. wo-week-old quail were acutely exposed and euthanized at selected times following gavage-dosing, ranging from 1...

318

Systems/Circuits The Autonomic Brain: An Activation Likelihood Estimation  

E-print Network

Systems/Circuits The Autonomic Brain: An Activation Likelihood Estimation Meta-Analysis for Central, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129 The autonomic nervous system (ANS The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is involved in virtually every aspect of our daily life. The motor arm

Napadow, Vitaly

319

Research Report A decrease in brain activation associated with driving  

E-print Network

driving task. Participants steered a vehicle along a curving virtual road, either undisturbed or while driving an actual or virtual car substan- tially degrades driving performance (Alm and Nilsson, 1994, 1995Research Report A decrease in brain activation associated with driving when listening to someone

320

Biometrics from Brain Electrical Activity: A Machine Learning Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of brain electrical activity generated as a response to a visual stimulus is examined in the context of the identification of individuals. Specifically, a framework for the Visual Evoked Potential (VEP)-based biometrics is established, whereby energy features of the gamma band within VEP signals were of particular interest. A rigorous analysis is conducted which unifies and extends results

Ramaswamy Palaniappan; Danilo P. Mandic

2007-01-01

321

Brain Activity while Reading Sentences with Kanji Characters Expressing Emotions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we describe the brain activity associated with kanji characters expressing emotion, which are places at the end of a sentence. Japanese people use a special kanji character in brackets at the end of sentences in text messages such as those sent through e-mail and messenger tools. Such kanji characters plays a role to expresses the sender's emotion

Masahide Yuasa; Keiichi Saito; Naoki Mukawa

2009-01-01

322

Pseudorabies Virus Infection Alters Neuronal Activity and Connectivity In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alpha-herpesviruses, including human herpes simplex virus 1 & 2, varicella zoster virus and the swine pseudorabies virus (PRV), infect the peripheral nervous system of their hosts. Symptoms of infection often include itching, numbness, or pain indicative of altered neurological function. To determine if there is an in vitro electrophysiological correlate to these characteristic in vivo symptoms, we infected cultured rat

Kelly M. McCarthy; David W. Tank; Lynn W. Enquist

2009-01-01

323

Composition and On Demand Deployment of Distributed Brain Activity Analysis Application on Global Grids  

E-print Network

1 Composition and On Demand Deployment of Distributed Brain Activity Analysis Application on Global are brain science and high-energy physics. The analysis of brain activity data gathered from the MEG and analyze brain functions and requires access to large-scale computational resources. The potential platform

Abramson, David

324

Traumatic brain injury in young rats leads to progressive behavioral deficits coincident with altered tissue properties in adulthood.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects many infants and children, and results in enduring motor and cognitive impairments with accompanying changes in white matter tracts, yet few experimental studies in rodent juvenile models of TBI (jTBI) have examined the timeline and nature of these deficits, histologically and functionally. We used a single controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury to the parietal cortex of rats at post-natal day (P) 17 to evaluate behavioral alterations, injury volume, and morphological and molecular changes in gray and white matter, with accompanying measures of electrophysiological function. At 60 days post-injury (dpi), we found that jTBI animals displayed behavioral deficits in foot-fault and rotarod tests, along with a left turn bias throughout their early developmental stages and into adulthood. In addition, anxiety-like behaviors on the zero maze emerged in jTBI animals at 60?dpi. The final lesion constituted only ?3% of brain volume, and morphological tissue changes were evaluated using MRI, as well as immunohistochemistry for neuronal nuclei (NeuN), myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament-200 (NF200), and oligodendrocytes (CNPase). White matter morphological changes were associated with a global increase in MBP immunostaining and reduced compound action potential amplitudes at 60?dpi. These results suggest that brain injury early in life can induce long-term white matter dysfunction, occurring in parallel with the delayed development and persistence of behavioral deficits, thus modeling clinical and longitudinal TBI observations. PMID:22697253

Ajao, David O; Pop, Viorela; Kamper, Joel E; Adami, Arash; Rudobeck, Emil; Huang, Lei; Vlkolinsky, Roman; Hartman, Richard E; Ashwal, Stephen; Obenaus, André; Badaut, Jérôme

2012-07-20

325

Traumatic Brain Injury in Young Rats Leads to Progressive Behavioral Deficits Coincident with Altered Tissue Properties in Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects many infants and children, and results in enduring motor and cognitive impairments with accompanying changes in white matter tracts, yet few experimental studies in rodent juvenile models of TBI (jTBI) have examined the timeline and nature of these deficits, histologically and functionally. We used a single controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury to the parietal cortex of rats at post-natal day (P) 17 to evaluate behavioral alterations, injury volume, and morphological and molecular changes in gray and white matter, with accompanying measures of electrophysiological function. At 60 days post-injury (dpi), we found that jTBI animals displayed behavioral deficits in foot-fault and rotarod tests, along with a left turn bias throughout their early developmental stages and into adulthood. In addition, anxiety-like behaviors on the zero maze emerged in jTBI animals at 60?dpi. The final lesion constituted only ?3% of brain volume, and morphological tissue changes were evaluated using MRI, as well as immunohistochemistry for neuronal nuclei (NeuN), myelin basic protein (MBP), neurofilament-200 (NF200), and oligodendrocytes (CNPase). White matter morphological changes were associated with a global increase in MBP immunostaining and reduced compound action potential amplitudes at 60?dpi. These results suggest that brain injury early in life can induce long-term white matter dysfunction, occurring in parallel with the delayed development and persistence of behavioral deficits, thus modeling clinical and longitudinal TBI observations. PMID:22697253

Ajao, David O.; Pop, Viorela; Kamper, Joel E.; Adami, Arash; Rudobeck, Emil; Huang, Lei; Vlkolinsky, Roman; Hartman, Richard E.; Ashwal, Stephen; Obenaus, Andre

2012-01-01

326

Halogenated volatile anesthetics alter brain metabolism as revealed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of mice in vivo.  

PubMed

Halogenated volatile anesthetics (HVA) are widely used in medicine and research but their effects on brain metabolism in intact organisms are still largely unknown. Here, localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of anesthetized mice was applied to evaluate HVA effects on cerebral metabolites in vivo. Experimental protocols combined different concentrations of isoflurane, halothane, sevoflurane, and desflurane with known modulators of adrenergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic neurotransmission. As a most striking finding, brain lactate increased in individual mice from 1.0 ± 0.6 mM (awake state) to 6.2 ± 1.5 mM (1.75% isoflurane). In addition, relative to total creatine, there were significant isoflurane-induced increases of alanine by 111%, GABA by 20%, choline-containing compounds by 20%, and myo-inositol by 10% which were accompanied by significant decreases of glucose by 51% and phosphocreatine by 9%. The elevation of lactate was most pronounced in the striatum. The HVA effects correlated with the respective minimal alveolar concentrations and were mostly reversible within minutes. The observed alterations are best explained by an HVA-induced stimulation of adrenergic pathways in conjunction with an inhibition of the respiratory chain. Apart from casting new light on cerebral energy metabolism, the present results challenge brain studies of HVA-anesthetized animals. PMID:23266699

Boretius, Susann; Tammer, Roland; Michaelis, Thomas; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Frahm, Jens

2013-04-01

327

Whole brain-based analysis of regional white matter tract alterations in rare motor neuron diseases by diffusion tensor imaging.  

