The Alternaria stem canker resistance locus (Asc-locus), involved in resistance to the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici and in insensitivity to host-specific toxins (AAL-toxins) produced by the pathogen, was genetically mapped on the tomato genome. Susceptibility and resistance were assayed by testing a segregating F2 population for sensitivity to AAL-toxins in leaf bioassays. Linkage was observed to phenotypic
H. M. A. Witsenboer; E. G. van de Griend; J. B. Tiersma; H. J. J. Nijkamp; J. Hille
Phoma stem canker is an internationally important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus, canola, rapeseed), causing serious losses in Europe, Australia and North America. UK losses of €56M per season are estimated\\u000a using national disease survey data and a yield loss formula. Phoma stem canker pathogen populations comprise two main species,\\u000a Leptosphaeria maculans, associated with damaging stem base cankers, and
B. D. L. Fitt; H. Brun; M. J. Barbetti; S. R. Rimmer
Phoma stem canker is an internationally important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus, canola, rapeseed), causing serious losses in Europe, Australia and North America. UK losses of €56M per season are estimated\\u000a using national disease survey data and a yield loss formula. Phoma stem canker pathogen populations comprise two main species,\\u000a Leptosphaeria maculans, associated with damaging stem base cankers, and
B. D. L. Fitt; H. Brun; M. J. Barbetti; S. R. Rimmer
Quantitative resistance against Leptosphaeria maculans in Brassica napus is difficult to assess in young plants due to the long period of symptomless growth of the pathogen from the appearance of leaf lesions to the appearance of canker symptoms on the stem. By using doubled haploid (DH) lines A30 (susceptible) and C119 (with quantitative resistance), quantitative resistance against L. maculans was assessed in young plants in controlled environments at two stages: stage 1, growth of the pathogen along leaf veins/petioles towards the stem by leaf lamina inoculation; stage 2, growth in stem tissues to produce stem canker symptoms by leaf petiole inoculation. Two types of inoculum (ascospores; conidia) and three assessment methods (extent of visible necrosis; symptomless pathogen growth visualised using the GFP reporter gene; amount of pathogen DNA quantified by PCR) were used. In stage 1 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in area of leaf lesions, distance grown along veins/petioles assessed by visible necrosis or by viewing GFP and amount of L. maculans DNA in leaf petioles. In stage 2 assessments, significant differences were observed between lines A30 and C119 in severity of stem canker and amount of L. maculans DNA in stem tissues. GFP-labelled L. maculans spread more quickly from the stem cortex to the stem pith in A30 than in C119. Stem canker symptoms were produced more rapidly by using ascospore inoculum than by using conidial inoculum. These results suggest that quantitative resistance against L. maculans in B. napus can be assessed in young plants in controlled conditions. Development of methods to phenotype quantitative resistance against plant pathogens in young plants in controlled environments will help identification of stable quantitative resistance for control of crop diseases. PMID:24454767
Huang, Yong-Ju; Qi, Aiming; King, Graham J; Fitt, Bruce D L
The hybrids from 2 factorial crosses involving a total of 7 female lines and 11 restorers, representing the known range of\\u000a reaction of sunflower to Phomopsis stem canker and most of the resistance sources used in breeding programmes, were studied\\u000a in multilocational semi-natural attack trials and by artificial infections on leaves and stems in 1996, 1997 and 1998. The\\u000a results
A. Viguié; D. Touvieille de Labrouhe; F. Vear
SUMMARY Leptosphaeria maculans is the most ubiquitous pathogen of Brassica crops, and mainly oilseed brassicas (oilseed rape, canola), causing the devastating 'stem canker' or 'blackleg'. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the pathogen, from taxonomic issues to specific life traits. It mainly illustrates the importance of formal genetics approaches on the pathogen side to dissect the interaction with the host plants. In addition, this review presents the main current research topics on L. maculans and focuses on the L. maculans genome initiative recently begun, including its main research issues. Taxonomy: Leptosphaeria maculans (Desm.) Ces. & de Not. (anamorph Phoma lingam Tode ex Fr.). Kingdom Fungi, Phylum Ascomycota, Class Dothideomycetes (Loculoascomycetes), Order Pleosporales, Genus Leptosphaeria, Species maculans. Host range: cultivated Brassicas such as Brassica napus (oilseed rape, canola), B. rapa, B. juncea, B. oleracea, etc., along with numerous wild crucifers species. Arabidopsis thaliana was recently reported to be a potential host for L. maculans. Primary disease symptoms are greyish-green collapse of cotyledon or leaf tissue, without a visible margin, bearing tiny black spots (pycnidia). The fungus then develops an endophytic symptomless growth for many months. Secondary symptoms, at the end of the growing season, are dry necroses of the crown tissues with occasional blackening (stem canker or blackleg) causing lodging of the plants. Pseudothecia differentiate on leftover residues. Seedling damping-off and premature ripening are also reported under certain environmental conditions. Useful websites: Leptosphaeria maculans sequencing project at Genoscope: http://www.genoscope.cns.fr/externe/English/Projets/Projet_DM/organisme_DM.html; the SECURE site: http://www.secure.rothamsted.ac.uk/ the 'Blackleg' group at the University of Melbourne: http://www.botany.unimelb.edu.au/blackleg/overview.htm. PMID:20565653
Rouxel, T; Balesdent, M H
Phoma stem canker, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans and L. biglobosa, is the most important disease of oilseed rape in Europe. Differences between L. maculans and L. biglobosa in their life-cycles enable the two species to co-exist on oilseed rape crops over a cropping season. This review considers\\u000a the factors affecting geographic variation in the severity of phoma stem canker epidemics
Jenna F. Stonard; Akinwunmi O. Latunde-Dada; Yong-Ju Huang; Jonathan S. West; Neal Evans; Bruce D. L. Fitt
Alternaria is a ubiquitous fungal genus that includes saprobic, endophytic and pathogenic species associated with a wide variety of substrates. In recent years, DNA-based studies revealed multiple non-monophyletic genera within the Alternaria complex, and Alternaria species clades that do not always correlate to species-groups based on morphological characteristics. The Alternaria complex currently comprises nine genera and eight Alternaria sections. The aim of this study was to delineate phylogenetic lineages within Alternaria and allied genera based on nucleotide sequence data of parts of the 18S nrDNA, 28S nrDNA, ITS, GAPDH, RPB2 and TEF1-alpha gene regions. Our data reveal a Pleospora/Stemphylium clade sister to Embellisia annulata, and a well-supported Alternaria clade. The Alternaria clade contains 24 internal clades and six monotypic lineages, the assemblage of which we recognise as Alternaria. This puts the genera Allewia, Brachycladium, Chalastospora, Chmelia, Crivellia, Embellisia, Lewia, Nimbya, Sinomyces, Teretispora, Ulocladium, Undifilum and Ybotromyces in synonymy with Alternaria. In this study, we treat the 24 internal clades in the Alternaria complex as sections, which is a continuation of a recent proposal for the taxonomic treatment of lineages in Alternaria. Embellisia annulata is synonymised with Dendryphiella salina, and together with Dendryphiella arenariae, are placed in the new genus Paradendryphiella. The sexual genera Clathrospora and Comoclathris, which were previously associated with Alternaria, cluster within the Pleosporaceae, outside Alternaria s. str., whereas Alternariaster, a genus formerly seen as part of Alternaria, clusters within the Leptosphaeriaceae. Paradendryphiella is newly described, the generic circumscription of Alternaria is emended, and 32 new combinations and 10 new names are proposed. A further 10 names are resurrected, while descriptions are provided for 16 new Alternaria sections. Taxonomic novelties: New combinations - Alternaria abundans (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria alternariae (Cooke) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria atra (Preuss) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria bornmuelleri (Magnus) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria botrytis (Preuss) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria caespitosa (de Hoog & C. Rubio) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria cantlous (Yong Wang bis & X.G. Zhang) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria caricis (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria cinerea (Baucom & Creamer) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria didymospora (Munt.-Cvetk.) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria fulva (Baucom & Creamer) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria hyacinthi (de Hoog & P.J. Mull. bis) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria indefessa (E.G. Simmons) Woudenberg & Crous, Alternaria leptinellae (E.G. Simmons & C.F. Hill) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria lolii (E.G. Simmons & C.F. Hill) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria multiformis (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria obclavata (Crous & U. Braun) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria obovoidea (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria oudemansii (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria oxytropis (Q. Wang, Nagao & Kakish.) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria penicillata (Corda) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria planifunda (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria proteae (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria scirpinfestans (E.G. Simmons & D.A. Johnson) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria scirpivora (E.G. Simmons & D.A. Johnson) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria septospora (Preuss) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria slovaca (Svob.-Pol., L. Chmel & Bojan.) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria subcucurbitae (Yong Wang bis & X.G. Zhang) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria tellustris (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria tumida (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Paradendryphiella salina (G.K. Sutherl.) Woudenb. & Crous, Paradendryphiella arenariae (Nicot) Woudenb. & Crous. New names - Alternaria aspera Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria botryospora Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria brassicae-pekinensis Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria breviramosa Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria chlamydosporigena Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria concatenata
Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Binder, M.; Crous, P.W.
A stem canker disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. eriobotryae (Takimoto) Young, Dye y Wilkie on loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica [Thumb] Lindl) was recorded for the first time in Argentina. Symptoms of the disease appeared as dry stem cankers which in advanced stages surrounded the stems. Similar cankers were noticeable on leaves midribs. Seven bacterial strains were isolated from diseased loquats and their identification was based on disease symptoms, pathogenicity and cultural and biochemical characteristics. All strains were levan positive and gave a hypersensitive reaction on tobacco leaves. Neither arginine dehydrolase nor oxidase was detected in any of the strains which produced a diffusible green pigment on King B which fluoresced under UV light and a distinct diffusible brown pigment on King B, SPA and Tween 80 media within 5-7 days of incubation. Lipolysis of Tween 80 was also recorded. The symptoms observed in the field and obtained by experimental inoculations were similar to those induced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. eriobotryae in the original description of the disease. PMID:2102015
Alippi, A M; Alippi, H E
Teratosphaeria gauchensis causes a serious canker disease on Eucalyptus spp. in plantations in South America and Africa. The pathogen is closely related to, but distinct from T. zuluensis that causes a similar stem canker disease on Eucalyptus. The objective of this study was to use 10 previously developed polymorphic microsatellite markers to study the population\\u000a diversity of T. gauchensis, based
M. N. Cortinas; I. Barnes; B. D. Wingfield; M. J. Wingfield
We compared the spatial distribution of stem cankers on the canopy tree Ocotea whitei (Lauraceae) in a 20-ha plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, with spatial and temporal patterns of mortality in this host over the previous decade. The cankers occur both on adult and juvenile individuals, aothough juveniles are much more likely the adults to show symptoms. Disease incidence
G. S. Gilbert; R. B. Foster; S. P. Hubbell
What do you do when county officials show up to cut down the orange trees in your backyard? What causes citrus canker and how is it spread? This plant pathogen was the first microbe to have its genome sequenced outside of the US. There is much to investigate before deciding on the best alternative for control. * examine international alternatives for the control of citrus canker
Linda Weinland (Edison College;Biology); Peter Woodruff (Champlain College;Biology); Margaret Waterman (Southeast Missouri State University;Biology); Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology)
The phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL) produces toxins that are essential for pathogenicity of the fungus on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). AAL toxins and fumonisins of the unrelated fungus Fusarium moniliforme are sphinganine-analog mycotoxins (SAMs), which cause inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis in vitro and are toxic for some plant species and mammalian cell lines. Sphingolipids can be determinants in the proliferation or death of cells. We investigated the tomato Alternaria stem canker (Asc) locus, which mediates resistance to SAM-induced apoptosis. Until now, mycotoxin resistance of plants has been associated with detoxification and altered affinity or absence of the toxin targets. Here we show that SAM resistance of tomato is determined by Asc-1, a gene homologous to the yeast longevity assurance gene LAG1 and that susceptibility is associated with a mutant Asc-1. Because both sphingolipid synthesis and LAG1 facilitate endocytosis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in yeast, we propose a role for Asc-1 in a salvage mechanism of sphingolipid-depleted plant cells.
Brandwagt, Bas F.; Mesbah, Laurent A.; Takken, Frank L. W.; Laurent, Pascal L.; Kneppers, Tarcies J. A.; Hille, Jacques; Nijkamp, H. John J.
This resource is a review article about the Citrus Canker, an introduced plant disease. The article contains detailed background and overview and includes information on (1) Citrus Canker strain diversity, identification, diagnosis and characterization; (2) the symptoms and infection Process; (3) the epidemiology; (4) the management for prevention and control of Citrus Canker; (5) and the social, political, and legal ramifications of regulatory policy.
Tim R. Gottwald (USDA;); James H. Graham (University of Florida;); Tim S. Schubert (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services;)
Alternaria arborescens is the causal agent of tomato stem canker, a disease frequently responsible of substantial economic losses. A. arborescens can produce several mycotoxins, such as alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether and tenuazonic acid and phytotoxins such as the AAL toxins. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of water activity (aw, 0.950, 0.975, 0.995) and temperature (6, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C) on the germination and radial growth rate of A. arborescens on a synthetic tomato medium. Germination followed by growth was observed at all temperatures and aw levels analyzed. The shortest germination time (0.5days) was observed at 0.995 aw, both at 25°C and at 30°C. The germination time increased with a reduction of aw and temperature. The highest growth rate was registered at 0.995 aw and 30°C (7.21mm/day) while the lowest occurred at 0.950 aw and 6°C (0.52mm/day), conditions at which the longest lag phase was observed (8days). Growth rates increased with aw and temperature. Knowledge of the ecophysiology of the fungus in this substrate is necessary to formulate future strategies to prevent its development and evaluate the consumer health risk posed by potential exposure to the toxins. PMID:24964391
Vaquera, Sandra; Patriarca, Andrea; Fernández Pinto, Virginia
Seedlings, saplings and mature eucalypts were susceptible to infection by Endothia gyrosa and Botryosphaeria ribis. Eucalyptus regnans and E. delegatensis were more susceptible than E. grandis and E. saligna. In trees not subjected to stress, cankers were limited in extent and often healed. When trees were defoliated, either manually or by severe insect attack, stem concentrations of both starch and soluble carbohydrates were reduced and canker development in some pathogen/host combinations was increased. Seedlings subjected to water stress were not predisposed to canker formation. The association of E. gyrosa with branch dieback of rural eucalypts suffering from chronic defoliation suggests that canker fungi contribute to the crown dieback syndrome in south-eastern Australia.
Old, K.M.; Gibbs, R.; Craig, I.; Myers, B.J. (CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)); Yuan, Z.Q. (Xinjiang August 1st Agricultural College (China))
Purpose. Alternaria spp. are an uncommon cause of mycotic keratitis. Previous studies on Alternaria keratitis have generally been limited to case reports. We examined the clinical characteristics of Alternaria keratitis in this study. Methods. The characteristics and outcomes of 7 patients with culture-proven Alternaria keratitis treated in our hospital were compared with 25 previously reported cases. Results. The risk factors for Alternaria keratitis were trauma in 5 patients and soft contact lenses in 1 patient. Six patients with early diagnosis (<2 weeks) were cured with medical antimicrobial treatment; a patch graft was required in 1 patient with perforation. When incorporated with previous reports on Alternaria keratitis (n = 32), 14 (44%) infections followed trauma, 10 (31%) were associated with preexisting corneal disease or previous ocular surgery, and 5 (16%) occurred in soft contact lens wearers. Successful medical treatment was achieved in 23 (72%) patients, including 10 out of 21 eyes (48%) treated with natamycin and/or amphotericin B. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed in 9 (28%) cases. Conclusions. Alternaria keratitis is generally associated with specific risk factors and responds to medical treatment when early diagnosis is performed and prompt antifungal treatment is initiated.
Lin, Hsin-Chiung; Chen, Phil Y. F.; Ma, David H. K.; Tan, Hsin-Yuan
Purpose. Alternaria spp. are an uncommon cause of mycotic keratitis. Previous studies on Alternaria keratitis have generally been limited to case reports. We examined the clinical characteristics of Alternaria keratitis in this study. Methods. The characteristics and outcomes of 7 patients with culture-proven Alternaria keratitis treated in our hospital were compared with 25 previously reported cases. Results. The risk factors for Alternaria keratitis were trauma in 5 patients and soft contact lenses in 1 patient. Six patients with early diagnosis (<2 weeks) were cured with medical antimicrobial treatment; a patch graft was required in 1 patient with perforation. When incorporated with previous reports on Alternaria keratitis (n = 32), 14 (44%) infections followed trauma, 10 (31%) were associated with preexisting corneal disease or previous ocular surgery, and 5 (16%) occurred in soft contact lens wearers. Successful medical treatment was achieved in 23 (72%) patients, including 10 out of 21 eyes (48%) treated with natamycin and/or amphotericin B. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed in 9 (28%) cases. Conclusions. Alternaria keratitis is generally associated with specific risk factors and responds to medical treatment when early diagnosis is performed and prompt antifungal treatment is initiated. PMID:24778867
Hsiao, Ching-Hsi; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Chen, Hung-Chi; Lin, Hsin-Chiung; Chen, Phil Y F; Ma, David H K; Tan, Hsin-Yuan
ABSTRACT Pryor, B. M., and Michailides, T. J. 2002. Morphological, pathogenic, and molecular characterization of ,Alternaria isolates associated with Alternaria late blight of pistachio. Phytopathology 92:406-416. Alternaria isolates ,were ,obtained from ,various pistachio tissues
Barry M. Pryor; Themis J. Michailides
Cypress canker by Seiridium cardinale (Wag.) Sutt. & Gibson is a disease particularly harmful for cypress trees in Tuscany where the land scape value of this species is very important. The paper reports on the relationship among S. cardinale and environmental factors that may influence the spreading of the fungus using GIS technology. The s tudy conduced in the neighbourhood
Matteo FEDUCCI; Nicola LUCHI
Susceptibility of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars to Godronia canker (Godronia cassandrae f. sp. vaccinii) in Norway Anfälligkeit von Sorten der Amerikanischen Blaubeeren für Godronia Krebs
Summary Godronia canker, caused by the fungus Godronia cassan- drae f. sp. vaccinii, was detected for the first time on high- bush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum) in Norway in 1995, and has caused severe stem wilting and dieback of young bushes. The disease was investigated over five years (1995-1999) in two experimental plantings, and in a sur- vey carried out in
Gunn Mari Strømeng; Arne Stensvand
Pitch canker disease (Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O'Donnell) causes serious shoot dieback, reduced growth and mortality in pines found in the southern and western USA, and has been linked to nutrient imbalances. Poultry houses with forced-air ventilation systems produce nitrogen (N) emissions. This study analyzed spatial correlations between pitch canker disease and foliar, forest floor, soil, and throughfall N in a slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelm.) plantation adjacent to a poultry operation in north Florida, USA. Tissue and throughfall N concentrations were highest near the poultry houses and remained elevated for 400 m. Disease incidence ranged from 57-71% near the poultry houses and was spatially correlated with N levels. Similarly, stem mortality ranged from 41-53% in the most heavily impacted area, and declined to 0-9% at distances greater than 400 m. These results suggest that nutritional processes exacerbate changes in disease susceptibility and expression in slash pine. PMID:17049465
Lopez-Zamora, Isabel; Bliss, Christine; Jokela, Eric J; Comerford, N B; Grunwald, Sabine; Barnard, E; Vasquez, G M
To describe a case of Alternaria keratitis in a 30-year-old male patient who presented with bilateral vascularised central corneal opacity and underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in the left eye. Patient was treated for recurrent epithelial defect with a bandage contact lens in the follow-up visits after DALK. Subsequently, patient presented with pigmented fungal keratitis, which on culture examination of the corneal scrapping demonstrated Alternaria species. Patient had to undergo a repeat DALK as the keratitis did not resolve with medical therapy alone. Patient did not have a recurrence for 11 months following the regraft. This case report highlights the importance of considering the Alternaria species as a possibile cause of non-resolving fungal keratitis after DALK.
Naik, Mekhla; Mohd. Shahbaaz; Sheth, Jay; Sunderamoorthy, S. K.
Five plant extracts of Hibiscus subdariffa Linn., Psidium guajava Linn., Punica granatum Linn., Spondias pinnata (Linn.f.)Kurz, and Tamarindus indica Linn. were evaluated for control of canker disease on Citrus aurantifolia (lime) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (XC) (synonym X. campestris pv. citri ) under greenhouse condition. Aqueous extracts of H. subdariffa, P. granatum, S. pinnata, and T. indica exhibited
Chalida Leksomboon; Niphone Thaveechai; Wichai Kositratana
The possibility of suppressingAlternaria dauci (Kühn) Groves & Skolko, the causal agent of Alternaria leaf blight in carrot, by excess application of fertilizer was examined\\u000a in greenhouse and field experiments. Reducing the rate of fertilization by one half from the optimal rate (100 ppm N, 19 ppm\\u000a P and 74 ppm K) resulted in a 23–30% increase in the severity
H. Vintal; E. Ben-Noon; E. Shlevin; U. Yermiyahu; D. Shtienberg; A. Dinoor
Citrus canker is one of the most devastating diseases that threaten citrus crops. Technologies that can efficiently identify citrus canker would assure fruit quality and safety and enhance the competitiveness and profitability of the citrus industry. This research was aimed to investigate the potential of using hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting canker lesions on citrus fruit. A portable hyperspectral imaging system consisting of an automatic sample handling unit, a light source, and a hyperspectral imaging unit was developed for citrus canker detection. The imaging system was used to acquire reflectance images from citrus samples in the wavelength range between 400 nm and 900 nm. Ruby Red grapefruits with normal and various diseased skin conditions including canker, copper burn, greasy spot, wind scar, cake melanose, and specular melanose were tested. Hyperspectral reflectance images were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) to compress the 3-D hyperspectral image data and extract useful image features that could be used to discriminate cankerous samples from normal and other diseased samples. Image processing and classification algorithms were developed based upon the transformed images of PCA. The overall accuracy for canker detection was 92.7%. This research demonstrated that hyperspectral imaging technique could be used for discriminating citrus canker from other confounding diseases.
Qin, Jianwei; Burks, Thomas F.; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin; Ritenour, Mark A.
Field experiments to control fruit lesions of Alternaria brown spot (Alternaria alternata pathovar citri) of Minneola tangelo (Citrus reticulata × C. paradisi) were conducted over a period of 5 years. Iprodione at 0.5 g a.i. l ? 1 was consistently effective in reducing fruit lesions when sprayed four or five times at 2 week intervals, beginning shortly after full bloom
Z. Solel; Y. Oren; Miriam Kimchi
The interaction between Alternaria dauci and two carrot cultivars differing in their resistance to leaf blight was investigated by microscopy. The fungal development\\u000a between 1 and 15 days post-inoculation was quite similar in the susceptible cv. Presto and the partially resistant cv. Texto:\\u000a After conidial germination, leaf adhesion of the pathogen was achieved with mucilaginous filaments; hyphae penetrated the\\u000a leaves directly
Cora Boedo; Valérie Le Clerc; Mathilde Briard; Philippe Simoneau; Michel Chevalier; Sonia Georgeault; Pascal Poupard
Previously we showed in laboratory studies that the fungivorus nematode, Aphelenchoides hylurgi, was attracted to and fed upon the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, from American chestnut bark cankers and was a carrier of biocontrol, white hypovirulent C. parasitica strains. In the present field study, we recovered Aphelenchoides spp. in almost all (97.0 %) of 133 blight canker tissue assays (three 5-g samples each) from four eastern states. High mean population densities (227 to 474 nematodes per 5 g tissue) of Aphelenchoides spp. were recovered from cankers in Virginia, West Virginia, and Tennessee but not from New Hampshire (mean = 75 nematodes per 5 g tissue). Overall, most canker assays yielded population densities less than 200 nematodes per 5 g tissue. All of 12 very small or young cankers yielded a few to many Aphelenchoides spp. Regression analysis indicated greatest recovery of Aphelenchoides spp. occurred in the month of May (r = 0.94). The results indicate that Aphelenchoides spp. appear to be widespread in blight cankers on American chestnut trees and could play a role in biocontrol of chestnut blight.
Griffin, G. J.; Eisenback, J. D.; Oldham, K.
The author's son has been an engineer since birth. He never asked "why" as a toddler, it was always "how's it work?" So that he wanted a STEM-based home education was no big surprise. In this article, the author considers what kind of curricula would work best for her complex kid.
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) play crucial roles in plant immunity. We previously identified a citrus MAPK (CsMAPK1) as a differentially expressed protein in response to infection by Xanthomonas aurantifolii, a bacterium that causes citrus canker in Mexican lime but a hypersensitive reaction in sweet oranges. Here, we confirm that, in sweet orange, CsMAPK1 is rapidly and preferentially induced by X. aurantifolii relative to Xanthomonas citri. To investigate the role of CsMAPK1 in citrus canker resistance, we expressed CsMAPK1 in citrus plants under the control of the PR5 gene promoter, which is induced by Xanthomonas infection and wounding. Increased expression of CsMAPK1 correlated with a reduction in canker symptoms and a decrease in bacterial growth. Canker lesions in plants with higher CsMAPK1 levels were smaller and showed fewer signs of epidermal rupture. Transgenic plants also revealed higher transcript levels of defense-related genes and a significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide in response to wounding or X. citri infection. Accordingly, nontransgenic sweet orange leaves accumulate both CsMAPK1 and hydrogen peroxide in response to X. aurantifolii but not X. citri infection. These data, thus, indicate that CsMAPK1 functions in the citrus canker defense response by inducing defense gene expression and reactive oxygen species accumulation during infection. PMID:23777433
de Oliveira, Maria Luiza Peixoto; de Lima Silva, Caio Cesar; Abe, Valéria Yukari; Costa, Marcio Gilberto Cardoso; Cernadas, Raúl Andrés; Benedetti, Celso Eduardo
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability to produce alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) by A. alternata and A. infectoria strains recovered from wheat kernels obtained from one of the main production area in Argentina; to confirm using AFLPs molecular markers the identify of the isolates up to species level, and to evaluate the intra and inter-specific genetic diversity of these two Alternaria species. Among all the Alternaria strains tested (254), 84% of them were able to produce mycotoxins. The most frequent profile of toxin production found was the co-production of AOH and AME in both species tested. TA was only produced by strains of A. alternata. Amplified fragment polymorphism (AFLPs) analysis was applied to a set of 89 isolates of Alternaria spp (40 were A. infectoria and 49 were A. alternata) in order to confirm the morphological identification. The results showed that AFLPs are powerful diagnostic tool for differentiating between A. alternata and A. infectoria. Indeed, in the current study the outgroup strains, A. tenuissima was consistently classified. Characteristic polymorphic bands separated these two species regardless of the primer combination used. Related to intraspecific variability, A. alternata and A. infectoria isolates evaluated seemed to form and homogeneous group with a high degree of similarity among the isolates within each species. However, there was more scoreable polymorphism within A. alternata than within A. infectoria isolates. There was a concordance between morphological identification and separation up to species level using molecular markers. Clear polymorphism both within and between species showed that AFLP can be used to asses genetic variation in A. alternata and A. infectoria. The most important finding of the present study was the report on AOH and AME production by A. infectoria strains isolated from wheat kernels in Argentina on a semisynthetic media for the first time. Also, specific bands for A. alternata and A. infectoria have been identified; these may be useful for the design of specific PCR primers in order to differentiate these species and to detect them in cereals.
Oviedo, Maria Silvina; Sturm, Maria Elena; Reynoso, Maria Marta; Chulze, Sofia Noemi; Ramirez, Maria Laura
While allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and mycosis are well recognised, no cases have been described related to Alternaria spp. Alternaria is a common sensitising fungus in asthmatics and related to thunderstorm asthma. We report a case of an asthmatic who presented with worsening asthma control, mild eosinophilia on high dose inhaled corticosteroids (800 ?g/day), a total IgE of 3800 KIU/L, an Alternaria-specific IgE of 21.3 KUa/L and positive skin prick test, negative specific IgE and skin prick test to Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp., Trichophyton spp. and a normal CT scan of the thorax. He responded well to a short course of oral prednisolone and then oral itraconazole, given over 17 months but relapsed 1 month after stopping it.
Singh, Bhagteshwar; Denning, David W.
While allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and mycosis are well recognised, no cases have been described related to Alternaria spp. Alternaria is a common sensitising fungus in asthmatics and related to thunderstorm asthma. We report a case of an asthmatic who presented with worsening asthma control, mild eosinophilia on high dose inhaled corticosteroids (800 ?g/day), a total IgE of 3800 KIU/L, an Alternaria-specific IgE of 21.3 KUa/L and positive skin prick test, negative specific IgE and skin prick test to Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp., Trichophyton spp. and a normal CT scan of the thorax. He responded well to a short course of oral prednisolone and then oral itraconazole, given over 17 months but relapsed 1 month after stopping it. PMID:24371728
Singh, Bhagteshwar; Denning, David W
Background: Molds in the Alternaria genus, normally found on outdoor vegetation, produce some of the most common fungal allergens to elicit a skin test response. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to evaluate a serum assay for IgE antibodies to Alternaria allergens and to establish the prevalence of sensitization to Alternaria allergens among children and adults enrolled in epidemiologic
Matthew S. Perzanowski; Richard Sporik; Susan P. Squillace; Lawrence E. Gelber; Robert Call; Melody Carter; Thomas A. E. Platts-Mills
...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternaria destruens strain 059; exemption from...Exemptions From Tolerances Â§ 180.1256 Alternaria destruens strain 059; exemption...for residues of the microbial pesticide Alternaria destruens Strain 059 when used...
...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Alternaria destruens strain 059; exemption from...Exemptions From Tolerances Â§ 180.1256 Alternaria destruens strain 059; exemption...for residues of the microbial pesticide Alternaria destruens Strain 059 when used...
We isolated and examined a new Alternaria sp., which causes leaf spots on Peucedanum japonicum in Korea, by using molecular and morphological methods. Phylogenetic analysis based on a combined internal transcribed spacer region analysis and two protein-coding genes (gpd and Alt a1) demonstrated that the causal fungus was most closely related to A. cinerariae and A. sonchi, and relevant to A. brassicae. However, conidial morphology indicated that it is a novel species within the genus Alternaria, and therefore we have assigned the fungus a new name in this study.
Deng, Jian Xin; Cho, Hye Sun; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Lee, Hyang Burm
Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating biotic stresses affecting the citrus industry. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) is canker-resistant, while Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is canker-sensitive. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in responses to Xcc, transcriptomic profiles of these two genotypes following Xcc attack were compared by using the Affymetrix citrus genome GeneChip. A total of 794 and 1324 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified as canker-responsive genes in Meiwa and Newhall, respectively. Of these, 230 genes were expressed in common between both genotypes, while 564 and 1094 genes were only significantly expressed in either Meiwa or Newhall. Gene ontology (GO) annotation and Singular Enrichment Analysis (SEA) of the DEGs showed that genes related to the cell wall and polysaccharide metabolism were induced for basic defense in both Meiwa and Newhall, such as chitinase, glucanase and thaumatin-like protein. Moreover, apart from inducing basic defense, Meiwa showed specially upregulated expression of several genes involved in the response to biotic stimulus, defense response, and cation binding as comparing with Newhall. And in Newhall, abundant photosynthesis-related genes were significantly down-regulated, which may be in order to ensure the basic defense. This study revealed different molecular responses to canker disease in Meiwa and Newhall, affording insight into the response to canker and providing valuable information for the identification of potential genes for engineering canker tolerance in the future.
Fu, Xing-Zheng; Gong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Yue-Xin; Wang, Yin; Liu, Ji-Hong
Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating biotic stresses affecting the citrus industry. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) is canker-resistant, while Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is canker-sensitive. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in responses to Xcc, transcriptomic profiles of these two genotypes following Xcc attack were compared by using the Affymetrix citrus genome GeneChip. A total of 794 and 1324 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified as canker-responsive genes in Meiwa and Newhall, respectively. Of these, 230 genes were expressed in common between both genotypes, while 564 and 1094 genes were only significantly expressed in either Meiwa or Newhall. Gene ontology (GO) annotation and Singular Enrichment Analysis (SEA) of the DEGs showed that genes related to the cell wall and polysaccharide metabolism were induced for basic defense in both Meiwa and Newhall, such as chitinase, glucanase and thaumatin-like protein. Moreover, apart from inducing basic defense, Meiwa showed specially upregulated expression of several genes involved in the response to biotic stimulus, defense response, and cation binding as comparing with Newhall. And in Newhall, abundant photosynthesis-related genes were significantly down-regulated, which may be in order to ensure the basic defense. This study revealed different molecular responses to canker disease in Meiwa and Newhall, affording insight into the response to canker and providing valuable information for the identification of potential genes for engineering canker tolerance in the future. PMID:22848606
Fu, Xing-Zheng; Gong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Yue-Xin; Wang, Yin; Liu, Ji-Hong
Alternaria is frequently found as airborne fungal spores and is recognized as an important cause of respiratory allergies. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed using a Burkard volumetric spore traps. To establish predicting variables for daily and weakly spore counts, a stepwise multiple regression between spore concentrations and independent variables (meteorological parameters and lagged values from the series of spore concentrations: previous day or week concentration (Alt t - 1) and mean concentration of the same day or week in other years (C mean)) was made with data obtained during 2009-2011. Alternaria conidia are present throughout the year in the atmosphere of Tetouan, although they show important seasonal fluctuations. The highest levels of Alternaria spores were recorded during the spring and summer or autumn. Alternaria showed maximum daily values in April, May or October depending on year. When the spore variables of Alternaria, namely C mean and Alt t - 1, and meteorological parameters were included in the equation, the resulting R 2 satisfactorily predict future concentrations for 55.5 to 81.6 % during the main spore season and the pre-peak 2. In the predictive model using weekly values, the adjusted R 2 varied from 0.655 to 0.676. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the results from the expected values and the pre-peak spore data or weekly values for 2012, indicating that there were no significant differences between series compared. This test showed the C mean, Alt t - 1, frequency of the wind third quadrant, maximum wind speed and minimum relative humidity as the most efficient independent variables to forecast the overall trend of this spore in the air.
Filali Ben Sidel, Farah; Bouziane, Hassan; del Mar Trigo, Maria; El Haskouri, Fatima; Bardei, Fadoua; Redouane, Abdelbari; Kadiri, Mohamed; Riadi, Hassane; Kazzaz, Mohamed
...was based on their apparent resistance to citrus canker infection...regarding the strong biological resistance of calamondins and kumquats...displayed on a plastic or metal tag attached to the outside...high degree of biological resistance to Xcc that the...
Pretreatment with oil of sea turtle Caretta caretta protected tomato plants against bacterial canker caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm). The turtle oil was ineffective in inhibiting Cmm in an agar diffusion test, suggesting a mechanism of induced resistance. Under controlled conditions in the greenhouse, turtle oil lowered the disease index and had reduced the growth of bacteria up
Ömür Baysal; Y. Ziya Gürsoy; Hakan Örnek; Ahmet Duru
Of the trees in a 6-year-old sycamore seed orchard in Carlisle County, KY, 66 percent developed obscure vertical cankers in the spring of 1990. A variety of wound-invading saprophytes, including Hyalodendron sp., Stachylidium sp., Botrytis sp., Phialophor...
F. I. McCracken R. Rousseau
Bacterial canker caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syrinage (Pss) in apricot has widely spread in Turkey, especially in Malatya province, in recent years. The main objective of this\\u000a study was to determine resistance of apricot cultivars to bacterial canker caused by Pss in apricot cultivars grown in Turkey.\\u000a During the 2006–2007 growing period, bacterial isolations were taken from diseased apricot
M. Figen Donmez; Huseyin Karlidag; Ahmet Esitken
Tenuazonic acid (TA) is a major water soluble Alternaria mycotoxin. In the present work, a method for the quantification of TA in beer by liquid chromatography–ion-trap multistage mass spectrometry after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine is described. The method is based on a rapid workup procedure and features a LOD of 2?g\\/kg without preconcentration using 400mg of sample. Validation was performed for
David Siegel; Stefan Merkel; Matthias Koch; Irene Nehls
Thirty-eight of the 61 isolates of bacteria obtained from diseased and healthy sunflower leaves inhibited the germination\\u000a of conidia and growth of germ-tubes of Alternaria helianthi in vitro. Inhibition included reduced conidial germination, germ-tube swelling causing vesicle formation, excessive germ-tube branching,\\u000a lysis of germ-tubes, absence of sporulation and a reduced rate of hyphal growth. Some bacteria appeared to be endoparasitic,
G. A. Kong; J. K. Kochman; J. F. Brown
Alternaria species are members of a heterogeneous group of dematiaceous fungi that rarely cause opportunistic infections in transplant recipients. During a 20-year period from 1989 to 2008, 8 solid organ transplant recipients (63% males; median age, 48 years) developed Alternaria species infections at the Mayo Clinic. All patients were highly immunocompromised as evidenced by their receipt of multiple transplants, treatment of acute and chronic allograft rejection, and occurrence of other opportunistic infections. All patients presented with non-tender erythematous or violaceous skin papules, nodules, or pustules in exposed areas of the extremities. No case of visceral dissemination was observed. Itraconazole was the most common drug used for treatment, although voriconazole, posaconazole, and caspofungin could potentially be useful based on our limited clinical data and in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing. One patient was treated with voriconazole, while another patient who was refractory to itraconazole had rapid resolution of lesions after the addition of caspofungin. Attempts at antifungal therapy alone were unsuccessful; all patients eventually required surgical excision of lesions. In conclusion, Alternaria species are rare but increasingly recognized opportunistic infections among highly immunocompromised transplant recipients. Wide excisional surgery combined with prolonged systemic antifungal therapy and reduction in immunosuppressive regimens provided the best chance of cure. Although itraconazole remains the most common drug for treatment, this case series highlights the potential clinical utility of caspofungin, voriconazole, and posaconazole as alternative regimens. PMID:20002611
Boyce, R D; Deziel, P J; Otley, C C; Wilhelm, M P; Eid, A J; Wengenack, N L; Razonable, R R
Alternaria and Cladosporium, known as the most allergenic spores were first collected by means of Durham gravimetric sampler from Eskisehir atmosphere\\u000a from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001. The daily, monthly and annual variations in spores\\/cm2 of Cladosporium and Alternaria were recorded. During this period, a total of 10.231 spores belonging to Cladosporium and Alternaria genera were recorded. Of
Ismuhan Potoglu Erkara; Ahmet Asan; Veysel Yilmaz; Sevil Pehlivan; Suzan Sarica Okten
Recent research has shown the bioprospecting of endophytic fungi from Cupressaceae. Here, we further uncover that the healthy cypress plants such as Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis host highly bioactive endophytic Alternaria fungal species. Indeed, endophytic Alternaria alternata, Alternaria pellucida, and Alternaria tangelonis were recovered from healthy Cupressaceous trees. Biodiversity and bioactivity of recovered endophytic Alternaria species were a matter of biogeography and host identity. We further extracted such Alternaria's metabolites and highlighted their significant antiproliferative, growth inhibitory, and antibacterial activities against the model target fungus Pyricularia oryzae and the model pathogenic bacteria Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora, and Pseudomonas syringae. In vitro assays also indicated that endophytic Alternaria species significantly inhibited the growth of cypress fungal phytopathogens Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi, and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, since the recovered Alternaria species were originally reported as pathogenic and allergenic fungi, our findings suggest a possible ecological niche for them inside the foliar tissues of Cupressaceous trees. Moreover, in this study, the significant bioactivities of endophytic Alternaria species in association with Cupressaceae plant family are reported. PMID:24801337
Soltani, Jalal; Hosseyni Moghaddam, Mahdieh S
A 3-year-old thoroughbred colt presented with canker on its left hind foot. Subsequent development of cottage cheese-like horns and dermatitis disturbed healing, despite the use of miscellaneous orthodox treatment approaches to the lesions. Histological examination revealed exudative and suppurative dermatitis, and proliferatively suppurative epidermitis infected with helically coiled treponemes. Total debridement under general anesthesia led to a temporary improvement, but the ground surface regenerated abnormal epidermis similar to that observed initially after surgery. Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) was attempted, which removed all the abnormal tissue. After MDT, general farriery trimming helped to correct the distorted ground surface, and the horse returned to constant training and eventually raced. This case shows that MDT was successfully used for treatment of an intractable and treponemes-infected canker.
KUWANO, Atsutoshi; NIWA, Hidekazu; HIGUCHI, Tohru; MITSUI, Hideya; AGNE, Robert A.
