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Stem blister canker is a serious stem disease in the Populus genus in China. The pathogen was confirmed as Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex Fr.) Ces. et de Not. based on its morphological, pathological and molecular features. Seven selected plant species\\u000a Artemisia annua, Gleditsia sinensis, Lonicera japonica, Macleaya cordata, Phyllodendron chinense, Polygonum cuspidatum and Scutellaria baicalensis, belonging to different families from
A sound assessment of phoma stemcanker symptoms is needed to develop epidemiological, agronomical and physiological studies on the pathosystem. A specific analysis was therefore carried out to: (i) compare four methods of crown canker assessment; (ii) test the among and within assessor repeatability of one of the methods compared; (iii) characterise the spatial pattern of the disease; and (iv)
J.-N. Aubertot; J.-J. Schott; A. Penaud; H. Brun; T. Doré
Stemcanker and Phytophthora pod rot (PPR) or black pod caused by Phytophthora palmivora are serious diseases of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) in Sulawesi, Indonesia, causing high yield losses for smallholders, possibly exceeded only by losses due to the cocoa\\u000a pod borer (CPB), Conopomorpha cramerella. Potassium phosphonate (phosphite) applied by trunk injection has been demonstrated to effectively control canker and
P. J. McMahon; A. Purwantara; A. Wahab; M. Imron; S. Lambert; P. J. Keane; D. I. Guest
Epidemiological studies were conducted in five cocoa growing districts in the Eastern Region of Ghana solely infected by Phytophthora palmivora and five districts in the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo Regions prevalently infected by Phytophthora megakarya to determine the natural incidence, the vertical distribution on trees and the probable sources of stemcanker infections, and to isolate and identify the causal
Experiments were conducted to identify, by in vitro dual culture tests, potential biological control agents producing antibiotics and to evaluate selected biological and chemical agents for control of stemcanker caused by Botrytis cinerea on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in yellow cedar sawdust in a research greenhouse. Four strains of Bacillus subtilis and one each of Enterobacter agglomerans and
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a type of short (21–23 nucleotides), non-coding RNA molecule, mediate repressive gene regulation through RNA silencing at the post-transcriptional level, and play an important role in defense and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. In the present study, Affymetrix® miRNA Array, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for miRNAs and their targets, and miRNA promoter analysis were used to validate the gene expression patterns of miRNAs in Populus trichocarpa plantlets induced with the poplar stemcanker pathogen, Botryosphaeria dothidea. Twelve miRNAs (miR156, miR159, miR160, miR164, miR166, miR168, miR172, miR319, miR398, miR408, miR1448, and miR1450) were upregulated in the stem bark of P. trichocarpa, but no downregulated miRNAs were found. Based on analysis of the miRNAs and their targets, a potential co-regulatory network was developed to describe post-transcriptional regulation in the pathological development of poplar stemcanker. There was highly complex cross-talk between diverse miRNA pathway responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The results suggest that miR156 is probably an integral component of the miRNA response to all environmental stresses in plants. Cis-regulatory elements were binding sites for the transcription factors (TFs) on DNA. Promoter analysis revealed that TC-rich repeats and a W1-box motif were both tightly related disease response motifs in Populus. Promoter analysis and target analysis of miRNAs also revealed that some TFs regulate their activation/repression. Furthermore, a feedback regulatory network in the pathological development of poplar stemcanker is provided. The results confirm that miRNA pathways regulate gene expression during the pathological development of plant disease, and provide new insights into understanding the onset and development of poplar stemcanker.
Zhao, Jia-Ping; Jiang, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Bing-Yu; Su, Xiao-Hua
Aphthous ulcer; Ulcer - aphthous ... Canker sores are a common form of mouth ulcer . They may occur with viral infections. In some ... spots or bump that develops into an open ulcer Middle of the sore is white or yellow ...
The management of phoma stemcanker (blackleg disease, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans) is an integral component of oilseed rape production. In this paper, we discuss the information about management strategies\\u000a that is disseminated in Europe and Australia. New cultivars have been introduced with improved resistance to disease, but\\u000a sometimes this resistance has been overcome as new races of the pathogen
The management of phoma stemcanker (blackleg disease, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans) is an integral component of oilseed rape production. In this paper, we discuss the information about management strategies\\u000a that is disseminated in Europe and Australia. New cultivars have been introduced with improved resistance to disease, but\\u000a sometimes this resistance has been overcome as new races of the pathogen
... canker sores. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), an ingredient in many toothpastes and mouthwashes, has been linked to canker sores and is thought to prolong the healing time of the sores. Even emotional stress could be a factor. One study of college students showed that they had more canker sores during ...
Alternaria is a ubiquitous fungal genus that includes saprobic, endophytic and pathogenic species associated with a wide variety of substrates. In recent years, DNA-based studies revealed multiple non-monophyletic genera within the Alternaria complex, and Alternaria species clades that do not always correlate to species-groups based on morphological characteristics. The Alternaria complex currently comprises nine genera and eight Alternaria sections. The aim of this study was to delineate phylogenetic lineages within Alternaria and allied genera based on nucleotide sequence data of parts of the 18S nrDNA, 28S nrDNA, ITS, GAPDH, RPB2 and TEF1-alpha gene regions. Our data reveal a Pleospora/Stemphylium clade sister to Embellisia annulata, and a well-supported Alternaria clade. The Alternaria clade contains 24 internal clades and six monotypic lineages, the assemblage of which we recognise as Alternaria. This puts the genera Allewia, Brachycladium, Chalastospora, Chmelia, Crivellia, Embellisia, Lewia, Nimbya, Sinomyces, Teretispora, Ulocladium, Undifilum and Ybotromyces in synonymy with Alternaria. In this study, we treat the 24 internal clades in the Alternaria complex as sections, which is a continuation of a recent proposal for the taxonomic treatment of lineages in Alternaria. Embellisia annulata is synonymised with Dendryphiella salina, and together with Dendryphiella arenariae, are placed in the new genus Paradendryphiella. The sexual genera Clathrospora and Comoclathris, which were previously associated with Alternaria, cluster within the Pleosporaceae, outside Alternaria s. str., whereas Alternariaster, a genus formerly seen as part of Alternaria, clusters within the Leptosphaeriaceae. Paradendryphiella is newly described, the generic circumscription of Alternaria is emended, and 32 new combinations and 10 new names are proposed. A further 10 names are resurrected, while descriptions are provided for 16 new Alternaria sections. Taxonomic novelties: New combinations - Alternaria abundans (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternariaalternariae (Cooke) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria atra (Preuss) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria bornmuelleri (Magnus) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria botrytis (Preuss) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria caespitosa (de Hoog & C. Rubio) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria cantlous (Yong Wang bis & X.G. Zhang) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria caricis (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria cinerea (Baucom & Creamer) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria didymospora (Munt.-Cvetk.) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria fulva (Baucom & Creamer) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria hyacinthi (de Hoog & P.J. Mull. bis) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria indefessa (E.G. Simmons) Woudenberg & Crous, Alternaria leptinellae (E.G. Simmons & C.F. Hill) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria lolii (E.G. Simmons & C.F. Hill) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria multiformis (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria obclavata (Crous & U. Braun) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria obovoidea (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria oudemansii (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria oxytropis (Q. Wang, Nagao & Kakish.) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria penicillata (Corda) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria planifunda (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria proteae (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria scirpinfestans (E.G. Simmons & D.A. Johnson) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria scirpivora (E.G. Simmons & D.A. Johnson) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria septospora (Preuss) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria slovaca (Svob.-Pol., L. Chmel & Bojan.) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria subcucurbitae (Yong Wang bis & X.G. Zhang) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria tellustris (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria tumida (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Paradendryphiella salina (G.K. Sutherl.) Woudenb. & Crous, Paradendryphiella arenariae (Nicot) Woudenb. & Crous. New names - Alternaria aspera Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria botryospora Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria brassicae-pekinensis Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria breviramosa Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria chlamydosporigena Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria concatenata
Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Binder, M.; Crous, P.W.
... which appears as a painful white or yellow ulcer surrounded by a bright red area. A canker sore sore can be triggered by emotional stress, dietary deficiencies, menstrual periods, hormonal changes, food allergies ...
Summary Septoria musiva (S. musiva) causes a stemcanker dis- ease that severely damages susceptible hybrid poplars in Eastern North America. An earlier field trial demonstrated the potential for short-term responses of poplar stems to inoculation with S. musiva to be predictive of long-term canker disease damage. In the summer of 2000, addition- al poplar clones primarily selected by a
What do you do when county officials show up to cut down the orange trees in your backyard? What causes citrus canker and how is it spread? This plant pathogen was the first microbe to have its genome sequenced outside of the US. There is much to investigate before deciding on the best alternative for control. * examine international alternatives for the control of citrus canker
Linda Weinland (Edison College;Biology); Peter Woodruff (Champlain College;Biology); Margaret Waterman (Southeast Missouri State University;Biology); Ethel D. Stanley (Beloit College;Biology)
This resource is a review article about the Citrus Canker, an introduced plant disease. The article contains detailed background and overview and includes information on (1) Citrus Canker strain diversity, identification, diagnosis and characterization; (2) the symptoms and infection Process; (3) the epidemiology; (4) the management for prevention and control of Citrus Canker; (5) and the social, political, and legal ramifications of regulatory policy.
Tim R. Gottwald (USDA;); James H. Graham (University of Florida;); Tim S. Schubert (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services;)
The phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL) produces toxins that are essential for pathogenicity of the fungus on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). AAL toxins and fumonisins of the unrelated fungus Fusarium moniliforme are sphinganine-analog mycotoxins (SAMs), which cause inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis in vitro and are toxic for some plant species and mammalian cell lines. Sphingolipids can be determinants in the proliferation or death of cells. We investigated the tomato Alternariastemcanker (Asc) locus, which mediates resistance to SAM-induced apoptosis. Until now, mycotoxin resistance of plants has been associated with detoxification and altered affinity or absence of the toxin targets. Here we show that SAM resistance of tomato is determined by Asc-1, a gene homologous to the yeast longevity assurance gene LAG1 and that susceptibility is associated with a mutant Asc-1. Because both sphingolipid synthesis and LAG1 facilitate endocytosis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in yeast, we propose a role for Asc-1 in a salvage mechanism of sphingolipid-depleted plant cells.
Brandwagt, Bas F.; Mesbah, Laurent A.; Takken, Frank L. W.; Laurent, Pascal L.; Kneppers, Tarcies J. A.; Hille, Jacques; Nijkamp, H. John J.
Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) has been experiencing a decline in the Puget Sound area, primarily as a result of a canker disease caused by the fungus Fusicoccum arbuti. Cultural methods such as prevention of stress and wounding are recommended to control canker diseases on trees. In addition to these, injected treatments can be used to protect valuable Pacific madrone trees
Increasing international travel and trade has resulted in an unprecedented number of plant pathogen introductions, including Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, (Xac), the bacterium that causes citrus canker. The disease affects commercial and dooryard citrus, and has far-reaching politi...
Canker Sores (Aphthous Stomatitis or Recurrent Mouth Ulcers) What Is It? Symptoms Diagnosis Expected Duration Prevention Treatment When To Call a Professional Prognosis Additional Info What Is It? Canker sores are ...
Ethanol in sapwood was analyzed along vertical transects, through small spot cankers and larger basal cankers, of Phytophthora ramorum-infected stems of Quercus agrifolia at three sites in California. Trees with large basal cankers, known to attract scolytid beetles, had a 4.3 times higher ethanol level than trees with spot cankers that attract fewer beetles. Ethanol concentrations inside cankers, where scolytid beetles preferentially attack, varied by about four orders of magnitude among samples, with a median level of 16.0 ?g.g(-1) fresh mass. This concentration was 4.3 and 15.5 times greater, respectively, than the concentrations at 1 cm or 15-30 cm outside the canker boundaries. In the laboratory, we demonstrated that ethanol escaped through the bark of a Q. garryana log just 3 days after it was added to the sapwood. At the three study sites, traps baited with ethanol captured more Xyleborinus saxesenii, Pseudopityophthorus pubipennis, and Monarthrum dentiger (all Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) than traps baited with ethanol plus (-)-?-pinene, or ethanol plus 4-allylanisole (4AA). Logs of Q. agrifolia with a 50 % ethanol solution added to the sapwood were placed at the study sites, with or without additional bark treatments above the ethanol. The number of scolytid beetle gallery holes above the ethanol-infused sapwood was 4.4 times greater than that on the opposite side of the log where no ethanol was added. Attachment of ultra-high release (-)-?-pinene pouches to the bark surface above the 50 % ethanol solution reduced scolytid attacks to a density of 19.1 % that of logs without this treatment. We conclude that ethanol in P. ramorum cankers functions as a primary host attractant for scolytid beetles and is an important link in colonization of these cankers and accelerated mortality of Q. agrifolia. The results of this research shed light on the chemical ecology behind the focused scolytid attacks on P. ramorum-infected coast live oaks, and lay the groundwork for future efforts to prolong the survival of individual trees of this keystone species. PMID:23525941
Kelsey, Rick G; Beh, Maia M; Shaw, David C; Manter, Daniel K
SUMMARY Taxonomic status: Bacteria, Proteobacteria, gamma subdivision, Xanthomodales, Xanthomonas group, axonopodis DNA homology group, X. axonopodis pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin et al. Microbiological properties: Gram negative, slender, rod-shaped, aerobic, motile by a single polar flagellum, produces slow growing, non-mucoid colonies in culture, ecologically obligate plant parasite. Host range: Causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker on most Citrus spp. and close relatives of Citrus in the family Rutaceae. Disease symptoms: Distinctively raised, necrotic lesions on fruits, stems and leaves. Epidemiology: Bacteria exude from lesions during wet weather and are disseminated by splash dispersal at short range, windblown rain at medium to long range and human assisted movement at all ranges. Crop loss: Severe infections cause defoliation, blemished fruit, premature fruit drop, die-back of twigs and general debilitation of the tree. Distribution: Citrus canker is not present in all subtropical to tropical regions of citriculture in the world, so considerable regulatory efforts are expended to prevent the introduction and spread of X. axonopodis pv. citri into areas in the Americas, Australia and elsewhere, with climates conducive to the disease. Importance: Limited strategies exist for suppression of citrus canker on more susceptible cultivars. Blemished fruit are unmarketable and exposed fruit are restricted in market access. The economic impact of loss of markets is much greater than that from yield and quality reductions of the crop. Useful websites: http://doacs.state.fl.us/canker, http://www.apsnet.org/education/lessonsplantpath/citruscanker/top.htm, http://www.apsnet.org/online/feature/citruscanker/, http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/review/citruscanker/, http://www.abecitrus.com.br/fundecitrus.html, http://www.biotech.ufl.edu/PlantContainment/canker.htm, http://www.aphis.usda.gov/oa/ccanker/. PMID:20565577
Graham, James H; Gottwald, Tim R; Cubero, Jaime; Achor, Diann S
Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) can cause direct yield loss of citrus, and infection of fruit can result in trade restriction being imposed on canker endemic areas. Developing fruit become infected through splash dispersed inoculum. The objective of this study was to describ...
Despite eradication efforts in both Florida and Brazil, citrus canker has been dispersed by a combination of storms and human movement. Citrus canker certainly causes crop losses put perhaps its most devastating effect is the social and political conflicts over mandated eradication programs. Epide...
Trunk injected potassium phosphonate (8 or 16 g a.i. per tree every 6 months) controls black pod and stemcanker of cocoa:\\u000a Foliar sprays of potassium phosphonate (20 g a.i. per tree every 6 months) or Ridomil Plus 72WP (0.72 g a.i. per tree every\\u000a 6 weeks during the wet season) do not control black pod. Trunk injection is less
ABSTRACT Pryor, B. M., and Michailides, T. J. 2002. Morphological, pathogenic, and molecular characterization of ,Alternaria isolates associated with Alternaria late blight of pistachio. Phytopathology 92:406-416. Alternaria isolates ,were ,obtained from ,various pistachio tissues
Asiatic citrus canker (Acc) (causal organism Xanthomonas citri subspc. citri (Xcc) is threatening sustainability of the Florida citrus industry. Resistant cultivars, whether developed through conventional breeding or genetic transformation, will be he best solution for dealint with Acc. In Florida...
...from quarantined areas to prevent the spread of citrus canker. DATES: We will consider...suppress, control, prevent, or retard the spread of plant pests, such as citrus canker...regulations to prevent the interstate spread of citrus canker are contained...
Alternaria solani causes diseases on foliage (early blight), basal stems of seedlings (collar rot), stems of adult plants (stem lesions), and\\u000a fruits (fruit rot) of tomato. Early blight is the most destructive of these diseases and hence receives considerable attention\\u000a in breeding. For over 60 years, breeding for early blight resistance has been practiced, but the development of cultivars\\u000a with
Failure to control Alternaria late blight in a few California pistachio orchards was observed after only 3–4 years of consecutive applications of azoxystrobin-based fungicide programs. A total of 72 isolates of Alternaria alternata, Alternaria tenuissima, and Alternaria arborescens, the causal organisms of Alternaria late blight, were collected from pistachio orchards with (58 isolates) and without (14 isolates) a prior history
A new mucoadhesive tablet, which releases natural active agents for pain reduction and rapid healing of canker sores, has been prepared and characterized. Adhesive tablets were prepared by compression molding of mixed powders of crosslinked polyacrylic acid and hydroxypropyl cellulose, absorbed with citrus oil and magnesium salt. The rate of tablet erosion and the rates of citrus oil and magnesium
Boaz Mizrahi; Jacob Golenser; Joseph S. Wolnerman; Abraham J. Domb
Embellisia allii, a hyphomycetous fungal pathogen of garlic (Allium sativum) is described in terms of microscopic morphology and host symptoms (skin blotch and bulb canker). Disease is worsened under conditions of excessive humidity during the latter part of the growing season or in storage. Growe...
Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida and continues to spread. Personnel and equipment decontamination is practiced in both disease-endemic and disease-free areas to reduce the risk of bacterial spread by man or machinery. We used grapefruit leaf su...
Alternaria is a cosmopolitan fungal genus widely distributing in soil and organic matter. It includes saprophytic, endophytic and pathogenic species. At least 268 metabolites from Alternaria fungi have been reported in the past few decades. They mainly include nitrogen-containing metabolites, steroids, terpenoids, pyranones, quinones, and phenolics. This review aims to briefly summarize the structurally different metabolites produced by Alternaria fungi, as well as their occurrences, biological activities and functions. Some considerations related to synthesis, biosynthesis, production and applications of the metabolites from Alternaria fungi are also discussed. PMID:23698046
The genusAlternaria is responsible for different plant diseases such as tobacco brown spot, tomato blight, and citrus seedling chlorosis but\\u000a can also be present during storage of grain. The objective of the present paper is to summarize the knowledge concerning regulation\\u000a of secondary metabolism inAlternaria, particularA alternata (A tenuis). The paper mainly deals with regulation of polyketide biosynthesis, one of
Alternaria alternata, the causal agent of Alternaria brown spot (ABS), causes necrosis on leaves, twigs, and fruit, reducing the productivity and quality of fruits. Tangerines and their hybrids are highly susceptible to the disease. Species, hybrids, and cultivars of Citrus from the germplasm bank of the Estação Experimental de Citricultura de Bebedouro, São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated in 2004 and
R. F. Reis; T. F. de Almeida; E. S. Stuchi; A. de Goes
Blueberries are traditionally consumed in North America, some European countries and Japan. In Argentina, the blueberry crop is profitable because production starts in November, when the northern hemisphere lacks fresh fruit. Fungal contaminants can grow and produce mycotoxins in fresh fruit. The aims of this work were to identify the main genera of the mycobiota of blueberries grown in Argentina and to determine the toxicogenic potential, pathogenicity and host specificity of the species isolated. The genus Alternaria was the main component of the blueberry mycobiota (95%); minor proportions of Phoma spp. (4%) and Penicillium spp. (1%) were also isolated. According to their sporulation patterns, 127 Alternaria isolates belonged to the Alternaria tenuissima species-group, 5 to the Alternaria alternata species-group and 2 to the Alternaria arborescens species-group. The last mentioned species-group was not isolated at 5°C. Of the 134 isolates, 61% were toxicogenic in autoclaved rice; 97% of these produced alternariol (AOH) in a range from 0.14 to 119.18 mg/kg, 95% produced alternariol methylether (AME) in a range from 1.23 to 901.74 mg/kg and 65% produced tenuazonic acid (TA) in a range from 0.13 to 2778 mg/kg. Fifty two isolates co-produced the three mycotoxins. According to the size of the lesion that they caused on blueberries, the isolates were classified as slightly pathogenic, moderately pathogenic and very pathogenic. No significant differences in pathogenicity were found on different blueberry varieties. In this work, high incidence and toxicogenic potential of the Alternaria isolates from blueberries were demonstrated. Thus, more studies should be done to evaluate the health risk posed by the presence of the Alternaria toxins in blueberries and in the manufactured by-products. PMID:22285534
Greco, M; Patriarca, A; Terminiello, L; Fernández Pinto, V; Pose, G
Citrus canker is a serious disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri bacteria, which infects citrus plants (Citrus spp.) leading to a large economic loss in citrus production worldwide. In Brazil citrus canker control is done by an official\\u000a eradication campaign, therefore early detection of such disease is important to prevent greater economic losses. However,\\u000a detection is difficult and so
Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) exhibits genetic resistance to fusiform rust disease (incited by the biotrophic fungus, Cronartium quercuum f. sp. fusiforme) and pitch canker disease (incited by the necrotrophic fungus, Fusarium circinatum). In this study, a total of 14,015 loblolly pine cuttings from 1,065 clones were screened in controlled greenhouse conditions to identify phenotypes of clones, families, and parents that guide a genetic dissection of disease traits associated with pitch canker and fusiform rust. A total of 23,373 phenotypic data points were collected for lesion length (pitch canker) and gall score, gall length, and gall width (fusiform rust). We verified heritable fusiform rust and pitch canker traits and calculated parental, clonal, and full-sib family rankings for both diseases. Genetic correlations revealed that traits associated with fusiform rust are genetically distinct from one another, and that the genetic mechanisms underlying pitch canker and fusiform rust resistance are independent. The disease phenotyping described here is a critical step towards identifying specific loci and alleles associated with fusiform rust and pitch canker resistance. PMID:15700146
Kayihan, Gogce C; Huber, Dudley A; Morse, Alison M; White, Timothy L; Davis, John M
SUMMARY Alternaria fungi cause four different diseases of citrus: Alternaria brown spot of tangerines, Alternaria leaf spot of rough lemon, Alternaria black rot of several citrus fruits and Mancha foliar of Mexican lime. The first three diseases are caused by the small- spored species, Alternaria alternata and the causal agents can only be differentiated using pathogenicity tests, toxin assays or
|The author's son has been an engineer since birth. He never asked "why" as a toddler, it was always "how's it work?" So that he wanted a STEM-based home education was no big surprise. In this article, the author considers what kind of curricula would work best for her complex kid.|
BACKGROUND: Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC) is a major, highly contagious disease of citrus plants present in many countries in Asia, Africa and America, but not in the Mediterranean area. There are three types of Citrus Bacterial Canker, named A, B, and C that have different genotypes and posses variation in host range within citrus species. The causative agent for type
Luciano A Rigano; María R Marano; Atilio P Castagnaro; Alexandre Morais Do Amaral; Adrian A Vojnov
Fifty-seven of 87 isolates of Alternaria alternata (Fr) Keissler grown on autoclaved, moist corn-rice substrate and fed to rats were lethal. The major toxin produced was isolated and characterized as tenuazonic acid. Twenty of 23 toxigenic Alternaria isolates examined produced tenuazonic acid. No tenuazonic acid could be detected in either of the field samples of sorghum or blackeyed peas, which were heavily invaded by Alternaria.
Meronuck, R. A.; Steele, J. A.; Mirocha, C. J.; Christensen, C. M.
Chemical investigation of the onion pathogenic fungus Alternaria porri resulted in the isolation of two new phthalides named zinnimide (2) and deprenylzinnimide (8), along with a new bianthraquinone, alterporriol F (10). The structures of the new metabolites were characterised by spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. Of the new compounds isolated, alterporriol F was highly cytotoxic towards HeLa and KB cells, with IC(50) values of 6.5 and 7.0 microg mL(-1). PMID:19662571
Alternaria cassiae is the causal pathogen of a new, destructive foliar disease of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). Cowpea leaves were inoculated with conidia of A. cassiae. Conidium germination, appressorium formation, penetration and colonisation of the plant surface were studied using light\\u000a and scanning electron microscopy. Multiple germ-tubes developed randomly from each conidium and grew in any direction across\\u000a the leaf surface.
Seven sunflower genotypes comprising of populations and hybrids showing differential sporophytic reaction to Alternaria leaf\\u000a and stem blight were studied for their gametophytic reaction to pathogen culture filtrate. The sunflower pollen grains germinate\\u000a well in the liquid medium and give good pollen tube growth in the absence of the culture filtrate. The addition of increasing\\u000a concentrations of culture filtrate to
Cultures of Alternaria alternata (three isolates) and Alternaria tenuissima (three isolates) obtained from cottonseeds and bolls were toxigenic when cultured on various laboratory media. A mycotoxin was isolated and identified as tenuazonic acid by using solvent partition, thin-layer chromatography, and instrument analyses. Toxicity was monitored with brine shrimp and chicken embryo bioassays. All cultures except A. alternata 938 produced tenuazonic acid when grown on cottonseed and on yeast extract-sucrose broth. The most toxin (266 mg/kg) was produced by A. tenuissima 843 on cottonseed.
This article addresses nonseptic diseases associated with the hoof complex, namely keratoma, white line disease, canker, and neoplasia. Keratoma is an uncommon cause of lameness, which may be surgically removed. White line disease, a keratolytic process on the solar surface of the hoof, is treated with therapeutic farriery and resection of the hoof wall when appropriate. Equine canker is an infectious process that results in development of a chronic hypertrophy of the horn-producing tissues. Neoplasia involving the equine foot is rare, and melanoma is the most common type of neoplasm reported. PMID:22981198
Mycorrhiza frequently leads to the control of root pathogens, but appears to have the opposite effect on leaf pathogens. In this study, we studied mycorrhizal effects on the development of early blight in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) caused by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria solani. Alternaria-induced necrosis and chlorosis of all leaves were studied in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants over time course
Maendy Fritz; Iver Jakobsen; Michael Foged Lyngkjær; Hans Thordal-Christensen; Jörn Pons-Kühnemann
Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating biotic stresses affecting the citrus industry. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) is canker-resistant, while Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is canker-sensitive. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in responses to Xcc, transcriptomic profiles of these two genotypes following Xcc attack were compared by using the Affymetrix citrus genome GeneChip. A total of 794 and 1324 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified as canker-responsive genes in Meiwa and Newhall, respectively. Of these, 230 genes were expressed in common between both genotypes, while 564 and 1094 genes were only significantly expressed in either Meiwa or Newhall. Gene ontology (GO) annotation and Singular Enrichment Analysis (SEA) of the DEGs showed that genes related to the cell wall and polysaccharide metabolism were induced for basic defense in both Meiwa and Newhall, such as chitinase, glucanase and thaumatin-like protein. Moreover, apart from inducing basic defense, Meiwa showed specially upregulated expression of several genes involved in the response to biotic stimulus, defense response, and cation binding as comparing with Newhall. And in Newhall, abundant photosynthesis-related genes were significantly down-regulated, which may be in order to ensure the basic defense. This study revealed different molecular responses to canker disease in Meiwa and Newhall, affording insight into the response to canker and providing valuable information for the identification of potential genes for engineering canker tolerance in the future.
Pear blister canker viroid (PBCVd) was detected in pear (Pyrus sp.), nashi (Pyrus serotina) and quince (Cydonia oblonga) trees from various pome fruit growing regions of Australia using dot-blot hybridization and RT-PCR techniques. Characteristic symptoms of PBCVd infection were not observed on the...
Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, caused by the Ascomycete fungus Phomopsis viticola, is a destructive fruit and foliar disease in eastern North American vineyards. The pathogen typically attacks green tissues, but can also cause wood cankers, presumably due to infection of pruning wounds, as is the cas...
Of the trees in a 6-year-old sycamore seed orchard in Carlisle County, KY, 66 percent developed obscure vertical cankers in the spring of 1990. A variety of wound-invading saprophytes, including Hyalodendron sp., Stachylidium sp., Botrytis sp., Phialophor...
While bleeding canker of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) has long been recognized as a problem, the cause in the northeastern United States has not been clear. To resolve this, we surveyed for disease prevalence, identified the pathogens involved, proved their pathogenicity, compared protocols for ...
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri causes citrus canker. Disease assessment is important for monitoring epidemics. Visual assessment (VA) is presently the only reliable means of detection. To investigate how VA of symptoms compared to image analysis we used digital images of 214 citrus le...
...provide adequate safeguards to prevent the spread of the three pests into currently unaffected...measures determined necessary to prevent the spread of the pest, or requiring the plants...regulations to prevent the interstate spread of citrus canker are contained...
: Mathematical models are important tools for comparative analysis of epidemics. In this paper, parameters obtained from the mathematical model that best fitted to the annual progress curves of citrus canker incidence were used to evaluate the effect of copper sprays and windbreaks on the annual and...
Citrus canker (caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) can cause severe damage to citrus. It is endemic in Florida, and occurs in other citrus growing regions. The bacterium is dispersed predominantly in rain splash. To simulate dispersal in splash, and to investigate t...
Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors from Xanthomonas species pathogens act as transcription factors in plant cells; however, how TAL effectors activate host transcription is unknown. We found previously that TAL effectors of the citrus canker pathogen Xanthomonas citri, known as PthAs, bind the carboxyl-terminal domain of the sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and inhibit the activity of CsCYP, a cyclophilin associated with the carboxyl-terminal domain of the citrus RNA Pol II that functions as a negative regulator of cell growth. Here, we show that PthA4 specifically interacted with the sweet orange MAF1 (CsMAF1) protein, an RNA polymerase III (Pol III) repressor that controls ribosome biogenesis and cell growth in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human. CsMAF1 bound the human RNA Pol III and rescued the yeast maf1 mutant by repressing tRNA(His) transcription. The expression of PthA4 in the maf1 mutant slightly restored tRNA(His) synthesis, indicating that PthA4 counteracts CsMAF1 activity. In addition, we show that sweet orange RNA interference plants with reduced CsMAF1 levels displayed a dramatic increase in tRNA transcription and a marked phenotype of cell proliferation during canker formation. Conversely, CsMAF1 overexpression was detrimental to seedling growth, inhibited tRNA synthesis, and attenuated canker development. Furthermore, we found that PthA4 is required to elicit cankers in sweet orange leaves and that depletion of CsMAF1 in X. citri-infected tissues correlates with the development of hyperplastic lesions and the presence of PthA4. Considering that CsMAF1 and CsCYP function as canker suppressors in sweet orange, our data indicate that TAL effectors from X. citri target negative regulators of RNA Pol II and Pol III to coordinately increase the transcription of host genes involved in ribosome biogenesis and cell proliferation. PMID:23898043
Alternaria alternata and Alternaria radicina are fungal species that occur in several food crops and may produce mycotoxins and phytotoxins. The toxigenic profile of A. alternata and A. radicina isolated from carrot and other umbelliferous plants was determined by growing the fungus on rice and carrot discs. Most of the tested isolates of A. alternata produced the mycotoxins tenuazonic acid, alternariol, alternariol methyl ether and altertoxin-I on rice. Only alternariol and alternariol methyl ether were produced on carrot discs. When cultured on rice, none of the isolates of A. alternata from umbelliferous plants produced AAL toxins and fumonisins. AAL toxins, but not fumonisins, were instead produced by A. alternata f. sp. lycopersici isolate NRRL 18822 isolated from tomato. A. radicina produced the phytotoxic compounds radicinin, epi-radicinol and radicinol on carrot discs, whereas it produced radicinin and radicinol on rice. Although A. alternata has been frequently found in organic carrots, none of the above mycotoxins was detected in carrot roots or in carrot commercial products. The reduction of alternariol and alternariol methyl ether during carrot juice processing at laboratory scale was estimated to be >98%. Based on these findings and previous reports, it can be concluded that Alternaria mycotoxins in carrots do not represent a hazard for consumers. PMID:16019799
Solfrizzo, M; Girolamo, A De; Vitti, C; Tylkowska, K; Grabarkiewicz-Szczesna, J; Szopi?ska, D; Dorna, H
Blackspot, caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important diseases in crucifers and its management mainly relies on fungicide applications. However, growers report increasing prevalence of this disease and decline in its control that might be related to the development of resistance in Alternaria species through over-use of fungicides. To test this hypothesis, field isolates of Alternaria species
Béatrice Iacomi-Vasilescu; Hervé Avenot; Nelly Bataillé-Simoneau; Emmanuelle Laurent; Michel Guénard; Philippe Simoneau
Canker and decline of Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island pine) trees were observed during surveys conducted in the costal suburbs of Perth in 2009 and 2010. Samples\\u000a from symptomatic and asymptomatic parts of trees were collected and morphological characteristics of the consistently isolated\\u000a fungus analysed. The isolated fungus was identified as Neofusicoccum parvum using phylogenetic analysis of combined sequence data from
Citrus canker is one of the most important agricultural citrus diseases worldwide. It is caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) bacterium that infects leaves and the fruits produce a cysteine peptidase (CPXaC), which makes it a potential target for the development of effective and rapid detection methods for citrus canker. We report here the studies on the development of piezoelectric immunoassay for CPXaC using a polyclonal antibody against CPXaC (anti-CPXaC). Three different strategies for covalent immobilization of anti-CPXaC on gold surfaces were evaluated by monitoring the frequency (?f) and energy dissipation (?D) variation in real time when 64.5×10(-8) mol L(-1) CPXaC was added. Anti-CPXaC immobilized with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) showed the best relation between the frequency and dissipation factor variation, and strong values for the kinetic and equilibrium binding constant were obtained. The immunosensor showed a detection limit of 13.0 nmol L(-1) with excellent specificity, showing no response for different proteins that include another cysteine peptidase that is used as a target to detect Xylella fastidiosa bacterium, responsible for another important citrus disease. These results provide good perspectives for the use of CPXaC as a new biomarker for citrus canker. PMID:23597909
Afonso, André S; Zanetti, Bianca F; Santiago, Adelita C; Henrique-Silva, Flavio; Mattoso, Luiz H C; Faria, Ronaldo C
Months of the year with high risk of European canker (Neonectria galligena) development in areas of the United States, Chile, England, and Northern Ireland were determined from published data. Moving-window analysis of long-term climatic data was used to classify disease risk in these areas in relation to rainfall and temperature conditions using the degree of agreement statistic. Greatest agreement occurred when it both rained on >30% of days/month and there was an average of >8 h/day with temperature of 11 to 16°C. When these thresholds were applied in eight validation areas in New Zealand, Australia, the United States, The Netherlands, and Denmark, areas with reported higher risk of disease tended to be areas where the thresholds were exceeded more often and by greater amounts. Areas at higher latitudes (>52°) with frequent summer rainfall appeared to be most prone to European canker, including the fruit rot phase of the disease, probably because summer temperatures were more favorable than at lower latitudes. The climatic thresholds derived for European canker could be useful for studies of disease establishment risk, surveillance, eradication, climate change impact assessment, and, possibly, for disease risk forecasting. The methods used in this study allowed conditions favorable for disease development to be identified even though quantitative regional disease data were lacking, and they could be useful for similar geoclimatic studies of other diseases. PMID:20795854
Background and objectives. Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, Xac) is an important disease of citrus in several tropical and sub-tropical citrus growing regions. Canker damaged trees produce less yield and the blemished fruit is unfit for fresh sale, so processing becomes the...
Seleniferous water continues to be a serious problem to wildlife in the central valley of California. Water samples collected from Kesterson Reservoir, Peck Ranch, and Lost Hills evaporation pond facilities contained between 0.005 and 5 mg of Se per liter. The objective of this study was to isolate Se-methylating organisms in evaporation pond water and to assess, through enrichment and manipulation of their optimal growth parameters, the environmental factors which govern microbial Se methylation. Alternaria alternata was isolated as an active Se-methylating organism. The volatile product was identified as dimethylselenide. The effects of pH, temperature, Se substrates, and methyl donors on the ability of A. alternata to methylate Se were investigated in liquid medium containing 100 mg of Se per liter. The optimum pH and temperature for methylation were 6.5 and 30°C, respectively. Selenate and selenite were methylated more rapidly than selenium sulfide and various organic Se compounds (6-selenoguanosine, 6-selenoinosine, seleno-dl-methionine, and 6-selenopurine). l-Methionine and methyl cobalamine (0.1 ?M) stimulated dimethylselenide production. This study demonstrates that Se-methylating organisms are present in evaporation pond water and are capable of liberating substantial quantities of Se in the volatile dimethylselenide form. By determining the optimum environmental conditions which stimulate volatilization, it may be possible to design a way to remove Se from seleniferous water in situ.
Thompson-Eagle, E. T.; Frankenberger, W. T.; Karlson, U.
Some common decay organisms of vegetables and ripened fruits are Alternaria species. Even fruits and vegetables kept under refrigeration can be spoiled by Alternaria species because the mold grows at low temperatures. Alternaria alternata is commonly found in grain in areas with a high incidence of esophageal cancer. Three metabolites, altertoxins I, II, and III, have been isolated from A. alternata and have hydroxyperylenequinone structures. Although other perylenequinone metabolites such as stemphyperylenol and stemphyltoxins I, II, III, and IV, have been isolated from Stemphylium botryosum var. lactucum, a plant pathogen and mold, we isolated and identified stemphyltoxin III from A. alternata. This metabolite was tested for mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium plate incorporation assay with and without Aroclor 1254-induced rat S-9 metabolic activation. A positive response was noted with and without metabolic activation in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA1537, and there was a marginal response in strain TA100.