PubMed

Different motor neuron disorders (MNDs) are mainly defined by the clinical presentation based on the predominance of upper or lower motor neuron impairment and the course of the disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) mostly serves as a tool to exclude other pathologies, but novel approaches such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have begun to add information on the underlying pathophysiological processes of these disorders in vivo. The present study was designed to investigate three different rare MNDs, i.e., primary lateral sclerosis (PLS, N = 25), hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP, N = 24), and X-linked spinobulbar muscular atrophy (X-SBMA, N = 20), by use of whole-brain-based DTI analysis in comparison with matched controls. This analysis of white matter (WM) impairment revealed widespread and characteristic patterns of alterations within the motor system with a predominant deterioration of the corticospinal tract (CST) in HSP and PLS patients according to the clinical presentation and also in patients with X-SBMA to a lesser degree, but also WM changes in projections to the limbic system and within distinct areas of the corpus callosum (CC), the latter both for HSP and PLS. In summary, DTI was able to define a characteristic WM pathoanatomy in motor and extra-motor brain areas, such as the CC and the limbic projectional system, for different MNDs via whole brain-based FA assessment and quantitative fiber tracking. Future advanced MRI-based investigations might help to provide a fingerprint-identification of MNDs. PMID:20336652

Unrath, Alexander; Müller, Hans-Peter; Riecker, Axel; Ludolph, Albert C; Sperfeld, Anne-Dorte; Kassubek, Jan

2010-11-01

328

Brain Electrical Activity Changes and Cognitive Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship of cognitive developmental changes to physiological and anatomical changes by measuring both types of data within the same subjects. Cortical electrical activity was measured in 24 males between 10 and 12 years of age. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from midline scalp electrodes during a…

Hartley, Deborah; Thomas, David G.

329

Different alcohol exposures induce selective alterations on the expression of dynorphin and nociceptin systems related genes in rat brain.  

PubMed

Molecular mechanisms of adaptive transformations caused by alcohol exposure on opioid dynorphin and nociceptin systems have been investigated in the rat brain. Alcohol was intragastrically administered to rats to resemble human drinking with several hours of exposure: water or alcohol (20% in water) at a dose of 1.5?g/kg three times daily for 1 or 5 days. The development of tolerance and dependence were recorded daily. Brains were dissected 30 minutes (1- and 5-day groups) or 1, 3 or 7 days after the last administration for the three other 5-day groups (groups under withdrawal). Specific alterations in opioid genes expression were ascertained. In the amygdala, an up-regulation of prodynorphin and pronociceptin was observed in the 1-day group; moreover, pronociceptin and the kappa opioid receptor mRNAs in the 5-day group and both peptide precursors in the 1-day withdrawal group were also up-regulated. In the prefrontal cortex, an increase in prodynorhin expression in the 1-day group was detected. These data indicate a relevant role of the dynorphinergic system in the negative hedonic states associated with multiple alcohol exposure. The pattern of alterations observed for the nociceptin system appears to be consistent with its role of functional antagonism towards the actions of ethanol associated with other opioid peptides. Our findings could help to the understanding of how alcohol differentially affects the opioid systems in the brain and also suggest the dynorphin and nociceptin systems as possible targets for the treatment and/or prevention of alcohol dependence. PMID:21507157

D'Addario, Claudio; Caputi, Francesca F; Rimondini, Roberto; Gandolfi, Ottavio; Del Borrello, Elia; Candeletti, Sanzio; Romualdi, Patrizia

2013-05-01

330

Detection of molecular alterations in methamphetamine-activated Fos-expressing neurons from a single rat dorsal striatum using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS).  

PubMed

Methamphetamine and other drugs activate a small proportion of all neurons in the brain. We previously developed a fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based method to characterize molecular alterations induced selectively in activated neurons that express the neural activity marker Fos. However, this method requires pooling samples from many rats. We now describe a modified FACS-based method to characterize molecular alterations in Fos-expressing dorsal striatal neurons from a single rat using a multiplex pre-amplification strategy. Fos and NeuN (a neuronal marker) immunohistochemistry indicate that 5-6% of dorsal striatum neurons were activated 90 min after acute methamphetamine injections (5 mg/kg, i.p.) while less than 0.5% of neurons were activated by saline injections. We used FACS to separate NeuN-labeled neurons into Fos-positive and Fos-negative neurons and assessed mRNA expression using RT-qPCR from as little as five Fos-positive neurons. Methamphetamine induced 3-20-fold increases of immediate early genes arc, homer-2, c-fos, fosB, and its isoforms (?fosB and a novel isoform ?fosB-2) in Fos-positive but not Fos-negative neurons. Immediate early gene mRNA induction was 10-fold lower or absent when assessed in unsorted samples from single dorsal striatum homogenates. Our modified method makes it feasible to study unique molecular alterations in neurons activated by drugs or drug-associated cues in complex addiction models. Methamphetamine and other drugs activate a small proportion of all neurons in the brain. We here report an improved method to characterize molecular alterations induced selectively in activated neurons that express the neural activity marker Fos. We used FACS along with targeted PCR pre-amplification to assess acute methamphetamine-induced gene expression from as few as 5 Fos-expressing neurons from a single rat dorsal striatum. Methamphetamine induced 3-20-fold increases of immediate early genes (IEGs) in Fos-positive but not Fos-negative neurons. Targeted PCR pre-amplification makes it feasible to study unique molecular alterations in neurons activated by drugs or drug-associated cues in complex addiction models. PMID:23895375

Liu, Qing-Rong; Rubio, Francisco J; Bossert, Jennifer M; Marchant, Nathan J; Fanous, Sanya; Hou, Xingyu; Shaham, Yavin; Hope, Bruce T

2014-01-01

331

Polychlorinated biphenyls-induced alterations of thyroid hormone homeostasis and brain development in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction<\\/strong>The work described in this thesis was undertaken to gain insight in the processes involved in the developmental neurotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls. It has been previously hypothesized that the alteration of thyroid hormone status by PCBs may be in part responsible for the developmental neurotoxicity of these compounds in humans (Rogan et al. 1986). This is a logical hypothesis, given

D. C. Morse

1995-01-01

332

Neuropharmacology 37 (1998) 571579 Brain-derived neurotrophic factor alters the synaptic modification  

E-print Network

in BDNF showed no difference from control slices when a `strong' tetanus was used (theta-burst stimulation to a `weak' (20 Hz) tetanus. The BDNF-treated slices also showed significantly less LTD in response to a 1 Hz tetanus. Thus, BDNF treatment alters the relationship between stimulation frequency and synaptic

Bear, Mark

333

A subspace approach to learning recurrent features from brain activity.  