ABSTRACT The eradication of nonnative plant pathogens is a key challenge in plant disease epidemiology. Asiatic citrus canker is an economically significant disease of citrus caused by the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. The pathogen is a major exotic disease problem in many citrus producing areas of the world including the United States, Brazil, and Australia. Various eradication attempts have been made on the disease but have been associated with significant social and economic costs due to the necessary removal of large numbers of host trees. In this paper, a spatially explicit stochastic simulation model of Asiatic citrus canker is introduced that describes an epidemic of the disease in a heterogeneous host landscape. We show that an optimum eradication strategy can be determined that minimizes the adverse costs associated with eradication. In particular, we show how the optimum strategy and its total cost depend on the topological arrangement of the host landscape. We discuss the implications of the results for invading plant disease epidemics in general and for historical and future eradication attempts on Asiatic citrus canker. PMID:19900003
Parnell, S; Gottwald, T R; van den Bosch, F; Gilligan, C A
The phytopathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is responsible for the canker disease affecting citrus plants throughout the world. Here, we have evaluated the role of bacterial attachment and biofilm formation in leaf colonization during canker development on lemon leaves. Crystal violet staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of X. axonopodis pv. citri strains expressing the green fluorescent protein were used to evaluate attachment and biofilm formation on abiotic and biotic (leaf) surfaces. Wild-type X. axonopodis pv. citri attached to and formed a complex, structured biofilm on glass in minimal medium containing glucose. Similar attachment and structured biofilm formation also were seen on lemon leaves. An X. axonopodis pv. citri gumB mutant strain, defective in production of the extracellular polysaccharide xanthan, did not form a structured biofilm on either abiotic or biotic surfaces. In addition, the X. axonopodis pv. citri gumB showed reduced growth and survival on leaf surfaces and reduced disease symptoms. These findings suggest an important role for formation of biofilms in the epiphytic survival of X. axonopodis pv. citri prior to development of canker disease. PMID:17918624
Rigano, Luciano A; Siciliano, Florencia; Enrique, Ramón; Sendín, Lorena; Filippone, Paula; Torres, Pablo S; Qüesta, Julia; Dow, J Maxwell; Castagnaro, Atilio P; Vojnov, Adrián A; Marano, María Rosa
Chrysophorte cubensis induced canker occurs in nearly all tropical and subtropical regions where eucalypts are planted, causing losses in both wood quality and volume productivity, especially so in the warmer and more humid regions of Brazil. The wide inter and intra-specific genetic variability of resistance to canker among Eucalyptus species facilitates the selection of resistant plants. In this study, we evaluated resistance to this pathogen in five Eucalyptus grandis (G) and 15 E. urophylla (U) trees, as well as in 495 individuals from 27 progenies derived from crosses between the trees. In the field, six-months-old test seedlings were inoculated with C. cubensis. Lesion length in the xylem and bark was measured eight months later. The results demonstrated that xylem lesions could preferentially be used for the selection of resistant clones. Eight trees (7 U and 1 G) were susceptible, and the remainder (8 U and 4 G) resistant. Individual narrow and broad sense heritability estimates were 17 and 81%, respectively, thereby suggesting that canker resistance is quantitative and highly dependent on dominance and epistasis.
Chrysophorte cubensis induced canker occurs in nearly all tropical and subtropical regions where eucalypts are planted, causing losses in both wood quality and volume productivity, especially so in the warmer and more humid regions of Brazil. The wide inter and intra-specific genetic variability of resistance to canker among Eucalyptus species facilitates the selection of resistant plants. In this study, we evaluated resistance to this pathogen in five Eucalyptus grandis (G) and 15 E. urophylla (U) trees, as well as in 495 individuals from 27 progenies derived from crosses between the trees. In the field, six-months-old test seedlings were inoculated with C. cubensis. Lesion length in the xylem and bark was measured eight months later. The results demonstrated that xylem lesions could preferentially be used for the selection of resistant clones. Eight trees (7 U and 1 G) were susceptible, and the remainder (8 U and 4 G) resistant. Individual narrow and broad sense heritability estimates were 17 and 81%, respectively, thereby suggesting that canker resistance is quantitative and highly dependent on dominance and epistasis. PMID:21637427
da Silva Guimarães, Lúcio Mauro; de Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela; Lau, Douglas; Rosse, Leonardo Novaes; Alves, Alexandre Alonso; Alfenas, Acelino Couto
Four sesame accessions with varying levels of susceptibility to Alternaria sesami were selected from an advanced germplasm collection of the Sesame Improvement Project to determine transmission efficiency of A. sesami from seed under field conditions. Accessions were sown in field plots in Siaya, Kenya, in March and October 1995 during the first and second rainy seasons, respectively. Incidence of Alternaria
P. S. Ojiambo; R. K. Mibey; R. D. Narla; P. O. Ayiecho
In the present study, Dravya ? an organic compound used for seed treatment along with the common fungicides to test its compatibility in the management of Alternaria padwickii in paddy. Dravya (a sea weed extract) was found highly compatible with fungicides like Bavistin and Dithane M?45. Incidence of Alternaria padwickii and Bipolaris oryzae was also reduced to a greater extent
S. G. Sathyanarayana; S. Lokesh; T. Vasanth Kumar; H. S. Shetty
Fifty-six lilac accessions were evaluated in a 4-year study for resistance to powdery mildew caused by Microsphaera syringae, bacterial blight caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, and Alternaria blight caused by Alternaria alternata. Accessions included 39 cultivars of Syringa vulgaris, four of S. prestoniae, three of S. hyacinthiflora, two of S. josiflexa, two of S. meyeri, two of S. reticulata,
Margaret T. Mmbaga; Roger J. Sauvé; Emmanuel Nnodu; Suping Zhou
Citriculture in São Paulo State, Brazil, is threatened by Asiatic citrus canker (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri). The introduction of the Asian citrus leaf miner (Phyllocnistis citrella [CLM]) has resulted in an increase in the number of disease foci and has changed the spatial pattern of citrus canker symptomatic trees from strong aggregation to intermediate aggregation and random patterns. We evaluated
R. S. C. Christiano; M. Dalla Pria; W. C. Jesus Junior; J. R. P. Parra; L. Amorim; A. Bergamin Filho
Hundreds of cankers caused by Ceratocystis smalleyi are associated with hickory bark beetle-attacked bitternut hickory exhibiting rapid crown decline in the north-central and northeastern United States. Discolored sapwood colonized by the fungus commonly underlies the cankers. Field studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that C. smalleyi infections cause vascular system dysfunction in infected trees. Fifty C. smalleyi inoculations made at 1.8 to 3.8 m in height on stems of healthy bitternut hickory trees (13 to 28 cm in diameter at 1.4 m in height) resulted in extensive canker formation and sapwood discoloration 12 to 14 months after treatment compared with water-inoculated and noninoculated controls. Sap flow velocity (midday) was significantly lower in the infected trees compared with that in the controls. Sap flow velocity also was inversely correlated with the proportion of bark area with cankered tissues and with tylose abundance in the youngest two growth rings. Tylose formation in current-year vessels associated with C. smalleyi infections is likely responsible for much of the water transport disruption. It is hypothesized that multiple stem infections of C. smalleyi and the resulting xylem dysfunction contribute to crown wilt development in bitternut hickory exhibiting rapid crown decline. PMID:23360533
Park, J-H; Juzwik, J; Cavender-Bares, J
A chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima EN-192, an endophytic fungus obtained from the stems of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa, resulted in the isolation of nine known secondary metabolites, including four indole-diterpenoids: penijanthine A ( 1), paspaline ( 2), paspalinine ( 3), and penitrem A ( 4); three tricycloalternarene derivatives: tricycloalternarene 3a ( 5), tricycloalternarene 1b ( 6), and tricycloalternarene 2b ( 7); and two alternariol congeners: djalonensone ( 8) and alternariol ( 9). The chemical structures of these metabolites were characterized through a combination of detailed spectroscopic analyses and their comparison with reports from the literature. The inhibitory activities of each isolated compound against four bacteria were evaluated and compounds 5 and 8 displayed moderate activity against the aquaculture pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum, with inhibition zone diameters of 8 and 9 mm, respectively, at 100 ?g/disk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived A lternaria tenuissima and also the first report of the isolation of indole-diterpenoids from fungal genus A lternaria.
Sun, Hong; Gao, Shushan; Li, Xiaoming; Li, Chunshun; Wang, Bingui
Citrus bacterial canker is an important disease of Citrus species in China. The disease severely occurs especially in the coastal area. Integrated control system has been used for the control of the disease, in which chemotherapy plays an important role at present. The chemotherapy-dominant control system brought many problems to the environment, such as chemical residua in the products and induction of resistance to fungicide(s) by the pathogen. To solve these problems, an intensive study on biocontrol of citrus bacterial canker is needed. Isolations and characterizations of biocontrol agents are the basis for biocontrol of the disease. A bacterial strain Bt8 with strong inhibiting ability against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin, was isolated from citrus orchard soil in Nanning, China. The isolated bacterial strain was identified and characterized as Acinetobacter baumannii Bouvet et Grimont on the base of its morphology and 16S rDNA sequence analysis as well as physiological and biochemical characters. The inhibiting activity of the bacterium suspension against the pathogen was significantly influenced by environmental factors, such as temperatures, pHs and media. At temperatures of 18 degrees C to 33 degrees C, both the inhibiting activity of the bacterium suspension and the biomass of the bacterium increased with the increases of temperatures, suggesting that the influence of temperature on inhibiting activity of the bacterium suspension was in dependence on the bacterial biomass. In NA liquid medium of pH 10, the bacterium suspension showed the highest inhibiting activity against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, which was not in dependence on biomass of the bacterium. The bacterium suspension provided 55.2% inhibition against bacterial canker under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that Acinetobacter baumannii has potential as biocontrol agent against bacterial canker disease. Acinetobacter baumannii was reported as the pathogens infecting human and animals. The present study enriched the understanding on biological diversity in Acinetobacter baumannii to sciences. This is the first report on the isolation of Acinetobacter baumannii with strong inhibiting ability against plant pathogen. PMID:16736594
Tan, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Si-Liang; Ren, Jian-Guo; Yan, Wei-Hong; Cen, Zhen-Lu
Pitch canker is a highly damaging disease of Pinus radiata and the New Zealand forest industry is concerned by the potential impact of the disease, should it arrive, in New Zealand. To provide a rapid identification technique for this pathogen, a polymerase chain reaction-based diagnostic method has been developed. The method is able to detect the presence of the pathogen within infected host tissue, as well as infested soil and the reliability of the test has been estimated using Bayesian statistics. PMID:21586018
Ramsfield, T D; Dobbie, K; Dick, M A; Ball, R D
The fungal allergen Alternaria alternata is associated with development of asthma, though the mechanisms underlying the allergenicity of Alternaria are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify whether the MAP kinase homologue Fus3 of Alternaria contributed to allergic airway responses. Wild-type (WT) and Fus3 deficient Alternaria extracts were given intranasal to mice. Extracts from Fus3 deficient Alternaria that had a functional copy of Fus3 introduced were also administered (CpFus3). Mice were challenged once and levels of BAL eosinophils and innate cytokines IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoeitin (TSLP), and IL-25 (IL-17E) were assessed. Alternaria extracts or protease-inhibited extract were administered with (OVA) during sensitization prior to ovalbumin only challenges to determine extract adjuvant activity. Levels of BAL inflammatory cells, Th2 cytokines, and OX40-expressing Th2 cells as well as airway infiltration and mucus production were measured. WT Alternaria induced innate airway eosinophilia within 3 days. Mice given Fus3 deficient Alternaria were signifcantly impaired in developing airway eosinophilia that was largely restored by CpFus3. Further, BAL IL-33, TSLP, and Eotaxin-1 levels were reduced after challenge with Fus3 mutant extract compared with WT and CpFus3 extracts. WT and CpFus3 extracts demonstrated strong adjuvant activity in vivo as levels of BAL eosinophils, Th2 cytokines, and OX40-expressing Th2 cells as well as peribronchial inflammation and mucus production were induced. In contrast, the adjuvant activity of Fus3 extract or protease-inhibited WT extract was largely impaired. Finally, protease activity and Alt a1 levels were reduced in Fus3 mutant extract. Thus, Fus3 contributes to the Th2-sensitizing properties of Alternaria.
Kim, Hee-Kyoo; Baum, Rachel; Lund, Sean; Khorram, Naseem; Yang, Siwy Ling; Chung, Kuang-Ren; Doherty, Taylor A.
During the past three decades intranasal corticosteroid sprays have been proven to be efficient and reasonably safe for the treatment of rhinitis, sinusitis and nasal polyposis. The adverse effects are generally localized and self-limited and rarely systemic or significant. We report an immunocompetent female treated with triamcinolone acetonide nasal spray for chronic rhinitis in whom an intranasal fungal infection with Alternaria species developed three months later. The infection was refractory to topical therapies alone, and was resolved with a combination of systemic and topical antifungal therapy. We also described the clinical manifestations of this rare infection and our therapeutic experience. In addition, we reviewed previous literature of fungal infections related to nasal corticosteroid sprays and compared them with our report. PMID:24018172
Chang, Geng-He; Wang, Wen-Hung
From April 2001 to November 2002, samples of walnut branches and trunks with symptoms of shallow bark canker were collected from Fars and Kohgiluyeh-va-Boyerahmad provinces. Symptoms of the disease were small cracks in the bark of the trunk and scaffold branches of mature trees with dark watery exudates which stained the affected trunk or limb. By removal of phelloderm, extensive necrosis of the underlying tissues was observed. In some cases, necrosis extended to cambium and outer xylem. Sixty-one strains of a bacterium were isolated from infected tissues using EMB and YDC media. On the basis of standard biochemical and physiological tests the bacterium was identified as Brenneria nigrifluens. The pathogen was found to be wide-spread in the provinces. Isolates were compared by physiological and biochemical characters, antibiotic sensitivity and protein electrophoretic pattern. Most of the strains were fairly similar in phenotypic features and electrophoretic profiles ofwhole-cell proteins were similar to each other and to reference strain (B. nigrifluens 5D313). Inoculation of 1-2 years-old walnut seedlings in May and June produced blackening symptoms and the bacterium survived for long period in infected tissues. This is the first report of the shallow bark canker of walnut in southern Iran. PMID:19069966
Yousefikopaei, F; Taghavi, S M; Banihashemi, Z
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is the phytopathogen responsible for citrus canker, one of the most devastating citrus diseases in the world. A broad range of pathogens is recognized by plants through so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are highly conserved fragments of pathogenic molecules. In plant pathogenic bacteria, lipopolisaccharyde (LPS) is considered a virulence factor and it is being
Silvana Petrocelli; María Laura Tondo; Lucas D. Daurelio; Elena G. Orellano
A 178 bacterial strains, antagonistic towards Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis , the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato, were isolated from bulk soil, the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of tomato, originating from different sites in the Souss-Massa Valley, Agadir, Morocco. The strains were characterized on the basis of the Gram stain, sporulation, fluorescence on King's B medium and physiological tests.
E. H. Boudyach; M. Fatmi; O. Akhayat; E. Benizri; A. Ait Ben Aoumar
Intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. One emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease first occurred in China and Japan in the 1980s and in Korea and Italy in the 1990s. A more severe form
Angelo Mazzaglia; David J. Studholme; Maria C. Taratufolo; Rongman Cai; Nalvo F. Almeida; Tokia Goodman; David S. Guttman; Boris A. Vinatzer; Giorgio M. Balestra
Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating diseases affecting the citrus industry worldwide. In our previous study, the canker-resistant transgenic sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) plants were produced via constitutively overexpressing a spermidine synthase. To unravel the molecular mechanisms underlying Xcc resistance of the transgenic plants, in the present study global transcriptional profiling was compared between untransformed line (WT) and the transgenic line (TG9) by hybridizing with Affymetrix Citrus GeneChip. In total, 666 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, 448 upregulated, and 218 downregulated. The DEGs were classified into 33 categories after Gene ontology (GO) annotation, in which 68 genes are in response to stimulus and involved in immune system process, 12 genes are related to cell wall, and 13 genes belong to transcription factors. These genes and those related to starch and sucrose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, and plant hormones were hypothesized to play major roles in the canker resistance of TG9. Semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that the transcript levels of several candidate genes in TG9 were significantly higher than in WT both before and after Xcc inoculation, indicating their potential association with canker disease.
Fu, Xing-Zheng; Liu, Ji-Hong
? Exposure of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells from normal and asthmatic subjects to extracts from Alternaria alternata evoked a rapid and sustained release of ATP with greater efficacy observed in epithelial cells from asthmatic patients. Previously, Alternaria allergens were shown to produce a sustained increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) that was dependent on the coordinated activation of specific purinergic receptor (P2Y2 and P2X7) subtypes. In the present study, pretreatment with a cell-permeable Ca2+-chelating compound (BAPTA-AM) significantly inhibited ATP release, indicating dependency on [Ca2+]i. Alternaria-evoked ATP release exhibited a greater peak response and a slightly lower EC50 value in cells obtained from asthmatic donors compared to normal control cells. Furthermore, the maximum increase in [Ca2+]i resulting from Alternaria treatment was greater in cells from asthmatic patients compared to normal subjects. The vesicle transport inhibitor brefeldin A and BAPTA-AM significantly blocked Alternaria-stimulated incorporation of fluorescent lipid (FM1-43)-labelled vesicles into the plasma membrane and ATP release. In addition, inhibiting uptake of ATP into exocytotic vesicles with bafilomycin also reduced ATP release comparable to the effects of brefeldin A and BAPTA-AM. These results indicate that an important mechanism for Alternaria-induced ATP release is Ca2+ dependent and involves exocytosis of ATP. Serine and cysteine protease inhibitors also reduced Alternaria-induced ATP release; however, the sustained increase in [Ca2+]i typically observed following Alternaria exposure appeared to be independent of protease-activated receptor (PAR2) stimulation. PMID:23858006
O'Grady, Scott M; Patil, Nandadavi; Melkamu, Tamene; Maniak, Peter J; Lancto, Cheryl; Kita, Hirohito
Islam, S.S., Rahman, M.H., Hasan, M.J., Ashadusjaman, M. and Khatun, M.M. 2007. Efficacy of Fungicidal Seed Treatment in Controlling Alternaria spp. in Radish Seed. Int. J. Sustain. Crop Prod. 2(5): 46-50 The experiments were conducted to find out effective seed treating fungicides to control seedborne Alternaria spp. of the crop. In the experiment, seeds were treated with the six fungicides
S. S. ISLAM; M. H. RAHMAN; M. J. HASAN
Sensitization and exposure to the allergenic fungus Alternaria alternata has been associated with increased risk of asthma and asthma exacerbations. The first cells to encounter inhaled allergens are epithelial cells at the airway mucosal surface. Epithelial barrier function has previously been reported to be defective in asthma. This study investigated the contribution of proteases from Alternaria alternata on epithelial barrier function and inflammatory responses and compared responses of in vitro cultures of differentiated bronchial epithelial cells derived from severely asthmatic donors with those from non-asthmatic controls. Polarised 16HBE cells or air-liquid interface (ALI) bronchial epithelial cultures from non-asthmatic or severe asthmatic donors were challenged apically with extracts of Alternaria and changes in inflammatory cytokine release and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) were measured. Protease activity in Alternaria extracts was characterised and the effect of selectively inhibiting protease activity on epithelial responses was examined using protease inhibitors and heat-treatment. In 16HBE cells, Alternaria extracts stimulated release of IL-8 and TNF?, with concomitant reduction in TER; these effects were prevented by heat-treatment of the extracts. Examination of the effects of protease inhibitors suggested that serine proteases were the predominant class of proteases mediating these effects. ALI cultures from asthmatic donors exhibited a reduced IL-8 response to Alternaria relative to those from healthy controls, while neither responded with increased thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) release. Only cultures from asthmatic donors were susceptible to the barrier-weakening effects of Alternaria. Therefore, the bronchial epithelium of severely asthmatic individuals may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of Alternaria. PMID:24009658
Leino, Marina S; Loxham, Matthew; Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J; Jayasekera, Nivenka P; Dennison, Patrick W; Shamji, Betty W H; Edwards, Matthew J; Holgate, Stephen T; Howarth, Peter H; Davies, Donna E
Gottwald, T. R., Bassanezi, R. B., Amorim, L., and Bergamin-Filho, A. 2007. Spatial pattern analysis of citrus canker-infected plantings in São Paulo, Brazil, and augmentation of infection elicited by the Asian leafminer. Phytopathology 97:674-683. Eradication of Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) has become increasingly difficult over the last decade, following the introduction of the Asian leafminer into Brazil and Florida, which
T. R. Gottwald; R. B. Bassanezi; L. Amorim; A. Bergamin-Filho
Fungal diseases are posing tremendous threats to global economy and food safety. Among them, Valsa canker, caused by fungi of Valsa and their Cytospora anamorphs, has been a serious threat to fruit and forest trees and is one of the most destructive diseases of apple in East Asia, particularly. Accurate and robust delimitation of pathogen species is not only essential for the development of effective disease control programs, but also will advance our understanding of the emergence of plant diseases. However, species delimitation is especially difficult in Valsa because of the high variability of morphological traits and in many cases the lack of the teleomorph. In this study, we delimitated species boundary for pathogens causing apple Valsa canker with a multifaceted approach. Based on three independent loci, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), ?-tubulin (Btu), and translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1?), we inferred gene trees with both maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, estimated species tree with Bayesian multispecies coalescent approaches, and validated species tree with Bayesian species delimitation. Through divergence time estimation and ancestral host reconstruction, we tested the possible underlying mechanisms for fungal speciation and host-range change. Our results proved that two varieties of the former morphological species V. mali represented two distinct species, V. mali and V. pyri, which diverged about 5 million years ago, much later than the divergence of their preferred hosts, excluding a scenario of fungi–host co-speciation. The marked different thermal preferences and contrasting pathogenicity in cross-inoculation suggest ecological divergences between the two species. Apple was the most likely ancestral host for both V. mali and V. pyri. Host-range expansion led to the occurrence of V. pyri on both pear and apple. Our results also represent an example in which ITS data might underestimate species diversity.
Wang, Xuli; Zang, Rui; Yin, Zhiyuan; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili
Fungal diseases are posing tremendous threats to global economy and food safety. Among them, Valsa canker, caused by fungi of Valsa and their Cytospora anamorphs, has been a serious threat to fruit and forest trees and is one of the most destructive diseases of apple in East Asia, particularly. Accurate and robust delimitation of pathogen species is not only essential for the development of effective disease control programs, but also will advance our understanding of the emergence of plant diseases. However, species delimitation is especially difficult in Valsa because of the high variability of morphological traits and in many cases the lack of the teleomorph. In this study, we delimitated species boundary for pathogens causing apple Valsa canker with a multifaceted approach. Based on three independent loci, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), ?-tubulin (Btu), and translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1?), we inferred gene trees with both maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, estimated species tree with Bayesian multispecies coalescent approaches, and validated species tree with Bayesian species delimitation. Through divergence time estimation and ancestral host reconstruction, we tested the possible underlying mechanisms for fungal speciation and host-range change. Our results proved that two varieties of the former morphological species V. mali represented two distinct species, V. mali and V. pyri, which diverged about 5 million years ago, much later than the divergence of their preferred hosts, excluding a scenario of fungi-host co-speciation. The marked different thermal preferences and contrasting pathogenicity in cross-inoculation suggest ecological divergences between the two species. Apple was the most likely ancestral host for both V. mali and V. pyri. Host-range expansion led to the occurrence of V. pyri on both pear and apple. Our results also represent an example in which ITS data might underestimate species diversity. PMID:24834333
Wang, Xuli; Zang, Rui; Yin, Zhiyuan; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili
The genus Alternaria contains several species of melanized hyphomycetes that cause opportunistic human infections. The published literature contains 210 reported cases of human alternarioses between 1933 and the present day. The most frequent clinical manifestations are cutaneous and subcutaneous infections (74.3%), followed by oculomycosis (9.5%), invasive and non-invasive rhinosinusitis (8.1%) and onychomycosis (8.1%). Immunosuppression is frequently associated with cutaneous and subcutaneous infections and rhinosinusitis. The most important risk factors for cutaneous and subcutaneous infections are solid organ transplantation and Cushing's syndrome, and those for rhinosinusitis are bone marrow transplants. Having been exposed to soil and garbage is common in all cases of oculomycosis, with corticotherapy being a risk factor in 50% of these cases. Previous contact with soil and/or trauma to the nails is associated with most cases of onychomycosis. In general, alternariosis shows a good response to conventional antifungal drugs. On some occasions, steroid suppression or reduction is sufficient to resolve an infection. Itraconazole is the antifungal drug used most frequently to successfully treat onychomycosis and cutaneous and subcutaneous infections. Posaconazole and voriconazole are promising therapeutic options, with the latter being especially so for oculomycosis. PMID:18727797
Pastor, F J; Guarro, J
The allergenic potencies of samples of two commercial Alternaria tenuis extracts stored under various conditions were compared at 3 months intervals over a period of 1 year. Aliquots of the extracts at 5.12 mg/ml were maintained in: saline; 50% glycerol-saline mixture; 0.4% phenol-saline; 0.4% phenol-saline containing 0.03% human serum albumin, and samples were also kept in lyophilized form. The samples were stored at -20, 4, 24, 37 and 56 degrees C. Their potency was measured by radioallergosorbent inhibition assay and by mouse IgE passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) tests. The lyophilized extracts fully maintained their activity at all temperatures for 12 months. Aqueous extracts with or without preservatives also maintained their potency if stored at -20, 4 and 24 degrees C, but showed a significant loss of PCA activity at 56 degrees C, after 3 months. A deleterious effect of phenol was observed in one of the extracts stored at -20 degrees C for 3 months, by PCA tests. The use of preservatives to retain potency over a period of 12 months is therefore unnecessary and may be deleterious. The results indicate that, while storage of A. tenuis in a lyophilized form is best at all temperatures, aqueous extracts are also remarkedly stable when stored at -20, 4 and 24 degrees C, over a 12-month period. PMID:3596821
Vijay, H M; Young, N M; Bernstein, I L
The aim of the present work was to determine the influence of Alternaria alternata upon aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus. A mixture of spores of both strains was inoculated in sunflower seeds at 0.90 aw and incubated for 42 days at 28 degrees C +/- 1. The cultures were observed and analyzed every 7 days to determine the infection level of the seeds and the production of aflatoxins. Results showed that when the seeds were inoculated only with Aspergillus parasiticus, 100% were infected from the 7th day. When Aspergillus parasiticus and Alternaria alternata were simultaneously inoculated the infection level of the seeds was 100% for Aspergillus parasiticus following 7 days of inoculation and 0% for Alternaria alternata. After the 14th day of inoculation there was no significant difference in the infection percentage of both strains (approximately 80% of each one). As far as toxin production is concerned a remarkable decrease was observed when seeds were inoculated with both strains simultaneously. In accordance to the results, Alternaria alternata would not compete with Aspergillus parasiticus in colonization of seeds but would either degrade the aflatoxins by Aspergillus parasiticus or compete for aflatoxin biosynthesis precursors. Alternaria alternata could also secrete some substance that specifically inhibits aflatoxin synthesis. PMID:2615799
Dalcero, A; Chulze, S; Etcheverry, M; Farnochi, C; Varsavsky, E
The Alternaria brown spot (ABS) is a disease caused in tangerine plants and its hybrids by the fungus Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri which has been found in Brazil since 2001. Due to the recent occurrence in Brazilian orchards, the epidemiology and genetic variability of this pathogen is still an issue to be addressed. Here it is presented a survey about the genetic variability of this fungus by the characterization of twenty four pathogenic isolates of A. alternata f. sp. citri from citrus plants and four endophytic isolates from mango (one Alternaria tenuissima and three Alternaria arborescens). The application of two molecular markers Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) had revealed the isolates clustering in distinct groups when fingerprintings were analyzed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Despite the better assessment of the genetic variability through the AFLP, significant modifications in clusters components were not observed, and only slight shifts in the positioning of isolates LRS 39/3 and 25M were observed in PCA plots. Furthermore, in both analyses, only the isolates from lemon plants revealed to be clustered, differently from the absence of clustering for other hosts or plant tissues. Summarizing, both RAPD and AFLP analyses were both efficient to detect the genetic variability within the population of the pathogenic fungus Alternaria spp., supplying information on the genetic variability of this species as a basis for further studies aiming the disease control.
Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Pietrobon, Vivian Cristina; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Romao, Aline Silva; Sposito, Marcel Bellato; Araujo, Welington Luiz
To characterize homologous recombination of transforming DNA in the filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata, we have compared the frequencies of gene targeting by circular and linear DNA fragments in the fungus. The A. alternata BRM1 gene, which is an essential gene for melanin biosynthesis, was selected as a target locus. BRM1 targeting events are easily identified because loss of function leads to a change in mycelial color from black to light brown. We constructed targeting vectors by inserting 0.6 to 3.1 kb internal BRM1 segments into a plasmid containing the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene. When circular plasmids were used, melanin-deficient (Mel-) transformants accounted for 30 to 80% of hygromycin B-resistant (HyR) transformants, correlating closely with the size of the BRM1 segment in the transforming DNA. Restriction enzyme digestion within the BRM1 region greatly enhanced the frequency of gene targeting: integration of the linear plasmids was almost completely attributable to homologous recombination, regardless of the size of the BRM1 segments. Plasmids carrying both BRM1 segments and rDNA segments were transformed into the fungus to examine the effect of the number of target copies on homologous recombination. Using the circular plasmids, Mel- transformants accounted for only 5% of HyR transformants. In contrast, when the linear plasmid produced by restriction enzyme digestion within the BRM1 segment was used, almost all transformants were Mel-. These results indicate that homologous integration of circular molecules in A. alternata is sensitive to the length of homology and the number of targets, and that double-strand breaks in transforming DNA greatly enhance homologous recombination. PMID:7651337
Shiotani, H; Tsuge, T
Alt a 1 is a protein found in Alternaria alternata spores related to virulence and pathogenicity and considered to be responsible for chronic asthma in children. We found that spores of Alternaria inoculated on the outer surface of kiwifruits did not develop hyphae. Nevertheless, the expression of Alt a 1 gene was upregulated, and the protein was detected in the pulp where it co-localized with kiwi PR5. Pull-down assays demonstrated experimentally that the two proteins interact in such a way that Alt a 1 inhibits the enzymatic activity of PR5. These results are relevant not only for plant defense, but also for human health as patients with chronic asthma could suffer from an allergic reaction when they eat fruit contaminated with Alternaria. PMID:24642375
Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Murua-García, Amaya; Garrido-Arandia, María; González-Melendi, Pablo; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Barber, Domingo; Pacios, Luis F; Díaz-Perales, Araceli
The pathogen Chrysoporthe cubensis (formerly Cryphonectria cubensis) is best known for the important canker disease that it causes on Eucalyptus species. This fungus is also a pathogen of Syzygium aromaticum (clove), which is native to Indonesia, and like Eucalyptus, is a member of Myrtaceae. Furthermore, C. cubensis has been found on Miconia spp. native to South America and residing in Melastomataceae. Recent surveys have yielded C. cubensis isolates from new hosts, characterized in this study based on DNA sequences for the ITS and beta-tubulin gene regions. These hosts include native Clidemia sericea and Rhynchanthera mexicana (Melastomataceae) in Mexico, and non-native Lagerstroemia indica (Pride of India, Lythraceae) in Cuba. Isolates from these hosts and areas group in the sub-clade of C. cubensis accommodating the South American collections of the fungus. This sub-clade also includes isolates recently collected from Eucalyptus in Cuba, which are used to epitypify C. cubensis. New host records from Southeast Asia include exotic Tibouchina urvilleana from Singapore and Thailand and native Melastoma malabathricum (Melastomataceae) in Sumatra, Indonesia. Consistent with their areas of occurrence isolates from the latter collections group in the Asian sub-clade of C. cubensis. DNA sequence comparisons of isolates from Tibouchina lepidota in Colombia revealed that they represent a new sub-clade within the greater Chrysoporthe clade. Isolates in this clade are described as Chrysoporthe inopina sp. nov., based on distinctive morphological differences. PMID:16876702
Gryzenhout, Marieka; Rodas, Carlos A; Portales, Julio Mena; Clegg, Paul; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J
The fatty acid synthase inhibitor cerulenin (50 to 100 micrograms/ml) inhibited production of the polyketide mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) by the mold Alternaria alternata. The results suggested that AOH synthesis was inhibited by a direct mechanism by cerulenin, whereas production of AME was probably limited by a shortage of the precursor AOH.
Hiltunen, M; Soderhall, K
On the basis of conidial measurements, growth characteristics, and pigmentation in culture, two of three Egyptian Alternaria spp. (isolates 3 and 5) isolated from waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) were identified as A. eichhorniae and the third, isolate 6, as A. alternata. Isolate 5 (Ae5), the most virulent, caused a severe disease, characterized by leaf blight and discrete leaflesions. The disease was
Y. M. Shabana; R. Charudattan; M. A. Elwakil
The bioherbicidal efficacy of different alginate formulations of Alternaria eichhorniae 5 (isolate Ae5), a virulent Egyptian isolate, was compared on waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). The fungus was formulated as alginate pellets containing mycelium alone, mycelium plus culture filtrate or culture filtrate alone. Each formulation was applied with and without a hydrophilic humectant (Evergreen 500). These formulations were evaluated for disease incidence
Yasser M. Shabana; Zakaria A. M. Baka; Gamal M. Abdel-Fattah
Paecilomyces lilacinus is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We report here a case of cutaneous hyphomycosis in a 63-year-old heart transplant recipient caused by the simultaneous presence of 2 molds: Paecilomyces lilacinus and Alternaria alternata. The infection was successfully treated with local voriconazole followed by oral terbinafine. PMID:23075226
Lavergne, R A; Cassaing, S; Nocera, T; Pauwels, C; Cointault, O; Basse, G; Lavayssière, L; Berry, A; Kamar, N; Lamant, L; Iriart, X; Linas, M D; Valentin, A; Fillaux, J; Paul, C; Magnaval, J F
Fusarium moniliforme toxins (fumonisins) and Alternaria alternata lycopersici (AAL) toxins are members of a new class of sphinganine analog mycotoxins that occur widely in the food chain. These mycotoxins represent a serious threat to human and animal health, inducing both cell death and neoplastic events in mammals. The mechanisms by which this family of chemical congeners induce changes in cell
Hong Wang; Clinton Jones; Janice Ciacci-Zanella; Todd Holt; David G. Gilchrist; Martin B. Dickman
When Brassica rapa seedlings were inoculated with the fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicae, 3-butenyl and 4-pentenyl isothiocyanates were released, together with dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide, 4-oxoisophorone and a number of sesquiterpenes. Release of isothiocyanates is evidence for the catabolism of glucosinolates during infection, which is a prerequisite for their involvement in resistance.
Kevin J. Doughty; Margaret M. Blight; Clive H. Bock; Jane K. Fieldsend; John A. Pickett
To investigate the inductive effect of salicylic acid (SA) on the resistance of Pyrus bretschneider cv Yali to black spot disease (Alternaria kikuchiana Tanaka), the physiological and biochemical characteristics of detached pear leaves at the age of 5 to 10 days were measured\\u000a after application of SA. The results showed that exogenous SA significantly improved the resistance of Yali pear
Yongbo Wang; Yuxing Zhang; Jianghong Zhang
To determine the potential pathogenicity ofAlternaria alternata, we exposed rabbits and guinea pigs to the organism by intradermal and intraperitoneal injection and by scarification. It caused superficial mycosis when inoculated by scarification. An antigenic extract of it that we prepared and used in ring precipitation tests demonstrated precipitating antibodies in the experimentally infected animals.
B. D. Reddy; D. C. Kelley; H. C. Minocha; H. D. Anthony
A TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method was developed for specific detection of Alternaria spp. in foodstuffs. The method uses Alternaria-specific primers and probe targeting the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2 of the rRNA gene, and a positive amplification control based on 18S rRNA gene. The applicability of the real-time PCR protocol was assessed through analysis of 190 commercial food samples, including 80 fresh fruit and vegetable samples and 110 processed foodstuffs. The assay demonstrated the presence of Alternaria spp. DNA in 46 out of the 80 raw samples (57.5%) and in 66 out of the 110 processed samples (60%), enabling quantitative detection of Alternaria spp. DNA at levels as low as 1 CFU/g. The estimated Alternaria counts obtained by real-time PCR showed a good relationship (R(2) = 0.9006, P < 0.01) with the Alternaria counts obtained by plating on Potato Carrot Agar (PCA). The developed real-time PCR assay provides a useful tool for early detection of Alternaria spp. and could be applied as a quality and biosecurity marker of raw materials and final products in the fruits and vegetables processing industries. PMID:22850388
Pavón, Miguel Ángel; González, Isabel; Martín, Rosario; García Lacarra, Teresa
The fungal allergen, Alternaria, is specifically associated with severe asthma, including life-threatening exacerbations. To better understand the acute innate airway response to Alternaria, naive wild-type (WT) mice were challenged once intranasally with Alternaria. Naive WT mice developed significant bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia following Alternaria challenge when analyzed 24 h later. In contrast to Alternaria, neither Aspergillus nor Candida induced bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophilia. Gene microarray analysis of airway epithelial cell brushings demonstrated that Alternaria-challenged naive WT mice had a >20-fold increase in the level of expression of found in inflammatory zone 1 (FIZZ1/Retnla), a resistin-like molecule. Lung immunostaining confirmed strong airway epithelial FIZZ1 expression as early as 3 h after a single Alternaria challenge that persisted for ?5 d and was significantly reduced in STAT6-deficient, but not protease-activated receptor 2-deficient mice. Bone marrow chimera studies revealed that STAT6 expressed in lung cells was required for epithelial FIZZ1 expression, whereas STAT6 present in bone marrow-derived cells contributed to airway eosinophilia. Studies investigating which cells in the nonchallenged lung bind FIZZ1 demonstrated that CD45(+)CD11c(+) cells (macrophages and dendritic cells), as well as collagen-1-producing CD45(-) cells (fibroblasts), can bind to FIZZ1. Importantly, direct administration of recombinant FIZZ1 to naive WT mice led to airway eosinophilia, peribronchial fibrosis, and increased thickness of the airway epithelium. Thus, Alternaria induces STAT6-dependent acute airway eosinophilia and epithelial FIZZ1 expression that promotes airway fibrosis and epithelial thickness. This may provide some insight into the uniquely pathogenic aspects of Alternaria-associated asthma. PMID:22327070
Doherty, Taylor A; Khorram, Naseem; Sugimoto, Kotaro; Sheppard, Dean; Rosenthal, Peter; Cho, Jae Youn; Pham, Alexa; Miller, Marina; Croft, Michael; Broide, David H
The fungal allergen, Alternaria, is specifically associated with severe asthma, including life-threatening exacerbations. To better understand the acute innate airway response to Alternaria, naïve WT mice were challenged once intranasally with Alternaria. Naïve WT mice developed significant BAL eosinophila following Alternaria challenge when analyzed 24 hours later. In contrast to Alternaria, neither Aspergillus nor Candida induced BAL eosinophilia. Gene microarray analysis of airway epithelial cell brushings demonstrated that Alternaria-challenged naïve WT mice had an over 20 fold increase level of expression of “Found in Inflammatory Zone 1” (FIZZ1/Retnla), a resistin-like molecule. Lung immunostaining confirmed strong airway epithelial FIZZ1 expression present as early as 3 hours after a single Alternaria challenge that persisted for at least 5 days and was significantly reduced in STAT6-deficient, but not PAR-2-deficient mice. Bone marrow chimera studies revealed that STAT6 expressed in lung cells was required for epithelial FIZZ1 expression, while in contrast, STAT6 present in bone marrow derived cells contributed to airway eosinophilia. Studies investigating which cells in the non-challenged lung bind FIZZ1 demonstrated that CD45+CD11c+ (macrophages and dendritic cells) as well as collagen-1 producing CD45 negative cells (fibroblasts) can bind to FIZZ1. Importantly, direct administration of recombinant FIZZ1 to naïve WT mice led to airway eosinophilia, peribronchial fibrosis, and increased thickness of the airway epithelium. Thus, Alternaria induces STAT-6 dependent acute airway eosinophila and epithelial FIZZ1 expression that promotes airway fibrosis and epithelial thickness. This may provide some insight into the uniquely pathogenic aspects of Alternaria-associated asthma.
Doherty, Taylor A.; Khorram, Naseem; Sugimoto, Kotaro; Sheppard, Dean; Rosenthal, Peter; Youn Cho, Jae; Pham, Alexa; Miller, Marina; Croft, Michael; Broide, David H.
Alternaria is an airborne fungal spore type known to trigger respiratory allergy symptoms in sensitive patients. Aiming to reduce the risk for allergic individuals, we constructed predictive models for the fungal spore circulation in Szczecin, Poland. Monthly forecasting models were developed for the airborne spore concentrations of Alternaria, which is one of the most abundant fungal taxa in the area. Aerobiological sampling was conducted over 2004-2007, using a Lanzoni trap. Simultaneously, the following meteorological parameters were recorded: daily level of precipitation; maximum and average wind speed; relative humidity; and maximum, minimum, average, and dew point temperature. The original factors as well as with lags (up to 3 days) were used as the explaining variables. Due to non-linearity and non-normality of the data set, the modelling technique applied was the artificial neural network (ANN) method. The final model was a split model with classification (spore presence or absence) followed by regression for spore seasons and log(x+1) transformed Alternaria spore concentration. All variables except maximum wind speed and precipitation were important factors in the overall classification model. In the regression model for spore seasons, close relationships were noted between Alternaria spore concentration and average and maximum temperature (on the same day and 3 days previously), humidity (with lag 1) and maximum wind speed 2 days previously. The most important variable was humidity recorded on the same day. Our study illustrates a novel approach to modelling of time series with short spore seasons, and indicates that the ANN method provides the possibility of forecasting Alternaria spore concentration with high accuracy.