A fungus, identified as Alternaria alternata, was isolated from dying or dead aphids and proved to be pathogenic. It was isolated from different parts of Greece from aphid specimens on cultivated plants, ornamentals and weeds. In the laboratory, disease development started with the germination of spores on the insect integument and the subsequent growth of mycelium. The fungus formed apical
Ch. Christias; P. Hatzipapas; A. Dara; A. Kaliafas; G. Chrysanthis
Alternaria cirsinoxia was evaluated for its host range, the influence of temperature on mycelial growth, and survival and overwintering on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) in Saskatchewan. With the exception of leafy spurge, the host range of A. cirsinoxia was limited to species within the Asteraceae. Canada thistle, safflower, and sunflower were most susceptible to A. cirsinoxia, the latter two being
ABSTRACT Phytophthora cinnamomi is the causal agent of a perennial canker that develops on the lower bole on northern red oak and pedunculate oak. The disease has a limited range in Europe, being reported only in southwest France. This limited distribution is probably linked to the susceptibility of P. cinnamomi to frost. A model was developed in previous work to estimate the impact of temperatures of <0 degrees C on the winter survival of P. cinnamomi in trunk cortical tissues and on the subsequent development of cankers. In this article, we report the use of this model to simulate canker development in 503 locations across France during a 30-year period. The predicted canker extension decreased sharply when the median P. cinnamomi winter survival index decreased from 0.95 to 0.65, with cankers that poorly developed when the median survival index was lower than 0.5 to 0.6. The actual incidence of the disease in 192 stands located across southwest France was compared with that of the model outputs. Both presence of disease in stands and frequency of cankered trees in infected stands, but not canker size on infected trees, were strongly related to the median P. cinnamomi survival index. No disease was present in stands with median survival index lower than 0.65, and the frequency of cankered trees in infected stands remained very low in stands with a median survival index between 0.65 and 0.70. Aspect was an additional factor explaining disease incidence, while the effect of elevation was likely due to its effect on winter temperatures. Maps of winter suitability to P. cinnamomi-induced cankers on oaks in France are presented. PMID:18943102
Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) was first documented in India and Java in the mid 19th century. Since that time, the known distribution of the disease has steadily increased. Concurrent with the dispersion of the pathogen, the diversity of described strains continues to increase, with novel strains appearing in Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Florida in the last decade. Herbarium specimens of infected plants provide an historical record documenting both the geographic distribution and genetic diversity of the pathogen in the past. However, no method was available to assess the genetic diversity within these herbarium samples. We have developed a method, insertion event scanning (IES), and applied the method to characterize the diversity present within CBC populations documented as herbarium specimens over the past century. IES is based on the specific amplification of junction fragments that define insertion events. The potential for IES in current forensic applications is demonstrated by finding an exact match of pathogen genotypes preserved in herbarium specimens from Japan and Florida, demonstrating the source of the original outbreak of citrus canker in Florida in 1911. IES is a very sensitive technique for differentiating bacterial strains and can be applied to any of the several hundred bacteria for which full genomic sequence data are available.
Li, Wenbin; Song, Qijian; Brlansky, Ronald H.; Hartung, John S.
The differential phytotoxicity of purified AAL-toxin to lines of tomato isogenic for the Asc gene parallels resistance to Alternaria alternata f.sp. lycopersici. This relationship, as reported earlier, is consistent with the role of AAL-toxin as a host-specific toxin with the role of a primary chemical determinant of Alternariastemcanker. Current results indicate the pathogen and the AAL-toxin also can
David G. Gilchrist; Barney Ward; Vasiliana Moussato; Chester J. Mirocha
Twelve fungicides were screened in vitro for post-germination activity against Nectria galligena, the causal agent of European apple canker and Nectria fruit rot. Colony size was recorded 5 and 12 days after the application of fungicides. Fungicides differed in their ability to inhibit colony growth. Type of fungicide and concentration interacted. In general, inhibition was greater the higher the concentration
Intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. One emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease first occurred in China and Japan in the 1980s and in Korea and Italy in the 1990s. A more severe form
Angelo Mazzaglia; David J. Studholme; Maria C. Taratufolo; Rongman Cai; Nalvo F. Almeida; Tokia Goodman; David S. Guttman; Boris A. Vinatzer; Giorgio M. Balestra
A 178 bacterial strains, antagonistic towards Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis , the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato, were isolated from bulk soil, the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of tomato, originating from different sites in the Souss-Massa Valley, Agadir, Morocco. The strains were characterized on the basis of the Gram stain, sporulation, fluorescence on King's B medium and physiological tests.
E. H. Boudyach; M. Fatmi; O. Akhayat; E. Benizri; A. Ait Ben Aoumar
In organic seed production of Brassica vegetables, infections by Alternaria brassicicola and A. brassicae can cause severe losses of yield and seed quality. Four field experiments with or without artificial inoculation with A. brassicicola were conducted in organically managed seed-production crops of cauliflower cv. Opaal RZ in 2005 and 2006 in the Netherlands. The development of A. brassicicola and A.
J. Köhl; Tongeren van C. A. M; B. H. Groenenboom-de Haas; Hoof van R. A; R. Driessen; L. van der Heijden
Alternaria and Cladosporium, known as the most allergenic spores were first collected by means of Durham gravimetric sampler from Eskisehir atmosphere\\u000a from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001. The daily, monthly and annual variations in spores\\/cm2 of Cladosporium and Alternaria were recorded. During this period, a total of 10.231 spores belonging to Cladosporium and Alternaria genera were recorded. Of
Gottwald, T. R., Bassanezi, R. B., Amorim, L., and Bergamin-Filho, A. 2007. Spatial pattern analysis of citrus canker-infected plantings in São Paulo, Brazil, and augmentation of infection elicited by the Asian leafminer. Phytopathology 97:674-683. Eradication of Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) has become increasingly difficult over the last decade, following the introduction of the Asian leafminer into Brazil and Florida, which
T. R. Gottwald; R. B. Bassanezi; L. Amorim; A. Bergamin-Filho
Background Citrus canker is a disease that has severe economic impact on the citrus industry worldwide. There are three types of canker, called A, B, and C. The three types have different phenotypes and affect different citrus species. The causative agent for type A is Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, whose genome sequence was made available in 2002. Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain B causes canker B and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain C causes canker C. Results We have sequenced the genomes of strains B and C to draft status. We have compared their genomic content to X. citri subsp. citri and to other Xanthomonas genomes, with special emphasis on type III secreted effector repertoires. In addition to pthA, already known to be present in all three citrus canker strains, two additional effector genes, xopE3 and xopAI, are also present in all three strains and are both located on the same putative genomic island. These two effector genes, along with one other effector-like gene in the same region, are thus good candidates for being pathogenicity factors on citrus. Numerous gene content differences also exist between the three cankers strains, which can be correlated with their different virulence and host range. Particular attention was placed on the analysis of genes involved in biofilm formation and quorum sensing, type IV secretion, flagellum synthesis and motility, lipopolysacharide synthesis, and on the gene xacPNP, which codes for a natriuretic protein. Conclusion We have uncovered numerous commonalities and differences in gene content between the genomes of the pathogenic agents causing citrus canker A, B, and C and other Xanthomonas genomes. Molecular genetics can now be employed to determine the role of these genes in plant-microbe interactions. The gained knowledge will be instrumental for improving citrus canker control.
Seven Gram-negative bacterial strains were isolated from oozing bark canker of poplar (Populus × euramericana) trees in Hungary. They showed high (>98.3%) 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Lonsdalea quercina; however, they differed from this species in several phenotypic characteristics. Multilocus sequence analysis based on three housekeeping genes (gyrB, atpD and infB) revealed, and DNA-DNA hybridization analysis confirmed, that this group of bacterial strains forms a distinct lineage within the species Lonsdalea quercina. A detailed study of phenotypic and physiological characteristics confirmed the separation of isolates from poplars from other subspecies of L. quercina; therefore, a novel subspecies, Lonsdalea quercina subsp. populi, type strain NY060(T) (=DSM 25466(T)=NCAIM B 02483(T)), is proposed. PMID:23159756
Glycoprotein elicitor can induce plant resistance and become a potential agent for biological control of plant diseases. Here,\\u000a a new glycoprotein elicitor was purified with the method of cold alcohol precipitation and anion exchange chromatography from\\u000a the mycelium of Alternaria tenuissima strain JH505, which was identified on the basis of morphological features and sequence analysis of rDNA internal transcribed\\u000a spacer.
Xiufen Yang; Dewen Qiu; Hongmei Zeng; Jingjing Yuan; Jianjun Mao
Double-stranded (ds) RNAs associated with viruslike particles have been found in six isolates of Alternaria alternata which produce tentoxin. Isolates had from one to three dsRNAs ranging in size from 1.0 to 5.1 kilobase pairs. In two isolates the dsRNAs were associated with 30-nm particles. No dsRNA was detected in any of six other tentoxin-producing isolates or nine isolates which did not produce tentoxin. Images
Double-stranded (ds) RNAs associated with viruslike particles have been found in six isolates of Alternaria alternata which produce tentoxin. Isolates had from one to three dsRNAs ranging in size from 1.0 to 5.1 kilobase pairs. In two isolates the dsRNAs were associated with 30-nm particles. No dsRNA was detected in any of six other tentoxin-producing isolates or nine isolates which did not produce tentoxin. PMID:3418789
A number of factors affecting simultaneous production of cell-bound glucose oxidase and catalase by the fungus Alternaria alternata have been investigated. Consecutive optimization of the type and concentration of nitrogen and carbon source, the initial pH and growth temperature resulted in a simultaneous increase in glucose oxidase and catalase by 780% and 68% respectively. Two second-order equations, describing the combined
Konstantina-Anna Caridis; Paul Christakopoulos; Basil J. Macris
The sulphur nutrition of three isolates ofAlternaria tenuisAuct., isolated from the diseased leaves ofMangifera indica L.,Musa paradisiaca L. andPsidium guajava L., was studied. They were grown on the medium devoid of sulphur as well as on media containing various sources of sulphur viz., ammonium sulphate, sodium hyposulphite, sodium thiosulphate, magnesium sulphate, potassium sulphate, potassium metabisulphite, zinc sulphate and thiourea. Sodium
Purpose. To report a case of Alternaria alternata keratitis in a patient with a corneal transplant in her right eye due to bullous pseudophakic keratopathy. Methods. A 66-year-old female underwent a full-thickness keratoplasty in her right eye due to bullous pseudophakic keratopathy. Three weeks after keratoplasty, epithelial edema and a stromal opacity with an infiltrate and development of peripheral corneal opacities appeared. The diagnosis of Alternaria alternata keratitis was made. Results. The patient underwent a second keratoplasty, due to the corneal melting as a result of the fungal infection. She was also given combined antifungal treatment locally and systematically. Conclusion. Corneal transplantation alone would not have been sufficient to keep the fungus in the anterior portion of the eye. Combined antifungal treatment, locally and systematically, was important in attempting to prevent the further spread of the fungus to the interior of the eye. To our knowledge, the case presented here is only the second one in the literature concerning a keratomycosis due to Alternaria alternata corneal transplant infection. PMID:23573439
Purpose. To report a case of Alternaria alternata keratitis in a patient with a corneal transplant in her right eye due to bullous pseudophakic keratopathy. Methods. A 66-year-old female underwent a full-thickness keratoplasty in her right eye due to bullous pseudophakic keratopathy. Three weeks after keratoplasty, epithelial edema and a stromal opacity with an infiltrate and development of peripheral corneal opacities appeared. The diagnosis of Alternaria alternata keratitis was made. Results. The patient underwent a second keratoplasty, due to the corneal melting as a result of the fungal infection. She was also given combined antifungal treatment locally and systematically. Conclusion. Corneal transplantation alone would not have been sufficient to keep the fungus in the anterior portion of the eye. Combined antifungal treatment, locally and systematically, was important in attempting to prevent the further spread of the fungus to the interior of the eye. To our knowledge, the case presented here is only the second one in the literature concerning a keratomycosis due to Alternaria alternata corneal transplant infection.
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For the first time in 1989 citrus bacterial canker disease has seen on Citrus\\u000a aurantiifolia in southern Iran. A total of 43 strains from affected citrus trees, ten strains from South Korea and representative from\\u000a all known five pathotypes of Xanthomonas axonopodis pathogenic on citrus trees were used in this study. Isolated strains from Iran were indistinguishable by phenotypic, FAMEs,
Trees subjected to drought-stress in the greenhouse following inoculation with inoculum produced from monoascospore cultures developed significantly (p = 0.001) more cankered branches than did inoculated, non-drought- stressed trees. Inoculation of drought-stres sed and non- drought-stressed trees with inoculum produced from monoconidium cultures did not cause infection. No infection with either inoculum occurred in the absence of wounding.
Alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether are commonly associated with weathered grain sorghum. Production of these metabolites and altenuene by isolates of Alternaria alternata was evaluated on various sterile grain substrates. At 35% moisture content and 25 C, metabolite yields were highest on rice, intermediate on sorghums, and lowest on wheat and yellow corn. Fourteen-to 21-day cultures on milled rice were best in terms of ease of metabolite recovery, even though yields were higher on 28-day cultures of rough and brown rice. Metabolite production was reduced when rice was supplemented with yeast extract or yeast extract plus Czapek-Dox broth.
The Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay was used to demonstrate that an extract of the mold Alternaria alternata was mutagenic. The mutagenic extract was fractionated, and the Ames test was used to determine which fractions were mutagenic. Subsequently, altertoxins I and II and a new compound referred to as altertoxin III were isolated by liquid chromatography and shown to be hydroxyperylenequinone compounds by mass spectrometry and infrared, ultraviolet, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Altertoxins I, II, and III were mutagenic to S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, and TA1537 with and without metabolic activation.
A new compound, 3-butyryl-6-[rel-(1S, 2S)-1,2-dihydroxypropyl]-4-hydroxy-2H-pyran-2-one (1), was isolated from the solid fermented rice culture of Alternaria sp. CIB 108, along with three known ones, deoxyradicinin (2), 3-epiradicinol (3), and 3-epideoxyradicinol (4). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The single crystal X-ray diffraction was applied to further clarify the structure of 1. Furthermore, compounds 1–4 possessed no
Qian Feng Chen; Min Zhou; Tao Yang; Xiao Zhen Chen; Chun Wang; Guo Lin Zhang; Guo You Li
The toxigenic potential of Alternaria strains isolated from Argentinean wheat was investigated. A total of 123 strains were assayed for the production of tenuazonic acid (TA), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME). All but one of the isolates were able to produce at least one of the three mycotoxins. TA was produced by 72% of the strains (1-14782 mg/kg), AOH by 87% (4-622 mg/kg) and AME by 91% (7-2625 mg/kg). The average level of TA detected for all strains (1757 mg/kg) was higher than the average level of both alternariols (162 mg/kg for AOH and 620 mg/kg for AME). TA was the toxin produced at the highest concentration but in lower frequency. Most of the strains were able to synthesize more than one toxin: 74 isolates (60%) were positive for all three toxins, 30 (24%) for both AOH and AME, 5 (4%) for both TA and AME, and 2 (2%) for TA and AOH. The widespread occurrence of Alternaria in wheat and its ability to produce mycotoxins suggests the possible occurrence of its toxins in wheat naturally infected with this fungus. PMID:17804107
Patriarca, A; Azcarate, M P; Terminiello, L; Fernández Pinto, V
Background Sensitivity to mold has been associated with asthma incidence, persistence, and severity. Objective To examine the relationship between skin test reactivity (STR) to molds and specifically to Alternaria and asthma severity in a group of ethnically diverse children in Connecticut. Methods Demographics and STR to 14 local allergens, including Alternaria, Penicillium, and mold mix, were obtained for 914 Puerto Rican, African American, and non-Hispanic white children. Results A total of 126 children (14%) had a positive skin test result to mold, and 58 (6%) demonstrated STR to Alternaria. Compared with non-Hispanic white children, there was no difference in the likelihood of being sensitized to Alternaria for Puerto Rican and African American children (odds ratio [OR], 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3–1.5; and OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.4–2.2; respectively). In an adjusted analysis, Alternaria STR was associated with severe, persistent asthma (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2–8.6) but did not predict increasing asthma severity. STR to cat (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.3–4.9) and dog (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.3–6.0) was also associated with severe persistent asthma. Alternaria STR was associated with severe persistent asthma independent of the total number of positive skin test results. Conclusions Mold and Alternaria STR were uncommon among children in Connecticut. Alternaria STR was not associated with increasing asthma severity but was associated with severe, persistent asthma independent of the total number of positive skin test results. There was no association between ethnicity and Alternaria STR.
Lyons, Todd W.; Wakefield, Dorothy B.; Cloutier, Michelle M.
ABSTRACT The fungal allergen Alternaria alternata is associated with development of asthma, though the mechanisms underlying the allergenicity of Alternaria are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify whether the MAP kinase homologue Fus3 of Alternaria contributed to allergic airway responses. Wild-type (WT) and Fus3 deficient Alternaria extracts were given intranasal to mice. Extracts from Fus3 deficient Alternaria that had a functional copy of Fus3 introduced were also administered (CpFus3). Mice were challenged once and levels of BAL eosinophils and innate cytokines IL-33, thymic stromal lymphopoeitin (TSLP), and IL-25 (IL-17E) were assessed. Alternaria extracts or protease-inhibited extract were administered with (OVA) during sensitization prior to ovalbumin only challenges to determine extract adjuvant activity. Levels of BAL inflammatory cells, Th2 cytokines, and OX40-expressing Th2 cells as well as airway infiltration and mucus production were measured. WT Alternaria induced innate airway eosinophilia within 3 days. Mice given Fus3 deficient Alternaria were significantly impaired in developing airway eosinophilia that was largely restored by CpFus3. Further, BAL IL-33, TSLP, and Eotaxin-1 levels were reduced after challenge with Fus3 mutant extract compared with WT and CpFus3 extracts. WT and CpFus3 extracts demonstrated strong adjuvant activity in vivo as levels of BAL eosinophils, Th2 cytokines, and OX40-expressing Th2 cells as well as peribronchial inflammation and mucus production were induced. In contrast, the adjuvant activity of Fus3 extract or protease-inhibited WT extract was largely impaired. Finally, protease activity and Alt a1 levels were reduced in Fus3 mutant extract. Thus, Fus3 contributes to the Th2-sensitizing properties of Alternaria. PMID:24102366
Kim, Hee-Kyoo; Baum, Rachel; Lund, Sean; Khorram, Naseem; Yang, Siwy Ling; Chung, Kuang-Ren; Doherty, Taylor A
The natural occurrence of major Alternaria mycotoxins i.e. alternariol (AOH), alternariol methyl ether (AME), altenuene (ALT), altertoxin-1 (ATX-1) and tenuazonic acid (TA) has been investigated in sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) and ragi (Eleusine coracana Gaertn.) collected from North Bihar. Nine out of 20 sorghum samples, and three out of eight ragi samples, were found to be contaminated with one to three Alternaria mycotoxins. The toxin elaborating potential of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler strains isolated from sorghum and ragi have also been investigated. Out of 16 isolates of A. alternata (Fr.) Keissler, mycotoxins were detected in only 10. PMID:2079114
|In this article, the author introduces integrative STEM (science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics) education and discusses the importance of the program. The notion of integrative STEM education includes approaches that explore teaching and learning between/among any two or more of the STEM subject areas, and/or between a STEM subject…
Three bioassays were assessed for experimental utility to either characterize fungal species potentially pathogenic to sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] or to screen germplasm for advancement in breeding programs. Isolates of species commonly associated with sorghum, Alternaria alternata, Fusari...
Cerebral phaeohyphomycosis is an infrequent infectious condition associated with a high mortality rate. The authors describe a very rare case that occurred in an immunocompetent 18-year-old man who developed severe meningoencephalitis and arachnoiditis caused by Alternaria alternata, which were diagnosed in the context of difficult-to-treat hydrocephalus. Etiological diagnosis was made based on fungal culture and histopathologic examination. Empirical treatment consisted of an early aggressive antifungal combination therapy consisting of intravenous liposomal amphotericin B (5 mg/kg per day) and voriconazole (4 mg/kg every 12 h), which initially induced a favorable response. Following the fungus identification, the choice for the combination of posaconazole (400 mg every 12 h) plus flucytosine (4000 mg/day) proved to be effective in the suppression of the signs and symptoms of this uncommon cerebral mycosis. At a 12-month follow-up visit no recurrence had occurred and posaconazole was then stopped. PMID:23381981
Three plasmids, with sizes of 7.0 kbp, 6.8 kbp, and 5.0 kbp and designated pAal-1, pAal-2 and pAal-3 respectively, have been found in a tentoxin-producing isolate of Alternaria alternata. Exonuclease digestions show these plasmids to be linear with blocked 5' ends. Plasmid pAal-1 does not hybridize to nuclear DNA, mitochondrial DNA, or double-stranded RNA from a mycovirus found in the isolate, but does hybridize weakly to a series of linear DNAs which are not visible on gels and may include pAal-2 and pAal-3. Cellular fractionation shows that, unlike other linear fungal plasmids, these plasmids are not localized in the mitochondria. Plasmids have not been found in other tentoxin-producing isolates and there is no evidence that these plasmids have any effect on the production of tentoxin. PMID:1314706
Asthma exacerbations can be caused by a number of factors, including the fungal allergen Alternaria, which is specifically associated with severe and near-fatal attacks. The mechanisms that trigger lung responses are unclear and might vary between allergens. A comparison between Alternaria, Aspergillus, Candida, and house dust mite, all allergens in humans, showed that only Alternaria promoted immediate innate airway eosinophilia within 12 h of inhalation in nonsensitized mice. Alternaria, but not the other allergens, induced a rapid increase in airway levels of IL-33, accompanied by IL-33 receptor (IL-33R)-positive natural helper cell (NHC) production of IL-5 and IL-13. NHCs in the lung and bone marrow constitutively expressed transcription factors [GATA-3 and E26 transformation-specific sequence-1 (ETS-1)] that could allow for rapid induction of T helper type 2 (Th2) cytokines. Lung NHC numbers and proliferation (%Ki-67), but not IL-5 or GATA-3 expression, were significantly reduced in STAT6-deficient mice 3 days after one challenge with Alternaria. Alternaria induced NHC expression of the EGF receptor ligand amphiregulin (partially dependent on STAT6), as well as EGF receptor signaling in the airway epithelium. Finally, human peripheral blood NHCs (CRTH2+CD127+ lineage-negative lymphocytes) from allergic individuals highly expressed GATA-3 and ETS-1, similar to lung NHCs in mice. In summary, Alternaria-induced lung NHC proliferation and expression of amphiregulin are regulated by STAT6. In addition, NHCs in mouse and humans are primed to express Th2 cytokines through constitutive expression of GATA-3 and ETS-1. Thus several transcription factor pathways (STAT6, GATA-3, and ETS-1) may contribute to NHC proliferation and Th2-type responses in Alternaria-induced asthma.
Khorram, Naseem; Chang, Jinny E.; Kim, Hee-Kyoo; Rosenthal, Peter; Croft, Michael; Broide, David H.
Disease assessment to measure severity of alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria tenuissima (Fr.) Wiltsh.) was performed in 32 wild species of Compositae family by seedling inoculation. It was found that two species\\u000a were resistant, four were moderately resistant, and others were susceptible to various degrees. Some leaf morphological traits\\u000a of two resistant and two highly susceptible wild species were studied. Trichome
Abstract? Exposure of human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells from normal and asthmatic subjects to extracts from Alternaria alternata evoked a rapid and sustained release of ATP with greater efficacy observed in epithelial cells from asthmatic patients. Previously, Alternaria allergens were shown to produce a sustained increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) that was dependent on the coordinated activation of specific purinergic receptor (P2Y2 and P2X7) subtypes. In the present study, pretreatment with a cell-permeable Ca(2+)-chelating compound (BAPTA-AM) significantly inhibited ATP release, indicating dependency on [Ca(2+)]i. Alternaria-evoked ATP release exhibited a greater peak response and a slightly lower EC50 value in cells obtained from asthmatic donors compared to normal control cells. Furthermore, the maximum increase in [Ca(2+)]i resulting from Alternaria treatment was greater in cells from asthmatic patients compared to normal subjects. The vesicle transport inhibitor brefeldin A and BAPTA-AM significantly blocked Alternaria-stimulated incorporation of fluorescent lipid (FM1-43)-labelled vesicles into the plasma membrane and ATP release. In addition, inhibiting uptake of ATP into exocytotic vesicles with bafilomycin also reduced ATP release comparable to the effects of brefeldin A and BAPTA-AM. These results indicate that an important mechanism for Alternaria-induced ATP release is Ca(2+) dependent and involves exocytosis of ATP. Serine and cysteine protease inhibitors also reduced Alternaria-induced ATP release; however, the sustained increase in [Ca(2+)]i typically observed following Alternaria exposure appeared to be independent of protease-activated receptor (PAR2) stimulation. PMID:23858006
O'Grady, Scott M; Patil, Nandadavi; Melkamu, Tamene; Maniak, Peter J; Lancto, Cheryl; Kita, Hirohito
Summary A survey, carried out in Southern Italy on fungi colonizing oilseed rape (Brassicae napua L subspoleifera DC) in the field, showedAlternaria alternata (Fries) Keissler as one of the predominant species. 11 strains ofAlternaria alternata isolated from oilseed rape were cultured on rice to test the ability to produce mycotoxins. All strains produced mycotoxins,\\u000a including tenuazonic acid (up to 12,000mg\\/kg), alternariol
Sensitization and exposure to the allergenic fungus Alternaria alternata has been associated with increased risk of asthma and asthma exacerbations. The first cells to encounter inhaled allergens are epithelial cells at the airway mucosal surface. Epithelial barrier function has previously been reported to be defective in asthma. This study investigated the contribution of proteases from Alternaria alternata on epithelial barrier function and inflammatory responses and compared responses of in vitro cultures of differentiated bronchial epithelial cells derived from severely asthmatic donors with those from non-asthmatic controls. Polarised 16HBE cells or air-liquid interface (ALI) bronchial epithelial cultures from non-asthmatic or severe asthmatic donors were challenged apically with extracts of Alternaria and changes in inflammatory cytokine release and transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) were measured. Protease activity in Alternaria extracts was characterised and the effect of selectively inhibiting protease activity on epithelial responses was examined using protease inhibitors and heat-treatment. In 16HBE cells, Alternaria extracts stimulated release of IL-8 and TNF?, with concomitant reduction in TER; these effects were prevented by heat-treatment of the extracts. Examination of the effects of protease inhibitors suggested that serine proteases were the predominant class of proteases mediating these effects. ALI cultures from asthmatic donors exhibited a reduced IL-8 response to Alternaria relative to those from healthy controls, while neither responded with increased thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) release. Only cultures from asthmatic donors were susceptible to the barrier-weakening effects of Alternaria. Therefore, the bronchial epithelium of severely asthmatic individuals may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of Alternaria.
Blume, Cornelia; Swindle, Emily J.; Jayasekera, Nivenka P.; Dennison, Patrick W.; Shamji, Betty W. H.; Edwards, Matthew J.; Holgate, Stephen T.; Howarth, Peter H.; Davies, Donna E.
Specific resistance loci in plants are generally very efficient in controlling development of pathogen populations. However,\\u000a because of the strong selection pressure exerted, these resistances are often not durable. The probability of a resistance\\u000a breakdown in a pathosystem depends on the evolutionary potential of the pathogen which is affected by: (i) the type of resistance\\u000a (monogenic and\\/or polygenic), (ii) the
J. N. Aubertot; J. S. West; L. Bousset-Vaslin; M. U. Salam; M. J. Barbetti; A. J. Diggle
Bacterial canker caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is known to cause significant economic losses to tomato production worldwide. Biological control has been proposed as an alternative to current chemical containment methods, which are often inefficient and may leave adverse effects on the environment. However, only little headway has so far been made in developing biocontrol strategies against C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the antagonistic capacity of PCA, produced by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM223, and DAPG and HCN, both produced by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300, on C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis under in vitro and in planta conditions. Nonsynthesizing isogenic mutants of the producer strains were also developed to further dissect the role of each individual metabolite on C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis biological control. Novel specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction TaqMan assays allowed quantification of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomato plants and rhizospheric soil. Pseudomonas spp. LBUM223 and LBUM300 significantly repressed C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis growth in vitro, while their respective nonproducing mutants showed less or no significant antagonistic activity. In planta, only Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 was capable of significantly reducing disease development and C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis rhizospheric population, suggesting that the production of both DAPG and HCN was involved. In summary, simultaneous DAPG/HCN production by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 shows great potential for controlling bacterial canker of tomato. PMID:22713078
Background: Alternaria alternata is one of the most common fungi associated with allergic disease. However, Alternaria exposure in indoor environments is not well characterized. Objective: The primary goals of this study were to examine the prevalence of Alternaria exposure and identify independent predictors of Alternaria antigen concentrations in U.S. homes. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained from the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. A nationally representative sample of 831 housing units in 75 different locations throughout the U.S. completed the survey. Information on housing and household characteristics was obtained by questionnaire and environmental assessments. Concentrations of Alternaria antigens in dust collected from various indoor sites were assessed with a polyclonal anti-Alternaria antibody assay. Results: Alternaria antigens were detected in most (95-99%) of the dust samples. The geometric mean concentration, reflecting the average Alternaria concentration in homes, was 4.88 ?g/g (SE=0.13 ?g/g). In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the age of the housing unit, geographic region, urbanization, poverty, family race, observed mold and moisture problems, use of dehumidifier, and presence of cats and dogs were independent predictors of Alternaria antigen concentrations. Less frequent cleaning and smoking indoors also contributed to higher Alternaria antigen levels in homes. Conclusion: Exposure to Alternaria alternata antigens in U.S. homes is common. Antigen levels in homes are not only influenced by regional factors but also by residential characteristics. Preventing mold and moisture problems, avoiding smoking indoors, and regular household cleaning may help reduce exposure to Alternaria antigens indoors.
Salo, Paivi M.; Yin, Ming; Arbes, Samuel J.; Cohn, Richard D.; Sever, Michelle; Muilenberg, Michael; Burge, Harriet A.; London, Stephanie J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.
Azoxystrobin-resistant populations of Alternaria spp. in the alternata, tenuissima, and arborescens species–groups, the causal agents of Alternaria late blight of pistachio, have been selected in pistachio orchards in California. The azoxystrobin resistance in Alternaria spp. was found to be correlative to a single point mutation resulting in the replacement of a glycine by an alanine at codon 143 (G143A) in
Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri causes citrus canker. The Asiatic strain has a broad host range, whereas the Wellington variant has a restricted host range. Here, we present the complete genome of X. citri subsp. citri strain AW12879. This study lays the foundation to further characterize the mechanisms for virulence and host range of X. citri.
Jalan, Neha; Kumar, Dibyendu; Yu, Fahong; Jones, Jeffrey B.; Graham, James H.
Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida, and epidemics result in yield loss and market penalties both in Florida and elsewhere, where the pathogen occurs and susceptible citrus is cultivated. The bacterium is dispersed in rain splash, and storms with...
The epidemic of citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) in Florida continues to expand since termination of the eradication program in 2006. Storms are known to be associated with disease spread, but little information exists on the interaction of fundamental physical and biological proc...
Citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), has been introduced into the state of Florida multiple times since the early 1900’s. With each discovery, an eradication program has been put into place to eliminate the disease. The most recent program began in 1996 and is still in ...
Bacterial canker of tomato caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis produces considerable economic losses in many countries because effective control measures are lacking. The extent to which bactericides control this disease effectively is low and has not yet been well documented for Southern European conditions. In this study the bactericidal effect of several products on this pathogen was assessed in
Leandro de León; Felipe Siverio; María M. López; Ana Rodríguez
Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) is a broadleaf evergreen tree native to western North America that has been in decline for the past 30 years. A fungus has been isolated and was verified as the cause of cankers on dying trees. It was determined to belong in the genus Fusicoccum, an asexual state of Botryosphaeria. This genus in both its sexual and asexual states commonly causes canker diseases of deciduous woody plants. Using morphological and molecular data the fungus causing cankers on Pacific madrone is characterized, described and illustrated as a new species of Fusicoccum, F. arbuti D.F. Farr & M. Elliott sp. nov. No sexual state is known for F. arbuti. Evidence from the literature, cultures and specimens suggests that F. arbuti, often mistakenly identified as Nattrassia mangiferae, has been causing madrone canker since at least 1968. Authentic isolates of Nattrassia mangiferae as the synanamorph Scytalidium dimidiatum were sequenced and determined to be different from Fusicoccum arbuti and to belong in Botryosphaeria/Fusicoccum. In addition to molecular sequence data, the morphology of the pycnidial and arthric conidial states of Nattrassia mangiferae/ Scytalidium dimidiatum resembles that of Fusicoccum. Therefore the correct name for Nattrassia mangiferae and its numerous synonyms (Dothiorella mangiferae, Torula dimidata, Scytilidium dimidiatum, Fusicoccum eucalypti, Hendersonula toruloidea, H. cypria, Exosporina fawcetii, H. agathidia, and S. lignicola) is Fusicoccum dimidiatum (Penz.) D.F. Farr, comb. nov. PMID:16392261
Farr, David F; Elliott, Marianne; Rossman, Amy Y; Edmonds, Robert L
Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida, and epidemics result in yield loss and market penalties both in Florida, and elsewhere where the pathogen occurs, and susceptible citrus is cultivated. The bacterium is dispersed in rain splash, and storms wit...
Eradication of Asiatic Citrus Canker (ACC) has become increasingly difficult over the last decade following the introduction of the Asian leafminer into Brazil and Florida, which lead to changes in the eradication protocols. The present study, undertaken in Brazil, was aimed at characterizing the s...
Mold diseases, caused by fungal complexes including Alternaria, Cochliobolus and Fusarium species, limit sorghum grain production. Media were tested by plating Fusarium thapsinum, Alternaria sp. and Curvularia lunata, individually and competitively. Dichloran chloramphenicol rose bengal (DRBC) and m...
Masunaka, A., Ohtani, K., Peever, T. L., Timmer, L. W., Tsuge, T., Yamamoto, M., Yamamoto, H., and Akimitsu, K. 2005. An isolate of Alternaria alternata that is pathogenic to both tangerines and rough lemon and produces two host-selective toxins, ACT- and ACR-toxins. Phytopathology 95:241-247. Two different pathotypes of Alternaria alternata cause Alternaria brown spot of tangerines and Alternaria leaf spot
A. Masunaka; K. Ohtani; T. L. Peever; L. W. Timmer; T. Tsuge; M. Yamamoto; H. Yamamoto; K. Akimitsu
The natural occurrence of Alternaria mycotoxins in Argentinean wheat from the zone 5 South during the 2004 to 2005 harvest was investigated in 64 wheat samples. All samples were highly contaminated with a wide range of fungal species. Alternaria was found as the main component of the mycota, with an infection percentage of 100%. Three mycotoxins produced by species of Alternaria were determined in wheat: alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and tenuazonic acid. Alternariol was detected in 4 (6%) of 64 samples, with a range of 645 to 1,388 microg/kg (mean of 1,054 microg/kg); alternariol monomethyl ether, with a range of 566 to 7,451 microg/kg (mean of 2,118 microg/kg) in 15 (23%) of 64 samples; and tenuazonic acid in 12 (19%) of 64 samples, with a range of 1,001 to 8,814 microg/kg (mean, 2,313 microg/kg). Alternariol monomethyl ether was the predominant toxin, but tenuazonic acid was detected in higher concentrations. Alternariol was present in fewer samples and in lower levels than were the other toxins. Tenuazonic acid and alternariol monomethyl ether occurred together in four samples, while tenuazonic acid and alternariol co-occurred in one sample. This the first report of the natural occurrence of Alternaria mycotoxins in Argentinean wheat. Toxin levels were high, probably due to the heavy infection with Alternaria species found in the samples. PMID:18592757
Azcarate, M P; Patriarca, A; Terminiello, L; Fernández Pinto, V
The Alternaria brown spot (ABS) is a disease caused in tangerine plants and its hybrids by the fungus Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri which has been found in Brazil since 2001. Due to the recent occurrence in Brazilian orchards, the epidemiology and genetic variability of this pathogen is still an issue to be addressed. Here it is presented a survey about the genetic variability of this fungus by the characterization of twenty four pathogenic isolates of A. alternata f. sp. citri from citrus plants and four endophytic isolates from mango (one Alternaria tenuissima and three Alternaria arborescens). The application of two molecular markers Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) had revealed the isolates clustering in distinct groups when fingerprintings were analyzed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Despite the better assessment of the genetic variability through the AFLP, significant modifications in clusters components were not observed, and only slight shifts in the positioning of isolates LRS 39/3 and 25M were observed in PCA plots. Furthermore, in both analyses, only the isolates from lemon plants revealed to be clustered, differently from the absence of clustering for other hosts or plant tissues. Summarizing, both RAPD and AFLP analyses were both efficient to detect the genetic variability within the population of the pathogenic fungus Alternaria spp., supplying information on the genetic variability of this species as a basis for further studies aiming the disease control.
Alternaria alternata produces the polyketides alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) during the stationary growth phase. Addition of 12 mM NaNO3 to the cultures before initiation of polyketide production reduced the AOH and AME content to 5 to 10% of that of controls. Glutamate and urea also reduced AOH and AME accumulation, whereas increasing the ionic strength did not affect the polyketide content. Adding NaNO3 after polyketide production had started did not inhibit further AOH accumulation, although over 90% of the added NO3- disappeared from the medium within 24 h. Activity of an AME-synthesizing enzyme, alternariol-O-methyltransferase (AOH-MT), appeared in control mycelia during the early stationary growth phase. No AOH-MT activity appeared in mycelia blocked in polyketide synthesis by addition of NaNO3. Later addition of NaNO3 reduced the AOH-MT specific activity to 50% of that of the control, whereas the total of activity per mycelium was the same. The AOH-MT activity in vitro was not affected by 100 mM NaNO3. The results suggest that nitrogen in some way inhibited the formation of active enzymes in the polyketide-synthesizing pathway in A. alternata when it was added before these enzymes were formed.