PubMed

This paper introduces a novel technique to address the instability and time variability challenges associated with brain activity recorded on different days. A critical challenge when working with brain signal activity is the variability in their characteristics when the signals are collected in different sessions separated by a day or more. Such variability is due to the acute and chronic responses of the brain tissue after implantation, variations as the subject learns to optimize performance, physiological changes in a subject due to prior activity or rest periods and environmental conditions. We propose a novel approach to tackle signal variability by focusing on learning subspaces which are recurrent over time. Furthermore, we illustrate how we can use projections on those subspaces to improve classification for an application such as brain-machine interface (BMI). In this paper, we illustrate the merits of finding recurrent subspaces in the context of movement direction decoding using local field potential (LFP). We introduce two methods for using the learned subspaces in movement direction decoding and show a decoding power improvement from 76% to 88% for a particularly unstable subject and consistent decoding across subjects. PMID:21257387

Gowreesunker, B Vikrham; Tewfik, Ahmed H; Tadipatri, Vijay A; Ashe, James; Pellize, Giuseppe; Gupta, Rahul

2011-06-01

334

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

1998-12-01

335

Enhanced nociceptive responding in two rat models of depression is associated with alterations in monoamine levels in discrete brain regions.  

PubMed

Altered pain responding in depression is a widely recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. The present study investigated nociceptive responding to acute (thermal and mechanical) and persistent (inflammatory) noxious stimuli in two animal models of depression, the olfactory bulbectomized (OB) and the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. In addition, this study examined if altered nociceptive behaviour was associated with changes in monoamine levels in discrete brain regions. OB rats exhibited mechanical allodynia (von Frey test) but not thermal hyperalgesia (hot plate and tail-flick tests) when compared to sham-operated counterparts. Formalin-induced nociceptive behaviour was both heightened and prolonged in OB versus sham-operated controls. An inverse correlation was observed between 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) concentration in the hippocampus and amygdaloid cortex and nociceptive behaviour in the formalin test. In comparison, WKY rats exhibited thermal hyperalgesia in the hot plate test, while behaviour in the tail-flick and von Frey tests did not differ between WKY and Sprague-Dawley rats. Furthermore, WKY rats exhibited enhanced formalin-evoked nociceptive responding up to 40 min post administration, an effect inversely correlated with serotonin and 5-HIAA levels in the hypothalamus. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that altered pain responding observed in clinically depressed patients can be modelled pre-clinically, providing a means of investigating the neurochemical basis of, and possible treatments for, this phenomenon. PMID:20955767

Burke, N N; Hayes, E; Calpin, P; Kerr, D M; Moriarty, O; Finn, D P; Roche, M

2010-12-29

336

Active Lessons for Active Brains: Teaching Boys and Other Experiential Learners, Grades 3-10  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If you're tired of repeating yourself to students who aren't listening, try a little less talk and a lot more action. The authors follow the best-selling "Teaching the Male Brain and Teaching the Female Brain" with this ready-to-use collection of mathematics, language arts, science, and classroom management strategies. Designed for active,…

James, Abigail Norfleet; Allison, Sandra Boyd; McKenzie, Caitlin Zimmerman

2011-01-01

337

Ethanol and acetaldehyde alter NTPDase and 5?-nucleotidase from zebrafish brain membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol abuse is an acute health problem throughout the world and alcohol consumption is linked to the occurrence of several pathological conditions. Here we tested the acute effects of ethanol on NTPDases (nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases) and 5?-nucleotidase in zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain membranes. The results have shown a decrease on ATP (36.3 and 18.4%) and ADP (30 and 20%) hydrolysis

Eduardo Pacheco Rico; Denis Broock Rosemberg; Mario Roberto Senger; Marcelo de Bem Arizi; Renato Dutra Dias; André Arigony Souto; Maurício Reis Bogo; Carla Denise Bonan

2008-01-01

338

Soman toxication in hypoxia acclimated rats: Alterations in brain neuronal RNA and survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of prior hypoxia acclimation (14-day at 380 mm Hg) on soman (pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) induced brain neuronal RNA and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) depletion and lethality were monitored in rats following their return to ambient oxygenation. Quantitative cytochemical techniques were used to measure RNA and AChE changes in individual cerebrocortical (Layer III) and striatal (caudate plus putamen) neurons. In ambient PO2 controls,

J. A. Doebler; T. J. Wall; R. A. Moore; L. J. Martin; T. M. Shih; A. Anthony

1984-01-01

339

Hydrogen peroxide-induced alterations of tight junction proteins in bovine brain microvascular endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occludin and zonular occludens (ZO)-1 in tight junctions (TJs) and actin play an important role in maintaining blood–brain barrier (BBB) endothelial ion and solute barriers. Malfunction of BBB by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been attributed to the disruption of TJs. This study examined H2O2 effects on changes of paracellular permeability, actin, and TJ proteins (occludin and ZO-1) using primary

Hee-Sang Lee; Kee Namkoong; Dong-Hwa Kim; Ki-Jeong Kim; Yoon-Hee Cheong; Sung-Su Kim; Won-Bok Lee; Kyung-Yong Kim

2004-01-01

340

Cyclosporin Ameliorates Traumatic Brain-Injury-Induced Alterations of Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in impaired learning and memory functions, the underlying mechanisms are unknown and there are currently no treatments that can preserve such functions. We studied plasticity at CA3–CA1 synapses in hippocampal slices from rats subjected to controlled cortical impact TBI. Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission was markedly impaired, whereas long-term depression (LTD) was

Benedict C. Albensi; Patrick G. Sullivan; Michael B. Thompson; Stephen W. Scheff; Mark P. Mattson

2000-01-01

341

Altered gene expression in the brain and liver of female fathead minnows Pimephales promelas Rafinesque exposed to fadrozole  

SciTech Connect

The fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) is a small fish species widely used for ecotoxicology research and regulatory testing in North America. This study used a novel 2000 gene oligonucleotide microarray to evaluate the effects of the aromatase inhibitor, fadrozole, on gene expression in the liver and brain tissue of exposed females. Exposure to 60 ?g fadrozole/L for 7 d, resulted in the significant (p<0.05; high-moderate agreement among multiple probes spotted on the array) up-regulation of approximately 47 genes in brain and 188 in liver, and the significant down-regulation of 61 genes in brain and 162 in liver. In particular, fadrozole exposure elicited significant up-regulation of five genes in brain involved in the cholesterol synthesis pathway and altered the expression of over a dozen cytoskeleton-related genes. In the liver, there was notable down-regulation of genes coding for vitellogenin precursors, vigillin, and fibroin-like ovulatory proteins which were consistent with an expected reduction in plasma estradiol concentrations as a result of fadrozole exposure and an associated reduction in measured plasma vitellogenin concentrations. These changes coincided with a general down-regulation of genes coding for non-mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and proteins that play a role in translation. With the exception of the fibroin-like ovulatory proteins, real-time PCR results largely corroborated the microarray responses. Overall, results of this study demonstrate the utility of high density oligonucleotide microarrays for unsupervised, discovery-driven, ecotoxicogenomics research with the fathead minnow and helped inform the subsequent development of a 22,000 gene microarray for the species.

Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Knoebl, Iris; Larkin, Patrick; Miracle, Ann L.; Carter, Barbara J.; Denslow, Nancy D.; Ankley, Gerald T.

2008-06-01

342

Alterations in Mouse Brain Lipidome after Disruption of CST Gene: A Lipidomics Study.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of a critical enzyme, cerebroside sulfotransferase (CST), involving sulfatide biosynthesis on lipid (particularly sphingolipid) homeostasis, herein, we determined the lipidomes of brain cortex and spinal cord from CST null and heterozygous (CST(-/-) and CST(+/-), respectively) mice in comparison to their wild-type littermates by multi-dimensional mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics. As anticipated, we demonstrated the absence of sulfatide in the tissues from CST(-/-) mice and found that significant reduction of sulfatide mass levels was also present, but in an age-dependent manner, in CST(+/-) mice. Unexpectedly, we revealed that the profiles of sulfatide species in CST(+/-) mice were significantly different from that of littermate controls with an increase in the composition of species containing saturated and hydroxylated fatty acyl chains. Contrary to the changes of sulfatide levels, shotgun lipidomics analysis did not detect significant changes of the mass levels of other lipid classes examined. Taken together, shotgun lipidomics analysis demonstrated anticipated sulfatide mass deficiency in CST defect mouse brain and revealed novel brain lipidome homeostasis in these mice. These results might provide new insights into the role of CST in myelin function. PMID:24395133

Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Miao; Zhou, Yunhua; Dupree, Jeffrey L; Han, Xianlin

2014-08-01

343

The social brain in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term 'social brain' refers to the network of brain regions that are involved in understanding others. Behaviour that is related to social cognition changes dramatically during human adolescence. This is paralleled by functional changes that occur in the social brain during this time, in particular in the medial prefrontal cortex and the superior temporal sulcus, which show altered activity

Sarah-Jayne Blakemore

2008-01-01

344

Cerebral blood volume alterations in the perilesional areas in the rat brain after traumatic brain injury--comparison with behavioral outcome.  

PubMed

In the traumatic brain injury (TBI) the initial impact causes both primary injury, and launches secondary injury cascades. One consequence, and a factor that may contribute to these secondary changes and functional outcome, is altered hemodynamics. The relative cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes in rat brain after severe controlled cortical impact injury were characterized to assess their interrelations with motor function impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed 1, 2, 4 h, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 days after TBI to quantify CBV and water diffusion. Neuroscore test was conducted before, and 2, 7, and 14 days after the TBI. We found distinct temporal profile of CBV in the perilesional area, hippocampus, and in the primary lesion. In all regions, the first response was drop of CBV. Perifocal CBV was reduced for over 4 days thereafter gradually recovering. After the initial drop, the hippocampal CBV was increased for 2 weeks. Neuroscore demonstrated severely impaired motor functions 2 days after injury (33% decrease), which then slowly recovered in 2 weeks. This recovery parallelled the recovery of perifocal CBV. CBV MRI can detect cerebrovascular pathophysiology after TBI in the vulnerable perilesional area, which seems to potentially associate with time course of sensory-motor deficit. PMID:20145657

Immonen, Riikka; Heikkinen, Taneli; Tähtivaara, Leena; Nurmi, Antti; Stenius, Taina-Kaisa; Puoliväli, Jukka; Tuinstra, Tinka; Phinney, Amie L; Van Vliet, Bernard; Yrjänheikki, Juha; Gröhn, Olli

2010-07-01

345

Cerebral blood volume alterations in the perilesional areas in the rat brain after traumatic brain injury--comparison with behavioral outcome  

PubMed Central

In the traumatic brain injury (TBI) the initial impact causes both primary injury, and launches secondary injury cascades. One consequence, and a factor that may contribute to these secondary changes and functional outcome, is altered hemodynamics. The relative cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes in rat brain after severe controlled cortical impact injury were characterized to assess their interrelations with motor function impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed 1, 2, 4?h, and 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 days after TBI to quantify CBV and water diffusion. Neuroscore test was conducted before, and 2, 7, and 14 days after the TBI. We found distinct temporal profile of CBV in the perilesional area, hippocampus, and in the primary lesion. In all regions, the first response was drop of CBV. Perifocal CBV was reduced for over 4 days thereafter gradually recovering. After the initial drop, the hippocampal CBV was increased for 2 weeks. Neuroscore demonstrated severely impaired motor functions 2 days after injury (33% decrease), which then slowly recovered in 2 weeks. This recovery parallelled the recovery of perifocal CBV. CBV MRI can detect cerebrovascular pathophysiology after TBI in the vulnerable perilesional area, which seems to potentially associate with time course of sensory-motor deficit. PMID:20145657

Immonen, Riikka; Heikkinen, Taneli; Tahtivaara, Leena; Nurmi, Antti; Stenius, Taina-Kaisa; Puolivali, Jukka; Tuinstra, Tinka; Phinney, Amie L; Van Vliet, Bernard; Yrjanheikki, Juha; Grohn, Olli

2010-01-01

346

Predicting human brain activity associated with the meanings of nouns.  

PubMed

The question of how the human brain represents conceptual knowledge has been debated in many scientific fields. Brain imaging studies have shown that different spatial patterns of neural activation are associated with thinking about different semantic categories of pictures and words (for example, tools, buildings, and animals). We present a computational model that predicts the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neural activation associated with words for which fMRI data are not yet available. This model is trained with a combination of data from a trillion-word text corpus and observed fMRI data associated with viewing several dozen concrete nouns. Once trained, the model predicts fMRI activation for thousands of other concrete nouns in the text corpus, with highly significant accuracies over the 60 nouns for which we currently have fMRI data. PMID:18511683

Mitchell, Tom M; Shinkareva, Svetlana V; Carlson, Andrew; Chang, Kai-Min; Malave, Vicente L; Mason, Robert A; Just, Marcel Adam

2008-05-30

347

Prognostic Implication of Telomerase Activity in Patients with Brain Tumors  

PubMed Central

Telomerase adds telomeric repeats to the ends of telomeres to compensate for their progressive loss. A favorable prognosis is associated with low or no telomerase in some tumors. The authors investigated whether telomerase activity is associated with survival of patients with brain tumors. Sixty-two consecutive patients with brain tumors underwent surgery, and their surgical specimens were investigated. The patients were pathologically categorized as group I (aggressive group) and group II (non-aggressive group). Telomerase activity was examined by the telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. The median time was calculated in association with overall survival and progression-free survival in each group. The significant difference was noted in telomerase activity between high-grade gliomas and low-grade gliomas (p=0.022). Telomerase activity was significantly associated with the median overall survival and progression-free survival in all tumors of the aggressive group. On the other hand, the median overall survival in the non-aggressive group was not dependent on telomerase activity, while the median progression-free survival was. Our data suggests that telomerase is an important prognostic indicator of survival in patients with brain tumors. PMID:16479078

Cheong, Jin Hwan; Bak, Koang Hum; Kim, Jae Min; Oh, Suck Jun

2006-01-01

348

Temporally-independent functional modes of spontaneous brain activity.  

