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Sample records for alternaria stem canker

  1. Phomopsis Stem Canker: A Reemerging Threat to Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis stem canker causes yield reductions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Europe, and North America. In the United States, Phomopsis stem canker incidence has increased 16-fold in the Northern Great Plains between 2001 and 2012. Although Diaporthe ...

  2. Phomopsis stem canker: a re-emerging threat to sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis stem canker frequently causes yield reductions on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Russia, Europe and North America. Between 2001 and 2012, the incidence of Phomopsis stem canker has increased 16 fold in the Northern Great Plains of the United...

  3. Phomopsis Stem Canker: A Reemerging Threat to Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Febina M; Alananbeh, Kholoud M; Jordahl, James G; Meyer, Scott M; Castlebury, Lisa A; Gulya, Thomas J; Markell, Samuel G

    2015-07-01

    Phomopsis stem canker causes yield reductions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Europe, and North America. In the United States, Phomopsis stem canker incidence has increased 16-fold in the Northern Great Plains between 2001 and 2012. Although Diaporthe helianthi was assumed to be the sole causal agent in the United States, a newly described species, D. gulyae, was found to be the primary cause of Phomopsis stem canker in Australia. To determine the identity of Diaporthe spp. causing Phomopsis stem canker in the Northern Great Plains, 275 infected stems were collected between 2010 and 2012. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region, elongation factor subunit 1-α, and actin gene regions of representative isolates, in comparison with those of type specimens, confirmed two species (D. helianthi and D. gulyae) in the United States. Differences in aggressiveness between the two species were determined using the stem-wound method in the greenhouse; overall, D. helianthi and D. gulyae did not vary significantly (P≤0.05) in their aggressiveness at 10 and 14 days after inoculation. These findings indicate that both Diaporthe spp. have emerged as sunflower pathogens in the United States, and have implications on the management of this disease. PMID:26121367

  4. Leaf Petiole and Stem Blight Disease of Sweet Potato Caused by Alternaria Bataticola in Uganda

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternaria leaf petiole and stem blight is an important disease of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus (L.) Lam.) in tropical and sub-tropical regions. In surveys conducted in Uganda from 2001 to 2003, disease incidence ranged from 0-49%. Symptoms of Alternaria leaf and stem blight disease consisted of sm...

  5. Rhizoctonia damping-off stem canker and root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani has been reported to cause damping-off and root rot of rhododendrons and azaleas. Damping-off often includes groups of dying and dead seedlings. Decline of rooted plants in containers results from both root rot and stem necrosis below or above the soil line. Root rot is usually no...

  6. Stability of Sweet Potato Cultivars to Alternaria Leaf and Stem Blight Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternaria leaf petiole and stem blight is an economically important disease of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatus L) in tropical and sub-tropical environments. Published research on cultivar resistance to the sweet potato disease is limited. To evaluate cultivar reaction and stability to the disease, mu...

  7. Comparative genomic analysis of duplicated homoeologous regions involved in the resistance of Brassica napus to stem canker.

    PubMed

    Fopa Fomeju, Berline; Falentin, Cyril; Lassalle, Gilles; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J; Delourme, Régine

    2015-01-01

    All crop species are current or ancient polyploids. Following whole genome duplication, structural and functional modifications result in differential gene content or regulation in the duplicated regions, which can play a fundamental role in the diversification of genes underlying complex traits. We have investigated this issue in Brassica napus, a species with a highly duplicated genome, with the aim of studying the structural and functional organization of duplicated regions involved in quantitative resistance to stem canker, a disease caused by the fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans. Genome-wide association analysis on two oilseed rape panels confirmed that duplicated regions of ancestral blocks E, J, R, U, and W were involved in resistance to stem canker. The structural analysis of the duplicated genomic regions showed a higher gene density on the A genome than on the C genome and a better collinearity between homoeologous regions than paralogous regions, as overall in the whole B. napus genome. The three ancestral sub-genomes were involved in the resistance to stem canker and the fractionation profile of the duplicated regions corresponded to what was expected from results on the B. napus progenitors. About 60% of the genes identified in these duplicated regions were single-copy genes while less than 5% were retained in all the duplicated copies of a given ancestral block. Genes retained in several copies were mainly involved in response to stress, signaling, or transcription regulation. Genes with resistance-associated markers were mainly retained in more than two copies. These results suggested that some genes underlying quantitative resistance to stem canker might be duplicated genes. Genes with a hydrolase activity that were retained in one copy or R-like genes might also account for resistance in some regions. Further analyses need to be conducted to indicate to what extent duplicated genes contribute to the expression of the resistance phenotype. PMID:26442081

  8. Comparative genomic analysis of duplicated homoeologous regions involved in the resistance of Brassica napus to stem canker

    PubMed Central

    Fopa Fomeju, Berline; Falentin, Cyril; Lassalle, Gilles; Manzanares-Dauleux, Maria J.; Delourme, Régine

    2015-01-01

    All crop species are current or ancient polyploids. Following whole genome duplication, structural and functional modifications result in differential gene content or regulation in the duplicated regions, which can play a fundamental role in the diversification of genes underlying complex traits. We have investigated this issue in Brassica napus, a species with a highly duplicated genome, with the aim of studying the structural and functional organization of duplicated regions involved in quantitative resistance to stem canker, a disease caused by the fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans. Genome-wide association analysis on two oilseed rape panels confirmed that duplicated regions of ancestral blocks E, J, R, U, and W were involved in resistance to stem canker. The structural analysis of the duplicated genomic regions showed a higher gene density on the A genome than on the C genome and a better collinearity between homoeologous regions than paralogous regions, as overall in the whole B. napus genome. The three ancestral sub-genomes were involved in the resistance to stem canker and the fractionation profile of the duplicated regions corresponded to what was expected from results on the B. napus progenitors. About 60% of the genes identified in these duplicated regions were single-copy genes while less than 5% were retained in all the duplicated copies of a given ancestral block. Genes retained in several copies were mainly involved in response to stress, signaling, or transcription regulation. Genes with resistance-associated markers were mainly retained in more than two copies. These results suggested that some genes underlying quantitative resistance to stem canker might be duplicated genes. Genes with a hydrolase activity that were retained in one copy or R-like genes might also account for resistance in some regions. Further analyses need to be conducted to indicate to what extent duplicated genes contribute to the expression of the resistance phenotype. PMID:26442081

  9. Canker sore

    MedlinePlus

    ... and minerals in the diet (especially iron, folic acid , or vitamin B-12 ) Hormonal changes Food allergies Anyone can develop a canker sore. Women are more likely to get them than men. Canker sores may run in families.

  10. Canker Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... week. Most of the time, canker sores are self-limiting. This means that they will go away ... creams applied to the sores to stronger systemic medications. Q: Can anything prevent them? A: The best ...

  11. Draft genome sequence of Diaporthe aspalathi isolate MS-SSC91, a fungus causing stem canker in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuxian; Song, Qijian; Martins, Alexandre M.; Cregan, Perry

    2016-01-01

    Diaporthe aspalathi (Syn. Diaporthe phaseolorum var. meridionalis) is the causal agent of the southern stem canker (SSC) disease in soybean. This disease can kill plants from the middle to the end of the growing season resulting in severe yield loss. The mechanisms of SSC disease development and pathogen invasion of soybean are not fully understood. The genome sequence of D. aspalathi has not been described. In this article, we report the successful assembly of the draft genome sequence of a D. aspalathi isolate, designated MS-SSC91, that was isolated from the stem of a field-grown soybean plant in Mississippi, USA in 2006. This study represents the first reported genome sequence of D. aspalathi in the Diaporthe-Phomopsis complex. The whole genome shotgun sequence of the MS-SSC91 isolate has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession LJJS00000000 and the sequences could be found at the site http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/GCA_001447215.1/. The MS-SSC91 genome sequences will provide information on the genetic basis of fungal infection of the soybean stem. It is valuable for studying soybean-fungal interactions and developing new control strategies for this pathogen. PMID:26981423

  12. Draft genome sequence of Diaporthe aspalathi isolate MS-SSC91, a fungus causing stem canker in soybean.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuxian; Song, Qijian; Martins, Alexandre M; Cregan, Perry

    2016-03-01

    Diaporthe aspalathi (Syn. Diaporthe phaseolorum var. meridionalis) is the causal agent of the southern stem canker (SSC) disease in soybean. This disease can kill plants from the middle to the end of the growing season resulting in severe yield loss. The mechanisms of SSC disease development and pathogen invasion of soybean are not fully understood. The genome sequence of D. aspalathi has not been described. In this article, we report the successful assembly of the draft genome sequence of a D. aspalathi isolate, designated MS-SSC91, that was isolated from the stem of a field-grown soybean plant in Mississippi, USA in 2006. This study represents the first reported genome sequence of D. aspalathi in the Diaporthe-Phomopsis complex. The whole genome shotgun sequence of the MS-SSC91 isolate has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession LJJS00000000 and the sequences could be found at the site http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/GCA_001447215.1/. The MS-SSC91 genome sequences will provide information on the genetic basis of fungal infection of the soybean stem. It is valuable for studying soybean-fungal interactions and developing new control strategies for this pathogen. PMID:26981423

  13. Three genetic groups of the Eucalyptus stem canker pathogen Teratosphaeria zuluensis introduced into Africa from an unknown source.

    PubMed

    Jimu, Luke; Chen, ShuaiFei; Wingfield, Michael J; Mwenje, Eddie; Roux, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    The Eucalyptus stem canker pathogen Teratosphaeria zuluensis was discovered in South Africa in 1988 and it has subsequently been found in several other African countries as well as globally. In this study, the population structure, genetic diversity and evolutionary history of T. z uluensis were analysed using microsatellite markers to gain an enhanced understanding of its movement in Africa. Isolates were collected from several sites in Malawi, Mozambique, Uganda and Zambia. Data obtained were compared with those previously published for a South African population. The data obtained from 334 isolates, amplified across eight microsatellite loci, were used for assignment, differentiation and genetic diversity tests. STRUCTURE analyses, θ st and genetic distances revealed the existence of two clusters, one dominated by isolates from South Africa and the other by isolates from the Zambezi basin including Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia. High levels of admixture were found within and among populations, dominated by the Mulanje population in Malawi. Moderate to low genetic diversity of the populations supports the previously held view that the pathogen was introduced into Africa. The clonal nature of the Ugandan population suggests a very recent introduction, most likely from southern Africa. PMID:26499489

  14. Alternaria redefined

    PubMed Central

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Binder, M.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Alternaria is a ubiquitous fungal genus that includes saprobic, endophytic and pathogenic species associated with a wide variety of substrates. In recent years, DNA-based studies revealed multiple non-monophyletic genera within the Alternaria complex, and Alternaria species clades that do not always correlate to species-groups based on morphological characteristics. The Alternaria complex currently comprises nine genera and eight Alternaria sections. The aim of this study was to delineate phylogenetic lineages within Alternaria and allied genera based on nucleotide sequence data of parts of the 18S nrDNA, 28S nrDNA, ITS, GAPDH, RPB2 and TEF1-alpha gene regions. Our data reveal a Pleospora/Stemphylium clade sister to Embellisia annulata, and a well-supported Alternaria clade. The Alternaria clade contains 24 internal clades and six monotypic lineages, the assemblage of which we recognise as Alternaria. This puts the genera Allewia, Brachycladium, Chalastospora, Chmelia, Crivellia, Embellisia, Lewia, Nimbya, Sinomyces, Teretispora, Ulocladium, Undifilum and Ybotromyces in synonymy with Alternaria. In this study, we treat the 24 internal clades in the Alternaria complex as sections, which is a continuation of a recent proposal for the taxonomic treatment of lineages in Alternaria. Embellisia annulata is synonymised with Dendryphiella salina, and together with Dendryphiella arenariae, are placed in the new genus Paradendryphiella. The sexual genera Clathrospora and Comoclathris, which were previously associated with Alternaria, cluster within the Pleosporaceae, outside Alternaria s. str., whereas Alternariaster, a genus formerly seen as part of Alternaria, clusters within the Leptosphaeriaceae. Paradendryphiella is newly described, the generic circumscription of Alternaria is emended, and 32 new combinations and 10 new names are proposed. A further 10 names are resurrected, while descriptions are provided for 16 new Alternaria sections. Taxonomic novelties: New combinations - Alternaria abundans (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria alternariae (Cooke) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria atra (Preuss) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria bornmuelleri (Magnus) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria botrytis (Preuss) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria caespitosa (de Hoog & C. Rubio) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria cantlous (Yong Wang bis & X.G. Zhang) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria caricis (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria cinerea (Baucom & Creamer) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria didymospora (Munt.-Cvetk.) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria fulva (Baucom & Creamer) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria hyacinthi (de Hoog & P.J. Mull. bis) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria indefessa (E.G. Simmons) Woudenberg & Crous, Alternaria leptinellae (E.G. Simmons & C.F. Hill) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria lolii (E.G. Simmons & C.F. Hill) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria multiformis (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria obclavata (Crous & U. Braun) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria obovoidea (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria oudemansii (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria oxytropis (Q. Wang, Nagao & Kakish.) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria penicillata (Corda) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria planifunda (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria proteae (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria scirpinfestans (E.G. Simmons & D.A. Johnson) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria scirpivora (E.G. Simmons & D.A. Johnson) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria septospora (Preuss) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria slovaca (Svob.-Pol., L. Chmel & Bojan.) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria subcucurbitae (Yong Wang bis & X.G. Zhang) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria tellustris (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria tumida (E.G. Simmons) Woudenb. & Crous, Paradendryphiella salina (G.K. Sutherl.) Woudenb. & Crous, Paradendryphiella arenariae (Nicot) Woudenb. & Crous. New names - Alternaria aspera Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria botryospora Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria brassicae-pekinensis Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria breviramosa Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria chlamydosporigena Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria concatenata Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria embellisia Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria heterospora Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria papavericola Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria terricola Woudenb. & Crous. Resurrected names - Alternaria cetera E.G. Simmons, Alternaria chartarum Preuss, Alternaria consortialis (Thüm.) J.W. Groves & S. Hughes, Alternaria cucurbitae Letendre & Roum., Alternaria dennisii M.B. Ellis, Alternaria eureka E.G. Simmons, Alternaria gomphrenae Togashi, Alternaria malorum (Ruehle) U. Braun, Crous & Dugan, Alternaria phragmospora Emden, Alternaria scirpicola (Fuckel) Sivan. New sections, all in Alternaria - sect. Chalastospora Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Cheiranthus Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Crivellia Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Dianthicola Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Embellisia Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Embellisioides Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Eureka Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Infectoriae Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Japonicae Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Nimbya Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Phragmosporae Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Pseudoulocladium Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Teretispora Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Ulocladioides Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Ulocladium Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Undifilum Woudenb. & Crous. New genus - Paradendryphiella Woudenb. & Crous. PMID:24014900

  15. Botryosphaeria Cane Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the more serious cane canker diseases of thornless blackberry plants in the eastern U.S. is caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea. Cane canker disease is highly destructive, often killing canes and reducing fruit yields to uneconomic levels. Cankers generally develop around one or more buds on th...

  16. Canker Sores (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kids Up for Sports Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Canker Sores KidsHealth > For Parents > Canker Sores Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? About Canker Sores Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Caring for Your Child About 1 in ...

  17. Ethanol attracts scolytid beetles to Phytophthora ramorum cankers on coast live oak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical abstract: Ethanol in sapwood was analyzed along vertical transects, through small spot cankers and larger basal cankers, of Phytophthora ramorum-infected stems of Quercus agrifolia at three sites in California. Trees with large basal cankers, known to attract scolytid beetles, had a 4.3 ti...

  18. Alternaria blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternaria blight of chickpea is caused by the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata. The pathogen has wide host range, and affects all above ground parts of the plant. The disease occurs sporadically and occasionally could be economically important and causes significant damage. The pathogen can ...

  19. Canker sore (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... which appears as a painful white or yellow ulcer surrounded by a bright red area. A canker sore sore can be triggered by emotional stress, dietary deficiencies, menstrual periods, hormonal changes, food allergies ...

  20. Myrothecium roridum leaf spot and stem canker on watermelon in the southern Great Plains: Possible factors for its outbreak

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diseases are generally the greatest yield-limiting factor for watermelon across the U.S. In 2010, a foliar and stem-lesion disease was observed for the first time in Oklahoma causing moderate to severe defoliation. Using microscopic examination, the physical features of the fungus were consistent ...

  1. Visualization of wound periderm and hyphal profiles in pine stems inoculated with the pitch canker fungus Fusarium circinatum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo; Lee, In Jung; Thoungchaleun, Vilakon; Kim, Chang Soo; Lee, Don Koo; Park, Eun Woo

    2009-12-01

    Postpenetration behavior of Fusarium circinatum in stems of pine species was investigated with light and transmission electron microscopy. Two-year-old stems of Pinus rigida and P. densiflora were wound-inoculated with the fungal conidial suspension and subjected to 25 degrees C for up to 30 days. It was common to observe the formation of wound periderm on each pine species, recovering wounded sites with newly formed tissues. The outermost thick layer of wound periderm was pink to red colored with the phloroglucinol-EtOH staining, indicating heavy deposition of lignin in wound periderm. The cork layers in the wound periderm of the two pine species consisted of cells that were mostly devoid of cellular contents in cytoplasm. The cork cells showed convoluted cell walls with different electron density (lamellations), which was seemingly more prevalent in P. densiflora than P. rigida. Hyphae of F. circinatum appeared normal with typical eucaryotic cytoplasm in P. rigida on ultrathin sections. Meanwhile, hyphae in P. densiflora were found to possess highly vacuolated cytoplasm, implying hyphal weakening and disintegration. Hyphal cytoplasm appeared to be a thin layer between the vacuole and the plasma membrane surrounded by cell wall. In addition, intrahyphal hyphae and concentric bodies were observed in hyphal cytoplasm. These results suggest that the architecture of wound periderm may be responsible for different responses of pine species to the invasion of F. circinatum. PMID:19484779

  2. Detection of fluorescent compounds in citrus leaf cankers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker caused by the pathogenic bacterium, Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), poses a serious threat to citrus production in Florida, especially for the fresh fruit market. Xcc causes severe damage to fruit, stem, and leaf tissues, and although much has been learned about the complex inter...

  3. Integrated Management of Citrus Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit losses due to citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), vary each crop season depending on citrus variety, tree age, flushing condition, leafminer control, and coincidence of weather events with occurrence of susceptible fruit and foliage. In 2012, crop losses in Hamlin f...

  4. Effect of drought and defoliation on the susceptibility of eucalypts to cankers caused by Endothia gyrosa and Botryosphaeria ribis

    SciTech Connect

    Old, K.M.; Gibbs, R.; Craig, I.; Myers, B.J. ); Yuan, Z.Q. )

    1990-01-01

    Seedlings, saplings and mature eucalypts were susceptible to infection by Endothia gyrosa and Botryosphaeria ribis. Eucalyptus regnans and E. delegatensis were more susceptible than E. grandis and E. saligna. In trees not subjected to stress, cankers were limited in extent and often healed. When trees were defoliated, either manually or by severe insect attack, stem concentrations of both starch and soluble carbohydrates were reduced and canker development in some pathogen/host combinations was increased. Seedlings subjected to water stress were not predisposed to canker formation. The association of E. gyrosa with branch dieback of rural eucalypts suffering from chronic defoliation suggests that canker fungi contribute to the crown dieback syndrome in south-eastern Australia.

  5. Alternaria section Alternaria: Species, formae speciales or pathotypes?

    PubMed Central

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Seidl, M.F.; Groenewald, J.Z.; de Vries, M.; Stielow, J.B.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan fungal genus Alternaria consists of multiple saprophytic and pathogenic species. Based on phylogenetic and morphological studies, the genus is currently divided into 26 sections. Alternaria sect. Alternaria contains most of the small-spored Alternaria species with concatenated conidia, including important plant, human and postharvest pathogens. Species within sect. Alternaria have been mostly described based on morphology and / or host-specificity, yet molecular variation between them is minimal. To investigate whether the described morphospecies within sect. Alternaria are supported by molecular data, whole-genome sequencing of nine Alternaria morphospecies supplemented with transcriptome sequencing of 12 Alternaria morphospecies as well as multi-gene sequencing of 168 Alternaria isolates was performed. The assembled genomes ranged in size from 33.3–35.2 Mb within sect. Alternaria and from 32.0–39.1 Mb for all Alternaria genomes. The number of repetitive sequences differed significantly between the different Alternaria genomes; ranging from 1.4–16.5 %. The repeat content within sect. Alternaria was relatively low with only 1.4–2.7 % of repeats. Whole-genome alignments revealed 96.7–98.2 % genome identity between sect. Alternaria isolates, compared to 85.1–89.3 % genome identity for isolates from other sections to the A. alternata reference genome. Similarly, 1.4–2.8 % and 0.8–1.8 % single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in genomic and transcriptomic sequences, respectively, between isolates from sect. Alternaria, while the percentage of SNPs found in isolates from different sections compared to the A. alternata reference genome was considerably higher; 8.0–10.3 % and 6.1–8.5 %. The topology of a phylogenetic tree based on the whole-genome and transcriptome reads was congruent with multi-gene phylogenies based on commonly used gene regions. Based on the genome and transcriptome data, a set of core proteins was extracted, and primers were designed on two gene regions with a relatively low degree of conservation within sect. Alternaria (96.8 and 97.3 % conservation). Their potential discriminatory power within sect. Alternaria was tested next to nine commonly used gene regions in sect. Alternaria, namely the SSU, LSU, ITS, gapdh, rpb2, tef1, Alt a 1, endoPG and OPA10-2 gene regions. The phylogenies from the two gene regions with a relatively low conservation, KOG1058 and KOG1077, could not distinguish the described morphospecies within sect. Alternaria more effectively than the phylogenies based on the commonly used gene regions for Alternaria. Based on genome and transcriptome comparisons and molecular phylogenies, Alternaria sect. Alternaria consists of only 11 phylogenetic species and one species complex. Thirty-five morphospecies, which cannot be distinguished based on the multi-gene phylogeny, are synonymised under A. alternata. By providing guidelines for the naming and identification of phylogenetic species in Alternaria sect. Alternaria, this manuscript provides a clear and stable species classification in this section. PMID:26951037

  6. CITRUS CANKER: PLANT PATHOLOGY VERSUS PUBLIC POLICY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing international travel and trade has resulted in an unprecedented number of plant pathogen introductions, including Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri, (Xac), the bacterium that causes citrus canker. The disease affects commercial and dooryard citrus, and has far-reaching politi...

  7. Ethanol attracts scolytid beetles to Phytophthora ramorum cankers on coast live oak.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Rick G; Beh, Maia M; Shaw, David C; Manter, Daniel K

    2013-04-01

    Ethanol in sapwood was analyzed along vertical transects, through small spot cankers and larger basal cankers, of Phytophthora ramorum-infected stems of Quercus agrifolia at three sites in California. Trees with large basal cankers, known to attract scolytid beetles, had a 4.3 times higher ethanol level than trees with spot cankers that attract fewer beetles. Ethanol concentrations inside cankers, where scolytid beetles preferentially attack, varied by about four orders of magnitude among samples, with a median level of 16.0 μg.g(-1) fresh mass. This concentration was 4.3 and 15.5 times greater, respectively, than the concentrations at 1 cm or 15-30 cm outside the canker boundaries. In the laboratory, we demonstrated that ethanol escaped through the bark of a Q. garryana log just 3 days after it was added to the sapwood. At the three study sites, traps baited with ethanol captured more Xyleborinus saxesenii, Pseudopityophthorus pubipennis, and Monarthrum dentiger (all Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) than traps baited with ethanol plus (-)-α-pinene, or ethanol plus 4-allylanisole (4AA). Logs of Q. agrifolia with a 50 % ethanol solution added to the sapwood were placed at the study sites, with or without additional bark treatments above the ethanol. The number of scolytid beetle gallery holes above the ethanol-infused sapwood was 4.4 times greater than that on the opposite side of the log where no ethanol was added. Attachment of ultra-high release (-)-α-pinene pouches to the bark surface above the 50 % ethanol solution reduced scolytid attacks to a density of 19.1 % that of logs without this treatment. We conclude that ethanol in P. ramorum cankers functions as a primary host attractant for scolytid beetles and is an important link in colonization of these cankers and accelerated mortality of Q. agrifolia. The results of this research shed light on the chemical ecology behind the focused scolytid attacks on P. ramorum-infected coast live oaks, and lay the groundwork for future efforts to prolong the survival of individual trees of this keystone species. PMID:23525941

  8. The HPLC-Fluorescence Detection of Coumarins in ‘Hamlin’ Sweet Orange and ‘Marsh’ Grapefruit Leaf Cankers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canker is a devastating disease for the citrus fresh fruit market and is caused by the pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri var. citri (Xcc). Infection occurs by bacterial penetration through physical damage of leaves, peel and stems, and also by bacterial entry through the stomates of these photo...

  9. Clinical Characteristics of Alternaria Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsin-Chiung; Chen, Phil Y. F.; Ma, David H. K.; Tan, Hsin-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Alternaria spp. are an uncommon cause of mycotic keratitis. Previous studies on Alternaria keratitis have generally been limited to case reports. We examined the clinical characteristics of Alternaria keratitis in this study. Methods. The characteristics and outcomes of 7 patients with culture-proven Alternaria keratitis treated in our hospital were compared with 25 previously reported cases. Results. The risk factors for Alternaria keratitis were trauma in 5 patients and soft contact lenses in 1 patient. Six patients with early diagnosis (<2 weeks) were cured with medical antimicrobial treatment; a patch graft was required in 1 patient with perforation. When incorporated with previous reports on Alternaria keratitis (n = 32), 14 (44%) infections followed trauma, 10 (31%) were associated with preexisting corneal disease or previous ocular surgery, and 5 (16%) occurred in soft contact lens wearers. Successful medical treatment was achieved in 23 (72%) patients, including 10 out of 21 eyes (48%) treated with natamycin and/or amphotericin B. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed in 9 (28%) cases. Conclusions. Alternaria keratitis is generally associated with specific risk factors and responds to medical treatment when early diagnosis is performed and prompt antifungal treatment is initiated. PMID:24778867

  10. Hyperspectral reflectance imaging for detecting citrus canker based on dual-band ratio image classification method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiangbo; Rao, Xiuqin; Guo, Junxian; Ying, Yibin

    2010-10-01

    Citrus are one of the major fruit produced in China. Most of this production is exported to Europe for fresh consumption, where consumers increasingly demand best quality. Citrus canker is one of the most devastating diseases that threaten peel of most commercial citrus varieties. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of using hyperspectral imaging technique for detecting canker lesions on citrus fruit. Navel oranges with cankerous, normal and various common diseased skin conditions including wind scar, thrips scarring, scale insect, dehiscent fruit, phytotoxicity, heterochromatic stripe, and insect damage were studied. The imaging system (400-1000 nm) was established to acquire reflectance images from samples. Region of interest (ROI) spectral feature of various diseased peel areas was analyzed and characteristic wavebands (630, 685, and 720 nm) were extracted. The dual-band reflectance ratio (such as Q720/685) algorithm was performed on the hyperspectral images of navel oranges for differentiating canker from normal fruit skin and other surface diseases. The overall classification success rate was 96.84% regardless of the presence of other confounding diseases. The presented processing approach overcame the presence of stem/navel on navel oranges that typically has been a problematic source for false positives in the detection of defects. Because of the limited sample size, delineation of an optimal detection scheme is beyond the scope of the current study. However, the results showed that two-band ratio (Q685/630) along with the use of a simple threshold value segmentation method for discriminating canker on navel oranges from other peel diseases may be feasible.

  11. Reasons for inconsistent citrus canker control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop losses from citrus canker in 2014 for Hamlin due to premature fruit drop, or for grapefruit from unacceptable severity of fruit lesions, were highly variable due to periodic rains that in certain locations were coincident with grapefruit flushes in February-March or with early Hamlin fruit deve...

  12. Research progress for integrated canker management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit losses due to citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), vary each crop season depending on citrus variety, tree age, flushing condition, leafminer control, and coincidence of weather events with occurrence of susceptible fruit and foliage. In 2013, crop losses in Hamlin f...

  13. First Report and Characterization of Pestalotiopsis ellipsospora Causing Canker on Acanthopanax divaricatus

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Ahn, Geum Ran

    2015-01-01

    Acanthopanax divaricatus, a member of the Araliaceae family, has been used as an invigorant in traditional Korean medicine. During disease monitoring, a stem with small, irregular, brown lesions was sampled at a farm in Cheonan in 2011. The symptoms seen were sunken cankers and reddish-brown needles on the infected twig. The isolated fungal colonies were whitish, having crenated edges and aerial mycelium on the surface, and with black gregarious fruiting bodies. The reverse plate was creamy white. Conidia were 17~22 3.5~4.2 m, fusiform, 4-septate, and straight to slightly curved. The nucleotide sequence of the partial translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene of the fungal isolate, shares 99% sequence identity with that of known Pestalotiopsis ellipsospora. Based on the results of the morphological and molecular analyses, the fungal isolate was identified as P. ellipsospora. In Korea, this is the first report of canker on A. divaricatus. PMID:26539058

  14. Managing citrus canker for the fresh fruit industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The establishment of citrus canker in Florida changed the way the $400 million dollar industry grows, packs ships and stores fruit. Canker regulations have become less strict, but there is still a requirement for compliance for growers and packers to move fruit from Florida to other areas. The comp...

  15. Distribution of canker lesions on the surface of diseased grapefruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) can cause direct yield loss of citrus, and infection of fruit can result in trade restriction being imposed on canker endemic areas. Developing fruit become infected through splash dispersed inoculum. The objective of this study was to describ...

  16. Nuclear distribution in Alternaria tenuis.

    PubMed

    Louw, C D

    1976-07-16

    Nuclear distribution and behaviour during vegetative growth and spore formation in Alternaria tenuis was studied utilising the HC1-Giemsa staining technique. The vegetative mycelium and conidia are predominantly monokaryotic. Anastomoses, followed by nuclear migrations, have been recorded. Intercellular nuclear migrations have only been observed in germinating conidia. Nuclear behaviour during conidial formation indicates that the conidia are homokaryotic. Cytological differences have been found in different monocoidal isolates of A. tenuis. PMID:987535

  17. A comparison of culture and bioassay for detecting citrus canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) causes serious crop losses in tropical and subtropical citrus production regions. Detecting Xcc is important for quarantine purposes, research and disease management. Although PCR methods are available for detecting and quantifying viable bacteria,...

  18. Spatial relationships between nitrogen status and pitch canker disease in slash pine planted adjacent to a poultry operation.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Zamora, Isabel; Bliss, Christine; Jokela, Eric J; Comerford, N B; Grunwald, Sabine; Barnard, E; Vasquez, G M

    2007-05-01

    Pitch canker disease (Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg & O'Donnell) causes serious shoot dieback, reduced growth and mortality in pines found in the southern and western USA, and has been linked to nutrient imbalances. Poultry houses with forced-air ventilation systems produce nitrogen (N) emissions. This study analyzed spatial correlations between pitch canker disease and foliar, forest floor, soil, and throughfall N in a slash pine (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii Engelm.) plantation adjacent to a poultry operation in north Florida, USA. Tissue and throughfall N concentrations were highest near the poultry houses and remained elevated for 400 m. Disease incidence ranged from 57-71% near the poultry houses and was spatially correlated with N levels. Similarly, stem mortality ranged from 41-53% in the most heavily impacted area, and declined to 0-9% at distances greater than 400 m. These results suggest that nutritional processes exacerbate changes in disease susceptibility and expression in slash pine. PMID:17049465

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of a European Isolate of the Apple Canker Pathogen Neonectria ditissima.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cortecero, Antonio; Harrison, Richard J; Armitage, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The Sordariomycetes fungus Neonectria ditissima is a major pathogen of apples, causing canker on trees and fruit spoilage. We report here the draft genome sequence of a European strain isolated from cankerous tissue. PMID:26586869

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of a European Isolate of the Apple Canker Pathogen Neonectria ditissima

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Cortecero, Antonio; Harrison, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The Sordariomycetes fungus Neonectria ditissima is a major pathogen of apples, causing canker on trees and fruit spoilage. We report here the draft genome sequence of a European strain isolated from cankerous tissue. PMID:26586869

  1. Copper Sprays and Windbreaks for Control of Citrus Canker on Young Orange Trees in Southern Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The benefit of windbreaks and copper sprays for control of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri was investigated in a commercial citrus orchard located in a citrus canker endemic area in southern Brazil. Control of canker was evaluated as incidence and severity of lesions on foli...

  2. LETHAL CANKERS CAUSED BY PHYTOPHTHORA SPP. IN ALMOND SCIONS: SPECIFIC ETIOLOGY AND POTENTIAL INOCULUM SOURCES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Etiology of a new lethal canker syndrome of almond trees was investigated in the San Joaquin Valley of California. Phytophthora citricola was isolated most frequently from cankers limited to the aboveground scion portions of trees; whereas P. cactorum usually was isolated from cankers originating at...

  3. 78 FR 58992 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Citrus Canker...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... Collection; Citrus Canker; Interstate Movement of Regulated Nursery Stock and Fruit From Quarantined Areas... nursery stock and fruit from quarantined areas to prevent the spread of citrus canker. DATES: We will... from citrus canker quarantined areas, contact Ms. Lynn Evans-Goldner, National Policy Manager, PHP,...

  4. Horsfall-Barratt recalibration and replicated severity estimates of citrus canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker is a serious disease of citrus in tropical and subtropical citrus growing regions. Accurate and precise assessment of citrus canker and other plant pathogens is needed to obtain good quality data. Citrus canker assessment data were used to ascertain some of the mechanics of the Horsfal...

  5. Ungual and cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria alternata and Alternaria chlamydospora.

    PubMed

    Singh, S M; Naidu, J; Pouranik, M

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of ungual and cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria alternata and Alternaria chlamydospora are described. Oxiconazole and amorolfine were most effective in vitro against A. alternata and A. chlamydospora respectively. This is the first report of A. chlamydospora as an opportunistic pathogen of skin. PMID:2148601

  6. Citrus diseases with global ramifications including citrus canker and huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although there are a number of diseases that plague citrus production worldwide, two bacterial diseases are particularly problematic. Both are of Asian origin and currently cause severe economic damage: Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) and citrus huanglongbing (HLB). Although ACC has been found in the ...

  7. PROSPECTS FOR CONTROL OF CITRUS CANKER WITH NOVEL CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field trials conducted in Brazil demonstrate that copper formulations (copper hydroxide, CH; copper oxychloride, COC) even at reduced rates are consistently effective for control of canker on moderately susceptible orange varieties. Contact activity to replace and/or reduce copper could minimize po...

  8. Developing Transgenic Citrus for Resistance to Huanglongbing and Citrus Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) and Citrus Bacterial Canker (CBC) are serious threats to citrus production, and resistant transgenic citrus is desirable. Genes for antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with diverse promoters have been used to generate thousands of rootstock and scion transformants. D35S::D4E1 transfor...

  9. Automating the assessment of citrus canker symptoms with image analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (CC, caused by Xanthomonas citri) is a serious disease of citrus in Florida and other citrus-growing regions. Severity of symptoms can be estimated by visual rating, but there is inter- and intra-rater variation. Automated image analysis (IA) may offer a way of reducing some of ...

  10. Infection and decontamination of citrus-canker-inoculated leaf surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida and continues to spread. Personnel and equipment decontamination is practiced in both disease-endemic and disease-free areas to reduce the risk of bacterial spread by man or machinery. We used grapefruit leaf su...

  11. Distribution of canker lesions on grapefruit in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker, caused by the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is an important disease of grapefruit in Florida. To establish disease distribution on fruit, six samples of 24 diseased grapefruit were collected from two groves in east Florida. A plane was sliced through ...

  12. Alternaria Keratitis after Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Mekhla; Mohd. Shahbaaz; Sheth, Jay; Sunderamoorthy, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    To describe a case of Alternaria keratitis in a 30-year-old male patient who presented with bilateral vascularised central corneal opacity and underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in the left eye. Patient was treated for recurrent epithelial defect with a bandage contact lens in the follow-up visits after DALK. Subsequently, patient presented with pigmented fungal keratitis, which on culture examination of the corneal scrapping demonstrated Alternaria species. Patient had to undergo a repeat DALK as the keratitis did not resolve with medical therapy alone. Patient did not have a recurrence for 11 months following the regraft. This case report highlights the importance of considering the Alternaria species as a possibile cause of non-resolving fungal keratitis after DALK. PMID:24669155

  13. Experiments with Biocontrol of Alternaria alternata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biocontrol yeast (WRL-76) developed by USDA-ARS at the Western Regional Research lab was evaluated for control of Alternaria alternata on pistachio. The experiment was conducted over a four year period in a Madera Co., CA orchard. Counts of damaged vs. intact fruit clusters were taken on 100 contr...

  14. Automated image analysis of the severity of foliar citrus canker symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is a destructive disease, reducing yield, and rendering fruit unfit for fresh sale. Accurate assessment of citrus canker severity and other diseases is needed for several purposes, including monitoring epidemics and evaluation of germplasm. ...

  15. First report of citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri in Somalia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthomonas citri, causal agent of citrus canker, has been reported in several countries in Africa, but not Somalia. During 2006 and 2007, hyperplasia-type lesions, often surrounded by a water-soaked margin and yellow halo, typical of citrus canker caused by X. citri, were found on 8-10 year-old gr...

  16. BARK CANKER OF UNKNOWN ETIOLOGY DEVELOPING ON PECAN CARYA ILLINOENSIS TREES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pecan trees in a five-year-old orchard of 17 cultivars had symptoms of an unusual bark canker first noticed in October, 2002. Symptoms appeared from ground line up to 3 meters on the central leader and most likely were initiated during the summer of 2002. Cankers developed around buds of the trunk...

  17. ENHANCED DETECTION AND ISOLATION OF THE WALNUT PATHOGEN BRENNARIA RUBRIFACIENS: CAUSAL AGENT OF DEEP BARK CANKER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deep bark canker (DBC) of walnut is caused by the bacterium Brenneria rubrifaciens which produces the red pigment rubrifacine. This disease of English walnut trees, is characterized by deep vertical cankers which exude sap laden with B. rubrifaciens. Although DBC is not observed on younger trees, ...

  18. A novel Fusarium species causes a canker disease of the critically endangered conifer, Torreya taxifolia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A canker disease of Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia), here designated CDFT, has been implicated in the decline of this critically endangered species in its native range of northern Florida and southeastern Georgia. In our current surveys of eight Florida torreya sites, cankers were present on all...

  19. New tricycloalternarenes from fungus Alternaria sp.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiu; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Hua, Cheng-Pin; Chen, Chao-Jun; Ge, Hui-Ming; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Jiao, Rui-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Two new tricycloalternarenes I (1) and J (2), together with five known derivatives (3-7), were isolated from the culture of marine fungus Alternaria sp. The structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic approach ((1)H, (13)C NMR, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY) and the low-temperature (100 K) single-crystal X-ray crystallography analysis. The antimicrobial assays of tricycloalternarenes I (1) and J (2) were tested. PMID:25402226

  20. Comparative Genomics of Pathogens Causing Brown Spot Disease of Tobacco: Alternaria longipes and Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Wenting; Long, Ni; Zhang, Jing; Tan, Yuntao; Duan, Shengchang; Zeng, Yan; Dong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The genus Alternaria is a group of infectious/contagious pathogenic fungi that not only invade a wide range of crops but also induce severe allergic reactions in a part of the human population. In this study, two strains Alternaria longipes cx1 and Alternaria alternata cx2 were isolated from different brown spot lesions on infected tobacco leaves. Their complete genomes were sequenced, de novo assembled, and comparatively analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that A. longipes cx1 and A. alternata cx2 diverged 3.3 million years ago, indicating a recent event of speciation. Seventeen non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes and 13 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in A. longipes cx1 and 13 NRPS genes and 12 PKS genes in A. alternata cx2 were identified in these two strains. Some of these genes were predicted to participate in the synthesis of non-host specific toxins (non-HSTs), such as tenuazonic acid (TeA), alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME). By comparative genome analysis, we uncovered that A. longipes cx1 had more genes putatively involved in pathogen-plant interaction, more carbohydrate-degrading enzymes and more secreted proteins than A. alternata cx2. In summary, our results demonstrate the genomic distinction between A. longipes cx1 and A. altenata cx2. They will not only improve the understanding of the phylogenetic relationship among genus Alternaria, but more importantly provide valuable genomic resources for the investigation of plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:27159564

  1. Alternaria in Food: Ecophysiology, Mycotoxin Production and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Patriarca, Andrea; Magan, Naresh

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria species are common saprophytes or pathogens of a wide range of plants pre- and post-harvest. This review considers the relative importance of Alternaria species, their ecology, competitiveness, production of mycotoxins and the prevalence of the predominant mycotoxins in different food products. The available toxicity data on these toxins and the potential future impacts of Alternaria species and their toxicity in food products pre- and post-harvest are discussed. The growth of Alternaria species is influenced by interacting abiotic factors, especially water activity (aw), temperature and pH. The boundary conditions which allow growth and toxin production have been identified in relation to different matrices including cereal grain, sorghum, cottonseed, tomato, and soya beans. The competitiveness of Alternaria species is related to their water stress tolerance, hydrolytic enzyme production and ability to produce mycotoxins. The relationship between A. tenuissima and other phyllosphere fungi has been examined and the relative competitiveness determined using both an Index of Dominance (ID) and the Niche Overlap Index (NOI) based on carbon-utilisation patterns. The toxicology of some of the Alternaria mycotoxins have been studied; however, some data are still lacking. The isolation of Alternaria toxins in different food products including processed products is reviewed. The future implications of Alternaria colonization/infection and the role of their mycotoxins in food production chains pre- and post-harvest are discussed. PMID:26190916

  2. Presence of adhesive vesicles in the mycoherbicide Alternaria helianthi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternaria helianthi conidia have been shown to cause disease on common cocklebur. Conidia were applied to slides made hydrophobic by coating with dimethyldicholorosilane (mimics leaf surface), then rinsed and treated with FITC-Con A to stain the adhesive material. Alternaria helianthi coni...

  3. Fungicidal activity of silver nanoparticles against Alternaria brassicicola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Deepika; Chauhan, Pratima

    2016-04-01

    This work highlighted the fungicidal properties of silver nanoparticles against Alternaria brassicicola. Alternaria brassicicola causes Black spot of Cauliflower, radish, cabbage, kale which results in sever agricultural loss. We treat the synthesised silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) of 10, 25, 50, 100 and 110 ppm concentrations against Alternaria brassicicola on PDA containing Petri dish. We calculated inhibitory rate (%) in order to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of silver nanoparticles against pathogens. Treatment with 100ppm AgNPs resulted in maximum inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola i.e.92.2%. 110ppm of AgNPS also shows the same result, therefore 100ppm AgNPs was treated as optimize concentration. AgNPs effectively inhibited the growth of a Alternaria brassicicola, which suggests that AgNPs could be used as fungicide in plant disease management. Further research and development are necessary to translate this technology into plant disease management strategies.

  4. STEM?!?!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Jen

    2012-01-01

    The author's son has been an engineer since birth. He never asked "why" as a toddler, it was always "how's it work?" So that he wanted a STEM-based home education was no big surprise. In this article, the author considers what kind of curricula would work best for her complex kid.

  5. Development of a qPCR technique to screen for resistance to Asiatic citrus canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asiatic citrus canker (Acc) (causal organism Xanthomonas citri subspc. citri (Xcc) is threatening sustainability of the Florida citrus industry. Resistant cultivars, whether developed through conventional breeding or genetic transformation, will be he best solution for dealint with Acc. In Florida...

  6. Transcriptomic profile of tobacco in response to Alternaria longipes and Alternaria alternata infections.

    PubMed

    Duan, Shengchang; Ma, Xiao; Chen, Wei; Wan, Wenting; He, Yuqi; Ma, Xiaoqin; Ma, Yujin; Long, Ni; Tan, Yuntao; Wang, Yangzi; Hou, Yujie; Dong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco brown spot caused by Alternaria fungal species is one of the most damaging diseases, and results in significant yield losses. However, little is known about the systematic response of tobacco to this fungal infection. To fill this knowledge gap, de novo assemblies of tobacco leaf transcriptomes were obtained in cultivars V2 and NC89 after the inoculation of either Alternaria longipes (AL) or Alternaria alternata (AA) at three different time points. We studied the gene expression profile of each cultivar-pathogen combination, and identified eight differentially expressed genes shared among all combinations. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed key components during the fungal infection, which included regulation of gene expression (GO:0010468), regulation of RNA metabolic process (GO:0051252), tetrapyrrole binding (GO:0046906), and external encapsulating structure (GO:0030312). Further analyses of the continuously upregulated/downregulated genes and the resistance genes demonstrated that the gene expression profile upon fungal infection was contingent on the specific cultivar and pathogen. In conclusion, this study provides a solid foundation for the investigation of plant-pathogen interaction, and is of great importance for disease prevention and molecular breeding. PMID:27157477

  7. Transcriptomic profile of tobacco in response to Alternaria longipes and Alternaria alternata infections

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shengchang; Ma, Xiao; Chen, Wei; Wan, Wenting; He, Yuqi; Ma, Xiaoqin; Ma, Yujin; Long, Ni; Tan, Yuntao; Wang, Yangzi; Hou, Yujie; Dong, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco brown spot caused by Alternaria fungal species is one of the most damaging diseases, and results in significant yield losses. However, little is known about the systematic response of tobacco to this fungal infection. To fill this knowledge gap, de novo assemblies of tobacco leaf transcriptomes were obtained in cultivars V2 and NC89 after the inoculation of either Alternaria longipes (AL) or Alternaria alternata (AA) at three different time points. We studied the gene expression profile of each cultivar-pathogen combination, and identified eight differentially expressed genes shared among all combinations. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes revealed key components during the fungal infection, which included regulation of gene expression (GO:0010468), regulation of RNA metabolic process (GO:0051252), tetrapyrrole binding (GO:0046906), and external encapsulating structure (GO:0030312). Further analyses of the continuously upregulated/downregulated genes and the resistance genes demonstrated that the gene expression profile upon fungal infection was contingent on the specific cultivar and pathogen. In conclusion, this study provides a solid foundation for the investigation of plant-pathogen interaction, and is of great importance for disease prevention and molecular breeding. PMID:27157477

  8. Toxigenic profile of Alternaria alternata and Alternaria radicina occurring on umbelliferous plants.

    PubMed

    Solfrizzo, M; Girolamo, A De; Vitti, C; Tylkowska, K; Grabarkiewicz-Szczesna, J; Szopińska, D; Dorna, H

    2005-04-01

    Alternaria alternata and Alternaria radicina are fungal species that occur in several food crops and may produce mycotoxins and phytotoxins. The toxigenic profile of A. alternata and A. radicina isolated from carrot and other umbelliferous plants was determined by growing the fungus on rice and carrot discs. Most of the tested isolates of A. alternata produced the mycotoxins tenuazonic acid, alternariol, alternariol methyl ether and altertoxin-I on rice. Only alternariol and alternariol methyl ether were produced on carrot discs. When cultured on rice, none of the isolates of A. alternata from umbelliferous plants produced AAL toxins and fumonisins. AAL toxins, but not fumonisins, were instead produced by A. alternata f. sp. lycopersici isolate NRRL 18822 isolated from tomato. A. radicina produced the phytotoxic compounds radicinin, epi-radicinol and radicinol on carrot discs, whereas it produced radicinin and radicinol on rice. Although A. alternata has been frequently found in organic carrots, none of the above mycotoxins was detected in carrot roots or in carrot commercial products. The reduction of alternariol and alternariol methyl ether during carrot juice processing at laboratory scale was estimated to be >98%. Based on these findings and previous reports, it can be concluded that Alternaria mycotoxins in carrots do not represent a hazard for consumers. PMID:16019799

  9. Large-spored Alternaria pathogens in section Porri disentangled

    PubMed Central

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Truter, M.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The omnipresent fungal genus Alternaria was recently divided into 24 sections based on molecular and morphological data. Alternaria sect. Porri is the largest section, containing almost all Alternaria species with medium to large conidia and long beaks, some of which are important plant pathogens (e.g. Alternaria porri, A. solani and A. tomatophila). We constructed a multi-gene phylogeny on parts of the ITS, GAPDH, RPB2, TEF1 and Alt a 1 gene regions, which, supplemented with morphological and cultural studies, forms the basis for species recognition in sect. Porri. Our data reveal 63 species, of which 10 are newly described in sect. Porri, and 27 species names are synonymised. The three known Alternaria pathogens causing early blight on tomato all cluster in one clade, and are synonymised under the older name, A. linariae. Alternaria protenta, a species formerly only known as pathogen on Helianthus annuus, is also reported to cause early blight of potato, together with A. solani and A. grandis. Two clades with isolates causing purple blotch of onion are confirmed as A. allii and A. porri, but the two species cannot adequately be distinguished based on the number of beaks and branches as suggested previously. This is also found among the pathogens of Passifloraceae, which are reduced from four to three species. In addition to the known pathogen of sweet potato, A. bataticola, three more species are delineated of which two are newly described. A new Alternaria section is also described, comprising two large-spored Alternaria species with concatenate conidia. PMID:25492985

  10. Large-spored Alternaria pathogens in section Porri disentangled.

    PubMed

    Woudenberg, J H C; Truter, M; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2014-09-01

    The omnipresent fungal genus Alternaria was recently divided into 24 sections based on molecular and morphological data. Alternaria sect. Porri is the largest section, containing almost all Alternaria species with medium to large conidia and long beaks, some of which are important plant pathogens (e.g. Alternaria porri, A. solani and A. tomatophila). We constructed a multi-gene phylogeny on parts of the ITS, GAPDH, RPB2, TEF1 and Alt a 1 gene regions, which, supplemented with morphological and cultural studies, forms the basis for species recognition in sect. Porri. Our data reveal 63 species, of which 10 are newly described in sect. Porri, and 27 species names are synonymised. The three known Alternaria pathogens causing early blight on tomato all cluster in one clade, and are synonymised under the older name, A. linariae. Alternaria protenta, a species formerly only known as pathogen on Helianthus annuus, is also reported to cause early blight of potato, together with A. solani and A. grandis. Two clades with isolates causing purple blotch of onion are confirmed as A. allii and A. porri, but the two species cannot adequately be distinguished based on the number of beaks and branches as suggested previously. This is also found among the pathogens of Passifloraceae, which are reduced from four to three species. In addition to the known pathogen of sweet potato, A. bataticola, three more species are delineated of which two are newly described. A new Alternaria section is also described, comprising two large-spored Alternaria species with concatenate conidia. PMID:25492985

  11. Oak Tree Canker Disease Supports Arthropod Diversity in a Natural Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-Bok; An, Su Jung; Park, Chung Gyoo; Kim, Jinwoo; Han, Sangjo; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms have many roles in nature. They may act as decomposers that obtain nutrients from dead materials, while some are pathogens that cause diseases in animals, insects, and plants. Some are symbionts that enhance plant growth, such as arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixation bacteria. However, roles of plant pathogens and diseases in natural ecosystems are still poorly understood. Thus, the current study addressed this deficiency by investigating possible roles of plant diseases in natural ecosystems, particularly, their positive effects on arthropod diversity. In this study, the model system was the oak tree (Quercus spp.) and the canker disease caused by Annulohypoxylon truncatum, and its effects on arthropod diversity. The oak tree site contained 44 oak trees; 31 had canker disease symptoms while 13 were disease-free. A total of 370 individual arthropods were detected at the site during the survey period. The arthropods belonged to 25 species, 17 families, and seven orders. Interestingly, the cankered trees had significantly higher biodiversity and richness compared with the canker-free trees. This study clearly demonstrated that arthropod diversity was supported by the oak tree canker disease. PMID:25288984

  12. Oak tree canker disease supports arthropod diversity in a natural ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Bok; An, Su Jung; Park, Chung Gyoo; Kim, Jinwoo; Han, Sangjo; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2014-03-01

    Microorganisms have many roles in nature. They may act as decomposers that obtain nutrients from dead materials, while some are pathogens that cause diseases in animals, insects, and plants. Some are symbionts that enhance plant growth, such as arbuscular mycorrhizae and nitrogen fixation bacteria. However, roles of plant pathogens and diseases in natural ecosystems are still poorly understood. Thus, the current study addressed this deficiency by investigating possible roles of plant diseases in natural ecosystems, particularly, their positive effects on arthropod diversity. In this study, the model system was the oak tree (Quercus spp.) and the canker disease caused by Annulohypoxylon truncatum, and its effects on arthropod diversity. The oak tree site contained 44 oak trees; 31 had canker disease symptoms while 13 were disease-free. A total of 370 individual arthropods were detected at the site during the survey period. The arthropods belonged to 25 species, 17 families, and seven orders. Interestingly, the cankered trees had significantly higher biodiversity and richness compared with the canker-free trees. This study clearly demonstrated that arthropod diversity was supported by the oak tree canker disease. PMID:25288984

  13. Development and validation of standard area diagrams as assessment aids for estimating the severity of citrus canker on unripe oranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) is an important disease of citrus in Brazil and elsewhere in the world, and can cause severe disease on the fruit. The severity of citrus canker of fruit must often be estimated visually. The objective of this research was to construct and validate s...