Mycotoxins are unavoidable contaminants of most foods and feeds, and some are known to be detrimental to human health. It is thus worthwhile to understand how cells of the intestinal system, one of the primary targets of these toxins, respond to their toxic effects. In this study, human colon carcinoma cells were used to elucidate the cell death mode and the pathways triggered by Alternariol (AOH), the most important mycotoxin produced by Alternaria species, which are the most common mycoflora infecting small grain cereals worldwide. Treatment of cells with AOH resulted in a loss of cell viability by inducing apoptosis. AOH-induced apoptosis was mediated through a mitochondria-dependent pathway, characterized by a p53 activation, an opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), a loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m), a downstream generation of O(2)(*-) and caspase 9 and 3 activation. Besides, deficiency of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax partially protected cells against AOH-induced mitochondrial alterations. In addition, experiments performed on purified mitochondria indicated that AOH does not directly target this organelle to induce cell death. Our results demonstrate for the first time that AOH-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by activation of the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells. PMID:22542754
Microbial transformation of oleanolic acid (1) was carried out. Six transformed products (2-7) from 1 by Alternaria longipes and three transformed products (8-10) from 1 by Penicillium adametzi were isolated. Their structures were elucidated as 2?,3?,19?-trihydroxy-ursolic acid-28-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (2), 2?,3?,19?-trihydroxy-ursolic acid-28-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (3), oleanolic acid 28-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl ester (4), oleanolic acid-3-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (5), 3-O-(?-d-glucopyranosyl)-oleanolic acid-28-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (6), 2?,3?,19a-trihydroxy-oleanolic acid-28-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (7), 21?-hydroxyl oleanolic acid-28-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (8), 21?-hydroxyl oleanolic acid (9), and 7?,21?-dihydroxyl oleanolic acid (10) based on the extensive NMR studies. Among them, 10 was a new compound and compounds 5 and 8-10 had stronger cytotoxic activities against Hela cell lines than the substrate. At the same time, it was reported for the first time in this paper that the skeletons of compounds 2 and 3 were changed from oleanane to uranane and seven glycosidation products were obtained by biotransformation. PMID:21279880
Alternaria spp. cause leaf spot of almond and Alternaria late blight of pistachio in California, and azoxystrobin is a strobilurin fungicide that has been registered for the control of these diseases. To date, only a single point mutation of G143A in cytochrome b resulting to azoxystrobin resistance in Alternaria spp. was found in California. Based on this single point mutation,
Yong Luo; Zhonghua Ma; Heraclio C. Reyes; Dave P. Morgan; Themis J. Michailides
Alternaria brown spot, caused by Alternaria alternata, recently appeared in Brazil and is now causing serious damage to Murcott tangors in São Paulo State. The Alter-Rater model and other systems for timing fungicide applications as well as different fungicide programs were evaluated in two seasons in different citrus-growing areas of São Paulo State. Alternaria brown spot severely reduced yields of
Alternaria leaf blight disease caused by Alternaria brassicae in mustard (Brassica juncea (L) Czern and Coss) was studied in two crop seasons, 1992 and 1993 in Nepal at Nawalpur, Sarlahi (Tarai) and Khumaltar, Lalitpur (mid hill). At Nawalpur, epidemics of the disease was recorded for both seasons. Weather conditions like humidity, temperature and frequent rainfall played key role for the
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is the phytopathogen responsible for citrus canker, one of the most devastating citrus diseases in the world. A broad range of pathogens is recognized by plants through so-called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which are highly conserved fragments of pathogenic molecules. In plant pathogenic bacteria, lipopolisaccharyde (LPS) is considered a virulence factor and it is being recognized as a PAMP. The study of the participation of Xac LPS in citrus canker establishment could help to understand the molecular bases of this disease. In the present work we investigated the role of Xac LPS in bacterial virulence and in basal defense during the interaction with host and non host plants. We analyzed physiological features of Xac mutants in LPS biosynthesis genes (wzt and rfb303) and the effect of these mutations on the interaction with orange and tobacco plants. Xac mutants showed an increased sensitivity to external stresses and differences in bacterial motilities, in vivo and in vitro adhesion and biofilm formation. Changes in the expression levels of the LPS biosynthesis genes were observed in a medium that mimics the plant environment. Xacwzt exhibited reduced virulence in host plants compared to Xac wild-type and Xacrfb303. However, both mutant strains produced a lower increase in the expression levels of host plant defense-related genes respect to the parental strain. In addition, Xac LPS mutants were not able to generate HR during the incompatible interaction with tobacco plants. Our findings indicate that the structural modifications of Xac LPS impinge on other physiological attributes and lead to a reduction in bacterial virulence. On the other hand, Xac LPS has a role in the activation of basal defense in host and non host plants.
Petrocelli, Silvana; Tondo, Maria Laura; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Orellano, Elena G.
A mycological survey was carried out at Entre Ríos province, Argentina, on sorghum grain, maize, rice, soybean seeds and on freshly harvested and stored wheat. The isolation frequencies and relative densities of species belonging to genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and other fungi were calculated. Alternaria alternata was the major fungal species isolated from sorghum, rice, soybean seeds and on freshly harvested wheat, and a low incidence of Fusarium species was observed on the same substrates. In maize the major fungal species isolated was Fusarium verticillioides. The high incidence levels of A. alternata observed,suggest that it may be necessary to determine, among other mycotoxins, if Alternaria toxins occur in these commodities. PMID:17592893
We describe a case of a progressive subcutaneous Alternaria alternata infection in the hand of a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The diagnosis was based upon the examination of tissue biopsy and isolation of the etiologic agent in culture. The identity of the isolate was determined by phenotypic characteristics and by sequencing the ITS and D1/D2 regions of the rDNA. Despite combination therapy with voriconazole and micafungin, the lesion continued to progress. Posaconazole therapy, along with surgical excision of the infected tissue, resulted in the eradication of infection. The limitations of the clinical management of invasive Alternaria infections are discussed. PMID:21299373
Kpodzo, Dzifa S; Calderwood, Michael S; Ruchelsman, David E; Abramson, Jeremy S; Piris, Adriano; Winograd, Jonathan M; Kotton, Camille N
The plant defence activator acibenzolar-S-methyl (benzo [1,2,3]thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid-S-methyl ester, ASM; Bion 50 WG) was assayed on tomato seedlings for its ability to induce resistance against Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), the causal agent of bacterial canker of tomato. Pre-treatment of plants with ASM reduced the severity of the disease as well as the growth of the bacteria in planta. In
The fatty acid synthase inhibitor cerulenin (50 to 100 micrograms/ml) inhibited production of the polyketide mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) by the mold Alternaria alternata. The results suggested that AOH synthesis was inhibited by a direct mechanism by cerulenin, whereas production of AME was probably limited by a shortage of the precursor AOH.
Large amounts of tomato fruits and derived products are produced in Argentina and may be contaminated by Alternaria toxins. Limited information is available on the genetic variability, toxigenicity, and pathogenicity of Alternaria strains occurring on tomato. We analyzed 65 Alternaria strains isolated in Argentina from tomato fruits affected by black mould and from tomato puree, using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) technique. AFLP analysis resolved the set of strains in 3 main clusters (DICE similarity values of 58 and 60%) corresponding to A. alternata/tenuissima (44 strains), A. arborescens (15 strains) and to an unknown group (6 strains). Most of the representative strains, belonging to each AFLP cluster, when cultured on rice, produced tenuazonic acid (up to 46,760 mg/kg), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME, up to 1860 mg/kg), and alternariol (up to 70 mg/kg). The toxin profile related to the strains was not related to any AFLP cluster, except for AME which was produced at lower level by A. arborescens. Most of strains were pathogenic on two types of commonly cultivated tomato fruits. These findings provide new information on the variability within the Alternaria species complex associated with tomato disease. PMID:21303723
Somma, Stefania; Pose, Graciela; Pardo, Alejandro; Mulè, Giuseppina; Pinto, Virginia Fernandez; Moretti, Antonio; Logrieco, Antonio Francesco
The aeropalynological monitoring was carried out from 1 February 2005-31 January 2007. The total number of spores collected during the main spore season (MSS) in 2005 was 4,500 for Alternaria and 93,744 in the case of Cladosporium, whereas in 2006 values were increased (8,385 for Alternaria and 150,144 for Cladosporium), reaching the maximum concentrations on 18 July and 17 June 2006 with 344 and 5,503 spores, respectively. The influence of the main meteorological parameters on spore concentrations was studied, resulting in a positive correlation with temperature. Rainfall, relative humidity and frequency of calms obtained negative correlations in the case of Alternaria, and positive for Cladosporium, the total daily hours of sunshine having an inverse influence on them. The intra-diurnal pattern was very similar for both genera, with a greater representation towards the central hours of the day and at night. Finally, some clinical aspects for the Alternaria spore type were analyzed, with a low percentage of sensitized patients though (9.5%). Only one patient showed positive skin test reaction to Cladosporium. PMID:19572478
Reyes, Estefanía Sánchez; de la Cruz, David Rodríguez; Merino, Ma Eugenia Sanchís; Sánchez, José Sánchez
Paecilomyces lilacinus is an emerging pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We report here a case of cutaneous hyphomycosis in a 63-year-old heart transplant recipient caused by the simultaneous presence of 2 molds: Paecilomyces lilacinus and Alternaria alternata. The infection was successfully treated with local voriconazole followed by oral terbinafine. PMID:23075226
The bioherbicidal efficacy of different alginate formulations of Alternaria eichhorniae 5 (isolate Ae5), a virulent Egyptian isolate, was compared on waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). The fungus was formulated as alginate pellets containing mycelium alone, mycelium plus culture filtrate or culture filtrate alone. Each formulation was applied with and without a hydrophilic humectant (Evergreen 500). These formulations were evaluated for disease incidence
Yasser M. Shabana; Zakaria A. M. Baka; Gamal M. Abdel-Fattah
On the basis of conidial measurements, growth characteristics, and pigmentation in culture, two of three Egyptian Alternaria spp. (isolates 3 and 5) isolated from waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) were identified as A. eichhorniae and the third, isolate 6, as A. alternata. Isolate 5 (Ae5), the most virulent, caused a severe disease, characterized by leaf blight and discrete leaflesions. The disease was
We report a javelina from Pinal County, Arizona, USA, with severe fungal dermatitis and cellulitis. Extreme emaciation and rostral disfiguration, including left-lateral displacement of the nasal planum, justified euthanasia. A pus-filled tract within the rostrum was observed. Histopathology revealed granulomatous inflammation with hyphae morphologically consistent with Alternaria sp. isolated by culture. PMID:21719857
Shender, Lisa A; Gerhold, Rick; Sanchez, Susan; Keel, M Kevin
When Brassica rapa seedlings were inoculated with the fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicae, 3-butenyl and 4-pentenyl isothiocyanates were released, together with dimethyl disulphide, dimethyl trisulphide, 4-oxoisophorone and a number of sesquiterpenes. Release of isothiocyanates is evidence for the catabolism of glucosinolates during infection, which is a prerequisite for their involvement in resistance.
Kevin J. Doughty; Margaret M. Blight; Clive H. Bock; Jane K. Fieldsend; John A. Pickett
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of plant extracts on soluble sugar, soluble phenol and defence-related enzymes response against Alternaria blight in mustard crop. The efficacy of six selected plant extracts (5 and 10%) used as foliar sprays at 60 and 70 days after sowing and mustard leaves was used for investigation. The results indicate that soluble phenol
Singh Surendra; S. L. Godara; S. Gangopadhayay; K. S. Jadon
Greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the bioherbicidal activity of Alternaria helianthi (Hansf.) Tubaki & Nishih. on multiple-seeded cocklebur as affefct by various rates of Tenkoz COC (crop oil concentrate), Activator 90 (non-ionic surfactant), BAS 9050 O S (methylated oil), Silwet L-77...
Eighteen isolates of fluorescent pseudomonads and Bacillus spp. were isolated from Alternaria triticina suppressive soils of wheat fields. These isolates were evaluated in the laboratory and greenhouse for the biocontrol of A. triticina. Six isolates were considered to have potential for the biocontrol of A. triticina on the basis of antibiotic sensitivity, fluorescence produced by Pseudomonas, inhibitory effect on A.
The infection process of the leaf blight fungus Alternaria ricini was studied on castor leaves using scanning electron microscopy. Conidia germinated 9 h post-inoculation producing one to many germ tubes. The germ tubes were of various lengths, branched or unbranched, and terminated in bulbous appressoria on leaf cuticle, or penetrated the leaf through stomata. Appressoria were not formed where the germ
Molds of the genus Alternaria are common food pathogens responsible for the spoilage of fruits, vegetables, grains, and nuts. Although consumption of Alternaria alternata-contaminated foodstuffs has been implicated in an elevated incidence of esophageal carcinogenesis, the mutagenic potencies of several A. alternata toxins seem unable to account for the levels of activity found using crude mycelial extracts. In this study, the mutagenic effects of nitrosylation were examined with the major Alternaria metabolites Altenuene (ALT), Alternariol (AOH), Alternariol Monomethyl Ether (AME), Altertoxin I (ATX I), Tentoxin (TENT), Tenuazonic Acid (TA), and Radicinin (RAD) using the Ames Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100. In the absence of nitrosylation, ATX I was mutagenic when tested from 1 to 100 microg/plate in TA98 with rat liver S9 for activation, while AOH and ATX I were weakly mutagenic +/- S9 in TA100. Incubation with nitrite generally increased mutagenic potencies with ATX I strongly mutagenic +/- S9 in both TA98 and TA100, while ALT, AOH, AME, and RAD responses were enhanced in TA100 + S9. However, subsequent examination of three extracts made from A. alternata culture broth, acetone-washed mycelia, and the acetone washes showed a different mutagenic response with both broth and acetone washes directly mutagenic in TA98 and TA100 but with a reduced response + S9. The acetone-washed mycelial extract was found to have the lowest mutagenic activity of the three extracts tested. Nitrosylation had little effect on the mutagenicity of any of the extracts. Thus, while nitrosylation increases the mutagenicity of ATX I, and to a lesser extent that of several other Alternaria toxins, the results demonstrate that Alternaria produces a major mutagenic activity with a S. typhimurium response different from that found with the purified toxins. Efforts are currently underway to chemically identify this mutagenic species. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11406832
Schrader, T J; Cherry, W; Soper, K; Langlois, I; Vijay, H M
Alternaria is an airborne fungal spore type known to trigger respiratory allergy symptoms in sensitive patients. Aiming to reduce the risk for allergic individuals, we constructed predictive models for the fungal spore circulation in Szczecin, Poland. Monthly forecasting models were developed for the airborne spore concentrations of Alternaria, which is one of the most abundant fungal taxa in the area. Aerobiological sampling was conducted over 2004-2007, using a Lanzoni trap. Simultaneously, the following meteorological parameters were recorded: daily level of precipitation; maximum and average wind speed; relative humidity; and maximum, minimum, average, and dew point temperature. The original factors as well as with lags (up to 3 days) were used as the explaining variables. Due to non-linearity and non-normality of the data set, the modelling technique applied was the artificial neural network (ANN) method. The final model was a split model with classification (spore presence or absence) followed by regression for spore seasons and log(x+1) transformed Alternaria spore concentration. All variables except maximum wind speed and precipitation were important factors in the overall classification model. In the regression model for spore seasons, close relationships were noted between Alternaria spore concentration and average and maximum temperature (on the same day and 3 days previously), humidity (with lag 1) and maximum wind speed 2 days previously. The most important variable was humidity recorded on the same day. Our study illustrates a novel approach to modelling of time series with short spore seasons, and indicates that the ANN method provides the possibility of forecasting Alternaria spore concentration with high accuracy.
Background Asthma afflicts 6% to 8% of the United States population, and severe asthma represents approximately 10% of asthmatic patients. Several epidemiologic studies in the United States and Europe have linked Alternaria sensitivity to both persistence and severity of asthma. In order to begin to understand genetic risk factors underlying Alternaria sensitivity and asthma, in these studies we examined T cell responses to Alternaria antigens, HLA Class II restriction and HLA-DQ protection in children with severe asthma. Methods Sixty children with Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthma were compared to 49 children with Alternaria-sensitive mild asthma. We examined HLA-DR and HLA-DQ frequencies in Alternaria-sensitive asthmatic by HLA typing. To determine ratios of Th1/Th2 Alternaria-specific T-cells, cultures were stimulated in media alone, Alternaria alternata extract and Alt a1. Sensitivity to IL-4 stimulation was measured by up-regulation of CD23 on B cells. Results Children with Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthma trended to have increased sensitivities to Cladosporium (46% versus 35%), to Aspergillus (43% versus 28%), and significantly increased sensitivities to trees (78% versus 57%) and to weeds (68% versus 48%). The IL-4RA ile75val polymorphism was significantly increased in Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthmatics, 83% (0.627 allele frequency) compared to Alternaria-sensitive mild asthmatics, 57% (0.388 allele frequency). This was associated with increased sensitivity to IL-4 stimulation measured by significantly increased IL-4 stimulated CD23 expression on CD19+ and CD86+CD19+ B cells of Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthmatics. IL-5 and IL-13 synthesis was significantly increased in Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthmatics compared to mild asthmatics to Alternaria extract and Alt a1 stimulation. The frequency of HLA-DQB1*03 allele was significantly decreased in Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthmatics compared to mild asthmatics, 39% versus 63%, with significantly decreased allele frequency, 0.220 versus 0.398. Summary In children with Alternaria-sensitive moderate severe asthma, there was an increased Th2 response to Alternaria stimulation and increased sensitivity to IL-4 stimulation. This skewing towards a Th2 response was associated with an increased frequency of the IL-4RA ile75val polymorphism. In evaluating the HLA association, there was a decreased frequency of HLA-DQB1*03 in Alternaria-sensitive moderate severe asthmatic children consistent with previous studies suggest that HLA-DQB1*03 may be protective against the development of mold-sensitive severe asthma.
Alternaria cassiae and Colletotrichum truncatum are virulent pathogens of sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia), and hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), respectively, under favorable environmental conditions. In greenhouse experiments, the effects of simulated rainfall on pathogenesis and mortality of these ...
Alternaria blight, caused by Alternaria alternata, is a recent and serious disease of commercially grown Paulownia trees in Western Australia. This study investigated the\\u000a effect of temperature, humidity, wounding and leaf age on lesion development. Temperature had a significant effect on infection,\\u000a with lesion development and expansion observed to increase from 15–25°C, declining between 30 and 37°C. Relative humidity\\u000a (RH)
The potential use of cabbage isothiocyanates to control Alternaria rot in bell pepper was tested. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry found allyl, benzyl, 2-phenylethyl and phenyl isothiocyanates in a ratio of 1:3.5:5.3:9.6, respectively, in cabbage leaves. The same proportion was used to prepare an isothiocyanate mixture from reagent grade isothiocyanates (MCIT) to test the effect on Alternaria alternata
R. Troncoso; C. Espinoza; A. Sánchez-Estrada; M. E. Tiznado; Hugo S. García
ABSTRACT Alternaria citri, a postharvest pathogen, produces endopolygalacturonase (endoPG) and causes black rot on citrus fruit. We previously described that an endoPG-disrupted mutant of Alternaria citri was significantly reduced in its ability to macerate plant tissue and cause black rot symptoms on citrus. In order to investigate colonization of citrus fruit tissues by Alternaria citri, pTEFEGFP carrying a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was introduced into wild-type Alternaria citri and its endoPG-disrupted mutant (M60). Green fluorescence was observed in spores, germ tubes, appressoria, and infection hyphae of transformants G1 (derived from wild type) and GM4 (derived from M60). Hyphae of G1 but not GM4 vertically penetrated the peel, but the hyphae of both G1 and GM4 spread equally in the juice sac area of citrus fruit. Green fluorescence of Alternaria citri transformant EPG7 carrying a GFP gene under control of the endoPG gene promoter of Alternaria citri was induced by pectin in the peel during the infection stage, but repressed completely in the juice sac area, likely by carbon catabolite repression by sugars in the juice. PMID:18943156
Isshiki, A; Ohtani, K; Kyo, M; Yamamoto, H; Akimitsu, K
Alternaria sp. are important fungal contaminants of vegetable, fruit, and grain products, including Alternaria alternata, a contaminant of tomato products. To date, the Howard method, based on microscopic observation of fungal filaments, has been the standard examination for inspection of tomato products. We report development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for detection of Alternaria DNA. PCR primers were designed to anneal to the internal transcribed regions ITS1 and ITS2 of the 5.8S rRNA gene of Alternaria but not to other microbial or tomato DNA. We demonstrate use of the PCR assay to detect Alternaria DNA in experimentally infested and commercially obtained tomato sauce and tomato powder. Use of the PCR method offers a rapid and sensitive assay for the presence of Alternaria DNA in tomato products. The apparent breakdown of DNA in tomato sauce may limit the utility of the assay to freshly prepared products. The assay for tomato powder is not affected by storage time. PMID:10528725
The stability of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking was investigated by model experiments using a spiked wholemeal wheat flour matrix. For alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, but not for altenuene, degradation products, formed through a sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation, could be identified in pilot studies. The simultaneous quantification of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, and the degradation products was achieved by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) multimethod. The obtained quantitative data indicate that the Alternaria mycotoxins are barely degraded during wet baking, while significant degradation occurs upon dry baking, with the stability decreasing in the order alternariol monomethyl ether>alternariol>altenuene. The novel degradation products could be detected after the wet baking of flour spiked with alternariol and in a sample survey of 24 commercial cereal based baking products. PMID:20687560
In most production areas, Alternaria leaf blight (ALB) is recognized as the most common and destructive foliage disease in carrot. To assess the genetic architecture of carrot ALB resistance, two parental coupling maps were developed with similar number of dominant markers (around 70), sizes (around 650 cM), densities (around 9.5 cM), and marker composition. The F(2:3) progenies were evaluated in field and tunnel for two scoring dates. The continuous distribution of the disease severity value indicated that ALB resistance is under polygenic control. Three QTLs regions were found on three linkage groups. Two of them were tunnel or field specific and were detected only at the second screening date suggesting that the expression of these two QTLs regions involved in resistance to Alternaria dauci might depend on environment and delay after infection. PMID:19214391
Invasive dermal infections in immunosuppressed patients by a wide variety of opportunistic fungi are well described in the literature; however, superficial infections (dermatomycosis) are more rarely described. We report 4 cases of dermatomycosis by Alternaria or Bipolaris species. All but one of the patients had predisposing conditions including topical corticosteroid use, atopic or seborrheic dermatitis, and nail dystrophy. All 4 patients were otherwise immunocompetent. These cases represent some of the very few reports of Bipolaris in a primary stratum corneum infection and the first report of Bipolaris in an otherwise healthy person. We also describe what may be the first report of Bipolaris onychomycosis. All of our patients responded to topical or oral imidazole antifungal therapy. We discuss the significance of Alternaria and Bipolaris as contaminants or irrelevant organisms grown in some cultures of skin scrapings. PMID:14604084
Robb, Christopher W; Malouf, Peter J; Rapini, Ronald P
Pasche, J. S., Piche, L. M., and Gudmestad, N. C. 2005. Effect of the F129L mutation in Alter- naria solani on fungicides affecting mitochondrial respiration. Plant Dis. 89:269-278. Isolates of Alternaria solani previously collected from throughout the Midwestern United States and characterized as being azoxystrobin sensitive or reduced sensitive were tested for sensitivity to the Quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) fungicides
One hundred thirty-seven single-conidium isolates of Alternaria longipes were tested for pathogenicity to tobacco leaves and for toxicity to 1-day-old chicks. Of 58 isolates pathogenic to tobacco, 43 (74.3%) had a significant effect on test chicks. Of 79 nonpathogenic isolates, 59 (74.7%) were nontoxic, 7 were toxic, and 13 were lethal. A relationship between pathogenicity and toxicity is suggested.
Controlled environment studies were conducted to determine the effects of inoculum density, temperature, leaf wetness and light regime on the infection of linseed by Alternaria linicola. The % cotyledons and leaves with symptoms, and the disease severity (% leaf area with symptoms) increased linearly when the inoculum density increased from 1×103 to 1×105 conidia?ml-1. The first symptoms appeared on cotyledons
Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) Sorauer, the causal agent of early blight (EB) disease, infects aerial parts of tomato at both seedling\\u000a and adult plant stages. Resistant cultivars would facilitate a sustainable EB management. EB resistance is a quantitatively\\u000a expressed character, a fact that has hampered effective breeding. In order to identify and estimate the effect of genes conditioning\\u000a resistance
R. Chaerani; M. J. M. Smulders; C. G. van der Linden; B. Vosman; P. Stam; R. E. Voorrips
A droplet inoculation method was used for evaluation of tomato resistance to early blight, a destructive foliar disease of\\u000a tomato caused by Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) Sorauer. In this test method, leaflets are inoculated with small droplets of a spore suspension in either\\u000a water or a 0.1% agar solution. Early blight resistance was evaluated based on lesion size. The
Reni Chaerani; Remmelt Groenwold; Piet Stam; Roeland E. Voorrips
A total of 48 strains were isolated from the normal tissues of Malus halliana and the EtOAc extracts of their cultures were subjected to primary antimicrobial screening against four test bacteria and\\u000a three fungi. As a result, 22 strains exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one test microbe. Among them, Alternaria brassicicola ML-P08 showing strong activity (MICs: 0.31–2.50 mg\\/ml) was selected
Summary Present studies indicate that all the three species ofAlternaria possessed both intra- and extracellular PME activity but only the latter was significant. The role of the enzyme in pathogenicity of the strains has been discussed. The various optima determined for the extracellular enzyme activity were pH 4.5–7.0, temperature 50° C, time 24 hrs, and substrate concentration 1% pectin; the
Detailed analysis of threshold levels of resistance in sunflower genotypes to Alternaria helianthi and its relation to peroxidase activity was carried out. Fourteen sunflower genotypes were categorized into resistant, moderately resistant, susceptible and highly susceptible groups based on field reaction on disease rating scale of 0 – 9. Sunflower genotypes MSH-59 and PF-56 were resistant with disease reaction scale of 3, PC-63,
G. Anjana; K. R. Kini; H. S. Shetty; H. S. Prakash
The induction of defence compounds and enzymes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway were studied in the ripe and green\\u000a chilli fruits inoculated with Colletotrichum capsici and Alternaria alternata. Total phenols and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and catalase\\u000a (CAT) increased in the inoculated ripe and green chilli fruits compared to the corresponding healthy
T. Anand; R. Bhaskaran; T. Raguchander; R. Samiyappan; V. Prakasam; C. Gopalakrishnan
Black-spot symptoms, caused by Alternaria alternata, develop in ‘Triumph’ persimmon fruit during prolonged storage at ?1oC. Preharvest dip treatment in the organic chlorine compound Troclosene sodium extended the storage life of the fruit by delaying development of black-spot disease (BSD). Troclosene sodium was more stable and efficient for the control of A. alternata than calcium hypochlorite. At 500 ?g ml?1
Three dipeptides, belonging to the family of diketopiperazines (DKPs), were extracted from broth culture of the grapevine endophyte Alternaria alternata, and were tested against Plasmopara viticola on leaves of grapevine plants grown in greenhouse. DKPs, used at different concentrations (10?3, 10?4, 10?5 and 10?6M) both singularly and in mixtures, demonstrated real effectiveness in inhibiting P. viticola sporulation when applied 2
R. Musetti; R. Polizzotto; A. Vecchione; S. Borselli; L. Zulini; M. D’Ambrosio; L. Sanità di Toppi; I. Pertot
A recently emerged plant disease, bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis), is caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease was first reported in China and Japan in the 1980s. A severe outbreak of PSA began in Italy in 2008 and has spread to other European countries. PSA was found in both New Zealand and Chile in 2010. To study the evolution of the pathogen and analyse the transmission of PSA between countries, genomes of strains from China and Japan (where the genus Actinidia is endemic), Italy, New Zealand and Chile were sequenced. The genomes of PSA strains are very similar. However, all strains from New Zealand share several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that distinguish them from all other PSA strains. Similarly, all the PSA strains from the 2008 Italian outbreak form a distinct clonal group and those from Chile form a third group. In addition to the rare SNPs present in the core genomes, there is abundant genetic diversity in a genomic island that is part of the accessory genome. The island from several Chinese strains is almost identical to the island present in the New Zealand strains. The island from a different Chinese strain is identical to the island present in the strains from the recent Italian outbreak. The Chilean strains of PSA carry a third variant of this island. These genomic islands are integrative conjugative elements (ICEs). Sequencing of these ICEs provides evidence of three recent horizontal transmissions of ICE from other strains of Pseudomonas syringae to PSA. The analyses of the core genome SNPs and the ICEs, combined with disease history, all support the hypothesis of an independent Chinese origin for both the Italian and the New Zealand outbreaks and suggest the Chilean strains also originate from China. PMID:23555547
Butler, Margi I; Stockwell, Peter A; Black, Michael A; Day, Robert C; Lamont, Iain L; Poulter, Russell T M
Intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. One emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease first occurred in China and Japan in the 1980s and in Korea and Italy in the 1990s. A more severe form of the disease broke out in Italy in 2008 and in additional countries in 2010 and 2011 threatening the viability of the global kiwi fruit industry. To start investigating the source and routes of international transmission of PSA, genomes of strains from China (the country of origin of the genus Actinidia), Japan, Korea, Italy and Portugal have been sequenced. Strains from China, Italy, and Portugal have been found to belong to the same clonal lineage with only 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,453,192 bp and one genomic island distinguishing the Chinese strains from the European strains. Not more than two SNPs distinguish each of the Italian and Portuguese strains from each other. The Japanese and Korean strains belong to a separate genetic lineage as previously reported. Analysis of additional European isolates and of New Zealand isolates exploiting genome-derived markers showed that these strains belong to the same lineage as the Italian and Chinese strains. Interestingly, the analyzed New Zealand strains are identical to European strains at the tested SNP loci but test positive for the genomic island present in the sequenced Chinese strains and negative for the genomic island present in the European strains. Results are interpreted in regard to the possible direction of movement of the pathogen between countries and suggest a possible Chinese origin of the European and New Zealand outbreaks. PMID:22590555
Mazzaglia, Angelo; Studholme, David J; Taratufolo, Maria C; Cai, Rongman; Almeida, Nalvo F; Goodman, Tokia; Guttman, David S; Vinatzer, Boris A; Balestra, Giorgio M
We conducted a 2 yr prospective study to measure atmospheric short ragweed and Alternaria allergens by RAST inhibition analysis of eluates from filter sheets exposed in air samplers. In both years ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts, obtained with a rotoslide sampler, correlated significantly with immunochemically measured airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activity. Airborne levels of the purified allergens AgE and Alt-I were successfully quantitated; these levels correlated closely with total airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activities, respectively, and also with ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts. Eluates from filter sheets exposed during late summer and fall produced positive wheal-and-flare skin tests in patients with fall hay fever. In both years immunochemical measurements of allergenic activity due to airborne short ragweed correlated closely with mean symptom score indices in groups of short ragweed-sensitive individuals. Measurable levels of atmospheric ragweed allergenic activity were noted before and after the ragweed pollination season, and at these times we noted small increases in mean symptom score indices in the short ragweed-sensitive groups. Thus immunochemical analyses provide important information concerning levels of environmental allergens.
Pinus radiata (Monterey pine), a tree native to coastal California and Mexico, is widely planted worldwide for timber production. A major threat to Monterey pine plantations is the fungal disease pine pitch canker, caused by Fusarium circinatum (Hypocreales). We present a novel trapping approach using filter paper in combination with a rapid molecular method to detect the presence of inoculum
Wolfgang Schweigkofler; Kerry O'Donnell; Matteo Garbelotto
Peever, T. L., Olsen, L., Ibañez, A., and Timmer, L. W. 2000. Genetic differentiation and host specificity among populations of Alternaria spp. causing brown spot of grapefruit and tangerine ? grapefruit hybrids in Florida. Phytopathology 90:407-414. Alternaria spp. were sampled from brown spot lesions in several geo- graphically separated citrus groves and different grapefruit and tangerine ? grapefruit hybrid cultivars
Alternaria spp. have emerged as opportunistic pathogens particularly in immunosuppressed patients, such as bone marrow transplant recipients. The authors present a case of Alternaria alternata in a patient with Fanconi's anemia, who received antifungal prophylaxis with posaconazole after an unrelated bone marrow transplantation, followed by empirical antifungal treatment with caspofungin when persistent fever emerged until cutaneous lesions eventually appeared. At that time there were clinical reasons to assume that the patient had an infection with an emerging fungus. This consideration triggered a change of the antifungal therapy from caspofungin to liposomal amphotericin B. After collecting sufficient evidence for the presence of an invasive fungal infection by A. alternata and given the severity of neutropenia and other immunosuppression, oral posaconazole was added to liposomal amphotericin B. The course of disease in this case suggests a possibly synergistic interaction between liposomal amphotericin B and posaconazole when administered simultaneously to treat an invasive systemic infection by Alternaria spp. in immunocompromised patients. PMID:23381982
Ferreira, Isabelina de Sousa; Teixeira, Gilda; Abecasis, Manuel
The black mould Alternaria alternata produces a wide diversity of mycotoxins which are of particular health concern. Since no maximum allowable limits are set for Alternaria toxins in food and feed, prevention of Alternaria infestations and mycotoxin spoilage is the only way to avoid health risks. Thus, the understanding of mycotoxin biosynthesis is essential. For that purpose, a reliable batch process in a 2 L bioreactor was established which enables the study of several parameters influencing the production of the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethylether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) by A. alternata DSM 12633. Modified Czapek-Dox medium was used with glucose as carbon source and ammonium and nitrate as nitrogen sources. Consumption of carbon and nitrogen sources as well as formation of the three mycotoxins were monitored; the average data of five independent fermentations was plotted and fitted using a logistic equation with four parameters. Maximum mycotoxin concentrations of 3.49 ± 0.12 mg/L AOH, 1.62 ± 0.14 mg/L AME and 38.28 ± 0.1 mg/L TA were obtained.In this system the effect of different aeration rates (0.53 vvm-0.013 vvm) was tested which exerted a great influence on mycotoxin production. The use of the semi-synthetic Czapek-Dox medium allowed the exchange of carbon and nitrogen sources for acetate and aspartic acid. The use of acetate instead of glucose resulted in the sole production of alternariol whereas the exchange of ammonium and nitrate for aspartate enhanced the production of both AOH and AME while TA production was not affected. PMID:21970547
Brzonkalik, Katrin; Herrling, Tanja; Syldatk, Christoph; Neumann, Anke
The black mould Alternaria alternata produces a wide diversity of mycotoxins which are of particular health concern. Since no maximum allowable limits are set for Alternaria toxins in food and feed, prevention of Alternaria infestations and mycotoxin spoilage is the only way to avoid health risks. Thus, the understanding of mycotoxin biosynthesis is essential. For that purpose, a reliable batch process in a 2 L bioreactor was established which enables the study of several parameters influencing the production of the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethylether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) by A. alternata DSM 12633. Modified Czapek-Dox medium was used with glucose as carbon source and ammonium and nitrate as nitrogen sources. Consumption of carbon and nitrogen sources as well as formation of the three mycotoxins were monitored; the average data of five independent fermentations was plotted and fitted using a logistic equation with four parameters. Maximum mycotoxin concentrations of 3.49 ± 0.12 mg/L AOH, 1.62 ± 0.14 mg/L AME and 38.28 ± 0.1 mg/L TA were obtained. In this system the effect of different aeration rates (0.53 vvm-0.013 vvm) was tested which exerted a great influence on mycotoxin production. The use of the semi-synthetic Czapek-Dox medium allowed the exchange of carbon and nitrogen sources for acetate and aspartic acid. The use of acetate instead of glucose resulted in the sole production of alternariol whereas the exchange of ammonium and nitrate for aspartate enhanced the production of both AOH and AME while TA production was not affected.
Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, grown in drop culture, produced alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in late growth phase. Production was almost completely inhibited when the fungal cultures were exposed to white light (180 W/m2), although mycelial dry weight was not significantly affected. The fungus was most sensitive to light during the exponential growth phase. Twelve hours of light exposure was sufficient to decrease significantly the production of the secondary metabolites. In light the fungus produced a red-brown pigment of unknown nature.