PubMed

Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has become a powerful tool for the study of functional networks in the brain. Even "at rest," the brain's different functional networks spontaneously fluctuate in their activity level; each network's spatial extent can therefore be mapped by finding temporal correlations between its different subregions. Current correlation-based approaches measure the average functional connectivity between regions, but this average is less meaningful for regions that are part of multiple networks; one ideally wants a network model that explicitly allows overlap, for example, allowing a region's activity pattern to reflect one network's activity some of the time, and another network's activity at other times. However, even those approaches that do allow overlap have often maximized mutual spatial independence, which may be suboptimal if distinct networks have significant overlap. In this work, we identify functionally distinct networks by virtue of their temporal independence, taking advantage of the additional temporal richness available via improvements in functional magnetic resonance imaging sampling rate. We identify multiple "temporal functional modes," including several that subdivide the default-mode network (and the regions anticorrelated with it) into several functionally distinct, spatially overlapping, networks, each with its own pattern of correlations and anticorrelations. These functionally distinct modes of spontaneous brain activity are, in general, quite different from resting-state networks previously reported, and may have greater biological interpretability. PMID:22323591

Smith, Stephen M; Miller, Karla L; Moeller, Steen; Xu, Junqian; Auerbach, Edward J; Woolrich, Mark W; Beckmann, Christian F; Jenkinson, Mark; Andersson, Jesper; Glasser, Matthew F; Van Essen, David C; Feinberg, David A; Yacoub, Essa S; Ugurbil, Kamil

2012-02-21

349

Genetic alterations associated with the evolution and progression of astrocytic brain tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diffusely infiltrating low-grade astrocytomas (WHO grade II) have an intrinsic tendency for progression to anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III) and glioblastoma (WHO grade IV). This change is due to the sequential acquisition of genetic alterations, several of which have recently been identified. In low-grade astrocytomas, p53 mutations with or without loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 17p are the principal detectable

H. Ohgaki; P. Kleihues; B. Schäuble; A. Hausen; K. Ammon

1995-01-01

350

Anomalous Light Phenomena vs. Bioelectric Brain Activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a research proposal concerning the instrumented investigation of anomalous light phenomena that are apparently correlated with particular mind states, such as prayer, meditation or psi. Previous research by these authors demonstrate that such light phenomena can be monitored and measured quite efficiently in areas of the world where they are reported in a recurrent way. Instruments such as optical equipment for photography and spectroscopy, VLF spectrometers, magnetometers, radar and IR viewers were deployed and used massively in several areas of the world. Results allowed us to develop physical models concerning the structural and time-variable behaviour of light phenomena, and their kinematics. Recent insights and witnesses have suggested to us that a sort of "synchronous connection" seems to exist between plasma-like phenomena and particular mind states of experiencers who seem to trigger a light manifestation which is very similar to the one previously investigated. The main goal of these authors is now aimed at the search for a concrete "entanglement-like effect" between the experiencer's mind and the light phenomena, in such a way that both aspects are intended to be monitored and measured simultaneously using appropriate instrumentation. The goal of this research project is twofold: a) to verify quantitatively the existence of one very particular kind of mind-matter interaction and to study in real time its physical and biophysical manifestations; b) to repeat the same kind of experiment using the same test-subject in different locations and under various conditions of geomagnetic activity.

Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.

351

Emotions promote social interaction by synchronizing brain activity across individuals.  

PubMed

Sharing others' emotional states may facilitate understanding their intentions and actions. Here we show that networks of brain areas "tick together" in participants who are viewing similar emotional events in a movie. Participants' brain activity was measured with functional MRI while they watched movies depicting unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant emotions. After scanning, participants watched the movies again and continuously rated their experience of pleasantness-unpleasantness (i.e., valence) and of arousal-calmness. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures [intersubject correlations (ISCs)] of functional MRI data. Valence and arousal time series were used to predict the moment-to-moment ISCs computed using a 17-s moving average. During movie viewing, participants' brain activity was synchronized in lower- and higher-order sensory areas and in corticolimbic emotion circuits. Negative valence was associated with increased ISC in the emotion-processing network (thalamus, ventral striatum, insula) and in the default-mode network (precuneus, temporoparietal junction, medial prefrontal cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus). High arousal was associated with increased ISC in the somatosensory cortices and visual and dorsal attention networks comprising the visual cortex, bilateral intraparietal sulci, and frontal eye fields. Seed-voxel-based correlation analysis confirmed that these sets of regions constitute dissociable, functional networks. We propose that negative valence synchronizes individuals' brain areas supporting emotional sensations and understanding of another's actions, whereas high arousal directs individuals' attention to similar features of the environment. By enhancing the synchrony of brain activity across individuals, emotions may promote social interaction and facilitate interpersonal understanding. PMID:22623534

Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Viinikainen, Mikko; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko

2012-06-12

352

Rapid and reversible inhibition of brain aromatase activity.  

PubMed

Many actions of androgens require their conversion via the enzyme aromatase into oestrogens. Changes in brain aromatase activity are thought to take place via changes in enzyme concentration mediated by effects of sex steroids on aromatase transcription. These changes are relatively slow which fits in well with the fact that oestrogens are generally viewed as slow-acting messengers that act via changes in gene transcription. More recently, fast actions of oestrogens, presumably at the level of the cell membrane, have been described both in the female brain and in the male brain after the conversion of testosterone to oestradiol. It is difficult to reconcile the slow regulation of oestrogen synthesis (that occurs via changes in aromatase concentration) with a rapid action at the membrane level. Even if fast transduction mechanisms are available, this will not result in rapid changes in brain function if the availability of the ligand does not also change rapidly. Here, we report that aromatase activity in neural tissue of male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is rapidly downregulated in the presence of Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and ATP in hypothalamic homogenates and in brain explants exposed to high Ca(2+) levels following a K(+)-induced depolarization or the stimulation of glutamate receptors. The K(+)-induced inhibition of aromatase activity is observed within minutes and reversible. Given that aromatase is present in presynaptic boutons, it is possible that rapidly changing levels of locally produced oestrogen are available for nongenomic regulation of neuronal physiology in a manner more akin to the action of a neuropeptide than previously hypothesized. PMID:11123516

Balthazart, J; Baillien, M; Ball, G F

2001-01-01

353

Postnatal alteration of collapsin response mediator protein 4 mRNA expression in the mouse brain  