  14. REAL-TIME PCR DETECTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF A BIOASSAY FOR THE DEEP BARK CANKER PATHOGEN, BRENNARIA RUBRIFACIENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deep Bark Canker (DBC), caused by the bacterium Brennaria rubrifaciens afflicts English walnut cultivars and is characterized by late onset of symptoms in trees greater than 15 years old. These symptoms include deep bleeding vertical cankers along the trunk and larger branches that exude a bacteria...

  15. Characterization of Alternaria infectoria extracellular vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Branca M.A.; Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Espadas-Moreno, Javier; Wolf, Julie M.; Luque-Garcia, Jose L.; Gonçalves, Teresa; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Many fungi use membrane vesicles to transport complex molecules across their cell walls. Like mammalian exosomes, fungal vesicles contain lipids, proteins, and polysaccharides, many of which are associated with virulence. Here we identify and characterize extracellular vesicles (EVs) in Alternaria infectoria, a ubiquitous, environmental filamentous fungus that is also an opportunistic human pathogen. Examination of the A. infectoria EVs revealed a morphology similar to that of vesicles described in other fungal species. Of note, proteomic analysis detected a reduced number of vesicle-associated proteins. There were two prevalent categories among the 20 identified proteins, including the polysaccharide metabolism group, probably related to plant host invasion or biosynthesis/degradation of cell wall components, and the nuclear proteins, especially DNA repair enzymes. We also found enzymes related to pigment synthesis, adhesion to the host cell, and trafficking of vesicles/organelles/molecules. This is the first time EV secretions have been identified in a filamentous fungus. We believe that these vesicles might have a role in virulence. PMID:24576997

  16. [Secondary cutaneous mycoses caused by Alternaria species].

    PubMed

    Male, O; Pehamberger, H

    1986-02-01

    Analysis of 2 of our own cases of cutaneous alternariosis (CA) and 31 reported cases showed this mycosis to be nosologically heterogeneous. CA may present as an endogenous, multilocular form or as an exogenous, usually localized form. In the endogenous form of CA (11 cases), infection most probably occurs via the lung by inhalation. The highly dermatotropic organisms spread hematogenically to the skin where they cause the typical verruciform or granulomatous lesions. In the exogenous form (8 cases), the organisms are inoculated at the site of a trauma ("traumatogenic CA"). In both forms, the underlying pathogenic disorders are of a non-mycotic nature, and hypercorticism plays the most important role. In the third form ("dermatopathic CA", 14 cases), Alternaria alternata secondarily colonizes, in a non-parasitic fashion, in preexisting lesions, which are predominantly steroid-treated eczema of the face. This form represents nosoparasitism of A. alternata rather than genuine mycosis. With regard to the pathogenesis of alternariosis, the predisposing factors mentioned are more important than the relatively weak pathogenicity of the organisms. Elimination of the predisposing factors usually cures the disease. If this fails, surgical excision of the lesions is required since an effective systemic anti-mycotic drug for CA is not yet available. PMID:3957668

  17. Re-evaluation of pathogens causing Valsa canker on apple in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuli; Wei, Jieling; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2011-01-01

    Valsa canker is a destructive disease on apple that causes serious economic losses in eastern Asia. In the present study fungal isolates from cankered apple and pear bark were examined and compared with morphology and rDNA-ITS sequences. Valsa mali was confirmed to be an independent species and a causal pathogen of Valsa canker on apple and pear in China. It was the predominant species (96.7% of isolates) on apple and was complemented by V. malicola (3.3% of isolates). Significant intraspecific genetic differentiation was detected in V. mali with two varieties recognized, V. mali var. mali occurring exclusively on apple and V. mali var. pyri occurring on both apple and pear. Results from genetic analysis and cross-inoculation tests provided support for the hypothesis that host preference probably catalyzed such genetic changes within the pathogen populations. PMID:21415290

  18. Detection of citrus canker and Huanglongbing using fluorescence imaging spectroscopy and support vector machine technique.

    PubMed

    Wetterich, Caio Bruno; Felipe de Oliveira Neves, Ruan; Belasque, José; Marcassa, Luis Gustavo

    2016-01-10

    Citrus canker and Huanglongbing (HLB) are citrus diseases that represent a serious threat to the citrus production worldwide and may cause large economic losses. In this work, we combined fluorescence imaging spectroscopy (FIS) and a machine learning technique to discriminate between these diseases and other ordinary citrus conditions that may be present at citrus orchards, such as citrus scab and zinc deficiency. Our classification results are highly accurate when discriminating citrus canker from citrus scab (97.8%), and HLB from zinc deficiency (95%). These results show that it is possible to accurately identify citrus diseases that present similar symptoms. PMID:26835778

  19. 40 CFR 180.1256 - Alternaria destruens strain 059; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternaria destruens strain 059... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1256 Alternaria destruens strain 059; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Alternaria destruens Strain 059 when used in or on all raw...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1256 - Alternaria destruens strain 059; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternaria destruens strain 059... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1256 Alternaria destruens strain 059; exemption from the... the microbial pesticide Alternaria destruens Strain 059 when used in or on all raw...

  1. Mutagenicity of stemphyltoxin III, a metabolite of Alternaria alternata

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, V.M.; Stack, M.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Some common decay organisms of vegetables and ripened fruits are Alternaria species. Even fruits and vegetables kept under refrigeration can be spoiled by Alternaria species because the mold grows at low temperatures. Alternaria alternata is commonly found in grain in areas with a high incidence of esophageal cancer. Three metabolites, altertoxins I, II, and III, have been isolated from A. alternata and have hydroxyperylenequinone structures. Although other perylenequinone metabolites, such as stemphyperylenol and stemphyltoxins I, II, III, and IV, have been isolated from Stemphylium botryosum var. lactucum, a plant pathogen and mold, we isolated and identified stemphyltoxin III from A. alternata. This metabolite was tested for mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium plate incorporation assay with and without Aroclor 1254-induced rat S-9 metabolic activation. A positive response was noted with and without metabolic activation in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA1537, and there was a marginal response in strain TA100.

  2. Allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis due to Alternaria: Case report and review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhagteshwar; Denning, David W

    2012-01-01

    While allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and mycosis are well recognised, no cases have been described related to Alternaria spp. Alternaria is a common sensitising fungus in asthmatics and related to thunderstorm asthma. We report a case of an asthmatic who presented with worsening asthma control, mild eosinophilia on high dose inhaled corticosteroids (800 μg/day), a total IgE of 3800 KIU/L, an Alternaria-specific IgE of 21.3 KUa/L and positive skin prick test, negative specific IgE and skin prick test to Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium spp., Cladosporium spp., Trichophyton spp. and a normal CT scan of the thorax. He responded well to a short course of oral prednisolone and then oral itraconazole, given over 17 months but relapsed 1 month after stopping it. PMID:24371728

  3. Deinococcus citri sp. nov., isolated from citrus leaf canker lesions.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Iftikhar; Abbas, Saira; Kudo, Takuji; Iqbal, Muhammad; Fujiwara, Toru; Ohkuma, Moriya

    2014-12-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, non-motile, coccoid bacterium, designated NCCP-154(T), was isolated from citrus leaf canker lesions and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain NCCP-154(T) grew at 10-37 C (optimum 30 C) and at pH 7.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The novel strain exhibited tolerance of UV irradiation (>1000 J m(-2)). Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain NCCP-154(T) showed the highest similarity to Deinococcus gobiensis CGMCC 1.7299(T) (98.8?%), and less than 94?% similarity to other closely related taxa. The chemotaxonomic data [major menaquinone, MK-8; cell-wall peptidoglycan type, A3? (Orn-Gly2); major fatty acids, summed feature 3 (C16?:?1?7c/iso-C15?:?0 2-OH; 35.3?%) followed by C16?:?0 (12.7?%), iso-C17?:?1?9c (9.2?%), C17?:?1?8c (7.4?%) and iso-C17?:?0 (6.9?%); major polar lipids made up of several unidentified phosphoglycolipids and glycolipids and an aminophospholipid, and mannose as the predominant whole-cell sugar] also supported the affiliation of strain NCCP-154(T) to the genus Deinococcus. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain NCCP-154(T) and D. gobiensis JCM 16679(T) was 63.33.7?%. The DNA G+C content of strain NCCP-154(T) was 70.0 mol%. Based on the phylogenetic analyses, DNA-DNA hybridization and physiological and biochemical characteristics, strain NCCP-154(T) can be differentiated from species with validly published names. Therefore, it represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus. The name Deinococcus citri sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain NCCP-154(T) (?=?JCM 19024(T)?=?DSM 24791(T)?=?KCTC 13793(T)). PMID:25256704

  4. A Novel Alternaria Species Isolated from Peucedanum japonicum in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jian Xin; Cho, Hye Sun; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Lee, Hyang Burm

    2014-01-01

    We isolated and examined a new Alternaria sp., which causes leaf spots on Peucedanum japonicum in Korea, by using molecular and morphological methods. Phylogenetic analysis based on a combined internal transcribed spacer region analysis and two protein-coding genes (gpd and Alt a1) demonstrated that the causal fungus was most closely related to A. cinerariae and A. sonchi, and relevant to A. brassicae. However, conidial morphology indicated that it is a novel species within the genus Alternaria, and therefore we have assigned the fungus a new name in this study. PMID:24808728

  5. Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria alternata in a cat.

    PubMed

    Dhein, C R; Leathers, C W; Padhye, A A; Ajello, L

    1988-11-01

    Phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria alternata was diagnosed in a 6-year-old cat. A lesion in the nose resulted in enlargement of the dorsum of the nose. Similar appearing lesions had been removed from the dorsum of the nose 1 and 4 years earlier. The lesion recurred 3 months after surgical excision and irregular administration of ketoconazole. A second cytoreductive operation followed by 5 months' treatment with ketoconazole resolved the infection. Nasal trauma occurring at 8 months and at 5 years before initial examination may have predisposed the cat to development of the Alternaria infection. PMID:3198465

  6. Molecular systematics of citrus-associated Alternaria species.

    PubMed

    Peever, T L; Su, G; Carpenter-Boggs, L; Timmer, L W

    2004-01-01

    The causal agents of Alternaria brown spot of tangerines and tangerine hybrids, Alternaria leaf spot of rough lemon and Alternaria black rot of citrus historically have been referred to as Alternaria citri or A. alternata. Ten species of Alternaria recently were described among a set of isolates from leaf lesions on rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) and tangelo (C. paradisi × C. reticulata), and none of these isolates was considered representative of A. alternata or A. citri. To test the hypothesis that these newly described morphological species are congruent with phylogenetic species, selected Alternaria brown spot and leaf spot isolates, citrus black rot isolates (post-harvest pathogens), isolates associated with healthy citrus tissue and reference species of Alternaria from noncitrus hosts were scored for sequence variation at five genomic regions and used to estimate phylogenies. These data included 432 bp from the 5' end of the mitochondrial ribosomal large subunit (mtLSU), 365 bp from the 5' end of the beta-tubulin gene, 464 bp of an endopolygalacturonase gene (endoPG) and 559 and 571 bp, respectively, of two anonymous genomic regions (OPA1-3 and OPA2-1). The mtLSU and beta-tubulin phylogenies clearly differentiated A. limicola, a large-spored species causing leaf spot of Mexican lime, from the small-spored isolates associated with citrus but were insufficiently variable to resolve evolutionary relationships among the small-spored isolates from citrus and other hosts. Sequence analysis of translation elongation factor alpha, calmodulin, actin, chitin synthase and 1, 3, 8-trihydroxynaphthalene reductase genes similarly failed to uncover significant variation among the small-spored isolates. Phylogenies estimated independently from endoPG, OPA1-3 and OPA2-1 data were congruent, and analysis of the combined data from these regions revealed nine clades, eight of which contained small-spored, citrus-associated isolates. Lineages inferred from analysis of the combined dataset were in general agreement with described morphospecies, however, three clades contained more than one morphological species and one morphospecies (A. citrimacularis) was polyphyletic. Citrus black rot isolates also were found to be members of more than a single lineage. The number of morphospecies associated with citrus exceeded that which could be supported under a phylogenetic species concept, and isolates in only five of nine phylogenetic lineages consistently were correlated with a specific host, disease or ecological niche on citrus. We advocate collapsing all small-spored, citrus-associated isolates of Alternaria into a single phylogenetic species, A. alternata. PMID:21148834

  7. Different Transcriptional Response to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri between Kumquat and Sweet Orange with Contrasting Canker Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xing-Zheng; Gong, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Yue-Xin; Wang, Yin; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Citrus canker disease caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most devastating biotic stresses affecting the citrus industry. Meiwa kumquat (Fortunella crassifolia) is canker-resistant, while Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) is canker-sensitive. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the differences in responses to Xcc, transcriptomic profiles of these two genotypes following Xcc attack were compared by using the Affymetrix citrus genome GeneChip. A total of 794 and 1324 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified as canker-responsive genes in Meiwa and Newhall, respectively. Of these, 230 genes were expressed in common between both genotypes, while 564 and 1094 genes were only significantly expressed in either Meiwa or Newhall. Gene ontology (GO) annotation and Singular Enrichment Analysis (SEA) of the DEGs showed that genes related to the cell wall and polysaccharide metabolism were induced for basic defense in both Meiwa and Newhall, such as chitinase, glucanase and thaumatin-like protein. Moreover, apart from inducing basic defense, Meiwa showed specially upregulated expression of several genes involved in the response to biotic stimulus, defense response, and cation binding as comparing with Newhall. And in Newhall, abundant photosynthesis-related genes were significantly down-regulated, which may be in order to ensure the basic defense. This study revealed different molecular responses to canker disease in Meiwa and Newhall, affording insight into the response to canker and providing valuable information for the identification of potential genes for engineering canker tolerance in the future. PMID:22848606

  8. Complete DNA Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the Causal Agent of Kiwifruit Canker Disease

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Benjamin A.; Andersen, Mark T.; Rikkerink, Erik H. A.; Fineran, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, a disease that has rapidly spread worldwide. We have fully sequenced and assembled the chromosomal and plasmid DNA from P. syringae pv. actinidiae ICMP 18884 using the PacBio RS II platform. PMID:26383666

  9. Complete DNA Sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, the Causal Agent of Kiwifruit Canker Disease.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Matthew D; Warren, Benjamin A; Andersen, Mark T; Rikkerink, Erik H A; Fineran, Peter C

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit, a disease that has rapidly spread worldwide. We have fully sequenced and assembled the chromosomal and plasmid DNA from P. syringae pv. actinidiae ICMP 18884 using the PacBio RS II platform. PMID:26383666

  10. Characterization of Pear Blister Canker Viroid Isolates from Australian Pome Fruit Orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pear blister canker viroid (PBCVd) was detected in pear (Pyrus sp.), nashi (Pyrus serotina) and quince (Cydonia oblonga) trees from various pome fruit growing regions of Australia using dot-blot hybridization and RT-PCR techniques. Characteristic symptoms of PBCVd infection were not observed on the...

  11. First report of Phaeobotryon cupressi causing canker of Calocedrus decurrens in Oregon.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the early 2000’s a canker disease has been noticed with increasing frequency on landscape specimens of native incense cedar (Calocedrus decurrens) planted throughout the Willamette Valley (from Portland south to Eugene) in western Oregon. Symptoms initially appear as dead and flagging small-di...

  12. Optimal strategies for the eradication of Asiatic citrus canker in heterogeneous host landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eradication of non-native plant pathogens is a key challenge in plant disease epidemiology. Asiatic citrus canker is an economically significant disease of citrus caused by the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri. The pathogen is a major exotic disease problem in many citru...

  13. Exacerbation of citrus canker by citrus leafminer, Phyllocnistis citrella in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is an important bacterial disease of citrus that is spread naturally by rain and wind. Damage to citrus leaves by the citrus leafminer (CLM) , Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), has been shown to promote infect...

  14. Efficacy of Cankerguard® Sprays for Effective Decontamination of Citrus Canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is endemic in Florida. We used grapefruit leaf surfaces to explore the efficacy of the personnel decontaminant Cankerguard® to kill inoculum. In three experiments plants in flush (leaves 3/4 expanded) were sprayed with inoculum (2x104-9x105 CFU/ml)...

  15. Update on packing line protocols for citrus canker and their effects on bacterial survival

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Markets for Florida citrus are severely restricted by regulations in place to minimize the spread of citrus canker to citrus producing areas. Included in these regulations are accepted protocols for sanitation and coating of fruit. However, these measures do not eradicate all the living bacterial ce...

  16. Prevalence, distribution and identification of Phytophthora species from bleeding canker on European beech

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While bleeding canker of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) has long been recognized as a problem, the cause in the northeastern United States has not been clear. To resolve this, we surveyed for disease prevalence, identified the pathogens involved, proved their pathogenicity, compared protocols for ...

  17. New Phomopsis species identified from wood cankers in eastern North American vineyards.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis cane and leaf spot, caused by the Ascomycete fungus Phomopsis viticola, is a destructive fruit and foliar disease in eastern North American vineyards. The pathogen typically attacks green tissues, but can also cause wood cankers, presumably due to infection of pruning wounds, as is the cas...

  18. Wind speed and wind-associated leaf injury affect severity of citrus canker on Swingle citrumelo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) can cause severe damage to citrus. It is endemic in Florida, and occurs in other citrus growing regions. The bacterium is dispersed predominantly in rain splash. To simulate dispersal in splash, and to investigate t...

  19. Rapid screening for citrus canker resistance employing pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc), has been attributed to millions of dollars in loss or damage to commercial citrus crops in subtropical production areas of the world. Since identification of resistant plants is one of the most effective methods of d...

  20. Genetic diversity of citrus bacterial canker pathogens preserved in herbarium specimens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) was first documented in India and Java in the mid 19th century. Since that time the known distribution of the disease has steadily increased. Concurrent with the dispersion of the pathogen, the diversity of described str...

  1. Production of transgenic citrus resistant to citrus canker and Huanglongbing diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening disease) caused by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las) is a great threat to the U.S. citrus industry. There are no proven strategies to eliminate HLB disease and no cultivars identified with strong HLB resistance. Citrus canker is also an economically import...

  2. The activity of citrus canker lseions on grapefruit in Florida, June 2009-January 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesions of citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), on citrus fruit preclude sale of the fruit to the fresh market; the fruit must be juiced, which is less profitable. Assessing lesion activity in orchard-grown grapefruit provides information on the population dynamics of fruit...

  3. ANNUAL AND POLYETIC PROGRESSION OF CITRUS CANKER ON TREES PROTECTED WITH COPPER SPRAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Mathematical models are important tools for comparative analysis of epidemics. In this paper, parameters obtained from the mathematical model that best fitted to the annual progress curves of citrus canker incidence were used to evaluate the effect of copper sprays and windbreaks on the annual and...

  4. Canker and twig dieback of blueberry caused by Pestalotiopsis spp. and a Truncatella sp. in Chile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) has great economic importance in Chile, currently with about 8,500 ha being cultivated. Recently, the presence of canker and dieback symptoms has been observed along the productive blueberry zone of Chile extending from the V Region (32º49´ South lat.) in the north to the ...

  5. Resistance evaluation of Pera (Citrus sinensis) genotypes to citrus canker in greenhouse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker, caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri results in serious yield losses and phytoregulation penalties. The use of resistant genotypes is recognized as an important tool to facilitate control of the pathogen. Studies have show that artificial inoculation results in typic...

  6. SOLID SUBSTRATE PRODUCTION OF ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA F. SP. SPHENOCLEAE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphenoclea zeyanica (gooseweed), a major weed of paddy rice in Southeast Asia, is one of the targets in a biological weed control research program in the Philippines. Afungal pathogen, Alternaria alternata f. sp. sphenocleae, is being evaluated as a biological control agent for this weed. The feas...

  7. Genetic variability in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic variation in the pistachio late blight fungus, Alternaria alternata, was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in the rDNA region. Southern hybridization of EcoRI, HindIII, and Xbal digested fungal DNA with a RNA probe derived from Alt1, an rDNA clone isolated from ...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Alternaria alternata ATCC 34957.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hai D T; Lewis, Christopher T; Lévesque, C André; Gräfenhan, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Alternaria alternata ATCC 34957. This strain was previously reported to produce alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether on weathered grain sorghum. The genome was sequenced with PacBio technology and assembled into 27 scaffolds with a total genome size of 33.5 Mb. PMID:26769939

  9. TWO NEW SPECIES OF ALTERNARIA FROM PEAR FRUIT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During studies conducted over the past 15 years of various diseases of deciduous tree fruit from around the world, hundreds of Alternaria isolates have been made and characterized using morphological and molecular methods. Two such fungi are newly described here as A. calycipyricola sp. nov. from th...

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF SPORULATION OF ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA F. SP. SPHENOCLEAE.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted on agar media to characterize the factors for the optimization of sporulation of Alternaria alternata f. sp. sphenocleae, a fungal pathogen being evaluated as a biological control agent for Sphenoclea zeylanica (gooseweed). A. alternata f. sp. sphenocleae conidiation was affec...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Alternaria alternata ATCC 34957

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hai D. T.; Lewis, Christopher T.; Lévesque, C. André

    2016-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Alternaria alternata ATCC 34957. This strain was previously reported to produce alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether on weathered grain sorghum. The genome was sequenced with PacBio technology and assembled into 27 scaffolds with a total genome size of 33.5 Mb. PMID:26769939

  12. Alternaria infection in a patient receiving chemotherapy for lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Rovira, M; Marin, P; Martin-Ortega, E; Montserrat, E; Rozman, C

    1990-01-01

    A 60-year-old man receiving chemotherapy for an intermediate-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma developed multiple papuloerythematous cutaneous lesions. Alternaria alternata was cultured from the lesions, and hyphae were seen in biopsy specimens. This is an unusual infection, without a well-established treatment, in patients with lymphoma. The use of amphotericin B resulted in cure. PMID:2120894

  13. Airborne fungal spores of Alternaria, meteorological parameters and predicting variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filali Ben Sidel, Farah; Bouziane, Hassan; del Mar Trigo, Maria; El Haskouri, Fatima; Bardei, Fadoua; Redouane, Abdelbari; Kadiri, Mohamed; Riadi, Hassane; Kazzaz, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Alternaria is frequently found as airborne fungal spores and is recognized as an important cause of respiratory allergies. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed using a Burkard volumetric spore traps. To establish predicting variables for daily and weakly spore counts, a stepwise multiple regression between spore concentrations and independent variables (meteorological parameters and lagged values from the series of spore concentrations: previous day or week concentration (Alt t - 1) and mean concentration of the same day or week in other years ( C mean)) was made with data obtained during 2009-2011. Alternaria conidia are present throughout the year in the atmosphere of Tetouan, although they show important seasonal fluctuations. The highest levels of Alternaria spores were recorded during the spring and summer or autumn. Alternaria showed maximum daily values in April, May or October depending on year. When the spore variables of Alternaria, namely C mean and Alt t - 1, and meteorological parameters were included in the equation, the resulting R 2 satisfactorily predict future concentrations for 55.5 to 81.6 % during the main spore season and the pre-peak 2. In the predictive model using weekly values, the adjusted R 2 varied from 0.655 to 0.676. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare the results from the expected values and the pre-peak spore data or weekly values for 2012, indicating that there were no significant differences between series compared. This test showed the C mean, Alt t - 1, frequency of the wind third quadrant, maximum wind speed and minimum relative humidity as the most efficient independent variables to forecast the overall trend of this spore in the air.

  14. Screening antimicrobial peptides in-vitro for use in developing transgenic citrus resistant to huanglongbing and citrus canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB, associated with Candidatus Liberibacter sp.) and Asiatic citrus canker (ACC, causal organism Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (XCC)) are bacterial diseases that seriously threaten sustainability of the Florida citrus industry. Sweet orange and grapefruit are highly susceptible to A...

  15. Cytospora species associated with walnut canker disease in China, with description of a new species C. gigalocus.

    PubMed

    Fan, Xinlei; Hyde, Kevin D; Liu, Min; Liang, Yingmei; Tian, Chengming

    2015-05-01

    Cytospora species associated with canker disease are presently difficult to identify because of lack of ex-types cultures with molecular data, few distinguishable characters, and only Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data is available for most Cytospora strains in GenBank. We report on Cytospora species from the walnut tree in China. Collections were subjected to morphological and phylogenetic study. The relatedness of species associated with walnut canker were established using combined ITS, nrLSU, ?-tubulin, and actin gene sequence data. Cytospora atrocirrhata, Cytospora chrysosperma, Cytospora sacculus, and a new species, Cytospora gigalocus, were identified causing canker disease of walnut. Cytospora gigalocus is formally described and compared with most similar species. Cytospora chrysosperma and C. sacculus have previously been recorded from walnut, whereas C. atrocirrhata is reported as associated with walnut canker for the first time. This is the first study that has established the Cytospora species causing walnut canker in China using a multi-phasic approach. All species are recorded as being associated with walnut canker disease in China for the first time. PMID:25937060

  16. Comparison of enzyme immunoassay–based assays for environmental Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Charles; Portnoy, Jay; Sever, Michelle; Arbes, Samuel; Vaughn, Ben; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Alternaria alternata–derived allergenic materials are causes of human disease. Several immunoassays exist to quantify these materials. Objective To compare methods for evaluating Alternaria content. Methods Four methods, including 1 monoclonal antibody (MAb)–based assay specific for recombinant Alt a 1, 1 MAb-based assay for chromatographically purified Alt a 1, 1 polyclonal antibody (PAb)–based assay for chromatographically purified Alt a 1, and 1 PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria extract, were evaluated. Environmental samples collected as part of the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing were examined. Alternaria spore counts were determined in dust by observation. Results The MAb-based assay for recombinant Alt a 1 detected Alternaria in few samples (25%); the PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria proteins detected antigen in 97% of the samples. The PAb- and MAb-based assays for purified Alt a 1 detected antigen in 100% of the samples. There was a significant positive correlation between the 2 assays directed against purified Alt a 1. There was a positive correlation between the PAb-based assay for whole Alternaria and the PAb-based assay for Alt a 1. Nearly all the dust samples contained Alternaria spores, and there was a strong positive correlation between counts and all assays. Conclusion Because of the multifaceted nature of Alternaria, the disparities between methods for quantifying Alternaria, the cross-reactivity between fungal allergens, and the documented genetic promiscuity of this fungus, enzyme immunoassays using PAbs against a range of Alternaria proteins will probably produce the most reliable estimation of overall Alternaria exposure in house dust. PMID:17042141

  17. Tagetolone and tagetenolone: two phytotoxic polyketides from Alternaria tagetica.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Angulo, M M; García-Sosa, K; Alejos-González, F; Escalante-Erosa, F; Delgado-Lamas, G; Peña-Rodríguez, L M

    2001-03-01

    Two new phytotoxic polyketides, tagetolone (1) and tagetenolone (2), in addition to tyrosol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid, have been isolated from the organic crude extract of culture filtrates from the fungal pathogen Alternaria tagetica. Complete characterization of all structures was carried out following a careful analysis of their spectroscopic data (IR, MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and 2D NMR experiments). PMID:11312841

  18. Cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by Alternaria longipes in an immunosuppressed patient.

    PubMed Central

    Gené, J; Azón-Masoliver, A; Guarro, J; Ballester, F; Pujol, I; Llovera, M; Ferrer, C

    1995-01-01

    Alternaria longipes was reported as the agent of a cutaneous infection in a patient with a neoplastic disease. The fungus has not been reported previously as causing disease in humans. It was distinguished by its rather small conidia with smooth or slightly verruculose walls and a pale brown beak which rarely extended into a secondary conidiophore. In vitro inhibitory activities of amphotericin B, ketoconazole, itraconazole, and miconazole were shown. PMID:8567925

  19. Viruslike particles in tentoxin-producing strains of Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, H S

    1988-01-01

    Double-stranded (ds) RNAs associated with viruslike particles have been found in six isolates of Alternaria alternata which produce tentoxin. Isolates had from one to three dsRNAs ranging in size from 1.0 to 5.1 kilobase pairs. In two isolates the dsRNAs were associated with 30-nm particles. No dsRNA was detected in any of six other tentoxin-producing isolates or nine isolates which did not produce tentoxin. Images PMID:3418789

  20. Microbial Transformation of 14-Anhydrodigoxigenin by Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jimei; Tang, Wanxia; Chen, Ridao; Dai, Jungui

    2015-12-01

    The microbial transformation of 14-anhydrodigoxigenin (1) by Alternaria alternata CGMCC 3.577 led to the production of seven new metabolites, 2-8. Their structures were determined by extensive spectroscopic (CD, IR, 1D- and 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS) data analyses. The reactions in the bioprocess exhibited diversity, including specific oxidation, hydroxylation, reduction, epoxidation, and dehydration. In addition, a hypothetical biocatalytic pathway is proposed. PMID:26663840

  1. Cutaneous Alternaria alternata infection successfully treated with itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Del Palacio, A; Gómez-Hernando, C; Revenga, F; Carabias, E; González, A; Cuétara, M S; Johnson, E M

    1996-05-01

    A case of cutaneous alternariosis due to Alternaria alternata in a 47-year-old man who had the CREST (calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, oesophageal dysfunction, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia) syndrome with pulmonary hypertension is presented. The patient, who lived in a rural area and was receiving prostacycline by continuous infusion, prednisone and azathioprine for his underlying disease, showed cutaneous lesions of the lower extremities spreading from the knees to the ankles. The patient was successfully treated with high doses of oral itraconazole. PMID:8914373

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia billingiae OSU19-1, Isolated from a Pear Tree Canker

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Jeannie M.; Bennett, Rhett W.; MacFarland, Logan; Abranches Da Silva, Megan E.; Meza-Turner, Britney M.; Dark, Phillip M.; Frey, Mackenzie E.; Wellappili, Dulani P.; Beugli, Aron D.; Jue, Holman J.; Mellander, Joshua M.; Wei, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Plant-associated Erwinia include pathogenic and nonpathogenic species. We report the 5.6-Mb genome sequence of Erwinia billingiae OSU19-1, isolated from a canker on a pear tree inoculated with Erwinia amylovora. OSU19-1 and a closely related European isolate, E. billingiae Eb661T, share many similarities including 40 kb of plasmid sequence. PMID:26430039

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of Erwinia billingiae OSU19-1, Isolated from a Pear Tree Canker.

    PubMed

    Klein, Jeannie M; Bennett, Rhett W; MacFarland, Logan; Abranches Da Silva, Megan E; Meza-Turner, Britney M; Dark, Phillip M; Frey, Mackenzie E; Wellappili, Dulani P; Beugli, Aron D; Jue, Holman J; Mellander, Joshua M; Wei, Wei; Ream, Walt

    2015-01-01

    Plant-associated Erwinia include pathogenic and nonpathogenic species. We report the 5.6-Mb genome sequence of Erwinia billingiae OSU19-1, isolated from a canker on a pear tree inoculated with Erwinia amylovora. OSU19-1 and a closely related European isolate, E. billingiae Eb661(T), share many similarities including 40 kb of plasmid sequence. PMID:26430039

  4. Daily variations of Alternaria spores in the city of Murcia (semi-arid southeastern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munuera Giner, M.; Carrión García, J. S.

    1995-12-01

    Annual variations in the abundance of Alternaria spores were related to the length of the spore period for data from Murcia (southeastern Spain). To understand the relationship between the number of spores and climatic factors, Alternaria spore counts for March 1993 to February 1994 were examined by means of correlation and regression analyses with fourteen different weather parameters. The results indicated that there was a tendency for Alternaria spore concentrations to increase with increases in temperature, wind speed and hours of sunshine. Negative correlations were observed with air pressure, wind direction and humidity. Theoretical curves for Alternaria spore counts are given in relation to temperatures during the period studied.

  5. Potential sources of airborne Alternaria spp. spores in South-west Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Santiago; Sadyś, Magdalena; Smith, Matt; Tormo-Molina, Rafael; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Maya-Manzano, José María; Silva-Palacios, Inmaculada; Gonzalo-Garijo, Ángela

    2015-11-15

    Fungi belonging to the genus of Alternaria are recognised as being significant plant pathogens, and Alternaria allergens are one of the most important causes of respiratory allergic diseases in Europe. This study aims to provide a detailed and original analysis of Alternaria transport dynamics in Badajoz, SW Spain. This was achieved by examining daily mean and hourly observations of airborne Alternaria spores recorded during days with high airborne concentrations of Alternaria spores (>100 s m(-3)) from 2009 to 2011, as well as four inventory maps of major Alternaria habitats, the overall synoptic weather situation and analysis of air mass transport using Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model and geographic information systems. Land use calculated within a radius of 100 km from Badajoz shows that crops and grasslands are potentially the most important local sources of airborne Alternaria spores recorded at the site. The results of back trajectory analysis show that, during the examined four episodes, the two main directions where Alternaria source areas were located were: (1) SW-W; and (2) NW-NE. Regional scale and long distance transport could therefore supplement the airborne catch recorded at Badajoz with Alternaria conidia originating from sources such as crops and orchards situated in other parts of the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:26156135

  6. Rapid screening for citrus canker resistance employing pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity responses

    PubMed Central

    Pitino, Marco; Armstrong, Cheryl M; Duan, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Citrus canker, caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc), has been attributed to millions of dollars in loss or damage to commercial citrus crops in subtropical production areas of the world. Since identification of resistant plants is one of the most effective methods of disease management, the ability to screen for resistant seedlings plays a key role in the production of a long-term solution to canker. Here, an inverse correlation between reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by the plant and the ability of Xcc to grow and form lesions on infected plants is reported. Based on this information, a novel screening method that can rapidly identify citrus seedlings that are less susceptible to early infection by Xcc was devised by measuring ROS accumulation triggered by a 22-amino acid sequence of the conserved N-terminal part of flagellin (flg22) from X. citri ssp. citri (Xcc-flg22). In addition to limiting disease symptoms, ROS production was also correlated with the expression of basal defense-related genes such as the pattern recognition receptors LRR8 and FLS2, the leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein RLP12, and the defense-related gene PR1, indicating an important role for pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) in determining resistance to citrus canker. Moreover, the differential expression patterns observed amongst the citrus seedlings demonstrated the existence of genetic variations in the PTI response among citrus species/varieties. PMID:26504581

  7. First report of stem canker of Salsola tragus caused by Diaporthe eres in Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salsola tragus L. (Russian thistle, tumbleweed), family Chenopodiaceae, is a problematic invasive weed in the western United States and a target of biological control efforts. In September of 2007, dying Salsola tragus plants were found along the Azov Sea at Chushka, Russia. About 30 plants in the...

  8. Multiple Ceratocystis smalleyi infections associated with reduced stem water transport in bitternut hickory.

    PubMed

    Park, J-H; Juzwik, J; Cavender-Bares, J

    2013-06-01

    Hundreds of cankers caused by Ceratocystis smalleyi are associated with hickory bark beetle-attacked bitternut hickory exhibiting rapid crown decline in the north-central and northeastern United States. Discolored sapwood colonized by the fungus commonly underlies the cankers. Field studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that C. smalleyi infections cause vascular system dysfunction in infected trees. Fifty C. smalleyi inoculations made at 1.8 to 3.8 m in height on stems of healthy bitternut hickory trees (13 to 28 cm in diameter at 1.4 m in height) resulted in extensive canker formation and sapwood discoloration 12 to 14 months after treatment compared with water-inoculated and noninoculated controls. Sap flow velocity (midday) was significantly lower in the infected trees compared with that in the controls. Sap flow velocity also was inversely correlated with the proportion of bark area with cankered tissues and with tylose abundance in the youngest two growth rings. Tylose formation in current-year vessels associated with C. smalleyi infections is likely responsible for much of the water transport disruption. It is hypothesized that multiple stem infections of C. smalleyi and the resulting xylem dysfunction contribute to crown wilt development in bitternut hickory exhibiting rapid crown decline. PMID:23360533

  9. Short distance dispersal of splashed bacteria of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri from canker-infected grapefruit tree canopies in turbulent wind

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp citri [Xcc]) can result in yield loss and market restrictions. The pathogen is dispersed in rain splash and spread is promoted by wind. The goal of this study was to gain some insight into the behavior of the downwind plume of Xcc from ~1.5 m-tall canker-affect...

  10. Activity of citrus canker lesions on leaves, shoots and fruit of grapefruit in a Florida orchard from June 2010 to January 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lesions of citrus canker, caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), on citrus fruit preclude export to certain markets. Characterizing the population dynamics of bacteria in canker lesions in commercial orchards can help gauge risk associated with diseased fruit entering fresh markets. The aim...

  11. The effect of wind on dispersal of splash-borne Xanthomonas citri subsp citri at different heights and distances downwind of canker-infected grapefruit trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthomonas citri subsp citri (Xcc), which causes citrus canker, is a major pathogen of grapefruit and other canker-susceptible citrus species and cultivars grown in Florida and elsewhere. It is dispersed by rain splash, and wind promotes the dispersal of the pathogen. The aim of this study was to e...

  12. Response of Alternaria spp. from sugar beet leaf spots to fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf spot caused in sugar beet by Alternaria species has been a minor foliar disease issue in the United States. Recently in Michigan and other growing regions an increasing incidence of Alternaria leaf spot has been observed and without evidence of predisposing plant yellowing. One possible reason...

  13. Differential gene expression in Alternaria gaisen exposed to dark and light

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Character states observed during sporulation have been the basis for segregation and description of many of the small-spored species of Alternaria. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS and housekeeping genes from small-spored Alternaria spp. do not support most of the currently defined morphological specie...

  14. Alternaria roseogrisea, a new species from achenes of Helianthus annuus (sunflower)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternaria roseogrisea was isolated from the achenes of Helianthus annuus L. during studies conducted in 1983-85 to document the diversity of fungi occurring in sunflower seeds and the possible role these fungi play in degradation of oilseed quality. A. roseogrisea was reported as "Alternaria sp. 2...

  15. Phylogenetic, morphological and pathogenic characterization of Alternaria species associated with fruit rots of blueberry in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruits. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed fruits of blueberry in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. The aims of this study wer...

  16. Alternaria alternata infection of skin in a 6-year-old boy with aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Mirkin, L D

    1994-01-01

    Although Alternaria is a very common soil saprophyte and plant pathogen fungus, human infections are rare. A 6-year-old boy with aplastic anemia presented with generalized erythematous papules. Skin biopsies revealed granulomas with fungal elements and grew Alternaria alternata. The lesions disappeared following 7 weeks of antifungal treatment. PMID:7808973

  17. Influence of environmental parameters on mycotoxin production by Alternaria arborescens.

    PubMed

    Vaquera, Sandra; Patriarca, Andrea; Fernández Pinto, V

    2016-02-16

    Alternaria arborescens has been reported as a common fungal species invading tomatoes and is capable of producing several mycotoxins in infected plants, fruits and in agricultural commodities. Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA) are some of the main Alternaria mycotoxins that can be found as contaminants of food. This species can produce these toxic metabolites together with AAL toxins (Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersicum toxins), which can act as inhibitors of sphingolipid biosynthesis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of water activity (aw, 0.995, 0.975, 0.950) and temperature (6, 15, 20, 25 and 30 °C) on mycotoxin production by A. arborescens on a synthetic tomato medium. The optimum production of AOH and AME occurred at 0.975 aw after 40 days of incubation at 30 °C. The maximum TeA accumulation was observed at 0.975 aw and 25 °C and at 0.950 aw and 30 °C. AAL TA was produced in higher quantities at 0.995 aw and 30 °C. At 6 °C no quantifiable levels of AOH or AME were detected, but significant amounts of TeA were produced at 0.975 aw. In general, high aw levels and high temperatures were favorable for mycotoxin production. The greatest accumulation of all four toxins occurred at 0.975 aw and 30 °C. The results obtained here could be extrapolated to evaluate the risk of tomato fruits and tomato products contamination caused by these toxins. PMID:26708802

  18. Chemical constituents of marine mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima EN-192

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Gao, Shushan; Li, Xiaoming; Li, Chunshun; Wang, Bingui

    2013-03-01

    A chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima EN-192, an endophytic fungus obtained from the stems of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa, resulted in the isolation of nine known secondary metabolites, including four indole-diterpenoids: penijanthine A ( 1), paspaline ( 2), paspalinine ( 3), and penitrem A ( 4); three tricycloalternarene derivatives: tricycloalternarene 3a ( 5), tricycloalternarene 1b ( 6), and tricycloalternarene 2b ( 7); and two alternariol congeners: djalonensone ( 8) and alternariol ( 9). The chemical structures of these metabolites were characterized through a combination of detailed spectroscopic analyses and their comparison with reports from the literature. The inhibitory activities of each isolated compound against four bacteria were evaluated and compounds 5 and 8 displayed moderate activity against the aquaculture pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum, with inhibition zone diameters of 8 and 9 mm, respectively, at 100 μg/disk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived A lternaria tenuissima and also the first report of the isolation of indole-diterpenoids from fungal genus A lternaria.

  19. Positive selection is the main driving force for evolution of citrus canker-causing Xanthomonas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunzeng; Jalan, Neha; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Goss, Erica; Jones, Jeffrey B; Setubal, Joo C; Deng, Xiaoling; Wang, Nian

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the evolutionary history and potential of bacterial pathogens is critical to prevent the emergence of new infectious bacterial diseases. Xanthomonas axonopodis subsp. citri (Xac) (synonym X. citri subsp. citri), which causes citrus canker, is one of the hardest-fought plant bacterial pathogens in US history. Here, we sequenced 21 Xac strains (14 XacA, 3 XacA* and 4 XacA(w)) with different host ranges from North America and Asia and conducted comparative genomic and evolutionary analyses. Our analyses suggest that acquisition of beneficial genes and loss of detrimental genes most likely allowed XacA to infect a broader range of hosts as compared with XacA(w) and XacA*. Recombination was found to have occurred frequently on the relative ancient branches, but rarely on the young branches of the clonal genealogy. The ratio of recombination/mutation ?/? was 0.07900.0005, implying that the Xac population was clonal in structure. Positive selection has affected 14% (395 out of 2822) of core genes of the citrus canker-causing Xanthomonas. The genes affected are enriched in 'carbohydrate transport and metabolism' and 'DNA replication, recombination and repair' genes (P<0.05). Many genes related to virulence, especially genes involved in the type III secretion system and effectors, are affected by positive selection, further highlighting the contribution of positive selection to the evolution of citrus canker-causing Xanthomonas. Our results suggest that both metabolism and virulence genes provide advantages to endow XacA with higher virulence and a wider host range. Our analysis advances our understanding of the genomic basis of specialization by positive selection in bacterial evolution. PMID:25689023

  20. Amplification of DNA of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri from historic citrus canker herbarium specimens.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenbin; Brlansky, Ronald H; Hartung, John S

    2006-05-01

    Herbaria are important resources for the study of the origins and dispersal of plant pathogens, particularly bacterial plant pathogens that incite local lesions in which large numbers of pathogen genomes are concentrated. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), the causal agent of citrus bacterial canker disease, is a notable example of such a pathogen. The appearance of novel strains of the pathogen in Florida and elsewhere make it increasingly important to understand the relationships among strains of this pathogen. USDA-ARS at Beltsville, Maryland maintains approximately 700 herbarium specimens with citrus canker disease lesions up to 90 years old, originally collected from all over the world, and so is an important resource for phytogeographic studies of this bacterium. Unfortunately, DNA in herbarium specimens is degraded and may contain high levels of inhibitors of PCR. In this study, we compared a total of 23 DNA isolation techniques in combination with 31 novel primer pairs in order to develop an efficient protocol for the analysis of Xac DNA in herbarium specimens. We identified the most reliable extraction method, identified in terms of successful amplification by our panel of 31 primer pairs. We also identified the most robust primer pairs, identified as successful in the largest number of extracts prepared by different methods. We amplified Xac genomic sequences up to 542 bp long from herbarium samples up to 89 years old. Primers varied in effectiveness, with some primer pairs amplifying Xac DNA from a 1/10,000 dilution of extract from a single lesion from a citrus canker herbarium specimen. Our methodology will be useful to identify pathogens and perform molecular analyses of bacterial and possibly fungal genomes from herbarium specimens. PMID:16099061

  1. [Study on a bacterial strain Bt8 for biocontrol against citrus bacterial canker].

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Si-Liang; Ren, Jian-Guo; Yan, Wei-Hong; Cen, Zhen-Lu

    2006-04-01

    Citrus bacterial canker is an important disease of Citrus species in China. The disease severely occurs especially in the coastal area. Integrated control system has been used for the control of the disease, in which chemotherapy plays an important role at present. The chemotherapy-dominant control system brought many problems to the environment, such as chemical residua in the products and induction of resistance to fungicide(s) by the pathogen. To solve these problems, an intensive study on biocontrol of citrus bacterial canker is needed. Isolations and characterizations of biocontrol agents are the basis for biocontrol of the disease. A bacterial strain Bt8 with strong inhibiting ability against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Hasse) Vauterin, was isolated from citrus orchard soil in Nanning, China. The isolated bacterial strain was identified and characterized as Acinetobacter baumannii Bouvet et Grimont on the base of its morphology and 16S rDNA sequence analysis as well as physiological and biochemical characters. The inhibiting activity of the bacterium suspension against the pathogen was significantly influenced by environmental factors, such as temperatures, pHs and media. At temperatures of 18 degrees C to 33 degrees C, both the inhibiting activity of the bacterium suspension and the biomass of the bacterium increased with the increases of temperatures, suggesting that the influence of temperature on inhibiting activity of the bacterium suspension was in dependence on the bacterial biomass. In NA liquid medium of pH 10, the bacterium suspension showed the highest inhibiting activity against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, which was not in dependence on biomass of the bacterium. The bacterium suspension provided 55.2% inhibition against bacterial canker under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that Acinetobacter baumannii has potential as biocontrol agent against bacterial canker disease. Acinetobacter baumannii was reported as the pathogens infecting human and animals. The present study enriched the understanding on biological diversity in Acinetobacter baumannii to sciences. This is the first report on the isolation of Acinetobacter baumannii with strong inhibiting ability against plant pathogen. PMID:16736594

  2. Activation of Melanin Synthesis in Alternaria infectoria by Antifungal Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Chantal; Prados-Rosales, Rafael; Silva, Branca M A; Nakouzi-Naranjo, Antonio; Zuzarte, Mónica; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Stark, Ruth E; Casadevall, Arturo; Gonçalves, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The importance of Alternaria species fungi to human health ranges from their role as etiological agents of serious infections with poor prognoses in immunosuppressed individuals to their association with respiratory allergic diseases. The present work focuses on Alternaria infectoria, which was used as a model organism of the genus, and was designed to unravel melanin production in response to antifungals. After we characterized the pigment produced by A. infectoria, we studied the dynamics of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin production during growth, the degree of melanization in response to antifungals, and how melanization affected susceptibility to several classes of therapeutic drugs. We demonstrate that A. infectoria increased melanin deposition in cell walls in response to nikkomycin Z, caspofungin, and itraconazole but not in response to fluconazole or amphotericin B. These results indicate that A. infectoria activates DHN-melanin synthesis in response to certain antifungal drugs, possibly as a protective mechanism against these drugs. Inhibition of DHN-melanin synthesis by pyroquilon resulted in a lower minimum effective concentration (MEC) of caspofungin and enhanced morphological changes (increased hyphal balloon size), characterized by thinner and less organized A. infectoria cell walls. In summary, A. infectoria synthesizes melanin in response to certain antifungal drugs, and its susceptibility is influenced by melanization, suggesting the therapeutic potential of drug combinations that affect melanin synthesis. PMID:26711773

  3. Phylogenetic, Morphological, and Pathogenic Characterization of Alternaria Species Associated with Fruit Rot of Blueberry in California.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X Q; Xiao, C L

    2015-12-01

    Fruit rot caused by Alternaria spp. is one of the most important factors affecting the postharvest quality and shelf life of blueberry fruit. The aims of this study were to characterize Alternaria isolates using morphological and molecular approaches and test their pathogenicity to blueberry fruit. Alternaria spp. isolates were collected from decayed blueberry fruit in the Central Valley of California during 2012 and 2013. In total, 283 isolates were obtained and five species of Alternaria, including Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae, were identified based on DNA sequences of the plasma membrane ATPase, Alt a1 and Calmodulin gene regions in combination with morphological characters of the culture and sporulation. Of the 283 isolates, 61.5% were identified as A. alternata, 32.9% were A. arborescens, 5.0% were A. tenuissima, and only one isolate of A. infectoria and one isolate of A. rosae were found. These fungi were able to grow at temperatures from 0 to 35°C, and mycelial growth was arrested at 40°C. Optimal radial growth occurred between 20 to 30°C. Pathogenicity tests showed that all five Alternaria spp. were pathogenic on blueberry fruit at 0, 4, and 20°C, with A. alternata, A. arborescens, and A. tenuissima being the most virulent species, followed by A. infectoria and A. rosae. Previously A. tenuissima has been reported to be the primary cause of Alternaria fruit rot of blueberry worldwide. Our results indicated that the species composition of Alternaria responsible for Alternaria fruit rot in blueberry can be dependent on geographical region. A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, and A. rosae are reported for the first time on blueberry in California. This is also the first report of A. infectoria and A. rosae infecting blueberry fruit. PMID:26267542

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriophages Against Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Causing Bacterial Canker Disease in Kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ji-Gang; Lim, Jeong-A; Song, Yu-Rim; Heu, Sunggi; Kim, Gyoung Hee; Koh, Young Jin; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2016-02-28

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae causes bacterial canker disease in kiwifruit. Owing to the prohibition of agricultural antibiotic use in major kiwifruit-cultivating countries, alternative methods need to be developed to manage this disease. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically infect target bacteria and have recently been reconsidered as potential biological control agents for bacterial pathogens owing to their specificity in terms of host range. In this study, we isolated bacteriophages against P. syringae pv. actinidiae from soils collected from kiwifruit orchards in Korea and selected seven bacteriophages for further characterization based on restriction enzyme digestion patterns of genomic DNA. Among the studied bacteriophages, two belong to the Myoviridae family and three belong to the Podoviridae family, based on morphology observed by transmission electron microscopy. The host range of the selected bacteriophages was confirmed using 18 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae, including the Psa2 and Psa3 groups, and some were also effective against other P. syringae pathovars. Lytic activity of the selected bacteriophages was sustained in vitro until 80 h, and their activity remained stable up to 50°C, at pH 11, and under UV-B light. These results indicate that the isolated bacteriophages are specific to P. syringae species and are resistant to various environmental factors, implying their potential use in control of bacterial canker disease in kiwifruits. PMID:26628254

  5. Diversity of Diaporthe species associated with wood cankers of fruit and nut crops in northern California.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Daniel P; Travadon, Renaud; Baumgartner, Kendra

    2015-01-01

    Diaporthe ampelina, causal agent of Phomopsis cane and leaf spot of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) is isolated frequently from grapevine wood cankers, causing Phomopsis dieback. The latter disease is associated with four other Diaporthe species, three of which also are reported from hosts other than grape. To better understand the role of this Diaporthe community in Phomopsis dieback of grapevine and the potential for infection routes among alternate hosts, 76 Diaporthe isolates were recovered from wood cankers of cultivated grape, pear, apricot, almond and the wild host willow in four California counties. Isolates were characterized morphologically and assigned to species based on multigene sequence analyses. This study identified eight Diaporthe species from grapevine and one novel taxon from willow, D. benedicti. We report the first findings of D. australafricana and D. novem in North America. Our findings also expand the host ranges of D. ambigua to apricot and willow, D. australafricana to almond and willow, D. chamaeropis to grapevine and willow, D. foeniculina to willow and D. novem to almond. The generalists D. ambigua and D. eres were the most genetically diverse species, based on high nucleotide and haplotypic diversity, followed by the grapevine specialist D. ampelina. Analyses based on multilocus linkage disequilibrium could not reject the hypothesis of random mating for D. ambigua, which is further supported by relatively high haplotypic diversity, reports of both mating types and reports of successful matings in vitro. Pathogenicity assays revealed that D. ampelina was the most pathogenic species to grapevine wood. PMID:26240309

  6. Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi causes chestnut canker symptoms in Castanea sativa shoots in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Sabrina; Calmin, Gautier; Auderset, Guy; Crovadore, Julien; Pelleteret, Pegah; Mauch-Mani, Brigitte; Barja, François; Paul, Bernard; Jermini, Mauro; Lefort, François

    2016-02-01

    A screening of Castanea sativa scions for grafting for the presence of endophytes showed that the opportunistic fungal pathogen Gnomoniopsis smithogilvyi was the most abundant member of the endophytic flora. This fungus is known as a pathogen affecting chestnut fruits in Italy and Australia. Here, we present evidence that it causes cankers very similar to the ones due to Cryphonectria parasitica infection on twigs and scions of chestnut trees. We found natural infections of G. smithogilvyi in healthy grafted plants as well as in scions from chestnut trees. The identity of the fungus isolated from asymptomatic tissues was verified by applying Koch's postulates and corroborated by DNA sequencing of four different gene regions. In contrast to C. parasitica that appears on the bark as yellow to orange pycnidia, stromata and slimy twisted tendrils, G. smithogilvyi forms orange to red and black pycnidia, gray stromata and cream-colored to beige slimy twisted tendrils on the bark. These Swiss strains are closely related to G. smithogilvyi strains from Australia and from New Zealand, Gnomoniopsis sp. and Gnomoniopsis castanea from New Zealand, Italy, France and Switzerland. While the strains from Ticino are genetically very close to G. smithogilvyi and G. castanea from Italy, the differences between the strains from Ticino and Geneva suggest two different origins. The present study supports the hypothesis that a single species named G. smithogilvyi, which is known to be the agent of chestnut rot, also causes wood cankers on chestnut. PMID:26768710

  7. Genome sequence of Valsa canker pathogens uncovers a potential adaptation of colonization of woody bark.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhiyuan; Liu, Huiquan; Li, Zhengpeng; Ke, Xiwang; Dou, Daolong; Gao, Xiaoning; Song, Na; Dai, Qingqing; Wu, Yuxing; Xu, Jin-Rong; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2015-12-01

    Canker caused by ascomycetous Valsa species are among the most destructive diseases of woody plants worldwide. These pathogens are distinct from other pathogens because they only effectively attack tree bark in the field. To unravel the potential adaptation mechanism of bark colonization, we examined the genomes of Valsa mali and Valsa pyri that preferentially infect apple and pear, respectively. We reported the 44.7 and 35.7 Mb genomes of V. mali and V. pyri, respectively. We also identified the potential genomic determinants of wood colonization by comparing them with related cereal pathogens. Both genomes encode a plethora of pathogenicity-related genes involved in plant cell wall degradation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. In order to adapt to the nutrient limitation and low pH environment in bark, they seem to employ membrane transporters associated with nitrogen uptake and secrete proteases predominantly with acidic pH optima. Remarkably, both Valsa genomes are especially suited for pectin decomposition, but are limited in lignocellulose and cutin degradation. Besides many similarities, the two genomes show distinct variations in many secondary metabolism gene clusters. Our results show a potential adaptation of Valsa canker pathogens to colonize woody bark. Secondary metabolism gene clusters are probably responsible for this host specificity. PMID:26137988

  8. Under severe citrus canker and HLB (Huanglongbing) pressure, Triumph and Jackson perform better than Flame and Marsh grapefruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) and Citrus Canker (CC) threaten the viability of Florida grapefruit production. Triumph (T), reportedly a grapefruit/sweet orange hybrid, is similar to seedy white grapefruit with earlier maturity and lower bitterness. Jackson (J) is a low-seeded budsport of Triumph. Tree health ...