The effect of the cosubstrate acetate on the formation of the phytotoxic substance tentoxin by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler was investigated. Acetate was taken up and metabolized during growth. The added acetate stimulated considerably the biosynthesis of tentoxin depending on its concentration and time of introduction. There was an increased incorporation of (U-14C)-glucose into the toxin molecule in the presence of acetate in the medium. The results indicate an induction of the biosynthesis of tentoxin by the precursor acetate, probably mediated through the accumulation of the glycolytic intermediates pyruvate and phosphoenolpyruvate. PMID:4045707
Several diketopiperazines have been isolated from liquid cultures of Alternaria alternata, the causal agent of black leaf blight of spotted knapweed, Centaurea maculosa Lam. One of these compounds, maculosin [the diketopiperazine cyclo(-L-Pro-L-Tyr-)], was active in the nicked-leaf bioassay at 10(-5) M; synthetic maculosin possessed chemical and biological activities identical to those of the natural product. Other diketopiperazines isolated from the fungus possessed either less activity or none at all. In tests against 19 plant species, maculosin was phytotoxic only to spotted knapweed. Thus maculosin is a host-specific phytotoxin from a weed pathogen. PMID:16593989
Toxicity-guided fractionation was used to identify DNA strand breaking impact compounds in extracts obtained from rice heavily infested with the Alternaria alternata strains DSM 62006 and DSM 62010. The major genotoxic potential measured in the comet assay using human colon carcinoma cells (HT29) could be attributed to three unknown peaks, whereas the fractions containing alternariol, its monomethylether or tenuazonic acid showed no significant DNA damaging effects. According to (1)H and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy, one genotoxic impact compound was identified as Altertoxin II (ATXII). ATXII showed potent DNA damaging properties in HT29 cells with substantial induction of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG)-sensitive sites. However, no effect was observed with respect to the cellular redox status, measured in the DCF assay and as total glutathione. The induction of apoptosis could be excluded as a potential reason for enhanced DNA damage. After 24 h of incubation with 1 ?M ATX II, a significant increase of cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase was observed together with an inhibition of cell proliferation in the sulforhodamine B assay. Taken together, ATX II was found to contribute substantially to the genotoxic effects of complex extracts obtained from Alternaria alternata infested rice. The results demonstrate the high genotoxic potency of ATX II in human cells, underlining the necessity for further studies on the occurrence in food and its relevance for food safety. PMID:23076116
Treatment, for 1 h, of cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells, human liver HepG2 cells, and human colon HT-29 cells with theAlternaria toxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol methyl ether (AME) caused a concentration-dependent induction of DNA strand breaks at concentrations ranging from 5 to 50 micromolar. After treatment for 24 h, DNA strand breaks were observed in HepG2 but not HT-29 cells. Analysis of the 24 h-incubation media of HT-29 cells showed that both toxins were completely conjugated, whereas 75% were still present as unconjugated compounds in the 24 h-media of HepG2 cells. Lysates of both cell types fortified with UDPGA were found to convert both toxins into two glucuronides each, but HT-29 cells exhibited a much high activity than HepG2 cells and gave rise to a different ratio of glucuronides. It is concluded that glucuronidation eliminates the DNA strandbreaking potential of AOH and AME, and that the two glucuronides of eachAlternaria toxin are generated by different UGT isoforms. PMID:23605994
The action site of Alternaria alternata Crofton-weed toxin (AAC-toxin), isolated first from Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler, was investigated in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii thylakoids. The results revealed that AAC-toxin inhibited photophosphorylation in a concentration-dependent pattern. Similarly, toxin inhibited uncoupled, basal electron flow and photosystem II (PSII) electron transport as well. However, toxin did not affect photosystem I (PSI) activity or the partial reaction of electron transport from H2O to silicomolybdic acid (SiMo). Therefore, the action site of toxin was located at QB level. In addition, the toxin may behave as an energy-transfer inhibitor at high concentrations by inhibiting phosphorylating electron transport and Mg2+ATPase activity. Chlorophyll a fluorescence induction and JIP test corroborated the inhibition at QB level. Through observations of the different sensitivity of toxin on D1 mutants of C. reinhardtii, evidence further confirmed that AAC-toxin inhibited electron transport by displacing the QB on the D1 protein, and the mode of action was similar to phenol-type PSII inhibitors. PMID:17530770
Alternaria species produce and excrete dimethyl coprogen siderophores to acquire iron. The Alternaria alternata gene AaNPS6, encoding a polypeptide analogous to fungal nonribosomal peptide synthetases, was found to be required for the production of siderophores and virulence on citrus. Siderophores purified from culture filtrates of the wild-type strain did not induce any phytotoxicity on the leaves of citrus. Fungal strains lacking AaNPS6 produced little or no detectable extracellular siderophores and displayed an increased sensitivity to H?O?, superoxide-generating compounds (KO? and menadione) and iron depletion. ?nps6 mutants were also defective for the production of melanin and conidia. The introduction of a wild-type AaNPS6 under the control of its endogenous promoter to a ?nps6 null mutant at least partially restored siderophore production and virulence to citrus, demonstrating a functional link between iron uptake and fungal pathogenesis. Elevated sensitivity to H?O?, seen for the ?nps6 null strain could be relieved by exogenous application of ferric iron. The expression of the AaNPS6 gene was highly up-regulated under low-iron conditions and apparently controlled by the redox-responsive yeast transcriptional regulator YAP1. Hence, the maintenance of iron homeostasis via siderophore-mediated iron uptake also plays an important role in resistance to toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our results demonstrate further the critical role of ROS detoxification for the pathogenicity of A.?alternata in citrus. PMID:23438010
A rare case of allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM), caused by Alternaria alternata, is reported in an immunocompetent resident of Delhi. Her complaints included a generalized, urticarial skin rash and occasional pain in the right lower chest. Her differential count showed eosinophils, 22%; absolute eosinophil count (AEC), 2400 cells/?l; and total IgE, 4007 IU/ml. The computerised tomogram (CT) scan of her thorax showed an enhancing lesion with surrounding ground glass haziness in the right lower lobe. Histopathologic examination of the resected lung revealed a necrotizing granulomatous inflammation, parenchymal infiltration by eosinophils, lymphocytes, neutrophils, plasma cells and some exudative bronchiolitis suggestive of ABPM. Observation of KOH wet mounts of repeat sputum and BAL samples demonstrated the presence of septate, brownish hyphae and cultures of these specimens yielded A. alternata (identified by sequencing of the ITS region). Her serum showed a three-fold higher specific IgE to A. alternata antigens than control levels, and the type I cutaneous hypersensitivity response to antigens of A. alternata was strongly positive. She was treated successfully with oral glucocorticoids and itraconazole. To our knowledge, ABPM due to Alternaria alternata has not been reported previously. PMID:22563857
Chowdhary, Anuradha; Agarwal, Kshitij; Randhawa, H S; Kathuria, Shallu; Gaur, S N; Najafzadeh, Mohammad J; Roy, P; Arora, Naveen; Khanna, Geetika; Meis, Jacques F
Trichoderma strains were evaluated under field conditions to assay their efficacy in suppressing Alternaria fruit rot disease and promoting chili plant growth. The experiment was conducted at the Botanical Garden, Rajshahi University, Bangladesh from July 2006 to March 2007. Application of Trichoderma harzianum IMI 392432 significantly (p = 0.05) suppressed the disease compared to Alternaria tenuis (T2) treatment and improved both growth and yield. The treatment T4 (T. harzianum IMI-392432 + A. tenuis) was most effective in reducing disease percentage (72.27%) compared to A. tenuis (T1) treatment. The highest seed germination rate (85.56%) and the highest growth and yield (12.5 g/plant) was also recorded in the same treatment (T4), followed by T5 (T. harzianum IMI-392433 000000 + A. tenuis), T6 (T. harzianum IMI-392434 +A. tenuis), T2 (T. virens IMI-392430 + A. tenuis), and T3 (T. pseudokoningii IMI-392431 +A. tenuis) treatment, while single treatment with A. tenuis significantly decreased these values.
Background HC-toxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide, is a virulence determinant for the plant pathogenic fungus Cochliobolus carbonum. It was recently discovered that another fungus, Alternaria jesenskae, also produces HC-toxin. Results The major genes (collectively known as AjTOX2) involved in the biosynthesis of HC-toxin were identified from A. jesenskae by genomic sequencing. The encoded orthologous proteins share 75-85% amino acid identity, and the genes for HC-toxin biosynthesis are duplicated in both fungi. The genomic organization of the genes in the two fungi show a similar but not identical partial clustering arrangement. A set of representative housekeeping proteins show a similar high level of amino acid identity between C. carbonum and A. jesenskae, which is consistent with the close relatedness of these two genera within the family Pleosporaceae (Dothideomycetes). Conclusions This is the first report that the plant virulence factor HC-toxin is made by an organism other than C. carbonum. The genes may have moved by horizontal transfer between the two species, but it cannot be excluded that they were present in a common ancestor and lost from other species of Alternaria and Cochliobolus.
Some Alternaria species are able to produce plant pathogenic as well as toxic metabolites. In both agriculture and the food industry it is important know if toxigenic Alternaria are present to rapidly employ the correct corrective actions. The purpose of this work was to establish a real-time PCR method, which can detect and quantify apple pathogenic and toxigenic Alternaria. An AM-toxin I primer set, which could recognize Alternaria DNA only, was designed by using primers complementary to the AM-toxin I gene. The method could detect small amounts of DNA (4 pg) and still obtain a large dynamic range (4 decades) without interference from apple material. Eight Alternaria isolates were analyzed for the presence of AM-toxin I gene and their production of secondary metabolites. Then analyses showed that all eight isolates contained the AM toxin gene and were able to produce the plant pathogenic tentoxin in addition to AM toxin I. The analyses also showed the production of tenuazonic acid, alternariols, Altenuene, altenusin and/or altertoxin I in pure culture. Analyses of inoculated apples showed that both the AM-toxin gene and alternariol monomethyl ether could be detected. Morphological analyses suggested that the eight Alternaria strains, though they all carried the AM toxin genes, probably belong to different but closely related un-described Alternaria taxa in the A. tenuissima species-group based on morphological and chemical differences. PMID:16890318
Vascular storage parenchyma cells of carrot roots were treated with methanol solutions of radicinin and epi- radicinol produced by Alternaria radicina and with alternariol and alternariol methyl ether produced by A. alternata at concentrations of 25 ?g\\/ml and 250 ?g\\/ml, as well as culture filtrates of both fungi. Cell ultra- structure was observed by TEM. No visible changes were noted
KRYSTYNA TYLKOWSKA; AGNIESZKA BAGNIEWSKA-ZADWORNA; JADWIGA GRABARKIEWICZ-SZCZ?SNA; HANNA DORNA
Dodder is a serious weed problem in several crops. Its minutely sized, easily dispersed, and highly viable seed makes it difficult to control. Alternaria destruens is the active ingredient in a registered bioherbicide for control of dodder species. In greenhouse studies, the following treatments ...
Studies were conducted to develop an integrated control strategy for dodder (Cuscuta pentagona) using glyphosate, ammonium sulfate, and Alternaria destruens. In greenhouse studies, dodder parasitizing citrus was sprayed with glyphosate using 0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 1%, 2%, and 4% concentrations of R...
Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to develop an integrated weed management system for dodder (Cuscuta pentagona) using glyphosate, ammonium sulfate, and the biological control agent Alternaria destruens. In greenhouse studies, dodder was vegetatively propagated on citrus plants and the tr...
The present investigation reports the biochemical changes associated with application of biocontrol agents on Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L Cv RLM 1359) leaves from plants infected with Alternaria blight. Indian mustard seeds were treated separately with three biocontrol agents, viz. Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis and grown in experimental fields; followed by spraying on 30 and 60 days
Sucheta Sharma; Jagjit Singh; Gurcharan D. Munshi; Satish K. Munshi
Field experiments were carried out with Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L. Cv RLM 1359) to investigate the influence of biocontrol agents on seeds from plants infected with Alternaria blight. The biocontrol agents viz, Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis were applied as seed treatment\\/seed treatment coupled with spray on 30 and 60 days after sowing of seeds in experimental
Sucheta Sharma; Jagjit Singh; Gurcharan D. Munshi; Satish K. Munshi
The infectoria species-group within the genus Alternaria was originally conceived by Simmons in 1993 and was based upon common morphological characteristics that included the development of conidial chains with primary, secondary, and tertiary branching resulting in substantial three-dimensional com...
Most commercial cultivars of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., are susceptible to early blight (EB), a devastating fungal (Alternaria solani Sorauer) disease of tomato in the U.S. and elsewhere in the world. Currently, sanitation, long crop rotation, and routine application of fungicides are the most common disease control measures. Although no source of genetic resistance is known within the cultivated species
... or aphthae, are the most common cause of periodic (recurring) ulcers inside the mouth and genital linings ( ... Dec 2008 Information for other ages: Child Teen Table of Contents: Overview Who's At Risk Signs and ...
Alternaria spp. have been reported to be the most frequent fungal species invading tomatoes. Certain species, in particular the most common one, A. alternata, are capable of producing several mycotoxins in infected plants and in agricultural commodities. Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TA) are some of the main Alternaria mycotoxins that can be found as contaminants of food. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of water activity (a(w), 0.904, 0.922, 0.954, and 0.982) and temperature (6, 15, 21 and 35 degrees C) on mycotoxin production on a synthetic tomato medium of a cocktail inoculum of five strains of A. alternata isolated from tomato fruits affected by Blackmould. The optimum AOH production occurred at 0.954 a(w) after 28days of incubation at 21 degrees C. A temperature of 21 degrees C was the most favourable for AOH synthesis at all a(w) levels. The maximum concentration of AME was determined at 0.954 a(w) and 35 degrees C. The optimum conditions for TA accumulation were 0.982 a(w) and 21 degrees C. At the 0.904 a(w) no growth or germination was registered at 6 degrees C and 15 degrees C over the whole incubation period. At 21 degrees C and 35 degrees C growth occurred slowly but none of the toxins were detected at this a(w) level. In general, high a(w) levels were favourable for mycotoxin production. None of the other toxins was detected at quantifiable levels at 6 degrees C after the whole incubation period. A storage temperature of 6 degrees C or below could be considered as safe for tomato fruits and high moisture tomato products (a(w)>0.95), in relation with Alternaria toxins. The results obtained here could be extrapolated to evaluate the risk of spoilage in tomato fruits and tomato products caused by this pathogen. PMID:20688408
From the medicinal plant Ginkgo biloba the fungal endophyte Alternaria no.28 was isolated. Extract of the fungus grown in liquid culture media exhibited marked cytotoxic activity when tested in vitro against brine shrimp (Artemia salina). Eight compounds were isolated from the extract of cultures of this endophytic fungus and were elucidated as alterperylenol (1), altertoxin I (2), alternariol (3), alternariol monomethyl ether (4), tenuazonic acid (5) and its derivative (6), together with ergosterol and ergosta-4, 6, 8, 22-tetraen-3-one by means of spectroscopic analysis. Among them, both 5 and 6 showed significant cytotoxic effects in the brine shrimp bioassy, with mortality rates of 73.6% and 68.9%, respectively, at a concentration of 10 microg x mL(-1), and they were first isolated from endophytic fungi. PMID:19967976
Light inhibits production of the mycotoxins alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, both polyketids produced by Alternaria alternata. This effect seems to be general because seven isolates of A. alternata with different alternariol- and alternariol monomethyl ether-producing abilities all respond to continuous light with reduced levels of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether when the mycotoxins were calculated on a microgram-per-milligram (dry weight) basis. Blue light inhibited alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether production 69 and 77%, respectively. Red light gave no reduction of toxin levels. Total lipids were increased 25% when mycelium was grown in blue light as compared with red light or darkness. In white or blue light, but not in red light or darkness, a red-brown pigment accumulated by the mycelium.
Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a new fumigant used in phytosanitary treatments. It was developed as a potential alternative to methyl bromide, which is being phased out because of its ozone-depletion properties. To understand the molecular and cellular mechanisms occurring in fungal pathogens in response to COS fumigation, we cloned 510 cDNA fragments of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler genes that are differentially expressed; these genes were cloned using suppression subtractive hybridization. Changes in the levels of transcripts of 79 fragments were confirmed by microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. Further homology search revealed that they are highly homologous to 41 genes of other fungi, which were related to general metabolism, growth and division, defense, cellular transport, and signal transduction. These results provide an overview of differential expression profiles of A. alternata genes following COS treatment and some new clues about the mechanism of COS fungitoxicity. PMID:20799090
Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Wang, Yuejin; Zhan, Guoping; Liu, Bo
Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler produces a phytotoxic substance tentoxin. The influence of inorganic phosphate on the formation of this secondary metabolite was analyzed. Distinct phases of growth and metabolite formation can be defined. The first phase shows exponential growth, high QO2, protein and nucleic acid values and a rapid uptake of inorganic phosphate from the medium. The second phase shows linear growth and active tentoxin formation takes place. The highest yields of tentoxin are obtained, when inorganic phosphate in the medium was limited. The phosphate level also influences the ATP-pool of the mycelium. The role of ATP as an effector in phosphate mediated control of tentoxin synthesis was discussed. PMID:6686908
The survival of Alternaria alternate during anaerobic digestion was investigated in context of a joint research project. The aim of this project was to estimate the phytosanitary risk of dissemination of pathogens by returning treated biomass as organic fertilizer to arable land. The studies were carried out in lab-scale stirred tank reactors under mesophilic conditions. After insertion of infected plant material into the reactors the influence on the viability of the fungal pathogen was studied concerning exposure time, pretreatment and storage of the digestates for four weeks or six months. The results clearly showed that anaerobic digestion leads to a complete inactivation of A. alternate already after an exposure time of six hours. PMID:23878963
Schleusner, Y; Bandte, M; Gossmann, M; Heiermann, M; Plöchl, M; Büttner, C
Fifteen meroterpenoids (1-15) with diverse ring systems including an unprecedented oxaspiro[5.5]nonane-fused cyclohexenone (1), hydrogenated benzofurans (2-5), hydrogenated chromans (6, 7), hydrogenated cyclopenta[b]chromans (8-11), and four monocyclic structures (12-15) were isolated from the sponge-associated fungus Alternaria sp. JJY-32. The structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations, and assisted by chemical derivatizations. On the basis of supplementation experiments with specific enzyme inhibitors and putative precursors, a shikimate-isoprenoid hybrid biosynthetic pathway is proposed. The NF-?B inhibitory activities of 1-15 were tested, and all of them, except 6 and 7 (IC50 > 100 ?M), showed activities with IC50 values ranging from 39 to 85 ?M in RAW264.7 cells. PMID:24128115
The resistance phenotypes of nine potato cultivars to five isolates of Alternaria solani, causal agent of early blight, were studied after inoculation and growth under greenhouse conditions. We identified potato cultivars with both susceptible and resistant phenotypes as well as A. solani isolates with varying degrees of aggressiveness. Two potato cultivars and two pathogen isolates were selected for biochemical analysis of phenol production and peroxidase activity after inoculation. Phenol compounds were evaluated 2, 4, 6, and 8 days after inoculation, while peroxidase activities were monitored daily for 10 days. Native polyacrylamide electrophoresis was used to identify one protein with peroxidase activity in extracts taken 6 days after inoculation. Significantly higher peroxidase activity as well as total phenol content in potato was correlated with resistance in the Iranian potato cultivar Diamond. Variability of responses within the same cultivar to different isolates of A. solani suggests genotypic diversity between isolates that results in phenotypic diversity for pathogen aggressiveness. PMID:20373966
Shahbazi, Hadis; Aminian, Heshmatollah; Sahebani, Navazollah; Halterman, Dennis A
The host-selective AAL toxins secreted by Alternaria alternata f sp lycopersici are primary chemical determinants in the Alternariastemcanker disease of tomato. The AAL toxins are members of a new class of sphinganine analog mycotoxins that cause cell death in both animals and plants. Here, we report detection of stereotypic hallmarks of apoptosis during cell death induced by these toxins in tomato. DNA ladders were observed during cell death in toxin-treated tomato protoplasts and leaflets. The intensity of the DNA ladders was enhanced by Ca2+ and inhibited by Zn2+. The progressive delineation of fragmented DNA into distinct bodies, coincident with the appearance of DNA ladders, also was observed during death of toxin-treated tomato protoplasts. In situ analysis of cells dying during development in both onion root caps and tomato leaf tracheary elements revealed DNA fragmentation localized to the dying cells as well as the additional formation of apoptotic-like bodies in sloughing root cap cells. We conclude that the fundamental elements of apoptosis, as characterized in animals, are conserved in plants. The apoptotic process may be expressed during some developmental transitions and is the functional process by which symptomatic lesions are formed in the Alternariastemcanker disease of tomato. Sphinganine analog mycotoxins may be used to characterize further signaling pathways leading to apoptosis in plants. PMID:12239387
Wang, H.; Li, J.; Bostock, R. M.; Gilchrist, D. G.
Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) NADPH oxidases have been reported to suppress the spread of pathogen- and salicylic acid-induced cell death. Here, we present dual roles of RBOHD (for respiratory burst oxidase homolog D) in an Arabidopsis-Alternaria pathosystem, suggesting either initiation or prevention of cell death dependent on the distance from pathogen attack. Our data demonstrate that a rbohD knockout mutant exhibits increased spread of cell death at the macroscopic level upon inoculation with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola. However, the cellular patterns of reactive oxygen species accumulation and cell death are fundamentally different in the AtrbohD mutant compared with the wild type. Functional RBOHD causes marked extracellular hydrogen peroxide accumulation as well as cell death in distinct, single cells of A. brassicicola-infected wild-type plants. This single cell response is missing in the AtrbohD mutant, where infection triggers spreading-type necrosis preceded by less distinct chloroplastic hydrogen peroxide accumulation in large clusters of cells. While the salicylic acid analog benzothiadiazole induces the action of RBOHD and the development of cell death in infected tissues, the ethylene inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine inhibits cell death, indicating that both salicylic acid and ethylene positively regulate RBOHD and cell death. Moreover, A. brassicicola-infected AtrbohD plants hyperaccumulate ethylene and free salicylic acid compared with the wild type, suggesting negative feedback regulation of salicylic acid and ethylene by RBOHD. We propose that functional RBOHD triggers death in cells that are damaged by fungal infection but simultaneously inhibits death in neighboring cells through the suppression of free salicylic acid and ethylene levels. PMID:19726575
ABSTRACT The efficacy of chemical (i.e., foliar fungicide sprays), genetic (i.e., moderately resistant cultivars), and cultural (i.e., drip-irrigation system) control measures was quantified individually and in combination in the management of Alternaria dauci, the causal agent of Alternaria leaf blight of carrot. Whereas host resistance and drip irrigation affected both the time of disease onset and the rate of disease progression, chemical control affected only the latter. In all cases, a single control measure did not provide an acceptable level of disease suppression. Control efficacy values (based on the relative area under the disease progress curve) for chemical, genetic, and cultural control were 58 +/- 11, 39 +/- 20, and 60 +/- 22%, respectively (values are means +/- standard error). By contrast, implementing two control measures concurrently always improved disease suppression significantly compared with the individual measures. Control efficacy values were 91 +/- 8% for the integration of chemical and genetic measures and 82 +/- 23% for the integration of chemical and cultural measures. Moreover, yields in plots protected by two control measures simultaneously were higher by 10.1 to 28.6 t/ha than those in the respective plots protected by single measures. The joint effect of chemical control and host resistance was additive, whereas that of chemical control and drip irrigation was synergistic in most cases. A literature review was performed to determine if these findings represent a general relationship between chemical and genetic, and chemical and cultural measures. Based on 19 reviewed cases, it was concluded that additive effects are the rule and synergistic or antagonistic effects are the exception. Synergistic effects of two control measures were observed when one control measure improved the efficacy of the other directly or when one control measure induced host resistance or predisposed the pathogen to increased susceptibility. These results may enable a more effective selection of candidate control measures for integration in the future. PMID:18944332
SCARs were developed by cloning RAPD-PCR amplicons into commercially available vectors, sequencing them and designing specific primers for PCR, direct sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Eighteen to seventy percent of cloned RAPD-PCR amplicons were phylogenetically informative among closely related small-spored Alternaria spp., Ascochyta spp. and Tilletia spp., taxa that have been resistant to phylogenetic analysis with universally primed, protein-coding sequence data. Selected SCARs were sequenced for larger, population-scale samples of each taxon and demonstrated to be useful for phylogenetic inference. Variation observed in the cloned SCARs generally was higher than variation in nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and several protein-coding sequences commonly used in lower level fungal systematics. Sequence data derived from SCARs will provide sufficient resolution to address lower level phylogenetic hypotheses in Alternaria, Ascochyta, Tilletia and possibly many other fungal groups and organisms. PMID:23449078
Stewart, Jane E; Andrew, Marion; Bao, Xiaodong; Chilvers, Martin I; Carris, Lori M; Peever, Tobin L
Exposure and sensitivity to ubiquitous airborne fungi such as Alternaria alternata have long been implicated in the development, onset, and exacerbation of chronic allergic airway disorders. This present study is the first to investigate global changes in host gene expression during the interaction of cultured human bronchial epithelial cells and live Alternaria spores. In in vitro experiments human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to spores or media alone for 24 h. RNA was collected from three biological replicates per treatment and was used to assess changes in gene expression patterns using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays. In cells treated with Alternaria spores compared to controls, 613 probe sets representing 460 individual genes were found differentially expressed (p ? 0.05). In this set of 460 statistically significant, differentially expressed genes, 397 genes were found to be up-regulated and 63 were down-regulated. Of these 397 up-regulated genes, 156 genes were found to be up-regulated ?2 fold. Interestingly, none of the 63 down-regulated genes were found differentially expressed at ?-2 fold. Differentially expressed genes were identified following statistical analysis and subsequently used for pathway and network evaluation. Interestingly, many cytokine and chemokine immune response genes were up-regulated with a particular emphasis on interferon-inducible genes. Genes involved in cell death, retinoic acid signaling, and TLR3 response pathways were also significantly up-regulated. Many of the differentially up-regulated genes have been shown in other systems to be associated with innate immunity, inflammation and/or allergic airway diseases. This study now provides substantial information for further investigating specific genes and innate immune system pathways activated by Alternaria in the context of allergic airway diseases. PMID:23882263
Babiceanu, M C; Howard, B A; Rumore, A C; Kita, H; Lawrence, C B
The synthesis of a phytotoxic substance, tentoxin, by Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler is negatively controlled by inorganic phosphate. We show here that the influence of phosphate on the production of this secondary metabolite is time-dependent. By using inhibitors of protein synthesis (p-fluorphenylalanine, cycloheximide) together with a resuspension technique, attempts were made to find out when the enzymes responsible for tentoxin synthesis are formed. PMID:4040168
Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of leaves of three tree species, namely Azadirachta indica L., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Melia azedarach L. was evaluated against two strains of Alternaria alternata, isolated from dying-back trees of two Eucalyptus spp., namely Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus. All the concentrations (1,?2,?…?,?5% w\\/v) of the methanolic extracts of the three tree species significantly
Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of leaves of three tree species, namely Azadirachta indica L., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Melia azedarach L. was evaluated against two strains of Alternaria alternata, isolated from dying-back trees of two Eucalyptus spp., namely Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus. All the concentrations (1,?2,?…?,?5% w\\/v) of the methanolic extracts of the three tree species significantly
An expression profile of genes induced by non-pathogenic Alternaria alternata on rough lemon leaves was obtained by sequencing 500 subtractive PCR clones generated from mRNA of leaves inoculated with the fungus after subtraction with that of non-inoculated leaves. About 6% of the cDNA sequences had homology to known putative defense-related genes including epoxide hydrolase. A full-length cDNA (951 bp) from rough
A multi?toxin method was developed for the detection of some of the known Alternaria mycotoxins, altenuene, iso?altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, tenuazonic acid and altertoxin I in oilseed rape meal and sunflower seed meal. The method involves extraction of the toxins with an acidified mixture of acetonitrile: aqueous potassium chloride solution, followed by liquid?liquid extraction and further purification using gel
Sadat Nawaz; Keith A. Scudamore; Stephen C. Rainbird
The pathogenic capability of the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata relies on the production of host-selective ACT toxin. Inoculation of A. alternata in leaves of the citrus quickly induced rapid lipid peroxidation, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and cell death, indicative of host defensive response. We previously demonstrated an essential role of the A. alternata\\u000a AaAP1 gene, encoding a redox-responsive
The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between meteorological conditions and Alternaria and Cladosporium spore concentrations in the air of Zagreb in August 2002 and August 2003. These months were chosen because they represented climatic extremes. A 7-day VPPS 2000 Hirst volumetric pollen and spore trap was used for spore sampling. Spores marked as 'others' (ascospores, basidiospores, Epicoccum, Ustilago, Pithomyces, Helminthosporium, Stemphylium, Torula, Botrytis, Didymella) were found to have predominated in the month of August in both 2002 and 2003 with 91.1% and 70.5%, respectively. Because of favourable weather conditions (higher air temperature and minimal precipitation) in August 2003, the concentrations of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores were 3.4-fold those recorded in the same month in 2002. Also, the peak daily concentrations of these spores were measured on days without precipitation and with higher air temperature. Intradiuranal variation in the Alternaria and Cladosporium spore concentrations was identical in 2002 and 2003 (lowest in 2-hour interval between 06:00-08:00, and highest between 10:00-12:00). In spite of the three-fold increase in the Cladosporium spore concentration in August 2003, the borderline concentration of 3,000 spores/m3 air that is associated with the occurrence of allergic reactions was only exceeded on a single day. Air concentration of Alternaria spores exceeded borderline value of 100 spores/m3 air on as many as 17 days, suggesting that at that time of the year the risk of allergic reaction was only present in individuals allergic to this spore type. PMID:15627341
We examined collembolan food preference for fungal mycelium grown on copper-contaminated medium, and the relationship between copper content, food selectivity and collembolan fitness when fed contaminated mycelium.To clarify whether collembolan food selectivity is related to fitness parameters, Folsomia candida were fed mycelium of the dark-pigmented fungus Alternaria alternata grown on medium with different copper concentrations. Copper-contaminated food (fungus grown on
Alternaria alternata is recognized as an important source of fungal aeroallergens. Alt a 1, the major allergen of this mold, is a dimer of disulfide-linked sub-units that migrate in SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions at apparent Ms of 14,500 and 16,000. IgE antibodies to this protein are present in the sera of > 90% of A. alternata-sensitive individuals. Previous studies from
Michael W. De Vouge; Ajay J. Thaker; Ivan H. A. Curran; Lei Zhang; Gauri Muradia; Harold Rode; Hari M. Vijay
Bioherbicides are speciality biotechnology products that offer a non-chemical alternative to control of noxious weeds with the goal of reducing the input of harmful chemicals into the environment. This paper evaluates the potential of an indigenous isolate of Alternaria alternata (LC#508) for use as a mycoherbicide for Lantana camara, a global weed. A spore inoculum of 1.65×106 spores\\/ml induced mortality
Due to its potential in preventing or slowing the occurrence of many diseases, resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) has attracted great research interest. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms from selected plants that produce resveratrol and to optimize the conditions for resveratrol production. Endophytes from Merlot wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot), wild Vitis (Vitis quinquangularis Rehd.), and Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc.) were isolated, and their abilities to produce resveratrol were evaluated. A total of 65 isolates were obtained and 21 produced resveratrol (6-123 ?g/L) in liquid culture. The resveratrol-producing isolates belonged to seven genera, Botryosphaeria, Penicillium, Cephalosporium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, and Alternaria. The resveratrol-producing capability decreased or was completely lost in most isolates after three rounds of subculture. It was found that only the strain Alternaria sp. MG1 (isolated from cob of Merlot using GA1 medium) had stable and high resveratrol-producing capability in all subcultures. During liquid cultivation of Alternaria sp. MG1 in potato dextrose medium, the synthesis of resveratrol began on the first day, increased to peak levels on day 7, and then decreased sharply thereafter. Cell growth increased during cultivation and reached a stable and high level of biomass after 5 days. The best fermentation conditions for resveratrol production in liquid cultures of Alternaria sp. MG1 were an inoculum size of 6 %, a medium volume of 125 mL in a 250-mL flask, a rotation speed of 101 rpm, and a temperature of 27 °C. PMID:22526800
TheAlternaria toxins alternariol (AOH), alternariol-9-methyl ether (AME), altenuene (ALT) and isoaltenuene (iALT) undergo extensive oxidative metabolism, but the cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms responsible for the reported hydroxylation reactions are yet unknown. In the present study, the activities of twelve human CYP isoforms for the hydroxylation of AOH, AME, ALT and iALT at different positions have been determined. The most active monooxygenase for AOH and AME was CYP1A1, and lower activities were observed for CYP1A2, 2C19 and 3A4. Hydroxylation at C-2 of AOH and AME was the preferred reaction of most isoforms. For ALT and iALT, CYP2C19 had the highest activity, followed by 2C9 and 2D6. The dominating metabolite of all active isoforms was the 8-hydroxylated ALT and iALT. The activities of the CYP isoforms are consistent with the pattern of metabolites of theAlternaria toxins obtained with pooled human hepatic microsomes. Based on the activities of the CYP isoforms, a significant extrahepatic hydroxylation must be expectede.g. in the lung and esophagus for AOH and AME, and in the intestine and ovaries for ALT and iALT. As all major hydroxylation products are catechols, the extrahepatic metabolism ofAlternaria toxins may be of toxicological relevance. PMID:23604745
Pfeiffer, E; Burkhardt, B; Altemöller, M; Podlech, J; Metzler, M
Alternaria helianthi is an important seed-borne pathogenic fungus responsible for blight disease in sunflower. The current detection methods, which are based on culture and morphological identification, are time-consuming, laborious and are not always reliable. A PCR-based diagnostic method was developed with species-specific primers designed based on the sequence data of a region consisting of the 5.8S RNA gene and internal transcribed spacers-ITS 1 and ITS 2 of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) repeats of A. helianthi. The specificity of the primer pairs AhN1F and AhN1R designed was verified by PCR analysis of DNA from 18 Alternaria helianthi strains isolated from India, 14 non-target Alternaria spp. and 11 fungal isolates of other genera. A single amplification product of 357-bp was detected from DNA of A. helianthi isolates. No cross-reaction was observed with any of the other isolates tested. The detection limit of the PCR method was of 10 pg from template DNA. The primers could also detect the pathogen in infected sunflower seed. This species-specific PCR method provides a quick, simple, powerful and reliable alternative to conventional methods in the detection and identification of A. helianthi. This is the first report of an A. helianthi-specific primer set. PMID:22722684
Udayashankar, A C; Chandra Nayaka, S; Archana, B; Anjana, G; Niranjana, S R; Mortensen, C N; Lund, Ole S; Prakash, H S
Alternaria and Cladosporium are two fungal taxa whose spores (conidia) are included frequently in aerobiological studies of outdoor environments. Both spore types are present in the atmosphere of Malaga (Spain) throughout almost the entire year, although they reach their highest concentrations during spring and autumn. To establish predicting variables for daily and weekly fluctuations, Spearman's correlations and stepwise multiple regressions between spore concentrations (measured using a volumetric 7-day recorder) and meteorological variables were made with results obtained for both spore types in 1996 and 1997. Correlations and regressions were also made between the different taxa and their concentrations in different years. Significant and positive correlation coefficients were always obtained between spore concentrations of both taxa, followed by temperature, their concentrations in different years, sunshine hours and relative humidity (this last in a negative sense). For the two spore types we obtained higher correlation and regression coefficients using weekly data. We showed different regression models using weekly values. From the results and a practical point of view, it was concluded that weekly values of the atmospheric concentration of Alternaria spores can be predicted from the maximum temperature expected and its concentrations in the years sampled. As regards the atmospheric concentration of Cladoposrium spores, the weekly values can be predicted based on the concentration of Alternaria spores, thus saving the time and effort that would otherwise be employed in counting them by optical microscopy. PMID:22089367
Recio, Marta; Trigo, María del Mar; Docampo, Silvia; Melgar, Marta; García-Sánchez, José; Bootello, Lourdes; Cabezudo, Baltasar
This Comment highlights the recent federal funding setbacks in the biotechnology industry and considers the resulting challenges to future research collaboration. After providing a historical background to stem cell technology, Mr. Fleis examines the passionately opposed public responses to the technology's use of embryos and to its future applications. Fleis continues by noting past legislative initiatives that have accelerated the
The fungal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) complex, which has been implicated in the production of low-level reactive oxygen species (ROS), contains mainly NoxA, NoxB (gp91(phox) homologues) and NoxR (p67(phox) homologue). Here, we report the developmental and pathological functions of NoxB and NoxR in the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata. Loss-of-function genetics revealed that all three Nox components are required for the accumulation of cellular hydrogen peroxide (H?O?). Alternaria alternata strains lacking NoxA, NoxB or NoxR also displayed an increased sensitivity to H?O? and many ROS-generating oxidants. These phenotypes are highly similar to those previously seen for the ?yap1 mutant lacking a YAP1 transcriptional regulator and for the ?hog1 mutant lacking a HOG1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, implicating a possible link among them. A fungal strain carrying a NoxA NoxB or NoxA NoxR double mutation was more sensitive to the test compounds than the strain mutated at a single gene, implicating a synergistic function among Nox components. The ?noxB mutant strain failed to produce any conidia; both ?noxA and ?noxR mutant strains showed a severe reduction in sporulation. Mutant strains carrying defective NoxB had higher chitin content than the wild-type and were insensitive to calcofluor white, Congo red and the fungicides vinclozolin and fludioxonil. Virulence assays revealed that all three Nox components are required for the elaboration of the penetration process. The inability to penetrate the citrus host, observed for ?nox mutants, could be overcome by wounding and by reacquiring a dominant Nox gene. The A.?alternata?NoxR did not influence the expression of NoxB, but negatively regulated NoxA. Importantly, the expression of both YAP1 and HOG1 genes, whose products are involved in resistance to ROS, was down-regulated in fungi carrying defective NoxA, NoxB or NoxR. Our results highlight the requirement of Nox in ROS resistance and provide insights into its critical role in regulating both YAP1 and HOG1 in A.?alternata. PMID:23527595
STEM Planet is a well designed website that is aimed at students of all levels and ages. The site is comprised of "employees of the National Network of Digital Schools (NNDS), a non-profit developer of the Lincoln Interactive online curriculum." These employees believe that students "succeed when their educational program offers a wide variety of learning opportunities." Visitors to the site will find that the learning opportunities consist of DIY experiments, discussion topics, polls, quizzes and activities. Some examples include making a homemade battery, origami engineering, taking a quiz on space phenomena, and exploring quantum mechanics. Visitors can join and comment on the Science, Technology, Engineering and Math "discussions" by simply registering on the site. Those only interested in reading the comments made in the forums under the discussion tab need not register. The "Experts" tab allows visitors to see all the great minds behind STEM Planet, including an extremely bright 14 year old.