PubMed Central

Collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4) is a molecular marker for immature neurons but only limited information is available on the spatiotemporal gene expression changes of Crmp4 in the developing rodent. In the present study, the variation of CRMP4 mRNA expression in the mouse brain was investigated from postnatal day (PD) 0 (the day of birth) to adulthood by in situ hybridization. The hybridization signals were broadly detected on PD0 and regional changes in expression during development were noted. Expression patterns of CRMP4 mRNA were classified into the following three types: (i) signals that were strongest on PD0 or PD7, weak or undetectable on PD14, and absent in adulthood: this pattern was observed in most brain areas; (ii) signals that were first detected on PD0 or PD7 and persisted into adulthood: this pattern was seen in the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone of the olfactory bulb (OB); and (iii) signals that were strongest on PD0 and decreased gradually with age but were still detectable in adulthood: this pattern was identified for the first time in the mitral cell layer of the OB. Analysis using quantitative real-time RT-PCR confirmed higher expression of CRMP4 mRNA in the OB than in other adult brain regions. The persistence of CRMP4 mRNA in the adult OB, including the mitral cell layer, suggests the possibility of both neurogenetic and non-neurogenetic functional roles of CRMP4 in this region. PMID:22816653

Tsutiya, Atsuhiro; Ohtani-Kaneko, Ritsuko

2012-01-01

354

Predator Cat Odors Activate Sexual Arousal Pathways in Brains of Toxoplasma gondii Infected Rats  

PubMed Central

Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor. PMID:21858053

House, Patrick K.; Vyas, Ajai; Sapolsky, Robert

2011-01-01

355

Thyroid hormone treatment alters phospholipid composition and membrane fluidity of rat brain mitochondria.  

PubMed Central

We examined effects of graded doses of thyroid hormones 3,3', 5-tri-iodo-L-thyronine (T3) and L-thyroxine (T4) on the lipid composition of rat brain mitochondria. Neither hormone significantly affected the mitochondrial cholesterol or total phospholipid content, but did increase phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) at the expense of phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylcholine (PC). The phosphatidic acid (PA) content was also elevated, suggesting enhanced phospholipid turnover. Changes in sphingomyelin (SPM) and diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG) were minimal. Mitochondrial membrane fluidity also increased after thyroid-hormone treatment, and the increase was closely correlated with PC/PE and SPM/PE molar ratios. PMID:7826343

Bangur, C S; Howland, J L; Katyare, S S

1995-01-01

356

Expertise in folk music alters the brain processing of Western harmony.  

PubMed

In various paradigms of modern neurosciences of music, experts of Western classical music have displayed superior brain architecture when compared with individuals without explicit training in music. In this paper, we show that chord violations embedded in musical cadences were neurally processed in a facilitated manner also by musicians trained in Finnish folk music. This result, obtained by using early right anterior negativity (ERAN) as an index of harmony processing, suggests that tonal processing is advanced in folk musicians by their long-term exposure to both Western and non-Western music. PMID:22524352

Tervaniemi, M; Tupala, T; Brattico, E

2012-04-01

357

Decomposition of spontaneous brain activity into distinct fMRI co-activation patterns  

PubMed Central

Recent fMRI studies have shown that analysis of the human brain's spontaneous activity may provide a powerful approach to reveal its functional organization. Dedicated methods have been proposed to investigate co-variation of signals from different brain regions, with the goal of revealing neuronal networks (NNs) that may serve specialized functions. However, these analysis methods generally do not take into account a potential non-stationary (variable) interaction between brain regions, and as a result have limited effectiveness. To address this, we propose a novel analysis method that uses clustering analysis to sort and selectively average fMRI activity time frames to produce a set of co-activation patterns. Compared to the established networks extracted with conventional analysis methods, these co-activation patterns demonstrate novel network features with apparent relevance to the brain's functional organization. PMID:24550788

Liu, Xiao; Chang, Catie; Duyn, Jeff H.

2013-01-01

358

Acetylcholinesterase activity in the rat brain after pneumococcal meningitis.  

PubMed

Pneumococcal meningitis is a life-threatening disease characterized by acute purulent infection of the meninges causing neuronal injury, cortical necrosis and hippocampal apoptosis. Cholinergic neurons and their projections are extensively distributed throughout the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess acetylcholinesterase activity in the rat brain after pneumococcal meningitis. In the hippocampus, frontal cortex and cerebrospinal fluid, acetylcholinesterase activity was found to be increased at 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hr without antibiotic treatment, and at 48 and 96 hr with antibiotic treatment. Our data suggest that acetylcholinesterase activity could be related to neuronal damage induced by pneumococcal meningitis. PMID:22188584

Barichello, Tatiana; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Collodel, Allan; Moreira, Ana Paula; Michelon, Cleonice M; Raupp, Alice; Cipriano, Andreza L; Fraga, Daiane de Bittencourt; Zugno, Alexandra I

2012-03-01

359

Decreased brain docosahexaenoic acid during development alters dopamine-related behaviors in adult rats that are differentially affected by dietary remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a major component of neuronal membranes. In rats, low brain levels of DHA during development produce alterations in the mesocortical and mesolimbic dopamine systems. In this study, male Long–Evans rats (n=6–7 per group) were raised from conception on diets with (control) or without ?-linolenic acid, the dietary precursor of DHA. The deficient diet reduced brain DHA

Beth Levant; Jeffery D Radel; Susan E Carlson

2004-01-01

360

Pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency alters proliferation and neurogenesis in both neurogenic and vulnerable areas of the rat brain.  

PubMed

Thiamine deficiency (TD) leads to Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), in which focal histological lesions occur in periventricular areas of the brain. Recently, impaired neurogenesis has been reported in the hippocampus during the dietary form of TD, and in pyrithiamine-induced TD (PTD), a well-characterized model of WE. To further characterize the consequences of PTD on neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) activity, we have examined the effect of this treatment in the rat on both the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the rostral lateral ventricle and subgranular layer (SGL) of the hippocampus, and in the thalamus and inferior colliculus, two vulnerable brain regions in this disorder. In both the SVZ and SGL, PTD led to a decrease in the numbers of bromodeoxyuridine-stained cells, indicating that proliferation of NSPCs destined for neurogenesis in these areas was reduced. Doublecortin (DCX) immunostaining in the SGL was decreased, indicating a reduction in neuroblast formation, consistent with impaired NSPC activity. DCX labeling was not apparent in focal areas of vulnerability. In the thalamus, proliferation of cells was absent while in the inferior colliculus, numerous actively dividing cells were apparent, indicative of a differential response between these two brain regions. Exposure of cultured neurospheres to PTD resulted in decreased proliferation of NSPCs, consistent with our in vivo findings. Together, these results indicate that PTD considerably affects cell proliferation and neurogenesis activity in both neurogenic areas and parts of the brain known to display structural and functional vulnerability, confirming and extending recent findings on the effects of TD on neurogenesis. Future use of NSPCs in vitro may allow a closer and more detailed examination of the mechanism(s) underlying inhibition of these cells during TD. PMID:24078061

Hazell, Alan S; Wang, Dongmei; Oanea, Raluca; Sun, Simon; Aghourian, Meghmik; Yong, Jee Jung

2014-03-01

361

Alteration of the coenzyme A biosynthetic pathway in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation syndromes.  