  9. Under severe HLB and citrus canker pressure, 'Triumph' and 'Jackson' perform better than 'Flame' and 'Marsh' grapefruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) and Citrus Canker (CC) threaten the viability of Florida grapefruit production. ‘Triumph’ (T), reportedly a grapefruit/sweet orange hybrid, is similar to seedy white grapefruit with earlier maturity and lower bitterness. ‘Jackson’ (J) is a low-seeded budsport of ‘Triumph’. Tree h...

  10. Effect of the duration of inoculum exposure on development of citrus canker symptoms on seedlings of Swingle citrumelo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is one of the most serious diseases citrus in Florida, and elsewhere in the world. The disease causes yield loss and some fresh fruit trade restrictions may apply. Cultural management techniques such as windbreaks may work by not only reducing wind...

  11. The Efficacy and Underlying Mechanism of Sulfone Derivatives Containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole on Citrus Canker.

    PubMed

    Li, Pei; Ma, Yuhua; Zhou, Junliang; Luo, Hui; Yan, Jiawen; Mao, Yongya; Wang, Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to isolate and identify the pathogen responsible for citrus canker and investigate the efficacy of sulfone derivatives containing 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety on controlling citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) under in vitro and field conditions. In an in vitro study, we tested eight sulfone derivatives against Xcc and the results demonstrated that compound 3 exhibited the best antibacterial activity against Xcc, with a half-maximal effective concentration (EC50) value of 1.23 μg/mL, which was even better than those of commercial bactericides Kocide 3000 (58.21 μg/mL) and Thiodiazole copper (77.04 μg/mL), respectively. Meanwhile, under field experiments, compound 3 treatments demonstrated the highest ability to reduce the disease of citrus canker in leaves and fruits in two different places relative to an untreated control as well as the commercial bactericides Kocide 3000 and Thiodiazole copper. Meanwhile, compound 3 could stimulate the increase in peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activities in the navel orange leaves, causing marked enhancement of plant resistance against citrus canker. Moreover, compound 3 could damage the cell membranes, destruct the biofilm formation, inhibit the production of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS), and affect the cell membrane permeability to restrain the growth of the bacteria. PMID:26247929

  12. Incidence and severity of Asiatic citrus canker on citrus and citrus–related germplasm in a Florida field planting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Hasse), is the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker (ACC), a commercially important disease in Florida citrus, as well as in many other regions. In this study we evaluated occurrence of foliar lesions from ACC on progenies of 94 seed-source genotypes (hereafter called ...

  13. Characteristics of the perception of different severity measures of citrus canker and the relations between the various symptom types

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker is a disease of citrus and is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac). Ways of managing the disease are being sought, and accurate, precise, reproducible disease assessment is needed for monitoring epidemics. The objective of this study was to investigate...

  14. Visual rating and the use of image analysis for assessing different symptoms of citrus canker on grapefruit leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker is caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv citri (Xac) and infects several citrus species in wet tropical and subtropical citrus growing regions. Accurate, precise and reproducible disease assessment is needed for monitoring epidemics and disease response in breeding...

  15. Occurrence of Leaf Blight on Cosmos Caused by Alternaria cosmosa in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Ji Hye; Paul, Narayan Chandra; Cho, Hye Sun; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung Hun

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, a leaf blight disease was observed on cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus) leaves in Nonsan, Korea. The causal pathogen was isolated and identified based on morphological and molecular approaches. Morphological characteristics of the pathogen matched well with the Alternaria cosmosa and also easily distinguishable from Alternaria zinniae reported from cosmos seeds by producing branched beak. Phylogenetically, the pathogen could not be distinguished from A. passiflorae based on the sequence analysis of a combined data set of Alt a1 and gpd genes. However, A. passiflorae was distinguished from the present species by having conidiophores with 4 to 5 conidiogenous loci. The results indicate that the present Alternaria species is A. cosmosa. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the isolate was pathogenic to the leaves of Cosmos bipinnatus. This is the first report of Alternaria blight disease caused by A. cosmosa on cosmos in Korea. PMID:25774114

  16. INOCULATION STRATEGIES TO ASSESS BIOLOGICAL INTERACTIONS BETWEEN FUSARIUM AND ALTERNARIA SPECIES INFECTING SORGHUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three bioassays were assessed for experimental utility to either characterize fungal species potentially pathogenic to sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] or to screen germplasm for advancement in breeding programs. Isolates of species commonly associated with sorghum, Alternaria alternata, Fusari...

  17. Alternaria-derived serine protease activity drives IL-33–mediated asthma exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Snelgrove, Robert J.; Gregory, Lisa G.; Peiró, Teresa; Akthar, Samia; Campbell, Gaynor A.; Walker, Simone A.; Lloyd, Clare M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The fungal allergen Alternaria alternata is implicated in severe asthma and rapid onset life-threatening exacerbations of disease. However, the mechanisms that underlie this severe pathogenicity remain unclear. Objective We sought to investigate the mechanism whereby Alternaria was capable of initiating severe, rapid onset allergic inflammation. Methods IL-33 levels were quantified in wild-type and ST2−/− mice that lacked the IL-33 receptor given inhaled house dust mite, cat dander, or Alternaria, and the effect of inhibiting allergen-specific protease activities on IL-33 levels was assessed. An exacerbation model of allergic airway disease was established whereby mice were sensitized with house dust mite before subsequently being challenged with Alternaria (with or without serine protease activity), and inflammation, remodeling, and lung function assessed 24 hours later. Results Alternaria, but not other common aeroallergens, possessed intrinsic serine protease activity that elicited the rapid release of IL-33 into the airways of mice through a mechanism that was dependent upon the activation of protease activated receptor-2 and adenosine triphosphate signaling. The unique capacity of Alternaria to drive this early IL-33 release resulted in a greater pulmonary inflammation by 24 hours after challenge relative to the common aeroallergen house dust mite. Furthermore, this Alternaria serine protease–IL-33 axis triggered a rapid, augmented inflammation, mucus release, and loss of lung function in our exacerbation model. Conclusion Alternaria-specific serine protease activity causes rapid IL-33 release, which underlies the development of a robust TH2 inflammation and exacerbation of allergic airway disease. PMID:24636086

  18. Alternaria alternata infection associated osteomyelitis of maxilla: a rare disease entity.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Vidhi; Rastogi, Sanjay; Barua, Madhumita; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Alternaria alternata is one of the rarest fungi associated with paranasal sinusitis. Alternaria species are pigmented (also known as dematiaceous or phaeoid) filamentous fungi, which are well-known soil saprophytes and plant pathogens that infrequently cause infection in humans mainly, cutaneous lesions. We present a case of osteomyelitis of maxilla caused by a rare fungus- A. alternata in a diabetic patient with poor glycemic control who was successfully treated with antifungal and surgical debridement over the period of 6 months. PMID:24355970

  19. Novel insights into the genomic basis of citrus canker based on the genome sequences of two strains of Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Citrus canker is a disease that has severe economic impact on the citrus industry worldwide. There are three types of canker, called A, B, and C. The three types have different phenotypes and affect different citrus species. The causative agent for type A is Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, whose genome sequence was made available in 2002. Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain B causes canker B and Xanthomonas fuscans subsp. aurantifolii strain C causes canker C. Results We have sequenced the genomes of strains B and C to draft status. We have compared their genomic content to X. citri subsp. citri and to other Xanthomonas genomes, with special emphasis on type III secreted effector repertoires. In addition to pthA, already known to be present in all three citrus canker strains, two additional effector genes, xopE3 and xopAI, are also present in all three strains and are both located on the same putative genomic island. These two effector genes, along with one other effector-like gene in the same region, are thus good candidates for being pathogenicity factors on citrus. Numerous gene content differences also exist between the three cankers strains, which can be correlated with their different virulence and host range. Particular attention was placed on the analysis of genes involved in biofilm formation and quorum sensing, type IV secretion, flagellum synthesis and motility, lipopolysacharide synthesis, and on the gene xacPNP, which codes for a natriuretic protein. Conclusion We have uncovered numerous commonalities and differences in gene content between the genomes of the pathogenic agents causing citrus canker A, B, and C and other Xanthomonas genomes. Molecular genetics can now be employed to determine the role of these genes in plant-microbe interactions. The gained knowledge will be instrumental for improving citrus canker control. PMID:20388224

  20. [Prevalent forecast of kiwifruit bacterial canker caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae].

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Cheng, H; Fang, S; Qian, Z

    2001-06-01

    The prevalent analysis of kiwifruit bacterial canker for several years showed that the effective ecological factors of severe degree were the precipitation (x1) in the second and last ten-days of March, and the average temperature (x2) of January. The model was y = 2.1359 + 0.0107x1 - 0.6061x2. The main factor of the prevalence was the relative variation of ten-days average temperature and precipitation in Winter and in early Spring, and the regression equation was y = -8.127 + 22.739x - 13.254x2. The forecast effect of the equation was obviously significant after testing. PMID:11758412

  1. Dustborne Alternaria alternata antigens in U.S. homes: Results from the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Päivi M.; Yin, Ming; Arbes, Samuel J.; Cohn, Richard D.; Sever, Michelle; Muilenberg, Michael; Burge, Harriet A.; London, Stephanie J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Alternaria alternata is one of the most common fungi associated with allergic disease. However, Alternaria exposure in indoor environments is not well characterized. Objective: The primary goals of this study were to examine the prevalence of Alternaria exposure and identify independent predictors of Alternaria antigen concentrations in U.S. homes. Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were obtained from the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. A nationally representative sample of 831 housing units in 75 different locations throughout the U.S. completed the survey. Information on housing and household characteristics was obtained by questionnaire and environmental assessments. Concentrations of Alternaria antigens in dust collected from various indoor sites were assessed with a polyclonal anti-Alternaria antibody assay. Results: Alternaria antigens were detected in most (95-99%) of the dust samples. The geometric mean concentration, reflecting the average Alternaria concentration in homes, was 4.88 μg/g (SE=0.13 μg/g). In the multivariable linear regression analysis, the age of the housing unit, geographic region, urbanization, poverty, family race, observed mold and moisture problems, use of dehumidifier, and presence of cats and dogs were independent predictors of Alternaria antigen concentrations. Less frequent cleaning and smoking indoors also contributed to higher Alternaria antigen levels in homes. Conclusion: Exposure to Alternaria alternata antigens in U.S. homes is common. Antigen levels in homes are not only influenced by regional factors but also by residential characteristics. Preventing mold and moisture problems, avoiding smoking indoors, and regular household cleaning may help reduce exposure to Alternaria antigens indoors. PMID:16159634

  2. Adaptive Potential of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster) Populations to the Emerging Pitch Canker Pathogen, Fusarium circinatum

    PubMed Central

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3–7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43–0.58 and 0.51–0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease. PMID:25500822

  3. Identification of Bacteriophages for Biocontrol of the Kiwifruit Canker Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae

    PubMed Central

    Frampton, Rebekah A.; Taylor, Corinda; Holguín Moreno, Angela V.; Visnovsky, Sandra B.; Petty, Nicola K.; Pitman, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is a reemerging pathogen which causes bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.). Since 2008, a global outbreak of P. syringae pv. actinidiae has occurred, and in 2010 this pathogen was detected in New Zealand. The economic impact and the development of resistance in P. syringae pv. actinidiae and other pathovars against antibiotics and copper sprays have led to a search for alternative management strategies. We isolated 275 phages, 258 of which were active against P. syringae pv. actinidiae. Extensive host range testing on P. syringae pv. actinidiae, other pseudomonads, and bacteria isolated from kiwifruit orchards showed that most phages have a narrow host range. Twenty-four were analyzed by electron microscopy, pulse-field gel electrophoresis, and restriction digestion. Their suitability for biocontrol was tested by assessing stability and the absence of lysogeny and transduction. A detailed host range was performed, phage-resistant bacteria were isolated, and resistance to other phages was examined. The phages belonged to the Caudovirales and were analyzed based on morphology and genome size, which showed them to be representatives of Myoviridae, Podoviridae, and Siphoviridae. Twenty-one Myoviridae members have similar morphologies and genome sizes yet differ in restriction patterns, host range, and resistance, indicating a closely related group. Nine of these Myoviridae members were sequenced, and each was unique. The most closely related sequenced phages were a group infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa and characterized by phages JG004 and PAK_P1. In summary, this study reports the isolation and characterization of P. syringae pv. actinidiae phages and provides a framework for the intelligent formulation of phage biocontrol agents against kiwifruit bacterial canker. PMID:24487530

  4. Identification of bacteriophages for biocontrol of the kiwifruit canker phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Rebekah A; Taylor, Corinda; Holguín Moreno, Angela V; Visnovsky, Sandra B; Petty, Nicola K; Pitman, Andrew R; Fineran, Peter C

    2014-04-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is a reemerging pathogen which causes bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.). Since 2008, a global outbreak of P. syringae pv. actinidiae has occurred, and in 2010 this pathogen was detected in New Zealand. The economic impact and the development of resistance in P. syringae pv. actinidiae and other pathovars against antibiotics and copper sprays have led to a search for alternative management strategies. We isolated 275 phages, 258 of which were active against P. syringae pv. actinidiae. Extensive host range testing on P. syringae pv. actinidiae, other pseudomonads, and bacteria isolated from kiwifruit orchards showed that most phages have a narrow host range. Twenty-four were analyzed by electron microscopy, pulse-field gel electrophoresis, and restriction digestion. Their suitability for biocontrol was tested by assessing stability and the absence of lysogeny and transduction. A detailed host range was performed, phage-resistant bacteria were isolated, and resistance to other phages was examined. The phages belonged to the Caudovirales and were analyzed based on morphology and genome size, which showed them to be representatives of Myoviridae, Podoviridae, and Siphoviridae. Twenty-one Myoviridae members have similar morphologies and genome sizes yet differ in restriction patterns, host range, and resistance, indicating a closely related group. Nine of these Myoviridae members were sequenced, and each was unique. The most closely related sequenced phages were a group infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa and characterized by phages JG004 and PAK_P1. In summary, this study reports the isolation and characterization of P. syringae pv. actinidiae phages and provides a framework for the intelligent formulation of phage biocontrol agents against kiwifruit bacterial canker. PMID:24487530

  5. Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.

    PubMed

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease. PMID:25500822

  6. Delimiting cryptic pathogen species causing apple Valsa canker with multilocus data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuli; Zang, Rui; Yin, Zhiyuan; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2014-04-01

    Fungal diseases are posing tremendous threats to global economy and food safety. Among them, Valsa canker, caused by fungi of Valsa and their Cytospora anamorphs, has been a serious threat to fruit and forest trees and is one of the most destructive diseases of apple in East Asia, particularly. Accurate and robust delimitation of pathogen species is not only essential for the development of effective disease control programs, but also will advance our understanding of the emergence of plant diseases. However, species delimitation is especially difficult in Valsa because of the high variability of morphological traits and in many cases the lack of the teleomorph. In this study, we delimitated species boundary for pathogens causing apple Valsa canker with a multifaceted approach. Based on three independent loci, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), β-tubulin (Btu), and translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1α), we inferred gene trees with both maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, estimated species tree with Bayesian multispecies coalescent approaches, and validated species tree with Bayesian species delimitation. Through divergence time estimation and ancestral host reconstruction, we tested the possible underlying mechanisms for fungal speciation and host-range change. Our results proved that two varieties of the former morphological species V. mali represented two distinct species, V. mali and V. pyri, which diverged about 5 million years ago, much later than the divergence of their preferred hosts, excluding a scenario of fungi-host co-speciation. The marked different thermal preferences and contrasting pathogenicity in cross-inoculation suggest ecological divergences between the two species. Apple was the most likely ancestral host for both V. mali and V. pyri. Host-range expansion led to the occurrence of V. pyri on both pear and apple. Our results also represent an example in which ITS data might underestimate species diversity. PMID:24834333

  7. Delimiting cryptic pathogen species causing apple Valsa canker with multilocus data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuli; Zang, Rui; Yin, Zhiyuan; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Fungal diseases are posing tremendous threats to global economy and food safety. Among them, Valsa canker, caused by fungi of Valsa and their Cytospora anamorphs, has been a serious threat to fruit and forest trees and is one of the most destructive diseases of apple in East Asia, particularly. Accurate and robust delimitation of pathogen species is not only essential for the development of effective disease control programs, but also will advance our understanding of the emergence of plant diseases. However, species delimitation is especially difficult in Valsa because of the high variability of morphological traits and in many cases the lack of the teleomorph. In this study, we delimitated species boundary for pathogens causing apple Valsa canker with a multifaceted approach. Based on three independent loci, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), ?-tubulin (Btu), and translation elongation factor-1 alpha (EF1?), we inferred gene trees with both maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods, estimated species tree with Bayesian multispecies coalescent approaches, and validated species tree with Bayesian species delimitation. Through divergence time estimation and ancestral host reconstruction, we tested the possible underlying mechanisms for fungal speciation and host-range change. Our results proved that two varieties of the former morphological species V. mali represented two distinct species, V. mali and V. pyri, which diverged about 5 million years ago, much later than the divergence of their preferred hosts, excluding a scenario of fungihost co-speciation. The marked different thermal preferences and contrasting pathogenicity in cross-inoculation suggest ecological divergences between the two species. Apple was the most likely ancestral host for both V. mali and V. pyri. Host-range expansion led to the occurrence of V. pyri on both pear and apple. Our results also represent an example in which ITS data might underestimate species diversity. PMID:24834333

  8. Characterization of Alternaria strains from Argentinean blueberry, tomato, walnut and wheat.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Birgitte; Nielsen, Kristian F; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Patriarca, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Alternaria species have the ability to produce a variety of secondary metabolite, which plays important roles in food safety. Argentina is the second largest exporter of fresh and processed food products to Europe, however, few studies on Alternaria mycotoxins and other bioactive secondary metabolites have been carried out on Argentinean cereals, fruit and vegetables. Knowing the full chemical potential and the distribution of Alternaria spp. on crops, it is necessary to establish a toxicological risk assessment for food products for human consumption. In the present study, 87 Alternaria strains from different substrates (tomato, wheat, blueberries and walnuts) were characterized according to morphology and metabolite production. Aggressive dereplication (accurate mass, isotopic patterns and lists of all described compounds from Alternaria) was used for high-throughput evaluation of the chemical potential. Four strains belonged to the Alternaria infectoria sp.-grp., 6 to the Alternaria arborescens sp.-grp., 6 showed a sporulation pattern similar to that of "M" according to Simmons, 1 to that of Alternaria vaccinii, and the remaining 70 constituted a diverse group belonging to morphological groups "G" and "H". The cluster analysis yielded 16 almost identical dendrograms and grouped the Alternaria strains into four clusters and 11 singletons and outlier groups. The chemical analysis showed that AOH and AME were the most common metabolites produced, followed by TEN, ALXs and TeA. The A. infectoria sp.-grp. had no metabolites in common with the rest of the strains. Several secondary metabolites isolated from large-spored Alternaria species or other fungal genera were detected, such as dehydrocurvularin, pyrenochaetic acid and alternarienonic acid. The strains isolated from tomato produced lower amounts of metabolites than strains from blueberries, walnut and wheat, although individual strains from tomato produced the highest amount of some metabolites. The A. infectoria sp.-grp. was unique to cereals, whereas strains classified as belonging to the A. arborescens sp.-grp or having sporulation pattern "M" were only isolated from tomatoes. Otherwise, no clear association between substrate and identity could be found. The analyses in the study show that at least 75% of the Argentinean strains are able to produce potential mycotoxins. PMID:25498470

  9. Hyperspectral and thermal imaging of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) response to fungal species of the genus Alternaria.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Piotr; Jedryczka, Malgorzata; Mazurek, Wojciech; Babula-Skowronska, Danuta; Siedliska, Anna; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, thermal (8-13 µm) and hyperspectral imaging in visible and near infrared (VNIR) and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) ranges were used to elaborate a method of early detection of biotic stresses caused by fungal species belonging to the genus Alternaria that were host (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae, and Alternaria brassicicola) and non-host (Alternaria dauci) pathogens to oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). The measurements of disease severity for chosen dates after inoculation were compared to temperature distributions on infected leaves and to averaged reflectance characteristics. Statistical analysis revealed that leaf temperature distributions on particular days after inoculation and respective spectral characteristics, especially in the SWIR range (1000-2500 nm), significantly differed for the leaves inoculated with A. dauci from the other species of Alternaria as well as from leaves of non-treated plants. The significant differences in leaf temperature of the studied Alternaria species were observed in various stages of infection development. The classification experiments were performed on the hyperspectral data of the leaf surfaces to distinguish days after inoculation and Alternaria species. The second-derivative transformation of the spectral data together with back-propagation neural networks (BNNs) appeared to be the best combination for classification of days after inoculation (prediction accuracy 90.5%) and Alternaria species (prediction accuracy 80.5%). PMID:25826369

  10. Hyperspectral and Thermal Imaging of Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) Response to Fungal Species of the Genus Alternaria

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Piotr; Jedryczka, Malgorzata; Mazurek, Wojciech; Babula-Skowronska, Danuta; Siedliska, Anna; Kaczmarek, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, thermal (8-13 µm) and hyperspectral imaging in visible and near infrared (VNIR) and short wavelength infrared (SWIR) ranges were used to elaborate a method of early detection of biotic stresses caused by fungal species belonging to the genus Alternaria that were host (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicae, and Alternaria brassicicola) and non-host (Alternaria dauci) pathogens to oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.). The measurements of disease severity for chosen dates after inoculation were compared to temperature distributions on infected leaves and to averaged reflectance characteristics. Statistical analysis revealed that leaf temperature distributions on particular days after inoculation and respective spectral characteristics, especially in the SWIR range (1000-2500 nm), significantly differed for the leaves inoculated with A. dauci from the other species of Alternaria as well as from leaves of non-treated plants. The significant differences in leaf temperature of the studied Alternaria species were observed in various stages of infection development. The classification experiments were performed on the hyperspectral data of the leaf surfaces to distinguish days after inoculation and Alternaria species. The second-derivative transformation of the spectral data together with back-propagation neural networks (BNNs) appeared to be the best combination for classification of days after inoculation (prediction accuracy 90.5%) and Alternaria species (prediction accuracy 80.5%). PMID:25826369

  11. Canker Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... SLS is a foaming agent found in most toothpastes and mouthwashes. Finally, not getting the right nutrition, ... you brush your teeth . Brush and rinse with toothpastes and mouthwashes that don't contain sodium lauryl ...

  12. Canker Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain relief, you can try taking ibuprofen (two brand names: Advil, Motrin) or acetaminophen (one brand name: Tylenol). A number of over-the-counter ... to keep them from being so painful? Source Management of Aphthous Ulcers by DR McBride, M.D. ( ...

  13. Identification, characterization and mycotoxigenic ability of Alternaria spp. causing core rot of apple fruit in Greece.

    PubMed

    Ntasiou, Panagiota; Myresiotis, Charalampos; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2015-03-16

    Alternaria core rot is a major postharvest disease of apple fruit in several countries of the world, including Greece. The study was conducted aiming to identify the disease causal agents at species level, investigate the aggressiveness of Alternaria spp. isolates and the susceptibility of different apple varieties and determine the mycotoxigenic potential of Alternaria spp. isolates from apple fruit. Seventy-five Alternaria spp. isolates obtained from apple fruit showing core rot symptoms were identified as either Alternaria tenuissima or Alternaria arborescens at frequencies of 89.3 and 11.7%, respectively, based on the sequence of endopolygalacturonase (EndoPG) gene. Artificial inoculations of fruit of 4 different varieties (Fuji, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Red Delicious) and incubation at two different temperatures (2 and 25°C) showed that fruit of Fuji variety were the most susceptible and fruit of Golden Delicious the most resistant to both pathogens. In addition, the production of 3 mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) was investigated in 30 isolates of both species. Mycotoxin determination was conducted both in vitro, on artificial nutrient medium and in vivo on artificially inoculated apple fruit, using a high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results showed that most of the isolates of both species were able to produce all the 3 metabolites both in vivo and in vitro. On apple fruit A. tenuissima isolates produced more AOH than A. arborescens isolates, whereas the latter produced more TEN than the former. Such results indicate that Alternaria core rot represents a major threat of apple fruit production not only due to quantitative yield losses but also for qualitative deterioration of apple by-products. PMID:25560914

  14. Bioactive metabolites from the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Ming-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Li, Tian-Xiao; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2014-12-01

    Two altenuene derivatives (1-2) and one isocoumarin (3), together with six known compounds (4-9) were isolated from solid cultures of an endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata, obtained from the fresh branches of Camellia sinensis. Chiral analysis revealed the racemic nature of 1 and 2, which were subsequently resolved into two pairs of enantiomers [(+)-1 and (-)-1, (+)-2 and (-)-2]. Structures of all the isolates were identified through spectroscopic data. Absolute configurations of the two pairs of enantiomers were determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation and the chiral center of C-10 in 3 was deduced via [Rh2(OCOCF₃)₄]-induced CD experiment. All the isolates were evaluated for their antimicrobial abilities against the pathogenic bacteria and fungi as well as cytotoxic activities against two human tumor cell lines. Compound 5 was the most active against Bacillus subtilis with MIC₈₀ of 8.6 μg/ml, and compounds 1-3, 6-7 and 9 exhibited moderate to weak inhibition towards the test pathogenic microorganism. Compound 4 showed mild cytotoxic activity against human osteosarcoma cells U2OS with IC₅₀ of 28.3 μM. PMID:25261763

  15. Evaluation of Alternaria mycotoxins in strawberries: quantification and storage condition.

    PubMed

    Juan, Cristina; Oueslati, Souheib; Mañes, Jordi

    2016-05-01

    Alternariol (AOH), alternariol methyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) are Alternaria mycotoxins produced by the most common post-harvest pathogens of fruits. The production of these metabolites depends on several environmental factors, mainly temperature, water activity, pH and the technological treatments that have been applied to the product. In this study, the occurrence of AOH, AME and TEN was evaluated in strawberries samples stored at different temperatures ranges (at 22 ± 2 or 6 ± 2°C) and different periods (up to 1 month) simulating the current practice of consumer's storage conditions. Sample extraction was performed using a liquid-liquid extraction method prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. AOH was the most prevalent mycotoxins with a 42% at strawberries stored at (22 ± 2)°C and 37% stored at (6 ± 2)°C. The highest AOH levels were found in samples conserved at (22 ± 2)°C ranging between 26 and 752 ng g(-1). AME levels ranged between 11 and 137 ng g(-)(1), which were found mainly in stored samples at (6 ± 2)°C for more than 28 days. None sample presented levels of TEN in either of the studied conditions. PMID:27103180

  16. Alternaria infections: laboratory diagnosis and relevant clinical features.

    PubMed

    Pastor, F J; Guarro, J

    2008-08-01

    The genus Alternaria contains several species of melanized hyphomycetes that cause opportunistic human infections. The published literature contains 210 reported cases of human alternarioses between 1933 and the present day. The most frequent clinical manifestations are cutaneous and subcutaneous infections (74.3%), followed by oculomycosis (9.5%), invasive and non-invasive rhinosinusitis (8.1%) and onychomycosis (8.1%). Immunosuppression is frequently associated with cutaneous and subcutaneous infections and rhinosinusitis. The most important risk factors for cutaneous and subcutaneous infections are solid organ transplantation and Cushing's syndrome, and those for rhinosinusitis are bone marrow transplants. Having been exposed to soil and garbage is common in all cases of oculomycosis, with corticotherapy being a risk factor in 50% of these cases. Previous contact with soil and/or trauma to the nails is associated with most cases of onychomycosis. In general, alternariosis shows a good response to conventional antifungal drugs. On some occasions, steroid suppression or reduction is sufficient to resolve an infection. Itraconazole is the antifungal drug used most frequently to successfully treat onychomycosis and cutaneous and subcutaneous infections. Posaconazole and voriconazole are promising therapeutic options, with the latter being especially so for oculomycosis. PMID:18727797

  17. Isolation and characterization of the grain mold fungi, Cochliobolus and Alternaria spp., from sorghum using semi-selective media and DNA sequence analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mold diseases, caused by fungal complexes including Alternaria, Cochliobolus and Fusarium species, limit sorghum grain production. Media were tested by plating Fusarium thapsinum, Alternaria sp. and Curvularia lunata, individually and competitively. Dichloran chloramphenicol rose bengal (DRBC) and m...

  18. Effect of X-irradiation on Citrus Canker Pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri of Satsuma Mandarin Fruits.

    PubMed

    Song, Min-A; Park, Jae Sin; Kim, Ki Deok; Jeun, Yong Chull

    2015-12-01

    Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most important bacterial diseases of citrus. Because citrus canker is not found in many countries including European Union and Australia, Xcc is strictly regulated in order to prevent its spread. In this study, the effects of X-irradiation on Xcc growth either in the suspension or on the surface of citrus fruits were investigated. The suspension containing 1×10(7) cfu/ml of Xcc was irradiated with different absorbed doses of X-irradiation ranging from 50 to 400 Gy. The results showed that Xcc was fully dead at 400 Gy of X-irradiation. To determine the effect of X-irradiation on quarantine, the Xcc-inoculated citrus fruits were irradiated with different X-ray doses at which Xcc was completely inhibited by an irradiation dose of 250 Gy. The D10 value for Xcc on citrus fruits was found to be 97 Gy, indicating the possibility of direct application on citrus quarantine without any side sterilizer. Beside, presence of Xcc on the surface of asymptomatic citrus fruits obtained from citrus canker-infected orchards was noted. It indicated that the exporting citrus fruits need any treatment so that Xcc on the citrus fruits should be completely eliminated. Based on these results, ionizing radiation can be considered as an alternative method of eradicating Xcc for export of citrus fruits. PMID:26672670

  19. Effect of X-irradiation on Citrus Canker Pathogen Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri of Satsuma Mandarin Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min-A; Park, Jae Sin; Kim, Ki Deok; Jeun, Yong Chull

    2015-01-01

    Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc) is one of the most important bacterial diseases of citrus. Because citrus canker is not found in many countries including European Union and Australia, Xcc is strictly regulated in order to prevent its spread. In this study, the effects of X-irradiation on Xcc growth either in the suspension or on the surface of citrus fruits were investigated. The suspension containing 1×107 cfu/ml of Xcc was irradiated with different absorbed doses of X-irradiation ranging from 50 to 400 Gy. The results showed that Xcc was fully dead at 400 Gy of X-irradiation. To determine the effect of X-irradiation on quarantine, the Xcc-inoculated citrus fruits were irradiated with different X-ray doses at which Xcc was completely inhibited by an irradiation dose of 250 Gy. The D10 value for Xcc on citrus fruits was found to be 97 Gy, indicating the possibility of direct application on citrus quarantine without any side sterilizer. Beside, presence of Xcc on the surface of asymptomatic citrus fruits obtained from citrus canker-infected orchards was noted. It indicated that the exporting citrus fruits need any treatment so that Xcc on the citrus fruits should be completely eliminated. Based on these results, ionizing radiation can be considered as an alternative method of eradicating Xcc for export of citrus fruits. PMID:26672670

  20. Genetic variability of Brazilian isolates of Alternaria alternata detected by AFLP and RAPD techniques

    PubMed Central

    Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Pietrobon, Vivian Cristina; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Romão, Aline Silva; Spósito, Marcel Bellato; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2009-01-01

    The Alternaria brown spot (ABS) is a disease caused in tangerine plants and its hybrids by the fungus Alternaria alternata f. sp. citri which has been found in Brazil since 2001. Due to the recent occurrence in Brazilian orchards, the epidemiology and genetic variability of this pathogen is still an issue to be addressed. Here it is presented a survey about the genetic variability of this fungus by the characterization of twenty four pathogenic isolates of A. alternata f. sp. citri from citrus plants and four endophytic isolates from mango (one Alternaria tenuissima and three Alternaria arborescens). The application of two molecular markers Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) had revealed the isolates clustering in distinct groups when fingerprintings were analyzed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Despite the better assessment of the genetic variability through the AFLP, significant modifications in clusters components were not observed, and only slight shifts in the positioning of isolates LRS 39/3 and 25M were observed in PCA plots. Furthermore, in both analyses, only the isolates from lemon plants revealed to be clustered, differently from the absence of clustering for other hosts or plant tissues. Summarizing, both RAPD and AFLP analyses were both efficient to detect the genetic variability within the population of the pathogenic fungus Alternaria spp., supplying information on the genetic variability of this species as a basis for further studies aiming the disease control. PMID:24031413

  1. STEM, STEM Education, STEMmania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author introduces integrative STEM (science, technology, engineering, and/or mathematics) education and discusses the importance of the program. The notion of integrative STEM education includes approaches that explore teaching and learning between/among any two or more of the STEM subject areas, and/or between a STEM subject…

  2. Alt a 1 from Alternaria interacts with PR5 thaumatin-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Murua-García, Amaya; Garrido-Arandia, María; González-Melendi, Pablo; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Barber, Domingo; Pacios, Luis F; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2014-05-01

    Alt a 1 is a protein found in Alternaria alternata spores related to virulence and pathogenicity and considered to be responsible for chronic asthma in children. We found that spores of Alternaria inoculated on the outer surface of kiwifruits did not develop hyphae. Nevertheless, the expression of Alt a 1 gene was upregulated, and the protein was detected in the pulp where it co-localized with kiwi PR5. Pull-down assays demonstrated experimentally that the two proteins interact in such a way that Alt a 1 inhibits the enzymatic activity of PR5. These results are relevant not only for plant defense, but also for human health as patients with chronic asthma could suffer from an allergic reaction when they eat fruit contaminated with Alternaria. PMID:24642375

  3. CmWRKY15 Facilitates Alternaria tenuissima Infection of Chrysanthemum

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qingqing; Song, Aiping; Xin, Jingjing; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Wang, Yinjie; Li, Xiran; Chen, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has an important role in the responses of plants to pathogens due to its ability to induce stomatal closure and interact with salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA). WRKY transcription factors serve as antagonistic or synergistic regulators in the response of plants to a variety of pathogens. Here, we demonstrated that CmWRKY15, a group IIa WRKY family member, was not transcriptionally activated in yeast cells. Subcellular localization experiments in which onion epidermal cells were transiently transfected with CmWRKY15 indicated that CmWRKY15 localized to the nucleus in vivo. The expression of CmWRKY15 could be markedly induced by the presence of Alternaria tenuissima inoculum in chrysanthemum. Furthermore, the disease severity index (DSI) data of CmWRKY15-overexpressing plants indicated that CmWRKY15 overexpression enhanced the susceptibility of chrysanthemum to A. tenuissima infection compared to controls. To illustrate the mechanisms by which CmWRKY15 regulates the response to A. tenuissima inoculation, the expression levels of ABA-responsive and ABA signaling genes, such as ABF4, ABI4, ABI5, MYB2, RAB18, DREB1A, DREB2A, PYL2, PP2C, RCAR1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3, NCED3A, NCED3B, GTG1, AKT1, AKT2, KAT1, KAT2, and KC1were compared between transgenic plants and controls. In summary, our data suggest that CmWRKY15 might facilitate A. tenuissima infection by antagonistically regulating the expression of ABA-responsive genes and genes involved in ABA signaling, either directly or indirectly. PMID:26600125

  4. Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    Stem cells are cells with the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. ... the body. There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. Stem ...

  5. Cutaneous Alternaria infectoria infection diagnosed by molecular techniques in a renal transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Daglar, Duygu; Akman-Karakas, Ayse; Ozhak-Baysan, Betil; Gunseren, Filiz; Ciftcioglu, Mehmet Akif; Buitrago, Maria José; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis

    2014-01-01

    Organ transplant recipients under immunosuppressive therapy have a highly increased risk of opportunistic fungal infections. Cutaneous infection caused by Alternaria species are relatively rare in humans and most cases reported in the literature are in immunocompromised individuals. We report here on a 33-year old male renal transplant patient with diabetes mellitus who presented with cutaneous alternariosis caused by Alternaria infectoria, two years after the transplant. The diagnosis was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay and histopathologic examination. The extension of the lesion under itraconazole treatment required treatment consisting of a combination of surgical excision and liposomal amphotericin B. PMID:25291955

  6. Molecular characterization of Alternaria alternata causing ocular infection: detection of IGS-RFLP intraspecific polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Laich, Federico S; Alcoba-Flórez, Julia; Pérez-Roth, Eduardo; Bahaya, Yasmin; Delgado, José Luis; Méndez-Alvarez, Sebastián

    2008-09-01

    A case of fungal keratitis is presented in which corneal scrapings were obtained for microbiological studies, including morphological identification and molecular characterization of the etiologic agent. Comparative sequence analyses of the Internal Transcribed Spacer domain of 5.8S and 26S regions of nuclear rDNA showed 100% identity with different species of Alternaria and PCR-RFLP analysis of Intergenic Spacer regions revealed intraspecific variation. The combination of morphological and molecular characters resulted in the unambiguous identification of the causal agent as Alternaria alternata. Treatment with antifungals contributed to the improvement in the patient's lesions. PMID:19180729

  7. Altertoxins with potent anti-HIV activity from Alternaria tenuissima QUE1Se, a fungal endophyte of Quercus emoryi

    PubMed Central

    Bashyal, Bharat P.; Wellensiek, Brian P.; Ramakrishnan, Rajesh; Faeth, Stanley H.; Ahmad, Nafees; Leslie Gunatilaka, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Screening of a small library of natural product extracts derived from endophytic fungi of the Sonoran desert plants in a cell-based anti-HIV assay involving T-cells infected with the HIV-1 virus identified the EtOAc extract of a fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima QUE1Se inhabiting the stem tissue of Quercus emoryi as a promising candidate for further investigation. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation and identification of two new metabolites, altertoxins V (1) and VI (2) together with the known compounds, altertoxins I (3), II (4), and III (5). The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by detailed spectroscopic analysis and those of 3–5 were established by comparison with reported data. When tested in our cell-based assay at concentrations insignificantly toxic to T-cells, altertoxins V (1), I (3), II (4), and III (5) completely inhibited replication of the HIV-1 virus at concentrations of 0.50, 2.20, 0.30, and 1.50 μM respectively. Our findings suggest that the epoxyperylene structural scaffold in altertoxins may be manipulated to produce potent anti-HIV therapeutics. 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. PMID:25260957

  8. Proteome Analysis of Pathogen-Responsive Proteins from Apple Leaves Induced by the Alternaria Blotch Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cai-xia; Tian, Yi; Cong, Pei-hua

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the defence mechanisms used by apple leaves against Alternaria alternate pathogen infection is important for breeding purposes. To investigate the ultrastructural differences between leaf tissues of susceptible and resistant seedlings, in vitro inoculation assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were conducted with two different inoculation assays. The results indicated that the resistant leaves may have certain antifungal activity against A. alternate that is lacking in susceptible leaves. To elucidate the two different host responses to A. alternate infection in apples, the proteomes of susceptible and resistant apple leaves that had or had not been infected with pathogen were characterised using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS). MS identified 43 differentially expressed proteins in two different inoculation assays. The known proteins were categorised into 5 classes, among these proteins, some pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, such as beta-1,3-glucanase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and mal d1, were identified in susceptible and resistant hosts and were associated with disease resistance of the apple host. In addition, the different levels of mal d1 in susceptible and resistant hosts may contribute to the outstanding anti-disease properties of resistant leaves against A. alternate. Taken together, the resistance mechanisms of the apple host against A. alternate may be a result of the PR proteins and other defence-related proteins. Given the complexity of the biology involved in the interaction between apple leaves and the A. alternate pathogen, further investigation will yield more valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of suppression of the A. alternate pathogen. Overall, we outline several novel insights into the response of apple leaves to pathogen attacks. These findings increase our knowledge of pathogen resistance mechanisms, and the data will also promote further investigation into the regulation of the expression of these target proteins. PMID:26086845

  9. Genome analysis of the kiwifruit canker pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 5

    PubMed Central

    Fujikawa, Takashi; Sawada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is a destructive pathogen of kiwifruit bacterial canker disease, causing severe economic losses to kiwifruit industry worldwide. Biovar 5 is the most recently reported biovar of Psa, and is found in only a local area of Japan at present. There is not much information of genetic characteristics of biovar 5. Thus, the genome of biovar 5 was sequenced and analyzed to clarify its detailed genetic characteristics. Here, the genomes of strain MAFF 212056 and MAFF 212061 of biovar 5 were estimated to be about 6.3 Mbp and 6.5 Mbp, respectively, and their phylogenetic positions were proved to be near that of biovar 2 in the phylogenetic tree. However, it was confirmed that biovar 5 had neither the coronatine biosynthetic genes conserved in biovar 2, its phylogenetic neighbor, nor the phaseolotoxin biosynthetic genes conserved in biovar 1, Japanese native pathogen. In addition, 45 genes of type III secreted effectors were identified in biovar 5 genomes, showing that their composition is different from that in the other biovars. Moreover, some biovar 5-specific regions were identified. Then, biovar 5-specific PCR primers for targeting these regions were designed, and proved to be applicable for detecting biovar 5 specifically. PMID:26891997

  10. Genome analysis of the kiwifruit canker pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 5.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Takashi; Sawada, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is a destructive pathogen of kiwifruit bacterial canker disease, causing severe economic losses to kiwifruit industry worldwide. Biovar 5 is the most recently reported biovar of Psa, and is found in only a local area of Japan at present. There is not much information of genetic characteristics of biovar 5. Thus, the genome of biovar 5 was sequenced and analyzed to clarify its detailed genetic characteristics. Here, the genomes of strain MAFF 212056 and MAFF 212061 of biovar 5 were estimated to be about 6.3 Mbp and 6.5 Mbp, respectively, and their phylogenetic positions were proved to be near that of biovar 2 in the phylogenetic tree. However, it was confirmed that biovar 5 had neither the coronatine biosynthetic genes conserved in biovar 2, its phylogenetic neighbor, nor the phaseolotoxin biosynthetic genes conserved in biovar 1, Japanese native pathogen. In addition, 45 genes of type III secreted effectors were identified in biovar 5 genomes, showing that their composition is different from that in the other biovars. Moreover, some biovar 5-specific regions were identified. Then, biovar 5-specific PCR primers for targeting these regions were designed, and proved to be applicable for detecting biovar 5 specifically. PMID:26891997

  11. Population structure of the butternut canker fungus, Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum, in North American forests

    PubMed Central

    Broders, K D; Boraks, A; Sanchez, A M; Boland, G J

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of multiple introduction events, or sudden emergence from a host jump, of forest pathogens may be an important factor in successful establishment in a novel environment or on a new host; however, few studies have focused on the introduction and emergence of fungal pathogens in forest ecosystems. While Ophiognomonia clavigignenti-juglandacearum (Oc-j), the butternut canker fungus, has caused range-wide mortality of butternut trees in North America since its first observation in 1967, the history of its emergence and spread across the United States and Canada remains unresolved. Using 17 single nucleotide polymorphic loci, we investigated the genetic population structure of 101 isolates of Oc-j from across North America. Clustering analysis revealed that the Oc-j population in North America is made up of three differentiated genetic clusters of isolates, and these genetic clusters were found to have a strong clonal structure. These results, in combination with the geographic distribution of the populations, suggest that Oc-j was introduced or has emerged in North America on more than one occasion, and these clonal lineages have since proliferated across much of the range of butternut. No evidence of genetic recombination was observed in the linkage analysis, and conservation of the distinct genetic clusters in regions where isolates from two or more genetic clusters are present, would indicate a very minimal or non-existent role of sexual recombination in populations of Oc-j in North America. PMID:23139872

  12. Summer heat and low soil organic matter influence severity of hazelnut Cytospora canker.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Fabi, Alfredo; Varvaro, Leonardo

    2014-04-01

    Cytospora canker, caused by the fungus Cytospora corylicola, is present in hazelnut production areas worldwide. The disease is widespread throughout the main production areas of Italy. The causal agent is considered to be a secondary invader of damaged tissue that attacks mainly stressed plants. However, little is known of disease severity and stress factors that predispose plants to infection. In particular, the role of pedoclimatic factors was investigated. Direct survey indicated that disease severity varied across several study sites. Geostatistics showed a strong positive correlation between disease severity index and summer heat (r = 0.80 and 0.91 for July and August, respectively) and strong negative correlation between disease severity index and soil organic matter (r = -0.78). A moderate positive correlation between disease severity index and magnesium/potassium ratio (r = 0.58) and moderate negative correlations between disease severity index and total soil nitrogen (r = -0.53), thermal shock (r = -0.46), and rainfall (r = -0.53) were determined. No significant correlation between disease severity index and soil aluminum (r = -0.35), soil pH (r = -0.01), and plant age (r = -0.38) was found. PMID:24168042

  13. De novo genome assembly of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Anthony; Woeste, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Geosmithia morbida is a filamentous ascomycete that causes thousand cankers disease in the eastern black walnut tree. This pathogen is commonly found in the western U.S.; however, recently the disease was also detected in several eastern states where the black walnut lumber industry is concentrated. G. morbida is one of two known phytopathogens within the genus Geosmithia, and it is vectored into the host tree via the walnut twig beetle. We present the first de novo draft genome of G. morbida. It is 26.5 Mbp in length and contains less than 1% repetitive elements. The genome possesses an estimated 6,273 genes, 277 of which are predicted to encode proteins with unknown functions. Approximately 31.5% of the proteins in G. morbida are homologous to proteins involved in pathogenicity, and 5.6% of the proteins contain signal peptides that indicate these proteins are secreted. Several studies have investigated the evolution of pathogenicity in pathogens of agricultural crops; forest fungal pathogens are often neglected because research efforts are focused on food crops. G. morbida is one of the few tree phytopathogens to be sequenced, assembled and annotated. The first draft genome of G. morbida serves as a valuable tool for comprehending the underlying molecular and evolutionary mechanisms behind pathogenesis within the Geosmithia genus. PMID:27168971

  14. Worldwide Phylogeography of the Citrus Brown Spot Pathogen, Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Peever, T L; Ibañez, A; Akimitsu, K; Timmer, L W

    2002-07-01

    ABSTRACT Sixty-five isolates of Alternaria alternata were sampled from brown spot lesions on tangerines and mandarins (Citrus reticulata) and tangerine x grapefruit (C. reticulata x C. paradisi) hybrids in the United States, Colombia, Australia, Turkey, South Africa, and Israel to investigate the worldwide phylogeography of the fungus. Genetic variation was scored at 15 putative random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) loci and 465 bp of an endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG) gene was sequenced for each isolate. Cluster analysis of RAPD genotypes revealed significant differentiation between United State and Colombia isolates and Turkey, South Africa, Israel, and Australia isolates. Sequencing of endo-PG revealed 21 variable sites when the outgroup A. gaisen (AK-toxin-producing pathogen of Japanese pear) was included and 13 variable sites among the sampled isolates. Nucleotide substitutions at 10 of 13 variable sites represented silent mutations when endo-PG was translated in frame. Eight distinct endo-PG haplotypes were found among the sampled isolates and estimation of a phylogeny with endo-PG sequence data revealed three clades, each with strong bootstrap support. The most basal clade (clade 1) was inferred based on its similarity to the outgroup A. gaisen and consisted exclusively of pathogenic isolates from the United States and Colombia. Clade 2 consisted of pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates from the United States, Australia, South Africa, and Israel and clade 3 contained pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates from Australia, South Africa, Israel, and Turkey. Quantitative estimates of virulence (disease incidence) were obtained for isolates from the United States, Colombia, South Africa, Israel, and Turkey by spray inoculating detached citrus leaves and counting the number of lesions 24 h after inoculation. Large differences in virulence were detected among isolates within each location and isolates from the United States were significantly more virulent than isolates from other locations. Several isolates from Colombia, South Africa, Israel, and Turkey had low virulence and 8% of all isolates were nonpathogenic. All but one of the nonpathogenic isolates were found in clade 2 of the endo-PG phylogeny, which also included the most highly virulent isolates sampled. PMID:18943277

  15. Effect of Alternaria solani exudates on resistant and susceptible potato cultivars from two different pathogen isolates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resistance phenotypes of two potato cultivars to two isolates of Alternaria solani, causal agent of early blight, were studied under greenhouse conditions. The two isolates contain varying degrees of aggressiveness on both susceptible and resistant phenotypes of potatoes. A bioassay was used to ...

