Manipulative parasites can alter the phenotype of intermediate hosts in various ways. However, it is unclear whether such changes are just by-products of infection or adaptive and enhance transmission to the final host. Here, we show that the alteration of serotonergic activity is functionally linked to the alteration of specific behaviour in the amphipod Gammarus pulex infected with acanthocephalan parasites. Pomphorhynchus laevis and, to a lesser extent, Pomphorhynchus tereticollis altered phototactism, but not geotactism, in G. pulex, whereas the reverse was true for Polymorphus minutus. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) injected to uninfected G. pulex mimicked the altered phototactism, but had no effect on geotactism. Photophilic G. pulex infected with P. laevis or P. tereticollis showed a 40% increase in brain 5-HT immunoreactivity compared to photophobic, uninfected individuals. In contrast, brain 5-HT immunoreactivity did not differ between P. minutus-infected and uninfected G. pulex. Finally, brain 5-HT immunoreactivity differed significantly among P. tereticollis-infected individuals in accordance with their degree of manipulation. Our results demonstrate that altered 5-HT activity is not the mere consequence of infection by acanthocephalans but is specifically linked to the disruption of host photophobic behaviour, whereas the alteration of other behaviours such as geotactism may rely on distinct physiological routes.
Tain, Luke; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Cezilly, Frank
Rationale Ecstasy (MDMA) polydrug users have verbal memory performance that is statistically significantly lower than comparison control subjects. Studies have correlated long-term MDMA use with altered brain activation in regions that play a role in verbal memory. Objectives The aim of our study was to examine the association of lifetime ecstasy use with semantic memory performance and brain activation in ecstasy polydrug users. Methods 23 abstinent ecstasy polydrug users (age=24.57) and 11 controls (age=22.36) performed a two-part fMRI semantic encoding and recognition task. To isolate brain regions activated during each semantic task, we created statistical activation maps in which brain activation was greater for word stimuli than for non-word stimuli (corrected p<0.05). Results During the encoding phase, ecstasy polydrug users had greater activation during semantic encoding bilaterally in language processing regions, including Brodmann Areas 7, 39, and 40. Of this bilateral activation, signal intensity with a peak T in the right superior parietal lobe was correlated with lifetime ecstasy use (rs=0.43, p=0.042). Behavioral performance did not differ between groups. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that ecstasy polydrug users have increased brain activation during semantic processing. This increase in brain activation in the absence of behavioral deficits suggests that ecstasy polydrug users have reduced cortical efficiency during semantic encoding, possibly secondary to MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity. Although pre-existing differences cannot be ruled out, this suggests the possibility of a compensatory mechanism allowing ecstasy polydrug users to perform equivalently to controls, providing additional support for an association of altered cerebral neurophysiology with MDMA exposure.
Watkins, Tristan J.; Raj, Vidya; Lee, Junghee; Dietrich, Mary S.; Cao, Aize; Blackford, Jennifer U.; Salomon, Ronald M.; Park, Sohee; Benningfield, Margaret M.; Di Iorio, Christina R.; Cowan, Ronald L.
Pollution is a world problem with immeasurable consequences. Heavy metal compounds are frequently found as components of anthropogenic pollution. Here we evaluated the effects of the treatment with cadmium acetate, lead acetate, mercury chloride, and zinc chloride in acetylcholinesterase activity and gene expression pattern, as well as the effects of these treatments in antioxidant competence in the brain of an aquatic and well-established organism for toxicological analysis, zebrafish (Danio rerio, Cyprinidae). Mercury chloride and lead acetate promoted a significant decrease in acetylcholinesterase activity whereas they did not alter the gene expression pattern. In addition, the antioxidant competence was decreased after exposure to mercury chloride. The data presented here allowed us to hypothesize a signal transmission impairment, through alterations in cholinergic transmission, and also in the antioxidant competence of zebrafish brain tissue as some of the several effects elicited by these pollutants. PMID:21074552
Richetti, S K; Rosemberg, D B; Ventura-Lima, J; Monserrat, J M; Bogo, M R; Bonan, C D
The response to centrally acting drugs is highly variable between individuals and does not always correlate with plasma drug levels. Drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes in the brain may contribute to this variability by affecting local drug and metabolite concentrations. CYP2D metabolizes codeine to the active morphine metabolite. We investigated the effect of inhibiting brain, and not liver, CYP2D activity on codeine-induced analgesia. Rats received intracerebroventricular injections of CYP2D inhibitors (20 ?g propranolol or 40 ?g propafenone) or vehicle controls. Compared to vehicle-pretreated rats, inhibitor-pretreated rats had: (a) lower analgesia in the tail-flick test (p<0.05) and lower areas under the analgesia-time curve (p<0.02) within the first hour after 30 mg/kg subcutaneous codeine, (b) lower morphine concentrations and morphine to codeine ratios in the brain (p<0.02 and p<0.05, respectively), but not in plasma (p>0.6 and p>0.7, respectively), tested at 30 min after 30 mg/kg subcutaneous codeine, and (c) lower morphine formation from codeine ex vivo by brain membranes (p<0.04), but not by liver microsomes (p>0.9). Analgesia trended toward a correlation with brain morphine concentrations (p=0.07) and correlated with brain morphine to codeine ratios (p<0.005), but not with plasma morphine concentrations (p>0.8) or plasma morphine to codeine ratios (p>0.8). Our findings suggest that brain CYP2D affects brain morphine levels after peripheral codeine administration, and may thereby alter codeine's therapeutic efficacy, side-effect profile and abuse liability. Brain CYPs are highly variable due to genetics, environmental factors and age, and may therefore contribute to interindividual variation in the response to centrally acting drugs. PMID:23623752
Zhou, Kaidi; Khokhar, Jibran Y; Zhao, Bin; Tyndale, Rachel F
The response to centrally-acting drugs is highly variable between individuals and does not always correlate with plasma drug levels. Drug-metabolizing CYP enzymes in the brain may contribute to this variability by affecting local drug and metabolite concentrations. CYP2D metabolizes codeine to the active morphine metabolite. We investigate the effect of inhibiting brain, and not liver, CYP2D activity on codeine-induced analgesia. Rats received intracerebroventricular injections of CYP2D inhibitors (20 ?g propranolol or 40 ?g propafenone) or vehicle controls. Compared to vehicle-pretreated rats, inhibitor-pretreated rats had: a) lower analgesia in the tail-flick test (p<0.05) and lower areas under the analgesia-time curve (p<0.02) within the first hour after 30 mg/kg subcutaneous codeine, b) lower morphine concentrations and morphine to codeine ratios in the brain (p<0.02 and p<0.05, respectively), but not in plasma (p>0.6 and p>0.7, respectively), tested at 30 min after 30 mg/kg subcutaneous codeine, and c) lower morphine formation from codeine ex vivo by brain membranes (p<0.04), but not by liver microsomes (p>0.9). Analgesia trended toward a correlation with brain morphine concentrations (p=0.07) and correlated with brain morphine to codeine ratios (p<0.005), but not with plasma morphine concentrations (p>0.8) or plasma morphine to codeine ratios (p>0.8). Our findings suggest that brain CYP2D affects brain morphine levels after peripheral codeine administration, and may thereby alter codeine's therapeutic efficacy, side-effect profile and abuse liability. Brain CYPs are highly variable due to genetics, environmental factors and age, and may therefore contribute to interindividual variation in the response to centrally-acting drugs.
Zhou, Kaidi; Khokhar, Jibran Y.; Zhao, Bin; Tyndale, Rachel F.
Several studies have appointed for a role of glutamatergic system and/or mitochondrial function in major depression. In the present study, we evaluated the creatine kinase and mitochondrial respiratory chain activities after acute and chronic treatments with memantine (N-methyl-D: -aspartate receptor antagonist) and imipramine (tricyclic antidepressant) in rats. To this aim, rats were acutely or chronically treated for 14 days once a day with saline, memantine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and imipramine (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg). After acute or chronic treatments, we evaluated mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes (I, II, II-III and IV) and creatine kinase activities in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Our results showed that both acute and chronic treatments with memantine or imipramine altered respiratory chain complexes and creatine kinase activities in rat brain; however, these alterations were different with relation to protocols (acute or chronic), complex, dose and brain area. Finally, these findings further support the hypothesis that the effects of imipramine and memantine could be involve mitochondrial function modulation. PMID:21953515
Réus, Gislaine Z; Stringari, Roberto B; Rezin, Gislaine T; Fraga, Daiane B; Daufenbach, Juliana F; Scaini, Giselli; Benedet, Joana; Rochi, Natália; Streck, Emílio L; Quevedo, João
Depression is associated with impairments in cognitive control including action monitoring processes, which involve the detection and processing of erroneous responses in order to adjust behavior. Although numerous studies have reported altered error-related brain activity in depressed adults, relatively little is known about age-related changes in error-related brain activity in depressed youth. This study focuses on the error-related negativity (ERN), a negative deflection in the event-related potential (ERP) that is maximal approximately 50 ms following errors. High-density ERPs were examined following responses on a flanker task in 24 youth diagnosed with MDD and 14 low-risk healthy controls (HC). Results indicate that compared to HC, MDD youth had significantly smaller ERN amplitudes and did not exhibit the normative increases in ERN amplitudes as a function of age. Also, ERN amplitudes were similar in depressed youth with and without comorbid anxiety. These results suggest that depressed youth exhibit different age-related changes in brain activity associated with action monitoring processes. Findings are discussed in terms of existing work on the neural correlates of action monitoring and depression and the need for longitudinal research studies investigating the development of neural systems underlying action monitoring in youth diagnosed with and at risk for depression.
Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Slifka, John S.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Ryan, Neal D.
AIM: To determine the alterations in rat enterocyte mitochondrial respiratory function and enzyme activities following traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: Fifty-six male SD rats were randomly divided into seven groups (8 rats in each group): a control group (rats with sham operation) and traumatic brain injury groups at 6, 12, 24 h, days 2, 3, and 7 after operation. TBI models were induced by Feendy’s free-falling method. Mitochondrial respiratory function (respiratory control ratio and ADP/O ratio) was measured with a Clark oxygen electrode. The activities of respiratory chain complex?I-IV and related enzymes were determined by spectrophotometry. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the mitochondrial respiratory control ratio (RCR) declined at 6 h and remained at a low level until day 7 after TBI (control, 5.42 ± 0.46; 6 h, 5.20 ± 0.18; 12 h, 4.55 ± 0.35; 24 h, 3.75 ± 0.22; 2 d, 4.12 ± 0.53; 3 d, 3.45 ± 0.41; 7 d, 5.23 ± 0.24, P < 0.01). The value of phosphate-to-oxygen (P/O) significantly decreased at 12, 24 h, day 2 and day 3, respectively (12 h, 3.30 ± 0.10; 24 h, 2.61 ± 0.21; 2 d, 2.95 ± 0.18; 3 d, 2.76 ± 0.09, P < 0.01) compared with the control group (3.46 ± 0.12). Two troughs of mitochondrial respiratory function were seen at 24 h and day 3 after TBI. The activities of mitochondrial complex?I?(6 h: 110 ± 10, 12 h: 115 ± 12, 24 h: 85 ± 9, day 2: 80 ± 15, day 3: 65 ± 16, P < 0.01) and complex II (6 h: 105 ± 8, 12 h: 110 ± 92, 24 h: 80 ± 10, day 2: 76 ± 8, day 3: 68 ± 12, P < 0.01) were increased at 6 h and 12 h following TBI, and then significantly decreased at 24 h, day 2 and day 3, respectively. However, there were no differences in complex?I?and II activities between the control and TBI groups. Furthermore, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity was significantly decreased at 6 h and continued up to 7 d after TBI compared with the control group (6 h: 90 ± 8, 12 h: 85 ± 10, 24 h: 65 ± 12, day 2: 60 ± 9, day 3: 55 ± 6, day 7: 88 ± 11, P < 0.01). The changes in ?-ketoglutaric dehydrogenase (KGDH) activity were similar to PDH, except that the decrease in KGDH activity began at 12 h after TBI (12 h: 90 ± 12, 24 h: 80 ± 9, day 2: 76 ± 15, day 3: 68 ± 7, day 7: 90 ± 13, P < 0.01). No significant change in malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity was observed. CONCLUSION: Rat enterocyte mitochondrial respiratory function and enzyme activities are inhibited following TBI. Mitochondrial dysfunction may play an important role in TBI-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction.
Zhu, Ke-Jun; Huang, Hong; Chu, Hui; Yu, Hang; Zhang, Shi-Ming
Taurine is one of the most abundant free amino acids in excitable tissues. In the brain, extracellular taurine may act as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, and neuroprotector. Nucleotides are ubiquitous signaling molecules that play crucial roles for brain function. The inactivation of nucleotide-mediated signaling is controlled by ectonucleotidases, which include the nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) family and ecto-5'-nucleotidase. These enzymes hydrolyze ATP/GTP to adenosine/guanosine, which exert a modulatory role controlling several neurotransmitter systems. The nucleoside adenosine can be inactivated in extracellular or intracellular milieu by adenosine deaminase (ADA). In this report, we tested whether acute taurine treatment at supra-physiological concentrations alters NTPDase, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and ADA activities in zebrafish brain. Fish were treated with 42, 150, and 400 mg L(-1) taurine for 1h, the brains were dissected and the enzyme assays were performed. Although the NTPDase activities were not altered, 150 and 400 mg L(-1) taurine increased AMP hydrolysis (128 and 153%, respectively) in zebrafish brain membranes and significantly decreased ecto-ADA activity (29 and 38%, respectively). In vitro assays demonstrated that taurine did not change AMP hydrolysis, whereas it promoted a significant decrease in ecto-ADA activity at 150 and 400 mg L(-1) (24 and 26%, respectively). Altogether, our data provide the first evidence that taurine exposure modulates the ecto-enzymes responsible for controlling extracellular adenosine levels in zebrafish brain. These findings could be relevant to evaluate potential beneficial effects promoted by acute taurine treatment in the central nervous system (CNS) of this species. PMID:20600599
Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Etchart, Renata Jardim; Rico, Eduardo Pacheco; Langoni, Andrei Silveira; Dias, Renato Dutra; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Souza, Diogo Onofre
The large number of transgenic mice realized thus far with different purposes allows addressing new questions, such as which animals, over the entire set of transgenic animals, show a specific behavioural abnormality. In the present study, we have used a metanalytical approach to organize a database of genetic modifications, brain lesions and pharmacological interventions that increase locomotor activity in animal
Estradiol has been shown to affect cholinergic modulation of cognition in human and nonhuman animal models. This study examined the brain-based interaction of estradiol treatment and anticholinergic challenge in postmenopausal women during the performance of a working memory task and functional MRI. Twenty-four postmenopausal women were randomly and blindly placed on 1 mg oral 17-? estradiol or matching placebo pills for three months after which they participated in three anticholinergic challenge sessions. During the challenge sessions, subjects were administered the antimuscarinic drug scopolamine, the antinicotinic drug mecamylamine, or placebo. After drug administration, subjects completed a fMRI session during which time they performed a visual verbal N-back test of working memory. Results showed that scopolamine increased activation in the left medial frontal gyrus (BA 10) and mecamylamine increased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 46). Estradiol treatment compared to placebo treatment significantly reduced the activation in this left medial frontal region during scopolamine challenge. Estradiol treatment also increased activation in the precuneus (BA 31) during mecamylamine challenge. These data are the first to show that estradiol modulated antimuscarinic- and anitnicotinic-induced brain activity and suggest that estradiol affected cholinergic system regulation of cognition-related brain activation in humans.
Dumas, Julie A.; Kutz, Amanda M.; Naylor, Magdalena R.; Johnson, Julia V.; Newhouse, Paul A.
Aluminum is a metal that is known to impact fish species. The zebrafish has been used as an attractive model for toxicology and behavioral studies, being considered a model to study environmental exposures and human pathologies. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of aluminum exposure on brain acetylcholinesterase activity and behavioral parameters in zebrafish. In vivo exposure of zebrafish to 50 ?g/L AlCl(3) for 96 h at pH 5.8 significantly increased (36%) acetylthiocholine hydrolysis in zebrafish brain. There were no changes in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity when fish were exposed to the same concentration of AlCl(3) at pH 6.8. In vitro concentrations of AlCl(3) varying from 50 to 250 ?M increased AChE activity (28% to 33%, respectively). Moreover, we observed that animals exposed to AlCl(3) at pH 5.8 presented a significant decrease in locomotor activity, as evaluated by the number of line crossings (25%), distance traveled (14.1%), and maximum speed (24%) besides an increase in the absolute turn angle (12.7%). These results indicate that sublethal levels of aluminum might modify behavioral parameters and acetylcholinesterase activity in zebrafish brain. PMID:21240652
Senger, Mario Roberto; Seibt, Kelly Juliana; Ghisleni, Gabriele Cordenonzi; Dias, Renato Dutra; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise
Background Despite mounting evidence that physical activity has positive benefits for brain and cognitive health, there has been little characterization of the relationship between cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness and cognition-associated brain activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The lack of evidence is particularly glaring for diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD) that degrade cognitive and functional performance. Objective The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between regional brain activity during cognitive tasks and CR fitness level in people with and without AD. Design A case-control, single-observation study design was used. Methods Thirty-four individuals (18 without dementia and 16 in the earliest stages of AD) completed maximal exercise testing and performed a Stroop task during fMRI. Results Cardiorespiratory fitness was inversely associated with anterior cingulate activity in the participants without dementia (r=?.48, P=.05) and unassociated with activation in those with AD (P>.7). Weak associations of CR fitness and middle frontal cortex were noted. Limitations The wide age range and the use of a single task in fMRI rather than multiple tasks challenging different cognitive capacities were limitations of the study. Conclusions The results offer further support of the relationship between CR fitness and regional brain activity. However, this relationship may be attenuated by disease. Future work in this area may provide clinicians and researchers with interpretable and dependable regional fMRI biomarker signatures responsive to exercise intervention. It also may shed light on mechanisms by which exercise can support cognitive function.
Gayed, Matthew R.; Honea, Robyn A.; Savage, Cary R.; Hobbs, Derek; Burns, Jeffrey M.
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of acute hypoglycemia on working memory and brain function in patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging during euglycemic (5.0 mmol/L) and hypoglycemic (2.8 mmol/L) hyperinsulinemic clamps, we compared brain activation response to a working-memory task (WMT) in type 1 diabetic subjects (n = 16) with that in age-matched nondiabetic control subjects (n = 16). Behavioral performance was assessed by percent correct responses. RESULTS During euglycemia, the WMT activated the bilateral frontal and parietal cortices, insula, thalamus, and cerebellum in both groups. During hypoglycemia, activation decreased in both groups but remained 80% larger in type 1 diabetic versus control subjects (P < 0.05). In type 1 diabetic subjects, higher HbA1c was associated with lower activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala (R2 = 0.45, P < 0.002). Deactivation of the default-mode network (DMN) also was seen in both groups during euglycemia. However, during hypoglycemia, type 1 diabetic patients deactivated the DMN 70% less than control subjects (P < 0.05). Behavioral performance did not differ between glycemic conditions or groups. CONCLUSIONS BOLD activation was increased and deactivation was decreased in type 1 diabetic versus control subjects during hypoglycemia. This higher level of brain activation required by type 1 diabetic subjects to attain the same level of cognitive performance as control subjects suggests reduced cerebral efficiency in type 1 diabetes.
Bolo, Nicolas R.; Musen, Gail; Jacobson, Alan M.; Weinger, Katie; McCartney, Richard L.; Flores, Veronica; Renshaw, Perry F.; Simonson, Donald C.
Severe head trauma causes widespread neuronal shear injuries and acute seizures. Shearing of neural processes might contribute to seizures by disrupting the transmembrane ion gradients that subserve normal synaptic signaling. To test this possibility, we investigated changes in intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl?]i) associated with the widespread neural shear injury induced during preparation of acute brain slices. In hippocampal slices and intact hippocampal preparations from immature CLM-1 mice, increases in [Cl?]i correlated with disruption of neural processes and biomarkers of cell injury. Traumatized neurons with higher [Cl?]i demonstrated excitatory GABA signaling, remained synaptically active, and facilitated network activity as assayed by the frequency of extracellular action potentials and spontaneous network-driven oscillations. These data support a more inhibitory role for GABA in the unperturbed immature brain, demonstrate the utility of the acute brain slice preparation for the study of the consequences of trauma, and provide potential mechanisms for both GABA-mediated excitatory network events in the slice preparation and early post-traumatic seizures.
Dzhala, Volodymyr; Valeeva, Guzel; Glykys, Joseph; Khazipov, Rustem; Staley, Kevin
Fitts' law predicts that there is an essential trade-off between speed and accuracy during movement. Past investigations of Fitts' law have not characterized whether advance planning of upcoming fast and accurate movements impacts either behavior or patterns of brain activation. With an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm, we investigated the neural correlates of advance planning and movement difficulty of rapid, goal-directed aimed movements using a discrete version of the classic Fitts' task. Our behavioral data revealed strong differences in response time, initial movement velocity, and end-point accuracy based on manipulation of both time to plan movements and response difficulty. We discovered a modulation of the neural network associated with executing the Fitts' task that was dependent on the availability of time to plan the upcoming movement and motor difficulty. Specifically, when time to plan for the upcoming movement was available, medial frontal gyrus (BA 10), pre-SMA (BA 6), putamen and cerebellar lobule VI were uniquely active to plan movements. Further, their activation correlated with behavioral measures of movement. In contrast, manipulating movement difficulty invoked a different pattern of brain activations in regions that are known to participate in motor control, including supplementary motor area (BA 6), sensory motor cortex (BA 4, 3, 2) and putamen. Our finding that medial frontal gyrus (BA 10) was important for discrete, fast and accurate movements expands the known role of this brain region, which in the past has been identified as a cognitive processing system supporting stimulus-oriented attending. We now extend this conceptualization to include motor functions such as those employed for processing for rapid, goal-directed aimed movements. PMID:19214489
Boyd, Lara A; Vidoni, E D; Siengsukon, C F; Wessel, B D
Arsenic (As) exposure has been associated with serious chronic health risk to humans including cancer and neurological disturbances. However, there are limited studies about the mechanisms behind its toxicity. In this study, adult zebrafish were exposed to several concentrations of As (0.05, 5, and 15 mg As/L; Na(2)HAsO(4) as As(V)) during 96 h to evaluate the zebrafish locomotor activity, anxiety, and brain extracellular nucleotide hydrolysis. We showed that 5 mg/L As is able to promote significant decrease in the locomotor activity as evaluated by the number of line crossings. In addition, animals treated with 5mg/L As presented an increase in time spent in the lower zone of the tank test, suggesting an anxiogenic effect. Considering that behavioral parameters, such as anxiety and locomotion, might be modulated by the purinergic system, we also evaluated the ectonucleotidase activities in zebrafish brain after a 96-h As exposure. A significant decrease in ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolysis was observed at 0.05, 5, and 15 mg/L when compared to control group. These findings demonstrated that As might affect behavioral parameters and the ectonucleotidase activities in zebrafish, suggesting this enzyme pathway is a target for neurotoxic effects induced by As. PMID:22265774
Baldissarelli, Luis Antonio; Capiotti, Katiucia Marques; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Ghisleni, Gabriele; Bonan, Carla Denise
A growing body of evidence has indicated that energy metabolism impairment may be involved in pathophysiology of some neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we evaluated the effect of acute and chronic administration of fluoxetine, olanzapine and the combination of fluoxetine/olanzapine on citrate synthase activity in brain of rats. For acute treatment, Wistar rats received one single injection of olanzapine (3 or 6mg/kg) and/or fluoxetine (12.5 or 25mg/kg). For chronic treatment, rats received daily injections of olanzapine (3 or 6mg/kg) and/or fluoxetine (12.5 or 25mg/kg) for 28 days. In the present study we observed that acute administration of olanzapine inhibited citrate synthase activity in cerebellum and prefrontal cortex. The acute administration of olanzapine increased citrate synthase activity in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum and fluoxetine increased citrate synthase activity in striatum. Olanzapine 3mg/kg and fluoxetine 12.5mg/kg in combination increased citrate synthase activity in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum. In the chronic treatment we did not observed any effect on citrate synthase activity. Our results showed that olanzapine and fluoxetine increased citrate synthase activity after acute, but not chronic treatment. PMID:20971158
Agostinho, Fabiano R; Réus, Gislaine Z; Stringari, Roberto B; Ribeiro, Karine F; Ferraro, Ana K; Benedet, Joana; Rochi, Natália; Scaini, Giselli; Streck, Emílio L; Quevedo, João
Low frequency oscillations are essential in cognitive function impairment in schizophrenia. While functional connectivity can reveal the synchronization between distant brain regions, the regional abnormalities in task-independent baseline brain activity are less clear, especially in specific frequency bands. Here, we used a regional homogeneity (ReHo) method combined with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate low frequency spontaneous neural activity in the three different frequency bands (slow-5?0.01–0.027 Hz; slow-4?0.027–0.08 Hz; and typical band: 0.01–0.08 Hz) in 69 patients with schizophrenia and 62 healthy controls. Compared with controls, schizophrenia patients exhibited decreased ReHo in the precentral gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, and posterior insula, whereas increased ReHo in the medial prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Significant differences in ReHo between the two bands were found in fusiform gyrus and superior frontal gyrus (slow-4> slow-5), and in basal ganglia, parahippocampus, and dorsal middle prefrontal gyrus (slow-5> slow-4). Importantly, we identified significant interaction between frequency bands and groups in the inferior occipital gyrus and caudate body. This study demonstrates that ReHo changes in schizophrenia are widespread and frequency dependent.
Wang, Hsiao-Lan Sharon; Liu, Chih-Min; Liu, Chen-Chung; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Chien, Yi-Ling; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac
Exposure to early life stress may profoundly influence the developing brain in lasting ways. Neuropsychiatric disorders associated with early life adversity may involve neural changes reflected in EEG power as a measure of brain activity and disturbed sleep. The main aim of the present study was for the first time to characterize possible changes in adult EEG power after postnatal maternal separation in rats. Furthermore, in the same animals, we investigated how EEG power and sleep architecture were affected after exposure to a chronic mild stress protocol. During postnatal day 2–14 male rats were exposed to either long maternal separation (180 min) or brief maternal separation (10 min). Long maternally separated offspring showed a sleep-wake nonspecific reduction in adult EEG power at the frontal EEG derivation compared to the brief maternally separated group. The quality of slow wave sleep differed as the long maternally separated group showed lower delta power in the frontal-frontal EEG and a slower reduction of the sleep pressure. Exposure to chronic mild stress led to a lower EEG power in both groups. Chronic exposure to mild stressors affected sleep differently in the two groups of maternal separation. Long maternally separated offspring showed more total sleep time, more episodes of rapid eye movement sleep and higher percentage of non-rapid eye movement episodes ending in rapid eye movement sleep compared to brief maternal separation. Chronic stress affected similarly other sleep parameters and flattened the sleep homeostasis curves in all offspring. The results confirm that early environmental conditions modulate the brain functioning in a long-lasting way.
Mrdalj, Jelena; Pallesen, Stale; Milde, Anne Marita; Jellestad, Finn Konow; Murison, Robert; Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bj?rn; Gr?nli, Janne
Background In patients with schizophrenia, altered brain activation and motor activity levels are central features, reflecting cognitive impairments and negative symptoms, respectively. Newer studies using nonlinear methods have addressed the severe disturbances in neurocognitive functioning that is regarded as one of the core features of schizophrenia. Our aim was to compare brain activation and motor activity in a patient during pharmacological treatment that was switched from a first- to a second-generation antipsychotic drug. We hypothesised that this change of medication would increase level of responding in both measures. Case presentation We present the case of a 53-year-old male with onset of severe mental illness in adolescence, ICD-10 diagnosed as schizophrenia of paranoid type, chronic form. We compared brain activation and motor activity in this patient during pharmacological treatment with a first-generation (perphenazin), and later switched to a second-generation (risperidone) antipsychotic drug. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activation and wrist worn actigraphy to measure motor activity. Conclusion Our study showed that brain activation decreased in areas critical for cognitive functioning in this patient, when changing from a first to a second generation antipsychotic drug. However the mean motor activity level was unchanged, although risperidone reduced variability, particularly short-term variability from minute to minute. Compared to the results from previous studies, the present findings indicate that changing to a second-generation antipsychotic alters variability measures towards that seen in a control group, but with reduced brain activation, which was an unexpected finding.
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) can be synthesized via three routes, each having potentially different metabolic fates. One route for PC synthesis is methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). To examine if dietary fat affects membrane PE composition and phosphatidylethanolaminemethyltransferase (PEMT) activity, male weanling rats were fed semi-purified diets containing 20% (w/w) fat of differing fatty acid composition for 24 days. Microsomal and synaptic plasma membranes were isolated and phospholipid composition analyzed. PEMT activity was measured by incorporation of the methyl group from /sup 3/H-S-adenosylmethionine into PE. Polyunsaturated diets high in omega 6 fatty acids produce a high ratio of omega 6/omega 3 fatty acids in synaptic plasma membranes. Dietary omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acid levels are reflected in membrane phospholipid content of 22:6(3), 20:4(6), 22:4(6) and 22:5(6). Diet-induced increase in these longer chain homologues of omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids and a high ratio of omega 6/omega 3 fatty acids in PE are both associated with increased PEMT activity. These results suggest that diet-fat induced change in fatty acid composition of membrane PE results in transition in PEMT activity and synthesis of PC in brain, by providing preferred species of PE for methylation.
Hargreaves, K.M.; Clandinin, M.T.
Background Pathological gambling (PG) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, with a dependency on repetitive gambling behavior and rewarding effects following compulsive behavior, respectively. However, no neuroimaging studies to date have examined reward circuitry during the anticipation phase of reward in PG compared with in OCD while considering repetitive gambling and compulsion as addictive behaviors. Methods/Principal Findings To elucidate the neural activities specific to the anticipation phase of reward, we performed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in young adults with PG and compared them with those in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Fifteen male patients with PG, 13 patients with OCD, and 15 healthy controls, group-matched for age, gender, and IQ, participated in a monetary incentive delay task during fMRI scanning. Neural activation in the ventromedial caudate nucleus during anticipation of both gain and loss decreased in patients with PG compared with that in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Additionally, reduced activation in the anterior insula during anticipation of loss was observed in patients with PG compared with that in patients with OCD which was intermediate between that in OCD and healthy controls (healthy controls < PG < OCD), and a significant positive correlation between activity in the anterior insula and South Oaks Gambling Screen score was found in patients with PG. Conclusions Decreased neural activity in the ventromedial caudate nucleus during anticipation may be a specific neurobiological feature for the pathophysiology of PG, distinguishing it from OCD and healthy controls. Correlation of anterior insular activity during loss anticipation with PG symptoms suggests that patients with PG fit the features of OCD associated with harm avoidance as PG symptoms deteriorate. Our findings have identified functional disparities and similarities between patients with PG and OCD related to the neural responses associated with reward anticipation.
Choi, Jung-Seok; Shin, Young-Chul; Jung, Wi Hoon; Jang, Joon Hwan; Kang, Do-Hyung; Choi, Chi-Hoon; Choi, Sam-Wook; Lee, Jun-Young; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kwon, Jun Soo
To determine the physiological roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?), null mice were constructed by targeted disruption of the ligand binding domain of the murine PPAR? gene. Homozygous PPAR?-null term fetuses were smaller than controls, and this phenotype persisted postnatally. Gonadal adipose stores were smaller, and constitutive mRNA levels of CD36 were higher, in PPAR?-null mice than in controls. In the brain, myelination of the corpus callosum was altered in PPAR?-null mice. PPAR? was not required for induction of mRNAs involved in epidermal differentiation induced by O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). The hyperplastic response observed in the epidermis after TPA application was significantly greater in the PPAR?-null mice than in controls. Inflammation induced by TPA in the skin was lower in wild-type mice fed sulindac than in similarly treated PPAR?-null mice. These results are the first to provide in vivo evidence of significant roles for PPAR? in development, myelination of the corpus callosum, lipid metabolism, and epidermal cell proliferation.
Peters, Jeffrey M.; Lee, Susanna S. T.; Li, Wen; Ward, Jerrold M.; Gavrilova, Oksana; Everett, Carrie; Reitman, Marc L.; Hudson, Lynn D.; Gonzalez, Frank J.
Background Most HIV strains that enter the brain are macrophage-tropic and use the CCR5 receptor to bind and infect target cells. Because the cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments involved in cellular movement and migration, we investigated whether CCR5 and the cytoskeleton are involved in endothelial-mononuclear phagocytes interactions, adhesion, and HIV-1 infection. Results Using a cytoskeleton phospho-antibody microarray, we showed that after co-culture with human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), HIV-1 infected monocytes increased expression and activation of cytoskeleton-associated proteins, including Rac1/cdc42 and cortactin, compared to non-infected monocytes co-cultured with HBMEC. Analysis of brain tissues from HIV-1-infected patients validated these findings, and showed transcriptional upregulation of Rac1 and cortactin, as well as increased activation of Rac1 in brain tissues of HIV-1-infected humans, compared to seronegative individuals and subjects with HIV-1-encephalitis. Confocal imaging showed that brain cells expressing phosphorylated Rac1 were mostly macrophages and blood vessels. CCR5 antagonists TAK-799 and maraviroc prevented HIV-induced upregulation and phosphorylation of cytoskeleton-associated proteins, prevented HIV-1 infection of macrophages, and diminished viral-induced adhesion of monocytes to HBMEC. Ingenuity pathway analysis suggests that during monocyte-endothelial interactions, HIV-1 alters protein expression and phosphorylation associated with integrin signaling, cellular morphology and cell movement, cellular assembly and organization, and post-translational modifications in monocytes. CCR5 antagonists prevented these HIV-1-induced alterations. Conclusions HIV-1 activates cytoskeletal proteins during monocyte-endothelial interactions and increase transcription and activation of Rac1 in brain tissues. In addition to preventing macrophage infection, CCR5 antagonists could diminish viral-induced alteration and phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins, monocyte adhesion to the brain endothelium and viral entry into the central nervous system.
Background Previous studies demonstrated that primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is associated with abnormal brain structure; however, little is known about the changes in the local synchronization of spontaneous activity. The main objective of this study was to investigate spontaneous brain activity in patients with POAG using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis based on resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Methodology/Principal Findings Thirty-nine POAG patients and forty-one age- and gender- matched healthy controls were finally included in the study. ReHo values were used to evaluate spontaneous brain activity and whole brain voxel-wise analysis of ReHo was carried out to detect differences by region in spontaneous brain activity between groups. Compared to controls, POAG patients showed increased ReHo in the right dorsal anterior cingulated cortex, the bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the right cerebellar anterior lobe, and decreased ReHo in the bilateral calcarine, bilateral precuneus gryus, bilateral pre/postcentral gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule and left cerebellum posterior lobe. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to explore the relationships between clinical measures and ReHo by region showed significant group differences in the POAG group. Negative correlations were found between age and the ReHo values of the superior frontal gyrus (r?=??0.323, p?=?0.045), left calcarine (r?=??0.357, p?=?0.026) and inferior parietal lobule (r?=??0.362, p?=?0.024). A negative correlation was found between the ReHo values of the left precuneus and the cumulative mean defect (r?=??0.400, p?=?0.012). Conclusions POAG was associated with abnormal brain spontaneous activity in some brain regions and such changed regional activity may be associated with clinical parameters. Spontaneous brain activity may play a role in POAG initiation and progression.
Lin, Fuchun; Chen, Zhiqi; Yan, Xiaoqin; Hao, Yonghong; Zhu, Wenzhen; Zhang, Hong
Oxidative stress from generation of increased reactive oxygen species or free radicals of oxygen has been reported to play an important role in the aging. To investigate the relationship between the oxidative stress and memory decline during aging, we have determined the level of lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and activity of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) in brain and plasma as well as biogenic amine levels in brain from Albino-Wistar rats at age of 4 and 24 months. The results showed that the level of lipid peroxidation in the brain and plasma was significantly higher in older than that in the young rats. The activities of antioxidant enzymes displayed an age-dependent decline in both brain and plasma. Glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities were found to be significantly decreased in brain and plasma of aged rats. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was also significantly decreased in plasma of aged rats; however, a decreased tendency (non-significant) of SOD in brain was also observed. AChE activity in brain and plasma was significantly decreased in aged rats. Learning and memory of rats in the present study was assessed by Morris Water Maze (MWM) and Elevated plus Maze (EPM) test. Short-term memory and long-term memory was impaired significantly in older rats, which was evident by a significant increase in the latency time in MWM and increase in transfer latency in EPM. Moreover, a marked decrease in biogenic amines (NA, DA, and 5-HT) was also found in the brain of aged rats. In conclusion, our data suggest that increased oxidative stress, decline of antioxidant enzyme activities, altered AChE activity, and decreased biogenic amines level in the brain of aged rats may potentially be involved in diminished memory function. PMID:24771014
Haider, Saida; Saleem, Sadia; Perveen, Tahira; Tabassum, Saiqa; Batool, Zehra; Sadir, Sadia; Liaquat, Laraib; Madiha, Syeda
Eight patients are described in whom either hypersexuality (four cases) or change in sexual preference (four cases) occurred following brain injury. In this series disinhibition of sexual activity and hypersexuality followed medial basal-frontal or diencephalic injury. This contrasted with the patients demonstrating altered sexual preference whose injuries involved limbic system structures. In some patients altered sexual behaviour may be the presenting or dominant feature of brain injury. PMID:3746322
Miller, B L; Cummings, J L; McIntyre, H; Ebers, G; Grode, M
Neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia display a complex neurobiology, which has long been associated with distributed brain dysfunction. However, no investigation has tested whether schizophrenia shows alterations in global brain signal (GS), a signal derived from functional MRI and often discarded as a meaningless baseline in many studies. To evaluate GS alterations associated with schizophrenia, we studied two large chronic patient samples (n = 90, n = 71), comparing them to healthy subjects (n = 220) and patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (n = 73). We identified and replicated increased cortical power and variance in schizophrenia, an effect predictive of symptoms yet obscured by GS removal. Voxel-wise signal variance was also increased in schizophrenia, independent of GS effects. Both findings were absent in bipolar patients, confirming diagnostic specificity. Biologically informed computational modeling of shared and nonshared signal propagation through the brain suggests that these findings may be explained by altered net strength of overall brain connectivity in schizophrenia. PMID:24799682
Yang, Genevieve J; Murray, John D; Repovs, Grega; Cole, Michael W; Savic, Aleksandar; Glasser, Matthew F; Pittenger, Christopher; Krystal, John H; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Glahn, David C; Anticevic, Alan
L-arginine is a semi-essential amino acid with a number of bioactive metabolites. Accumulating evidence suggests the implication of altered arginine metabolism in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study systematically compared the metabolic profile of L-arginine in the superior frontal gyrus, hippocampus, and cerebellum from AD (mean age 80 years) and normal (mean age 80 or 60 years) cases. The activity and protein expression of nitric oxide synthase and arginase were altered with AD and age in a region-specific manner. There were also AD- and age-related changes in the tissue concentrations of L-arginine and its downstream metabolites (L-citrulline, L-ornithine, agmatine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine, glutamate, ?-aminobutyric acid, and glutamine) in a metabolite- or region-specific manner. These findings demonstrate that arginine metabolism is dramatically altered in diverse regions of AD brains, thus meriting further investigation to understand its role in the pathogenesis and/or progression of the disease. PMID:24746363
Liu, Ping; Fleete, Michael S; Jing, Yu; Collie, Nicola D; Curtis, Maurice A; Waldvogel, Henry J; Faull, Richard L M; Abraham, Wickliffe C; Zhang, Hu
Background Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown abnormal functional connectivity in regions involved in emotion processing and regulation in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Recent studies indicate, however, that task-dependent neural changes only represent a small fraction of the brain’s total activity. How the brain allocates the majority of its resources at resting state is still unknown. We used the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method of fMRI to explore the spontaneous neuronal activity in resting state in PBD patients. Methods Eighteen PBD patients during the mania phase and 18 sex-, age- and education-matched healthy subjects were enrolled in this study and all patients underwent fMRI scanning. The ALFF method was used to compare the resting-state spontaneous neuronal activity between groups. Correlation analysis was performed between the ALFF values and Young Mania Rating Scale scores. Results Compared with healthy controls, PBD patients presented increased ALFF in bilateral caudate and left pallidum as well as decreased ALFF in left precuneus, left superior parietal lobule, and bilateral inferior occipital gyrus. Additionally, ALFF values in left pallidum were positively correlated with Young Mania Rating Scale score in PBD. Conclusion The abnormal resting-state neuronal activities of the basal ganglia, parietal cortex, and occipital cortex may play an important role in the pathophysiology in PBD patients.
Lu, Dali; Jiao, Qing; Zhong, Yuan; Gao, Weijia; Xiao, Qian; Liu, Xiaoqun; Lin, Xiaoling; Cheng, Wentao; Luo, Lanzhu; Xu, Chuanjian; Lu, Guangming; Su, Linyan
To provide the basis and reference to further insights into the neural activity of the human brain in a microgravity environment, we discuss the amplitude changes of low-frequency brain activity fluctuations using a simulated microgravity model. Twelve male participants between 24 and 31 years old received resting-state fMRI scans in both a normal condition and after 72 hours in a ?6° head down tilt (HDT). A paired sample t-test was used to test the amplitude differences of low-frequency brain activity fluctuations between these two conditions. With 72 hours in a ?6° HDT, the participants showed a decreased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in the left thalamus compared with the normal condition (a combined threshold of P<0.005 and a minimum cluster size of 351 mm3 (13 voxels), which corresponded with the corrected threshold of P<0.05 determined by AlphaSim). Our findings indicate that a gravity change-induced redistribution of body fluid may disrupt the function of the left thalamus in the resting state, which may contribute to reduced motor control abilities and multiple executive functions in astronauts in a microgravity environment.
Huang, Zhiping; Xi, Yibin; Zhang, Qianru; Zhu, Tianli; Liu, Xufeng
The opioid/nociceptin receptors are involved in many neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and epilepsy. Kainic acid (KA) is an analog of the excitatory amino acid transmitter glutamate and the systemic administration of KA induces status epilepticus (SE) in rodents. In this study, we examined the alterations in the G-protein activity and the gene expression levels of mu, kappa, delta opioid and nociceptin receptors (MOPr, KOPr, DOPr and NOPr) as well as PNOC, the precursor polypeptide of nociceptin-OFQ (N/OFQ) in KA-induced seizures in the rat brain cortex. KA was used to create seizures with the dose of 10 mg/kg body weight i.p. Following the KA administration, the rats were observed for 3 h to assess seizure activity. Seizures occurred approximately 45 min after the KA injection. Only rats exhibiting full limbic seizures, forelimb clonus with rearing, were used in this study. All animals were decapitated 4 h after the administration of KA. Our [(35)S]GTP?S binding results showed that there was a significant difference in both the affinity and efficacy particularly one of NOPr stimulation following KA treatment. Slight, but significant increase was observed for MOPr. Moreover PNOC, NOPr and MOPr mRNA levels were increased by KA treatment but there were no significant changes in the levels of DOPr and KOPr mRNAs. These results show that the activities of opioid/nociceptin receptors can be modified by KA-treatment, and MOPr, PNOC and NOPr are the most responsive to KA-induced seizures in the rat brain cortex. PMID:23337899
Turunc Bayrakdar, Ezgi; Bojnik, Engin; Armagan, Guliz; Kanit, Lutfiye; Benyhe, Sandor; Borsodi, Anna; Yalcin, Ayfer
The sleep-deprived brain has principally been characterized by examining dysfunction during cognitive-task performance. However, far less attention has been afforded the possibility that sleep deprivation may be as, if not more, accurately characterized on the basis of abnormal resting-state brain activity. Here we report that one night of sleep deprivation significantly disrupts the canonical signature of task-related deactivation, resulting in a double dissociation within anterior as well as posterior midline regions of the default network. Indeed, deactivation within these regions alone discriminated sleep-deprived from sleep-control subjects with a 93% degree of sensitivity and 92% specificity. In addition, the relative balance of deactivation within these default nodes significantly correlated with the amount of prior sleep in the control group (and not extended time awake in the deprivation group). Therefore, the stability and balance of task-related deactivation in key default-mode regions may be dependent on prior sleep, such that a lack thereof disrupts this signature pattern of brain activity; findings that may offer explanatory insights into conditions associated with sleep loss at both a clinical as well as societal level.
Gujar, Ninad; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Hu, Peter; Walker, Matthew P.
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the existence of alterations in glutathione and cholesterol homeostasis in brain mitochondria from alcoholic rats. Glutathione concentration decreased, whereas oxidized glutathione and cholesterol contents increased in these organelles, suggesting the ethanol-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, and the impairment of mitochondrial uptake of glutathione, possibly due to the increase in cholesterol deposition. The release of apoptogenic proteins was increased after stimulating mitochondria from the brain of alcoholic rats with atractyloside. As a conclusion, chronic alcohol consumption might sensitize brain mitochondria to apoptotic stimuli, and promote the subsequent release of apoptotic proteins. PMID:20119825
Almansa, I; Fernández, A; García-Ruiz, C; Muriach, M; Barcia, J M; Miranda, M; Fernández-Checa, J C; Romero, F J
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the primary motor hand area (M1) can produce lasting polarity-specific effects on corticospinal excitability and motor learning in humans. In 16 healthy volunteers, H215O positron emission tomography (PET) of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) at rest and during finger movements was used to map lasting changes in regional synaptic activity following 10 min of tDCS (± 1 mA). Bipolar tDCS was given through electrodes placed over the left M1 and right frontopolar cortex. Eight subjects received anodal or cathodal tDCS of the left M1, respectively. When compared to sham tDCS, anodal and cathodal tDCS induced widespread increases and decreases in rCBF in cortical and subcortical areas. These changes in rCBF were of the same magnitude as task-related rCBF changes during finger movements and remained stable throughout the 50-min period of PET scanning. Relative increases in rCBF after real tDCS compared to sham tDCS were found in the left M1, right frontal pole, right primary sensorimotor cortex and posterior brain regions irrespective of polarity. With the exception of some posterior and ventral areas, anodal tDCS increased rCBF in many cortical and subcortical regions compared to cathodal tDCS. Only the left dorsal premotor cortex demonstrated an increase in movement related activity after cathodal tDCS, however, modest compared with the relatively strong movement-independent effects of tDCS. Otherwise, movement related activity was unaffected by tDCS. Our results indicate that tDCS is an effective means of provoking sustained and widespread changes in regional neuronal activity. The extensive spatial and temporal effects of tDCS need to be taken into account when tDCS is used to modify brain function.
Lang, Nicolas; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Ward, Nick S.; Lee, Lucy; Nitsche, Michael A.; Paulus, Walter; Rothwell, John C.; Lemon, Roger N.; Frackowiak, Richard S.
Many animals are able to perceive the earth magnetic field and to use it for orientation and navigation within the environment. The mechanisms underlying the perception and processing of magnetic field information within the brain have been thoroughly studied, especially in birds, but are still obscure. Three hypotheses are currently discussed, dealing with ferromagnetic particles in the beak of birds, with the same sort of particles within the lagena organs, or describing magnetically influenced radical-pair processes within retinal photopigments. Each hypothesis is related to a well-known sensory organ and claims parallel processing of magnetic field information with somatosensory, vestibular and visual input, respectively. Changes in activation within nuclei of the respective sensory systems have been shown previously. Most of these previous experiments employed intensity enhanced magnetic stimuli or lesions. We here exposed unrestrained zebra finches to either a stationary or a rotating magnetic field of the local intensity and inclination. C-Fos was used as an activity marker to examine whether the two treatments led to differences in fourteen brain areas including nuclei of the somatosensory, vestibular and visual system. An ANOVA revealed an overall effect of treatment, indicating that the magnetic field change was perceived by the birds. While the differences were too small to be significant in most areas, a significant enhancement of activation by the rotating stimulus was found in a hippocampal subdivision. Part of the hyperpallium showed a strong, nearly significant, increase. Our results are compatible with previous studies demonstrating an involvement of at least three different sensory systems in earth magnetic field perception and suggest that these systems, probably less elaborated, may also be found in nonmigrating birds.
Keary, Nina; Bischof, Hans-Joachim
The aim of this study was to demonstrate the existence of alterations in glutathione and cholesterol homeostasis in brain\\u000a mitochondria from alcoholic rats. Glutathione concentration decreased, whereas oxidized glutathione and cholesterol contents\\u000a increased in these organelles, suggesting the ethanol-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, and the impairment of\\u000a mitochondrial uptake of glutathione, possibly due to the increase in cholesterol deposition.
I. Almansa; A. Fernández; C. García-Ruiz; M. Muriach; J. M. Barcia; M. Miranda; J. C. Fernández-Checa; F. J. Romero
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease, frequently affecting attention and working memory functions. Functional imaging studies investigating those functions in MS patients are hard to compare, as they include heterogeneous patient groups and use different paradigms for cognitive testing. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in neuronal activation between MS patients and healthy controls performing attention and working memory tasks. Two meta-analyses of previously published fMRI studies investigating attention and working memory were conducted for MS patients and healthy controls, respectively. Resulting maps were contrasted to compare brain activation in patients and healthy controls. Significantly increased brain activation in the inferior parietal lobule and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was detected for healthy controls. In contrast, higher neuronal activation in MS patients was obtained in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the right premotor area. With this meta-analytic approach previous results of investigations examining cognitive function using fMRI are summarized and compared. Therefore a more general view on cognitive dysfunction in this heterogeneous disease is enabled.
Kollndorfer, K.; Krajnik, J.; Woitek, R.; Freiherr, J.; Prayer, D.; Schopf, V.