Grinn-Gofro?, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka
Citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a devastating disease resulting in significant crop losses in various citrus cultivars worldwide. A biocontrol agent has not been recommended for this disease. To explore the potential of bacilli native to Taiwan to control this disease, Bacillus species with a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against various phytopathogens were isolated from plant potting mixes, organic compost and the rhizosphere soil. Seven strains TKS1-1, OF3-16, SP4-17, HSP1, WG6-14, TLB7-7, and WP8-12 showing superior antagonistic activity were chosen for biopesticide development. The genetic identity based on 16S rDNA sequences indicated that all seven native strains were close relatives of the B. subtilis group and appeared to be discrete from the B. cereus group. DNA polymorphisms in strains WG6-14, SP4-17, TKS1-1, and WP8-12, as revealed by repetitive sequence-based PCR with the BOXA1R primers were similar to each other, but different from those of the respective Bacillus type strains. However, molecular typing of the strains using either tDNA-intergenic spacer regions or 16S–23S intergenic transcribed spacer regions was unable to differentiate the strains at the species level. Strains TKS1-1 and WG6-14 attenuated symptom development of citrus bacterial canker, which was found to be correlated with a reduction in colonization and biofilm formation by X. axonopodis pv. citri on leaf surfaces. The application of a Bacillus strain TKS1-1 endospore formulation to the leaf surfaces of citrus reduced the incidence of citrus bacterial canker and could prevent development of the disease.
Huang, Tzu-Pi; Tzeng, Dean Der-Syh; Wong, Amy C. L.; Chen, Chun-Han; Lu, Kuan-Min; Lee, Ya-Huei; Huang, Wen-Di; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Tzeng, Kuo-Ching
Background Transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors, formerly known as the AvrBs3/PthA protein family, are DNA-binding effectors broadly found in Xanthomonas spp. that transactivate host genes upon injection via the bacterial type three-secretion system. Biologically relevant targets of TAL effectors, i.e. host genes whose induction is vital to establish a compatible interaction, have been reported for xanthomonads that colonize rice and pepper; however, citrus genes modulated by the TAL effectors PthA“s” and PthC“s” of the citrus canker bacteria Xanthomonas citri (Xc) and Xanthomonas aurantifolii pathotype C (XaC), respectively, are poorly characterized. Of particular interest, XaC causes canker disease in its host lemon (Citrus aurantifolia), but triggers a defense response in sweet orange. Results Based on, 1) the TAL effector-DNA binding code, 2) gene expression data of Xc and XaC-infiltrated sweet orange leaves, and 3) citrus hypocotyls transformed with PthA2, PthA4 or PthC1, we have identified a collection of Citrus sinensis genes potentially targeted by Xc and XaC TAL effectors. Our results suggest that similar with other strains of Xanthomonas TAL effectors, PthA2 and PthA4, and PthC1 to some extent, functionally converge. In particular, towards induction of genes involved in the auxin and gibberellin synthesis and response, cell division, and defense response. We also present evidence indicating that the TAL effectors act as transcriptional repressors and that the best scoring predicted DNA targets of PthA“s” and PthC“s” in citrus promoters predominantly overlap with or localize near to TATA boxes of core promoters, supporting the idea that TAL effectors interact with the host basal transcriptional machinery to recruit the RNA pol II and start transcription. Conclusions The identification of PthA“s” and PthC“s” targets, such as the LOB (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARY) and CCNBS genes that we report here, is key for the understanding of the canker symptoms development during host susceptibility, or the defenses of sweet orange against the canker bacteria. We have narrowed down candidate targets to a few, which pointed out the host metabolic pathways explored by the pathogens.
Outbreaks of infectious diseases require a rapid response from policy makers. The choice of an adequate level of response relies upon available knowledge of the spatial and temporal parameters governing pathogen spread, affecting, amongst others, the predicted severity of the epidemic. Yet, when a new pathogen is introduced into an alien environment, such information is often lacking or of no use, and epidemiological parameters must be estimated from the first observations of the epidemic. This poses a challenge to epidemiologists: how quickly can the parameters of an emerging disease be estimated? How soon can the future progress of the epidemic be reliably predicted? We investigate these issues using a unique, spatially and temporally resolved dataset for the invasion of a plant disease, Asiatic citrus canker in urban Miami. We use epidemiological models, Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo, and advanced spatial statistical methods to analyse rates and extent of spread of the disease. A rich and complex epidemic behaviour is revealed. The spatial scale of spread is approximately constant over time and can be estimated rapidly with great precision (although the evidence for long-range transmission is inconclusive). In contrast, the rate of infection is characterised by strong monthly fluctuations that we associate with extreme weather events. Uninformed predictions from the early stages of the epidemic, assuming complete ignorance of the future environmental drivers, fail because of the unpredictable variability of the infection rate. Conversely, predictions improve dramatically if we assume prior knowledge of either the main environmental trend, or the main environmental events. A contrast emerges between the high detail attained by modelling in the spatiotemporal description of the epidemic and the bottleneck imposed on epidemic prediction by the limits of meteorological predictability. We argue that identifying such bottlenecks will be a fundamental step in future modelling of weather-driven epidemics. PMID:24762851
Neri, Franco M; Cook, Alex R; Gibson, Gavin J; Gottwald, Tim R; Gilligan, Christopher A
Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector gene pthA4 or with the distinct yet biologically equivalent gene pthAw from strain XccAw, induces two host genes, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, in a TAL effector-dependent manner. CsLOB1 is a member of the Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors, and CsSWEET1 is a homolog of the SWEET sugar transporter and rice disease susceptibility gene. Both TAL effectors drive expression of CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1 promoter reporter gene fusions when coexpressed in citrus or Nicotiana benthamiana. Artificially designed TAL effectors directed to sequences in the CsLOB1 promoter region, but not the CsSWEET1 promoter, promoted pustule formation and higher bacterial leaf populations. Three additional distinct TAL effector genes, pthA*, pthB, and pthC, also direct pustule formation and expression of CsLOB1. Unlike pthA4 and pthAw, pthB and pthC do not promote the expression of CsSWEET1. CsLOB1 expression was associated with the expression of genes associated with cell expansion. The results indicate that CBC-inciting species of Xanthomonas exploit a single host disease susceptibility gene by altering the expression of an otherwise developmentally regulated gene using any one of a diverse set of TAL effector genes in the pathogen populations.
Hu, Yang; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Hongge; Sosso, Davide; Li, Ting; Frommer, Wolf B.; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F.; Wang, Nian; Jones, Jeffrey B.
Outbreaks of infectious diseases require a rapid response from policy makers. The choice of an adequate level of response relies upon available knowledge of the spatial and temporal parameters governing pathogen spread, affecting, amongst others, the predicted severity of the epidemic. Yet, when a new pathogen is introduced into an alien environment, such information is often lacking or of no use, and epidemiological parameters must be estimated from the first observations of the epidemic. This poses a challenge to epidemiologists: how quickly can the parameters of an emerging disease be estimated? How soon can the future progress of the epidemic be reliably predicted? We investigate these issues using a unique, spatially and temporally resolved dataset for the invasion of a plant disease, Asiatic citrus canker in urban Miami. We use epidemiological models, Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo, and advanced spatial statistical methods to analyse rates and extent of spread of the disease. A rich and complex epidemic behaviour is revealed. The spatial scale of spread is approximately constant over time and can be estimated rapidly with great precision (although the evidence for long-range transmission is inconclusive). In contrast, the rate of infection is characterised by strong monthly fluctuations that we associate with extreme weather events. Uninformed predictions from the early stages of the epidemic, assuming complete ignorance of the future environmental drivers, fail because of the unpredictable variability of the infection rate. Conversely, predictions improve dramatically if we assume prior knowledge of either the main environmental trend, or the main environmental events. A contrast emerges between the high detail attained by modelling in the spatiotemporal description of the epidemic and the bottleneck imposed on epidemic prediction by the limits of meteorological predictability. We argue that identifying such bottlenecks will be a fundamental step in future modelling of weather-driven epidemics.
Neri, Franco M.; Cook, Alex R.; Gibson, Gavin J.; Gottwald, Tim R.; Gilligan, Christopher A.
Disruption of Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Lipid Transfer Protein Gene Altered Cuticular Lipid Composition, Increased Plastoglobules, and Enhanced Susceptibility to Infection by the Fungal Pathogen Alternaria brassicicola1[W
All aerial parts of vascular plants are covered with cuticular waxes, which are synthesized by extensive export of intracellular lipids from epidermal cells to the surface. Although it has been suggested that plant lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are involved in cuticular lipid transport, the in planta evidence is still not clear. In this study, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored LTP (LTPG1) showing higher expression in epidermal peels of stems than in stems was identified from an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome-wide microarray analysis. The expression of LTPG1 was observed in various tissues, including the epidermis, stem cortex, vascular bundles, mesophyll cells, root tips, pollen, and early-developing seeds. LTPG1 was found to be localized in the plasma membrane. Disruption of the LTPG1 gene caused alterations of cuticular lipid composition, but no significant changes on total wax and cutin monomer loads were seen. The largest reduction (10 mass %) in the ltpg1 mutant was observed in the C29 alkane, which is the major component of cuticular waxes in the stems and siliques. The reduced content was overcome by increases of the C29 secondary alcohols and C29 ketone wax loads. The ultrastructure analysis of ltpg1 showed a more diffuse cuticular layer structure, protrusions of the cytoplasm into the vacuole in the epidermis, and an increase of plastoglobules in the stem cortex and leaf mesophyll cells. Furthermore, the ltpg1 mutant was more susceptible to infection by the fungus Alternaria brassicicola than the wild type. Taken together, these results indicated that LTPG1 contributed either directly or indirectly to cuticular lipid accumulation.
Lee, Saet Buyl; Go, Young Sam; Bae, Hyun-Jong; Park, Jong Ho; Cho, Sung Ho; Cho, Hong Joo; Lee, Dong Sook; Park, Ohkmae K.; Hwang, Inhwan; Suh, Mi Chung
Background Specific challenges provide a better understanding of the underlying inflammatory mechanisms in asthma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate and late phase asthmatic response after specific nasal challenge (SNC) in asthmatic patients sensitive to Alternaria. Patients and methods The study population consisted of 15 adult patients with mild, allergic asthma sensitive to Alternaria and two control groups: (I) 8 patients with mild, allergic asthma non-attributed to Alternaria and (II) 7 healthy controls. Two nasal challenge tests were performed, one with normal saline (placebo) and another with Alternaria antigen (SNC) at two different days. FEV1, exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and nasal nitric oxide (nNO) were measured at 18 time points, during the 12-hour time period following nasal provocation tests. Results No immediate reactions were recorded in terms of FEV1, FeNO and nNO both in patients and controls. Significant changes in FEV1 (decline >20% from baseline), in FeNO (increase >50% from baseline) and in nNO (increase >50% from baseline) were recorded in 10 patients (66.7%), in 12 (80%) and in 10 (66.7%) patients out of the 15 asthmatics sensitive to Alternaria respectively. In the above 15 patients the mean decline in FEV1 was 26.02±2.38%, the mean increase in FeNO was 113.69±24.07% and the mean increase in nNO was 91.53±19.90%. The lowest values of FEV1 were measured 9.30±1.77 hours after SNC, the highest values of FeNO were measured 10.00±1.53 hours and the highest values of nNO were measured 11.90±0.32 hours after SNC (P<0.001 compared to both control groups for all three parameters). Strong negative correlation between mean % changes in FEV1 and in FeNO for all 15 patients at the same time point was observed after SNC (R=-0.947, P<0.001). Conclusions SNC induces late phase asthmatic reactions in terms of airway obstruction and inflammation in asthmatics sensitive to Alternaria.
Latsios, Dimitrios; Papakosta, Despina; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Asaridou, Chloe; Kontakioti, Eirini; Gioulekas, Dimitrios; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos
Alternaria blight, caused by Alternaria alternata, is a recent and serious disease of commercially grown Paulownia trees in Western Australia. This study investigated the\\u000a effect of temperature, humidity, wounding and leaf age on lesion development. Temperature had a significant effect on infection,\\u000a with lesion development and expansion observed to increase from 15–25°C, declining between 30 and 37°C. Relative humidity\\u000a (RH)
C. E. Pleysier; K. L. Bayliss; G. E. St. J. Hardy
The potential use of cabbage isothiocyanates to control Alternaria rot in bell pepper was tested. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry found allyl, benzyl, 2-phenylethyl and phenyl isothiocyanates in a ratio of 1:3.5:5.3:9.6, respectively, in cabbage leaves. The same proportion was used to prepare an isothiocyanate mixture from reagent grade isothiocyanates (MCIT) to test the effect on Alternaria alternata
R. Troncoso; C. Espinoza; A. Sánchez-Estrada; M. E. Tiznado; Hugo S. García
Bacterial canker caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is known to cause significant economic losses to tomato production worldwide. Biological control has been proposed as an alternative to current chemical containment methods, which are often inefficient and may leave adverse effects on the environment. However, only little headway has so far been made in developing biocontrol strategies against C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the antagonistic capacity of PCA, produced by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM223, and DAPG and HCN, both produced by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300, on C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis under in vitro and in planta conditions. Nonsynthesizing isogenic mutants of the producer strains were also developed to further dissect the role of each individual metabolite on C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis biological control. Novel specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction TaqMan assays allowed quantification of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomato plants and rhizospheric soil. Pseudomonas spp. LBUM223 and LBUM300 significantly repressed C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis growth in vitro, while their respective nonproducing mutants showed less or no significant antagonistic activity. In planta, only Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 was capable of significantly reducing disease development and C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis rhizospheric population, suggesting that the production of both DAPG and HCN was involved. In summary, simultaneous DAPG/HCN production by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 shows great potential for controlling bacterial canker of tomato. PMID:22713078
Lanteigne, Carine; Gadkar, Vijay J; Wallon, Thérèse; Novinscak, Amy; Filion, Martin
Sunflower (Heliantus annuus) is an important crop in the economy of Argentina due to its high production and demand from domestic and export markets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of Alternaria species and its mycotoxins in ensiled sunflower seeds. The sampling was carried out in three periods: at the beginning of ensiling, on the second month and finally on the fourth month. The mycological analysis was made with disinfected seeds, cultured on Dichloran-Rose Bengal-Chloramphenicol (DRBC) and Dichloran-Chloramphenicol-Malt Extract-Agar (DCMA). The toxins were analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). A alternata was the main fungal species isolated. The incidence of Alternaria species and the levels of alternariol and tenuazonic acid decreased as the time of ensiling increased. Alternariol monomethyl ether was detected in two samples from the second and third sampling periods. PMID:9086455
Dacero, A M; Combina, M; Etcheverry, M; Varsavsky, E; Rodriguez, M I
One hundred thirty-seven single-conidium isolates of Alternaria longipes were tested for pathogenicity to tobacco leaves and for toxicity to 1-day-old chicks. Of 58 isolates pathogenic to tobacco, 43 (74.3%) had a significant effect on test chicks. Of 79 nonpathogenic isolates, 59 (74.7%) were nontoxic, 7 were toxic, and 13 were lethal. A relationship between pathogenicity and toxicity is suggested. PMID:5062883
Sobers, E K; Doupnik, B
A total of 48 strains were isolated from the normal tissues of Malus halliana and the EtOAc extracts of their cultures were subjected to primary antimicrobial screening against four test bacteria and\\u000a three fungi. As a result, 22 strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one test microbe. Among them, Alternaria brassicicola ML-P08 showing strong activity (MICs: 0.31–2.50 mg\\/ml) was selected
The cutinase CUTAB1 was cloned from a cutin induced culture of Alternaria brassicicola and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris under the control of the methanol-inducible AOX1 promoter. From a 400-ml culture, 36 mg of purified recombinant enzyme were obtained. Biochemical characterization revealed\\u000a highest catalytic activity of the enzyme at 40°C and pH 7-9 using p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP) as substrate. Among several fatty
Katja Koschorreck; Danni Liu; Christian Kazenwadel; Rolf D. Schmid; Bernhard Hauer
In most production areas, Alternaria leaf blight (ALB) is recognized as the most common and destructive foliage disease in carrot. To assess the genetic architecture\\u000a of carrot ALB resistance, two parental coupling maps were developed with similar number of dominant markers (around 70), sizes\\u000a (around 650 cM), densities (around 9.5 cM), and marker composition. The F2:3 progenies were evaluated in field and
Valérie Le Clerc; Anna Pawelec; Christelle Birolleau-Touchard; Anita Suel; Mathilde Briard
Very little information is currently available concerning the pathogenic determinants produced by Alternaria brassicae, the causal agent of the blackspot disease of crucifers. We screened a genomic library of this fungus and identified a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene named AbrePsy1. The complete coding sequence is 22 kbp long and encodes a large protein (792 kDa) showing typical NRPS modular organization. Structural
Thomas Guillemette; Adnane Sellam; Philippe Simoneau
A bioassay system was developed to test the effects of volatile compounds on the growth of hyphae from germinating fungal spores. Volatiles from crushed tomato leaves inhibited hyphal growth of two fungal pathogens,Alternaria alternata andBotrytis cinerea. Aldehydes, including C6 and C9 compounds formed by the lipoxygenase enzyme pathway upon wounding leaves, inhibited growth of both fungal species. Terpene hydrocarbons, 2-carene
T. R. Hamilton-Kemp; J. H. Loughrin; R. A. Andersen; D. F. Hildebrand
related to environmental factors[1-6]. The major meteorological factors which lead to the occurrence and epidemic of Alternaria alternate (Fries) Keissler are humidity and temperature [7-12]. In general, the disease index(June, at the stage of fixed disease index) can be forecasted with the real weather during the early growing stage of tabacco (April and May at Southern Hunan), and the forecasting
Ai-ping Zeng; Yang Liu; Zhi-cheng Zhou; Yong-nian Chen; Ri-sheng Hu; Jian-zhong Long; Xiao-yi Li; Chun-e Wu
The risk of introduction of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) to new, unaffected citrus producing areas is a major concern for those citrus industries attempting to remain free of citrus canker. Citrus fruit, as a potential pathway for Xcc to enter and become established in these areas, are assumed to be a risk. However, there is little information relative to
T. Gottwald; J. Graham; C. Bock; G. Bonn; E. Civerolo; M. Irey; R. Leite; G. McCollum; P. Parker; J. Ramallo; T. Riley; T. Schubert; B. Stein; E. Taylor
The phytoalexin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant pad3-1, which is affected in the production of the indole-type phytoalexin camalexin, has previously been shown not to display altered susceptibility to either the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae (Glazebrook & Ausubel 1994; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 91: 8955-8959) or the biotrophic fungi Peronospora parasitica (Glazebrook et al. 1997; Genetics, 146: 381-392) and Erysiphe orontii (Reuber et al. 1998; Plant J. 16: 473-485). We now show that this mutant is markedly more susceptible than its wild-type parental line to infection by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola, but not to Botrytis cinerea. A strong camalexin response was elicited in wild-type plants inoculated with either Alternaria brassicicola or Botrytis cinerea, whereas no camalexin could be detected in pad3-1 challenged with these fungi. Hence, PAD3 appears to be a key determinant in resistance to at least A. brassicicola. The induction of salicylate-dependent and jasmonate/ethylene-dependent defense genes was not reduced in Alternaria-challenged pad3-1 plants compared to similarly treated wild-type plants. Camalexin production could not be triggered by exogenous application of either salicylate, ethylene or jasmonate and was not, or not strongly, reduced in mutants with defects in perception of these defense-related signal molecules. Camalexin-production appears to be controlled by a pathway that exhibits little cross-talk with salicylate-, ethylene- and jasmonate-dependent signalling events. PMID:10476063
Thomma, B P; Nelissen, I; Eggermont, K; Broekaert, W F
Once recommended by clinicians to the allergy sufferer as a refuge due to its healthful arid climate, Tucson is now noted for its incidence of asthma which if two to three times higher than the nation as a whole. This increase in asthma incidence has been attributed in part to a 10-fold increase in atmospheric pollen over the years due to the widespread use of high pollen-producing shade and ornamental trees. Data obtained by Durham slide sampler also reveal a five-to-tenfold increase in numbers of Alternaria (Alt) spores in Tucson over the last 20 years. This may be linked to the increasing numbers of certain pollen producing plants which may serve as the substrate for the mold. Relationships appear to exist between Alternaria frequency and numerous climatic conditions such as precipitation, average monthly relative humidity, average monthly temperature and incident radiation. Because of these relationships the frequency of Alternaria may be predictable on a daily, seasonal and yearly basis. PMID:7192959
Sneller, M R; Hayes, H D; Pinnas, J L
A rule-based model was developed to assess climatic risk of European canker (Neonectria galligena), which is a major disease of apple in some temperate zones. A descriptive rule was derived from published observations on climatic conditions favorable for European canker development. Fuzzy set theory was used to evaluate the descriptive rule quantitatively. The amount and frequency of rainfall and the average number of hours between 11 and 16°C/day were used as input variables whose values were matched with terms in the rule, e.g., 'high' or 'low'. The degree of a term, e.g., the state of being high or low, to a given input value was determined using a membership function that converts an input value to a number between 0 and 1. The rule was evaluated by combining the degree of the terms associated with monthly climate data. Monthly risk index values derived using the rule were combined for pairs of consecutive months over 12 months. The annual risk of European canker development was represented by the maximum risk index value for 2 months combined. The membership function parameters were adjusted iteratively to achieve a specified level of risk at Talca (Chile), Loughgall (Northern Ireland), East Malling (UK), and Sebastopol (USA), where European canker risk was known. The rule-based model was validated with data collected from Canada, Ecuador, Denmark, Germany, Norway, Poland, Sweden, the Netherlands, New Zealand, and the Pacific Northwest (USA), where European canker has been reported to occur. In these validation areas, the model's risk prediction agreed with reports of disease occurrence. The rule-based model also predicted high risk areas more reliably than the climate matching model, CLIMEX, which relies on correlations between the spatial distribution of a species and climatic conditions. The combination of a climatic rule and fuzzy sets could be used for other applications where prediction of the geographic distribution of organisms is required for climatic risk assessment. PMID:21809979
Kim, Kwang Soo; Beresford, Robert M
A study was made of the daily content of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores in the atmosphere in Palencia city (Spain) for three consecutive years 1990 1992. Alternaria and Cladosporium represented 55% of the total identified spores, presenting an annual distributional pattern of which the maximum values were reached in summer. Multiple regression analyses showed a positive correlation between minimum temperature and Cladosporium spore concentrations, while for Alternaria there was a positive correlation with maximum temperature and a negative correlation with precipitation. Duncan's multiple range test among means of Alternaria data indicated that winds coming from a northeasterly direction were associated with significantly higher concentrations the spores.
Herrero, B.; Fombella-Blanco, M. A.; Fernández-González, D.; Valencia-Barrera, R. M.
Alternaria is a fungal agent of grape bunch rot which occurs during withering, a process which produces passito style wines. Seven isolates of Alternaria spp. were characterized using morphological examination, genotypic analysis and pathogenicity. Six of these isolates produced conidiophores and conidia displaying sporulation patterns typical of the Alternaria alternata species-group. Variability in colony morphology and growth on different media was observed. Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences clustered all isolates within a monophyletic clade, while intergenic spacer region (IGS)-RFLP profiles were congruent with those of A. alternata and Alternaria arborescens. RAPD-PCR proved helpful in discriminating between strains. To assay strain pathogenicity, grape berries were infected while undergoing withering conditions at different temperatures. Disease capacity was found to be strain dependent and varied consistently between the most and least aggressive strains. This study has provided interesting information on polymorphism within Alternaria spp. populations in withered grapes and on understanding the saprophytic role of this fungus during the post-harvest dehydrating process. PMID:24974273
Lorenzini, Marilinda; Zapparoli, Giacomo
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is the phytopathogen responsible for citrus canker, one of the most devastating citrus diseases in the world. A broad range of pathogens is recognized by plants through so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are highly conserved fragments of pathogenic molecules. In plant pathogenic bacteria, lipopolisaccharyde (LPS) is considered a virulence factor and it is being recognized as a PAMP. The study of the participation of Xac LPS in citrus canker establishment could help to understand the molecular bases of this disease. In the present work we investigated the role of Xac LPS in bacterial virulence and in basal defense during the interaction with host and non host plants. We analyzed physiological features of Xac mutants in LPS biosynthesis genes (wzt and rfb303) and the effect of these mutations on the interaction with orange and tobacco plants. Xac mutants showed an increased sensitivity to external stresses and differences in bacterial motilities, in vivo and in vitro adhesion and biofilm formation. Changes in the expression levels of the LPS biosynthesis genes were observed in a medium that mimics the plant environment. Xacwzt exhibited reduced virulence in host plants compared to Xac wild-type and Xacrfb303. However, both mutant strains produced a lower increase in the expression levels of host plant defense-related genes respect to the parental strain. In addition, Xac LPS mutants were not able to generate HR during the incompatible interaction with tobacco plants. Our findings indicate that the structural modifications of Xac LPS impinge on other physiological attributes and lead to a reduction in bacterial virulence. On the other hand, Xac LPS has a role in the activation of basal defense in host and non host plants.
Petrocelli, Silvana; Tondo, Maria Laura; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Orellano, Elena G.
Thousand cankers disease, caused by the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) and an associated fungal pathogen (Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarík, E. Freeland, C. Utley, and N. Tisserat), threatens the health and commercial use of eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), one of the most economically valuable tree species in the United States. Effective phytosanitary measures are needed to reduce the possibility of spreading this insect and pathogen through wood movement. This study evaluated the efficacy of heat treatments and debarking to eliminate P. juglandis and C. morbida in J. nigra logs 4-18 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length. Infested logs were steam heated until various outer sapwood temperatures (60, 65, and 70 degrees C in 2011; 36, 42, 48, 52, and 56 degrees C in 2012) were maintained or exceeded for 30-40 min. In 2011, all heat treatments eliminated G. morbida from the bark, but logs were insufficiently colonized by P. juglandis to draw conclusions about treatment effects on the beetle. Debarking did not ensure elimination of the pathogen from the sapwood surface. In 2012, there was a negative effect of increasing temperature on P. juglandis emergence and G. morbida recovery. G. morbida did not survive in logs exposed to treatments in which minimum temperatures were 48 degrees C or higher, and mean P. juglandis emergence decreased steadily to zero as treatment minimum temperature increased from 36 to 52 degrees C. A minimum outer sapwood temperature of 56 degrees C maintained for 40 min is effective for eliminating the thousand cankers disease vector and pathogen from walnut logs, and the current heat treatment schedule for the emerald ash borer (60 degrees C core temperature for 60 min) is more than adequate for treating P. juglandis and G. morbida in walnut firewood. PMID:24665700
Mayfield, A E; Fraedrich, S W; Taylor, A; Merten, P; Myers, S W
The alkaloid holarrifine-24ol isolated from the stem bark of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Wall.) was screened for its antibacterial and antifungal activity against ten pathogenic bacteria viz., Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, B. megaterium, Escherichia coli, INAVA ET(Vibrio), Shigella dysenteriae, S. sonnei, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas mutabilis and six phyto-pathogenic fungi viz., Alternaria alternata, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium equiseti, Macrophomina phaseolina,
SHAFIQUR RAMAN; NASIM SULTANA; M. N. ANWAR
Background Alternaria is one of the most common molds associated with allergic diseases and 80% of Alternaria-sensitive patients produce IgE antibodies to a major protein allergen, Alt a 1. The structure and function of Alt a 1 is unknown. Objective To obtain a high resolution structure of Alt a 1 by X-ray crystallography and to investigate structural relationships between Alt a 1 and other allergens and proteins reported in the Protein Data Bank. Methods X-ray crystallography was used to determine the structure of Alt a 1 using a custom-designed set of crystallization conditions. An initial Alt a 1 model was determined by the application of a Ta6Br122+ cluster and Single-wavelength Anomalous Diffraction. Bioinformatic analyses were used to compare the Alt a 1 sequence and structure with other proteins. Results Alt a 1 is a unique ?-barrel comprising 11 ?-strands and forms a ‘butterfly-like’ dimer linked by a single disulfide bond, with a large (1345Å2) dimer interface. Intramolecular disulfide bonds are conserved among Alt a 1 homologs. Currently, the Alt a 1 structure has no equivalent in the Protein Data Bank. Bioinformatics analyses suggest that the structure is found exclusively in fungi. Four previously reported putative IgE binding peptides have been located on the Alt a 1 structure. Conclusions Alt a 1 has a unique, dimeric ?-barrel structure that appears to define a new protein family with unknown function found exclusively in fungi. The location of IgE antibody binding epitopes is in agreement with the structural analysis of Alt a 1.The Alt a 1 structure will allow mechanistic structure/function studies and immunologic studies directed towards new forms of immunotherapy for Alternaria-sensitive allergic patients.
Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Chapman, Martin D.; Osinski, Tomasz; Solberg, Robert; Demas, Matthew; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Pomes, Anna; Minor, Wladek
Thepresent study discusses the frequency distribution and genetic diversity of novel fungal endopyte Alternaria alternata within the Pongammia pinnata plant samples. A total of ten plant samples of Pongammia pinnata, Pierre. (Karanja) were collected from specific locations of Sanganer region of Rajasthan for the isolation of fungal endophytes. Of these, maximum frequency of Alternaria alternata (22.29%) were recorded which are morphologically similar but ecologically variant. Efficacy of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), were assessed in seventeen individuals of the primers was GCC 180 where as 10 bands were generated by GCC 181. The similarity coefficient matrix generated for the primers was subjected to algorithm UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method Analysis) and clusters were generated using NTSYS 2.02 pc program. To stabilize the level of relatedness among the seventeen ecologically variant Alternaria alternata accessions, the dendrogram was constructed, which showed that all the isolates were diversified endophytically with in the plant Pongamia pinnata. PMID:24502162
A new tricycloalternarene derivative, named tricycloalternarenal (1), together with three known compounds was isolated from the cultures of Alternaria alternata, an endophytic fungus in the leaves of the plant Maytenus hooker! (Celastraceae). Structure of 1 was established as (2E)-6-(3, 3a, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 9a-octahydro-5-hydroxy-3a-methyl-8-oxo-cyclo-penta[b]chromen-1-yl)-2-methylhept-2-enal by spectroscopic methods, including 2D-NMR experiments. The remaining compounds were determined as tricycloalternarene-3b (2), alterperylenol (3), and dihydroalterperylenol (4). PMID:17647213
Qiao, Li-Rui; Yuan, Lin; Gao, Jin-Ming; Zhao, Pei-Ji; Kang, Qian-Jin; Shen, Yue-Mao
The species Trichoderma harzianum was analyzed as possible biocontrol agent of Alternaria alternata under different environmental conditions (water activity and temperature). The strains were analyzed macroscopically to obtain the Index of Dominance. The analysis was completed using two microscopic techniques. T. harzianum showed dominance on contact over A. alternata at all testing temperatures and water activities tested except at 0.95 a(w) and 15 degrees C, at which T. harzianum inhibited A. alternata at a distance. Biocontrol was governed by different mechanisms such as competition for space and nutrients, mycoparasitism, and possible antibiosis. Temperature and water activity significantly influenced fungal growth rate. PMID:17356789
Sempere, F; Santamarina, M P
A total of 99 strains of 11 Alternaria species, including 68 strains of seven fungi known to produce host-specific toxins, were subjected to analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Total DNA was digested with XbaI, and the Southern blots were probed with a nuclear rDNA clone of Alternaria kikuchiana. The hybridization gave 17 different RFLPs from the 99 strains. On the basis of these RFLPs, populations of host-specific toxin-producing fungi could not be differentiated from one another nor from nonpathogenic A. alternata. Each population of the toxin-producing fungi carried rDNA variants. Nine different types, named A1 to A6 and B1 to B3, were detected among the toxin-producing fungi and nonpathogenic A. alternata. All of the populations contained the type A4 variant, and the other rDNA types were also shared by different toxin-producing fungi and A. alternata. In contrast, Alternaria species that are morphologically distinguishable from A. alternata could be differentiated from A. alternata on the basis of the rDNA RFLPs. Polymorphisms in rDNA digested with HaeIII and MspI were also evaluated in 61 Alternaria strains. These restriction enzymes produced 31 variations among all of the samples. The seven toxin-producing fungi and nonpathogenic A. alternata could not be resolved by phylogenetic analysis based on the RFLPs, although they could be differentiated from the other Alternaria species studied. These results provide support for the hypothesis that Alternaria fungi known to produce host-specific toxins are intraspecific variants of A. alternata specialized in pathogenicity. Images
Kusaba, Motoaki; Tsuge, Takashi
During a survey for pathogens of Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia) in 2009, a novel Fusarium species was isolated from cankers affecting this critically endangered conifer whose current range is restricted to northern Florida and southwestern Georgia. Published multilocus molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated that this pathogen represented a genealogically exclusive, phylogenetically distinct species representing one of the earliest divergences within the Gibberella clade of Fusarium. Furthermore, completion of Koch's postulates established that this novel species was the causal agent of Florida torreya canker disease. Here we formally describe this pathogen as a new species, Fusarium torreyae. Pure cultures of this species produced long and slender multiseptate sporodochial conidia that showed morphological convergence with two distantly related fusaria, reflecting the homoplasious nature of Fusarium conidial morphology. PMID:23099517
Aoki, Takayuki; Smith, Jason A; Mount, Lacey L; Geiser, David M; O'Donnell, Kerry
This resource from ATEEC provides a number of fact sheets on invasive plants, species and conditions which may be printed out or used as presentation material. The plants, species and conditions described here are cheatgrass brome, bamboo reed, butternut canker, dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, Asian cycad scale, crazy ant and red fox. The lesson plan is available for download as a PDF; users must create a free, quick login with ATEEC to access the materials.
Background HC-toxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide, is a virulence determinant for the plant pathogenic fungus Cochliobolus carbonum. It was recently discovered that another fungus, Alternaria jesenskae, also produces HC-toxin. Results The major genes (collectively known as AjTOX2) involved in the biosynthesis of HC-toxin were identified from A. jesenskae by genomic sequencing. The encoded orthologous proteins share 75-85% amino acid identity, and the genes for HC-toxin biosynthesis are duplicated in both fungi. The genomic organization of the genes in the two fungi show a similar but not identical partial clustering arrangement. A set of representative housekeeping proteins show a similar high level of amino acid identity between C. carbonum and A. jesenskae, which is consistent with the close relatedness of these two genera within the family Pleosporaceae (Dothideomycetes). Conclusions This is the first report that the plant virulence factor HC-toxin is made by an organism other than C. carbonum. The genes may have moved by horizontal transfer between the two species, but it cannot be excluded that they were present in a common ancestor and lost from other species of Alternaria and Cochliobolus.
Trichoderma strains were evaluated under field conditions to assay their efficacy in suppressing Alternaria fruit rot disease and promoting chili plant growth. The experiment was conducted at the Botanical Garden, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh from July 2006 to March 2007. Application of Trichoderma harzianum IMI 392432 significantly (p = 0.05) suppressed the disease compared to Alternaria tenuis (T2) treatment and improved both growth and yield. The treatment T4 (T. harzianum IMI-392432 + A. tenuis) was most effective in reducing disease percentage (72.27%) compared to A. tenuis (T1) treatment. The highest seed germination rate (85.56%) and the highest growth and yield (12.5 g/plant) was also recorded in the same treatment (T4), followed by T5 (T. harzianum IMI-392433 000000 + A. tenuis), T6 (T. harzianum IMI-392434 +A. tenuis), T2 (T. virens IMI-392430 + A. tenuis), and T3 (T. pseudokoningii IMI-392431 +A. tenuis) treatment, while single treatment with A. tenuis significantly decreased these values.
Rahman, M. A.; Alam, M. Firoz
Alternaria alternata is a pathogen of the Waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), which is an important weed in the Delta of the Nile. We conducted a survey of this pathogen at different sites in the Delta and isolated 400 strains. The colonization frequency of the pathogen was more than 85% in all tested sites. Isolate A was the most common isolate, while
El-Sayed M. El-Morsy; S. M. EL-Dohlob; K. D. Hyde
The Alternaria and Ulocladium species reported from humans are studied taxonomically using rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data. The ITS variability within the genus is relatively limited. The two most important, longicatenate species, Alternaria alternata and A. infectoria, clearly differ in their ITS domains, due to a 26-bp insert in ITS1 of the latter species. A number of taxa inhabiting particular plant species, such as A. longipes on tobacco and A. mali on apple, but also the common saprobic species A. tenuissima cannot reliably be distinguished from A. alternata using this method. The large number of described noncatenate, obligatory plant pathogens are extremely rare as agents of human disease; clinical routine identification does not need to include these taxa. The predictivity of a simplified polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism procedure of rDNA for the recognition of the relevant species or species aggregates is established in a randomized test. The method was found to be rapid and cost-effective. Its efficacy extended to the identification of sterile and meristematic Alternaria strains, some of them previously classified in genera such as Chmelia and Botryomyces. Microscopic morphology and some additional tests remain necessary to allow identification of the aggregates of potential etiological agents of human disease. About 14% of the sequences deposited in GenBank were found to be misidentified. Alternaria infectoria is one of the most common clinical Alternaria species, despite its low degree of melanization. The lack of pigmentation has frequently led to misidentification of such isolates. PMID:12572714
de Hoog, G S; Horré, R
The effects of different organic acids on Alternaria alternata growth and tenuazonic acid production (TeA) were evaluated. Both TeA pure toxin solution and TeA production in solid medium were considered. Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and sodium propionate, all preservatives commonly used by food industry in Argentina, were tested. TeA was stable as pure toxin solution when was treated with the salts of organic acids used. A differential effect was observed when the preservatives were evaluated in relation to A. alternata growth and TeA production in solid medium. Levels above 10 mg/kg of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate produced a total inhibition of fungal development and toxin biosynthesis. Sodium propionate produced a 59% decrease in A. alternata growth and total inhibition of TeA production only at the highest concentration of preservatives used. PMID:10755134
Combina, M; Dalcero, A M; Varsavsky, E; Chulze, S
Three new resveratrol derivatives, namely, resveratrodehydes A-C (1-3), were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All compounds showed broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against three human cancer cell lines including human breast MDA-MB-435, human liver HepG2, and human colon HCT-116 by MTT assay (IC50 < 50 ?M). Among them, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibited marked cytotoxic activities against MDA-MB-435 and HCT-116 cell lines (IC50 < 10 ?M). Additionally, compounds 1 and 3 showed moderate antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay. PMID:24828291
Wang, Jinhua; Cox, Daniel G; Ding, Weijia; Huang, Guanghao; Lin, Yongcheng; Li, Chunyuan
Three new resveratrol derivatives, namely, resveratrodehydes A–C (1–3), were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. All compounds showed broad-spectrum inhibitory activities against three human cancer cell lines including human breast MDA-MB-435, human liver HepG2, and human colon HCT-116 by MTT assay (IC50 < 50 ?M). Among them, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibited marked cytotoxic activities against MDA-MB-435 and HCT-116 cell lines (IC50 < 10 ?M). Additionally, compounds 1 and 3 showed moderate antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging assay.