  16. Antileukemic alpha-pyrone derivatives from the endophytic fungus Alternaria phragmospora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four new (1–4) and two known (5 and 6)a-pyrone derivatives have been isolated from Alternaria phragmospora, an endophytic fungus from Vinca rosea, leaves. The isolated compounds were chemically identi'ed to be 5-butyl-4-methoxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one (2) 5-butyl-6-(hydroxymethyl)-4-methoxy-2H-py...

  17. Biochemical Evaluation of Resistance Responses of Potato to Different Isolates of Alternaria Solani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resistance phenotypes of nine potato cultivars to five isolates of Alternaria solani, causal agent of early blight, were studied after inoculation and growth under greenhouse conditions. We identified potato cultivars with both susceptible and resistant phenotypes as well as A. solani isolates ...

  18. Analysis of genetic and pathogenic variation among Alternaria solani in a potato production region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-year survey was conducted in a potato production region to investigate the genetic variability within naturally infecting populations of Alternaria solani, the cause of early blight in potato, and between species A. solani and A. dauci. Genetic diversity among 151 isolates was assessed using s...

  19. CHEMICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL SEGREGATION OF ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA, A. GAISEN AND A. LONGIPES.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Correct morphological identification of Alternaria is important and demands a combination of modern standardized methods and up-to-date literature. The production of secondary metabolites has peviously been used as a means of identification and classification. In this study, 153 fungal isolates be...

  20. ALTERNARIA MALORUM: A MINI-REVIEW WITH NEW RECORDS FOR HOSTS AND PATHOGENICITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern host-fungus indices and databases contain deceptively few entries for Alternaria malorum or its synonym, Cladosporium malorum. Close inspection of literature from the 1930s through the1960s indicates more hosts and wider prevalence than more modern indices and databases indicate. Reports from...

  1. Resistance to alternaria solani in hybrids between a Solanum tuberosum haploid and S. raphanifolium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), caused by the foliar fungal pathogen Alternaria solani is a major cause of economic loss in many potato growing regions. Genetic resistance offers an opportunity to decrease fungicide usage while maintaining yield and quality. In this study, an early bl...

  2. A framework to gauge the epidemic potential of plant pathogens in environmental reservoirs: the example of kiwifruit canker.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, Claudia; Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Berge, Odile; Guilbaud, Caroline; Varvaro, Leonardo; Balestra, Giorgio M; Vinatzer, Boris A; Morris, Cindy E

    2015-02-01

    New economically important diseases on crops and forest trees emerge recurrently. An understanding of where new pathogenic lines come from and how they evolve is fundamental for the deployment of accurate surveillance methods. We used kiwifruit bacterial canker as a model to assess the importance of potential reservoirs of new pathogenic lineages. The current kiwifruit canker epidemic is at least the fourth outbreak of the disease on kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae in the mere 50 years in which this crop has been cultivated worldwide, with each outbreak being caused by different genetic lines of the bacterium. Here, we ask whether strains in natural (non-agricultural) environments could cause future epidemics of canker on kiwifruit. To answer this question, we evaluated the pathogenicity, endophytic colonization capacity and competitiveness on kiwifruit of P. syringae strains genetically similar to epidemic strains and originally isolated from aquatic and subalpine habitats. All environmental strains possessing an operon involved in the degradation of aromatic compounds via the catechol pathway grew endophytically and caused symptoms in kiwifruit vascular tissue. Environmental and epidemic strains showed a wide host range, revealing their potential as future pathogens of a variety of hosts. Environmental strains co-existed endophytically with CFBP 7286, an epidemic strain, and shared about 20 virulence genes, but were missing six virulence genes found in all epidemic strains. By identifying the specific gene content in genetic backgrounds similar to known epidemic strains, we developed criteria to assess the epidemic potential and to survey for such strains as a means of forecasting and managing disease emergence. PMID:24986268

  3. DNA Polymorphisms and Biocontrol of Bacillus Antagonistic to Citrus Bacterial Canker with Indication of the Interference of Phyllosphere Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tzu-Pi; Tzeng, Dean Der-Syh; Wong, Amy C. L.; Chen, Chun-Han; Lu, Kuan-Min; Lee, Ya-Huei; Huang, Wen-Di; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Tzeng, Kuo-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a devastating disease resulting in significant crop losses in various citrus cultivars worldwide. A biocontrol agent has not been recommended for this disease. To explore the potential of bacilli native to Taiwan to control this disease, Bacillus species with a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against various phytopathogens were isolated from plant potting mixes, organic compost and the rhizosphere soil. Seven strains TKS1-1, OF3-16, SP4-17, HSP1, WG6-14, TLB7-7, and WP8-12 showing superior antagonistic activity were chosen for biopesticide development. The genetic identity based on 16S rDNA sequences indicated that all seven native strains were close relatives of the B. subtilis group and appeared to be discrete from the B. cereus group. DNA polymorphisms in strains WG6-14, SP4-17, TKS1-1, and WP8-12, as revealed by repetitive sequence-based PCR with the BOXA1R primers were similar to each other, but different from those of the respective Bacillus type strains. However, molecular typing of the strains using either tDNA-intergenic spacer regions or 16S–23S intergenic transcribed spacer regions was unable to differentiate the strains at the species level. Strains TKS1-1 and WG6-14 attenuated symptom development of citrus bacterial canker, which was found to be correlated with a reduction in colonization and biofilm formation by X. axonopodis pv. citri on leaf surfaces. The application of a Bacillus strain TKS1-1 endospore formulation to the leaf surfaces of citrus reduced the incidence of citrus bacterial canker and could prevent development of the disease. PMID:22848728

  4. DNA polymorphisms and biocontrol of Bacillus antagonistic to citrus bacterial canker with indication of the interference of phyllosphere biofilms.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzu-Pi; Tzeng, Dean Der-Syh; Wong, Amy C L; Chen, Chun-Han; Lu, Kuan-Min; Lee, Ya-Huei; Huang, Wen-Di; Hwang, Bing-Fang; Tzeng, Kuo-Ching

    2012-01-01

    Citrus bacterial canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri is a devastating disease resulting in significant crop losses in various citrus cultivars worldwide. A biocontrol agent has not been recommended for this disease. To explore the potential of bacilli native to Taiwan to control this disease, Bacillus species with a broad spectrum of antagonistic activity against various phytopathogens were isolated from plant potting mixes, organic compost and the rhizosphere soil. Seven strains TKS1-1, OF3-16, SP4-17, HSP1, WG6-14, TLB7-7, and WP8-12 showing superior antagonistic activity were chosen for biopesticide development. The genetic identity based on 16S rDNA sequences indicated that all seven native strains were close relatives of the B. subtilis group and appeared to be discrete from the B. cereus group. DNA polymorphisms in strains WG6-14, SP4-17, TKS1-1, and WP8-12, as revealed by repetitive sequence-based PCR with the BOXA1R primers were similar to each other, but different from those of the respective Bacillus type strains. However, molecular typing of the strains using either tDNA-intergenic spacer regions or 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer regions was unable to differentiate the strains at the species level. Strains TKS1-1 and WG6-14 attenuated symptom development of citrus bacterial canker, which was found to be correlated with a reduction in colonization and biofilm formation by X. axonopodis pv. citri on leaf surfaces. The application of a Bacillus strain TKS1-1 endospore formulation to the leaf surfaces of citrus reduced the incidence of citrus bacterial canker and could prevent development of the disease. PMID:22848728

  5. Identification of putative TAL effector targets of the citrus canker pathogens shows functional convergence underlying disease development and defense response

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcriptional activator-like (TAL) effectors, formerly known as the AvrBs3/PthA protein family, are DNA-binding effectors broadly found in Xanthomonas spp. that transactivate host genes upon injection via the bacterial type three-secretion system. Biologically relevant targets of TAL effectors, i.e. host genes whose induction is vital to establish a compatible interaction, have been reported for xanthomonads that colonize rice and pepper; however, citrus genes modulated by the TAL effectors PthA“s” and PthC“s” of the citrus canker bacteria Xanthomonas citri (Xc) and Xanthomonas aurantifolii pathotype C (XaC), respectively, are poorly characterized. Of particular interest, XaC causes canker disease in its host lemon (Citrus aurantifolia), but triggers a defense response in sweet orange. Results Based on, 1) the TAL effector-DNA binding code, 2) gene expression data of Xc and XaC-infiltrated sweet orange leaves, and 3) citrus hypocotyls transformed with PthA2, PthA4 or PthC1, we have identified a collection of Citrus sinensis genes potentially targeted by Xc and XaC TAL effectors. Our results suggest that similar with other strains of Xanthomonas TAL effectors, PthA2 and PthA4, and PthC1 to some extent, functionally converge. In particular, towards induction of genes involved in the auxin and gibberellin synthesis and response, cell division, and defense response. We also present evidence indicating that the TAL effectors act as transcriptional repressors and that the best scoring predicted DNA targets of PthA“s” and PthC“s” in citrus promoters predominantly overlap with or localize near to TATA boxes of core promoters, supporting the idea that TAL effectors interact with the host basal transcriptional machinery to recruit the RNA pol II and start transcription. Conclusions The identification of PthA“s” and PthC“s” targets, such as the LOB (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARY) and CCNBS genes that we report here, is key for the understanding of the canker symptoms development during host susceptibility, or the defenses of sweet orange against the canker bacteria. We have narrowed down candidate targets to a few, which pointed out the host metabolic pathways explored by the pathogens. PMID:24564253

  6. Artificial neural network models of relationships between Alternaria spores and meteorological factors in Szczecin (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2008-11-01

    Alternaria is an airborne fungal spore type known to trigger respiratory allergy symptoms in sensitive patients. Aiming to reduce the risk for allergic individuals, we constructed predictive models for the fungal spore circulation in Szczecin, Poland. Monthly forecasting models were developed for the airborne spore concentrations of Alternaria, which is one of the most abundant fungal taxa in the area. Aerobiological sampling was conducted over 2004-2007, using a Lanzoni trap. Simultaneously, the following meteorological parameters were recorded: daily level of precipitation; maximum and average wind speed; relative humidity; and maximum, minimum, average, and dew point temperature. The original factors as well as with lags (up to 3 days) were used as the explaining variables. Due to non-linearity and non-normality of the data set, the modelling technique applied was the artificial neural network (ANN) method. The final model was a split model with classification (spore presence or absence) followed by regression for spore seasons and log(x+1) transformed Alternaria spore concentration. All variables except maximum wind speed and precipitation were important factors in the overall classification model. In the regression model for spore seasons, close relationships were noted between Alternaria spore concentration and average and maximum temperature (on the same day and 3 days previously), humidity (with lag 1) and maximum wind speed 2 days previously. The most important variable was humidity recorded on the same day. Our study illustrates a novel approach to modelling of time series with short spore seasons, and indicates that the ANN method provides the possibility of forecasting Alternaria spore concentration with high accuracy.

  7. Bayesian analysis for inference of an emerging epidemic: citrus canker in urban landscapes.

    PubMed

    Neri, Franco M; Cook, Alex R; Gibson, Gavin J; Gottwald, Tim R; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2014-04-01

    Outbreaks of infectious diseases require a rapid response from policy makers. The choice of an adequate level of response relies upon available knowledge of the spatial and temporal parameters governing pathogen spread, affecting, amongst others, the predicted severity of the epidemic. Yet, when a new pathogen is introduced into an alien environment, such information is often lacking or of no use, and epidemiological parameters must be estimated from the first observations of the epidemic. This poses a challenge to epidemiologists: how quickly can the parameters of an emerging disease be estimated? How soon can the future progress of the epidemic be reliably predicted? We investigate these issues using a unique, spatially and temporally resolved dataset for the invasion of a plant disease, Asiatic citrus canker in urban Miami. We use epidemiological models, Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo, and advanced spatial statistical methods to analyse rates and extent of spread of the disease. A rich and complex epidemic behaviour is revealed. The spatial scale of spread is approximately constant over time and can be estimated rapidly with great precision (although the evidence for long-range transmission is inconclusive). In contrast, the rate of infection is characterised by strong monthly fluctuations that we associate with extreme weather events. Uninformed predictions from the early stages of the epidemic, assuming complete ignorance of the future environmental drivers, fail because of the unpredictable variability of the infection rate. Conversely, predictions improve dramatically if we assume prior knowledge of either the main environmental trend, or the main environmental events. A contrast emerges between the high detail attained by modelling in the spatiotemporal description of the epidemic and the bottleneck imposed on epidemic prediction by the limits of meteorological predictability. We argue that identifying such bottlenecks will be a fundamental step in future modelling of weather-driven epidemics. PMID:24762851

  8. Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Hongge; Sosso, Davide; Li, Ting; Frommer, Wolf B.; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F.; Wang, Nian; Jones, Jeffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector gene pthA4 or with the distinct yet biologically equivalent gene pthAw from strain XccAw, induces two host genes, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, in a TAL effector-dependent manner. CsLOB1 is a member of the Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors, and CsSWEET1 is a homolog of the SWEET sugar transporter and rice disease susceptibility gene. Both TAL effectors drive expression of CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1 promoter reporter gene fusions when coexpressed in citrus or Nicotiana benthamiana. Artificially designed TAL effectors directed to sequences in the CsLOB1 promoter region, but not the CsSWEET1 promoter, promoted pustule formation and higher bacterial leaf populations. Three additional distinct TAL effector genes, pthA*, pthB, and pthC, also direct pustule formation and expression of CsLOB1. Unlike pthA4 and pthAw, pthB and pthC do not promote the expression of CsSWEET1. CsLOB1 expression was associated with the expression of genes associated with cell expansion. The results indicate that CBC-inciting species of Xanthomonas exploit a single host disease susceptibility gene by altering the expression of an otherwise developmentally regulated gene using any one of a diverse set of TAL effector genes in the pathogen populations. PMID:24474801

  9. Lateral organ boundaries 1 is a disease susceptibility gene for citrus bacterial canker disease.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yang; Zhang, Junli; Jia, Hongge; Sosso, Davide; Li, Ting; Frommer, Wolf B; Yang, Bing; White, Frank F; Wang, Nian; Jones, Jeffrey B

    2014-01-28

    Citrus bacterial canker (CBC) disease occurs worldwide and incurs considerable costs both from control measures and yield losses. Bacteria that cause CBC require one of six known type III transcription activator-like (TAL) effector genes for the characteristic pustule formation at the site of infection. Here, we show that Xanthomonas citri subspecies citri strain Xcc306, with the type III TAL effector gene pthA4 or with the distinct yet biologically equivalent gene pthAw from strain XccA(w), induces two host genes, CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1, in a TAL effector-dependent manner. CsLOB1 is a member of the Lateral Organ Boundaries (LOB) gene family of transcription factors, and CsSWEET1 is a homolog of the SWEET sugar transporter and rice disease susceptibility gene. Both TAL effectors drive expression of CsLOB1 and CsSWEET1 promoter reporter gene fusions when coexpressed in citrus or Nicotiana benthamiana. Artificially designed TAL effectors directed to sequences in the CsLOB1 promoter region, but not the CsSWEET1 promoter, promoted pustule formation and higher bacterial leaf populations. Three additional distinct TAL effector genes, pthA*, pthB, and pthC, also direct pustule formation and expression of CsLOB1. Unlike pthA4 and pthAw, pthB and pthC do not promote the expression of CsSWEET1. CsLOB1 expression was associated with the expression of genes associated with cell expansion. The results indicate that CBC-inciting species of Xanthomonas exploit a single host disease susceptibility gene by altering the expression of an otherwise developmentally regulated gene using any one of a diverse set of TAL effector genes in the pathogen populations. PMID:24474801

  10. Bayesian Analysis for Inference of an Emerging Epidemic: Citrus Canker in Urban Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Franco M.; Cook, Alex R.; Gibson, Gavin J.; Gottwald, Tim R.; Gilligan, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Outbreaks of infectious diseases require a rapid response from policy makers. The choice of an adequate level of response relies upon available knowledge of the spatial and temporal parameters governing pathogen spread, affecting, amongst others, the predicted severity of the epidemic. Yet, when a new pathogen is introduced into an alien environment, such information is often lacking or of no use, and epidemiological parameters must be estimated from the first observations of the epidemic. This poses a challenge to epidemiologists: how quickly can the parameters of an emerging disease be estimated? How soon can the future progress of the epidemic be reliably predicted? We investigate these issues using a unique, spatially and temporally resolved dataset for the invasion of a plant disease, Asiatic citrus canker in urban Miami. We use epidemiological models, Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo, and advanced spatial statistical methods to analyse rates and extent of spread of the disease. A rich and complex epidemic behaviour is revealed. The spatial scale of spread is approximately constant over time and can be estimated rapidly with great precision (although the evidence for long-range transmission is inconclusive). In contrast, the rate of infection is characterised by strong monthly fluctuations that we associate with extreme weather events. Uninformed predictions from the early stages of the epidemic, assuming complete ignorance of the future environmental drivers, fail because of the unpredictable variability of the infection rate. Conversely, predictions improve dramatically if we assume prior knowledge of either the main environmental trend, or the main environmental events. A contrast emerges between the high detail attained by modelling in the spatiotemporal description of the epidemic and the bottleneck imposed on epidemic prediction by the limits of meteorological predictability. We argue that identifying such bottlenecks will be a fundamental step in future modelling of weather-driven epidemics. PMID:24762851

  11. Recovery Plan for Phytophthora kernoviae Causing Bleeding Trunk Cankers, Leaf Blight and Stem Dieback in Trees and Shrubs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora kernoviae, a recently described species of Phytophthora, is an invasive pathogen of forest trees and shrubs such as beech (Fagus sylvatica) and rhododendron (Rhododendron ponticum) that has become established in woodlands and public gardens in Cornwall, United Kingdom. Although the ori...

  12. Effects of Compost and Biocontrol Amendments on Stem Canker, Black Scurf, and Common Scab of Potato, 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two composts and two biological control agents were evaluated alone and in combination for their effects on the development of soilborne diseases of potato. The experiment was conducted on field research plots in Newport, ME. The compost amendments consisted of commercially available compost blends,...

  13. First report of anthracnose stem Canker of the invasive perennial weed Lepidium draba caused by Colletotrichum higginsianum in Europe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The exotic perennial Lepidium draba occurs as an invasive weed in dense stands in rangelands and disturbed areas in several states of the western U. S., and as an agricultural weed in the prairie provinces of Canada. To help determine strategies for biological control of the weed such as a potential...

  14. Effects of simulated rainfall on disease development and weed control of the bioherbicidal fungi Alternaria cassiae and Colletotrichum truncatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternaria cassiae and Colletotrichum truncatum are virulent pathogens of sicklepod (Senna obtusifolia), and hemp sesbania (Sesbania exaltata), respectively, under favorable environmental conditions. In greenhouse experiments, the effects of simulated rainfall on pathogenesis and mortality of these ...

  15. Genome, Proteome and Structure of a T7-Like Bacteriophage of the Kiwifruit Canker Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Rebekah A; Acedo, Elena Lopez; Young, Vivienne L; Chen, Danni; Tong, Brian; Taylor, Corinda; Easingwood, Richard A; Pitman, Andrew R; Kleffmann, Torsten; Bostina, Mihnea; Fineran, Peter C

    2015-07-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is an economically significant pathogen responsible for severe bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.). Bacteriophages infecting this phytopathogen have potential as biocontrol agents as part of an integrated approach to the management of bacterial canker, and for use as molecular tools to study this bacterium. A variety of bacteriophages were previously isolated that infect P. syringae pv. actinidiae, and their basic properties were characterized to provide a framework for formulation of these phages as biocontrol agents. Here, we have examined in more detail φPsa17, a phage with the capacity to infect a broad range of P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains and the only member of the Podoviridae in this collection. Particle morphology was visualized using cryo-electron microscopy, the genome was sequenced, and its structural proteins were analysed using shotgun proteomics. These studies demonstrated that φPsa17 has a 40,525 bp genome, is a member of the T7likevirus genus and is closely related to the pseudomonad phages φPSA2 and gh-1. Eleven structural proteins (one scaffolding) were detected by proteomics and φPsa17 has a capsid of approximately 60 nm in diameter. No genes indicative of a lysogenic lifecycle were identified, suggesting the phage is obligately lytic. These features indicate that φPsa17 may be suitable for formulation as a biocontrol agent of P. syringae pv. actinidiae. PMID:26114474

  16. Genome, Proteome and Structure of a T7-Like Bacteriophage of the Kiwifruit Canker Phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae

    PubMed Central

    Frampton, Rebekah A.; Lopez Acedo, Elena; Young, Vivienne L.; Chen, Danni; Tong, Brian; Taylor, Corinda; Easingwood, Richard A.; Pitman, Andrew R.; Kleffmann, Torsten; Bostina, Mihnea; Fineran, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is an economically significant pathogen responsible for severe bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.). Bacteriophages infecting this phytopathogen have potential as biocontrol agents as part of an integrated approach to the management of bacterial canker, and for use as molecular tools to study this bacterium. A variety of bacteriophages were previously isolated that infect P. syringae pv. actinidiae, and their basic properties were characterized to provide a framework for formulation of these phages as biocontrol agents. Here, we have examined in more detail φPsa17, a phage with the capacity to infect a broad range of P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains and the only member of the Podoviridae in this collection. Particle morphology was visualized using cryo-electron microscopy, the genome was sequenced, and its structural proteins were analysed using shotgun proteomics. These studies demonstrated that φPsa17 has a 40,525 bp genome, is a member of the T7likevirus genus and is closely related to the pseudomonad phages φPSA2 and gh-1. Eleven structural proteins (one scaffolding) were detected by proteomics and φPsa17 has a capsid of approximately 60 nm in diameter. No genes indicative of a lysogenic lifecycle were identified, suggesting the phage is obligately lytic. These features indicate that φPsa17 may be suitable for formulation as a biocontrol agent of P. syringae pv. actinidiae. PMID:26114474

  17. Production of DAPG and HCN by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 contributes to the biological control of bacterial canker of tomato.

    PubMed

    Lanteigne, Carine; Gadkar, Vijay J; Wallon, Thrse; Novinscak, Amy; Filion, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Bacterial canker caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is known to cause significant economic losses to tomato production worldwide. Biological control has been proposed as an alternative to current chemical containment methods, which are often inefficient and may leave adverse effects on the environment. However, only little headway has so far been made in developing biocontrol strategies against C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the antagonistic capacity of PCA, produced by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM223, and DAPG and HCN, both produced by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300, on C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis under in vitro and in planta conditions. Nonsynthesizing isogenic mutants of the producer strains were also developed to further dissect the role of each individual metabolite on C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis biological control. Novel specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction TaqMan assays allowed quantification of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomato plants and rhizospheric soil. Pseudomonas spp. LBUM223 and LBUM300 significantly repressed C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis growth in vitro, while their respective nonproducing mutants showed less or no significant antagonistic activity. In planta, only Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 was capable of significantly reducing disease development and C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis rhizospheric population, suggesting that the production of both DAPG and HCN was involved. In summary, simultaneous DAPG/HCN production by Pseudomonas sp. LBUM300 shows great potential for controlling bacterial canker of tomato. PMID:22713078

  18. Exogenous treatment with salicylic acid attenuates occurrence of citrus canker in susceptible navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2012-08-15

    Citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) is a devastating bacterial disease threatening the citrus industry. Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant defense response to biotic stress, but information is scarce concerning the application of SA to enhancing Xac resistance. In the present research attempts were made to investigate how exogenous application of SA influenced canker disease outbreak in navel orange (Citrus sinensis). Exogenously applied SA at 0.25 mM significantly enhanced the endogenous free and bound SA, particularly the latter. Upon exposure to Xac, lower disease incidence rate and smaller lesion sites were observed in the samples pre-treated with SA, accompanied by repression of bacterial growth at the lesion sites. Concurrent with the augmented disease resistance, SA-treated leaves had higher H₂O₂ level and smaller stomata apertures before or after Xac infection when compared with their counterparts pre-treated with water (control). SA treatment elevated the activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and β-1,3-glucanase, but only the latter was higher in the SA-treated samples after Xac infection. In addition, mRNA levels of two pathogenesis-related genes, CsCHI and CsPR4A, were higher in the SA-treated samples relative to the control. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that the exogenously applied SA has evoked a cascade of physiological and molecular events that function singly or in concert to confer resistance to Xac invasion. PMID:22658220

  19. Variables Associated with Severity of Bacterial Canker and Wilt Caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Tomato Greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Blank, L; Cohen, Y; Borenstein, M; Shulhani, R; Lofthouse, M; Sofer, M; Shtienberg, D

    2016-03-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, the causal agent of bacterial canker and wilt of tomato, is considered to be one of the most important bacterial pathogens worldwide. In the year 2000 there was an increase in the number of infected greenhouses and in the severity of the disease in Israel. As part of the effort to cope with the disease, a comprehensive survey was conducted. Scouts recorded disease severity monthly in 681 production units. At the end of the season the scouts met with the growers and together recorded relevant details about the crop and cultural practices employed. The results suggested an absence of anisotropy pattern in the study region. Global Moran's I analysis showed that disease severity had significant spatial autocorrelation. The strongest spatial autocorrelation occurred within a 1,500 m neighborhood, which is comparable to the distance between production units maintained by one grower (Farm). Next, we tested three groups of variables including or excluding the Farm as a variable. When the Farm was included the explained variation increased in all the studied models. Overall, results of this study demonstrate that the most influential factor on bacterial canker severity was the Farm. This variable probably encompasses variation in experience, differences in agricultural practices between growers, and the quality of implementation of management practices. PMID:26623996

  20. The epidemiological significance of post-packinghouse survival of Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri for dissemination of Asiatic citrus canker via infected fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The risk of introduction of Xanthomonas citri spp. citri (Xcc) to new, unaffected citrus producing areas is a major concern for those citrus industries attempting to remain free of citrus canker. Citrus fruit, as a potential pathway for Xcc to enter and become established in these areas, is assumed...

  1. Processess involved in the dispersal of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri from canker-infected citrus canopies, and in the infection of citrus foliage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida, and epidemics result in yield loss and market penalties both in Florida and elsewhere, where the pathogen occurs and susceptible citrus is cultivated. The bacterium is dispersed in rain splash, and storms with...

  2. Fusarium torreyae sp. nov., a pathogen causing canker disease of Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia), a critically endangered conifer restricted to northern Florida and southwestern Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a survey for pathogens of Florida torreya (Torreya taxifolia) conducted in 2009, a novel Fusarium species was isolated from cankers affecting this critically endangered conifer whose current range is restricted to northern Florida and southwestern Georgia. Published multilocus molecular phylo...

  3. Processes involved in the dispersal of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri from canker-infectd citrus canopies, and in the infection of citrus foliage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) is now considered endemic in Florida, and epidemics result in yield loss and market penalties both in Florida, and elsewhere where the pathogen occurs, and susceptible citrus is cultivated. The bacterium is dispersed in rain splash, and storms wit...

  4. SPATIAL PATTERN ANALYSIS OF CITRUS CANKER INFECTED PLANTINGS IN SÃO PAULO BRAZIL AND IMPLICATION OF THE ASIAN LEAFMINER ON THE POTENTIAL DISPERSAL PROCESSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eradication of Asiatic Citrus Canker (ACC) has become increasingly difficult over the last decade following the introduction of the Asian leafminer into Brazil and Florida, which lead to changes in the eradication protocols. The present study, undertaken in Brazil, was aimed at characterizing the s...

  5. Two novel Fusarium species that cause canker disease of Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.) in northern China form a novel clade with F. torreyae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Canker disease of Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum bungeanum) has caused a decline in the production of this economically important spice in northern China over the past twenty-five years. To identify the etiological agent, 38 fungal strains were isolated from symptomatic tissues from trees in five provi...

  6. Effects of Mefenoxam, Phosphonate, and Paclobutrazol on In Vitro Characteristics of Phytophthora cactorum and P. citricola and on Canker Size of European Beech

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophthora citricola and P. cactorum cause bleeding cankers that lead to the death of mature European beech in the northeastern United States. Because of the economic value placed on these trees, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of two fungicides and a plant growth regulator ...

  7. Development of consumer-friendly transgenic citrus plants with potential broad spectrum resistance to HLB, Citrus canker, Phytopthora and other exotic diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The second year of this CRB funded project has started, which is focused on the development of citrus cultivars that exhibit disease resistance to multiple pathogens such as HLB, Phytophthora and citrus canker diseases. We are using precise genetic engineering to introduce into disease susceptible ...

  8. A survey of survival and activity of citrus canker lesion populations on foliage, fruit and shoots in a Florida grapefruit orchard in 2009 and 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc)) can infect several species of citrus. The disease can develop on the leaves, shoots and fruit, causing erumpent lesions, that on fruit precludes sale to the fresh market. We assessed lesion activity in orchard-grown grapefruit to provide informa...

  9. POST-HURRICANE ANALYSIS OF CITRUS CANKER II: PREDICTIVE MODEL ESTIMATION OF DISEASE SPREAD AND AREA POTENTIALLY IMPACTED BY VARIOUS ERADICATION PROTOCOLS FOLLOWING CATASTROPHIC WEATHER EVENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The affect of 2005 Hurricane Wilma on the dissemination of Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), the cause of Asiatic citrus canker (ACC), and subsequent disease development was examined and predictions for the areas into which Xac was likely to have spread from known sources of infection was deve...

  10. Wind speed effects on the quantity of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri dispersed downwind from canopies of grapefruit trees infected with citrus canker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemic of citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, Xcc) in Florida continues to expand since termination of the eradication program in 2006. Storms are known to be associated with disease spread, but little information exists on the interaction of fundamental physical and biological proc...

  11. Characterization of a novel single-stranded RNA virus, closely related to fusariviruses, infecting the plant pathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jie; Shang, Hong Hong; Zhu, Chuan Xia; Zhu, Jun Zi; Zhu, Hong Jian; Hu, Yan; Gao, Bi Da

    2016-06-01

    The alternaria blackspot of rapeseed is one of the most prominent diseases of rapeseed. It is caused by three species of the genus Alternaria: Alternaria brassicicola, Alternaria brassicae, and Alternaria raphanin. Here we report a novel positive-sense RNA virus from an A. brassicicola strain 817-14. The virus has a 6639 nucleotide (nt) long genome, excluding a poly (A)-tail, and was predicted to contain three putative open reading frames (ORF1, ORF2, and ORF3). The large ORF1 encoded a 174-kDa polyprotein (composed of 1522 amino acid residues) containing a conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain and a helicase domain. The other two smaller ORFs encoded polypeptides with unknown function. Homology search and phylogenetic analysis, based on the RdRp and helicase domains, suggest that this virus is related to and grouped with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum fusarivirus 1 (SsFV1), Rosellinia necatrix fusarivirus 1 (RnFV1), Fusarium graminearum virus-DK21 (FgV1), and Penicillium roqueforti RNA mycovirus 1 (PrRV1), all of which belong to a newly proposed family Fusariviridae. For this study, we designed the virus as "Alternaria brassicicola fusarivirus 1" (AbFV1). Virus elimination revealed that AbFV1 has no conspicuous impact on the biological properties of its host. PMID:26707921

  12. Skin infection due to Alternaria species in kidney allograft recipients: report of a new case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gallelli, Beniamina; Viviani, Marianna; Nebuloni, Manuela; Marzano, Angelo V; Pozzi, Cristina; Messa, Piergiorgio; Fogazzi, Giovanni B

    2006-01-01

    A kidney allograft recipient developed a cutaneous infection 29 months after transplantation, due to the dematiaceous fungus Alternaria infectoria on his right forearm and left leg. Since the lesions were too large to be excised, the patient was treated only with systemic itraconazole and a reduction of the immunosuppressive therapy. After 4 months, the lesions were completely healed, and no relapses were observed at follow-up of 22 months. Twenty-seven other cases of cutaneous alternariosis have been described so far in renal transplant recipients. All types of immunosuppressive treatment can be associated with Alternaria infection, for which predisposing factors are jobs with frequent contact with earth, diabetes mellitus and skin trauma. In 70% of cases the infection occurred within the first year after transplantation. More frequently the lower limbs were involved and the lesions were multiple. Alternaria alternata was the commonest causative agent, followed by Alternaria tenuissima,Alternaria infectoria and Alternaria chartarum. The treatment is far from being standardized, but the best results are obtained with the surgical excision of the lesion(s) associated with systemic antifungal therapy. Since relapses are possible, strict control of the patients over time is essential. PMID:17136699

  13. Development of a polymerase chain reaction-based assay for the detection of Alternaria fungal contamination in food products.

    PubMed

    Zur, G; Hallerman, E M; Sharf, R; Kashi, Y

    1999-10-01

    Alternaria sp. are important fungal contaminants of vegetable, fruit, and grain products, including Alternaria alternata, a contaminant of tomato products. To date, the Howard method, based on microscopic observation of fungal filaments, has been the standard examination for inspection of tomato products. We report development of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for detection of Alternaria DNA. PCR primers were designed to anneal to the internal transcribed regions ITS1 and ITS2 of the 5.8S rRNA gene of Alternaria but not to other microbial or tomato DNA. We demonstrate use of the PCR assay to detect Alternaria DNA in experimentally infested and commercially obtained tomato sauce and tomato powder. Use of the PCR method offers a rapid and sensitive assay for the presence of Alternaria DNA in tomato products. The apparent breakdown of DNA in tomato sauce may limit the utility of the assay to freshly prepared products. The assay for tomato powder is not affected by storage time. PMID:10528725

  14. Responsiveness of different citrus genotypes to the Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri-derived pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) flg22 correlates with resistance to citrus canker.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qingchun; Febres, Vicente J; Jones, Jeffrey B; Moore, Gloria A

    2015-06-01

    The bacterial agent of citrus canker disease (Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri, Xcc) has caused tremendous economic losses to the citrus industry around the world. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI) is important to plant immunity. In this study, we compared the defence responses of citrus canker-resistant and citrus canker-susceptible genotypes to the Xcc-derived PAMP flg22 (Xflg22) by analysing the expression of 20 citrus defence-associated genes. We showed that, in the most resistant genotype, 'Nagami' kumquat, there was significant induction of several defence genes (EDS1, NDR1, PBS1, RAR1, SGT1, PAL1, NPR2 and NPR3) as early as 6 h and up to 72 h after Xflg22 treatment. At the other end of the spectrum, highly susceptible 'Duncan' grapefruit showed no induction of the same defence genes, even 120 h after treatment. Citrus genotypes with partial levels of resistance showed intermediate levels of transcriptional reprogramming that correlated with their resistance level. Xflg22 also triggered a rapid oxidative burst in all genotypes which was higher and accompanied by the induction of PTI marker genes (WRKY22 and GST1) only in the more resistant genotypes. Pretreatment with Xflg22 prior to Xcc inoculation inhibited bacterial growth in kumquat, but not in grapefruit. A flagellin-deficient Xcc strain (XccΔfliC) showed greater growth increase relative to wild-type Xcc in kumquat than in grapefruit. Taken together, our results indicate that Xflg22 initiates strong PTI in canker-resistant genotypes, but not in susceptible ones, and that a robust induction of PTI is an important component of citrus resistance to canker. PMID:25231217

  15. Chitinase-mediated inhibitory activity of Brassica transgenic on growth of Alternaria brassicae.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Kalyan K; Chatterjee, Subhas Chandra; Viswakarma, Navin; Bhattacharya, Ram Charan; Grover, Anita

    2003-09-01

    Chitinase, capable of degrading the cell walls of invading phytopathogenic fungi, plays an important role in plant defense response, particularly when this enzyme is overexpressed through genetic engineering. In the present study, Brassica plant (Brassica juncea L.) was transformed with chitinase gene tagged with an overexpressing promoter 35 S CaMV. The putative transgenics were assayed for their inhibitory activity against Alternaria brassicae, the inducer of Alternaria leaf spot of Brassica both in vitro and under polyhouse conditions. In in vitro fungal growth inhibition assays, chitinase inhibited the fungal colony size by 12-56% over the non-trangenic control. The bioassay under artificial epiphytotic conditions revealed the delay in the onset of disease as well as reduced lesion number and size in 35S-chitinase Brassica as compared to the untransformed control plants. PMID:14570264

  16. Four cases of dermatomycosis: superficial cutaneous infection by Alternaria or Bipolaris.

    PubMed

    Robb, Christopher W; Malouf, Peter J; Rapini, Ronald P

    2003-10-01

    Invasive dermal infections in immunosuppressed patients by a wide variety of opportunistic fungi are well described in the literature; however, superficial infections (dermatomycosis) are more rarely described. We report 4 cases of dermatomycosis by Alternaria or Bipolaris species. All but one of the patients had predisposing conditions including topical corticosteroid use, atopic or seborrheic dermatitis, and nail dystrophy. All 4 patients were otherwise immunocompetent. These cases represent some of the very few reports of Bipolaris in a primary stratum corneum infection and the first report of Bipolaris in an otherwise healthy person. We also describe what may be the first report of Bipolaris onychomycosis. All of our patients responded to topical or oral imidazole antifungal therapy. We discuss the significance of Alternaria and Bipolaris as contaminants or irrelevant organisms grown in some cultures of skin scrapings. PMID:14604084

  17. Genetic architecture of factors underlying partial resistance to Alternaria leaf blight in carrot.

    PubMed

    Le Clerc, Valérie; Pawelec, Anna; Birolleau-Touchard, Christelle; Suel, Anita; Briard, Mathilde

    2009-05-01

    In most production areas, Alternaria leaf blight (ALB) is recognized as the most common and destructive foliage disease in carrot. To assess the genetic architecture of carrot ALB resistance, two parental coupling maps were developed with similar number of dominant markers (around 70), sizes (around 650 cM), densities (around 9.5 cM), and marker composition. The F(2:3) progenies were evaluated in field and tunnel for two scoring dates. The continuous distribution of the disease severity value indicated that ALB resistance is under polygenic control. Three QTLs regions were found on three linkage groups. Two of them were tunnel or field specific and were detected only at the second screening date suggesting that the expression of these two QTLs regions involved in resistance to Alternaria dauci might depend on environment and delay after infection. PMID:19214391

  18. Role of micronutrients in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight infecting Indian mustard.

    PubMed

    Rathi, A S; Singh, Dhiraj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were carried out at Oilseeds Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi, 2008-09 to 2011-12 to find out the possible role of soil application of different micronutrients alone and in combinations in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight diseases in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]. Among the sole application of micronutrients, minimum disease severity of both white rust (35.0%) and Alternaria blight (31.8%) was observed when S @ 40 kg ha in the form of Gypsum was applied as basal dose in the soil. When Gypsum was supplemented with Borax @10 kg ha(-1) or with ZnSO4 @15 kg ha(-1) the level of tolerance seems to be improved for both the diseases as compared to the sole treatment of each nutrient, i.e., ZnSO4 @ 15 kg/ha, Borax @ 10 kg ha' and Gypsum @ 250 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, minimum disease severity of both white rust (31.3 %) and Alternaria blight (26.3 %) was observed with soil application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha(-1) + Borax @ 10 kg ha(-1) + Gypsum @250 kg ha(-1) as basal dose as compared to the severity of white rust (43.6%) and Alternaria blight (38.6%) in untreated check. Significant increase in seed yield (1612 kg ha(-1)) was also recorded in above mentioned treatment as compared to the yield (1337 kg ha(-1)) in untreated check. These findings will also be helpful in maintaining soil health and minimizing the losses due to both the fungal diseases for eco-friendly sustainability of Indian mustard. PMID:25895272

  19. Relationship of Pathogenicity to Tobacco Leaves and Toxicity to Chicks of Isolates of Alternaria longipes

    PubMed Central

    Sobers, E. K.; Doupnik, Ben

    1972-01-01

    One hundred thirty-seven single-conidium isolates of Alternaria longipes were tested for pathogenicity to tobacco leaves and for toxicity to 1-day-old chicks. Of 58 isolates pathogenic to tobacco, 43 (74.3%) had a significant effect on test chicks. Of 79 nonpathogenic isolates, 59 (74.7%) were nontoxic, 7 were toxic, and 13 were lethal. A relationship between pathogenicity and toxicity is suggested. PMID:5062883

  20. Treatment of cutaneous infection by Alternaria alternata with voriconazole in a liver transplant patient.

    PubMed

    Luque, P; García-Gil, F A; Larraga, J; Jiménez, B; Tomé-Zelaya, E; Serrano, M T; Barrao, M E

    2006-10-01

    Alternaria alternata is a dematiaceous mold capable of causing systemic and dermatological infections in immunosuppressed patients. We present a case of a liver transplant patient with cutaneous alternariosis and no response to amphotericin B lipid or surgical debridement of the lesions. Treatment with intravenous voriconazole was initiated, followed by the oral protocol, with complete resolution of the lesions. Voriconazole is an efficient alternative for the treatment of cutaneous lesions produced by A alternata. PMID:17097985

  1. Alternariol 9-methyl ether from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 and its bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jingfeng; Yu, Ruiting; Wang, Xiaohan; Mao, Ziling; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75μg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27μg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18μg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17μg/mL and 74.62μg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms. PMID:26887231

  2. Crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Sommer, J.; Frederiksen, L.; Gosewinkel Karlson, U.

    2012-06-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source to airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the source to the overall load is mainly local, but with intermittent Long Distance Transport (LDT) from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  3. Effects of meteorological factors on the levels of Alternaria spores on a potato crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuredo, Olga; Seijo, Maria Carmen; Fernández-González, Maria; Iglesias, Isabel

    2011-03-01

    Alternaria solani Soraeur produces early blight in Solanum tuberosum L., leading to significant agricultural losses. The current study was carried out on the extensive potato crop situated in north-western of Spain during 2007, 2008 and 2009. In this area potato crops are the most important source of income. In this work we used a Hirst-type volumetric spore-trap for the aerobiological monitoring of Alternaria spores. The highest spore concentrations were recorded during the 2009 cycle (10,555 spores), and the lowest concentrations were recorded during the 2008 cycle (5,471 spores). Over the 3 years of study, the highest concentrations were registered during the last stage of the crop. The aim of the study was to observe the influence of meteorological factors on the concentration of Alternaria spores, which can lead to serious infection and early blight. Prediction of the stages during which a crop is particularly vulnerable to infection allows for adjustment of the application of fungicide and is of environmental and agricultural importance. For this reason, we tested three models (P-Days, DD and IWP) to predict the first treatment and decrease the negative effect that these spores have on potato crops. The parameter that showed the most significant correlation with spore concentrations was minimum temperature. We used ARIMA (autoregressive integrated model of running mean) time-series models to determine the forecast. We considered weather data as predictor variables and the concentration of spores on the previous day as the fixed variable.

  4. Characterization and Pathogenicity of Alternaria burnsii from Seeds of Cucurbita maxima (Cucurbitaceae) in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin; Lee, Hyang Burm; Yu, Seung-Hun

    2015-12-01

    In the course of survey of endophytic fungi from Bangladesh pumpkin seeds in 2011~2012, two strains (CNU111042 and CNU111043) with similar colony characteristics were isolated and characterized by their morphology and by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of all three sequences and their combined dataset revealed that the fungus formed a subclade within the A. alternata clade, matching A. burnsi and showing differences with its other closely related Alternaria species, such as A. longipes, A. tomato, and A. tomaticola. Long ellipsoid, obclavate or ovoid beakless conidia, shorter and thinner conidial size (16~60 [90] × 6.5~14 [~16] µm) distinguish this fungus from other related species. These isolates showed more transverse septation (2~11) and less longitudinal septation (0~3) than did other related species. Moreover, the isolate did not produce any diffusible pigment on media. Therefore, our results reveal that the newly recorded fungus from a new host, Cucurbita maxima, is Alternaria burnsii Uppal, Patel & Kamat. PMID:26839497

  5. Production of the allergenic protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria isolates from working environments.

    PubMed

    Skra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczy?ska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; St?pie?, ?ukasz

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%-16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103-6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551-0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  6. How the Necrotrophic Fungus Alternaria brassicicola Kills Plant Cells Remains an Enigma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria species are mainly saprophytic fungi, but some are plant pathogens. Seven pathotypes of Alternaria alternata use secondary metabolites of host-specific toxins as pathogenicity factors. These toxins kill host cells prior to colonization. Genes associated with toxin synthesis reside on conditionally dispensable chromosomes, supporting the notion that pathogenicity might have been acquired several times by A. alternata. Alternaria brassicicola, however, seems to employ a different mechanism. Evidence on the use of host-specific toxins as pathogenicity factors remains tenuous, even after a diligent search aided by full-genome sequencing and efficient reverse-genetics approaches. Similarly, no individual genes encoding lipases or cell wall-degrading enzymes have been identified as strong virulence factors, although these enzymes have been considered important for fungal pathogenesis. This review describes our current understanding of toxins, lipases, and cell wall-degrading enzymes and their roles in the pathogenesis of A. brassicicola compared to those of other pathogenic fungi. It also describes a set of genes that affect pathogenesis in A. brassicicola. They are involved in various cellular functions that are likely important in most organisms and probably indirectly associated with pathogenesis. Deletion or disruption of these genes results in weakly virulent strains that appear to be sensitive to the defense mechanisms of host plants. Finally, this review discusses the implications of a recent discovery of three important transcription factors associated with pathogenesis and the putative downstream genes that they regulate. PMID:25681268

  7. Characterization and Pathogenicity of Alternaria burnsii from Seeds of Cucurbita maxima (Cucurbitaceae) in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Narayan Chandra; Deng, Jian Xin

    2015-01-01

    In the course of survey of endophytic fungi from Bangladesh pumpkin seeds in 2011~2012, two strains (CNU111042 and CNU111043) with similar colony characteristics were isolated and characterized by their morphology and by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer, glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpd), and Alternaria allergen a1 (Alt a1) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of all three sequences and their combined dataset revealed that the fungus formed a subclade within the A. alternata clade, matching A. burnsi and showing differences with its other closely related Alternaria species, such as A. longipes, A. tomato, and A. tomaticola. Long ellipsoid, obclavate or ovoid beakless conidia, shorter and thinner conidial size (16~60 [90] × 6.5~14 [~16] µm) distinguish this fungus from other related species. These isolates showed more transverse septation (2~11) and less longitudinal septation (0~3) than did other related species. Moreover, the isolate did not produce any diffusible pigment on media. Therefore, our results reveal that the newly recorded fungus from a new host, Cucurbita maxima, is Alternaria burnsii Uppal, Patel & Kamat. PMID:26839497

  8. Citrus Black Rot is Caused by Phylogenetically Distinct Lineages of Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Peever, T L; Carpenter-Boggs, L; Timmer, L W; Carris, L M; Bhatia, A

    2005-05-01

    ABSTRACT Phylogenetic analysis revealed that isolates of Alternaria alternata causing black rot of citrus were associated with six well-supported evolutionary lineages. Isolates recovered from brown spot lesions on Minneola tangelo, leaf spot lesions on rough lemon, and healthy citrus tissue and noncitrus hosts were related closely to isolates from black-rotted fruit. Phylogenies estimated independently from DNA sequence data from an endopolygalacturonase gene (endoPG) and two anonymous regions of the genome (OPA1-3 and OPA2-1) had similar topologies, and phylogenetic analysis was performed on the combined data set. In the combined phylogeny, isolates from diverse ecological niches on citrus and noncitrus hosts were distributed in eight clades. Isolates from all lineages, regardless of ecological or host association, caused black rot in fruit inoculation assays, demonstrating that small-spored Alternaria isolates associated with different ecological niches on citrus and other plant hosts are potential black rot pathogens. These data also indicated that the fungi associated with black-rotted fruit do not form a natural evolutionary group distinct from other Alternaria pathogens and saprophytes associated with citrus. The use of the name A. citri to describe fungi associated with citrus black rot is not justified and it is proposed that citrus black rot fungi be referred to as A. alternata. PMID:18943316

  9. Production of the Allergenic Protein Alt a 1 by Alternaria Isolates from Working Environments

    PubMed Central

    Skóra, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Leszczyńska, Joanna; Majak, Iwona; Stępień, Łukasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of Alternaria isolates from workplaces to produce Alt a 1 allergenic protein, and to analyze whether technical materials (cellulose, compost, leather) present within the working environment stimulate or inhibit Alt a 1 production (ELISA test). Studies included identification of the isolated molds by nucleotide sequences analyzing of the ITS1/ITS2 regions, actin, calmodulin and Alt a 1 genes. It has been shown that Alternaria molds are significant part of microbiocenosis in the archive, museum, library, composting plant and tannery (14%–16% frequency in the air). The presence of the gene encoding the Alt a 1 protein has been detected for the strains: Alternaria alternata, A. lini, A. limoniasperae A. nobilis and A. tenuissima. Environmental strains produced Alt a 1 at higher concentrations (1.103–6.528 ng/mL) than a ATCC strain (0.551–0.975 ng/mL). It has been shown that the homogenization of the mycelium and the use of ultrafiltration allow a considerable increase of Alt a 1 concentration. Variations in the production of Alt a 1 protein, depend on the strain and extraction methods. These studies revealed no impact of the technical material from the workplaces on the production of Alt a 1 protein. PMID:25689994

  10. Alternaria and Cladosporium Fungal Allergen Epitopes are Denatured by Sodium Hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Fungal allergens are ubiquitous; however, little progress has been made understanding fungal allergenic material removal from indoor environments. Purpose We investigated removal of environmental allergenic material derived from Alternaria and Cladosporium using sodium hypochlorite in vivo and in vitro. Methods Freeze dried allergen extract from Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium herbarum was treated with hypochlorite concentrations of 322, 88, 38, 16, 3, 0.3, and 0 mM, respectively. Remaining native allergenic material was quantified using enzyme immunoassay and remaining viable fungal material was evaluated. Results The results of treating Alternaria or Cladosporium extract with sodium hypochlorite are immediate and obvious. Concentrations greater than 100 mM remove color and concentrations between 100 and 38 mM partially uncolored the extract. Immunoassay for total antigenic and allergenic material remaining after treatment with sodium hypochlorite including 2 concentrations recommended for killing fungus confirmed a general destruction of antigenic and allergenic material at concentrations of 38 mM or greater. Conclusions This work confirms the ability of solutions of sodium hypochlorite to denature fungal allergenic material from common outdoor and indoor fungi A. alternata and C. herbarum. Destruction of recognized antigenic and allergenic epitopes occurs at hypochlorite concentrations commonly used for household cleaning. PMID:23282316

  11. Alternariol 9-methyl ether from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 and its bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Jingfeng; Yu, Ruiting; Wang, Xiaohan; Mao, Ziling; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75 μg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27 μg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18 μg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17 μg/mL and 74.62 μg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms. PMID:26887231

  12. The role of meteorological factors in determining the annual variation of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores in the atmosphere of Palencia, 1990 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, B.; Fombella-Blanco, M. A.; Fernández-González, D.; Valencia-Barrera, R. M.

    1996-09-01

    A study was made of the daily content of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores in the atmosphere in Palencia city (Spain) for three consecutive years 1990 1992. Alternaria and Cladosporium represented 55% of the total identified spores, presenting an annual distributional pattern of which the maximum values were reached in summer. Multiple regression analyses showed a positive correlation between minimum temperature and Cladosporium spore concentrations, while for Alternaria there was a positive correlation with maximum temperature and a negative correlation with precipitation. Duncan's multiple range test among means of Alternaria data indicated that winds coming from a northeasterly direction were associated with significantly higher concentrations the spores.