The present study evaluated mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase activities after administration of harmine (5, 10, and 15?mg/kg) and imipramine (10, 20, and 30?mg/kg) in rat brain. After acute treatment occurred an increase of creatine kinase in the prefrontal with imipramine (20 and 30?mg/kg) and harmine in all doses, in the striatum with imipramine (20 and 30?mg/kg) and harmine (5 and 10?mg/kg); harmine (15?mg/kg) decreased creatine kinase. In the chronic treatment occurred an increase of creatine kinase with imipramine (20?mg/kg), harmine (5?mg/kg) in the prefrontal with imipramine (20 and 30?mg/kg) and harmine (5 and 10?mg/kg) in the striatum. In the acute treatment, the complex I increased in the prefrontal with harmine (15?mg/kg) and in the striatum with harmine (10?mg/kg); the complex II decreased with imipramine (20 and 30?mg/kg) in the striatum; the complex IV increased with imipramine (30?mg/kg) in the striatum. In the chronic treatment, the complex I increased with harmine (5?mg/kg) in the prefrontal; the complex II increased with imipramine (20?mg/kg) in the prefrontal; the complex IV increased with harmine (5?mg/kg) in the striatum. Finally, these findings further support the hypothesis that harmine and imipramine could be involved in mitochondrial function. PMID:21969912
Réus, Gislaine Z; Stringari, Roberto B; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Scaini, Giselli; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Jeremias, Gabriela C; Jeremias, Isabela C; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Streck, Emílio L; Hallak, Jaime E; Zuardi, Antônio W; Crippa, José A; Quevedo, João
The present study evaluated mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase activities after administration of harmine (5, 10, and 15?mg/kg) and imipramine (10, 20, and 30?mg/kg) in rat brain. After acute treatment occurred an increase of creatine kinase in the prefrontal with imipramine (20 and 30?mg/kg) and harmine in all doses, in the striatum with imipramine (20 and 30?mg/kg) and harmine (5 and 10?mg/kg); harmine (15?mg/kg) decreased creatine kinase. In the chronic treatment occurred an increase of creatine kinase with imipramine (20?mg/kg), harmine (5?mg/kg) in the prefrontal with imipramine (20 and 30?mg/kg) and harmine (5 and 10?mg/kg) in the striatum. In the acute treatment, the complex I increased in the prefrontal with harmine (15?mg/kg) and in the striatum with harmine (10?mg/kg); the complex II decreased with imipramine (20 and 30?mg/kg) in the striatum; the complex IV increased with imipramine (30?mg/kg) in the striatum. In the chronic treatment, the complex I increased with harmine (5?mg/kg) in the prefrontal; the complex II increased with imipramine (20?mg/kg) in the prefrontal; the complex IV increased with harmine (5?mg/kg) in the striatum. Finally, these findings further support the hypothesis that harmine and imipramine could be involved in mitochondrial function.
Reus, Gislaine Z.; Stringari, Roberto B.; Goncalves, Cinara L.; Scaini, Giselli; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Jeremias, Gabriela C.; Jeremias, Isabela C.; Ferreira, Gabriela K.; Streck, Emilio L.; Hallak, Jaime E.; Zuardi, Antonio W.; Crippa, Jose A.; Quevedo, Joao
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) refers to the clinical condition of transient alteration of consciousness as a result of traumatic injury to the brain. The priority of emergency care is to identify and facilitate the treatment of rare but potentially life threatening intra-cranial injuries associated with mTBI through the judicious application of appropriate imaging studies and neurosurgical consultation. Although post-mTBI symptoms quickly and completely resolve in the vast majority of cases, a significant number of patients will complain of lasting problems that may cause significant disability. Simple and early interventions such as patient education and appropriate referral can reduce the likelihood of chronic symptoms. Although definitive evidence is lacking, mTBI is likely to be related to significant long-term sequelae such as Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative processes.
Blyth, Brian J.; Bazarian, Jeffrey J.
To better understand the effect of arsenic on central nervous system by prenatal and early life exposure, the oxidative stress and neurotransmitter metabolic enzymes were determined in offspring rats' brain cortex and hippocampus. Forty-eight pregnant rats were randomly divided into four groups, each group was given free access to drinking water that contained 0, 10, 50, and 100 mg/L NaAsO(2) from gestation day 6 (GD 6) until postnatal day 42 (PND 42). Once pups were weaned, they started to drink the same arsenic (As)-containing water as the dams. The level of malondialdehyde in 100 mg/L As-exposed pup's brain on PND 0 and cortex on PND 28 and 42 were significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05). Reduced glutathione (GSH) levels showed a clear decreasing trend in pup's cortex and hippocampus on PND 42. Activity of acetylcholinesterase was significantly higher in 100 mg/L As-exposed pup's hippocampus than in control group on PND 28 and 42. mRNA expression of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD(65) and GAD(67)) in 100 mg/L As-exposed pup's cortex or hippocampus on PND 28 and 42 were significantly higher than in control (p < 0.05). These alterations in the neurotransmitters and reduced antioxidant defence may lead to neurobehavioral and learning and memory changes in offspring rats. PMID:20376865
Xi, Shuhua; Guo, Li; Qi, Rong; Sun, Wenjuan; Jin, Yaping; Sun, Guifan
... the RSNA Annual Meeting November 30, 2011 Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men CHICAGO—A ... fMRI) analysis of long-term effects of violent video game play on the brain has found changes in ...
Object Sagittal nonsyndromic craniosynostosis (sNSC) is the most common form of NSC. The condition is associated with a high prevalence (> 50%) of deficits in executive function. The authors employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional MRI to evaluate whether hypothesized structural and functional connectivity differences underlie the observed neurocognitive morbidity of sNSC. Methods Using a 3-T Siemens Trio MRI system, the authors collected DTI and resting-state functional connectivity MRI data in 8 adolescent patients (mean age 12.3 years) with sNSC that had been previously corrected via total vault cranioplasty and 8 control children (mean age 12.3 years) without craniosynostosis. Data were analyzed using the FMRIB Software Library and BioImageSuite. Results Analyses of the DTI data revealed white matter alterations approaching statistical significance in all supratentorial lobes. Statistically significant group differences (sNSC < control group) in mean diffusivity were localized to the right supramarginal gyrus. Analysis of the resting-state seed in relation to whole-brain data revealed significant increases in negative connectivity (anticorrelations) of Brodmann area 8 to the prefrontal cortex (Montreal Neurological Institute [MNI] center of mass coordinates [x, y, z]: -6, 53, 6) and anterior cingulate cortex (MNI coordinates 6, 43, 14) in the sNSC group relative to controls. Furthermore, in the sNSC patients versus controls, the Brodmann area 7, 39, and 40 seed had decreased connectivity to left angular gyrus (MNI coordinates -31, -61, 34), posterior cingulate cortex (MNI coordinates 13, -52, 18), precuneus (MNI coordinates 10, -55, 54), left and right parahippocampus (MNI coordinates -13, -52, 2 and MNI coordinates 11, -50, 2, respectively), lingual (MNI coordinates -11, -86, -10), and fusiform gyri (MNI coordinates -30, -79, -18). Intrinsic connectivity analysis also revealed altered connectivity between central nodes in the default mode network in sNSC relative to controls; the left and right posterior cingulate cortices (MNI coordinates -5, -35, 34 and MNI coordinates 6, -42, 39, respectively) were negatively correlated to right hemisphere precuneus (MNI coordinates 6, -71, 46), while the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex (MNI coordinates 6, 34, -8) was negatively correlated to right middle frontal gyrus (MNI coordinates 40, 4, 33). All group comparisons (sNSC vs controls) were conducted at a whole brain-corrected threshold of p < 0.05. Conclusions This study demonstrates altered neocortical structural and functional connectivity in sNSC that may, in part or substantially, underlie the neuropsychological deficits commonly reported in this population. Future studies combining analysis of multimodal MRI and clinical characterization data in larger samples of participants are warranted. PMID:24745341
Beckett, Joel S; Brooks, Eric D; Lacadie, Cheryl; Wyk, Brent Vander; Jou, Roger J; Steinbacher, Derek M; Constable, R Todd; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Persing, John A
OBJECTIVE Social impairments are a key feature of schizophrenia, but their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Imitation, a process through which we understand the minds of others, involves the so-called mirror neuron system, a network comprising the inferior parietal lobe, inferior frontal gyrus, and posterior superior temporal sulcus. The authors examined mirror neuron system function in schizophrenia. METHOD Sixteen medicated schizophrenia patients and 16 healthy comparison subjects performed an action imitation/observation task during functional MRI. Participants saw a video of a moving hand or spatial cue and were instructed to either execute finger movements associated with the stimulus or simply observe. Activation in the mirror neuron system was measured during imitative versus nonimitative actions and observation of a moving hand versus a moving spatial cue. These contrasts were compared across groups. RESULTS Activation in the mirror neuron system was less specific for imitation in schizophrenia. Relative to healthy subjects, patients had reduced activity in the posterior superior temporal sulcus during imitation and greater activity in the posterior superior temporal sulcus and inferior parietal lobe during nonimitative action. Patients also showed reduced activity in these regions during action observation. Mirror neuron system activation was related to symptom severity and social functioning in patients and to schizotypal syndrome in comparison subjects. CONCLUSIONS Given the role of the inferior parietal lobe and posterior superior temporal sulcus in imitation and social cognition, impaired imitative ability in schizophrenia may stem from faulty perception of biological motion and transformations from perception to action. These findings extend our understanding of social dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:24626638
Thakkar, Katharine N; Peterman, Joel S; Park, Sohee
Background: Recent technical developments have made it feasible to comprehensively assess brain anatomy in psychiatric populations. Objective: To describe the structural brain alterations detected in the magnetic resonance images of a large se- ries of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) using imaging procedures that allow the evaluation of vol- ume changes throughout the brain. Design: Case-control study. Setting: Referral OCD
Jesus Pujol; Carles Soriano-Mas; Pino Alonso; Narcõ ´ s Cardoner; Jose M. Menchon; Joan Deus; Julio Vallejo
Neuroscientists have made impressive advances in understanding the microscale function of single neurons and the macroscale activity of the human brain. One can probe molecular and biophysical aspects of individual neurons and also view the human brain in action with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or magnetoencephalography (MEG). However, the mechanisms of perception, cognition, and action remain mysterious because they emerge from the real-time interactions of large sets of neurons in densely interconnected, widespread neural circuits.
Alivisatos, A. Paul; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Greenspan, Ralph J.; McEuen, Paul L.; Roukes, Michael L.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Weiss, Paul S.; Yuste, Rafael
Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic imprinting disorder characterized mainly by hyperphagia and early childhood obesity. Previous functional neuroimaging studies used visual stimuli to examine abnormal activities in the eating-related neural circuitry of patients with PWS. It was found that patients with PWS exhibited both excessive hunger and hyperphagia consistently, even in situations without any food stimulation. In the present study, we employed resting-state functional MRI techniques to investigate abnormal brain networks related to eating disorders in children with PWS. First, we applied amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation analysis to define the regions of interest that showed significant alterations in resting-state brain activity levels in patients compared with their sibling control group. We then applied a functional connectivity (FC) analysis to these regions of interest in order to characterize interactions among the brain regions. Our results demonstrated that patients with PWS showed decreased FC strength in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC)/inferior parietal lobe (IPL), MPFC/precuneus, IPL/precuneus and IPL/hippocampus in the default mode network; decreased FC strength in the pre-/postcentral gyri and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)/orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the motor sensory network and prefrontal cortex network, respectively; and increased FC strength in the anterior cingulate cortex/insula, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC)/OFC and DLPFC/VLPFC in the core network and prefrontal cortex network, respectively. These findings indicate that there are FC alterations among the brain regions implicated in eating as well as rewarding, even during the resting state, which may provide further evidence supporting the use of PWS as a model to study obesity and to provide information on potential neural targets for the medical treatment of overeating.
Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Heng; Qiu, Siyou; Tian, Jie; Wen, Xiaotong; Miller, Jennifer L.; von Deneen, Karen M.; Zhou, Zhenyu; Gold, Mark S.; Liu, Yijun
Summary Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been suggested as a possible therapeutic tool in depression. In behavioral models of depression, magnetic stimulation induced similar effects to those of electroconvulsive shock. This study demonstrates the effect of a single session of rapid TMS on tissue monoamines in rat brain. Alterations in monoamines were selective and specific in relation to brain areas and
D. Ben-Shachar; R. H. Belmaker; N. Grisaru; E. Klein
Currently, brain tissue transplantations are being developed as a clinical-therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's disease. From an ethical point of view, distinguishing between the preservation and an alteration of personal identity seems to be central to determining the scope for further application of brain tissue transplantation therapy. The purpose of this article is to review
The regulation of energy intake is a complex process involving the integration of homeostatic signals and both internal and external sensory inputs. To better understand the neurobiology of this process and how it may be dysfunctional in obesity, this study examined activity of the brain's "default network" in reduced-obese (RO) as compared to lean individuals. The default network is a group of functionally connected brain regions thought to play an important role in internally directed cognitive activity and the interplay between external and internal sensory processing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 24 lean and 18 RO individuals in the fasted state after 2 days of eucaloric energy intake and after 2 days of 30% overfeeding in a counterbalanced design. Scanning was performed while subjects passively viewed images of food and nonfood objects. Independent component analysis was used to identify the default network component. In the eucaloric state, greater default network activity was observed in RO compared to lean individuals in the lateral inferior parietal and posterior cingulate cortices. Activity was positively correlated with appetite. Overfeeding resulted in increased default network activity in lean but not RO individuals. These findings suggest that the function of the default network, a major contributor to intrinsic neuronal activity, is altered in obesity and/or obese-prone individuals. Future studies of the network's function and its relationship to other brain networks may improve our understanding of the mechanisms and treatment of obesity. PMID:21633398
Tregellas, Jason R; Wylie, Korey P; Rojas, Donald C; Tanabe, Jody; Martin, Jesse; Kronberg, Eugene; Cordes, Dietmar; Cornier, Marc-Andre
The plasma membrane transporters for the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine modulate the dynamics of these monoamine neurotransmitters. Thus, activity of these transporters has significant consequences for monoamine activity throughout the brain and for a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Gene knockout (KO) mice that reduce or eliminate expression of each of these monoamine transporters have provided a wealth of new information about the function of these proteins at molecular, physiological and behavioral levels. In the present work we use the unique properties of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to probe the effects of altered dopaminergic dynamics on meso-scale neuronal circuitry and overall brain morphology, since changes at these levels of organization might help to account for some of the extensive pharmacological and behavioral differences observed in dopamine transporter (DAT) KO mice. Despite the smaller size of these animals, voxel-wise statistical comparison of high resolution structural MR images indicated little morphological change as a consequence of DAT KO. Likewise, proton magnetic resonance spectra recorded in the striatum indicated no significant changes in detectable metabolite concentrations between DAT KO and wild-type (WT) mice. In contrast, alterations in the circuitry from the prefrontal cortex to the mesocortical limbic system, an important brain component intimately tied to function of mesolimbic/mesocortical dopamine reward pathways, were revealed by manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI). Analysis of co-registered MEMRI images taken over the 26 hours after introduction of Mn2+ into the prefrontal cortex indicated that DAT KO mice have a truncated Mn2+ distribution within this circuitry with little accumulation beyond the thalamus or contralateral to the injection site. By contrast, WT littermates exhibit Mn2+ transport into more posterior midbrain nuclei and contralateral mesolimbic structures at 26 hr post-injection. Thus, DAT KO mice appear, at this level of anatomic resolution, to have preserved cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity but diminished robustness of reward-modulating circuitry distal to the thalamus. This is in contradistinction to the state of this circuitry in serotonin transporter KO mice where we observed more robust connectivity in more posterior brain regions using methods identical to those employed here.
Zhang, Xiaowei; Bearer, Elaine L.; Boulat, Benoit; Hall, F. Scott; Uhl, George R.; Jacobs, Russell E.
Summary Purpose The endocannabinoid system is known to modulate seizure activity in several in vivo and in vitro models, and CB1-receptor activation is anticonvulsant in the rat pilocarpine model of acquired epilepsy (AE). In these epileptic rats, a unique redistribution of the CB1 receptor occurs within the hippocampus; however, an anatomically inclusive analysis of the effect of status epilepticus (SE)–induced AE on CB1 receptors has not been thoroughly evaluated. Therefore, statistical parametric mapping (SPM), a whole-brain unbiased approach, was used to study the long-term effect of pilocarpine-induced SE on CB1-receptor binding and G-protein activation in rats with AE. Methods Serial coronal sections from control and epileptic rats were cut at equal intervals throughout the neuraxis and processed for [3H]WIN55,212-2 (WIN) autoradiography, WIN-stimulated [35S]GTP?S autoradiography, and CB1-receptor immunohistochemistry (IHC). The autoradiographic techniques were evaluated with both region of interest (ROI) and SPM analyses. Key Findings In rats with AE, regionally specific increases in CB1-receptor binding and activity were detected in cortex, discrete thalamic nuclei, and other regions including caudate-putamen and septum, and confirmed by IHC. However, CB1 receptors were unaltered in several brain regions, including substantia nigra and cerebellum, and did not exhibit regional decreases in rats with AE. Significance This study provides the first comprehensive evaluation of the regional distribution of changes in CB1-receptor expression, binding, and G-protein activation in the rat pilocarpine model of AE. These regions may ultimately serve as targets for cannabinomimetic compounds or manipulation of the endocannabinoid system in epileptic brain.
Sayers, Katherine W.; Nguyen, Peter T.; Blair, Robert E.; Sim-Selley, Laura J.; DeLorenzo, Robert J.
Summary: Purpose: Noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the evolution of seizure-induced pathology in epileptic, carrier, and normal chickens. Our objective was to determine whether repetitively evoked seizures in an epilep- tic fowl model of generalized seizures resulted in altered brain development. Methods: Data were obtained from seizure and control groups at 45, 90, and 180 days after
Zhao Gong; Andre Obenaus; Nan Li; Gordon E. Sarty; Edward J. Kendall
Abstract Neuroimaging studies of professional athletic or musical training have demonstrated considerable practice-dependent plasticity in various brain structures, which may reflect distinct training demands. In the present study, structural and functional brain alterations were examined in professional badminton players and compared with healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI. Gray matter concentration (GMC) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity. Results showed that the athlete group had greater GMC and ALFF in the right and medial cerebellar regions, respectively. The athlete group also demonstrated smaller ALFF in the left superior parietal lobule and altered functional connectivity between the left superior parietal and frontal regions. These findings indicate that badminton expertise is associated with not only plastic structural changes in terms of enlarged gray matter density in the cerebellum, but also functional alterations in fronto-parietal connectivity. Such structural and functional alterations may reflect specific experiences of badminton training and practice, including high-capacity visuo-spatial processing and hand-eye coordination in addition to refined motor skills.
Di, Xin; Zhu, Senhua; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuoer; Zhou, Ke; Zhuo, Yan
Neuroimaging studies of professional athletic or musical training have demonstrated considerable practice-dependent plasticity in various brain structures, which may reflect distinct training demands. In the present study, structural and functional brain alterations were examined in professional badminton players and compared with healthy controls using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting-state functional MRI. Gray matter concentration (GMC) was assessed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and resting-brain functions were measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and seed-based functional connectivity. Results showed that the athlete group had greater GMC and ALFF in the right and medial cerebellar regions, respectively. The athlete group also demonstrated smaller ALFF in the left superior parietal lobule and altered functional connectivity between the left superior parietal and frontal regions. These findings indicate that badminton expertise is associated with not only plastic structural changes in terms of enlarged gray matter density in the cerebellum, but also functional alterations in fronto-parietal connectivity. Such structural and functional alterations may reflect specific experiences of badminton training and practice, including high-capacity visuo-spatial processing and hand-eye coordination in addition to refined motor skills. PMID:22840241
Di, Xin; Zhu, Senhua; Jin, Hua; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuoer; Zhou, Ke; Zhuo, Yan; Rao, Hengyi
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra leading to dysfunctional cortico-striato-thalamic-cortical loops. In addition to the characteristic motor symptoms, PD patients often show cognitive impairments, affective changes and other non-motor symptoms, suggesting system-wide effects on brain function. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph-theory based analysis methods to investigate altered whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity in PD patients (n?=?37) compared to healthy controls (n?=?20). Global network properties indicated less efficient processing in PD. Analysis of brain network modules pointed to increased connectivity within the sensorimotor network, but decreased interaction of the visual network with other brain modules. We found lower connectivity mainly between the cuneus and the ventral caudate, medial orbitofrontal cortex and the temporal lobe. To identify regions of altered connectivity, we mapped the degree of intrinsic functional connectivity both on ROI- and on voxel-level across the brain. Compared to healthy controls, PD patients showed lower connectedness in the medial and middle orbitofrontal cortex. The degree of connectivity was also decreased in the occipital lobe (cuneus and calcarine), but increased in the superior parietal cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, supramarginal gyrus and supplementary motor area. Our results on global network and module properties indicated that PD manifests as a disconnection syndrome. This was most apparent in the visual network module. The higher connectedness within the sensorimotor module in PD patients may be related to compensation mechanism in order to overcome the functional deficit of the striato-cortical motor loops or to loss of mutual inhibition between brain networks. Abnormal connectivity in the visual network may be related to adaptation and compensation processes as a consequence of altered motor function. Our analysis approach proved sensitive for detecting disease-related localized effects as well as changes in network functions on intermediate and global scale.
Gottlich, Martin; Munte, Thomas F.; Heldmann, Marcus; Kasten, Meike; Hagenah, Johann; Kramer, Ulrike M.
Drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYPs) enzymes are expressed in the liver, as well as in extrahepatic tissues such as the brain. Here we show for the first time that drug metabolism by a CYP within the brain, illustrated using CYP2B and the anesthetic propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol, Diprivan), can meaningfully alter the pharmacological response to a CNS acting drug. CYP2B is expressed in the brains of animals and humans, and this CYP isoform is able to metabolize centrally acting substrates such as propofol, ecstasy, and serotonin. Rats were given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injections of vehicle, C8-xanthate, or 8-methoxypsoralen (CYP2B mechanism-based inhibitors) and then tested for sleep time following propofol (80?mg/kg intraperitoneally). Both inhibitors significantly increased sleep-time (1.8- to 2-fold) and brain propofol levels, while having no effect on plasma propofol levels. Seven days of nicotine treatment can induce the expression of brain, but not hepatic, CYP2B, and this induction reduced propofol sleep times by 2.5-fold. This reduction was reversed in a dose-dependent manner by i.c.v. injections of inhibitor. Sleep times correlated with brain (r=0.76, P=0.0009), but not plasma (r=0.24, P=0.39) propofol concentrations. Inhibitor treatments increased brain, but not plasma, propofol levels, and had no effect on hepatic enzyme activity. These data indicate that brain CYP2B can metabolize neuroactive substrates (eg, propofol) and can alter their pharmacological response. This has wider implications for localized CYP-mediated metabolism of drugs, neurotransmitters, and neurotoxins within the brain by this highly variable enzyme family and other CYP subfamilies expressed in the brain. PMID:21107310
Khokhar, Jibran Y; Tyndale, Rachel F
Drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYPs) enzymes are expressed in the liver, as well as in extrahepatic tissues such as the brain. Here we show for the first time that drug metabolism by a CYP within the brain, illustrated using CYP2B and the anesthetic propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol, Diprivan), can meaningfully alter the pharmacological response to a CNS acting drug. CYP2B is expressed in the brains of animals and humans, and this CYP isoform is able to metabolize centrally acting substrates such as propofol, ecstasy, and serotonin. Rats were given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) injections of vehicle, C8-xanthate, or 8-methoxypsoralen (CYP2B mechanism-based inhibitors) and then tested for sleep time following propofol (80?mg/kg intraperitoneally). Both inhibitors significantly increased sleep-time (1.8- to 2-fold) and brain propofol levels, while having no effect on plasma propofol levels. Seven days of nicotine treatment can induce the expression of brain, but not hepatic, CYP2B, and this induction reduced propofol sleep times by 2.5-fold. This reduction was reversed in a dose-dependent manner by i.c.v. injections of inhibitor. Sleep times correlated with brain (r=0.76, P=0.0009), but not plasma (r=0.24, P=0.39) propofol concentrations. Inhibitor treatments increased brain, but not plasma, propofol levels, and had no effect on hepatic enzyme activity. These data indicate that brain CYP2B can metabolize neuroactive substrates (eg, propofol) and can alter their pharmacological response. This has wider implications for localized CYP-mediated metabolism of drugs, neurotransmitters, and neurotoxins within the brain by this highly variable enzyme family and other CYP subfamilies expressed in the brain.
Khokhar, Jibran Y; Tyndale, Rachel F
Neurotransmitter glutamate has been thought to derive mainly from glutamine via the action of glutaminase type 1 (GLS1). To address the importance of this pathway in glutamatergic transmission, we knocked out GLS1 in mice. The insertion of a STOP cassette by homologous recombination produced a null allele that blocked transcription, encoded no immunoreactive protein and abolished GLS1 enzymatic activity. Null mutants were slightly smaller, were deficient in goal-directed behavior, hypoventilated and died in the first post-natal day. No gross or microscopic defects were detected in peripheral organs or in the central nervous system. In cultured neurons from the null mutants, miniature EPSC amplitude and duration were normal; however, the amplitude of evoked EPSCs decayed more rapidly with sustained 10 Hz stimulation, consistent with an observed reduction in depolarization-evoked glutamate release. Because of this activity-dependent impairment in glutamatergic transmission, we surmised that respiratory networks, which require temporal summation of synaptic input, would be particularly affected. We found that the amplitude of inspirations was decreased in vivo, chemosensitivity to CO2 was severely altered, and the frequency of pacemaker activity recorded in the respiratory generator in the Pre-Bötzinger complex, a glutamatergic brainstem network that can be isolated in vitro, was increased. Our results show that while alternate pathways to GLS1 glutamate synthesis support baseline glutamatergic transmission, the GLS1 pathway is essential for maintaining the function of active synapses, and so the mutation is associated with impaired respiratory function, abnormal goal-directed behavior and neonatal demise.
Masson, Justine; Darmon, Michele; Conjard, Agnes; Chuhma, Nao; Ropert, Nicole; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel; Foutz, Arthur S.; Parrot, Sandrine; Miller, Gretchen M.; Jorisch, Renee; Polan, Jonathan; Hamon, Michel; Hen, Rene; Rayport, Stephen
Brain imaging sciences, like neurosciences in general, have predominantly been an empirical endeavour. This paper argues that\\u000a the maturation of “kinetic models” of large-scale neuronal activity will provide a unifying theory to underpin brain imaging\\u000a sciences. In particular, this framework will provide a means of unifying data from different imaging modalities, afford a\\u000a direct link with cognitive theories of brain
Michael Breakspear; Stuart Knock
Central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction secondary to sepsis is characterized by long-term cognitive impairment. It was observed that oxidative damage, energetic metabolism impairment, and cytokine level alteration seen in early times in an animal model of sepsis may persist for up to 10 days and might be associated with cognitive damage. In order to understand these mechanisms, at least in part, we evaluated the effects of sepsis on cytokine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), oxidative parameters, and energetic metabolism in the brain of rats at both 30 and 60 days after sepsis induction by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). To this aim, male Wistar rats underwent CLP with "basic support" or were sham-operated. Both 30 and 60 days after surgery, the CSF was collected and the animals were killed by decapitation. Then, the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum, and cortex were collected. Thirty days after surgery, an increase of IL-6 level in the CSF; an increase in the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) in prefrontal cortex and a decrease in hippocampus, striatum, and cortex; a decrease of carbonyl protein formation only in prefrontal cortex and an increase in striatum; and an increase in the complex IV activity only in hippocampus were observed. Sixty days after sepsis, an increase of TNF-? level in the CSF; a decrease of TBARS only in hippocampus; an increase of carbonyl protein formation in striatum; and a decrease of complex I activity in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum were observed. These findings may contribute to understanding the role of late cognitive impairment. Further studies may address how these findings interact during sepsis development and contribute to CNS dysfunction. PMID:23740866
Steckert, Amanda V; Comim, Clarissa M; Mina, Francielle; Mendonça, Bruna P; Dominguini, Diogo; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Vieira, Júlia S; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe
It is widely accepted that addictive drug use is related to abnormal functional organization in the user’s brain. The present study aimed to identify this type of abnormality within the brain networks implicated in addiction by resting-state functional connectivity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). With fMRI data acquired during resting state from 14 chronic heroin users (12 of whom were being treated with methadone) and 13 non-addicted controls, we investigated the addiction related alteration in functional connectivity between the regions in the circuits implicated in addiction with seed-based correlation analysis. Compared with controls, chronic heroin users showed increased functional connectivity between nucleus accumbens and ventral/rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and orbital frontal cortex (OFC), between amygdala and OFC; and reduced functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and OFC, and ACC. These observations of altered resting-state functional connectivity suggested abnormal functional organization in the addicted brain and may provide additional evidence supporting the theory of addiction that emphasizes enhanced salience value of a drug and its related cues but weakened cognitive control in the addictive state.
Ma, Ning; Liu, Ying; Li, Nan; Wang, Chang-Xin; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Hu-Sheng; Fu, Xian-Ming; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Da-Ren
The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in (14C)iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress (an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures), although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results.
Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.
Introduction Viscoelastic properties indicate structural alterations in biological tissues at multiple scales with high sensitivity. Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is a novel technique that directly visualizes and quantitatively measures biomechanical tissue properties in vivo. MRE recently revealed that early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with a global decrease of the cerebral mechanical integrity. This study addresses MRE and MR volumetry in chronic-progressive disease courses of MS. Methods We determined viscoelastic parameters of the brain parenchyma in 23 MS patients with primary or secondary chronic progressive disease course in comparison to 38 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals by multifrequency MRE, and correlated the results with clinical data, T2 lesion load and brain volume. Two viscoelastic parameters, the shear elasticity ? and the powerlaw exponent ?, were deduced according to the springpot model and compared to literature values of relapsing-remitting MS. Results In chronic-progressive MS patients, ? and ? were reduced by 20.5% and 6.1%, respectively, compared to healthy controls. MR volumetry yielded a weaker correlation: Total brain volume loss in MS patients was in the range of 7.5% and 1.7% considering the brain parenchymal fraction. All findings were significant (P<0.001). Conclusions Chronic-progressive MS disease courses show a pronounced reduction of the cerebral shear elasticity compared to early relapsing-remitting disease. The powerlaw exponent ? decreased only in the chronic-progressive stage of MS, suggesting an alteration in the geometry of the cerebral mechanical network due to chronic neuroinflammation.
Streitberger, Kaspar-Josche; Sack, Ingolf; Krefting, Dagmar; Pfuller, Caspar; Braun, Jurgen
Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models.
Dienel, Gerald A
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly common neurodevelopmental disorders defined clinically by a triad of features including impairment in social interaction, impairment in communication in social situations and restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior and interests, with considerable phenotypic heterogeneity among individuals. Although heritability estimates for ASD are high, conventional genetic-based efforts to identify genes involved in ASD have yielded only few reproducible candidate genes that account for only a small proportion of ASDs. There is mounting evidence to suggest environmental and epigenetic factors play a stronger role in the etiology of ASD than previously thought. To begin to understand the contribution of epigenetics to ASD, we have examined DNA methylation (DNAm) in a pilot study of postmortem brain tissue from 19 autism cases and 21 unrelated controls, among three brain regions including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex and cerebellum. We measured over 485?000 CpG loci across a diverse set of functionally relevant genomic regions using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip and identified four genome-wide significant differentially methylated regions (DMRs) using a bump hunting approach and a permutation-based multiple testing correction method. We replicated 3/4 DMRs identified in our genome-wide screen in a different set of samples and across different brain regions. The DMRs identified in this study represent suggestive evidence for commonly altered methylation sites in ASD and provide several promising new candidate genes. PMID:23999529
Ladd-Acosta, C; Hansen, K D; Briem, E; Fallin, M D; Kaufmann, W E; Feinberg, A P
Word retrieval deficits are common in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and are thought to reflect a degradation of semantic memory. Yet, the nature of semantic deterioration in AD and the underlying neural correlates of these semantic memory changes remain largely unknown. We examined the semantic memory impairment in AD by investigating the neural correlates of category knowledge (e.g., living vs. nonliving) and featural processing (global vs. local visual information). During event-related fMRI, 10 adults diagnosed with mild AD and 22 cognitively normal older adults named aloud items from three categories for which processing of specific visual features has previously been dissociated from categorical features. Results showed widespread group differences in the categorical representation of semantic knowledge in several language-related brain areas. For example, the right inferior frontal gyrus showed selective brain response for nonliving items in the CN group but living items in the AD group. Additionally, the AD group showed increased brain response for word retrieval irrespective of category in Broca’s homologue in the right hemisphere and rostral cingulate cortex bilaterally, which suggests greater recruitment of frontally-mediated neural compensatory mechanisms in the face of semantic alteration.
Wierenga, Christina E.; Stricker, Nikki H.; McCauley, Ashley; Simmons, Alan; Jak, Amy J.; Chang, Yu-Ling; Nation, Daniel A.; Bangen, Katherine J.; Salmon, David P.; Bondi, Mark W.
Antenatal maternal stress has been shown in rodent models and in humans to result in altered behavioral and neuroendocrine responses, yet little is known about its effects on functional brain activation. Pregnant female rats received a daily foot-shock stress or sham-stress two days after testing plug-positive and continuing for the duration of their pregnancy. Adult male offspring (age 14 weeks) with and without prior maternal stress (MS) were exposed to an auditory fear conditioning (CF) paradigm. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was assessed during recall of the tone cue in the nonsedated, nontethered animal using the 14C-iodoantipyrine method, in which the tracer was administered intravenously by remote activation of an implantable minipump. Regional CBF distribution was examined by autoradiography and analyzed by statistical parametric mapping in the three-dimensionally reconstructed brains. Presence of fear memory was confirmed by behavioral immobility (‘freezing’). Corticosterone plasma levels during the CF paradigm were measured by ELISA in a separate group of rats. Antenatal MS exposure altered functional brain responses to the fear conditioned cue in adult offspring. Rats with prior MS exposure compared to those without demonstrated heightened fear responsivity, exaggerated and prolonged corticosterone release, increased functional cerebral activation of limbic/paralimbic regions (amygdala, ventral hippocampus, insula, ventral striatum, nucleus acumbens), the locus coeruleus, and white matter, and deactivation of medial prefrontal cortical regions. Dysregulation of corticolimbic circuits may represent risk factors in the future development of anxiety disorders and associated alterations in emotional regulation.
Sadler, Theodore R.; Nguyen, Peter T.; Yang, Jun; Givrad, Tina K.; Mayer, Emeran A.; Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Hinton, David R.; Holschneider, Daniel P.
Abstract Concussive injury (or mild traumatic brain injury; mTBI) can exhibit features of focal or diffuse injury patterns. We compared and contrasted the cellular and molecular responses after mild controlled cortical impact (mCCI; a focal injury) or fluid percussion injury (FPI; a diffuse injury) in rats. The rationale for this comparative analysis was to investigate the brain's response to mild diffuse versus mild focal injury to identify common molecular changes triggered by these injury modalities and to determine the functional pathways altered after injury that may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Microarrays containing probes against 21,792 unique messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were used to investigate the changes in cortical mRNA expression levels at 3 and 24?h postinjury. Of the 354 mRNAs with significantly altered expression levels after mCCI, over 89% (316 mRNAs) were also contained within the mild FPI (mFPI) data set. However, mFPI initiated a more widespread molecular response, with over 2300 mRNAs differentially expressed. Bioinformatic analysis of annotated Gene Ontology molecular function and biological pathway terms showed a significant overrepresentation of genes belonging to inflammation, stress, and signaling categories in both data sets. We therefore examined changes in the protein levels of a panel of 23 cytokines and chemokines in cortical extracts using a Luminex-based bead immunoassay and detected significant increases in macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1? (CCL3), GRO-KC (CXCL1), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1?, and IL-6. Immunohistochemical localization of MIP-1? and IL-1? showed marked increases at 3?h postinjury in the cortical vasculature and microglia, respectively, that were largely resolved by 24?h postinjury. Our findings demonstrate that both focal and diffuse mTBI trigger many shared pathobiological processes (e.g., inflammatory responses) that could be targeted for mechanism-based therapeutic interventions.
Redell, John B.; Moore, Anthony N.; Grill, Raymond J.; Johnson, Daniel; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Yin
Concussive injury (or mild traumatic brain injury; mTBI) can exhibit features of focal or diffuse injury patterns. We compared and contrasted the cellular and molecular responses after mild controlled cortical impact (mCCI; a focal injury) or fluid percussion injury (FPI; a diffuse injury) in rats. The rationale for this comparative analysis was to investigate the brain's response to mild diffuse versus mild focal injury to identify common molecular changes triggered by these injury modalities and to determine the functional pathways altered after injury that may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention. Microarrays containing probes against 21,792 unique messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were used to investigate the changes in cortical mRNA expression levels at 3 and 24?h postinjury. Of the 354 mRNAs with significantly altered expression levels after mCCI, over 89% (316 mRNAs) were also contained within the mild FPI (mFPI) data set. However, mFPI initiated a more widespread molecular response, with over 2300 mRNAs differentially expressed. Bioinformatic analysis of annotated gene ontology molecular function and biological pathway terms showed a significant overrepresentation of genes belonging to inflammation, stress, and signaling categories in both data sets. We therefore examined changes in the protein levels of a panel of 23 cytokines and chemokines in cortical extracts using a Luminex-based bead immunoassay and detected significant increases in macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1? (CCL3), GRO-KC (CXCL1), interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1?, and IL-6. Immunohistochemical localization of MIP-1? and IL-1? showed marked increases at 3?h postinjury in the cortical vasculature and microglia, respectively, that were largely resolved by 24?h postinjury. Our findings demonstrate that both focal and diffuse mTBI trigger many shared pathobiological processes (e.g., inflammatory responses) that could be targeted for mechanism-based therapeutic interventions. PMID:22913729
Redell, John B; Moore, Anthony N; Grill, Raymond J; Johnson, Daniel; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Yin; Dash, Pramod K
Activation of promoter activity of the catalytic subunit of ?-glutamylcysteine ligase (GCL) in brain endothelial cells by insulin requires antioxidant response element 4 and altered glycemic status: implication for GCL expression and GSH synthesis.
Our recent finding that insulin increased the expression of the glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLc) with coincident increases in GCL activity and cellular glutathione (GSH) in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (IHECs) suggests a role for insulin in vascular GSH maintenance. Here, using IHECs stably transfected with promoter-luciferase reporter vectors, we found that insulin increased GCLc promoter activity, which required a prerequisite increase or decrease in medium glucose. An intact antioxidant response element-4 was essential for promoter activation, which was attenuated by inhibitors of PI3-kinase/Akt/mTOR signaling. Interestingly, only under low-glucose conditions did promoter activation correlate with increased GCLc expression and GSH synthesis. Low tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBH) concentrations similarly mediated promoter activation, but the maximal activation dose was decreased 10-fold by insulin. Insulin-tBH coadministration abrogated the low or high glucose requirement for promoter activation, suggesting possible ROS involvement. ROS production was elevated at low glucose without or with insulin; however, GSH increases were not inhibited by tempol, suggesting that ROS did not achieve the threshold for driving GCLc promoter activation and de novo GSH synthesis. The minor effect of pyruvate also ruled out a major role for hypoglycemia (±insulin)-induced metabolic stress on GSH induction under these conditions. PMID:21871559
Langston, J William; Li, Wei; Harrison, Lynn; Aw, Tak Yee
BACKGROUND & AIMS Changes in gut microbiota have been reported to alter signaling mechanisms, emotional behavior, and visceral nociceptive reflexes in rodents. However, alteration of the intestinal microbiota with antibiotics or probiotics has not been shown to produce these changes in humans. We investigated whether consumption of a fermented milk product with probiotic (FMPP) for 4 weeks by healthy women altered brain intrinsic connectivity or responses to emotional attention tasks. METHODS Healthy women with no gastrointestinal or psychiatric symptoms were randomly assigned to groups given FMPP (n = 12), a nonfermented milk product (n = 11, controls), or no intervention (n = 13) twice daily for 4 weeks. The FMPP contained Bifidobacterium animalis subsp Lactis, Streptococcus thermophiles, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Lactococcus lactis subsp Lactis. Participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging before and after the intervention to measure brain response to an emotional faces attention task and resting brain activity. Multivariate and region of interest analyses were performed. RESULTS FMPP intake was associated with reduced task-related response of a distributed functional network (49% cross-block covariance; P = .004) containing affective, viscerosensory, and somatosensory cortices. Alterations in intrinsic activity of resting brain indicated that ingestion of FMPP was associated with changes in midbrain connectivity, which could explain the observed differences in activity during the task. CONCLUSIONS Four-week intake of an FMPP by healthy women affected activity of brain regions that control central processing of emotion and sensation.
TILLISCH, KIRSTEN; LABUS, JENNIFER; KILPATRICK, LISA; JIANG, ZHIGUO; STAINS, JEAN; EBRAT, BAHAR; GUYONNET, DENIS; LEGRAIN-RASPAUD, SOPHIE; TROTIN, BEATRICE; NALIBOFF, BRUCE; MAYER, EMERAN A.
Objective: To explore APOE related alterations during cognitive activation in a population of young adults. Methods: Using H215O positron emission tomography (PET), imaging was carried out in 20 healthy young adults (age 19 to 28 years; four ?4 carriers and 16 non-?4 carriers) during a non-verbal memory task. Voxel-wise multiple regression analyses were undertaken, with the activation difference PET counts as the dependent variable and the APOE genotype as the independent variable. Results: Brain regions were identified where ?4 carriers showed significantly lower or higher activation than non-carriers. Conclusions: The results suggest that APOE dependent modulation of cerebral flow may be present even at a young age. This may reflect an APOE related physiological heterogeneity which may or may not predispose to brain disease in the ensuing decades or, less likely, the effect of very early Alzheimer's disease related pathological changes.
Scarmeas, N; Habeck, C; Hilton, J; Anderson, K; Flynn, J; Park, A; Stern, Y
The regulation of energy intake is a complex process involving the integration of homeostatic signals and both internal and external sensory inputs. To better understand the neurobiology of this process and how it may be dysfunctional in obesity, this study examined activity of the brain's “default network” in reduced-obese (RO) as compared to lean individuals. The default network is a
Jason R. Tregellas; Korey P. Wylie; Donald C. Rojas; Jody Tanabe; Jesse Martin; Eugene Kronberg; Dietmar Cordes; Marc-Andre Cornier
Brain energy deficit has been a suggested cause of Huntington disease (HD), but ATP depletion has not reliably been shown in preclinical models, possibly because of the immediate post-mortem changes in cellular energy metabolism. To examine a potential role of a low energy state in HD, we measured, for the first time in a neurodegenerative model, brain levels of high energy phosphates using microwave fixation, which instantaneously inactivates brain enzymatic activities and preserves in vivo levels of analytes. We studied HD transgenic R6/2 mice at ages 4, 8, and 12 weeks. We found significantly increased creatine and phosphocreatine, present as early as 4 weeks for phosphocreatine, preceding motor system deficits and decreased ATP levels in striatum, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of R6/2 mice. ATP and phosphocreatine concentrations were inversely correlated with the number of CAG repeats. Conversely, in mice injected with 3-nitroproprionic acid, an acute model of brain energy deficit, both ATP and phosphocreatine were significantly reduced. Increased creatine and phosphocreatine in R6/2 mice was associated with decreased guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase and creatine kinase, both at the protein and RNA levels, and increased phosphorylated AMP-dependent protein kinase (pAMPK) over AMPK ratio. In addition, in 4-month-old knock-in HdhQ111/+ mice, the earliest metabolic alterations consisted of increased phosphocreatine in the frontal cortex and increased the pAMPK/AMPK ratio. Altogether, this study provides the first direct evidence of chronic alteration in homeostasis of high energy phosphates in HD models in the earliest stages of the disease, indicating possible reduced utilization of the brain phosphocreatine pool.
Mochel, Fanny; Durant, Brandon; Meng, Xingli; O'Callaghan, James; Yu, Hua; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Wheeler, Vanessa C.; Humbert, Sandrine; Schiffmann, Raphael; Durr, Alexandra
Brain energy deficit has been a suggested cause of Huntington disease (HD), but ATP depletion has not reliably been shown in preclinical models, possibly because of the immediate post-mortem changes in cellular energy metabolism. To examine a potential role of a low energy state in HD, we measured, for the first time in a neurodegenerative model, brain levels of high energy phosphates using microwave fixation, which instantaneously inactivates brain enzymatic activities and preserves in vivo levels of analytes. We studied HD transgenic R6/2 mice at ages 4, 8, and 12 weeks. We found significantly increased creatine and phosphocreatine, present as early as 4 weeks for phosphocreatine, preceding motor system deficits and decreased ATP levels in striatum, hippocampus, and frontal cortex of R6/2 mice. ATP and phosphocreatine concentrations were inversely correlated with the number of CAG repeats. Conversely, in mice injected with 3-nitroproprionic acid, an acute model of brain energy deficit, both ATP and phosphocreatine were significantly reduced. Increased creatine and phosphocreatine in R6/2 mice was associated with decreased guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase and creatine kinase, both at the protein and RNA levels, and increased phosphorylated AMP-dependent protein kinase (pAMPK) over AMPK ratio. In addition, in 4-month-old knock-in Hdh(Q111/+) mice, the earliest metabolic alterations consisted of increased phosphocreatine in the frontal cortex and increased the pAMPK/AMPK ratio. Altogether, this study provides the first direct evidence of chronic alteration in homeostasis of high energy phosphates in HD models in the earliest stages of the disease, indicating possible reduced utilization of the brain phosphocreatine pool. PMID:22123819
Mochel, Fanny; Durant, Brandon; Meng, Xingli; O'Callaghan, James; Yu, Hua; Brouillet, Emmanuel; Wheeler, Vanessa C; Humbert, Sandrine; Schiffmann, Raphael; Durr, Alexandra
Psychometric performance has been reported to be related to brain atrophy in cirrhotics, but the relationship between brain atrophy and EEG findings is still unknown. The aim of this study was to ascertain the relationship among brain atrophy, EEG, and cognitive performance in cirrhotics. Sixty-eight cirrhotics (age = 55 ± 10 years; males-66%) underwent psychometric evaluation (Symbol Digit Test, Trail
P. Amodio; A. Pellegrini; P. Amistà; S. Luise; F. Del Piccolo; D. Mapelli; S. Montagnese; C. Musto; P. Valenti; A. Gatta
The blood–brain barrier (BBB), which forms the interface between the blood and the cerebral parenchyma, has been shown to be disrupted during retroviral-associated neuromyelopathies. Human T Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1) Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with BBB breakdown. The BBB is composed of three cell types: endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Although astrocytes have been shown to be infected by HTLV-1, until now, little was known about the susceptibility of BBB endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection and the impact of such an infection on BBB function. We first demonstrated that human cerebral endothelial cells express the receptors for HTLV-1 (GLUT-1, Neuropilin-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans), both in vitro, in a human cerebral endothelial cell line, and ex vivo, on spinal cord autopsy sections from HAM/TSP and non-infected control cases. In situ hybridization revealed HTLV-1 transcripts associated with the vasculature in HAM/TSP. We were able to confirm that the endothelial cells could be productively infected in vitro by HTLV-1 and that blocking of either HSPGs, Neuropilin 1 or Glut1 inhibits this process. The expression of the tight-junction proteins within the HTLV-1 infected endothelial cells was altered. These cells were no longer able to form a functional barrier, since BBB permeability and lymphocyte passage through the monolayer of endothelial cells were increased. This work constitutes the first report of susceptibility of human cerebral endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection, with implications for HTLV-1 passage through the BBB and subsequent deregulation of the central nervous system homeostasis. We propose that the susceptibility of cerebral endothelial cells to retroviral infection and subsequent BBB dysfunction is an important aspect of HAM/TSP pathogenesis and should be considered in the design of future therapeutics strategies.
Afonso, Philippe V.; Ozden, Simona; Cumont, Marie-Christine; Seilhean, Danielle; Cartier, Luis; Rezaie, Payam; Mason, Sarah; Lambert, Sophie; Huerre, Michel; Gessain, Antoine; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Pique, Claudine
We demonstrated the in vivo feasibility of using focused ultrasound (FUS) to transiently modulate (through either stimulation or suppression) the function of regional brain tissue in rabbits. FUS was delivered in a train of pulses at low acoustic energy, far below the cavitation threshold, to the animal's somatomotor and visual areas, as guided by anatomical and functional information from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The temporary alterations in the brain function affected by the sonication were characterized by both electrophysiological recordings and functional brain mapping achieved through the use of functional MRI (fMRI). The modulatory effects were bimodal, whereby the brain activity could either be stimulated or selectively suppressed. Histological analysis of the excised brain tissue after the sonication demonstrated that the FUS did not elicit any tissue damages. Unlike transcranial magnetic stimulation, FUS can be applied to deep structures in the brain with greater spatial precision. Transient modulation of brain function using image-guided and anatomically-targeted FUS would enable the investigation of functional connectivity between brain regions and will eventually lead to a better understanding of localized brain functions. It is anticipated that the use of this technology will have an impact on brain research and may offer novel therapeutic interventions in various neurological conditions and psychiatric disorders.
Yoo, Seung-Schik; Bystritsky, Alexander; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Fischer, Krisztina; Min, Byoung-Kyong; McDannold, Nathan J.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Jolesz, Ferenc A.