Wang, Jinhua; Cox, Daniel G.; Ding, Weijia; Huang, Guanghao; Lin, Yongcheng; Li, Chunyuan
The metabolism of the phytoalexins camalexin (1), 1-methylcamalexin (10) and 6-methoxycamalexin (11) by Alternaria brassicicola and their antifungal activity is reported. This work establishes that camalexins are slowly biotransformed (ca. six days) to the corresponding indole-3-thiocarboxamides, which are further transformed to the indole-3-carboxylic acids. These metabolites are substantially less inhibitory to A. brassicicola than the parent camalexins, indicating that these enzyme-mediated transformations are detoxifications. In addition, analyses of the metabolism of synthetic isomers and bioisosteres of camalexin (1) indicate that isomers of camalexin in the thiazole ring are not metabolized. Based on these results, the potential intermediates that lead to formation of indole-3-thiocarboxamides are proposed. PMID:23773956
Pedras, M Soledade C; Abdoli, Abbas
In addition to basal defense mechanisms, plants are able to develop enhanced defense mechanisms such as induced resistance (IR) upon appropriate stimulation. We recently described the means by which several carboxylic acids protect Arabidopsis and tomato plants against fungi. In this work, we demonstrate the effectiveness of hexanoic acid (Hx) in the control of Alternaria brown spot (ABS) disease via enhancement of the immune system of Fortune mandarin. The application of 1mM Hx in irrigation water to 2-year-old Fortune plants clearly reduced the incidence of the disease and led to smaller lesions. We observed that several of the most important mechanisms involved in induced resistance were affected by Hx application. Our results demonstrate enhanced callose deposition in infected plants treated with Hx, which suggests an Hx priming mechanism. Plants treated with the callose inhibitor 2-DDG were more susceptible to the fungus. Moreover, polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) gene expression was rapidly and significantly upregulated in treated plants. However, treatment with Hx decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in infected plants. Hormonal and gene analyses revealed that the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway was activated due to a greater accumulation of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and JA along with a rapid accumulation of JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile). Furthermore, we observed a more rapid accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), which could act as a positive regulator of callose deposition. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that both enhanced physical barriers and the JA signaling pathway are involved in hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) to Alternaria alternata. PMID:23260526
Llorens, Eugenio; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Vicedo, Begonya; Lapeña, Leonor; García-Agustín, Pilar
To identify the substrates and enzymes related to resveratrol biosynthesis in Alternaria sp. MG1, different substrates were used to produce resveratrol, and their influence on resveratrol production was analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Formation of resveratrol and related intermediates was identified using mass spectrum. During the biotransformation, activities of related enzymes, including phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), trans-cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H), and 4-coumarate-CoA ligase (4CL), were analyzed and tracked. The reaction system contained 100 mL 0.2 mol/L phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), 120 g/L Alternaria sp. MG1 cells, 0.1 g/L MgSO?, and 0.2 g/L CaSO? and different substrates according to the experimental design. The biotransformation was carried out for 21 h at 28 °C and 120 rpm. Resveratrol formation was identified when phenylalanine, tyrosine, cinnamic acid, and p-coumaric acid were separately used as the only substrate. Accumulation of cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, and resveratrol and the activities of PAL, C4H, and 4CL were identified and changed in different trends during transformation with phenylalanine as the only substrate. The addition of carbohydrates and the increase of phenylalanine concentration promoted resveratrol production and yielded the highest value (4.57 ?g/L) when 2 g/L glucose, 1 g/L cyclodextrin, and phenylalanine (4.7 mmol/L) were used simultaneously. PMID:24068334
Zhang, Jinhua; Shi, Junling; Liu, Yanlin
ABSTRACT The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata produces a host-selective toxin (HST), known as ACT-toxin, and causes Alternaria brown spot disease of citrus. The structure of ACT-toxin is closely related to AK- and AF-toxins, which are HSTs produced by the Japanese pear and strawberry pathotypes of A. alternata, respectively. AC-, AK-, and AF-toxins are chemically similar and share a 9,10-epoxy-8-hydroxy-9-methyl-decatrienoic acid moiety. Two genes controlling AK-toxin biosynthesis (AKT1 and AKT2) were recently cloned from the Japanese pear pathotype of A. alternata. Portions of these genes were used as heterologous probes in Southern blots, that detected homologs in 13 isolates of A. alternata tangerine pathotype from Minneola tangelo in Florida. Partial sequencing of the homologs in one of these isolates demonstrated high sequence similarity to AKT1 (89.8%) and to AKT2 (90.7%). AKT homologs were not detected in nine isolates of A. alternata from rough lemon, six isolates of nonpathogenic A. alternata, and one isolate of A. citri that causes citrus black rot. The presence of homologs in the Minneola isolates and not in the rough lemon isolates, nonpathogens or black rot isolates, correlates perfectly to pathogenicity on Iyo tangerine and ACT-toxin production. Functionality of the homologs was demonstrated by detection of transcripts using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in total RNA of the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata. The high sequence similarity of AKT and AKT homologs in the tangerine patho-type, combined with the structural similarity of AK-toxin and ACT-toxin, may indicate that these homologs are involved in the biosynthesis of the decatrienoic acid moiety of ACT-toxin. PMID:18944496
Masunaka, A; Tanaka, A; Tsuge, T; Peever, T L; Timmer, L W; Yamamoto, M; Yamamoto, H; Akimitsu, K
There are many groups and organizations in the United States working to encourage young people to enter STEM-related careers, and this website represents one of those endeavors. The STEM Career website was created by Professor Rich Feller of Colorado State University to help encourage young people to select just such a career path. The website contains updates on STEM career possibilities, and basic answers to questions like "Why STEM?" and "Why STEM Centric Career Development?" Visitors should also scan through the "STEM Disciplines" area on the homepage, as it contains resources about the job outlook for related STEM disciplines, such as biochemical engineering and engineering managers. Moving on, the site also features news updates from Professor Feller and his colleagues on subjects that include the ways in which corporations are promoting STEM education and women in STEM.
Intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. One emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease first occurred in China and Japan in the 1980s and in Korea and Italy in the 1990s. A more severe form of the disease broke out in Italy in 2008 and in additional countries in 2010 and 2011 threatening the viability of the global kiwi fruit industry. To start investigating the source and routes of international transmission of PSA, genomes of strains from China (the country of origin of the genus Actinidia), Japan, Korea, Italy and Portugal have been sequenced. Strains from China, Italy, and Portugal have been found to belong to the same clonal lineage with only 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,453,192 bp and one genomic island distinguishing the Chinese strains from the European strains. Not more than two SNPs distinguish each of the Italian and Portuguese strains from each other. The Japanese and Korean strains belong to a separate genetic lineage as previously reported. Analysis of additional European isolates and of New Zealand isolates exploiting genome-derived markers showed that these strains belong to the same lineage as the Italian and Chinese strains. Interestingly, the analyzed New Zealand strains are identical to European strains at the tested SNP loci but test positive for the genomic island present in the sequenced Chinese strains and negative for the genomic island present in the European strains. Results are interpreted in regard to the possible direction of movement of the pathogen between countries and suggest a possible Chinese origin of the European and New Zealand outbreaks.
Taratufolo, Maria C.; Cai, Rongman; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Goodman, Tokia; Guttman, David S.; Vinatzer, Boris A.; Balestra, Giorgio M.
A recently emerged plant disease, bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis), is caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease was first reported in China and Japan in the 1980s. A severe outbreak of PSA began in Italy in 2008 and has spread to other European countries. PSA was found in both New Zealand and Chile in 2010. To study the evolution of the pathogen and analyse the transmission of PSA between countries, genomes of strains from China and Japan (where the genus Actinidia is endemic), Italy, New Zealand and Chile were sequenced. The genomes of PSA strains are very similar. However, all strains from New Zealand share several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that distinguish them from all other PSA strains. Similarly, all the PSA strains from the 2008 Italian outbreak form a distinct clonal group and those from Chile form a third group. In addition to the rare SNPs present in the core genomes, there is abundant genetic diversity in a genomic island that is part of the accessory genome. The island from several Chinese strains is almost identical to the island present in the New Zealand strains. The island from a different Chinese strain is identical to the island present in the strains from the recent Italian outbreak. The Chilean strains of PSA carry a third variant of this island. These genomic islands are integrative conjugative elements (ICEs). Sequencing of these ICEs provides evidence of three recent horizontal transmissions of ICE from other strains of Pseudomonas syringae to PSA. The analyses of the core genome SNPs and the ICEs, combined with disease history, all support the hypothesis of an independent Chinese origin for both the Italian and the New Zealand outbreaks and suggest the Chilean strains also originate from China.
Butler, Margi I.; Stockwell, Peter A.; Black, Michael A.; Day, Robert C.; Lamont, Iain L.; Poulter, Russell T. M.
Between 1994 and 2003, employment in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields grew by a remarkable 23 percent, compared with 17 percent in non-STEM fields, according to federal data. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts continued strong growth in STEM job openings through 2014, with emphasis on life sciences, environmental…
The main crop of the A Limia region is the potato, with an average production of 5 million kilos per year, under the protected geographic indication (IGP)\\u000a Pataca de Galicia (Galician potato) label recognized by the European Community. Alternaria represents an important part of the pathogenic fungus spectra on this crop, representing an average of 1.9–3.1% of the spores\\u000a collected. It
I. Iglesias; F. J. Rodríguez-Rajo; J. Méndez
Plant responses to elevated CO2 and temperature have been much studied in recent years, but effects of climate change on pathological responses are still largely unknown. The pathosystems rocket (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa)--Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria japonica) and basil (Ocimum basilicum)--black spot (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) were chosen as models to assess the potential impact of increased CO2 and temperature on disease incidence and severity under controlled environment. Potted plants were grown in phytotrons under 4 different simulated climatic conditions: (1) standard temperature (ranging from 18 degrees to 22 degrees C) and standard CO2 concentration (400 ppm); (2) standard temperature and elevated CO2 concentration (800 ppm); (3) elevated temperature (ranging from 22 degrees to 26 degrees C, 4 degrees C higher than standard) and standard CO2 concentration; (4) elevated temperature and CO2 concentration. Each plant was inoculated with a spore suspension containing 1 x 10(5) cfu/ml of the pathogen. Disease incidence and severity were assessed 14 days after inoculation. Increasing CO2 to 800 ppm showed a clear increment in the percentage of Alternaria leaf spot on rocket leaves compared to standard conditions. Basil plants grown at 800 ppm of CO2 showed increased black spot symptoms compared to 400 ppm. Disease incidence and severity were always influenced by the combination of rising CO2 and increased temperature, compared to standard conditions (400 ppm of CO2 - 22 degrees C). Considering the rising concentrations of CO2 and global temperature, we can assume that this could increase the severity of Alternaria japonica on rocket and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides on basil. PMID:23878979
Pugliese, M; Cogliati, E; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A
Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia was used as a host in order to investigate the involvement of MAP kinase machinery in the pathogenesis of Alternaria blight. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real time PCR based approaches were used to determine the change in transcript profile of MAP2K9 and MAPK6 in leaves of A. thaliana ecotpe Columbia at early, middle and late stages of Alternaria blight infection. It was observed that the expression of both MAP2K9 and MAPK6 simultaneously increased up to middle stage of disease progression. There was observed a positive correlation between the expression of MAPK6 and MAP2K9 as disease progressed from initial to middle stage of infection. Then, the expression of MAP2K9 decreased and that of MAPK6 increased as disease progressed towards late stage of infection. The increased levels of MAP2K9 and MAPK6, seem to be necessary for plant to defend the pathogen up to middle stage of infection. However, MAP2K9 may be down regulated at late stage of infection by pathogen to promote it's efficient colonization. Since MAPK6 expression remains unaltered till late stage, it suggests that it's expression is not only regulated by MAP2K9 but also by other MAP2K's. The above results are consistent with observations of earlier studies. In conclusion, the present study has suggested MAP2K9/MAPK6 module as possible target, which is influenced during pathogenesis of Alternaria blight in A. thaliana ecotype Columbia. Hence genetic modulation in expression levels of these components in Arabidopsis or Brassica could be a possible strategy for engineering defense against Alternaria blight disease. PMID:21947882
Kannan, P; Pandey, Dinesh; Gupta, Atul K; Punetha, H; Taj, Gohar; Kumar, Anil
Exposure and sensitivity to ubiquitous airborne fungi such as Alternaria alternata have long been implicated in the development, onset, and exacerbation of chronic allergic airway disorders. This present study is the first to investigate global changes in host gene expression during the interaction of cultured human bronchial epithelial cells and live Alternaria spores. In in vitro experiments human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to spores or media alone for 24 h. RNA was collected from three biological replicates per treatment and was used to assess changes in gene expression patterns using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays. In cells treated with Alternaria spores compared to controls, 613 probe sets representing 460 individual genes were found differentially expressed (p ? 0.05). In this set of 460 statistically significant, differentially expressed genes, 397 genes were found to be up-regulated and 63 were down-regulated. Of these 397 up-regulated genes, 156 genes were found to be up-regulated ?2 fold. Interestingly, none of the 63 down-regulated genes were found differentially expressed at ??2 fold. Differentially expressed genes were identified following statistical analysis and subsequently used for pathway and network evaluation. Interestingly, many cytokine and chemokine immune response genes were up-regulated with a particular emphasis on interferon-inducible genes. Genes involved in cell death, retinoic acid signaling, and TLR3 response pathways were also significantly up-regulated. Many of the differentially up-regulated genes have been shown in other systems to be associated with innate immunity, inflammation and/or allergic airway diseases. This study now provides substantial information for further investigating specific genes and innate immune system pathways activated by Alternaria in the context of allergic airway diseases.
Babiceanu, M. C.; Howard, B. A.; Rumore, A. C.; Kita, H.; Lawrence, C. B.
Alternaria and Cladosporium are two fungal taxa whose spores (conidia) are included frequently in aerobiological studies of outdoor environments. Both spore types are present in the atmosphere of Malaga (Spain) throughout almost the entire year, although they reach their highest concentrations during spring and autumn. To establish predicting variables for daily and weekly fluctuations, Spearman's correlations and stepwise multiple regressions between spore concentrations (measured using a volumetric 7-day recorder) and meteorological variables were made with results obtained for both spore types in 1996 and 1997. Correlations and regressions were also made between the different taxa and their concentrations in different years. Significant and positive correlation coefficients were always obtained between spore concentrations of both taxa, followed by temperature, their concentrations in different years, sunshine hours and relative humidity (this last in a negative sense). For the two spore types we obtained higher correlation and regression coefficients using weekly data. We showed different regression models using weekly values. From the results and a practical point of view, it was concluded that weekly values of the atmospheric concentration of Alternaria spores can be predicted from the maximum temperature expected and its concentrations in the years sampled. As regards the atmospheric concentration of Cladoposrium spores, the weekly values can be predicted based on the concentration of Alternaria spores, thus saving the time and effort that would otherwise be employed in counting them by optical microscopy.
Recio, Marta; del Mar Trigo, María; Docampo, Silvia; Melgar, Marta; García-Sánchez, José; Bootello, Lourdes; Cabezudo, Baltasar
The Arabidopsis thaliana secretome was analyzed by the proteomic approach, which led to the identification of secreted proteins implicated in many aspects of cell biology. We then investigated the change in the Arabidopsis secretome in response to salicylic acid and identified several proteins involved in pathogen response. One of these, a secreted lipase with a GDSL-like motif designated GDSL LIPASE1 (GLIP1), was further characterized for its function in disease resistance. glip1 plants were markedly more susceptible to infection by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola compared with the parental wild-type plants. The recombinant GLIP1 protein possessed lipase and antimicrobial activities that directly disrupt fungal spore integrity. Furthermore, GLIP1 appeared to trigger systemic resistance signaling in plants when challenged with A. brassicicola, because pretreatment of the glip1 mutant with recombinant GLIP1 protein inhibited A. brassicicola–induced cell death in both peripheral and distal leaves. Moreover, glip1 showed altered expression of defense- and ethylene-related genes. GLIP1 transcription was increased by ethephon, the ethylene releaser, but not by salicylic acid or jasmonic acid. These results suggest that GLIP1, in association with ethylene signaling, may be a critical component in plant resistance to A. brassicicola.
Oh, Il Seok; Park, Ae Ran; Bae, Min Seok; Kwon, Sun Jae; Kim, Young Soon; Lee, Ji Eun; Kang, Na Young; Lee, Sumin; Cheong, Hyeonsook; Park, Ohkmae K.
Allergies affect almost 25% of the population in industrialized countries. Alternaria alternata is known to be a significant source of aeroallergens and sensitization to this mold is a risk factor for the development of wheezing, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Diagnosis and treatment of allergies requires the production of large amounts of pure and well defined protein. Yarrowia lipolytica, a non-pathogenic ascomycete able to secrete high levels of enzymes that can grow in inexpensive substrates, has been considered a useful host for heterologous gene expression. In the present work, we have developed two vectors for expressing Alt a 1, the most relevant A. alternata allergen, in Y. lipolytica. One vector is autosomal and one is integrative. With both systems, rAlt a 1 was secreted into the culture medium. The immunological characteristics of the purified recombinant allergen were determined by IgE-blot using sera from 42 A. alternata-allergic patients. We have carried out ELISA-inhibition experiments using sera from four patients to compare the IgE-binding capacity of natural and recombinant allergens. Our results show that Y. lipolytica is able to produce a recombinant Alt a 1 which is immunochemically equivalent to the natural counterpart and could be used for immunotherapy and diagnostics. PMID:22640235
Morín, Matías; Asturias, Juan A; Domínguez, Angel
Fungal spores are known to cause allergic sensitization. Recent studies reported a strong association between asthma symptoms and thunderstorms that could be explained by an increase in airborne fungal spore concentrations. Just before and during thunderstorms the values of meteorological parameters rapidly change. Therefore, the goal of this study was to create a predictive model for hourly concentrations of atmospheric Alternaria and Cladosporium spores on days with summer storms in Szczecin (Poland) based on meteorological conditions. For this study we have chosen all days of June, July and August (2004-2009) with convective thunderstorms. There were statistically significant relationships between spore concentration and meteorological parameters: positive for air temperature and ozone content while negative for relative humidity. In general, before a thunderstorm, air temperature and ozone concentration increased, which was accompanied by a considerable increase in spore concentration. During and after a storm, relative humidity increased while both air temperature ozone concentration along with spore concentrations decreased. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to assess forecasting possibilities. Good performance of ANN models in this study suggest that it is possible to predict spore concentrations from meteorological variables 2 h in advance and, thus, warn people with spore-related asthma symptoms about the increasing abundance of airborne fungi on days with storms. PMID:23161270
Grinn-Gofro?, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka
The fungal cell wall polymer ?-(1,3)-D-glucan is synthesized by the enzyme ?-(1,3)- D-glucan synthase that is a complex composed of at least two proteins, Rho1p and Fks1p. Here, we report the nucleotide sequence of a single FKS gene and of the regulatory unit, RHO1 from the dematiaceous pathogenic fungus Alternaria infectoria. The predicted AiFks and AiRho share, respectively, 93% and 100% identity with that of Drechslera tritici-repentis. We also report that the sensitivity to caspofungin of eight different A. infectoria clinical strains is similar, with a MIC >?32 µg/ml and a MEC of 1 µg/ml, except for one strain which had a MEC of 1.4 µg/ml. This same strain exhibited one substitution at the hot spot 2, S1405A, compatible with less susceptible phenotypes, with the other seven strains having no mutations in either hot spot 1 or 2. The relative quantification of the expression of AiFKS and of AiRHO demonstrated a decrease in response to an exposure to caspofungin at 0.5 µg/ml. PMID:22548239
Anjos, Jorge; Fernandes, Chantal; Silva, Branca M A; Quintas, Célia; Abrunheiro, Alexandra; Gow, Neil A R; Gonçalves, Teresa
Endophytes are recognised as potential sources of novel secondary metabolites, including enzymes and drugs, with applications in medicine, agriculture and industry. There is a growing need for new enzymes, including proteases, for use in industry that can function under a variety of conditions. In this study, three fungal endophytes (Alternaria alternata, Phoma herbarum and an unclassified fungus), were isolated from the Australian native plant, Eremophilia longifolia, and assessed for production of proteases. The lyophilised growth media obtained after fungal fermentation were analysed for protease production using enzyme activity assays. Protease production was optimised by assessing the effects of temperature, pH, carbon source and nitrogen source on activity. A. alternata showed the greatest protease activity in a wide range of pH (3-9). The broadest activity between 9 and 50 °C was observed at pH 7, suggesting a neutral protease. Overall, the optimum conditions were 37 °C and pH 7 with a maximum specific activity value of 69.86 BAEE units/mg. The characteristics demonstrated by this fungal endophyte showed that it is a potential source of an enzyme with particular application in the dairy industry. However, further studies of the tolerance to higher temperatures and pH will indicate whether the enzyme is suitable to such applications. PMID:24419660
Zaferanloo, Bita; Quang, Trung D; Daumoo, Smita; Ghorbani, Mahmood M; Mahon, Peter J; Palombo, Enzo A
Three phytohormone molecules – ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) – play key roles in mediating disease response to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. This study investigated the roles of the ET, JA, and SA pathways as well as their crosstalk during the interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL). Both the ET and JASMONIC ACID INSENSITIVE1 (JAI1) receptor-dependent JA signalling pathways are necessary for susceptibility, while SA response promotes resistance to AAL infection. In addition, the role of JA in susceptibility to AAL is partly dependent on ET biosynthesis and perception, while the SA pathway enhances resistance to AAL and antagonizes the ET response. Based on these results, it is proposed that ET, JA, and SA each on their own can influence the susceptibility of tomato to AAL. Furthermore, the functions of JA and SA in susceptibility to the pathogen are correlated with the enhanced or decreased action of ET, respectively. This study has revealed the functional relationship among the three key hormone pathways in tomato defence against AAL.
Jia, Chengguo; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Qiaomei
The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata includes seven pathogenic variants (pathotypes), which produce different host-selective toxins and cause disease on different plants. The Japanese pear, strawberry and tangerine pathotypes produce AK-toxin, AF-toxin and ACT-toxin, respectively, which have a common structural moiety, 9,10-epoxy-8-hydroxy-9-methyl-decatrienoic acid (EDA). Here, we identified a new gene, AKT7 (AK-toxin biosynthetic gene 7), from the Japanese pear pathotype, which encodes a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and functions to limit AK-toxin production. AKT7 homologs were found in the strawberry pathotype, but not the tangerine pathotype. However, the strawberry pathotype homolog appeared to include a premature stop codon. Although the Japanese pear pathotype strain has multiple copies of AKT7, a single-copy disruption resulted in mutants with increased production of AK-toxin and EDA. AKT7 overexpression in the three pathotypes caused marked reductions of toxin and EDA production, suggesting that Akt7 catalyzes a side reaction of EDA or its precursor. AKT7 overexpression caused reduced virulence in these pathotypes. We also found that AKT7 transcripts predominantly include misspliced mRNAs, which have premature stop codons. Our observations suggest that the AK-toxin production required for full virulence is regulated in a complex way by the copy number and intron information content of AKT7. PMID:24611558
Takaoka, Shinya; Kurata, Mariko; Harimoto, Yoshiaki; Hatta, Rieko; Yamamoto, Mikihiro; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Tsuge, Takashi
The production of host-selective toxins by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata is essential for the pathogenesis. A. alternata infection in citrus leaves induces rapid lipid peroxidation, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and cell death. The mechanisms by which A. alternata avoids killing by reactive oxygen species (ROS) after invasion have begun to be elucidated. The ability to coordinate of signaling pathways is essential for the detoxification of cellular stresses induced by ROS and for pathogenicity in A. alternata. A low level of H2O2, produced by the NADPH oxidase (NOX) complex, modulates ROS resistance and triggers conidiation partially via regulating the redox-responsive regulators (YAP1 and SKN7) and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (HOG1) mediated pathways, which subsequently regulate the genes required for the biosynthesis of siderophore, an iron-chelating compound. Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition plays a key role in ROS detoxification because of the requirement of iron for the activities of antioxidants (e.g., catalase and SOD). Fungal strains impaired for the ROS-detoxifying system severely reduce the virulence on susceptible citrus cultivars. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge of signaling pathways associated with cellular responses to multidrugs, oxidative and osmotic stress, and fungicides, as well as the pathogenicity/virulence in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata.
The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata contains seven pathogenic variants (pathotypes), which produce host-specific toxins and cause diseases on different plants. Previously, the gene cluster involved in host-specific AK-toxin biosynthesis of the Japanese pear pathotype was isolated, and four genes, named AKT genes, were identified. The AKT homologs were also found in the strawberry and tangerine pathotypes, which produce AF-toxin and ACT-toxin, respectively. This result is consistent with the fact that the toxins of these pathotypes share a common 9,10-epoxy-8-hydroxy-9-methyl-decatrienoic acid structural moiety. In this study, three of the AKT homologs (AFT1-1, AFTR-1, and AFT3-1) were isolated on a single cosmid clone from strain NAF8 of the strawberry pathotype. In NAF8, all of the AKT homologs were present in multiple copies on a 1.05-Mb chromosome. Transformation-mediated targeting of AFT1-1 and AFT3-1 in NAF8 produced AF-toxin-minus, nonpathogenic mutants. All of the mutants lacked the 1.05-Mb chromosome encoding the AFT genes. This chromosome was not essential for saprophytic growth of this pathogen. Thus, we propose that a conditionally dispensable chromosome controls host-specific pathogenicity of this pathogen. PMID:12019223
Hatta, Rieko; Ito, Kaoru; Hosaki, Yoshitsugu; Tanaka, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Aiko; Yamamoto, Mikihiro; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Tsuge, Takashi
Carrot black rot caused by the fungus Alternaria radicina (Meier) Drechsler et Eddy, the economically important disease of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Research was carried out in 2004 and 2005 in order to establish correlation between plant infestation in the field and laboratory experiments. To determine the incidence and severity of the disease in mature crop, a 5-degree scale was used, where 1 meant no visible disease symptoms and 5 meant total foliage infestation. Plants were rated individually and the disease index was calculated. Fungus pathogenicity in laboratory conditions was determined using a petiole assay and a root disc assay. The petiole assay was conducted during the vegetation period; basal parts of petioles detached from fully developed carrot leaves were put in contact with the growing A. radicina mycelium. The root disc assay was conducted during storage of carrot roots; root discs were inoculated with toothpicks overgrown by A. radicina mycelium. The isolate of A. radicina was pathogenic to petioles and carrot discs. Differences in the reaction of the examined cultivars in the field and laboratory experiments were revealed. However, no significant correlation between plant infestation in the field and the results of laboratory experiments were observed. PMID:17390868
Szczeponek, A; Laszczak, P; Weso?owska, M; Grzebelus, D; Michalik, B
Effectiveness of new fungicide Zato 50 WG (biologically active substances BAS - trifloxystrobin 50%) in the control of Alternaria blight on carrot was studied. Field experiments were carried out in the years 2003-2004 on carrot cv. Koral. As the standard fungicide Amistar 250 SC (BAS - azoxystrobin 250 g/dm3) was used. The results of health status of carrot leaves analysis in first and second year of experiment showed, that development of disease symptoms was lower on leaves of chemical protected plants than on leaves of control plants. The last estimation of infestation degree of carrot leaves made immediately before harvest showed, that standard fungicide Amistar had longer systemic influence on plants. This was confirmed the lower (statistically significant) infestation index of protected carrot in combination with Amistar. The estimations of health status of carrot roots were made directly after digging up indicate, that there wasn't difference of value of infestation index between protected combination and control. Experiment showed, significant effect of tested fungicides on crop quantity of carrot roots per 1 m2. Especially in the second year of study the crop of carrot roots in combination with Zato was higher - statistically significant - than in the rest combinations. PMID:16637184
Nawrocki, J; Mazur, S
????????????????????????????? ??????????????????????????? ????? ???????????????????? ??????????????? Xanthomonas axonopodis pv.citri Efficacy of Crude Extract form Beleric Myrobalan, Chebulic Myrobalan and Nut Gall Fruit on the Symptom Development of Kaffir lime Canker Caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv.citri
The efficacy of crude extract from beleric myrobalan, chebulic myrobalan and nut gall fruit on the symptom development of kaffir lime canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv.citri was studied. The crude extract of plants were extracted by 95% ethyl alcohol and evaporated the solvent by Rotary vacuum evaporator.The bacterial suspension was inoculated on 15 month kaffir lime leaves in the
The search for active toxins for managing weeds or plant diseases is believed to be a promising avenue of investigation. However, the effects of Alternaria toxins on insects have just begun to be investigated. Bioactivities of toxins from four strains of Alternaria alternata on Rosa chinensis and rose aphid Macrosiphum rosivorum were tested in the present study. At a concentration of 50.0 ?g/ml, the crude extract (toxin) of strain 7484 was found not to be harmful to rose plants with excised leaf-puncture method (P?0.079), and rose plants showed enhanced resistance to rose aphids when this Alternaria toxin was sprayed on the plants (P?0.001). However, this toxin caused no detrimental effects on aphids in insecticidal bioassay at a concentration of 10.0 to 160.0 ?g/ml (P?0.096). Therefore, the Alternaria toxin had significantly induced the resistance of rose plants against rose aphids, demonstrating that the resistance mechanism triggered by the Alternaria toxin in the rose plant may also be used by the plant to defend itself against insects. Further bioassays aimed to discover the olfactory responses of aphids to the toxin-induced volatiles of host plants. The aphids were significantly more attracted to both volatiles emitted and collected from control rose plants than to both volatiles emitted and collected from the toxin-treated rose plants (P?0.014). This result showed that the toxin-induced resistance related to the volatile changes of host plants.
Yang, Fa-zhong; Li, Li; Yang, Bin
Mold diseases, caused by fungal complexes including Alternaria, Cochliobolus, and Fusarium species, limit sorghum grain production. Media were tested by plating Fusarium thapsinum, Alternaria sp., and Curvularia lunata, individually and competitively. Dichloran chloramphenicol rose bengal (DRBC) and modified V8 juice (ModV8) agars, found to be useful, were compared with commonly used agar media, dichloran chloramphenicol peptone (DCPA) and pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB). Radial growth, starting with mycelia or single-conidia and hyphal tips, demonstrated an effect of media. For isolation of grain fungi, DRBC and ModV8 were similar or superior to DCPA and PCNB. When seedlings were inoculated with conidia of C. lunata, Alternaria sp., F. thapsinum, or mixtures, the percentage of root infection ranged from 28% to 77%. For mixed inoculations, shoot weights, lesion lengths, and percentage of root infections were similar to F. thapsinum inoculations; most colonies recovered from roots were F. thapsinum. For Alternaria grain isolates, 5 morphological types, including Alternaria alternata, were distinguished by colony morphologies and conidial dimensions. Sequence analysis using a portion of the endo-polygalacturonase gene was able to further distinguish isolates. Cochliobolus isolates were identified morphologically as C. lunata, Curvularia sorghina, and Bipolaris sorghicola. Multiple molecular genotypes were apparent from rRNA internal transcribed spacer region sequences from Cochliobolus grain isolates. PMID:23461515
Funnell-Harris, Deanna L; Prom, Louis K; Pedersen, Jeffrey F
Alternaria alternata (tobacco pathotype) is a necrotrophic fungus causing severe losses in Nicotiana species by infection of mature leaves. Similar to what has been observed in cultivated tobacco, N. tabacum, young leaves of wild tobacco, N. attenuata, were more resistant to A. alternata than mature leaves, and this was correlated with stronger blue fluorescence induced after infection. However, the nature of the fluorescence-emitting compound, its role in defence, and its regulation were not clear. Silencing feruloyl-CoA 6?-hydroxylase 1 (F6?H1), the gene encoding the key enzyme for scopoletin biosynthesis, by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) revealed that the blue fluorescence was mainly emitted by scopoletin and its ?-glycoside form, scopolin. Further analysis showed that scopoletin exhibited strong antifungal activity against A. alternata in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, jasmonic acid (JA) levels were highly elicited in young leaves but much less in mature leaves after infection; and fungus-elicited scopoletin was absent in JA-deficient plants, but was largely restored with methyl jasmonate treatments. Consistent with this, plants strongly impaired in JA biosynthesis and perception were highly susceptible to A. alternata in the same way scopoletin/scopolin-depleted VIGS F6?H1 plants. Furthermore, silencing MYC2, a master regulator of most JA responses, reduced A. alternata-induced NaF6?H1 transcripts and scopoletin. Thus, it is concluded that JA signalling is activated in N. attenuata leaves after infection, which subsequently regulates scopoletin biosynthesis for the defence against A. alternata partly through MYC2, and higher levels of scopoletin accumulated in young leaves account for their strong resistance.
Sun, Huanhuan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Baoqin; Ma, Junhong; Hettenhausen, Christian; Cao, Guoyan; Sun, Guiling; Wu, Jianqiang; Wu, Jinsong
A 27-year-old Iranian, previously healthy male presented with sub-cutaneous necrotic lesions with a localized dermatosis affecting the anterior chest, neck and face. These lesions consisted of singular, well-defined verrucous plaques which gradually developed and disseminated over time. The dermatosis was followed by the development of necrotic swollen lesions localized on the hard palate. The patient did not recall any history of trauma or puncture at any of the sites of infection. While histopathological examination of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stained material revealed irregular, unbranched, septate hyphae, direct examination (KOH 10%) of lesion samples demonstrated the presence of septate indistinct brownish hyphae. Alternaria malorum was isolated (CBS 126589) and its identity was confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA). Since the palate lesion reoccurred after 10 years and the patient's condition did not improve with amphotericin B combination therapy, the lesion was surgical excised and he underwent antifungal therapy with amphotericin B and itraconazole. There was no dehiscence or fistula formation or any evidence of relapse of fungal infection during a one year follow-up and the patient was successfully cured. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests revealed that the MIC values for those antifungals employed in this case were amphotericin B (0.125 ?g/ml), fluconazole (32 ?g/ml), itraconazole (0.125 ?g/ml), voriconazole (1 ?g/ml), and posaconazole (0.063 ?g/ml). The MECs for caspofungin and anidulafungin were 0.25 ?g/ml and 0.016 ?g/ml, respectively. However, treatment of A. malorum infections with the latter agents remains to be evaluated. PMID:22871097
Mirhendi, Hossein; Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Bateni, Hamid; Hajabdolbaghi, Mahboubeh; Geramishoar, Mohsen; Ahmadi, Bahram; Badali, Hamid
Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. Several A. brassicicola genes have been characterized as affecting pathogenesis of Brassica species. To study regulatory mechanisms of pathogenesis, we mined 421 genes in silico encoding putative transcription factors in a machine-annotated, draft genome sequence of A. brassicicola. In this study, targeted gene disruption mutants for 117 of the transcription factor genes were produced and screened. Three of these genes were associated with pathogenesis. Disruption mutants of one gene (AbPacC) were nonpathogenic and another gene (AbVf8) caused lesions less than half the diameter of wild-type lesions. Unexpectedly, mutants of the third gene, Amr1, caused lesions with a two-fold larger diameter than the wild type and complementation mutants. Amr1 is a homolog of Cmr1, a transcription factor that regulates melanin biosynthesis in several fungi. We created gene deletion mutants of ?amr1 and characterized their phenotypes. The ?amr1 mutants used pectin as a carbon source more efficiently than the wild type, were melanin-deficient, and more sensitive to UV light and glucanase digestion. The AMR1 protein was localized in the nuclei of hyphae and in highly melanized conidia during the late stage of plant pathogenesis. RNA-seq analysis revealed that three genes in the melanin biosynthesis pathway, along with the deleted Amr1 gene, were expressed at low levels in the mutants. In contrast, many hydrolytic enzyme-coding genes were expressed at higher levels in the mutants than in the wild type during pathogenesis. The results of this study suggested that a gene important for survival in nature negatively affected virulence, probably by a less efficient use of plant cell-wall materials. We speculate that the functions of the Amr1 gene are important to the success of A. brassicicola as a competitive saprophyte and plant parasite.
Cho, Yangrae; Srivastava, Akhil; Ohm, Robin A.; Lawrence, Christopher B.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Marahatta, Sharadchandra P.
The absorption of four Alternaria toxins with perylene quinone structures, i.e. altertoxin (ATX) I and II, alteichin (ALTCH) and stemphyltoxin (STTX) III, has been determined in the Caco-2 cell Transwell system, which represents a widely accepted in vitro model for human intestinal absorption and metabolism. The cells were incubated with the four mycotoxins on the apical side, and the concentration of the toxins in the incubation media of both chambers and in the cell lysate were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection and mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS) analysis. ATX I and ALTCH were not metabolised in Caco-2 cells, but ATX II and STTX III were partly biotransformed by reductive de-epoxidation to the metabolites ATX I and ALTCH, respectively. Based on the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp), the following ranking order for the permeation into the basolateral compartment was obtained: ATX I > ALTCH > ATX II > STTX III. Total recovery of the four toxins decreased in the same order. It is assumed that the losses of STTX III, ATX II and ALTCH in Caco-2 cells are caused by covalent binding to cell components due to the epoxide group and/or the ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl group present in these toxins. We conclude from this study that ATX I and ALTCH are well absorbed from the intestinal lumen into the portal blood in vivo. For ATX II and STTX III, intestinal absorption of the parent toxins is very low, but these toxins are partly metabolised to ATX I and ALTCH, respectively, in the intestinal epithelium and absorbed as such. PMID:24173814
Fleck, Stefanie C; Pfeiffer, Erika; Metzler, Manfred
The present work reports the effects of caspofungin, a ?-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor, and nikkomycin Z, an inhibitor of chitin synthases, on two strains of Alternaria infectoria, a melanized fungus involved in opportunistic human infections and respiratory allergies. One of the strains tested, IMF006, bore phenotypic traits that conferred advantages in resisting antifungal treatment. First, the resting cell wall chitin content was higher and in response to caspofungin, the chitin level remained constant. In the other strain, IMF001, the chitin content increased upon caspofungin treatment to values similar to basal IMF006 levels. Moreover, upon caspofungin treatment, the FKS1 gene was upregulated in IMF006 and downregulated in IMF001. In addition, the resting ?-glucan content was also different in both strains, with higher levels in IMF001 than in IMF006. However, this did not provide any advantage with respect to echinocandin resistance. We identified eight different chitin synthase genes and studied relative gene expression when the fungus was exposed to the antifungals under study. In both strains, exposure to caspofungin and nikkomycin Z led to modulation of the expression of class V and VII chitin synthase genes, suggesting its importance in the robustness of A. infectoria. The pattern of A. infectoria phagocytosis and activation of murine macrophages by spores was not affected by caspofungin. Monotherapy with nikkomycin Z and caspofungin provided only fungistatic inhibition, while a combination of both led to fungal cell lysis, revealing a strong synergistic action between the chitin synthase inhibitor and the ?-glucan synthase inhibitor against this fungus. PMID:24614372
Fernandes, Chantal; Anjos, Jorge; Walker, Louise A; Silva, Branca M A; Cortes, Luísa; Mota, Marta; Munro, Carol A; Gow, Neil A R; Gonçalves, Teresa
Conidia production is a problem in the study of Alternaria alternata from citrus. Thus, this study aimed to compare existing methodologies for conidial production of A. alternata isolated from Ponkan tangerine (2 isolates), Cravo lemon (1 isolate), Pêra orange (2 isolates) and Murcott tangor (1 isolate). The methodologies used were conidia production with 12 and 24 hours under white fluorescent light, evaluation with 24 and 48 hours after applying fungal mycelium stress technique, cold stress followed by injury of mycelium and evaluation with 24 hours, using healthy vegetable tissue and the use of black fluorescent near ultraviolet (NUV) lamp. Satisfactory result was obtained with A. alternata isolate from Murcott tangor, with the production of 2.8 × 10(5) conidia mL(-1), when fungal mycelium was stressed (Petri dish with 66.66% of fungi growth) and subsequently 24 h of growth. The use of white light (24 h) and black fluorescent NUV lamp also induced expressive conidia production by one isolate of Ponkan tangerine, which produced 17.2 × 10(5) and 10.1 × 10(5)conidia mL(-1) and another of Murcott tangor, which produced 13.9 × 10(5) and 10.1 × 10(5) conidia mL(-1), respectively. The remaining methodologies analyzed in this study were not able to induce conidia production in satisfactory quantity. The use of both mycelium stress technique and white light (24 h) and black fluorescent NUV lamp allowed the production of enough quantities of conidia to be used in vitro (detection of fungitoxic substances) and in vivo (pathogenicity test) assays, respectively. PMID:24031309
Carvalho, Daniel D C; Alves, Eduardo; Batista, Tereza R S; Camargos, Renato B; Lopes, Eloísa A G L
We report on a 10-year-old girl with severe aplastic anaemia who developed rhinocerebral infection caused by Absidia corymbifera and a possible co-infection caused by Alternaria alternata. Despite prolonged neutropenia, therapy with liposomal amphotericin B and posaconazole improved the clinical condition. Subsequently, the girl underwent allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for the underlying disease, but the fungal infection remained under control with the antifungal treatment. No severe side effect of the antifungal drugs was noted. Unfortunately, the girl died 5 months after HSCT due to disseminated adenovirus infection. PMID:16961580
Sörensen, Jan; Becker, Martina; Porto, Luciana; Lambrecht, Evelyn; Schuster, Tobias; Beske, Florian; Rickerts, Volker; Klingebiel, Thomas; Lehrnbecher, Thomas
To investigate whether the reported fitness cost of virulence at the AvrLm4 locus in Leptosphaeria maculans is common to other loci, near-isogenic (NI) isolates differing at AvrLm1 locus were produced in vitro. Fitness of virulent (avrLm1) or avirulent (AvrLm1) isolates on Brassica napus without the corresponding R (resistance) gene Rlm1 was investigated in controlled environment (CE) and field experiments. Results
Yong-Ju Huang; Marie-Hélène Balesdent; Zi-Qin Li; Neal Evans; Thierry Rouxel; Bruce D. L. Fitt
Pathogens interaction with a host plant starts a set of immune responses that result in complex changes in gene expression and plant physiology. Light is an important modulator of plant defense response and recent studies have evidenced the novel influence of this environmental stimulus in the virulence of several bacterial pathogens. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the bacterium responsible for citrus canker disease, which affects most citrus cultivars. The ability of this bacterium to colonize host plants is influenced by bacterial blue-light sensing through a LOV-domain protein and disease symptoms are considerably altered upon deletion of this protein. In this work we aimed to unravel the role of this photoreceptor during the bacterial counteraction of plant immune responses leading to citrus canker development. We performed a transcriptomic analysis in Citrus sinensis leaves inoculated with the wild type X. citri subsp. citri and with a mutant strain lacking the LOV protein by a cDNA microarray and evaluated the differentially regulated genes corresponding to specific biological processes. A down-regulation of photosynthesis-related genes (together with a corresponding decrease in photosynthesis rates) was observed upon bacterial infection, this effect being more pronounced in plants infected with the lov-mutant bacterial strain. Infection with this strain was also accompanied with the up-regulation of several secondary metabolism- and defense response-related genes. Moreover, we found that relevant plant physiological alterations triggered by pathogen attack such as cell wall fortification and tissue disruption were amplified during the lov-mutant strain infection. These results suggest the participation of the LOV-domain protein from X. citri subsp. citri in the bacterial counteraction of host plant defense response, contributing in this way to disease development.