  13. High-throughput screening and analysis of genes of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri involved in citrus canker symptom development.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qing; Wang, Nian

    2012-01-01

    Citrus canker is caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri and is one of the most devastating diseases on citrus plants. To investigate the virulence mechanism of this pathogen, a mutant library of strain 306 containing approximately 22,000 mutants was screened for virulence-deficient mutants in grapefruit (Citrus paradise). Eighty-two genes were identified that contribute to citrus canker symptom development caused by X. citri subsp. citri. Among the 82 identified genes, 23 genes were classified as essential genes, as mutation of these genes caused severe reduction of bacterial growth in M9 medium. The remaining 59 genes were classified as putative virulence-related genes that include 32 previously reported virulence-related genes and 27 novel genes. The 32 known virulence-related genes include genes that are involved in the type III secretion system (T3SS) and T3SS effectors, the quorum-sensing system, extracellular polysaccharide and lipopolysaccharide synthesis, and general metabolic pathways. The contribution to pathogenesis by nine genes (pthA4, trpG, trpC, purD, hrpM, peh-1, XAC1230, XAC1548, and XAC3049) was confirmed by complementation assays. We further validated the mutated genes and their phenotypes by analyzing the EZ-Tn5 insertion copy number using Southern blot analysis. In conclusion, we have significantly advanced our understanding of the putative genetic determinants of the virulence mechanism of X. citri subsp. citri by identifying 59 putative virulence-related genes, including 27 novel genes. PMID:21899385

  14. Efficacy of heat treatment for the thousand cankers disease vector and pathogen in small black walnut logs.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, A E; Fraedrich, S W; Taylor, A; Merten, P; Myers, S W

    2014-02-01

    Thousand cankers disease, caused by the walnut twig beetle (Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman) and an associated fungal pathogen (Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarík, E. Freeland, C. Utley, and N. Tisserat), threatens the health and commercial use of eastern black walnut (Juglans nigra L.), one of the most economically valuable tree species in the United States. Effective phytosanitary measures are needed to reduce the possibility of spreading this insect and pathogen through wood movement. This study evaluated the efficacy of heat treatments and debarking to eliminate P. juglandis and C. morbida in J. nigra logs 4-18 cm in diameter and 30 cm in length. Infested logs were steam heated until various outer sapwood temperatures (60, 65, and 70 degrees C in 2011; 36, 42, 48, 52, and 56 degrees C in 2012) were maintained or exceeded for 30-40 min. In 2011, all heat treatments eliminated G. morbida from the bark, but logs were insufficiently colonized by P. juglandis to draw conclusions about treatment effects on the beetle. Debarking did not ensure elimination of the pathogen from the sapwood surface. In 2012, there was a negative effect of increasing temperature on P. juglandis emergence and G. morbida recovery. G. morbida did not survive in logs exposed to treatments in which minimum temperatures were 48 degrees C or higher, and mean P. juglandis emergence decreased steadily to zero as treatment minimum temperature increased from 36 to 52 degrees C. A minimum outer sapwood temperature of 56 degrees C maintained for 40 min is effective for eliminating the thousand cankers disease vector and pathogen from walnut logs, and the current heat treatment schedule for the emerald ash borer (60 degrees C core temperature for 60 min) is more than adequate for treating P. juglandis and G. morbida in walnut firewood. PMID:24665700

  15. Hourly predictive artificial neural network and multivariate regression tree models of Alternaria and Cladosporium spore concentrations in Szczecin (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2009-11-01

    A study was made of the link between time of day, weather variables and the hourly content of certain fungal spores in the atmosphere of the city of Szczecin, Poland, in 2004-2007. Sampling was carried out with a Lanzoni 7-day-recording spore trap. The spores analysed belonged to the taxa Alternaria and Cladosporium. These spores were selected both for their allergenic capacity and for their high level presence in the atmosphere, particularly during summer. Spearman correlation coefficients between spore concentrations, meteorological parameters and time of day showed different indices depending on the taxon being analysed. Relative humidity (RH), air temperature, air pressure and clouds most strongly and significantly influenced the concentration of Alternaria spores. Cladosporium spores correlated less strongly and significantly than Alternaria. Multivariate regression tree analysis revealed that, at air pressures lower than 1,011 hPa the concentration of Alternaria spores was low. Under higher air pressure spore concentrations were higher, particularly when RH was lower than 36.5%. In the case of Cladosporium, under higher air pressure (>1,008 hPa), the spores analysed were more abundant, particularly after 0330 hours. In artificial neural networks, RH, air pressure and air temperature were the most important variables in the model for Alternaria spore concentration. For Cladosporium, clouds, time of day, air pressure, wind speed and dew point temperature were highly significant factors influencing spore concentration. The maximum abundance of Cladosporium spores in air fell between 1200 and 1700 hours.

  16. Immunochemical quantitation of airborne short ragweed, Alternaria, antigen E, and Alt-I allergens: a two-year prospective study

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, M.K.; Swanson, M.C.; Reed, C.E.; Yunginger, J.W.

    1983-07-01

    We conducted a 2 yr prospective study to measure atmospheric short ragweed and Alternaria allergens by RAST inhibition analysis of eluates from filter sheets exposed in air samplers. In both years ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts, obtained with a rotoslide sampler, correlated significantly with immunochemically measured airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activity. Airborne levels of the purified allergens AgE and Alt-I were successfully quantitated; these levels correlated closely with total airborne ragweed and Alternaria allergenic activities, respectively, and also with ragweed pollen and Alternaria spore counts. Eluates from filter sheets exposed during late summer and fall produced positive wheal-and-flare skin tests in patients with fall hay fever. In both years immunochemical measurements of allergenic activity due to airborne short ragweed correlated closely with mean symptom score indices in groups of short ragweed-sensitive individuals. Measurable levels of atmospheric ragweed allergenic activity were noted before and after the ragweed pollination season, and at these times we noted small increases in mean symptom score indices in the short ragweed-sensitive groups. Thus immunochemical analyses provide important information concerning levels of environmental allergens.

  17. Characterization and pathogenicity of Alternaria spp. strains associated with grape bunch rot during post-harvest withering.

    PubMed

    Lorenzini, Marilinda; Zapparoli, Giacomo

    2014-09-01

    Alternaria is a fungal agent of grape bunch rot which occurs during withering, a process which produces passito style wines. Seven isolates of Alternaria spp. were characterized using morphological examination, genotypic analysis and pathogenicity. Six of these isolates produced conidiophores and conidia displaying sporulation patterns typical of the Alternaria alternata species-group. Variability in colony morphology and growth on different media was observed. Phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences clustered all isolates within a monophyletic clade, while intergenic spacer region (IGS)-RFLP profiles were congruent with those of A. alternata and Alternaria arborescens. RAPD-PCR proved helpful in discriminating between strains. To assay strain pathogenicity, grape berries were infected while undergoing withering conditions at different temperatures. Disease capacity was found to be strain dependent and varied consistently between the most and least aggressive strains. This study has provided interesting information on polymorphism within Alternaria spp. populations in withered grapes and on understanding the saprophytic role of this fungus during the post-harvest dehydrating process. PMID:24974273

  18. Mycotoxin Production in Liquid Culture and on Plants Infected with Alternaria spp. Isolated from Rocket and Cabbage

    PubMed Central

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions. PMID:25751147

  19. Alternaria alternata invasive fungal infection in a patient with Fanconi's anemia after an unrelated bone marrow transplant.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Isabelina de Sousa; Teixeira, Gilda; Abecasis, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    Alternaria spp. have emerged as opportunistic pathogens particularly in immunosuppressed patients, such as bone marrow transplant recipients. The authors present a case of Alternaria alternata in a patient with Fanconi's anemia, who received antifungal prophylaxis with posaconazole after an unrelated bone marrow transplantation, followed by empirical antifungal treatment with caspofungin when persistent fever emerged until cutaneous lesions eventually appeared. At that time there were clinical reasons to assume that the patient had an infection with an emerging fungus. This consideration triggered a change of the antifungal therapy from caspofungin to liposomal amphotericin B. After collecting sufficient evidence for the presence of an invasive fungal infection by A. alternata and given the severity of neutropenia and other immunosuppression, oral posaconazole was added to liposomal amphotericin B. The course of disease in this case suggests a possibly synergistic interaction between liposomal amphotericin B and posaconazole when administered simultaneously to treat an invasive systemic infection by Alternaria spp. in immunocompromised patients. PMID:23381982

  20. Mycotoxin production in liquid culture and on plants infected with Alternaria spp. isolated from rocket and cabbage.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Ortu, Giuseppe; Gilardi, Giovanna; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

    2015-03-01

    Fungi belonging to the genus Alternaria are common pathogens of fruit and vegetables with some species able to produce secondary metabolites dangerous to human health. Twenty-eight Alternaria isolates from rocket and cabbage were investigated for their mycotoxin production. Five different Alternaria toxins were extracted from synthetic liquid media and from plant material (cabbage, cultivated rocket, cauliflower). A modified Czapek-Dox medium was used for the in vitro assay. Under these conditions, more than 80% of the isolates showed the ability to produce at least one mycotoxin, generally with higher levels for tenuazonic acid. However, the same isolates analyzed in vivo seemed to lose their ability to produce tenuazonic acid. For the other mycotoxins; alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene and tentoxin a good correlation between in vitro and in vivo production was observed. In vitro assay is a useful tool to predict the possible mycotoxin contamination under field and greenhouse conditions. PMID:25751147

  1. Exposure to Alternaria alternata in US homes is associated with asthma symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Päivi M.; Arbes, Samuel J.; Sever, Michelle; Jaramillo, Renee; Cohn, Richard D.; London, Stephanie J.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2007-01-01

    Background Exposure to the fungus Alternaria alternata is a risk factor for asthma. Few studies have examined Alternaria exposures in indoor environments. Objective We examined whether exposure to A alternata in US homes was associated with asthma-related outcomes. Methods The data for this study were collected as part of the National Survey of Lead and Allergens in Housing. This cross-sectional study surveyed a nationally representative sample of 831 housing units inhabited by 2456 individuals in 75 different locations throughout the United States. An interviewer-administered questionnaire obtained information on demographics, household characteristics, and occupants' health status. Exposure to A alternata was assessed by measuring concentrations of A alternata antigens in vacuumed dust samples using a polyclonal anti–A alternata antibody assay. Dust samples were collected from a bed, a sofa, or a chair, and from bedroom, living room, and kitchen floors. Results Lifetime prevalence of doctor-diagnosed asthma was 11.2%, and 6.9% of the study subjects reported active asthma symptoms in the past 12 months. The prevalence of current symptomatic asthma increased with increasing Alternaria concentrations in US homes; higher levels of A alternata antigens increased the odds of having asthma symptoms in the past year (relative to the lowest tertile, adjusted odds ratio was 1.52, 95% CI, 0.90−2.55 for the 2nd tertile; and 1.84, 95% CI, 1.18−2.85 for the 3rd tertile). Conclusion Exposure to A alternata in US homes is associated with active asthma symptoms. Clinical implications Measures that reduce indoor exposure to A alternata may help control asthma exacerbations. PMID:17030243

  2. Alternaria Induces Production of Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin in Nasal Fibroblasts Through Toll-like Receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yee-Hyuk; Jin, Hyo-Sung; Kang, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is a chronic inflammatory disease with markedly increased eosinophils, Th2-type lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and goblet cells. Fungi are commonly associated with airway inflammatory diseases, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is important in the development of Th2 inflammatory responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between airborne fungi and nasal fibroblasts in TSLP mRNA and protein expression. Methods Inferior turbinate and nasal polyp fibroblasts were stimulated with Alternaria and Aspergillus, respectively, for 48 hours, and TSLP mRNA and protein expressions were measured. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was performed for the Toll-like receptor (TLR) mRNA expression of the nasal fibroblasts. To determine the role of TLR in the induction of TSLP, the fibroblasts were transfected with siRNA against TLR2 and TLR5. Results Alternaria induced TSLP mRNA and protein expression in both inferior turbinate and nasal polyp fibroblasts. The nasal polyp fibroblasts responded more strongly to the fungi. TLR2 and TLR5 mRNA expressions were significantly increased with fungal stimulation and TSLP production was significantly inhibited by siRNA against TLR2. Conclusions The results of this study show that TSLP expression could be induced in nasal fibroblasts by exposure to Alternaria and that TLR2 may be involved in the process. The promotion of TSLP production in nasal fibroblasts by airborne fungi may facilitate the development or exacerbation of Th2-type nasal inflammation, especially in CRS with nasal polyps. PMID:26540503

  3. Process development for the elucidation of mycotoxin formation in Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The black mould Alternaria alternata produces a wide diversity of mycotoxins which are of particular health concern. Since no maximum allowable limits are set for Alternaria toxins in food and feed, prevention of Alternaria infestations and mycotoxin spoilage is the only way to avoid health risks. Thus, the understanding of mycotoxin biosynthesis is essential. For that purpose, a reliable batch process in a 2 L bioreactor was established which enables the study of several parameters influencing the production of the mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethylether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) by A. alternata DSM 12633. Modified Czapek-Dox medium was used with glucose as carbon source and ammonium and nitrate as nitrogen sources. Consumption of carbon and nitrogen sources as well as formation of the three mycotoxins were monitored; the average data of five independent fermentations was plotted and fitted using a logistic equation with four parameters. Maximum mycotoxin concentrations of 3.49 ± 0.12 mg/L AOH, 1.62 ± 0.14 mg/L AME and 38.28 ± 0.1 mg/L TA were obtained. In this system the effect of different aeration rates (0.53 vvm-0.013 vvm) was tested which exerted a great influence on mycotoxin production. The use of the semi-synthetic Czapek-Dox medium allowed the exchange of carbon and nitrogen sources for acetate and aspartic acid. The use of acetate instead of glucose resulted in the sole production of alternariol whereas the exchange of ammonium and nitrate for aspartate enhanced the production of both AOH and AME while TA production was not affected. PMID:21970547

  4. Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Variation and Pathogenic Specialization in Alternaria Fungi Known To Produce Host-Specific Toxins †

    PubMed Central

    Kusaba, Motoaki; Tsuge, Takashi

    1994-01-01

    A total of 99 strains of 11 Alternaria species, including 68 strains of seven fungi known to produce host-specific toxins, were subjected to analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) in nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA). Total DNA was digested with XbaI, and the Southern blots were probed with a nuclear rDNA clone of Alternaria kikuchiana. The hybridization gave 17 different RFLPs from the 99 strains. On the basis of these RFLPs, populations of host-specific toxin-producing fungi could not be differentiated from one another nor from nonpathogenic A. alternata. Each population of the toxin-producing fungi carried rDNA variants. Nine different types, named A1 to A6 and B1 to B3, were detected among the toxin-producing fungi and nonpathogenic A. alternata. All of the populations contained the type A4 variant, and the other rDNA types were also shared by different toxin-producing fungi and A. alternata. In contrast, Alternaria species that are morphologically distinguishable from A. alternata could be differentiated from A. alternata on the basis of the rDNA RFLPs. Polymorphisms in rDNA digested with HaeIII and MspI were also evaluated in 61 Alternaria strains. These restriction enzymes produced 31 variations among all of the samples. The seven toxin-producing fungi and nonpathogenic A. alternata could not be resolved by phylogenetic analysis based on the RFLPs, although they could be differentiated from the other Alternaria species studied. These results provide support for the hypothesis that Alternaria fungi known to produce host-specific toxins are intraspecific variants of A. alternata specialized in pathogenicity. Images PMID:16349367

  5. Propidium monoazide combined with real-time quantitative PCR to quantify viable Alternaria spp. contamination in tomato products.

    PubMed

    Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Estiarte, Nria; Marn, Sonia; Sanchis, Vicente; Ramos, Antonio J

    2013-08-01

    Alternaria is a common contaminating genus of fungi in fruits, grains, and vegetables that causes severe economic losses to farmers and the food industry. Furthermore, it is claimed that Alternaria spp. are able to produce phytotoxic metabolites, and mycotoxins that are unsafe for human and animal health. DNA amplification techniques are being increasingly applied to detect, identify, and quantify mycotoxigenic fungi in foodstuffs, but the inability of these methods to distinguish between viable and nonviable cells might lead to an overestimation of mycotoxin-producing living cells. A promising technique to overcome this problem is the pre-treatment of samples with nucleic acid intercalating dyes, such as propidium monoazide (PMA), prior to quantitative PCR (qPCR). PMA selectively penetrates cells with a damaged membrane inhibiting DNA amplification during qPCRs. In our study, a primer pair (Alt4-Alt5) to specifically amplify and quantify Alternaria spp. by qPCR was designed. Quantification data of qPCR achieved a detection limit of 10(2)conidia/g of tomato. Here, we have optimized for the first time a DNA amplification-based PMA sample pre-treatment protocol for detecting viable Alternaria spp. cells. Artificially inoculated tomato samples treated with 65?M of PMA, showed a reduction in the signal by almost 7cycles in qPCR between live and heat-killed Alternaria spp. conidia. The tomato matrix had a protective effect on the cells against PMA toxicity, reducing the efficiency to distinguish between viable and nonviable cells. The results reported here indicate that the PMA-qPCR method is a suitable tool for quantifying viable Alternaria cells, which could be useful for estimating potential risks of mycotoxin contamination. PMID:23796654

  6. First Report of Black Spot Disease Caused by Alternaria alternata on Sweet Persimmon Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Jinwoo

    2013-01-01

    Black spot of sweet persimmon, caused by Alternaria alternata, occurred in an orchard in Gyeongnam province, Korea in 2012. The symptom was appearance of 0.5 to 4 cm black spots on the surface of fruit. The pathogen was isolated from flesh of disease lesions. The causal agent was identified as A. alternata by morphological characteristics and sequencers of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and ITS4 regions of rRNA. Artificial inoculation of the pathogen resulted in development of disease symptoms and the re-isolated pathogen showed characteristics of A. alternata. PMID:24198674

  7. Pyrone derivatives from the endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima SP-07 of Chinese herbal medicine Salvia przewalskii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Zheng; Luo, Xiao-Hong; Xiao, Jie; Zhai, Ming-Ming; Yuan, Yun; Zhu, Ying; Crews, Phillip; Yuan, Cheng-Shan; Wu, Quan-Xiang

    2014-12-01

    Three new pyrones, solanapyrones P-R (1-3), were afforded by the extracts of the endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima SP-07 isolated from the fresh root of Chinese herbal medicine Salvia przewalskii, along with the known solanapyrones (4-6) and benzopyrones (7-9). Solanapyrones P (1) and Q (2) possess an unprecedented nor-solanapyrone skeleton as natural products. Their structures were determined on the basis of NMR and HR-ESI-MS analysis. The plausible biosynthetic pathways to those unknown compounds were discussed. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities against six bacteria. PMID:25284429

  8. Simplified Assays for Evaluation of Resistance to Alternaria brassicicola and Turnip Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Trusov, Yuri; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Maruta, Natsumi; Botella, Jose R

    2016-01-01

    Studying the natural defense mechanisms developed by model plants such as Arabidopsis is an important approach towards the improvement of crop species. The availability of mutants as well as the relative easiness to silence any gene in Arabidopsis provides an invaluable source of genotypes that can be used to discover new elements involved in the defense response. Here we describe simple and reliable methods to evaluate susceptibility/resistance to the pathogenic fungus Alternaria brassicicola and the viral pathogen Turnip mosaic virus. PMID:26577793

  9. First Report of Black Spot Disease Caused by Alternaria alternata on Sweet Persimmon Fruits.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Han; Kim, Jinwoo; Kwak, Youn-Sig

    2013-09-01

    Black spot of sweet persimmon, caused by Alternaria alternata, occurred in an orchard in Gyeongnam province, Korea in 2012. The symptom was appearance of 0.5 to 4 cm black spots on the surface of fruit. The pathogen was isolated from flesh of disease lesions. The causal agent was identified as A. alternata by morphological characteristics and sequencers of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 and ITS4 regions of rRNA. Artificial inoculation of the pathogen resulted in development of disease symptoms and the re-isolated pathogen showed characteristics of A. alternata. PMID:24198674

  10. An association of Alternaria alternata and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis in cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis.

    PubMed

    Anandan, V; Nayak, V; Sundaram, S; Srikanth, P

    2008-01-01

    Rare molds are increasingly emerging as a cause of deep and invasive fungal infections. We report here a rare case of cutaneous phaeohyphomycosis of the lower limbs due to Alternaria alternata associated with extra-ungual localization of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. Diagnosis was made based on repeated, direct, microscopic mycological and histological examinations. The study revealed hyphae and fungal cells in a granulomatous dermal infiltrate. Identification of the molds was based on macroscopic appearance on culture of samples from the lesions on Sabouraud's dextrose agar and microscopic appearance on Lactophenol cotton blue following slide culture. PMID:18583793

  11. Secondary metabolites from a strain of Alternaria tenuissima Isolated from Northern Manitoba soil.

    PubMed

    Anyanwu, Chukwudi S; Sorensen, John L

    2015-01-01

    Deoxyphomalone (1), dimethyl 4-methyl-2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate (2), stemphyperylenol (3), and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (4) were isolated from the fermentation broth of a strain of the fungus, Alternaria tenuissima. This fungus was isolated from the soil underlying the lichen, Peltigera didactyla, which had been collected from Wapusk National Park in Northern Manitoba. The structures of the compounds were determined by comprehensive analysis of their spectroscopic data including FT-IR, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry; and their bioactivities were tested against E.coli cells. The taxonomic identity of the fungus was confirmed by ITS sequencing of its ribosomal DNA. PMID:25920216

  12. Types of Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  13. [Research of chemotaxis response of Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria panax on total ginsenosides].

    PubMed

    Chi, Kun; Xu, Yong-hua; Lei, Feng-jie; Yin, Min-jing; Wang, Zhuang; Zhang, Ai-hua; Zhang, Lian-xue

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, three kinds of chemotactic parameters (concentration, temperature and pH) were determined by plate assay and spore germination method to research the chemotactic response of Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria panax, and their spores on total ginsenosides. The results showed that Botrytis cinerea had strong chemotactic response at the mid-concentration of total ginsenosides (cultivation temperature was 20 degrees C and pH value was 6), and the data of chemotactic migration index (CMI) was 1.293 0, chemotactic growth rate (CGR) was 0.476 0, spore germination rate (SGR) was 53%, and dry weight of mycelial (DWM) was 0.452 6 g x L(-1); however, Alternaria panax had strong chemotactic response at the low-concentration of total ginsenosides (cultivation temperature was 25 degrees C and pH value was 6), and the data of chemotactic migration index (CMI) was 1.235 4, chemotactic growth rate (CGR) was 0.537 0, spore germination rate (SGR) was 67%, and dry weight of mycelial (DWM) was 0.494 8 g x L(-1). The results indicated that the low and middle concentration (2, 20 mg x L(-1)) of total ginsenosides had significant promoting effect on chemotactic response of these two pathogens, and the spore germination, mycelial growth rate, dry weight of mycelial of them were also significantly improved by this chemotactic response, whereas it decreased as the increase of total ginsenosides concentration. PMID:26975095

  14. Participation of the phosphoinositide metabolism in the hypersensitive response of Citrus limon against Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Ortega, X; Pérez, L M

    2001-01-01

    Lemon seedlings inoculated with Alternaria alternata develop a hypersensitive response (HR) that includes the induction of Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, E. C. 4.3.1.5) and the synthesis of scoparone. The signal transduction pathway involved in the development of this response is unknown. We used several inhibitors of the Phosphoinositide (PI) animal system to study a possible role of Inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) in the transduction of the fungal conidia signal in Citrus limon. The HR was only partially inhibited by EGTA, suggesting that not only external but internal calcium as well are necessary for a complete development of the HR. In this plant system, Alternaria alternata induced an early accumulation of the second messenger IP3. When lemon seedlings were watered long term with LiCl, an inhibitor of the phosphoinositide cycle, the IP3 production was reduced, and the LiCl-watered plants could neither induce PAL nor synthesize scoparone in response to fungal conidia. Furthermore, neomycin, a Phospholipase C (PLC, E. C. 3.1.4.3) inhibitor, also inhibited PAL induction and scoparone synthesis in response to A. alternata. These results suggest that IP3 could be involved in the signal transduction pathway for the development of the HR of Citrus limon against A. alternata. PMID:11471522

  15. New cytotoxic compounds of endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. isolated from Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) Vent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Naidan; Zhang, Chunyan; Xiao, Xiao; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Huang, Baokang

    2016-04-01

    From the ethyl acetate extract of a culture of the endophytic fungus Alternaria species G7 in Broussonetia papyrifera, a new compound altertoxin IV (1) together with nine known compounds were isolated and identified by means of bioassay-guided fractionation. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods, among which the absolute configuration of compound 1, a new tetrahydroperylenone derivative, was determined by means of X-Ray Crystallographic analysis. The isolated compounds were subjected to cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines (A549, MG-63, and SMMC-7721). Compound 2 showed significant cytotoxic activities against tested cell lines, with IC50 values of 1.47, 2.11 and 7.34μg/mL, respectively. Additionally, compound 4 also exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against cell lines MG-63 and SMMC-7721, with IC50 values of 0.53 and 2.92μg/mL. Endophytic fungi Alternaria from B. papyrifera might be promising sources of natural bioactive and novel metabolites. PMID:27001249

  16. Alt a 15 is a new cross-reactive minor allergen of Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, M F; Postigo, I; Gutiérrez-Rodríguez, A; Suñén, E; Guisantes, J A; Fernández, J; Tomaz, C T; Martínez, J

    2016-02-01

    Alternaria alternata is one of the most common saprophytes worldwide that is clinically and epidemiologically associated with severe asthma. Therefore, the identification and characterization of all A. alternata allergens are of major clinical importance. This study describes a new cross-reactive A. alternata allergen that was officially named Alt a 15 by the official Allergen Nomenclature Subcommittee. The complete coding region for Alt a 15 was amplified using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends and PCR. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli as a 65-kDa fusion protein, and the protein sequence exhibits high homology with several important fungal allergens. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that IgE antibodies from A. alternata-sensitized patients (n=59) bound to rAlt a 15 with a prevalence of 10.2%. All patients who presented sIgE to rAlt a 15 were apparently poly-sensitized to A. alternata and C. lunata. The extensive cross-reactivity between A. alternata and C. lunata serine proteases was confirmed using immunoblotting inhibition assays. Overall, Alt a 15 is an important new cross-reactive allergen of A. alternata that explains some allergies to A. alternata without Alt a 1 sensitization and initial diagnostic errors for allergies to Alternaria. This molecule may improve the accuracy of the diagnosis, the understanding, and the management of IgE-mediated fungal diseases. PMID:26395961

  17. Identification of novel virulence factors associated with signal transduction pathways in Alternaria brassicicola.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yangrae; Kim, Kwang-Hyung; La Rota, Mauricio; Scott, Derrick; Santopietro, Graciela; Callihan, Meagan; Mitchell, Thomas K; Lawrence, Christopher B

    2009-06-01

    Alternaria brassicicola is an important, necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes black spot disease on Brassicas. In order to study pathogenicity mechanisms, gene deletion mutants were generated for 21 putative regulatory genes including kinases and transcription factors subjectively selected from the annotated A. brassicicola genome. Except for Ste12, the deletion of the SNF1 kinase, XlnR, and CreA homologues that control cell wall-degrading enzyme production did not significantly affect virulence in contrast to other pathogenic fungi. Only deletion of XlnR but not CreA, Ste12 or SNF1 impaired the fungus' ability to utilize sole carbon sources suggesting Alternaria regulates expression of cell wall-degrading enzymes in a novel manner. In addition, two novel virulence factors encoding a transcription factor (AbPro1) and a two-component histidine kinase gene (AbNIK1) were discovered. Deletion of AbPro1 resulted in a 70% reduction in virulence and a 25% reduction in vegetative growth rates in vitro. Deletion of AbNIK1 resulted in a near complete loss of virulence, increased sensitivity to osmotic stress, and no changes in vegetative growth rates in vitro. Interestingly, addition of long polypeptides to spores of both Deltaabste12 and Deltaabnik1 during inoculations resulted in a complete restoration of pathogenicity through a yet to be defined mechanism. PMID:19460100

  18. Furfural from Pine Needle Extract Inhibits the Growth of a Plant Pathogenic Fungus, Alternaria mali

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sun Kyun; Moon, Sung-Kwon; Lee, Ung-Soo

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal effect of pine needle extract prepared by a distinguishable extraction method and the dry distillation method, was examined. The effect of this extract itself was insignificant. The chemical components of pine needle extract were then investigated by gas chromatographic analysis, and four chemical components, acetol, furfural, 5-methyl furfural, and terpine-4-ol, were identified. The antifungal effects of those four chemical components against Alternaria mali (A. mali), an agent of Alternaria blotch of apple, were then examined. It was observed that the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were 6.25, 0.78, 0.78, and 12.5 (mg/ml) of acetol, furfural, 5-methyl furfural, and terpine-4-ol, respectively. MICs of furfural and 5-methyl furfural had the same order of magnitude as that of an antifungal agrochemical, chlorothalonil. Although furfural itself can not be completely substituted for an antifungal agrochemical, a partial mixture of furfural and antifungal agrochemical may be used as a substitute. The use of agrochemicals for the prevention of plant disease caused by pathogenic fungus such as A. mali could be partially reduced by the application of this mixture. PMID:24015067

  19. Genome sequence of a novel victorivirus identified in the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria arborescens.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Ken; Katayama, Yukie; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Motoichiro; Arie, Tsutomu; Teraoka, Tohru; Moriyama, Hiromitsu

    2016-06-01

    Strains of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria spp. have been found to contain a variety of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) elements indicative of mycovirus infection. Here, we report the molecular characterization of a novel dsRNA mycovirus, Alternaria arborescens victorivirus 1 (AaVV1), from A. arborescens, the tomato pathotype of A. alternata. Using next-generation sequencing of dsRNA purified from an A. arborescens strain from the United States of America, we found that the AaVV1 genome is 5203 bp in length and contains two open reading frames (ORF1 and 2) that overlap at the tetranucleotide AUGA. Proteins encoded by ORF1 and ORF2 showed significant similarities to the coat protein (CP) and the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively, of dsRNA mycoviruses of the genus Victorivirus. Pairwise comparisons and phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences of both CP and RdRp indicated that AaVV1 is a member of a distinct species of the genus Victorivirus in the family Totiviridae. PMID:26923927

  20. Conservation of the genes for HC-toxin biosynthesis in Alternaria jesenskae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HC-toxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide, is a virulence determinant for the plant pathogenic fungus Cochliobolus carbonum. It was recently discovered that another fungus, Alternaria jesenskae, also produces HC-toxin. Results The major genes (collectively known as AjTOX2) involved in the biosynthesis of HC-toxin were identified from A. jesenskae by genomic sequencing. The encoded orthologous proteins share 75-85% amino acid identity, and the genes for HC-toxin biosynthesis are duplicated in both fungi. The genomic organization of the genes in the two fungi show a similar but not identical partial clustering arrangement. A set of representative housekeeping proteins show a similar high level of amino acid identity between C. carbonum and A. jesenskae, which is consistent with the close relatedness of these two genera within the family Pleosporaceae (Dothideomycetes). Conclusions This is the first report that the plant virulence factor HC-toxin is made by an organism other than C. carbonum. The genes may have moved by horizontal transfer between the two species, but it cannot be excluded that they were present in a common ancestor and lost from other species of Alternaria and Cochliobolus. PMID:23865912

  1. Phytotoxin solanapyrone A produced by Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani is nonessential for pathogenicity, but likely plays ecological roles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani, causal agents of chickpea and potato blights respectively, produce the same phytotoxin solanapyrone A (SolA).The toxicity of SolA to plants has been documented, but its role in pathogenicity has not been investigated. In this study, we generated solanapyrone-d...

  2. Effects of Alternaria destruens, Glyphosate, and Ammonium Sulfate Individually and Integrated for Control of Dodder (Cuscuta pentagona)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dodder is a serious weed problem in several crops. Its minutely sized, easily dispersed, and highly viable seed makes it difficult to control. Alternaria destruens is the active ingredient in a registered bioherbicide for control of dodder species. In greenhouse studies, the following treatments ...

  3. First Report of a Leaf Spot Caused by Alternaria brassicae on the Invasive Weed Lepidium draba in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A second leaf spot disease on the perennial invasive weed white top, aka hoary cress, was found in a stand of white top in south central Montana. The plant pathogen causing the lesions was identified as the fungus Alternaria brassicae. It was isolated, purified grown on a V-8 agar growth medium and ...

  4. Molecular characterization and detection of mutations associated with resistance to succinate dehydrogenase inhibiting (SDHI) fungicides in Alternaria solani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight, caused by Alternaria solani, is an economically important foliar disease of potato in several production areas of the United States. Few potato cultivars possess resistance to early blight, therefore, the application of fungicides is a primary means of achieving disease control. Previo...

  5. Survey of Alternaria toxin contamination in food from the German market, using a rapid HPLC-MS/MS approach.

    PubMed

    Hickert, Sebastian; Bergmann, Marian; Ersen, Seyma; Cramer, Benedikt; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    A HPLC-MS/MS-based method for the quantification of nine mycotoxins produced by fungi of the genus Alternaria in various food matrices was developed. The method relies on a single-step extraction, followed by dilution of the raw extract and direct analysis. In combination with an analysis time per sample of 12 min, the sample preparation is cost-effective and easy to handle. The method covers alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tenuazonic acid (TeA), altenuene (ALT), iso-altenuene (isoALT), tentoxin (TEN), altertoxin-I (ATX-I), and the AAL toxins TA1 and TA2. Some Alternaria toxins which are either not commercially available or very expensive, namely AOH, AME, ALT, isoALT, and ATX-I, were isolated as reference compounds from fungal cultures. The method was extensively validated for tomato products, bakery products, sunflower seeds, fruit juices, and vegetable oils. AOH, AME, TeA, and TEN were found in quantifiable amounts and 92.1 % of all analyzed samples (n = 96) showed low level contamination with one or more Alternaria toxins. Based on the obtained results, the average daily exposure to Alternaria toxins in Germany was calculated. PMID:26408172

  6. Characterization of Alternaria isolates from the infectoria species-group and a new taxon from Arrhenatherum, Pseudoalternaria arrhenatheria sp. nov

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The infectoria species-group within the genus Alternaria was originally conceived by Simmons in 1993 and was based upon common morphological characteristics that included the development of conidial chains with primary, secondary, and tertiary branching resulting in substantial three-dimensional com...

  7. Nonhost-specific phytotoxicity of the polyketide-derived toxin solanapyrone A produced by Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Solanapyrone A is a polyketide-derived metabolite produced by Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani, which are the most destructive necrotrophic pathogens of chickpea and potato/tomato, respectively. They belong to the Order Pleosporales within the Class Dothideomycetes, but are phylogenetically di...

  8. STEM Sell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Between 1994 and 2003, employment in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields grew by a remarkable 23 percent, compared with 17 percent in non-STEM fields, according to federal data. The Bureau of Labor Statistics predicts continued strong growth in STEM job openings through 2014, with emphasis on life sciences, environmental…

  9. Bacterial canker on kiwifruit in Italy: anatomical changes in the wood and in the primary infection sites.

    PubMed

    Renzi, Marsilio; Copini, Paul; Taddei, Anna R; Rossetti, Antonio; Gallipoli, Lorenzo; Mazzaglia, Angelo; Balestra, Giorgio M

    2012-09-01

    The bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is a severe threat to kiwifruit production worldwide. Many aspects of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biology and epidemiology still require in-depth investigation. The infection by and spread of P. syringae pv. actinidiae in xylem and phloem was investigated by carrying out artificial inoculation experiments with histological and dendrochronological analyses of naturally diseased plants in Italy. We found that the bacterium can infect host plants by entering natural openings and lesions. In naturally infected kiwifruit plants, P. syringae pv. actinidiae is present in the lenticels as well as in the dead phloem tissue beneath the lenticels, surrounded by a lesion in the periderm which appears to indicate the importance of lenticels to kiwifruit infection. Biofilm formation was observed outside and inside plants. In cases of advanced stages of P. syringae pv. actinidiae infection, neuroses of the phloem occur, which are followed by cambial dieback and most likely by infection of the xylem. Anatomical changes in wood such as reduced ring width, a drastic reduction in vessel size, and the presence of tyloses were observed within several infected sites. In the field, these changes occur only a year after the first leaf symptoms are observed suggesting a significant time lapse between primary and secondary symptoms. It was possible to study the temporal development of P. syringae pv. actinidiae-induced cambial dieback by applying dendrochronology methods which revealed that cambial dieback occurs only during the growing season. PMID:22713076

  10. Isolation and partial characterization of bacteriophages infecting Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, causal agent of kiwifruit bacterial canker.

    PubMed

    Di Lallo, Gustavo; Evangelisti, Matteo; Mancuso, Francesco; Ferrante, Patrizia; Marcelletti, Simone; Tinari, Antonella; Superti, Fabiana; Migliore, Luciana; D'Addabbo, Pietro; Frezza, Domenico; Scortichini, Marco; Thaller, Maria Cristina

    2014-11-01

    The phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa) is the causal agent of bacterial canker of kiwifruit. In the last years, it has caused severe economic losses to Actinidia spp. cultivations, mainly in Italy and New Zealand. Conventional strategies adopted did not provide adequate control of infection. Phage therapy may be a realistic and safe answer to the urgent need for novel antibacterial agents aiming to control this bacterial pathogen. In this study, we described the isolation and characterization of two bacteriophages able to specifically infect Psa. φPSA1, a member of the Siphoviridae family, is a temperate phage with a narrow host range, a long latency, and a burst size of 178; φPSA2 is a lytic phage of Podoviridae family with a broader host range, a short latency, a burst size of 92 and a higher bactericidal activity as determined by the TOD value. The genomic sequence of φPSA1 has a length of 51,090 bp and a low sequence homology with the other siphophages, whereas φPSA2 has a length of 40 472 bp with a 98% homology with Pseudomonas putida bacteriophage gh-1. Of the two phages examined, φPSA2 may be considered as a candidate for phage therapy of kiwifruit disease, while φPSA1 seems specific toward the recent outbreak's isolates and could be useful for Psa typing. PMID:24810619

  11. Candidate effector proteins of the necrotrophic apple canker pathogen Valsa mali can suppress BAX-induced PCD

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhengpeng; Yin, Zhiyuan; Fan, Yanyun; Xu, Ming; Kang, Zhensheng; Huang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Canker caused by the Ascomycete Valsa mali is the most destructive disease of apple in Eastern Asia, resulting in yield losses of up to 100%. This necrotrophic fungus induces severe necrosis on apple, eventually leading to the death of the whole tree. Identification of necrosis inducing factors may help to unravel the molecular bases for colonization of apple trees by V. mali. As a first step toward this goal, we identified and characterized the V. mali repertoire of candidate effector proteins (CEPs). In total, 193 secreted proteins with no known function were predicted from genomic data, of which 101 were V. mali-specific. Compared to non-CEPs predicted for the V. mali secretome, CEPs have shorter sequence length and a higher content of cysteine residues. Based on transient over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana performed for 70 randomly selected CEPs, seven V. mali Effector Proteins (VmEPs) were shown to significantly suppress BAX-induced PCD. Furthermore, targeted deletion of VmEP1 resulted in a significant reduction of virulence. These results suggest that V. mali expresses secreted proteins that can suppress PCD usually associated with effector-triggered immunity (ETI). ETI in turn may play an important role in the V. mali–apple interaction. The ability of V. mali to suppress plant ETI sheds a new light onto the interaction of a necrotrophic fungus with its host plant. PMID:26284095

  12. First Report of Foliar Blight on Dendropanax morbifera Caused by Alternaria panax

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jian Xin; Kim, Chang Sun; Oh, Eun Sung

    2010-01-01

    Leaf spot and blight disease was observed on two-year-old seedlings of Dendropanax morbifera (Korean name: Hwangchil tree) during July of 2008 in Jindo Island, Korea. Symptoms included yellow-brown to dark brown irregularly enlarged spots frequently located along the veins of leaves. The lesions were often surrounded by chlorotic haloes. Severe leaf blight and subsequent defoliation occurred when conditions favored disease outbreak. The causal organism of the disease was identified as Alternaria panax based on morphological characteristics and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA. A. panax isolates induced leaf spots and blight symptoms not only on D. morbifera but also on the other members of Araliaceae tested. This is the first report of foliar blight caused by A. panax on D. morbifera. PMID:23956672

  13. [Production and properties of a beta-galactosidase preparation from Alternaria tenuis].

    PubMed

    Zagustina, N A; Tikhomirova, A S; Rafalovskaia, T Ia; Iangol', L M; Gracheva, A Iu

    1975-01-01

    Different methods of the preparation of fungal beta-galactosidase from the 72-hour culture of Alternaria tenuis were tested: lyophilization of the culture liquid, precipitation with ethanol, acetone, ammonium sulphate. Optimal results were obtained with precipitation by 1.5 acetone volume. Studies of the properties of fungal beta-galactosidase demonstrated that the preparation retained its activity during 22 month storage at 5 degrees C. The fungal preparation had pH optimum at a more acidic zone (4.2 versus 6.9), was active in a wider pH range 2.8-5.7 and 6.2-7.5), had a much higher temperature optimum (65 degrees and 30 degrees) and better thermostability as compared with the yeast preparation. Data on other properties of the preparation are presented. PMID:241996

  14. Primary interaction between antibody and components of Alternaria. I. Immunology and chemical characteristics of labeled antigens.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, M J; McClatchy, J K; Farr, R S; Minden, P

    1975-07-01

    Components were isolated from Alternaria tenuis and its culture filtrate, and were radiolabeled with 123-I. The labeled antigenic components had a high polysaccharide content as determined by staining patterns following electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels and by inactivation with sodium metaperiodate. A primary binding test was employed to detect and measure serum antibodies to the components from A. tennuis. This procedure was more sensitive in detecting antibodies that bound to antigens than were comparable tests dependent upon precipitin types of reactions. The labeled components of A. tenuis cross-reacted or shared antigens with 3 other species of molds: Stemphylium sp., Curvularia sp., Aspergillus fumigatus, but not with a variety of other fungal and nonfungal materials. PMID:48526

  15. Induction of defense responses against Alternaria rot by different elicitors in harvested pear fruit.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shiping; Wan, Yakun; Qin, Guozheng; Xu, Yong

    2006-05-01

    Pear fruit (Pyrus pyrifolia L. cv. Yali) treated by different elicitors, such as salicylic acid (SA), oxalic acid, calcium chloride, and antagonistic yeast Cryptococcus laurentii, were investigated to determine the induction of defense responses. The possible mechanism by which elicitors induced the resistance of pear fruit against postharvest disease was also evaluated. The results indicated that all the elicitors could significantly enhance defense-related enzyme activities, such as beta-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase activity, and reduce the disease incidence caused by Alternaria alternata in pear fruit (P=0.05). Among these different elicitors, SA treatment showed the best result in inducing the defense responses and reducing the decay in pear fruit. PMID:16158285

  16. Dual infection of a white-tailed deer by Dermatophilus congolensis and Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Salkin, I F; Gordon, M A; Stone, W B

    1975-10-01

    Infection by both Dermatophilus congolensis and Alternaria alternata was found in a 5 1/2-year-old, female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Encrusted lesions characteristic of dermatophilosis were observed on the hocks, flanks, and back. Giemsa-staining of smears of material from beneath the crusts revealed branching filaments, transversely and longitudinally divided into packets of coccoid cells typical of D congolensis. Hyphae morphologically consistent with those of A alternata were found in methenamine-silver- and hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections of tissue from the ears, flanks, and back. Nutrient agar cultures inoculated with tissue from an ear and hindlimb of the deer yielded, respectively, A alternata and D congolensis. PMID:1236841

  17. Survival of Alternaria alternata during anaerobic digestion of biomass in stirred tank reactors.

    PubMed

    Schleusner, Y; Bandte, M; Gossmann, M; Heiermann, M; Plöchl, M; Büttner, C

    2012-01-01

    The survival of Alternaria alternate during anaerobic digestion was investigated in context of a joint research project. The aim of this project was to estimate the phytosanitary risk of dissemination of pathogens by returning treated biomass as organic fertilizer to arable land. The studies were carried out in lab-scale stirred tank reactors under mesophilic conditions. After insertion of infected plant material into the reactors the influence on the viability of the fungal pathogen was studied concerning exposure time, pretreatment and storage of the digestates for four weeks or six months. The results clearly showed that anaerobic digestion leads to a complete inactivation of A. alternate already after an exposure time of six hours. PMID:23878963

  18. Enhancement of the citrus immune system provides effective resistance against Alternaria brown spot disease.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Eugenio; Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Vicedo, Begonya; Lapeña, Leonor; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2013-01-15

    In addition to basal defense mechanisms, plants are able to develop enhanced defense mechanisms such as induced resistance (IR) upon appropriate stimulation. We recently described the means by which several carboxylic acids protect Arabidopsis and tomato plants against fungi. In this work, we demonstrate the effectiveness of hexanoic acid (Hx) in the control of Alternaria brown spot (ABS) disease via enhancement of the immune system of Fortune mandarin. The application of 1mM Hx in irrigation water to 2-year-old Fortune plants clearly reduced the incidence of the disease and led to smaller lesions. We observed that several of the most important mechanisms involved in induced resistance were affected by Hx application. Our results demonstrate enhanced callose deposition in infected plants treated with Hx, which suggests an Hx priming mechanism. Plants treated with the callose inhibitor 2-DDG were more susceptible to the fungus. Moreover, polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (PGIP) gene expression was rapidly and significantly upregulated in treated plants. However, treatment with Hx decreased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in infected plants. Hormonal and gene analyses revealed that the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway was activated due to a greater accumulation of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) and JA along with a rapid accumulation of JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile). Furthermore, we observed a more rapid accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA), which could act as a positive regulator of callose deposition. Thus, our results support the hypothesis that both enhanced physical barriers and the JA signaling pathway are involved in hexanoic acid-induced resistance (Hx-IR) to Alternaria alternata. PMID:23260526

  19. Alternaria alternata allergens: Markers of exposure, phylogeny and risk of fungi-induced respiratory allergy.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Marta F; Postigo, Idoia; Tomaz, Cândida T; Martínez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata spores are considered a well-known biological contaminant and a very common potent aeroallergen source that is found in environmental samples. The most intense exposure to A. alternata allergens is likely to occur outdoors; however, Alternaria and other allergenic fungi can colonize in indoor environments and thereby increase the fungal aeroallergen exposure levels. A consequence of human exposure to fungal aeroallergens, sensitization to A. alternata, has been unequivocally associated with increased asthma severity. Among allergenic proteins described in this fungal specie, the major allergen, Alt a 1, has been reported as the main elicitor of airborne allergies in patients affected by a mold allergy and considered a marker of primary sensitization to A. alternata. Moreover, A. alternata sensitization seems to be a triggering factor in the development of poly-sensitization, most likely because of the capability of A. alternata to produce, in addition to Alt a 1, a broad and complex array of cross-reactive allergens that present homologs in several other allergenic sources. The study and understanding of A. alternata allergen information may be the key to explaining why sensitization to A. alternata is a risk factor for asthma and also why the severity of asthma is associated to this mold. Compared to other common environmental allergenic sources, such as pollens and dust mites, fungi are reported to be neglected and underestimated. The rise of the A. alternata allergy has enabled more research into the role of this fungal specie and its allergenic components in the induction of IgE-mediated respiratory diseases. Indeed, recent research on the identification and characterization of A. alternata allergens has allowed for the consideration of new perspectives in the categorization of allergenic molds, assessment of exposure and diagnosis of fungi-induced allergies. PMID:26826364

  20. Yield loss assessment due to Alternaria blight and its management in linseed.

    PubMed

    Singh, R B; Singh, H K; Parmar, Arpita

    2014-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted during 2010-11 and 2011-12 to assess the yield losses due to Alternaria blight disease caused by Alternaria lini and A. linicola in recently released cultivars and their management with the integration of Trichoderma viride, fungicides and plant extract. Disease severity on leaves varied from 41.07% (Parvati) to 65.01% (Chambal) while bud damage per cent ranged between 23.56% (Shekhar) to 46.12% (T-397), respectively in different cultivars. Maximum yield loss of 58.44% was recorded in cultivar Neelum followed by Parvati (55.56%), Meera (55.56%) and Chambal (51.72%), respectively while minimum loss was recorded in Kiran (19.99%) and Jeevan (22.22%). Minimum mean disease severity (19.47%) with maximum disease control (69.74%) was recorded with the treatment: seed treatment (ST) with vitavax power (2 g kg(-1) seed) + 2 foliar sprays (FS) of Saaf (a mixture of carbendazim+mancozeb) 0.2% followed by ST with Trichoderma viride (4g kg(-1) seed) + 2 FS of Saaf (0.2%). Minimum bud damage (13.75%) with maximum control (60.94%) was recorded with treatment of ST with vitavax power+2 FS of propiconazole (0.2%). Maximum mean seed yield (1440 kg ha(-1)) with maximum net return (Rs. 15352/ha) and benefit cost ratio (1:11.04) was obtained with treatment ST with vitavax power + 2 FS of Neem leaf extract followed by treatment ST with vitavax power+2 FS of Saaf (1378 kg ha(-1)). PMID:25911838

  1. Air pollution by allergenic spores of the genus Alternaria in the air of central and eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk, Idalia; Rodinkova, Victoria; Šaulienė, Ingrida; Ritenberga, Olga; Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka; Nowak, Malgorzata; Sulborska, Aneta; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elzbieta; Bilous, Elena; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    2015-06-01

    Spores of the genus Alternaria belong to one of the most prevailing constituents of the air in all regions of the world. They form infectious inoculum of numerous plant species as well as severe inhaled allergies. The aim of this study was to compare the biological pollution with Alternaria spores of the air of 12 cities located in central and eastern Europe. The experiment was done in 2010 and it covered the territory of Latvia (LV), Lithuania (LT), Poland (PL) and Ukraine (UA). The spores were counted using an identical method and standard equipment (7-day Lanzoni volumetric sampler) followed by extensive statistical calculations. The timing of the day of maximum concentration changed mainly along the N-S direction and had a positive correlation with latitude. The most important factor determining the increase in Alternaria spore concentration was the temperature, whereas other weather parameters were not related or of low significance. Regardless of geographical location, the first phase of the season (0-0.9 % of Alternaria spores in the air) was the longest (up to 60 days) and the last (97.5 to 99 %) was the shortest (22 days or less). The means of daily concentrations of Alternaria spores ranged from 11 spores m(-3) in Klaipeda (LT, Baltic Sea coast) to 187 in Poznan (west PL, agricultural plain). The threshold value of 80 spores m(-3) that triggers the first allergy symptoms was exceeded in 8 to 86 days (Vinnitsa, UA, temperate continental, forest-steppes region). There were considerable differences between the highest number of spores per cubic metre of air, varying from 139 in the north (Klaipeda, LT) to 2,295 in central west (Poznan, PL). The biological pollution by Alternaria spores in several places of central and eastern Europe was high; the number of days exceeding the threshold value of 300 spores m(-3) connected with serious health problems of atopic people ranged from 0 to 1 on the north (LV, LT) to 29 in central west (Poznan, PL). PMID:25592912

  2. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA) Isolates from Recent Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit Outbreaks Belong to the Same Genetic Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Taratufolo, Maria C.; Cai, Rongman; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Goodman, Tokia; Guttman, David S.; Vinatzer, Boris A.; Balestra, Giorgio M.

    2012-01-01

    Intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. One emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease first occurred in China and Japan in the 1980s and in Korea and Italy in the 1990s. A more severe form of the disease broke out in Italy in 2008 and in additional countries in 2010 and 2011 threatening the viability of the global kiwi fruit industry. To start investigating the source and routes of international transmission of PSA, genomes of strains from China (the country of origin of the genus Actinidia), Japan, Korea, Italy and Portugal have been sequenced. Strains from China, Italy, and Portugal have been found to belong to the same clonal lineage with only 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,453,192 bp and one genomic island distinguishing the Chinese strains from the European strains. Not more than two SNPs distinguish each of the Italian and Portuguese strains from each other. The Japanese and Korean strains belong to a separate genetic lineage as previously reported. Analysis of additional European isolates and of New Zealand isolates exploiting genome-derived markers showed that these strains belong to the same lineage as the Italian and Chinese strains. Interestingly, the analyzed New Zealand strains are identical to European strains at the tested SNP loci but test positive for the genomic island present in the sequenced Chinese strains and negative for the genomic island present in the European strains. Results are interpreted in regard to the possible direction of movement of the pathogen between countries and suggest a possible Chinese origin of the European and New Zealand outbreaks. PMID:22590555

  3. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae from Recent Outbreaks of Kiwifruit Bacterial Canker Belong to Different Clones That Originated in China

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Margi I.; Stockwell, Peter A.; Black, Michael A.; Day, Robert C.; Lamont, Iain L.; Poulter, Russell T. M.