We demonstrated the in vivo feasibility of using focused ultrasound (FUS) to transiently modulate (through either stimulation or suppression) the function of regional brain tissue in rabbits. FUS was delivered in a train of pulses at low acoustic energy, far below the cavitation threshold, to the animal's somatomotor and visual areas, as guided by anatomical and functional information from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The temporary alterations in the brain function affected by the sonication were characterized by both electrophysiological recordings and functional brain mapping achieved through the use of functional MRI (fMRI). The modulatory effects were bimodal, whereby the brain activity could either be stimulated or selectively suppressed. Histological analysis of the excised brain tissue after the sonication demonstrated that the FUS did not elicit any tissue damages. Unlike transcranial magnetic stimulation, FUS can be applied to deep structures in the brain with greater spatial precision. Transient modulation of brain function using image-guided and anatomically-targeted FUS would enable the investigation of functional connectivity between brain regions and will eventually lead to a better understanding of localized brain functions. It is anticipated that the use of this technology will have an impact on brain research and may offer novel therapeutic interventions in various neurological conditions and psychiatric disorders. PMID:21354315
Yoo, Seung-Schik; Bystritsky, Alexander; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Fischer, Krisztina; Min, Byoung-Kyong; McDannold, Nathan J; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Jolesz, Ferenc A
Embryonic vision is generated and maintained by spontaneous neuronal activation patterns, yet extrinsic stimulation also sculpts sensory development. Because the sensory and motor systems are interconnected in embryogenesis, how extrinsic sensory activation guides multimodal differentiation is an important topic. Further, it is unknown whether extrinsic stimulation experienced near sensory sensitivity onset contributes to persistent brain changes, ultimately affecting postnatal behavior. To determine the effects of extrinsic stimulation on multimodal development, we delivered auditory stimulation to bobwhite quail groups during early, middle, or late embryogenesis, and then tested postnatal behavioral responsiveness to auditory or visual cues. Auditory preference tendencies were more consistently toward the conspecific stimulus for animals stimulated during late embryogenesis. Groups stimulated during middle or late embryogenesis showed altered postnatal species-typical visual responsiveness, demonstrating a persistent multimodal effect. We also examined whether auditory-related brain regions are receptive to extrinsic input during middle embryogenesis by measuring postnatal cellular activation. Stimulated birds showed a greater number of ZENK-immunopositive cells per unit volume of brain tissue in deep optic tectum, a midbrain region strongly implicated in multimodal function. We observed similar results in the medial and caudomedial nidopallia in the telencephalon. There were no ZENK differences between groups in inferior colliculus or in caudolateral nidopallium, avian analog to prefrontal cortex. To our knowledge, these are the first results linking extrinsic stimulation delivered so early in embryogenesis to changes in postnatal multimodal behavior and cellular activation. The potential role of competitive interactions between the sensory and motor systems is discussed.
Markham, Rebecca G.; Shimizu, Toru; Lickliter, Robert
We investigated why the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of A?42 are lower in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Because A?38/42 and A?40/43 are distinct product/precursor pairs, these four species in the CSF together should faithfully reflect the status of brain ?-secretase activity, and were quantified by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in the CSF from controls and MCI/AD patients. Decreases in the levels of the precursors, A?42 and 43, in MCI/AD CSF tended to accompany increases in the levels of the products, A?38 and 40, respectively. The ratios A?40/43 versus A?38/42 in CSF (each representing cleavage efficiency of A?43 or A?42) were largely proportional to each other but generally higher in MCI/AD patients compared to control subjects. These data suggest that ?-secretase activity in MCI/AD patients is enhanced at the conversion of A?43 and 42 to A?40 and 38, respectively. Consequently, we measured the in vitro activity of raft-associated ?-secretase isolated from control as well as MCI/AD brains and found the same, significant alterations in the ?-secretase activity in MCI/AD brains.
Kakuda, Nobuto; Shoji, Mikio; Arai, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Akazawa, Kohei; Takami, Mako; Hatsuta, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Miyajima, Masakazu; Arai, Hajime; Nagashima, Yu; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Kuwano, Ryozo; Nagaike, Kazuhiro; Ihara, Yasuo
The present study was conducted to determine if the ketogenic diet altered basal levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in mice. The catecholamines dopamine (DA) and norephinephrine (NE) and the indolamine serotonin (5HT) were quantified postmortem in six different brain regions of adult mice fed a ketogenic diet for 3 weeks. The dopamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) and the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA) were also measured. Tissue punches were collected bilaterally from the motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, nucleus accumbens, anterior caudate-putamen, posterior caudate-putamen and the midbrain. Dopaminergic activity, as measured by the dopamine metabolites to dopamine content ratio - ([DOPAC]+[HVA])/[DA] - was significantly increased in the motor and somatosensory cortex regions of mice fed the ketogenic diet when compared to those same areas in brains of mice fed a normal diet. These results indicate that the ketogenic diet alters the activity of the meso-cortical dopaminergic system, which may contribute to the diet's therapeutic effect in reducing epileptic seizure activity. PMID:24769322
Church, William H; Adams, Ryan E; Wyss, Livia S
Brain mechanisms underlying mastication have been studied in non-human mammals but less so in humans. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to evaluate brain activity in humans during gum chewing. Chewing was associated with activations in the cerebellum, motor cortex and caudate, cingulate, and brainstem. We also divided the 25-second chew-blocks into 5 segments of equal 5-second durations and evaluated activations within and between each of the 5 segments. This analysis revealed activation clusters unique to the initial segment, which may indicate brain regions involved with initiating chewing. Several clusters were uniquely activated during the last segment as well, which may represent brain regions involved with anticipatory or motor events associated with the end of the chew-block. In conclusion, this study provided evidence for specific brain areas associated with chewing in humans and demonstrated that brain activation patterns may dynamically change over the course of chewing sequences.
Quintero, A.; Ichesco, E.; Myers, C.; Schutt, R.; Gerstner, G.E.
Alterations in brain antioxidant enzymes and redox proteomic identification of oxidized brain proteins induced by the anti-cancer drug Adriamycin: Implications for oxidative stress-mediated chemobrain
Adriamycin (ADR) is a chemotherapeutic for the treatment of solid tumors. This quinone-containing anthracycline is well known to produce large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo. A common complaint of patients undergoing long-term treatment with ADR is somnolence, often referred to as “chemobrain.” While ADR itself does not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB), we recently showed that ADR administration causes a peripheral increase in tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF- ?), which migrates across the BBB and leads to inflammation and oxidative stress in brain, most likely contributing to the observed decline in cognition. In the current study, we measured levels of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) in brains of mice injected intraparitoneally (i.p.) with ADR, as well as the levels and activities of several enzymes involved in brain GSH metabolism. We observed significantly decreased GSH levels, as well as altered GSH/GSSG ratio in brains of ADR treated mice relative to saline- treated controls. Also observed in brains of ADR treated mice were increased levels of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR). We also observed increased activity of GPx, but a significant reduction in GST and GR activity in mice brain, 72 hrs post i.p injection of ADR (20 mg/kg body weight). Furthermore, we used redox proteomics to identify specific proteins that are oxidized and/or have differential levels in mice brains as a result of a single i.p. injection of ADR. Visinin like protein 1 (VLP1), peptidyl prolyl isomerase 1 (Pin1), and syntaxin 1 (SYNT1) showed differential levels in ADR treated mice relative to saline-treated controls. Triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), enolase, and peroxiredoxin 1 (PRX-1) showed significantly increased specific carbonylation in ADR treated mice brain. These results further support the notion ADR induces oxidative stress in brain despite not crossing the BBB, and that antioxidant intervention may prevent ADR-induced cognitive dysfunction.
Joshi, Gururaj; Aluise, Christopher D.; Cole, Marsha Paulette; Sultana, Rukhsana; Vore, Mary; St Clair, Daret K.; Butterfield, D. Allan
Mice infected with the replication-defective virus (BM5def) in the LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV) mixture develop an immune deficiency syndrome and encephalopathy characterized by impaired spatial learning and memory as demonstrated in the Morris water maze. However, the molecular mechanism (or mechanisms) underlying this cognitive deficit remains unknown. Here we report that brain fyn kinase, which has been proposed to be involved in spatial learning and memory, was unresponsive to glutamatergic stimulation in mice with MAIDS. Thus, whereas application of glutamate to hippocampal slices from control mice increased fyn protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity more than 2.5-fold, these changes were significantly impaired in LP-BM5 MuLV-infected mice. Moreover, mice with MAIDS exhibited an abnormal histological distribution of fyn PTK in the hippocampus. These findings suggest that virus-associated disruption of fyn kinase-mediated signaling contributes to the cognitive deficits observed in mice with MAIDS and other retrovirus-induced encephalopathies. PMID:8641568
Sei, Y; Whitesell, L; Kustova, Y; Paul, I A; Morse, H C; Skolnick, P; Basile, A S
Since homocysteine (Hcy) is considered a risk factor to cerebral diseases and adenine nucleotides are important molecules to brain normal function, in the present study we investigated the effect of chronic mild hyperhomocysteinemia on ectonucleotidase activities and expression in rat cerebral cortex. The levels of ATP, ADP, AMP and adenosine (Ado) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of adult rats also were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography. For the chronic chemically induced mild hyperhomocysteinemia, Hcy (0.03 ?mol/g of body weight) was administered subcutaneously from the 30th to the 60th day of life. Control rats received saline solution in the same volumes. Results showed that Hcy significantly decreased nucleotide hydrolysis in the synaptosomal fraction and increased E-NTPDase1 and ecto-5'-nucleotidase transcripts in rat cerebral cortex. ATP levels were significantly increased, while Ado decreased in CSF of Hcy-treated rats. These findings suggest that the unbalance in ATP and Ado levels may be, at last in part, involved in the cerebral toxicity of mild hyperhomocysteinemia. PMID:22863571
Scherer, E B S; Schmitz, F; Vuaden, F C; Savio, L E B; Ferreira, A G K; Tasca, R A J C; Casali, E A; Bogo, M R; Bonan, C D; Wyse, A T S
Based on the findings of postnatal tactile stimulation (TS), a favorable experience in rats, the present study examined the influence of prenatal TS on juvenile behavior, adult amphetamine (AMPH) sensitization, and structural alteration in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the striatum. Female rats received TS through a baby hair brush throughout pregnancy, and the pups born were tested for open field locomotion, elevated plus maze (EPM), novel object recognition (NOR), and play fighting behaviors. Development and persistence of drug-induced behavioral sensitization in adults were tested by repeated AMPH administration and a challenge, respectively. Structural plasticity in the brain was assessed from the prefrontal cortical thickness and striatum size from serial coronal sections. The results indicate that TS females showed enhanced exploration in the open field. TS decreased the frequency of playful attacks whereas the response to face or evade an attack was not affected. Anxiety-like behavior and cognitive performance were not influenced by TS. AMPH administration resulted in gradual increase in locomotor activity (i.e., behavioral sensitization) that persisted at least for 2 weeks. However, both male and female TS rats exhibited attenuated AMPH sensitization compared to sex-matched controls. Furthermore, the drug-associated alteration in the prefrontal cortical thickness and striatum size observed in controls were prevented by TS experience. In summary, TS during prenatal development modified juvenile behavior, attenuated drug-induced behavioral sensitization in adulthood, and reorganized brain regions implicated in drug addiction. PMID:21652031
Muhammad, Arif; Kolb, Bryan
Drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYPs) enzymes are expressed in the liver, as well as in extrahepatic tissues such as the brain. Here we show for the first time that drug metabolism by a CYP within the brain, illustrated using CYP2B and the anesthetic propofol (2, 6-diisopropylphenol, Diprivan), can meaningfully alter the pharmacological response to a CNS acting drug. CYP2B is expressed
Jibran Y Khokhar; Rachel F Tyndale
Neuroanatomical structure appears to be altered in preterm infants, but there has been little insight into the major perinatal risk factors associated with regional cerebral structural alterations. MR images were taken to quantitatively compare regional brain tissue volumes between term and preterm infants and to investigate associations between…
Thompson, Deanne K.; Warfield, Simon K.; Carlin, John B.; Pavlovic, Masa; Wang, Hong X.; Bear, Merilyn; Kean, Michael J.; Doyle, Lex W.; Egan, Gary F.; Inder, Terrie E.
Artificially sweetened beverage consumption has been linked to obesity, and it has been hypothesized that considerable exposure to nonnutritive sweeteners may be associated with impaired energy regulation. The reward system plays an integral role in modulating energy intake, but little is known about whether habitual use of artificial sweetener (i.e., diet soda consumption) may be related to altered reward processing of sweet taste in the brain. To investigate this, we examined fMRI response after a 12-hour fast to sucrose (a nutritive sweetener) and saccharin (a nonnutritive sweetener) during hedonic evaluation in young adult diet soda drinkers and non-diet soda drinkers. Diet soda drinkers demonstrated greater activation to sweet taste in the dopaminergic midbrain (including ventral tegmental area) and right amygdala. Saccharin elicited a greater response in the right orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 47) relative to sucrose in non-diet soda drinkers. There was no difference in fMRI response to the nutritive or nonnutritive sweetener for diet soda drinkers. Within the diet soda drinkers, fMRI activation of the right caudate head in response to saccharin was negatively associated with the amount of diet sodas consumed per week; individuals who consumed a greater number of diet sodas had reduced caudate head activation. These findings suggest that there are alterations in reward processing of sweet taste in individuals who regularly consume diet soda, and this is associated with the degree of consumption. These findings may provide some insight into the link between diet soda consumption and obesity.
Green, Erin; Murphy, Claire
We have previously shown that voluntary wheel running activity in mice is associated with an increase in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Unfolded Protein stress response in multiple regions of the brain. Mice that are given access to running wheels show large variations in individual running activity. In contrast, when food is placed on the lid of their cages, rather than within the cage, all mice must undertake significant physical activity in order to gain access to their food. Hence we investigated the effects of food location on food intake and growth of C57BL/6 mice and on the activity of the ER stress system in the brain as reflected in the expression of two marker genes, Xbp1 and Atf6. Mice that had food in cups within their cages and allowed access to running wheels showed the anticipated changes in food intake, body weight and ER stress in the hippocampus compared to mice with no access to running wheels. Locating the food on the lid had no effect on food intake but reduced weight gain significantly. Likewise, locating food on the lid increased the expression of both Xbp1 and Atf6 in the hippocampi in the absence of any running wheel activity. Voluntary wheel running activity was reduced in mice whose food was located on the cage lid and this running actually reduced the expression of the two marker ER stress genes. We conclude that the usual practice of providing food for mice on their cage lids provides a significant level of physical activity that alters the metabolic status and increases ER stress. As such, this may not be the optimal model for the majority of mouse studies that are reported in the literature and it may significantly alter the interpretation of the effect of wheel running activity on ER stress. The differential effects of food location on hippocampal Bdnf gene expression also suggest that BDNF does not directly regulate UPR activity but may be coordinately regulated in response to running activity. PMID:22336738
Park-York, Miejung; Kim, Yuho; York, David A
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD). Populations at risk for AD show altered brain activity in the default mode network (DMN) before cognitive dysfunction. We evaluated this brain pattern in T2DM patients. We compared T2DM patients (n = 10, age = 56 ± 2.2 years, fasting plasma glucose [FPG] = 8.4 ± 1.3 mmol/L, HbA1c = 7.5 ± 0.54%) with nondiabetic age-matched control subjects (n = 11, age = 54 ± 1.8 years, FPG = 4.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate functional connectivity strength among DMN regions. We also evaluated hippocampal volume, cognition, and insulin sensitivity by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Control subjects showed stronger correlations versus T2DM patients in the DMN between the seed (posterior cingulate) and bilateral middle temporal gyrus (? = 0.67 vs. 0.43), the right inferior and left medial frontal gyri (? = 0.75 vs. 0.54), and the left thalamus (? = 0.59 vs. 0.37), respectively, with no group differences in cognition or hippocampal size. In T2DM patients, HOMA-IR was inversely correlated with functional connectivity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and precuneus. T2DM patients showed reduced functional connectivity in the DMN compared with control subjects, which was associated with insulin resistance in selected brain regions, but there were no group effects of brain structure or cognition.
Musen, Gail; Jacobson, Alan M.; Bolo, Nicolas R.; Simonson, Donald C.; Shenton, Martha E.; McCartney, Richard L.; Flores, Veronica L.; Hoogenboom, Wouter S.
Catecholamines, particularly dopamine, modulate working memory (WM). Altered sensitivity to dopamine might play a role in WM changes observed after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Thirty-one healthy controls (HC) and 26 individuals with mild TBI (MTBI) 1 month after injury were challenged with bromocriptine versus placebo before administration of a verbal WM functional MRI task. Bromocriptine was associated with improved WM performance in the HC but not the MTBI group. On bromocriptine, the MTBI group showed increased activation outside of a task-specific region of interest. Findings are consistent with the hypothesis that individuals with MTBI have altered responsivity to dopamine.
McAllister, Thomas W.; Flashman, Laura A.; McDonald, Brenna C.; Ferrell, Richard B.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Yanofsky, Norman N.; Grove, Margaret R.; Saykin, Andrew J.
Following adverse childhood experiences, high quality maternal care can protect against accelerated telomere shortening in peripheral cells. It is less clear, however, how telomere length in the brain is influenced by early caregiving experiences. Using rats, we investigated if quality of care (i.e., aversive or nurturing care outside of the homecage) during the first seven days of postnatal (PN) life affected telomere length in the adult brain (PN90) of male and female rats. At PN90, we found that nurturing care outside of the homecage was associated with longer telomeres in the medial prefrontal cortex relative to nurturing care inside the homecage (i.e., normal maternal care) and aversive care outside of the homecage. Further, pups exposed to aversive care outside of the homecage demonstrated longer telomeres in the amygdala relative to pups exposed to nurturing care inside the homecage. These effects were specific to females. No differences in telomere length between caregiving conditions were observed in the ventral hippocampus. Thus, positive and negative early-life experiences result in long-term, sex-specific changes of telomeres in the brain.
Asok, Arun; Bernard, Kristin; Rosen, Jeffrey B.; Dozier, Mary; Roth, Tania L.
The toxic effects of arsenic on the whole brain, as well as the discrete regions, has been previously reported for mice. We investigated the effects of acute arsenite (As(III)) on brain levels of arachidonic acid (AA) and its associated metabolites generated through cytochrome P450 (CYP), cyclooxygenase (COX), and lipoxygenase (LOX) pathways. Our results demonstrated that acute As(III) treatment (12.5 mg·(kg body mass)(-1)) decreases cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) with a subsequent decrease in its catalytic activity and brain AA levels. In addition, As(III) differentially altered CYP epoxygenases and CYP ?-hydroxylases, but it did not affect brain Ephx2 mRNA or sEH catalytic activity levels. As(III)-mediated effects on Cyps caused an increase in brain 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (5,6-EET) and 16/17-hydroxyeicosatetreinoic acid (16/17-HETE) levels, and a decrease in 18- and 20-HETE levels. Furthermore, As(III) increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA while decreasing prostaglandins F2? (PGF2?) and PGJ2. As(III) also increased brain 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and 15-LOX mRNA, but decreased 12-LOX mRNA. These changes in LOX mRNA were associated with a decrease in 8/12-HETE levels only. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that As(III) decreases AA levels coinciding with alterations to EET, HETE, and PG levels, which affects brain development and neurochemistry. PMID:25065748
Anwar-Mohamed, Anwar; Elshenawy, Osama H; El-Sherbeni, Ahmed A; Abdelrady, Mohamed; El-Kadi, Ayman O S
In this study we analyse some of the morphological and functional aspects of normal and altered development (the latter due to perinatal injury) in the child's brain. Both normal and altered development are developmental processes that progressively interconnect the different regions. The neuropathological development of subpial and periventricular haemorrhages, as well as that of white matter infarct, are analysed in detail. Any kind of brain damage causes a local lesion with possible remote repercussions. All the components (neurons, fibres, blood capillaries and neuroglias) of the affected region undergo alterations. Those that are destroyed are eliminated by the inflammatory process and those that survive are transformed. The pyramidal neurons with amputated apical dendrites are transformed and become stellate cells, the axonal terminals and those of the radial glial cells are regenerated and the region involved is reinnervated and revascularised with an altered morphology and function (altered local corticogenesis). The specific microvascular system of the grey matter protects its neurons from infarction of the white matter. Although it survives, the grey matter is left disconnected from the afferent and efferent fibres, amputated by the infarct with alterations affecting its morphology and possibly its functioning (altered local corticogenesis). Any local lesion can modify the morphological and functional development of remote regions that are functionally interconnected with it (altered remote corticogenesis). We suggest that any local brain injury can alter the morphology and functioning of the regions that are morphologically and functionally interconnected with it and thus end up affecting the child's neurological and psychological development. These changes can cross different regions of the brain (epileptic auras) and, if they eventually reach the motor region, will give rise to the motor storm that characterises epilepsy. PMID:23897154
Current standard systemic therapies for treating breast cancer patients with brain metastases are inefficient. Targeted therapies against human epidermal growth factor receptors are of clinical interest because of their alteration in a subset of breast cancers (BCs). We analyzed copy number, mutation status, and protein expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2), phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), and PI3K catalytic subunit (PIK3CA) in 110 ductal carcinoma in situ, primary tumor, and metastatic BC samples. Alterations in EGFR, HER2, and PTEN, alone or in combination, were found in a significantly larger fraction of breast cancer brain metastases tumor tissue compared with samples from primary tumors with good prognosis, bone relapse, or other distant metastases (all P < 0.05). Primary tumor patients with a subsequent brain relapse showed almost equally high frequencies of especially EGFR and PTEN alteration as the breast cancer brain metastases patients. PIK3CA was not associated with an increased risk of brain metastases. Genetic alterations in both EGFR and PTEN were especially common in triple-negative breast cancer patients and rarely were seen among HER2-positive patients. In conclusion, we identified two independent high-risk primary BC subgroups for developing brain metastases, represented by genetic alterations in either HER2 or EGFR/PTEN-driven pathways. In contrast, none of these pathways was associated with an increased risk of bone metastasis. These findings highlight the importance of both pathways as possible targets in the treatment of brain metastases in breast cancer. PMID:23665199
Hohensee, Ina; Lamszus, Katrin; Riethdorf, Sabine; Meyer-Staeckling, Sönke; Glatzel, Markus; Matschke, Jakob; Witzel, Isabell; Westphal, Manfred; Brandt, Burkhard; Müller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Wikman, Harriet
Nearly all brain tumors develop following the progressive accumulation of genetic alterations of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (such as p53 and retinoblastoma protein). Furthermore, aberrations in the nuclear matrix often contribute to genomic instabilities and the development of cancer. We have previously shown that nuclear-restricted protein\\/brain (NRP\\/B), a member of the BTB\\/Kelch repeat family, is a nuclear matrix protein
Xing-Qun Liang; Hava Karsenty Avraham; Shuxian Jiang; Shalom Avraham
This study has investigated whether extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can alter human brain activity. Linearly polarised magnetic flux density of 20 muT (rms) was generated using a standard double Helmholtz coils and applied to the human head over a sequence of 1 minute stimulations followed by one minute without stimulation in the following order of frequencies 50,
D. Cvetkovic; E. Jovanov; I. Cosic
Pain perception and autonomic responses to pain are known to be altered in dementia, although the mechanisms are poorly understood. We studied patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) whose cognitive status was assessed through the Mini Mental State Examination test and whose brain electrical activity was measured by means of quantitative electroencephalography. After assessment of both cognitive impairment and brain electrical
Fabrizio Benedetti; Claudia Arduino; Sergio Vighetti; Giovanni Asteggiano; Luisella Tarenzi; Innocenzo Rainero
Impairment of working memory (WM) performance in schizophrenia patients (SZ) is well-established. Compared to healthy controls (HC), SZ patients show aberrant blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activations and disrupted functional connectivity during WM performance. In this study, we examined the small-world network metrics computed from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected as 35 HC and 35 SZ performed a Sternberg Item Recognition Paradigm (SIRP) at three WM load levels. Functional connectivity networks were built by calculating the partial correlation on preprocessed time courses of BOLD signal between task-related brain regions of interest (ROIs) defined by group independent component analysis (ICA). The networks were then thresholded within the small-world regime, resulting in undirected binarized small-world networks at different working memory loads. Our results showed: 1) at the medium WM load level, the networks in SZ showed a lower clustering coefficient and less local efficiency compared with HC; 2) in SZ, most network measures altered significantly as the WM load level increased from low to medium and from medium to high, while the network metrics were relatively stable in HC at different WM loads; and 3) the altered structure at medium WM load in SZ was related to their performance during the task, with longer reaction time related to lower clustering coefficient and lower local efficiency. These findings suggest brain connectivity in patients with SZ was more diffuse and less strongly linked locally in functional network at intermediate level of WM when compared to HC. SZ show distinctly inefficient and variable network structures in response to WM load increase, comparing to stable highly clustered network topologies in HC.
He, Hao; Sui, Jing; Yu, Qingbao; Turner, Jessica A.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Sponheim, Scott R.; Manoach, Dara S.; Clark, Vincent P.; Calhoun, Vince D.
The neurotoxic organomercurial thimerosal (THIM), used for decades as vaccine preservative, is a suspected factor in the pathogenesis of some neurodevelopmental disorders. Previously we showed that neonatal administration of THIM at doses equivalent to those used in infant vaccines or higher, causes lasting alterations in the brain opioid system in rats. Here we investigated neonatal treatment with THIM (at doses 12, 240, 1440 and 3000 ?g Hg/kg) on behaviors, which are characteristically altered in autism, such as locomotor activity, anxiety, social interactions, spatial learning, and on the brain dopaminergic system in Wistar rats of both sexes. Adult male and female rats, which were exposed to the entire range of THIM doses during the early postnatal life, manifested impairments of locomotor activity and increased anxiety/neophobia in the open field test. In animals of both sexes treated with the highest THIM dose, the frequency of prosocial interactions was reduced, while the frequency of asocial/antisocial interactions was increased in males, but decreased in females. Neonatal THIM treatment did not significantly affect spatial learning and memory. THIM-exposed rats also manifested reduced haloperidol-induced catalepsy, accompanied by a marked decline in the density of striatal D? receptors, measured by immunohistochemical staining, suggesting alterations to the brain dopaminergic system. Males were more sensitive than females to some neurodisruptive/neurotoxic actions of THIM. These data document that early postnatal THIM administration causes lasting neurobehavioral impairments and neurochemical alterations in the brain, dependent on dose and sex. If similar changes occur in THIM/mercurial-exposed children, they could contribute do neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:21549155
Olczak, Mieszko; Duszczyk, Michalina; Mierzejewski, Pawel; Meyza, Ksenia; Majewska, Maria Dorota
We investigated the influence of experimentally guided saccades and fixations on fMRI activation in brain regions specialized for face and object processing. Subjects viewed a static image of a face while a small fixation cross made a discrete jump within the image every 500?ms. Subjects were required to make a saccade and fixate the cross at its new location. Each run consisted of alternating blocks in which the subject was guided to make a series of saccades and fixations that constituted either a Typical or an Atypical face scanpath. Typical scanpaths were defined as a scanpath in which the fixation cross landed on the eyes or the mouth in 90% of all trials. Atypical scanpaths were defined as scanpaths in which the fixation cross landed on the eyes or mouth on 12% of all trials. The average saccade length was identical in both typical and atypical blocks, and both were preceded by a baseline block where the fixation cross made much smaller jumps in the middle of the screen. Within the functionally predefined face area of the ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC), typical scanpaths evoked significantly more activity when compared to atypical scanpaths. A voxel-based analysis revealed a similar pattern in clusters of voxels located within VOTC, frontal eye fields, superior colliculi, intraparietal sulcus, and inferior frontal gyrus. These results demonstrate that fMRI activation is highly sensitive to the pattern of eye movements employed during face processing, and thus illustrates the potential confounding influence of uncontrolled eye movements for neuroimaging studies of face and object perception in normal and clinical populations.
Morris, James P.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.
Studies were initiated to investigate the similarities in alterations in cytochrome P450s (CYPs) and associated signaling events in brain and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) induced by lindane, an organochlorine pesticide. Adult male albino wistar rats were treated orally with different doses (2.5- or 5.0- or 10- or 15 mg/kg/body weight) of lindane daily for 4 days. In another experiment, the treatment of low dose (2.5mg/kg) of lindane was continued for 15- and 21 days. A dose- and time-dependent increase was observed in the activity of CYP dependent enzymes in brain microsomes and PBL isolated from the treated rats. However, the magnitude of induction was several folds less in PBL. As observed in brain, RT-PCR and Western immunoblotting demonstrated that increase in CYP enzymes in PBL is due to the increase in the mRNA expression of specific CYP isoenzymes. Similarities were also observed in activation of ERK and JNK MAP kinases and c-jun in PBL or brain isolated from rats treated with lindane. Similarities in the induction of CYPs and activation of MAP kinases in PBL and brain suggest that CYP expression profiles in PBL could be used for monitoring the exposure and toxicity of environmental chemicals. PMID:23927878
Khan, Anwar Jamal; Sharma, Amit; Dinesh, K; Parmar, Devendra
Similar to nonneural tissues, the activity of glial acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase is controlled by a phosphorylation and dephosphorylation mechanism. Manipulation of cyclic AMP content did not alter the cellular cholesterol esterification, suggesting that cyclic AMP is not a bioregulator in this case. Therefore, the authors tested the effect of phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on cellular cholesterol esterification to determine the involvement of protein kinase C. PMA has a potent effect on cellular cholesterol esterification. PMA depresses cholesterol esterification initially, but cells recover from inhibition and the result was higher cholesterol esterification, suggesting dual effects of protein kinase C. Studies of other phorbol analogues and other protein kinase C activators such as merezein indicate the involvement of protein kinase C. Oleoyl-acetyl glycerol duplicates the effect of PMA. This observation is consistent with a diacyl-glycerol-protein kinase-dependent reaction. Calcium ionophore A23187 was ineffective in promoting the effect of PMA. They concluded that a calcium-independent and protein C-dependent pathway regulated glial cholesterol esterification.
Jeng, I.; Dills, C.; Klemm, N.; Wu, C.
The amyloid precursor protein can through ligand-mimicking induce expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis. We report here the regional distribution and cellular localization of ODC immunoreactivity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. In frontal cortex and hippocampus of control cases, the most pronounced ODC immunoreactivity was found in the nucleus. In possible and definite AD the immunoreactivity had shifted to the cytoplasm. In cerebellum of control cases, ODC staining was found in a small portion of Purkinje cells, mostly in the nucleus. In AD, both possible and definite, the number of stained Purkinje cells increased significantly and immunoreactivity was shifted to the cytoplasm, even though it was still prominent in the nucleus. In conclusion, our study reveals an early shift of the ODC immunoreactivity in AD from the nuclear compartment towards the cytoplasm.
Nilsson, Tatjana [Karolinska Institutet, Neurotec, Section of Experimental Geriatrics, Novum, 141 86 Stockholm (Sweden)]. E-mail: Tatjana.Nilsson@ki.se; Bogdanovic, Nenad [Karolinska Institutet, Neurotec, Section of Experimental Geriatrics, Novum, 141 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Volkman, Inga [Karolinska Institutet, Neurotec, Section of Experimental Geriatrics, Novum, 141 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Winblad, Bengt [Karolinska Institutet, Neurotec, Section of Experimental Geriatrics, Novum, 141 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Folkesson, Ronnie [Karolinska Institutet, Neurotec, Section of Experimental Geriatrics, Novum, 141 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Benedikz, Eirikur [Karolinska Institutet, Neurotec, Section of Experimental Geriatrics, Novum, 141 86 Stockholm (Sweden)
The present study shows that rat brain contains a kinin-forming activity which is distinguishable from plasma kallikrein. Kinin-forming activity was found in an acetone powder of frozen brain tissue (between 27 and 175.5 ng generated bradykinin/g fresh brain tissue/h). Analysis by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) indicated that the kinin formed chromatographed like true bradykinin (BK). After subcellular fractionation using differential centrifugation of homogenized fresh brain tissue the kinin-forming activity was found mainly in a microsomal (P-3) fraction after preincubation with 2 ?M melittin. Further fractionation of P-3 fraction using discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation identified activity in both the 1 M sucrose layer (5.8 +/- 3.1 ng kinin/mg protein/h) and at the interface between the 0.8 and 0.3 sucrose layers (9.4 +/- 4 ng kinin/mg protein/h). Melittin pretreatment did not change these values. The distribution pattern of the kallikrein-like activity was different from that of cathepsin d-like acid protease. The two kinin-forming activities were equally sensitive to treatment with various trypsin inhibitors but were clearly distinguishable from plasma kallikrein: brain activity was inhibited completely by Trasylol but not by soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) or ovomucoid while plasma kallikrein was completely inhibited by SBTI and partially by ovomucoid and Trasilol. Our results clearly distinguish between plasma kallikrein, brain cathepsin d-like acid protease activity and an apparent brain kinin-forming activity, but do not by themselves establish a central biosynthetic pathway for kinin generation. PMID:20492968
Shisheva, A C; Printz, M P; Herman, K; Ganten, D
At present, there is no accurate method for evaluating the quality of liver transplant from a brain-dead donor. Proteomics are used to investigate the mechanisms involved in brain death?induced liver injury and to identify sensitive biomarkers. In the present study, age? and gender?matched rabbits were randomly divided into the brain death and sham groups. The sham served as the control. A brain?death model was established using an intracranial progressive pressurized method. The differentially expressed proteins extracted from the liver tissues of rabbits that were brain?dead for 6 h in the two groups were determined by two?dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix?assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Although there was no obvious functional and morphological difference in 2, 4 and 6 h after brain death, results of the proteomics analysis revealed 973±34 and 987±38 protein spots in the control and brain death groups, respectively. Ten proteins exhibited a ?2?fold alteration. The downregulated proteins were: aldehyde dehydrogenase, runt?related transcription factor 1 (RUNX1), inorganic pyrophosphatase, glutamate?cysteine ligase regulatory subunit and microsomal cytochrome B5. By contrast, the expression of dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 4, peroxiredoxin?6, 3?phosphoinositide?dependent protein kinase?1, 3-mercaptopyruvate and alcohol dehydrogenase were clearly upregulated. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis results revealed that the expression of RUNX1 was gradually increased in a time?dependent manner in 2, 4, and 6 h after brain death. In conclusion, alteration of the liver protein expression profile induced by brain death indicated the occurrence of complex pathological changes even if no functional or morphological difference was identified. Thus, RUNX1 may be a sensitive predict factor for evaluating the quality of brain death donated liver. PMID:24938796
Du, Bing; Li, Ling; Zhong, Zhibiao; Fan, Xiaoli; Qiao, Bingbing; He, Chongxiang; Fu, Zhen; Wang, Yanfeng; Ye, Qifa
There is considerable interest in defining the molecular pathways involved in seizure-induced neuronal death. Necrotic, apoptotic and anti-apoptotic signalling pathways are activated after status epilepticus (SE). Analyses of apoptosis and necrosis have been merely reported, however conditions of autophagic cell death with hallmarks of type 2 programmed cell death-morphology are relatively few. Autophagy is a highly regulated cellular mechanism for the bulk degradation of cytoplasmic contents which is involved in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions associated with neurological diseases. Our goal was to examine whether autophagy is implicated in the cell death machinery after SE. For this purpose, we used lithium-pilocarpine model of SE in 14-day-old rats and examined the dynamics in the expression of autophagic markers in the hippocampus in controls and in animals subjected to SE at 6, 24, and 48h after the insult. Protein levels of central components of the autophagic machinery were dramatically affected by SE with, however, altered dynamics, compared to controls. Levels of LC3, phospho-mTOR/mTOR, BAG3 and Hsp70 were significantly increased, whereas Beclin 1 levels remained unchanged after SE. The dynamics in the expression of Atg3, Atg5, Atg7, Atg14 and LAMP1 were slightly altered. The amount of SQSTM1/p62 underwent a dramatic and highly significant breakdown 48 h after the induction of SE. These results demonstrate for the first time that SE in the immature brain results in significant alterations of autophagy dynamics. There is a growing interest in the role of autophagy in neurodegeneration, and an emerging consensus that autophagy represents a double-edged sword, acting either as a prosurvival mechanism, or as part of a cell death pathway. PMID:24597603
Benz, Alexander Philipp; Niquet, Jerome; Wasterlain, Claude Guy; Rami, Abdelhaq
Advances in hardware and software have made possible the reconstruction of brain activity from non-invasive electrophysiological measurements over a large part of the brain. The appreciation of the information content in the data is enhanced when relevant anatomical detail is also available for visualization. Different neuroscientific questions give rise to different requirements for optimal superposition of structure and function. Most available software deal with scalar measures of activity, especially hemodynamic changes. In contrast, the electrophysiological observables are generated by electrical activity, which depends on the synchrony of neuronal assemblies and the geometry of the local cortical surface. We describe methods for segmentation and visualization of spatio-temporal brain activity, which allow the interplay of geometry and scalar as well as vector properties of the current density directly in the representations. The utility of these methods is demonstrated through displays of tomographic reconstructions of early sensory processing in the somatosensory and visual modality extracted from magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. The activation course characteristic to a specific area could be observed as current density or statistical maps independently and/or contrasted to the activity in other areas or the whole brain. MEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activations were simultaneously visualized. Integrating and visualizing complementary functional data into a single environment helps evaluating analysis and understanding structure/function relationships in normal and diseased brain. PMID:12906943
Badea, Alexandra; Kostopoulos, George K; Ioannides, Andreas A
Failure of certain circulating substances to penetrate specific organs led to the concept of blood-organ barriers. Such barriers can be altered by various physical or chemical means. This report concerns modification of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and b...
C. Chryssanthou M. Springer S. Lipschitz
Manganese (Mn) neurotoxicity in adults can result in psycho- logical and neurological disturbances similar to Parkinson's disease, including extrapyramidal motor system defects and altered behaviors. Iron (Fe) deficiency is one of the most prevalent nutritional disorders in the world, affecting approximately 2 billion people, especially pregnant and lactating women, infants, toddlers, and adolescents. Fe deficiency can enhance brain Mn accumulation
Stephanie J. Garcia; Kristin Gellein; Tore Syversen; Michael Aschner
In this review we summarize the epidemiological, cross-sectional, and interventional studies examining the association between physical activity and brain volume, function, and risk for Alzheimer's disease. The epidemiological literature provides compelling evidence that greater amounts of physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of dementia in late life. In addition, randomized interventions using neuroimaging tools have reported that participation in physical activity increases the size of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas, which may lead to a reduction in memory impairments. Consistent with these findings, longitudinal studies using neuroimaging tools also find that the volume of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas are larger in individuals who engaged in more physical activity earlier in life. We conclude from this review that there is convincing evidence that physical activity has a consistent and robust association with brain regions implicated in age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer's disease. In addition to summarizing this literature we provide recommendations for future research on physical activity and brain health. PMID:23085449
Erickson, Kirk I; Weinstein, Andrea M; Lopez, Oscar L
In this review we summarize the epidemiological, cross-sectional, and interventional studies examining the association between physical activity and brain volume, function, and risk for Alzheimer’s disease. The epidemiological literature provides compelling evidence that greater amounts of physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of dementia in late life. In addition, randomized interventions using neuroimaging tools have reported that participation in physical activity increases the size of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas, which may lead to a reduction in memory impairments. Consistent with these findings, longitudinal studies using neuroimaging tools also find that the volume of prefrontal and hippocampal brain areas are larger in individuals who engaged in more physical activity earlier in life. We conclude from this review that there is convincing evidence that physical activity has a consistent and robust association with brain regions implicated in age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease. In addition to summarizing this literature we provide recommendations for future research on physical activity and brain health.
Erickson, Kirk I; Weinstein, Andrea M; Lopez, Oscar L
Whereas amyloid-? (A?) accumulates in the brain of normal animals dosed with low levels of copper (Cu), the mechanism is not completely known. Cu could contribute to A? accumulation by altering its clearance and/or its production. Because Cu homeostasis is altered in transgenic mice overexpressing A? precursor protein (APP), the objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of Cu-induced A? accumulation in brains of normal mice and then to explore Cu's effects in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. In aging mice, accumulation of Cu in brain capillaries was associated with its reduction in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), an A? transporter, and higher brain A? levels. These effects were reproduced by chronic dosing with low levels of Cu via drinking water without changes in A? synthesis or degradation. In human brain endothelial cells, Cu, at its normal labile levels, caused LRP1-specific down-regulation by inducing its nitrotyrosination and subsequent proteosomal-dependent degradation due in part to Cu/cellular prion protein/LRP1 interaction. In APP(sw/0) mice, Cu not only down-regulated LRP1 in brain capillaries but also increased A? production and neuroinflammation because Cu accumulated in brain capillaries and, unlike in control mice, in the parenchyma. Thus, we have demonstrated that Cu's effect on brain A? homeostasis depends on whether it is accumulated in the capillaries or in the parenchyma. These findings should provide unique insights into preventative and/or therapeutic approaches to control neurotoxic A? levels in the aging brain. PMID:23959870
Singh, Itender; Sagare, Abhay P; Coma, Mireia; Perlmutter, David; Gelein, Robert; Bell, Robert D; Deane, Richard J; Zhong, Elaine; Parisi, Margaret; Ciszewski, Joseph; Kasper, R Tristan; Deane, Rashid
Whereas amyloid-? (A?) accumulates in the brain of normal animals dosed with low levels of copper (Cu), the mechanism is not completely known. Cu could contribute to A? accumulation by altering its clearance and/or its production. Because Cu homeostasis is altered in transgenic mice overexpressing A? precursor protein (APP), the objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of Cu-induced A? accumulation in brains of normal mice and then to explore Cu’s effects in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. In aging mice, accumulation of Cu in brain capillaries was associated with its reduction in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), an A? transporter, and higher brain A? levels. These effects were reproduced by chronic dosing with low levels of Cu via drinking water without changes in A? synthesis or degradation. In human brain endothelial cells, Cu, at its normal labile levels, caused LRP1-specific down-regulation by inducing its nitrotyrosination and subsequent proteosomal-dependent degradation due in part to Cu/cellular prion protein/LRP1 interaction. In APPsw/0 mice, Cu not only down-regulated LRP1 in brain capillaries but also increased A? production and neuroinflammation because Cu accumulated in brain capillaries and, unlike in control mice, in the parenchyma. Thus, we have demonstrated that Cu’s effect on brain A? homeostasis depends on whether it is accumulated in the capillaries or in the parenchyma. These findings should provide unique insights into preventative and/or therapeutic approaches to control neurotoxic A? levels in the aging brain.
Singh, Itender; Sagare, Abhay P.; Coma, Mireia; Perlmutter, David; Gelein, Robert; Bell, Robert D.; Deane, Richard J.; Zhong, Elaine; Parisi, Margaret; Ciszewski, Joseph; Kasper, R. Tristan; Deane, Rashid
Agrin is a heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is widely expressed in neurons and microvascular basal lamina in the rodent and avian central nervous system. Agrin induces the differentiation of nerve-muscle synapses, but its function in either normal or diseased brains is not known. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by loss of synapses, changes in microvascular architecture, and formation of neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. Here we have asked whether AD causes changes in the distribution and biochemical properties of agrin. Immunostaining of normal, aged human central nervous system revealed that agrin is expressed in neurons in multiple brain areas. Robust agrin immunoreactivity was observed uniformly in the microvascular basal lamina. In AD brains, agrin is highly concentrated in both diffuse and neuritic plaques as well as neurofibrillary tangles; neuronal expression of agrin also was observed. Furthermore, patients with AD had microvascular alterations characterized by thinning and fragmentation of the basal lamina. Detergent extraction and Western blotting showed that virtually all the agrin in normal brain is soluble in 1% SDS. In contrast, a large fraction of the agrin in AD brains is insoluble under these conditions, suggesting that it is tightly associated with ? -amyloid. Together, these data indicate that the agrin abnormalities observed in AD are closely linked to ? -amyloid deposition. These observations suggest that altered agrin expression in the microvasculature and the brain parenchyma contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.
Donahue, John E.; Berzin, Tyler M.; Rafii, Michael S.; Glass, David J.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Fallon, Justin R.; Stopa, Edward G.
Cerebral magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) measures the viscoelastic properties of brain tissues in vivo. It was recently shown that brain viscoelasticity is reduced in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), highlighting the potential of cerebral MRE to detect tissue pathology during neuroinflammation. To further investigate the relationship between inflammation and brain viscoelasticity, we applied MRE to a mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced and monitored by MRE in a 7-tesla animal MRI scanner over 4 weeks. At the peak of the disease (day 14 after immunization), we detected a significant decrease in both the storage modulus (G?) and the loss modulus (G?), indicating that both the elasticity and the viscosity of the brain are reduced during acute inflammation. Interestingly, these parameters normalized at a later time point (day 28) corresponding to the clinical recovery phase. Consistent with this, we observed a clear correlation between viscoelastic tissue alteration and the magnitude of perivascular T cell infiltration at both day 14 and day 28. Hence, acute neuroinflammation is associated with reduced mechanical cohesion of brain tissues. Moreover, the reduction of brain viscoelasticity appears to be a reversible process, which is restored when inflammation resolves. For the first time, our study has demonstrated the applicability of cerebral MRE in EAE, and showed that this novel imaging technology is highly sensitive to early tissue alterations resulting from the inflammatory processes. Thus, MRE may serve to monitor early stages of perivascular immune infiltration during neuroinflammation.
Riek, Kerstin; Millward, Jason M.; Hamann, Isabell; Mueller, Susanne; Pfueller, Caspar F.; Paul, Friedemann; Braun, Jurgen; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Sack, Ingolf
Background Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency occurs in 5–10% of pregnancies and is a major risk factor for abnormal neurodevelopment. The perinatal diagnosis of IUGR related abnormal neurodevelopment represents a major challenge in fetal medicine. The development of clinical biomarkers is considered a promising approach, but requires the identification of biochemical/molecular alterations by IUGR in the fetal brain. This targeted metabolomics study in a rabbit IUGR model aimed to obtain mechanistic insight into the effects of IUGR on the fetal brain and identify metabolite candidates for biomarker development. Methodology/Principal Findings At gestation day 25, IUGR was induced in two New Zealand rabbits by 40–50% uteroplacental vessel ligation in one horn and the contralateral horn was used as control. At day 30, fetuses were delivered by Cesarian section, weighed and brains collected for metabolomics analysis. Results showed that IUGR fetuses had a significantly lower birth and brain weight compared to controls. Metabolomics analysis using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) and database matching identified 78 metabolites. Comparison of metabolite intensities using a t-test demonstrated that 18 metabolites were significantly different between control and IUGR brain tissue, including neurotransmitters/peptides, amino acids, fatty acids, energy metabolism intermediates and oxidative stress metabolites. Principle component and hierarchical cluster analysis showed cluster formations that clearly separated control from IUGR brain tissue samples, revealing the potential to develop predictive biomarkers. Moreover birth weight and metabolite intensity correlations indicated that the extent of alterations was dependent on the severity of IUGR. Conclusions IUGR leads to metabolic alterations in the fetal rabbit brain, involving neuronal viability, energy metabolism, amino acid levels, fatty acid profiles and oxidative stress mechanisms. Overall findings identified aspargine, ornithine, N-acetylaspartylglutamic acid, N-acetylaspartate and palmitoleic acid as potential metabolite candidates to develop clinical biomarkers for the perinatal diagnosis of IUGR related abnormal neurodevelopment.
van Vliet, Erwin; Eixarch, Elisenda; Illa, Miriam; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Gonzalez-Tendero, Anna; Hogberg, Helena T.; Zhao, Liang; Hartung, Thomas; Gratacos, Eduard
Although key to understanding individual variation in task-related brain activation, the genetic contribution to these individual differences remains largely unknown. Here we report voxel-by-voxel genetic model fitting in a large sample of 319 healthy, young adult, human identical and fraternal twins (mean ± SD age, 23.6 ± 1.8 years) who performed an n-back working memory task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at a high magnetic field (4 tesla). Patterns of task-related brain response (BOLD signal difference of 2-back minus 0-back) were significantly heritable, with the highest estimates (40-65%) in the inferior, middle, and superior frontal gyri, left supplementary motor area, precentral and postcentral gyri, middle cingulate cortex, superior medial gyrus, angular gyrus, superior parietal lobule, including precuneus, and superior occipital gyri. Furthermore, high test-retest reliability for a subsample of 40 twins indicates that nongenetic variance in the fMRI brain response is largely due to unique environmental influences rather than measurement error. Individual variations in activation of the working memory network are therefore significantly influenced by genetic factors. By establishing the heritability of cognitive brain function in a large sample that affords good statistical power, and using voxel-by-voxel analyses, this study provides the necessary evidence for task-related brain activation to be considered as an endophenotype for psychiatric or neurological disorders, and represents a substantial new contribution to the field of neuroimaging genetics. These genetic brain maps should facilitate discovery of gene variants influencing cognitive brain function through genome-wide association studies, potentially opening up new avenues in the treatment of brain disorders. PMID:21795540
Blokland, Gabriëlla A M; McMahon, Katie L; Thompson, Paul M; Martin, Nicholas G; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Wright, Margaret J
Trace amines (TAs) such as ?-phenylethylamine, p-tyramine, or tryptamine are biogenic amines found in the brain at low concentrations that have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, depression, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. TAs are ligands for the recently identified trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), an important modulator of monoamine neurotransmission. Here, we sought to investigate the consequences of TAAR1 hypersignaling by generating a transgenic mouse line overexpressing Taar1 specifically in neurons. Taar1 transgenic mice did not show overt behavioral abnormalities under baseline conditions, despite augmented extracellular levels of dopamine and noradrenaline in the accumbens nucleus (Acb) and of serotonin in the medial prefrontal cortex. In vitro, this was correlated with an elevated spontaneous firing rate of monoaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, dorsal raphe nucleus, and locus coeruleus as the result of ectopic TAAR1 expression. Furthermore, Taar1 transgenic mice were hyposensitive to the psychostimulant effects of amphetamine, as it produced only a weak locomotor activation and failed to alter catecholamine release in the Acb. Attenuating TAAR1 activity with the selective partial agonist RO5073012 restored the stimulating effects of amphetamine on locomotion. Overall, these data show that Taar1 brain overexpression causes hyposensitivity to amphetamine and alterations of monoaminergic neurotransmission. These observations confirm the modulatory role of TAAR1 on monoamine activity and suggest that in vivo the receptor is either constitutively active and/or tonically activated by ambient levels of endogenous agonist(s).