Kraiselburd, Ivana; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Tondo, Maria Laura; Merelo, Paz; Cortadi, Adriana A.; Talon, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Orellano, Elena G.
Background:Alternaria alternata is recognized as an important cause of allergic disease. As with other molds, the extracts of A alternata used for diagnosis and therapy are highly heterogeneous, and there is a need for improved standardization. The major allergen Alt a 1 is well characterized and has been produced as a recombinant protein, but very few data are available on
Elke Aden; Bernhard Weber; Jochen Bossert; Manfred Teppke; Edda Frank; Rüdiger Wahl; Helmut Fiebig; Oliver Cromwell
The concentration of airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. has been investigated at three monitoring stations situated along the west-north and central-east transect in Poland (Szczecin, Olsztyn, Warszawa,) i.e. from a height of 100 m to 149 m above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of three Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. Cladosporium spp. spores were dominant at all the stations. The highest Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. numbers of spores were observed at all the cities in July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. concentration in the air and the mean air temperature, amount of precipitation, air pressure and relative air humidity. The spore count of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the air temperature. The identification of factors, which influence and shape spore concentrations, may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.
Grinn-Gofro?, Agnieszka; Rapiejko, Piotr
Progeny from transgenic broccoli (cv. Green Comet) expressing a Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene were used to assess the interaction between endochitinase and the fungicide Bayleton in the control of Alternaria brassicicola. In vitro assays have shown synergistic effects of endochitinase and fungicides on fungal pathogens. Our study examined the in planta effects of endochitinase and Bayleton, individually and in combination.
A. Mora; E. D. Earle
Young leaves of 62 citrus cultivars were inoculated with conidia of three Spanish isolates of Alternaria alternata pv. citri, the causal agent of brown spot of citrus. Hybrids with Dancy mandarin, King mandarin or their derivates as a parent, grapefruit cultivars and the mandarin cultivars Guillermina, Emperor, Clemenpons and Esbal were highly susceptible to the pathogen. Satsuma cultivar Clausellina and
A. Vicent; J. Badal; M. J. Asensi; N. Sanz; J. Armengol; J. García-Jiménez
Alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) are among the main mycotoxins formed in apples and other fruits infected by Alternaria alternata. For determination of AOH and AME by LC, apple juice and other fruit beverages were cleaned up on C18 and aminopropyl solid-phase extraction columns. Positive and negative ion mass spectra of AOH and AME under electrospray (ESI) and
Benjamin P.-Y Lau; Peter M Scott; David A Lewis; Shriniwas R Kanhere; Chantal Cléroux; Veronica A Roscoe
Background A series of epidemiologic studies have identified the fungus Alternaria as a major risk factor for asthma. The airway epithelium plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. These reports suggest that activated airway epithelial cells can produce cytokines such as IL-25, TSLP and IL-33 that induce Th2 phenotype. However the epithelium-derived products that mediate the pro-asthma effects of Alternaria are not well characterized. We hypothesized that exposure of the airway epithelium to Alternaria releasing cytokines that can induce Th2 differentiation. Methodology/Principal Finding We used ELISA to measure human and mouse cytokines. Alternaria extract (ALT-E) induced rapid release of IL-18, but not IL-4, IL-9, IL-13, IL-25, IL-33, or TSLP from cultured normal human bronchial epithelial cells; and in the BAL fluids of naïve mice after challenge with ALT-E. Both microscopic and FACS indicated that this release was associated with necrosis of epithelial cells. ALT-E induced much greater IL-18 release compared to 19 major outdoor allergens. Culture of naïve CD4 cells with rmIL-18 induced Th2 differentiation in the absence of IL-4 and STAT6, and this effect was abrogated by disrupting NF- ?B p50 or with a NEMO binding peptide inhibitor. Conclusion/Significance Rapid and specific release of IL-18 from Alternaria-exposed damaged airway epithelial cells can directly initiate Th2 differentiation of naïve CD4+ T-cells via a unique NF-?B dependent pathway.
Wild, Jim; Dharajiya, Nilesh; Vaidya, Swapnil; Kalita, Anjana; Bacsi, Attila; Corry, David; Kurosky, Alexander; Brasier, Allan; Boldogh, Istvan; Sur, Sanjiv
Stem cells have the ability to both differentiate into other mature cell types and maintain an undifferentiated state by self-renewal. These unique properties form the basis for stem cell use in organ replacement and tissue regeneration in clinical medicine. Currently, embryonic stem cells are the best-studied stem cell type. However alternative stem cells such as induced pluripotent stem cells and
Kehkooi Kee; Renee A. Reijo Pera; Paul J. Turek
Three new bianthraquinone derivatives, alterporriol K (1), L (2) and M (3), along with six known compounds were obtained from extracts of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. ZJ9-6B, isolated from the mangrove Aegiceras corniculatum collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, MS data analysis and circular dichroism measurements. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 were first isolated alterporriols with a C-2–C-2? linkage. The crystallographic data of tetrahydroaltersolanol B (7) was reported for the first time. In the primary bioassays, alterporriol K and L exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity towards MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values ranging from 13.1 to 29.1 ?M.
Huang, Cai-Huan; Pan, Jia-Hui; Chen, Bin; Yu, Miao; Huang, Hong-Bo; Zhu, Xun; Lu, Yong-Jun; She, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Yong-Cheng
Endophytic fungi are known as a prolific source for the discovery of structurally interesting and biologically active secondary metabolites, some of which are promising candidates for drug development. In the present study, three anthranoids were isolated from an Alternaria sp. endophytic fungus and evaluated for their antiangiogenic activity in a rat aortic sprouting assay, an ex vivo model of angiogenesis. Of these three compounds, altersolanol (2) was further characterized and found to show a promising activity in ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis asssays. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells as an in vitro model, the angiogenic effect of 2 was found to occur via suppression of all three main functions of endothelial cells, namely proliferation, tube formation and migration. PMID:23639188
Pompeng, Phunlap; Sommit, Damrong; Sriubolmas, Nongluksna; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Matsubara, Kiminori; Pudhom, Khanitha
A new alterporriol-type anthranoid dimer, alterporriol S (1), along with seven known anthraquinone derivatives, (+)-aS-alterporriol C (2), hydroxybostrycin (3), halorosellinia A (4), tetrahydrobostrycin (5), 9?-hydroxydihydrodesoxybostrycin (6), austrocortinin (7) and 6-methylquinizarin (8), were isolated from the culture broth of the mangrove fungus, Alternaria sp. (SK11), from the South China Sea. Their structures and the relative configurations were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR spectra. The absolute configurations of 1 and the axial configuration of 2 were defined by experimental and theoretical ECD spectroscopy. 1 was identified as the first member of alterporriols consisting of a unique C-10-C-2' linkage. Atropisomer 2 exhibited strong inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase B (MptpB) with an IC50 value 8.70 ?M. PMID:24840716
Xia, Guoping; Li, Jia; Li, Hanxiang; Long, Yuhua; Lin, Shao'e; Lu, Yongjun; He, Lei; Lin, Yongcheng; Liu, Lan; She, Zhigang
This paper provides an updated of airborne Alternaria spore spatial and temporal distribution patterns in the Iberian Peninsula, using a common non-viable volumetric sampling method. The highest mean annual spore counts were recorded in Sevilla (39,418 spores), Mérida (33,744) and Málaga (12,947), while other sampling stations never exceeded 5,000. The same cities also recorded the highest mean daily spore counts (Sevilla 109 spores m-3; Mérida 53 spores m-3 and Málaga 35 spores m-3) and the highest number of days on which counts exceeded the threshold levels required to trigger allergy symptoms (Sevilla 38 % and Mérida 30 % of days). Analysis of annual spore distribution patterns revealed either one or two peaks, depending on the location and prevailing climate of sampling stations. For all stations, average temperature was the weather parameter displaying the strongest positive correlation with airborne spore counts, whilst negative correlations were found for rainfall and relative humidity.
Aira, María-Jesús; Rodríguez-Rajo, Francisco-Javier; Fernández-González, María; Seijo, Carmen; Elvira-Rendueles, Belén; Abreu, Ilda; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, Montserrat; Pérez-Sánchez, Elena; Oliveira, Manuela; Recio, Marta; Tormo, Rafael; Morales, Julia
Alternaria alternata, an endophytic fungus capable of producing capsaicin (1) was isolated from Capsicum annum. The endophyte was found to produce capsaicin upto three generations. Upscaling of the fermentation broth led to the isolation of one known and one compound characterized as 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol (2) and alternariol-10-methyl ether (3) respectively. Compound 1 and 3 were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) system through multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Furthermore, compound 3 displayed a range of cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer cell lines and was found to induce apoptosis evidenced by Hoechst staining and loss of mitochondrial-membrane potential in HL-60 cells. PMID:24378219
Devari, Shekaraiah; Jaglan, Sundeep; Kumar, Manjeet; Deshidi, Ramesh; Guru, Santosh; Bhushan, Shashi; Kushwaha, Manoj; Gupta, Ajai P; Gandhi, Sumit G; Sharma, Jai P; Taneja, Subhash C; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Shah, Bhahwal Ali
Eight bioactive pyrone derivatives were identified from the culture of Alternaria alternata strain D2006, isolated from the marine soft coral Denderonephthya hemprichi, which was selected as its profound antimicrobial activities. The compounds were assigned as pyrophen (1), rubrofusarin B (2), fonsecin (3), and fonsecin B (5) beside to the four dimeric naphtho-?-pyrones; aurasperone A (6), aurasperone B (7), aurasperone C (8), and aurasperone F (9). Structures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass (EI, ESI, HRESI) data, and by comparison with the literature. Configuration of the four dimeric naphtho-?-pyrones 6-9 was analyzed by CD spectra, exhibiting an identical stereochemistry.
A new alterporriol-type anthranoid dimer, alterporriol S (1), along with seven known anthraquinone derivatives, (+)-aS-alterporriol C (2), hydroxybostrycin (3), halorosellinia A (4), tetrahydrobostrycin (5), 9?-hydroxydihydrodesoxybostrycin (6), austrocortinin (7) and 6-methylquinizarin (8), were isolated from the culture broth of the mangrove fungus, Alternaria sp. (SK11), from the South China Sea. Their structures and the relative configurations were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR spectra. The absolute configurations of 1 and the axial configuration of 2 were defined by experimental and theoretical ECD spectroscopy. 1 was identified as the first member of alterporriols consisting of a unique C-10?C-2? linkage. Atropisomer 2 exhibited strong inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase B (MptpB) with an IC50 value 8.70 ?M.
Xia, Guoping; Li, Jia; Li, Hanxiang; Long, Yuhua; Lin, Shao'e; Lu, Yongjun; He, Lei; Lin, Yongcheng; Liu, Lan; She, Zhigang
Although different mechanisms have been proposed in the recent years, plant pathogen partial resistance is still poorly understood. Components of the chemical warfare, including the production of plant defense compounds and plant resistance to pathogen-produced toxins, are likely to play a role. Toxins are indeed recognized as important determinants of pathogenicity in necrotrophic fungi. Partial resistance based on quantitative resistance loci and linked to a pathogen-produced toxin has never been fully described. We tested this hypothesis using the Alternaria dauci – carrot pathosystem. Alternaria dauci, causing carrot leaf blight, is a necrotrophic fungus known to produce zinniol, a compound described as a non-host selective toxin. Embryogenic cellular cultures from carrot genotypes varying in resistance against A. dauci were confronted with zinniol at different concentrations or to fungal exudates (raw, organic or aqueous extracts). The plant response was analyzed through the measurement of cytoplasmic esterase activity, as a marker of cell viability, and the differentiation of somatic embryos in cellular cultures. A differential response to toxicity was demonstrated between susceptible and partially resistant genotypes, with a good correlation noted between the resistance to the fungus at the whole plant level and resistance at the cellular level to fungal exudates from raw and organic extracts. No toxic reaction of embryogenic cultures was observed after treatment with the aqueous extract or zinniol used at physiological concentration. Moreover, we did not detect zinniol in toxic fungal extracts by UHPLC analysis. These results suggest that strong phytotoxic compounds are present in the organic extract and remain to be characterized. Our results clearly show that carrot tolerance to A. dauci toxins is one component of its partial resistance.
Voisine, Linda; Gatto, Julia; Helesbeux, Jean-Jacques; Seraphin, Denis; Pena-Rodriguez, Luis M.; Richomme, Pascal; Boedo, Cora; Yovanopoulos, Claire; Gyomlai, Melvina; Briard, Mathilde; Simoneau, Philippe; Poupard, Pascal; Berruyer, Romain
Stem cell biology has come of age. Unequivocal proof that stem cells exist in the haematopoietic system has given way to the prospective isolation of several tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells, the initial delineation of their properties and expressed genetic programmes, and the beginnings of their utility in regenerative medicine. Perhaps the most important and useful property of stem cells
Tannishtha Reya; Sean J. Morrison; Michael F. Clarke; Irving L. Weissman
In this study, filamentous phage XacF1, which can infect Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) strains, was isolated and characterized. Electron microscopy showed that XacF1 is a member of the family Inoviridae and is about 600 nm long. The genome of XacF1 is 7325 nucleotides in size, containing 13 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), some of which showed significant homology to Ff-like phage proteins such as ORF1 (pII), ORF2 (pV), ORF6 (pIII), and ORF8 (pVI). XacF1 showed a relatively wide host range, infecting seven out of 11 strains tested in this study. Frequently, XacF1 was found to be integrated into the genome of Xac strains. This integration occurred at the host dif site (attB) and was mediated by the host XerC/D recombination system. The attP sequence was identical to that of Xanthomonas phage Cf1c. Interestingly, infection by XacF1 phage caused several physiological changes to the bacterial host cells, including lower levels of extracellular polysaccharide production, reduced motility, slower growth rate, and a dramatic reduction in virulence. In particular, the reduction in virulence suggested possible utilization of XacF1 as a biological control agent against citrus canker disease.
Ahmad, Abdelmonim Ali; Askora, Ahmed; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi
Two quantitative trait loci from Lycopersicon hirsutum, Rcm 2.0 and Rcm 5.1, control resistance to Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato. Lines containing Rcm 2.0 and Rcm 5.1 and a susceptible control line were compared at 72 and 144 h postinoculation, using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis to identify proteins regulated in response to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis infection. A total of 47 proteins were subjected to tandem mass spectrometry. Database queries with resulting spectra identified tomato genes for 26 proteins. The remaining 21 proteins were either identified in other species or possessed no homology to known proteins. Spectra were interpreted to deduce peptide amino acid sequences that were then used to query publicly available data. This approach identified tomato genes or expressed sequence tags for 44 of the proteins analyzed. Three superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes were differentially regulated among genotypes, and patterns of hydrogen peroxide accumulation were genotype- and tissue-specific, indicating a role for oxidative stress in response to C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Steady-state mRNA and protein levels for SOD, thioredoxin M-type, S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, and pathogenesis-related proteins demonstrated similar patterns of differential regulation. Lines containing Rcm 2.0 and Rcm 5.1 accumulate different proteins and steady-state mRNAs in response to inoculation, suggesting that the two loci may confer resistance through distinct mechanisms. PMID:15384492
Coaker, Gitta L; Willard, Belinda; Kinter, Michael; Stockinger, Eric J; Francis, David M
Patterns of spore deposition by Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pine pitch canker (PPC) of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata) and other conifers, were studied between May 2003 and April 2004 at two sites in Northern California using a novel spore trapping method combined with a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach. At each study site, two plots were sampled by placing spore traps at 100 m intervals along transects 600 m in length. The air was sampled continuously by exchanging the spore traps every 2 weeks. The spore deposition rate (DR), ranged from 0 to 1.3 x 10(5) spores m(2). Spores were detected throughout the year, with higher trapping frequencies (TF) during the rainy season (November to April), than during the dry season (May to October). The detection of spores on traps at distances larger than 200 m from any Monterey pine, suggests at least midrange aerial dispersal. Finally, different inoculum loads were associated with trees displaying different levels of disease symptoms, suggesting infectiousness of the pathogen varies as the disease progresses. This study represents one of the first documenting continuous inoculum pressure values over an entire year for a forest pathogen, and provides important epidemiological information that will be invaluable in the development of disease progression models. PMID:18943249
Garbelotto, M; Smith, T; Schweigkofler, W
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) or canker sores occur in 20-60% of all persons. The lesion occurs because of increased viscosity of oral submucosal extracellular matrix (ECM). The lesions begin in the second decade and peak in the third decade. Sex hormones are an important influence on fibroblasts, especially in the early phase of exposure. Sex hormones are known to concentrate, to a degree, in the bucal mucosa in animals. Lesions of RAS localize clinically and experimentally at sites of trauma. In the skin, edema is known to trigger early cellular inflammation. Increased viscosity of ECM heightens the response. The histopathology of the ulcerated lesions is similar to that which occurs under sites of acute inflammation in the skin. Systemic corticosteroids completely supress the lesions. Caustics, such as silver nitrate and phenol, stop the growth and pain of lesions. Irritants are known to break ECM viscosity. The oral mucosa exerts some control on underlying ECM. Substances such as lectins influencing the mucosa could influence ECM. Soluble substances in food or organisms could also penetrate to influence ECM. A number of different foods have been incriminated as trigger agents in individual cases. This includes gluten in patients with gluten sensitive enteropathy. Gluten is known to alter the mucosa of the small intestine in persons with celiac disease. PMID:1809853
Stone, O J
STEM Planet is a well designed website that is aimed at students of all levels and ages. The site is comprised of "employees of the National Network of Digital Schools (NNDS), a non-profit developer of the Lincoln Interactive online curriculum." These employees believe that students "succeed when their educational program offers a wide variety of learning opportunities." Visitors to the site will find that the learning opportunities consist of DIY experiments, discussion topics, polls, quizzes and activities. Some examples include making a homemade battery, origami engineering, taking a quiz on space phenomena, and exploring quantum mechanics. Visitors can join and comment on the Science, Technology, Engineering and Math "discussions" by simply registering on the site. Those only interested in reading the comments made in the forums under the discussion tab need not register. The "Experts" tab allows visitors to see all the great minds behind STEM Planet, including an extremely bright 14 year old.
This one-year project is being led by the Center for Occupational Research and Development (CORD). Funded by the U.S. Department of Education Office of Vocational and Adult Education under cooperative agreement with the League for Innovation in the Community College, the project is building on the work of the College and Career Transitions Initiative begun by the League in 2003. At the heart of the project are the six Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) career clusters that have provided the context for instructional materials that demonstrate the convergence of academic and technical content at the community college level. CORD staff, in conjunction with 38 faculty conferees from community colleges across the country, have developed 63 integrated curriculum projects for use in math, science, and technical courses in the six STEM-related clusters health science; information technology; manufacturing; transportation; science, technology, engineering and mathematics; and agriculture. The classroom-ready projects are intended to aid in student mastery of essential mathematics and science concepts while motivating students to pursue STEM-related careers.
We report a case of Alternaria infection of the nail and cornea in an immunocompromised patient working in the paper-manufacturing industry. This unusual clinical presentation could represent an occupational disorder. The importance of histologic examination of the altered nails is emphasized. The proof of a real nondermatophytic onychomycosis is established only when hyphae of culture-proven molds are shown inside the nail plate. PMID:8989935
Arrese, J E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E
High severity of Altemaria blight disease is a major constraint in production of rapeseed-mustard in India. The aim of this study was to investigate the suppressive potential of chemicals viz., zinc sulphate, borax, sulphur, potash and calcium sulphate, aqueous extracts viz., Eucalyptus globosus (50 g l-1) leaf extract and garlic (Allium sativum) bulb (20 g l-1) extract, cow urine and bio-agents Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescence in comparison with the recommended chemical fungicide (mancozeb), against foliar disease Alternaria blight of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. and Coss] under five different geographical locations of India. Mancozeb recorded the lowest mean severity (leaf: 33.1%; pod: 26.3%) of Alternaria blight with efficacy of garlic bulb extract alone (leaf = 34.4%; pod = 27.3%) or in combination with cow urine (leaf = 34.2%; pod = 28.6%) being statistically at par with the recommended chemical fungicide. Chemicals also proved effective in reducing Alternaria blight severity on leaves and pods of Indian mustard (leaf = 36.3-37.9%; pod = 27.5-30.1%). The effective treatments besides providing significant reduction in disease severity also enabled increase in dry seed yield of the crop (mancozeb = 2052 kg ha-1; garlic = 2006 kg ha-1; control = 1561 kg ha-1). PMID:22167952
Meena, P D; Chattopadhyay, C; Kumar, A; Awasthi, R P; Singh, R; Kaur, S; Thomas, L; Goyal, P; Chand, P
Stem Up is a pilot program to aid the disadvantaged youth of Boyle Heights in Los Angeles. The intent of the program was to integrate STEM career pathways into schools and local communities. Visitors will find the K-12 Students tab near the top of the page to be filled with almost two dozen links for all levels of student learning about science and technology. Some of the sites include "Arrick Robotics", for 9-12 graders, "Extreme Science", for all ages, and "Fun Engineering" for kids aged 10-14. The "Boyle Heights" link is a great resource for residents of the LA neighborhood, as well as informative for those visitors unfamiliar with it. There is full contact information for the city and state representatives of the neighborhood, the Police Activities League, and a live theatre that performs outreach through theatre, and classical plays. The "Parents" link also provides a number of science and technology links that parents and kids can visit together.
Bacterial citrus canker disease, which is caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, is one of the most devastating diseases of citrus plants. In this study, we characterized the role of the two-component regulatory system ColR/ColS in the pathogenicity of X. citri subsp. citri. colS mutants (256A10 and 421E7), colR mutants (386C6 and 417E10), and a colR colS double mutant (306DSR) all lost pathogenicity and produced no symptoms on grapefruit leaves inoculated by either pressure infiltration or the spray method. The pathogenicity defect of the colS, colR, and colR colS mutants could be complemented using the wild-type colS, colR, and colR colS genes, respectively. Mutation of colS or colR significantly reduced X. citri subsp. citri growth in planta. The ColR/ColS system also played important roles in bacterial biofilm formation in glass tubes and on leaf surfaces, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) production, catalase activity, and tolerance of environmental stress, including phenol, copper, and hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays demonstrated that the ColR/ColS system positively regulated the expression of important virulence genes, including hrpD6, hpaF, the O-antigen LPS synthesis gene rfbC, and the catalase gene katE. Overall, our data indicate that the two-component regulatory system ColR/ColS is critical for X. citri subsp. citri virulence, growth in planta, biofilm formation, catalase activity, LPS production, and resistance to environmental stress. PMID:21257774
Yan, Qing; Wang, Nian
Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a trichothecene mycotoxin which can be considered to be an indicator of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination in grain, feed and food. Recent studies have described the presence of glucose conjugated DON, which is a product of plant metabolism, but there is a lack of information available on DON conjugation by fungi. The aim of the current study was, therefore, to investigate the ability of fungi to metabolize DON into hydrolysable conjugated DON. Alternaria alternata (54028 NRRL) and Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis (54029 NRRL) were found to be capable of metabolizing DON into hydrolysable conjugated DON. This ranged from 13-23 % conjugation of DON in potato dextrose agar media and from 11-36 % in corn-based media. There was, however, considerable variation between fungal strains in the ability to conjugate DON as only a slight increase in hydrolysable conjugated DON (1-6 %) was observed when incubating with A. oryzae (5509 NRRL). A. oryzae (5509 NRRL) was also shown to degrade DON (up to 92 %) over 21 days of incubation on corn-based media. The current study shows that conjugation of DON can be achieved through fungal metabolism in addition to being a product of plant metabolism. PMID:24263850
Tran, S T; Smith, T K
This study describes the gel-free phosphoproteomic analysis of the phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria brassicicola and Botrytis cinerea grown in vitro under nonlimiting conditions. Using a combination of strong cation exchange and IMAC prior to LC-MS, we identified over 1350 phosphopeptides per fungus representing over 800 phosphoproteins. The preferred phosphorylation sites were found on serine (>80%) and threonine (>15%), whereas phosphorylated tyrosine residues were found at less than 1% in A. brassicicola and at a slightly higher ratio in B. cinerea (1.5%). Biological processes represented principally among the phoshoproteins were those involved in response and transduction of stimuli as well as in regulation of cellular and metabolic processes. Most known elements of signal transduction were found in the datasets of both fungi. This study also revealed unexpected phosphorylation sites in histidine kinases, a category overrepresented in filamentous ascomycetes compared to yeast. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange database with identifier PXD000817 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000817). PMID:24825570
Davanture, Marlène; Dumur, Jérôme; Bataillé-Simoneau, Nelly; Campion, Claire; Valot, Benoît; Zivy, Michel; Simoneau, Philippe; Fillinger, Sabine
A novel white rot fungus Alternaria alternata CMERI F6 decolorized 99.99% of 600 mg/L congo red within 48 h in yeast extract-glucose medium at 25 °C, pH 5 and 150 rpm. Physicochemical parameters like carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, pH and aeration were optimized to develop faster decolorization process. Dye decolorization rate was maximal (20.21 mg/L h) at 25 °C, pH 5, 150 rpm and 800 mg/L dye, giving 78% final decolorization efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis revealed that the fungus become amorphous after dye adsorption. HPLC and FTIR analysis of the extracted metabolites suggested that the decolorization occurred through biosorption and biodegradation. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and acid-alkali and 70% ethanol treatment revealed the efficient dye retention capability of the fungus. The foregoing results justify the applicability of the strain in removal of congo red from textile wastewaters and their safe disposal. PMID:24034987
Chakraborty, Samayita; Basak, Bikram; Dutta, Subhasish; Bhunia, Biswanath; Dey, Apurba
Antagonistic Bacillus spp. displaying in vitro production of siderophore, chitinase, and ?-1,3-glucanase were identified from dual culture assays. In independent greenhouse studies, seed bacterization and soil application of Bacillus atrophaeus S2BC-2 challenge inoculated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (FOL) and Alternaria solani (AS) recorded low percent disease index of 25.3 and 28.7, respectively, over nonbacterised pathogen control (44.3 and 56.4). The low disease incidence corroborated with tomato growth promotion with high vigor index (8,041.2) and fresh plant weight (82.5 g) on challenge inoculation with FOL. Analysis of root and leaf samples in rhizobacterial treatment challenged with FOL and AS revealed maximum induction of chitinase (1.9 and 1.7 U/mg of protein, respectively) and ?-1,3-glucanase (23.5 and 19.2 U/mg of protein, respectively). In native gel activity assays, the rhizobacterial treatment on challenge inoculation strongly expressed three high intensity PO isoforms along with one low intensity isoform. In studies on genetic diversity of the Bacillus strains by repetitive extragenomic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR) and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) patterns, ARDRA was more highly discriminant than REP-PCR and allowed grouping of the strains and differentiation of the antagonistic strains from other isolates. PMID:21503737
Shanmugam, Veerubommu; Atri, Kamini; Gupta, Samriti; Kanoujia, Nandina; Naruka, Digvijay Singh
Alternaria alternata produces more than 60 secondary metabolites, among which alternariol (AOH) and alternariol-9-methyl ether (AME) are important mycotoxins. Whereas the toxicology of these two polyketide-based compounds has been studied, nothing is known about the genetics of their biosynthesis. One of the postulated core enzymes in the biosynthesis of AOH and AME is polyketide synthase (PKS). In a draft genome sequence of A. alternata we identified 10 putative PKS-encoding genes. The timing of the expression of two PKS genes, pksJ and pksH, correlated with the production of AOH and AME. The PksJ and PksH proteins are predicted to be 2222 and 2821 amino acids in length, respectively. They are both iterative type I reducing polyketide synthases. PksJ harbors a peroxisomal targeting sequence at the C-terminus, suggesting that the biosynthesis occurs at least partly in these organelles. In the vicinity of pksJ we found a transcriptional regulator, altR, involved in pksJ induction and a putative methyl transferase, possibly responsible for AME formation. Downregulation of pksJ and altR caused a large decrease of alternariol formation, suggesting that PksJ is the polyketide synthase required for the postulated Claisen condensations during the biosynthesis. No other enzymes appeared to be required. PksH downregulation affected pksJ expression and thus caused an indirect effect on AOH production.
Saha, Debjani; Fetzner, Ramona; Burkhardt, Britta; Podlech, Joachim; Metzler, Manfred; Dang, Ha; Lawrence, Christopher; Fischer, Reinhard
Alternaria brassicicola is a fungal pathogen of many agriculturally important cruciferous crops. Cyclobrassinin hydrolase (CH) is an enzyme produced by A. brassicicola that catalyzes the transformation of the cruciferous phytoalexin cyclobrassinin into S-methyl[(2-sulfanyl-1H-indolyl-3)methyl]carbamothioate. The purification and characterization of CH was performed using a four-step chromatography method. SDS-PAGE and gel exclusion chromatography indicated that CH is a tetrameric protein with molecular mass of 330 kDa. Sequence analysis and chemical modification of CH with selective reagents suggested that the enzyme mediates hydrolysis of cyclobrassinin using a catalytic amino acid triad. Enzyme kinetic studies using cyclobrassinin and 1-methylcyclobrassinin as substrates revealed that CH displayed positive substrate cooperativity. Investigation of the effect of nine phytoalexins and two derivatives on the activity of CH indicated that six compounds displayed inhibitory activity: brassilexin, 1-methylbrassilexin, dioxibrassinin, camalexin, brassicanal A and sinalexin. The enzyme kinetics of CH strongly suggested that brassilexin and 1-methylbrassilexin are noncompetitive inhibitors of CH activity, and that camalexin is a competitive inhibitor while dioxibrassinin inhibits CH through a mixed mechanism. The phytoalexin brassilexin is the most effective inhibitor of CH (K(i)=32 ± 9 ?M). These results suggest that crops able to accumulate higher concentration of brassilexin would display higher resistance levels to the fungus. PMID:24275350
Pedras, M Soledade C; Minic, Zoran
A valve stem and lock is disclosed which includes a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.
Deveney, J.E.; Sanderson, S.N.
A valve stem and lock include a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.
Deveney, Joseph E. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Sanderson, Stephen N. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM
The shortage of donors for organ transplantation has stimulated research on stem cells as a potential resource for cell-based therapy in all human tissues. Stem cells have been used for regenerative medicine applications in many organ systems, including the genitourinary system. The potential applications for stem cell therapy have, however, been restricted by the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem
Tamer Aboushwareb; Anthony Atala
Previous studies have shown that an ethylene (ET)-dependent pathway is involved in the cell death signalling triggered by Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL) toxin in detached tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. In this study, the role of jasmonic acid (JA) signalling in programmed cell death (PCD) induced by AAL toxin was analysed using a 35S::prosystemin transgenic line (35S::prosys), a JA-deficient mutant spr2, and a JA-insensitive mutant jai1. The results indicated that JA biosynthesis and signalling play a positive role in the AAL toxin-induced PCD process. In addition, treatment with the exogenous ET action inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) greatly suppressed necrotic lesions in 35S::prosys leaves, although 35S::prosys leaflets co-treated with AAL toxin and STS still have a significant high relative conductivity. Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) markedly enhanced the sensitivity of spr2 and jai1 mutants to the toxin. However, compared with AAL toxin treatment alone, exogenous application of JA to the ET-insensitive mutant Never ripe (Nr) did not alter AAL toxin-induced cell death. In addition, the reduced ET-mediated gene expression in jai1 leaves was restored by co-treatment with ACC and AAL toxin. Furthermore, JA treatment restored the decreased expression of ET biosynthetic genes but not ET-responsive genes in the Nr mutant compared with the toxin treatment alone. Based on these results, it is proposed that both JA and ET promote the AAL toxin-induced cell death alone, and the JAI1 receptor-dependent JA pathway also acts upstream of ET biosynthesis in AAL toxin-triggered PCD.
Zhang, Liping; Jia, Chengguo; Liu, Lihong; Zhang, Zhiming; Li, Chuanyou; Wang, Qiaomei
Background A major production constraint on the important ornamental species chrysanthemum is black spot which is caused by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria tenuissima. The molecular basis of host resistance to A. tenuissima has not been studied as yet in any detail. Here, high throughput sequencing was taken to characterize the transcriptomic response of the chrysanthemum leaf to A. tenuissima inoculation. Results The transcriptomic data was acquired using RNA-Seq technology, based on the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. Four different libraries derived from two sets of leaves harvested from either inoculated or mock-inoculated plants were characterized. Over seven million clean reads were generated from each library, each corresponding to a coverage of >350,000 nt. About 70% of the reads could be mapped to a set of chrysanthemum unigenes. Read frequency was used as a measure of transcript abundance and therefore as an identifier of differential transcription in the four libraries. The differentially transcribed genes identified were involved in photosynthesis, pathogen recognition, reactive oxygen species generation, cell wall modification and phytohormone signalling; in addition, a number of varied transcription factors were identified. A selection of 23 of the genes was transcription-profiled using quantitative RT-PCR to validate the RNA-Seq output. Conclusions A substantial body of chrysanthemum transcriptomic sequence was generated, which led to a number of insights into the molecular basis of the host response to A. tenuissima infection. Although most of the differentially transcribed genes were up-regulated by the presence of the pathogen, those involved in photosynthesis were down-regulated.
Flavan-3-ols are the major flavonoids present in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves. These are known to have antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties in vitro. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase is considered to be an important enzyme of flavonoid pathway leading to accumulation of flavan-3-ols in tea. Expression analysis revealed the upregulation in transcript levels of C. sinensis flavanone 3-hydroxylase (CsF3H) encoding gene under salt stress. In this study, the biotechnological potential of CsF3H was evaluated by gene overexpression in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi). Overexpression of CsF3H cDNA increased the content of flavan-3-ols in tobacco and conferred tolerance to salt stress and fungus Alternaria solani infection. Transgenic tobaccos were observed for increase in primary root length, number of lateral roots, chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme expression and their activities. Also, they showed lesser malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage compared to control tobacco plants. Further, transgenic plants produced higher degree of pectin methyl esterification via decreasing pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity in roots and leaves under unstressed and salt stressed conditions. The effect of flavan-3-ols on pectin methyl esterification under salt stressed conditions was further validated through in vitro experiments in which non-transgenic (wild) tobacco seedlings were exposed to salt stress in presence of flavan-3-ols, epicatechin and epigallocatechin. The in vitro exposed seedlings showed similar trend of increase in pectin methyl esterification through decreasing PME activity as observed in CsF3H transgenic lines. Taken together, overexpression of CsF3H provided tolerance to salt stress and fungus A. solani infection to transgenic tobacco through improved antioxidant system and enhanced pectin methyl esterification. PMID:24880475
Mahajan, Monika; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar
Differential profiling of selected defence-related genes induced on challenge with Alternaria brassicicola in resistant white mustard and their comparative expression pattern in susceptible India mustard.
The lack of availability of sources of resistance against Alternaria brassicicola within the family Brassicaceae has made oilseed mustard plants a target for one of the most damaging and widespread fungal diseases, Alternaria black spot. Of the other non-host-resistant/tolerant plants, Sinapis alba, white mustard, is considered to be the most important apart from Arabidopsis. To understand the defence response of S. alba upon incompatible interaction with this pathogen, a functional genomic approach using cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism was performed. The highly reproducible bands, found to be either more amplified or uniquely present in infected S. alba plants compared with non-infected plants, were further subjected to comparative reverse Northern analysis in the incompatible white mustard (S. alba) and compatible India mustard (Brassica juncea L.) plants. The suppression of 46% of the genes in the compatible background indicates the possibility of effective and specific recognition of Alternaria in S. alba. Analysis of the 118 genes up-regulated specifically in infected S. alba compared with B. juncea showed that 98 genes have similarity to proteins such as receptor-like protein kinase genes, genes involved with calcium-mediated signalling and salicylic acid-dependent genes as well as other genes of known function in Arabidopsis. The apparent expression profile data were further confirmed for selected genes by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Classification of these genes on the basis of their induction pattern in Arabidopsis indicates that the expression profile of several of these genes was distinct in S. alba compared with B. juncea. PMID:19019005
Ghose, Kaushik; Dey, Sanjukta; Barton, Hannah; Loake, Gary J; Basu, Debabrata
This present work describes the application of liquid chromatography-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to analyse Alternaria alternata crude extracts. Altenusin (1), alternariol (2), 3'-hydroxyalternariol monomethyl ether (3), and alternariol monomethyl ether (4), were separated and identified. High-resolution mass spectrometry confirmed the proposed structures. The cytotoxic effects of these compounds towards plants were determined using soybean (Glycine max) cell cultures as a model. EC(50) values which range from 0.11 (± 0.02) to 4.69 (± 0.47) ?M showed the high cytotoxicity of these compounds. PMID:23442929
de Souza, Gezimar D; Mithöfer, Axel; Daolio, Cristina; Schneider, Bernd; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson
This project aims to identify adult prostate stem cells, using tissue recombination techniques. To date, we have initiated studies utilizing mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells as outlined in the original statement of work. We have made progress tow...
To develop a more robust understanding of the relationship between non-formal, school-based STEM activities and students' success and persistence in STEM fields, this study evaluates how math club participation influences math GPA and how science club participation influences science GPA. Additionally, this study evaluates how math or science…
Gottfried, Michael A.; Williams, Darryl N.
\\u000a The purpose of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is to replace diseased, damaged, or absent hematopoietic stem\\u000a cells (HSCs) with healthy HSCs. In general, allogeneic transplants are used when the hematopoietic stem cells are diseased\\u000a (e.g., leukemia), damaged (e.g., sickle cell disease), or absent (e.g., severe immunodeficiency disease). Autologous transplants\\u000a are used to provide stem cell rescue after higher doses
Robbie Norville; Deborah Tomlinson
Stem cells possess two basic characteristics: they are able to renew themselves and to develop into different cell types.\\u000a The link between normal stem cells and tumor cells could be examined in three aspects: what are the differences and similarities\\u000a in the control of self-renewal capacity between stem cells and tumor cells; whether tumor cells arise from stem cells; do
László Kopper; Melinda Hajdú
The two most basic properties of stem cells are the capacities to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple cell or tissue\\u000a types (1–3). Generally, stem cells are categorized as one of three types: embryonic stem cells (ES), embryonic germ cells (EG), or adult\\u000a stem cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastula (Fig. 1). They
Kathy E. Mitchell
An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS) method was developed for the determination of altenuene (ALT), alternariol (AOH), tentoxin and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) in apple juice concentrate (AJC). The sample was diluted with water, and then cleaned up with a PS DVB column. The quantification was carried out using an external standard method. The UPLC was performed on a BEH C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) using a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water. The MS/MS was performed with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of quantification of the four Alternaria toxins were between 1.0 and 5.0 microg/L. The recoveries were 77.8%-117.2% with the relative standard deviations less than 9.7%. The method is sensitive, stable and reliable. It's suitable for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of the four Alternaria toxins in AJC. PMID:21438363
He, Qiang; Li, Jianhua; Kong, Xianghong; Yue, Aishan; Wu, Shuangmin
The workshop on Hair Follicle Stem Cells brought together investigators who have used a variety of approaches to try to understand the biology of follicular epithelial stem cells, and the role that these cells play in regulating the hair cycle. One of the main concepts to emerge from this workshop is that follicular epithelial stem cells are multipotent, capable of
Robert M. Lavker; Tung-Tien Sun; Hideo Oshima; Yann Barrandon; Masashi Akiyama; Corinne Ferraris; Genevieve Chevalier; Bertrand Favier; Colin A. B. Jahoda; Danielle Dhouailly; Andrei A. Panteleyev; Angela M. Christiano
The STEM-Works website was created to provide DoD personnel and other users around the world with access to high-quality, engaging science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) content to aid in advocating STEM content and skills to students. D...