    2013-01-01

    A recently emerged plant disease, bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis), is caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease was first reported in China and Japan in the 1980s. A severe outbreak of PSA began in Italy in 2008 and has spread to other European countries. PSA was found in both New Zealand and Chile in 2010. To study the evolution of the pathogen and analyse the transmission of PSA between countries, genomes of strains from China and Japan (where the genus Actinidia is endemic), Italy, New Zealand and Chile were sequenced. The genomes of PSA strains are very similar. However, all strains from New Zealand share several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that distinguish them from all other PSA strains. Similarly, all the PSA strains from the 2008 Italian outbreak form a distinct clonal group and those from Chile form a third group. In addition to the rare SNPs present in the core genomes, there is abundant genetic diversity in a genomic island that is part of the accessory genome. The island from several Chinese strains is almost identical to the island present in the New Zealand strains. The island from a different Chinese strain is identical to the island present in the strains from the recent Italian outbreak. The Chilean strains of PSA carry a third variant of this island. These genomic islands are integrative conjugative elements (ICEs). Sequencing of these ICEs provides evidence of three recent horizontal transmissions of ICE from other strains of Pseudomonas syringae to PSA. The analyses of the core genome SNPs and the ICEs, combined with disease history, all support the hypothesis of an independent Chinese origin for both the Italian and the New Zealand outbreaks and suggest the Chilean strains also originate from China. PMID:23555547

  4. Population Structure of Geosmithia morbida, the Causal Agent of Thousand Cankers Disease of Walnut Trees in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Andrew D.; Hartel, Colleen; Pscheidt, Jay W.; Tonos, Jadelys; Broders, Kirk; Cranshaw, Whitney; Seybold, Steven J.; Tisserat, Ned

    2014-01-01

    The ascomycete Geosmithia morbida and the walnut twig beetle Pityophthorus juglandis are associated with thousand cankers disease of Juglans (walnut) and Pterocarya (wingnut). The disease was first reported in the western United States (USA) on several Juglans species, but has been found more recently in the eastern USA in the native range of the highly susceptible Juglans nigra. We performed a comprehensive population genetic study of 209 G. morbida isolates collected from Juglans and Pterocarya from 17 geographic regions distributed across 12 U.S. states. The study was based on sequence typing of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms from three genomic regions and genotyping with ten microsatellite primer pairs. Using multilocus sequence-typing data, 197 G. morbida isolates were placed into one of 57 haplotypes. In some instances, multiple haplotypes were recovered from isolates collected on the same tree. Twenty-four of the haplotypes (42%) were recovered from more than one isolate; the two most frequently occurring haplotypes (H02 and H03) represented 36% of all isolates. These two haplotypes were abundant in California, but were not recovered from Arizona or New Mexico. G. morbida population structure was best explained by four genetically distinct groups that clustered into three geographic regions. Most of the haplotypes isolated from the native range of J. major (Arizona and New Mexico) were found in those states only or present in distinct genetic clusters. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or genetic recombination in any population. The scattered distribution of the genetic clusters indicated that G. morbida was likely disseminated to different regions at several times and from several sources. The large number of haplotypes observed and the genetic complexity of G. morbida indicate that it evolved in association with at least one Juglans spp. and the walnut twig beetle long before the first reports of the disease. PMID:25393300

  5. Phylogeography of the Walnut Twig Beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, the Vector of Thousand Cankers Disease in North American Walnut Trees

    PubMed Central

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F.; Seybold, Steven J.; Graves, Andrew D.; Stouthamer, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) of walnut trees (Juglans spp.) results from aggressive feeding in the phloem by the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis, accompanied by inoculation of its galleries with a pathogenic fungus, Geosmithia morbida. In 1960, WTB was only known from four U.S. counties (in Arizona, California, and New Mexico), but the species has now (2014) invaded over 115 counties, representing much of the western USA, and at least six states in the eastern USA. The eastern expansion places TCD in direct proximity to highly valuable (> $500 billion) native timber stands of eastern black walnut, Juglans nigra. Using mitochondrial DNA sequences, from nearly 1100 individuals, we examined variation among 77 samples of WTB populations across its extended range in the USA, revealing high levels of polymorphism and evidence of two divergent lineages. The highest level of genetic diversity for the different lineages was found in the neighboring Madrean Sky Island and Western New Mexico regions, respectively. Despite their proximity, there was little evidence of mixing between these regions, with only a single migrant detected among 179 beetles tested. Indeed, geographic overlap of the two lineages was only common in parts of Colorado and Utah. Just two haplotypes, from the same lineage, predominated over the vast majority of the recently expanded range. Tests for Wolbachia proved negative suggesting it plays no role in "driving" the spread of particular haplotypes, or in maintaining deep levels of intraspecific divergence in WTB. Genotyping of ribosomal RNA corroborated the mitochondrial lineages, but also revealed evidence of hybridization between them. Hybridization was particularly prevalent in the sympatric areas, also apparent in all invaded areas, but absent from the most haplotype-rich area of each mitochondrial lineage. Hypotheses about the specific status of WTB, its recent expansion, and potential evolutionary origins of TCD are discussed. PMID:25695760

  6. Population structure of Geosmithia morbida, the causal agent of thousand cankers disease of walnut trees in the United States.

    PubMed

    Zerillo, Marcelo M; Ibarra Caballero, Jorge; Woeste, Keith; Graves, Andrew D; Hartel, Colleen; Pscheidt, Jay W; Tonos, Jadelys; Broders, Kirk; Cranshaw, Whitney; Seybold, Steven J; Tisserat, Ned

    2014-01-01

    The ascomycete Geosmithia morbida and the walnut twig beetle Pityophthorus juglandis are associated with thousand cankers disease of Juglans (walnut) and Pterocarya (wingnut). The disease was first reported in the western United States (USA) on several Juglans species, but has been found more recently in the eastern USA in the native range of the highly susceptible Juglans nigra. We performed a comprehensive population genetic study of 209 G. morbida isolates collected from Juglans and Pterocarya from 17 geographic regions distributed across 12 U.S. states. The study was based on sequence typing of 27 single nucleotide polymorphisms from three genomic regions and genotyping with ten microsatellite primer pairs. Using multilocus sequence-typing data, 197 G. morbida isolates were placed into one of 57 haplotypes. In some instances, multiple haplotypes were recovered from isolates collected on the same tree. Twenty-four of the haplotypes (42%) were recovered from more than one isolate; the two most frequently occurring haplotypes (H02 and H03) represented 36% of all isolates. These two haplotypes were abundant in California, but were not recovered from Arizona or New Mexico. G. morbida population structure was best explained by four genetically distinct groups that clustered into three geographic regions. Most of the haplotypes isolated from the native range of J. major (Arizona and New Mexico) were found in those states only or present in distinct genetic clusters. There was no evidence of sexual reproduction or genetic recombination in any population. The scattered distribution of the genetic clusters indicated that G. morbida was likely disseminated to different regions at several times and from several sources. The large number of haplotypes observed and the genetic complexity of G. morbida indicate that it evolved in association with at least one Juglans spp. and the walnut twig beetle long before the first reports of the disease. PMID:25393300

  7. Phylogeography of the walnut twig beetle, Pityophthorus juglandis, the vector of thousand cankers disease in North American walnut trees.

    PubMed

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Seybold, Steven J; Graves, Andrew D; Stouthamer, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) of walnut trees (Juglans spp.) results from aggressive feeding in the phloem by the walnut twig beetle (WTB), Pityophthorus juglandis, accompanied by inoculation of its galleries with a pathogenic fungus, Geosmithia morbida. In 1960, WTB was only known from four U.S. counties (in Arizona, California, and New Mexico), but the species has now (2014) invaded over 115 counties, representing much of the western USA, and at least six states in the eastern USA. The eastern expansion places TCD in direct proximity to highly valuable (> $500 billion) native timber stands of eastern black walnut, Juglans nigra. Using mitochondrial DNA sequences, from nearly 1100 individuals, we examined variation among 77 samples of WTB populations across its extended range in the USA, revealing high levels of polymorphism and evidence of two divergent lineages. The highest level of genetic diversity for the different lineages was found in the neighboring Madrean Sky Island and Western New Mexico regions, respectively. Despite their proximity, there was little evidence of mixing between these regions, with only a single migrant detected among 179 beetles tested. Indeed, geographic overlap of the two lineages was only common in parts of Colorado and Utah. Just two haplotypes, from the same lineage, predominated over the vast majority of the recently expanded range. Tests for Wolbachia proved negative suggesting it plays no role in "driving" the spread of particular haplotypes, or in maintaining deep levels of intraspecific divergence in WTB. Genotyping of ribosomal RNA corroborated the mitochondrial lineages, but also revealed evidence of hybridization between them. Hybridization was particularly prevalent in the sympatric areas, also apparent in all invaded areas, but absent from the most haplotype-rich area of each mitochondrial lineage. Hypotheses about the specific status of WTB, its recent expansion, and potential evolutionary origins of TCD are discussed. PMID:25695760

  8. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae from recent outbreaks of kiwifruit bacterial canker belong to different clones that originated in China.

    PubMed

    Butler, Margi I; Stockwell, Peter A; Black, Michael A; Day, Robert C; Lamont, Iain L; Poulter, Russell T M

    2013-01-01

    A recently emerged plant disease, bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis), is caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease was first reported in China and Japan in the 1980s. A severe outbreak of PSA began in Italy in 2008 and has spread to other European countries. PSA was found in both New Zealand and Chile in 2010. To study the evolution of the pathogen and analyse the transmission of PSA between countries, genomes of strains from China and Japan (where the genus Actinidia is endemic), Italy, New Zealand and Chile were sequenced. The genomes of PSA strains are very similar. However, all strains from New Zealand share several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that distinguish them from all other PSA strains. Similarly, all the PSA strains from the 2008 Italian outbreak form a distinct clonal group and those from Chile form a third group. In addition to the rare SNPs present in the core genomes, there is abundant genetic diversity in a genomic island that is part of the accessory genome. The island from several Chinese strains is almost identical to the island present in the New Zealand strains. The island from a different Chinese strain is identical to the island present in the strains from the recent Italian outbreak. The Chilean strains of PSA carry a third variant of this island. These genomic islands are integrative conjugative elements (ICEs). Sequencing of these ICEs provides evidence of three recent horizontal transmissions of ICE from other strains of Pseudomonas syringae to PSA. The analyses of the core genome SNPs and the ICEs, combined with disease history, all support the hypothesis of an independent Chinese origin for both the Italian and the New Zealand outbreaks and suggest the Chilean strains also originate from China. PMID:23555547

  9. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA) isolates from recent bacterial canker of kiwifruit outbreaks belong to the same genetic lineage.

    PubMed

    Mazzaglia, Angelo; Studholme, David J; Taratufolo, Maria C; Cai, Rongman; Almeida, Nalvo F; Goodman, Tokia; Guttman, David S; Vinatzer, Boris A; Balestra, Giorgio M

    2012-01-01

    Intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. One emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease first occurred in China and Japan in the 1980s and in Korea and Italy in the 1990s. A more severe form of the disease broke out in Italy in 2008 and in additional countries in 2010 and 2011 threatening the viability of the global kiwi fruit industry. To start investigating the source and routes of international transmission of PSA, genomes of strains from China (the country of origin of the genus Actinidia), Japan, Korea, Italy and Portugal have been sequenced. Strains from China, Italy, and Portugal have been found to belong to the same clonal lineage with only 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,453,192 bp and one genomic island distinguishing the Chinese strains from the European strains. Not more than two SNPs distinguish each of the Italian and Portuguese strains from each other. The Japanese and Korean strains belong to a separate genetic lineage as previously reported. Analysis of additional European isolates and of New Zealand isolates exploiting genome-derived markers showed that these strains belong to the same lineage as the Italian and Chinese strains. Interestingly, the analyzed New Zealand strains are identical to European strains at the tested SNP loci but test positive for the genomic island present in the sequenced Chinese strains and negative for the genomic island present in the European strains. Results are interpreted in regard to the possible direction of movement of the pathogen between countries and suggest a possible Chinese origin of the European and New Zealand outbreaks. PMID:22590555

  10. STEM Thinking!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is a term seen almost daily in the news. In 2009, President Obama launched the Educate to Innovate initiative to move American students from the middle to the top of the pack in science and math achievement over the next decade (The White House, n.d.). Learning about the attributes of STEM

  11. Expression analysis of MAP2K9 and MAPK6 during pathogenesis of Alternaria blight in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia.

    PubMed

    Kannan, P; Pandey, Dinesh; Gupta, Atul K; Punetha, H; Taj, Gohar; Kumar, Anil

    2012-04-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia was used as a host in order to investigate the involvement of MAP kinase machinery in the pathogenesis of Alternaria blight. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and quantitative real time PCR based approaches were used to determine the change in transcript profile of MAP2K9 and MAPK6 in leaves of A. thaliana ecotpe Columbia at early, middle and late stages of Alternaria blight infection. It was observed that the expression of both MAP2K9 and MAPK6 simultaneously increased up to middle stage of disease progression. There was observed a positive correlation between the expression of MAPK6 and MAP2K9 as disease progressed from initial to middle stage of infection. Then, the expression of MAP2K9 decreased and that of MAPK6 increased as disease progressed towards late stage of infection. The increased levels of MAP2K9 and MAPK6, seem to be necessary for plant to defend the pathogen up to middle stage of infection. However, MAP2K9 may be down regulated at late stage of infection by pathogen to promote it's efficient colonization. Since MAPK6 expression remains unaltered till late stage, it suggests that it's expression is not only regulated by MAP2K9 but also by other MAP2K's. The above results are consistent with observations of earlier studies. In conclusion, the present study has suggested MAP2K9/MAPK6 module as possible target, which is influenced during pathogenesis of Alternaria blight in A. thaliana ecotype Columbia. Hence genetic modulation in expression levels of these components in Arabidopsis or Brassica could be a possible strategy for engineering defense against Alternaria blight disease. PMID:21947882

  12. Analysis of global gene expression changes in human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to spores of the allergenic fungus, Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Babiceanu, M. C.; Howard, B. A.; Rumore, A. C.; Kita, H.; Lawrence, C. B.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure and sensitivity to ubiquitous airborne fungi such as Alternaria alternata have long been implicated in the development, onset, and exacerbation of chronic allergic airway disorders. This present study is the first to investigate global changes in host gene expression during the interaction of cultured human bronchial epithelial cells and live Alternaria spores. In in vitro experiments human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to spores or media alone for 24 h. RNA was collected from three biological replicates per treatment and was used to assess changes in gene expression patterns using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays. In cells treated with Alternaria spores compared to controls, 613 probe sets representing 460 individual genes were found differentially expressed (p ≤ 0.05). In this set of 460 statistically significant, differentially expressed genes, 397 genes were found to be up-regulated and 63 were down-regulated. Of these 397 up-regulated genes, 156 genes were found to be up-regulated ≥2 fold. Interestingly, none of the 63 down-regulated genes were found differentially expressed at ≤−2 fold. Differentially expressed genes were identified following statistical analysis and subsequently used for pathway and network evaluation. Interestingly, many cytokine and chemokine immune response genes were up-regulated with a particular emphasis on interferon-inducible genes. Genes involved in cell death, retinoic acid signaling, and TLR3 response pathways were also significantly up-regulated. Many of the differentially up-regulated genes have been shown in other systems to be associated with innate immunity, inflammation and/or allergic airway diseases. This study now provides substantial information for further investigating specific genes and innate immune system pathways activated by Alternaria in the context of allergic airway diseases. PMID:23882263

  13. Impact of Alternaria toxins on CYP1A1 expression in different human tumor cells and relevance for genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Pahlke, G; Tiessen, C; Domnanich, K; Kahle, N; Groh, I A M; Schreck, I; Weiss, C; Marko, D

    2016-01-01

    The Alternaria toxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) have been reported previously to act as activators of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in murine hepatoma cells, thus enhancing the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A monooxygenases. Concomitantly, both benzopyrones represent substrates of CYP1A, giving rise to catecholic metabolites. The impact of AOH and AME on CYP1A expression in human cells of different tissue origin colon (HT29), esophagus (KYSE510), liver (HepG2) and their effects on cell viability, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA integrity were investigated. ROS production was induced by both mycotoxins in all cell lines with AOH exhibiting the highest potency in esophageal cells concomitant with the most prominent CYP1A induction level. Of note, altertoxin-II (ATX-II), the more potent DNA-damaging mutagen formed by Alternaria alternata, induces CYP1A even at significant lower concentrations. AhR-siRNA knockdown in human esophageal cells supported the hypothesis of AhR-mediated CYP1A1 induction by AOH. However, DNA damage was minor at CYP1A1-inducing AOH concentrations. AhR-depletion did not affect the DNA-damaging properties of AOH indicating no substantial impact of AhR in this regard. However, in combination with xenobiotics prone to metabolic activation by CYP1A the induction of CYP1A by Alternaria toxins deserves further attention. PMID:26474839

  14. Analysis of the predicting variables for daily and weekly fluctuations of two airborne fungal spores: Alternaria and Cladosporium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recio, Marta; del Mar Trigo, María; Docampo, Silvia; Melgar, Marta; García-Sánchez, José; Bootello, Lourdes; Cabezudo, Baltasar

    2012-11-01

    Alternaria and Cladosporium are two fungal taxa whose spores (conidia) are included frequently in aerobiological studies of outdoor environments. Both spore types are present in the atmosphere of Malaga (Spain) throughout almost the entire year, although they reach their highest concentrations during spring and autumn. To establish predicting variables for daily and weekly fluctuations, Spearman's correlations and stepwise multiple regressions between spore concentrations (measured using a volumetric 7-day recorder) and meteorological variables were made with results obtained for both spore types in 1996 and 1997. Correlations and regressions were also made between the different taxa and their concentrations in different years. Significant and positive correlation coefficients were always obtained between spore concentrations of both taxa, followed by temperature, their concentrations in different years, sunshine hours and relative humidity (this last in a negative sense). For the two spore types we obtained higher correlation and regression coefficients using weekly data. We showed different regression models using weekly values. From the results and a practical point of view, it was concluded that weekly values of the atmospheric concentration of Alternaria spores can be predicted from the maximum temperature expected and its concentrations in the years sampled. As regards the atmospheric concentration of Cladoposrium spores, the weekly values can be predicted based on the concentration of Alternaria spores, thus saving the time and effort that would otherwise be employed in counting them by optical microscopy.

  15. Crop harvest in Denmark and Central Europe contributes to the local load of airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Sommer, J.; Frederiksen, L.; Gosewinkel Karlson, U.

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the hypothesis that Danish agricultural areas are the main source of airborne Alternaria spores in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest that the contribution to the overall load is mainly local or regional, but with intermittent long distance transport (LDT) from more remote agricultural areas. This hypothesis is supported by investigating a 10 yr bi-hourly record of Alternaria spores in the air from Copenhagen. This record shows 232 clinically relevant episodes (daily average spore concentration above 100 m-3) with a distinct daily profile. The data analysis also revealed potential LDT episodes almost every year. A source map and analysis of atmospheric transport suggest that LDT always originates from the main agricultural areas in Central Europe. A dedicated emission study in cereal crops under harvest during 2010 also supports our hypothesis. The emission study showed that although the fields had been treated against fungal infections, harvesting still produced large amounts of airborne fungal spores. It is likely that such harvesting periods can cause clinically relevant levels of fungal spores in the atmosphere. Our findings suggest that crop harvest in Central Europe causes episodes of high airborne Alternaria spore concentrations in Copenhagen as well as other urban areas in this region. It is likely that such episodes could be simulated using atmospheric transport models.

  16. Combination of UV-C treatment and Metschnikowia pulcherrimas for controlling Alternaria rot in postharvest winter jujube fruit.

    PubMed

    Guo, Dongqi; Zhu, Lixia; Hou, Xujie

    2015-01-01

    The potential of using antagonistic yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrimas alone or in combination with ultraviolet-C (UV-C) treatment for controlling Alternaria rot of winter jujube, and its effects on postharvest quality of fruit was investigated. The results showed that spore germination of Alternaria alternata was significantly inhibited by each of the 3 doses (1, 5, and 10 kJ m(-2) ) in vitro. In vivo, UV-C treatment (5 kJ m(-2) ) or antagonist yeast was capable of reducing the percentage of infected wounds and lesion diameter in artificially inoculated jujube fruits, however, in fruit treated with combination of UV-C treatment and M. pulcherrima, the percentage of infected wounds and lesion diameter was only 16.0% and 0.60 cm, respectively. The decay incidence on winter jujube fruits treated with the combination of UV-C treatment and M. pulcherrima was 23% after storage at 0 ± 1 °C for 45 d followed by 22 °C for 7 d. None of the treatments impaired quality parameters of jujube fruit. Thus, the combination of UV-C radiation and M. pulcherrima could be an alternative to synthetic fungicides for controlling postharvest Alternaria rot of winter jujube. PMID:25495035

  17. Stem Cell Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Basics: Introduction Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current Research Policy Glossary Site Map Stem Cell Basics Introduction: What are stem cells, and why ...

  18. Learn About Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Handbook Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Stem Cell Basics Stem cells are the foundation from which ... original cell’s DNA, cytoplasm and cell membrane. About stem cells Stem cells are the foundation of development in ...

  19. Stem Cell Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... General Information Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Basics Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current Research Policy Glossary Site Map Stem Cell Basics This primer on stem cells is intended ...

  20. Similar and distinct roles of NADPH oxidase components in the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Yang, Siwy Ling; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2013-08-01

    The fungal nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) complex, which has been implicated in the production of low-level reactive oxygen species (ROS), contains mainly NoxA, NoxB (gp91(phox) homologues) and NoxR (p67(phox) homologue). Here, we report the developmental and pathological functions of NoxB and NoxR in the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata. Loss-of-function genetics revealed that all three Nox components are required for the accumulation of cellular hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). Alternaria alternata strains lacking NoxA, NoxB or NoxR also displayed an increased sensitivity to H₂O₂ and many ROS-generating oxidants. These phenotypes are highly similar to those previously seen for the Δyap1 mutant lacking a YAP1 transcriptional regulator and for the Δhog1 mutant lacking a HOG1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, implicating a possible link among them. A fungal strain carrying a NoxA NoxB or NoxA NoxR double mutation was more sensitive to the test compounds than the strain mutated at a single gene, implicating a synergistic function among Nox components. The ΔnoxB mutant strain failed to produce any conidia; both ΔnoxA and ΔnoxR mutant strains showed a severe reduction in sporulation. Mutant strains carrying defective NoxB had higher chitin content than the wild-type and were insensitive to calcofluor white, Congo red and the fungicides vinclozolin and fludioxonil. Virulence assays revealed that all three Nox components are required for the elaboration of the penetration process. The inability to penetrate the citrus host, observed for Δnox mutants, could be overcome by wounding and by reacquiring a dominant Nox gene. The A. alternata NoxR did not influence the expression of NoxB, but negatively regulated NoxA. Importantly, the expression of both YAP1 and HOG1 genes, whose products are involved in resistance to ROS, was down-regulated in fungi carrying defective NoxA, NoxB or NoxR. Our results highlight the requirement of Nox in ROS resistance and provide insights into its critical role in regulating both YAP1 and HOG1 in A. alternata. PMID:23527595

  1. Natural Occurrence of Alternaria Toxins in Wheat-Based Products and Their Dietary Exposure in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Kai; Shao, Bing; Yang, Dajin; Li, Fengqin; Zhu, Jianghui

    2015-01-01

    A total of 181 wheat flour and 142 wheat-based foods including dried noodle, steamed bread and bread collected in China were analyzed for alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), tentoxin (TEN) and tenuazonic acid (TeA) by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. TeA was the predominant toxin found in 99.4% wheat flour samples at levels ranging from 1.76 μg/kg to 520 μg/kg. TEN was another Alternaria toxin frequently detected in wheat flour samples (97.2%) at levels between 2.72 μg/kg and 129 μg/kg. AOH and AME were detected in 11 (6.1%) samples at levels ranging from 16.0 μg/kg to 98.7 μg/kg (AOH) and in 165 (91.2%) samples with a range between 0.320 μg/kg and 61.8 μg/kg (AME). AOH was quantified at higher levels than AME with the ratio of AOH/AME ranging from 1.0 to 3.7. Significant linear regressions of correlation in toxin concentrations were observed between AOH and AME, AME and TeA, TEN and TeA, AOH+AME and TeA. At an average and 95th percentile, dietary exposure to AOH and AME in the Chinese general population and different age subgroups exceeded the relevant threshold value of toxicological concern (TTC), with the highest exposure found in children which deserves human health concern. TEN and TeA seem unlikely to be health concerns for the Chinese via wheat-based products but attention should be paid to synergistic or additive effects of TeA with AOH, AME, TEN and a further assessment will be performed once more data on toxicity-guided fractionation of the four toxins are available. It is necessary to conduct a systemic surveillance of Alternaria toxins in raw and processed foods in order to provide the scientific basis for making regulations on these toxins in China. PMID:26121047

  2. Inhibition of Sporulation and Ultrastructural Alterations of Grapevine Downy Mildew by the Endophytic Fungus Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Musetti, R; Vecchione, A; Stringher, L; Borselli, S; Zulini, L; Marzani, C; D'Ambrosio, M; di Toppi, L Sanit; Pertot, I

    2006-07-01

    ABSTRACT One hundred twenty-six endophytic microorganisms isolated from grapevine leaves showing anomalous symptoms of downy mildew were tested on grapevine leaf disks as biocontrol agents against Plasmopara viticola. Among the 126 microorganisms, only five fungal isolates completely inhibited the sporulation of P. viticola; all of them were identified as Alternaria alternata. Ultrastructural analyses were carried out by transmission electron microscopy to observe cellular interactions between P. viticola and A. alternata in the grapevine leaf tissue. Cytological observations indicated that, even without close contact with A. alternata, the P. viticola mycelium showed severe ultrastructural alterations, such as the presence of enlarged vacuoles or vacuoles containing electron-dense precipitates. Haustoria appeared necrotic and irregularly shaped or were enclosed in callose-like substances. Therefore, a toxic action of A. alternata against P. viticola was hypothesized. To examine the production of toxic low-molecular-weight metabolites by A. alternata, we analyzed the fungal liquid culture by thin layer chromatography and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The main low-molecular-weight metabolites produced by the endophyte were three diketopiperazines: cyclo(l-phenylalanine-trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline), cyclo(l-leucine-trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline), and cyclo(l-alanine-trans-4-hydroxy-l-proline). When applied at different concentrations to both grapevine leaf disks and greenhouse plants, a mixture of the three diketopiperazines was very efficacious in limiting P. viticola sporulation. PMID:18943142

  3. Production of a Thermostable β-d-Galactosidase by Alternaria alternata Grown in Whey

    PubMed Central

    Macris, Basil J.

    1982-01-01

    In the course of exploring new microbial sources of extracellular β-d-galactosidase (EC. 3.2.1.23), Alternaria alternata was found to excrete elevated quantities of a thermostable form of the enzyme when cultivated in whey growth medium. Optimum cultural conditions for maximum enzyme production were a whey lactose concentration of 6%, supplementation of the medium with 0.050 M (NH4)2SO4, an inoculum size of 103 conidia per ml, and a cultivation time at 28 to 30°C of 5 days. The fungus utilized whey lactose for the production of the enzyme most efficiently, and the observed maximum yield, 280 nanokatals of hydrolyzed o-nitrophenyl-β-d-galactopyranoside per g of whey lactose, was comparable to maximum yields reported for certain commercial fungi. The optimum pH and temperature of the enzymatic reaction were 4.5 to 5.5 and 60 to 70°C, respectively, and the enzyme lost half of its activity when heated at 65°C for 84 min. These properties make the enzyme particularly suitable for processing acid and less-acid (pH 5 to 6) dairy products and by-products. PMID:16346127

  4. Identification and Bioactivity of Compounds from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhua; Ding, Weijia; Wang, Ruimin; Du, Yipeng; Liu, Huanliang; Kong, Xuehua; Li, Chunyuan

    2015-07-01

    Racemic new cyclohexenone and cyclopentenone derivatives, (±)-(4R*,5S*,6S*)-3-amino-4,5,6-trihydroxy-2-methoxy-5-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (1) and (±)-(4S*,5S*)-2,4,5-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-4-methoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one (2), and two new xanthone derivatives 4-chloro-1,5-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-6-methoxycarbonyl-xanthen-9-one (3) and 2,8-dimethoxy-1,6-dimethoxycarbonyl-xanthen-9-one (4), along with one known compound, fischexanthone (5), were isolated from the culture of the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS (Mass), one and two dimensional NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited potent ABTS [2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] scavenging activities with EC50 values of 8.19 ± 0.15 and 16.09 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. In comparison to Triadimefon, compounds 2 and 3 exhibited inhibitory activities against Fusarium graminearum with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 215.52 and 107.14 μM, respectively, and compound 3 exhibited antifungal activity against Calletotrichum musae with MIC value of 214.29 μM. PMID:26204946

  5. Natural occurrence of four Alternaria mycotoxins in tomato- and citrus-based foods in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kai; Shao, Bing; Yang, Dajin; Li, Fengqin

    2015-01-14

    A total of 70 tomato-based and 86 citrus-based products collected in China were analyzed for alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, tentoxin, and tenuazonic acid by ultraperformance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry. No toxins were found in any fresh tomato or citrus fruit samples. Tenuazonic acid was the predominant toxin detected in all tomato ketchup (10.2–1787 μg/kg) and tomato juice samples (7.4–278 μg/kg). Alternariol was quantitated at higher level than alternariol monomethyl ether with the ratio of alternariol/alternariol monomethyl ether ranging from 0.37 to 104 in 14 alternariol-positive tomato ketchup samples. Tentoxin was detected at much lower levels in all samples analyzed. Some citrus juice samples were positive for tenuazonic acid and alternariol monomethyl ether. It is necessary to conduct a systemic surveillance of Alternaria toxins in raw and processed foods to provide the scientific basis for risk assessment of dietary exposure to these toxins in Chinese populations. PMID:25520156

  6. Resistance to Alternaria solani in hybrids between a Solanum tuberosum haploid and S. raphanifolium.

    PubMed

    Weber, B N; Jansky, S H

    2012-02-01

    Early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum), caused by the foliar fungal pathogen Alternaria solani, is a major cause of economic loss in many potato-growing regions. Genetic resistance offers an opportunity to decrease fungicide usage while maintaining yield and quality. In this study, an early blight resistant clone of the diploid wild species S. raphanifolium was crossed as a male to a haploid (2n=2x) of cultivated potato. Hybrids were backcrossed to both parents. Eight families were created and evaluated for early blight resistance in the field. Families created by backcrossing to the wild species parent exhibited significantly lower relative area under the disease progress curve means than those from backcrossing to the cultivated parent, leading to the conclusion that S. raphanifolium contributes genes for early blight resistance. The mechanism of resistance in S. raphanifolium is unique because A. solani could not be recovered from lesions. Clones were identified with high levels of resistance and adaptation to the photoperiod of a temperate production region. PMID:22007613

  7. Population genetic analysis reveals cryptic sex in the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Jing-Wen; Zhu, Wen; He, Meng-Han; Wu, E-Jiao; Duan, Guo-Hua; Xie, Ye-Kun; Jin, Yu-Jia; Yang, Li-Na; Shang, Li-Ping; Zhan, Jiasui

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive mode can impact population genetic dynamics and evolutionary landscape of plant pathogens as well as on disease epidemiology and management. In this study, we monitored the spatial dynamics and mating type idiomorphs in ~700 Alternaria alternata isolates sampled from the main potato production areas in China to infer the mating system of potato early blight. Consistent with the expectation of asexual species, identical genotypes were recovered from different locations separated by hundreds of kilometers of geographic distance and spanned across many years. However, high genotype diversity, equal MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 frequencies within and among populations, no genetic differentiation and phylogenetic association between two mating types, combined with random association amongst neutral markers in some field populations, suggested that sexual reproduction may also play an important role in the epidemics and evolution of the pathogen in at least half of the populations assayed despite the fact that no teleomorphs have been observed yet naturally or artificially. Our results indicated that A. alternata may adopt an epidemic mode of reproduction by combining many cycles of asexual propagation with fewer cycles of sexual reproduction, facilitating its adaptation to changing environments and making the disease management on potato fields even more difficult. PMID:26666175

  8. Folic acid induces salicylic acid-dependent immunity in Arabidopsis and enhances susceptibility to Alternaria brassicicola.

    PubMed

    Wittek, Finni; Kanawati, Basem; Wenig, Marion; Hoffmann, Thomas; Franz-Oberdorf, Katrin; Schwab, Wilfried; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Vlot, A Corina

    2015-08-01

    Folates are essential for one-carbon transfer reactions in all organisms and contribute, for example, to de novo DNA synthesis. Here, we detected the folate precursors 7,8-dihydropteroate (DHP) and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC) in extracts from Arabidopsis thaliana plants by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry. The accumulation of DHP, but not ADC, was induced after infection of plants with Pseudomonas syringae delivering the effector protein AvrRpm1. Application of folic acid or the DHP precursor 7,8-dihydroneopterin (DHN) enhanced resistance in Arabidopsis to P. syringae and elevated the transcript accumulation of the salicylic acid (SA) marker gene pathogenesis-related1 in both the treated and systemic untreated leaves. DHN- and folic acid-induced systemic resistance was dependent on SA biosynthesis and signalling. Similar to SA, folic acid application locally enhanced Arabidopsis susceptibility to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Together, the data associate the folic acid pathway with innate immunity in Arabidopsis, simultaneously activating local and systemic SA-dependent resistance to P. syringae and suppressing local resistance to A. brassicicola. PMID:25348251

  9. Multiple phytohormone signalling pathways modulate susceptibility of tomato plants to Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Chengguo; Zhang, Liping; Wang, Qiaomei

    2013-01-01

    Three phytohormone molecules – ethylene (ET), jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) – play key roles in mediating disease response to necrotrophic fungal pathogens. This study investigated the roles of the ET, JA, and SA pathways as well as their crosstalk during the interaction between tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and a necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL). Both the ET and JASMONIC ACID INSENSITIVE1 (JAI1) receptor-dependent JA signalling pathways are necessary for susceptibility, while SA response promotes resistance to AAL infection. In addition, the role of JA in susceptibility to AAL is partly dependent on ET biosynthesis and perception, while the SA pathway enhances resistance to AAL and antagonizes the ET response. Based on these results, it is proposed that ET, JA, and SA each on their own can influence the susceptibility of tomato to AAL. Furthermore, the functions of JA and SA in susceptibility to the pathogen are correlated with the enhanced or decreased action of ET, respectively. This study has revealed the functional relationship among the three key hormone pathways in tomato defence against AAL. PMID:23264518

  10. Green Chemistry Approach for the Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using the Fungus Alternaria sp.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekar, Naresh Niranjan; Rahul, Ganga Ravindran; Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Raman, Gurusamy; Sakthivel, Natarajan

    2015-07-01

    The synthesis of gold nanoparticles has gained tremendous attention owing to their immense applications in the field of biomedical sciences. Although several chemical procedures are used for the synthesis of nanoparticles, the release of toxic and hazardous by-products restricts their use in biomedical applications. In the present investigation, gold nanoparticles were synthesized biologically using the culture filtrate of the filamentous fungus Alternaria sp. The culture filtrate of the fungus was exposed to three different concentrations of chloroaurate ions. In all cases, the gold ions were reduced to Au(0), leading to the formation of stable gold nanoparticles of variable sizes and shapes. UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis confirmed the formation of nanoparticles by reduction of Au(3+) to Au(0). TEM analysis revealed the presence of spherical, rod, square, pentagonal, and hexagonal morphologies for 1 mM chloroaurate solution. However, quasi-spherical and spherical nanoparticles/heart-like morphologies with size range of about 7-13 and 15-18 nm were observed for lower molar concentrations of 0.3 and 0.5 mM gold chloride solution, respectively. The XRD spectrum revealed the face-centered cubic crystals of synthesized gold nanoparticles. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of aromatic primary amines, and the additional SPR bands at 290 and 230 nm further suggested that the presence of amino acids such as tryptophan/tyrosine or phenylalanine acts as the capping agent on the synthesized mycogenic gold nanoparticles. PMID:25737119

  11. Non-synergistic cytotoxic effects of Fusarium and Alternaria toxin combinations in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Vejdovszky, Katharina; Warth, Benedikt; Sulyok, Michael; Marko, Doris

    2016-01-22

    Exposure of humans and animals to mycotoxins via food and feed generally involves a conglomeration of compounds contaminating the consumed products. Investigations on combinatory effects of mycotoxins are therefore of great importance. In this study, cytotoxic effects of binary mixtures of the Fusarium toxins enniatin B, aurofusarin, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone, and tenuazonic acid produced by Alternaria spp., were evaluated by the WST-1 assay in the colorectal carcinoma cell-line Caco-2 after 24h of incubation. The selection of these mycotoxins was based on typically occurring natural contamination patterns in grains. Aurofusarin, which can be found abundantly in contaminated foodstuff and has not been toxicologically characterized properly so far, showed pronounced cytotoxicity, decreasing the mitochondrial activity at 10μM to 51% compared to a solvent control. Combinations of other mycotoxins with aurofusarin showed additive effects. In contrast, binary mixtures of enniatin B, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol and zearalenone at cytotoxic concentrations, predominantly resulted in antagonistic effects. Binary combinations of these four Fusarium toxins with tenuazonic acid also revealed interacting effects leading to a decrease in cytotoxicity, compared to expected combinatory effects. Especially in combination with deoxynivalenol, tenuazonic acid was found to significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of this mycotoxin in Caco-2 cells. Synergistic effects were not observed for any toxin combination under the chosen conditions. PMID:26529482

  12. Synthesis of N-substituted phthalimides and their antifungal activity against Alternaria solani and Botrytis cinerea.

    PubMed

    Pan, Le; Li, Xiuzhuang; Gong, Chengwen; Jin, Hui; Qin, Bo

    2016-06-01

    As organosulfur and organophosphorus agents, phaltane and phosmet are facing great challenges for the environmental contamination, mammalian toxicity and increasing resistance with long term use. It is efficient and meaningful to develop phthalimide-based alternatives with non-sulfur and non-phosphorus groups. A series of N-substituted phthalimides were synthesized and their antifungal activity against two disastrous phytopathogenic fungi, Alternaria solani and Botrytis cinerea was evaluated in vitro. Most of them showed significant antifungal activity against both of fungi, or either of them selectively. N-vinylphthalimide (4) and 8-[4-(phthalimide-2-yl) butyloxy] quinoline (13) were identified as the most promising candidates against B. cinerea and A. solani with the IC50 values of 7.92 μg/mL and 10.85 μg/mL respectively. The brief structure-activity relationships have revealed that vinyl, quinolyl, bromide alkyl and benzyl substitutions were appropriate substituents and coupling functional moieties indirectly with optimum alkyl chain was efficient to prepare phthalimides related fungicides. PMID:27079471

  13. Changes in concentration of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores during summer storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2013-09-01

    Fungal spores are known to cause allergic sensitization. Recent studies reported a strong association between asthma symptoms and thunderstorms that could be explained by an increase in airborne fungal spore concentrations. Just before and during thunderstorms the values of meteorological parameters rapidly change. Therefore, the goal of this study was to create a predictive model for hourly concentrations of atmospheric Alternaria and Cladosporium spores on days with summer storms in Szczecin (Poland) based on meteorological conditions. For this study we have chosen all days of June, July and August (2004-2009) with convective thunderstorms. There were statistically significant relationships between spore concentration and meteorological parameters: positive for air temperature and ozone content while negative for relative humidity. In general, before a thunderstorm, air temperature and ozone concentration increased, which was accompanied by a considerable increase in spore concentration. During and after a storm, relative humidity increased while both air temperature ozone concentration along with spore concentrations decreased. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to assess forecasting possibilities. Good performance of ANN models in this study suggest that it is possible to predict spore concentrations from meteorological variables 2 h in advance and, thus, warn people with spore-related asthma symptoms about the increasing abundance of airborne fungi on days with storms.

  14. Changes in concentration of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores during summer storms.

    PubMed

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Strzelczak, Agnieszka

    2013-09-01

    Fungal spores are known to cause allergic sensitization. Recent studies reported a strong association between asthma symptoms and thunderstorms that could be explained by an increase in airborne fungal spore concentrations. Just before and during thunderstorms the values of meteorological parameters rapidly change. Therefore, the goal of this study was to create a predictive model for hourly concentrations of atmospheric Alternaria and Cladosporium spores on days with summer storms in Szczecin (Poland) based on meteorological conditions. For this study we have chosen all days of June, July and August (2004-2009) with convective thunderstorms. There were statistically significant relationships between spore concentration and meteorological parameters: positive for air temperature and ozone content while negative for relative humidity. In general, before a thunderstorm, air temperature and ozone concentration increased, which was accompanied by a considerable increase in spore concentration. During and after a storm, relative humidity increased while both air temperature ozone concentration along with spore concentrations decreased. Artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to assess forecasting possibilities. Good performance of ANN models in this study suggest that it is possible to predict spore concentrations from meteorological variables 2 h in advance and, thus, warn people with spore-related asthma symptoms about the increasing abundance of airborne fungi on days with storms. PMID:23161270

  15. The biological evaluation of Zato 50 WG in protection of carrot against Alternaria blight.

    PubMed

    Nawrocki, J; Mazur, S

    2005-01-01

    Effectiveness of new fungicide Zato 50 WG (biologically active substances BAS - trifloxystrobin 50%) in the control of Alternaria blight on carrot was studied. Field experiments were carried out in the years 2003-2004 on carrot cv. Koral. As the standard fungicide Amistar 250 SC (BAS - azoxystrobin 250 g/dm3) was used. The results of health status of carrot leaves analysis in first and second year of experiment showed, that development of disease symptoms was lower on leaves of chemical protected plants than on leaves of control plants. The last estimation of infestation degree of carrot leaves made immediately before harvest showed, that standard fungicide Amistar had longer systemic influence on plants. This was confirmed the lower (statistically significant) infestation index of protected carrot in combination with Amistar. The estimations of health status of carrot roots were made directly after digging up indicate, that there wasn't difference of value of infestation index between protected combination and control. Experiment showed, significant effect of tested fungicides on crop quantity of carrot roots per 1 m2. Especially in the second year of study the crop of carrot roots in combination with Zato was higher - statistically significant - than in the rest combinations. PMID:16637184

  16. Carrot infection by Alternaria radicina in field conditions and results of laboratory tests.

    PubMed

    Szczeponek, A; Laszczak, P; Wesołowska, M; Grzebelus, D; Michalik, B

    2006-01-01

    Carrot black rot caused by the fungus Alternaria radicina (Meier) Drechsler et Eddy, the economically important disease of carrot (Daucus carota L.). Research was carried out in 2004 and 2005 in order to establish correlation between plant infestation in the field and laboratory experiments. To determine the incidence and severity of the disease in mature crop, a 5-degree scale was used, where 1 meant no visible disease symptoms and 5 meant total foliage infestation. Plants were rated individually and the disease index was calculated. Fungus pathogenicity in laboratory conditions was determined using a petiole assay and a root disc assay. The petiole assay was conducted during the vegetation period; basal parts of petioles detached from fully developed carrot leaves were put in contact with the growing A. radicina mycelium. The root disc assay was conducted during storage of carrot roots; root discs were inoculated with toothpicks overgrown by A. radicina mycelium. The isolate of A. radicina was pathogenic to petioles and carrot discs. Differences in the reaction of the examined cultivars in the field and laboratory experiments were revealed. However, no significant correlation between plant infestation in the field and the results of laboratory experiments were observed. PMID:17390868

  17. Optimization of protease production by endophytic fungus, Alternaria alternata, isolated from an Australian native plant.

    PubMed

    Zaferanloo, Bita; Quang, Trung D; Daumoo, Smita; Ghorbani, Mahmood M; Mahon, Peter J; Palombo, Enzo A

    2014-06-01

    Endophytes are recognised as potential sources of novel secondary metabolites, including enzymes and drugs, with applications in medicine, agriculture and industry. There is a growing need for new enzymes, including proteases, for use in industry that can function under a variety of conditions. In this study, three fungal endophytes (Alternaria alternata, Phoma herbarum and an unclassified fungus), were isolated from the Australian native plant, Eremophilia longifolia, and assessed for production of proteases. The lyophilised growth media obtained after fungal fermentation were analysed for protease production using enzyme activity assays. Protease production was optimised by assessing the effects of temperature, pH, carbon source and nitrogen source on activity. A. alternata showed the greatest protease activity in a wide range of pH (3-9). The broadest activity between 9 and 50 °C was observed at pH 7, suggesting a neutral protease. Overall, the optimum conditions were 37 °C and pH 7 with a maximum specific activity value of 69.86 BAEE units/mg. The characteristics demonstrated by this fungal endophyte showed that it is a potential source of an enzyme with particular application in the dairy industry. However, further studies of the tolerance to higher temperatures and pH will indicate whether the enzyme is suitable to such applications. PMID:24419660

  18. A conditionally dispensable chromosome controls host-specific pathogenicity in the fungal plant pathogen Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed Central

    Hatta, Rieko; Ito, Kaoru; Hosaki, Yoshitsugu; Tanaka, Takayoshi; Tanaka, Aiko; Yamamoto, Mikihiro; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Tsuge, Takashi

    2002-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata contains seven pathogenic variants (pathotypes), which produce host-specific toxins and cause diseases on different plants. Previously, the gene cluster involved in host-specific AK-toxin biosynthesis of the Japanese pear pathotype was isolated, and four genes, named AKT genes, were identified. The AKT homologs were also found in the strawberry and tangerine pathotypes, which produce AF-toxin and ACT-toxin, respectively. This result is consistent with the fact that the toxins of these pathotypes share a common 9,10-epoxy-8-hydroxy-9-methyl-decatrienoic acid structural moiety. In this study, three of the AKT homologs (AFT1-1, AFTR-1, and AFT3-1) were isolated on a single cosmid clone from strain NAF8 of the strawberry pathotype. In NAF8, all of the AKT homologs were present in multiple copies on a 1.05-Mb chromosome. Transformation-mediated targeting of AFT1-1 and AFT3-1 in NAF8 produced AF-toxin-minus, nonpathogenic mutants. All of the mutants lacked the 1.05-Mb chromosome encoding the AFT genes. This chromosome was not essential for saprophytic growth of this pathogen. Thus, we propose that a conditionally dispensable chromosome controls host-specific pathogenicity of this pathogen. PMID:12019223

  19. Genetic structure of populations of Alternaria brassicicola suggests the occurrence of sexual recombination.

    PubMed

    Bock, Clive H; Thrall, Peter H; Burdon, Jeremy J

    2005-02-01

    Substantial polymorphism was detected between isolates from five populations of Alternaria brassicicola attacking Cakile maritima along the New South Wales coast of Australia, with a maximum of two genotypes being shared between population pairs. Of ten pair-wise population comparisons, six had no pathogen genotypes in common; only one genotype occurred five times, and most (93 %) were found only once. Although an UPGMA based on Nei's measure of genetic distance separated the five populations, a cluster analysis using individual isolates failed to group them according to population, indicating significant gene flow. An analysis of molecular variance indicated ca 14% of the variation occurred between populations, representing moderate population differentiation over the spatial scale of the study. Tests of the relative contribution of clonality and sexual recombination indicated low, albeit significant levels of linkage disequilibrium in all populations. The level of linkage disequilibrium, and the high genotype diversity, provides support for the contention that a hitherto unidentified sexual stage might be a significant factor in the life-cycle of A. brassicicola. PMID:15839106

  20. Candidate Resistant Genes of Sand Pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) to Alternaria alternata Revealed by Transcriptome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoping; Hu, Hongju; Yu, Dazhao; Sun, Zhonghai; He, Xiujuan; Zhang, Jingguo; Chen, Qiliang; Tian, Rui; Fan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Pear black spot (PBS) disease, which is caused by Alternaria alternata (Aa), is one of the most serious diseases affecting sand pear (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivation worldwide. To investigate the defense mechanisms of sand pear in response to Aa, the transcriptome of a sand pear germplasm with differential resistance to Aa was analyzed using Illumina paired-end sequencing. Four libraries derived from PBS-resistant and PBS-susceptible sand pear leaves were characterized through inoculation or mock-inoculation. In total, 20.5 Gbp of sequence data and 101,632,565 reads were generated, representing 44717 genes. Approximately 66% of the genes or sequenced reads could be aligned to the pear reference genome. A large number (5213) of differentially expressed genes related to PBS resistance were obtained; 34 microsatellites were detected in these genes, and 28 genes were found to be closely related to PBS resistance. Using a transcriptome analysis in response to PBS inoculation and comparison analysis to the PHI database, 4 genes (Pbr039001, Pbr001627, Pbr025080 and Pbr023112) were considered to be promising candidates for sand pear resistance to PBS. This study provides insight into changes in the transcriptome of sand pear in response to PBS infection, and the findings have improved our understanding of the resistance mechanism of sand pear to PBS and will facilitate future gene discovery and functional genome studies of sand pear. PMID:26292286

  1. Population genetic analysis reveals cryptic sex in the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jing-Wen; Zhu, Wen; He, Meng-Han; Wu, E-Jiao; Duan, Guo-Hua; Xie, Ye-Kun; Jin, Yu-Jia; Yang, Li-Na; Shang, Li-Ping; Zhan, Jiasui

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive mode can impact population genetic dynamics and evolutionary landscape of plant pathogens as well as on disease epidemiology and management. In this study, we monitored the spatial dynamics and mating type idiomorphs in ~700 Alternaria alternata isolates sampled from the main potato production areas in China to infer the mating system of potato early blight. Consistent with the expectation of asexual species, identical genotypes were recovered from different locations separated by hundreds of kilometers of geographic distance and spanned across many years. However, high genotype diversity, equal MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 frequencies within and among populations, no genetic differentiation and phylogenetic association between two mating types, combined with random association amongst neutral markers in some field populations, suggested that sexual reproduction may also play an important role in the epidemics and evolution of the pathogen in at least half of the populations assayed despite the fact that no teleomorphs have been observed yet naturally or artificially. Our results indicated that A. alternata may adopt an epidemic mode of reproduction by combining many cycles of asexual propagation with fewer cycles of sexual reproduction, facilitating its adaptation to changing environments and making the disease management on potato fields even more difficult. PMID:26666175

  2. Stress Response and Pathogenicity of the Necrotrophic Fungal Pathogen Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2012-01-01

    The production of host-selective toxins by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata is essential for the pathogenesis. A. alternata infection in citrus leaves induces rapid lipid peroxidation, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and cell death. The mechanisms by which A. alternata avoids killing by reactive oxygen species (ROS) after invasion have begun to be elucidated. The ability to coordinate of signaling pathways is essential for the detoxification of cellular stresses induced by ROS and for pathogenicity in A. alternata. A low level of H2O2, produced by the NADPH oxidase (NOX) complex, modulates ROS resistance and triggers conidiation partially via regulating the redox-responsive regulators (YAP1 and SKN7) and the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (HOG1) mediated pathways, which subsequently regulate the genes required for the biosynthesis of siderophore, an iron-chelating compound. Siderophore-mediated iron acquisition plays a key role in ROS detoxification because of the requirement of iron for the activities of antioxidants (e.g., catalase and SOD). Fungal strains impaired for the ROS-detoxifying system severely reduce the virulence on susceptible citrus cultivars. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge of signaling pathways associated with cellular responses to multidrugs, oxidative and osmotic stress, and fungicides, as well as the pathogenicity/virulence in the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata. PMID:24278721

  3. Antifungal activity of diketopiperazines extracted from Alternaria alternata against Plasmopara viticola: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Musetti, R; Polizzotto, R; Vecchione, A; Borselli, S; Zulini, L; D'Ambrosio, M; di Toppi, L Sanità; Pertot, I

    2007-01-01

    Three dipeptides, belonging to the family of diketopiperazines (DKPs), were extracted from broth culture of the grapevine endophyte Alternaria alternata, and were tested against Plasmopara viticola on leaves of grapevine plants grown in greenhouse. DKPs, used at different concentrations (10(-3), 10(-4), 10(-5) and 10(-6)M) both singularly and in mixtures, demonstrated real effectiveness in inhibiting P. viticola sporulation when applied 2 or 24h after pathogen inoculation. Moreover, no necrotic lesions or other phytotoxicity symptoms were observed on DKP-treated grapevine leaf tissues. Ultrastructural analysis performed on grapevine leaf tissues revealed that the DKPs used singularly and in mixture, at above reported concentrations, did not cause leaf tissue damages. By contrast, hyphae of P. viticola exhibited marked structural changes, similar to those induced by the endophyte A. alternata. This demonstrates the involvement of these metabolites in the relationship of P. viticola and the endophyte. Further experimental trials will be carried out in the next future in order to test the effectiveness of these molecules also under field conditions, and to better understand the mechanism of action involved in the pathogen inhibition. PMID:17071094

  4. Identification and Bioactivity of Compounds from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinhua; Ding, Weijia; Wang, Ruimin; Du, Yipeng; Liu, Huanliang; Kong, Xuehua; Li, Chunyuan

    2015-01-01

    Racemic new cyclohexenone and cyclopentenone derivatives, (±)-(4R*,5S*,6S*)-3-amino-4,5,6-trihydroxy-2-methoxy-5-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (1) and (±)-(4S*,5S*)-2,4,5-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-4-methoxycarbonyl-5-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one (2), and two new xanthone derivatives 4-chloro-1,5-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-6-methoxycarbonyl-xanthen-9-one (3) and 2,8-dimethoxy-1,6-dimethoxycarbonyl-xanthen-9-one (4), along with one known compound, fischexanthone (5), were isolated from the culture of the mangrove endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. R6. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of their MS (Mass), one and two dimensional NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited potent ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] scavenging activities with EC50 values of 8.19 ± 0.15 and 16.09 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. In comparison to Triadimefon, compounds 2 and 3 exhibited inhibitory activities against Fusarium graminearum with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 215.52 and 107.14 μM, respectively, and compound 3 exhibited antifungal activity against Calletotrichum musae with MIC value of 214.29 μM. PMID:26204946

  5. Identification of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae strains causing bacterial canker of kiwifruit in the Anhui Province of China, and determination of their streptomycin sensitivities.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Yi, X-K; Chen, Y; Zhang, A-F; Zhang, J-Y; Gao, Z-H; Qi, Y-J; Xu, Y-L

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial canker, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae, is one of the most severe diseases of kiwifruit. It has become an international pandemic and threatens the sustainable development of kiwifruit production in all main kiwi-growing regions worldwide. Streptomycin has been the major bactericide for the control of kiwifruit canker, especially in Anhui Province, one of the main kiwifruit production regions in China. However, until now, no studies on the baseline sensitivity to streptomycin of field isolates of P. syringae pv. actinidiae from China have been available. During 2012-2013, a total of 102 single-colony P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains were isolated: 36, 12, 13, 26, and 15 strains from Yuexi, Jinzhai, Huoshan, Qianshan, and Taihu counties, respectively. All strains were confirmed by production of a 280-bp fragment using the specific primers PsaF1/R2 upon polymerase chain reaction amplification, followed by an assay for confirmation of pathogenicity to fulfill Koch's postulates. In this study, the streptomycin sensitivity of the 102 isolated strains was determined. The half-maximal effective concentration values for inhibition of growth by streptomycin were 0.03-0.42 μg/mL (average 0.12 ± 0.06 μg/mL). The baseline sensitivity curve was unimodal, representing range-of-variation factors of 14.0. No resistant subpopulation was identified among the strains used in the study. Thus, these sensitivity data could be used as a baseline for monitoring the shift in sensitivity of P. syringae pv. actinidiae populations to streptomycin in Anhui Province. Continuous resistance monitoring should be carried out, as streptomycin is an at-risk bactericide agent. PMID:26345745

  6. The LOV Protein of Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri Plays a Significant Role in the Counteraction of Plant Immune Responses during Citrus Canker

    PubMed Central

    Kraiselburd, Ivana; Daurelio, Lucas D.; Tondo, María Laura; Merelo, Paz; Cortadi, Adriana A.; Talón, Manuel; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Orellano, Elena G.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens interaction with a host plant starts a set of immune responses that result in complex changes in gene expression and plant physiology. Light is an important modulator of plant defense response and recent studies have evidenced the novel influence of this environmental stimulus in the virulence of several bacterial pathogens. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is the bacterium responsible for citrus canker disease, which affects most citrus cultivars. The ability of this bacterium to colonize host plants is influenced by bacterial blue-light sensing through a LOV-domain protein and disease symptoms are considerably altered upon deletion of this protein. In this work we aimed to unravel the role of this photoreceptor during the bacterial counteraction of plant immune responses leading to citrus canker development. We performed a transcriptomic analysis in Citrus sinensis leaves inoculated with the wild type X. citri subsp. citri and with a mutant strain lacking the LOV protein by a cDNA microarray and evaluated the differentially regulated genes corresponding to specific biological processes. A down-regulation of photosynthesis-related genes (together with a corresponding decrease in photosynthesis rates) was observed upon bacterial infection, this effect being more pronounced in plants infected with the lov-mutant bacterial strain. Infection with this strain was also accompanied with the up-regulation of several secondary metabolism- and defense response-related genes. Moreover, we found that relevant plant physiological alterations triggered by pathogen attack such as cell wall fortification and tissue disruption were amplified during the lov-mutant strain infection. These results suggest the participation of the LOV-domain protein from X. citri subsp. citri in the bacterial counteraction of host plant defense response, contributing in this way to disease development. PMID:24260514

  7. Transcription Factor Amr1 Induces Melanin Biosynthesis and Suppresses Virulence in Alternaria brassicicola

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yangrae; Srivastava, Akhil; Ohm, Robin A.; Lawrence, Christopher B.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Marahatta, Sharadchandra P.