Revel, Florent G; Meyer, Claas A; Bradaia, Amyaouch; Jeanneau, Karine; Calcagno, Eleonora; Andre, Cedric B; Haenggi, Markus; Miss, Marie-Therese; Galley, Guido; Norcross, Roger D; Invernizzi, Roberto W; Wettstein, Joseph G; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Hoener, Marius C
Trace amines (TAs) such as ?-phenylethylamine, p-tyramine, or tryptamine are biogenic amines found in the brain at low concentrations that have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, depression, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. TAs are ligands for the recently identified trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1), an important modulator of monoamine neurotransmission. Here, we sought to investigate the consequences of TAAR1 hypersignaling by generating a transgenic mouse line overexpressing Taar1 specifically in neurons. Taar1 transgenic mice did not show overt behavioral abnormalities under baseline conditions, despite augmented extracellular levels of dopamine and noradrenaline in the accumbens nucleus (Acb) and of serotonin in the medial prefrontal cortex. In vitro, this was correlated with an elevated spontaneous firing rate of monoaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, dorsal raphe nucleus, and locus coeruleus as the result of ectopic TAAR1 expression. Furthermore, Taar1 transgenic mice were hyposensitive to the psychostimulant effects of amphetamine, as it produced only a weak locomotor activation and failed to alter catecholamine release in the Acb. Attenuating TAAR1 activity with the selective partial agonist RO5073012 restored the stimulating effects of amphetamine on locomotion. Overall, these data show that Taar1 brain overexpression causes hyposensitivity to amphetamine and alterations of monoaminergic neurotransmission. These observations confirm the modulatory role of TAAR1 on monoamine activity and suggest that in vivo the receptor is either constitutively active and/or tonically activated by ambient levels of endogenous agonist(s). PMID:22763617
Revel, Florent G; Meyer, Claas A; Bradaia, Amyaouch; Jeanneau, Karine; Calcagno, Eleonora; André, Cédric B; Haenggi, Markus; Miss, Marie-Thérèse; Galley, Guido; Norcross, Roger D; Invernizzi, Roberto W; Wettstein, Joseph G; Moreau, Jean-Luc; Hoener, Marius C
Theoretical considerations, and findings from computational modeling, comparative neuroanatomy and developmental neuroscience, motivate the hypothesis that a deviant brain growth trajectory will lead to deviant patterns of change in cortico-cortical connectivity. Differences in brain size during development will alter the relative cost and…
Lewis, John D.; Elman, Jeffrey L.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify regions of altered development in the mouse brain after cranial irradiation using longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: Female C57Bl/6 mice received a whole-brain radiation dose of 7 Gy at an infant-equivalent age of 2.5 weeks. MRI was performed before irradiation and at 3 time points following irradiation. Deformation-based morphometry was used to quantify volume and growth rate changes following irradiation. Results: Widespread developmental deficits were observed in both white and gray matter regions following irradiation. Most of the affected brain regions suffered an initial volume deficit followed by growth at a normal rate, remaining smaller in irradiated brains compared with controls at all time points examined. The one exception was the olfactory bulb, which in addition to an early volume deficit, grew at a slower rate thereafter, resulting in a progressive volume deficit relative to controls. Immunohistochemical assessment revealed demyelination in white matter and loss of neural progenitor cells in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus and subventricular zone. Conclusions: MRI can detect regional differences in neuroanatomy and brain growth after whole-brain irradiation in the developing mouse. Developmental deficits in neuroanatomy persist, or even progress, and may serve as useful markers of late effects in mouse models. The high-throughput evaluation of brain development enabled by these methods may allow testing of strategies to mitigate late effects after pediatric cranial irradiation.
Gazdzinski, Lisa M.; Cormier, Kyle [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada)] [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Lu, Fred G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada); Lerch, Jason P. [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada) [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Wong, C. Shun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Nieman, Brian J., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Mouse Imaging Centre, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)
Gangliosides are sialylated membrane glycosphingolipids especially abundant in mammalian brain tissue. Sialic acid O-acetylation is one of the most common structural modifications of gangliosides which considerably influences their chemical properties. In this study, gangliosides extracted from brain tissue of mice with altered ganglioside biosynthesis (St8sia1 null and B4galnt1 null mice) were structurally characterized and their acetylation pattern was analyzed. Extracted native and alkali-treated gangliosides were resolved by high performance thin layer chromatography. Ganglioside mixtures as well as separated individual ganglioside fractions were further analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Several O-acetylated brain ganglioside species were found in knockout mice, not present in the wild-type mice. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the presence of O-acetylated GD1a in St8sia1 null mice and O-acetylated GM3 species in B4galnt1 null mice. In addition, much higher diversity of abnormally accumulated brain ganglioside species regarding the structure of ceramide portion was observed in knockout versus wild-type mice. Obtained findings indicate that the diversity of brain ganglioside structures as well as acetylation patterns in mice with altered ganglioside biosynthesis, is even higher than previously reported. Further investigation is needed in order to explore the effects of acetylation on ganglioside interactions with other molecules and consequently the physiological role of acetylated ganglioside species. PMID:24140892
Mlinac, Kristina; Fabris, Dragana; Vukeli?, Zeljka; Rožman, Marko; Heffer, Marija; Bognar, Svjetlana Kalanj
Norepinephrine regulates the proestrous and estradiol-induced LH surge by binding to alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. The density of alpha 1-receptors may be regulated by estradiol, photoperiod, and noradrenergic neuronal activity. We wished to determine whether alpha 1-receptors exhibit a diurnal rhythm in ovariectomized and/or estradiol-treated female rats, whether estradiol regulates alpha 1-receptors in those areas of brain involved with LH secretion and/or sexual behavior, and whether the concentrations of alpha-receptors vary inversely relative to previously reported norepinephrine turnover patterns. Young female rats, maintained on a 14:10 light-dark cycle were ovariectomized. One week later, half of them were outfitted sc with Silastic capsules containing estradiol. Groups of animals were decapitated 2 days later at 0300, 1000, 1300, 1500, 1800, and 2300 h. Brains were removed, frozen, and sectioned at 20 micron. Sections were incubated with (/sup 3/H)prazosin in Tris-HCl buffer, washed, dried, and exposed to LKB Ultrofilm. The densities of alpha 1-receptors were quantitated using a computerized image analysis system. In ovariectomized rats, the density of alpha 1-receptors exhibited a diurnal rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), and pineal gland. In SCN and MPN, receptor concentrations were lowest during the middle of the day and rose to peak levels at 1800 h. In the pineal gland, the density of alpha 1-receptors was lowest at middark phase, rose to peak levels before lights on, and remained elevated during the day. Estradiol suppressed the density of alpha 1 binding sites in the SCN, MPN, median eminence, ventromedial nucleus, and the pineal gland but had no effect on the lateral septum. Estrogen treatment altered the rhythm of receptor densities in MPN, median eminence, and the pineal gland.
Weiland, N.G.; Wise, P.M.
Summary Background. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a potent natriuretic and vasodilator factor which, by its systemic effects, can decrease cerebral blood flow (CBF). In aneurysmal subarchnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), BNP plasma concentrations were found to be associated with hyponatremia and were progressively elevated in patients who even- tually developed delayed ischemic deficit secondary to vasospasm. The purpose of the present
G. E. Sviri; J. F. Soustiel; M. Zaaroor
Abnormal responses of the brain to delivered and expected aversive gut stimuli have been implicated in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a visceral pain syndrome occurring more commonly in women. Task-free resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can provide information about the dynamics of brain activity that may be involved in altered processing and/or modulation of visceral afferent signals. Fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation is a measure of the power spectrum intensity of spontaneous brain oscillations. This approach was used here to identify differences in the resting-state activity of the human brain in IBS subjects compared with healthy controls (HCs) and to identify the role of sex-related differences. We found that both the female HCs and female IBS subjects had a frequency power distribution skewed toward high frequency to a greater extent in the amygdala and hippocampus compared with male subjects. In addition, female IBS subjects had a frequency power distribution skewed toward high frequency in the insula and toward low frequency in the sensorimotor cortex to a greater extent than male IBS subjects. Correlations were observed between resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent signal dynamics and some clinical symptom measures (e.g., abdominal discomfort). These findings provide the first insight into sex-related differences in IBS subjects compared with HCs using resting-state fMRI. PMID:23864686
Hong, Jui-Yang; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Labus, Jennifer; Gupta, Arpana; Jiang, Zhiguo; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Stains, Jean; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Ebrat, Bahar; Smith, Suzanne; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce; Mayer, Emeran A
Endogenous opioid peptides have been shown to be involved in the regulation of tumour growth. At present, however, no data are available about the secretion of opioid peptides in cancer patients. To draw some preliminary conclusions on opioid brain function in human neoplasms, we evaluated hypophyseal hormone responses to the administration of a met-enkephalin analogue, FK 33-824. The study included 14 patients affected by early or advanced neoplastic disease, 12 healthy subjects and 7 patients with a chronic medical illness other than cancer. FK 33-824 was given intravenously at a dose of 0.3 mg. Venous blood samples were collected at zero time, and 30, 60 and 120 min after drug administration. In each sample, PRL, GH, LH, cortisol and beta-endorphin levels were measured by RIA. In all normal subjects and in patients with non-neoplastic chronic illness, FK 33-824 induced a rise in PRL and GH levels, and a decrease in LH, cortisol and beta-endorphin. A normal endocrine response to FK 33-824 was seen in our cancer patient only, while in the other cases with tumour no hormonal changes or a paradoxical response were seen after FK 33-824. Based on the fact that an abnormal endocrine response to FK 33-824 has been described in hypothalamic-pituitary disorders, in which anomalous brain opioid activity has been demonstrated, these results suggest the existence of an altered function of the opioid system in cancer patients, the clinical importance of which remains to be determined.
Lissoni, P.; Barni, S.; Paolorossi, F.; Crispino, S.; Rovelli, F.; Ferri, L.; Delitala, G.; Tancini, G.
The present study was aimed to evaluate the behavioral and molecular effects of maternal deprivation in adult rats. To this aim, male rats deprived and non-deprived were assessed in the forced swimming and open-field tests in adult phase. In addition adrenocorticotrophin hormone (ACTH) levels was assessed in serum and brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and nerve growth factor (NGF) protein levels were assessed in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and amygdala. We observed that maternal deprivation increased immobility time, and decreased climbing time, without affecting locomotor activity. ACTH circulating levels were increased in maternal deprived rats. Additionally, BDNF protein levels were reduced in the amygdala and NT-3 and NGF were reduced in both hippocampus and amygdala in maternal deprived rats, compared to control group. In conclusion, our results support the idea that behavioral, ACTH circulating levels and neurotrophins levels altered in maternal deprivation model could contribute to stress-related diseases, such as depression. PMID:21161589
Réus, Gislaine Z; Stringari, Roberto B; Ribeiro, Karine F; Cipriano, Andreza L; Panizzutti, Bruna S; Stertz, Laura; Lersch, Camila; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João
To assess how the shift from a healthy diet rich in omega-3 fatty acids to a diet rich in saturated fatty acid affects the substrates for brain plasticity and function, we used pregnant rats fed with omega-3 supplemented diet from their 2nd day of gestation period as well as their male pups for 12 weeks. Afterwards, the animals were randomly assigned to either a group fed on the same diet or a group fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) rich in saturated fats for 3 weeks. We found that the HFD increased vulnerability for anxiety-like behavior, and that these modifications harmonized with changes in the anxiety-related NPY1 receptor and the reduced levels of BDNF, and its signalling receptor pTrkB, as well as the CREB protein. Brain DHA contents were significantly associated with the levels of anxiety-like behavior in these rats.
Sharma, Sandeep; Zhuang, Yumei; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando
Summary Background. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a potent natriuretic and vasodilator factor which, by its systemic effects, can decrease\\u000a cerebral blood flow (CBF). In aneurysmal subarchnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), BNP plasma concentrations were found to be associated\\u000a with hyponatremia and were progressively elevated in patients who eventually developed delayed ischemic deficit secondary\\u000a to vasospasm. The purpose of the present study was
G. E. Sviri; J. F. Soustiel; M. Zaaroor
Assessed the cognitive processing that takes place in virtual environments by measuring electrical brain activity using Fast Fourier Transform analysis. University students performed the same task in a real and a virtual environment, and eye movement measurements showed that all subjects were more attentive when navigating in the virtual world.…
Mikropoulos, Tassos A.
Rapid inactivation of metabolism is essential for accurately determining the concentrations of metabolic intermediates in the in vivo state. We compared a broad spectrum of energetic intermediate metabolites and neurotransmitters in brains obtained by microwave irradiation to those obtained by freeze blowing, the most rapid method of extracting and freezing rat brain. The concentrations of many intermediates, cytosolic free NAD(P)(+) /NAD(P)H ratios, as well as neurotransmitters were not affected by the microwave procedure. However, the brain concentrations of ATP were about 30% lower, whereas those of ADP, AMP, and GDP were higher in the microwave-irradiated compared with the freeze-blown brains. In addition, the hydrolysis of approximately 1 ?mol/g of ATP, a major in vivo Mg(2+) -binding site, was related to approximately five-fold increase in free [Mg(2+) ] (0.53 ± 0.07 mM in freeze blown vs. 2.91 mM ± 0.48 mM in microwaved brains), as determined from the ratio [citrate]/[isocitrate]. Consequently, many intracellular properties, such as the phosphorylation potential and the ?G' of ATP hydrolysis were significantly altered in microwaved tissue. The determinations of some glycolytic and TCA cycle metabolites, the phosphorylation potential, and the ?G' of ATP hydrolysis do not represent the in vivo state when using microwave-fixed brain tissue. PMID:23013291
Srivastava, Shireesh; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Chen, Xuesong; Geiger, Jonathan D; Pawlosky, Robert; Veech, Richard L
Endogenous neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) are considered a functional reservoir for promoting tissue homeostasis and repair after injury, therefore regenerative strategies that mobilize these cells have recently been proposed. Despite evidence of increased neurogenesis upon acute inflammatory insults (e.g. ischaemic stroke), the plasticity of the endogenous brain stem cell compartment in chronic CNS inflammatory disorders remains poorly characterized. Here we show that persistent brain inflammation, induced by immune cells targeting myelin, extensively alters the proliferative and migratory properties of subventricular zone (SVZ)-resident NPCs in vivo leading to significant accumulation of non-migratory neuroblasts within the SVZ germinal niche. In parallel, we demonstrate a quantitative reduction of the putative brain stem cells proliferation in the SVZ during persistent brain inflammation, which is completely reversed after in vitro culture of the isolated NPCs. Together, these data indicate that the inflamed brain microenvironment sustains a non cell-autonomous dysfunction of the endogenous CNS stem cell compartment and challenge the potential efficacy of proposed therapies aimed at mobilizing endogenous precursors in chronic inflammatory brain disorders.
Pluchino, Stefano; Muzio, Luca; Imitola, Jaime; Deleidi, Michela; Alfaro-Cervello, Clara; Salani, Giuliana; Porcheri, Cristina; Brambilla, Elena; Cavasinni, Francesca; Bergamaschi, Andrea; Garcia-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Comi, Giancarlo; Khoury, Samia J.
Gastrointestinal symptoms and altered blood phospholipid profiles have been reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most of the phospholipid analyses have been conducted on the fatty acid composition of isolated phospholipid classes following hydrolysis. A paucity of information exists on how the intact phospholipid molecular species are altered in ASD. We applied ESI/MS to determine how brain and blood intact phospholipid species were altered during the induction of ASD-like behaviors in rats following intraventricular infusions with the enteric bacterial metabolite propionic acid. Animals were infused daily for 8?days, locomotor activity assessed, and animals killed during the induced behaviors. Propionic acid infusions increased locomotor activity. Lipid analysis revealed treatment altered 21 brain and 30 blood phospholipid molecular species. Notable alterations were observed in the composition of brain SM, diacyl mono and polyunsaturated PC, PI, PS, PE, and plasmalogen PC and PE molecular species. These alterations suggest that the propionic acid rat model is a useful tool to study aberrations in lipid metabolism known to affect membrane fluidity, peroxisomal function, gap junction coupling capacity, signaling, and neuroinflammation, all of which may be associated with the pathogenesis of ASD. PMID:22747852
Thomas, Raymond H; Meeking, Melissa M; Mepham, Jennifer R; Tichenoff, Lisa; Possmayer, Fred; Liu, Suya; MacFabe, Derrick F
Gastrointestinal symptoms and altered blood phospholipid profiles have been reported in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most of the phospholipid analyses have been conducted on the fatty acid composition of isolated phospholipid classes following hydrolysis. A paucity of information exists on how the intact phospholipid molecular species are altered in ASD. We applied ESI/MS to determine how brain and blood intact phospholipid species were altered during the induction of ASD-like behaviors in rats following intraventricular infusions with the enteric bacterial metabolite propionic acid. Animals were infused daily for 8?days, locomotor activity assessed, and animals killed during the induced behaviors. Propionic acid infusions increased locomotor activity. Lipid analysis revealed treatment altered 21 brain and 30 blood phospholipid molecular species. Notable alterations were observed in the composition of brain SM, diacyl mono and polyunsaturated PC, PI, PS, PE, and plasmalogen PC and PE molecular species. These alterations suggest that the propionic acid rat model is a useful tool to study aberrations in lipid metabolism known to affect membrane fluidity, peroxisomal function, gap junction coupling capacity, signaling, and neuroinflammation, all of which may be associated with the pathogenesis of ASD.
Meditation practice can lead to what have been referred to as “altered states of consciousness.”One of the phenomenological characteristics of these states is a joint alteration in the sense of time, space, and body. Here, we set out to study the unique experiences of alteration in the sense of time and space by collaborating with a select group of 12 long-term mindfulness meditation (MM) practitioners in a neurophenomenological setup, utilizing first-person data to guide the neural analyses. We hypothesized that the underlying neural activity accompanying alterations in the sense of time and space would be related to alterations in bodily processing. The participants were asked to volitionally bring about distinct states of “Timelessness” (outside time) and “Spacelessness” (outside space) while their brain activity was recorded by MEG. In order to rule out the involvement of attention, memory, or imagination, we used control states of “Then” (past) and “There” (another place). MEG sensors evidencing alterations in power values were identified, and the brain regions underlying these changes were estimated via spatial filtering (beamforming). Particularly, we searched for similar neural activity hypothesized to underlie both the state of “Timelessness” and “Spacelessness.” The results were mostly confined to the theta band, and showed that: (1) the “Then”/“There” overlap yielded activity in regions related to autobiographic memory and imagery (right posterior parietal lobule (PPL), right precentral/middle frontal gyrus (MFG), bilateral precuneus); (2) “Timelessness”/“Spacelessness” conditions overlapped in a different network, related to alterations in the sense of the body (posterior cingulate, right temporoparietal junction (TPJ), cerebellum); and (3) phenomenologically-guided neural analyses enabled us to dissociate different levels of alterations in the sense of the body. This study illustrates the utility of employing experienced contemplative practitioners within a neurophenomenological setup for scientifically characterizing a self-induced altered sense of time, space and body, as well as the importance of theta activity in relation with these altered states.
Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Dor-Ziderman, Yair; Glicksohn, Joseph; Goldstein, Abraham
Hyperprolinemia is an inherited disorder of proline metabolism and hyperprolinemic patients can present neurological manifestations, such as seizures cognitive dysfunctions, and psychotic disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms of these symptoms are still unclear. Since adenine nucleotides play crucial roles in neurotransmission and neuromodulation, we evaluated the in vivo and in vitro effects of proline on ectonucleotidase activities and gene expression in zebrafish brain. For the in vivo studies, animals were exposed at two proline concentrations (1.5 and 3.0 mM) during 1 h or 7 days (short- or long-term treatments, respectively). For the in vitro assays, different proline concentrations (ranging from 3.0 to 1000 ?M) were tested. Short-term proline exposure did not promote significant changes on the ectonucleotidase activities and gene expression. Long-term proline exposure significantly increased ATP catabolism in both concentrations tested (14 % and 22 %, respectively), whereas ADP and AMP hydrolysis were increased only at 3.0 mM proline (21 % and 17 %, respectively) when compared to control. Moreover, the relative gene expression of enpd3 increased in both treated groups after long-term proline, whereas enptd1 increased only at 3.0 mM proline. Proline in vitro did not promote significant changes on ectonucleotidase activities. Altogether, these data indicate that the enzymes responsible for the control of extracellular nucleotides levels might be altered after proline exposure in zebrafish, contributing to better understand the pathophysiology of this disease. Moreover, such findings might facilitate the use of the zebrafish as a complementary vertebrate model for studying inborn errors of amino acid metabolism. PMID:22669495
Savio, Luiz Eduardo Baggio; Vuaden, Fernanda Cenci; Rosemberg, Denis B; Bogo, Maurício R; Bonan, Carla Denise; Wyse, Angela T S
Neural activity in the brain produces weak dynamic electromagnetic fields that can be measured by an array of sensors. Using a spatio-temporal modeling framework, we have developed a new approach to localization of multiple neural sources. This approach is based on the MUSIC algorithm originally developed for estimating the direction of arrival of signals impinging on a sensor array. We present applications of this technique to magnetic field measurements of a phantom and of a human evoked somatosensory response. The results of the somatosensory localization are mapped onto the brain anatomy obtained from magnetic resonance images.
Mosher, J.; Leahy, R. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Lewis, P.; Lewine, J.; George, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Singh, M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology
Neural activity in the brain produces weak dynamic electromagnetic fields that can be measured by an array of sensors. Using a spatio-temporal modeling framework, we have developed a new approach to localization of multiple neural sources. This approach is based on the MUSIC algorithm originally developed for estimating the direction of arrival of signals impinging on a sensor array. We present applications of this technique to magnetic field measurements of a phantom and of a human evoked somatosensory response. The results of the somatosensory localization are mapped onto the brain anatomy obtained from magnetic resonance images.
Mosher, J.; Leahy, R. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Lewis, P.; Lewine, J.; George, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Singh, M. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology)
The ability to make accurate judgments about the mental states of others, sometimes referred to as theory of mind (ToM), is often impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI), and this deficit may contribute to problems with interpersonal relationships. The present study used an animated social attribution task (SAT) with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine structures mediating ToM in adolescents with moderate to severe TBI. The study design also included a comparison group of matched, typically developing (TD) adolescents. The TD group exhibited activation within a number of areas that are thought to be relevant to ToM, including the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, fusiform gyrus, and posterior temporal and parietal areas. The TBI subjects had significant activation within many of these same areas, but their activation was generally more intense and excluded the medial prefrontal cortex. Exploratory regression analyses indicated a negative relation between ToM-related activation and measures of white matter integrity derived from diffusion tensor imaging, while there was also a positive relation between activation and lesion volume. These findings are consistent with alterations in the level and pattern of brain activation that may be due to the combined influence of diffuse axonal injury and focal lesions.
Scheibel, Randall S.; Newsome, Mary R.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; McClelland, Michelle M.; Hanten, Gerri; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Cook, Lori G.; Chu, Zili D.; Vasquez, Ana C.; Yallampalli, Ragini; Lin, Xiaodi; Hunter, Jill V.; Levin, Harvey S.
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors acting as lipid sensors. Besides its metabolic activity in peripheral organs, the PPAR beta/delta isotype is highly expressed in the brain and its deletion in mice induces a brain developmental defect. Nevertheless, exploration of PPAR? action in the central nervous system remains sketchy. The lipid content alteration observed in PPAR? null brains and the positive action of PPAR? agonists on oligodendrocyte differentiation, a process characterized by lipid accumulation, suggest that PPAR? acts on the fatty acids and/or cholesterol metabolisms in the brain. PPAR? could also regulate central inflammation and antioxidant mechanisms in the damaged brain. Even if not fully understood, the neuroprotective effect of PPAR? agonists highlights their potential benefit to treat various acute or chronic neurological disorders. In this perspective, we need to better understand the basic function of PPAR? in the brain. This review proposes different leads for future researches.
Hall, M. G.; Quignodon, Laure; Desvergne, Beatrice
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide, though it is unclear whether its regular use is associated with persistent alterations in brain morphology. This review examines evidence from human structural neuroimaging investigations of regular cannabis users and focuses on achieving three main objectives. These include examining whether the literature to date provides evidence that alteration of brain morphology in regular cannabis users: i) is apparent, compared to non-cannabis using controls; ii) is associated with patterns of cannabis use; and with iii) measures of psychopathology and neurocognitive performance. The published findings indicate that regular cannabis use is associated with alterations in medial temporal, frontal and cerebellar brain regions. Greater brain morphological alterations were evident among samples that used at higher doses for longer periods. However, the evidence for an association between brain morphology and cannabis use parameters was mixed. Further, there is poor evidence for an association between measures of brain morphology and of psychopathology symptoms/neurocognitive performance. Overall, numerous methodological issues characterize the literature to date. These include investigation of small sample sizes, heterogeneity across studies in sample characteristics (e.g., sex, comorbidity) and in employed imaging techniques, as well as the examination of only a limited number of brain regions. These factors make it difficult to draw firm conclusions from the existing findings. Nevertheless, this review supports the notion that regular cannabis use is associated with alterations of brain morphology, and highlights the need to consider particular methodological issues when planning future cannabis research. PMID:23829361
Lorenzetti, Valentina; Solowij, Nadia; Fornito, Alex; Lubman, Dan Ian; Yucel, Murat
BackgroundIn cerebral compression, deterioration of consciousness and coma are traditionally thought to be caused by compression, shift, hemorrhage, or herniation of the brain stem. The objective of this study was to evaluate vascular perfusion and pathologic alteration in the entire brain during drowsiness and coma.
The Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Hypopnoea Syndrome (OSAH) means “cessation of breath” during the sleep hours and the sufferers often experience related changes in the electrical activity of the brain and heart. This paper describes the application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model for automatic detection of alterations in the human electroencephalogram (EEG) activities during hypopnoea episodes. Decision making was
Elif Derya Übeyli; Dean Cvetkovic; Gerard Holland; Irena Cosic
Adolescents binge drink more than any other age group, increasing risk of disrupting the development of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that adolescent binge drinking would lead to persistent alterations in adulthood. In this study, we modeled adolescent weekend underage binge-drinking, using adolescent mice (post-natal days [P] 28-37). The adolescent intermittent binge ethanol (AIE) treatment includes 6 binge intragastric doses of ethanol in an intermittent pattern across adolescence. Assessments were conducted in adulthood following extended abstinence to determine if there were persistent changes in adults. Reversal learning, open field and other behavioral assessments as well as brain structure using magnetic imaging and immunohistochemistry were determined. We found that AIE did not impact adult Barnes Maze learning. However, AIE did cause reversal learning deficits in adults. AIE also caused structural changes in the adult brain. AIE was associated with adulthood volume enlargements in specific brain regions without changes in total brain volume. Enlarged regions included the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, 4%), cerebellum (4.5%), thalamus (2%), internal capsule (10%) and genu of the corpus callosum (7%). The enlarged OFC volume in adults after AIE is consistent with previous imaging studies in human adolescents. AIE treatment was associated with significant increases in the expression of several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in the adult OFC including WFA (55%), Brevican (32%), Neurocan (105%), Tenacin-C (25%), and HABP (5%). These findings are consistent with AIE causing persistent changes in brain structure that could contribute to a lack of behavioral flexibility. PMID:24275185
Coleman, Leon Garland; Liu, Wen; Oguz, Ipek; Styner, Martin; Crews, Fulton T
Effects of estradiol benzoate (EB), ER?-selective agonist, propyl pyrazole triol (PPT) and ER?-selective agonists, diarylpropionitrile (DPN) and Compound 19 (C-19) on memory were investigated in OVX rats using object recognition (OR) and placement (OP) memory tasks. Treatments were acute (behavior 4 h later) or sub chronic (daily injections for 2 days with behavior 48 h later). Objects were explored in sample trials (T1), and discrimination between sample (old) and new object/location in recognition trials (T2) was examined after 2–4 h inter-trial delays. Subjects treated sub chronically with EB, DPN, and C-19, but not PPT, discriminated between old and new objects and objects in old and new locations, suggesting that, at these doses and duration of treatments, estrogenic interactions with ER? contributes to enhancements in recognition memory. Acute injections of DPN, but not PPT, immediately after T1, also enhanced discrimination for both tasks (C19 was not investigated). Effects of EB, DPN and PPT on anxiety and locomotion, measured on elevated plus maze and open field, did not appear to account for the mnemonic enhancements. Monoamines and metabolites were measured following DPN treatment in subjects that did not receive behavioral testing. DPN was associated with alterations in monoamines in several brain areas: indexed by the metabolite, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), or the MHPG/norepinephrine (NE) ratio, NE activity was increased by 60–130% in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and ventral hippocampus, and NE activity was decreased by 40–80% in the v. diagonal bands and CA1. Levels of the dopamine (DA) metabolite, homovanillic acid (HVA), increased 100% in the PFC and decreased by 50% in the dentate gyrus following DPN treatment. The metabolite of serotonin, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), was increased in the PFC and CA3, by approximately 20%. No monoaminergic changes were noted in striatum or medial septum. Results suggest that ER? mediates sub chronic and acute effects of estrogens on recognition memory and that memory enhancements by DPN may occur, in part, through alterations in monoaminergic containing systems primarily in PFC and hippocampus.
Jacome, Luis F.; Gautreaux, Claris; Inagaki, Tomoko; Mohan, Govini; Alves, Stephen; Lubbers, Laura S.; Luine, Victoria
Background The number of patients with cognitive impairment after sepsis or septic shock is high. However, the underlying neurophysiological basis of sepsis induced cognitive impairment is not fully understood. Methods/Design This is a prospective, controlled observational study. We are in the process of recruiting 25 survivors of severe sepsis or septic shock who will be investigated with functional MRI (fMRI), T1-weighted MRI und Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) as well as Magnetoencephalography (MEG). Furthermore, patients will undergo neuropsychological evaluation using the DemTect and the clock drawing tests. In addition, verbal and declarative memory is assessed by the Verbal Learning and Memory Test. The primary aim is to determine the volumetry of the amygdala and the hippocampus. The secondary aim is to analyze the relationship between cognitive tests and MEG, and the (f)MRI results. Moreover, a between-group comparison will be evaluated to an age-matched group of healthy controls. Discussion In a previous MEG study, we observed a significant slowing of the prominent background activity in sepsis survivors and hepatic encephalopathy patients in particular shortly after discharge from the ICU. Intriguingly, the rhythmic brain activity after visual flickering stimulation was altered in sepsis survivors in comparison to age-matched healthy volunteers. We propose that this desynchronization is based on affected underlying neuronal responses between various interconnected brain regions. The current project will analyze whether the modifications are related to a damage of the fibers connecting different brain regions or to a disturbance of the functional interaction between different brain regions or even due to an atrophy of certain brain regions. Trial registration “Langzeitfolgen nach schwerer Sepsis: Kognitive Beeinträchtigungen und strukturelle Veränderungen am Gehirn, eine MRT Studie”; German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS00005484).
Background Little is known about the changes of brain structural and functional connectivity networks underlying the pathophysiology in migraine. We aimed to investigate how the cortical network reorganization is altered by frequent cortical overstimulation associated with migraine. Methodology/Principal Findings Gray matter volumes and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal correlations were employed to construct structural and functional networks between brain regions in 43 female patients with migraine (PM) and 43 gender-matched healthy controls (HC) by using graph theory-based approaches. Compared with the HC group, the patients showed abnormal global topology in both structural and functional networks, characterized by higher mean clustering coefficients without significant change in the shortest absolute path length, which indicated that the PM lost optimal topological organization in their cortical networks. Brain hubs related to pain-processing revealed abnormal nodal centrality in both structural and functional networks, including the precentral gyrus, orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, temporal pole of the middle temporal gyrus and the inferior parietal gyrus. Negative correlations were found between migraine duration and regions with abnormal centrality. Furthermore, the dysfunctional connections in patients' cortical networks formed into a connected component and three dysregulated modules were identified involving pain-related information processing and motion-processing visual networks. Conclusions Our results may reflect brain alteration dynamics resulting from migraine and suggest that long-term and high-frequency headache attacks may cause both structural and functional connectivity network reorganization. The disrupted information exchange between brain areas in migraine may be reshaped into a hierarchical modular structure progressively.
Li, Guoying; Xiong, Shiwei; Nan, Jiaofen; Li, Jing; Yuan, Kai; von Deneen, Karen M.; Liang, Fanrong; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie
Brain metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with melanoma. The molecular changes that lead to brain metastasis remain poorly understood. In this study, we developed a model to study human melanoma brain metastasis and found that Stat3 activity was increased in human brain metastatic melanoma cells when compared with that in cutaneous melanoma cells. The
Tong-xin Xie; Feng-Ju Huang; Kenneth D. Aldape; Mingguang Liu; Jeffrey E. Gershenwald; Keping Xie; Raymond Sawaya; Suyun Huang
Psychoactive drugs like chlorpromazine (CPZ), imipramine, lithium and amphetamine in one way or another affect behaviour. The drug responses are presumably mediated by inducing a change in the activity of membrane bound enzymes. CPZ is very potent in inhibiting the alkaline phosphatase activity in rat brain. The combined effect of CPZ with other drugs shows that CPZ and imipramine together
Maitreyi Nag; Namita Nandi
Epidemiological reports describe a strong association between prenatal human influenza viral infection and later development of schizophrenia. Postmodern human brain studies, however, indicate a lack of gliosis in schizophrenic brains presumably secondary to absence of glial cells during the second trimester viral infection in utero. We hypothesized that human influenza infection in day 9 pregnant mice would alter the expression
S H Fatemi; E S Emamian; R W Sidwell; D A Kist; J M Stary; J A Earle; P Thuras
Ethanol is a widely consumed drug that acts on the central nervous system (CNS), modifying several signal transduction pathways activated by hormones and neurotransmitters. The zebrafish is an experimental model for the study of human diseases and the use of this species in biochemical and behavioral studies on alcoholism and alcohol-dependence has increased recently. However, there are no data concerning the effects of chronic ethanol exposure on the purinergic system, where extracellular nucleotides act as signaling molecules. Purinergic signaling is controlled by a group of enzymes named ectonucleotidases, which include NTPDases and ecto-5'-nucleotidase already characterized in zebrafish brain. The aim of this study was to evaluate nucleotide hydrolysis by NTPDases and ecto-5'-nucleotidase after long-term ethanol exposure. Additionally, the gene expression patterns of NTPDases1-3 and 5'-nucleotidase were determined. Animals were exposed to 0.5% ethanol for 7, 14, and 28 days. There were no significant changes in ATP and GTP hydrolysis after all treatments. However, a decrease in ADP (46% and 34%) and GDP (48% and 36%) hydrolysis was verified after 7 and 14 days, respectively. After 7 and 14 days of ethanol exposure, a significant decrease in AMP hydrolysis (48% and 36%) was also observed, whereas GMP hydrolysis was inhibited only after 7 days (46%). NTPDase2_mv and NTPDase3 mRNA transcript levels decreased after 7 and 14 days, respectively. In contrast, ethanol increased NTPDase1, NTPDase2_mq, and NTPDase3 transcript levels after 28 days of exposure. NTPDase2_mg and 5'-nucleotidase gene expression was not altered. Therefore, the ectonucleotidase pathway may be a target of chronic ethanol toxicity and the regulation of purinergic system could play a key role in the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the effects of ethanol on the CNS. PMID:21704070
Rico, Eduardo Pacheco; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Langoni, Andrei da Silveira; Souto, André Arigony; Dias, Renato Dutra; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Souza, Diogo Onofre
Src family kinases (SFK) control multiple processes during brain development and function. We show here that the phosphoprotein associated with glycosphigolipid-enriched microdomains (PAG)/Csk binding protein (Cbp) modulates SFK activity in the brain. The timing and localization of PAG expression overlap with Fyn and Src, both of which we find associated to PAG. We demonstrate in newborn (P1) mice that PAG negatively regulates Src family kinases (SFK). P1 Pag1-/- mouse brains show decreased recruitment of Csk into lipid rafts, reduced phosphorylation of the inhibitory tyrosines within SFKs, and an increase in SFK activity of >/?=?50%. While in brain of P1 mice, PAG and Csk are highly and ubiquitously expressed, little Csk is found in adult brain suggesting altered modes of SFK regulation. In adult brain Pag1-deficiency has no effect upon Csk-distribution or inhibitory tyrosine phosphorylation, but kinase activity is now reduced (?20–30%), pointing to the development of a compensatory mechanism that may involve PSD93. The distribution of the Csk-homologous kinase CHK is not altered. Importantly, since the activities of Fyn and Src are decreased in adult Pag1-/- mice, thus presenting the reversed phenotype of P1, this provides the first in vivo evidence for a Csk-independent positive regulatory function for PAG in the brain.
Lindquist, Sabine; Karitkina, Diana; Langnaese, Kristina; Posevitz-Fejfar, Anita; Schraven, Burkhart; Xavier, Ramnik; Seed, Brian; Lindquist, Jonathan A.
The Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Hypopnoea Syndrome (OSAH) means “cessation of breath” during the sleep hours and the sufferers often experience related changes in the electrical activity of the brain and heart. The aim of this paper is to investigate any possible changes in the human electroencephalographic (EEG) activity due to hypopnoea (mild case of cessation of breath) occurrences by applying
Dean Cvetkovic; Elif Derya Ubeyli; Gerard Holland; Irena Cosic
Transient brain hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in neonates leads to delayed neuronal death and long-term neurological deficits. However, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is one of the most abundant protein kinases in neurons and plays crucial roles in synaptic development and plasticity. This study used a neonatal brain HI model to investigate whether and how CaMKII was altered after HI and how the changes were affected by brain development. Expression of CaMKII was markedly up-regulated during brain development. After HI, CaMKII was totally and permanently depleted from the cytosol and concomitantly deposited into a Triton-insoluble fraction in neurons that were undergoing delayed neuronal death. Autophosphorylation of CaMKII-Thr286 transiently increased at 30 min of reperfusion and declined thereafter. All these changes were mild in P7 pups but more dramatic in P26 rats, consistent with the development- dependent CaMKII expression in neurons. The results suggest that long-term CaMKII depletion from the cytosolic fraction and deposition into the Triton-insoluble fraction may disable synaptic development, damage synaptic plasticity, and contribute to delayed neuronal death and long-term synaptic deficits after transient HI.
Tang, Kaixiong; Liu, Chunli; Kuluz, John; Hu, Bingren
Dystroglycan is a laminin receptor, which with dystrophins and other components forms the dystrophin-dystroglycan complex. It has an important role in the formation of gliovascular connections, cerebral vascularisation and blood-brain barrier. Dystroglycan consists of two sub-units, ? and ?. Previous studies demonstrated that the ?-dystroglycan immunoreactivity of cerebral vessels temporarily disappeared in the area adjacent to the lesion, whereas the vascular laminin which is not immunoreactive in the intact brain became detectable. The present study extends these investigations over other components of the complex: utrophin, ?1-syntrophin and ?1-dystrobrevin. The experiments were performed on adult rats. The lesions were stab wounds or cryogenic lesions in deep ketamine-xylasine narcosis. Following survival periods 2 to 30 days, the animals were perfused and floating brain sections were processed for fluorescent immunohistochemistry. The ?1-dystrobrevin, like ?-dystroglycan, vanished temporarily around the lesion. The immunoreactivity of utrophin changed in a similar way to that of laminin. In intact brains they were confined to the entering segments of the vessels and to the circumventricular organs. Following lesions their immunoreactivity manifested in the vessels around the lesions. However, utrophin followed laminin with a delay: their peaks were about POD (postoperative days) 21 and 7, respectively. Only immunoreactivity of ?1-syntrophin appeared in the reactive astrocytes, peaking at POD 14. Double-labeling proved its co-localization with GFAP. Cryogenic lesions had similar immunohistochemical effects, but provided more suitable samples for Western blot analysis, which proved the altered levels of ?1-dystrobrevin and ?1-syntrophin. The phenomena may help to monitor the post-lesion vascular processes and the alterations of the gliovascular connections. PMID:21938681
Kálmán, M; Mahalek, J; Adorján, A; Adorján, I; Pócsai, K; Bagyura, Z; Sadeghian, S
Catalepsy is a passive defensive strategy in response to threatening stimuli. In exaggerated forms it is associated with brain dysfunctions. The study was aimed to examine (1) possible association of the hereditary catalepsy with neuroanatomical characteristics and (2) sensitivity of the catalepsy expression, HPA and brain serotonin (5-HT) systems to restraint stress (for one hour) in mice of catalepsy-prone (CBA/Lac, ASC (Antidepressant Sensitive Catalepsy), congenic AKR.CBA-D13M76) and catalepsy-resistant (AKR/J) strains. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the catalepsy-prone mice were characterized by the smaller size of the pituitary gland and the larger size of the thalamus. In ASC mice, diencephalon region (including hypothalamus) and striatum were significantly reduced in size. Restraint stress provoked catalepsy in AKR mice and enhanced it in the catalepsy-prone mice. Stress-induced corticosterone elevation was diminished, while 5-HT metabolism (5-HIAA level or 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio) in the midbrain was significantly augmented by stress in the catalepsy-prone mice. The multivariate factor analysis revealed interactions between the basal levels and the stress-induced alterations of 5-HT metabolism in the hippocampus and midbrain suggesting the interaction between multiple alterations in 5-HT neurotransmission in several brain structures in the regulation of hereditary catalepsy. The study indicated an association between the hereditary catalepsy, neuroanatomical characteristics, and neurochemical responses to emotional stress. The catalepsy-prone genotypes seem to be more susceptible to stress that suggests them as the adequate models to study the genetic predisposition to stress-based neuropathology. The data support the association of hereditary catalepsy with the inherited brain dysfunction of a neurodegenerative nature. PMID:23295395
Tikhonova, Maria A; Kulikov, Alexander V; Bazovkina, Daria V; Kulikova, Elizabeth A; Tsybko, Anton S; Bazhenova, Ekaterina Yu; Naumenko, Vladimir S; Akulov, Andrey E; Moshkin, Mikhail P; Popova, Nina K
The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) system closely interacts with the dopaminergic system and is strongly implicated in the pathophysiological mechanisms and therapeutic paradigms of Parkinson's disease. This study aims to systematically investigate the changes of NMDA receptors in a wide range of brain structures 3 weeks after unilateral medial forebrain bundle lesion by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). NMDA receptor distributions and alterations in the post-mortem rat brain were detected by [(3)H] MK-801 binding autoradiography. In the 6-OHDA-induced Parkinsonian rat model, nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuron loss significantly mediated the decreased [(3)H] MK-801 binding, predominantly in the hippocampus (-22.4%, p < 0.001), caudate putamen (-14.1%, p < 0.01), accumbens nucleus (-13.8%, p < 0.05), cingulate cortex (-13.4%, p < 0.001), posteromedial cortical amygdala (-14.5%, p < 0.01) and piriform cortex (-9%, p < 0.05) compared to the controls, while there was a profound reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Alterations in [(3)H] MK-801 in the specific brain regions related to cognitive functions may indicate that cognitive dysfunctions caused by 6-OHDA lesion were via the NMDA system. The downregulation of NMDA receptor binding in the present study provides indirect evidence for plasticity in the NMDA system in the rat brain. The present study improves our understanding of the critical roles of the NMDA receptors in treating neurodegenerative disorders, and implicates NMDA receptors as a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. PMID:24102195
Wang, Qing; Li, Jin; Wei, Xiaobo; Liao, Jinchi; Xu, Yunqi; Lu, Tingting; Qin, Bing; Xie, Junqiang; Deng, Chao; Huang, Xufeng
Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) can be implemented into assistive technologies to provide ‘hands-free’ control for the severely disabled. BCIs utilise voluntary changes in one's brain activity as a control mechanism to control devices in the person's immediate environment. Performance of BCIs could be adversely affected by negative physiological conditions such as fatigue and altered electrophysiology commonly seen in spinal cord
N. Wijesuriya; Y. Tran; R. A. Thuraisingham; H. T. Nguyen; A. Craig
Despite their routine use during surgical procedures, no consensus has yet been reached on the precise mechanisms by which hypnotic anesthetic agents produce their effects. Molecular, animal and human studies have suggested disruption of thalamocortical communication as a key component of anesthetic action at the brain systems level. Here, we used the anesthetic agent, propofol, to modulate consciousness and to evaluate differences in the interactions of remote neural networks during altered consciousness. We investigated the effects of propofol, at a dose that produced mild sedation without loss of consciousness, on spontaneous cerebral activity of 15 healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), exploiting oscillations (<0.1 Hz) in blood oxygenation level-dependent signal across functionally connected brain regions. We considered the data as a graph, or complex network of nodes and links, and used eigenvector centrality (EC) to characterize brain network properties. The EC mapping of fMRI data in healthy humans under propofol mild sedation demonstrated a decrease of centrality of the thalamus versus an increase of centrality within the pons of the brainstem, highlighting the important role of these two structures in regulating consciousness. Specifically, the decrease of thalamus centrality results from its disconnection from a widespread set of cortical and subcortical regions, while the increase of brainstem centrality may be a consequence of its increased influence, in the mildly sedated state, over a few highly central cortical regions key to the default mode network such as the posterior and anterior cingulate cortices. PMID:23447611
Gili, Tommaso; Saxena, Neeraj; Diukova, Ana; Murphy, Kevin; Hall, Judith E; Wise, Richard G
The present study tested the hypothesis that estradiol reduces tissue infarction after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in estradiol-deficient females by augmenting glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) expression and thus activity, leading to increases in ?-amino-butyric acid (GABA) tissue levels. Glutamic acid decarboxylase is the principal enzyme for GABA synthesis and has two isoforms, GAD65 and GAD67, which differ in size and cellular distribution. Rats were ovariectomized 7 to 8 days before receiving no hormone, placebo, or 25 ?g estradiol via subcutaneous implant 7 to 10 days before harvesting tissue in either ischemic cohorts after 2 h of MCAO (end-ischemia) or in nonischemic cohorts. Selected cortical and striatal regions were microdissected from harvested brains. GAD65/67 mRNA levels were determined by microlysate ribonuclease protection assay. End-ischemic GABA concentrations were determined by HPLC. Steroid treatment selectively decreased ischemic cortical GAD67 mRNA levels. In most brain regions evaluated, regional GABA concentrations increased with ischemia regardless of treatment. Estradiol blocked MCAO-induced increases in GABA concentration only in dorsomedial cortex. These data suggest that estradiol repletion in ischemic rat brain selectively decreases GAD67 mRNA levels but does not alter steady-state GABA concentrations. It may be that estradiol under ischemic conditions is attenuating GABA metabolism rather than enhancing synthesis or is augmenting other aspects of GABAergic transmission such as GABA transporters and receptors.
Joh, Hung-Dong; Searles, Robin V; Selmanoff, Michael; Alkayed, Nabil J; Koehler, Raymond C; Hurn, Patricia D; Murphy, Stephanie J
Background and Purpose Whether or not migraine can cause cumulative brain alterations due to frequent migraine-related nociceptive input in patients is largely unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize longitudinal changes in brain activity between repeated observations within a short time interval in a group of female migraine patients, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Methods Nineteen patients and 20 healthy controls (HC) participated in the study. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional interregional connectivity were assessed to determine the focal and global features of brain dysfunction in migraine. The relationship between changes in headache parameters and longitudinal brain alterations were also investigated. Results All patients reported that their headache activity increased over time. Abnormal ReHo changes in the patient group relative to the HC were found in the putamen, orbitofrontal cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, brainstem, and thalamus. Moreover, these brain regions exhibited longitudinal ReHo changes at the 6-week follow-up examination. These headache activity changes were accompanied by disproportionately dysfunctional connectivity in the putamen in the migraine patients, as revealed by functional connectivity analysis, suggesting that the putamen plays an important role in integrating diverse information among other migraine-related brain regions. Conclusions The results obtained in this study suggest that progressive brain aberrations in migraine progress as a result of increased headache attacks.
Zhao, Ling; Yan, Xuemei; Dun, Wanghuan; Yang, Jing; Huang, Liyu; Kai, Yuan; Yu, Dahua; Qin, Wei; Jie, Tian
Background Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) or prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders which occur in humans and various animal species. Examples include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk, and scrapie in sheep, and experimental mice. To gain insights into TSE pathogenesis, we made and used cDNA microarrays to identify disease-associated alterations in gene expression. Brain gene expression in scrapie-infected mice was compared to mock-infected mice at pre-symptomatic and symptomatic time points. Three strains of mouse scrapie that show striking differences in neuropathology were studied: ME7, 22L, and Chandler/RML. Results In symptomatic mice, over 400 significant gene expression alterations were identified. In contrast, only 22 genes showed significant alteration in the pre-symptomatic animals. We also identified genes that showed significant differences in alterations in gene expression between strains. Genes identified in this study encode proteins that are involved in many cellular processes including protein folding, endosome/lysosome function, immunity, synapse function, metal ion binding, calcium regulation and cytoskeletal function. Conclusion These studies shed light on the complex molecular events that occur during prion disease, and identify genes whose further study may yield new insights into strain specific neuropathogenesis and ante-mortem tests for TSEs.
Skinner, Pamela J; Abbassi, Hayet; Chesebro, Bruce; Race, Richard E; Reilly, Cavan; Haase, Ashley T
Tumor cell extravasation into the brain requires passage through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). There is evidence that exercise can alter the oxidation status of the brain microvasculature and protect against tumor cell invasion into the brain, although the mechanisms are not well understood. In the current study, we focused on the role of microenvironment generated by exercise and metastasizing tumor cells at the levels of brain microvessels, influencing oxidative stress-mediated responses and activation of redox-sensitive small GTPases. Mature male mice were exercised for four weeks using a running wheel with the average voluntary running distance 9.0±0.3 km/day. Mice were then infused with 1.0×106 D122 (murine Lewis lung carcinoma) cells into the brain microvasculature, and euthanized either 48 hours (in short-term studies) or 2–3 weeks (in long-term studies) post tumor cell administration. A significant increase in the level of reactive oxygen species was observed following 48 hours or 3 weeks of tumor cells growth, which was accompanied by a reduction in MnSOD expression in the exercised mice. Activation of the small GTPase Rho was negatively correlated with running distance in the tumor cell infused mice. Together, these data suggest that exercise may play a significant role during aggressive metastatic invasion, especially at higher intensities in pre-trained individuals.