PubMed

NBIA (neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation) comprises a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases having as a common denominator, iron overload in specific brain areas, mainly basal ganglia and globus pallidus. In the past decade a bunch of disease genes have been identified, but NBIA pathomechanisms are still not completely clear. PKAN (pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration), an autosomal recessive disorder with progressive impairment of movement, vision and cognition, is the most common form of NBIA. It is caused by mutations in the PANK2 (pantothenate kinase 2) gene, coding for a mitochondrial enzyme that phosphorylates vitamin B5 in the first reaction of the CoA (coenzyme A) biosynthetic pathway. A distinct form of NBIA, denominated CoPAN (CoA synthase protein-associated neurodegeneration), is caused by mutations in the CoASY (CoA synthase) gene coding for a bifunctional mitochondrial enzyme, which catalyses the final steps of CoA biosynthesis. These two inborn errors of CoA metabolism further support the concept that dysfunctions in CoA synthesis may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of NBIA. PMID:25110004

Venco, Paola; Dusi, Sabrina; Valletta, Lorella; Tiranti, Valeria

2014-08-01

362

Altered expression of ZnT10 in Alzheimer's disease brain.  

PubMed

There is an increasing body of evidence suggesting that metal homeostasis is dysregulated in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although expression levels of several transporters belonging the SLC30 family, which comprises predominantly zinc transporters, have been studied in the AD brain, SLC30A10 (ZnT10) has not been studied in this context. To determine if dysregulated expression of ZnT10, which may transport both Zn and Mn, could be a factor that contributes to AD, we investigated if there were differences in ZnT10 mRNA levels in specimens of frontal cortex from AD patients and controls and also if brain tissue from the APP/PS1 transgenic (Tg) mouse model showed abnormal levels of ZnT10 mRNA expression. Our results show that ZnT10 is significantly (P<0.01) decreased in the frontal cortex in AD. Furthermore, we observed a significant decrease in ZnT10 mRNA levels in the APP/PS1-Tg mice compared with wild-type controls (P<0.01). Our results suggest that this dysregulation in ZnT10 could further contribute to disease progression. PMID:23741496

Bosomworth, Helen J; Adlard, Paul A; Ford, Dianne; Valentine, Ruth A

2013-01-01

363

Spatiotemporal alterations of cortical network activity by selective loss of NOS-expressing interneurons  

PubMed Central

Deciphering the role of GABAergic neurons in large neuronal networks such as the neocortex forms a particularly complex task as they comprise a highly diverse population. The neuronal isoform of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is expressed in the neocortex by specific subsets of GABAergic neurons. These neurons can be identified in live brain slices by the nitric oxide (NO) fluorescent indicator diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate (DAF-2DA). However, this indicator was found to be highly toxic to the stained neurons. We used this feature to induce acute phototoxic damage to NO-producing neurons in cortical slices, and measured subsequent alterations in parameters of cellular and network activity. Neocortical slices were briefly incubated in DAF-2DA and then illuminated through the 4× objective. Histochemistry for NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d), a marker for nNOS activity, revealed elimination of staining in the illuminated areas following treatment. Whole cell recordings from several neuronal types before, during, and after illumination confirmed the selective damage to non-fast-spiking (FS) interneurons. Treated slices displayed mild disinhibition. The reversal potential of compound synaptic events on pyramidal neurons became more positive, and their decay time constant was elongated, substantiating the removal of an inhibitory conductance. The horizontal decay of local field potentials (LFPs) was significantly reduced at distances of 300–400 ?m from the stimulation, but not when inhibition was non-selectively weakened with the GABAA blocker picrotoxin. Finally, whereas the depression of LFPs along short trains of 40 Hz stimuli was linearly reduced with distance or initial amplitude in control slices, this ordered relationship was disrupted in DAF-treated slices. These results reveal that NO-producing interneurons in the neocortex convey lateral inhibition to neighboring columns, and shape the spatiotemporal dynamics of the network's activity. PMID:22347168

Shlosberg, Dan; Buskila, Yossi; Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Amitai, Yael

2012-01-01

364

Spatiotemporal alterations of cortical network activity by selective loss of NOS-expressing interneurons.  

PubMed

Deciphering the role of GABAergic neurons in large neuronal networks such as the neocortex forms a particularly complex task as they comprise a highly diverse population. The neuronal isoform of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is expressed in the neocortex by specific subsets of GABAergic neurons. These neurons can be identified in live brain slices by the nitric oxide (NO) fluorescent indicator diaminofluorescein-2 diacetate (DAF-2DA). However, this indicator was found to be highly toxic to the stained neurons. We used this feature to induce acute phototoxic damage to NO-producing neurons in cortical slices, and measured subsequent alterations in parameters of cellular and network activity. Neocortical slices were briefly incubated in DAF-2DA and then illuminated through the 4× objective. Histochemistry for NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d), a marker for nNOS activity, revealed elimination of staining in the illuminated areas following treatment. Whole cell recordings from several neuronal types before, during, and after illumination confirmed the selective damage to non-fast-spiking (FS) interneurons. Treated slices displayed mild disinhibition. The reversal potential of compound synaptic events on pyramidal neurons became more positive, and their decay time constant was elongated, substantiating the removal of an inhibitory conductance. The horizontal decay of local field potentials (LFPs) was significantly reduced at distances of 300-400 ?m from the stimulation, but not when inhibition was non-selectively weakened with the GABA(A) blocker picrotoxin. Finally, whereas the depression of LFPs along short trains of 40 Hz stimuli was linearly reduced with distance or initial amplitude in control slices, this ordered relationship was disrupted in DAF-treated slices. These results reveal that NO-producing interneurons in the neocortex convey lateral inhibition to neighboring columns, and shape the spatiotemporal dynamics of the network's activity. PMID:22347168

Shlosberg, Dan; Buskila, Yossi; Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Amitai, Yael

2012-01-01

365

Brain catalase activity is highly correlated with ethanol-induced locomotor activity in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that acute administration of lead to mice enhances brain catalase activity and ethanol-induced locomotion. These effects of lead seem to be related, since they show similar time courses and occur at similar doses. In the present study, in an attempt to further evaluate the relation between brain catalase activity and lead-induced changes in ethanol-stimulated locomotion, the