    2012-05-01

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. Several A. brassicicola genes have been characterized as affecting pathogenesis of Brassica species. To study regulatory mechanisms of pathogenesis, we mined 421 genes in silico encoding putative transcription factors in a machine-annotated, draft genome sequence of A. brassicicola. In this study, targeted gene disruption mutants for 117 of the transcription factor genes were produced and screened. Three of these genes were associated with pathogenesis. Disruption mutants of one gene (AbPacC) were nonpathogenic and another gene (AbVf8) caused lesions less than half the diameter of wild-type lesions. Unexpectedly, mutants of the third gene, Amr1, caused lesions with a two-fold larger diameter than the wild type and complementation mutants. Amr1 is a homolog of Cmr1, a transcription factor that regulates melanin biosynthesis in several fungi. We created gene deletion mutants of ?amr1 and characterized their phenotypes. The ?amr1 mutants used pectin as a carbon source more efficiently than the wild type, were melanin-deficient, and more sensitive to UV light and glucanase digestion. The AMR1 protein was localized in the nuclei of hyphae and in highly melanized conidia during the late stage of plant pathogenesis. RNA-seq analysis revealed that three genes in the melanin biosynthesis pathway, along with the deleted Amr1 gene, were expressed at low levels in the mutants. In contrast, many hydrolytic enzyme-coding genes were expressed at higher levels in the mutants than in the wild type during pathogenesis. The results of this study suggested that a gene important for survival in nature negatively affected virulence, probably by a less efficient use of plant cell-wall materials. We speculate that the functions of the Amr1 gene are important to the success of A. brassicicola as a competitive saprophyte and plant parasite.

  8. Transcription Factor Amr1 Induces Melanin Biosynthesis and Suppresses Virulence in Alternaria brassicicola

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yangrae; Srivastava, Akhil; Ohm, Robin A.; Lawrence, Christopher B.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Marahatta, Sharadchandra P.

    2012-01-01

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. Several A. brassicicola genes have been characterized as affecting pathogenesis of Brassica species. To study regulatory mechanisms of pathogenesis, we mined 421 genes in silico encoding putative transcription factors in a machine-annotated, draft genome sequence of A. brassicicola. In this study, targeted gene disruption mutants for 117 of the transcription factor genes were produced and screened. Three of these genes were associated with pathogenesis. Disruption mutants of one gene (AbPacC) were nonpathogenic and another gene (AbVf8) caused lesions less than half the diameter of wild-type lesions. Unexpectedly, mutants of the third gene, Amr1, caused lesions with a two-fold larger diameter than the wild type and complementation mutants. Amr1 is a homolog of Cmr1, a transcription factor that regulates melanin biosynthesis in several fungi. We created gene deletion mutants of Δamr1 and characterized their phenotypes. The Δamr1 mutants used pectin as a carbon source more efficiently than the wild type, were melanin-deficient, and more sensitive to UV light and glucanase digestion. The AMR1 protein was localized in the nuclei of hyphae and in highly melanized conidia during the late stage of plant pathogenesis. RNA-seq analysis revealed that three genes in the melanin biosynthesis pathway, along with the deleted Amr1 gene, were expressed at low levels in the mutants. In contrast, many hydrolytic enzyme-coding genes were expressed at higher levels in the mutants than in the wild type during pathogenesis. The results of this study suggested that a gene important for survival in nature negatively affected virulence, probably by a less efficient use of plant cell-wall materials. We speculate that the functions of the Amr1 gene are important to the success of A. brassicicola as a competitive saprophyte and plant parasite. PMID:23133370

  9. Alternaria alternata serine proteases induce lung inflammation and airway epithelial cell activation via PAR2

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Andrea N.; Sherwood, Cara L.; Schulz, Stephanie M.; Hoffman, Justin; Gruzinova, Irina; Daines, Michael O.

    2011-01-01

    Allergens are diverse proteins from mammals, birds, arthropods, plants, and fungi. Allergens associated with asthma (asthmagens) share a common protease activity that may directly impact respiratory epithelial biology and lead to symptoms of asthma. Alternaria alternata is a strong asthmagen in semiarid regions. We examined the impact of proteases from A. alternata on lung inflammation in vivo and on cleaving protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) in vitro. A. alternata filtrate applied to the airway in nonsensitized Balb/c mice induced a protease-dependent lung inflammation. Moreover, A. alternata filtrate applied to human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-) induced changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i), consistent with PAR2 activation. These effects were blocked by heat inactivation or by serine protease inhibition of A. alternata filtrates, and mimicked by PAR2 specific ligands SLIGRL-NH2 or 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, but not the PAR1-specific ligand TFLLR-NH2. Desensitization of PAR2 in 16HBE14o- cells with 2-furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 or trypsin prevented A. alternata-induced [Ca2+]i changes while desensitization of PAR1, PAR3, and PAR4 with thrombin had no effect on A. alternata-induced Ca2+ responses. Furthermore, the Ca2+ response to A. alternata filtrates was dependent on PAR2 expression in stably transfected HeLa cell models. These data demonstrate that A. alternata proteases act through PAR2 to induce rapid increases in human airway epithelial [Ca2+]i in vitro and cell recruitment in vivo. These responses are likely critical early steps in the development of allergic asthma. PMID:21296894

  10. Fungal-specific transcription factor AbPf2 activates pathogenicity in Alternaria brassicicola

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Yangrae; Ohm, Robin A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Srivastava, Akhil

    2012-12-03

    Alternaria brassicicola is a successful saprophyte and necrotrophic plant pathogen. To identify molecular determinants of pathogenicity, we created non-pathogenic mutants of a transcription factor-encoding gene, AbPf2. The frequency and timing of germination and appressorium formation on host plants were similar between the non-pathogenic abpf2 mutants and wild-type A. brassicicola. The mutants were also similar in vitro to wild-type A. brassicicola in terms of vegetative growth, conidium production, and responses to a phytoalexin, reactive oxygen species and osmolites. The hyphae of the mutants grew slowly but did not cause disease symptoms on the surface of host plants. Transcripts of the AbPf2 gene increased exponentially soon after wild-type conidia contacted their host plants . A small amount of AbPf2 protein, as monitored using GFP fusions, was present in young, mature conidia. The protein level decreased during saprophytic growth, but increased and was located primarily in fungal nuclei during pathogenesis. Levels of the proteins and transcripts sharply decreased following colonization of host tissues beyond the initial infection site. When expression of the transcription factor was induced in the wild-type during early pathogenesis, 106 fungal genes were also induced in the wild-type but not in the abpf2 mutants. Notably, 33 of the 106 genes encoded secreted proteins, including eight putative effector proteins. Plants inoculated with abpf2 mutants expressed higher levels of genes associated with photosynthesis, the pentose phosphate pathway and primary metabolism, but lower levels of defense-related genes. Our results suggest that AbPf2 is an important regulator of pathogenesis, but does not affect other cellular processes in A. brassicicola.

  11. Contribution of peroxisomes to secondary metabolism and pathogenicity in the fungal plant pathogen Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Imazaki, Ai; Tanaka, Aiko; Harimoto, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Mikihiro; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Park, Pyoyun; Tsuge, Takashi

    2010-05-01

    The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata includes seven pathogenic variants (pathotypes) which produce different host-selective toxins and cause diseases on different plants. The Japanese pear pathotype produces the host-selective AK-toxin, an epoxy-decatrienoic acid ester, and causes black spot of Japanese pear. Previously, we identified four genes, AKT1, AKT2, AKT3, and AKTR, involved in AK toxin biosynthesis. AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3 encode enzyme proteins with peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1)-like tripeptides, SKI, SKL, and PKL, respectively, at the C-terminal ends. In this study, we verified the peroxisome localization of Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3 by using strains expressing N-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged versions of the proteins. To assess the role of peroxisome function in AK-toxin production, we isolated AaPEX6, which encodes a peroxin protein essential for peroxisome biogenesis, from the Japanese pear pathotype and made AaPEX6 disruption-containing transformants from a GFP-Akt1-expressing strain. The DeltaAaPEX6 mutant strains did not grow on fatty acid media because of a defect in fatty acid beta oxidation. The import of GFP-Akt1 into peroxisomes was impaired in the DeltaAaPEX6 mutant strains. These strains completely lost AK toxin production and pathogenicity on susceptible pear leaves. These data show that peroxisomes are essential for AK-toxin biosynthesis. The DeltaAaPEX6 mutant strains showed a marked reduction in the ability to cause lesions on leaves of a resistant pear cultivar with defense responses compromised by heat shock. This result suggests that peroxisome function is also required for plant invasion and tissue colonization in A. alternata. We also observed that mutation of AaPEX6 caused a marked reduction of conidiation. PMID:20348386

  12. Scopoletin is a phytoalexin against Alternaria alternata in wild tobacco dependent on jasmonate signalling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Huanhuan; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Baoqin; Ma, Junhong; Hettenhausen, Christian; Cao, Guoyan; Sun, Guiling; Wu, Jianqiang; Wu, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Alternaria alternata (tobacco pathotype) is a necrotrophic fungus causing severe losses in Nicotiana species by infection of mature leaves. Similar to what has been observed in cultivated tobacco, N. tabacum, young leaves of wild tobacco, N. attenuata, were more resistant to A. alternata than mature leaves, and this was correlated with stronger blue fluorescence induced after infection. However, the nature of the fluorescence-emitting compound, its role in defence, and its regulation were not clear. Silencing feruloyl-CoA 6ʹ-hydroxylase 1 (F6ʹH1), the gene encoding the key enzyme for scopoletin biosynthesis, by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) revealed that the blue fluorescence was mainly emitted by scopoletin and its β-glycoside form, scopolin. Further analysis showed that scopoletin exhibited strong antifungal activity against A. alternata in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, jasmonic acid (JA) levels were highly elicited in young leaves but much less in mature leaves after infection; and fungus-elicited scopoletin was absent in JA-deficient plants, but was largely restored with methyl jasmonate treatments. Consistent with this, plants strongly impaired in JA biosynthesis and perception were highly susceptible to A. alternata in the same way scopoletin/scopolin-depleted VIGS F6ʹH1 plants. Furthermore, silencing MYC2, a master regulator of most JA responses, reduced A. alternata-induced NaF6ʹH1 transcripts and scopoletin. Thus, it is concluded that JA signalling is activated in N. attenuata leaves after infection, which subsequently regulates scopoletin biosynthesis for the defence against A. alternata partly through MYC2, and higher levels of scopoletin accumulated in young leaves account for their strong resistance. PMID:24821958

  13. Stem Cells and Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home General Information Can Stem Cells Help Me? Stem Cell Information General Information Clinical Trials Funding Information Current Research Policy Glossary Site Map Can Stem Cells Help Me? The International Society for Stem Cell ...

  14. Apoptosis: A Functional Paradigm for Programmed Plant Cell Death Induced by a Host-Selective Phytotoxin and Invoked during Development.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, H; Li, J; Bostock, RM; Gilchrist, DG

    1996-01-01

    The host-selective AAL toxins secreted by Alternaria alternata f sp lycopersici are primary chemical determinants in the Alternaria stem canker disease of tomato. The AAL toxins are members of a new class of sphinganine analog mycotoxins that cause cell death in both animals and plants. Here, we report detection of stereotypic hallmarks of apoptosis during cell death induced by these toxins in tomato. DNA ladders were observed during cell death in toxin-treated tomato protoplasts and leaflets. The intensity of the DNA ladders was enhanced by Ca2+ and inhibited by Zn2+. The progressive delineation of fragmented DNA into distinct bodies, coincident with the appearance of DNA ladders, also was observed during death of toxin-treated tomato protoplasts. In situ analysis of cells dying during development in both onion root caps and tomato leaf tracheary elements revealed DNA fragmentation localized to the dying cells as well as the additional formation of apoptotic-like bodies in sloughing root cap cells. We conclude that the fundamental elements of apoptosis, as characterized in animals, are conserved in plants. The apoptotic process may be expressed during some developmental transitions and is the functional process by which symptomatic lesions are formed in the Alternaria stem canker disease of tomato. Sphinganine analog mycotoxins may be used to characterize further signaling pathways leading to apoptosis in plants. PMID:12239387

  15. Apoptosis: A Functional Paradigm for Programmed Plant Cell Death Induced by a Host-Selective Phytotoxin and Invoked during Development.

    PubMed

    Wang, H.; Li, J.; Bostock, R. M.; Gilchrist, D. G.

    1996-03-01

    The host-selective AAL toxins secreted by Alternaria alternata f sp lycopersici are primary chemical determinants in the Alternaria stem canker disease of tomato. The AAL toxins are members of a new class of sphinganine analog mycotoxins that cause cell death in both animals and plants. Here, we report detection of stereotypic hallmarks of apoptosis during cell death induced by these toxins in tomato. DNA ladders were observed during cell death in toxin-treated tomato protoplasts and leaflets. The intensity of the DNA ladders was enhanced by Ca2+ and inhibited by Zn2+. The progressive delineation of fragmented DNA into distinct bodies, coincident with the appearance of DNA ladders, also was observed during death of toxin-treated tomato protoplasts. In situ analysis of cells dying during development in both onion root caps and tomato leaf tracheary elements revealed DNA fragmentation localized to the dying cells as well as the additional formation of apoptotic-like bodies in sloughing root cap cells. We conclude that the fundamental elements of apoptosis, as characterized in animals, are conserved in plants. The apoptotic process may be expressed during some developmental transitions and is the functional process by which symptomatic lesions are formed in the Alternaria stem canker disease of tomato. Sphinganine analog mycotoxins may be used to characterize further signaling pathways leading to apoptosis in plants. PMID:12239387

  16. Canker Sores: Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... RAS fall roughly into four categories: occlusives, anesthetics, cleansing agents / antiseptics, and other. OTC products often combine ... with hypersensitivity. Many OTC anesthetic products are available. Cleansing agents/ Antiseptics can cleanse the area and decrease ...

  17. Canker Sore (Aphthous Ulcer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the most common cause of periodic (recurring) ulcers inside the mouth and genital linings (mucous membrane surfaces). Their cause is unknown, but stress, lack of sleep, trauma, and perhaps some vitamin ...

  18. STEM Thinking!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeve, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) is a term seen almost daily in the news. In 2009, President Obama launched the Educate to Innovate initiative to move American students from the middle to the top of the pack in science and math achievement over the next decade (The White House, n.d.). Learning about the attributes of STEM…

  19. Sesquiterpene emissions from Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum: Effects of age, nutrient availability, and co-cultivation

    PubMed Central

    Weikl, Fabian; Ghirardo, Andrea; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Pritsch, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata is one of the most studied fungi to date because of its impact on human life – from plant pathogenicity to allergenicity. However, its sesquiterpene emissions have not been systematically explored. Alternaria regularly co-occurs with Fusarium fungi, which are common plant pathogens, on withering plants. We analyzed the diversity and determined the absolute quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace above mycelial cultures of A. alternata and Fusarium oxysporum under different conditions (nutrient rich and poor, single cultures and co-cultivation) and at different mycelial ages. Using stir bar sorptive extraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, we observed A. alternata to strongly emit sesquiterpenes, particularly during the early growth stages, while emissions from F. oxysporum consistently remained comparatively low. The emission profile characterizing A. alternata comprised over 20 sesquiterpenes with few effects from nutrient quality and age on the overall emission profile. Co-cultivation with F. oxysporum resulted in reduced amounts of VOCs emitted from A. alternata although its profile remained similar. Both fungi showed distinct emission profiles, rendering them suitable biomarkers for growth-detection of their phylotype in ambient air. The study highlights the importance of thorough and quantitative evaluations of fungal emissions of volatile infochemicals such as sesquiterpenes. PMID:26915756

  20. Influence of pH and carbon to nitrogen ratio on mycotoxin production by Alternaria alternata in submerged cultivation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Production of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethylether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TA) by Alternaria alternata DSM 12633 was influenced by pH and carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio of the growth medium both in shaking flasks and bioreactor cultivation. The impact of medium pH on mycotoxin production was studied in the range of pH 3.5 - 8. pH values above 5.5 led to a decreased mycotoxin production or inhibited mycotoxin formation completely whereas an acidic pH in the range of 4.0-4.5 was optimal for mycotoxin production. The influence of the C:N ratio was evaluated over the range of 24 to 96. Glucose was used as carbon source and its concentration was altered while nitrogen concentration was kept constant. Growth kinetics and mycotoxin production parameters were studied depending on different C:N ratios. With increasing initial glucose concentration fungal biomass did increase but the maximum specific growth rate was not influenced. The optimal initial C:N ratio for attaining highest mycotoxin concentrations was 72. A higher C:N ratio did not further enhance mycotoxin production. PMID:22608165

  1. Sesquiterpene emissions from Alternaria alternata and Fusarium oxysporum: Effects of age, nutrient availability, and co-cultivation.

    PubMed

    Weikl, Fabian; Ghirardo, Andrea; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Pritsch, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata is one of the most studied fungi to date because of its impact on human life - from plant pathogenicity to allergenicity. However, its sesquiterpene emissions have not been systematically explored. Alternaria regularly co-occurs with Fusarium fungi, which are common plant pathogens, on withering plants. We analyzed the diversity and determined the absolute quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace above mycelial cultures of A. alternata and Fusarium oxysporum under different conditions (nutrient rich and poor, single cultures and co-cultivation) and at different mycelial ages. Using stir bar sorptive extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, we observed A. alternata to strongly emit sesquiterpenes, particularly during the early growth stages, while emissions from F. oxysporum consistently remained comparatively low. The emission profile characterizing A. alternata comprised over 20 sesquiterpenes with few effects from nutrient quality and age on the overall emission profile. Co-cultivation with F. oxysporum resulted in reduced amounts of VOCs emitted from A. alternata although its profile remained similar. Both fungi showed distinct emission profiles, rendering them suitable biomarkers for growth-detection of their phylotype in ambient air. The study highlights the importance of thorough and quantitative evaluations of fungal emissions of volatile infochemicals such as sesquiterpenes. PMID:26915756

  2. Involvement of an extracellular fungus laccase in the flavonoid metabolism in Citrus fruits inoculated with Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Licinio; Del Río, José Antonio; Pérez-Gilabert, Manuela; Ortuño, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Fungi of the genus Alternaria are responsible for substantial pre-harvest losses in Citrus. In this study a degradative metabolism of flavonoids (flavanones, flavones and polymethoxyflavones) was observed when 'Fortune' mandarin, Citrus limon and Citrus paradisi, fruits were inoculated with Alternaria alternata, a pre-harvest pathogenic fungus. Associated to this flavonic metabolism the de novo synthesis of the phytoalexin scoparone was detected. This metabolism of flavonoids is caused by an extracellular fungus laccase. The kinetic characterisation of this enzyme revealed that the activity was induced by Citrus flavonoids and was dependent on flavonoid concentrations. The enzyme exhibited a Km of 1.9 mM using ABTS as substrate with an optimum pH of 3.5 in citrate buffer 100 mM. The enzyme is active between 15 and 45 °C, the optimum temperature being around 35 °C, although 50% of the initial activity is lost after 45 min at 35 °C. The A. alternata laccase was inhibited by 0.5 mM l-cysteine and by caffeic acid. Study of the substrate specificity of this enzyme revealed that Citrus flavonoids are substrates of A. alternata laccase. These results suggest that the laccase enzyme could be involved in the pathogenesis of A. alternata in Citrus. PMID:25686700

  3. Stem cell glycolipids.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Makoto

    2011-09-01

    Glycolipids are compounds containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety. Because of their expression patterns and the intracellular localization patterns, glycolipids, including stage-specific embryonic antigens (SSEA-3, SSEA-4, and possibly SSEA-1) and gangliosides (e.g., GD3, GD2, and A2B5 antigens), have been used as marker molecules of stem cells. In this review, I will introduce glycolipids expressed in pluripotent stem cells (embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, very small embryonic-like stem cells, amniotic stem cells, and multilineage-differentiating stress enduring cells), multipotent stem cells (neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, fetal liver multipotent progenitor cells, and hematopoietic stem cells), and cancer stem cells (brain cancer stem cells and breast cancer stem cells), and discuss their availability as biomarkers for identifying and isolating stem cells. PMID:21161592

  4. Efficacy of a pyrimidine derivative to control spot disease on Solanum melongena caused by Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nemat M.; Abu-Doubara, Mohamed I.; Waly, Mohamed A.; Nemat Alla, Mamdouh M.

    2012-01-01

    The pyrimidine derivative (4,6-dimethyl-N-phenyldiethyl pyrimidine, DPDP) was tested as a foliar spray fungicide at 50 mg l−1 for protection of eggplant (Solanum melongena) from spot disease caused by Alternaria alternata. Varied concentrations of DPDP (10–50 mg l−1) differentially inhibited mycelial growth, conidial count and conidial germination of A. alternata growth in vitro; the magnitude of inhibition increased with increasing concentration. In vivo, an experiment was conducted in pots using a complete block randomized design and repeated twice with three replications and four treatments (control, A. alternata alone, DPDP alone and combination of DPDP and A. alternata) for 5 weeks (1 plant in pot × 3 pots per set (3 replications per treatment) × 4 sets (4 treatments) × 5 weeks × 2 experimental repetitions = 120 pots). In this experiment, 10-day-old eggplant seedlings were transplanted in pots and then inoculated with A. alternata, DPDP or their combination 1 week later. Leaves of the A. alternata-infected eggplant suffered from chlorosis, necrosis and brown spots during the subsequent 5 weeks. Disease intensity was obvious in infected leaves but withdrawn by DPDP. There were relationships between incidence and severity, greater in plant leaves infected A. alternata alone and diminished with the presence of DPDP. Moreover, the infection resulted in reductions in growth, decreases in contents of anthocyanins, chlorophylls, carotenoids and thiols as well as inhibitions in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Nonetheless, the application of DPDP at 50 mg led to a recovery of the infected eggplant; the infection-induced deleterious effects were mostly reversed by DPDP. However, treatment with DPDP alone seemed with no significant impacts. Due to its safe use to host and the inhibition for the pathogen, DPDP could be suggested as an efficient fungicide for protection of eggplant to control A. alternata spot disease. PMID:25685445

  5. Evaluation of a triplex real-time PCR system to detect the plant-pathogenic molds Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and C. purpurea.

    PubMed

    Grube, Sabrina; Schönling, Jutta; Prange, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the development of a triplex real-time PCR system for the simultaneous detection of three major plant-pathogenic mold genera (Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and the species Claviceps purpurea). The designed genus-specific primer-probe systems were validated for sensitivity, specificity and amplification in the presence of background DNA. PMID:26545945

  6. Functional analyses of the Diels-Alderase gene sol5 of Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani indicate that the Solanapyrone phytotoxins are not required for pathogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani, the causal agents of Ascochyta blight of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum), respectively, produce a set of phytotoxic compounds incuding solanapyrones A, B, and C. Although both the phytotoxicity of solanopyrones and the...

  7. Occurrence of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. spores in Western, Northern and Central-Eastern Poland in 2004-2006 and relation to some meteorological factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2009-08-01

    The concentration of airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. has been investigated at three monitoring stations situated along the west-north and central-east transect in Poland (Szczecin, Olsztyn, Warszawa,) i.e. from a height of 100 m to 149 m above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of three Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. Cladosporium spp. spores were dominant at all the stations. The highest Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. numbers of spores were observed at all the cities in July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. concentration in the air and the mean air temperature, amount of precipitation, air pressure and relative air humidity. The spore count of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the air temperature. The identification of factors, which influence and shape spore concentrations, may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.

  8. SHARED ITS DNA SUBSTITUTIONS IN ISOLATES OF OPPOSITE MATING TYPE REVEAL A RECOMBIING HISTORY FOR THREE PRESUMED ASEXUAL SPECIES IN THE FILAMENTOUS ASCOMYCETE GENUS ALTERNARIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 15,000 species of ascomycete fungi lack a known sexual state. For fungi with asexual states in the form genera Embellisia, Ulocladium and Alternaria, six species have known sexual states but more than 50 species do not. In sexual filamentous ascomycetes, opposite mating type information at t...

  9. Expression of ß-1,3-glucanase and ß-1,4-glucanase in two potato cultivars following challenge by the fungal pathogen Alternaria solani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Early blight of potato, caused by Alternaria solani, is a ubiquitous disease in many countries around the world. We have previously found that variation in resistance phenotypes exist between two different Iranian cultivars of potato. Cultivar ‘Diamond’ is more resistant to multiple isolates of A. s...

  10. Alternaria toxin-induced resistance against rose aphids and olfactory response of aphids to toxin-induced volatiles of rose plants*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fa-zhong; Li, Li; Yang, Bin

    2012-01-01

    The search for active toxins for managing weeds or plant diseases is believed to be a promising avenue of investigation. However, the effects of Alternaria toxins on insects have just begun to be investigated. Bioactivities of toxins from four strains of Alternaria alternata on Rosa chinensis and rose aphid Macrosiphum rosivorum were tested in the present study. At a concentration of 50.0 ?g/ml, the crude extract (toxin) of strain 7484 was found not to be harmful to rose plants with excised leaf-puncture method (P?0.079), and rose plants showed enhanced resistance to rose aphids when this Alternaria toxin was sprayed on the plants (P?0.001). However, this toxin caused no detrimental effects on aphids in insecticidal bioassay at a concentration of 10.0 to 160.0 ?g/ml (P?0.096). Therefore, the Alternaria toxin had significantly induced the resistance of rose plants against rose aphids, demonstrating that the resistance mechanism triggered by the Alternaria toxin in the rose plant may also be used by the plant to defend itself against insects. Further bioassays aimed to discover the olfactory responses of aphids to the toxin-induced volatiles of host plants. The aphids were significantly more attracted to both volatiles emitted and collected from control rose plants than to both volatiles emitted and collected from the toxin-treated rose plants (P?0.014). This result showed that the toxin-induced resistance related to the volatile changes of host plants. PMID:22302426

  11. Comparison of 10,11-Dehydrocurvularin Polyketide Synthases from Alternaria cinerariae and Aspergillus terreus Highlights Key Structural Motifs.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Rachel V K; Gao, Zhizeng; Lambkin, Gareth R; Xu, Wei; Winter, Jaclyn M; Marcus, Sandra L; Tang, Yi; Vederas, John C

    2015-11-01

    Iterative type I polyketide synthases (PKSs) from fungi are multifunctional enzymes that use their active sites repeatedly in a highly ordered sequence to assemble complex natural products. A phytotoxic macrolide with anticancer properties, 10,11-dehydrocurvularin (DHC), is produced by cooperation of a highly reducing (HR) iterative PKS and a non-reducing (NR) iterative PKS. We have identified the DHC gene cluster in Alternaria cinerariae, heterologously expressed the active HR PKS (Dhc3) and NR PKS (Dhc5) in yeast, and compared them to corresponding proteins that make DHC in Aspergillus terreus. Phylogenetic analysis and homology modeling of these enzymes identified variable surfaces and conserved motifs that are implicated in product formation. PMID:26493380

  12. Alterporriol-Type Dimers from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus, Alternaria sp. (SK11), and Their MptpB Inhibitions

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Guoping; Li, Jia; Li, Hanxiang; Long, Yuhua; Lin, Shao’e; Lu, Yongjun; He, Lei; Lin, Yongcheng; Liu, Lan; She, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    A new alterporriol-type anthranoid dimer, alterporriol S (1), along with seven known anthraquinone derivatives, (+)-aS-alterporriol C (2), hydroxybostrycin (3), halorosellinia A (4), tetrahydrobostrycin (5), 9α-hydroxydihydrodesoxybostrycin (6), austrocortinin (7) and 6-methylquinizarin (8), were isolated from the culture broth of the mangrove fungus, Alternaria sp. (SK11), from the South China Sea. Their structures and the relative configurations were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D NMR spectra. The absolute configurations of 1 and the axial configuration of 2 were defined by experimental and theoretical ECD spectroscopy. 1 was identified as the first member of alterporriols consisting of a unique C-10−C-2′ linkage. Atropisomer 2 exhibited strong inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein tyrosine phosphatase B (MptpB) with an IC50 value 8.70 μM. PMID:24840716

  13. Conidia of Alternaria in the atmosphere of the city of Cordoba, Spain in relation to meteorological parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angulo-Romero, J.; Mediavilla-Molina, Ana; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio

    In this study, we have analyzed the presence of conidia belonging to different species of the genus Alternaria in the atmosphere of the city of Cordoba, using a Hirst sampler. The results show that spores of this genus are present all year, with a clear seasonal pattern which shows two peaks, one in spring and the other in fall. A total of 26,822 conidia/m3 have been sampled, which implies a daily mean of 74.3 conidia/m3. Statistical analyses comparing the data with meteorological parameters show a positive correlation with maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, and a negative correlation with rain. Nevertheless, meteorological parameters seem to affect the number of conidia differently according to the season of the year. Regression analyses carried out in order to obtain a predictive pattern show that the best fit is between the 7-day running mean of the number of conidia and a week's accumulated mean temperature.

  14. Three Bianthraquinone Derivatives from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Alternaria sp. ZJ9-6B from the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cai-Huan; Pan, Jia-Hui; Chen, Bin; Yu, Miao; Huang, Hong-Bo; Zhu, Xun; Lu, Yong-Jun; She, Zhi-Gang; Lin, Yong-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Three new bianthraquinone derivatives, alterporriol K (1), L (2) and M (3), along with six known compounds were obtained from extracts of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. ZJ9-6B, isolated from the mangrove Aegiceras corniculatum collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, MS data analysis and circular dichroism measurements. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 were first isolated alterporriols with a C-2–C-2′ linkage. The crystallographic data of tetrahydroaltersolanol B (7) was reported for the first time. In the primary bioassays, alterporriol K and L exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity towards MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values ranging from 13.1 to 29.1 μM. PMID:21673892

  15. Partial Resistance of Carrot to Alternaria dauci Correlates with In Vitro Cultured Carrot Cell Resistance to Fungal Exudates

    PubMed Central

    Voisine, Linda; Gatto, Julia; Hélesbeux, Jean-Jacques; Séraphin, Denis; Peña-Rodriguez, Luis M.; Richomme, Pascal; Boedo, Cora; Yovanopoulos, Claire; Gyomlai, Melvina; Briard, Mathilde; Simoneau, Philippe; Poupard, Pascal; Berruyer, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Although different mechanisms have been proposed in the recent years, plant pathogen partial resistance is still poorly understood. Components of the chemical warfare, including the production of plant defense compounds and plant resistance to pathogen-produced toxins, are likely to play a role. Toxins are indeed recognized as important determinants of pathogenicity in necrotrophic fungi. Partial resistance based on quantitative resistance loci and linked to a pathogen-produced toxin has never been fully described. We tested this hypothesis using the Alternaria dauci – carrot pathosystem. Alternaria dauci, causing carrot leaf blight, is a necrotrophic fungus known to produce zinniol, a compound described as a non-host selective toxin. Embryogenic cellular cultures from carrot genotypes varying in resistance against A. dauci were confronted with zinniol at different concentrations or to fungal exudates (raw, organic or aqueous extracts). The plant response was analyzed through the measurement of cytoplasmic esterase activity, as a marker of cell viability, and the differentiation of somatic embryos in cellular cultures. A differential response to toxicity was demonstrated between susceptible and partially resistant genotypes, with a good correlation noted between the resistance to the fungus at the whole plant level and resistance at the cellular level to fungal exudates from raw and organic extracts. No toxic reaction of embryogenic cultures was observed after treatment with the aqueous extract or zinniol used at physiological concentration. Moreover, we did not detect zinniol in toxic fungal extracts by UHPLC analysis. These results suggest that strong phytotoxic compounds are present in the organic extract and remain to be characterized. Our results clearly show that carrot tolerance to A. dauci toxins is one component of its partial resistance. PMID:24983469

  16. Simultaneous analysis of Alternaria toxins and citrinin in tomato: an optimised method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tölgyesi, Ádám; Stroka, Joerg; Tamosiunas, Vytautas; Zwickel, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria toxins and citrinin are mycotoxins produced by fungi growing on different raw materials and agricultural commodities. Maximum levels of these toxins in foods are currently under consideration by the European Commission as a risk management measure. In this study, a new quantitative method is described for the determination of five Alternaria toxins and citrinin in tomato and tomato juice samples based on LC-MS/MS detection. Samples were extracted with pure methanol, followed by a derivatisation step with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine to improve the determination of tenuazonic acid and to decrease the wide polarity difference between the compounds of interest. Samples were purified on hydrophilic-modified styrene polymer solid-phase extraction cartridges. High-performance liquid chromatographic columns packed with different core-shell materials were tested for the separation of toxins and a C-18 phase was in the final method applied to achieve sufficient separation of all relevant analytes. A key element of this approach was to prove successful transferability of the method to three different triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. A full single laboratory method validation was performed on two LC-MS/MS systems and performance characteristics met the predefined requirements. Moreover, the method was used in an international proficiency test and the satisfactory z-scores obtained (-0.1 to 0.8 in tomato juice samples) demonstrated the reliability of the approach described. The method will be validated in an inter-laboratory collaborative study and if the criteria for method precision are met, the method will be proposed as a new Work Item to the European Committee for Standardisation. PMID:26212568

  17. Simultaneous analysis of Alternaria toxins and citrinin in tomato: an optimised method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tölgyesi, Ádám; Stroka, Joerg; Tamosiunas, Vytautas; Zwickel, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria toxins and citrinin are mycotoxins produced by fungi growing on different raw materials and agricultural commodities. Maximum levels of these toxins in foods are currently under consideration by the European Commission as a risk management measure. In this study, a new quantitative method is described for the determination of five Alternaria toxins and citrinin in tomato and tomato juice samples based on LC-MS/MS detection. Samples were extracted with pure methanol, followed by a derivatisation step with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine to improve the determination of tenuazonic acid and to decrease the wide polarity difference between the compounds of interest. Samples were purified on hydrophilic-modified styrene polymer solid-phase extraction cartridges. High-performance liquid chromatographic columns packed with different core–shell materials were tested for the separation of toxins and a C-18 phase was in the final method applied to achieve sufficient separation of all relevant analytes. A key element of this approach was to prove successful transferability of the method to three different triple quadrupole mass spectrometers. A full single laboratory method validation was performed on two LC-MS/MS systems and performance characteristics met the predefined requirements. Moreover, the method was used in an international proficiency test and the satisfactory z-scores obtained (−0.1 to 0.8 in tomato juice samples) demonstrated the reliability of the approach described. The method will be validated in an inter-laboratory collaborative study and if the criteria for method precision are met, the method will be proposed as a new Work Item to the European Committee for Standardisation. PMID:26212568

  18. Partial resistance of carrot to Alternaria dauci correlates with in vitro cultured carrot cell resistance to fungal exudates.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Mickaël; Hamama, Latifa; Voisine, Linda; Gatto, Julia; Hélesbeux, Jean-Jacques; Séraphin, Denis; Peña-Rodriguez, Luis M; Richomme, Pascal; Boedo, Cora; Yovanopoulos, Claire; Gyomlai, Melvina; Briard, Mathilde; Simoneau, Philippe; Poupard, Pascal; Berruyer, Romain

    2014-01-01

    Although different mechanisms have been proposed in the recent years, plant pathogen partial resistance is still poorly understood. Components of the chemical warfare, including the production of plant defense compounds and plant resistance to pathogen-produced toxins, are likely to play a role. Toxins are indeed recognized as important determinants of pathogenicity in necrotrophic fungi. Partial resistance based on quantitative resistance loci and linked to a pathogen-produced toxin has never been fully described. We tested this hypothesis using the Alternaria dauci-carrot pathosystem. Alternaria dauci, causing carrot leaf blight, is a necrotrophic fungus known to produce zinniol, a compound described as a non-host selective toxin. Embryogenic cellular cultures from carrot genotypes varying in resistance against A. dauci were confronted with zinniol at different concentrations or to fungal exudates (raw, organic or aqueous extracts). The plant response was analyzed through the measurement of cytoplasmic esterase activity, as a marker of cell viability, and the differentiation of somatic embryos in cellular cultures. A differential response to toxicity was demonstrated between susceptible and partially resistant genotypes, with a good correlation noted between the resistance to the fungus at the whole plant level and resistance at the cellular level to fungal exudates from raw and organic extracts. No toxic reaction of embryogenic cultures was observed after treatment with the aqueous extract or zinniol used at physiological concentration. Moreover, we did not detect zinniol in toxic fungal extracts by UHPLC analysis. These results suggest that strong phytotoxic compounds are present in the organic extract and remain to be characterized. Our results clearly show that carrot tolerance to A. dauci toxins is one component of its partial resistance. PMID:24983469

  19. The filamentous phage XacF1 causes loss of virulence in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri, the causative agent of citrus canker disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Abdelmonim Ali; Askora, Ahmed; Kawasaki, Takeru; Fujie, Makoto; Yamada, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, filamentous phage XacF1, which can infect Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) strains, was isolated and characterized. Electron microscopy showed that XacF1 is a member of the family Inoviridae and is about 600 nm long. The genome of XacF1 is 7325 nucleotides in size, containing 13 predicted open reading frames (ORFs), some of which showed significant homology to Ff-like phage proteins such as ORF1 (pII), ORF2 (pV), ORF6 (pIII), and ORF8 (pVI). XacF1 showed a relatively wide host range, infecting seven out of 11 strains tested in this study. Frequently, XacF1 was found to be integrated into the genome of Xac strains. This integration occurred at the host dif site (attB) and was mediated by the host XerC/D recombination system. The attP sequence was identical to that of Xanthomonas phage Cf1c. Interestingly, infection by XacF1 phage caused several physiological changes to the bacterial host cells, including lower levels of extracellular polysaccharide production, reduced motility, slower growth rate, and a dramatic reduction in virulence. In particular, the reduction in virulence suggested possible utilization of XacF1 as a biological control agent against citrus canker disease. PMID:25071734

  20. Rotatable stem and lock

    DOEpatents

    Deveney, Joseph E.; Sanderson, Stephen N.

    1984-01-01

    A valve stem and lock include a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

  1. Rotatable stem and lock

    DOEpatents

    Deveney, J.E.; Sanderson, S.N.

    1981-10-27

    A valve stem and lock is disclosed which includes a housing surrounding a valve stem, a solenoid affixed to an interior wall of the housing, an armature affixed to the valve stem and a locking device for coupling the armature to the housing body. When the solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves away from the housing body, permitting rotation of the valve stem.

  2. Determination of Alternaria mycotoxins in wine and juice using ionic liquid modified countercurrent chromatography as a pretreatment method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chen; Cao, Xueli; Liu, Man; Wang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), and tenuazonic acid (TeA) are some of the main Alternaria mycotoxins that can be found as contaminants in food materials. The objective of this study was to develop a pretreatment method with countercurrent chromatography (CCC) for enrichment and cleanup of trace Alternaria mycotoxins in food samples prior to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. An Analytical CCC instrument with a column volume 22.5mL was used, and a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate and water modified with 6% [HOOMIM][Cl] in mass to volume ratio was selected. Under the optimized CCC operation conditions, trace amounts of AOH, AME, and TeA in large volume of liquid sample were efficiently extracted and enriched in the stationary phase, and then eluted out just by reversing the stationary phase as mobile phase in the opposite flowing direction tail-to-head. The enrichment and elution strategies are unique and can be fulfilled online with high enrichment factors (87-114) and high recoveries (81.14-110.94%). The method has been successively applied to the determination of Alternaria mycotoxins in real apple juice and wine samples with the limits of detection (LOD) in the range of 0.03-0.14μgL(-1). Totally 12 wine samples and 15 apple juice samples from the local market were analyzed. The detection rate of AOH and AME in both kinds of the samples were more than 50%, while TeA was found in relatively high level of 1.75-49.61μgL(-1) in some of the apple juice samples. The proposed method is simple, rapid, and sensitive and could also be used for the analysis and monitoring of Alternaria mycotoxin in other food samples. PMID:26858114

  3. Onychomycosis and keratomycosis caused by Alternaria sp. A bipolar opportunistic infection in a wood-pulp worker on chronic steroid therapy.

    PubMed

    Arrese, J E; Piérard-Franchimont, C; Piérard, G E

    1996-12-01

    We report a case of Alternaria infection of the nail and cornea in an immunocompromised patient working in the paper-manufacturing industry. This unusual clinical presentation could represent an occupational disorder. The importance of histologic examination of the altered nails is emphasized. The proof of a real nondermatophytic onychomycosis is established only when hyphae of culture-proven molds are shown inside the nail plate. PMID:8989935

  4. Ex Vivo Application of Secreted Metabolites Produced by Soil-Inhabiting Bacillus spp. Efficiently Controls Foliar Diseases Caused by Alternaria spp.

    PubMed

    Ali, Gul Shad; El-Sayed, Ashraf S A; Patel, Jaimin S; Green, Kari B; Ali, Mohammad; Brennan, Mary; Norman, David

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial biological control agents (BCAs) are largely used as live products to control plant pathogens. However, due to variable environmental and ecological factors, live BCAs usually fail to produce desirable results against foliar pathogens. In this study, we investigated the potential of cell-free culture filtrates of 12 different bacterial BCAs isolated from flower beds for controlling foliar diseases caused by Alternaria spp. In vitro studies showed that culture filtrates from two isolates belonging to Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens displayed strong efficacy and potencies against Alternaria spp. The antimicrobial activity of the culture filtrate of these two biological control agents was effective over a wider range of pH (3.0 to 9.0) and was not affected by autoclaving or proteolysis. Comparative liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses showed that a complex mixture of cyclic lipopeptides, primarily of the fengycin A and fengycin B families, was significantly higher in these two BCAs than inactive Bacillus spp. Interaction studies with mixtures of culture filtrates of these two species revealed additive activity, suggesting that they produce similar products, which was confirmed by LC-tandem MS analyses. In in planta pre- and postinoculation trials, foliar application of culture filtrates of B. subtilis reduced lesion sizes and lesion frequencies caused by Alternaria alternata by 68 to 81%. Taken together, our studies suggest that instead of live bacteria, culture filtrates of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens can be applied either individually or in combination for controlling foliar diseases caused by Alternaria species. PMID:26519395

  5. Functional Analyses of the Diels-Alderase Gene sol5 of Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani Indicate that the Solanapyrone Phytotoxins Are Not Required for Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonyong; Park, Chung-Min; Park, Jeong-Jin; Akamatsu, Hajime O; Peever, Tobin L; Xian, Ming; Gang, David R; Vandemark, George; Chen, Weidong

    2015-04-01

    Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani, the causal agents of Ascochyta blight of chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and early blight of potato (Solanum tuberosum), respectively, produce a set of phytotoxic compounds including solanapyrones A, B, and C. Although both the phytotoxicity of solanapyrones and their universal production among field isolates have been documented, the role of solanapyrones in pathogenicity is not well understood. Here, we report the functional characterization of the sol5 gene, which encodes a Diels-Alderase that catalyzes the final step of solanapyrone biosynthesis. Deletion of sol5 in both Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani completely prevented production of solanapyrones and led to accumulation of the immediate precursor compound, prosolanapyrone II-diol, which is not toxic to plants. Deletion of sol5 did not negatively affect growth rate or spore production in vitro, and led to overexpression of the other solanapyrone biosynthesis genes, suggesting a possible feedback regulation mechanism. Phytotoxicity tests showed that solanapyrone A is highly toxic to several legume species and Arabidopsis thaliana. Despite the apparent phytotoxicity of solanapyrone A, pathogenicity tests showed that solanapyrone-minus mutants of Ascochyta rabiei and Alternaria solani were equally virulent as their corresponding wild-type progenitors, suggesting that solanapyrones are not required for pathogenicity. PMID:25372118

  6. Lampropedia puyangensis sp. nov., isolated from symptomatic bark of Populus × euramericana canker and emended description of Lampropedia hyalina (Ehrenberg 1832) Lee et al. 2004.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Wang, Tao; Piao, Chun-Gen; Wang, Lai-Fa; Tian, Guo-Zhong; Zhu, Tian-Hui; Guo, Min-Wei

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-stain negative, Neisser-stain negative, aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, slimy, glossy bacterial strain with single or clustered coccoid cells and white colony colour, designated as 2-bin(T), was isolated from cankered bark tissue of Populus × euramericana. The strain was found to grow at 15-40 °C and pH 5-10, with an optimum of 30 °C and pH 8.0. The strain was found to be negative with respect to catalase and positive for oxidase activity, nitrate reduction and Voges-Proskauer reaction. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence data indicated that the isolate belongs to the genus Lampropedia, having sequence similarity of 96.24 % with Lampropedia hyalina ATCC11041(T). DNA-DNA relatedness of strain 2-bin(T) with L. hyalina JCM 21380(T) was 26.7 ± 4.6 %. The DNA G+C content of strain 2-bin(T) was determined to be 57 % and the major cellular fatty acids were identified as C16:0, C16:1 ω7c/C16:1 ω6c and C18:1 ω7c. The polar lipid profile of strain 2-bin(T) was found to contain diphosphatidylglycerol, a glycolipid, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, a phospholipid, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and three unidentified lipids (L1, L2, L3). Based on molecular data and physiological and biochemical characteristics, strain 2-bin(T) is considered to represent a novel species in the genus Lampropedia, for which the name Lampropedia puyangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 2-bin(T) (= CFCC 10925(T) = KCTC 32235(T)). PMID:25991383

  7. Study of rhizosphere and phyllosphere bacterial community and resistance to bacterial canker in genetically engineered phytochrome A cherry plants.