D. M. Etter L. G. Groark
ABSTRACT Eradication of Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) has become increasingly difficult over the last decade, following the introduction of the Asian leafminer into Brazil and Florida, which has led to changes in the eradication protocols. The present study, undertaken in Brazil, was aimed at characterizing the spatial patterns of ACC in commercial citrus plantings to gain better understanding of the dynamics of the disease subsequent to introduction of the leafminer. The spatial patterns of ACC were mapped in 326 commercial citrus plantings and statistically assessed at various spatial dimensions. The presence of "within-group" aggregation in each plot was examined via beta-binomial analysis for groups of trees parsed into three-by-three-tree quadrats. The relative intensity of aggregation was expressed as a binomial index of dispersion (D) and heterogeneity among plots expressed as the intracluster correlation coefficient, rho. The population of data sets was found to fall into three D categories, D < 1.3, 1.3 = D = 3.5, and D > 3.5. These categories then were related to other spatial characteristics. The binary form of Taylor's power law was used to assess the overdispersion of disease across plots and was highly significant. When the overall population of plots was parsed into D categories, the Taylor's R (2) improved in all cases. Although these methods assessed aggregation well, they do not give information on the number of foci or aggregations within each plot. Therefore, the number of foci per 1,000 trees was quantified and found to relate directly to the D categories. The lowest D category could be explained by a linear relationship of number of foci versus disease incidence, whereas the higher two categories were most easily explained by a generalized beta function for the same relationship. Spatial autocorrelation then was used to examine the spatial relationships "among groups" composed of three-by-three-tree quadrats and determine common distances between these groups of ACC-infected trees. Aggregation was found in >84% of cases at this spatial level and there was a direct relationship between increasing D category and increasing core cluster size, and aggregation at the among-group spatial hierarchy was generally stronger for the within-row than for the across-row orientation. Clusters of disease were estimated to average between 18 and 33 tree spaces apart, and the presence of multiple foci of infection was commonplace. The effectiveness of the eradication protocol of removing all "exposed" trees within 30 m surrounding each "ACC-infected tree" was examined, and the distance of subsequent infected trees beyond this 30-m zone from the original focal infected tree was measured for each plot. A frequency distribution was compiled over all plots to describe the distance that would have been needed to circumscribe all of these outliers as a theoretical alternative protocol to the 30-m eradication protocol. The frequency distribution was well described by a monomolecular model (R(2) = 0.98) and used to determine that 90, 95, and 99% of all newly infected trees occurred within 296, 396, and 623 m of prior-infected trees in commercial citrus plantings, respectively. These distances are very similar to previously reported distances determined for ACC in residential settings in Florida. PMID:18943598
Gottwald, T R; Bassanezi, R B; Amorim, L; Bergamin-Filho, A
Stem cell niches are special microenvironments that maintain stem cells and control their behavior to ensure tissue homeostasis and regeneration throughout life. The liver has a high regenerative capacity that involves stem/progenitor cells when the proliferation of hepatocytes is impaired. In recent years progress has been made in the identification of potential hepatic stem cell niches. There is evidence that hepatic progenitor cells can originate from niches in the canals of Hering; in addition, the space of Disse may also serve as a stem cell niche during fetal hematopoiesis and constitute a niche for stellate cells in adults.
Kordes, Claus; Haussinger, Dieter
Evidence has accumulated that cancer develops from a population of quiescent tissue committed\\/pluripotent stem cells (TCSC\\/PSC) or cells developmentally closely related to them that are distributed in various organs. To support this notio n, stem cells (SC) are long lived cells and thus may become the subject of accumulating mutations that are crucial for initiation\\/progression of cancer. More important, they
Mariusz Z. Ratajczak
Rationale Recent studies suggest that host immune responses to environmental fungi may play an important role in the development of allergic diseases, such as human asthma. Epithelium is considered an active participant in allergic inflammation. We previously reported that aspartate protease from Alternaria induces the activation and degranulation of human eosinophils that are mediated through protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2). However, our current knowledge on the innate immune responses of epithelium to environmental fungi is very limited. We investigated the responses of epithelium to fungi and the mechanisms of these responses. Methods Human airway epithelial cell line BEAS-2B and Calu-3 (both from American Type Culture Collection) were incubated with PAR-2 peptides and extracts of various fungi. The cellular responses, including GM-CSF, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, eotaxin, eotaxin-2 and RANTES production as well as increases in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i), were examined. To characterize the proteases involved in these responses, protease inhibitors such as pepstatin A and alkalo-thermophilic Bacillus inhibitor (ATBI), HIV protease inhibitors and 4-amidinophenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride were used. To investigate the role of PAR-2, PAR-2-agonistic and PAR-2-antagonistic peptides were used. Results PAR-2-activating peptide, but not the control peptide, induced GM-CSF, IL-6 and IL-8 production; these cellular responses were accompanied by a quick and marked increase in [Ca2+]i. Among 7 common environmental fungi, only Alternaria induced GM-CSF, IL-6 and IL-8 production and increased [Ca2+]i response. Both cytokine production and increased [Ca2+]i were significantly inhibited by PAR-2 antagonist peptide and by aspartate protease inhibitors (pepstatin A, ritonavir, nelfinavir and ATBI), but not by the PAR-2 control peptide or by other protease inhibitors. Conclusions Aspartate proteases from Alternaria induce cytokine production and calcium response in airway epithelium that is mediated through PAR-2. This protease-mediated activation of airway epithelium may be implicated in the development and exacerbation of airway allergic disease.
Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Wada, Kota; White, Thomas; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Kita, Hirohito
Early blight, caused by Alternaria solani, is an economically important foliar disease of potato in several production areas of the United States. Few potato cultivars possess resistance to early blight; therefore, the application of fungicides is the primary means of achieving disease control. Previous work in our laboratory reported resistance to the succinate dehydrogenase-inhibiting (SDHI) fungicide boscalid in this plant pathogen with a concomitant loss of disease control. Two phenotypes were detected, one in which A. solani isolates were moderately resistant to boscalid, the other in which isolates were highly resistant to the fungicide. Resistance in other fungal plant pathogens to SDHI fungicides is known to occur due to amino acid exchanges in the soluble subunit succinate dehydrogenase B (SdhB), C (SdhC), and D (SdhD) proteins. In this study, the AsSdhB, AsSdhC, and AsSdhD genes were analyzed and compared in sensitive (50% effective concentration [EC50] < 5 ?g ml(-1)), moderately resistant (EC50 = 5.1 to 20 ?g ml(-1)), highly resistant (EC50 = 20.1 to 100 ?g ml(-1)), and very highly resistant (EC50 > 100 ?g ml(-1)) A. solani isolates. In total, five mutations were detected, two in each of the AsSdhB and AsSdhD genes and one in the AsSdhC gene. The sequencing of AsSdhB elucidated point mutations cytosine (C) to thymine (T) at nucleotide 990 and adenine (A) to guanine (G) at nucleotide 991, leading to an exchange from histidine to tyrosine (H278Y) or arginine (H278R), respectively, at codon 278. The H278R exchange was detected in 4 of 10 A. solani isolates moderately resistant to boscalid, exhibiting EC50 values of 6 to 8 ?g ml(-1). Further genetic analysis also confirmed this mutation in isolates with high and very high EC50 values for boscalid of 28 to 500 ?g ml(-1). Subsequent sequencing of AsSdhC and AsSdhD genes confirmed the presence of additional mutations from A to G at nucleotide position 490 in AsSdhC and at nucleotide position 398 in the AsSdhD, conferring H134R and H133R exchanges in AsSdhC and AsSdhD, respectively. The H134R exchange in AsSdhC was observed in A. solani isolates with sensitive, moderate, highly resistant, and very highly resistant boscalid phenotypes, and the AsSdhD H133R exchange was observed in isolates with both moderate and very high EC50 value boscalid phenotypes. Detection and differentiation of point mutations in AsSdhB resulting in H278R and H278Y exchanges in the AsSdhB subunit were facilitated by the development of a mismatch amplification mutation assay. Detection of these two mutations in boscalid-resistant isolates, in addition to mutations in AsSdhC and AsSdhD resulting in an H134R and H133R exchange, respectively, was achieved by the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect and differentiate the sensitive and resistant isolates based on the single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in all three genes. A single A. solani isolate with resistance to boscalid did not contain any of the above-mentioned exchanges but did contain a substitution of aspartate to glutamic acid at amino acid position 123 (D123E) in the AsSdhD subunit. Among A. solani isolates possessing resistance to boscalid, point mutations in AsSdhB were more frequently detected than mutations in genes coding for any other subunit. PMID:23901829
Mallik, I; Arabiat, S; Pasche, J S; Bolton, M D; Patel, J S; Gudmestad, N C
Since the initial discovery of leukemia stem cells nearly a decade ago, a great deal of cancer research has focused on the\\u000a identification of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in many types of solid tumors, including breast cancer. Through analysis of cell\\u000a surface markers and xenotransplant models, a subpopulation of putative human breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) that is CD24-negative\\/CD44-positive\\u000a (CD24?\\/CD44+)
Kazuharu Kai; Yoshimi Arima; Toshio Kamiya; Hideyuki Saya
Stem cells, which have a great capacity for self-renewal and can differentiate into at least one committed cell type, exist\\u000a in embryonic and adult organisms of many phyla. Although stem cells of various types from mice and other lower organisms have\\u000a been studied for many years, it was not until the derivation of stem cell lines from human embryos in
Victoria L. Browning; Jon S. Odorico
The tremendous capacity of bone to regenerate is indicative of the presence of stem cells with the capability, by definition,\\u000a to self-renew as well as to give rise to daughter cells. These primitive progenitors, termed mesenchymal stem cells or bone\\u000a marrow stromal stem cells, exist postnatally, and are multipotent with the ability to generate cartilage, bone, muscle, tendon,\\u000a ligament, and
Richard O. C. Oreffo; Cyrus Cooper; Christopher Mason; Mark Clements
\\u000a Stem cells are functionally defined as long-lived cells that can both self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types.\\u000a Embryonic stem cells, considered totipotent cells, give rise to all embryonic tissue layers and, consequently, all tissue\\u000a types. Hematologists\\/oncologists are perhaps most familiar with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): the single pluripotent cell\\u000a that can give rise to all lymphoid, myeloid and erythroid
Elizabeth O. Hexner; Stephen G. Emerson
Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring provides objective measures of nervous system function that are of value when operating in proximity to the brain stem. Real-time measurements of function can be correlated to operative manipulations in order to reduce the risk of damage in critically important regions. Techniques for evaluating brain stem function clinically and electrophysiologically are presented along with their applications during surgery of the brain stem. PMID:8353442
Sclabassi, R J; Kalia, K K; Sekhar, L; Jannetta, P J
The mission of the Stem Cell Resources website is "to provide timely, reliable, high-quality and scientifically credible stem cell information for the educational community worldwide." The website is a division of Bioscience Network which publishes online science education materials. On the site, visitors will find a stem cell image library, a multimedia area, and a special section titled "For Educators". In the "For Educators" area, visitors will find links to a primer on stem cells and links to educational resources on stem cells from curriculum to case studies to lesson plans from such trusted sources as the Australian Stem Cell Centre and the National Institutes of Health. Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes videos that show how embryonic stem cell lines are made, along with other animations and graphics on the topic. Additionally, the site's "SCR Library" area includes the link to the Stem Cell Image Library, which provides dozens of photos of stem cells taken from researchers at the University of Cambridge and other institutions.
Purpose of review To review the latest developments in reproductive tract stem cell biology. Recent findings In 2004, two studies indicated that ovaries contain stem cells which form oocytes in adults and that can be cultured in vitro into mature oocytes. A live birth after orthotopic transplantation of cyropreserved ovarian tissue in a woman whose ovaries were damaged by chemotherapy demonstrates the clinical potential of these cells. In the same year, another study provided novel evidence of endometrial regeneration by stem cells in women who received bone marrow transplants. This finding has potential for the use in treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the cause of endometriosis, which may have its origin in ectopic transdifferentiation of stem cells. Several recent studies have demonstrated that fetal cells enter the maternal circulation and generate microchimerism in the mother. The uterus is a dynamic organ permeable to fetal stem cells, capable of transdifferentiation and an end organ in which bone marrow stem cells may differentiate. Finally stem cell transformation can be an underlying cause of ovarian cancer. Summary Whereas we are just beginning to understand stem cells, the potential implications of stem cells to reproductive biology and medicine are apparent.
Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S.
Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. In the past few years, major efforts have been made to define more precisely the medium composition in which stem cells grow or differentiate. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness, and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh's plane. PMID:20803548
van der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, François; Wion, Didier
The increasing use of the hair follicle as a stem cell paradigm is due in part to the complex interplay between epithelial, dermal and other cell types, each with interesting differentiation potential and prospective therapeutic applications. This review focuses on research into the environmental niche, gene expression profiles and plasticity of hair follicle stem cell populations, where many recent advances
James M. Waters; Gavin D. Richardson; Colin A. B. Jahoda
Stem cell therapy and translational stem cell research require large-scale supply of stem cells at high purity and viability, thus leading to the development of stem cell separation technologies. This review covers key technologies being applied to stem cell separation, and also highlights exciting new approaches in this field. First, we will cover conventional separation methods that are commercially available and have been widely adapted. These methods include Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), Magnet-activated cell sorting (MACS), pre-plating, conditioned expansion media, density gradient centrifugation, field flow fractionation (FFF), and dielectrophoresis (DEP). Next, we will introduce emerging novel methods that are currently under development. These methods include improved aqueous two-phase system, systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), and various types of microfluidic platforms. Finally, we will discuss the challenges and directions towards future breakthroughs for stem cell isolation. Advancing stem cell separation techniques will be essential for clinical and research applications of stem cells. PMID:23505616
Zhu, Beili; Murthy, Shashi K
Preclinical and clinical research have shown that stem cell therapy could be a promising therapeutic option for many diseases in which current medical treatments do not achieve satisfying results or cure. This article describes stem cells sources and their therapeutic applications in dermatology today.
Ogliari, Karolyn Sassi; Marinowic, Daniel; Brum, Dario Eduardo; Loth, Fabrizio
The isolation of human embryonic stem cells (ESC) in 1998 has created the hope that stem cells will one day be used to regenerate tissues and organs, even though it is obvious that a number of hurdles will need to be overcome for such therapies to become reality. The cloning of “Dolly” in 1997, more than 40 years after the first
A quantitative comparison of reactive and nonreactive Mach stems was made. It was found that the triple point structure is unaffected by the presence of reaction but that the trajectory of the Mach stem is slightly affected by the presence of reaction. Th...
H. O. Barthel R. A. Strehlow
Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh’s plane.
Van Der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, Francois; Wion, Didier
The objective of this research was to identify mouse mammary gland stem cells, with the ultimate goal being their isolation. We hypothesized that mammary gland stem cells can be identified by generating transgenic mice using a LEF/TCF-dependent reporter g...
D. J. Sussman
Simple, cheap device locks valve stem so its setting cannot be changed by unauthorized people. Device covers valve stem; cover locked in place with standard padlock. Valve lock made of PVC pipe and packing band. Shears, drill or punch, and forming rod only tools needed.
Burley, Richard K.; Guirguis, Kamal S.
Stem cells hold significant promise for regeneration of tissue defects and disease-modifying therapies. Although numerous promising stem cell approaches are advancing in clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell therapies offer more immediate hope by integrating an autologous cell source with a well-established surgical intervention in a single procedure. Herein, the major developments in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical studies, are reviewed, and the potential regenerative mechanisms and the roles of different cell populations in the regeneration process are discussed. Although intraoperative stem cell therapies have been shown to be safe and effective for several indications, there are still critical challenges to be tackled prior to adoption into the standard surgical armamentarium.
Coelho, Monica Beato; Cabral, Joaquim M.S.; Karp, Jeffrey M.
The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has developed a multi-pronged approach to remedying the lack of academic emphasis on the STEM subjects, from preschool through college, as well as the lack of interest in STEM subjects on the part of youth in the United States. Visitors can read about the University's four goals under the "Goals" tab at the top of any page. The "STEM Ed Projects" tab contains a directory of externally funded projects divided into four categories, and which are then further divided into subcategories. Visitors will find such projects as "Improving Supply and Demand Data for the Preparation of Secondary Science and Math Teachers" and "Clean Energy Education Workshop", under the category that aims to shape policy and advocate for STEM education. The "Resources" tab contains half a dozen categories under which visitors will find Outreach Resources, Teacher Development and Resources, and Policy and Advocacy for STEM Ed.
Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process by which cytoplasmic components are sequestered in autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for degradation. As a major intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, autophagy is crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis as well as remodeling during normal development, and dysfunctions in autophagy have been associated with a variety of pathologies including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and neurodegenerative disease. Stem cells are unique in their ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cells in the body, which are important in development, tissue renewal and a range of disease processes. Therefore, it is predicted that autophagy would be crucial for the quality control mechanisms and maintenance of cellular homeostasis in various stem cells given their relatively long life in the organisms. In contrast to the extensive body of knowledge available for somatic cells, the role of autophagy in the maintenance and function of stem cells is only beginning to be revealed as a result of recent studies. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of autophagy in embryonic stem cells, several tissue stem cells (particularly hematopoietic stem cells), as well as a number of cancer stem cells. We discuss how recent studies of different knockout mice models have defined the roles of various autophagy genes and related pathways in the regulation of the maintenance, expansion and differentiation of various stem cells. We also highlight the many unanswered questions that will help to drive further research at the intersection of autophagy and stem cell biology in the near future.
Guan, Jun-Lin; Simon, Anna Katharina; Prescott, Mark; Menendez, Javier A.; Liu, Fei; Wang, Fen; Wang, Chenran; Wolvetang, Ernst; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Zhang, Jue
Background and purpose Many clinical reports have indicated that polished hip stems show better clinical results than rough stems of the same geometry. It is still unknown, however, what the mechanical effects are of different surface finishes on the cement at the cement-bone interface. We compared mechanical effects in an in vitro cemented hip arthroplasty model. Methods Two sizes of double-taper polished stems and matt-processed polished stems (rough stems) were fixed into composite femurs. A 1-Hz dynamic load was applied to the stems for 1 million cycles. An 8-h no-load period was set after every 16 h of load. Stem subsidence within the cement, and compressive force and horizontal cement creep at the cement-bone interface, were measured. Results Compared to rough stems, stem subsidence, compressive force and cement creep for polished stems were a maximum of 4, 12, and 7-fold greater, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between stem subsidence and compressive force for polished stems. In contrast, a strong negative correlation was found between stem subsidence and compressive force for rough stems. There was also a statistically significant relationship between compressive force on the cement and cement creep for the polished stems, but no significant relationship was found for rough stems. Interpretation This is the first evidence that different surface finishes of stems can have different mechanical effects on the cement at the cement-bone interface. Stem subsidence in polished stems resulted in compressive force on the cement and cement creep. The mechanical effects that polished taper stems impart on cement at the cement-bone interface probably contribute to their good long-term fixation and excellent clinical outcome.
Yamada, Kengo; Hirosaki, Kenichi; Takano, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Tadami
Despite the discovery over 60 years ago by Huggins and Hodges 1 that prostate cancers respond to androgen deprivation therapy, hormone-refractory prostate cancer remains a major clinical challenge. There is now mounting evidence that solid tumours originate from undifferentiated stem cell-like cells coexisting within a heterogeneous tumour mass that drive tumour formation, maintain tumour homeostasis and initiate metastases. This review focuses upon current evidence for prostate cancer stem cells, addressing the identification and properties of both normal and transformed prostate stem cells.
Lang, SH; Frame, FM; Collins, AT
This game uses a modified Uno deck to review concepts related to stem cell research and diabetes. Specifically, it covers material in the "Pulse-Chase Primer," "Pancreatic Beta Cells," and "Microarrays and Stem Cells" activities from the same resource which may or may not be necessary to complete prior to this activity (depending on learner's prior knowledge). Learners accumulate points and answer questions about stem cells, development, and microarrays so that they can be the first to differentiate into a pancreatic beta (Î²) cell. This activity is recommended for learners studying Biology at the High School (honors, IB and AP) or Undergraduate level.
Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in
Timon C. Liu; Rui Duan; Yan Li; Xue-Feng Li; Li-Ling Tan; Songhao Liu
Determination of the Alternaria mycotoxin tenuazonic acid in cereals by high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization ion-trap multistage mass spectrometry after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine
Tenuazonic acid (TA) is a major Alternaria mycotoxin. In the present work a novel approach for the detection of TA in cereals by liquid chromatography–ion-trap multistage mass spectrometry after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine is described. The product of the derivatization reaction and its major MS2 fragments were characterised by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance tandem mass spectrometry. Without preconcentration, the established method
David Siegel; Tatjana Rasenko; Matthias Koch; Irene Nehls
The Works is a museum in central Ohio that was created by local citizens in the 1990s who were "interested in preserving Licking County's industrial past." The museum is an official affiliate of the Smithsonian Institution and a member of the Association of Science-Technology Centers. Visitors will find that the "Educator Info" link has many resources for teachers, such as "Literature Links", with book lists for various ages that build on the educational programs at the museum. The "STEM Education" link will be of particular interest to those who are interested in holding their own STEM activities for the kids and adults in their community. Some of the activities highlighted for visitors to the website are STEM Industry Tours, STEM Science night to "show kids the "WOW" factor of science through a variety of hands-on demonstrations and experiments", and a festival to engage high school students, called STEMfest.
There is a new impetus for encouraging students to become more knowledgeable about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and perhaps encourage them to choose a career in science-related fields. Several groups and individuals, including
This brief video from WPSU introduces a diverse group of graduate students with interests in STEM careers. From deep sea diving to creating video games, each graduate student is pursuing activities beyond the stereotypical view of a nerdy scientist.
This brief video from WPSU introduces a diverse group of middle school students with interests in STEM careers. Whether creating robots or designing solar cars, each student dreams of activities beyond the stereotypical view of a nerdy scientist.
\\u000a \\u000a Just a few short years ago, we still used to think that we were born with a finite number of irreplaceable neurons. However,\\u000a in recent years, there has been increasingly persuasive evidence that suggests that neural stem cell (NSC) maintenance and\\u000a differentiation continue to take place throughout the mammal’s lifetime. Studies suggest that neural stem cells not only persist\\u000a to
Kimberly D. Tran; Allen Ho; Rahul Jandial
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is now an important treatment for numerous diseases. Donation of hematopoietic stem cells, either through bone marrow (BM) harvesting or peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection, is a well-established and generally accepted procedure. The BM is aspirated from the posterior iliac crest under spinal or general anesthesia, and common side effects include fatigue and local pain. PBSC collection requires 4-6 days of G-CSF injections and leukapheresis 1-2 times. Common side effects of these procedures include bone pain, fatigue, and headache. The side effects of BM and PBSC collections are mostly transient and well tolerated. Severe adverse events are uncommon in healthy donors. At present, there is no definitive evidence to show that the stem cell donation increases the risk of marrow failure or cancer development. Nevertheless, all donors must be carefully evaluated and fully informed before donation. Donors must be able to provide informed consent without being coerced or pressured. Donors and graft products must be examined for potential agents to avoid transmitting infections and other diseases that may jeopardize donor's health during stem cell collection or recipient's well being after transplantation. Understanding the potential physical and psychological complications of stem cell donation and factors that may increase risks is very important to ensure that transplantation physicians maintain positive attitude in conducting this benevolent practice. PMID:23420184
Chen, Shu-Huey; Wang, Tso-Fu; Yang, Kuo-Liang
The identification of a fraction of cancer stem cells (CSCs) associated with resistance to chemotherapy in most solid tumors leads to the dogma that eliminating this fraction will cure cancer. Experimental data has challenged this simplistic and optimistic model. Opposite to the classical cancer stem cell model, we introduced the stemness phenotype model (SPM), which proposed that all glioma cells possess stem cell properties and that the stemness is modulated by the microenvironment. A key prediction of the SPM is that to cure gliomas all gliomas cells (CSCs and non-CSCs) should be eliminated at once. Other theories closely resembling the SPM and its predictions have recently been proposed, suggesting that the SPM may be a useful model for other type of tumors. Here, we review data from other tumors that strongly support the concepts of the SPM applied to gliomas. We include data related to: (1) the presence of a rare but constant fraction of CSCs in established cancer cell lines, (2) the clonal origin of cancer, (3) the symmetrical division, (4) the ability of “non-CSCs” to generate “CSCs,” and (5) the effect of the microenvironment on cancer stemness. The aforenamed issues that decisively supported the SPM proposed for gliomas can also be applied to breast, lung, prostate cancer, and melanoma and perhaps other tumors in general. If the glioma SPM is correct and can be extrapolated to other types of cancer, it will have profound implications in the development of novel modalities for cancer treatment.
Cruz, M. H.; Siden, A.; Calaf, G. M.; Delwar, Z. M.; Yakisich, J. S.
Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., isolated from rhizosphere soil of tomato and pepper plants, were evaluated in vitro as potential antagonists of fungal pathogens. Strains were characterized using the API 20NE biochemical system, and tested against the causal agents of stem canker and leaf blight (Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici), southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.), and root rot (Fusarium solani). To this end, dual culture antagonism assays were carried out on 25% Tryptic Soy Agar, King B medium, and Potato Dextrose Agar to determine the effect of the strains on mycelial growth of the pathogens. The effect of two concentrations of FeCl(3) on antagonism against Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici was also tested. In addition, strains were screened for ability to produce exoenzymes and siderophores. Finally, the selected Pseudomonas strain, PCI2, was evaluated for effect on tomato seedling development and as a potential candidate for controlling tomato damping-off caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., under growth chamber conditions. All strains significantly inhibited Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici, particularly in 25% TSA medium. Antagonistic effect on Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. and Fusarium solani was greater on King B medium. Protease was produced by 30% of the strains, but no strains produced cellulase or chitinase. Growth chamber studies resulted in significant increases in plant stand as well as in root dry weight. PCI2 was able to establish and survive in tomato plants rhizosphere after 40 days following planting of bacterized seeds. PMID:21507555
Pastor, Nicolás; Carlier, Evelin; Andrés, Javier; Rosas, Susana B; Rovera, Marisa
The ocular surface consists of two distinct types of epithelial cells; conjunctival and corneal. Although anatomically continuous, these epithelia comprise two distinct cell populations. Corneal stem cells are located at the limbus. The microenvironment of the limbus is important in maintaining “stemness” of the stem cells and also acts as a barrier to conjunctival epithelial cells preventing them from migration onto the corneal surface.Damage to the limbus results in varying degrees of limbal stem cell deficiency with characteristic clinical features including conjunctivalization of the cornea. Regenerative management of corneal conjunctivalization utilizing stem cells comprises of two approaches; limbal auto- or allografts by using existing stem cells and induction and regeneration of ocular tissues from embryonic stem cells. Herein, we review stem cells and limbal stem cells in particular, types of epithelial cells in the cornea, markers of corneal epithelial cells in different stages, as well as the current approach to corneal epithelial regeneration.
Ebrahimi, Marzieh; Taghi-Abadi, Ehsan; Baharvand, Hossein
A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.
A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.
Wordin, John J. (Bingham County, ID)
Alternaria sesami causes leaf spot disease in Sesamum orientale. Conidium germination, inoculation, penetration and colonization of the pathogen on the plant surfaces were studied using scanning electron microscopy. Electron microscopy analysis revealed multiple germ tubes from conidium that spread in all direction across the leaf surfaces. Penetration in the plant surface occured, directly through the epidermis or via stomata with or without the appressoria formation. Hyphal penetration continued through the substomata cavity and some of hyphal branches grew in the intercellular space of mesophyll tissue. Hyphal toxin, caused cell and cell wall damages. Changes in different biochemical parameters in the diseased sesame plants (both in wild and cultivar) were compared to control. Transmission electron microscopy showed structural changes in the chloroplast of diseased plants. Isozyme pattern and assays of different enzymes, namely catalase, acid phosphatase and peroxidase expressed varied level of activities. Meanwhile, esterase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase in diseased plants showed remarkable levels compared to control. Due to the infection, chlorophyll content, carbohydrates and total soluble protein decreased whereas free amino acid, proline, phenols and disease-related proteins increased in the host plants. Differential SDS-PAGE band profiling of total soluble proteins were also observed in plants due to the infection. PMID:24228391
Lubaina, A S; Murugan, K
Here, we report the identification, purification, characterization and gene cloning of a novel hypersensitive response inducing protein secreted by necrotrophic fungus, Alternaria tenuissima, designated as hypersensitive response inducing protein 1 (Hrip1). The protein caused the formation of necrotic lesions that mimic a typical hypersensitive response and apoptosis-related events including DNA laddering. The protein-encoding gene was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The sequence analysis revealed that the cDNA is 495 bp in length and the open reading frame (ORF) encodes for a polypeptide of 163 amino acids with theoretical pI of 5.50 and molecular weight of 17?562.5?Da. Hrip1 induced calcium influx, medium alkalinization, activation of salicylic acid-induced protein kinase and several defence-related genes after infiltration in tobacco leaves. Cellular damage, restricted to the infiltrated zone, occurred only several hours later, at a time when expression of defence-related genes was activated. After several days, systemic acquired resistance was also induced. The tobacco plant cells that perceived the Hrip1 generated a cascade of signals acting at local, short, and long distances, and caused the coordinated expression of specific defence responses in a way similar to hypersensitivity to tobacco mosaic virus. Thus, Hrip1 represents a powerful tool to investigate further the signals and their transduction pathways involved in induced disease resistance in necrotrophic fungi. PMID:22591019
Kulye, Mahesh; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Yuliang; Zeng, Hongmei; Yang, Xiufen; Qiu, Dewen
In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth. PMID:24657421
Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A
In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.
Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.
To find new metabolites similar to cotylenins and fusicoccins from the fungus Alternaria brassicicola, screening tests were carried out using the lettuce seed dormancy breaking assay. Activity-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract from the culture using the assay afforded the isolation of two novel fusicoccane diterpenoids named brassicicenes J (1) and K (2), along with three known brassicicenes A (3), B (4), and F (5). Their structures were elucidated from extensive NMR spectral data and by comparison of these with those reported in the literature. Brassicicenes (1-5) exhibited weak to moderate seed dormancy breaking activities against lettuce seeds in the presence of abscisic acid. In addition, the necrotic/apoptotic activities of the brassicicenes (1-5), fusicoccin A (6) and cotylenin A (7) were evaluated by determining their cytotoxicity, cell viability and caspase-3/7 activation on the HL-60 cell line. Brassicicene K (2) exhibited similar cytostatic profiles to that of cotylenin A (7), and brassicicenes J (1), A (3), B (4), and F (5) exhibited necrotic activity. This is the first report of the seed dormancy breaking activity of brassicicenes in plants, and of necrotic/apoptotic activity in mammalian cells. PMID:24689212
Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Takeue, Sayaka; Oogushi, Megumi; Yagi, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Takeshi; Toyota, Masao; Asakawa, Yoshinori
The effects of the cruciferous phytoalexin brassinin on the protein expression patterns of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola were investigated. Cell-free protein extracts of mycelia of A. brassicicola induced with brassinin at 0.50 and 0.10 mm were fractionated, and the proteins in soluble fractions were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Spots corresponding to differentially expressed proteins were digested and analysed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. The number of differentially expressed proteins was significantly higher in mycelia treated with brassinin at 0.50 mm (96 protein spots) than in mycelia treated with brassinin at 0.10 mm (18 protein spots). The majority of differentially expressed proteins included proteins involved in metabolism, processing, synthesis and several heat shock proteins (HSPs). Brassinin concentrations below 0.30 mm induced HSP90, a protein involved in the regulation of morphogenetic signalling in fungi, suggesting that 0.30 mm is a minimal concentration of brassinin necessary for the protection of brassicas against A. brassicicola. These results reveal that HSP90 is a potential target for inhibition in stressed A. brassicicola and confirm that brassinin has strong detrimental effects on A. brassicicola, suggesting that its detoxification by the fungus suppresses an important defence layer of the plant. PMID:22111639
Pedras, M Soledade C; Minic, Zoran
This ATE professional development project is a collaboration between STEM faculty teams from Butler County Community College (Butler, PA), Purdue University (West Lafayette, IN), Sinclair Community College (Dayton, OH), Ventura College (Ventura, CA), College of the Redwoods (Eureka, Ca.), as well as high school STEM faculty in each of the states involved. Faculty teams at the respective locations are working together to design, build, and analyze solid body electric guitars as a means of learning applied concepts of science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and as a means of understanding product lifecycle management. This experience is providing teachers and students an accurate simulation of the collaborative design and rapid manufacturing processes routinely used in business and industry. Over 150 STEM faculty members from high schools and community colleges are participating in an intense five-day Summer Professional Development Program and are having extensive academic year follow-up activities. The teacher participants are using these processes and simulations in their classrooms to enhance the STEM laboratory learning experience. Nearly 5000 students are learning about cross-disciplinary STEM problem solving that is becoming increasingly important for new design technicians to experience.On the site, visitors can find curriculum materials including classroom tools and information on guitar fabrication. There are also details of upcoming workshops and professional development opportunities. In the Storefront section, visitors can learn about how to purchase a guitar kit.
Here, the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) Clinical Translation Committee introduces a series of articles outlining the current status, opportunities, and challenges surrounding the clinical translation of stem cell therapeutics for specific medical conditions.
Scadden, David; Srivastava, Alok
Sperm and egg production requires a robust stem cell system that balances self-renewal with differentiation. Self-renewal at the expense of differentiation can cause tumorigenesis, whereas differentiation at the expense of self-renewal can cause germ cell depletion and infertility. In most organisms, and sometimes in both sexes, germline stem cells (GSCs) often reside in a defined anatomical niche. Factors within the niche regulate a balance between GSC self-renewal and differentiation. Asymmetric division of the germline stem cell to form daughter cells with alternative fates is common. The exception to both these tendencies is the mammalian testis where there does not appear to be an obvious anatomical niche and where GSC homeostasis is likely accomplished by a stochastic balance of self-renewal and differentiation and not by regulated asymmetric cell division. Despite these apparent differences, GSCs in all organisms share many common mechanisms, although not necessarily molecules, to guarantee survival of the germline.
Spradling, Allan; Fuller, Margaret T.; Braun, Robert E.; Yoshida, Shosei
This poster highlights the Capitol College Center for Space Science Education and Public Outreach program to developing future leaders in the science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields. The STEM Leaders Program directly works to strengthen the nation's future workforce. Working in partnership with two area community colleges, the goal for the program is to increase the number of individuals who receive a bachelor's degree, advance to the graduate level, and are prepared to enter the workforce as leaders in a STEM discipline. This poster session provides a summary of the 2011 spring workshops, highlights speakers from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Lockheed Martin, and shares initial results from the spring 2011 program.
Gibbs, M. G.
Scientists have tried for decades to understand cancer development in the context of therapeutic strategies. The realization that cancers may rely on ''cancer stem cells'' that share the self-renewal feature of normal stem cells has changed the perspective with regard to new approaches for treating the disease. In this review, we propose that one of the differences between normal stem
Linheng Li; William B. Neaves
This review is the second in a series of four devoted to the analysis of recent studies on stem cells. The first considered embryo stem cells (ES). This review covers bone marrow stem cells. They are analysed initially in a historical perspective, and then in relation to foundation studies in the later 20th century before a detailed analysis is presented
Looking for an Internet radio station focusing on programing about science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)? The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) announced on 26 September the launch of Science360 Radio, which it says is the first Internet radio stream dedicated to STEM programing. Science360 includes more than 100 radio shows and podcasts that are available on the Web as well as on iPhone and Android devices. The shows originate from a variety of sources, including NSF, other U.S. government agencies, science organizations, universities, and media outlets. For more information, see http://science360.gov/files/.
The STEM2Stern Coordination Office works alongside all of the Naval Laboratories and Warfare Centers to offer a broad range of STEM education and outreach programs to support the next generation of scientists and engineers who will bring their talents to U.S. Naval laboratories and warfighting centers. On this site, visitors will find information about the multiple programs offered in each of the fifty states, success stories of students who have gone through these programs, and information for all those interested to get involved (students, educators, parents, and mentors).
Glioblastomas are highly malignant primary brain tumors with one of the worst survival rates among all human cancers. With a more profound understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of tumor initiation and acquired resistance to conventional radio- and chemotherapy, novel therapeutic targets might be discovered to optimize therapeutic approaches. In this regard, the identification of a small cellular subpopulation, called glioblastoma stem cell or stem-like cells or glioma-initiating cells or brain tumor propagating cells, has gained attention. In this article, we briefly summarize the current state of knowledge about this tumor cell population and discuss future directions for basic and clinical research. PMID:21253762
Tabatabai, Ghazaleh; Weller, Michael
Cancer is the main cause of death in advanced countries. It has become progressively clear that cancer cells are distributed in a developmental hierarchy, in which whole cancer tissues originate from cancer stem cells(CSCs). CSCs were first discovered in a case of acute myeloid leukemia. Leukemia stem cells(LSCs)are resistant to conventional chemotherapies because of their dormancy and are therefore the cause of minimal residual disease and relapse. Many investigators are working to develop novel therapeutic strategies for eliminating LSCs. LSC biology is discussed in the first part of this review, and the therapeutic approach to LSC targeting is described in the latter part. PMID:24743272
Multilocus Variable-Number-Tandem-Repeats Analysis (MLVA) distinguishes a clonal complex of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains isolated from recent outbreaks of bacterial wilt and canker in Belgium
Background Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm) causes bacterial wilt and canker in tomato. Cmm is present nearly in all European countries. During the last three years several local outbreaks were detected in Belgium. The lack of a convenient high-resolution strain-typing method has hampered the study of the routes of transmission of Cmm and epidemiology in tomato cultivation. In this study the genetic relatedness among a worldwide collection of Cmm strains and their relatives was approached by gyrB and dnaA gene sequencing. Further, we developed and applied a multilocus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) scheme to discriminate among Cmm strains. Results A phylogenetic analysis of gyrB and dnaA gene sequences of 56 Cmm strains demonstrated that Belgian Cmm strains from recent outbreaks of 2010–2012 form a genetically uniform group within the Cmm clade, and Cmm is phylogenetically distinct from other Clavibacter subspecies and from non-pathogenic Clavibacter-like strains. MLVA conducted with eight minisatellite loci detected 25 haplotypes within Cmm. All strains from Belgian outbreaks, isolated between 2010 and 2012, together with two French strains from 2010 seem to form one monomorphic group. Regardless of the isolation year, location or tomato cultivar, Belgian strains from recent outbreaks belonged to the same haplotype. On the contrary, strains from diverse geographical locations or isolated over longer periods of time formed mostly singletons. Conclusions We hypothesise that the introduction might have originated from one lot of seeds or contaminated tomato seedlings that was the source of the outbreak in 2010 and that these Cmm strains persisted and induced infection in 2011 and 2012. Our results demonstrate that MLVA is a promising typing technique for a local surveillance and outbreaks investigation in epidemiological studies of Cmm.
\\u000a Recent results have increased our understanding of normal stem cells and the signalling pathways which regulate them during\\u000a the development of the mammary gland. Tumours in many tissues are now thought to develop from dysregulated stem cells and\\u000a depend on activated stem cell self-renewal pathways such as Notch for their tumourigenic capacity. These cancer stem cells\\u000a are recognised by specific
G. Farnie; R. B. Clarke
\\u000a Tumours are thought to contain a subpopulation of self-renewing stem cells, the so-called cancer stem cells, which maintain the tumour. Moreover, tumours themselves are thought to arise from organ-specific stem cells. In epithelia, transformation of these cells leads to spread of a mutated stem cell clone through the epithelial sheet, leading to the development of a pre-invasive lesion. Barrett’s oesophagus
Nicholas A. Wright
\\u000a Hydra’s potential immortality and extensive capacity to regenerate and self-renew is due to the presence of three distinct stem\\u000a cell lineages: ectodermal and endodermal epithelial stem cells, and interstitial stem cells. Over the last few years, stem\\u000a cells in Hydra became well-defined in cellular terms of their biology. More recently, efforts using the nearly unlimited potential for tissue\\u000a manipulation combined
Thomas C. G. Bosch
Stem cells that have totipotent, pluripotent and multipotent abilities can be divided into two main categories: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells originate from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage during embryonic development whereas adult stem cells are derived from bone marrow. Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into mature cells or transdifferentiate
Shahrul Hisham; Zainal Ariffin; Rohaya Megat Abdul Wahab; Ismanizan Ismail; Nor Muhammad Mahadi; Zaidah Zainal Ariffin
The concept that stem cells are controlled by particular microenvironments known as 'niches' has been widely invoked. But niches have remained largely a theoretical construct because of the difficulty of identifying and manipulating individual stem cells and their surroundings. Technical advances now make it possible to characterize small zones that maintain and control stem cell activity in several organs, including
Allan Spradling; Daniela Drummond-Barbosa; Toshie Kai
Much interest and effort has focused on the therapeutic potential of stem cell technology to treat presently intractable diseases. However, this scientific promise has been accompanied by important issues, including ethical hurdles, political policies and dilemmas concerning cell-source selection (embryonic versus adult stem cells). Although the contribution of stem cells to medical research seems enormous, many countries now face complex
Gorka Orive; Rosa M. Hernández; Alicia R. Gascón; Manoli Igartua; José Luis Pedraz
Striking differences between physics and biology have important implications for interdisciplinary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The author is a physicist with interdisciplinary connections. The research group in which he works, the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics at the University of Texas at Austin, is…
This site, created by Michelle Lacey of Yale University, gives a definition and an example of stem and leaf plots. The author helps to explain how these graphs are used, and in what fields and/or disciplines. Even though brief, this is still a valuable reference item for anyone interested in statistics.
STEM--the catchy shorthand for "science, technology, engineering and mathematics"--has been part of the school improvement discussion for more than a decade, as educational leaders and policy makers have underscored the importance of these areas in preparing students for an internationally competitive, 21st-century economy. But while the acronym…
So what does it take to achieve excellence in STEM education? That is the title of the author's presentation delivered at International Technology and Engineering Educators Association's (ITEEA's) FTEE "Spirit of Excellence" Breakfast on March 16, 2012, in Long Beach, California. In preparation for this presentation, the author went back and read…
Clark, Aaron C.
This website hosts resources for K-12 educators looking to access and share ideas for STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) education. Monthly webinars (archived), lessons, videos, a blog, posters and other materials are available. Professional development opportunities are posted. Some resources require a free registration.