Mercè Correa; Carles Sanchis-Segura; Carlos M. G. Aragon

2001-01-01

366

Alterations in brain structures underlying language function in young adults at high familial risk for schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Neuroanatomical and cognitive alterations typical of schizophrenia (SZ) patients are observed to a lesser extent in their adolescent and adult first-degree relatives, likely reflecting neurodevelopmental abnormalities associated with genetic risk for the illness. The anatomical pathways for language are hypothesized to be abnormal and to underlie the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Examining non-psychotic relatives at high familial risk (FHR) for schizophrenia may clarify if these deficits represent trait markers associated with genetic vulnerability, rather than specific markers resulting from the pathological process underlying schizophrenia. Methods T1 MRI scans from a 3T Siemens scanner of young adult FHR subjects (N=46) and controls with no family history of illness (i.e. at low genetic risk LRC; N=31) were processed using FreeSurfer 5.0. We explored volumetric and lateralization alterations in regions associated with language processing. An extensive neuropsychological battery of language measures was administered. Results No significant differences were observed between groups on any language measures. Controlling Intracranial volume, significantly smaller center Pars Triangularis (PT) (p<0.01) and right Pars Orbitalis (PO) (p < 0.01) volumes and reversal of the L > R Pars Orbitalis (p < 0.001) lateralization were observed in FHR subjects. In addition, the L Pars Triangularis and R Pars Orbitalis correlated with performance on tests of linguistic function in the FHR group. Conclusions Reduced volume and reversed structural asymmetry in language-related regions hypothesized to be altered in SZ are also found in first degree relatives at FHR, despite normal language performance. To clarify if these findings are endophenotypes for Sz, future studied would need to be performed of ill and well family members no longer within the age range of risk for illness to show these deficits segregate with schizophrenia within families. Moreover, measures of complex language need to be studied to determine if FHR individuals manifest impairments in some aspects of language function. PMID:22892286

Francis, Alan N.; Seidman, Larry J.; Jabbar, Gul A.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle; Thermenos, Heidi W.; Juelich, Richard; Proal, Ashley C.; Shenton, Martha; Kubicki, Marek; Mathew, Ian; Keshavan, Matcheri; DeLisi, Lynn E.

2012-01-01

367

Gene transcription alterations associated with decrease of ethanol intake induced by naltrexone in the brain of Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that the administration of the opioid antagonist naltrexone decreases the intake of ethanol. However, the neuroplastic adaptations in the brain associated to reduction of ethanol consumption remains to be elucidated. The aim of the study was to identify gene transcription alterations underlying the attenuation of voluntary ethanol intake by administration of naltrexone in rats. Increasing doses of naltrexone (0.7 mg/kg, 4 days and 1.4 mg/kg/day, 4 days) to rats with acquired high preferring ethanol consumption (>3.5 g of ethanol/kg/day) decreased voluntary ethanol intake (50%). Voluntary ethanol consumption altered mu-opioid receptor function in the cingulate cortex, caudate-putamen (CPu), nucleus accumbens core (Acb C) and shell (Acb S), the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra, proenkephalin (PENK) in the piriform cortex, olfactory tubercle, CPu, Acb C and Acb S, ventromedial nucleus (VMN) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in PVN, cannabinoid CB(1) receptor (CB1-R) in the CPu, hippocampus and VMN, and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei. The reduction of ethanol intake induced by naltrexone was associated with a blockade or significant reduction of the changes produced by ethanol in the expression of these genes in key regions related to drug dependence. These results point to a role for the mu-opioid receptor, TH, PENK, CRF, CB1-R, and 5-HTT genes in specific brain regions in the modulation of neuroadaptative mechanisms associated to the decrease of ethanol intake induced by naltrexone. PMID:17063152

Oliva, José M; Manzanares, Jorge

2007-06-01

368

Acute reduction of microglia does not alter axonal injury in a mouse model of repetitive concussive traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Abstract The pathological processes that lead to long-term consequences of multiple concussions are unclear. Primary mechanical damage to axons during concussion is likely to contribute to dysfunction. Secondary damage has been hypothesized to be induced or exacerbated by inflammation. The main inflammatory cells in the brain are microglia, a type of macrophage. This research sought to determine the contribution of microglia to axon degeneration after repetitive closed-skull traumatic brain injury (rcTBI) using CD11b-TK (thymidine kinase) mice, a valganciclovir-inducible model of macrophage depletion. Low-dose (1?mg/mL) valganciclovir was found to reduce the microglial population in the corpus callosum and external capsule by 35% after rcTBI in CD11b-TK mice. At both acute (7 days) and subacute (21 days) time points after rcTBI, reduction of the microglial population did not alter the extent of axon injury as visualized by silver staining. Further reduction of the microglial population by 56%, using an intermediate dose (10?mg/mL), also did not alter the extent of silver staining, amyloid precursor protein accumulation, neurofilament labeling, or axon injury evident by electron microscopy at 7 days postinjury. Longer treatment of CD11b-TK mice with intermediate dose and treatment for 14 days with high-dose (50?mg/mL) valganciclovir were both found to be toxic in this injury model. Altogether, these data are most consistent with the idea that microglia do not contribute to acute axon degeneration after multiple concussive injuries. The possibility of longer-term effects on axon structure or function cannot be ruled out. Nonetheless, alternative strategies directly targeting injury to axons may be a more beneficial approach to concussion treatment than targeting secondary processes of microglial-driven inflammation. PMID:24797413

Bennett, Rachel E; Brody, David L

2014-10-01

369

Alterations in Serotonin Activity and Psychiatric Symptoms After Recovery From Bulimia Nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Women with bulimia nervosa (BN) have disturbances of mood and behavior and alterations of monoamine activity when they are bingeing and purg- ing. It is not known whether these alterations are sec- ondary to pathological eating behavior or traits that could contribute to the pathogenesis of BN. Methods: To avoid the confounding effects of patho- logical eating behavior, we

Walter H. Kaye; Catherine G. Greeno; Howard Moss; John Fernstrom; Madelyn Fernstrom; Lisa R. Lilenfeld; Theodore E. Weltzin; J. John Mann

1998-01-01

370

From the Cover: Reactivation of encoding-related brain activity during memory retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuronal models predict that retrieval of specific event information reactivates brain regions that were active during encoding of this information. Consistent with this prediction, this positron-emission tomography study showed that remembering that visual words had been paired with sounds at encoding activated some of the auditory brain regions that were engaged during encoding. After word-sound encoding, activation of auditory brain

Lars Nyberg; Reza Habib; Anthony R. McIntosh; Endel Tulving

2000-01-01

371

Error-related brain activity in obsessive–compulsive undergraduates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Error-related negativity (ERN\\/Ne) is a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) associated with monitoring action and detecting errors. It is a sharp negative deflection that generally occurs from 50 to 150 ms following response execution and has been associated with activity involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). An enhanced ERN has recently been observed in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder

Greg Hajcak; Robert F. Simons

2002-01-01

372

Controlling limit-cycle behaviors of brain activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limit cycles of brain activity are studied using a compact continuum model that reproduces the main features of electroencephalographic signals, including bifurcations of fixed points and limit cycles in seizures. Frequencies and amplitudes are predicted analytically and related to physiology. Gaussian stimuli yield two distinct evoked responses in the linearly stable zone, consistent with experiment. Limit cycles can be initiated or suppressed by control signals or stimuli.

Kim, J. W.; Robinson, P. A.

2008-05-01

373

The Protective Effect of L-Cysteine and Glutathione on the Adult and Aged Rat Brain (Na + ,K + )ATPase and Mg 2+ ATPase Activities in Galactosemia In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of the antioxidants L-cysteine (Cys) or the reduced glutathione (GSH) could reverse the alterations of brain total antioxidant status (TAS) and the modulated activities of the enzymes (Na+,K+)-ATPase, and Mg2+-ATPase in adult or aged rat brain homogenates induced