Wolff, Gretchen; Balke, Jordan E.; Andras, Ibolya E.; Park, Minseon; Toborek, Michal
Tumor cell extravasation into the brain requires passage through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). There is evidence that exercise can alter the oxidation status of the brain microvasculature and protect against tumor cell invasion into the brain, although the mechanisms are not well understood. In the current study, we focused on the role of microenvironment generated by exercise and metastasizing tumor cells at the levels of brain microvessels, influencing oxidative stress-mediated responses and activation of redox-sensitive small GTPases. Mature male mice were exercised for four weeks using a running wheel with the average voluntary running distance 9.0 ± 0.3 km/day. Mice were then infused with 1.0 × 10(6) D122 (murine Lewis lung carcinoma) cells into the brain microvasculature, and euthanized either 48 hours (in short-term studies) or 2-3 weeks (in long-term studies) post tumor cell administration. A significant increase in the level of reactive oxygen species was observed following 48 hours or 3 weeks of tumor cells growth, which was accompanied by a reduction in MnSOD expression in the exercised mice. Activation of the small GTPase Rho was negatively correlated with running distance in the tumor cell infused mice. Together, these data suggest that exercise may play a significant role during aggressive metastatic invasion, especially at higher intensities in pre-trained individuals. PMID:24804765
Wolff, Gretchen; Balke, Jordan E; Andras, Ibolya E; Park, Minseon; Toborek, Michal
Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for insomnia, depression, and anxiety consisting of pulsed, low-intensity current applied to the earlobes or scalp. Despite empirical evidence of clinical efficacy, its mechanism of action is largely unknown. The goal was to characterize the acute effects of CES on resting state brain activity. Our primary hypothesis was that CES would result in deactivation in cortical and subcortical regions. Eleven healthy controls were administered CES applied to the earlobes at subsensory thresholds while being scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging in the resting state. We tested 0.5- and 100-Hz stimulation, using blocks of 22 sec "on" alternating with 22 sec of baseline (device was "off"). The primary outcome measure was differences in blood oxygen level dependent data associated with the device being on versus baseline. The secondary outcome measures were the effects of stimulation on connectivity within the default mode, sensorimotor, and fronto-parietal networks. Both 0.5- and 100-Hz stimulation resulted in significant deactivation in midline frontal and parietal regions. 100-Hz stimulation was associated with both increases and decreases in connectivity within the default mode network (DMN). Results suggest that CES causes cortical brain deactivation, with a similar pattern for high- and low-frequency stimulation, and alters connectivity in the DMN. These effects may result from interference from high- or low-frequency noise. Small perturbations of brain oscillations may therefore have significant effects on normal resting state brain activity. These results provide insight into the mechanism of action of CES, and may assist in the future development of optimal parameters for effective treatment. PMID:22741094
Feusner, Jamie D; Madsen, Sarah; Moody, Teena D; Bohon, Cara; Hembacher, Emily; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Bystritsky, Alexander
Many pathologies alter the mechanical properties of tissue. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been developed to noninvasively characterize these quantities in vivo. Typically, small vibrations are induced in the tissue of interest with an external mechanical actuator. The resulting displacements are measured with phase contrast sequences and are then used to estimate the underlying mechanical property distribution. Several MRE studies have quantified brain tissue properties. However, the cranium and meninges, especially the dura, are very effective at damping externally applied vibrations from penetrating deeply into the brain. Here, we report a method, termed 'intrinsic activation', that eliminates the requirement for external vibrations by measuring the motion generated by natural blood vessel pulsation. A retrospectively gated phase contrast MR angiography sequence was used to record the tissue velocity at eight phases of the cardiac cycle. The velocities were numerically integrated via the Fourier transform to produce the harmonic displacements at each position within the brain. The displacements were then reconstructed into images of the shear modulus based on both linear elastic and poroelastic models. The mechanical properties produced fall within the range of brain tissue estimates reported in the literature and, equally important, the technique yielded highly reproducible results. The mean shear modulus was 8.1 kPa for linear elastic reconstructions and 2.4 kPa for poroelastic reconstructions where fluid pressure carries a portion of the stress. Gross structures of the brain were visualized, particularly in the poroelastic reconstructions. Intra-subject variability was significantly less than the inter-subject variability in a study of six asymptomatic individuals. Further, larger changes in mechanical properties were observed in individuals when examined over time than when the MRE procedures were repeated on the same day. Cardiac pulsation, termed intrinsic activation, produces sufficient motion to allow mechanical properties to be recovered. The poroelastic model is more consistent with the measured data from brain at low frequencies than the linear elastic model. Intrinsic activation allows MRE to be performed without a device shaking the head so the patient notices no differences between it and the other sequences in an MR examination. PMID:23079508
Weaver, John B; Pattison, Adam J; McGarry, Matthew D; Perreard, Irina M; Swienckowski, Jessica G; Eskey, Clifford J; Lollis, S Scott; Paulsen, Keith D
Problem Addressed Many pathologies alter the mechanical properties of tissue. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has been developed to noninvasively characterize these quantities in vivo. Typically, small vibrations are induced in the tissue of interest with an external mechanical actuator. The resulting displacements are measured with phase contrast sequences and are then used to estimate the underlying mechanical property distribution. Several MRE studies have quantified brain tissue properties. However, the cranium and meninges, especially the dura, are very effective at damping externally applied vibrations from penetrating deeply into the brain. Here, we report a method, termed ‘intrinsic activation’, that eliminates the requirement for external vibrations by measuring the motion generated by natural blood vessel pulsation. Methodology A retrospectively gated phase contrast MR angiography sequence was used to record the tissue velocity at eight phases of the cardiac cycle. The velocities were numerically integrated via the Fourier transform to produce the harmonic displacements at each position within the brain. The displacements were then reconstructed into images of the shear modulus based on both linear elastic and poroelastic models. Results, Significance and Potential Impact The mechanical properties produced fall within the range of brain tissue estimates reported in the literature and, equally important, the technique yielded highly reproducible results. The mean shear modulus was 8.1 kPa for linear elastic reconstructions and 2.4 kPa for poroelastic reconstructions where fluid pressure carries a portion of the stress. Gross structures of the brain were visualized, particularly in the poroelastic reconstructions. Intra-subject variability was significantly less than the inter-subject variability in a study of 6 asymptomatic individuals. Further, larger changes in mechanical properties were observed in individuals when examined over time than when the MRE procedures were repeated on the same day. Cardiac pulsation, termed intrinsic activation, produces sufficient motion to allow mechanical properties to be recovered. The poroelastic model is more consistent with the measured data from brain at low frequencies than the linear elastic model. Intrinsic activation allows MR elastography to be performed without a device shaking the head so the patient notices no differences between it and the other sequences in an MR examination.
Pattison, Adam J.; McGarry, Matthew D.; Perreard, Irina M.; Swienckowski, Jessica G.; Eskey, Clifford J.; Lollis, S. Scott; Paulsen, Keith D.
Microwaves have been proposed to alter neural functioning through both thermal and non-thermal mechanisms. We attempted to determine if local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) depends on the type of hyperthermic agent employed. We exposed the heads of rats to two different hyperthermic agents (5.6 GHz microwave exposure or exposure to hot/moist air) to create a 2 degree C rise in midbrain temperature. Other rats were sham exposed and remained normothermic. The 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) autoradiographic method was then used to determine LCGU during a 45-min period of stable hyperthermia. Hyperthermia (created by either hyperthermic agent) caused a general rise in brain glucose utilization. Hot-air exposed rats showed significantly higher LCGUs than microwaved rats in portions of the motor cortex, hypothalamus, lateral lemniscus and the substantia nigra (reticulata). Microwave exposure did not produce significantly higher levels of LCGU (compared to hot-air exposed hyperthermic controls) in any of the 47 brain areas sampled. A time analysis of lateral hypothalamic (LH) temperature during these different heating procedures revealed that microwave exposure produced a more-rapid rise in temperature than did not/moist air. Thus, we wondered if the nuclei-specific differences in LCGU could be explained by localized differences in rate of brain heating during the two hyperthermic treatments. In a second study we carefully matched both the rate of lateral hypothalamic temperature rise and the peak temperatures achieved by our two hyperthermic methods and again measured LH LCGUs. We found that this precise matching eliminated the difference in hypothalamic LCGU previously observed following microwave or hot-air exposure. These data suggest that hyperthermia causes a general rise in brain metabolism and that (as long as steady state and rate of local brain temperature increase are well matched) microwave and hot-air induced hyperthermia produce similar changes in LCGU. PMID:9024931
Mickley, G A; Cobb, B L; Farrell, S T
Objective. The goal of this study was to compare the muscle activation patterns in various major leg muscles during treadmill ambulation with those exhibited during robotic-assisted walking. Background. Robotic devices are now being integrated into neurorehabilitation programs with promising results. The influence of these devices on altering naturally occurring muscle activation patterns utilized during walking have not been quantified. Methods.
Joseph M. Hidler; Anji E. Wall
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a powerful tool for investigating the working human brain based on the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) effect on the MR signal. However, despite the widespread use of fMRI techniques for mapping brain activation, the basic physiological mechanisms underlying the observed signal changes are still poorly understood. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques, which measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the BOLD effect simultaneously, provide a useful tool for investigating these physiological questions. In this paper, recent results of studies manipulating the baseline CBF both pharmacologically and physiologically will be discussed. These data are consistent with a feed-forward mechanism of neurovascular coupling, and suggest that the CBF change itself may be a more robust reflection of neural activity changes than the BOLD effect. Consistent with these data, a new thermodynamic hypothesis is proposed for the physiological function of CBF regulation: maintenance of the [O2]/[CO2] concentration ratio at the mitochondria in order to preserve the free energy available from oxidative metabolism. A kinetic model based on this hypothesis provides a reasonable quantitative description of the CBF changes associated with neural activity and altered blood gases (CO2 and O2).
Buxton, Richard B.; Uludag, Kamil; Dubowitz, David J.
Signal transduction cascade, phosphoinositide metabolism, and protein kinases were studied from discrete areas of rat brain like cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brainstem, and diencephalon as well as lymphocytes isolated from three different age groups of rats; young (1 month), young adult (3–4 months), and adult (12 months) rats. The activities of protein kinase A, protein kinase C, phospholipase A2 and phospholipase
Sukhjit Kaur Sandhu; Sanjeev Kumar Bhardwaj; Poonam Sharma; Gurcharan Kaur
Activation-dependent brain plasticity in humans on a structural level has been demonstrated in adults after 3 months of training a visio- motor skill. The exact timescale of usage-dependent structural changes, whether days, months, or years, is, however, still de- bated. A better understanding of the temporal parameters may help elucidate to what extent this type of cortical plasticity contributes to
A. May; G. Hajak; S Ganssbauer; T. Steffens; B. Langguth; T Kleinjung; P Eichhammer
Calcium is actively transported into intracellular organelles and out of the cytoplasm by Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPases located in the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes. he effects of aluminum on calcium transport were examined in the adult rat brain. 5Ca-uptake was examined in micr...
After traumatic brain injury (TBI), arachidonic acid (ArA) is released from damaged cell membranes and metabolized to many bioactive eicosanoids, including several epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2, sEH) appears to be the predominant pathway for EET metabolism to less active dihydroxyeicosatrienoates (DHETs). Prior studies indicate that brain levels of EETs increase transiently after TBI and EETs have antiinflammatory and neuroprotective activities which may benefit the injured brain. If the net effect of increased EET levels in the injured brain is beneficial to recovery, then Ephx2 gene disruption would be expected to enhance elevated EET levels and improve recovery in the injured brain. Thus, Ephx2-KO (Ephx2?/? bred onto pure C57Bl/6 background) mice were compared to wild-type controls in a unilateral controlled cortical impact model of TBI. Before injury, animals behaved comparably in open field activity and neurologic reflexes. Interestingly, the Ephx2-KO mice showed improved motor coordination on a beam walk task, yet showed indications of defective learning in a test of working spatial memory. After surgery, brain-injured Ephx2-KO mice again had less of a deficit in the beam walk than wild-type, and the difference in latency (post – pre) showed a trend of protection for Ephx2-KO mice after TBI. Brain-injured mice showed no genotype differences in working memory. Surprisingly, sham-operated Ephx2-KO mice exhibited an injured phenotype for working memory, compared to sham-operated wild-type mice. Brain eicosanoid levels were measured using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 20 eicosanoids evaluated, only 8,9-EET was elevated in the Ephx2-KO cerebral cortex (37d post-surgery, in both sham and injured). Tissue DHET levels were below the limit of quantification. These results reflect a significant contribution of sEH deficiency in coordination of ambulatory movements and working spatial memory in the mouse. Further investigation of differential sEH expression and EET levels at earlier time points and across other brain regions may shed light on these behavioral differences.
Gruzdev, Artiom; Zeldin, Darryl C.
After traumatic brain injury (TBI), arachidonic acid (ArA) is released from damaged cell membranes and metabolized to many bioactive eicosanoids, including several epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs). Soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2, sEH) appears to be the predominant pathway for EET metabolism to less active dihydroxyeicosatrienoates (DHETs). Prior studies indicate that brain levels of EETs increase transiently after TBI and EETs have antiinflammatory and neuroprotective activities which may benefit the injured brain. If the net effect of increased EET levels in the injured brain is beneficial to recovery, then Ephx2 gene disruption would be expected to enhance elevated EET levels and improve recovery in the injured brain. Thus, Ephx2-KO (Ephx2(-/-) bred onto pure C57Bl/6 background) mice were compared to wild-type controls in a unilateral controlled cortical impact model of TBI. Before injury, animals behaved comparably in open field activity and neurologic reflexes. Interestingly, the Ephx2-KO mice showed improved motor coordination on a beam walk task, yet showed indications of defective learning in a test of working spatial memory. After surgery, brain-injured Ephx2-KO mice again had less of a deficit in the beam walk than wild-type, and the difference in latency (post-pre) showed a trend of protection for Ephx2-KO mice after TBI. Brain-injured mice showed no genotype differences in working memory. Surprisingly, sham-operated Ephx2-KO mice exhibited an injured phenotype for working memory, compared to sham-operated wild-type mice. Brain eicosanoid levels were measured using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Of the 20 eicosanoids evaluated, only 8,9-EET was elevated in the Ephx2-KO cerebral cortex (37 d post-surgery, in both sham and injured). Tissue DHET levels were below the limit of quantification. These results reflect a significant contribution of sEH deficiency in coordination of ambulatory movements and working spatial memory in the mouse. Further investigation of differential sEH expression and EET levels at earlier time points and across other brain regions may shed light on these behavioral differences. PMID:22922090
Strauss, Kenneth I; Gruzdev, Artiom; Zeldin, Darryl C
Many investigators have hypothesized that brain response to cortisol is altered in depression. However, neural activation in response to exogenously manipulated cortisol elevations has not yet been directly examined in depressed humans. Animal research shows that glucocorticoids have robust effects on hippocampal function, and can either enhance or suppress neuroplastic events in the hippocampus depending on a number of factors. We hypothesized that depressed individuals would show 1) altered hippocampal response to exogenous administration of cortisol, and 2) altered effects of cortisol on learning. In a repeated-measures design, 19 unmedicated depressed and 41 healthy individuals completed two fMRI scans. Fifteen mg oral hydrocortisone (i.e., cortisol) or placebo (order randomized and double-blind) was administered one hour prior to encoding of emotional and neutral words during fMRI scans. Data analysis examined the effects of cortisol administration on 1) brain activation during encoding, and 2) subsequent free recall for words. Cortisol affected subsequent recall performance in depressed but not healthy individuals. We found alterations in hippocampal response to cortisol in depressed women, but not in depressed men (who showed altered response to cortisol in other regions, including subgenual prefrontal cortex). In both depressed men and women, cortisol’s effects on hippocampal function were positively correlated with its effects on recall performance assessed days later. Our data provide evidence that in depressed compared to healthy women, cortisol’s effects on hippocampal function are altered. Our data also show that in both depressed men and women, cortisol’s effects on emotional memory formation and hippocampal function are related.
Abercrombie, Heather C.; Jahn, Allison L.; Davidson, Richard J.; Kern, Simone; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Halverson, Jerry
It is well established that alterations of the serotoninergic system may contribute to the pathophysiology of mood disorders. Accordingly, it has been demonstrated that genetic deletion of the serotonin transporter (SERT) in rodents leads to an anxious and depressive phenotype, which is also associated with reduced neuronal plasticity. Indeed, we have demonstrated that adult SERT(-/-) animals show decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, as well as reduced levels of transcription factor regulating the neurotrophin transcription. While these changes may represent long-term consequences of impaired function of the transporter during development, no information exists with respect to the developmental profile of such changes. Using SERT(-/-) rats at different ages, we found that the impairment in neuroplasticity originates early in development and worsens during the first 3 weeks of life. Indeed, we observed that BDNF expression was reduced at birth and that the magnitude of these changes became more pronounced starting from PND21, being sustained by epigenetic mechanisms as well as alterations in the expression of specific transcription factors, including Npas4 and CaRF. These results suggest that an impairment of SERT may affect BDNF expression throughout postnatal development. These early changes may increase stress susceptibility during critical windows of brain maturation, which may eventually lead to the heightened predisposition to mood disorders found in individual carrying genetic variants of the serotonin transporter. PMID:23564488
Calabrese, Francesca; Guidotti, Gianluigi; Middelman, Anthonieke; Racagni, Giorgio; Homberg, Judith; Riva, Marco A
Oxidative stress after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in brain. However, the mechanism of this activation has not been elucidated. We have previously reported that in an in vitro model of oxidative stress in immature cortical neuronal cultures, the inhibition of ERK phosphatase activity contributes to ERK1/2 activation and subsequent neuronal toxicity. This study examined whether ERK activation was associated with altered activity of ERK phosphatases in a rat cardiac arrest model. Rats in experimental groups were subjected to asphyxial cardiac arrest for 8 min and then resuscitated for 30 min. Significant ERK activation was detected in both cortex and hippocampus following ischemia/reperfusion by immunoblotting. ERK phosphatase activity was reversibly inhibited in cerebral cortex but not affected in hippocampus following ischemia/reperfusion. MEK1/2 was activated in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus following ischemia/reperfusion. Using a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), okadaic acid (OA), we have identified PP2A to be the major ERK phosphatase that is responsible for regulating ERK activation in ischemic brain tissues. Orthovanadate inhibited ERK phosphatase activity in brain tissues, suggesting that tyrosine phosphatases and dual specificity phosphatases may also contribute to the ERK phosphatase activity in brain tissues. Together, these data implicate ERK phosphatase in the regulation of ERK activation in distinct brain regions following global ischemia.
Ho, Yeung; Logue, Eric; Callaway, Clifton W; DeFranco, Donald B
Nearly 30% of the approximately 700,000 military personnel who served in Operation Desert Storm (1990-1991) have developed Gulf War Illness, a condition that presents with symptoms such as cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, debilitating fatigue and chronic widespread pain that implicate the central nervous system. A hallmark complaint of subjects with Gulf War Illness is post-exertional malaise; defined as an exacerbation of symptoms following physical and/or mental effort. To study the causal relationship between exercise, the brain, and changes in symptoms, 28 Gulf War veterans and 10 controls completed an fMRI scan before and after two exercise stress tests to investigate serial changes in pain, autonomic function, and working memory. Exercise induced two clinical Gulf War Illness subgroups. One subgroup presented with orthostatic tachycardia (n?=?10). This phenotype correlated with brainstem atrophy, baseline working memory compensation in the cerebellar vermis, and subsequent loss of compensation after exercise. The other subgroup developed exercise induced hyperalgesia (n?=?18) that was associated with cortical atrophy and baseline working memory compensation in the basal ganglia. Alterations in cognition, brain structure, and symptoms were absent in controls. Our novel findings may provide an understanding of the relationship between the brain and post-exertional malaise in Gulf War Illness. PMID:23798990
Rayhan, Rakib U; Stevens, Benson W; Raksit, Megna P; Ripple, Joshua A; Timbol, Christian R; Adewuyi, Oluwatoyin; VanMeter, John W; Baraniuk, James N
Objective Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common median nerve entrapment neuropathy characterized by pain, paresthesias, diminished peripheral nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and maladaptive functional brain neuroplasticity. We evaluated structural reorganization in brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) and whether such plasticity is linked to altered median nerve function in CTS. Methods We performed NCV testing, T1-weighted structural MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 28 CTS and 28 age-matched healthy controls (HC). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) contrasted regional GM volume for CTS versus HC. Significant clusters were correlated with clinical metrics and served as seeds to define associated WM tracts using DTI data and probabilistic tractography. Within these WM tracts, fractional anisotropy (FA), axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity were evaluated for group differences and correlations with clinical metrics. Results For CTS subjects, GM volume was significantly reduced in contralesional S1 (hand-area), pulvinar and frontal pole. GM volume in contralesional S1 correlated with median NCV. NCV was also correlated with RD and was negatively correlated with FA within U-fiber cortico-cortical association tracts identified from the contralesional S1 VBM seed. Conclusions Our study identified clear morphometric changes in the CTS brain. This central morphometric change is likely secondary to peripheral nerve pathology and altered somatosensory afference. Enhanced axonal coherence and myelination within cortico-cortical tracts connecting primary somatosensory and motor areas may accompany peripheral nerve deafferentation. As structural plasticity was correlated with NCV and not symptomatology, the former may be a better determinant of appropriate clinical intervention for CTS, including surgery.
Maeda, Yumi; Kettner, Norman; Sheehan, James; Kim, Jieun; Cina, Stephen; Malatesta, Cristina; Gerber, Jessica; McManus, Claire; Mezzacappa, Pia; Morse, Leslie R.; Audette, Joseph; Napadow, Vitaly
Most existing animal models for stress involve the simultaneous application of physical and psychological stress factors. In the current study, we described and used a novel psychological stress model (scream sound stress). To study the validity of it, we carried out acute and chronic scream sound stress. First, adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into white noise, stress and background groups. The white noise group and stress group were treated with white noise and scream sound for 4h in the morning respectively. Compared with white noise and background groups, exposure to acute scream sound increased corticosterone (CORT) level and decreased latency in Morris water maze (MWM) test. The levels of noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were altered in the striatum, hypothalamus and hippocampus of stress rats. Second, adult SD rats were randomly divided into background and stress groups, which were treated with scream sound for three weeks. Exposure to chronic scream sound suppressed body weight gain, increased corticosterone (CORT) level, influenced the morphology of adrenal gland, improved spleen and thymus indices, and decreased latency in MWM test. NE, DA, DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA levels were also altered in the brain of stress rats. Our results suggested that scream sound, as a novel stressor, facilitated learning ability, as well as altered monoamine levels in the rat brain. Moreover, scream sound is easy to apply and can be applied in more animals at the same time. PMID:24096192
Hu, Lili; Yang, Juan; Song, Tusheng; Hou, Ni; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Xiaoge; Zhang, Dianzeng; Wang, Lumin; Wang, Tao; Huang, Chen
Objective Using an animal model, we have previously shown that preeclampsia results in long-term adverse neuromotor outcomes in the offspring, and this phenotype was prevented by antenatal treatment with pravastatin. This study aims to localize the altered neuromotor programming in this animal model and to evaluate the role of pravastatin in its prevention. Materials and Methods For the preeclampsia model, pregnant CD-1 mice were randomly allocated to injection of adenovirus carrying sFlt-1 or its control virus carrying mFc into the tail vein. Thereafter they received pravastatin (sFlt-1-pra “experimental group”) or water (sFlt-1 “positive control”) until weaning. The mFc group (“negative control”) received water. Offspring at 6 months of age were sacrificed, and whole brains underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRIs were performed using an 11.7 Tesla vertical bore MRI scanner. T2 weighted images were acquired to evaluate the volumes of 28 regions of interest, including areas involved in adaptation and motor, spatial and sensory function. Cytochemistry and cell quantification was performed using neuron-specific Nissl stain. One-way ANOVA with multiple comparison testing was used for statistical analysis. Results Compared with control offspring, male sFlt-1 offspring have decreased volumes in the fimbria, periaquaductal gray, stria medullaris, and ventricles and increased volumes in the lateral globus pallidus and neocortex; however, female sFlt-1 offspring showed increased volumes in the ventricles, stria medullaris, and fasciculus retroflexus and decreased volumes in the inferior colliculus, thalamus, and lateral globus pallidus. Neuronal quantification via Nissl staining exhibited decreased cell counts in sFlt-1 offspring neocortex, more pronounced in males. Prenatal pravastatin treatment prevented these changes. Conclusion Preeclampsia alters brain development in sex-specific patterns, and prenatal pravastatin therapy prevents altered neuroanatomic programming in this animal model.
Carver, Alissa R.; Andrikopoulou, Maria; Lei, Jun; Tamayo, Esther; Gamble, Phyllis; Hou, Zhipeng; Zhang, Jiangyang; Mori, Susumu; Saade, George R.; Costantine, Maged M.; Burd, Irina
An acute dose of phosalone, intraperitoneally injected to Rana tigrina alters the bioelectrical activity of the brain. The frequency levels of delta, theta, alpha, and beta waves remained similar in both control and experimental groups, while the amplitude of the waves was significantly decreased by 40 to 60% in the latter group. The total work done (TWD) was also significantly reduced. The above disturbance in the brain electrical activity may have correlation to the inhibition of cation-linked ATPase, as well as the cholinesterase activity. PMID:9440249
Balasandaram, K; Ramalingam, K; Selvarajan, V R
Background Substantially elevated blood D-lactate (DLA) concentrations are associated with neurocardiac toxicity in humans and animals. The neurological symptoms are similar to inherited or acquired abnormalities of pyruvate metabolism. We hypothesized that DLA interferes with mitochondrial utilization of L-lactate and pyruvate in brain and heart. Methods Respiration rates in rat brain, heart and liver mitochondria were measured using DLA, LLA and pyruvate independently and in combination. Results In brain mitochondria, state 3 respiration was 53% and 75% lower with DLA as substrate when compared with LLA and pyruvate, respectively (p < 0.05). Similarly in heart mitochondria, state 3 respiration was 39% and 86% lower with DLA as substrate when compared with LLA or pyruvate, respectively (p < 0.05). However, state 3 respiration rates were similar between DLA, LLA and pyruvate in liver mitochondria. Combined incubation of DLA with LLA or pyruvate markedly impaired state 3 respiration rates in brain and heart mitochondria (p < 0.05) but not in liver mitochondria. DLA dehydrogenase activities were 61% and 51% lower in brain and heart mitochondria compared to liver, respectively, whereas LLA dehydrogenase activities were similar across all three tissues. An LDH inhibitor blocked state 3 respiration with LLA as substrate in all three tissues. A monocarboxylate transporter inhibitor blocked respiration with all three substrates. Conclusions DLA was a poor respiratory substrate in brain and heart mitochondria and inhibited LLA and pyruvate usage in these tissues. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether these findings support, in part, the possible neurological and cardiac toxicity caused by high DLA levels.
Objective. The goal of this study was to compare the muscle activation patterns in various major leg muscles during treadmill ambulation with those exhibited during robotic-assisted walking.Background. Robotic devices are now being integrated into neurorehabilitation programs with promising results. The influence of these devices on altering naturally occurring muscle activation patterns utilized during walking have not been quantified.Methods. Muscle activity
Joseph M. Hidler; Anji E. Wall
Infection of molluscs by digenean trematode parasites typically results in the repression of reproduction -- the so-called parasitic castration. This is known to occur by altering the expression of a range of host neuropeptide genes. Here we analyse the expression levels of 10 members of POU, Pax, Sox and Hox transcription factor gene families, along with genes encoding FMRFamide, prohormone convertase and beta-tubulin, in the brain ganglia of actively reproducing (summer), non-reproducing (winter) and infected Haliotis asinina (a vetigastropod mollusc). A number of the regulatory genes are differentially expressed in parasitised H. asinina, but in only a few cases do expression patterns in infected animals match those occurring in animals where reproduction is normally repressed. PMID:16777099
Rice, Tamika; McGraw, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Elizabeth K; Reverter, Antonio; Jackson, Daniel J; Degnan, Bernard M
A critical role of the FOX transcription factors in the development of different tissues has been shown. Among these genes, FOXN1 encodes a protein whose alteration is responsible for the Nude/SCID phenotype. Recently, our group reported on a human Nude/SCID fetus, which also had severe neural tube defects, namely anencephaly and spina bifida. This led to hypothesize that FOXN1 could have a role in the early stages of central nervous system development. Here we report on a second fetus that carried the R255X homozygous mutation in FOXN1 that has been examined for the presence of CNS developmental anomalies. At 16 postmenstrual weeks of gestation, the abdominal ultrasonography of the Nude/SCID fetus revealed a morphologically normal brain, but with absence of cavum septi pellucidi (CSP). Moreover, after confirmation of the diagnosis of severe Nude/SCID, the fetus was further examined postmortem and a first gross examination revealed an enlargement of the interhemispheric fissure. Subsequently, a magnetic resonance imaging failed to identify the corpus callosum in any section. In conclusion, our observations did not reveal any gross abnormalities in the CNS anatomy of the Nude/SCID fetus, but alteration of the corpus callosum, suggesting that FOXN1 alterations could play a role as a cofactor in CNS development in a similar fashion to other FOX family members. PMID:20864124
Amorosi, Stefania; Vigliano, Ilaria; Del Giudice, Ennio; Panico, Luigi; Maruotti, Giuseppe M; Fusco, Anna; Quarantelli, Mario; Ciccone, Carla; Ursini, Matilde V; Martinelli, Pasquale; Pignata, Claudio
Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain asymmetry. The present study explored these issues by comparing resting regional electroencephalographic activity in participants high in trait anger who differed in anger expression style (high anger-in, high anger-out, both) and participants low in trait anger, with depression and anxiety systematically assessed. Trait anger, not anger-in or anger-out, predicted left-biased asymmetry at medial frontal EEG sites. The anger-in group reported higher levels of anxious apprehension than did the anger-out group. Furthermore, anxious apprehension moderated the relationship between trait anger, anger-in, and asymmetry in favor of the left hemisphere. Results suggest that motivational direction is not always the driving force behind the relationship of anger and left frontal asymmetry. Findings also support a distinction between anxious apprehension and anxious arousal. PMID:18837620
Stewart, Jennifer L; Levin-Silton, Rebecca; Sass, Sarah M; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A
The present study investigated the precise relationship between brain biogenic amine (dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin) tones and nociception. Nociceptive sensitivities to multimodal (muscle pressure, tactile, cold, and heat) stimuli were assessed in acute phase (up to 24 h after reserpine or tetrabenazine injection) and chronic phase (on day 2 or later) in rats. A single injection of reserpine (3 mg/kg s.c.) significantly decreased biogenic amines in the spinal cord (SC), thalamus (THA), and prefrontal cortex (PFC) in both acute and chronic phases, but significantly increased a dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) in the SC and a serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the SC and THA in acute phase. The content of all biogenic amine metabolites was at low level in chronic phase. Animals exhibited hypersensitivities to tactile and heat stimuli and hyposensitivity to muscle pressure stimulus in acute phase. In chronic phase, they manifested hypersensitivities to all modes of stimuli. Tetrabenazine (20 mg/kg i.p.) significantly decreased brain biogenic amines for a short time, although it did not significantly affect the nociceptive sensitivities. In conclusion, a single injection of reserpine causes a biphasic alteration of nociceptive sensitivities, which is in conjunction with the dynamic change of brain biogenic amine tones, in rats. Cold and heat hypersensitivities in addition to mechanical ones are induced by the reserpine treatment. Sustained modification of brain biogenic amine tones would be critical to induce a robust change in nociceptive sensitivities based on the different effects between reserpine and tetrabenazine. PMID:20600634
Oe, T; Tsukamoto, M; Nagakura, Y
Background Maternal infection during pregnancy has been repeatedly associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. Nevertheless, most viruses do not cross the placenta; therefore, the damaging effects to the fetus appear to be related to maternal antiviral responses to infection (e.g. proinflammatory cytokines). Fetal exposure to the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been significantly associated with risk of schizophrenia in offspring. This study sought to determine the association between fetal exposure to IL-8 and structural brain changes among schizophrenia cases and controls. Methods Subjects were 17 cases diagnosed with schizophrenia from the Developmental Insult and Brain Anomaly in Schizophrenia (DIBS) study. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined among offspring with semi-structured interviews and medical records review. IL-8 was determined from assays in archived prenatal sera and volumetric analyses of neuroanatomical regions were obtained from T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in adulthood. Eight controls were included for exploratory purposes. Results Among cases, fetal exposure to increases in IL-8 was associated with significant increases in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid, significant decreases in left entorhinal cortex volumes and significant decreases in right posterior cingulate volumes. Decreases that approached significance also were found in volumes of the right caudate, the putamen (bilaterally), and the right superior temporal gyrus. No significant associations were observed among controls. Conclusion Fetal exposure to elevations in maternal IL-8 led to structural neuroanatomic alterations among cases in regions of the brain consistently implicated in schizophrenia research. In utero exposure to elevations in IL-8 may partially account for brain disturbances commonly found in schizophrenia.
Ellman, Lauren M.; Deicken, Raymond F.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Kremen, William S.; Poole, John H.; Kern, David M.; Tsai, Wei Yann; Schaefer, Catherine A.; Brown, Alan S.
Previous studies found altered brain function in deaf individuals reading alphabetic orthographies. However, it is not known whether similar alterations of brain function are characteristic of non-alphabetic writing systems and whether alterations are specific to certain kinds of lexical tasks. Here we examined differences in brain activation between Chinese congenitally deaf individuals (CD) and hearing controls (HC) during character reading tasks requiring phonological and semantic judgments. For both tasks, we found that CD showed less activation than HC in left inferior frontal gyrus, but greater activation in several right hemisphere regions including inferior frontal gyrus, angular gyrus, and inferior temporal gyrus. Although many group differences were similar across tasks, greater activation in right middle frontal gyrus was more pronounced for the rhyming compared to the meaning task. Finally, within the deaf individuals better performance on the rhyming task was associated with less activation in right inferior parietal lobule and angular gyrus. Our results in Chinese CD are broadly consistent with previous studies in alphabetic languages suggesting greater engagement of inferior frontal gyrus and inferior parietal cortex for reading that is largely independent of task, with the exception of right middle frontal gyrus for phonological processing. The brain behavior correlations potentially indicate that CD that more efficiently use the right hemisphere are better readers.
Li, Yanyan; Peng, Danling; Liu, Li; Booth, James R.; Ding, Guosheng
In this paper, we describe a person's brain activity when he/she sees an emoticon at the end of a sentence. An emoticon consists of some characters that resemble the human face and expresses a sender's emotion. With the help of a computer network, we use e-mail, messenger, avatars and so on, in order to convey what we wish to, to a receiver. Moreover, we send an emotional expression by using an emoticon at the end of a sentence. In this research, we investigate the effect of an emoticon as nonverbal information, using an fMRI study. The experimental results show that the right and left inferior frontal gyrus were activated and we detect a sentence with an emoticon as the verbal and nonverval information.
Yuasa, Masahide; Saito, Keiichi; Mukawa, Naoki
Glucose is a major energy source for the brain, and along with several monosaccharide derivatives as components of brain gangliosides, they play important roles in neurologic function. However, there is little information available on the role of glucose and other monosaccharides on resting brain activity. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a single dose of a carbohydrate
CHENGHUA WANG; JOANNE S. SZABO; ROSCOE A. DYKMAN
Background and Purpose Stroke of the right MCA is common. Such strokes often have consequences for emotional experience, but these can be subtle. In such cases diagnosis is difficult because emotional awareness (limiting reporting of emotional changes) may be affected. The present study sought to clarify the mechanisms of altered emotion experience after right MCA stroke. It was predicted that after right MCA stroke the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a brain region concerned with emotional awareness, would show reduced neural activity. Methods Brain activity during presentation of emotional stimuli was measured in six patients with stable stroke, and in 12 age and gender matched non-lesion comparisons using positron emission tomography and the [15O]H2O autoradiographic method. Results MCA stroke was associated with weaker pleasant experience and decreased activity ipsilaterally in the ACC. Other regions involved in emotional processing including thalamus, dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex showed reduced activity ipsilaterally. Dorsal and medial prefrontal cortex, association visual cortex and cerebellum showed reduced activity contralaterally. Experience from unpleasant stimuli was unaltered and was associated with decreased activity only in the left midbrain. Conclusions Right MCA stroke may reduce experience of pleasant emotions by altering brain activity in limbic and paralimbic regions distant from the area of direct damage, in addition to changes due to direct tissue damage to insula and basal ganglia. The knowledge acquired in this study begins to explain the mechanisms underlying emotional changes following right MCA stroke. Recognizing these changes may improve diagnoses, management and rehabilitation of right MCA stroke victims.
Paradiso, Sergio; Anderson, Beth M.; Boles Ponto, Laura L.; Tranel, Daniel; Robinson, Robert G.
The current study investigated the neural networks activated during the anticipation of potentially threatening body symptoms evoked by a guided hyperventilation task in a group of participants reporting either high or low fear of unexplained somatic sensations. 15 subjects reporting high and 14 subjects reporting low fear of somatic symptoms first learned that one of two cues predicted the occurrence of a hyperventilation task reliably producing body symptoms in all participants that were rated as more intense and unpleasant in the high fear group. During anticipation of unpleasant symptoms, high fear participants reported more intense body symptoms and showed potentiation of the startle reflex. After this learning session, participants were taken into the fMRI where the same cues either predicted the occurrence of hyperventilation or normoventilation, although the task was never performed in the scanner. During anticipation of hyperventilation all participants showed an increased activation of anterior insula/orbitofrontal cortex and rostral parts of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dACC/dmPFC). Brain activation of high compared to low fear participants differed in two ways. First, high fear participants showed an overall stronger activation of this network during threat and safe conditions indexing stronger anxious apprehension during the entire context. Second, while low fear participants no longer responded with stronger activation to the threat cue after experiencing that the hyperventilation challenge did not follow this cue, high fear participants continued to show stronger activation of the network to this cue. Activation of the rostral dACC/dmPFC was significantly correlated with reported fear of somatic symptoms. These data demonstrate that anticipation of interoceptive threat activates the same network that has been found to be active during anticipation of exteroceptive threat cues. Thus, the current paradigm might provide an innovative method to study anxious apprehension and treatment effects in patients with panic disorder. PMID:22440646
Holtz, Katharina; Pané-Farré, Christiane A; Wendt, Julia; Lotze, Martin; Hamm, Alfons O
Monoamine oxidase (MAO) has many intraneuronal regulatory metabolic functions as well as detoxifying properties. Inhibition of the enzyme leads to rapid changes in the cellular concentrations of neurotransmitter amines and in the balance between different amines in neurons. Longer term alterations in MAO activity are accompanied by secondary, adaptational changes in neurotransmitter-related receptors, other enzymes, and additional cell functions in
Dennis L. Murphy; Ned H. Kalin
Glial cells constitute a large percentage of cells in the nervous system. During recent years, a large number of studies have critically attributed to glia a new role which no longer reflects the long-held view that glia constitute solely a silent and passive supportive scaffolding for brain cells. Indeed, it has been hypothesized that glia, partnering neurons, have a much more actively participating role in brain function. Alteration of intraglial ionic homeostasis in response to ischemic injury has a crucial role in inducing and maintaining glial responses in the ischemic brain. Therefore, glial transporters as potential candidates in stroke intervention are becoming promising targets to enhance an effective and additional therapy for brain ischemia. In this review, we will describe in detail the role played by ionic transporters in influencing astrocyte, microglia, and oligodendrocyte activity and the implications that these transporters have in the progression of ischemic lesion.
Annunziato, Lucio; Boscia, Francesca; Pignataro, Giuseppe
It was recently shown that brain activity can be represented as a stimulation-specific vector field. Since the vector field of brain activity is specifically transformed by sensory input, we suggested that a tensor field that transforms brain activity reflects sensory input. We calculated the tensor fields that transform brain activity between visual baseline and auditory word processing in PET data and between environmental sounds and auditory word processing in fMRI data. In the first comparison, significant clusters formed a distributed network over the brain cortex. In the second comparison, clusters were more localised in the temporo-frontal network of speech processing. Our study therefore demonstrated that tensor fields reflect the sensory input that specifically transforms brain activity. PMID:24012681
Attention deficits are common in schizophrenics and sometimes reported in their healthy relatives. The aim of this study was to analyse the behavioural performance and the brain activation of healthy siblings of schizophrenic patients during a sustained-attention task.Eleven healthy siblings of schizophrenic patients and eleven matched controls performed a Continuous Performance Test (CPT), during 1.5 T fMRI. The stimuli were presented
Gianna Sepede; Antonio Ferretti; Mauro Gianni Perrucci; Francesco Gambi; Fiore Di Donato; Francesco Nuccetelli; Cosimo Del Gratta; Armando Tartaro; Rosa Maria Salerno; Filippo Maria Ferro; Gian Luca Romani
Binding sites for atrial natriuretic factor (ANF-28) were analyzed in discrete brain areas of Brattleboro rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus and Long-Evans (LE) controls by quantitative autoradiography. The maximum binding capacity (Bmax) and affinity constant (Ka) for /sup 125/I-ANF-28 were elevated significantly in the subfornical organ of Brattleboro rats compared to matched LE controls. In contrast, values for Bmax and Ka for /sup 125/I-ANF-28 binding in choroid plexus and area postrema were similar for rats of the two strains. These findings are consistent with a selective upregulation of ANF-28 binding sites in the subfornical organ of Brattleboro rats which exhibit a profound disturbance in body fluid homeostasis. These alterations in ANF-28 binding sites in the subfornical organ may represent a compensatory response to the absence of vasopressin in the Brattleboro rat.
McCarty, R.; Plunkett, L.M.
Neurologic dysfunction is a significant source of morbidity and mortality in the sickle cell diseases, occurring with a prevalence of 6% to 34%. Because changes in brain glucose metabolism may precede gross functional or morphologic alterations, we recently applied the technique of positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose F 18 in an exploratory study to compare six patients with sickle cell disease without prior neurologic abnormalities (and with normal cranial computed tomographic scans) with six healthy age-matched controls, with respect to overall and regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose. We found no significant difference in the global metabolic rates for the two groups. However, we observed an unusual clustering of abnormal regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in the frontal lobes of these subjects. These results support previous observations that frontal lobe involvement may be quite prevalent in sickle cell disease, even among individuals with normal computed tomographic scans. PMID:3257387
Rodgers, G P; Clark, C M; Larson, S M; Rapoport, S I; Nienhuis, A W; Schechter, A N
... and Physical Activity Protect the Brain? Exercise and physical activity have many benefits. Studies show they are good ... a healthy lifestyle that includes a healthy diet, physical activity, appropriate weight, and not smoking can maintain and ...
A dramatic increase in the use and dependence of prescription opioids has occurred within the last 10 years. The consequences of long-term prescription opioid use and dependence on the brain are largely unknown, and any speculation is inferred from heroin and methadone studies. Thus, no data have directly demonstrated the effects of prescription opioid use on brain structure and function in humans. To pursue this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in a highly enriched group of prescription opioid-dependent patients [(n?=??10); from a larger study on prescription opioid dependent patients (n?=??133)] and matched healthy individuals (n?=??10) to characterize possible brain alterations that may be caused by long-term prescription opioid use. Criteria for patient selection included: (i) no dependence on alcohol or other drugs; (ii) no comorbid psychiatric or neurological disease; and (iii) no medical conditions, including pain. In comparison to control subjects, individuals with opioid dependence displayed bilateral volumetric loss in the amygdala. Prescription opioid-dependent subjects had significantly decreased anisotropy in axonal pathways specific to the amygdala (i.e. stria terminalis, ventral amygdalofugal pathway and uncinate fasciculus) as well as the internal and external capsules. In the patient group, significant decreases in functional connectivity were observed for seed regions that included the anterior insula, nucleus accumbens and amygdala subdivisions. Correlation analyses revealed that longer duration of prescription opioid exposure was associated with greater changes in functional connectivity. Finally, changes in amygdala functional connectivity were observed to have a significant dependence on amygdala volume and white matter anisotropy of efferent and afferent pathways of the amygdala. These findings suggest that prescription opioid dependence is associated with structural and functional changes in brain regions implicated in the regulation of affect and impulse control, as well as in reward and motivational functions. These results may have important clinical implications for uncovering the effects of long-term prescription opioid use on brain structure and function.
Upadhyay, Jaymin; Maleki, Nasim; Potter, Jennifer; Elman, Igor; Rudrauf, David; Knudsen, Jaime; Wallin, Diana; Pendse, Gautam; McDonald, Leah; Griffin, Margaret; Anderson, Julie; Nutile, Lauren; Renshaw, Perry; Weiss, Roger; Becerra, Lino
One of the main activities of the brain is the recognition of signals. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given in . Subsequently, details of the mathematical model were presented in a (still incomplete) series of papers (cf. [7, 2, 5, 10]). In the present note we want to give a general view of the principal ideas of this approach. We will introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces and operations. Further, we bring the model face to face with basic postulates any statistical model of the recognition process should fulfill. These postulates are in accordance with the opinion widely accepted in psychology and neurology.
Fichtner, K.-H.; Fichtner, L.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.
Summary Psychometric tests which assess cognitive brain function in dementia disorders are partly prone to artifacts, e.g., the experience of the investigator and the cooperation of the patient influences the results. An objective way to assess the degree of cognitive disturbance could be to measure neuronal activity represented by the electrical brain activity. The aim of the present study was
T. Dierks; L. Frölich; R. Ihl; K. Maurer
Summary During intra-arterial (IA) chemotherapy of brain tumors, the initial vessels chosen for infusion are based on the vascular\\u000a distribution of the tumor as revealed by CT or MR imaging. However, angiography may reveal details of vascular anatomy that\\u000a require an alteration of the vessel infusion plan. The incidence of infusional alterations and the underlying vascular anatomy\\u000a involved remains unknown in
Herbert B. Newton; Gregory M. Figg; H. Wayne Slone; Eric Bourekas
The basis for cognitive impairment in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is not well understood but may be related to abnormal expression of dystrophin in brain. The aim of this study was to determine whether regional brain glucose metabolism is altered in children with DMD and whether such metabolic disturbances are localized to regions shown to be normally rich in dystrophin expression. Ten boys (mean age, 11.8 years) with DMD and 17 normal adults as a control group (mean age, 27.6 years) underwent 2-deoxy-2[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography (PET) and neuropsychological evaluation. The PET data were analyzed by statistical parametric mapping (SPM). The SPM analysis showed five clusters of decreased glucose metabolism in children with DMD, including the medial temporal structures and cerebellum bilaterally and the sensorimotor and lateral temporal cortex on the right side. At the voxel level, significant glucose hypometabolism was found in the right postcentral and middle temporal gyri, uncus, and VIIIB cerebellar lobule, as well as in the left hippocampal gyrus and cerebellar lobule. The neuropsychological profile of the DMD group revealed borderline nonverbal intellectual functioning, impaired manual dexterity bilaterally, borderline cognitive functioning, and internalizing behavioral difficulties. Our findings demonstrate region-specific hypometabolism, as well as cognitive and behavioral deficits in DMD children. As the regions showing hypometabolism on PET include those normally rich in dystrophin expression, it will be important to determine whether the hypometabolic regions also show cytoarchitectural abnormalities related to the lack of dystrophin. PMID:12362416
Lee, Joon Soo; Pfund, Zoltán; Juhász, Csaba; Behen, Michael E; Muzik, Otto; Chugani, Diane C; Nigro, Michael A; Chugani, Harry T
Cholesterol plays an important role in synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. To better explore how dietary cholesterol contributes to learning and memory and the related changes in synaptic structural plasticity, rats were categorized into a regular diet (RD) group and a cholesterol-enriched diet (CD) group, and were fed with respective diet for 2 months. Dietary cholesterol impacts on learning and memory, hippocampal synaptic ultrastructure, expression levels of postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), synaptophysin (SYP) and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) were investigated. We found CD rats had better performances in learning and memory using Morris water maze and object recognition test than RD rats. The memory improvement was accompanied with alterations of synaptic ultrastructure in the CA1 area of the hippocampus evaluated by electron microscopy, enhanced immunoreactivity of SYP, a presynaptic marker in hippocampus detected by immunocytochemistry, as well as increased levels of PSD-95, SYP and decreased level of CB1R in brains of CD rats determined by Western blot. Taken together, the results suggest that the improvement of learning and memory abilities of the young adult rats induced by dietary cholesterol may be linked with changes in synaptic structural plasticity in the brain. PMID:23187788
Ya, Bai-liu; Liu, Wen-yan; Ge, Feng; Zhang, Yan-xia; Zhu, Bao-liang; Bai, Bo
Motor imagery training is an effective approach for motor skill learning and motor function rehabilitation. As a novel method of motor imagery training, real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) enables individuals to acquire self-control of localized brain activation, achieving desired changes in behavior. The regulation of target region activation by rtfMRI often alters the activation of related brain regions. However, the interaction between the target region and these related regions is unclear. The Granger causality model (GCM) is a data-driven method that can explore the causal interaction between brain regions. In this study, we employed rtfMRI to train subjects to regulate the activation of the ipsilateral dorsal premotor area (dPMA) during motor imagery training, and we calculated the causal interaction of the dPMA with other motor-related regions based on the GCM. The results demonstrated that as the activity of the dPMA changed during rtfMRI training, the interaction of the target region with other related regions became significantly altered, and behavioral performance was improved after training. The altered interaction primarily exhibited as an increased unidirectional interaction from the dPMA to the other regions. These findings support the dominant role of the dPMA in motor skill learning via rtfMRI training and may indicate how activation of the target region interacts with the activation of other related regions.
Zhao, Xiaojie; Zhang, Hang; Song, Sutao; Ye, Qing; Guo, Jia; Yao, Li
Cardiac surgery is commonly associated with brain ischemia. Few studies addressed brain electric activity changes after on-pump operations. Eyes closed EEG was performed in 22 patients (mean age: 45.2 ± 11.2) before and two weeks after valve replacement. Spouses of patients were invited to participate as controls. Generalized increase of beta power most prominent in beta-1 band was an unambiguous pathological sign of postoperative cortex dysfunction, probably, manifesting due to gamma-activity slowing (“beta buzz” symptom). Generalized postoperative increase of delta-1 mean frequency along with increase of slow-wave activity in right posterior region may be hypothesized to be a consequence of intraoperative ischemia as well. At the same time, significant changes of alpha activity were observed in both patient and control groups, and, therefore, may be considered as physiological. Unexpectedly, controls showed prominent increase of electric activity in left temporal region whereas patients were deficient in left hemisphere activity in comparison with controls at postoperative followup. Further research is needed in order to determine the true neurological meaning of the EEG findings after on-pump operations.
Golukhova, Elena Z.; Polunina, Anna G.; Lefterova, Natalia P.; Begachev, Alexey V.