The central dogma in stem cell biology has been that cells isolated from a particular tissue can renew and differentiate into lineages of the tissue it resides in. Several studies have challenged this idea by demonstrating that tissue specific cell have considerable plasticity and can cross-lineage restriction boundary and give rise to cell types of other lineages. However, the lack
Uma Lakshmipathy; Catherine Verfaillie
uman embryonic stem (ES) cells capture the imagination because they are immortal and have an almost unlimited developmental potential (Fig. 1.1: How hESCs are derived). After many months of growth in culture dishes, these remarkable cells maintain the ability to form cells ranging from muscle to nerve to blood — potentially any cell type that makes up the body. The
H. J. Rippon; A. E. Bishop
The cell of origin of cancer has been a strongly debated topic through out the history of cancer research. This review provides a historic framework and a synopsis of how the theories of cancer initiation and progression evolved from early times to the present day. We present the concept of a cancer stem cell, and review for you the literature
JeanMarie Houghton; Alexei Morozov; Iva Smirnova; Timothy C. Wang
The dogma that the genesis of new cells is a negligible event in the adult mammalian brain has long influenced our perception and understanding of the origin and development of CNS tumours. The discovery that new neurons and glia are produced throughout life from neural stem cells provides new possibilities for the candidate cells of origin of CNS neoplasias. The
Rossella Galli; Brent A. Reynolds; Angelo L. Vescovi
BioEd Online is an "educational resource for educators, students, and parents" from the Baylor College of Medicine. This is an excellent place to find educational materials and current information in the field of biology. The "Hot Topics" section of this site focus on current events and issues in biology that are "receiving national attention." The controversy surrounding embryonic stem cells, and coverage it receives in news and research publications in the United States and around the world definitely warrants a closer look at this issue. This "Hot Topic" compiled by Joseph Marx, PhD, Nancy Moreno, PhD, and Deanne Erdmann, MS, contains a brief discussion of the stem cell debate, and includes references and links for further reading. Related news articles can be found as well. Be sure to check out the related slide sets for both embryonic stem cells and stem cells. These slide shows are an excellent resource to use in the classroom. Just add the slides you wish to use to your tray and then view or download your slide tray for an instant visual resource.
Erdmann, Deanne; Marx, Joseph; Moreno, Nancy
Two patients sustained an ischemic brain stem infarction during medical examination and treatment. The first patient lost consciousness and the spontaneous respiration ceased during X-ray examination of the cervical spine when the neck was hyperextended. After some minutes he regained conciousness but was found to be tetraplegic, and the patient deceased 4 months later. The angiogram revealed thrombosis of the
R. Fogelholm; P. Karli
STEM (Science Technology Engineering & Math) at work, presented by the Florida Advanced Technological Education Center, includes a number of educational puzzles for use in the classroom. Puzzles include an energy audit exercise, measurement of air bag movement, and diesel fuel additive volatility.
Microfluidic techniques have been recently developed for cell-based assays. In microfluidic systems, the objective is for these microenvironments to mimic in vivo surroundings. With advantageous characteristics such as optical transparency and the capability for automating protocols, different types of cells can be cultured, screened, and monitored in real time to systematically investigate their morphology and functions under well-controlled microenvironments in response to various stimuli. Recently, the study of stem cells using microfluidic platforms has attracted considerable interest. Even though stem cells have been studied extensively using bench-top systems, an understanding of their behavior in in vivo-like microenvironments which stimulate cell proliferation and differentiation is still lacking. In this paper, recent cell studies using microfluidic systems are first introduced. The various miniature systems for cell culture, sorting and isolation, and stimulation are then systematically reviewed. The main focus of this review is on papers published in recent years studying stem cells by using microfluidic technology. This review aims to provide experts in microfluidics an overview of various microfluidic systems for stem cell research.
Wu, Huei-Wen; Lin, Chun-Che; Lee, Gwo-Bin
Sphingolipids play an important role in signal transduction pathways that regulate physiological functions and stress responses in eukaryotes. In plants, recent evidence suggests that their metabolic precursors, the long-chain bases (LCBs) act as bioactive molecules in the immune response. Interestingly, the virulence of two unrelated necrotrophic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides and Alternaria alternata, which are pathogens of maize and tomato plants, respectively, depends on the production of sphinganine-analog mycotoxins (SAMs). These metabolites inhibit de novo synthesis of sphingolipids in their hosts causing accumulation of LCBs, which are key regulators of programmed cell death. Therefore, to gain more insight into the role of sphingolipids in plant immunity against SAM-producing necrotrophic fungi, we disrupted sphingolipid metabolism in Nicotiana benthamiana through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the serine palmitoyltransfersase (SPT). This enzyme catalyzes the first reaction in LCB synthesis. VIGS of SPT profoundly affected N. benthamiana development as well as LCB composition of sphingolipids. While total levels of phytosphingosine decreased, sphinganine and sphingosine levels increased in SPT-silenced plants, compared with control plants. Plant immunity was also affected as silenced plants accumulated salicylic acid (SA), constitutively expressed the SA-inducible NbPR-1 gene and showed increased susceptibility to the necrotroph A. alternata f. sp. lycopersici. In contrast, expression of NbPR-2 and NbPR-3 genes was delayed in silenced plants upon fungal infection. Our results strongly suggest that LCBs modulate the SA-dependent responses and provide a working model of the potential role of SAMs from necrotrophic fungi to disrupt the plant host response to foster colonization. PMID:22990908
Rivas-San Vicente, Mariana; Larios-Zarate, Guadalupe; Plasencia, Javier
Thirty-eight isolates of Alternaria alternata from pistachio orchards with a history of Pristine (pyraclostrobin + boscalid) applications and displaying high levels of resistance to boscalid fungicide (mean EC(50) values >500 microg/ml) were identified following mycelial growth tests. A cross-resistance study revealed that the same isolates were also resistant to carboxin, a known inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh). To determine the genetic basis of boscalid resistance in A. alternata the entire iron sulphur gene (AaSdhB) was isolated from a fungicide-sensitive isolate. The deduced amino-acid sequence showed high similarity with iron sulphur proteins (Ip) from other organisms. Comparison of AaSdhB full sequences from sensitive and resistant isolates revealed that a highly conserved histidine residue (codon CAC in sensitive isolates) was converted to either tyrosine (codon TAC, type I mutants) or arginine (codon CGC, type II mutants) at position 277. In other fungal species this residue is involved in carboxamide resistance. In this study, 10 and 5 mutants were of type I and type II respectively, while 23 other resistant isolates (type III mutants) had no mutation in the histidine codon. The point mutation detected in type I mutants was used to design a pair of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers to facilitate rapid detection. A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay in which amplified gene fragments were digested with AciI was successfully employed for the diagnosis of type II mutants. The relevance of these modifications in A. alternata AaSdhB sequence in conferring boscalid resistance is discussed. PMID:18944299
Avenot, H F; Sellam, A; Karaoglanidis, G; Michailides, T J
The Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata causes black spot of Japanese pear by producing a host-specific toxin known as AK-toxin. Restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) mutagenesis was used to tag genes required for toxin biosynthesis. Protoplasts of a wild-type strain were treated with a linearized plasmid along with the restriction enzyme used to linearize the plasmid. Of 984 REMI transformants recovered, three produced no detectable AK-toxin and lost pathogenicity on pear leaves. Genomic DNA flanking the integrated plasmid was recovered from one of the mutants. With the recovered DNA used as a probe, a cosmid clone of the wild-type strain was isolated. Structural and functional analyses of an 8.0-kb region corresponding to the tagged site indicated the presence of two genes. One, designated AKT1, encodes a member of the class of carboxyl-activating enzymes. The other, AKT2, encodes a protein of unknown function. The essential roles of these two genes in both AK-toxin production and pathogenicity were confirmed by transformation-mediated gene disruption experiments. DNA gel blot analysis detected AKT1 and AKT2 homologues not only in the Japanese pear pathotype strains but also in strains from the tangerine and strawberry pathotypes. The host-specific toxins of these two pathotypes are similar in structure to AK-toxin. Homologues were not detected in other pathotypes or in non-pathogenic strains of A. alternata, suggesting acquisition of AKT1 and AKT2 by horizontal transfer. PMID:10432635
Tanaka, A; Shiotani, H; Yamamoto, M; Tsuge, T
Background The epidermis is an important protective barrier that is essential for maintenance of life. Maintaining this barrier requires continuous cell proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, these processes must be balanced to produce a normal epidermis. The stem cells of the epidermis reside in specific locations in the basal epidermis, hair follicle and sebaceous glands and these cells are responsible for replenishment of this tissue. Scope of review A great deal of effort has gone into identifying protein epitopes that mark stem cells, in identifying stem cell niche locations, and in understanding how stem cell populations are related. We discuss these studies as they apply to understanding normal epidermal homeostasis and skin cancer. Major conclusions An assortment of stem cell markers have been identified that permit assignment of stem cells to specific regions of the epidermis, and progress has been made in understanding the role of these cells in normal epidermal homeostasis and in conditions of tissue stress. A key finding is the multiple stem cell populations exist in epidermis that give rise to different structures, and that multiple stem cell types may contribute to repair in damaged epidermis. General significance Understanding epidermal stem cell biology is likely to lead to important therapies for treating skin diseases and cancer, and will also contribute to our understanding of stem cells in other systems. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells.
Eckert, Richard L.; Adhikary, Gautam; Balasubramanian, Sivaprakasam; Rorke, Ellen A.; Vemuri, Mohan C.; Boucher, Shayne E.; Bickenbach, Jackie R.; Kerr, Candace
Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stem cells are capable of generating muscle, cardiac, hepatic, renal, and bone cells. Purified hematopoietic stem cells have generated cardiac and hepatic cells and reversed disease manifestations in these tissues. Hematopoietic stem cells also alter phenotype with cell cycle transit or circadian phase. During a cytokine stimulated cell cycle transit, reversible alterations of differentiation and engraftment occur. Primitive hematopoietic stem cells express a wide variety of adhesion and cytokine receptors and respond quickly with migration and podia extensions on exposure to cytokines. These data suggest an "Open Chromatin" model of stem cell regulation in which there is a fluctuating continuum in the stem cell/progenitor cell compartments, rather than a hierarchical relationship. These observations, along with progress in using low dose treatments and tolerization approaches, suggest many new therapeutic strategies involving stem cells and the creation of a new medical specialty; stemology. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6
Quesenberry, Peter J.; Colvin, Gerald A.; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Frimberger, Angela E.; Dooner, Mark S.; Mcauliffe, Christina I.; Miller, Caroline; Becker, Pamela; Badiavas, Evangelis; Falanga, Vincent J.; Elfenbein, Gerald; Lum, Lawrence G.
Any clinician dreams to obtain the regeneration of the destroyed organ for his patient. In the human being, the regeneration of complex structures is not possible, except the liver and the bone marrow, which can be regenerated because of the presence of adult stem cells in these tissues. The stem cells have two principal properties: they ensure their self-renewal and they have the ability to differentiate into several cellular types. Using specific markers allowing the identification of the stem cells in bone marrow, stem cells were observed in dental pulp tissues. Although the origin, the identification, and the localization of these stem cells of dental pulp remain under consideration, the optimism in research on stem cells permits to believe that the knowledge on dental stem cells will lead to their use in therapeutics. PMID:17720580
Renard, Emmanuelle; Lopez-Cazaux, Séréna; Guicheux, Jérome; Weiss, Pierre; Laboux, Olivier; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte
The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine.
Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.
The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:24845994
Murphy, William L; McDevitt, Todd C; Engler, Adam J
The capacity of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes to contribute to their own maintenance has long been recognized. More recently, studies have indicated the presence of both intra-hepatic and extra-hepatic stem/progenitor cell populations. The intraorgan compartment probably derives primarily from the biliary tree, most particularly the most proximal branches, i.e. the canals of Hering and smallest ductules. The extra-organ compartment is at least in part derived from diverse populations of cells from the bone marrow. These three tiers of liver cell regeneration serve to maintain the normal organ and to regenerate damaged parenchyma in response to a variety of insults. The nature and extent of the insult determines the balance between these stem/progenitor compartments. PMID:19002950
Theise, Neil D
Within the bone marrow stroma are multipotential cells which are capable of differentiation into a number of mesenchymal cell lineages. These cells, termed mesenchymal stem cells, have recently been identified and characterized in humans. Many studies indicate that the bone marrow stroma is damaged following bone marrow transplantation. Since the marrow stroma is critical for the maintenance of hematopoiesis, its ability to support hematopoiesis following stem cell transplantation may be impaired. Animal models suggest that the transplantation of healthy stromal elements, including mesenchymal stem cells, may enhance the ability of the bone marrow microenvironment to support hematopoiesis after stem cell transplantation. Here the authors review recent data that suggest that mesenchymal stem cells may possess therapeutic value not only for the repair of damaged mesenchymal tissues following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, but also as potential vectors for the delivery of corrective genes. PMID:11055509
Devine, S M; Hoffman, R
\\u000a The hypothesis that tumor initiation and growth are driven by a subpopulation of malignant cells, that is, cancer stem cells\\u000a (CSCs), has received considerable attention. The CSC concept predicts that the design of novel therapies that ablate CSCs\\u000a or target CSC-specific protumorigenic signaling pathways might result in more durable therapeutic responses in cancer patients\\u000a than those achieved by therapeutic approaches
Tobias Schatton; Markus H. Frank
Wong and Reiter have explored the possibility that hair follicle stem cells can give rise to basal cell carcinoma (BCC). They\\u000a expressed in mice an inducible human BCC-derived oncogenic allele of Smoothened, SmoM2, under the control of either the cytokeratin 14 (K14) or cytokeratin 15 (K15) promoter. Smoothened encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor protein in the hedgehog pathway, the misregulation of
In this activity, learners use microarray technology to determine which genes are turned on and off at various points in the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells on their way to becoming pancreatic Î² cells. An introductory PowerPoint, reading, video clip and an animation provide learners with background information needed to interpret the results of a paper microarray simulation. Learners will position cDNA strips on mini-microarrays to discover which genes are expressing, to what degree they are expressing, and which are not. They use these findings to trace the differentiation of embryonic stem cells that give rise to pancreatic Î² cells and other cell types. The role of growth factors and proximity of other cell types is central to learners understanding how researchers may direct the ultimate fate of stem cells. The value of this in treating diabetes is also discussed. This activity is recommended for learners studying Biology at the High School (honors, IB and AP) or Undergraduate level.
\\u000a The demonstrated capacity and potential of pluripotent stem cells to repair the damaged tissues holds great promise in development\\u000a of novel cell replacement therapeutics for treating various chronic and degenerative diseases. However, previous reports show\\u000a that stem cell therapy, in autologous and allogeneic settings, triggers immune responses to stem cells as shown by lymphocyte\\u000a infiltration and inflammation. Therefore, an important
Xiao-Feng Yang; Hong Wang
Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract and liver depends on stem cells with properties of longevity, self-renewal and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential esophageal, gastric, intestinal, colonic, hepatic and pancreatic stem cells provides hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. Embryonic stem cells and induced
Michael Quante; Timothy C. Wang
Genetic analysis of phenotypical traits and marker-trait association in polyploid species is generally considered as a challenge. In the present work, different approaches were combined taking advantage of the particular genetic structures of 2n gametes resulting from second division restitution (SDR) to map a genome region linked to Alternaria brown spot (ABS) resistance in triploid citrus progeny. ABS in citrus is a serious disease caused by the tangerine pathotype of the fungus Alternaria alternata. This pathogen produces ACT-toxin, which induces necrotic lesions on fruit and young leaves, defoliation and fruit drop in susceptible genotypes. It is a strong concern for triploid breeding programs aiming to produce seedless mandarin cultivars. The monolocus dominant inheritance of susceptibility, proposed on the basis of diploid population studies, was corroborated in triploid progeny. Bulk segregant analysis coupled with genome scan using a large set of genetically mapped SNP markers and targeted genetic mapping by half tetrad analysis, using SSR and SNP markers, allowed locating a 3.3 Mb genomic region linked to ABS resistance near the centromere of chromosome III. Clusters of resistance genes were identified by gene ontology analysis of this genomic region. Some of these genes are good candidates to control the dominant susceptibility to the ACT-toxin. SSR and SNP markers were developed for efficient early marker-assisted selection of ABS resistant hybrids.
Cuenca, Jose; Aleza, Pablo; Vicent, Antonio; Brunel, Dominique; Ollitrault, Patrick; Navarro, Luis
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the neurodegenerative changes or apoptosis of neurons involved in networks, which are important to specific physiological functions. With the development of old-aging society, the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases is on the increase. However, it is difficult to diagnose for most of neurodegenerative diseases. At present, there are too few effective therapies. Advances in stem cell biology have raised the hope and possibility for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, stem cells have been widely attempted to treat neurodegenerative diseases of animal model. Here we review the progress and prospects of various stem cells, including embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cell and neural stem cells and so on, for the treatments of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington' disease and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/Lou Gehrig's disease. PMID:18368305
Hou, LingLing; Hong, Tao
Stem cells hold remarkable promise for applications in disease modeling, cancer therapy and regenerative medicine. Despite the significant progress made during the last decade, designing materials to control stem cell fate remains challenging. As an alternative, materials microarray technology has received great attention because it allows for high throughput materials synthesis and screening at a reasonable cost. Here, we discuss recent developments in materials microarray technology and their applications in stem cell engineering. Future opportunities in the field will also be reviewed.
It has been hypothesized that cancer stem cells result from the initiation of normal tissue stem cells by mutagens. These\\u000a cells give rise to a population of growth and differentiation dysregulated transient amplifying cells that represent the bulk\\u000a of the tumor. Fifty years of research has provided a relatively large knowledge base on adult liver stem cells termed “oval\\u000a cells”
Thomas Shupe; Bryon E. Petersen
\\u000a Accumulated data suggest that the unique function of stem cells to self-renew is under the strong control of a sensor system\\u000a detecting potential threats to genomic integrity. Reactive oxygen species, the most significant mutagens in stem cells, when\\u000a elevated, activate the protective mechanisms blocking self-renewal and at the same time serve as a signal stimulating stem\\u000a cell differentiation. Based on
Irene Riz; Robert G. Hawley
Adult stem cells have been identified in the highly regenerative human endometrium on the basis of their functional attributes. They can reconstruct endometrial tissue in vivo suggesting their possible use in treating disorders associated with inadequate endometrium. The identification of specific markers for endometrial mesenchymal stem cells and candidate markers for epithelial progenitor cells enables the potential use of endometrial stem/progenitor cells in reconstructing endometrial tissue in Asherman syndrome and intrauterine adhesions. PMID:22657248
Gargett, Caroline E; Ye, Louie
\\u000a The broad definition of a stem cell is a population of cells that has the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into\\u000a one or more types of specialized terminally differentiated cells. It has become evident that stem cells persist in and can\\u000a be isolated from many organs postnatally. Stem cells isolated from various sources have been demonstrated to vary in
Cynthia B. Ripoll; Bruce A. Bunnell
Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into specific cell types. The two defining characteristics of a stem cell are perpetual self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into a specialized adult cell type. There are two major classes of stem cells: pluripotent that can become any cell in the adult body, and multipotent that are restricted to becoming a more limited population of cells. Cell sources, characteristics, differentiation and therapeutic applications are discussed. Stem cells have great potential in tissue regeneration and repair but much still needs to be learned about their biology, manipulation and safety before their full therapeutic potential can be achieved.
Biehl, Jesse K.; Russell, Brenda
Abstract The amnion membrane is developed from embryo-derived cells, and amniotic cells have been shown to exhibit multidifferentiation potential. These cells represent a desirable source for stem cells for a variety of reasons. However, to date very few molecular analyses of amnion-derived cells have been reported, and efficient markers for isolating the stem cells remain unclear. This paper assesses the characterization of amnion-derived cells as stem cells by examining stemness marker expressions for amnion-derived epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and quantitative PCR. Flow cytometry revealed that amnion epithelial cells expressed CD133, CD 271, and TRA-1-60, whereas mecenchymal cells expressed CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105. Immunohistochemistry showed that both cells expressed the stemness markers Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and SSEA4. Stemness genes' expression in amnion epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, fibroblast, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) was compared by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Amnion-derived epithelial cells and mesenchymal cells expressed Oct3/4, Nanog, and Klf4 more than bone marrow-derived MSCs. The sorted TRA1-60-positive cells expressed Oct3/4, Nanog, and Klf4 more than unsorted cells or TRA1-60-negative cells. TRA1-60 can be a marker for isolating amnion epithelial stem cells. PMID:25068631
Koike, Chika; Zhou, Kaixuan; Takeda, Yuji; Fathy, Moustafa; Okabe, Motonori; Yoshida, Toshiko; Nakamura, Yukio; Kato, Yukio; Nikaido, Toshio
Stem cells have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cell types. Both cell-intrinsic and extrinsic factors may contribute to aging-related decline in stem cell function and loss of stemness. The maintenance of cellular homeostasis requires timely removal of toxic proteins and damaged organelles that accumulate with age or in pathological conditions. Autophagy is one of the main strategies to eliminate unwanted cytoplasmic materials thereby ultimately preventing cellular damage. Here, we shall discuss the accumulating evidence suggesting that autophagy plays a critical role in the homeostatic control of stem cell functions during aging, tissue regeneration, and cellular reprogramming.
Pan, Huize; Cai, Ning; Li, Mo; Liu, Guang-Hui; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos
It is a general concern that the success of regenerative medicine-based applications is based on the ability to recapitulate the molecular events that allow stem cells to repair the damaged tissue/organ. To this end biomaterials are designed to display properties that, in a precise and physiological-like fashion, could drive stem cell fate both in vitro and in vivo. The rationale is that stem cells are highly sensitive to forces and that they may convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. In this review, we describe novelties on stem cells and biomaterials interactions with more focus on the implication of the mechanical stimulation named mechanotransduction.
D'Angelo, Francesco; Tiribuzi, Roberto; Armentano, Ilaria; Kenny, Jose Maria; Martino, Sabata; Orlacchio, Aldo
This study compared the career skills and interests for students in two STEM schools to national data. Students completed the KUDER skills assessment and career planning online tools. Results were compared across school, grade level, and sex. The results provided evidence that STEM high school students expressed career intents in predominately…
Franco, M. Suzanne; Patel, Nimisha H.; Lindsey, Jill
Preparing for the future is not what it used to be. Yet, advising students, preparing lessons, and promoting the value of STEM options remains constant. As a result, technical and engineering educators seek clarity about the future of careers, career development, and ways to promote STEM options. Recently, the ITEEA conference allowed the author…
We are in the STEM generation whose comprehensive purpose is to resolve (1) societal needs for new technological and scientific advances; (2) economic needs for national security; and (3) personal needs to become a fulfilled, productive, knowledgeable citizen. STEM specifically refers to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, but now…
This article describes a framework for how to provide more accessible, relevant, and effective instruction in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education to all students. The STEM for All initiative asserts that all students, including those with disabilities and other diverse learning needs, should be included in meaningful…
Basham, James D.; Israel, Maya; Maynard, Kathie
The identification of cardiac progenitor cells in mammals raises the possibility that the human heart contains a population of stem cells capable of generating cardiomyocytes and coronary vessels. The characterization of human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs) would have important clinical implications for the management of the failing heart. We have established the conditions for the isolation and expansion of c-kit-positive hCSCs from small samples of myocardium. Additionally, we have tested whether these cells have the ability to form functionally competent human myocardium after infarction in immunocompromised animals. Here, we report the identification in vitro of a class of human c-kit-positive cardiac cells that possess the fundamental properties of stem cells: they are self-renewing, clonogenic, and multipotent. hCSCs differentiate predominantly into cardiomyocytes and, to a lesser extent, into smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. When locally injected in the infarcted myocardium of immunodeficient mice and immunosuppressed rats, hCSCs generate a chimeric heart, which contains human myocardium composed of myocytes, coronary resistance arterioles, and capillaries. The human myocardium is structurally and functionally integrated with the rodent myocardium and contributes to the performance of the infarcted heart. Differentiated human cardiac cells possess only one set of human sex chromosomes excluding cell fusion. The lack of cell fusion was confirmed by the Cre-lox strategy. Thus, hCSCs can be isolated and expanded in vitro for subsequent autologous regeneration of dead myocardium in patients affected by heart failure of ischemic and nonischemic origin.
Bearzi, Claudia; Rota, Marcello; Hosoda, Toru; Tillmanns, Jochen; Nascimbene, Angelo; De Angelis, Antonella; Yasuzawa-Amano, Saori; Trofimova, Irina; Siggins, Robert W.; LeCapitaine, Nicole; Cascapera, Stefano; Beltrami, Antonio P.; D'Alessandro, David A.; Zias, Elias; Quaini, Federico; Urbanek, Konrad; Michler, Robert E.; Bolli, Roberto; Kajstura, Jan; Leri, Annarosa; Anversa, Piero
The identification of cardiac progenitor cells in mammals raises the possibility that the human heart contains a population of stem cells capable of generating cardiomyocytes and coronary vessels. The characterization of human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs) would have important clinical implications for the management of the failing heart. We have established the conditions for the isolation and expansion of c-kit-positive hCSCs from small samples of myocardium. Additionally, we have tested whether these cells have the ability to form functionally competent human myocardium after infarction in immunocompromised animals. Here, we report the identification in vitro of a class of human c-kit-positive cardiac cells that possess the fundamental properties of stem cells: they are self-renewing, clonogenic, and multipotent. hCSCs differentiate predominantly into cardiomyocytes and, to a lesser extent, into smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. When locally injected in the infarcted myocardium of immunodeficient mice and immunosuppressed rats, hCSCs generate a chimeric heart, which contains human myocardium composed of myocytes, coronary resistance arterioles, and capillaries. The human myocardium is structurally and functionally integrated with the rodent myocardium and contributes to the performance of the infarcted heart. Differentiated human cardiac cells possess only one set of human sex chromosomes excluding cell fusion. The lack of cell fusion was confirmed by the Cre-lox strategy. Thus, hCSCs can be isolated and expanded in vitro for subsequent autologous regeneration of dead myocardium in patients affected by heart failure of ischemic and nonischemic origin. PMID:17709737
Bearzi, Claudia; Rota, Marcello; Hosoda, Toru; Tillmanns, Jochen; Nascimbene, Angelo; De Angelis, Antonella; Yasuzawa-Amano, Saori; Trofimova, Irina; Siggins, Robert W; Lecapitaine, Nicole; Cascapera, Stefano; Beltrami, Antonio P; D'Alessandro, David A; Zias, Elias; Quaini, Federico; Urbanek, Konrad; Michler, Robert E; Bolli, Roberto; Kajstura, Jan; Leri, Annarosa; Anversa, Piero
This applet demonstrates the Doppler shift. The user can control the frequency of the sound source and the sound speed. The chart recorder at the bottom displays the wave crests as detected by the receiver and their frequency. It also displays the instantaneous wavelength if the ear is at rest. The user can drag the source or the receiver to any location in the display and choose the velocity of each. This is part of a larger collection of applets by STEM Colorado focused mostly on topics in astronomy.
Mccray, Richard; Koelemay, Andrew
We have identified a population of primitive cells in normal human post-natal bone marrow that can, at the single cell level, differentiate in many ways and also proliferate extensively. These cells can differentiate in vitro into most mesodermal cell types (for example, bone cells, and others), as well as cells into cells of the nervous system. The finding that stem cells exist in post-natal tissues with previously unknown proliferation and differentiation potential opens up the possibility of using them to treat a host of degenerative, traumatic or congenital diseases.
Glycolipids are compounds containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety.\\u000a Because of their expression patterns and the intracellular localization patterns, glycolipids, including stage-specific embryonic\\u000a antigens (SSEA-3, SSEA-4, and possibly SSEA-1) and gangliosides (e.g., GD3, GD2, and A2B5 antigens), have been used as marker\\u000a molecules of stem cells. In this review, I will
This activity includes a presentation with links to videos about scientists and engineers working with NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (from the Faces of GPM series), as well as other STEM careers videos, followed by a number of links to online career resources. It is designed to be used by students working at their own pace, choosing which videos and links they are interested in watching and exploring, but could also be used with a larger group. As part of the activity, students identify personal skills and abilities related to career interests and develop a career goal. Includes a student capture sheet with guiding questions.
Experiments carried out with a field emmission STEM show several Fresnel fringes along specimen edges, similar to CTEM observation. Analysis of the data shows agreement with computer profiles for idealized edges and the influence of defocusing distance and collector aperture size is discussed. In very coherent detection conditions the number of visible fringes is limited maily by signal-to-noise ratio considerations. In order to observe the maximum number of fringes, a collector aperture must be chosen so that there is a compromise between the limits imposed by the coherence of the detection and the signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:919075
Colliex, C; Craven, A J; Wilson, C J
Stem cells have the ability both to differentiate into numerous tissues and to self-renew. Because of these unique properties,\\u000a stem cells are promising candidates for use in regenerative medicine. Among stem cell types, embryonic stem (ES) cells have\\u000a been the most studied; however, alternatives such as induced pluripotent stem cells or other adult stem cells are now being\\u000a established. In
Hideyuki Kobayashi; Koichi Nakajima
This lecture series, from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute Biointeractive project, features five lectures: "Understanding Embryonic Stem Cells," "Adult Stem Cells and Regeneration," "Coaxing Embryonic Stem Cells," "Stem Cells and the End of Aging," and "Stem Cell Research: Policies and Ethics." Each lecture, available in Flash and RealPlayer format, contains interviews, animations, and narratives to help students understand more about stem cells, their applications, and further research.
In the adult organism, all tissue renewal and regeneration depends ultimately on somatic stem cells, and the eye is no exception. The importance of limbal stem cells in the maintenance of the corneal epithelium has long been recognised, and such cells are now used clinically for repair of a severely damaged cornea. The slow cycling nature of lens epithelial cells
Mike Boulton; Julie Albon
This paper discusses the ethical and political issues that stem cell research faces. Stem cell research holds great promise for treating serious diseases but does so by using materials from the very beginning of life. There is a division among different sects of society as some see a important ethical principle being threatened, while others see scientific progress being threatened
Stem cells that can be derived from fetal membranes represent an exciting field of research that bears tremendous potential for developmental biology and regenerative medicine. In this report we summarize contributions to a workshop in which newest insights into the characteristics, subtypes and molecular determinants of stem cells from trophoblast and endometrial tissues were presented.
M. Hemberger; W. Yang; D. Natale; Thomas L. Brown; C. Dunk; C. E. Gargett; S. Tanaka
Recent years have seen much excitement over the possibility that adult mammalian stem cells may be capable of differentiating across tissue lineage boundaries, and as such may represent novel, accessible, and very versatile effectors of therapeutic tissue regeneration. Yet studies proposing such “plasticity” of adult somatic stem cells remain controversial, and in general, existing evidence suggests that in vivo such
Amy J Wagers; Irving L Weissman
The generative economic power and social influence of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) has made the production of a capable science and engineering workforce a priority among business and policy leaders. They are rightly concerned that without a robust STEM workforce, the nation will become less competitive in the global…
Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Melton, Michelle
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exist in most adult tissues and have been located near or within blood vessels. Although “perivascular” has been commonly used to describe such locations, increasing evidence points at the vessel wall as the exact location. Thus, “vascular stem cells (VSCs)” is recommended as a more accurate term for MSCs. Furthermore, 2 cell populations, namely pericytes and adventitial progenitor cells (APCs), are the likely VSCs. The pericyte evidence relies on the so-called pericyte-specific markers, but none of these markers is pericyte specific. In addition, pericytes appear to be too functionally diverse and sophisticated to have a large differentiation capacity. On the other hand, APCs are more naïve functionally and, therefore, more akin to being VSCs. In vitro, these cells spontaneously differentiate into pericytes, and can be induced to differentiate into vascular cells (endothelial and smooth muscle cells) and mesenchymal cells (eg, bone, cartilage, and fat). In vivo, indirect evidence also points to their ability to differentiate into mesenchymal cells of their native tissue (eg, fat). Moreover, they possess a large paracrine capacity and, therefore, can help maintain tissue homeostasis by encouraging the replication and differentiation of mesenchymal cells locally. These proposed in vivo functions are areas of interest for future research on VSCs.
Lue, Tom F.
The medical use of low level laser (LLL) irradiation has been occurring for decades, primarily in the area of tissue healing and inflammatory conditions. Despite little mechanistic knowledge, the concept of a non-invasive, non-thermal intervention that has the potential to modulate regenerative processes is worthy of attention when searching for novel methods of augmenting stem cell-based therapies. Here we discuss the use of LLL irradiation as a "photoceutical" for enhancing production of stem cell growth/chemoattractant factors, stimulation of angiogenesis, and directly augmenting proliferation of stem cells. The combination of LLL together with allogeneic and autologous stem cells, as well as post-mobilization directing of stem cells will be discussed.
Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Stem cells have the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into a variety of different cell types. However, it is not clear what determines the path taken by any particular stem cell. Discussing recent work with stem cells from the fruit fly testis (Yamashita et al.), Wallenfang and Matunis explain in their Perspective that, at least in the case of these stem cells, the trick is the asymmetric arrangement of the mitotic spindle during cell division. This asymmetric arrangement ensures that as the stem cell divides, one daughter cell remains in the environmental niche of the testis and continues to self-renew, whereas the other daughter cell is edged out of the niche and begins to differentiate.
Matthew R. Wallenfang (University of Pennsylvania;Department of Cell and Developmental Biology); Erika Matunis (The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions;Department of Cell Biology)
Recently, there has been a growing interest to apply bioprinting techniques to stem cell research. Several bioprinting methods have been developed utilizing acoustics, piezoelectricity, and lasers to deposit living cells onto receiving substrates. Using these technologies, spatially defined gradients of immobilized proteins can be engineered to direct stem cell differentiation into multiple subpopulations of different lineages. Stem cells can also be patterned in a high-throughput manner onto flexible implementation patches for tissue regeneration or onto substrates with the goal of accessing encapsulated stem cell of interest for genomic analysis. Here, we review recent achievements with bioprinting technologies in stem cell research, and identify future challenges and potential applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, wound healing, and genomics.
Tasoglu, Savas; Demirci, Utkan
This invention relates to devices which grip cylindrical structures and more particularly to a device which has three arcuate gripping members having frictional surfaces for gripping and compressing a bi-stem. The bi-stem gripping apparatus is constructed having a pair of side gripping members, and an intermediate gripping member disposed between them. Sheets of a gum stock silicone rubber with frictional gripping surfaces are bonded to the inner region of the gripping members and provide frictional engagement between the bi-stem and the apparatus. A latch secures the gripping apparatus to a bi-stem, and removable handles are attached, allowing an astronaut to pull the bi-stem from its cassette. A tethering ring on the outside of the gripping apparatus provides a convenient point to which a lanyard may be attached.
Sanders, Fred G. (inventor)
... of stem cells for transplant Types of stem cell transplants for treating cancer In a typical stem ... from your identical twin or triplet Autologous stem cell transplants These stem cells come from you alone. ...
Stem cell maintenance depends on their surrounding microenvironment, and aberrancies in the environment have been associated with tumorigenesis. However, it remains to be elucidated whether an environmental aberrancy can act as a carcinogenic stress for cellular transformation of differentiating stem cells into cancer stem cells. Here, utilizing mouse embryonic stem cells as a model, it was illustrated that environmental aberrancy during differentiation leads to the emergence of pluripotent cells showing cancerous characteristics. Analogous to precancerous stages, DNA lesions were spontaneously accumulated during embryonic stem cell differentiation under aberrational environments, which activates barrier responses such as senescence and apoptosis. However, overwhelming such barrier responses, piled-up spheres were subsequently induced from the previously senescent cells. The sphere cells exhibit aneuploidy and dysfunction of the Arf-p53 module as well as enhanced tumorigenicity and a strong self-renewal capacity, suggesting development of cancerous stem cells. Our current study suggests that stem cells differentiating in an aberrational environment are at risk of cellular transformation into malignant counterparts.
Fujimori, Hiroaki; Shikanai, Mima; Teraoka, Hirobumi; Masutani, Mitsuko; Yoshioka, Ken-ichi
Research using human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines has expanded dramatically because of two attractive capacity; self-renewal and differentiation into almost all cell types. For therapeutic purposes, many researchers are trying to establish methods for maintaining pluripotency in defined xeno-free conditions and scalable culture systems. Banking of hESC lines is important for the wide spread of personalized cell therapy and transplantation. We introduced the ongoing clinical trials using hESC-derived cells in patients with subacute spinal cord injury and Stargardt's macular dystrophy. We also discussed opportunities and an example for the use of hESC in drug discovery. Finally, we introduced transgenic hESC as a disease model. PMID:22242306
Kadota, Shin; Aiba, Kazuhiro; Nakatsuji, Norio
This applet demonstrates how astronomers measure the properties of extra-solar planets by detecting planetary transits and eclipses. The applet shows a planet in orbit around a star. A graph plots the total brightness of the star as the planet orbits around it. The user can control the star's radius, the star's temperature, the planet's radius, the orbital radius and the albedo. The user can also see how the spectrum of the illuminated side of the planet, due to both the reflected starlight and the emitted planetary radiation, dependes on wavelength, albedo, and the parameters of the system. This is part of a larger collection of applets by STEM Colorado focused mostly on topics in astronomy.
Mccray, Richard; Koelemay, Andrew
Many tissues of the body cannot only repair themselves, but also self-renew, a property mainly due to stem cells and the various mechanisms that regulate their behavior. Stem cell biology is a relatively new field. While advances are slowly being realized, stem cells possess huge potential to ameliorate disease and counteract the aging process, causing its speculation as the next panacea. Amidst public pressure to advance rapidly to clinical trials, there is a need to understand the biology of stem cells and to support basic research programs. Without a proper comprehension of how cells and tissues are maintained during the adult life span, clinical trials are bound to fail. This review will cover the basic biology of stem cells, the various types of stem cells, their potential function, and the advantages and disadvantages to their use in medicine. We will next cover the role of G-protein coupled receptors in the regulation of stem cells and their potential in future clinical applications.
DOZE, VAN A.; PEREZ, DIANNE M.
While cultured embryonic stem (ES) cells can be harvested in abundance and appear to be the most versatile of cells for regenerative medicine, adult stem cells also hold promise, but the identity and subsequent isolation of these comparatively rare cells remains problematic in most tissues, perhaps with the notable exception of the bone marrow. The ability to continuously self-renew and produce the differentiated progeny of the tissue of their location are their defining properties. Identifying surface molecules (markers) that would aid in stem cell isolation is a major goal. Considerable overlap exists between different putative organ-specific stem cells in their repertoire of gene expression, often related to self-renewal, cell survival and cell adhesion. More robust tests of 'stemness' are now being employed, using lineage-specific genetic marking and tracking to show production of long-lived clones and multipotentiality in vivo. Moreover, the characterization of normal stem cells in specific tissues may provide a dividend for the treatment of cancer. The successful treatment of neoplastic disease may well require the specific targeting of neoplastic stem cells, cells that may well have many of the characteristics of their normal counterparts. PMID:19085991
Alison, M R; Islam, S
The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.
Geraerts, Martine; Verfaillie, Catherine M.
Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Current osteoporosis treatments are predominantly bone-resorbing drugs that are associated with several side effects. The use of stem cells for tissue regeneration has raised great hope in various fields of medicine, including musculoskeletal disorders. Stem cell therapy for osteoporosis could potentially reduce the susceptibility of fractures and augment lost mineral density by either increasing the numbers or restoring the function of resident stem cells that can proliferate and differentiate into bone-forming cells. Such osteoporosis therapies can be carried out by exogenous introduction of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), typically procured from bone marrow, adipose, and umbilical cord blood tissues or through treatments with drugs or small molecules that recruit endogenous stem cells to osteoporotic sites. The main hurdle with cell-based osteoporosis therapy is the uncertainty of stem cell fate and biodistribution following cell transplantation. Therefore, future advancements will focus on long-term engraftment and differentiation of stem cells at desired bone sites for tangible clinical outcome. PMID:24407712
Antebi, Ben; Pelled, Gadi; Gazit, Dan
Researchers at UCLA have identified a new stem cell that participates in the repair of the large airways of the lungs, which play a vital role in protecting the body from infectious agents and toxins in the environment.
A mini-documentary discussing the remarkable regenerative capabilities of the planarian, and how HHMI researcher Alejandro Snchez Alvarado uses them to study the biology of stem cells. This presentation is also featured on the DVD Potent Biology: Stem Cells, Cloning, and Regeneration, available for free from HHMI. This video is 11 minutes and 46 seconds in length, and available for download in Quicktime (114 MB) and Windows Media (156 MB) formats. All Stem Cell videos are located at: http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/stemcells/video.html.