\\u000a To fully understand the biological meaning of the term stem cell (SC) it is useful to clarify the derivation of the root staminal, even though modern research published in English-speaking journals never seem to use the term staminal. While there are\\u000a no doubts that the term SC originated in the context of two major embryological questions, the continuity of the
Two new heptaketides, (+)-(2S,3S,4aS)-altenuene (1a) and (-)-(2S,3S,4aR)-isoaltenuene (2a), together with six known compounds, (-)-(2R,3R,4aR)-altenuene (1b), (+)-(2R,3R,4aS)-isoaltenuene (2b), 5'-methoxy-6-methyl-biphenyl-3,4,3'-triol (3), alternariol (4), alternariol-9-methyl ether (5), and 4-hydroxyalternariol-9-methyl ether (6) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of an endolichenic fungal strain Nigrospora sphaerica (No.83-1-1-2). Compounds 1a and 1b were separated from enantiomers 1 by chiral HPLC, and so were 2a and 2b from enantiomers 2. Interestingly, 1-6 were also obtained from other two endolichenic fungal strains Alternaria alternata (No.58-8-4-1) and Phialophora sp. (No.96-1-8-1). The structures of 1-6 were elucidated by means of MS, HR-MS, NMR, and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, the absolute configurations of 1a-2b were determined by CD experiments and CD calculation. Of these compounds, 4 and 5 showed antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) in vitro, with IC(50) values of 13.5 and 21.3 ?M, and with selective index (SI) values of 26.5 and 17.1, respectively. PMID:22613072
Three dipeptides, belonging to the family of diketopiperazines (DKPs), were extracted from broth culture of the grapevine endophyte Alternaria alternata, and were tested against Plasmopara viticola on leaves of grapevine plants grown in greenhouse. DKPs, used at different concentrations (10(-3), 10(-4), 10(-5) and 10(-6)M) both singularly and in mixtures, demonstrated real effectiveness in inhibiting P. viticola sporulation when applied 2 or 24h after pathogen inoculation. Moreover, no necrotic lesions or other phytotoxicity symptoms were observed on DKP-treated grapevine leaf tissues. Ultrastructural analysis performed on grapevine leaf tissues revealed that the DKPs used singularly and in mixture, at above reported concentrations, did not cause leaf tissue damages. By contrast, hyphae of P. viticola exhibited marked structural changes, similar to those induced by the endophyte A. alternata. This demonstrates the involvement of these metabolites in the relationship of P. viticola and the endophyte. Further experimental trials will be carried out in the next future in order to test the effectiveness of these molecules also under field conditions, and to better understand the mechanism of action involved in the pathogen inhibition. PMID:17071094
Musetti, R; Polizzotto, R; Vecchione, A; Borselli, S; Zulini, L; D'Ambrosio, M; di Toppi, L Sanità; Pertot, I
Three phytohormone molecules - ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) - play key roles in mediating disease response to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. This study investigated the roles of the ET, JA, and SA pathways as well as their crosstalk during the interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL). Both the ET and JASMONIC ACID INSENSITIVE1 (JAI1) receptor-dependent JA signalling pathways are necessary for susceptibility, while SA response promotes resistance to AAL infection. In addition, the role of JA in susceptibility to AAL is partly dependent on ET biosynthesis and perception, while the SA pathway enhances resistance to AAL and antagonizes the ET response. Based on these results, it is proposed that ET, JA, and SA each on their own can influence the susceptibility of tomato to AAL. Furthermore, the functions of JA and SA in susceptibility to the pathogen are correlated with the enhanced or decreased action of ET, respectively. This study has revealed the functional relationship among the three key hormone pathways in tomato defence against AAL. PMID:23264518
Fungal spores are known to cause allergic sensitization. Recent studies reported a strong association between asthma symptoms and thunderstorms that could be explained by an increase in airborne fungal spore concentrations. Just before and during thunderstorms the values of meteorological parameters rapidly change. Therefore, the goal of this study was to create a predictive model for hourly concentrations of atmospheric Alternaria and Cladosporium spores on days with summer storms in Szczecin (Poland) based on meteorological conditions. For this study we have chosen all days of June, July and August (2004-2009) with convective thunderstorms. There were statistically significant relationships between spore concentration and meteorological parameters: positive for air temperature and ozone content while negative for relative humidity. In general, before a thunderstorm, air temperature and ozone concentration increased, which was accompanied by a considerable increase in spore concentration. During and after a storm, relative humidity increased while both air temperature ozone concentration along with spore concentrations decreased. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to assess forecasting possibilities. Good performance of ANN models in this study suggest that it is possible to predict spore concentrations from meteorological variables 2 h in advance and, thus, warn people with spore-related asthma symptoms about the increasing abundance of airborne fungi on days with storms. PMID:23161270
With pot culture, this paper studied the effects of Alternaria tenuis Nees inoculation on the eco-physiological indices of Trifolium repens L. leaf under Cu stress. The results showed that in the control (not inoculated with the pathogen), the contents of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, a + b and carotenoid) and soluble protein in T. repens leaves decreased markedly with increasing Cu concentration (0-3000 mg x kg(-1)). The enhancement of cellular membrane lipids peroxidation with the increase of Cu concentration led to a rapid accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA), the damage on cellular membrane structure, and an increase of electric conductivity. The balance of active oxygen metabolism systems was broken, SOD and CAT activities decreased, while POD activity increased. After inoculation with A. tenuis, the damages of Cu on plant membrane systems and active oxygen metabolism systems aggravated, the contents of photosynthetic pigments and soluble protein and the activities of SOD and CAT decreased to different degree, while the electric conductivity, MDA content and POD activity increased markedly, compared with the control. PMID:18260469
Keeping in view the vast potential of endophytic fungi to produce bioactive molecules, this study aimed at isolating and screening endophytes for the production of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Fifty-four endophytic fungi were isolated from Ricinus communis and screened for their AChE inhibitory activity using Ellman's colorimetric assay method. Six isolates were found to possess AChE inhibitory activity with maximum inhibition of 78 % being evinced by culture Cas1 which was identified to be Alternaria sp. on the basis of molecular as well as microscopic methods. Optimization of inhibitor production was carried out using one factor at a time approach. Maximum production of inhibitor was obtained on potato dextrose broth after 10 days incubation. The IC(50) of the chloroform extract was observed to be 40 ?g/ml. The extract was purified on silica gel and eluted stepwise with a gradient of chloroform/methanol. The insecticidal potential of the extract was evaluated by feeding the larvae of Spodoptera litura on diet containing varying concentrations of the extract. It was observed that with increase in the concentration of the extract, mortality of the larvae increased. The culture has the potential of being exploited in medicine as well as a biocontrol agent. PMID:22945561
Bioconversion of resveratrol is mainly achieved using plant cells and genetically modified microorganisms. We proposed a reaction system for resveratrol production using resting cells of a non-genetically modified strain, Alternaria sp. MG1, a resveratrol-producing endophytic fungus isolated from the grape. Effects of phenylalanine concentration, inoculum size, resting time, bioconversion medium, cell age, and pH on resveratrol production in the bioconversion process were investigated and their levels were optimized. The resulting optimal bioconversion medium was 0.2 mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.5), 0.1 g/L MgSO4 , 0.2 g/L CaSO4 , and 4.66 mM phenylalanine. Resting cells obtained from cultures of liquid potato-glucose medium after 4 days proved to be at the most suitable cell age for the bioconversion process with high resveratrol production and nonobvious cell growth. Highest resveratrol production (1.376 µg/L) was observed under the obtained optimal conditions of inoculum size, 12.16% (wet cell weight in 100 mL medium), and resting time, 21.3 H. The study provides a new way to produce resveratrol and establishes an essential reaction system for further study of the biosynthesis pathway of resveratrol in microorganisms, especially fungi. PMID:23586428
Three phytohormone molecules – ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) – play key roles in mediating disease response to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. This study investigated the roles of the ET, JA, and SA pathways as well as their crosstalk during the interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL). Both the ET and JASMONIC ACID INSENSITIVE1 (JAI1) receptor-dependent JA signalling pathways are necessary for susceptibility, while SA response promotes resistance to AAL infection. In addition, the role of JA in susceptibility to AAL is partly dependent on ET biosynthesis and perception, while the SA pathway enhances resistance to AAL and antagonizes the ET response. Based on these results, it is proposed that ET, JA, and SA each on their own can influence the susceptibility of tomato to AAL. Furthermore, the functions of JA and SA in susceptibility to the pathogen are correlated with the enhanced or decreased action of ET, respectively. This study has revealed the functional relationship among the three key hormone pathways in tomato defence against AAL.
Background Fungal plant pathogens cause serious agricultural losses worldwide. Alternaria arborescens is a major pathogen of tomato, with its virulence determined by the presence of a conditionally dispensable chromosome (CDC) carrying host-specific toxin genes. Genes encoding these toxins are well-studied, however the genomic content and organization of the CDC is not known. Results To gain a richer understanding of the molecular determinants of virulence and the evolution of pathogenicity, we performed whole genome sequencing of A. arborescens. Here we present the de-novo assembly of the CDC and its predicted gene content. Also presented is hybridization data validating the CDC assembly. Predicted genes were functionally annotated through BLAST. Gene ontology terms were assigned, and conserved domains were identified. Differences in nucleotide usage were found between CDC genes and those on the essential chromosome (EC), including GC3-content, codon usage bias, and repeat region load. Genes carrying PKS and NRPS domains were identified in clusters on the CDC and evidence supporting the origin of the CDC through horizontal transfer from an unrelated fungus was found. Conclusions We provide evidence supporting the hypothesis that the CDC in A. arborescens was acquired through horizontal transfer, likely from an unrelated fungus. We also identified several predicted CDC genes under positive selection that may serve as candidate virulence factors.
Host-selective toxins (HSTs) produced by fungal plant pathogens are generally low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites with a diverse range of structures that function as effectors controlling pathogenicity or virulence in certain plant-pathogen interactions. There are now seven known diseases caused by Alternaria alternata in which HSTs are responsible for fungal pathogenesis. The pathogens have been defined as pathotypes of A. alternata because of morphological similarity but pathological differences. Chemical structures of HSTs from six pathotypes have been determined. The role of A. alternata HSTs in pathogenesis has been studied extensively, and discovery of the release of HSTs from germinating conidia prior to penetration aids in understanding the early participation of HSTs to induce susceptibility of host cells by suppressing their defence reactions. Many attempts have been made to find the target sites of A. alternata HSTs, and four cellular components, plasma membrane, mitochondrion, chloroplast and a metabolically important enzyme, have been identified as the primary sites of each HST action, leading to elucidation of the molecular mechanisms of HST sensitivity in host plants. Studies of the molecular genetics of HST production have identified supernumerary chromosomes encoding HST gene clusters and have provided new insights into the evolution of A. alternata pathotypes. PMID:22846083
Pathogen challenge can trigger an integrated set of signal transduction pathways, which ultimately leads to a state of “high alert,” otherwise known as systemic or induced resistance in tissue remote to the initial infection. Although large-scale gene expression during systemic acquired resistance, which is induced by salicylic acid or necrotizing pathogens has been previously reported using a bacterial pathogen, the nature of systemic defense responses triggered by an incompatible necrotrophic fungal pathogen is not known. We examined transcriptional changes that occur during systemic defense responses in Arabidopsis plants inoculated with the incompatible fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola. Substantial changes (2.00-fold and statistically significant) were demonstrated in distal tissue of inoculated plants for 35 genes (25 up-regulated and 10 down-regulated), and expression of a selected subset of systemically expressed genes was confirmed using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Genes with altered expression in distal tissue included those with putative functions in cellular housekeeping, indicating that plants modify these vital processes to facilitate a coordinated response to pathogen attack. Transcriptional up-regulation of genes encoding enzymes functioning in the ?-oxidation pathway of fatty acids was particularly interesting. Transcriptional up-regulation was also observed for genes involved in cell wall synthesis and modification and genes putatively involved in signal transduction. The results of this study, therefore, confirm the notion that distal tissue of a pathogen-challenged plant has a heightened preparedness for subsequent pathogen attacks.
Schenk, Peer M.; Kazan, Kemal; Manners, John M.; Anderson, Jonathan P.; Simpson, Robert S.; Wilson, Iain W.; Somerville, Shauna C.; Maclean, Don J.
Fungal spores are known to cause allergic sensitization. Recent studies reported a strong association between asthma symptoms and thunderstorms that could be explained by an increase in airborne fungal spore concentrations. Just before and during thunderstorms the values of meteorological parameters rapidly change. Therefore, the goal of this study was to create a predictive model for hourly concentrations of atmospheric Alternaria and Cladosporium spores on days with summer storms in Szczecin (Poland) based on meteorological conditions. For this study we have chosen all days of June, July and August (2004-2009) with convective thunderstorms. There were statistically significant relationships between spore concentration and meteorological parameters: positive for air temperature and ozone content while negative for relative humidity. In general, before a thunderstorm, air temperature and ozone concentration increased, which was accompanied by a considerable increase in spore concentration. During and after a storm, relative humidity increased while both air temperature ozone concentration along with spore concentrations decreased. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to assess forecasting possibilities. Good performance of ANN models in this study suggest that it is possible to predict spore concentrations from meteorological variables 2 h in advance and, thus, warn people with spore-related asthma symptoms about the increasing abundance of airborne fungi on days with storms.
The effects in the chicken embryo assay of four Alternaria metabolites (alternariol [AOH], alternariol methyl ether [AME], altenuene [ALT], and tenuazonic acid [TA]) were investigated. Administered to 7-day-old chicken embryos by yolk sac injection, AOH, AME, and ALT caused no mortality or teratogenic effect at doses up to 1,000, 500, and 1,000 micrograms per egg, respectively. TA exhibited a calculated 50% lethal dose of 548 micrograms per egg, with no teratogenic effect observed at either lethal or sublethal doses.
The effects of various cultural factors on the secretion of three pectic enzymes (PP, PG and PE) byAlternaria tenuis on synthetic media were studied. The results can be summarised as follow:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 1. \\u000a \\u000a No definite correlation between the secretion of pectic enzymes, pH of the medium and the growth of the fungus was observed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a 2. \\u000a \\u000a The secretion of the enzyme was
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of different carbon and nitrogen sources on the production of the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) by Alternaria alternata at 28°C using a semi-synthetic medium (modified Czapek-Dox broth) supplemented with nitrogen and carbon sources. Additionally the effect of shaken and static cultivation on mycotoxin production was tested. Initial experiments showed a clear dependency between nitrogen depletion and mycotoxin production. To assess whether nitrogen limitation in general or the type of nitrogen source triggers the production, various nitrogen sources including several ammonium/nitrate salts and amino acids were tested. In static culture the production of AOH/AME can be enhanced greatly with phenylalanine whereas some nitrogen sources seem to inhibit the AOH/AME production completely. TA was not significantly affected by the choice of nitrogen source. In shaken culture the overall production of all mycotoxins was lower compared to static cultivation. Furthermore tests with a wide variety of carbon sources including monosaccharides, disaccharides, complex saccharides such as starch as well as glycerol and acetate were performed. In shaken culture AOH was produced when glucose, fructose, sucrose, acetate or mixtures of glucose/sucrose and glucose/acetate were used as carbon sources. AME production was not detected. The use of sodium acetate resulted in the highest AOH production. In static culture AOH production was also stimulated by acetate and the amount is comparable to shaken conditions. Under static conditions production of AOH was lower except when cultivated with acetate. In static cultivation 9 of 14 tested carbon sources induced mycotoxin production compared to 4 in shaken culture. This is the first study which analyses the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources in a semi-synthetic medium and assesses the effects of culture conditions on mycotoxin production by A. alternata. PMID:21496935
Brzonkalik, Katrin; Herrling, Tanja; Syldatk, Christoph; Neumann, Anke
Sixty six samples of red and white wine from Ontario (VQA), British Columbia (VQA), Québec ("vins artisanaux"), imported wines (from Italy, South America and USA) and Canadian and US grape and cranberry juices were analysed for theAlternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME). After cleanup on aminopropyl SPE columns, AOH and AME were initially determined by reversed phase LC with UV detection. Positive sample extracts were re-analysed by LC-tandem negative ion electrospray mass spectrometry (MS/MS) in multiple reaction mode. Overall mean method recoveries measured by LC-UV were 93% for AOH and 81% for AME. Limits of detection in wine (and juice) by LC-UV for AOH were 0.8 (0.4) ng/ml and for AME were 0.5 (0.4) ng/ml; they were below 0.01 ng/ml by LC-MS/MS. As determined by LC-MS/MS, AOH was found in 13/17 Canadian red wines at levels of 0.03 to 5.02 ng/ml and in 7/7 imported red wines at 0.27-19.4 ng/ml, usually accompanied by lower concentrations of AME. Red grape juices (5 positive/10 samples) contained only sub ng/ml levels of AOH or AME except for one sample (39 ng AME/ml). White wines (3/23 samples), white grape juices (0/4 samples) and cranberry juices (1/5 samples) contained little AOH/AME (?1.5 ng/ml). PMID:23605587
Strains of the genus Alternaria are ubiquitously present and frequently found on fruits, vegetables and cereals. One of the most commonly found species from this genus is A. alternata which is able to produce the mycotoxin alternariol among others. To date only limited knowledge is available about the regulation of the biosynthesis of alternariol, especially under conditions relevant to food. Tomatoes are a typical substrate of A. alternata and have a high water activity. On the other hand cereals with moderate water activity are also frequently colonized by A. alternata. In the current analysis it was demonstrated that even minor changes in the osmotic status of the substrate affect the alternariol biosynthesis of strains from vegetables resulting in nearly complete inhibition. High osmolarity in the environment is usually transmitted to the transcriptional level of downstream regulated genes by the HOG signal cascade (high osmolarity glycerol cascade) which is a MAP kinase transduction pathway. The phosphorylation status of the A. alternata HOG (AaHOG) was determined. Various concentrations of NaCl induce the phosphorylation of AaHOG in a concentration, time and strain dependent manner. A strain with a genetically inactivated aahog gene was no longer able to produce alternariol indicating that the activity of the aahog gene is required for alternariol biosynthesis. Further experiments revealed that the biosynthesis of alternariol is important for the fungus to colonize tomato tissue. The tight water activity dependent regulation of alternariol biosynthesis ensures alternariol biosynthesis at conditions which indicate an optimal colonization substrate for the fungus. PMID:22726725
A 27-year-old Iranian, previously healthy male presented with sub-cutaneous necrotic lesions with a localized dermatosis affecting the anterior chest, neck and face. These lesions consisted of singular, well-defined verrucous plaques which gradually developed and disseminated over time. The dermatosis was followed by the development of necrotic swollen lesions localized on the hard palate. The patient did not recall any history of trauma or puncture at any of the sites of infection. While histopathological examination of periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stained material revealed irregular, unbranched, septate hyphae, direct examination (KOH 10%) of lesion samples demonstrated the presence of septate indistinct brownish hyphae. Alternaria malorum was isolated (CBS 126589) and its identity was confirmed by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA). Since the palate lesion reoccurred after 10 years and the patient's condition did not improve with amphotericin B combination therapy, the lesion was surgical excised and he underwent antifungal therapy with amphotericin B and itraconazole. There was no dehiscence or fistula formation or any evidence of relapse of fungal infection during a one year follow-up and the patient was successfully cured. In vitro antifungal susceptibility tests revealed that the MIC values for those antifungals employed in this case were amphotericin B (0.125 ?g/ml), fluconazole (32 ?g/ml), itraconazole (0.125 ?g/ml), voriconazole (1 ?g/ml), and posaconazole (0.063 ?g/ml). The MECs for caspofungin and anidulafungin were 0.25 ?g/ml and 0.016 ?g/ml, respectively. However, treatment of A. malorum infections with the latter agents remains to be evaluated. PMID:22871097
Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. Several A. brassicicola genes have been characterized as affecting pathogenesis of Brassica species. To study regulatory mechanisms of pathogenesis, we mined 421 genes in silico encoding putative transcription factors in a machine-annotated, draft genome sequence of A. brassicicola. In this study, targeted gene disruption mutants for 117 of the transcription factor genes were produced and screened. Three of these genes were associated with pathogenesis. Disruption mutants of one gene (AbPacC) were nonpathogenic and another gene (AbVf8) caused lesions less than half the diameter of wild-type lesions. Unexpectedly, mutants of the third gene, Amr1, caused lesions with a two-fold larger diameter than the wild type and complementation mutants. Amr1 is a homolog of Cmr1, a transcription factor that regulates melanin biosynthesis in several fungi. We created gene deletion mutants of ?amr1 and characterized their phenotypes. The ?amr1 mutants used pectin as a carbon source more efficiently than the wild type, were melanin-deficient, and more sensitive to UV light and glucanase digestion. The AMR1 protein was localized in the nuclei of hyphae and in highly melanized conidia during the late stage of plant pathogenesis. RNA-seq analysis revealed that three genes in the melanin biosynthesis pathway, along with the deleted Amr1 gene, were expressed at low levels in the mutants. In contrast, many hydrolytic enzyme-coding genes were expressed at higher levels in the mutants than in the wild type during pathogenesis. The results of this study suggested that a gene important for survival in nature negatively affected virulence, probably by a less efficient use of plant cell-wall materials. We speculate that the functions of the Amr1 gene are important to the success of A. brassicicola as a competitive saprophyte and plant parasite. PMID:23133370
Cho, Yangrae; Srivastava, Akhil; Ohm, Robin A; Lawrence, Christopher B; Wang, Koon-Hui; Grigoriev, Igor V; Marahatta, Sharadchandra P
Black spot caused by Alternaria brassicicola is an important fungal disease affecting cruciferous crops, including Korean cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis). The interaction between Arabidopsis thaliana and Alt. brassicicola is a representative model system, and objective estimation of disease progression is indispensable for accurate functional analyses. Five strains caused black spot symptom progression on Korean cabbage and Ara. thaliana ecotype Col-0. In particular, challenge with the strains Ab44877 and Ab44414 induced severe black spot progression on Korean cabbage. Ab44877 was also highly infective on Col-0; however, the virulence of Ab44414 and the remaining strains on Col-0 was lower. To unveil the relationship between mycelial growth in the infected tissues and symptom progression, we have established a reliable quantification method using real-time PCR that employs a primer pair and dual-labelled probe specific to a unigene encoding A. brassicicola SCYTALONE DEHYDRATASE1 (AbSCD1), which is involved in fungal melanin biosynthesis. Plotting the crossing point values from the infected tissue DNA on a standard curve revealed active fungal ramification of Ab44877 in both host species. In contrast, the proliferation rate of Ab44414 in Korean cabbage was 3.8 times lower than that of Ab44877. Massive infective mycelial growth of Ab44877 was evident in Col-0; however, inoculation with Ab44414 triggered epiphytic growth rather than actual in planta ramification. Mycelial growth did not always coincide with symptom development. Our quantitative evaluation system is applicable and reliable for the objective estimation of black spot disease severity. PMID:23842466
Su'udi, Mukhamad; Park, Jong-Mi; Park, Sang-Ryeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul; Kim, Soonok; Ahn, Il-Pyung
Pinus radiata (Monterey pine), a tree native to coastal California and Mexico, is widely planted worldwide for timber production. A major threat to Monterey pine plantations is the fungal disease pine pitch canker, caused by Fusarium circinatum (Hypocreales). We present a novel trapping approach using filter paper in combination with a rapid molecular method to detect the presence of inoculum in the air. The assay is also useful for diagnosing the presence of the pathogen on plants. The test is based on the F. circinatum specific primer pair CIRC1A-CIRC4A, which amplifies a 360-bp DNA fragment in the intergenic spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal operon. Real-time PCR was used to calculate the number of fungal spores present in each reaction mixture by comparing the threshold cycle (Ct) of unknown spore samples to the Ct values of standards with known amounts of F. circinatum spores. The filter paper method allows prolonged and more sensitive spore sampling in the field compared to traditional traps using petri dishes filled with selective medium. A field test at two sites in coastal California infested with pine pitch canker was carried out during the summer and fall of 2002. Spore counts were in the range of ca. 1 × 103 to ca. 7 × 105/m2, with the highest spore counts in the fall, suggesting a seasonal fluctuation.
Stem cells undergo regulated trafficking from the developmental stages to the adulthood. Stem cell migration is critical to organize developing organs and likely contributes postnatally to tissue regeneration. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms underlying migration of hematopoietic stem cells, neural stem cells, and primordial germ cells, revealing common operative pathways. PMID:21618080
Proteins from the Polycomb group (PcG) are epigenetic chromatin modifiers involved in cancer development and also in the maintenance of embryonic and adult stem cells. The therapeutic potential of stem cells and the growing conviction that tumors contain stem cells highlights the importance of understanding the extrinsic and intrinsic circuitry controlling stem cell fate and their connections to cancer.
Merel E. Valk-Lingbeek; Sophia W. M. Bruggeman; Maarten van Lohuizen
Stem cell research is at the heart of regenerative medicine, which holds great promise for the treatment of many devastating disorders. However, in addition to hurdles posed by well-publicized ethical issues, this emerging field presents many biological challenges. What is a stem cell? How are embryonic stem cells different from adult stem cells? What are the physiological bases for therapeutically
Production of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethylether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) by Alternaria alternata DSM 12633 was influenced by pH and carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio of the growth medium both in shaking flasks and bioreactor cultivation. The impact of medium pH on mycotoxin production was studied in the range of pH 3.5 - 8. pH values above 5.5 led to a decreased mycotoxin production or inhibited mycotoxin formation completely whereas an acidic pH in the range of 4.0-4.5 was optimal for mycotoxin production. The influence of the C:N ratio was evaluated over the range of 24 to 96. Glucose was used as carbon source and its concentration was altered while nitrogen concentration was kept constant. Growth kinetics and mycotoxin production parameters were studied depending on different C:N ratios. With increasing initial glucose concentration fungal biomass did increase but the maximum specific growth rate was not influenced. The optimal initial C:N ratio for attaining highest mycotoxin concentrations was 72. A higher C:N ratio did not further enhance mycotoxin production. PMID:22608165
Brzonkalik, Katrin; Hümmer, Dominik; Syldatk, Christoph; Neumann, Anke
The concept of brain tumor stem cells is gaining increased recognition in neuro-oncology. Until recently, the paradigm of\\u000a a tumor-initiating stem cell was confined to hematopoietic malignancies where the hierarchical lineages of stem progenitor\\u000a cells are well established. The demonstration of persistent stem cells and cycling progenitors in the adult brain, coupled\\u000a with the expansion of the cancer stem cell
Alternaria alternata is the predominant fungal pathogen responsible for moldy-core in red delicious strains of apple. In this study, we report on the effects of the polyoxin B compound Polar, the strobilurin fungicides, azoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin, and the sterol inhibitor difenoconazole on spore germination, mycelial growth and fruit decay on detached fruits caused by A. alternata. Germination was most sensitive
Most commercial cultivars of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., are susceptible to early blight (EB), a devastating fungal (Alternaria solani Sorauer) disease of tomato in the northern and eastern parts of the U.S. and elsewhere in the world. The disease causes plant defoliation, which reduces yield and fruit quality, and contributes to significant crop loss. Sources of resistance have been identified
M. R. Foolad; L. Zhang; A. A. Khan; D. Niño-Liu; G. Lin
Early blight of potato, caused by Alternaria solani, is a ubiquitous disease in many countries around the world. We have previously found that variation in resistance phenotypes exist between two different Iranian cultivars of potato. Cultivar ‘Diamond’ is more resistant to multiple isolates of A. s...
Late blight of pistachio caused by Alternaria alternata affects both leaves and fruits and can result in severe defoliation and\\/or fruit deterioration during harvest. The disease appears earlier in orchards irrigated by sprinklers or flooding but it is common in all orchards, regardless of irrigation practices. In previous studies we showed that skipping one irrigation during a \\
Progeny from transgenic broccoli (cv. Green Comet) expressing a Trichoderma harzianum endochitinase gene were used to assess the interaction between endochitinase and the fungicide Bayleton in the control of Alternaria brassicicola. In vitro assays have shown synergistic effects of endochitinase and fungicides on fungal pathogens. Our study examined the in planta effects of endochitinase and Bayleton, individually and in combination.
The concentration of airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. has been investigated at three monitoring stations situated along the west-north and central-east transect in Poland (Szczecin, Olsztyn, Warszawa,) i.e. from a height of 100 m to 149 m above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of three Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. Cladosporium spp. spores were dominant at all the stations. The highest Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. numbers of spores were observed at all the cities in July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. concentration in the air and the mean air temperature, amount of precipitation, air pressure and relative air humidity. The spore count of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the air temperature. The identification of factors, which influence and shape spore concentrations, may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different gamma radiation doses on the growth of Alternaria alternata and on the production of toxins alternariol (AOH), and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) in sunflower seed samples. After irradiation with 2, 5 and 7 kGy, the spore mass was resuspended in sterile distilled water and the suspension was inoculated
R. Braghini; M. Sucupira; L. O. Rocha; T. A. Reis; S. Aquino; B. Corrêa
The production of Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici host-specific toxins (AAL toxins) and epoxide hydro- lase (EH) activity were studied during the growth of this plant-pathogenic fungus in stationary liquid cultures. Media containing pectin as the primary carbon source displayed peaks of EH activity at day 4 and at day 12. When pectin was replaced by glucose, there was a
CHRISTOPHE MORISSEAU; BARNEY L. WARD; DAVID G. GILCHRIST; BRUCE D. HAMMOCK
Previously, Alternaria extract and metabolite mutagenicities+/-nitrosylation were characterized using Ames Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100, which are both reverted at GC sites. To examine other targets for mutation, the metabolites Altertoxin I (ATX I), Altenuene (ALT), Alternariol (AOH), Alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), Tentoxin (TENT), Tenuazonic acid (TA) and Radicinin (RAD) were reexamined+/-nitrosylation, using Ames Salmonella strain TA97, sensitive to frameshift mutations at a run of C's, as well as strains TA102 and TA104, reverted by base pair mutations at AT sites and more sensitive to oxidative damage. ATX I was also assessed for mammalian mutagenicity at the Hprt gene locus in Chinese hamster V79 lung fibroblasts and rat hepatoma H4IIE cells. When tested from 1 to 100 microg/plate without nitrosylation, ATX I was mutagenic in TA102+/-rat liver S9 for activation and weakly mutagenic in TA104+/-S9, demonstrating direct-acting AT base pair mutagenicity. AOH was also directly mutagenic at AT sites in TA102+/-S9 while AME was weakly mutagenic in TA102+/-S9 and TA104+S9. Nitrosylation of ATX I enhanced mutagenicity at AT sites in TA104+/-S9 but produced little change in TA102+/-S9 compared to native ATX I. However, nitrosylated ATX I generated a potent direct-acting frameshift mutagen at C sites in TA97+/-S9. While ATX I was not mutagenic in either V79 cells or H4IIE cells, 5 and 10 microg/ml nitrosylated ATX I produced a doubling of 6-thioguanine resistant V79 colonies and 0.5 and 1 microg/ml were mutagenic to H4IIE cells, becoming toxic at higher concentrations. These results suggest ATX I, AME and AOH induce mutations at AT sites, possibly through oxidative damage, with nitrosylation enhancing ATX I frameshift mutagenicity at runs of C's. Nitrosylated ATX I was also directly mutagenic in mammalian test systems. PMID:16698312
This project aims to identify adult prostate stem cells, using tissue recombination techniques. To date, we have initiated studies utilizing mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells as outlined in the original statement of work. We have made progress tow...
The aim of this study was a monitoring of the occurrence ofAlternaria andFusarium mycotoxins in winter wheat from domestic crop in the year 2003. Altenuene was determined in 56 (100%) samples of winter wheat, range 14.5-41 ?g/kg, mean 25 ?g/kg. Alternariol was determined in 16 (28.6%) samples of winter wheat, range 6.3-22.1 ?g/kg, mean 5.7 ?/kg. DON was determined in 42 (100%) samples of winter wheat, range 250-3500 ?g/kg, mean 330 ?g/kg. T2-toxin was determined in 42 (100%) samples of winter wheat, range 25-337 ?g/kg, mean 99 ?g/kg. ZEA was not determined in samples of winter wheat. PMID:23605201
Ostry, V; Skarkova, J; Nedelnik, J; Ruprich, J; Moravcova, H
Three new bianthraquinone derivatives, alterporriol K (1), L (2) and M (3), along with six known compounds were obtained from extracts of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. ZJ9-6B, isolated from the mangrove Aegiceras corniculatum collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, MS data analysis and circular dichroism measurements. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 were first isolated alterporriols with a C-2–C-2? linkage. The crystallographic data of tetrahydroaltersolanol B (7) was reported for the first time. In the primary bioassays, alterporriol K and L exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity towards MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values ranging from 13.1 to 29.1 ?M.
This paper provides an updated of airborne Alternaria spore spatial and temporal distribution patterns in the Iberian Peninsula, using a common non-viable volumetric sampling method. The highest mean annual spore counts were recorded in Sevilla (39,418 spores), Mérida (33,744) and Málaga (12,947), while other sampling stations never exceeded 5,000. The same cities also recorded the highest mean daily spore counts (Sevilla 109 spores m-3; Mérida 53 spores m-3 and Málaga 35 spores m-3) and the highest number of days on which counts exceeded the threshold levels required to trigger allergy symptoms (Sevilla 38 % and Mérida 30 % of days). Analysis of annual spore distribution patterns revealed either one or two peaks, depending on the location and prevailing climate of sampling stations. For all stations, average temperature was the weather parameter displaying the strongest positive correlation with airborne spore counts, whilst negative correlations were found for rainfall and relative humidity.
Endophytic fungi are known as a prolific source for the discovery of structurally interesting and biologically active secondary metabolites, some of which are promising candidates for drug development. In the present study, three anthranoids were isolated from an Alternaria sp. endophytic fungus and evaluated for their antiangiogenic activity in a rat aortic sprouting assay, an ex vivo model of angiogenesis. Of these three compounds, altersolanol (2) was further characterized and found to show a promising activity in ex vivo, in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis asssays. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells as an in vitro model, the angiogenic effect of 2 was found to occur via suppression of all three main functions of endothelial cells, namely proliferation, tube formation and migration. PMID:23639188
A novel small antifungal peptide produced by a Bacillus strain B-TL2 isolated from tobacco stems was purified. The purification procedure consisted of ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose Fast Flow column and reverse-phase HPLC on SOURCE 5RPC column. After the final isolation step, one peptide with antifungal activity, designated as BTL, was obtained. The molecular mass of the purified BTL was determined as 2500 Da and 2237.7 Da by SDS-PAGE and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry, respectively. The N-amino acid sequence of BTL was determined to be NH(2)-KQQLATEAESAGPIL, which shows relatively low identity to other antimicrobial peptides from bacteria. The peptide exhibited strong inhibitory activity against mycelial growth of Bipolaris maydis, Alternaria brassicae, Aspergillus niger, Cercospora personata. The purified BTL displayed thermostability, almost retaining 100% activity at 100 degrees C for 15 min. PMID:18241956
Cardiac stem cell therapy to promote engraftment of de novo beating cardiac muscle cells in cardiomyopathies could potentially improve clinical outcomes for many patients with congestive heart failure. Clinical trials carried out over the last decade for cardiac regeneration have revealed inadequacy of current approaches in cell therapy. Chief among them is the choice of stem cells to achieve the desired outcomes. Initial enthusiasm of adult bone marrow stems cells for myocyte regeneration has largely been relegated to paracrine-driven, donor cell-independent, endogenous cardiac repair. However, true functional restoration in heart failure is likely to require considerable myocyte replacement. In order to match stem cell application to various clinical scenarios, we review the necessity to preprime stem cells towards cardiac fate before myocardial transplantation and if these differentiated stem cells could confer added advantage over current choice of undifferentiated stem cells. We explore differentiation ability of various stem cells to cardiac progenitors/cardiomyocytes and compare their applicability in providing targeted recovery in light of current clinical challenges of cell therapy. PMID:22943934
The stem cell concept and asymmetric cell division are best understood in the hematopoietic system. Hematopoietic malignancies\\u000a resemble many of the known normal mature hematopoietic lineages that originate from stem cells. Leukemias in particular, were\\u000a shown to arise from leukemic stem cells. General characteristics of stem cells such as self-renewal, self-protection and proliferative\\u000a quiescence clearly point toward the need for
The two most basic properties of stem cells are the capacities to self-renew and to differentiate into multiple cell or tissue\\u000a types (1–3). Generally, stem cells are categorized as one of three types: embryonic stem cells (ES), embryonic germ cells (EG), or adult\\u000a stem cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastula (Fig. 1). They
Stem cells have the capacity for self renewal and undergo multilineage differentiation. Stem cells isolated from both blastocysts and adult tissues represent valuable sources of cells for applications in cell therapy, drug screening and tissue engineering. While expanding stem cells in culture, it is critical to maintain their self?renewal and differentiation capacity. In generating particular cell types for specific applications,
Human embryonic stem cells hold great promise in furthering our treatment of disease and increasing our understanding of early development. This chapter describes protocols for the derivation and maintenance of human embryonic stem cells. In addition, it summarizes briefly several alternative methods for the culture of human embryonic stem cells. Thus, this chapter provides a good starting point for researchers
|In many ways, the push for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education appears to have grown from a concern for the low number of future professionals to fill STEM jobs and careers and economic and educational competitiveness. The proponents of STEM education believe that by increasing math and science requirements in…
Brown, Ryan; Brown, Joshua; Reardon, Kristin; Merrill, Chris
The current status of knowledge about mitochondrial properties in mouse, monkey and human embryonic, adult and precursor stem cells is discussed. Topics include mitochondrial localization patterns, oxygen consumption and ATP content in cells as they relate to the maintenance of stem cell properties and subsequent differentiation of stem cells into specific cell types. The significance of the perinuclear arrangement of mitochondria, which may be a characteristic feature of stem cells, as well as the expression of mitochondrial DNA regulatory proteins and mutations in the mitochondrial stem cell genome is also discussed.