Compromised functional integration between cerebral subsystems and dysfunctional brain network organization may underlie the neurocognitive deficits seen in psychiatric disorders. Applying topological measures from network science to brain imaging data allows the quantification of complex brain network connectivity. While this approach has recently been used to further elucidate the nature of brain dysfunction in schizophrenia, the value of applying this approach in preclinical models of psychiatric disease has not been recognized. For the first time, we apply both established and recently derived algorithms from network science (graph theory) to functional brain imaging data from rats treated subchronically with the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist phencyclidine (PCP). We show that subchronic PCP treatment induces alterations in the global properties of functional brain networks akin to those reported in schizophrenia. Furthermore, we show that subchronic PCP treatment induces compromised functional integration between distributed neural systems, including between the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, that have established roles in cognition through, in part, the promotion of thalamic dysconnectivity. We also show that subchronic PCP treatment promotes the functional disintegration of discrete cerebral subsystems and also alters the connectivity of neurotransmitter systems strongly implicated in schizophrenia. Therefore, we propose that sustained NMDA receptor hypofunction contributes to the pathophysiology of dysfunctional brain network organization in schizophrenia. PMID:23081884
Dawson, Neil; Xiao, Xiaolin; McDonald, Martin; Higham, Desmond J; Morris, Brian J; Pratt, Judith A
Aerobic activity is a powerful stimulus for improving mental health and for generating structural changes in the brain. We review the literature documenting these structural changes and explore exactly where in the brain these changes occur as well as the underlying substrates of the changes including neural, glial, and vasculature components. Aerobic activity has been shown to produce different types of changes in the brain. The presence of novel experiences or learning is an especially important component in how these changes are manifest. We also discuss the distinct time courses of structural brain changes with both aerobic activity and learning as well as how these effects might differ in diseased and elderly groups.
Thomas, Adam G.; Dennis, Andrea; Bandettini, Peter A.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi
Recently, there have been a large number of studies using resting state fMRI to characterize abnormal brain connectivity in patients with a variety of neurological, psychiatric, and developmental disorders. However, interpreting what the differences in resting state fMRI functional connectivity (rsfMRI-FC) actually reflect in terms of the underlying neural pathology has proved to be elusive because of the complexity of brain anatomical connectivity. The same is the case for task-based fMRI studies. In the last few years, several groups have used large-scale neural modeling to help provide some insight into the relationship between brain anatomical connectivity and the corresponding patterns of fMRI-FC. In this paper we review several efforts at using large-scale neural modeling to investigate the relationship between structural connectivity and functional/effective connectivity to determine how alterations in structural connectivity are manifested in altered patterns of functional/effective connectivity. Because the alterations made in the anatomical connectivity between specific brain regions in the model are known in detail, one can use the results of these simulations to determine the corresponding alterations in rsfMRI-FC. Many of these simulation studies found that structural connectivity changes do not necessarily result in matching changes in functional/effective connectivity in the areas of structural modification. Often, it was observed that increases in functional/effective connectivity in the altered brain did not necessarily correspond to increases in the strength of the anatomical connection weights. Note that increases in rsfMRI-FC in patients have been interpreted in some cases as resulting from neural plasticity. These results suggest that this interpretation can be mistaken. The relevance of these simulation findings to the use of functional/effective fMRI connectivity as biomarkers for brain disorders is also discussed. PMID:24273500
Horwitz, Barry; Hwang, Chuhern; Alstott, Jeff
Recently, there have been a large number of studies using resting state fMRI to characterize abnormal brain connectivity in patients with a variety of neurological, psychiatric, and developmental disorders. However, interpreting what the differences in resting state fMRI functional connectivity (rsfMRI-FC) actually reflect in terms of the underlying neural pathology has proved to be elusive because of the complexity of brain anatomical connectivity. The same is the case for task-based fMRI studies. In the last few years, several groups have used large-scale neural modeling to help provide some insight into the relationship between brain anatomical connectivity and the corresponding patterns of fMRI-FC. In this paper we review several efforts at using large-scale neural modeling to investigate the relationship between structural connectivity and functional/effective connectivity to determine how alterations in structural connectivity are manifested in altered patterns of functional/effective connectivity. Because the alterations made in the anatomical connectivity between specific brain regions in the model are known in detail, one can use the results of these simulations to determine the corresponding alterations in rsfMRI-FC. Many of these simulation studies found that structural connectivity changes do not necessarily result in matching changes in functional/effective connectivity in the areas of structural modification. Often, it was observed that increases in functional/effective connectivity in the altered brain did not necessarily correspond to increases in the strength of the anatomical connection weights. Note that increases in rsfMRI-FC in patients have been interpreted in some cases as resulting from neural plasticity. These results suggest that this interpretation can be mistaken. The relevance of these simulation findings to the use of functional/effective fMRI connectivity as biomarkers for brain disorders is also discussed.
Horwitz, Barry; Hwang, Chuhern; Alstott, Jeff
Exposure to N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to induce neurodegeneration in newborn rats. However, in clinical practice the use of NMDA receptor antagonists as anesthetics and sedatives cannot always be avoided. The present study investigated the effect of the indirect cholinergic agonist physostigmine on neurotrophin expression and the extracellular matrix during NMDA receptor antagonist induced injury to the immature rat brain. The aim was to investigate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 activity, as well as expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after co-administration of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK801 (dizocilpine) and the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor physostigmine. The AChE inhibitor physostigmine ameliorated the MK801-induced reduction of BDNF mRNA and protein levels, reduced MK801-triggered MMP-2 activity and prevented decreased TIMP-2 mRNA expression. Our results indicate that AChE inhibition may prevent newborn rats from MK801-mediated brain damage by enhancing neurotrophin-associated signaling pathways and by modulating the extracellular matrix.
Bendix, Ivo; Serdar, Meray; Herz, Josephine; von Haefen, Clarissa; Nasser, Fatme; Rohrer, Benjamin; Endesfelder, Stefanie; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula; Spies, Claudia D.; Sifringer, Marco
It is shown by rational site-directed mutagenesis of the lid region in Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase that it is possible to generate lipase variants with attractive features, e.g., high lipase activity, fast activation at the lipid interface, ability to act on water-soluble substrates, and enhanced calcium independence. The rational design was based on the lid residue composition in Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase (FAEA). Five constructs included lipase variants containing the full FAEA lid, a FAEA-like lid, an intermediate lid of FAEA and TlL character, and the entire lid region from Aspergillus terreus lipase (AtL). To investigate an altered activation mechanism for each variant compared to that of TlL, a combination of activity- and spectroscopic-based measurements were applied. The engineered variant with a lid from AtL displayed interfacial activation comparable to that of TlL, whereas variants with FAEA lid character showed interfacial activation independence with pronounced activity toward pNP-acetate and pNP-butyrate below the critical micelle concentration. For variants with lipase and esterase character, lipase activity measurements further indicated a faster activation at the lipid interface. Relative to their activity toward pNP-ester substrates in calcium-rich buffer, all lid variants retained between 15 and 100% activity in buffer containing 5 mM EDTA whereas TlL activity was reduced to less than 2%, demonstrating the lid's central role in governing calcium dependency. For FAEA-like lid variants, accessible hydrophobic surface area measurements showed an approximate 10-fold increase in the level of binding of extrinsic fluorophores to the protein surface relative to that of TlL accompanied by a blue shift in emission indicative of an open lid in aqueous solution. Together, these studies report on the successful alteration of the activation mechanism in TlL by rational design creating novel lipases with new, intriguing functionalities. PMID:24870718
Skjold-Jørgensen, Jakob; Vind, Jesper; Svendsen, Allan; Bjerrum, Morten J
Age-related cognitive decline is linked to numerous molecular, structural, and functional changes in the brain. However, physical activity is a promising method of reducing unfavorable age-related changes. Physical activity exerts its effects on the brain through many molecular pathways, some of which are regulated by genetic variants in humans. In this paper, we highlight genes including apolipoprotein E (APOE), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) along with dietary omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as potential moderators of the effect of physical activity on brain health. There are a growing number of studies indicating that physical activity might mitigate the genetic risks for disease and brain dysfunction and that the combination of greater amounts of DHA intake with physical activity might promote better brain function than either treatment alone. Understanding whether genes or other lifestyles moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive health is necessary for delineating the pathways by which brain health can be enhanced and for grasping the individual variation in the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on the brain and cognition. There is a need for future research to continue to assess the factors that moderate the effects of physical activity on neurocognitive function.
Leckie, Regina L.; Weinstein, Andrea M.; Hodzic, Jennifer C.; Erickson, Kirk I.
Deposition of amyloid ? (A?) containing plaques in the brain is one of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been suggested that modulation of neuronal activity may alter A? production in the brain. We postulate that these changes in A? production are due to changes in the rate-limiting step of A? generation, APP cleavage by ?-secretase. By combining biochemical approaches with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy, we found that neuronal inhibition decreases endogenous APP and PS1 interactions, which correlates with reduced A? production. By contrast, neuronal activation had a two-phase effect: it initially enhanced APP-PS1 interaction leading to increased A? production, which followed by a decrease in the APP and PS1 proximity/interaction. Accordingly, treatment of neurons with naturally secreted A? isolated from AD brain or with synthetic A? resulted in reduced APP and PS1 proximity. Moreover, applying low concentration of A?42 to cultured neurons inhibited de novo A? synthesis. These data provide evidence that neuronal activity regulates endogenous APP-PS1 interactions, and suggest a model of a product-enzyme negative feedback. Thus, under normal physiological conditions A? may impact its own production by modifying ?-secretase cleavage of APP. Disruption of this negative modulation may cause A? overproduction leading to neurotoxicity.
Li, Xuejing; Uemura, Kengo; Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Arimon, Muriel; Lill, Christina M.; Palazzolo, Isabella; Krainc, Dimitri; Hyman, Bradley T.; Berezovska, Oksana
Cerebral blood volume (CBV) changes significantly with brain activation, whether measured using positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), or optical microscopy. If cerebral vessels are considered to be impermeable, the contents of the skull incompressible, and the skull itself inextensible, task- and hypercapnia-related changes of CBV could produce intolerable changes of intracranial pressure. Because it is becoming clear that CBV may be useful as a well-localized marker of neural activity changes, a resolution of this apparent paradox is needed. We have explored the idea that much of the change in CBV is facilitated by exchange of water between capillaries and surrounding tissue. To this end, we developed a novel hemodynamic boundary-value model and found approximate solutions using a numerical algorithm. We also constructed a macroscopic experimental model of a single capillary to provide biophysical insight. Both experiment and theory model capillary membranes as elastic and permeable. For a realistic change of input pressure, a relative pipe volume change of 21±5% was observed when using the experimental setup, compared with the value of approximately 17±1% when this quantity was calculated from the mathematical model. Volume, axial flow, and pressure changes are in the expected range.
Krieger, Steffen Norbert; Streicher, Markus Nikolar; Trampel, Robert; Turner, Robert
Summary Laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive neurosurgical approach to the stereotactic treatment of brain tumors in poorly accessible regions. Its clinical applicability has been shown in several experimental and clinical studies under on-line monitoring by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This review characterizes LITT as an alternative neurosurgical approach with specific focus on the typical histological alterations and ultrastructural
P. C. Schulze; H. E. Vitzthum; A. Goldammer; J. P. Schneider; R. Schober
Chemical intervention during prenatal or postnatal ontogeny can result in complex biochemical, morphological and behavioral alterations in brain development (Suzuki, 1980; Miller and O'Callaghan, 1984; Rodier, 1986; Ruppert, 1986). s has been shown at this conference (e.g. by Ham...
Psychotic major depression (PMD) is associated with deficits in verbal memory as well as other cognitive impairments. This study investigated brain function in individuals with PMD during a verbal declarative memory task. Participants included 16 subjects with PMD, 15 subjects with non-psychotic major depression (NPMD) and 16 healthy controls (HC). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired while subjects performed verbal memory encoding and retrieval tasks. During the explicit encoding task, subjects semantically categorized words as either “man-made” or “not manmade.” For the retrieval task, subjects identified whether words had been presented during the encoding task. Functional MRI data were processed using SPM5 and a group by condition ANOVA. Clusters of activation showing either a significant main effect of group or an interaction of group by condition were further examined using t-tests to identify group differences. During the encoding task, the PMD group showed lower hippocampus, insula, and prefrontal activation compared to HC. During the retrieval task, the PMD group showed lower recognition accuracy and higher prefrontal and parietal cortex activation compared to both HC and NPMD groups. Verbal retrieval deficits in PMD may be associated with deficient hippocampus function during encoding. Increased brain activation during retrieval may reflect an attempt to compensate for encoding deficits.
Kelley, Ryan; Garrett, Amy; Cohen, Jeremy; Gomez, Rowena; Lembke, Anna; Keller, Jennifer; Reiss, Allan L.; Schatzberg, Alan
Recent studies have demonstrated intraventricular infusions of propionic acid (PPA) a dietary and enteric short-chain fatty acid can produce brain and behavioral changes similar to those observed in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The effects of PPA were further evaluated to determine if there are any alterations in brain lipids associated with the ASD-like behavioral changes observed following intermittent intraventricular infusions of PPA, the related enteric metabolite butyric acid (BUT) or phosphate-buffered saline vehicle. Both PPA and BUT produced significant increases (p < 0.001) in locomotor activity (total distance travelled and stereotypy). PPA and to a lesser extent BUT infusions decreased the levels of total monounsaturates, total omega6 fatty acids, total phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogens, the ratio of omega6 : omega3 and elevated the levels of total saturates in separated phospholipid species. In addition, total acylcarnitines, total longchain (C12-C24) acylcarnitines, total short-chain (C2 to C9) acylcarnitines, and the ratio of bound to free carnitine were increased following infusions with PPA and BUT. These results provide evidence of a relationship between changes in brain lipid profiles and the occurrence of ASD-like behaviors using the autism rodent model. We propose that altered brain fatty acid metabolism may contribute to ASD. PMID:20405543
Thomas, Raymond H; Foley, Kelly A; Mepham, Jennifer R; Tichenoff, Lisa J; Possmayer, Fred; MacFabe, Derrick F
Testican, a chondroitin/heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is primarily expressed in neurons of the adult and embryonic mouse brain, suggesting its role in normal and/or proliferation and differentiation processes of neurons. However, the role of testican in injured brain remains unclear. In the present study we investigated testican-1 mRNA expression pattern after cryo-injury of the brain. In situ hybridization histochemistry revealed that testican-1 mRNA is induced in the region surrounding the necrotic tissue. Time course study of testican-1 mRNA showed the highest level of signal intensity at 7 days after the injury. To determine which cell types express testican-1 mRNA, we performed in situ hybridization histochemistry combined with immunohistochemistry of several cell markers. Testican-1 mRNA signals were detected in the proximal reactive astrocytes, whereas the distribution pattern of testican-1 mRNA positive cells was different from those of mature oligodendrocytes and activated microglia. In addition, signals for testican-1 mRNA overlapped with those of FGF-2 mRNA, showing that these molecules are coexpressed in reactive astrocytes. These results suggest a possibility that testican-1 plays a permissive role for regenerating axons in reactive astrocytes after injury. PMID:22199127
Iseki, Ken; Hagino, Seita; Zhang, Yuxiang; Mori, Tetsuji; Sato, Nobuko; Yokoya, Sachihiko; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Goto, Kaoru; Tase, Choichiro
Long-term hypokinesia is accompanied by changes in the activity of Mg(2+) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP)-stimulated ATPases of rat brain and liver mitochondria. These changes are phasic and especially pronounced at periods characterised by most pronounced metabolic alterations Treatment of animals with GABA and piracetam tends to normalise the enzyme activities. PMID:9703626
Akopian, V P; Sotski?, O P; Mailian, K R; Edigarova, L V; Shafrazian, D S; Vasilian, A A
1. Stimulation of the reticular formation of the brain stem evokes changes in the EEG, consisting of abolition of synchronized discharge and introduction of low voltage fast activity in its place, which are not mediated by any of the known ascending or descending paths that traverse the brain stem. The alteration is a generalized one but is most pronounced in the ipsilateral hemisphere and, sometimes, in its anterior part. 2. This response can elicited by stimulating the medical bulbar reticular formation, pontile and midbrain tegmentum, and dorsal hypothalamus and subthalamus. The bulbar effect is due to ascending impulses relayed through these more cephalic structures. The excitable substrate possesses a low threshold and responds best to high frequencies of stimulation. 3. Some background synchrony of electrocortical activity is requisite for manifestation of the response. In the "encephale isolé", reticular stimulation has no additional effect upon the fully activated EEG. With synchrony, in spontaneous drowsiness or light chloralosane anesthesia, the effect of reticular stimulation is strikingly like Berger's alpha wave blockade, or any arousal reaction. In full chloralosane anesthesia, high voltage slow waves are blocked but no increase in lower amplitude, fast activity occurs. With barbiturate anesthesia, the reticular response is difficult to elicit or is abolished. 4. In the chloralosane preparation, the secondary cortical response evoked by a sensory volley is generally unaffected by reticular stimulation. Consequent sensory after-discharge is abolished, however, as is pyramidal tract discharge and jerky movements referable to it. Outside the sensory receiving area, secondary responses themselves may be reduced or prevented. 5. The convulsive spikes produced by local strychnine and those of a fit following supramaximal cortical excitation, are not decreased by stimulating the reticular formation. 6. The cortical recruiting response induced by low frequency stimulation of the diffuse thalamic projection system is reduced or abolished by reticular stimulation. 7. There is some indication that the cortical effect of reticular stimulation may be mediated by this diffuse thalamic projection system, for synchronized activity within it is similarly prevented by reticular excitation, and direct high frequency stimulation of this system, within the thalamus, reproduces the reticular response. It is possible, however, that other mechanisms may be involved in its mediation. 8. The reticular response and the arousal reaction to natural stimuli have been compared in the "encéphale isolé", in which EEG synchrony was present during spontaneous relaxation or was produced by recruiting mechanisms, and the two appear identical. 9. The possibility that the cortical arousal reaction to natural stimuli is mediated by collaterals of afferent pathways to the brain stem reticular formation, and thence through the ascending reticular activating system, rather than by intra-cortical spread following the arrival of afferent impulses at the sensory receiving areas of the cortex, is under investigation. 10. The possibility is considered that a background of maintained activity within this ascending brain stem activating system may account for wakefulness, while reduction of its activity either naturally, by barbiturates, or by experimental injury and disease, may respectively precipitate normal sleep, contribute to anesthesia or produce pathological somnolence. PMID:18421835
Moruzzi, G; Magoun, H W
Brain activity dynamically changes even during sleep. A line of neuroimaging studies has reported changes in functional connectivity and regional activity across different sleep stages such as slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. However, it remains unclear whether and how the large-scale network activity of human brains changes within a given sleep stage. Here, we investigated modulation of network activity within sleep stages by applying the pairwise maximum entropy model to brain activity obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging from sleeping healthy subjects. We found that the brain activity of individual brain regions and functional interactions between pairs of regions significantly increased in the default-mode network during SWS and decreased during REM sleep. In contrast, the network activity of the fronto-parietal and sensory-motor networks showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, in the three networks, the amount of the activity changes throughout REM sleep was negatively correlated with that throughout SWS. The present findings suggest that the brain activity is dynamically modulated even in a sleep stage and that the pattern of modulation depends on the type of the large-scale brain networks. PMID:24814208
Watanabe, Takamitsu; Kan, Shigeyuki; Koike, Takahiko; Misaki, Masaya; Konishi, Seiki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Miyahsita, Yasushi; Masuda, Naoki
HIV involvement of the CNS continues to be a significant problem despite successful use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Drugs of abuse can act in concert with HIV proteins to damage glia and neurons, worsening the neurotoxicity caused by HIV alone. Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive psychostimulant drug, abuse of which has reached epidemic proportions and is associated with high-risk sexual behavior, increased HIV transmission, and development of drug resistance. HIV infection and METH dependence can have synergistic pathological effects, with preferential involvement of frontostriatal circuits. At the molecular level, epigenetic alterations have been reported for both HIV-1 infection and drug abuse, but the neuropathological pathways triggered by their combined effects are less known. We investigated epigenetic changes in the brain associated with HIV and METH. We analyzed postmortem frontal cortex tissue from 27 HIV seropositive individuals, 13 of which had a history of METH dependence, in comparison to 14 cases who never used METH. We detected changes in the expression of DNMT1, at mRNA and protein levels, that resulted in the increase of global DNA methylation. Genome-wide profiling of DNA methylation in a subset of cases, showed differential methylation on genes related to neurodegeneration; dopamine metabolism and transport; and oxidative phosphorylation. We provide evidence for the synergy of HIV and METH dependence on the patterns of DNA methylation on the host brain, which results in a distinctive landscape for the comorbid condition. Importantly, we identified new epigenetic targets that might aid in understanding the aggravated neurodegenerative, cognitive, motor and behavioral symptoms observed in persons living with HIV and addictions.
Desplats, Paula; Dumaop, Wilmar; Cronin, Peter; Gianella, Sara; Woods, Steven; Letendre, Scott; Smith, David; Masliah, Eliezer; Grant, Igor
Neurocognitive aging studies have focused on age-related changes in neural activity or neural structure but few studies have focused on relationships between the two. The present study quantitatively reviewed 24 studies of age-related changes in fMRI activation across a broad spectrum of executive function tasks using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) and 22 separate studies of age-related changes in gray matter using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Conjunction analyses between functional and structural alteration maps were constructed. Overlaps were only observed in the conjunction of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) gray matter reduction and functional hyperactivation but not hypoactivation. It was not evident that the conjunctions between gray matter and activation were related to task performance. Theoretical implications of these results are discussed. PMID:24036319
Di, Xin; Rypma, Bart; Biswal, Bharat B
This study investigated electrophysiological (EEG) and hemodynamic (near infrared spectroscopy - NIRS) measures as a function of gender in normal adult individuals. The EEG data analysis was based on the resting eyes closed brain activity of 300 respondents (160 females). The NIRS analyses was based on 155 respondents (88 females). The total power, coherence and approximate entropy measures were calculated for the EEG recordings in the ?, ?, lower-1 ?, lower-2 ?, upper ?, ? and ? bands. Based on the filtered NIRS data the concentration, the peak frequency and the Hurst exponent (H) of oxi-Hb and deoxi-Hb were determined. Higher power values in females as compared with males were observed in the ? and ? bands. In the lower-1 ?, lower-2 ? and upper ? bands this difference was only pronounced in the parieto-occipital areas. Higher coherences in the ? band in females as compared to males was observed, whereas a reverse pattern of differences was present in the ? and ? bands. A similar pattern of differences was also observed for the ApEn measures. Males showed a higher percentage of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, more irregular and faster spontaneous fluctuations in oxi-Hb and deoxi-Hb as compared with females. It can be concluded that males and females differ in the local as well as long range coding of information - the binding of distributed responses - as well as in the excitability dynamics of their cortical network. PMID:20875436
Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija
Investigating gender differences of the brain is of both scientific and clinical importance, as understanding such differences may be helpful for improving gender specific treatments of neuropsychiatric disorders. As brain is a highly complex system, it is crucial to investigate its activity in terms of nonlinear dynamics. However, there are few studies that investigated gender differences based on dynamical characteristics of the brain. Fractal dimension (FD) is a key characteristic of the brain dynamics which indicates the level of complexity on which the neuronal regions function or interact and quantifies the associated brain processes on a scale ranging from fully deterministic to fully random. This study investigates the gender differences of brain dynamics, comparing fractal dimension of scalp EEGs (in eyes-closed resting state) of 34 female and 34 male healthy adults. The results showed significantly greater FDs in females compared to males in all brain regions except in lateral and occipital lobes. This indicates a higher complexity of the brain dynamics in females relative to males. The high accuracies of 87.8% and 93.1% obtained by logistic regression and enhanced probabilistic neural network, respectively, in discriminating between the gender groups based on the FDs also confirmed the great gender differences of complexity of brain activities. The results showed that delta, alpha, and beta bands are the frequency bands that contribute most to the gender differences in brain complexity. Furthermore, the lateralization analysis showed the leftward lateralization of complexity in females is greater than in males. PMID:23313595
Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Ahmadlou, Mehran; Rezazade, Majid; Azad-Marzabadi, Esfandiar; Sajedi, Firoozeh
Background Prior evidence suggests panic disorder (PD) is characterized by neurometabolic abnormalities, including increased brain lactate responses to neural activation. Increased lactate responses could reflect a general upregulation of metabolic responses to neural activation. However, prior studies in PD have not measured activity-dependent changes in brain metabolites other than lactate. Here we examine activity-dependent changes in both lactate and glutamate plus glutamine (glx) in PD. Methods Twenty-one PD patients (13 remitted, 8 symptomatic) and 12 healthy volunteers were studied. A single-voxel, J-difference, magnetic resonance spectroscopy editing sequence was used to measure lactate and glx changes in visual cortex induced by visual stimulation. Results PD patients had significantly greater activity-dependent increases in brain lactate than healthy volunteers. The differences were significant for both remitted and symptomatic PD patients, who did not differ from each other. Activity-dependent changes in glx were significantly smaller in PD patients than in healthy volunteers. The temporal correlation between lactate and glx changes was significantly stronger in control subjects than in PD patients. Conclusions The novel demonstration that glx responses are diminished and temporally decoupled from lactate responses in PD contradicts the model of a general upregulation of activity-dependent brain metabolic responses in PD. The increase in activity-dependent brain lactate accumulation appears to be a trait feature of PD. Given the close relationship between lactate and pH in the brain, the findings are consistent with a model of brain metabolic and pH dysregulation associated with altered function of acid-sensitive fear circuits contributing to trait vulnerability in PD.
Maddock, Richard J.; Buonocore, Michael H.; Miller, Amber R.; Yoon, Jong H.; Soosman, Steffan K.; Unruh, April M.
Background Mitochondrial dysfunction (MtD) has been observed in approximately five percent of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). MtD could impair highly energy-dependent processes such as neurodevelopment, thereby contributing to autism. Most of the previous studies of MtD in autism have been restricted to the biomarkers of energy metabolism, while most of the genetic studies have been based on mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Despite the mtDNA, most of the proteins essential for mitochondrial replication and function are encoded by the genomic DNA; so far, there have been very few studies of those genes. Therefore, we carried out a detailed study involving gene expression and genetic association studies of genes related to diverse mitochondrial functions. Methods For gene expression analysis, postmortem brain tissues (anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG), motor cortex (MC) and thalamus (THL)) from autism patients (n=8) and controls (n=10) were obtained from the Autism Tissue Program (Princeton, NJ, USA). Quantitative real-time PCR arrays were used to quantify the expression of 84 genes related to diverse functions of mitochondria, including biogenesis, transport, translocation and apoptosis. We used the delta delta Ct (??Ct) method for quantification of gene expression. DNA samples from 841 Caucasian and 188 Japanese families were used in the association study of genes selected from the gene expression analysis. FBAT was used to examine genetic association with autism. Results Several genes showed brain region-specific expression alterations in autism patients compared to controls. Metaxin 2 (MTX2), neurofilament, light polypeptide (NEFL) and solute carrier family 25, member 27 (SLC25A27) showed consistently reduced expression in the ACG, MC and THL of autism patients. NEFL (P = 0.038; Z-score 2.066) and SLC25A27 (P = 0.046; Z-score 1.990) showed genetic association with autism in Caucasian and Japanese samples, respectively. The expression of DNAJC19, DNM1L, LRPPRC, SLC25A12, SLC25A14, SLC25A24 and TOMM20 were reduced in at least two of the brain regions of autism patients. Conclusions Our study, though preliminary, brings to light some new genes associated with MtD in autism. If MtD is detected in early stages, treatment strategies aimed at reducing its impact may be adopted.
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS
Ru-Rong Ji; Carlos D. Aizenman; Charles M. Epstein; Dike Qiu; Justin C. Huang; Fabio Rupp
Glucose is a major energy source for the brain, and along with several monosaccharide derivatives as components of brain gangliosides,\\u000a they play important roles in neurologic function. However, there is little information available on the role of glucose and\\u000a other monosaccharides on resting brain activity. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a single dose of a carbohydrate
Chenghua Wang; Joanne S. Szabo; Roscoe A. Dykman
Background Traffic-generated air pollution-exposure is associated with adverse effects in the central nervous system (CNS) in both human exposures and animal models, including neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. While alterations in the blood brain barrier (BBB) have been implicated as a potential mechanism of air pollution-induced CNS pathologies, pathways involved have not been elucidated. Objectives To determine whether inhalation exposure to mixed vehicle exhaust (MVE) mediates alterations in BBB permeability, activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -2 and ?9, and altered tight junction (TJ) protein expression. Methods Apolipoprotein (Apo) E?/? and C57Bl6 mice were exposed to either MVE (100 ?g/m3 PM) or filtered air (FA) for 6 hr/day for 30 days and resulting BBB permeability, expression of ROS, TJ proteins, markers of neuroinflammation, and MMP activity were assessed. Serum from study mice was applied to an in vitro BBB co-culture model and resulting alterations in transport and permeability were quantified. Results MVE-exposed Apo E?/? mice showed increased BBB permeability, elevated ROS and increased MMP-2 and ?9 activity, compared to FA controls. Additionally, cerebral vessels from MVE-exposed mice expressed decreased levels of TJ proteins, occludin and claudin-5, and increased levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and interleukin (IL)-1? in the parenchyma. Serum from MVE-exposed animals also resulted in increased in vitro BBB permeability and altered P-glycoprotein transport activity. Conclusions These data indicate that inhalation exposure to traffic-generated air pollutants promotes increased MMP activity and degradation of TJ proteins in the cerebral vasculature, resulting in altered BBB permeability and expression of neuroinflammatory markers.
AIM: To study the blood-brain barrier integrity, brain edema, animal behavior and ammonia plasma levels in prehepatic portal hypertensive rats with and without acute liver intoxication. METHODS: Adults male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I: sham operation; II: Prehepatic portal hypertension, produced by partial portal vein ligation; III: Acetaminophen intoxication and IV: Prehepatic portal hypertension plus acetaminophen.
Camila Scorticati; Juan P. Prestifilippo; Francisco X. Eizayaga; José L. Castro; Salvador Romay; María A. Fernández; Abraham Lemberg; Juan C. Perazzo
Acute peripheral inflammation with corresponding increases in peripheral cytokines affects neuropsychological functions and induces depression-like symptoms. However, possible effects of increased immune responses on social cognition remain unknown. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of experimentally induced acute inflammation on performance and neural responses during a social cognition task assessing Theory of Mind (ToM) ability. In this double-blind randomized crossover functional magnetic resonance imaging study, 18 healthy right-handed male volunteers received an injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.4 ng/kg) or saline, respectively. Plasma levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as mood ratings were analyzed together with brain activation during a validated ToM task (i.e. Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test). LPS administration induced pronounced transient increases in pro- (IL-6, TNF-?) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10, IL-1ra) cytokines as well as decreases in mood. Social cognition performance was not affected by acute inflammation. However, altered neural activity was observed during the ToM task after LPS administration, reflected by increased responses in the fusiform gyrus, temporo-parietal junction, superior temporal gyrus and precuneus. The increased task-related neural responses in the LPS condition may reflect a compensatory strategy or a greater social cognitive processing as a function of sickness. PMID:23547245
Kullmann, Jennifer S; Grigoleit, Jan-Sebastian; Wolf, Oliver T; Engler, Harald; Oberbeck, Reiner; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Forsting, Michael; Schedlowski, Manfred; Gizewski, Elke R
A number of theories have emerged to explain the well-studied changes in memory that occur with age. Many of these theories invoke mechanisms that have the potential to affect multiple cognitive domains, in addition to memory. Such mechanisms include alterations in attentional or inhibitory function, or dysfunction of specific brain areas, such as the frontal lobes. To gain insight into these mechanisms, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain activity during encoding and recognition tasks in young, middle-aged, and older adults to identify correlations between age and brain activity across the various tasks. The goal was to see whether these correlations were task-specific or common across tasks, and to determine whether age differences emerged in a linear fashion over the adult years. Across all memory tasks, at both encoding and recognition, linear increases of activity with age were found in areas normally decreased during task performance (e.g., medial frontal and parietal regions), whereas activity in regions with task-related activation (e.g., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) decreased with age. These results suggest that there is a gradual, age-related reduction in the ability to suspend non-task-related or "default-mode" activity and engage areas for carrying out memory tasks. Such an alteration in the balance between default-mode and task-related activity could account for increased vulnerability to distraction from irrelevant information, and thereby affect multiple cognitive domains. PMID:16494683
Grady, Cheryl L; Springer, Mellanie V; Hongwanishkul, Donaya; McIntosh, Anthony R; Winocur, Gordon
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by disturbances in affect, motivation, and cognitive control processes, including error detection. However, the expression and timing of the impairments during error monitoring remain unclear in MDD. The behavior and event-related brain responses (ERPs) of 20 patients with MDD were compared with those of 20 healthy controls (HCs), while they performed a Go/noGo task. Errors during this task were associated with 2 ERP components, the error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) and the error positivity (Pe). Results show that the ERN/Ne-correct-related negativity (CRN) amplitude difference was significantly larger in MDD patients (after controlling for speed), compared with HCs, although MDD patients exhibited overactive medial frontal cortex (MFC) activation. By comparison, the subsequent Pe component was smaller in MDD patients compared with HCs and this effect was accompanied by a reduced activation of ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) regions. These results suggest that MDD has multiple cascade effects on early error monitoring brain mechanisms. PMID:24364597
Aarts, Kristien; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Otte, Georges; Baeken, Chris; Pourtois, Gilles
Insulin resistance and other features of the metabolic syndrome are increasingly recognized for their effects on cognitive health. To ascertain mechanisms by which this occurs, we fed mice a very high fat diet (60% kcal by fat) for 17days or a moderate high fat diet (HFD, 45% kcal by fat) for 8weeks and examined changes in brain insulin signaling responses, hippocampal synaptodendritic protein expression, and spatial working memory. Compared to normal control diet mice, cerebral cortex tissues of HFD mice were insulin-resistant as evidenced by failed activation of Akt, S6 and GSK3? with ex-vivo insulin stimulation. Importantly, we found that expression of brain IPMK, which is necessary for mTOR/Akt signaling, remained decreased in HFD mice upon activation of AMPK. HFD mouse hippocampus exhibited increased expression of serine-phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1-pS(616)), a marker of insulin resistance, as well as decreased expression of PSD-95, a scaffolding protein enriched in post-synaptic densities, and synaptopodin, an actin-associated protein enriched in spine apparatuses. Spatial working memory was impaired as assessed by decreased spontaneous alternation in a T-maze. These findings indicate that HFD is associated with telencephalic insulin resistance and deleterious effects on synaptic integrity and cognitive behaviors. PMID:24686304
Arnold, Steven E; Lucki, Irwin; Brookshire, Bethany R; Carlson, Gregory C; Browne, Caroline A; Kazi, Hala; Bang, Sookhee; Choi, Bo-Ran; Chen, Yong; McMullen, Mary F; Kim, Sangwon F
AIM: To evaluate the effect of age and acoustic stress on gastric myoelectrical activity (GMA) and autonomic nervous system function. METHODS: Twenty-one male subjects (age range 22-71 years, mean 44 years) were recruited and exposed, in random order, to three auditory stimuli (Hospital noise, conversation babble and traffic noise) after a 20-min baseline. All periods lasted 20 min and were interspersed with a 10 min of recovery. GMA was obtained using a Synectics Microdigitrapper. Autonomic nerve function was assessed by monitoring blood pressure and heart rate using an automatic recording device. RESULTS: Dominant power tended to decrease with increase of age (P < 0.05). The overall percentage of three cycle per minute (CPM) activity decreased during exposure to hospital noise (12.0%, P < 0.05), traffic noise (13.9%, P < 0.05), and conversation babble (7.1%). The subjects in the younger group (< 50 years) showed a consistent reduction in the percentage of 3 CPM activity during hospital noise (22.9%, P < 0.05), traffic noise (19.0%, P < 0.05), and conversation babble (15.5%). These observations were accompanied by a significant increase in bradygastria: hospital noise (P < 0.05) and traffic noise (P < 0.05). In contrast, the subjects over 50 years of age did not exhibit a significant decrease in 3 CPM activity. Regardless of age, noise did not alter blood pressure or heart rate. CONCLUSION: GMA changes with age. Loud noise can alter GMA, especially in younger individuals. Our data indicate that even short-term exposure to noise may alter the contractility of the stomach.
Castle, James S; Xing, Jin-Hong; Warner, Mark R; Korsten, Mark A
Aberrant topological properties of small-world human brain networks in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) have been documented in previous neuroimaging studies. Aberrant functional network connectivity (FNC, temporal relationships among independent component time courses) has also been found in SZ by a previous resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. However, no study has yet determined if topological properties of FNC are also altered in SZ. In this study, small-world network metrics of FNC during the resting state were examined in both healthy controls (HCs) and SZ subjects. FMRI data were obtained from 19 HCs and 19 SZ. Brain images were decomposed into independent components (ICs) by group independent component analysis (ICA). FNC maps were constructed via a partial correlation analysis of ICA time courses. A set of undirected graphs were built by thresholding the FNC maps and the small-world network metrics of these maps were evaluated. Our results demonstrated significantly altered topological properties of FNC in SZ relative to controls. In addition, topological measures of many ICs involving frontal, parietal, occipital and cerebellar areas were altered in SZ relative to controls. Specifically, topological measures of whole network and specific components in SZ were correlated with scores on the negative symptom scale of the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS). These findings suggest that aberrant architecture of small-world brain topology in SZ consists of ICA temporally coherent brain networks.
Yu, Qingbao; Sui, Jing; Rachakonda, Srinivas; He, Hao; Gruner, William; Pearlson, Godfrey; Kiehl, Kent A.; Calhoun, Vince D.
A widely held assumption is that spontaneous and task-evoked brain activity sum linearly, such that the recorded brain response in each single trial is the algebraic sum of the constantly changing ongoing activity and the stereotypical evoked activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals acquired from normal humans, we show that this assumption is invalid. Across widespread cortices, evoked activity interacts negatively with ongoing activity, such that higher prestimulus baseline results in less activation or more deactivation. As a consequence of this negative interaction, trial-to-trial variability of cortical activity decreases following stimulus onset. We further show that variability reduction follows overlapping but distinct spatial pattern from that of task activation/deactivation and it contains behaviorally relevant information. These results favor an alternative perspective to the traditional dichotomous framework of ongoing and evoked activity – one that views the brain as a nonlinear dynamical system whose trajectory is tighter when performing a task; further, incoming sensory stimuli modulate the brain’s activity in a manner that depends on its initial state. We propose that across-trial variability may provide a new approach to brain mapping in the context of cognitive experiments.
He, Biyu J.
Repeated water avoidance stress (WAS) induces sustained visceral hyperalgesia (VH) in rats measured as enhanced visceromotor response to colorectal distension (CRD). This model incorporates two characteristic features of human irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), VH and a prominent role of stress in the onset and exacerbation of IBS symptoms. Little is known regarding central mechanisms underlying the stress-induced VH. Here, we applied an autoradiographic perfusion method to map regional and network-level neural correlates of VH. Adult male rats were exposed to WAS or sham treatment for 1 hour/day for 10 days. The visceromotor response was measured before and after the treatment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) mapping was performed by intravenous injection of radiotracer ([14C]-iodoantipyrine) while the rat was receiving a 60-mmHg CRD or no distension. Regional CBF-related tissue radioactivity was quantified in autoradiographic images of brain slices and analyzed in 3-dimensionally reconstructed brains with statistical parametric mapping. Compared to sham rats, stressed rats showed VH in association with greater CRD-evoked activation in the insular cortex, amygdala, and hypothalamus, but reduced activation in the prelimbic area (PrL) of prefrontal cortex. We constrained results of seed correlation analysis by known structural connectivity of the PrL to generate structurally linked functional connectivity (SLFC) of the PrL. Dramatic differences in the SLFC of PrL were noted between stressed and sham rats under distension. In particular, sham rats showed negative correlation between the PrL and amygdala, which was absent in stressed rats. The altered pattern of functional brain activation is in general agreement with that observed in IBS patients in human brain imaging studies, providing further support for the face and construct validity of the WAS model for IBS. The absence of prefrontal cortex-amygdala anticorrelation in stressed rats is consistent with the notion that impaired corticolimbic modulation acts as a central mechanism underlying stress-induced VH.
Wang, Zhuo; Ocampo, Marco A.; Pang, Raina D.; Bota, Mihail; Bradesi, Sylvie; Mayer, Emeran A.; Holschneider, Daniel P.
Summary Mental rotation is a complex cognitive skill depending on the manipulation of mental representations. We aimed to investigate\\u000a the maturing neuronal network for mental rotation by measuring brain activation in 20 children and 20 adults using functional\\u000a magnetic resonance imaging. Our results indicate that brain activation patterns are very similar between children and adults.\\u000a However, adults exhibit stronger activation in
K. Kucian; M. von Aster; T. Loenneker; T. Dietrich; F. W. Mast; E. Martin
The question of how the human brain represents conceptual knowledge has been debated in many scientific fields. Brain imaging studies have shown that different spatial patterns of neural activation are associated with thinking about different semantic categories of pictures and words (for example, tools, buildings, and animals). We present a computational model that predicts the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
Tom M. Mitchell; Svetlana V. Shinkareva; Andrew Carlson; Kai-Min Chang; Vicente L. Malave; Robert A. Mason; Marcel Adam Just
Brain bank centers around the world attempt to standardize postmortem brain collection and quality control. Antemortem as well postmortem factors may influence tissue quality. Previously, we could demonstrate that increased tryptophan (TRP) levels significantly correlate to prolonged postmortem interval (PMI) and storage duration, whereas pH-value altered merely as consequence of prolonged agonal state and ischemic brain damage additionally to repeated freeze and thaw cycles. Therefore, we aimed to investigate in artificial PMI conditions, with three brain tissue storage temperatures (4°C, room temperature and 37°C) as well as oxidizing conditions (open/close tube), whether TRP levels and pH-value alter. We could confirm that prolonged PMI at higher storage temperatures and oxidizing conditions significantly correlate to increased TRP levels, while pH-value did not correlate at all. In conclusion, from these results PMI intervals until autopsy should be kept as short as possible and storage until autopsy should be at 4°C in order to preserve brain tissue quality as much as possible. PMID:20817063
Grünblatt, Edna; Proft, Florian; Apfelbacher, Manuela; Deckert, Jürgen; Roggendorf, Wolfgang; Riederer, Peter; Monoranu, Camelia Maria
This chapter provides an overview of the scientific and clinical progress in the development of non-invasive and invasive\\u000a brain-computer interfaces (BCI). BCI uses electric, magnetic or metabolic brain activity for the activation and control of\\u000a external devices and computers. Clinically, until now it has been successfully used as a communication system for totally\\u000a paralyzed patients (“locked-in patients”), in restoration of
Surjo R. Soekadar; Klaus Haagen; Niels Birbaumer
Physical activity influences inflammation, and both affect brain structure and Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. We hypothesized that older adults with greater reported physical activity intensity and lower serum levels of the inflammatory marker tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF?) would have larger regional brain volumes on subsequent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. In 43 cognitively intact older adults (79.3±4.8years) and 39 patients with AD (81.9±5.1years at the time of MRI) participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study, we examined year-1 reported physical activity intensity, year-5 blood serum TNF? measures, and year-9 volumetric brain MRI scans. We examined how prior physical activity intensity and TNF? related to subsequent total and regional brain volumes. Physical activity intensity was measured using the modified Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activities questionnaire at year 1 of the study, when all subjects included here were cognitively intact. Stability of measures was established for exercise intensity over 9years and TNF? over 3years in a subset of subjects who had these measurements at multiple time points. When considered together, more intense physical activity intensity and lower serum TNF? were both associated with greater total brain volume on follow-up MRI scans. TNF?, but not physical activity, was associated with regional volumes of the inferior parietal lobule, a region previously associated with inflammation in AD patients. Physical activity and TNF? may independently influence brain structure in older adults. PMID:24836855
Braskie, M N; Boyle, C P; Rajagopalan, P; Gutman, B A; Toga, A W; Raji, C A; Tracy, R P; Kuller, L H; Becker, J T; Lopez, O L; Thompson, P M
Background Defects in the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) and p-glycoprotein (Pgp) clearance of amyloid beta (A?) from brain are thought to contribute to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We have recently shown that induction of systemic inflammation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in impaired efflux of A? from the brain. The same treatment also impairs Pgp function. Here, our aim is to determine which physiological routes of A? clearance are affected following systemic inflammation, including those relying on LRP-1 and Pgp function at the blood–brain barrier. Methods CD-1 mice aged between 6 and 8?weeks were treated with 3 intraperitoneal injections of 3?mg/kg LPS at 0, 6, and 24 hours and studied at 28 hours. 125I-A?1-42 or 125I-alpha-2-macroglobulin injected into the lateral ventricle of the brain (intracerebroventricular (ICV)) or into the jugular vein (intravenous (IV)) was used to quantify LRP-1-dependent partitioning between the brain vasculature and parenchyma and peripheral clearance, respectively. Disappearance of ICV-injected 14?C-inulin from brain was measured to quantify bulk flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Brain microvascular protein expression of LRP-1 and Pgp was measured by immunoblotting. Endothelial cell localization of LRP-1 was measured by immunofluorescence microscopy. Oxidative modifications to LRP-1 at the brain microvasculature were measured by immunoprecipitation of LRP-1 followed by immunoblotting for 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine. Results We found that LPS: caused an LRP-1-dependent redistribution of ICV-injected A? from brain parenchyma to brain vasculature and decreased entry into blood; impaired peripheral clearance of IV-injected A?; inhibited reabsorption of CSF; did not significantly alter brain microvascular protein levels of LRP-1 or Pgp, or oxidative modifications to LRP-1; and downregulated LRP-1 protein levels and caused LRP-1 mislocalization in cultured brain endothelial cells. Conclusions These results suggest that LRP-1 undergoes complex functional regulation following systemic inflammation which may depend on cell type, subcellular location, and post-translational modifications. Our findings that systemic inflammation causes deficits in both A? transport and bulk flow like those observed in AD indicate that inflammation could induce and promote the disease.
The authors have previously reported that multiple high doses of methamphetamine (METH) alter neuronal monoamine metabolism and release. Recently, Hokfelt et al. showed that neurotensin, a tridecapeptide, has neurotransmitter properties which may be involved with DA neuronal activity. In the present study they investigated the possible effects of METH on the CNS neurotensin system. Five doses of METH (15 mg/kg) were administered every 6 h; control and treated rats were sacrificed 18 h after the last dose and concentrations of neurotensin-like immuno-reactivity (NTLI) were measured by radioimmunoassay. NTLI was elevated 200-300% in the nucleus accumbens, neostriatum, and substantia nigra; 30-40% increases in NTLI were measured in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. No change was observed in amygdala, A-10 or periaqueductal gray. In contrast to the above measured areas, the frontal lobe and olfactory bulb showed decreases of 25-35%. These findings demonstrate that METH treatment alters the activities of several CNS neurotensin systems, possibly due to the influence of this drug on DA pathways. The variability in the type and magnitude of these responses suggests that DA and neurotensin systems interact by more than one mechanism.
Hanson, G.R.; Merchant, K.; Gibb, J.W.; Letter, A.A.