Alejandro SÃÂ¡nchez Alvarado (Howard Hughes Medical Institute;)
Adult tissues undergo continuous cell turnover in response to stress, damage, or physiological demand. New differentiated cells are generated from dedicated or facultative stem cells or from self-renewing differentiated cells. Here we describe a different stem cell strategy for tissue maintenance, distinct from that observed for dedicated or facultative stem cells. We report the presence of nestin-expressing adult stem cells
Anatoli S. Gleiberman; Tatyana Michurina; Juan M. Encinas; Jose L. Roig; Peter Krasnov; Francesca Balordi; Gord Fishell; Michael G. Rosenfeld; Grigori Enikolopov
Pluripotent stem cells, similar to more restricted stem cells, are able to both self-renew and generate differentiated progeny. Although this dual functionality has been much studied, the search for molecular signatures of 'stemness' and pluripotency is only now beginning to gather momentum. While the focus of much of this work has been on the transcriptional features of embryonic stem cells,
Mikhail Spivakov; Amanda G. Fisher
The field of stem cell biology continues to evolve with the ongoing characterization of multiple types of stem cells with their inherent potential for experimental and clinical application. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are one of the most promising stem cell types due to their availability and the relatively simple requirements for in vitro expansion and genetic manipulation. Multiple populations described
Elisabeth H. Javazon; Kirstin J. Beggs; Alan W. Flake
hen groups of stem cell researchers meet or when stem cell researchers publish their data and interpre- tations in scientific journals, a small cluster of important issues loom over the discussions yet often go unremarked. These issues influence much of the nature, direction, and funding of stem cell investigations, particularly those in- volving adult stem cells. The unmentionable issues are
NEIL D. THEISE
versus quiescence? Not surprisingly, resear, 1998 John Wiley & (e) How are different stem cell fates determined? (f ) Sons, Inc. J Neurobiol 36: 111 ? 127, 1998 How ‘‘plastic’’ are different neural stem cell fates? Keywords: neuroblast; asymmetric division; Prospero; (g) How do neural stem cells produce different prog- Miranda; Inscuteable eny? and (h) What regulates stem cell proliferation
Chris Q. Doe; Sal Fuerstenberg
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) continuously replenish the blood and immune systems. Their activity must be sustained throughout\\u000a life to support optimal immune responses. It has been thought that stem cells may be somewhat protected from age because of\\u000a their perpetual requirement to replenish the blood, however studies over the past 10 years have revealed dramatic changes\\u000a in HSC function and phenotype
S. M. Chambers; M. A. Goodell
The aim of stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease is to reconstruct nigro-striatal neuronal pathways using endogenous neural stem/precursor cells or grafted dopaminergic neurons. As an alternative, transplantation of stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons into the striatum has been attempted, with the aim of stimulating local synapse formation and/or release of dopamine and cytokines from grafted cells. Candidate stem cells include neural stem/precursor cells, embryonic stem cells and other stem/precursor cells. Among these, embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cells that proliferate extensively, making them a good potential donor source for transplantation. However, tumor formation and ethical issues present major problems for embryonic stem cell therapy. This review describes the current status of stem cell therapy for Parkinson's disease, as well as future research approaches from a clinical perspective. PMID:17563250
Soft dental tissues have been identified as easily accessible sources of multipotent postnatal stem cells. Dental stem cells are mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) capable of differentiating into at least three distinct cell lineages: osteo/odontogenic, adipogenic and neurogenic. They express various markers including those specific for MSC, embryonic stem cells and neural cells. Five different types of dental stem cells have been isolated from mature and immature teeth: dental pulp stem cells, stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth, periodontal ligament stem cells, stem cells from apical papilla and dental follicle progenitor cells. Dental stem cells may be used in dental tissue engineering including dental, enamel and periodontal tissue regeneration. They could also be used as a promising tool in potential treatment of neurodegenerative, ischemic and immune diseases. PMID:24446280
Bojic, Sanja; Volarevic, Vladislav; Ljujic, Biljana; Stojkovic, Miodrag
The sphinganine analog mycotoxin, AAL-toxin, induces a death process in plant and animal cells that shows apoptotic morphology. In nature, the AAL-toxin is the primary determinant of the Alternaria stem canker disease of tomato, thus linking apoptosis to this disease caused by Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici. The product of the baculovirus p35 gene is a specific inhibitor of a class of cysteine proteases termed caspases, and naturally functions in infected insects. Transgenic tomato plants bearing the p35 gene were protected against AAL-toxin-induced death and pathogen infection. Resistance to the toxin and pathogen co-segregated with the expression of the p35 gene through the T3 generation, as did resistance to A. alternata, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. The p35 gene, stably transformed into tomato roots by Agrobacterium rhizogenes, protected roots against a 30-fold greater concentration of AAL-toxin than control roots tolerated. Transgenic expression of a p35 binding site mutant (DQMD to DRIL), inactive against animal caspases-3, did not protect against AAL-toxin. These results indicate that plants possess a protease with substrate-site specificity that is functionally equivalent to certain animal caspases. A biological conclusion is that diverse plant pathogens co-opt apoptosis during infection, and that transgenic modification of pathways regulating programmed cell death in plants is a potential strategy for engineering broad-spectrum disease resistance in plants.
Lincoln, James E.; Richael, Craig; Overduin, Bert; Smith, Kathy; Bostock, Richard; Gilchrist, David G.
Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., isolated from tomato and pepper plants rhizosphere soil, was evaluated in vitro as a potential antagonist of fungal pathogens. Pseudomonas strains were tested against the causal agents of tomatoes damping-off (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum), root rot (Fusarium solani), and causal agents of stem canker and leaf blight (Alternaria alternata). For this purpose, dual culture antagonism assays were carried out on 25% tryptic soy agar, King B medium and potato dextrose agar to determine the effect of the strains on mycelial growth of the pathogens. In addition, strains were screened for their ability to produce exoenzymes and siderophores. All the strains significantly inhibited Alternaria alternata, particularly in 25% TSA medium. Antagonistic effect on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Fusarium solani was greater on King B medium. Protease was produced by 30% of the strains, but no strain produced cellulase or chitinase. Finally, the selected Pseudomonas strain, Psf5, was evaluated on tomato seedling development and as a potential candidate for controlling tomato damping-off caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, under growth chamber conditions. In vivo studies resulted in significant increases in plant stand as well as in root dry weight. Psf5 was able to establish and survive in tomato plants rhizosphere after 40days following the planting of bacterized seeds. PMID:24296079
Hammami, Inés; Ben Hsouna, Anis; Hamdi, Naceur; Gdoura, Radhouane; Triki, Mohamed Ali
Glioblastoma multiforme represents one of the most common brain cancers with a rather heterogeneous cellular composition, as indicated by the term "multiforme". Recent reports have described the isolation and identification of cancer neural stem cells from human adult glioblastoma multiforme, which possess the capacity to establish, sustain, and expand these tumours, even under the challenging settings posed by serial transplantation experiments. Our study focused on the distribution of neural cancer stem cells inside the tumour. The study is divided into three phases: removal of tumoral specimens in different areas of the tumour (centre, periphery, marginal zone) in an operative room equipped with a 1.5 T scanner; isolation and characterization of neural cancer stem cells from human adult glioblastoma multiforme; identification of neural cancer stem cell distribution inside the tumour. PMID:24750704
Rispoli, Rossella; Conti, Carlo; Celli, Paolo; Caroli, Emanuela; Carletti, Sandro
This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set was digitized on screen using digital orthophoto quadrangles from 1994.
Warmath, Eric; Medina, Rose L.
Following high-dose chemotherapy for the treatment of malignant disease, reinfusion of peripheral blood stem cells collected during treatment with growth factors usually results in delayed platelet engrafiment as compared to neutrophil recovery. The overa...
The nuclei of naive mouse embryonic stem cells that are transitioning towards differentiation expand when the cells are stretched and contract when they are compressed. What drives this auxetic phenotype is, however, unclear.
During tissue development and regeneration, stem cells respond to the entire milieu of their environment, through dynamic interactions with the surrounding cells, extracellular matrix, and cascades of molecular and physical regulatory factors. A new generation of culture systems is emerging to offer some of the biological fidelity of a whole organism within highly controllable in vitro settings and provide the cultured cells with the combinations of factors they normally encounter in vivo. There is a growing notion that such "biomimetic" systems are essential for unlocking the full potential of stem cells - for tissue regeneration as well as biological research. In this chapter, we discuss the biological principles for designing biologically inspired culture systems for stem cell research and focus on the control of stem cell microenvironment through surface patterning, microfluidics, and electrical stimulation.
Freytes, Donald O.; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
Design and development of improved harvesting, preprocessing, and bulk handling systems for biomass requires knowledge of\\u000a the biomechanical properties and structural characteristics of crop residue. Structural analysis of wheat stem cross-sections\\u000a was performed using the theory of composites and finite element analysis techniques. Representative geometries of the stem’s\\u000a structural components including the hypoderm, ground tissue, and vascular bundles were established
Kurt D. Hamman; Richard L. Williamson; Eric D. Steffler; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Peter A. Pryfogle
Design and development of improved harvesting, preprocessing, and bulk handling systems for biomass requires knowledge of\\u000a the biomechanical properties and structural characteristics of crop residue. Structural analysis of wheat stem cross-sections\\u000a was performed using the theory of composites and finite element analysis techniques. Representative geometries of the stem’s\\u000a structural components including the hypoderm, ground tissue, and vascular bundles were established
Kurt D. Hamman; Richard L. Williamson; Eric D. Steffler; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess; Peter A. Pryfogle
\\u000a It has been hypothesized for over 40 years that cancers contain the same cell populations as normal tissues: stem cells, proliferating\\u000a transit-amplifying cells, and terminally differentiated (mature cells). The properties of cancer stem cells include the ability\\u000a to transplant the tumor, the ability to grow in vitro and the ability to resist conventional therapies. The idea that cancer\\u000a arose from
Cancer stem cells have recently been proposed to play a significant role in the initiation and propagation of tumor cells.\\u000a They display indefinite self-renewal capacity and multilineage potential as well as an excessive proliferation capacity. Cancer\\u000a stem cells are quiescent with low mitotic frequencies. They seem to be relatively radioresistant and have been demonstrated\\u000a to increase in relative amount following
David Eriksson; Katrine Riklund; Lennart Johansson; Torgny Stigbrand
Abstract—Stem cells are being investigated for their potential use in regenerative medicine. A series of remarkable studies suggested that adult stem cells undergo novel patterns of development,by a process referred to as transdifferentiation or plasticity. These observations fueled an exciting period of discovery and high expectations followed by controversy that emerged from data suggesting cell-cell fusion as an alternate interpretation
Toren Finkel; Roberto Bolli; Donald Orlic; Jonathan M. Hill; Andrew E. Arai
Samantha and her husband Brad have two children, conceived with the help of in vitro fertilization treatments. After viewing a TV program on stem cells and their potential medical uses, Samantha is convinced that they should donate the remaining frozen embryos they have to medical research, an idea Brad strongly objects to. The case teaches about stem cells and their medical applications as well as the ethical dilemmas posed by their use.
Yaich, Lauren E.
The lung is composed of two major anatomically distinct regions—the conducting airways and gas-exchanging airspaces. From a cell biology standpoint, the conducting airways can be further divided into two major compartments, the tracheobronchial and bronchiolar airways, while the alveolar regions of the lung make up the gas-exchanging airspaces. Each of these regions consists of distinct epithelial cell types with unique cellular physiologies and stem cell compartments. This chapter focuses on model systems with which to study stem cells in the adult tracheobronchial airways, also referred to as the proximal airway of the lung. Important in such models is an appreciation for the diversity of stem cell niches in the conducting airways that provide localized environmental signals to both maintain and mobilize stem cells in the setting of airway injury and normal cellular turnover. Because cellular turnover in airways is relatively slow, methods for analysis of stem cells in vivo have required prior injury to the lung. In contrast, ex vivo and in vitro models for analysis of airway stem cells have used genetic markers to track lineage relationships together with reconstitution systems that mimic airway biology. Over the past decades, several widely acceptable methods have been developed and used in the characterization of adult airway stem/ progenitor cells. These include localization of label-retaining cells (LRCs), retroviral tagging of epithelial cells seeded into xenografts, air–liquid interface cultures to track clonal proliferative potential, and multiple transgenic mouse models. This chapter reviews the biologic context and use of these models while providing detailed methods for several of the more broadly useful models for studying adult airway stem/progenitor cell types.
Liu, Xiaoming; Driskell, Ryan R.; Engelhardt, John F.
As most of our readers no doubt know, President Bush made a determination on federal funding for embryonic stem cell research in August 2001, agreeing to release federal funds for research involving already existing stem cell lines. Information on this contentious topic is available at CNN's in-depth special, which features articles, analysis, video clips, and message boards devoted to the many aspects of the debate.
The keratinocyte cell compartment in the continuously renewing epidermis of the skin is maintained by undifferentiated, self-renewing\\u000a stem cells. We show that a small subpopulation of epidermal stem cells (EpiSCs) have the capacity to integrate into multiple\\u000a tissues. These EpiSCs can change their phenotype in direct response of changes in cytokines in vitro, changes in cocultured\\u000a cells, after injection into
Jackie R. Bickenbach; Matthew M. Stern
Detecting phloem transport in stem diameter changes Teemu Hölttä1, Sanna Sevanto2, Eero Nikinmaa1 1Department of Forest Ecology, P.O. Box 27, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland 2Department of Physics, P.O. Box 48, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland Introduction The volume of living cells and xylem conduits vary according to pressures they are subjected to. Our proposition is that the behavior of the inner bark diameter variation which cannot be explained by changes in xylem water status arise from changes in the osmotic concentration of the phloem and cambial growth. Materials and methods Simultaneous xylem and stem diameter measurements were conducted between June 28th to October 4th 2006 in Southern Finland on a 47-year old, 15 meter tall, Scots pine tree (DBH 15 cm) at heights of 1.5 and 10 meters. The difference between the measured inner bark diameter and the inner bark diameter predicted from xylem diameter change with a simple model (assuming there was no change in the osmotic concentration of the phloem) is hypothesized to give the changes in the osmotic concentration of the inner bark. The simple model calculates the radial water exchange between the xylem and phloem driven by the water potential changes in the xylem. Results and Discussion The major signal in the inner bark diameter was the transpiration rate as assumed, but also a signal arising from the change in the osmotic concentration (Fig 1a). The predicted osmotic concentration of the phloem typically increased during the afternoon due to the loading of photosynthesized sugars to the phloem. Inner bark osmotic concentration followed the photosynthesis rate with a 3 and 4 hour time-lag at the top and base, respectively (Fig 1b). The connection between photosynthesis and the predicted change in phloem osmotic concentration was stronger in the upper part of the tree compared to lower part. The changes in the predicted osmotic concentration were not similar every day, indicating that photosynthesized sugars were not always immediately loaded to the phloem (not shown). Figures Fig 1. (a) Measured xylem and inner bark diameter, the inner bark diameter predicted from xylem diameter alone, and the difference between the measured inner bark diameter and the inner bark diameter predicted from xylem diameter. (b) Measured transpiration and photosynthesis rates and the change in osmotic concentration at tree top and bottom predicted by the analysis.
Hölttä, T.; Sevanto, S.; Nikinmaa, E.
This report of the State Educational Technology Directors Association addresses needs in STEM eduction. The report recommends that states and school districts should develop a strategic plan to implement STEM education for all kids beginning in kindergarten, and develop specific targets for achieving these goals. As part of this strategic plan, states and school districts need to demonstrate to the community, especially parents, that STEM education is necessary for all students. States and school districts can look to broad-based initiatives developed in others states and districts for guidance. In order to provide ALL students with a solid background in STEM, the report recommends: obtaining societal support for STEM education, exposing students to STEM careers, providing on-going and sustainable STEM professional development, providing STEM pre-service teacher training and recruiting, and retaining STEM teachers.
There is worldwide enthusiasm for the prospect of some kind of cellular transplant therapy for repair of failing organs. The olfactory mucosa of a patient's nose is easily biopsied to provide a ready source of multipotent cells. In this article we address practical issues pertinent to using olfactory neural stem cells for tissue repair. These cells are emerging as potentially most significant candidates for human tissue repair strategies. Previously we have shown that stem cells from olfactory mucosa are multipotent. As well, we have recently published three potential clinical applications. Their expression of dopaminergic markers in vitro and in a Parkinson's rat transplant model has been demonstrated. Their conversion to chondrogenic phenotype in vitro and in vivo has also been described, as has their transplant into a rat model of cardiac infarction. Here we examine in detail the biology of the olfactory neural stem cell using the rat as our animal model cell source. We establish its presence by examining self-renewal capacity and for phenotypic acquisition in inductive circumstances. We determine its frequency within the cell population and show that our culture system selects for this putative stem cell. Our studies demonstrate that adult olfactory stem cells, when transplanted into an environmental niche different from that of their origin, are able to demonstrate multipotency by acquiring the phenotype of the resident cells. We investigate how immediate the instruction need be. We test the hypothesis that olfactory neurospheres contain stem cells whose capacity for differentiation is triggered by signals of the immediate environmental niche. Significantly, of importance to any tissue regeneration endeavor, stem cell numbers were shown to be enriched by our culture methods. This was confirmed whether measured by sphere-forming capacity or differentiation response rate. PMID:21535908
Wetzig, Andrew; Mackay-Sim, Alan; Murrell, Wayne
Stem cell-based therapies for stroke have expanded substantially over the last decade. The diversity of embryonic and adult tissue sources provides researchers with the ability to harvest an ample supply of stem cells. However, the optimal conditions of stem cell use are still being determined. Along this line of the need for optimization studies, we discuss studies that demonstrate effective dose, timing, and route of stem cells. We recognize that stem cell derivations also provide uniquely individual difficulties and limitations in their therapeutic applications. This review will outline the current knowledge, including benefits and challenges, of the many current sources of stem cells for stroke therapy.
Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Dailey, Travis; Tajiri, Naoki; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Kaneko, Yuji; Borlongan, Cesar V.
Stem cells have enormous potential for therapeutic application because of their ability to self-renew and differentiate into different cell types. Gonads, which consist of somatic cells and germ cells, are the only organs capable of transmitting genetic materials to the offspring. Germ-line stem cells and somatic stem cells have been found in the testis; however, the presence of stem cells in the ovary remains controversial. In this review, we discuss studies focusing on whether stem cell properties are present in the different cell types of male and female gonads and their implications on stem cell research.
Liu, Chia-Feng; Barsoum, Ivraym; Gupta, Rupesh; Hofmann, Marie-Claude; Yao, Humphrey Hung-Chang
Uncemented hip replacement matches the best results of classic cemented replacements. With the aim of preserving bone and soft tissue, implants with shorter stems and proximal metaphyseal support have been developed. Likewise, the lack of distal load should avoid cortical diaphyseal remodelling phenomena and the thigh pain of some cylindrical and wedge implants. The resurfacing implant, very popular as a conservative hip replacement in the young adult, has disadvantages associated with the fragility of the neck and with large head metal friction torque. Short stem hip replacement may be a reasonable alternative to classic implants and surface hip replacements. The different designs of conservative short stem implants are analysed, and are classified according to their morphology and biomechanical characteristics. Some medium term series show promising results. PMID:23177948
Valverde-Mordt, C; Valverde-Belda, D
Characterization of pluripotent stem cells is required for the registration of stem cell lines and allows for an impartial and objective comparison of the results obtained when generating multiple lines. It is therefore crucial to establish specific, fast and reliable protocols to detect the hallmarks of pluripotency. Such protocols should include immunocytochemistry (takes 2 d), identification of the three germ layers in in vitro-derived embryoid bodies by immunocytochemistry (immunodetection takes 3 d) and detection of differentiation markers in in vivo-generated teratomas by immunohistochemistry (differentiation marker detection takes 4 d). Standardization of the immunodetection protocols used ensures minimum variations owing to the source, the animal species, the endogenous fluorescence or the inability to collect large amounts of cells, thereby yielding results as fast as possible without loss of quality. This protocol provides a description of all the immunodetection procedures necessary to characterize mouse and human stem cell lines in different circumstances. PMID:23306458
Martí, Mercè; Mulero, Lola; Pardo, Cristina; Morera, Cristina; Carrió, Meritxell; Laricchia-Robbio, Leopoldo; Esteban, Concepcion Rodriguez; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos
The immobilization of cells into polymeric scaffolds releasing therapeutic factors, such as alginate microcapsules, has been widely employed as a drug-delivery system for numerous diseases for many years. As a result of the potential benefits stem cells offer, during recent decades, this type of cell has gained the attention of the scientific community in the field of cell microencapsulation technology and has opened many perspectives. Stem cells represent an ideal tool for cell immobilization and so does alginate as a biomaterial of choice in the elaboration of these biomimetic scaffolds, offering us the possibility of benefiting from both disciplines in a synergistic way. This review intends to give an overview of the many possibilities and the current situation of immobilized stem cells in alginate bioscaffolds, showing the diverse therapeutic applications they can already be employed in; not only drug-delivery systems, but also tissue engineering platforms. PMID:22838071
Garate, Ane; Murua, Ainhoa; Orive, Gorka; Hernández, Rosa M; Pedraz, Jose Luis
The Drosophila lymph gland, the source of adult hemocytes, is established by mid-embryogenesis. During larval stages, a pool of pluripotent hemocyte precursors differentiate into hemocytes that are released into circulation upon metamorphosis or in response to immune challenge. This process is controlled by the posterior signaling center (PSC), which is reminiscent of the vertebrate hematopoietic stem cell niche. Using lineage analysis, we identified bona fide hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the lymph glands of embryos and young larvae, which give rise to a hematopoietic lineage. These lymph glands also contain pluripotent precursor cells that undergo a limited number of mitotic divisions and differentiate. We further find that the conserved factor Zfrp8/PDCD2 is essential for the maintenance of the HSCs, but dispensable for their daughter cells, the pluripotent precursors. Zfrp8/PDCD2 is likely to have similar functions in hematopoietic stem cell maintenance in vertebrates. PMID:20023157
Minakhina, Svetlana; Steward, Ruth
Researchers and policy makers often use the metaphor of an ever-narrowing pipeline to describe the trajectory to a science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) degree or career. This study interrogates the appropriateness of the STEM pipeline as the dominant frame for understanding and making policies related to STEM career trajectories.…
Cannady, Matthew A.; Greenwald, Eric; Harris, Kimberly N.
...tamped to fill the entire cross sectional area of the borehole. (c) Stemming material shall contact the explosive cartridge nearest the collar of the borehole. (d) Each borehole 4 or more feet deep shall be stemmed for at...
These notes from the PTEC Preservice STEM Teacher Recruitment Workshop specify 5 strategies for STEM teacher recruitment. Accompanying each strategy is information on what is needed to implement the strategy and what audience the strategy targets.
Stem cells and RNA silencing have emerged as areas of intense interest for both basic and clinical research. Recently these fields have converged with reports implicating small regulatory RNAs in the maintenance and pluripotency of stem cells.
Stadler, Bradford M.; Ruohola-Baker, Hannele
Stem cells possess the potential to cure a myriad of ailments ranging from congenital diseases to illnesses acquired through the physiological process of aging. In the adult, these cells are extremely rare and often difficult to isolate in numbers sufficient to apply to medical treatment. Ex vivo expansion of these cells will be required for most meaningful interventions. The discovery of stem/progenitor cell inversion offers a new avenue for obtaining sufficient numbers of stem cells. Adult progenitor cells are much more common than quiescent stem cells and can be isolated with minimal interventions; therefore, inversion of progenitors to stem cells may become a feasible approach for therapeutic purposes. Stem cells are known to possess few mitochondria, and mitochondrial biogenesis is required for stem cell differentiation. The microtubule cytoskeleton is a major regulator for mitochondrial biogenesis. Investigations in the area of controlling cell differentiation and inducing phenotypic inversion, possibly through manipulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, may contribute to stem cell-based therapies.
Siggins, Robert W.; Zhang, Ping; Welsh, David; LeCapitaine, Nicole J.; Nelson, Steve
This website from a collaboration of New York State education associations states its goal as to "define STEM and the STEM disciplines in a fashion that will serve as a model for New York State and throughout the nation." Visitors should definitely check out the link to "2010 NYS STEM Collaborative Summer Institute" on the homepage. There is a recording of the panel discussion that took place at the Institute which consisted of two questions. The first question considered how to effectively deliver STEM education to K-12 students and the second examined how to generate more enthusiasm and interest for STEM from successful NYS programs already in place. Visitors can listen to the questions answered by six expert education panelists, as well as view a video of the keynote dinner speaker. The link "Important Links, Multimedia, Documents, and Related Information" contains valuable tools for visitors including "STEM related videos", "External STEM Website Links", and "Other STEM Organizations."
Physical cues from the extracellular environment influence the lineage commitment of stem cells. Now, experiments on human mesenchymal stem cells cultured on photodegradable hydrogels show that the cells' fate can also be determined by past physical environments.
Eyckmans, Jeroen; Chen, Christopher S.
Stem cells, including both pluripotent stem cells and multipotent somatic stem cells, hold great potential for interrogating the mechanisms of tissue development, homeostasis and pathology, and for treating numerous devastating diseases. Establishment of in vitro platforms to faithfully maintain and precisely manipulate stem cell fates is essential to understand the basic mechanisms of stem cell biology, and to translate stem cells into regenerative medicine. Chemical approaches have recently provided a number of small molecules that can be used to control cell self-renewal, lineage differentiation, reprogramming and regeneration. These chemical modulators have been proven to be versatile tools for probing stem cell biology and manipulating cell fates toward desired outcomes. Ultimately, this strategy is promising to be a new frontier for drug development aimed at endogenous stem cell modulation.
Li, Wenlin; Jiang, Kai; Wei, Wanguo; Shi, Yan; Ding, Sheng
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) possess the ability to self-renew and to differentiate to mature progeny along multiple different hematopoietic lineages. The function of HSCs depends upon the signals from surrounding cells found within the highly specialized microenvironment termed the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Understanding and exploiting the HSC niche is a goal of basic scientists and clinicians alike. Recent studies have focused on defining the cellular components and molecular factors critical to this microenvironment. Here we review recent findings, discuss unresolved questions, and examine the clinical implications of our current knowledge of the HSC niche.
Park, Dongsu; Sykes, David B.; Scadden, David T.
The isolation and culture of both embryonic and extraembryonic stem cells provide an enormous opportunity to study the molecular processes that establish and maintain lineage-specific, monoallelic patterns of gene expression. This chapter describes the isolation an culture of trophectoderm stem cells from mouse blastocyst stage embryos. Using this powerful in vitro system, scientists can now begin to tease apart the epigenetic processes that result in placental patterns of imprinted gene expression and begin to better understand the role these genes play in development and disease.
Golding, Michael C.
Human embryonic stem cells have been a major topic in science, medicine, and religion since their discovery in 1998. However, due to the complex discourse and rhetoric of scientific language, debate has remained within the professional realm via "expert bioethics." Using the tenets of pragmatism, the author examines the need to move the debate to society as a whole and disentangle the stem cell debate from the ideologies of the human cloning and abortion debates. Opening this issue to a societal debate will advance societal growth, resulting in informed decisions on moral issues, funding, or regulation associated with hES cell research. PMID:12755109
Sitko, Bradley J
Adult stem cells reside in specialized microenvironments, or niches, that have an important role in regulating stem cell behaviour. Therefore, tight control of niche number, size and function is necessary to ensure the proper balance between stem cells and progenitor cells available for tissue homeostasis and wound repair. The stem cell niche in the Drosophila male gonad is located at
Justin Voog; Cecilia D'Alterio; D. Leanne Jones
In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors' conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before and after instruction. Two goals of the
James P. Concannon; Marcelle A. Siegel; Kristy Halverson; Sharyn Freyermuth
In this study, we examined 96 undergraduate non-science majors' conceptions of stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning. This study was performed at a large, Midwest, research extensive university. Participants in the study were asked to answer 23 questions relating to stem cells, stem cell research, and cloning in an on-line assessment before…
Concannon, James P.; Siegel, Marcelle A.; Halverson, Kristy; Freyermuth, Sharyn
The work from the University of Central Florida's STEM summer camp (sponsored by Workforce Central Florida) is shared. The camps targeted low-SES schools with a high percentage of students on free and reduced lunch as well as high percentages of students with. Students were given preassessments and postassessments to gauge their knowledge of and…
Davis, Kimberly E. Bryant; Hardin, Stacey E.
The ability to identify the donor stem cells following transplantation into injured hearts is critical. This is particularly important in evaluating stem cell survival and lineage differentiation into mature cardiovascular cells. Several approaches have been employed for tracking the donor stem cells, including fluorescent dyes and fluorescent protein gene transfer. Here, we will induce a protocol using lentivirus-mediated green fluorescent protein (GFP) to monitor the fate of donor stem cells following transplantation.
Wang, Yingjie; Zhang, Lan; Pan, Yaohua; Chen, Lijuan; Weintraub, Neal; Tang, Yaoliang
Human stem cell studies are difficult because many of the powerful experimental approaches that mark and follow stem cells\\u000a and their progeny are impractical. Moreover, humans are long-lived, and it would literally take a lifetime to follow stem\\u000a cell fates prospectively. Considering these hurdles, an ideal method would not require prior experimental manipulations but\\u000a still allow “observations” of human stem
Darryl Shibata; Simon Tavaré
Both hereditary and sporadic breast cancers may develop through dysregulation of self-renewal pathways of normal mammary stem\\u000a cells. Networks of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors that control cancer cell proliferation also regulate stem cell self-renewal\\u000a and possibly stem cell aging. Breast cancer susceptibility gene (BRCA1) is a nuclear phosphoprotein expressed in many nuclear\\u000a processes, including stem cell regulator, DNA damage repair,
Over the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that many tissues have regenerative capabilities. The challenge has been to find the stem cells or progenitors that are responsible for tissue renewal and repair. The revolution in technological advances that permit sophisticated spatial, temporal and kinetic analyses of stem cells has allowed stem cell hunters to ferret out where stem cells live, and to monitor when they come and go from these hiding places. PMID:21540847
Fuchs, Elaine; Horsley, Valerie
We studied umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells and compared mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord blood,\\u000a adipose tissue, and skin. Umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells were characterized morphologically, cytofluorometrically,\\u000a and by their differentiation potential. Umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells did not differ from cells isolated from\\u000a adipose tissue and skin by the main parameters (by morphology,
R. A. Musina; E. S. Bekchanova; A. V. Belyavskii; T. S. Grinenko; G. T. Sukhikh
Stem cells were characterized by their stemness: self-renewal and pluripotency. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a unique type of adult stem cells that have been proven to be involved in tissue repair, immunoloregulation and tumorigenesis. Irradiation is a well-known factor that leads to functional obstacle in stem cells. However, the mechanism of stemness maintenance in human MSCs exposed to irradiation remains unknown. We demonstrated that irradiation could induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation that resulted in DNA damage and stemness injury in MSCs. Autophagy induced by starvation or rapamycin can reduce ROS accumulation-associated DNA damage and maintain stemness in MSCs. Further, inhibition of autophagy leads to augment of ROS accumulation and DNA damage, which results in the loss of stemness in MSCs. Our results indicate that autophagy may have an important role in protecting stemness of MSCs from irradiation injury.
Hou, J; Han, Z-p; Jing, Y-y; Yang, X; Zhang, S-s; Sun, K; Hao, C; Meng, Y; Yu, F-h; Liu, X-q; Shi, Y-f; Wu, M-c; Zhang, L; Wei, L-x
The discovery that embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells and potentially mesenchymal stem cells bear the potential to differentiate into neurons and glia in vitro and in vivo has opened a rapidly growing scientific field. Current research is very likely to impose a major impact on diagnosis and treatment of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. One of the paramount immediate
Alexander Storch; Johannes Schwarz
In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Kokovay et al. uncover that VCAM1 expression in neural stem cells regulates adult neurogenesis. Cerebrospinal fluid-borne IL-1? upregulates VCAM1 expression, which in turn regulates the architecture of the stem cell niche, redox homeostasis, and neurogenesis. PMID:22862936
Lehtinen, Maria K
Summary statement In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Kokovay et al., uncover that VCAM1 expression in neural stem cells regulates adult neurogenesis. Cerebrospinal fluid-borne IL-1? upregulates VCAM1 expression, which in turn regulates the architecture of the stem cell niche, redox homeostasis, and neurogenesis.
Lehtinen, Maria K.
To help the United States stay globally competitive in terms of innovation and invention, the teaching of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) has become a priority in P-12 education today. As the need for students to become stronger in STEM grows, so does the need for well-qualified STEM teachers who understand what is needed…
Avery, Zanj K.; Reeve, Edward M.
This is a chronicle of concepts in the field of epidermal stem cell biology and a historic look at their development over time. The past 25 years have seen the evolution of epidermal stem cell science, from first fundamental studies to a sophisticated science. The study of epithelial stem cell biology was aided by the ability to visualize the distribution
Metabolites offer an important unexplored complementary approach to understanding the pluripotency of stem cells. Using MS-based metabolomics, we show that embryonic stem cells are characterized by abundant metabolites with highly unsaturated structures whose levels decrease upon differentiation. By monitoring the reduced and oxidized glutathione ratio as well as ascorbic acid levels, we demonstrate that the stem cell redox status is
Oscar Yanes; Julie Clark; Diana M Wong; Gary J Patti; Antonio Sánchez-Ruiz; H Paul Benton; Sunia A Trauger; Caroline Desponts; Sheng Ding; Gary Siuzdak
In the last decade, tissue engineering is a field that has been suffering an enormous expansion in the regenerative medicine and dentistry. The use of cells as mesenchymal dental stem cells of easy access for dentist and oral surgeon, immunosuppressive properties, high proliferation and capacity to differentiate into odontoblasts, cementoblasts, osteoblasts and other cells implicated in the teeth, suppose a good perspective of future in the clinical dentistry. However, is necessary advance in the known of growth factors and signalling molecules implicated in tooth development and regeneration of different structures of teeth. Furthermore, these cells need a fabulous scaffold that facility their integration, differentiation, matrix synthesis and promote multiple specific interactions between cells. In this review, we give a brief description of tooth development and anatomy, definition and classification of stem cells, with special attention of mesenchymal stem cells, commonly used in the cellular therapy for their trasdifferentiation ability, non ethical problems and acceptable results in preliminary clinical trials. In terms of tissue engineering, we provide an overview of different types of mesenchymal stem cells that have been isolated from teeth, including dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), dental follicle progenitor stem cells (DFPCs), and stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs), growth factors implicated in regeneration teeth and types of scaffolds for dental tissue regeneration. Key words:Dental stem cells, regenerative dentistry, mesenchymal stem cells, tissue engineering, stem cells.
Insausti, Carmen-Luisa; Iniesta, Francisca; Blanquer, Miguel; Ramirez, Maria-del-Carmen; Meseguer, Luis; Meseguer-Henarejos, Ana-Belen; Marin, Noemi; Martinez, Salvador; Moraleda, Jose-Maria
Use of embryonic stem cells in research has been hotly debated for several years. This animation presents the basics on how stem cell lines are established. This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents how embryonic stem cell lines are made through a series of illustrations of the processes involved.
...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture...Standards Definitions Â§ 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or...resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is...
...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stem rot. 29.6039 Section 29.6039 Agriculture...Standards Definitions Â§ 29.6039 Stem rot. The deterioration of an uncured or...resulting from bacterial action. Although stem rot results from bacterial action, it is...
A current explanation for development of chronic renal injury is the imbalance between injurious mechanism and regenerative repair. The possibility that stem cells contribute to the repair of glomerular and tubular damage is of great interest for basic and translational research. Endogenous bone marrow-derived stem cells have been implicated in the repair of renal tissue, although the lineage of stem
Benedetta Bussolati; Peter Viktor Hauser; Raquel Carvalhosa; Giovanni Camussi
For almost 50 years, ACT has played a pivotal role in promoting student access into and success in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. Through academic and career assessments, career development tools, and extensive research, they have helped inform students, parents, teachers, career counselors, employers, and…
ACT, Inc., 2006
In an attempt to decrease aseptic loosening, total joint components are now being used without cement. Most components are designed to achieve fixation biologically. The radiographic results of 144 primary uncemented total hip arthroplastics and the clinical results of 89 arthroplastics that were performed using a proximally porous-coated titanium alloy femoral stem between November 1983 and June 1989 are reported.
Patrick R. Scerpella; Andrew A. McBeath; Mary M. Checovich
ABSTRACT: The remarkable speed with which the field of stem cell biology has evolved is unprecedented and has already changed the way we do science. In this series of articles we have invited leading experts to present their efforts in moving from the bench to the bedside, with the hope that we can learn from the experiences of the pioneers. PMID:22776286
Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells have become an indispensable tool for investigating genetic function both in vitro and, importantly, in vivo. Recent advances, including tetraploid aggregation, new site-specific recombinases and RNAi, have enabled more sophisticated manipulation of the ES cell genome. For instance, it is now possible to control gene expression in both a temporally and spatially restricted manner. Such
J. S. Draper; A. Nagy
In 2008, the Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University teamed up with VT Enterprise (now Babcock International) in their submission of a successful bid to deliver the national STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) Subject Choice and Careers Project. An integral part of the bid was the promotion of equality and…
Background: Autologous, and in some cases allogeneic, hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) are stored for varying periods of time prior to infusion. For periods of greater than 48 h, storage requires cryopreservation. It is essential to optimize cell storage and ensure the quality of the product for subsequent reinfusion. Methods: A number of important variables may affect the subsequent quality of infused HSC and therapeutic cells (TC). This review discusses these and also reviews the regulatory framework that now aims to ensure the quality of stem cells and TC for transplantation. Results: Important variables included cell concentration, temperature, interval from collection to cryopreservation, manipulations performed. They also included rate of freezing and whether controlled-rate freezing was employed. Parameters studied were type of cryoprotectant utilized [dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) is most commonly used, sometimes in combination with hydroxyethyl starch (HES)]; and storage conditions. It is also important to assess the quality of stored stem cells. Measurements employed included the total cell count (TNC), mononuclear cell count (MNC), CD34+ cells and colony-forming units - granulocyte macrophage (CFU-GM). Of these, TNC and CD34+ are the most useful. However, the best measure of the quality of stored stem cells is their subsequent engraftment. The quality systems used in stem cell laboratories are described in the guidance of the Joint Accreditation Committee of ISCT (Europe) and the EBMT (JACIE) and the EU Directive on Tissues and Cells plus its supporting commission directives. Inspections of facilities are carried out by the appropriate national agencies and JACIE. Conclusion: For high-quality storage of HSC and TC, processing facilities should use validated procedures that take into account critical variables. The quality of all products must be assessed before and after storage.
Pamphilon, Derwood; Mijovic, Aleksandar
Stem cells participate in dynamic physiologic systems that dictate the outcome of developmental events and organismal stress, Since these cells are fundamental to tissue maintenance and repair, the signals they receive play a critical role in the integrity of the organism. Much work has focused on stem cell identification and the molecular pathways involved in their regulation. Yet, we understand little about how these pathways achieve physiologically responsive stem cell functions. This chapter will review the state of our understanding of stem cells in the context of their microenvironment regarding the relation between stem cell niche dysfunction, carcinogenesis and aging.
Ferraro, Francesca; Celso, Cristina Lo; Scadden, David
This case explores the political and ethical issues associated with stem cell research. Students read the case describing Christopher Reeve’s accident and injuries and his advocacy for stem cell research along with background readings on stem cells and the ethics of stem cell research. They are then assigned to one of four stakeholder groups and asked to develop a position on whether or not the U.S. Senate should expand stem cell research with a focus on the ethics underlying the issue. They present their positions in class in a simulated public hearing.
Post, Doug M.; Knutson, Doug
Stem cells are fundamental units for achieving regenerative therapies, which leads naturally to a theoretical and experimental focus on these cells for therapeutic screening and intervention. A growing body of data in many tissue systems indicates that stem cell function is critically influenced by extrinsic signals derived from the microenvironment, or "niche." In this vein, the stem cell niche represents a significant, and largely untapped, entry point for therapeutic modulation of stem cell behavior. This Perspective will discuss how the niche influences stem cells in homeostasis, in the progression of degenerative and malignant diseases, and in therapeutic strategies for tissue repair. PMID:22482502
Wagers, Amy J
To overcome the difficulty of controlling stem cell fate and function in applications to regenerative medicine, a number of alternative approaches have been made. Recent reports demonstrate that a non-cellular niche modulating the biophysical microenvironment with chemical factors can support stem cell self-renewal. In our previous studies, early establishment was executed to optimize biophysical factors and it was subsequently found that the microgeometry of the extracellular matrix made huge differences in stem cell behavior and phenotype. We review here a three-dimensional, non-cellular niche designed to support stem cell self-renewal. The characteristics of stem cells under the designed system are further discussed.
Ahn, Ji Yeon; Lee, Seung Tae
Stem cells are characterized by the ability to remain undifferentiated and to self-renew. Embryonic stem cells derived from blastocysts are pluripotent (able to differentiate into many cell types). Adult stem cells, which were traditionally thought to be monopotent multipotent, or tissue restricted, have recently also been shown to have pluripotent properties. Adult bone marrow stem cells have been shown to be capable of differentiating into skeletal muscle, brain microglia and astroglia, and hepatocytes. Stem cell lines derived from both embryonic stem and embryonic germ cells (from the embryonic gonadal ridge) are pluripotent and capable of self-renewal for long periods. Therefore embryonic stem and germ cells have been widely investigated for their potential to cure diseases by repairing or replacing damaged cells and tissues. Studies in animal models have shown that transplantation of fetal, embryonic stem, or embryonic germ cells may be able to treat some chronic diseases. In this review, we highlight recent developments in the use of stem cells as therapeutic agents for three such diseases: Diabetes, Parkinson disease, and congestive heart failure. We also discuss the potential use of stem cells as gene therapy delivery cells and the scientific and ethical issues that arise with the use of human stem cells. PMID:12592319
Henningson, Carl T; Stanislaus, Marisha A; Gewirtz, Alan M