Stem cells are characterized by their dual ability to reproduce themselves (self-renew) and specialize (differentiate), yielding a plethora of daughter cells that maintain and regenerate tissues. In contrast to their embryonic counterparts, adult stem cells retain their unique functions only if they are in intimate contact with an instructive microenvironment, termed stem cell niche. In these niches, stem cells integrate a complex array of molecular signals that, in concert with induced cell-intrinsic regulatory networks, control their function and balance their numbers in response to physiologic demands. This progress report provides a perspective on how advanced materials technologies could be used (i) to engineer and systematically analyze specific aspects of functional stem cells niches in a controlled fashion in vitro and (ii) to target stem cell niches in vivo. Such “artificial niches” constitute potent tools for elucidating stem cell regulatory mechanisms with the capacity to directly impact the development of novel therapeutic strategies for tissue regeneration.
In a previous work a 1-year time series of fungal spore concentrations was used to calibrate an artificial neural network\\u000a for the estimation of Alternaria and Pleospora concentrations associated with observed meteorological variables in the atmosphere of L’Aquila, Italy. In this article the\\u000a possibility to use the neural model calibrated with observed meteorological variables to predict the future fungal spore
Barbara Tomassetti; Antonella Angelosante Bruno; Loretta Pace; Marco Verdecchia; Guido Visconti
A combined hot water spray and fruit brushing (hot water brushing–HWB) treatment for 15–20 s was developed for reducing the incidence of postharvest disease caused by Alternaria alternata and improving mango fruit keeping quality. The efficacy of the hot water treatment was tested over a range of temperatures from 48 to 64°C, in combination with prochloraz treatment and fruit waxing.
Dov Prusky; Yoram Fuchs; Ilana Kobiler; Ilana Roth; Asya Weksler; Yavin Shalom; Elazar Fallik; Giora Zauberman; Edna Pesis; Miriam Akerman; Oded Ykutiely; Aharon Weisblum; Rafael Regev; Leonisa Artes
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was examined in the interaction of Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype and host plants using three methods: nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) method for microscopic detection\\u000a of O2\\u000a ?, diaminobenzidine (DAB) methods for microscopic detection of H2O2, and cerium chloride methods for ultrastructural detection of H2O2. ROS generation was detected by NBT and DAB methods at
Extracts from 20 non-host plant species were tested for their ability to inhibit the mycelial growth of Alternaria solani, the causal agent of early blight disease of tomato. In vitro studies indicated that leaf extract of Zimmu (Allium cepa L. xAllium sativum L.) demonstrated the highest inhibition of mycelial growth (87%) of A. solani. Known biocontrol agents Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf1
P. Latha; T. Anand; N. Ragupathi; V. Prakasam; R. Samiyappan
The present study describes a system for efficient plant regeneration via organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis of safflower\\u000a (Carthamus\\u000a tinctorius L.) cv. NARI-6 in fungal culture filtrates (FCF)-treated cultures. FCF was prepared by culturing Alternaria carthami fungal mycelia in selection medium for host-specific toxin production. Cotyledon explants cultured on callus induction medium\\u000a with different levels of FCF (10–50%) produced embryogenic callus.
J. Vijaya Kumar; B. D. Ranjitha Kumari; G. Sujatha; Enrique Castaño
We report a case of Alternaria infection of the nail and cornea in an immunocompromised patient working in the paper-manufacturing industry. This unusual clinical presentation could represent an occupational disorder. The importance of histologic examination of the altered nails is emphasized. The proof of a real nondermatophytic onychomycosis is established only when hyphae of culture-proven molds are shown inside the nail plate. PMID:8989935
Tobaccos from countries with high and low incidences of lung cancer were analyzed. Tobacco concentrations of polonium-210 were similar in cigarettes from high- and low-incidence countries, as were levels of cigarette smoke tar and nicotine. Tobaccos from low-incidence countries had significantly lower Alternaria spore counts. Mean selenium concentrations of tobaccos from the high-incidence countries (0.16 +- 0.05 ..mu..g\\/g) were significantly
J. D. Bogden; F. W. Kemp; M. Buse; I. S. Thind; D. B. Louria; J. Forgacs; G. Llanos; I. M. Terrones
Altertoxin II (ATX II) is one of the several mycotoxins produced by Alternaria fungi. It has a perylene quinone structure and is highly mutagenic in Ames Salmonella typhimurium, but its mutagenicity in mammalian cells has not been studied before. Here we report that ATX II is a potent mutagen in cultured Chinese hamster V79 cells, inducing a concentration-dependent increase of mutations at the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene locus at concentrations similar to that of the established mutagen 4-quinoline-N-oxide. Thus, ATX II is at least 50-times more potent as a mutagen than the common Alternaria toxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol methyl ether (AME). In contrast to AOH and AME, ATX II does not affect the cell cycle of V79 cells. ATX II also causes DNA strand breaks in V79 cells, with a potency again exceeding that of AOH and AME. The high mutagenic and DNA strand breaking activity of ATX II raises the question of whether this Alternaria toxin poses a risk for public health, and warrants studies on the occurrence of ATX II and other perylene quinone-type mycotoxins in food and feed. PMID:22902351
High severity of Altemaria blight disease is a major constraint in production of rapeseed-mustard in India. The aim of this study was to investigate the suppressive potential of chemicals viz., zinc sulphate, borax, sulphur, potash and calcium sulphate, aqueous extracts viz., Eucalyptus globosus (50 g l-1) leaf extract and garlic (Allium sativum) bulb (20 g l-1) extract, cow urine and bio-agents Trichoderma harzianum, Pseudomonas fluorescence in comparison with the recommended chemical fungicide (mancozeb), against foliar disease Alternaria blight of Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. and Coss] under five different geographical locations of India. Mancozeb recorded the lowest mean severity (leaf: 33.1%; pod: 26.3%) of Alternaria blight with efficacy of garlic bulb extract alone (leaf = 34.4%; pod = 27.3%) or in combination with cow urine (leaf = 34.2%; pod = 28.6%) being statistically at par with the recommended chemical fungicide. Chemicals also proved effective in reducing Alternaria blight severity on leaves and pods of Indian mustard (leaf = 36.3-37.9%; pod = 27.5-30.1%). The effective treatments besides providing significant reduction in disease severity also enabled increase in dry seed yield of the crop (mancozeb = 2052 kg ha-1; garlic = 2006 kg ha-1; control = 1561 kg ha-1). PMID:22167952
Meena, P D; Chattopadhyay, C; Kumar, A; Awasthi, R P; Singh, R; Kaur, S; Thomas, L; Goyal, P; Chand, P
Traditional dogma has stated that space needs to be opened by cytoxic myeloablative therapy in order for marrow stem cells to engraft. Recent work in murine transplant models, however, indicates that engraftment is determined by the ratio of donor to host stem cells, i.e., stem cell competition. One hundred centigray whole body irradiation is stem cell toxic and nonmyelotoxic, thus allowing for higher donor chimerism in a murine syngeneic transplant setting. This nontoxic stem cell transplantation can be applied to allogeneic transplant with the addition of a tolerizing step; in this case presensitization with donor spleen cells and administration of CD40 ligand antibody to block costimulation. The stem cells that engraft in the nonmyeloablated are in G0, but are rapidly induced (by 12 hours) to enter the S phase after in vivo engraftment. Exposure of murine marrow to cytokines (IL-3, IL-6, IL-11 and steel factor) expands progenitor clones, induces stem cells into cell cycle, and causes a fluctuating engraftment phenotype tied to phase of cell cycle. These data indicate that the concepts of stem cell competition and fluctuation of stem cell phenotype with cell cycle transit should underlie any new stem cell engraftment strategy. PMID:10372109
Quesenberry, P J; Stewart, F M; Zhong, S; Habibian, H; McAuliffe, C; Reilly, J; Carlson, J; Dooner, M; Nilsson, S; Peters, S; Stein, G; Stein, J; Emmons, R; Benoit, B; Bertoncello, I; Becker, P
\\u000a Stem cells are unspecialized cells that can differentiate to generate more specialized cell types responsible for tissue-specific\\u000a function. During development, the differentiation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells leads to the production of specialized\\u000a somatic cells that are ultimately responsible for the structure and function of all adult tissues and organs. “Naturally”\\u000a pluripotent cells exist only at the earliest stages of
Kah Yong Tan; Francis S. Kim; Amy J. Wagers; Shane R. Mayack
Evidence has accumulated that cancer develops from a population of quiescent tissue committed\\/pluripotent stem cells (TCSC\\/PSC) or cells developmentally closely related to them that are distributed in various organs. To support this notio n, stem cells (SC) are long lived cells and thus may become the subject of accumulating mutations that are crucial for initiation\\/progression of cancer. More important, they
Transplanting embryonic stem cells from embryo into adult as a means of rejuvenating diseased cells, tissues, and organs poses ethical and moral challenges. In recent years, stem cell-derived nerve and glandular tissue has been transplanted into the brains and pancreas of Parkinson's disease and diabetes patients, respectively, with mixed results. This chapter provides background information on stem cell research, the future treatment of Parkinson's disease, and the controversy surrounding this sensitive issue.
\\u000a Stem cells are functionally defined as long-lived cells that can both self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types.\\u000a Embryonic stem cells, considered totipotent cells, give rise to all embryonic tissue layers and, consequently, all tissue\\u000a types. Hematologists\\/oncologists are perhaps most familiar with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): the single pluripotent cell\\u000a that can give rise to all lymphoid, myeloid and erythroid
The stem cell story begins with the recognition of the regenerative powers of the head of the Lernean Hydra and the human\\u000a liver (Prometheus) by the ancient Greeks. In modern times, the adult human stem cell has been epitomized by the hematopoietic\\u000a stem cell in the bone marrow. More recently, bone marrow derived cells were reported to contribute to nonhematopoietic
Alexandros Spyridonidis; Tina Tomann; Robert Zeiser; Marie Follo; Yannis Metaxas; Jürgen Finke
The tremendous capacity of bone to regenerate is indicative of the presence of stem cells with the capability, by definition,\\u000a to self-renew as well as to give rise to daughter cells. These primitive progenitors, termed mesenchymal stem cells or bone\\u000a marrow stromal stem cells, exist postnatally, and are multipotent with the ability to generate cartilage, bone, muscle, tendon,\\u000a ligament, and
Richard O. C. Oreffo; Cyrus Cooper; Christopher Mason; Mark Clements
Bone marrow-derived multipotent stem and stromal cells (MSCs) are likely candidates for cell-based therapies for various conditions\\u000a including skeletal disease. Advancement of these therapies will rely on an ability to identify, isolate, manipulate, and deliver\\u000a stem cells in a safe and effective manner. Although it is clear that physical signals affect tissue morphogenesis, stem cell\\u000a differentiation, and healing processes, integration
Stem cells, which have a great capacity for self-renewal and can differentiate into at least one committed cell type, exist\\u000a in embryonic and adult organisms of many phyla. Although stem cells of various types from mice and other lower organisms have\\u000a been studied for many years, it was not until the derivation of stem cell lines from human embryos in
Advances in our understanding of stem cells in the gastrointestinal tract include the identification of molecular markers of stem and early progenitor cells in the small intestine. Although gastric epithelial stem cells have been localized, little is known about their molecular biology. Recent reports describe the use of inducible Cre recombinase activity to indelibly label candidate stem cells and their progeny in the distal stomach, (ie, the antrum and pylorus). No such lineage labeling of epithelial stem cells has been reported in the gastric body (corpus). Among stem cells in the alimentary canal, those of the adult corpus are unique in that they lie close to the lumen and increase proliferation following loss of a single mature progeny lineage, the acid-secreting parietal cell. They are also unique in that they neither depend on Wnt signaling nor express the surface marker Lgr5. Because pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma has been associated with abnormal patterns of gastric differentiation and with chronic tissue injury, there has been much research on the response of stomach epithelial stem cells to inflammation. Chronic inflammation, as induced by infection with Helicobacter pylori, affects differentiation and promotes metaplasias. Several studies have identified cellular and molecular mechanisms in spasmolytic polypeptide–expressing (pseudopyloric) metaplasia. Researchers have also begun to identify signaling pathways and events that take place during embryonic development that eventually establish the adult stem cells to maintain the specific features and functions of the stomach mucosa. We review the cytologic, molecular, functional, and developmental properties of gastric epithelial stem cells.
Investors in any new technology are concerned to protect their investment, a key part of such protection being the availability of patent protection. Stem cells, human embryonic stem cells in particular, are a highly controversial area, and this controversy extends to the patenting of stem cells. In this article, the legal issues affecting patenting of stem cell technology in the USA and Europe are reviewed. The types of patents that have been granted are also considered, as an illustration of the protection that can be obtained. Finally, the overall trends in patent filings are discussed, to identify key aspects of the patent landscape. PMID:17465737
Alternaria alternata produces more than 60 secondary metabolites, among which alternariol (AOH) and alternariol-9-methyl ether (AME) are important mycotoxins. Whereas the toxicology of these two polyketide-based compounds has been studied, nothing is known about the genetics of their biosynthesis. One of the postulated core enzymes in the biosynthesis of AOH and AME is polyketide synthase (PKS). In a draft genome sequence of A. alternata we identified 10 putative PKS-encoding genes. The timing of the expression of two PKS genes, pksJ and pksH, correlated with the production of AOH and AME. The PksJ and PksH proteins are predicted to be 2222 and 2821 amino acids in length, respectively. They are both iterative type I reducing polyketide synthases. PksJ harbors a peroxisomal targeting sequence at the C-terminus, suggesting that the biosynthesis occurs at least partly in these organelles. In the vicinity of pksJ we found a transcriptional regulator, altR, involved in pksJ induction and a putative methyl transferase, possibly responsible for AME formation. Downregulation of pksJ and altR caused a large decrease of alternariol formation, suggesting that PksJ is the polyketide synthase required for the postulated Claisen condensations during the biosynthesis. No other enzymes appeared to be required. PksH downregulation affected pksJ expression and thus caused an indirect effect on AOH production. PMID:22792370
From the Egyptian medicinal plant Polygonum senegalense the fungal endophyte Alternaria sp. was isolated. Extracts of the fungus grown either in liquid culture or on solid rice media exhibited cytotoxic activity when tested in vitro against L5178Y cells. Chromatographic separation of the extracts yielded 15 natural products, out of which seven were new compounds, with both fungal extracts differing considerably with regard to their secondary metabolites. Compounds 1, 2, 3, 6, and 7 showed cytotoxic activity with EC 50 values ranging from 1.7 to 7.8 microg/mL. When analyzed in vitro for their inhibitory potential against 24 different protein kinases, compounds 1- 3, 5- 8, and 15 inhibited several of these enzymes (IC 50 values 0.22-9.8 microg/mL). Interestingly, compounds 1, 3, and 6 were also identified as constituents of an extract derived from healthy leaves of the host plant P. senegalense, thereby indicating that the production of natural products by the endophyte proceeds also under in situ conditions within the plant host. PMID:18494522
Aly, Amal H; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Indriani, Ine Dewi; Wray, Victor; Müller, Werner E G; Totzke, Frank; Zirrgiebel, Ute; Schächtele, Christoph; Kubbutat, Michael H G; Lin, W H; Proksch, Peter; Ebel, Rainer
Alternaria alternata produces more than 60 secondary metabolites, among which alternariol (AOH) and alternariol-9-methyl ether (AME) are important mycotoxins. Whereas the toxicology of these two polyketide-based compounds has been studied, nothing is known about the genetics of their biosynthesis. One of the postulated core enzymes in the biosynthesis of AOH and AME is polyketide synthase (PKS). In a draft genome sequence of A. alternata we identified 10 putative PKS-encoding genes. The timing of the expression of two PKS genes, pksJ and pksH, correlated with the production of AOH and AME. The PksJ and PksH proteins are predicted to be 2222 and 2821 amino acids in length, respectively. They are both iterative type I reducing polyketide synthases. PksJ harbors a peroxisomal targeting sequence at the C-terminus, suggesting that the biosynthesis occurs at least partly in these organelles. In the vicinity of pksJ we found a transcriptional regulator, altR, involved in pksJ induction and a putative methyl transferase, possibly responsible for AME formation. Downregulation of pksJ and altR caused a large decrease of alternariol formation, suggesting that PksJ is the polyketide synthase required for the postulated Claisen condensations during the biosynthesis. No other enzymes appeared to be required. PksH downregulation affected pksJ expression and thus caused an indirect effect on AOH production.
The necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata causes brown spot diseases in many citrus cultivars. The FUS3 and SLT2 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)-mediated signaling pathways have been shown to be required for conidiation. Exogenous application of cAMP to this fungal pathogen decreased conidia formation considerably. This study determined whether a cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) is required for conidiation. Using loss-of-function mutations in PKA catalytic and regulatory subunit-coding genes, we demonstrated that PKA negatively regulates conidiation. Fungal mutants lacking PKA catalytic subunit gene (PKA ( cat )) reduced growth, lacked detectable PKA activity, and produced higher amounts of conidia compared to wild-type. Introduction of a functional copy of PKA ( cat ) into a null mutant partially restored PKA activity and produced wild-type level of conidia. In contrast, fungi lacking PKA regulatory subunit gene (PKA ( reg )) produced detectable PKA activity, exhibited severe growth reduction, formed swelling hyphal segments, and produced no mature conidia. Introduction of the PKA ( reg ) gene to a regulatory subunit mutant restored all phenotypes to wild type. PKA ( reg )-null mutants induced fewer necrotic lesions on citrus compared to wild-type, whereas PKA ( cat ) mutant displayed wild-type virulence. Overall, our studies indicate that PKA and FUS3-mediated signaling pathways apparently have very different roles in the regulation of conidia production and A. alternata pathogenesis in citrus. PMID:23054702
In this study, the roles of fungal dehydrin-like proteins in pathogenicity and protection against environmental stresses were investigated in the necrotrophic seed-borne fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Three proteins (called AbDhn1, AbDhn2 and AbDhn3), harbouring the asparagine-proline-arginine (DPR) signature pattern and sharing the characteristic features of fungal dehydrin-like proteins, were identified in the A. brassicicola genome. The expression of these genes was induced in response to various stresses and found to be regulated by the AbHog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. A knock-out approach showed that dehydrin-like proteins have an impact mainly on oxidative stress tolerance and on conidial survival upon exposure to high and freezing temperatures. The subcellular localization revealed that AbDhn1 and AbDhn2 were associated with peroxisomes, which is consistent with a possible perturbation of protective mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress and maintain the redox balance in AbDhn mutants. Finally, we show that the double deletion mutant ??abdhn1-abdhn2 was highly compromised in its pathogenicity. By comparison to the wild-type, this mutant exhibited lower aggressiveness on B. oleracea leaves and a reduced capacity to be transmitted to Arabidopsis seeds via siliques. The double mutant was also affected with respect to conidiation, another crucial step in the epidemiology of the disease. PMID:24098369
A novel white rot fungus Alternaria alternata CMERI F6 decolorized 99.99% of 600mg/L congo red within 48h in yeast extract-glucose medium at 25°C, pH 5 and 150rpm. Physicochemical parameters like carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature, pH and aeration were optimized to develop faster decolorization process. Dye decolorization rate was maximal (20.21mg/Lh) at 25°C, pH 5, 150rpm and 800mg/L dye, giving 78% final decolorization efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray Diffraction analysis revealed that the fungus become amorphous after dye adsorption. HPLC and FTIR analysis of the extracted metabolites suggested that the decolorization occurred through biosorption and biodegradation. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and acid-alkali and 70% ethanol treatment revealed the efficient dye retention capability of the fungus. The foregoing results justify the applicability of the strain in removal of congo red from textile wastewaters and their safe disposal. PMID:24034987
Effect of proteinaceous extracts from red kidney bean cotyledons on mycelium of Alternaria alternata growing on potato dextrose agar (PDA) plates was investigated. Unexpectedly, conidia formation was induced in response to applied crude extracts. A PDA disc method was developed to quantify conidia formed. A purified fraction retaining conidiation inducing effect (CIE) was obtained following several protein purification procedures including the last step of eluting bound proteins from an Affi-gel blue gel column. Based on MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization) mass spectrometric analysis, a previously identified mannose-binding lectin (MBL) called PvFRIL (Phaseolus vulgaris fetal liver tyrosine kinase 3-receptor interacting lectin) was present in this conidiation inducing fraction. The PvFRIL was subsequently purified using a single step mannose-agarose affinity column chromatography. When the lectin was applied exogenously to A. alternata, increased conidiation resulted. The conidia produced in response to the MBL were similar to those induced by other methods and their germ tubes were longer after 12 h growth than those induced under white light. To our knowledge this is the first report of exogenous application of a PvFRIL or another purified protein from a plant inducing conidia formation in a fungus. PMID:21112064
Alizadeh, Hossein; Leung, David W M; Cole, Anthony L J
A putative family 3 glycosyl hydrolase (GH) gene showed significant differential expression in resistant Sinapis alba, compared with the susceptible Brassica juncea, as part of the initial responses during interaction with the necrotroph Alternaria brassicicola. To understand the mechanism of induction, the promoter was isolated and deletion analysis carried out. All the promoter fragments were fused with the ?-glucuronidase gene and the expressions were studied in stable B. juncea transgenics and transiently transformed Nicotiana tabacum. Analysis of the expression of the promoter showed the presence of functional abscisic acid (ABA)-, jasmonic acid (JA)-, and salicylic acid (SA)-responsive cis elements. Interestingly, the promoter was found to be induced in both S. alba and B. juncea upon challenge with A. brassicicola but, in S. alba, SA had an inhibitory effect on the pathogen-induced expression of the gene whereas, in B. juncea, SA did not have any negative effect. Therefore, the SA-mediated inhibition in S. alba indicates that the induction is probably through JA or ABA signaling. The difference in the mechanism of induction of the same promoter in the resistant and susceptible plants is probably due to the differential hormonal responses initiated upon challenge with A. brassicicola. PMID:23550974
Founder populations of fungal plant pathogens are expected to have low levels of genetic diversity coupled with further genetic drift due to, e.g., limited host availability, which should result in additional population bottlenecks. This study used microsatellite markers in the interaction between Cakile maritima and the fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola to explore genetic expectations associated with such situations. The host, C. maritima, was introduced into Australia approximately 100 years ago, but it is unknown whether the pathogen was already present in Australia, as it has a wide occurrence, or whether it was introduced to Australia on brassicaceous hosts. Eleven A. brassicicola populations were studied, and all showed moderate levels of gene and genotypic diversity. Chi-square tests of the frequencies of mating type alleles, a large number of genotypes, and linkage equilibrium among microsatellite loci all suggest A. brassicicola reproduces sexually. Significant genetic differentiation was found among populations, but there was no evidence for isolation by distance effects. Bayesian analyses identified eight clusters where the inferred clusters did not represent geographical populations but instead consisted of individuals admixed from all populations. Further analysis indicated that fungal populations were more likely to have experienced a recent population expansion than a population bottleneck. It is suggested that A. brassicicola has been introduced into Australia multiple times, potentially increasing the diversity and size of any A. brassicola populations already present there. Combined with its ability to reproduce sexually, such processes appear to have increased the evolutionary potential of the pathogen through recent population expansions.
Gamma-irradiation, water activity (aw) and incubation temperature were found to affect the production of tenuazonic acid (TZA) by Alternaria alternata in tomato paste and juice. By increasing the irradiation doses, the dry weight as well as TZA decreased greatly until complete inhibition at 4 kGy. Greatest production of TZA occurred at 0.98 aw (57.5 micrograms/g and 26.3 micrograms/g) for both tomato paste and juice, respectively, at 25 degrees C. Changing temperature and aw altered the relative amounts of TZA produced in tomato paste und juice by unirradiated and irradiated conidia of A. alternata. Only trace amount of TZA was detected at 0.98 aw (1.50 micrograms/g) by 3 kGy-irradiated conidia in tomato paste, while it was inhibited completely in juice. Increasing gamma-irradiation doses and decreasing water activities decreased greatly or inhibited TZA production in both tomato paste and juice. PMID:1922270
In this study, the roles of fungal dehydrin-like proteins in pathogenicity and protection against environmental stresses were investigated in the necrotrophic seed-borne fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Three proteins (called AbDhn1, AbDhn2 and AbDhn3), harbouring the asparagine-proline-arginine (DPR) signature pattern and sharing the characteristic features of fungal dehydrin-like proteins, were identified in the A. brassicicola genome. The expression of these genes was induced in response to various stresses and found to be regulated by the AbHog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. A knock-out approach showed that dehydrin-like proteins have an impact mainly on oxidative stress tolerance and on conidial survival upon exposure to high and freezing temperatures. The subcellular localization revealed that AbDhn1 and AbDhn2 were associated with peroxisomes, which is consistent with a possible perturbation of protective mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress and maintain the redox balance in AbDhn mutants. Finally, we show that the double deletion mutant ??abdhn1-abdhn2 was highly compromised in its pathogenicity. By comparison to the wild-type, this mutant exhibited lower aggressiveness on B. oleracea leaves and a reduced capacity to be transmitted to Arabidopsis seeds via siliques. The double mutant was also affected with respect to conidiation, another crucial step in the epidemiology of the disease.
Dramatic advances in the field of stem cell research have raised the possibility of using these cells to treat a variety of diseases. The eye is an excellent target organ for such cell-based therapeutics due to its ready accessibility, the prevalence of vasculo- and neurodegenerative diseases affecting vision, and the availability of animal models to demonstrate proof of concept. In fact, stem cell therapies have already been applied to the treatment of disease affecting the ocular surface, leading to preservation of vision. Diseases in the back of the eye, such as macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and inherited retinal degenerations, present greater challenges, but rapidly emerging stem cell technologies hold the promise of autologous grafts to stabilize vision loss through cellular replacement or paracrine rescue effects.
Marchetti, Valentina; Krohne, Tim U.; Friedlander, David F.; Friedlander, Martin
|The interdisciplinary approach that science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) projects inspire in both teachers and students "brings to light a larger picture that promotes real-world scientific applications, which has in turn been shown to increase undergraduate persistence in STEM." The high school students have been warned…
Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells responsible for the post-natal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. This review focuses on the basic biology of the satellite cell with emphasis on its role in muscle repair and parallels between embryonic myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Recent advances have altered the long-standing view of the satellite cell as a committed myogenic stem
Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh’s plane.
Van Der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, Francois; Wion, Didier
This article is concerned with the idea that neural precursor cells in vertebrates can self-renew and give rise to all cell types within the nervous system. Supportive evidence for this notion of neural stem cells comes from clonal analyses undertaken both in vivo and in vitro. Neural stem cells also give rise to other cells in the body, including skin
Mark Murphy; Kate Reid; Renée Dutton; Gordon Brooker; Perry F Bartlett
|This article is designed to help teachers feel more confident in their work with STEM Ambassadors to further enhance enrichment activities. Skills shortages in Science, Technology, Engineering, Maths (STEM) and the Built Environment are well documented, and will continue to be an issue whether people are in a period of recession or recovery. The…
Cancers are composed of heterogeneous cell popula- tions ranging from highly proliferative immature cells to more dif- ferentiated cells of various cell lineages. Recent advances in stem cell research have allowed for the demonstration of the existence of cancer stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia, breast cancer, and, most recently, in brain tumors. Each of these has some similarities with
The Casparian strip is commonly observed in the endodermis of roots of vascular plants and, in some cases, also in the stems. Pea stems develop the Casparian strip, and its development has been reported to be regulated by blue light. In addition, for the purpose of photobiological studies, pea stems provide a unique experimental system for other physiological studies of the development of the Casparian strip. In this article, I have briefly summarized (1) the effects of environmental factors on the development of the Casparian strip, (2) the advantage of using pea stems for physiological studies of the development of the Casparian strip, and (3) cellular events indicated to be involved in the development of the Casparian strip, focusing on the studies using pea stems as well as other recent studies.
The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign has developed a multi-pronged approach to remedying the lack of academic emphasis on the STEM subjects, from preschool through college, as well as the lack of interest in STEM subjects on the part of youth in the United States. Visitors can read about the University's four goals under the "Goals" tab at the top of any page. The "STEM Ed Projects" tab contains a directory of externally funded projects divided into four categories, and which are then further divided into subcategories. Visitors will find such projects as "Improving Supply and Demand Data for the Preparation of Secondary Science and Math Teachers" and "Clean Energy Education Workshop", under the category that aims to shape policy and advocate for STEM education. The "Resources" tab contains half a dozen categories under which visitors will find Outreach Resources, Teacher Development and Resources, and Policy and Advocacy for STEM Ed.
Advances in our understanding of stem cells in the gastrointestinal tract include the identification of molecular markers of stem and early progenitor cells in the small intestine. Although gastric epithelial stem cells have been localized, little is known about their molecular biology. Recent reports describe the use of inducible Cre recombinase activity to indelibly label candidate stem cells and their progeny in the distal stomach, (ie, the antrum and pylorus). No such lineage labeling of epithelial stem cells has been reported in the gastric body (corpus). Among stem cells in the alimentary canal, those of the adult corpus are unique in that they lie close to the lumen and increase proliferation following loss of a single mature progeny lineage, the acid-secreting parietal cell. They are also unique in that they neither depend on Wnt signaling nor express the surface marker Lgr5. Because pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma has been associated with abnormal patterns of gastric differentiation and with chronic tissue injury, there has been much research on the response of stomach epithelial stem cells to inflammation. Chronic inflammation, as induced by infection with Helicobacter pylori, affects differentiation and promotes metaplasias. Several studies have identified cellular and molecular mechanisms in spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing (pseudopyloric) metaplasia. Researchers have also begun to identify signaling pathways and events that take place during embryonic development that eventually establish the adult stem cells to maintain the specific features and functions of the stomach mucosa. We review the cytologic, molecular, functional, and developmental properties of gastric epithelial stem cells. PMID:21144849
Stem cell research is now a very broad field encompassing cells derived from all stages of life from the embryonic stem cells of the early blastocyst through to the adult stem cells of many tissues of the body. Adult stem cells from a variety of tissues are proving to be pluripotent and can differentiate into cell types different from the
Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in
Timon C. Liu; Rui Duan; Yan Li; Xue-Feng Li; Li-Ling Tan; Songhao Liu
Satellite cells are myogenic stem cells responsible for the post-natal growth, repair and maintenance of skeletal muscle. This review focuses on the basic biology of the satellite cell with emphasis on its role in muscle repair and parallels between embryonic myogenesis and muscle regeneration. Recent advances have altered the long-standing view of the satellite cell as a committed myogenic stem cell derived directly from the fetal myoblast. The experimental basis for this evolving perspective will be highlighted as will the relationship between the satellite cell and other newly discovered muscle stem cell populations. Finally, advances and prospects for cell-based therapies for muscular dystrophies will be addressed.
This Web site from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) provides an overview of the activities of an NIH task force established to move the stem cell research agenda forward. The section titled Scientific Research may be of particular interest to researchers in this area. It provides links to the Web sites of stem cell-related research at a number of NIH institutes, as well as an extensive information index, a FAQs page about stem cell research, information on funding opportunities, and much more.
The "mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)" are cells adherent in the bone marrow, which can be isolated to induce differentiation. In contrast to the "embryonic stem cells" whose goal is to develop a new organism, the "MSC adult stem cells" can participate in tissue growth and repair throughout postnatal life. Addition of 5-azacytidine to MSCs in vitro induces the gradual increase in cellular size and begins spontaneous beatings, thereafter differentiating into cardiomyocytes. The "Methods" and "Protocols" to induce structural and functional maturations of MSCs, thus to achieve "Cellular Cardiomyoplasty," are described. With appropriate media, differentiations of MSCs to various kinds of cells such as chondrocytes, osteocytes, and adipocytes are also achievable. PMID:23807784
The present work deals with the toxigenic mycobiota occurring in Spanish malting barley and the capability for producing mycotoxins by several important toxigenic fungi. One hundred and eighty seven samples of malting barley were gathered from Spanish breweries before processing. One hundred and fifty kernels per sample were surface-sanitized with a 2% sodium hypochlorite solution and incubated on three culture media. The most abundant fungi were species of Alternaria, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium, which were present in 93%, 82.3%, 57.8% and 27.8% of the samples, respectively. To evaluate their mycotoxin producing potential a number of isolates belonging to each genus, except Penicillium, were randomly selected and incubated on culture media known to be appropriate for production of mycotoxins. Alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether were produced by 26.7% of Alternaria spp. isolates (all belonged to Alternaria alternata). All tested isolates of F. verticillioides produced fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) and 61.3% of them produced fumonisin B(2) (FB(2)), whereas FB(1) was synthesized by 83.3% and FB(2) by 77.8% of F. proliferatum isolates. Twenty percent of the isolates of the Aspergillus flavus/A. parasiticus group had the capability to produce aflatoxin B(1) and aflatoxin B(2). Thirty out of 34 isolates of F. graminearum produced deoxynivalenol and zearalenone whereas the other 4 isolates produced nivalenol. Ochratoxin A was detected in 75% and 15% of isolates of Aspergillus section Nigri and A. ochraceus, respectively. This is the first survey carried out in Spain on the toxigenic mycobiota contaminating malting barley in breweries and the mycotoxin producing capacity of several species. The information obtained is useful for assessing the risk of mycotoxins in beer. PMID:16443299
Medina, Angel; Valle-Algarra, Francisco M; Mateo, Rufino; Gimeno-Adelantado, José V; Mateo, Fernando; Jiménez, Misericordia
Production of "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer "Egusi" resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two "Egusi" genotypes, 'Ejagham' and NHC1-130, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary vector pEKH1. After co-cultivation for 3 days, infected explants were transferred to MS medium containing 100 mg l(-l) kanamycin to select transformed tissues. After 3 weeks of culture, adventitious shoots appeared directly along the edges of the explants. As much as 19 out of 52 (36.5%) and 25 out of 71 (35.2%) of the explants in genotype NHC1-130 and 'Ejagham', respectively, formed shoots after 6 weeks of culture. As much as 74% (14 out of 19) of the shoots regenerated in genotype NHC1-130 and 72% (18 out of 25) of those produced in genotype 'Ejagham' were transgenic. A DNA fragment corresponding to the wasabi defensin gene or the selection marker nptII was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of all regenerated plant clones rooted on hormone-free MS medium under the same selection pressure, suggesting their transgenic nature. Southern blot analysis confirmed successful integration of 1-5 copies of the transgene. RT-PCR, northern and western blot analyses revealed that wasabi defensin gene was expressed in transgenic lines. Transgenic lines showed increased levels of resistance to Alternaria solani, which causes Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium oxysporum, which causes Fusarium wilt, as compared to that of untransformed plants. PMID:20552202
Alternaria spp. are known to form a spectrum of secondary metabolites with alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), altenuene (ALT) and tenuazonic acid (TA) as the major mycotoxins with respect to quantity. In the present study we investigated the contribution of these compounds for the DNA damaging properties of complex extracts of Alternaria spp. infested rice. Five different Alternaria strains were cultured on rice and analyzed for their production of AOH, AME, ALT and TA. The extracts of two strains with distinctly different toxin profiles were selected for further toxicological analysis. An extract from A. alternata DSM 1102 infested rice, found to contain predominantly TA, exhibited substantial DNA strand breaking properties in cultured human colon carcinoma cells in the comet assay, whereas TA as a single compound did not affect DNA integrity up to 200?M. An extract of A. alternata DSM 12633 infested rice, containing in comparable proportions AOH, AME and TA, exceeded by far the DNA damaging properties of the single compounds. In contrast to AOH, AME and TA, both selected extracts induced an increase of DNA modifications sensitive to the bacterial repair enzyme formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) in the comet assay, indicative for oxidative DNA damage. Toxicity-guided fractionation of the DSM 12633 extract confirmed that these effects were not caused by AOH, AME or TA. Taken together, the mycotoxins AOH, AME and TA, representing the major mycotoxins with respect to quantity in A. alternata infested food, play only a subordinate role for the genotoxic properties of complex extracts and appear not to be involved in the induction of FPG sensitive sites. PMID:22906495
This present work describes the application of liquid chromatography-solid phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to analyse Alternaria alternata crude extracts. Altenusin (1), alternariol (2), 3'-hydroxyalternariol monomethyl ether (3), and alternariol monomethyl ether (4), were separated and identified. High-resolution mass spectrometry confirmed the proposed structures. The cytotoxic effects of these compounds towards plants were determined using soybean (Glycine max) cell cultures as a model. EC(50) values which range from 0.11 (± 0.02) to 4.69 (± 0.47) ?M showed the high cytotoxicity of these compounds. PMID:23442929
An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS) method was developed for the determination\\u000a of the Alternaria toxins tenuazonic acid, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, altertoxin I and tentoxin. Owing to its instability,\\u000a altenusin could not be determined. The sample preparation includes an acidic acetonitrile\\/water\\/methanol extraction, followed\\u000a by SPE clean-up step, before injection into the UPLC-MS\\/MS system. The separation
Jürg Noser; Patrick Schneider; Martin Rother; Hansruedi Schmutz
Tobaccos from countries with high and low incidences of lung cancer were analyzed. Tobacco concentrations of polonium-210 were similar in cigarettes from high- and low-incidence countries, as were levels of cigarette smoke tar and nicotine. Tobaccos from low-incidence countries had significantly lower Alternaria spore counts. Mean selenium concentrations of tobaccos from the high-incidence countries (0.16 +- 0.05 ..mu..g/g) were significantly lower than those of tobaccos from the low-incidence countries (0.49 +- 0.22 ..mu..g/g).
Bogden, J.D. (New Jersey Medical School, Newark); Kemp, F.W.; Buse, M.; Thind, I.S.; Louria, D.B.; Forgacs, J.; Llanos, G.; Terrones, I.M.