Acute treatment with subanesthetic ketamine, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist, is widely utilized as a translational model for schizophrenia. However, how acute NMDA receptor blockade impacts on brain functioning at a systems level, to elicit translationally relevant symptomatology and behavioral deficits, has not yet been determined. Here, for the first time, we apply established and recently validated topological measures from network science to brain imaging data gained from ketamine-treated mice to elucidate how acute NMDA receptor blockade impacts on the properties of functional brain networks. We show that the effects of acute ketamine treatment on the global properties of these networks are divergent from those widely reported in schizophrenia. Where acute NMDA receptor blockade promotes hyperconnectivity in functional brain networks, pronounced dysconnectivity is found in schizophrenia. We also show that acute ketamine treatment increases the connectivity and importance of prefrontal and thalamic brain regions in brain networks, a finding also divergent to alterations seen in schizophrenia. In addition, we characterize how ketamine impacts on bipartite functional interactions between neural subsystems. A key feature includes the enhancement of prefrontal cortex (PFC)-neuromodulatory subsystem connectivity in ketamine-treated animals, a finding consistent with the known effects of ketamine on PFC neurotransmitter levels. Overall, our data suggest that, at a systems level, acute ketamine-induced alterations in brain network connectivity do not parallel those seen in chronic schizophrenia. Hence, the mechanisms through which acute ketamine treatment induces translationally relevant symptomatology may differ from those in chronic schizophrenia. Future effort should therefore be dedicated to resolve the conflicting observations between this putative translational model and schizophrenia. PMID:24492765
Dawson, Neil; McDonald, Martin; Higham, Desmond J; Morris, Brian J; Pratt, Judith A
Myriocin is a specific serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) inhibitor whose effect on the brain is unknown. Brain amine metabolism and sphingolipid biosynthesis were studied in mice treated intraperitoneally with 0, 0.1, 0.3 or 1mg\\/kg per day of myriocin for 5 days. Regional concentrations of dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and norepinephrine (NE),
Marcin F. Osuchowski; Victor J. Johnson; Quanren He; Raghubir P. Sharma
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are a common cause of autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 encodes a multi-domain protein containing GTPase and kinase enzymatic domains. Disease-associated mutations in LRRK2 variably influence enzymatic activity with the common G2019S variant leading to enhanced kinase activity. Mutant LRRK2 induces neuronal toxicity through a kinase-dependent mechanism suggesting that kinase activity is important for mediating the pathogenic effects of LRRK2 mutations. A number of LRRK2 kinase substrates have been identified in vitro but whether they represent authentic physiological substrates in mammalian cells or tissues is not yet clear. The eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E)-binding protein, 4E-BP1, was recently identified as a potential substrate of LRRK2 kinase activity in vitro and in Drosophila with phosphorylation occurring at Thr37 and Thr46. Here, we explore a potential interaction of LRRK2 and 4E-BP1 in mammalian cells and brain. We find that LRRK2 can weakly phosphorylate 4E-BP1 in vitro but LRRK2 overexpression is not able to alter endogenous 4E-BP1 phosphorylation in mammalian cells. In mammalian neurons LRRK2 and 4E-BP1 display minimal co-localization, whereas the subcellular distribution, protein complex formation and covalent post-translational modification of endogenous 4E-BP1 are not altered in the brains of LRRK2 knockout or mutant LRRK2 transgenic mice. In the brain, the phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 at Thr37 and Thr46 does not change in LRRK2 knockout or mutant LRRK2 transgenic mice, nor is 4E-BP1 phosphorylation altered in idiopathic or G2019S mutant PD brains. Collectively, our results suggest that 4E-BP1 is neither a major nor robust physiological substrate of LRRK2 in mammalian cells or brain. PMID:23082216
Trancikova, Alzbeta; Mamais, Adamantios; Webber, Philip J; Stafa, Klodjan; Tsika, Elpida; Glauser, Liliane; West, Andrew B; Bandopadhyay, Rina; Moore, Darren J
Hyperammonemic disorders in pediatric patients lead to poorly understood irreversible effects on the developing brain that may be life-threatening. We showed previously that some of these NH4+-induced irreversible effects might be due to impairment of axonal growth that can be protected under ammonium exposure by creatine co-treatment. The aim of the present work was thus to analyse how the genes of arginine:glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT), allowing creatine synthesis, as well as of the creatine transporter SLC6A8, allowing creatine uptake into cells, are regulated in rat brain cells under NH4+ exposure. Reaggregated brain cell three-dimensional cultures exposed to NH4Cl were used as an experimental model of hyperammonemia in the developing central nervous system (CNS). We show here that NH4+ exposure differentially alters AGAT, GAMT and SLC6A8 regulation, in terms of both gene expression and protein activity, in a cell type-specific manner. In particular, we demonstrate that NH4+ exposure decreases both creatine and its synthesis intermediate, guanidinoacetate, in brain cells, probably through the inhibition of AGAT enzymatic activity. Our work also suggests that oligodendrocytes are major actors in the brain in terms of creatine synthesis, trafficking and uptake, which might be affected by hyperammonemia. Finally, we show that NH4+ exposure induces SLC6A8 in astrocytes. This suggests that hyperammonemia increases blood-brain barrier permeability for creatine. This is normally limited due to the absence of SLC6A8 from the astrocyte feet lining microcapillary endothelial cells, and thus creatine supplementation may protect the developing CNS of hyperammonemic patients. PMID:18380667
Braissant, Olivier; Cagnon, Laurène; Monnet-Tschudi, Florianne; Speer, Oliver; Wallimann, Theo; Honegger, Paul; Henry, Hugues
BackgroundCongenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) brain infection causes serious neuro-developmental sequelae including: mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and sensorineural hearing loss. But, the mechanisms of injury and pathogenesis to the fetal brain are not completely understood. The present study addresses potential pathogenic mechanisms by which this virus injures the CNS using a neonatal mouse model that mirrors congenital brain infection. This investigation focused
Manohar B. Mutnal; Maxim C.-J. Cheeran; Shuxian Hu; James R. Lokensgard; Pedro R. Lowenstein
Context: Mechanisms underlying the brain response to hypoglycemia are not well understood. Objective: Our objective was to determine the blood glucose level at which the hypothalamus and other brain regions are activated in response to hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetic patients and control subjects. Design: This was a cross-sectional study evaluating brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging in conjunction with a hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp to lower glucose from euglycemia (90 mg/dl) to hypoglycemia (50 mg/dl). Setting: The study was performed at the Brain Imaging Center in the McLean Hospital. Study Participants: Seven type 1 diabetic patients between 18 and 50 yr old and six matched control subjects were included in the study. Intervention: Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemic clamp was performed. Main Outcome Measures: Blood glucose level at peak hypothalamic activation, amount of regional brain activity during hypoglycemia in both groups, and difference in regional brain activation between groups were calculated. Results: The hypothalamic region activates at 68 ± 9 mg/dl in control subjects and 76 ± 8 mg/dl in diabetic patients during hypoglycemia induction. Brainstem, anterior cingulate cortex, uncus, and putamen were activated in both groups (P < 0.001). Each group also activated unique brain areas not active in the other group. Conclusions: This application of functional magnetic resonance imaging can be used to identify the glucose level at which the hypothalamus is triggered in response to hypoglycemia and whether this threshold differs across patient populations. This study suggests that a core network of brain regions is recruited during hypoglycemia in both diabetic patients and control subjects.
Musen, Gail; Simonson, Donald C.; Bolo, Nicolas R.; Driscoll, Amy; Weinger, Katie; Raji, Annaswamy; Theberge, Jean; Renshaw, Perry F.; Jacobson, Alan M.
Rapid inactivation of metabolism is essential for accurately determining the concentrations of metabolic intermediates in the in vivo state. We compared a broad spectrum of energetic intermediate metabolites and neurotransmitters in brains obtained by microwave irradiation to those obtained by freeze blowing, the most rapid method of extracting and freezing rat brain. The concentrations of many intermediates, cytosolic free NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H ratios, as well as neurotransmitters were not affected by the microwave procedure. However, the brain concentrations of ATP were about 30% lower, whereas those of ADP, AMP, and GDP were higher in the microwave-irradiated compared with the freeze-blown brains. In addition, the hydrolysis of approximately 1 ?mol/g of ATP, a major in vivo Mg2+-binding site, was related to approximately five-fold increase in free [Mg2+] (0.53 ± 0.07 mM in freeze blown vs. 2.91 mM ± 0.48 mM in microwaved brains), as determined from the ratio [citrate]/[isocitrate]. Consequently, many intracellular properties, such as the phosphorylation potential and the ?G’ of ATP hydrolysis were significantly altered in microwaved tissue. The determinations of some glycolytic and TCA cycle metabolites, the phosphorylation potential, and the ?G’ of ATP hydrolysis do not represent the in vivo state when using microwave-fixed brain tissue.
Srivastava, Shireesh; Kashiwaya, Yoshihiro; Chen, Xuesong; Geiger, Jonathan D.; Pawlosky, Robert; Veech, Richard L.
Although developmental stuttering has been extensively studied with structural and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), few studies have focused on resting-state brain activity in this disorder. We investigated resting-state brain activity of stuttering subjects by analyzing the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity (FC) and independent component analysis (ICA)-based FC. Forty-four adult males with
Yun Xuan; Chun Meng; Yanhui Yang; Chaozhe Zhu; Liang Wang; Qian Yan; Chunlan Lin; Chunshui Yu
A total of 40 human brain tumor samples were analyzed for tumor-specific alterations at the RB1 gene locus. Gliomas were more\\u000a prevalent in younger males and meningiomas in older females. Southern blot analysis revealed loss of heterozygosity (LOH)\\u000a at the intron 1 locus of RB1 gene in 19.4% of informative cases and this is the first report showing LOH at
J. Mathivanan; K. Rohini; Mohan L. Gope; B. Anandh; Rajalakshmi Gope
Summary. A search for Drosophila mutants with phenotypes similar to human diseases might help to unravel evolutionary conserved genes\\u000a implicated in polygenic human disorders. Among these are neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by a late onset disturbance\\u000a of memory, synaptic and glial pathology, structural brain impairments and altered content of the intermediates of the kynurenine\\u000a pathway, the modulators of glutamate excito- and
E. Savvateeva; A. Popov; N. Kamyshev; J. Bragina; M. Heisenberg; D. Senitz; J. Kornhuber; P. Riederer
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is presented to model the blood flow through the human circulatory system under altered gravity conditions. Models required for CFD simulation relevant to major hemodynamic issues are introduced such as non-Newtonian flow models governed by red blood cells, a model for arterial wall motion due to fluid-wall interactions, a vascular bed model for outflow boundary conditions, and a model for auto-regulation mechanism. The three-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with these models are solved iteratively using the pseudocompressibility method and dual time stepping. Moving wall boundary conditions from the first-order fluid-wall interaction model are used to study the influence of arterial wall distensibility on flow patterns and wall shear stresses during the heart pulse. A vascular bed modeling utilizing the analogy with electric circuits is coupled with an auto-regulation algorithm for multiple outflow boundaries. For the treatment of complex geometry, a chimera overset grid technique is adopted to obtain connectivity between arterial branches. For code validation, computed results are compared with experimental data for steady and unsteady non-Newtonian flows. Good agreement is obtained for both cases. In sin-type Gravity Benchmark Problems, gravity source terms are added to the Navier-Stokes equations to study the effect of gravitational variation on the human circulatory system. This computational approach is then applied to localized blood flows through a realistic carotid bifurcation and two Circle of Willis models, one using an idealized geometry and the other model using an anatomical data set. A three- dimensional anatomical Circle of Willis configuration is reconstructed from human-specific magnetic resonance images using an image segmentation method. The blood flow through these Circle of Willis models is simulated to provide means for studying gravitational effects on the brain circulation under auto-regulation.
Kim, Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; David, Tim
Individuals born very preterm (VPT) are at risk of neurodevelopmental damage and of adverse educational outcomes in childhood and adolescence. The present study used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the association between grey matter and white matter volume and measures of language and executive functioning in VPT born adolescents and term-born controls by gender. VPT individuals (N=218) and controls (N=127) underwent neuropsychological assessment and MRI at age 14-15 as part of a longitudinal study. Differential associations were found between spelling scores and frontal regional grey matter volume when group (VPT and control) and gender (males and females) were investigated. A main effect of group demonstrated a weaker association in VPT adolescents relative to controls between grey matter volume in the left medial and right superior frontal gyri and spelling scores. A main effect of gender revealed spelling scores to be correlated with grey matter volume in the right superior frontal gyrus in females to a greater extent than in males. Furthermore, a significant interaction between group and gender was detected in two regions. Spelling scores showed a stronger association with grey matter volume in a cluster with local maxima in the left medial frontal cortex extending to the caudate nucleus in VPT females than in control females and a weaker association in VPT males compared to control males. In addition, spelling scores showed a stronger association with grey matter volume in left middle frontal gyrus in VPT males compared to control males and a weaker association in VPT females than in control females. When group and gender were investigated, there were no statistically different correlations between structural brain volumes and performance on reading and executive function tests. These data demonstrate that the typical structure-function relationship in respect to spelling abilities appears to be altered in individuals born preterm and the processes underpinning this divergence may be subject to gender-specific influences. PMID:21651922
Scott, Fiona E; Mechelli, Andrea; Allin, Matthew P; Walshe, Muriel; Rifkin, Larry; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara
Previous studies on mice with a disruption of the gene encoding acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) suggest that ASIC1a is required for normal fear behavior. To investigate the effects of altering the subunit composition of brain ASICs on behavior, we developed transgenic mice expressing ASIC3 via the pan-neuronal synapsin I promoter. These mice express ASIC3 in the brain, where the endogenous ASIC3 protein is not detected. We found that in ASIC3 transgenic mice, ASIC3 co-immunoprecipitated with the endogenous ASIC1a protein and distributed in the same subcellular brain fractions as ASIC1a. In addition, ASIC3 significantly increased the rate of desensitization of acid-evoked currents in cultured cortical neurons. Importantly, ASIC3 reduced Pavlovian fear conditioning to both context and auditory cues. These observations suggest that ASIC3 can heteromultimerize with ASIC1a in the brain and alter the biophysical properties of the endogenous channel complex. Moreover, these data suggest that ASIC subunit composition and channel desensitization may be critical determinants for ASIC-dependent behavior.
Vralsted, V C; Price, M P; Du, J; Schnizler, M; Wunsch, A M; Ziemann, A E; Welsh, M J; Wemmie, J A
Background Nanotechnology is developing rapidly throughout the world and the production of novel man-made nanoparticles is increasing, it is therefore of concern that nanomaterials have the potential to affect human health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal exposure to nano-sized anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) on gene expression in the brain during the developmental period using cDNA microarray analysis combined with Gene Ontology (GO) and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms information. Results Analysis of gene expression using GO terms indicated that expression levels of genes associated with apoptosis were altered in the brain of newborn pups, and those associated with brain development were altered in early age. The genes associated with response to oxidative stress were changed in the brains of 2 and 3 weeks old mice. Changes of the expression of genes associated with neurotransmitters and psychiatric diseases were found using MeSH terms. Conclusion Maternal exposure of mice to TiO2 nanoparticles may affect the expression of genes related to the development and function of the central nervous system.
Shimizu, Midori; Tainaka, Hitoshi; Oba, Taro; Mizuo, Keisuke; Umezawa, Masakazu; Takeda, Ken
Mitochondrial metabolism, respiration, and ATP production necessitate ion transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane. Leucine zipper-EF-hand containing transmembrane protein 1 (Letm1), one of the genes deleted in Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, encodes a putative mitochondrial Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter. Cellular Letm1 knockdown reduced Ca(2+)mito uptake, H(+)mito extrusion and impaired mitochondrial ATP generation capacity. Homozygous deletion of Letm1 in mice resulted in embryonic lethality before day 6.5 of embryogenesis and ~50% of the heterozygotes died before day 13.5 of embryogenesis. The surviving heterozygous mice exhibited altered glucose metabolism, impaired control of brain ATP levels, and increased seizure activity. We conclude that loss of Letm1 contributes to the pathology of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome in humans and may contribute to seizure phenotypes by reducing glucose oxidation and other specific metabolic alterations. PMID:23716663
Jiang, Dawei; Zhao, Linlin; Clish, Clary B; Clapham, David E
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) activity is known to mediate the tone of endogenous fatty acid amides including the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA). FAAH is a potential therapeutic target becuase genetic or pharmacological ablation of FAAH promotes analgesia and anxiolytic effects without disrupting motor coordination. Little is known about the endogenous temporal fluctuations of brain FAAH activity. This is the first comprehensive study examining temporal fluctuations in mouse brain FAAH activity. Regional mouse brain homogenates were generated at the midpoint of the light (“noon”) and dark (“midnight”) cycles. While immunoblots revealed no significant change (P>0.05) in regional activity between these two time points, in vitro activity assays detected a subtle 10% reduction (P<0.05) in cerebellar FAAH activity at midnight. A novel ex vivo autoradiography technique permitted the study of eleven different brain regions, many of which cannot be studied using traditional in vitro methods. The cerebellum and the PAG both exhibited significant (P<0.05) reductions in regional FAAH activity in ‘midnight’ brains. These data confirm the need to account for temporal changes in FAAH activity when therapeutically targeting FAAH.
Glaser, Sherrye T.; Kaczocha, Martin
The relations among early cumulative medical risk, cumulative environmental risk, attentional control, and brain activation were assessed in 15-16-year-old adolescents who were born preterm. Functional magnetic resonance imaging found frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex activation during an attention task with greater activation of the left…
Carmody, Dennis P.; Bendersky, Margaret; Dunn, Stanley M.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Hegyi, Thomas; Hiatt, Mark; Lewis, Michael
The amygdala has long been known to play a key role in supporting memory for emotionally arousing experiences. For example, classical fear conditioning depends on neural plasticity within this anterior medial temporal lobe region. Beneficial effects of emotional arousal on memory, however, are not restricted to simple associative learning. Our recollection of emotional experiences often includes rich representations of, e.g., spatiotemporal context, visceral states, and stimulus-response associations. Critically, such memory features are known to bear heavily on regions elsewhere in the brain. These observations led to the modulation account of amygdala function, which postulates that amygdala activation enhances memory consolidation by facilitating neural plasticity and information storage processes in its target regions. Rodent work in past decades has identified the most important brain regions and neurochemical processes involved in these modulatory actions, and neuropsychological and neuroimaging work in humans has produced a large body of convergent data. Importantly, recent methodological developments make it increasingly realistic to monitor neural interactions underlying such modulatory effects as they unfold. For instance, functional connectivity network modeling in humans has demonstrated how information exchanges between the amygdala and specific target regions occur within the context of large-scale neural network interactions. Furthermore, electrophysiological and optogenetic techniques in rodents are beginning to make it possible to quantify and even manipulate such interactions with millisecond precision. In this paper we will discuss that these developments will likely lead to an updated view of the amygdala as a critical nexus within large-scale networks supporting different aspects of memory processing for emotionally arousing experiences. PMID:24583373
Hermans, Erno J; Battaglia, Francesco P; Atsak, Piray; de Voogd, Lycia D; Fernández, Guillén; Roozendaal, Benno
Cediranib is an orally active tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor family. Because of its potent antiangiogenic and antitumor activities, cediranib has been evaluated for therapy in glioma, a primary brain tumor. This study investigated the influence of two important efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), on the delivery of cediranib to the central nervous system. In vitro studies indicated that cediranib is a dual substrate for both P-gp and Bcrp. It is noteworthy that in spite of the in vitro data the in vivo mouse disposition studies conclusively showed that P-gp was the dominant transporter restricting the brain distribution of cediranib. The brain-to-plasma partitioning (AUCbrain/AUCplasma, where AUC is area under the curve) and the steady-state brain-to-plasma concentration ratio of cediranib were approximately 20-fold higher in Mdr1a/b(?/?) and Mdr1a/b(?/?)Bcrp1(?/?) mice compared with wild-type and Bcrp1(?/?) mice. Moreover, there was no significant difference in brain distribution of cediranib between wild-type and Bcrp1(?/?) mice and between Mdr1a/b(?/?) and Mdr1a/b(?/?)Bcrp1(?/?) mice. These results show that, unlike other tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are dual substrates for P-gp and Bcrp, Bcrp does not restrict the distribution of cediranib across the blood-brain barrier. We also show that inhibition of P-gp using specific or nonspecific inhibitors resulted in significantly enhanced delivery of cediranib to the brain. Concurrent administration of cediranib with chemical modulators of efflux transporters can be used as a strategy to enhance delivery and thus efficacy of cediranib in the brain. These findings are clinically relevant to the efficacy of cediranib chemotherapy in glioma.
Wang, Tianli; Agarwal, Sagar
In the absence of external stimuli, human hemodynamic brain activity displays slow intrinsic variations. To find out whether such fluctuations would be altered by persistent pain, we asked 10 patients with unrelenting chronic pain of different etiologies and 10 sex- and age-matched control subjects to rest with eyes open during 3-T functional MRI. Independent component analysis was used to identify functionally coupled brain networks. Time courses of an independent component comprising the insular cortices of both hemispheres showed stronger spectral power at 0.12 to 0.25 Hz in patients than in control subjects, with the largest difference at 0.16 Hz. A similar but weaker effect was seen in the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas activity of the precuneus and early visual cortex, used as a control site, did not differ between the groups. In the patient group, seed point-based correlation analysis revealed altered spatial connectivity between insulae and anterior cingulate cortex. The results imply both temporally and spatially aberrant activity of the affective pain-processing areas in patients suffering from chronic pain. The accentuated 0.12- to 0.25-Hz fluctuations in the patient group might be related to altered activity of the autonomic nervous system.
Malinen, Sanna; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Koskinen, Miika; Ramkumar, Pavan; Forss, Nina; Kalso, Eija; Hari, Riitta
CYP2B6 metabolizes drugs such as nicotine and bupropion, and many toxins and carcinogens. Nicotine induces CYP2B1 in rat brain and in humans polymorphic variation in CYP2B6 affects smoking cessation rates. The aim of this study was to compare CYP2B6 expression in brains of human smokers and non-smokers and alcoholics and non-alcoholics (n=26). CYP2B6 expression was brain region-specific, and was observed
Sharon Miksys; Caryn Lerman; Peter G. Shields; Deborah C. Mash; Rachel F. Tyndale
BACKGROUND: Our previous studies indicated that metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are deeply involved in the secondary processes after diffuse brain injury (DBI). In the present study, we used a rodent DBI model to determine whether hypotension exacerbates neuronal injury as a secondary brain insult (SBI) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) by changing the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in
Zhou Fei; Xiang Zhang; Hong-min Bai; Xiao-fan Jiang; Xia Li; Wei Zhang; Wei Hu
Theoretical considerations, and findings from computational modeling, comparative neuroanatomy and developmental neuroscience, motivate the hypothesis that a deviant brain growth trajectory will lead to deviant patterns of change in cortico-cortical connectivity. Differences in brain size during development will alter the relative cost and effectiveness of short- and long-distance connections, and should thus impact the growth and retention of connections. Reduced brain size should favor long-distance connectivity; brain overgrowth should favor short-distance connectivity; and inconsistent deviations from the normal growth trajectory – as occurs in autism – should result in potentially disruptive changes to established patterns of functional and physical connectivity during development. To explore this hypothesis, neural networks which modeled inter-hemispheric interaction were grown at the rate of either typically developing children or children with autism. The influence of the length of the inter-hemispheric connections was analyzed at multiple developmental time-points. The networks that modeled autistic growth were less affected by removal of the inter-hemispheric connections than those that modeled normal growth – indicating a reduced reliance on long-distance connections – for short response times, and this difference increased substantially at approximately 24 simulated months of age. The performance of the networks showed a corresponding decline during development. And direct analysis of the connection weights showed a parallel reduction in connectivity. These modeling results support the hypothesis that the deviant growth trajectory in autism spectrum disorders may lead to a disruption of established patterns of functional connectivity during development, with potentially negative behavioral consequences, and a subsequent reduction in physical connectivity. The results are discussed in relation to the growing body of evidence of reduced functional and structural connectivity in autism, and in relation to the behavioral phenotype, particularly the developmental aspects.
Lewis, John D.; Elman, Jeffrey L.
Abstract Non-invasive measurement of resting state cerebral blood flow (CBF) may reflect alterations of brain structure and function after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, previous imaging studies of resting state brain in chronic TBI have been limited by several factors, including measurement in relative rather than absolute units, use of crude spatial registration methods, exclusion of subjects with substantial focal lesions, and exposure to ionizing radiation, which limits repeated assessments. This study aimed to overcome those obstacles by measuring absolute CBF with an arterial spin labeling perfusion fMRI technique, and using an image preprocessing protocol that is optimized for brains with mixed diffuse and focal injuries characteristic of moderate and severe TBI. Resting state CBF was quantified in 27 individuals with moderate to severe TBI in the chronic stage, and 22 demographically matched healthy controls. In addition to global CBF reductions in the TBI subjects, more prominent regional hypoperfusion was found in the posterior cingulate cortices, the thalami, and multiple locations in the frontal cortices. Diffuse injury, as assessed by tensor-based morphometry, was mainly associated with reduced CBF in the posterior cingulate cortices and the thalami, where the greatest volume losses were detected. Hypoperfusion in superior and middle frontal cortices, in contrast, was associated with focal lesions. These results suggest that structural lesions, both focal and diffuse, are the main contributors to the absolute CBF alterations seen in chronic TBI, and that CBF may serve as a tool to assess functioning neuronal volume. We also speculate that resting reductions in posterior cingulate perfusion may reflect alterations in the default-mode network, and may contribute to the attentional deficits common in TBI.
Whyte, John; Patel, Sunil; Avants, Brian; Europa, Eduardo; Wang, Jiongjiong; Slattery, John; Gee, James C.; Coslett, H. Branch; Detre, John A.
In vivo electrophysiological recordings of neuronal circuits are necessary for diagnostic purposes and for brain-machine interfaces. Organic electronic devices constitute a promising candidate because of their mechanical flexibility and biocompatibility. Here we demonstrate the engineering of an organic electrochemical transistor embedded in an ultrathin organic film designed to record electrophysiological signals on the surface of the brain. The device, tested in vivo on epileptiform discharges, displayed superior signal-to-noise ratio due to local amplification compared with surface electrodes. The organic transistor was able to record on the surface low-amplitude brain activities, which were poorly resolved with surface electrodes. This study introduces a new class of biocompatible, highly flexible devices for recording brain activity with superior signal-to-noise ratio that hold great promise for medical applications.
Khodagholy, Dion; Doublet, Thomas; Quilichini, Pascale; Gurfinkel, Moshe; Leleux, Pierre; Ghestem, Antoine; Ismailova, Esma; Herve, Thierry; Sanaur, Sebastien; Bernard, Christophe; Malliaras, George G.
Microcystins (MCs) constitute a family of cyanobacterial toxins, with more than 80 variants. These toxins are able to induce hepatotoxicity in several organisms mainly through the inhibition of protein phosphatases PP1 and PP2A and oxidative stress generation. Since recent evidence shows that MCs can either accumulate in brain or alter behavior patterns of fish species, in this study we tested the in vitro and in vivo effects of MC-LR at different concentrations on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in zebrafish brain. In vivo studies showed that 100 ?g/L MC-LR led to a significant increase in the AChE activity (27%) when zebrafish were exposed to the toxin dissolved in water, but did not cause any significant changes when injected intraperitoneally. In addition, semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that 100 ?g/L MC-LR exposure also increased ache mRNA levels in zebrafish brain. The in vitro assays did not reveal any significant changes in AChE activity. These findings provide the first evidence that brain AChE is another potential target for MCs and suggest that the observed increases in AChE enzymatic activity and in ache transcript levels after MC-LR exposure depend, at least partially, on branchial uptake or ingestion. PMID:21946396
Kist, Luiza Wilges; Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Pereira, Talita Carneiro Brandão; de Azevedo, Mariana Barbieri; Richetti, Stefânia Konrad; de Castro Leão, Janaína; Yunes, João Sarkis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Bogo, Maurício Reis
1. The aim of the present study was to determine the brain sites mediating aspects of respiratory and cardiovascular control in adult humans using non-invasive functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) procedures, thereby avoiding the spatial and temporal sampling limitations associated with classic neural assessment techniques. 2. We examined activity changes across the entire brain following application of respiratory loads and upon induction of blood pressure and heart rate alterations. Magnetic resonance signals were visualized with a 1.5 Tesla scanner in healthy volunteers (22-52 years of age) using procedures that optimally assess changes in brain tissue microcirculation. Images were collected during a Valsalva manoeuvre, inspiratory loading, hypercapnia, cold pressor challenges to the hand and forehead and during intervening baseline states. 3. Image values from experimental conditions were compared with corresponding baseline values on a pixel-by-pixel basis to identify brain regions in which the experimental conditions produced physiological activation. 4. Ventilatory and pressor challenges elicited significant changes in regional image signal intensity in areas within the orbital cortex, amygdala, hypothalamus and hippocampus. Cerebellar, medullary and pontine areas were also recruited. However, while particular brain regions were only activated during specific stimuli, other regional signal changes occurred with multiple experimental manipulations. 5. The findings indicate that respiratory and cardiac challenges elicit discrete activity changes over multiple brain sites. Activated regions include structures not often related to respiratory or cardiovascular regulation, such as the cerebellum; a prominent role for limbic forebrain structures in mediating the response is also suggested. The fMRI visualization procedures may greatly assist in the determination of neural structures that mediate respiratory and cardiovascular control in humans. PMID:9673830
Harper, R M; Gozal, D; Bandler, R; Spriggs, D; Lee, J; Alger, J
Copper may play an important role in the brain in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. We compare the active Cu uptake, Cu-containing enzyme levels, and total Cu distribution in the brains of young and aging mice. (67)Cu was administered intravenously to 2, 7-9, and 14 month old mice. Active uptake of (67)Cu in the brain was measured at 24 h by digital phosphor autoradiography. Cerebral superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) and cytochrome-C oxidase subunit-1 (CCO-1) levels were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The total Cu distribution in brain section was determined by imaging laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). In aging mice, active (67)Cu uptake and SOD-1 levels were significantly decreased in the brain, whereas blood (67)Cu and CCO-1 levels were similar for all mice, irrespective of age. Paradoxically, global Cu cerebral content was increased in aged mice, suggesting that regulation of active Cu uptake by the brain may be linked to total Cu levels in an attempt to maintain Cu homeostasis. However, focal areas of both decreased Cu uptake and Cu content were noted in the striatum and ventral cortex in aging mice. These focal areas of Cu deficit correspond to the regions of greatest reduction in SOD-1 in the aged mice. In aging, dysregulated Cu homeostasis may result in decreased SOD-1 levels, which may contribute to oxidative vulnerability of the aging brain. This study illustrates the importance of a multi-modality approach in studying the biodistribution and homeostasis of Cu in the brain. PMID:21072380
Wang, Li-Ming; Becker, J Sabine; Wu, Qi; Oliveira, Marcus F; Bozza, Fernando A; Schwager, Andrea L; Hoffman, John M; Morton, Kathryn A
The influence of five different types of aluminosilicate nanoparticles (NPs) on the dynamic surface activity of model pulmonary surfactant (PS) (Survanta) was studied experimentally using oscillating bubble tensiometry. Bentonite, halloysite and montmorillonite (MM) NPs, which are used as fillers of polymer composites, were characterized regarding the size distribution, morphology and surface area. Particle doses applied in the studies were estimated based on the inhalation rate and duration, taking into account the expected aerosol concentration and deposition efficiency after penetration of NPs into the alveolar region. The results indicate that aluminosilicate NPs at concentrations in the pulmonary liquid above 0.1?mg?cm(-3) are capable of promoting alterations of the original dynamic biophysical activity of the PS. This effect is indicated by deviation of the minimum surface tension, stability index and the size of surface tension hysteresis. Such response is dependent on the type of NPs present in the system and is stronger when particle concentration increases. It is suggested that interactions between NPs and the PS must be related to the surfactant adsorption on the suspended particles, while in the case of surface-modified clay NPs the additional washout of surface-active components may be expected. It is speculated that observed changes in surface properties of the surfactant may be associated with undesired health effects following extensive inhalation of aluminosilicate NPs in the workplace. PMID:23363039
Kondej, Dorota; Sosnowski, Tomasz R
Multiple studies have shown bilateral improvement in motor symptoms in Parkinson disease (PD) following unilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and internal segment of the globus pallidus, yet the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon are poorly understood. We hypothesized that STN neuronal activity is altered by contralateral STN DBS. This hypothesis was tested intraoperatively in humans with advanced PD using microelectrode recordings of the STN during contralateral STN DBS. We demonstrate alterations in the discharge pattern of STN neurons in response to contralateral STN DBS including short latency, temporally precise, stimulation frequency-independent responses consistent with antidromic activation. Furthermore, the total discharge frequency during contralateral high frequency stimulation (160 Hz) was greater than during low frequency stimulation (30 Hz) and the resting state. These findings demonstrate complex responses to DBS and imply that output activation throughout the basal ganglia-thalamic-cortical network rather than local inhibition is a therapeutic mechanism of DBS. PMID:21177996
Walker, Harrison C; Watts, Ray L; Schrandt, Christian J; Huang, He; Guthrie, Stephanie L; Guthrie, Barton L; Montgomery, Erwin B
A better understanding of carbon dioxide (CO2) effect on brain activity may have a profound impact on clinical studies using CO2 manipulation to assess cerebrovascular reserve and on the use of hypercapnia as a means to calibrate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal. This study investigates how an increase in blood CO2, via inhalation of 5% CO2, may alter brain activity in humans. Dynamic measurement of brain metabolism revealed that mild hypercapnia resulted in a suppression of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) by 13.4%±2.3% (N=14) and, furthermore, the CMRO2 change was proportional to the subject's end-tidal CO2 (Et-CO2) change. When using functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to assess the changes in resting-state neural activity, it was found that hypercapnia resulted in a reduction in all fcMRI indices assessed including cluster volume, cross-correlation coefficient, and amplitude of the fcMRI signal in the default-mode network (DMN). The extent of the reduction was more pronounced than similar indices obtained in visual-evoked fMRI, suggesting a selective suppression effect on resting-state neural activity. Scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) studies comparing hypercapnia with normocapnia conditions showed a relative increase in low frequency power in the EEG spectra, suggesting that the brain is entering a low arousal state on CO2 inhalation.
Xu, Feng; Uh, Jinsoo; Brier, Matthew R; Hart, John; Yezhuvath, Uma S; Gu, Hong; Yang, Yihong; Lu, Hanzhang
A better understanding of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) effect on brain activity may have a profound impact on clinical studies using CO(2) manipulation to assess cerebrovascular reserve and on the use of hypercapnia as a means to calibrate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal. This study investigates how an increase in blood CO(2), via inhalation of 5% CO(2), may alter brain activity in humans. Dynamic measurement of brain metabolism revealed that mild hypercapnia resulted in a suppression of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) by 13.4% ± 2.3% (N=14) and, furthermore, the CMRO(2) change was proportional to the subject's end-tidal CO(2) (Et-CO(2)) change. When using functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to assess the changes in resting-state neural activity, it was found that hypercapnia resulted in a reduction in all fcMRI indices assessed including cluster volume, cross-correlation coefficient, and amplitude of the fcMRI signal in the default-mode network (DMN). The extent of the reduction was more pronounced than similar indices obtained in visual-evoked fMRI, suggesting a selective suppression effect on resting-state neural activity. Scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) studies comparing hypercapnia with normocapnia conditions showed a relative increase in low frequency power in the EEG spectra, suggesting that the brain is entering a low arousal state on CO(2) inhalation. PMID:20842164
Xu, Feng; Uh, Jinsoo; Brier, Matthew R; Hart, John; Yezhuvath, Uma S; Gu, Hong; Yang, Yihong; Lu, Hanzhang
P-glycoprotein (ABCB1/MDR1, EC 220.127.116.11), the major efflux transporter at the blood–brain barrier (BBB), is a formidable obstacle to CNS pharmacotherapy. Understanding the mechanism(s) for increased P-glycoprotein activity at the BBB during peripheral inflammatory pain is critical in the development of novel strategies to overcome the significant decreases in CNS analgesic drug delivery. In this study, we employed the ?-carrageenan pain model (using female Sprague–Dawley rats), combined with confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation of cerebral microvessels, to determine if increased P-glycoprotein function, following the onset of peripheral inflammatory pain, is associated with a change in P-glycoprotein trafficking which leads to pain-induced effects on analgesic drug delivery. Injection of ?-carrageenan into the rat hind paw induced a localized, inflammatory pain (hyperalgesia) and simultaneously, at the BBB, a rapid change in colocalization of P-glycoprotein with caveolin-1, a key scaffolding/trafficking protein. Subcellular fractionation of isolated cerebral microvessels revealed that the bulk of P-glycoprotein constitutively traffics to membrane domains containing high molecular weight, disulfide-bonded P-glycoprotein-containing structures that cofractionate with membrane domains enriched with monomeric and high molecular weight, disulfide-bonded, caveolin-1-containing structures. Peripheral inflammatory pain promoted a dynamic redistribution between membrane domains of P-glycoprotein and caveolin-1. Disassembly of high molecular weight P-glycoprotein-containing structures within microvascular endothelial luminal membrane domains was accompanied by an increase in ATPase activity, suggesting a potential for functionally active P-glycoprotein. These results are the first observation that peripheral inflammatory pain leads to specific structural changes in P-glycoprotein responsible for controlling analgesic drug delivery to the CNS.
McCaffrey, Gwen; Staatz, William D.; Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Finch, Jessica D.; DeMarco, Kristen; Laracuente, Mei-Li; Ronaldson, Patrick T.; Davis, Thomas P.
P-glycoprotein (ABCB1/MDR1, EC 18.104.22.168), the major efflux transporter at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), is a formidable obstacle to CNS pharmacotherapy. Understanding the mechanism(s) for increased P-glycoprotein activity at the BBB during peripheral inflammatory pain is critical in the development of novel strategies to overcome the significant decreases in CNS analgesic drug delivery. In this study, we employed the ?-carrageenan pain model (using female Sprague-Dawley rats), combined with confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation of cerebral microvessels, to determine if increased P-glycoprotein function, following the onset of peripheral inflammatory pain, is associated with a change in P-glycoprotein trafficking which leads to pain-induced effects on analgesic drug delivery. Injection of ?-carrageenan into the rat hind paw induced a localized, inflammatory pain (hyperalgesia) and simultaneously, at the BBB, a rapid change in colocalization of P-glycoprotein with caveolin-1, a key scaffolding/trafficking protein. Subcellular fractionation of isolated cerebral microvessels revealed that the bulk of P-glycoprotein constitutively traffics to membrane domains containing high molecular weight, disulfide-bonded P-glycoprotein-containing structures that cofractionate with membrane domains enriched with monomeric and high molecular weight, disulfide-bonded, caveolin-1-containing structures. Peripheral inflammatory pain promoted a dynamic redistribution between membrane domains of P-glycoprotein and caveolin-1. Disassembly of high molecular weight P-glycoprotein-containing structures within microvascular endothelial luminal membrane domains was accompanied by an increase in ATPase activity, suggesting a potential for functionally active P-glycoprotein. These results are the first observation that peripheral inflammatory pain leads to specific structural changes in P-glycoprotein responsible for controlling analgesic drug delivery to the CNS. PMID:22716933
McCaffrey, Gwen; Staatz, William D; Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Finch, Jessica D; Demarco, Kristen; Laracuente, Mei-Li; Ronaldson, Patrick T; Davis, Thomas P
Studies on therapeutic drug disposition in humans have shown significant alterations as the result of pregnancy. However, it is not known whether pesticide metabolic capacity changes throughout pregnancy, which could affect exposure of the developing brain. We sought to determine the effect of pregnancy on the expression of hepatic enzymes involved in the metabolism of pesticides. Livers were collected from virgin and pregnant C57BL/6 mice at gestational days (GD)7, GD11, GD14, GD17, and postpartum days (PD)1, PD15, and PD30. Relative mRNA expression of several enzymes involved in the metabolism of pesticides, including hepatic cytochromes (Cyp) P450s, carboxylesterases (Ces), and paraoxonase 1 (Pon1), were assessed in mice during gestation and the postpartum period. Compared with virgin mice, alterations in the expression occurred at multiple time points, with the largest changes observed on GD14. At this time point, the expression of most of the Cyps involved in pesticide metabolism in the liver (Cyp1a2, Cyp2d22, Cyp2c37, Cyp2c50, Cyp2c54, and Cyp3a11) were downregulated by 30% or more. Expression of various Ces isoforms and Pon1 were also decreased along with Pon1 activity. These data demonstrate significant alterations in the expression of key enzymes that detoxify pesticides during pregnancy, which could alter exposure of developing animals to these chemicals.
Fortin, Marie C.; Aleksunes, Lauren M.
The full extent of the brain's ability to compensate for damage or changed experience is yet to be established. One question particularly important for evaluating and understanding rehabilitation following brain damage is whether recovery involves new and aberrant neural connections or whether any change in function is due to the functional…
Bridge, Holly; Thomas, Owen; Jbabdi, Saad; Cowey, Alan
The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure. PMID:24621482
Russo, R; Herrmann, H J; de Arcangelis, L
The human brain exhibits a complex structure made of scale-free highly connected modules loosely interconnected by weaker links to form a small-world network. These features appear in healthy patients whereas neurological diseases often modify this structure. An important open question concerns the role of brain modularity in sustaining the critical behaviour of spontaneous activity. Here we analyse the neuronal activity of a model, successful in reproducing on non-modular networks the scaling behaviour observed in experimental data, on a modular network implementing the main statistical features measured in human brain. We show that on a modular network, regardless the strength of the synaptic connections or the modular size and number, activity is never fully scale-free. Neuronal avalanches can invade different modules which results in an activity depression, hindering further avalanche propagation. Critical behaviour is solely recovered if inter-module connections are added, modifying the modular into a more random structure.
Russo, R.; Herrmann, H. J.; de Arcangelis, L.
The aim of the study including 89 brain gliomas was to determine their proliferative activity assayed with immunohistochemical methods (PCNA and Ki-67) and with the method of AgNORs, as well as to evaluate the correlation between the proliferative activity and features of histological malignancy. The study reveals that the estimation of PCNA, Ki-67 and AgNORs are effective methods for the determination of the proliferative activity of brain gliomas. Statistically significant differences were noted in the proliferative PCNA, Ki-67 and AgNORs between groups of gliomas with lower and higher malignancy, which indicated a distinct correlation between histological malignancy of the tumours and their proliferative activity. High values of PCNA and Ki-67 (> 40%) and AgNORs (> 15) were found to considerably deteriorate prognosis in brain gliomas. PMID:10399728
Zimnoch, L; Kozielec, Z; Lewko, J; Cylwik, B; Mariak, Z
A potential application of studying eye movements with functional MRI (fMRI) is to examine patient populations with known eye movement dysfunction, but the reliability with which normal subjects demonstrate activity in specific brain regions has not been established. To date, fMRI studies of smooth-pursuit eye movements have used relatively small numbers of subjects and have been restricted to fixed-effects analyses. We extend these studies to whole brain imaging at 1.5 T, properly accounting for intersubject variation using random effects analysis. Smooth-pursuit eye movements elicited activation consistently in dorsal cortical eye fields and cerebellum. Subcortical activation was greatly attenuated, but not eliminated, with the random-effects second-level analysis. In addition, session-dependent changes in activation were greater in some regions than others and may indicate areas of brain, such as the supplementary eye fields, that are sensitive to attentional modulation of eye movements. PMID:12414271
Tanabe, Jody; Tregellas, Jason; Miller, David; Ross, Randal G; Freedman, Robert
Background Despite new brain imaging techniques that have improved the study of the underlying processes of human decision-making, to the best of our knowledge, there have been very few studies that have attempted to investigate brain activity during medical diagnostic processing. We investigated brain electroencephalography (EEG) activity associated with diagnostic decision-making in the realm of veterinary medicine using X-rays as a fundamental auxiliary test. EEG signals were analysed using Principal Components (PCA) and Logistic Regression Analysis Results The principal component analysis revealed three patterns that accounted for 85% of the total variance in the EEG activity recorded while veterinary doctors read a clinical history, examined an X-ray image pertinent to a medical case, and selected among alternative diagnostic hypotheses. Two of these patterns are proposed to be associated with visual processing and the executive control of the task. The other two patterns are proposed to be related to the reasoning process that occurs during diagnostic decision-making. Conclusions PCA analysis was successful in disclosing the different patterns of brain activity associated with hypothesis triggering and handling (pattern P1); identification uncertainty and prevalence assessment (pattern P3), and hypothesis plausibility calculation (pattern P2); Logistic regression analysis was successful in disclosing the brain activity associated with clinical reasoning success, and together with regression analysis showed that clinical practice reorganizes the neural circuits supporting clinical reasoning.
Sedimentary oxidation fronts, generated by downward diffusion of O[sub 2] into previously reducing sediments, provide an opportunity to study the effects of O[sub 2] exposure on organic matter preservation, where other factors are invariant. Oxidation fronts have now been identified in a number of environments, including turbidities found on the Madeira abyssal plain (NE Atlantic) and in sapropels from the Mediterranean. A multifaceted study is being carried out on a series of relict fronts in turbidities of varied origin and composition, recovered from the Madeira abyssal plain on ODP Leg 157. A similar study is being made on an active front in the most recent, S1 sapropel, from the central Mediterranean. In both cases, the relatively organic-rich turbidities and sapropels are intercalated with typical, organic-poor pelagic marts. Analyses include major and minor inorganic elements, stable and N isotopes, palynomorphs, surface areas and a comprehensive suite of biochemicals. Although the extent of alteration varies, striking changes in organic content and composition occur across many of the oxidation fronts, and the oxidized horizons resemble the interclated marls. A common trend is that organic C contents drop from [open quotes]monolayer equivalent[close quotes] sorptive loadings in the unoxidized horizons (typical of continental mar in sediments) to submonolayer loadings, typical of the pelagic marls. Shifts are also observed in redox-sensitive trace metals and in stable C and N isotopic compositions, although the patterns and extent are not uniform. The results clearly indicate that in these pelagic settings, where O[sub 2] exposure is typically long, organic material deposited and then preserved for extended periods under anomalous reducing conditions, can be extensively altered on relatively short-term exposure to O[sub 2] Implications of these findings will be discussed.
Cowie, G.L.; Calvert, S.E. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)); Hedges, J.I. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)) (and others)
With the current interest in the role of emotion in advertising and advertising research, there has been an increasing interest in the use of various brain activity measures to access nonverbal emotional responses. One such approach relies on measuring the difference between left and right hemisphere prefrontal cortical activity to assess like and dislike. This approach is based on electroencephalography
Richard Silberstein; Geoffrey Nield
Brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in captive-reared mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) that died of botulism was compared with euthanized controls. AChE levels for both groups were within the range reported for normal mallards, and there was no significant difference in mean AChE activity between birds that ingested botulism toxin and died and those that did not.
Rocke, T. E.; Samuel, M. D.
The endocannabinoid metabolome consists of a growing, (patho)physiologically important family of fatty-acid derived signaling lipids. Diet is a major source of fatty acid substrate for mammalian endocannabinoid biosynthesis. The principal long-chain PUFA found in mammalian brain, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), supports neurological function, retinal development, and overall health. The extent to which dietary DHA supplementation influences endocannabinoid-related metabolites in brain, within the context of the circulating endocannabinoid profile, is currently unknown. We report the first lipidomic analysis of acute 2-week DHA dietary supplementation effects on the physiological state of 15 fatty-acid, N-acylethanolamine, and glycerol-ester endocannabinoid metabolome constituents in murine plasma and brain. The DHA-rich diet markedly elevated DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid, 2-eicosapentanoylglycerol (EPG), and docosahexanoylethanolamine in both compartments. Dietary DHA enhancement generally affected the synthesis of the N-acyl-ethanolamine and glycerol-ester metabolites to favor the docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic vs. arachidonoyl and oleoyl homologs in both brain and plasma. The greater overall responsiveness of the endocannabinoid metabolome in plasma versus brain may reflect a more circumscribed homeostatic response range of brain lipids to dietary DHA supplementation. The ability of short-term DHA enhancement to modulate select constituents of the physiological brain and plasma endocannabinoid metabolomes carries metabolic and therapeutic implications.
Wood, JodiAnne T.; Williams, John S.; Pandarinathan, Lakshmipathi; Janero, David R.; Lammi-Keefe, Carol J.; Makriyannis, Alexandros
Diabetes often correlates with tau phosphorylation and the development of Alzheimer's disease. Both are associated with brain cholinergic dysfunction that could benefit from nerve growth factor (NGF)-based therapies. Electroacupuncture (EA) improves brain NGF availability and action. Here we assessed the variations of NGF and tau phosphorylation in the cortex and hippocampus, as well as the expression of choline acetyltransferase in the basal forebrain following diabetes induction and EA in adult rats. We found that EA counteracts diabetes-associated tau hyperphosphorylation and decreases in NGF and choline acetyltransferase, suggesting a possible beneficial effect of EA on brain cholinergic system in diabetes. PMID:23001708
Rocco, Maria Luisa; Pristerà, Andrea; Pistillo, Luana; Aloe, Luigi; Canu, Nadia; Manni, Luigi
Among the general population, individuals with subthreshold psychotic-like experiences, or psychosis proneness (PP), can be psychometrically identified and are thought to have a 10-fold increased risk of psychosis. They also show impairments in measures of emotional functioning parallel to schizophrenia. Whilst previous studies have revealed altered brain activation in patients with schizophrenia during emotional processing, it is unclear whether these alterations are also expressed in individuals with high PP. Here we used Support Vector Machine (SVM) to perform multivariate pattern classification based on brain activation during emotional processing in 20 individuals with high PP and 20 comparison subjects (low PP). In addition, we performed a standard univariate analysis based on the General Linear Model (GLM) on the same data for comparison. The experimental task involved passively viewing negative and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). SVM allowed classification of the two groups with statistically significant accuracy (p=0.017) and identified group differences within an emotional circuitry including the amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, the standard univariate analysis did not detect any significant between-group differences. Our results reveal a distributed and subtle set of alterations in brain function within the emotional circuitry of individuals with high PP, providing neurobiological support for the notion of dysfunctional emotional circuitry in this group. In addition, these alterations are best detected using a multivariate approach rather than standard univariate methods. Further application of this approach may aid in characterising people at clinical and genetic risk of developing psychosis. PMID:22036677
Modinos, Gemma; Pettersson-Yeo, William; Allen, Paul; McGuire, Philip K; Aleman, André; Mechelli, Andrea
Alterations in cerebrovascular function are evident acutely in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), although less is known about their chronic effects. Adolescent and adult patients with moderate to severe TBI have been reported to demonstrate diffuse activation throughout the brain during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Because fMRI is a measure related to blood flow, it is possible that any deficits in blood flow may alter activation. An arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion sequence was performed on seven adolescents with chronic moderate to severe TBI and seven typically developing (TD) adolescents during the same session in which they had performed a social cognition task during fMRI. In the TD group, prefrontal CBF was positively related to prefrontal activation and negatively related to non-prefrontal, posterior, brain activation. This relationship was not seen in the TBI group, who demonstrated a greater relationship between prefrontal CBF and non-prefrontal activation than the TD group. An analysis of CBF data independent of fMRI showed reduced CBF in the right non-prefrontal region (p<.055) in the TBI group. To understand any role reduced CBF may play in diffuse, extra-activation, we then related the right non-prefrontal CBF to activation. CBF in the right non-prefrontal region in the TD group was positively associated with prefrontal activation, suggesting an interactive role of non-prefrontal and prefrontal blood flow throughout the right hemisphere in healthy brains. However, the TBI group demonstrated a positive association with activation constrained to the right non-prefrontal region. These data suggest a relationship between impaired non-prefrontal CBF and the presence of non-prefrontal extra-activation, where the region with more limited blood flow is associated with activation limited to that region. In a secondary analysis, pathology associated with hyperintensities on T2-weighted FLAIR imaging over the whole brain was related to whole brain activation, revealing a negative relationship between lesion volume and frontal activation, and a positive relationship between lesion volume and posterior activation. These preliminary data, albeit collected with small sample sizes, suggest that reduced non-prefrontal CBF, and possibly pathological tissue associated with T2-hyperintensities, may provide contributions to the diffuse, primarily posterior extra-activation observed in adolescents following moderate to severe TBI.
Newsome, Mary R.; Scheibel, Randall S.; Chu, Zili; Hunter, Jill V.; Li, Xiaoqi; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Lu, Hanzhang; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Lin, Xiaodi; Steinberg, Joel L.; Vasquez, Ana C.; Cook, Lori; Levin, Harvey S.
There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder.
Xie, Kun; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z.