Both water activity (aW) and temperature affected the production of altenuene (AE), alternariol (AOH), and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) by Alternaria alternata on wheat extract agar and wheat grain. Greatest production of all three mycotoxins occurred at 0.98 aW and 25 degrees C on both substrates. At 0.98 aW and 25 degrees C, a single colony of A. alternata grown on wheat extract agar produced 807 micrograms of AOH, 603 micrograms of AME, and 169 micrograms of AE ml in 30 days. However, production of all three mycotoxins at 0.95 aW was less than 40% of these amounts. Little toxin was produced at 0.90 aW. Changing temperature and aW altered the relative amounts of the different toxins produced on agar. At 15 degrees C and 0.98 aW, maxima of 52 micrograms of AOH and 25 micrograms of AME per ml were produced after 15 and 30 days, respectively, whereas AE continued to increase and reached 57 micrograms/ml after 40 days. At 15 degrees C and 0.95 aW, production was, respectively, 62, 10, and 5 micrograms/ml after 40 days. All three metabolites were produced at 5 degrees C and 0.98 to 0.95 aW and at 30 degrees C and 0.98 to 0.90 aW. On wheat grain at 25 degrees C and 0.98 to 0.95 aW, more AME was produced than AOH or AE, but at 15 degrees C there was less AME than AOH or AE. Only trace amounts of AE, AOH, and AME were found at 15 to 25 degrees C and 0.90 aW, but production of AME was inhibited at 30 degrees C and 0.95 aW or less.
"Two-component" histidine kinase (HSK1) is the primary regulator of resistance to sugar osmotic stress and sensitivity to dicarboximide or phenylpyrrole fungicides in the citrus fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata. On the other hand, the mitogen-activated protein kinase HOG1 confers resistance solely to salts and oxidative stress. We report here independent and shared functions of the SKN7-mediated signaling pathway with HSK1 and HOG1. SKN7, a putative transcription downstream regulator of HSK1, is primarily required for cellular resistance to oxidative and sugar-induced osmotic stress. SKN7, perhaps acting in parallel with HOG1, is required for resistance to H(2)O(2), tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and cumyl peroxide, but not to the superoxide-generating compounds - menadione, potassium superoxide, and diamide. Because of phenotypic commonalities, SKN7 is likely involved in resistance to sugar-induced osmotic stress via the HSK1 signaling pathway. However, mutants lacking SKN7 displayed wild-type sensitivity to NaCl and KCl salts. SKN7 is constitutively localized in the nucleus regardless of H(2)O(2) treatment. When compared to the wild type, skn7 mutants exhibited lower catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities and induced significantly fewer necrotic lesions on the susceptible citrus cultivar. The skn7 mutant exhibited fungicide resistance at levels between the hsk1 and the hog1 mutant strains. Skn7/hog1 double mutants exhibited fungicide resistance, similar to the strain with a single AaHSK1 gene mutation. Moreover, the A. alternata SKN7 plays a role in conidia formation. Conidia produced by the skn7 mutant are smaller and have fewer transverse septae than those produced by wild type. All altered phenotypes in the mutant were restored by introducing and expressing a wild-type copy of SKN7 under control of the endogenous promoter. PMID:22902811
Alternaria alternata is the predominant fungus involved in moldy core and core rot of Red Delicious apples. The effects of environmental conditions during bloom on moldy core and core rot, and on the need for fungicide application, were examined in 10 experiments carried out in 2007. In untreated experimental plots, typical moldy core symptoms were very common, with relatively low variability (coefficient of variation: 22.2%) among experiments; core rot incidence ranged from 2 to 26% with large variability (coefficient of variation: 90.0%) among experiments. No evidence of prevailing environmental conditions during bloom affecting the development of moldy core or core rot was detected. No effect of fungicide application (a mixture of bromuconazole + captan three times a week at bloom) on moldy core or core rot was found. A random distribution of moldy core and an occasional aggregation of core rot in the orchards were indicated from Morisita's index of dispersion (I(?)). The hypothesis that core rot incidence is governed by host physiology and that yield load can be used as an indicator of trees' susceptibility was examined in a set of eight observations and four experiments. No correlation was found between tree yield load and moldy core, but core rot incidence was inversely related to yield load. Furthermore, irrespective of tree yield load, core rot was more abundant on large compared with small fruits. It is concluded that host physiology, rather than pathogen occurrence or environmental conditions at bloom stage, governs the development of core rot in Red Delicious apples caused by A. alternata in Israel. PMID:22624774
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of water activity (a(w)) (0.99-0.90), temperature (15, 25 and 30°C) and their interactions on growth and alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) production by Alternaria alternata on irradiated soya beans. Maximum growth rates were obtained at 0.980 a(w) and 25°C. Minimum a(w) level for growth was dependent on temperature. Both strains were able to grow at the lowest a(w) assayed (0.90). Maximum amount of AOH was produced at 0.98 a(w) but at different temperatures, 15 and 25°C, for the strains RC 21 and RC 39 respectively. Maximum AME production was obtained at 0.98 a(w) and 30°C for both strains. The concentration range of both toxins varied considerably depending on a(w) and temperature interactions. The two metabolites were produced over the temperature range 15 to 30°C and a(w) range 0.99 to 0.96. The limiting a(w) for detectable mycotoxin production is slightly greater than that for growth. Two-dimensional profiles of a(w)× temperature were developed from these data to identify areas where conditions indicate a significant risk from AOH and AME accumulation on soya bean. Knowledge of AOH and AME production under marginal or sub-optimal temperature and a(w) conditions for growth can be important since improper storage conditions accompanied by elevated temperature and moisture content in the grain can favour further mycotoxin production and lead to reduction in grain quality. This could present a hazard if the grain is used for human consumption or animal feedstuff. PMID:21737171
Oviedo, Maria Silvina; Ramirez, Maria Laura; Barros, Germán Gustavo; Chulze, Sofia Noemi
Previous studies have shown that an ethylene (ET)-dependent pathway is involved in the cell death signalling triggered by Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL) toxin in detached tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. In this study, the role of jasmonic acid (JA) signalling in programmed cell death (PCD) induced by AAL toxin was analysed using a 35S::prosystemin transgenic line (35S::prosys), a JA-deficient mutant spr2, and a JA-insensitive mutant jai1. The results indicated that JA biosynthesis and signalling play a positive role in the AAL toxin-induced PCD process. In addition, treatment with the exogenous ET action inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) greatly suppressed necrotic lesions in 35S::prosys leaves, although 35S::prosys leaflets co-treated with AAL toxin and STS still have a significant high relative conductivity. Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) markedly enhanced the sensitivity of spr2 and jai1 mutants to the toxin. However, compared with AAL toxin treatment alone, exogenous application of JA to the ET-insensitive mutant Never ripe (Nr) did not alter AAL toxin-induced cell death. In addition, the reduced ET-mediated gene expression in jai1 leaves was restored by co-treatment with ACC and AAL toxin. Furthermore, JA treatment restored the decreased expression of ET biosynthetic genes but not ET-responsive genes in the Nr mutant compared with the toxin treatment alone. Based on these results, it is proposed that both JA and ET promote the AAL toxin-induced cell death alone, and the JAI1 receptor-dependent JA pathway also acts upstream of ET biosynthesis in AAL toxin-triggered PCD.
Background Dematiaceous moulds are pathogenic microorganisms and act as etiological agents of mycoses with different degrees of severity in humans and animals. These moulds also cause loss of food crops and storage food products. The information regarding antimicrobial efficacy of the plant preparations on these moulds is scanty. The present study reveals phytochemical characterization and the effect of bark and leaf extracts of Indian spice plant, Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cz), against the growth of two species of dematiaceous moulds, Alternaria solani and Curvularia lunata. Methods Cz bark and leaf samples were sequentially extracted in different solvents using Soxhlet apparatus. Phytochemical analyses of extracts were done as per standard protocols. The antifungal bioassay of extracts was done by hanging drop technique. The inhibition of fungal spore germination was monitored under influence of three different concentrations of extracts. Results The lowest test concentration (50 ?g/ml) of extracts of Cz bark prepared into acetone and that of Cz leaf into petroleum ether and ethanol exhibited complete inhibition (100%) of spore germination in both the moulds. At 100 ?g/ml concentration all the extracts showed about 50 to 100% inhibition. However, the treatment of the spores of the two fungal species with highest concentration (500 ?g/ml) of bark and leaf extracts in all the solvents showed 100% fungicidal activity as it completely arrested the germination of spores. Relatively lower activity of aqueous extracts at 50 and 100 ?g/ml concentrations suggests that the antifungal ingredients present in Cz bark and leaf are more soluble in organic solvents than water. Conclusion The results demonstrated that the Cz bark and leaves contain certain fungicidal constituents exhibiting potential antimould activity against A. solani and C. lunata.
An alkaline serine protease producing strain Alternaria solani was optimized for its enzyme production under submerged conditions. The maximum production of protease by A. solani was achieved by using sodium nitrate at the optimum concentration of 0.2% w/v. A. solani produced higher quantities (3.75 [unit/mg of protein]) of an inducible extracellular proteases on day 9 after incubation in czapek's dox broth medium amended with 1% casein as an inducer at pH 8.5, temperature 27?°C and 3% sucrose as carbon source. Extracellular proteases were precipitated by ammonium sulphate saturation (80%) method and purified on Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The molecular mass of SDS-PAGE and Sephadex G-100 Column Gel permeation chromatography purified protease was estimated to 42?kDa. In addition, trypsin digestion of 42?kDa protein band was carried out and analyzed by MALDI-TOF for the identification of protease. The sequence IKELATNGVVTNVK (378-391) segment of the alkaline serine protease was found by using MS/MS spectrum at 1485?m/z from the purified fraction. It showed optimal activity at 50?°C and pH 9-10 and broad pH stability between pH 6-12. The protease activity was inhibited by phenyl methyl sulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), all the results indicated that the presence of a serine residue in the active site and is thus most likely a member of the serine protease family. This may function as a virulence protein during pathogenesis by A. solani. The results suggested that the presence of appreciable extracellular proteolytic activity in filamentous fungi may serve as a marker of their phytopathogenicity. PMID:23712744
Individual stem cells are functionally defined by their self-renewal and differentiation potential. Methods for clonal analysis are essential for understanding stem cells, particularly given the increasing evidence for stem-cell heterogeneity. Stem cells reside within complex microenvironments, making single-cell analysis particularly challenging. Furthermore, simultaneous molecular and functional characterization of single stem cells is not trivial. Here we explore clonal assays applied
Since the discovery of stem cells, scientists have invested tremendous effort in establishing in vitro culture conditions in order to maintain the self-renewal and efficient proliferative capabilities of stem cells by manipulating a va- riety of growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is one of the most common growth factors used to expand stem cells, including human embryonic stem (hES)
This brief video from WPSU introduces a diverse group of graduate students with interests in STEM careers. From deep sea diving to creating video games, each graduate student is pursuing activities beyond the stereotypical view of a nerdy scientist.
This brief video from WPSU introduces a diverse group of middle school students with interests in STEM careers. Whether creating robots or designing solar cars, each student dreams of activities beyond the stereotypical view of a nerdy scientist.
\\u000a Neural stem cells represent a heterogeneous population of mitotically active, self-renewing and multipotent cells of both\\u000a the developing and the adult central nervous system (CNS) showing complex patterns of gene expression that may vary in both\\u000a space and time. Endogenous stem cells residing within CNS germinal niches might concur to nervous system repair owing to their\\u000a ability to drive neurogenesis
Stefano Pluchino; Marco Bacigaluppi; Elena Brini; Erica Butti; Chiara Cossetti; Melania Cusimano; Lucia Zanotti; Gianvito Martino
Institutional achievements in research of low temperature preservation of stem cells derived from fetal and adult sources\\u000a are presented in the report. Special attention is attended to cryopreservation of pretenders on hemopoietic stem cells from\\u000a human cord blood and fetal liver. Examining of viability of cryopreserved with DMSO fetal liver cells of specific phenotype\\u000a by parallel determining with vital dye
Valentin I. Grischenko; Lubov A. Babiychik; Alexander Yu. Petrenko
\\u000a Stem cells can be isolated from a variety of sources and they are typically classified based on their tissue of origin. Embryonic\\u000a stem cells are, as the name indicates, derived from the inner cell mass of pre-implantation stage blastocysts at day 5–7 post\\u000a fertilization. These cells possess qualities such as pluripotency and a seemingly limitless capacity to proliferate in vitro
Mikael C. O. Englund; Peter Sartipy; Johan Hyllner
\\u000a Normal hematopoiesis develops hierarchically from a hematopoietic stem cell, which is defined by both extensive self-renewal\\u000a capacity and multi-lineage potential, i.e. the ability to give rise to fully differentiated cells of all hematopoietic lineages.\\u000a Since leukemia can be considered as malignant hematopoiesis, the existence of a developmental hierarchy in leukemia with a\\u000a malignant stem cell at its apex was postulated
Primary malignant brain cancer, one of the most deadly diseases, has a high rate of recurrence after treatment. Studies in\\u000a the past several years have led to the hypothesis that the root of the recurrence may be brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs), stem-like\\u000a subpopulation of cells that are responsible for propagating the tumor. Current treatments combining surgery and chemoradiotherapy\\u000a could
The dogma that solid tumors are composed of tumor cells that all share the same ability to produce proliferating daughter\\u000a cells has been challenged in recent years. There is growing evidence that many adult tissues contain a set of tissue stem\\u000a cells, which might undergo malignant transformation while retaining their stem cell characteristics. These include the ability\\u000a of indefinite self-renewal
Christian Nern; Daniel Sommerlad; Till Acker; Karl H. Plate
Cellular senescence processes affecting tissue resident stem cells are considered, at present, an hallmark of both aging and age-related pathologies. Therefore it is mandatory to address this problem with adequate techniques that could highlight the molecular alterations associated with this complex cellular response to stressors. Here we describe methods to characterize cardiac stem cell (CSC) senescence from a molecular and functional standpoint. PMID:23400436
Cesselli, Daniela; D'Aurizio, Federica; Marcon, Patrizia; Bergamin, Natascha; Beltrami, Carlo Alberto; Beltrami, Antonio Paolo
Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., isolated from rhizosphere soil of tomato and pepper plants, were evaluated in vitro as potential antagonists of fungal pathogens. Strains were characterized using the API 20NE biochemical system, and tested against the causal agents of stemcanker and leaf blight (Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici), southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.), and root rot (Fusarium solani). To this end, dual culture antagonism assays were carried out on 25% Tryptic Soy Agar, King B medium, and Potato Dextrose Agar to determine the effect of the strains on mycelial growth of the pathogens. The effect of two concentrations of FeCl(3) on antagonism against Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici was also tested. In addition, strains were screened for ability to produce exoenzymes and siderophores. Finally, the selected Pseudomonas strain, PCI2, was evaluated for effect on tomato seedling development and as a potential candidate for controlling tomato damping-off caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., under growth chamber conditions. All strains significantly inhibited Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici, particularly in 25% TSA medium. Antagonistic effect on Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. and Fusarium solani was greater on King B medium. Protease was produced by 30% of the strains, but no strains produced cellulase or chitinase. Growth chamber studies resulted in significant increases in plant stand as well as in root dry weight. PCI2 was able to establish and survive in tomato plants rhizosphere after 40 days following planting of bacterized seeds. PMID:21507555
The ocular surface consists of two distinct types of epithelial cells; conjunctival and corneal. Although anatomically continuous, these epithelia comprise two distinct cell populations. Corneal stem cells are located at the limbus. The microenvironment of the limbus is important in maintaining “stemness” of the stem cells and also acts as a barrier to conjunctival epithelial cells preventing them from migration onto the corneal surface.Damage to the limbus results in varying degrees of limbal stem cell deficiency with characteristic clinical features including conjunctivalization of the cornea. Regenerative management of corneal conjunctivalization utilizing stem cells comprises of two approaches; limbal auto- or allografts by using existing stem cells and induction and regeneration of ocular tissues from embryonic stem cells. Herein, we review stem cells and limbal stem cells in particular, types of epithelial cells in the cornea, markers of corneal epithelial cells in different stages, as well as the current approach to corneal epithelial regeneration.
An ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/ MS) method was developed for the determination of altenuene (ALT), alternariol (AOH), tentoxin and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) in apple juice concentrate (AJC). The sample was diluted with water, and then cleaned up with a PS DVB column. The quantification was carried out using an external standard method. The UPLC was performed on a BEH C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm) using a gradient elution of acetonitrile and water. The MS/MS was performed with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of quantification of the four Alternaria toxins were between 1.0 and 5.0 microg/L. The recoveries were 77.8%-117.2% with the relative standard deviations less than 9.7%. The method is sensitive, stable and reliable. It's suitable for the quantitative and qualitative analyses of the four Alternaria toxins in AJC. PMID:21438363
The rough lemon pathotype of Alternaria alternata produces host-selective ACR-toxin and causes Alternaria leaf spot disease of rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri). The structure of ACR-toxin I (MW = 496) consists of a polyketide with an ?-dihydropyrone ring in a 19-carbon polyalcohol. Genes responsible for toxin production were localized to a 1.5-Mb chromosome in the genome of the rough lemon pathotype. Sequence analysis of this chromosome revealed an 8,338-bp open reading frame, ACRTS2, that was present only in the genomes of ACR-toxin-producing isolates. ACRTS2 is predicted to encode a putative polyketide synthase of 2,513 amino acids and belongs to the fungal reducing type I polyketide synthases. Typical polyketide functional domains were identified in the predicted amino acid sequence, including ?-ketoacyl synthase, acyl transferase, methyl transferase, dehydratase, ?-ketoreductase, and phosphopantetheine attachment site domains. Combined use of homologous recombination-mediated gene disruption and RNA silencing allowed examination of the functional role of multiple paralogs in ACR-toxin production. ACRTS2 was found to be essential for ACR-toxin production and pathogenicity of the rough lemon pathotype of A. alternata. PMID:22835272
Izumi, Y; Ohtani, K; Miyamoto, Y; Masunaka, A; Fukumoto, T; Gomi, K; Tada, Y; Ichimura, K; Peever, T L; Akimitsu, K
5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (28' WIDE HARDESTY CAST IRON SLIDE HEADGATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Duck Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT
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7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM GUIDE (14' DIAMETER CIRCULAR CALCO CAST IRON SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Fire Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT
5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Drift Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT
5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (HARDESTY CAST IRON RECTANGULAR SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Lost Lake Dam, Kamas, Summit County, UT
6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (18' HARDESTY GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Long Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT
5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY CAST IRON VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Weir Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT
4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Pot Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT
This ATE professional development project is a collaboration between STEM faculty teams from Butler County Community College (Butler, PA), Purdue University (West Lafayette, IN), Sinclair Community College (Dayton, OH), Ventura College (Ventura, CA), College of the Redwoods (Eureka, Ca.), as well as high school STEM faculty in each of the states involved. Faculty teams at the respective locations are working together to design, build, and analyze solid body electric guitars as a means of learning applied concepts of science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and as a means of understanding product lifecycle management. This experience is providing teachers and students an accurate simulation of the collaborative design and rapid manufacturing processes routinely used in business and industry. Over 150 STEM faculty members from high schools and community colleges are participating in an intense five-day Summer Professional Development Program and are having extensive academic year follow-up activities. The teacher participants are using these processes and simulations in their classrooms to enhance the STEM laboratory learning experience. Nearly 5000 students are learning about cross-disciplinary STEM problem solving that is becoming increasingly important for new design technicians to experience.On the site, visitors can find curriculum materials including classroom tools and information on guitar fabrication. There are also details of upcoming workshops and professional development opportunities. In the Storefront section, visitors can learn about how to purchase a guitar kit.
Stem cells, including mammalian, and particularly primate primordial stem cells (pPSCs) such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), hold great promise for restoring cell, tissue, and organ function. However, cultivation of stem cells, particularly undiffe...
This review is the second in a series of four devoted to the analysis of recent studies on stem cells. The first considered embryo stem cells (ES). This review covers bone marrow stem cells. They are analysed initially in a historical perspective, and then in relation to foundation studies in the later 20th century before a detailed analysis is presented
Scientists have tried for decades to understand cancer development in the context of therapeutic strategies. The realization that cancers may rely on ''cancer stem cells'' that share the self-renewal feature of normal stem cells has changed the perspective with regard to new approaches for treating the disease. In this review, we propose that one of the differences between normal stem
The main properties of stem cells include long-term self-renewal and the capacity to give rise to one or more types of differentiated progeny. Recently, much evidence was provided that leukemia and tumor maintenance and growth are sustained by a small proportion of cells exhibiting stem cell properties. In neural tumors, stem cells have been detected in glioblastoma, medulloblastoma and ependymoma.
reversible continuum. This may, in turn, be dependent on shifting chromatin and gene expression with cell cycle transit. If the phenotype of these primitive marrow cells changes from engraftable stem cell to progenitor and back to engraftable stem cell with cycle transit, then this suggests that the identity of the engraft- able stem cell may be partially masked in nonsynchronized
Peter J. Quesenberry; Gerald A. Colvin; Jean-Francois Lambert
This poster highlights the Capitol College Center for Space Science Education and Public Outreach program to developing future leaders in the science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields. The STEM Leaders Program directly works to strengthen the nation's future workforce. Working in partnership with two area community colleges, the goal for the program is to increase the number of individuals who receive a bachelor's degree, advance to the graduate level, and are prepared to enter the workforce as leaders in a STEM discipline. This poster session provides a summary of the 2011 spring workshops, highlights speakers from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Lockheed Martin, and shares initial results from the spring 2011 program.
Self-renewal in the intestinal epithelia is fueled by a population of undifferentiated intestinal stem cells (ISCs) that give rise to daughter or progenitor cells, which can subsequently differentiate into the mature cell types required for normal gut function. The cellular signals that regulate self-renewal are poorly understood and the factors that mediate the transition from a stem cell to a progenitor cell in the gut are unknown. Recent studies have suggested that ISCs are located either at the crypt base interspersed between the Paneth cells (eg, Lgr-5+ve cells) or at or near position 4 within the intestinal crypt (eg, DCAMKL-1 or Bmi-1+ve cells). This raises the possibility that distinct stem cell regions exist in the crypts and that ISC's state of activation will determine how the self-renewal is regulated in the intestinal tract.
Sponsored by NASA and the National Science Foundation, the Pathways to Science Project was created by the Institute for Broadening Participation to support "pathways to the STEM fields: science, technology, engineering, and mathematics." The project works on connecting underrepresented groups with STEM programs, funding, mentoring, and resources. The "Students" area features a sign-in area where students can sign up to receive targeted emails that will inform them of new STEM-focused scholarship and mentoring opportunities. The "Programs" area features a database of over 1500 programs designed for K-8 students, college educators, and undergraduate students. Additionally, the site also includes a "News" area where users can learn about recent success stories from universities around the United States, along with the particulars of upcoming conferences and seminars.
Sperm and egg production requires a robust stem cell system that balances self-renewal with differentiation. Self-renewal at the expense of differentiation can cause tumorigenesis, whereas differentiation at the expense of self-renewal can cause germ cell depletion and infertility. In most organisms, and sometimes in both sexes, germline stem cells (GSCs) often reside in a defined anatomical niche. Factors within the niche regulate a balance between GSC self-renewal and differentiation. Asymmetric division of the germline stem cell to form daughter cells with alternative fates is common. The exception to both these tendencies is the mammalian testis where there does not appear to be an obvious anatomical niche and where GSC homeostasis is likely accomplished by a stochastic balance of self-renewal and differentiation and not by regulated asymmetric cell division. Despite these apparent differences, GSCs in all organisms share many common mechanisms, although not necessarily molecules, to guarantee survival of the germline. PMID:21791699
Spradling, Allan; Fuller, Margaret T; Braun, Robert E; Yoshida, Shosei
Stem cell therapy holds immense promise for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Research on the ability of human embryonic stem cells to differentiate into islet cells has defined the developmental stages and transcription factors involved in this process. However, the clinical applications of human embryonic stem cells are limited by ethical concerns, as well as the potential for teratoma formation. As a consequence, alternative forms of stem cell therapies, such as induced pluripotent stem cells, umbilical cord stem cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, have become an area of intense study. Recent advances in stem cell therapy may turn this into a realistic treatment for diabetes in the near future.
The STEM2Stern Coordination Office works alongside all of the Naval Laboratories and Warfare Centers to offer a broad range of STEM education and outreach programs to support the next generation of scientists and engineers who will bring their talents to U.S. Naval laboratories and warfighting centers. On this site, visitors will find information about the multiple programs offered in each of the fifty states, success stories of students who have gone through these programs, and information for all those interested to get involved (students, educators, parents, and mentors).
\\u000a The growth and differentiation of stem cells are regulated by biochemical and biophysical cues in the extracellular microenvironment.\\u000a Increasing evidences have shown that substrate topography, one of the biophysical properties of the microenvironment, can\\u000a affect stem cell fate, such as the maintenance of embryonic stem cells and the differentiation of adult and embryonic stem\\u000a cells. The underlying mechanism of how
Benjamin K. K. Teo; Soneela Ankam; Evelyn K. F. Yim
\\u000a Advances in stem cell research in recent decades have been aided by progress in the development of novel technologies aimed\\u000a at biological systems. At the same time mimicking stem cell niches in vitro has become crucial for both basic stem cell research\\u000a and the development of innovative therapies based on stem cells. Innovative microscale technologies can contribute to our\\u000a quantitative
Elena Serena; Elisa Cimetta; Camilla Luni; Nicola Elvassore
Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in the news for two reasons: the successful cultivation of human embryonic stem cell lines and reports that adult stem cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve cells into blood cells. The spotlight on stem cells has revealed gaps in our knowledge that must be filled if we are to take advantage of their full potential for treating devastating degenerative diseases such as Parkinsons's disease and muscular dystrophy. We need to know more about the intrinsic controls that keep stem cells as stem cells or direct them along particular differentiation pathways. Such intrinsic regulators are, in turn, sensitive to the influences of the microenvironment, or niche, where stem cells normally reside. Both intrinsic and extrinsic signals regular stem cell fate and some of these signals have now been identified. Vacek et al and Wang et al have studied the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro. There experiments show there is indeed the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro, and the present effect is the promotion of haemopoietic stem cells proliferation. In other words, low intensity laser irradiation can act as an extrinsic signal regulating stem cell fate. In this paper, we study how low intensity laser can be used to regulate stem cell fate from the viewpoint of collective phototransduction.
\\u000a Hydra’s potential immortality and extensive capacity to regenerate and self-renew is due to the presence of three distinct stem\\u000a cell lineages: ectodermal and endodermal epithelial stem cells, and interstitial stem cells. Over the last few years, stem\\u000a cells in Hydra became well-defined in cellular terms of their biology. More recently, efforts using the nearly unlimited potential for tissue\\u000a manipulation combined
Much interest and effort has focused on the therapeutic potential of stem cell technology to treat presently intractable diseases. However, this scientific promise has been accompanied by important issues, including ethical hurdles, political policies and dilemmas concerning cell-source selection (embryonic versus adult stem cells). Although the contribution of stem cells to medical research seems enormous, many countries now face complex
Gorka Orive; Rosa M. Hernández; Alicia R. Gascón; Manoli Igartua; José Luis Pedraz
A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by mean...
A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by mean...
|Three experienced science teachers at a middle school tell about their first-year journey of adopting STEM pedagogy. STEM did not materialize as planned, but in the end it worked out. Some observations and advice: Transitioning to STEM requires leaving comfort zones. Teachers may need the help of an experienced guide. Many students have been…
O'Neill, Tara; Yamagata, Lisa; Yamagata, Justin; Togioka, Susan
Unraveling the contribution of stem and progenitor cells to blood vessel formation and, reciprocally, the importance of blood vessels to the production and function of stem and progenitor cells, has been a major focus of vascular research over the last decade, but has spawned many controversies. Here I review how vascular stem and progenitor cells contribute both vascular and nonvascular
This review is the second in a series of four devoted to the analysis of recent studies on stem cells. The first considered embryo stem cells (ES). This review covers bone marrow stem cells. They are analysed initially in a historical perspective, and then in relation to foundation studies in the later 20th century before a detailed analysis is presented on very recent studies. Methods of identifying, culturing, expanding and grafting stem cells are described, including the separation of haemopoietic and mesenchyme cell lines (HSC and MSC) and recent more detailed analyses using numerous CD and other markers to identify very small subsets of stem cells such as multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPC) and bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSSC) from MSC. Queries arising on the immense potential of these stem cell lines due to the discovery of epigentic factors and cell fusions influencing their development and potency are described. A section on cord blood stem cells is followed by a detailed discussion on the modern situation regarding the clinical use of stem cells, its recent setbacks due to epigenetic factors, different approaches to the discovery of a highly multipotent bone marrow stem cell, and a brief description of embryological approaches to identifying the basic bone marrow stem cell in very early mammalian embryos. PMID:15588475
|Striking differences between physics and biology have important implications for interdisciplinary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The author is a physicist with interdisciplinary connections. The research group in which he works, the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics at the University of Texas at Austin, is…
The case lays out the controversies surrounding stem cell research, looking specifically at therapeutic cloning and how the embryos produced in this process are produced solely to be destroyed. Thus, the dilemma of whether it is ethical to take one life to save another and the dilemma surrounding human cloning. This case may be used to portray problems in the
|Although progress has been made, greater efforts are needed to promote faculty diversity at the college and university levels, especially in STEM fields. Thus, it is important to elucidate best practices both for increasing awareness of diversity issues pertaining to higher education and for implementing change. This article focuses on the…
Hill, Paul L.; Shaw, Rose A.; Taylor, Jan R.; Hallar, Brittan L.
So what does it take to achieve excellence in STEM education? That is the title of the author's presentation delivered at International Technology and Engineering Educators Association's (ITEEA's) FTEE "Spirit of Excellence" Breakfast on March 16, 2012, in Long Beach, California. In preparation for this presentation, the author went back and read…
The central dogma in stem cell biology has been that cells isolated from a particular tissue can renew and differentiate into lineages of the tissue it resides in. Several studies have challenged this idea by demonstrating that tissue specific cell have considerable plasticity and can cross-lineage restriction boundary and give rise to cell types of other lineages. However, the lack
|America has a gap when it comes to youth pursuing science and technology careers. In an effort to improve the knowledge and application of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), after-school programs can work in conjunction with formal in-school curriculum to improve science education. One organization that actively addresses this…
America has a gap when it comes to youth pursuing science and technology careers. In an effort to improve the knowledge and application of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), after-school programs can work in conjunction with formal in-school curriculum to improve science education. One organization that actively addresses this…
|STEM--the catchy shorthand for "science, technology, engineering and mathematics"--has been part of the school improvement discussion for more than a decade, as educational leaders and policy makers have underscored the importance of these areas in preparing students for an internationally competitive, 21st-century economy. But while the acronym…
|STEM--shorthand for "science, technology, engineering, and mathematics"--has been part of the school improvement discussion for more than a decade, as educational leaders and policy makers have underscored the importance of these areas in an internationally competitive, 21st-century economy. But building and implementing programs that emphasize…
The dogma that the genesis of new cells is a negligible event in the adult mammalian brain has long influenced our perception and understanding of the origin and development of CNS tumours. The discovery that new neurons and glia are produced throughout life from neural stem cells provides new possibilities for the candidate cells of origin of CNS neoplasias. The
Rossella Galli; Brent A. Reynolds; Angelo L. Vescovi
uman embryonic stem (ES) cells capture the imagination because they are immortal and have an almost unlimited developmental potential (Fig. 1.1: How hESCs are derived). After many months of growth in culture dishes, these remarkable cells maintain the ability to form cells ranging from muscle to nerve to blood — potentially any cell type that makes up the body. The
|So what does it take to achieve excellence in STEM education? That is the title of the author's presentation delivered at International Technology and Engineering Educators Association's (ITEEA's) FTEE "Spirit of Excellence" Breakfast on March 16, 2012, in Long Beach, California. In preparation for this presentation, the author went back and read…
Striking differences between physics and biology have important implications for interdisciplinary science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. The author is a physicist with interdisciplinary connections. The research group in which he works, the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics at the University of Texas at Austin, is…
Over the past few years, new insights have been added to the study of stem cells in the adult lung. The exploration of endogenous lung progenitors as well as the study of exogenously delivered stem cell populations holds promise for advancing our understanding of the biology of lung repair mechanisms. Moreover, it opens new possibilities for the use of stem cell therapy for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for the treatment of lung disease. Here, we discuss the main types of lung epithelial progenitor populations; the potential of endothelial progenitors, mesenchymal stem cells and embryonic stem cells for lung therapy, as well as summarize the cellular mechanisms involved. PMID:23406722
Recent studies have indicated that bone marrow stem cells are capable of generating muscle, cardiac, hepatic, renal, and bone cells. Purified hematopoietic stem cells have generated cardiac and hepatic cells and reversed disease manifestations in these tissues. Hematopoietic stem cells also alter phenotype with cell cycle transit or circadian phase. During a cytokine stimulated cell cycle transit, reversible alterations of differentiation and engraftment occur. Primitive hematopoietic stem cells express a wide variety of adhesion and cytokine receptors and respond quickly with migration and podia extensions on exposure to cytokines. These data suggest an "Open Chromatin" model of stem cell regulation in which there is a fluctuating continuum in the stem cell/progenitor cell compartments, rather than a hierarchical relationship. These observations, along with progress in using low dose treatments and tolerization approaches, suggest many new therapeutic strategies involving stem cells and the creation of a new medical specialty; stemology. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6
Quesenberry, Peter J.; Colvin, Gerald A.; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Frimberger, Angela E.; Dooner, Mark S.; Mcauliffe, Christina I.; Miller, Caroline; Becker, Pamela; Badiavas, Evangelis; Falanga, Vincent J.; Elfenbein, Gerald; Lum, Lawrence G.
Two new 10-oxo-10H-phenaleno[1,2,3-de]chromene-2-carboxylic acids, xanalteric acids I (1) and II (2), and 11 known secondary metabolites were obtained from extracts of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp., isolated from the mangrove plant Sonneratia alba collected in China. The metabolites were confirmed to be of fungal origin, and the structures of the new natural products were unambiguously elucidated on the basis of extensive one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic studies and mass spectrometric analysis. The two new compounds 1 and 2 exhibited weak antibiotic activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Altenusin (3) displayed broad antimicrobial activity against several additional multidrug-resistant bacterial and fungal strains. PMID:19835393
The production of Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici host-specific toxins (AAL toxins) and epoxide hydrolase (EH) activity were studied during the growth of this plant-pathogenic fungus in stationary liquid cultures. Media containing pectin as the primary carbon source displayed peaks of EH activity at day 4 and at day 12. When pectin was replaced by glucose, there was a single peak of EH activity at day 6. Partial characterization of the EH activities suggests the presence of three biochemically distinguishable EH activities. Two of them have a molecular mass of 25 kDa and a pI of 4.9, while the other has a molecular mass of 20 kDa and a pI of 4.7. Each of the EH activities can be distinguished by substrate preference and sensitivity to inhibitors. The EH activities present at day 6 (glucose) or day 12 (pectin) are concomitant with AAL toxin production.
Morisseau, Christophe; Ward, Barney L.; Gilchrist, David G.; Hammock, Bruce D.
Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) constitute a subpopulation of tumor cells that express stem cell-associated markers and have a high capacity for tumor generation in vivo. Identification of BCSCs from tumor samples or breast cancer cell lines has been based mainly on CD44+/CD24?/low or ALDH+ phenotypes. BCSCs isolation has allowed the analysis of the molecular mechanisms involved in their origin, self-renewal, differentiation into tumor cells, resistance to radiation therapy and chemotherapy, and invasiveness and metastatic ability. Molecular genetic analysis using knockout animals and inducible transgenics have identified NF-?B, c-Jun, p21CIP1, and Forkhead-like-protein Dach1 in BCSC expansion and fate. Clinical analyses of BCSCs in breast tumors have found a correlation between the proportion of BCSCs and poor prognosis. Therefore, new therapies that specifically target BCSCs are an urgent need. We summarize recent evidence that partially explain the biological characteristics of BCSCs.
Velasco-Velazquez, Marco A.; Homsi, Nora; De La Fuente, Marisol; Pestell, Richard G.
The search for sources of stem/progenitor cells the use of which has a potential to affect course of ischemic heart disease and chronic heart failure is conducted nowadays in many countries. Resident cardiac stem cells (CSC) were revealed during recent years on the basis of expression of c-kit, sca-1, MDR1, and islet-1 markers. In vitro experiments demonstrated possibility of their differentiation into cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cell and endothelial cells. Introduction of CSC in injured myocardium in animals facilitated its partial repair and short term improvement of cardiac function. This holds promise for the use of these cells in the future. In the review we have attempted to summarize literature data on resident CSC and their application for the treatment of heart diseases. PMID:21623726
Although stem cell research is a rather new field in modern medicine, media soon popularized it. The reason for this hype lies in the potential of stem cells to drastically increase quality of life through repairing aging and diseased organs. Nevertheless, the essence of stem cell research is to understand how tissues are maintained during adult life. In this article, we summarize the various types of stem cells and their differentiation potential in vivo and in vitro. We review current clinical applications of stem cells and highlight problems encountered when going from animal studies to clinical practice. Furthermore, we describe the current state of induced pluripotent stem cell technology and applications for disease modelling and cell replacement therapy. PMID:21481037
Leeb, C; Jurga, M; McGuckin, C; Forraz, N; Thallinger, C; Moriggl, R; Kenner, L
Melanocyte stem cells differ greatly from melanoma stem cells; the former provide pigmented cells during normal tissue homeostasis and repair, and the latter play an active role in a lethal form of cancer. These 2 cell types share several features and can be studied by similar methods. Aspects held in common by both melanocyte stem cells and melanoma stem cells include their expression of shared biochemical markers, a system of similar molecular signals necessary for their maintenance, and a requirement for an ideal niche microenvironment for providing these factors. This review provides a perspective of both these cell types and discusses potential models of stem cell growth and propagation. Recent findings provide a strong foundation for the development of new therapeutics directed at isolating and manipulating melanocyte stem cells for tissue engineering or at targeting and eradicating melanoma specifically, while sparing nontumor cells. PMID:23438380
Lang, Deborah; Mascarenhas, Joseph B; Shea, Christopher R
\\u000a New developments in the field of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) research have been reviewed. Novel techniques have rendered\\u000a interesting results in studies on SSC kinetics in nonprimate mammals as well as in primates, and the classical views on the\\u000a nature and the behavior of SSC are being challenged. However, no definite conclusions can yet be drawn. Many new proteins\\u000a have
The property of pluripotency confers the capacity for differentiation into a large number of cell types including extra-embryonic,\\u000a somatic and germinal cells. During normal development, pluripotency is acquired by the cells of the early embryo, which shortly\\u000a thereafter undergo differentiation, whereas embryonic stem cells (ESCs) uniquely maintain pluripotency while undergoing extensive\\u000a in vitro proliferation. Studies using ESCs have begun to
Cancers comprise heterogeneous cells, ranging from highly proliferative immature precursors to more differentiated cell lineages.\\u000a In the last decade, several groups have demonstrated the existence of cancer stem cells in both nonsolid solid tumors, including\\u000a some of the brain: glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), medulloblastoma, and ependymoma. These cells, like their normal counterpart\\u000a in homologous tissues, are multipotent, undifferentiated, self-sustaining, yet transformed
Sara G. M. Piccirillo; Elena Binda; Roberta Fiocco; Angelo L. Vescovi; Khalid Shah
Although progress has been made, greater efforts are needed to promote faculty diversity at the college and university levels,\\u000a especially in STEM fields. Thus, it is important to elucidate best practices both for increasing awareness of diversity issues\\u000a pertaining to higher education and for implementing change. This article focuses on the outcomes of a diversity workshop for\\u000a college and university
Paul L. Hill; Rose A. Shaw; Jan R. Taylor; Brittan L. Hallar
\\u000a The demonstrated capacity and potential of pluripotent stem cells to repair the damaged tissues holds great promise in development\\u000a of novel cell replacement therapeutics for treating various chronic and degenerative diseases. However, previous reports show\\u000a that stem cell therapy, in autologous and allogeneic settings, triggers immune responses to stem cells as shown by lymphocyte\\u000a infiltration and inflammation. Therefore, an important
\\u000a A tissue-specific stem cell niche functions to direct either self-renewal or differentiation. The niche comprises all local\\u000a cues that can be sensed by the cell including soluble and insoluble signals, physical forces and cell–cell contacts. Approximating\\u000a the stem cell niche through the utilization of biomaterials may give rise to a greater understanding of the biology of the\\u000a stem cell niche
The University of Washington's award-winning DO-IT Center (Disabilities, Opportunities, Internetworking and Technology) collaborates with AccessSTEM, which has been funded by the National Science Foundation since 2002. AccessSTEM, aims to "broaden participation in STEM fields and improve those fields with the perspectives and expertise of people with disabilities." Visitors to the site who are disabled students, faculty, employees, or just the interested public will find much to peruse or read in-depth. There is the longitudinal transition study link in the "For Faculty and Employees" section that tracks the college and career paths of students with disabilities who used the DO-IT program. Visitors will find the "Promising Practices" section, also in the Faculty and Employees section, to be filled with useful articles and innovations. There is "A Smart Board in the Classroom: A Promising Practice for Engaging Students", which addresses how the use of a Smart Board can aid students with attention deficits, visual impairments, and other disabling conditions without bringing the whole class' attention to them.
The gastric epithelium is continuously regenerated by gastric stem cells, which give rise to various kinds of daughter cells, including parietal cells, chief cells, surface mucous cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells. The self-renewal and differentiation of gastric stem cells need delicate regulation to maintain the normal physiology of the stomach. Recently, it was hypothesized that cancer stem cells drive the cancer growth and metastasis. In contrast to conventional clonal evolution hypothesis, only cancer stem cells can initiate tumor formation, self-renew, and differentiate into various kinds of daughter cells. Because gastric cancer can originate from gastric stem cells and their self-renewal mechanism can be used by gastric cancer stem cells, we review here how critical signaling pathways, including hedgehog, Wnt, Notch, epidermal growth factor, and bone morphogenetic protein signaling, may regulate the self-renewal and differentiation of gastric stem cells and gastric cancer stem cells. In addition, the precancerous change of the gastric epithelium and the status of isolating gastric cancer stem cells from patients are reviewed.
Cellular and tissue regeneration in the gastrointestinal tract and liver depends on stem cells with properties of longevity, self-renewal and multipotency. Progress in stem cell research and the identification of potential esophageal, gastric, intestinal, colonic, hepatic and pancreatic stem cells provides hope for the use of stem cells in regenerative medicine and treatments for disease. Embryonic stem cells and induced
The ability of stem cells to differentiate into various different cell types holds great promise for the treatment of irreversible\\u000a tissue damage that occurs in many debilitating conditions. With stem cell research advancing at a tremendous pace, it is becoming\\u000a clear that one of the greatest hurdles to successful stem cell-derived therapies is overcoming immune rejection of the transplant.\\u000a Although
Tracy S. P. Heng; Jarrod A. Dudakov; Danika M. P. Khong; Ann P. Chidgey; Richard L. Boyd
The stem cell field in veterinary medicine continues to evolve rapidly both experimentally and clinically. Stem cells are\\u000a most commonly used in clinical veterinary medicine in therapeutic applications for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries\\u000a in horses and dogs. New technologies of assisted reproduction are being developed to apply the properties of spermatogonial\\u000a stem cells to preserve endangered animal species. The
Stem cells are characterized by their potential immortality and are capable of self-renewal and differentiation. Stem cells\\u000a are proposed to provide the potential to cure degenerative diseases and to give important clues regarding human development\\u000a and aging. However, stem cell research has evoked enthusiasm and passionate debate regarding the ethics of their use in medicine\\u000a and reproduction. In this article,
Autologous transplantation of stem cells is a natural phenomenon at birth in mammals via the umbilical cord. Here, we discuss that a delay in the cord clamping may increase stem cell supply to the baby, thereby allowing an innate stem cell therapy that can render acute benefits in the case of neonatal disease, as well as long-term benefits against age-related diseases. PMID:20020331
Sanberg, Paul R; Park, Dong-Hyuk; Borlongan, Cesar V
Minnesota's iSeek website "works with the state's workforce development and education authorities to develop and inform policy and to strategize services for career planning, education and e-learning, and workforce development." But the resources on the STEM Careers and Skills section of the site aren't just for those people living in Minnesota; this section provides all visitors the opportunity to explore STEM career skills that can be helpful no matter what state they live in. Visitors interested in learning what STEM skills are, should check out the link "Understanding STEM Skills". Here key STEM skills are outlined, such as analytical skills, science skills, technical, and math skills. The site also goes on to outline some of the soft skills that those in STEM careers should have, such as leadership, organization, communication, and creative skills. Visitors can take a free 5-10 minute "Skills Assessment" to determine which of their interests and skills match up with STEM careers. The "STEM Careers" link has a list of high-demand STEM careers, average hourly wage, and typical education requirements.
Stem cells have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cell types. Both cell-intrinsic and extrinsic factors may contribute to aging-related decline in stem cell function and loss of stemness. The maintenance of cellular homeostasis requires timely removal of toxic proteins and damaged organelles that accumulate with age or in pathological conditions. Autophagy is one of the main strategies to eliminate unwanted cytoplasmic materials thereby ultimately preventing cellular damage. Here, we shall discuss the accumulating evidence suggesting that autophagy plays a critical role in the homeostatic control of stem cell functions during aging, tissue regeneration, and cellular reprogramming.
Pan, Huize; Cai, Ning; Li, Mo; Liu, Guang-Hui; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos
Stem cells have the ability to differentiate into specific cell types. The 2 defining characteristics of a stem cell are perpetual self-renewal and the ability to differentiate into a specialized adult cell type. There are 2 major classes of stem cells: pluripotent cells, which can become any cell in the adult body, and multipotent cells, which are restricted to becoming a more limited population of cells. Cell sources, characteristics, differentiation, and therapeutic applications are discussed. Stem cells have great potential in tissue regeneration and repair, but much still needs to be learned about their biology, manipulation, and safety before their full therapeutic potential can be achieved. PMID:19242274
Reservoir designs consist of two primary features including the stem(s) and the body segment. The stem is either an integral part of the reservoir or is joined at some point in the fabrication sequence. The current interest is in high strength stems for advanced reservoir designs. The processing necessary to achieve these strength levels may result in heavily cold worked microstructures which may not interface well with the stem requirements. For instance, cold worked 316 plate stock has shown decreased hydrogen compatibility when contrasted to the annealed version in laboratory tests. More recently, Precision Forge produced a 100 ksi yield strength, 304L stem forging with a heavily deformed microstructure which also may show decreased compatibility in hydrogen. The proposed forging contract will evaluate the influence of forging parameters on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 304L and 316 stem forgings. A summary of the data available on 304L stem forgings is shown graphically. The yield strength values are shown for each set of forging parameters. Tensile tests and microstructural examination will be conducted to complete the information for 304L and create a similar graph for 316 stem forgings.
Stem cells are being investigated for their potential use in regenerative medicine. A series of remarkable studies suggested that adult stem cells undergo novel patterns of development by a process referred to as transdifferentiation or plasticity. These observations fueled an exciting period of discovery and high expectations followed by controversy that emerged from data suggesting cell-cell fusion as an alternate interpretation for transdifferentiation. However, data supporting stem cell plasticity are extensive and cannot be easily dismissed. Myocardial regeneration is perhaps the most widely studied and debated example of stem cell plasticity. Early reports from animal and clinical investigations disagree on the extent of myocardial renewal in adults, but evidence indicates that cardiomyocytes are generated in what was previously considered a postmitotic organ. On the basis of postmortem microscopic analysis, it is proposed that renewal is achieved by stem cells that infiltrate normal and infarcted myocardium. To further understand the role of stem cells in regeneration, it is incumbent on us to develop instrumentation and technologies to monitor myocardial repair over time in large animal models. This may be achieved by tracking labeled stem cells as they migrate into myocardial infarctions. In addition, we must begin to identify the environmental cues that are needed for stem cell trafficking and we must define the genetic and cellular mechanisms that initiate transdifferentiation. Only then will we be able to regulate this process and begin to realize the full potential of stem cells in regenerative medicine. PMID:12480809
Multipotent adult stem cells have many potential therapeutic applications. Our recent findings suggest that hair follicles are a promising source of easily accessible multipotent stem cells. Stem cells in the hair follicle area express the neural stem cell marker nestin, suggesting that hair-follicle stem cells and neural stem cells have common features. Nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can form neurons and other cell types, and thus adult hair follicle stem cells could have important therapeutic applications, particularly for neurologic diseases. Transplanted hair follicle stem cells promote the functional recovery of injured peripheral nerve and spinal cord. Recent findings suggest that direct transplantation of hair-follicle stem cells without culture can promote nerve repair, which makes them potentially clinically practical. Human hair follicle stem cells as well as mouse hair follicle stem cells promote nerve repair and can be applied to test the hypothesis that human hair follicle stem cells can provide a readily available source of neurologically therapeutic stem cells. The use of hair follicle stem cells for nerve regeneration overcomes critical problems of embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells in that the hair follicle stem cells are multipotent, readily accessible, non-oncogenic, and are not associated with ethical issues. PMID:21036545
Amoh, Yasuyuki; Katsuoka, Kensei; Hoffman, Robert M
Stem cell leukemia (SCL) protein has been shown to be an essential transcription factor during hematopoietic development in the embryo. In adult hematopoiesis, however, the role for SCL has remained largely unknown, whereas it is expressed in bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In this study, we performed HSC transplantation and an in vitro HSC differen- tiation assay using retrovirally
|This article describes a framework for how to provide more accessible, relevant, and effective instruction in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education to all students. The STEM for All initiative asserts that all students, including those with disabilities and other diverse learning needs, should be included in…
6. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, WITH LOG ACCESS STRUCTURE, LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Bluebell Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.2 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT
5. VIEW SHOWING UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, WITH LOG ACCESS STRUCTURE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Bluebell Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.2 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT
|We are in the STEM generation whose comprehensive purpose is to resolve (1) societal needs for new technological and scientific advances; (2) economic needs for national security; and (3) personal needs to become a fulfilled, productive, knowledgeable citizen. STEM specifically refers to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, but now…
ABSTRACT The state of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education in the United States has seen some unfavorable assessments over the past decade. In early February, 2010 the House of Representatives heard testimony on undergraduate and graduate education. The message from the panel, which included experts from academia, STEM-based industries, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) was dire and required an urgent response. The experts along with the committeeÃ?Â?Ã?Â¢Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?s chairperson, U. S. Representative Daniel Lipinski (D-IL) cited that the complexity of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics applications and coursework and the methodology utilized to teach these subjects are forcing students out of these disciplines. As the National Academies described in its 2007 report Rising Above the Gathering Storm, successful STEM education is not just an academic pursuitÃ?Â?Ã?Â¢Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?itÃ?Â?Ã?Â¢Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?Ã?Â?s a necessity for competing in the knowledge-based economy that the United States had a key role in creating. The potential for action is being made available again as the America COMPETES Act of 2007 is up for reauthorization. Its initial focus was on STEM education at the K-12 levels, but efforts at the undergraduate and graduate levels are needed to retain students to fill the jobs left vacant as baby boomers retire. The Educational Advancement Alliance, Inc. (EAA) has for two decades created programs that have not only addressed the issues of ensuring that students are aptly prepared for college but have focused its efforts over the past decade on increasing the number of students who pursue degrees in STEM disciplines. For the EAA, the introduction of the wonders of science begins at the elementary and middle school level via the Learning Lab, a state-of-the-art mobile science laboratory that visits students in grades 4-6 at the various schools throughout Philadelphia and The Math/Tech Academy which meets on Saturdays for students in grades 5-7. For the past two years the EAA has assisted college graduates in their quest to attain advanced degrees in STEM by providing fellowships. The EAA continued this effort by recruiting and providing fellowships to students who aspired to continue their education at the graduate level. The fellowships provided funding for tuition, fees, books, technology, and stipends to assist with room, board, and living expenses during the academic year and salary, transportation, and living expenses to those students who secured internships with the Department of Energy. Additionally the EAA designed and implemented needed support systems to ensure successful completion of the Masters degree programs, including but not limited to membership in professional associations, attendance at industry and academic conferences, and professional development workshops, and tutorial assistance if needed. This program assisted over 80 students directly and society-at-large by helping to educate and develop future physicists, engineers, biostatisticians, and researchers who will have the necessary skillsets to fill the increasing numbers of positions that require such expertise.
The identification of cardiac progenitor cells in mammals raises the possibility that the human heart contains a population of stem cells capable of generating cardiomyocytes and coronary vessels. The characterization of human cardiac stem cells (hCSCs) would have important clinical implications for the management of the failing heart. We have established the conditions for the isolation and expansion of c-kit-positive hCSCs from small samples of myocardium. Additionally, we have tested whether these cells have the ability to form functionally competent human myocardium after infarction in immunocompromised animals. Here, we report the identification in vitro of a class of human c-kit-positive cardiac cells that possess the fundamental properties of stem cells: they are self-renewing, clonogenic, and multipotent. hCSCs differentiate predominantly into cardiomyocytes and, to a lesser extent, into smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. When locally injected in the infarcted myocardium of immunodeficient mice and immunosuppressed rats, hCSCs generate a chimeric heart, which contains human myocardium composed of myocytes, coronary resistance arterioles, and capillaries. The human myocardium is structurally and functionally integrated with the rodent myocardium and contributes to the performance of the infarcted heart. Differentiated human cardiac cells possess only one set of human sex chromosomes excluding cell fusion. The lack of cell fusion was confirmed by the Cre-lox strategy. Thus, hCSCs can be isolated and expanded in vitro for subsequent autologous regeneration of dead myocardium in patients affected by heart failure of ischemic and nonischemic origin.
Bearzi, Claudia; Rota, Marcello; Hosoda, Toru; Tillmanns, Jochen; Nascimbene, Angelo; De Angelis, Antonella; Yasuzawa-Amano, Saori; Trofimova, Irina; Siggins, Robert W.; LeCapitaine, Nicole; Cascapera, Stefano; Beltrami, Antonio P.; D'Alessandro, David A.; Zias, Elias; Quaini, Federico; Urbanek, Konrad; Michler, Robert E.; Bolli, Roberto; Kajstura, Jan; Leri, Annarosa; Anversa, Piero
This applet illustrates the challenges of communicating with extraterrestrial civilizations. It shows a galaxy with a diameter of 100,000 light years. The user is able to control the average lifetime of communicating civilizations and the birth rate of such civilizations in the Milky Way galaxy. After hitting start, Earth appears and begins transmitting its signal. When Earth receives a signal from another civilization, a line appears connecting them. The applet will automatically pause when Earth ceases to communicate. Signals change color when a civilization ceases to exist. This is part of a larger collection of applets by STEM Colorado focused mostly on topics in astronomy.
Glycolipids are compounds containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety.\\u000a Because of their expression patterns and the intracellular localization patterns, glycolipids, including stage-specific embryonic\\u000a antigens (SSEA-3, SSEA-4, and possibly SSEA-1) and gangliosides (e.g., GD3, GD2, and A2B5 antigens), have been used as marker\\u000a molecules of stem cells. In this review, I will
Summary Niches regulate lineage-specific stem cell self-renewal vs. differentiation in vivo and are comprised of supportive cells and extracellular matrix components arranged in a 3-dimensional topography of controlled stiffness in the presence of oxygen and growth factor gradients. Mimicking stem cell niches in a defined manner will facilitate production of the large numbers of stem cells needed to realize the promise of regenerative medicine and gene therapy. Progress has been made in mimicking components of the niche. Immobilizing cell-associated Notch ligands increased the self-renewal of hematopoietic (blood) stem cells. Culture on a fibrous scaffold that mimics basement membrane texture increased the expansion of hematopoietic and embryonic stem cells. Finally, researchers have created intricate patterns of cell-binding domains and complex oxygen gradients.
Dellatore, Shara M.; Garcia, A. Sofia; Miller, William M.
Emerging evidence suggests that cancer stem cells account for the initiation and progression of cancer. While many types of\\u000a cancer stem cells with specific markers have been isolated and identified, a variety of differences among them began to be\\u000a appreciated. Cancer stem cells are hierarchical populations that consist of precancerous stem cells, primary cancer stem cells,\\u000a migrating cancer stem cells
Hai-Guang Liu; Chong Chen; Han Yang; Yi-Fei Pan; Xiao-Hua Zhang
A series of activities were undertaken to understand the underrepresentation of people with disabilities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers and increase their participation in these fields. "AccessSTEM" collaborated with key stakeholders to conduct a "Capacity-Building Institute" ("CBI") in April 2009; share…
This paper discusses the ethical and political issues that stem cell research faces. Stem cell research holds great promise for treating serious diseases but does so by using materials from the very beginning of life. There is a division among different sects of society as some see a important ethical principle being threatened, while others see scientific progress being threatened
The isolation and characterization of mammary stem cells is fundamental to understanding mammary gland development and tissue homeostasis as well as breast oncogenesis. Recent studies have led to the prospective isolation of pluripotential stem cells from the mouse mammary gland through the identification of specific cell-surface markers and transplan- tation of cells into the mammary stromal microenvironment. A single cell
There are a number of well-intentioned STEM initiatives, some designed to improve the recruitment and retention of science teachers. Sometimes it appears that the initiators are remote from direct contact with the "grass roots" issues that feed the "stem" on which the blossoms of young enthusiastic recruits to the science teaching profession are…
From March 1991 through 31st December 2007, 2042 patients underwent stem cell transplantation at the Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research Center, affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. These transplantations included 1405 allogeneic stem cell transplantation, 624 autologous stem cell transplantation, and 13 syngeneic stem cell transplantation. Stem cell transplantation was performed for various diseases including acute myelogenous leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphoblastic leukemia, thalassemia major, sickle cell thalassemia, sickle cell disease, multiple myeloma, myelodysplasia, mucopolysaccharidosis, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, severe aplastic anemia, plasma cell leukemia, Niemann-Pick disease, Fanconi anemia, severe combine immunodeficiency, congenital neutropenia, leukocyte adhesion deficiencies, Chediak-Higashi syndrome, osteopetrosis, histiocytosis X, Hurler syndrome, amyloidosis, systemic sclerosis, breast cancer, Ewing's sarcoma, testicular cancer, germ cell tumors, neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, ovarian cancer, Wilms' tumor, rhabdomyosarcoma, pancreatoblastoma, and multiple sclerosis. We had 105 cellular therapies for postmyocardial infarction, multiple sclerosis, cirrhosis, head of femur necrosis, and renal cell carcinoma. About 30 patients were retransplanted in this center. About 74.9% of the patients (1530 of 2042) remained alive between one to 168 months after stem cell transplantation. Nearly 25.1% (512 of 2042) of our patients died after stem cell transplantation. The causes of deaths were relapse, infections, hemorrhagic cystitis, graft versus host disease, and others. PMID:19111033
|The generative economic power and social influence of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) has made the production of a capable science and engineering workforce a priority among business and policy leaders. They are rightly concerned that without a robust STEM workforce, the nation will become less competitive in the global…
Carnevale, Anthony P.; Smith, Nicole; Melton, Michelle
In the adult organism, all tissue renewal and regeneration depends ultimately on somatic stem cells, and the eye is no exception. The importance of limbal stem cells in the maintenance of the corneal epithelium has long been recognised, and such cells are now used clinically for repair of a severely damaged cornea. The slow cycling nature of lens epithelial cells
The Harvard Stem Cell Institute (HSCI) was formed in 2004 to "draw Harvard's resources together by establishing a cooperative community of scientists and practitioners, by developing new ways to fund and support research, and by promoting opportunities for open communication and education." Their website features videos of HSCI scientists speaking about their selected disease programs. Visitors can click on a video as it appears, or they can wait for one of the next videos in the rotation. To read about the disease programs, visitors can click on the "Research" tab near the top of the page, and then select the "Research Programs" link to read about the different programs and the lead researcher. Research programs include the "Blood Disease Program", "Cancer Program", "Cardiovascular Disease Program", "Kidney Disease Program", "Nervous System Diseases Program", and the "Translational Research Program". The "Resources" tab near the top of the page has video of a great series of education sessions that are held quarterly by HSCI, and which address the medical, religious, economic, and public policy concerns that stem cell research presents. There are eight sessions to watch, and each runs longer than an hour, so each topic is covered in exquisite detail.
The introduction of stem cells in cardiology provides new tools in understanding the regenerative processes of the normal and pathologic heart and opens new options for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The feasibility of adult bone marrow autologous and allogenic cell therapy of ischemic cardiomyopathies has been demonstrated in humans. However, many unresolved questions remain to link experimental with clinical observations. The demonstration that the heart is a self-renewing organ and that its cell turnover is regulated by myocardial progenitor cells offers novel pathogenetic mechanisms underlying cardiac diseases and raises the possibility to regenerate the damaged heart. Indeed, cardiac stem progenitor cells (CSPCs) have recently been isolated from the human heart by several laboratories although differences in methodology and phenotypic profile have been described. The present review points to the potential role of CSPCs in the onset and development of congestive heart failure and its reversal by regenerative approaches aimed at the preservation and expansion of the resident pool of progenitors. PMID:22114897
Epidermal stem cells sustain the adult skin for a lifetime through self-renewal and the production of committed progenitors. These stem cells generate progeny that will undergo terminal differentiation leading to the development of a protective epidermal barrier. Whereas the molecular mechanisms that govern epidermal barrier repair and renewal have been extensively studied, pathways controlling stem cell differentiation remain poorly understood. Asymmetric cell divisions, small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs), chromatin remodeling complexes, and multiple differentiation factors tightly control the balance of stem and progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, and disruption of this balance leads to skin diseases. In this review, we summarize and discuss current advances in our understanding of the mechanisms regulating epidermal stem and progenitor cell differentiation, and explore new relationships for maintenance of skin barrier function.
Cangkrama, Michael; Ting, Stephen B.; Darido, Charbel
Recently, there has been growing interest in applying bioprinting techniques to stem cell research. Several bioprinting methods have been developed utilizing acoustics, piezoelectricity, and lasers to deposit living cells onto receiving substrates. Using these technologies, spatially defined gradients of immobilized biomolecules can be engineered to direct stem cell differentiation into multiple subpopulations of different lineages. Stem cells can also be patterned in a high-throughput manner onto flexible implementation patches for tissue regeneration or onto substrates with the goal of accessing encapsulated stem cells of interest for genomic analysis. Here, we review recent achievements with bioprinting technologies in stem cell research, and identify future challenges and potential applications including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, wound healing, and genomics. PMID:23260439
The medical use of low level laser (LLL) irradiation has been occurring for decades, primarily in the area of tissue healing and inflammatory conditions. Despite little mechanistic knowledge, the concept of a non-invasive, non-thermal intervention that has the potential to modulate regenerative processes is worthy of attention when searching for novel methods of augmenting stem cell-based therapies. Here we discuss the use of LLL irradiation as a "photoceutical" for enhancing production of stem cell growth/chemoattractant factors, stimulation of angiogenesis, and directly augmenting proliferation of stem cells. The combination of LLL together with allogeneic and autologous stem cells, as well as post-mobilization directing of stem cells will be discussed.
The cancer stem cell theory postulates that tumors are sustained by a select cell population with specific features, such as self-renewal ability and the capacity to give rise to a heterogeneous mass of tumor cells. The existence of such cells has been demonstrated for glioblastoma, with these cells being referred to as glioma stem cells (GSCs). Glioblastomas are notoriously heterogeneous tumors, however, and the isolation and characterization of their stem cells will require further investigations. Furthermore, the lack of unequivocal markers for GSCs and a partial overlap in characteristics with other cells often lead to confusion. Here, we review the characteristics necessary for a glioma cell to be considered a stem cell, and we adopt our murine glioblastoma model based on genetically modified neural stem cells to illustrate and discuss the GSC concept. PMID:23584571
Sensory stimuli to the larynx evoke a laryngeal adductor reflex mediated by the brain stem via superior and recurrent laryngeal nerves. Aberrant laryngeal reflexes have been proposed to explain a number of poorly understood disorders, including "reflex apnea," idiopathic laryngospasm, and sudden infant death syndrome. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate far field brain stem recordings following stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve to determine whether laryngeal brain stem response is a valid measure of laryngeal activity at the brain stem level. The nerve was stimulated electrically in adult cats, and the resultant laryngeal adductor response as well as far field brain stem activity was recorded. For the latter, six reproducible positive and five reproducible negative waves were obtained via posterior pharyngeal (+) and posterior cervical (-) recording electrodes. Response threshold and latencies were measured and evaluated as a function of stimulus parameters. Wave latencies corresponded closely to those reported in prior near and far field evoked response recordings. PMID:2782801
Different types of pluripotent stem cells can be identified and cultured in vitro. Here an overview is presented of the various pluripotent stem cells types. Embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells that have been cultured in vitro provided the groundwork for future pluripotent cell cultures. Conditions established for these cells such as culture on a feeder layer of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and the importance of fetal calf serum were initially also used for the culture of mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell masses of blastocysts. Embryonic stem cells derived from human blastocysts were found to require different conditions and are cultured in the presence of activin and basic fibroblast growth factor. Recently pluripotent stem cells have also been derived from mouse peri-implantation epiblasts. Since these epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) require the same conditions as the human ES cells it has been suggested that human ES cells are more similar to mouse EpiSCs than to mouse ES cells. Pluripotent cell lines have also been derived from migratory primordial germ cells and spermatogonial stem cells. The creation of pluripotent stem cells from adult cells by the introduction of reprogramming transcription factors, so-called induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells allowed the derivation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells without the need of creation of a human blastocyst after cloning by somatic cells nuclear transfer. Recently it has become clear however that iPS cells may be quite different to ES cells in terms of epigenetics. PMID:21747344
Stem cell research is a innovative technology that focuses on using undifferentiated cells able to self-renew through the asymmetrical or symmetrical divisions. Three types of stem cells have been studied in laboratory including embryonic stem cell, adult stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent stem cells derived from the inner cell mass and it can give rise to any fetal or adult cell type. Adult stem cells are multipotent, have the ability to differentiate into a limited number of specialized cell types, and have been obtained from the bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, placenta and adipose tissue. Stem cell therapy is the most promising therapy for several degenerative and devastating diseases including digestive tract disease such as liver failure, inflammatory bowel disease, Celiac sprue, and pancreatitis. Further understanding of biological properties of stem cells will lead to safe and successful stem cell therapies. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2011;58: 125-132). PMID:21960099
Stem cells, while difficult to define, hold great promise as tools for understanding development and as therapy. However, this difficulty in defining stem cells has led to a multiplicity of stem cells that may or may not be distinct. The lack of common standards or definitions, the absence of a common forum for discussion, and the range in the ability to manipulate his/her favorite system of stem cells has led to further fragmentation of a field bedeviled by controversy. I suggest that stratification and classification of stem cells on the basis of their function, characteristics, and capabilities would be of enormous benefit to the community. This absence of uniform nomenclature and classification has led to many contradictory claims as to the abilities of stem cells and has made it very difficult to generalize across systems and cell types. I illustrate the problem by providing two examples of how the lack of uniform definitions has slowed progress. I suggest that the effort to establish a consensus on what constitutes a tissue-specific stem cell (definition) and how one would stratify cells (classification) would greatly facilitate progress and perhaps help resolve some of the outstanding controversies. PMID:15588501
On April 3, 2013, the fourth biennial StemCONN conference took place at the Omni Hotel at Yale in New Haven, Connecticut. This conference featured talks by scientists from across the country who are currently at the forefront of stem cell research, as well as talks by Edison Liu, President and CEO of the Jackson Laboratory, and Jonathan Rotherberg, PhD, a Yale alumnus and Ion Torrent Systems Founder and CEO. The conference highlighted the importance of stem cell research to both science and medicine and emphasized the necessity of continued government funding for this research, both in Connecticut and nationwide. PMID:24058317
Increasing international travel and trade have rendered US borders more porous and dramatically increased the risk of introductions of invasive plant pests into agricultural crops. Currently in Florida, one such invasive species is Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), a bacterial plant pathogen ...
The objectives of this case-control study were to quantify levels of bole, large branch, ... Fruiting bodies of H. thouarsianum and other wood decay fungi, decay ... of the sudden oak death second science symposium: the state of our knowledge.
Cancer metastasis, resistance to therapies and disease recurrence are significant hurdles to successful treatment of breast cancer. Identifying mechanisms by which cancer spreads, survives treatment regimes and regenerates more aggressive tumors are critical to improving patient survival. Substantial evidence gathered over the last 10 years suggests that breast cancer progression and recurrence is supported by cancer stem cells (CSCs). Understanding how CSCs form and how they contribute to the pathology of breast cancer will greatly aid the pursuit of novel therapies targeted at eliminating these cells. This review will summarize what is currently known about the origins of breast CSCs, their role in disease progression and ways in which they may be targeted therapeutically. PMID:23986719
This applet demonstrates how astronomers measure the properties of extra-solar planets by detecting planetary transits and eclipses. The applet shows a planet in orbit around a star. A graph plots the total brightness of the star as the planet orbits around it. The user can control the star's radius, the star's temperature, the planet's radius, the orbital radius and the albedo. The user can also see how the spectrum of the illuminated side of the planet, due to both the reflected starlight and the emitted planetary radiation, dependes on wavelength, albedo, and the parameters of the system. This is part of a larger collection of applets by STEM Colorado focused mostly on topics in astronomy.
The discovery of adult stem cells in most adult tissues is the basis of a number of clinical studies that are carried out, with therapeutic use of hematopoietic stem cells as a prime example. Intense scientific debate is still ongoing as to whether adult stem cells may have a greater plasticity than previously thought. Although cells with some features of embryonic stem cells that, among others, express Oct4, Nanog and SSEA1 are isolated from fresh tissue, it is not clear if the greater differentiation potential is acquired during cell culture. Moreover, adult more pluripotent cells do not have all pluripotent characteristics typical for embryonic stem cells. Recently, some elegant studies were published in which adult cells could be completely reprogrammed to embryonic stem cell-like cells by overexpression of some key transcription factors for pluripotency (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc). It will be interesting for the future to investigate the exact mechanisms underlying this reprogramming and whether similar transcription factor pathways are present and/or can be activated in adult more pluripotent stem cells.
Trophoblast stem cells (TSC) are the precursors of the differentiated cells of the placenta. In the mouse, TSC can be derived from outgrowths of either blastocyst polar trophectoderm (TE) or extraembryonic ectoderm (ExE), which originates from polar TE after implantation. The mouse TSC niche appears to be located within the ExE adjacent to the epiblast, on which it depends for essential growth factors, but whether this cellular architecture is the same in other species remains to be determined. Mouse TSC self-renewal can be sustained by culture on mitotically inactivated feeder cells, which provide one or more factors related to the NODAL pathway, and a medium supplemented with FGF4, heparin, and fetal bovine serum. Repression of the gene network that maintains pluripotency and emergence of the transcription factor pathways that specify a trophoblast (TR) fate enables TSC derivation in vitro and placental formation in vivo. Disrupting the pluripotent network of embryonic stem cells (ESC) causes them to default to a TR ground state. Pluripotent cells that have acquired sublethal chromosomal alterations may be sequestered into TR for similar reasons. The transition from ESC to TSC, which appears to be unidirectional, reveals important aspects of initial fate decisions in mice. TSC have yet to be derived from domestic species in which remarkable TR growth precedes embryogenesis. Recent derivation of TSC from blastocysts of the rhesus monkey suggests that isolation of the human equivalents may be possible and will reveal the extent to which mechanisms uncovered by using animal models are true in our own species. PMID:21106963
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different gamma radiation doses on the growth of Alternaria alternata and on the production of toxins alternariol (AOH), and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) in sunflower seed samples. After irradiation with 2, 5 and 7 kGy, the spore mass was resuspended in sterile distilled water and the suspension was inoculated into sunflower seeds. The number of colony-forming units per gram (CFU/g) was determined after culture on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol and Dichloran Chloramphenicol Malt Extract Agar. The presence of AOH and AME was investigated by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The radiation doses used resulted in a reduction of the number of A. alternata CFU/g and of AOH and AME levels when compared to the nonirradiated control group. Maximum reduction of the fungus (98.5%) and toxins (99.9%) was observed at a dose of 7 and 5 kGy, respectively. Under the present conditions, gamma radiation was found to be an alternative for the control of A. alternata and, consequently, of AOH and AME production in sunflower seeds. PMID:19835783
Braghini, R; Sucupira, M; Rocha, L O; Reis, T A; Aquino, S; Corrêa, B
An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of the Alternaria toxins tenuazonic acid, alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, altertoxin I and tentoxin. Owing to its instability, altenusin could not be determined. The sample preparation includes an acidic acetonitrile/water/methanol extraction, followed by SPE clean-up step, before injection into the UPLC-MS/MS system. The separation was made on an Acquity UPLC column using a water/acetonitrile gradient with ammonium hydrogen carbonate as a modifier. Matrix compounds of real samples led to enhancement as well as suppression of the target compounds, depending on analyte and matrix. The recoveries were between 58 and 109% at a level of 10 ?g/kg. Eighty-five tomato products, consisting of peeled and minced tomatoes, soup and sauces, tomato purées and concentrates, ketchup as well as dried and fresh tomatoes, were taken from the Swiss market in 2010. Tenuazonic acid was found most frequently (81 out of 85 samples) and in the highest levels of up to 790 ?g/kg. Alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether were found in lower concentrations, ranging from <1 to 33 ?g/kg for alternariol and <5 to 9 ?g/kg for alternariol monomethyl ether. Only a few samples were positive for altenuene and tentoxin. Altertoxin I was never detected. PMID:23605928
The Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol methyl ether (AME) are potential carcinogens. As planar compounds, AOH and AME are preferentially metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and 1A2. The most prominent regulator of CYP1A1 is the dimeric transcription factor complex AhR/ARNT, which is activated by planar ligands. Therefore, we studied the activation of AhR/ARNT by AOH and AME and monitored CYP1A1 induction in murine hepatoma cells (Hepa-1c1c7). Indeed, AOH and AME enhanced the levels of CYP1A1 in Hepa-1c1c7 cells but not in cells with inactivated AhR (Hepa-1c1c12) or ARNT (Hepa-1c1c4). AOH and AME did not increase the production of reactive oxygen species but reduced cell counts in Hepa-1c1c7 cells after 24 and 48 h. This effect, however, was independent of AhR/ARNT. At 48 h, AOH and AME increased apoptosis dependent on AhR and ARNT. In conclusion, AOH and AME are novel inducers of the AhR/ARNT pathway, which mediates induction of CYP1A1 and apoptosis and might thereby contribute to the toxicity of these mycotoxins. PMID:22120949
Cereal, fruit and vegetable products were analyzed for contamination with the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) using stable isotope dilution assays (SIDAs). Both toxins were practically not detected in cereals and cereal products: AOH-one out of 13 samples at a content of 4.1 ?g/kg; AME-two out of 13 samples at contents ranging between 0.2 and 0.6 ?g/kg. However, if cereals for animal nutrition were analyzed, much higher values were found: AOH-five out of six samples (13-250 ?g/kg); AME-six out of six samples (3-100 ?g/kg). This finding may pose a potential problem concerning animal health. AOH and AME were frequently detected in vegetable products: AOH-5 out of 10 samples (2.6-25 ?g/kg); AME-6 out of 10 samples (0.1-5 ?g/kg). Tomato products were affected, especially. The highest content of AOH (25 ?g/kg) and AME (5 ?g/kg) were found in triple concentrated tomato paste. Special wines like "Trockenbeerenauslese" or "Spätlese" (affected by noble rot in the vineyard) contained AOH (4/6 samples; 1.2-4.9 ?g/kg) and AME (4/6 samples; 0.1-0.3 ?g/kg), but the values did not exceed the values of both toxins that were found generally in wines. PMID:23605619
Asam, Stefan; Konitzer, Katharina; Rychlik, Michael
The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food pres