MRI is a major tool for mapping brain function; thus it is important to assess potential effects on brain neuronal activity attributable to the requisite static magnetic field. This study used positron emission tomography (PET) and (18)F-deoxyglucose ((18)FDG) to measure brain glucose metabolism (a measure of brain function) in 12 subjects while their heads were in a 4 T MRI field during the (18)FDG uptake period. The results were compared with those obtained when the subjects were in the earth's field (PET scanner), and when they were in a simulated MRI environment in the PET instrument that imitated the restricted visual field of the MRI experiment. Whole-brain metabolism, as well as metabolism in occipital cortex and posterior cingulate gyrus, was lower in the real (4 T) and simulated (0 T) MRI environments compared with the PET. This suggests that the metabolic differences are due mainly to the visual field differences characteristic of the MRI and PET instruments. We conclude that a static magnetic field of 4 T does not in itself affect this fairly sensitive measure of brain activity. PMID:11064404
Volkow, N D; Wang, G J; Fowler, J S; Rooney, W D; Felder, C A; Lee, J H; Franceschi, D; Maynard, L; Schlyer, D J; Pan, J W; Gatley, S J; Springer Jr, C S
Human event-related potentials reflect cognitive processing, and are normally elicited by external events, such as acoustic sounds or visual stimuli. As such they provide an opportunity to study normal and abnormal brain function noninvasively, at sub-second resolution. Advances in multimedia technology permit specialists in informatics and neuropsychology to co-operate in the design and implementation of paradigms, which influence ERP components. The paper illustrates the progression from standard paradigms such as the auditory oddball, which can be used to study memory update through to contingent negative variation and three condition, visual paradigms which can be used to study cognitive and emotional responses. Data from a study investigating the comparative processing of target pictures and words illustrate how external stimuli influence the later cognitive potentials. PMID:11501630
McCullagh, P J; McAllister, H G; Howard, R; Neo, L H
These experiments sought to establish a dose-effect relationship between the concentration of perchloroethylene (PCE) in brain tissue and concurrent changes in visual function. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was implemented to predict concentrations of PCE ...
Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic) control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS) based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n?=?113 recordings in quiet sleep, n?=?286 in active sleep, and n?=?29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4–40.3 weeks of gestation) preclassified in quiet sleep (n?=?113, 63 females) and active sleep (n?=?286, 145 females) state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5). The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R2 of training and validation set) of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications). We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA dependent fABAS values found in active sleep may reflect alterations in the universal developmental indices, namely fluctuation amplitude, complexity, and pattern formation that constitute fABAS.
Hoyer, Dirk; Tetschke, Florian; Jaekel, Susan; Nowack, Samuel; Witte, Otto W.; Schleussner, Ekkehard; Schneider, Uwe
Earlier work from our laboratory provided evidence for myelin abnormalities (decreased quantities of proteins associated with myelin compaction, decreased sheath thickness) in cortex and hippocampus of Aldh5a1?/? mice, which have a complete ablation of the succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase protein . In the current report, we have extended these findings via comprehensive analysis of brain phospholipid fractions, including quantitation of fatty acids in individual phospholipid subclasses and estimation of hexose-ceramide in Aldh5a1?/? brain. In comparison to wild-type littermates (Aldh5a1+/+), we detected a 20% reduction in the ethanolamine glycerophospholipid content of Aldh5a1?/? mice, while other brain phospholipids (choline glycerophospholipid, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol) were within normal limits. Analysis of individual fatty acids in each of these fractions revealed consistent alterations in n-3 fatty acids, primarily increased 22:6n-3 levels (docosahexaenoic acid; DHA). In the phosphatidyl serine fraction there were marked increases in the proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids with corresponding decreases of monounsaturated fatty acids. Interestingly, the levels of hexose-ceramide (glucosyl- and galactosylceramide, principal myelin cerebrosides) were decreased in Aldh5a1?/? brain tissue (one-tailed t test, p=0.0449). The current results suggest that lipid and myelin abnormalities in this animal may contribute to the pathophysiology.
Barcelo-Coblijn, G.; Murphy, E. J.; Mills, K.; Winchester, B.; Jakobs, C.; Snead, O.C.; Gibson, KM
Footshock stress produced an immediate increase in brain concentrations of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol sulfate (MHPG-SO4), a major metabolite of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine, in the rat brain. Twenty-four hours after footshock stress, when concentrations had returned to baseline, increases in MHPG-SO4 and emotional behavior could be elicited by previously neutral environmental stimuli that had been paired with the stress.
Geraldine Cassens; Mark Roffman; Alvin Kuruc; Paul J. Orsulak; Joseph J. Schildkraut
Migration of both uninfected and infected monocytes into the brain during acute HIV infection likely initiates metabolic changes\\u000a that can be observed with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Herein, we measured changes in brain metabolism during the\\u000a first year of HIV infection and examined the relationship of these metabolite levels to CD16+ monocyte populations measured\\u000a in the blood. MRS was performed
Margaret R. Lentz; Woong-Ki Kim; Hyun Kim; Caroline Soulas; Vallent Lee; Nagagopal Venna; Elkan F. Halpern; Eric S. Rosenberg; Kenneth Williams; R. G. González
The capillary basement membranes are examined in severe traumatic brain injuries, vascular malformation, congenital hydrocephalus and brain tumours. They exhibit homogeneous and nodular thickening, vacuolization, rarefaction, reduplication, and deposition of collagen fibers. Their average thickness varied according to the aetiology and severity of brain oedema. In moderate brain oedema the thickness ranged from 71.97 to 191.90 nm in width, and in patients with severe brain oedema it varied from 206.66 to 404.22 nm. The basement membrane complex appears apparently intact in moderate oedema, and shows glio-basal dissociation in severe oedema. In areas of highly increased cerebro-vascular permeability, the basement membrane shows matrix disorganization, reduplication, and bifurcations protruding toward the endothelial cells, and acting as abluminal transcapillary channels. In regions of total brain necrosis, its structural stability is lost showing loosening, dissolution and rupture. Basement membrane swelling is due to overhydration of its protein-complex glycoprotein matrix. The thickening, rarefaction and vacuolization are induced by the increased vacuolar and vesicular transendothelial transport. The degenerated basement membrane areas exhibit a finely granular precipitate interpreted as protein, proteoglycan, glycoprotein, and agrin degraded matrix. PMID:24729339
Castejón, Orlando José
Adjuvant chemotherapy is associated with improvements in long-term cancer survival. However, reports of cognitive impairment following treatment emphasize the importance of understanding the long-term effects of chemotherapy on brain functioning. Cognitive deficits found in chemotherapy patients suggest a change in brain functioning that affects specific cognitive domains such as attentional processing and executive functioning. This study examined the processes potentially underlying these changes in cognition by examining brain functional connectivity pre- and post-chemotherapy in women with breast cancer. Functional connectivity examines the temporal correlation between spatially remote brain regions in an effort to understand how brain networks support specific cognitive functions. Nine women diagnosed with breast cancer completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session before chemotherapy, 1 month after, and 1 year after the completion of chemotherapy. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses were completed using seeds in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to examine connectivity in the dorsal anterior attention network and in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to examine connectivity in the default mode network. Results showed decreased functional connectivity 1 month after chemotherapy that partially returned to baseline at 1 year in the dorsal attention network. Decreased connectivity was seen in the default mode network at 1 month and 1 year following chemotherapy. In addition, increased subjective memory complaints were noted at 1 month and 1 year post-chemotherapy. These findings suggest a detrimental effect of chemotherapy on brain functional connectivity that is potentially related to subjective cognitive assessment. PMID:23852814
Dumas, Julie A; Makarewicz, Jenna; Schaubhut, Geoffrey J; Devins, Robert; Albert, Kimberly; Dittus, Kim; Newhouse, Paul A
Longitudinal neuroimaging investigation of fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism, provides an opportunity to study the influence of a specific genetic factor on neurodevelopment in the living human brain. We examined voxel-wise gray and white matter volumes (GMV, WMV) over a 2-year period in 1- to 3-year-old boys with FXS (n = 41) and compared these findings to age- and developmentally matched controls (n = 28). We found enlarged GMV in the caudate, thalamus, and fusiform gyri and reduced GMV in the cerebellar vermis in FXS at both timepoints, suggesting early, possibly prenatal, genetically mediated alterations in neurodevelopment. In contrast, regions in which initial GMV was similar, followed by an altered growth trajectory leading to increased size in FXS, such as the orbital gyri, basal forebrain, and thalamus, suggests delayed or otherwise disrupted synaptic pruning occurring postnatally. WMV of striatal-prefrontal regions was greater in FXS compared with controls, and group differences became more exaggerated over time, indicating the possibility that such WM abnormalities are the result of primary FMRP-deficiency-related axonal pathology, as opposed to secondary connectional dysregulation between morphologically atypical brain structures. Our results indicate that structural abnormalities of different brain regions in FXS evolve differently over time reflecting time-dependent effects of FMRP deficiency and provide insight into their neuropathologic underpinnings. The creation of an early and accurate human brain phenotype for FXS in humans will significantly improve our capability to detect whether new disease-specific treatments can “rescue” the FXS phenotype in affected individuals.
Hoeft, Fumiko; Carter, John C.; Lightbody, Amy A.; Cody Hazlett, Heather; Piven, Joseph; Reiss, Allan L.
Social behavior dysfunction is a symptomatic element of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although altered activities in numerous brain regions are associated with defective social cognition and perception, the causative relationship between these altered activities and social cognition and perception-and their genetic underpinnings-are not known in humans. To address these issues, we took advantage of the link between hemizygous deletion of human chromosome 22q11.2 and high rates of social behavior dysfunction, schizophrenia and ASD. We genetically manipulated Sept5, a 22q11.2 gene, and evaluated its role in social interaction in mice. Sept5 deficiency, against a high degree of homogeneity in a congenic genetic background, selectively impaired active affiliative social interaction in mice. Conversely, virally guided overexpression of Sept5 in the hippocampus or, to a lesser extent, the amygdala elevated levels of active affiliative social interaction in C57BL/6J mice. Congenic knockout mice and mice overexpressing Sept5 in the hippocampus or amygdala were indistinguishable from control mice in novelty and olfactory responses, anxiety or motor activity. Moreover, post-weaning individual housing, an environmental condition designed to reduce stress in male mice, selectively raised levels of Sept5 protein in the amygdala and increased active affiliative social interaction in C57BL/6J mice. These findings identify this 22q11.2 gene in the hippocampus and amygdala as a determinant of social interaction and suggest that defective social interaction seen in 22q11.2-associated schizophrenia and ASD can be genetically and environmentally modified by altering this 22q11.2 gene. PMID:22589251
Harper, Kathryn M; Hiramoto, Takeshi; Tanigaki, Kenji; Kang, Gina; Suzuki, Go; Trimble, William; Hiroi, Noboru
Social behavior dysfunction is a symptomatic element of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although altered activities in numerous brain regions are associated with defective social cognition and perception, the causative relationship between these altered activities and social cognition and perception—and their genetic underpinnings—are not known in humans. To address these issues, we took advantage of the link between hemizygous deletion of human chromosome 22q11.2 and high rates of social behavior dysfunction, schizophrenia and ASD. We genetically manipulated Sept5, a 22q11.2 gene, and evaluated its role in social interaction in mice. Sept5 deficiency, against a high degree of homogeneity in a congenic genetic background, selectively impaired active affiliative social interaction in mice. Conversely, virally guided overexpression of Sept5 in the hippocampus or, to a lesser extent, the amygdala elevated levels of active affiliative social interaction in C57BL/6J mice. Congenic knockout mice and mice overexpressing Sept5 in the hippocampus or amygdala were indistinguishable from control mice in novelty and olfactory responses, anxiety or motor activity. Moreover, post-weaning individual housing, an environmental condition designed to reduce stress in male mice, selectively raised levels of Sept5 protein in the amygdala and increased active affiliative social interaction in C57BL/6J mice. These findings identify this 22q11.2 gene in the hippocampus and amygdala as a determinant of social interaction and suggest that defective social interaction seen in 22q11.2-associated schizophrenia and ASD can be genetically and environmentally modified by altering this 22q11.2 gene.
Harper, Kathryn M.; Hiramoto, Takeshi; Tanigaki, Kenji; Kang, Gina; Suzuki, Go; Trimble, William; Hiroi, Noboru
Background and Aims The responsiveness of the central nervous system (CNS) is altered in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, due variations in experimental paradigms, analytic techniques, and reporting practices, little consensus exists on brain responses to visceral stimulation. We aimed to identify brain regions consistently activated by supraliminal rectal stimulation in IBS patients and healthy subjects (controls), by performing a quantitative meta-analysis of published studies. Methods Significant foci from with-in group statistical parametric maps were extracted from published neuroimaging studies that employed rectal distension. Voxel-based activation likelihood estimation was applied, pooling the results and comparing them across groups. Results Across studies, there was consistent activation in regions associated with visceral afferent processing (thalamus, insula, anterior mid-cingulate) among IBS patients and controls, but considerable differences in the extent and specific location of foci. IBS patients differed from controls in: 1) More consistent activations in regions associated with emotional arousal [pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC), amygdala]; 2) Activation of a midbrain cluster, a region playing a role in endogenous pain modulation. Controls showed more consistent activation of the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex. Conclusions Patients with IBS have greater engagement of regions associated with emotional arousal and endogenous pain modulation, but similar activation of regions involved in processing of visceral afferent information. Controls have greater engagement of cognitive modulatory regions. These results support a role for CNS dysregulation in IBS. These findings provide specific targets for guiding development of future neuroimaging protocols to more clearly define altered brain-gut interactions in IBS.
Tillisch, Kirsten; Mayer, Emeran A.; Labus, Jennifer S.
Regional structural brain changes are among the most robust biological findings in schizophrenia, yet the underlying pathophysiological changes remain poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that abnormal neuronal/dendritic plasticity is related to alterations in membrane lipids. We examined whether serum activity of membrane lipid remodelling/repairing cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) were related to regional brain structure in magnetic resonance images (MRI). The study involved 24 schizophrenia patients, who were either drug-naïve or off antipsychotic medication, and 25 healthy controls. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of T1-high-resolution MRI-images, we correlated both gray matter and white matter changes with serum PLA(2)-activity. PLA(2) activity was increased in patients, consistent with previous findings. VBM group comparison of patients vs. controls showed abnormalities of frontal and medial temporal cortices/hippocampus, and left middle/superior temporal gyrus in first-episode patients. Group comparison of VBM/PLA(2)-correlations revealed a distinct pattern of disease-related interactions between gray/white matter changes in patients and PLA(2)-activity: in first-episode patients (n=13), PLA(2)-activity was associated with structural alterations in the left prefrontal cortex and the bilateral thalamus. Recurrent-episode patients (n=11) showed a wide-spread pattern of associations between PLA(2)-activity and structural changes in the left (less right) prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex, the left (less right) thalamus and caudate nucleus, the left medial temporal and orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulum, and the cerebellum. Our findings demonstrate a potential association between membrane lipid biochemistry and focal brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia. Differential patterns in first-episode vs. chronic patients might be related to PLA(2)-increase at disease-onset reflecting localized regenerative activity, whereas correlations in recurrent-episode patients might point to less specific neurodegenerative aspects of disease progression. PMID:20478385
Smesny, Stefan; Milleit, Berko; Nenadic, Igor; Preul, Christoph; Kinder, Daniel; Lasch, Jürgen; Willhardt, Ingo; Sauer, Heinrich; Gaser, Christian
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is critical to maintain cerebral homeostasis. In this study, we examined the effects of exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on the functional integrity of BBB and, on the localization and expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins (occludin and ZO-1) in rats. Animals were sham or whole-body exposed to EMP at 200 kV/m for 400 pulses. The permeability of BBB in rat cerebral cortex was examined by using Evans Blue (EB) and lanthanum nitrate as vascular tracers. The localization and expression of TJ proteins were assessed by western blot and immunofluorescence analysis, respectively. The data indicated that EMP exposure caused: (i) increased permeability of BBB, and (ii) altered localization as well as decreased levels of TJ protein ZO-1. These results suggested that the alteration of ZO-1 may play an important role in the disruption of tight junctions, which may lead to dysfunction of BBB after EMP exposure. PMID:20412840
Ding, Gui-Rong; Qiu, Lian-Bo; Wang, Xiao-Wu; Li, Kang-Chu; Zhou, Yong-Chun; Zhou, Yan; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Jia-Xing; Li, Yu-Rong; Guo, Guo-Zhen
Peptides have some unique and superior features compared to proteins. However, the use of peptides as therapeutics is hampered by their low stability and cell selectivity. In this study, a new lytic peptide (CL-1, FLGALFRALSRLL) was constructed. Under the physiological condition, peptide CL-1 self-assembled into dynamically stable aggregates with fibrils-like structures. Aggregated CL-1 demonstrated dramatically altered activity and stability in comparison with single molecule CL-1 and other lytic peptides: when incubated with cocultured bacteria and tissue cells, CL-1 aggregates killed bacteria selectively but spared cocultured human cells; CL-1 aggregates were kept intact in human serum for more than five hours. Peptide-cell interaction studies performed on lipid monolayers and live human tissue cells revealed that in comparison with monomeric CL-1, aggregated CL-1 had decreased cell affinity and membrane insertion capability on tissue cells. A dynamic process involving aggregate dissociation and rearrangement seemed to be an essential step for membrane bound CL-1 aggregates to realize its cytotoxicity to tissue cells. Our study suggests that peptide aggregation could be as important as the charge and secondary structure of a peptide in affecting peptide-cell interactions. Controlling peptide self-assembly represents a new way to increase the stability and cell selectivity of bioactive peptides for wide biomedical applications. PMID:23713839
Chen, Long; Liang, Jun F
Methamphetamine is a popular addictive drug whose use is associated with multiple neuropsychiatric adverse events and toxic to the dopaminergic and serotonergic systems of the brain. Methamphetamine-induced neuropathology is associated with increased expression of microglial cells that are thought to participate in either pro-toxic or protective mechanisms in the brain. Although reactive microgliosis has been observed in animal models of methamphetamine neurotoxicity, no study has reported on the status of microglial activation in human methamphetamine abusers. The present study reports on 12 abstinent methamphetamine abusers and 12 age-, gender-, education-matched control subjects who underwent positron emission tomography using a radiotracer for activated microglia, [11C](R)-(1-[2-chlorophenyl]-N-methyl-N-[1-methylpropyl]-3-isoquinoline carboxamide) ([11C](R)-PK11195). Compartment analysis was used to estimate quantitative levels of binding potentials of [11C](R)-PK11195 in brain regions with dopaminergic and/or serotonergic innervation. The mean levels of [11C](R)-PK11195 binding were higher in methamphetamine abusers than those in control subjects in all brain regions (> 250% higher, p < 0.01 for all). In addition, the binding levels in the midbrain, striatum, thalamus, and orbitofrontal and insular cortices (p < 0.05) correlated inversely with the duration of methamphetamine abstinence. These results suggest that chronic self-administration of methamphetamine can cause reactive microgliosis in the brains of human methamphetamine abusers, a level of activation that appears to subside over longer periods of abstinence.
Sekine, Yoshimoto; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Sugihara, Genichi; Takei, Nori; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Iwata, Yasuhide; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Suda, Shiro; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Kawai, Masayoshi; Takebayashi, Kiyokazu; Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Ueki, Takatoshi; Mori, Norio; Gold, Mark S.; Cadet, Jean L.
Low-lying coastal barriers face an uncertain future over the coming century and beyond as sea levels rise, with many projections suggesting end-of-century rates of sea-level rise as high or higher than 1 cm/yr. Geologically, such rates of sea-level rise have been experienced several thousand years ago and we can use our understanding of geological processes and sedimentary evidence to help unravel the dynamics of natural barriers experiencing sea-level rise. Along many modern coastal barriers, however, anthropic change, such as beach nourishment, dune construction, and emplacement of hard structures, plays a dominant role in coastline dynamics. A fundamental question to be addressed is whether human activities intended to preserve infrastructure and beach recreation may make wholesale collapse, or 'drowning,' of barrier systems more likely. Here we present a numerical modeling tool that couples natural processes and the human responses to these changes (and the subsequent of human responses on natural processes). Recent theoretical model development suggests that barriers are intrinsically morphodynamic features, responding to sea-level rise in complex ways through the interactions of marine processes and barrier overwash. Undeveloped coastal barriers would therefore respond to an accelerated sea-level rise in complex, less predictable manners than suggested by existing long-term models. We have developed a model that examines non-equilibrium cross-shore evolution of barrier systems at decadal to centennial temporal scales, focusing on the interactions between processes of shoreface evolution and overwash deposition. Model responses demonstrate two means of barrier collapse during sea-level rise: 'height drowning', which occurs when overwash fluxes are insufficient to maintain the landward migration rate required to keep in pace with sea-level rise, and 'width drowning', which occurs when the shoreface response is insufficient to maintain the barrier geometry during landward migration. The model also demonstrates the potential for discontinuous shoreline retreat, with alternating periods of barrier stability and rapid migration, even for constant rates of sea-level rise. Anthropic activities can strongly interact with these behaviors. In particular, considering only cross-shore processes, beach nourishment activities widen the beach and can affect shoreface fluxes, and dune building, which curtails the overwash process, can potentially enhance barrier drowning by reducing overwash fluxes. Furthermore, coastal protection activities of adjacent communities or even individual property holders can be uncoordinated or coordinated, with their effects coupled along the coast through coastal reorientation and gradients in alongshore sediment transport. In the coordinated framework, owners act in concert to alter the barrier based upon community benefits, whereas in the non-coordinated framework owners alter only their own property. Another important role in management is the perception of future sea-level-rise-associated losses—communities manage their coast differently depending on their adopted forecast for sea-level rise. We find that coordinated behavior coupled with natural processes can substantially affect the drowning scenarios from the individual decision-making process.
Lorenzo-Trueba, J.; Ashton, A. D.; Jin, D.; Hoagland, P.; Kite-Powell, H.
Rett syndrome (RTT), associated with mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2), is linked to diverse neurological symptoms such as seizures, motor disabilities, and cognitive impairments. An altered GABAergic system has been proposed as one of many underlying pathologies of progressive neurodegeneration in several RTT studies. This study for the first time investigated the temporal- and location-specific alterations in the expression of ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) transporter 1 (GAT-1), vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT), and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67kD (GAD67) in wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice in the Mecp2(tm1.1Bird/y) mouse model of RTT. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) co-labeling of GAT-1 with vGAT identified GABAergic synapses that were quantitated for mid-sagittal sections in the frontal cortex (FC), hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), and striatum (Str). An age-dependent increase in the expression of synaptic GABA transporters, GAT-1, and vGAT, was observed in the FC and DG in WT brains. Mecp2 KO mice showed a significant alteration in this temporal profile that was location-specific, only in the FC. GAD67-positive cell densities also showed an age-dependent increase in the FC, but a decrease in the DG in WT mice. However, these densities were not significantly altered in the KO mice in the regions examined in this study. Therefore, the significant location-specific downregulation of synaptic GABA transporters in Mecp2 KO brains with unaltered densities of GAD67-positive interneurons may highlight the location-specific synaptic pathophysiology in this model of RTT. PMID:24737935
Kang, Seok K; Kim, Shin Tae; Johnston, Michael V; Kadam, Shilpa D
Rett syndrome (RTT), associated with mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2), is linked to diverse neurological symptoms such as seizures, motor disabilities, and cognitive impairments. An altered GABAergic system has been proposed as one of many underlying pathologies of progressive neurodegeneration in several RTT studies. This study for the first time investigated the temporal- and location-specific alterations in the expression of ?-amino butyric acid (GABA) transporter 1 (GAT-1), vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT), and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67kD (GAD67) in wild type (WT) and knockout (KO) mice in the Mecp2tm1.1Bird/y mouse model of RTT. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) co-labeling of GAT-1 with vGAT identified GABAergic synapses that were quantitated for mid-sagittal sections in the frontal cortex (FC), hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), and striatum (Str). An age-dependent increase in the expression of synaptic GABA transporters, GAT-1, and vGAT, was observed in the FC and DG in WT brains. Mecp2 KO mice showed a significant alteration in this temporal profile that was location-specific, only in the FC. GAD67-positive cell densities also showed an age-dependent increase in the FC, but a decrease in the DG in WT mice. However, these densities were not significantly altered in the KO mice in the regions examined in this study. Therefore, the significant location-specific downregulation of synaptic GABA transporters in Mecp2 KO brains with unaltered densities of GAD67-positive interneurons may highlight the location-specific synaptic pathophysiology in this model of RTT.
Kang, Seok K; Kim, Shin Tae; Johnston, Michael V; Kadam, Shilpa D
Fibroblast senescence is associated with a loss of proliferative potential and an alteration in extracellular gene expression. Because the expression of extracellular gene products are frequently growth state dependent, we undertook a comparative study of the regulation of the components of the plasminogen activation system in young and senescent cells under controlled conditions of growth. Young and senescent cells were
Michael D. West; Jerry W. Shay; Woodring E. Wright; Maarten H. K. Linskens
The procedure of recognition can be described as follows: There is a set of complex signals stored in the memory. Choosing one of these signals may be interpreted as generating a hypothesis concerning an ``expexted view of the world''. Then the brain compares a signal arising from our senses with the signal chosen from the memory leading to a change of the state of both signals. Furthermore, measurements of that procedure like EEG or MEG are based on the fact that recognition of signals causes a certain loss of excited neurons, i.e. the neurons change their state from ``excited'' to ``nonexcited''. For that reason a statistical model of the recognition process should reflect both-the change of the signals and the loss of excited neurons. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given in . In the present note it is not possible to present this approach in detail. In lieu we will sketch roughly a few of the basic ideas and structures of the proposed model of the recognition process (Section). Further, we introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces used in this approach. A more elaborate presentation including all proofs will be given in a series of some forthcoming papers [2, 3]. In this series also the procedures of creation of signals from the memory, amplification, accumulation and transformation of input signals, and measurements like EEG and MEG will be treated in detail.
Fichtner, K.-H.; Fichtner, L.; Freudenberg, W.; Ohya, M.
The procedure of recognition can be described as follows: There is a set of complex signals stored in the memory. Choosing one of these signals may be interpreted as generating a hypothesis concerning an 'expexted view of the world'. Then the brain compares a signal arising from our senses with the signal chosen from the memory leading to a change of the state of both signals. Furthermore, measurements of that procedure like EEG or MEG are based on the fact that recognition of signals causes a certain loss of excited neurons, i.e. the neurons change their state from 'excited' to 'nonexcited'. For that reason a statistical model of the recognition process should reflect both--the change of the signals and the loss of excited neurons. A first attempt to explain the process of recognition in terms of quantum statistics was given. In the present note it is not possible to present this approach in detail. In lieu we will sketch roughly a few of the basic ideas and structures of the proposed model of the recognition process (Section). Further, we introduce the basic spaces and justify the choice of spaces used in this approach. A more elaborate presentation including all proofs will be given in a series of some forthcoming papers. In this series also the procedures of creation of signals from the memory, amplification, accumulation and transformation of input signals, and measurements like EEG and MEG will be treated in detail.
Fichtner, K.-H. [Friedrich Schiller Unversity Jena, Institute of Applied Mathematics, E.-Abbe-Platz 2, 07743 Jena (Germany); Fichtner, L. [Friedrich Schiller Unversity Jena, Institute of Psychology, Am Steiger 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Freudenberg, W. [Brandenb. Techn. University Cottbus, Dep. of Mathematics, PO box 10 13 44, 03013 Cottbus (Germany); Ohya, M. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Information Science, Noda City, Chiba 278-8510 (Japan)
Background Serotonin transporter knockout mice have been a powerful tool in understanding the role played by the serotonin transporter in modulating physiological function and behavior. However, little work has examined brain function in this mouse model. We tested the hypothesis that male knockout mice show exaggerated limbic activation during exposure to an emotional stressor, similar to human subjects with genetically reduced transcription of the serotonin transporter. Methodology/Principal Findings Functional brain mapping using [14C]-iodoantipyrine was performed during recall of a fear conditioned tone. Regional cerebral blood flow was analyzed by statistical parametric mapping from autoradiographs of the three-dimensionally reconstructed brains. During recall, knockout mice compared to wild-type mice showed increased freezing, increased regional cerebral blood flow of the amygdala, insula, and barrel field somatosensory cortex, decreased regional cerebral blood flow of the ventral hippocampus, and conditioning-dependent alterations in regional cerebral blood flow in the medial prefrontal cortex (prelimbic, infralimbic, and cingulate). Anxiety tests relying on sensorimotor exploration showed a small (open field) or paradoxical effect (marble burying) of loss of the serotonin transporter on anxiety behavior, which may reflect known abnormalities in the knockout animal's sensory system. Experiments evaluating whisker function showed that knockout mice displayed impaired whisker sensation in the spontaneous gap crossing task and appetitive gap cross training. Conclusions This study is the first to demonstrate altered functional activation in the serotonin transporter knockout mice of critical nodes of the fear conditioning circuit. Alterations in whisker sensation and functional activation of barrel field somatosensory cortex extend earlier reports of barrel field abnormalities, which may confound behavioral measures relying on sensorimotor exploration.
Pang, Raina D.; Wang, Zhuo; Klosinski, Lauren P.; Guo, Yumei; Herman, David H.; Celikel, Tansu; Dong, Hong Wei; Holschneider, Daniel P.
We have used cDNA microarrays to compare gene expression profiles in brains from normal mice to those infected with the ANKA strain of Plasmodium berghei, a model of cerebral malaria. For each of three brains in each group, we computed ratios of all quantifiable genes with a composite reference sample and then computed ratios of gene expression in infected brains compared to untreated controls. Of the almost 12,000 unigenes adequately quantified in all arrays, approximately 3% were significantly downregulated (P < 0.05, ? 50% fold change) and about 7% were upregulated. Upon inspection of the lists of regulated genes, we identified a high number encoding proteins of importance to normal brain function or associated with neuropathology, including genes that encode for synaptic proteins or genes involved in cerebellar function as well as genes important in certain neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease or autism. These results emphasize the important impact of malarial infection on gene expression in the brain and provide potential biomarkers that may provide novel therapeutic targets to ameliorate the neurological sequelae of this infection.
Desruisseaux, Mahalia S.; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Mukherjee, Shankar; Weiss, Louis M.; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Spray, David C.
Mood stabilizers that are approved for treating bipolar disorder (BD), when given chronically to rats, decrease expression of markers of the brain arachidonic metabolic cascade, and reduce excitotoxicity and neuroinflammation-induced upregulation of these markers. These observations, plus evidence for neuroinflammation and excitotoxicity in BD, suggest that AA cascade markers are upregulated in the BD brain. To test this hypothesis, these markers were measured in postmortem frontal cortex from 10 BD patients and 10 age-matched controls. Mean protein and mRNA levels of AA-selective cytosolic phospholipase A2 IVA (cPLA2), secretory (s)PLA2 IIA, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and membrane prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES) were significantly elevated in the BD cortex. Levels of COX-1 and cytosolic PGES (cPGES) were significantly reduced in BD cortex relative to controls, whereas levels of Ca2+-independent iPLA2VIA, 5-, 12-, and 15-lipoxygenase, thromboxane synthase and cytochrome p450 epoxygenase protein and mRNA levels were not significantly different. These results confirm that the brain AA cascade is disturbed in BD, and that certain enzymes associated with AA release from membrane phospholipid and with its downstream metabolism are upregulated. Since mood stabilizers downregulate many of these brain enzymes in animal models, their clinical efficacy may depend on suppressing a pathologically upregulated cascade in BD. An upregulated brain AA cascade should be considered as a target for future drug development and for neuroimaging in BD.
Kim, Hyung-Wook; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Rao, Jagadeesh S.
Cyclin dependent kinase-5 (Cdk5), a family member of the cyclin-dependent kinases, plays a pivotal role in the central nervous system. During embryogenesis, Cdk5 is indispensable for brain development and, in the adult brain, it is essential for numerous neuronal processes, including higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory formation. However, Cdk5 activity becomes deregulated in several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, which leads to neurotoxicity. Therefore, precise control over Cdk5 activity is essential for its physiological functions. This Commentary covers the various mechanisms of Cdk5 regulation, including several recently identified protein activators and inhibitors of Cdk5 that control its activity in normal and diseased brains. We also discuss the autoregulatory activity of Cdk5 and its regulation at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational levels. We finally highlight physiological and pathological roles of Cdk5 in the brain. Specific modulation of these protein regulators is expected to provide alternative strategies for the development of effective therapeutic interventions that are triggered by deregulation of Cdk5. PMID:24879856
Shah, Kavita; Lahiri, Debomoy K
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs)1,2 use neuronal activity recorded from the brain to establish direct communication with external actuators, such as prosthetic arms. While BMIs aim to restore the normal sensorimotor functions of the limbs, so far they have lacked tactile sensation. Here we demonstrate the operation of a brain-machine-brain interface (BMBI) that both controls the exploratory reaching movements of an actuator and enables the signalling of artificial tactile feedback through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). Monkeys performed an active-exploration task in which an actuator (a computer cursor or a virtual-reality hand) was moved using a BMBI that derived motor commands from neuronal ensemble activity recorded in primary motor cortex (M1). ICMS feedback occurred whenever the actuator touched virtual objects. Temporal patterns of ICMS encoded the artificial tactile properties of each object. Neuronal recordings and ICMS epochs were temporally multiplexed to avoid interference. Two monkeys operated this BMBI to search and discriminate one out of three visually undistinguishable objects, using the virtual hand to identify the unique artificial texture (AT) associated with each. These results suggest that clinical motor neuroprostheses might benefit from the addition of ICMS feedback to generate artificial somatic perceptions associated with mechanical, robotic, or even virtual prostheses.
O'Doherty, Joseph E.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Ifft, Peter J.; Zhuang, Katie Z.; Shokur, Solaiman; Bleuler, Hannes; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.
Depression is a worldwide disability disease associated with high morbidity and has increased dramatically in the last few years. The differential diagnosis and the definition of an individualized therapy for depression are hampered by the absence of specific biomarkers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phospholipidomic profile of the brain and myocardium in a mouse model of depression induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). The lipidomic profile was evaluated by thin layer and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry and lipid oxidation was estimated by FOX II assay. Antioxidant enzyme activity and the oxidized/reduced glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio were also evaluated. Results showed that chronic stress affects primarily the lipid profile of the brain, inducing an increase in lipid hydroperoxides, which was not detected in the myocardium. A significant decrease in phosphatidylinositol (PI) and in cardiolipin (CL) relative contents and also oxidation of CL and a significant increase of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) were observed in the brain of mice after unpredictable chronic stress conditions. In the myocardium only an increase in PC content was observed. Nevertheless, both organs present a decreased GSH/GSSG ratio when compared to control groups, corroborating the occurrence of oxidative stress. The enzyme activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were found to be decreased in the myocardium and increased in the brain, while glutathione reductase (GR) was decreased in the brain. Our results indicate that in a mouse model for studying depression induced by CUS, the modification of the expression of oxidative stress-related enzymes did not prevent lipid oxidation in organs, particularly in the brain. These observations suggest that depression has an impact on the brain lipidome and that further studies are needed to better understand lipids role in depression and to evaluate their potential as future biomarkers. PMID:24814727
Faria, R; Santana, M M; Aveleira, C A; Simões, C; Maciel, E; Melo, T; Santinha, D; Oliveira, M M; Peixoto, F; Domingues, P; Cavadas, C; Domingues, M R M
Several morphometric studies have revealed smaller than normal neurons in the neocortex of autistic subjects. To test the hypothesis that abnormal neuronal growth is a marker of an autism-associated global encephalopathy, neuronal volumes were estimated in 16 brain regions, including various subcortical structures, Ammon’s horn, archicortex, cerebellum, and brainstem in 14 brains from individuals with autism 4 to 60 years of age and 14 age-matched control brains. This stereological study showed a significantly smaller volume of neuronal soma in 14 of 16 regions in the 4- to 8-year-old autistic brains than in the controls. Arbitrary classification revealed a very severe neuronal volume deficit in 14.3% of significantly altered structures, severe in 50%, moderate in 21.4%, and mild in 14.3% structures. This pattern suggests desynchronized neuronal growth in the interacting neuronal networks involved in the autistic phenotype. The comparative study of the autistic and control subject brains revealed that the number of structures with a significant volume deficit decreased from 14 in the 4- to 8-year-old autistic subjects to 4 in the 36- to 60-year-old. Neuronal volumes in 75% of the structures examined in the older adults with autism are comparable to neuronal volume in age-matched controls. This pattern suggests defects of neuronal growth in early childhood and delayed up-regulation of neuronal growth during adolescence and adulthood reducing neuron soma volume deficit in majority of examined regions. However, significant correction of neuron size but limited clinical improvements suggests that delayed correction does not restore functional deficits.
ANG II-stimulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NADPH oxidase is suggested to activate MAPK pathways, which are implicated in neurally mediated pressor effects of ANG II. Emerging evidence suggests that ANG-(1–7) up regulates MAPK phosphatases to reduce MAPK signaling and attenuate actions of ANG II. Whether angiotensin peptides participate in long-term regulation of these systems in the brain is not known. Therefore, we determined tissue and mitochondrial ROS, as well as expression and activity of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in brain dorsal medullary tissue of hypertensive transgenic (mRen2)27 rats exhibiting higher ANG II/ANG-(1–7) tone or hypotensive transgenic rats with targeted decreased glial expression of angiotensinogen, ASrAOGEN (AS) exhibiting lower ANG II/ANG-(1–7) tone compared with normotensive Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats that serve as the control strain. Transgenic (mRen2)27 rats showed higher medullary tissue NADPH oxidase activity and dihydroethidium fluorescence in isolated mitochondria vs. SD or AS rats. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 was lower in AS and unchanged in (mRen2)27 compared with SD rats. MKP-1 mRNA and protein expression were higher in AS and unchanged in (mRen2)27 compared with SD rats. AS rats also had lower phosphorylated ERK1/2 and JNK consistent with higher MKP-1 activity. Thus, an altered brain renin-angiotensin system influences oxidative stress status and regulates MKP-1 expression. However, there is a dissociation between these effects and the hemodynamic profiles. Higher ROS was associated with hypertension in (mRen2)27 and normal MKP-1, whereas the higher MKP-1 was associated with hypotension in AS, where ROS was normal relative to SD rats.
Nautiyal, Manisha; Katakam, Prasad V. G.; Busija, David W.; Gallagher, Patricia E.; Tallant, E. Ann; Chappell, Mark C.
ANG II-stimulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through NADPH oxidase is suggested to activate MAPK pathways, which are implicated in neurally mediated pressor effects of ANG II. Emerging evidence suggests that ANG-(1-7) up regulates MAPK phosphatases to reduce MAPK signaling and attenuate actions of ANG II. Whether angiotensin peptides participate in long-term regulation of these systems in the brain is not known. Therefore, we determined tissue and mitochondrial ROS, as well as expression and activity of MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in brain dorsal medullary tissue of hypertensive transgenic (mRen2)27 rats exhibiting higher ANG II/ANG-(1-7) tone or hypotensive transgenic rats with targeted decreased glial expression of angiotensinogen, ASrAOGEN (AS) exhibiting lower ANG II/ANG-(1-7) tone compared with normotensive Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats that serve as the control strain. Transgenic (mRen2)27 rats showed higher medullary tissue NADPH oxidase activity and dihydroethidium fluorescence in isolated mitochondria vs. SD or AS rats. Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 was lower in AS and unchanged in (mRen2)27 compared with SD rats. MKP-1 mRNA and protein expression were higher in AS and unchanged in (mRen2)27 compared with SD rats. AS rats also had lower phosphorylated ERK1/2 and JNK consistent with higher MKP-1 activity. Thus, an altered brain renin-angiotensin system influences oxidative stress status and regulates MKP-1 expression. However, there is a dissociation between these effects and the hemodynamic profiles. Higher ROS was associated with hypertension in (mRen2)27 and normal MKP-1, whereas the higher MKP-1 was associated with hypotension in AS, where ROS was normal relative to SD rats. PMID:22914751
Nautiyal, Manisha; Katakam, Prasad V G; Busija, David W; Gallagher, Patricia E; Tallant, E Ann; Chappell, Mark C; Diz, Debra I
This study investigates the potential clinical utility in the emergency department (ED) of an index of brain electrical activity to identify intracranial hematomas. The relationship between this index and depth, size, and type of hematoma was explored. Ten minutes of brain electrical activity was recorded from a limited montage in 38 adult patients with traumatic hematomas (CT scan positive) and 38 mild head injured controls (CT scan negative) in the ED. The volume of blood and distance from recording electrodes were measured by blinded independent experts. Brain electrical activity data were submitted to a classification algorithm independently developed traumatic brain injury (TBI) index to identify the probability of a CT+traumatic event. There was no significant relationship between the TBI-Index and type of hematoma, or distance of the bleed from recording sites. A significant correlation was found between TBI-Index and blood volume. The sensitivity to hematomas was 100%, positive predictive value was 74.5%, and positive likelihood ratio was 2.92. The TBI-Index, derived from brain electrical activity, demonstrates high accuracy for identification of traumatic hematomas. Further, this was not influenced by distance of the bleed from the recording electrodes, blood volume, or type of hematoma. Distance and volume limitations noted with other methods, (such as that based on near-infrared spectroscopy) were not found, thus suggesting the TBI-Index to be a potentially important adjunct to acute assessment of head injury. Because of the life-threatening risk of undetected hematomas (false negatives), specificity was permitted to be lower, 66%, in exchange for extremely high sensitivity. PMID:24040943
Hanley, Daniel F; Chabot, Robert; Mould, W Andrew; Morgan, Timothy; Naunheim, Rosanne; Sheth, Kevin N; Chiang, William; Prichep, Leslie S
It has been observed that certain developmental environmental risk factors for schizophrenia when modeled in rodents alter the trajectory of dopaminergic development, leading to persistent behavioural changes in adults. This has recently been articulated as the “dopamine ontogeny hypothesis of schizophrenia”. To test one aspect of this hypothesis, namely that transient dopaminergic effects during development modulate attention-like behavior and arousal in adults, we turned to a small-brain model, Drosophila melanogaster. By applying genetic tools allowing transient activation or silencing of dopaminergic neurons in the fly brain, we investigated whether a critical window exists during development when altered dopamine (DA) activity levels could lead to impairments in arousal states in adult animals. We found that increased activity in dopaminergic neurons in later stages of development significantly increased visual responsiveness and locomotion, especially in adult males. This misallocation of visual salience and hyperactivity mimicked the effect of acute methamphetamine feeding to adult flies, suggesting up-regulated DA signaling could result from developmental manipulations. Finally, brain recordings revealed significantly reduced gamma-band activity in adult animals exposed to the transient developmental insult. Together, these data support the idea that transient alterations in DA signaling during development can permanently alter behavior in adults, and that a reductionist model such as Drosophila can be used to investigate potential mechanisms underlying complex cognitive disorders such as schizophrenia.
Calcagno, B; Eyles, D; van Alphen, B; van Swinderen, B
The role of the serotoninergic system in the regulation of apomorphine-induced behavior, a behavior primarily controlled by dopaminergic neurotransmission, was investigated in rats fed on a low tryptophan diet since weaning. It was found that reductions in brain seritonin (5-HT) produced by diet result in decreased stereotypy after apomorphine administration. This indicates that although stereotyped behavior is primarily mediated by dopaminergic mechanisms, it can also be modulated by other neurotransmitter including 5-HT. It was also shown that changes in brain seritonin levels can affect psychomotor stimulant-induced hypothermia.
Sahakian, B. J.; Wurtman, R. J.; Barr, J. K.; Millington, W. R.; Chiel, H. J.
The aim of this study was to assess the activation of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and splenius capitis (SC) muscles in response to unanticipated, full body perturbations in individuals with chronic neck pain (NP) and age-matched healthy controls (HC). Individuals with NP had a history of NP for 8.9 ± 7.8 years, rated the intensity of NP as 4.2 ± 2.0 (score out of 10), and scored 15.3 ± 6.5 on the Neck Disability Index. Participants stood on a moveable platform during which 32 randomized postural perturbations (eight repetitions of four perturbation types: 8 cm forward slide (FS), 8 cm backward slides, 10° forward tilt, and 10° backward tilt) with varying inter-perturbation time intervals were performed over a period of 5 min. Bilateral surface electromyography (EMG) from the SCM and SC was recorded, and the onset time and the average rectified value of the EMG signal was determined for epochs of 100 ms; starting 100 ms prior to and 500 ms after the perturbation onset. Individuals with NP, as compared to HC, demonstrated delayed onset times and reduced EMG amplitude of the SCM and SC muscles in response to all postural perturbations. Such findings were most pronounced following the FS postural perturbation (healthy vs. NP for SCM 83.3 ± 8.0 vs. 86.3 ± 4.4 and SC 75.6 ± 3.5 vs. 89.3 ± 4.2), which was also associated with the greatest change (expressed in % relative to baseline) in EMG amplitude (healthy vs. NP for SCM 206.6 ± 50.4 vs. 115.9 ± 15.7 and SC 83.4 ± 19.2 vs. 69.2 ± 10.9) across all postural perturbations types. Individuals with NP display altered neural control of the neck musculature in response to rapid, unanticipated full body postural perturbations. Although the relative timing of neck musculature activity in individuals with NP appears to be intact, simultaneous co-activation of the neck musculature emerges for unanticipated anterior-posterior postural perturbations. PMID:24632836
Boudreau, Shellie A; Falla, Deborah
A conformationally altered prelatent form of antithrombin that possesses both anticoagulant and antiangiogenic activities is produced during the conversion of native to latent antithrombin (Larsson, H., Akerud, P., Nordling, K., Raub-Segall, E., Claesson-Welsh, L., and Björk, I. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 11996-12002). Here, we show that the previously characterized prelatent antithrombin is a mixture of native antithrombin and a modified, true prelatent antithrombin that are resolvable by heparin-agarose chromatography. Kinetic analyses revealed that prelatent antithrombin is an intermediate in the conversion of native to latent antithrombin whose formation is favored by stabilizing anions of the Hofmeister series. Purified prelatent antithrombin had reduced anticoagulant function compared with native antithrombin, due to a reduced heparin affinity and consequent impaired ability of heparin to either bridge prelatent antithrombin and coagulation proteases in a ternary complex or to induce full conformational activation of the serpin. Significantly, prelatent antithrombin possessed an antiangiogenic activity more potent than that of latent antithrombin, based on the relative abilities of the two forms to inhibit endothelial cell growth. The prelatent form was conformationally altered from native antithrombin as judged from an attenuation of tryptophan fluorescence changes following heparin activation and a reduced thermal stability. The alterations are consistent with the limited structural changes involving strand 1C observed in a prelatent form of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (Dupont, D. M., Blouse, G. E., Hansen, M., Mathiasen, L., Kjelgaard, S., Jensen, J. K., Christensen, A., Gils, A., Declerck, P. J., Andreasen, P. A., and Wind, T. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 36071-36081), since the (1)H NMR spectrum, electrophoretic mobility, and proteolytic susceptibility of prelatent antithrombin most resemble those of native rather than those of latent antithrombin. Together, these results demonstrate that limited conformational alterations of antithrombin that modestly reduce anticoagulant activity are sufficient to generate antiangiogenic activity. PMID:18375953
Richard, Benjamin; Swanson, Richard; Schedin-Weiss, Sophia; Ramirez, Ben; Izaguirre, Gonzalo; Gettins, Peter G W; Olson, Steven T
Depression is a recognized feature of epilepsy. This study tested the hypothesis that depression arising in patients with epilepsy would be associated with decreased activity in brain regions previously demonstrated to be hypoperfused both in primary depression and in depression secondary to movement disorders. Two groups of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were studied, one of which also met DSM
H. A. Ring; P. D. Acton; D. Scull; D. C. Costa; S. Gacinovik; M. R. Trimble
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated brain activity in an observer who watched the hand and arm motions of an individual when that individual was, or was not, the cause of the motion. Subjects viewed a realistic animated 3D character who sat at a table containing four pistons. On Intended Motion trials, the character raised his hand and
James P. Morris; Kevin A. Pelphrey; Gregory McCarthy
The locations of active brain areas can be estimated from the magnetic field produced by the neural current sources. In many cases, the actual current dipoles with time-varying amplitudes. This work studies global optimization methods that find the minimu...
K. Uutela M. Haemaelaeinen R. Salmelin
We have addressed the question of whether the brain's capacity to resolve an ambiguous retinal image depends upon the activity of early visual areas or whether it involves the investment of the received image with higher order cognitive hypotheses. To resolve the issue, we have used the technique of positron emission tomography to detect increases in regional cerebral blood flow
D. H. ffytche; S. Zeki
The main objectives of the study were: to investigate whether training on working memory (WM) could improve fluid intelligence, and to investigate the effects WM training had on neuroelectric (electroencephalography--EEG) and hemodynamic (near-infrared spectroscopy--NIRS) patterns of brain activity. In a parallel group experimental design,…
Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija
This study is devoted to a detection of evoked potentials in a brain activity with aim to map these potentials onto a scalp. in this case, there is necessary to focus recorded scalp potentials, which are blurred due to scalp attenuation and, moreover mask...
J. Kralik R. Cmejla P. Sovka A. Stancak
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is formed by specialized endothelial cells lining capillaries in the central nervous system (CNS). We previously demonstrated that exposure to very low concentrations of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) decreased electrical resistance across the BBB in vitro, indicating a loss of BBB integrity. The present study examined the transient effects of CPF on expression of genes contributing to tight junctions of the BBB. Rat brain endothelial cells (RBE4) were co-cultured with rat astrocytes on membrane inserts to form an in vitro BBB. The RBE4 cells in the BBB were then exposed to CPF for 2, 4 and 12?h. Total RNA was extracted from RBE4 cells and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to quantify levels of gene expression of tight junction proteins claudin5, scaffold proteins zona occludens (ZO1) and transient receptor potential (canonical) channels (TRPC4). Gene expression decreased 2?h after exposure to CPF, especially TRPC4, but the effects were reversed 12?h later. CPF exposure for only 15?min caused less effect than longer exposures, with TRPC4 gene expression above the control at 4?h. These results suggest that altering gene expression for claudin5, TRPC4 and ZO1 by CPF may directly contribute to BBB disruption, and that the alteration is reversible upon removal of CPF. PMID:22611033
Li, Wen; Ehrich, Marion