    PubMed

    Cirvilleri, Gabriella; Spina, Stefania; Iacona, Calogero; Catara, Antonino; Muleo, Rosario

    2008-07-01

    The cherry rootstock 'Colt' line was transformed with a phytochrome A rice gene with the aim of altering light perception. Three transgenic events were chosen because of a modified developmental behavior. When red enriched light was supplied horizontally to stems, the PD3 transgenic line showed an increased rate of phytomer formation associated to a superior rate of plant growth compared to wild type (WT). Under the same light conditions, the PO1 and PA lines were less altered in morphology and development. When far-red enriched light was supplied, all transgenic lines had a reduced rate of growth, with the PD3 line being the most similar to the WT. The influence of the alien gene on root and leaf-associated bacteria was studied for a duration of 1 year. Significantly more culturable bacteria were recovered from PA lines than from PO1, PD3 and WT lines. On average, significantly more fluorescent pseudomonads were recovered from the rhizosphere of PA and PO1 lines than from PD3 and WT. No significant differences were detected in the number of bacteria recovered from the phyllosphere of transgenic and WT plant lines. A total of 143 Pseudomonas fluorescens strains isolated from rhizosphere of transgenic and WT lines were tested for their antagonistic activity against Phytophthora nicotianae and differences between bacteria derived from transgenic and WT were not detected. Fluorescent pseudomonads strains isolated from phyllosphere of PA and PO1 lines showed antagonistic activity against P. syringae pv. syringae, whereas no difference among the transgenic and WT lines was detected when fluorescent Pseudomonas strains were tested against P. syringae pv. mors-prunorum. Pathogenicity tests were conducted on rooted and micropropagated plants with P. s. pv. syringae and P. s. pv. mors-prunorum: in all assays, the PO1 lines were the most tolerant to P. s. pv. Syringae, and the PO1 and PD3 were tolerant to P. s. pv. mors-prunorum. PMID:18439710

  8. The Arabidopsis thaliana-Alternaria brassicicola pathosystem: A model interaction for investigating seed transmission of necrotrophic fungi

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Seed transmission constitutes a major component of the parasitic cycle for several fungal pathogens. However, very little is known concerning fungal or plant genetic factors that impact seed transmission and mechanisms underlying this key biological trait have yet to be clarified. Such lack of available data could be probably explained by the absence of suitable model pathosystem to study plant-fungus interactions during the plant reproductive phase. Results Here we report on setting up a new pathosystem that could facilitate the study of fungal seed transmission. Reproductive organs of Arabidopsis thaliana were inoculated with Alternaria brassicicola conidia. Parameters (floral vs fruit route, seed collection date, plant and silique developmental stages) that could influence the seed transmission efficiency were tested to define optimal seed infection conditions. Microscopic observations revealed that the fungus penetrates siliques through cellular junctions, replum and stomata, and into seed coats either directly or through cracks. The ability of the osmosensitive fungal mutant nik1Δ3 to transmit to A. thaliana seeds was analyzed. A significant decrease in seed transmission rate was observed compared to the wild-type parental strain, confirming that a functional osmoregulation pathway is required for efficient seed transmission of the fungus. Similarly, to test the role of flavonoids in seed coat protection against pathogens, a transparent testa Arabidopsis mutant (tt4-1) not producing any flavonoid was used as host plant. Unexpectedly, tt4-1 seeds were infected to a significantly lower extent than wild-type seeds, possibly due to over-accumulation of other antimicrobial metabolites. Conclusions The Arabidopsis thaliana-Alternaria brassicicola pathosystem, that have been widely used to study plant-pathogen interactions during the vegetative phase, also proved to constitute a suitable model pathosystem for detailed analysis of plant-pathogen interactions during the reproductive phase. We demonstrated that it provides an excellent system for investigating the impact of different fungal or plant mutations on the seed transmission process and therefore paves the way towards future high-throughput screening of both Arabidopsis and fungal mutant. PMID:22571391

  9. Dehydrin-like Proteins in the Necrotrophic Fungus Alternaria brassicicola Have a Role in Plant Pathogenesis and Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Pochon, Stéphanie; Simoneau, Philippe; Pigné, Sandrine; Balidas, Samuel; Bataillé-Simoneau, Nelly; Campion, Claire; Jaspard, Emmanuel; Calmes, Benoît; Hamon, Bruno; Berruyer, Romain; Juchaux, Marjorie; Guillemette, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the roles of fungal dehydrin-like proteins in pathogenicity and protection against environmental stresses were investigated in the necrotrophic seed-borne fungus Alternaria brassicicola. Three proteins (called AbDhn1, AbDhn2 and AbDhn3), harbouring the asparagine-proline-arginine (DPR) signature pattern and sharing the characteristic features of fungal dehydrin-like proteins, were identified in the A. brassicicola genome. The expression of these genes was induced in response to various stresses and found to be regulated by the AbHog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. A knock-out approach showed that dehydrin-like proteins have an impact mainly on oxidative stress tolerance and on conidial survival upon exposure to high and freezing temperatures. The subcellular localization revealed that AbDhn1 and AbDhn2 were associated with peroxisomes, which is consistent with a possible perturbation of protective mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress and maintain the redox balance in AbDhn mutants. Finally, we show that the double deletion mutant ΔΔabdhn1-abdhn2 was highly compromised in its pathogenicity. By comparison to the wild-type, this mutant exhibited lower aggressiveness on B. oleracea leaves and a reduced capacity to be transmitted to Arabidopsis seeds via siliques. The double mutant was also affected with respect to conidiation, another crucial step in the epidemiology of the disease. PMID:24098369

  10. Constitutive expression of a celery mannitol dehydrogenase in tobacco enhances resistance to the mannitol-secreting fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Dianne B; Daub, Margaret E; Pharr, D Mason; Williamson, John D

    2002-10-01

    Our previous observation that host plant extracts induce production and secretion of mannitol in the tobacco pathogen Alternaria alternata suggested that, like their animal counterparts, plant pathogenic fungi might produce the reactive oxygen quencher mannitol as a means of suppressing reactive oxygen-mediated plant defenses. The concurrent discovery that pathogen attack induced mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD) expression in the non-mannitol-containing host tobacco suggested that plants, unlike animals, might be able to counter this fungal suppressive mechanism by catabolizing mannitol of fungal origin. To test this hypothesis, transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing a celery Mtd cDNA were produced and evaluated for potential changes in resistance to both mannitol- and non-mannitol-secreting pathogens. Constitutive expression of the MTD transgene was found to confer significantly enhanced resistance to A. alternata, but not to the non-mannitol-secreting fungal pathogen Cercospora nicotianae. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that MTD plays a role in resistance to mannitol-secreting fungal plant pathogens. PMID:12366799

  11. Phosphoproteome profiles of the phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria brassicicola and Botrytis cinerea during exponential growth in axenic cultures.

    PubMed

    Davanture, Marlène; Dumur, Jérôme; Bataillé-Simoneau, Nelly; Campion, Claire; Valot, Benoît; Zivy, Michel; Simoneau, Philippe; Fillinger, Sabine

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the gel-free phosphoproteomic analysis of the phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria brassicicola and Botrytis cinerea grown in vitro under nonlimiting conditions. Using a combination of strong cation exchange and IMAC prior to LC-MS, we identified over 1350 phosphopeptides per fungus representing over 800 phosphoproteins. The preferred phosphorylation sites were found on serine (>80%) and threonine (>15%), whereas phosphorylated tyrosine residues were found at less than 1% in A. brassicicola and at a slightly higher ratio in B. cinerea (1.5%). Biological processes represented principally among the phoshoproteins were those involved in response and transduction of stimuli as well as in regulation of cellular and metabolic processes. Most known elements of signal transduction were found in the datasets of both fungi. This study also revealed unexpected phosphorylation sites in histidine kinases, a category overrepresented in filamentous ascomycetes compared to yeast. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange database with identifier PXD000817 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000817). PMID:24825570

  12. Metabolite diversity in the plant pathogen Alternaria brassicicola: factors affecting production of brassicicolin A, depudecin, phomapyrone A and other metabolites.

    PubMed

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Park, Myung Ryeol

    2015-01-01

    A systematic investigation of the metabolites of Alternaria brassicicola produced under various culture conditions is reported. The phytotoxin brassicicolin A is produced in significantly larger amounts in potato dextrose broth than in minimal medium cultures. In general an increase in the incubation temperature of cultures 23-30 C increases the production of brassicicolin A but decreases depudecin production. Reducing or eliminating nitrate from culture media or adding ammonium chloride increases the production of brassicicolin A at 30 C, depudecin at 23 C and α-acetylorcinol at either temperature, suggesting that nitrogen represses their biosynthesis. Siderophores are detected in cultures of A. brassicicola containing low and high ferric ion concentrations. The metabolites α-acetylorcinol and tyrosol are isolated for the first time from cultures of A. brassicicola, and α-acetylorcinol is synthesized in four steps and 36% overall yield. Only brassicicolin A and no other isolated metabolites, including depudecin and phomapyrone A, display phytotoxicity on leaves of Brassica species (up to 5.0 mM). Epigenetic modifiers, 5-azacitidin (5-AZA), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid (SBHA) do not affect the metabolite profiles of liquid cultures of this fungal pathogen. PMID:26297782

  13. Circular DNA Plasmid in the Phytopathogenic Fungus Alternaria Alternata: Its Temperature-Dependent Curing and Association with Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Katsuya, S.; Kaneko, I.; Owaki, M.; Ishikawa, K.; Tsujimoto, T.; Tsuge, T.

    1997-01-01

    We found the presence of plasmid DNA in strain T88-56 of the Japanese pear pathotype of Alternaria alternata, which causes black spot of certain cultivars of Japanese pear by producing host-specific AK-toxin. The plasmid, designated pAAT56, was identified to be an ~5.4-kilobase (kb) circular molecule by electron microscopic observation and restriction endonuclease mapping. Southern blot analysis showed that pAAT56 DNA had no homology with either nuclear or mitochondrial DNA. Cultures of strain T88-56 grown at 26° showed markedly reduced plasmid levels relative to those grown at lower temperatures. The strain was completely cured of pAAT56 during growth at 29°. Temperature-dependent curing of pAAT56 was confirmed by using single-protoplast isolates from mycelia grown at 23°, most of which maintained the plasmid, and from mycelia grown at 29°, most of which had lost the plasmid. Northern blot analysis detected the presence of three RNA species (~1.7, 2.7 and 5.4 kb) transcribed from pAAT56. The biological function of pAAT56 was observed using single-protoplast isolates from mycelia that either contained or had been cured of pAAT56. The plasmid-containing isolates tended to be reduced in AK-toxin production and pathogenicity compared with the plasmid-cured isolates. PMID:9136005

  14. Biological evaluation and determination of the absolute configuration of chloromonilicin, a strong antimicrobial metabolite isolated from Alternaria sonchi.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Berestetskiy, Alexander; Dalinova, Anna; Krivorotov, Denis; Tuzi, Angela; Evidente, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Chloromonilicin was isolated for the first time from Alternaria sonchi, a mycoherbicide proposed for the control of the noxious weed Sonchus arvensis. The already known alternethanoxins A and B and the three recently isolated phytotoxic polycyclic ethanones named alternethanoxins C-E were also isolated from the same source. Chloromonilicin was identified by spectroscopic data (essentially one-dimensional NMR, 2-dimensional NMR and high-resolution ESI-MS) and its structure was confirmed by single X-ray analysis, which also allowed the assignment of the absolute configuration. This latter was independently confirmed by electronic CD calculations. When chloromonilicin was tested for its antimicrobial activity, it was active at concentrations 0.5-1 μg per disc against four bacterial species and a yeast fungus. The compound inhibited conidial germination of four plant pathogens at concentration of 1-10 μg ml(-1). No phytotoxic activity of this antibiotic by leaf-disc puncture bioassay was detected. PMID:26174176

  15. Identification of a Polyketide Synthase Required for Alternariol (AOH) and Alternariol-9-Methyl Ether (AME) Formation in Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Debjani; Fetzner, Ramona; Burkhardt, Britta; Podlech, Joachim; Metzler, Manfred; Dang, Ha; Lawrence, Christopher; Fischer, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    Alternaria alternata produces more than 60 secondary metabolites, among which alternariol (AOH) and alternariol-9-methyl ether (AME) are important mycotoxins. Whereas the toxicology of these two polyketide-based compounds has been studied, nothing is known about the genetics of their biosynthesis. One of the postulated core enzymes in the biosynthesis of AOH and AME is polyketide synthase (PKS). In a draft genome sequence of A. alternata we identified 10 putative PKS-encoding genes. The timing of the expression of two PKS genes, pksJ and pksH, correlated with the production of AOH and AME. The PksJ and PksH proteins are predicted to be 2222 and 2821 amino acids in length, respectively. They are both iterative type I reducing polyketide synthases. PksJ harbors a peroxisomal targeting sequence at the C-terminus, suggesting that the biosynthesis occurs at least partly in these organelles. In the vicinity of pksJ we found a transcriptional regulator, altR, involved in pksJ induction and a putative methyl transferase, possibly responsible for AME formation. Downregulation of pksJ and altR caused a large decrease of alternariol formation, suggesting that PksJ is the polyketide synthase required for the postulated Claisen condensations during the biosynthesis. No other enzymes appeared to be required. PksH downregulation affected pksJ expression and thus caused an indirect effect on AOH production. PMID:22792370

  16. Spatial and temporal distribution of Alternaria spores in the Iberian Peninsula atmosphere, and meteorological relationships: 1993-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aira, María-Jesús; Rodríguez-Rajo, Francisco-Javier; Fernández-González, María; Seijo, Carmen; Elvira-Rendueles, Belén; Abreu, Ilda; Gutiérrez-Bustillo, Montserrat; Pérez-Sánchez, Elena; Oliveira, Manuela; Recio, Marta; Tormo, Rafael; Morales, Julia

    2013-03-01

    This paper provides an updated of airborne Alternaria spore spatial and temporal distribution patterns in the Iberian Peninsula, using a common non-viable volumetric sampling method. The highest mean annual spore counts were recorded in Sevilla (39,418 spores), Mérida (33,744) and Málaga (12,947), while other sampling stations never exceeded 5,000. The same cities also recorded the highest mean daily spore counts (Sevilla 109 spores m-3; Mérida 53 spores m-3 and Málaga 35 spores m-3) and the highest number of days on which counts exceeded the threshold levels required to trigger allergy symptoms (Sevilla 38 % and Mérida 30 % of days). Analysis of annual spore distribution patterns revealed either one or two peaks, depending on the location and prevailing climate of sampling stations. For all stations, average temperature was the weather parameter displaying the strongest positive correlation with airborne spore counts, whilst negative correlations were found for rainfall and relative humidity.

  17. Recombinant glutathione-S-transferase a major allergen from Alternaria alternata for clinical use in allergy patients.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Jay; Singh, Bhanu P; Gaur, Shailendra N; Arora, Naveen

    2006-05-01

    Recombinant proteins are used for vaccines, therapy and diagnosis of many diseases. Biological activity of these may differ from native counterpart and needs investigation. The present study aimed to compare recombinant (r) and native (n) glutathione-S-transferase (GST) from Alternaria alternata. Glutathione-S-transferase sequence showed an ORF of 696bp encoding 26-kDa protein with N-terminus conserved domain. Secondary structure of both forms was comparable with melting temperature of 57 and 59 degrees C, respectively. rGST and nGST showed similar enzymatic activity, allergenicity and potency by ELISA inhibition. Histamine release was comparable in 14/17 patients for both the GSTs. rGST and nGST induced proliferation in PBMC at different concentration. Cell supernatant revealed higher IL-4 and IL-5 levels with low levels of IFN-gamma. In summary, recombinant and native GST demonstrated similar physio-chemical, biological and immunological properties and induced comparable cell mediated and humoral response to be used for diagnosis and specific immunotherapy for the fungal allergy cases. PMID:16430961

  18. A high throughput targeted gene disruption method for Alternaria brassicicola functional genomics using linear minimal element (LME) constructs.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yangrae; Davis, Joshua W; Kim, Kwang-Hyung; Wang, Juan; Sun, Qi-Hong; Cramer, Robert A; Lawrence, Christopher B

    2006-01-01

    Alternaria brassicicola causes black spot disease of cultivated Brassicas and has been used consistently as a necrotrophic fungal pathogen for studies with Arabidopsis. In A. brassicicola, mutant generation has been the most rate-limiting step for the functional analysis of individual genes due to low efficiency of both transformation and targeted integration. To improve the targeted gene disruption efficiency as well as to expedite gene disruption construct production, we used a short linear construct with minimal elements, an antibiotic resistance selectable marker gene, and a 250- to 600-bp-long partial target gene. The linear minimal element (LME) constructs consistently produced stable transformants for diverse categories of genes. Typically, 100% of the transformants were targeted gene disruption mutants when using the LME constructs, compared with inconsistent transformation and usually less than 10% targeted gene disruption with circular plasmid disruption constructs. Each mutant displayed a unique molecular signature thought to originate from endogenous exonuclease activities in fungal cells. Our data suggests that a DNA double-stranded break repair mechanism (DSBR) functions to increase targeting efficiency. This method is advantageous for high throughput gene disruption, overexpression, and reporter gene introduction within target genes, especially for asexual filamentous fungi where genetic approaches are unfavorable. PMID:16404948

  19. Screening of allelopathic trees for their antifungal potential against Alternaria alternata strains isolated from dying-back Eucalyptus spp.

    PubMed

    Javaid, Arshad; Samad, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Antifungal activity of methanolic extracts of leaves of three tree species, namely Azadirachta indica L., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Melia azedarach L. was evaluated against two strains of Alternaria alternata, isolated from dying-back trees of two Eucalyptus spp., namely Eucalyptus citriodora and Eucalyptus globulus. All the concentrations (1,?2,??,?5% w/v) of the methanolic extracts of the three tree species significantly reduced the fungal biomass. There were reductions in the ranges 82-88%, 88-96% and 83-96% in the biomass of A. alternata strains due to different concentrations of the leaf extracts of S. cumini, A. indica and M. azedarach, respectively. Methanolic extract of M. azedarach was subjected to further fractionation using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol successively in the order of increasing polarity. Aqueous and n-butanol fractions gave promising results in the significant decrease in fungal biomass. This study concludes that aqueous and n-butanol fractions of methanolic leaf extract of M. azedarach can be used as biofungicides for the management of A. alternata. PMID:22007991

  20. Expansion of genetic diversity in randomly mating founder populations of Alternaria brassicicola infecting Cakile maritima in Australia.

    PubMed

    Linde, C C; Liles, J A; Thrall, P H

    2010-03-01

    Founder populations of fungal plant pathogens are expected to have low levels of genetic diversity coupled with further genetic drift due to, e.g., limited host availability, which should result in additional population bottlenecks. This study used microsatellite markers in the interaction between Cakile maritima and the fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola to explore genetic expectations associated with such situations. The host, C. maritima, was introduced into Australia approximately 100 years ago, but it is unknown whether the pathogen was already present in Australia, as it has a wide occurrence, or whether it was introduced to Australia on brassicaceous hosts. Eleven A. brassicicola populations were studied, and all showed moderate levels of gene and genotypic diversity. Chi-square tests of the frequencies of mating type alleles, a large number of genotypes, and linkage equilibrium among microsatellite loci all suggest A. brassicicola reproduces sexually. Significant genetic differentiation was found among populations, but there was no evidence for isolation by distance effects. Bayesian analyses identified eight clusters where the inferred clusters did not represent geographical populations but instead consisted of individuals admixed from all populations. Further analysis indicated that fungal populations were more likely to have experienced a recent population expansion than a population bottleneck. It is suggested that A. brassicicola has been introduced into Australia multiple times, potentially increasing the diversity and size of any A. brassicola populations already present there. Combined with its ability to reproduce sexually, such processes appear to have increased the evolutionary potential of the pathogen through recent population expansions. PMID:20097819

  1. Expansion of Genetic Diversity in Randomly Mating Founder Populations of Alternaria brassicicola Infecting Cakile maritima in Australia▿

    PubMed Central

    Linde, C. C.; Liles, J. A.; Thrall, P. H.

    2010-01-01

    Founder populations of fungal plant pathogens are expected to have low levels of genetic diversity coupled with further genetic drift due to, e.g., limited host availability, which should result in additional population bottlenecks. This study used microsatellite markers in the interaction between Cakile maritima and the fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola to explore genetic expectations associated with such situations. The host, C. maritima, was introduced into Australia approximately 100 years ago, but it is unknown whether the pathogen was already present in Australia, as it has a wide occurrence, or whether it was introduced to Australia on brassicaceous hosts. Eleven A. brassicicola populations were studied, and all showed moderate levels of gene and genotypic diversity. Chi-square tests of the frequencies of mating type alleles, a large number of genotypes, and linkage equilibrium among microsatellite loci all suggest A. brassicicola reproduces sexually. Significant genetic differentiation was found among populations, but there was no evidence for isolation by distance effects. Bayesian analyses identified eight clusters where the inferred clusters did not represent geographical populations but instead consisted of individuals admixed from all populations. Further analysis indicated that fungal populations were more likely to have experienced a recent population expansion than a population bottleneck. It is suggested that A. brassicicola has been introduced into Australia multiple times, potentially increasing the diversity and size of any A. brassicola populations already present there. Combined with its ability to reproduce sexually, such processes appear to have increased the evolutionary potential of the pathogen through recent population expansions. PMID:20097819

  2. Transcriptional responses of the Bdtf1-deletion mutant to the phytoalexin brassinin in the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yangrae; Ohm, Robin A; Devappa, Rakshit; Lee, Hyang Burm; Grigoriev, Igor V; Kim, Bo Yeon; Ahn, Jong Seog

    2014-01-01

    Brassica species produce the antifungal indolyl compounds brassinin and its derivatives, during microbial infection. The fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola detoxifies brassinin and possibly its derivatives. This ability is an important property for the successful infection of brassicaceous plants. Previously, we identified a transcription factor, Bdtf1, essential for the detoxification of brassinin and full virulence. To discover genes that encode putative brassinin-digesting enzymes, we compared gene expression profiles between a mutant strain of the transcription factor and wild-type A. brassicicola under two different experimental conditions. A total of 170 and 388 genes were expressed at higher levels in the mutants than the wild type during the infection of host plants and saprophytic growth in the presence of brassinin, respectively. In contrast, 93 and 560 genes were expressed, respectively, at lower levels in the mutant than the wild type under the two conditions. Fifteen of these genes were expressed at lower levels in the mutant than in the wild type under both conditions. These genes were assumed to be important for the detoxification of brassinin and included Bdtf1 and 10 putative enzymes. This list of genes provides a resource for the discovery of enzyme-coding genes important in the chemical modification of brassinin. PMID:25061722

  3. Calcineurin phosphatase and phospholipase C are required for developmental and pathological functions in the citrus fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsieh-Chin; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2014-07-01

    Excessive Ca(2+) or compounds interfering with phosphoinositide cycling have been found to inhibit the growth of the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata, suggesting a crucial role of Ca(2+) homeostasis in this pathotype. The roles of PLC1, a phospholipase C-coding gene and CAL1, a calcineurin phosphatase-coding gene were investigated. Targeted gene disruption showed that both PLC1 and CAL1 were required for vegetative growth, conidial formation and pathogenesis in citrus. Fungal strains lacking PLC1 or CAL1 exhibited extremely slow growth and induced small lesions on calamondin leaves. Δplc1 mutants produced fewer conidia, which germinated at slower rates than wild-type. Δcal1 mutants produced abnormal hyphae and failed to produce any mature conidia, but instead produced highly melanized bulbous hyphae with distinct septae. Fluorescence microscopy using Fluo-3 dye as a Ca(2+) indicator revealed that the Δplc1 mutant hyphae emitted stronger cytosolic fluorescence, and the Δcal1 mutant hyphae emitted less cytosolic fluorescence, than those of wild-type. Infection assessed on detached calamondin leaves revealed that application of CaCl2 or neomycin 24 h prior to inoculation provided protection against Alt. alternata. These data indicate that a dynamic equilibrium of cellular Ca(2+) is critical for developmental and pathological processes of Alt. alternata. PMID:24763426

  4. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A negatively regulates conidia formation by the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsieh-Chin; Yang, Siwy Ling; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2013-02-01

    The necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata causes brown spot diseases in many citrus cultivars. The FUS3 and SLT2 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)-mediated signaling pathways have been shown to be required for conidiation. Exogenous application of cAMP to this fungal pathogen decreased conidia formation considerably. This study determined whether a cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA) is required for conidiation. Using loss-of-function mutations in PKA catalytic and regulatory subunit-coding genes, we demonstrated that PKA negatively regulates conidiation. Fungal mutants lacking PKA catalytic subunit gene (PKA ( cat )) reduced growth, lacked detectable PKA activity, and produced higher amounts of conidia compared to wild-type. Introduction of a functional copy of PKA ( cat ) into a null mutant partially restored PKA activity and produced wild-type level of conidia. In contrast, fungi lacking PKA regulatory subunit gene (PKA ( reg )) produced detectable PKA activity, exhibited severe growth reduction, formed swelling hyphal segments, and produced no mature conidia. Introduction of the PKA ( reg ) gene to a regulatory subunit mutant restored all phenotypes to wild type. PKA ( reg )-null mutants induced fewer necrotic lesions on citrus compared to wild-type, whereas PKA ( cat ) mutant displayed wild-type virulence. Overall, our studies indicate that PKA and FUS3-mediated signaling pathways apparently have very different roles in the regulation of conidia production and A. alternata pathogenesis in citrus. PMID:23054702

  5. Detection and Quantification of Airborne Conidia of Fusarium circinatum, the Causal Agent of Pine Pitch Canker, from Two California Sites by Using a Real-Time PCR Approach Combined with a Simple Spore Trapping Method

    PubMed Central

    Schweigkofler, Wolfgang; O'Donnell, Kerry; Garbelotto, Matteo

    2004-01-01

    Pinus radiata (Monterey pine), a tree native to coastal California and Mexico, is widely planted worldwide for timber production. A major threat to Monterey pine plantations is the fungal disease pine pitch canker, caused by Fusarium circinatum (Hypocreales). We present a novel trapping approach using filter paper in combination with a rapid molecular method to detect the presence of inoculum in the air. The assay is also useful for diagnosing the presence of the pathogen on plants. The test is based on the F. circinatum specific primer pair CIRC1A-CIRC4A, which amplifies a 360-bp DNA fragment in the intergenic spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal operon. Real-time PCR was used to calculate the number of fungal spores present in each reaction mixture by comparing the threshold cycle (Ct) of unknown spore samples to the Ct values of standards with known amounts of F. circinatum spores. The filter paper method allows prolonged and more sensitive spore sampling in the field compared to traditional traps using petri dishes filled with selective medium. A field test at two sites in coastal California infested with pine pitch canker was carried out during the summer and fall of 2002. Spore counts were in the range of ca. 1 × 103 to ca. 7 × 105/m2, with the highest spore counts in the fall, suggesting a seasonal fluctuation. PMID:15184151

  6. Information on Stem Cell Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Information on Stem Cell Research Research @ NINDS Stem Cell Highlights Submit a ... found here: Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells NINDS Stem Cell Research on Campus The Intramural Research Program of ...

  7. Cancer Stem Cell Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    Mission The Cancer Stem Cell Consortium is a self-assembled organization of intramural scientists at all levels of training with an interest in fundamental questions concerning stem cells, developmental biology, and cancer. We host scientific exchanges, w

  8. Editorial: Stem Cell Engineering.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Joaquim M S; Palecek, Sean P

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the promise of stem cells as tools for basic research, in vitro diagnostics, and in vivo therapeutics is increasingly being realized. This Special issue of Biotechnology Journal explores recent advances in the emerging field of stem cell engineering, with a focus on applying engineering approaches to understanding stem cell biology and enabling translation of stem cells to commercial and clinical products. PMID:26447639

  9. Understanding STEM: Current Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Ryan; Brown, Joshua; Reardon, Kristin; Merrill, Chris

    2011-01-01

    In many ways, the push for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education appears to have grown from a concern for the low number of future professionals to fill STEM jobs and careers and economic and educational competitiveness. The proponents of STEM education believe that by increasing math and science requirements in…

  10. Putative intestinal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Pirvulet, V

    2015-01-01

    A heterogeneous set of intestinal stem cells markers has been described in intestinal glands but the ultrastructural identity of intestinal stem cells remains unknown. By using electron microscopy, this study demonstrated the presence of cells with stem morphology in the intestinal glands of mice of different ages. These putative intestinal stem cells have large, euchromatic, irregular shaped nucleus, large, visible nucleolus, few ER cisternae and mitochondria. Their morphology is distinct from the morphology of any other intestinal gland cell. Stem cells located at the base of intestinal glands undergo mitosis. This study enhances the hypothesis of a gland (crypt) base columnar cell that gives rise to all the intestinal lineages. PMID:26366225

  11. Stem cells assessed.

    PubMed

    Blanpain, Cdric; Daley, George Q; Hochedlinger, Konrad; Passegu, Emmanuelle; Rossant, Janet; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2012-07-01

    The increasing momentum of stem cell research continues, with the better characterization of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, the conversion of differentiated cells into different cell types and the use of pluripotent stem cells to generate whole tissues, among other advances. Here, six experts in the field of stem cell research compare different stem cell models and highlight the importance of pursuing complementary experimental approaches for a better understanding of pluripotency and differentiation and an informed approach to medical applications. PMID:22678486

  12. Artificial Stem Cell Niches

    PubMed Central

    Lutolf, Matthias P.; Blau, Helen M.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their dual ability to reproduce themselves (self-renew) and specialize (differentiate), yielding a plethora of daughter cells that maintain and regenerate tissues. In contrast to their embryonic counterparts, adult stem cells retain their unique functions only if they are in intimate contact with an instructive microenvironment, termed stem cell niche. In these niches, stem cells integrate a complex array of molecular signals that, in concert with induced cell-intrinsic regulatory networks, control their function and balance their numbers in response to physiologic demands. This progress report provides a perspective on how advanced materials technologies could be used (i) to engineer and systematically analyze specific aspects of functional stem cells niches in a controlled fashion in vitro and (ii) to target stem cell niches in vivo. Such “artificial niches” constitute potent tools for elucidating stem cell regulatory mechanisms with the capacity to directly impact the development of novel therapeutic strategies for tissue regeneration. PMID:20882496

  13. In search of "stemness".

    PubMed

    Cai, Jingli; Weiss, Mark L; Rao, Mahendra S

    2004-07-01

    Stem cells have been identified and characterized in a variety of tissues. In this review we examine possible shared properties of stem cells. We suggest that irrespective of their lineal origin, stem cells have to respond in similar ways to regulate self-renewal and differentiation and it is likely that cell-cycle control, asymmetry/differentiation controls, cellular protective and DNA repair mechanisms, and associated apoptosis/senescence signaling pathways all might be expected to be more highly regulated in stem cells, likely by similar mechanisms. We review the literature to suggest a set of candidate stemness genes that may serve as universal stem cell markers. While we predict many similarities, we also predict that differences will exist between stem cell populations and that when transdifferentiation is considered genes expected to be both similar and different need to be examined. PMID:15246154

  14. Embryonic stem cells. Stem cell programs.

    PubMed

    Zerhouni, Elias

    2003-05-01

    The availability of human embryonic stem cell lines provides an important tool for scientists to explore the fundamental mechanisms that regulate differentiation into specific cell types. When more is known about the mechanisms that govern these processes, human embryonic stem cells may be clinically useful in generating cell types that have been damaged or depleted by a variety of human diseases. The NIH is actively pursuing a variety of initiatives to promote this developing research field, while continuing and expanding its long-standing investment in adult stem cells and research. PMID:12738840

  15. Biosynthesis of seven carbon-13 labeled Alternaria toxins including altertoxins, alternariol, and alternariol methyl ether, and their application to a multiple stable isotope dilution assay.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Rychlik, Michael

    2015-02-01

    An unprecedented stable isotope dilution assay for the genotoxic altertoxins along with exposure data of consumers is presented to enable a first risk assessment of these Alternaria toxins in foods. Altertoxins were produced as the most abundant Alternaria toxins in a modified Czapek-Dox medium with a low level of glucose as the carbon source and ammonium sulfate as the sole nitrogen source. Labeled altertoxins were synthesized in the same way using [(13)C6]glucose. Moreover, labeled alternariol, alternariol methyl ether, altenuene, and alternuisol were biosynthesized in another modified medium containing [(13)C6]glucose and sodium [(13)C2]acetate. A stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method was developed and used for food analysis. For altertoxin I, altertoxin II, alterperylenol, alternariol, and alternariol methyl ether, the limits of detection ranged from 0.09 to 0.53 μg kg(-1). The inter-/intra-day (n = 3 × 6) relative standard deviations of the method were below 13%, and the recoveries ranged between 96 and 109%. Among the various commercial food samples, some of the organic whole grains revealed low-level contamination with altertoxin I and alterperylenol, and paprika powder, which was heavily loaded with alternariol, alternariol methyl ether, and tentoxin, showed higher contamination level of altertoxin I and alterperylenol. Altertoxin II and III and stemphyltoxin III were not detectable. In addition, if the food was contaminated with altertoxins, it was likely to be co-contaminated with the other Alternaria toxins, but not necessarily vice versa. Maximum concentrations of altertoxin I and alterperylenol were detected in sorghum feed samples containing 43 and 58 μg kg(-1), respectively. This was significantly higher than that in the measured food samples. PMID:25577349

  16. Stable integration and expression of wasabi defensin gene in "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) confers resistance to Fusarium wilt and Alternaria leaf spot.

    PubMed

    Ntui, Valentine Otang; Thirukkumaran, Gunaratnam; Azadi, Pejman; Khan, Raham Sher; Nakamura, Ikuo; Mii, Masahiro

    2010-09-01

    Production of "Egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus L.) in West Africa is limited by fungal diseases, such as Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium wilt. In order to engineer "Egusi" resistant to these diseases, cotyledonary explants of two "Egusi" genotypes, 'Ejagham' and NHC1-130, were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 harbouring wasabi defensin gene (isolated from Wasabia japonica L.) in a binary vector pEKH1. After co-cultivation for 3 days, infected explants were transferred to MS medium containing 100 mg l(-l) kanamycin to select transformed tissues. After 3 weeks of culture, adventitious shoots appeared directly along the edges of the explants. As much as 19 out of 52 (36.5%) and 25 out of 71 (35.2%) of the explants in genotype NHC1-130 and 'Ejagham', respectively, formed shoots after 6 weeks of culture. As much as 74% (14 out of 19) of the shoots regenerated in genotype NHC1-130 and 72% (18 out of 25) of those produced in genotype 'Ejagham' were transgenic. A DNA fragment corresponding to the wasabi defensin gene or the selection marker nptII was amplified by PCR from the genomic DNA of all regenerated plant clones rooted on hormone-free MS medium under the same selection pressure, suggesting their transgenic nature. Southern blot analysis confirmed successful integration of 1-5 copies of the transgene. RT-PCR, northern and western blot analyses revealed that wasabi defensin gene was expressed in transgenic lines. Transgenic lines showed increased levels of resistance to Alternaria solani, which causes Alternaria leaf spot and Fusarium oxysporum, which causes Fusarium wilt, as compared to that of untransformed plants. PMID:20552202

  17. Effects of host physiology on the development of core rot, caused by alternaria alternata, in Red Delicious apples.

    PubMed

    Shtienberg, D

    2012-08-01

    Alternaria alternata is the predominant fungus involved in moldy core and core rot of Red Delicious apples. The effects of environmental conditions during bloom on moldy core and core rot, and on the need for fungicide application, were examined in 10 experiments carried out in 2007. In untreated experimental plots, typical moldy core symptoms were very common, with relatively low variability (coefficient of variation: 22.2%) among experiments; core rot incidence ranged from 2 to 26% with large variability (coefficient of variation: 90.0%) among experiments. No evidence of prevailing environmental conditions during bloom affecting the development of moldy core or core rot was detected. No effect of fungicide application (a mixture of bromuconazole + captan three times a week at bloom) on moldy core or core rot was found. A random distribution of moldy core and an occasional aggregation of core rot in the orchards were indicated from Morisita's index of dispersion (I(δ)). The hypothesis that core rot incidence is governed by host physiology and that yield load can be used as an indicator of trees' susceptibility was examined in a set of eight observations and four experiments. No correlation was found between tree yield load and moldy core, but core rot incidence was inversely related to yield load. Furthermore, irrespective of tree yield load, core rot was more abundant on large compared with small fruits. It is concluded that host physiology, rather than pathogen occurrence or environmental conditions at bloom stage, governs the development of core rot in Red Delicious apples caused by A. alternata in Israel. PMID:22624774

  18. How the Pathogenic Fungus Alternaria alternata Copes with Stress via the Response Regulators SSK1 and SHO1

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Pei-Ling; Chen, Li-Hung; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2016-01-01

    The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing brown spot disease on a number of citrus cultivars. To better understand the dynamics of signal regulation leading to oxidative and osmotic stress response and fungal infection on citrus, phenotypic characterization of the yeast SSK1 response regulator homolog was performed. It was determined that SSK1 responds to diverse environmental stimuli and plays a critical role in fungal pathogenesis. Experiments to determine the phenotypes resulting from the loss of SSK1 reveal that the SSK1 gene product may be fulfilling similar regulatory roles in signaling pathways involving a HOG1 MAP kinase during ROS resistance, osmotic resistance, fungicide sensitivity and fungal virulence. The SSK1 mutants display elevated sensitivity to oxidants, fail to detoxify H2O2 effectively, induce minor necrosis on susceptible citrus leaves, and displays resistance to dicarboximide and phenylpyrrole fungicides. Unlike the SKN7 response regulator, SSK1 and HOG1 confer resistance to salt-induced osmotic stress via an unknown kinase sensor rather than the “two component” histidine kinase HSK1. SSK1 and HOG1 play a moderate role in sugar-induced osmotic stress. We also show that SSK1 mutants are impaired in their ability to produce germ tubes from conidia, indicating a role for the gene product in cell differentiation. SSK1 also is involved in multi-drug resistance. However, deletion of the yeast SHO1 (synthetic high osmolarity) homolog resulted in no noticeable phenotypes. Nonetheless, our results show that A. alternata can sense and react to different types of stress via SSK1, HOG1 and SKN7 in a cooperative manner leading to proper physiological and pathological functions. PMID:26863027

  19. Inducible and constitutive expression of an elicitor gene Hrip1 from Alternaria tenuissima enhances stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xue-Cong; Qiu, De-Wen; Zeng, Hong-Mei; Guo, Li-Hua; Yang, Xiu-Fen; Liu, Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Hrip1 is a novel hypersensitive response-inducing protein secreted by Alternaria tenuissima that activates defense responses and systemic acquired resistance in tobacco. This study investigates the role that Hrip1 plays in responses to abiotic and biotic stress using transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the Hrip1 gene under the control of the stress-inducible rd29A promoter or constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Bioassays showed that inducible Hrip1 expression in rd29A∷Hrip1 transgenic lines had a significantly higher effect on plant height, silique length, plant dry weight, seed germination and root length under salt and drought stress compared to expression in 35S∷Hrip1 lines and wild type plants. The level of enhancement of resistance to Botrytis cinerea by the 35S∷Hrip1 lines was higher than in the rd29A∷Hrip1 lines. Moreover, stress-related gene expression in the transgenic Arabidopsis lines was significantly increased by 200 mM NaCl and 200 mM mannitol treatments, and defense genes in the jasmonic acid and ethylene signaling pathway were significantly up-regulated after Botrytis inoculation in the Hrip1 transgenic plants. Furthermore, the activity of some antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidase and catalase increased after salt and drought stress and Botrytis infection. These results suggested that the Hrip1 protein contributes to abiotic and biotic resistance in transgenic Arabidopsis and may be used as a useful gene for resistance breeding in crops. Although the constitutive expression of Hrip1 is suitable for biotic resistance, inducible Hrip1 expression is more responsive for abiotic resistance. PMID:25120219

  20. How the Pathogenic Fungus Alternaria alternata Copes with Stress via the Response Regulators SSK1 and SHO1.

    PubMed

    Yu, Pei-Ling; Chen, Li-Hung; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2016-01-01

    The tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen causing brown spot disease on a number of citrus cultivars. To better understand the dynamics of signal regulation leading to oxidative and osmotic stress response and fungal infection on citrus, phenotypic characterization of the yeast SSK1 response regulator homolog was performed. It was determined that SSK1 responds to diverse environmental stimuli and plays a critical role in fungal pathogenesis. Experiments to determine the phenotypes resulting from the loss of SSK1 reveal that the SSK1 gene product may be fulfilling similar regulatory roles in signaling pathways involving a HOG1 MAP kinase during ROS resistance, osmotic resistance, fungicide sensitivity and fungal virulence. The SSK1 mutants display elevated sensitivity to oxidants, fail to detoxify H2O2 effectively, induce minor necrosis on susceptible citrus leaves, and displays resistance to dicarboximide and phenylpyrrole fungicides. Unlike the SKN7 response regulator, SSK1 and HOG1 confer resistance to salt-induced osmotic stress via an unknown kinase sensor rather than the "two component" histidine kinase HSK1. SSK1 and HOG1 play a moderate role in sugar-induced osmotic stress. We also show that SSK1 mutants are impaired in their ability to produce germ tubes from conidia, indicating a role for the gene product in cell differentiation. SSK1 also is involved in multi-drug resistance. However, deletion of the yeast SHO1 (synthetic high osmolarity) homolog resulted in no noticeable phenotypes. Nonetheless, our results show that A. alternata can sense and react to different types of stress via SSK1, HOG1 and SKN7 in a cooperative manner leading to proper physiological and pathological functions. PMID:26863027

  1. The involvement of jasmonates and ethylene in Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici toxin-induced tomato cell death

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liping; Jia, Chengguo; Liu, Lihong; Zhang, Zhiming; Li, Chuanyou; Wang, Qiaomei

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that an ethylene (ET)-dependent pathway is involved in the cell death signalling triggered by Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL) toxin in detached tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. In this study, the role of jasmonic acid (JA) signalling in programmed cell death (PCD) induced by AAL toxin was analysed using a 35S::prosystemin transgenic line (35S::prosys), a JA-deficient mutant spr2, and a JA-insensitive mutant jai1. The results indicated that JA biosynthesis and signalling play a positive role in the AAL toxin-induced PCD process. In addition, treatment with the exogenous ET action inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) greatly suppressed necrotic lesions in 35S::prosys leaves, although 35S::prosys leaflets co-treated with AAL toxin and STS still have a significant high relative conductivity. Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) markedly enhanced the sensitivity of spr2 and jai1 mutants to the toxin. However, compared with AAL toxin treatment alone, exogenous application of JA to the ET-insensitive mutant Never ripe (Nr) did not alter AAL toxin-induced cell death. In addition, the reduced ET-mediated gene expression in jai1 leaves was restored by co-treatment with ACC and AAL toxin. Furthermore, JA treatment restored the decreased expression of ET biosynthetic genes but not ET-responsive genes in the Nr mutant compared with the toxin treatment alone. Based on these results, it is proposed that both JA and ET promote the AAL toxin-induced cell death alone, and the JAI1 receptor-dependent JA pathway also acts upstream of ET biosynthesis in AAL toxin-triggered PCD. PMID:21865178

  2. Hyperspectral remote sensing for advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) disease in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atherton, Daniel

    Early detection of disease and insect infestation within crops and precise application of pesticides can help reduce potential production losses, reduce environmental risk, and reduce the cost of farming. The goal of this study was the advanced detection of early blight (Alternaria solani) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants using hyperspectral remote sensing data captured with a handheld spectroradiometer. Hyperspectral reflectance spectra were captured 10 times over five weeks from plants grown to the vegetative and tuber bulking growth stages. The spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA), spectral change (ratio) analysis, partial least squares (PLS), cluster analysis, and vegetative indices. PCA successfully distinguished more heavily diseased plants from healthy and minimally diseased plants using two principal components. Spectral change (ratio) analysis provided wavelengths (490-510, 640, 665-670, 690, 740-750, and 935 nm) most sensitive to early blight infection followed by ANOVA results indicating a highly significant difference (p < 0.0001) between disease rating group means. In the majority of the experiments, comparisons of diseased plants with healthy plants using Fisher's LSD revealed more heavily diseased plants were significantly different from healthy plants. PLS analysis demonstrated the feasibility of detecting early blight infected plants, finding four optimal factors for raw spectra with the predictor variation explained ranging from 93.4% to 94.6% and the response variation explained ranging from 42.7% to 64.7%. Cluster analysis successfully distinguished healthy plants from all diseased plants except for the most mildly diseased plants, showing clustering analysis was an effective method for detection of early blight. Analysis of the reflectance spectra using the simple ratio (SR) and the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) was effective at differentiating all diseased plants from healthy plants, except for the most mildly diseased plants. Of the analysis methods attempted, cluster analysis and vegetative indices were the most promising. The results show the potential of hyperspectral remote sensing for the detection of early blight in potato plants.

  3. DNA damage and repair kinetics of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, altertoxin II and stemphyltoxin III in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Fleck, Stefanie C; Sauter, Friederike; Pfeiffer, Erika; Metzler, Manfred; Hartwig, Andrea; Köberle, Beate

    2016-03-01

    The Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and altertoxin II (ATX II) have previously been shown to elicit mutagenic and genotoxic effects in bacterial and mammalian cells, although with vastly different activities. For example, ATX II was about 50 times more mutagenic than AOH. We now report that stemphyltoxin III (STTX III) is also highly mutagenic. The more pronounced effects of the perylene quinones ATX II and STTX III at lower concentrations compared to the dibenzo-α-pyrone AOH indicate a marked dependence of the genotoxic potential on the chemical structure and furthermore suggest that the underlying modes of action may be different. We have now further investigated the type of DNA damage induced by AOH, ATX II and STTX III, as well as the repair kinetics and their dependence on the status of nucleotide excision repair (NER). DNA double strand breaks induced by AOH due to poisoning of topoisomerase IIα were completely repaired in less than 2h. Under cell-free conditions, inhibition of topoisomerase IIα could also be measured for ATX II and STTX III at low concentrations, but the perylene quinones were catalytic inhibitors rather than topoisomerase poisons and did not induce DSBs. DNA strand breaks induced by ATX II and STTX III were more persistent and not completely repaired within 24h. A dependence of the repair rate on the NER status could only be demonstrated for STTX III, resulting in an accumulation of DNA damage in NER-deficient cells. Together with the finding that the DNA glycosylase formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg), but not T4 endonuclease V, is able to generate additional DNA strand breaks measurable by the alkaline unwinding assay, we conclude that the genotoxicity of the perylene quinones with an epoxide group is probably caused by the formation of DNA adducts which may be converted to Fpg sensitive sites. PMID:26994491

  4. RNA-Seq derived identification of differential transcription in the chrysanthemum leaf following inoculation with Alternaria tenuissima

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A major production constraint on the important ornamental species chrysanthemum is black spot which is caused by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria tenuissima. The molecular basis of host resistance to A. tenuissima has not been studied as yet in any detail. Here, high throughput sequencing was taken to characterize the transcriptomic response of the chrysanthemum leaf to A. tenuissima inoculation. Results The transcriptomic data was acquired using RNA-Seq technology, based on the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform. Four different libraries derived from two sets of leaves harvested from either inoculated or mock-inoculated plants were characterized. Over seven million clean reads were generated from each library, each corresponding to a coverage of >350,000 nt. About 70% of the reads could be mapped to a set of chrysanthemum unigenes. Read frequency was used as a measure of transcript abundance and therefore as an identifier of differential transcription in the four libraries. The differentially transcribed genes identified were involved in photosynthesis, pathogen recognition, reactive oxygen species generation, cell wall modification and phytohormone signalling; in addition, a number of varied transcription factors were identified. A selection of 23 of the genes was transcription-profiled using quantitative RT-PCR to validate the RNA-Seq output. Conclusions A substantial body of chrysanthemum transcriptomic sequence was generated, which led to a number of insights into the molecular basis of the host response to A. tenuissima infection. Although most of the differentially transcribed genes were up-regulated by the presence of the pathogen, those involved in photosynthesis were down-regulated. PMID:24387266

  5. Effect of water activity and temperature on mycotoxin production by Alternaria alternata in culture and on wheat grain.

    PubMed Central

    Magan, N; Cayley, G R; Lacey, J

    1984-01-01

    Both water activity (aW) and temperature affected the production of altenuene (AE), alternariol (AOH), and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) by Alternaria alternata on wheat extract agar and wheat grain. Greatest production of all three mycotoxins occurred at 0.98 aW and 25 degrees C on both substrates. At 0.98 aW and 25 degrees C, a single colony of A. alternata grown on wheat extract agar produced 807 micrograms of AOH, 603 micrograms of AME, and 169 micrograms of AE ml in 30 days. However, production of all three mycotoxins at 0.95 aW was less than 40% of these amounts. Little toxin was produced at 0.90 aW. Changing temperature and aW altered the relative amounts of the different toxins produced on agar. At 15 degrees C and 0.98 aW, maxima of 52 micrograms of AOH and 25 micrograms of AME per ml were produced after 15 and 30 days, respectively, whereas AE continued to increase and reached 57 micrograms/ml after 40 days. At 15 degrees C and 0.95 aW, production was, respectively, 62, 10, and 5 micrograms/ml after 40 days. All three metabolites were produced at 5 degrees C and 0.98 to 0.95 aW and at 30 degrees C and 0.98 to 0.90 aW. On wheat grain at 25 degrees C and 0.98 to 0.95 aW, more AME was produced than AOH or AE, but at 15 degrees C there was less AME than AOH or AE. Only trace amounts of AE, AOH, and AME were found at 15 to 25 degrees C and 0.90 aW, but production of AME was inhibited at 30 degrees C and 0.95 aW or less. PMID:6540067

  6. Contribution of Peroxisomes to Secondary Metabolism and Pathogenicity in the Fungal Plant Pathogen Alternaria alternata ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Imazaki, Ai; Tanaka, Aiko; Harimoto, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Mikihiro; Akimitsu, Kazuya; Park, Pyoyun; Tsuge, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Alternaria alternata includes seven pathogenic variants (pathotypes) which produce different host-selective toxins and cause diseases on different plants. The Japanese pear pathotype produces the host-selective AK-toxin, an epoxy-decatrienoic acid ester, and causes black spot of Japanese pear. Previously, we identified four genes, AKT1, AKT2, AKT3, and AKTR, involved in AK toxin biosynthesis. AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3 encode enzyme proteins with peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1)-like tripeptides, SKI, SKL, and PKL, respectively, at the C-terminal ends. In this study, we verified the peroxisome localization of Akt1, Akt2, and Akt3 by using strains expressing N-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged versions of the proteins. To assess the role of peroxisome function in AK-toxin production, we isolated AaPEX6, which encodes a peroxin protein essential for peroxisome biogenesis, from the Japanese pear pathotype and made AaPEX6 disruption-containing transformants from a GFP-Akt1-expressing strain. The ΔAaPEX6 mutant strains did not grow on fatty acid media because of a defect in fatty acid β oxidation. The import of GFP-Akt1 into peroxisomes was impaired in the ΔAaPEX6 mutant strains. These strains completely lost AK toxin production and pathogenicity on susceptible pear leaves. These data show that peroxisomes are essential for AK-toxin biosynthesis. The ΔAaPEX6 mutant strains showed a marked reduction in the ability to cause lesions on leaves of a resistant pear cultivar with defense responses compromised by heat shock. This result suggests that peroxisome function is also required for plant invasion and tissue colonization in A. alternata. We also observed that mutation of AaPEX6 caused a marked reduction of conidiation. PMID:20348386

  7. Overexpression of a tea flavanone 3-hydroxylase gene confers tolerance to salt stress and Alternaria solani in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Monika; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2014-08-01

    Flavan-3-ols are the major flavonoids present in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves. These are known to have antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties in vitro. Flavanone 3-hydroxylase is considered to be an important enzyme of flavonoid pathway leading to accumulation of flavan-3-ols in tea. Expression analysis revealed the upregulation in transcript levels of C. sinensis flavanone 3-hydroxylase (CsF3H) encoding gene under salt stress. In this study, the biotechnological potential of CsF3H was evaluated by gene overexpression in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi). Overexpression of CsF3H cDNA increased the content of flavan-3-ols in tobacco and conferred tolerance to salt stress and fungus Alternaria solani infection. Transgenic tobaccos were observed for increase in primary root length, number of lateral roots, chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme expression and their activities. Also, they showed lesser malondialdehyde content and electrolyte leakage compared to control tobacco plants. Further, transgenic plants produced higher degree of pectin methyl esterification via decreasing pectin methyl esterase (PME) activity in roots and leaves under unstressed and salt stressed conditions. The effect of flavan-3-ols on pectin methyl esterification under salt stressed conditions was further validated through in vitro experiments in which non-transgenic (wild) tobacco seedlings were exposed to salt stress in presence of flavan-3-ols, epicatechin and epigallocatechin. The in vitro exposed seedlings showed similar trend of increase in pectin methyl esterification through decreasing PME activity as observed in CsF3H transgenic lines. Taken together, overexpression of CsF3H provided tolerance to salt stress and fungus A. solani infection to transgenic tobacco through improved antioxidant system and enhanced pectin methyl esterification. PMID:24880475

  8. Systemic jasmonic acid modulation in mycorrhizal tomato plants and its role in induced resistance against Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Nair, A; Kolet, S P; Thulasiram, H V; Bhargava, S

    2015-05-01

    Tomato plants colonised with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus fasciculatum show systemic induced resistance to the foliar pathogen Alternaria alternata, as observed in interactions of other AM-colonised plants with a range of pathogens. The role of jasmonic (JA) and salicylic (SA) acid in expression of this mycorrhiza-induced resistance (MIR) against A. alternata was studied by measuring: (i) activity of enzymes reported to be involved in their biosynthesis, namely lipoxygenase (LOX) and phenylammonia lyase (PAL); and (ii) levels of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and SA. Transcript abundance of some defence genes associated with JA and SA response pathways were also studied. Both LOX and PAL activity increased twofold in response to pathogen application to control plants. AM-colonised plants had three-fold higher LOX activity compared to control plants, but unlike controls, this did not increase further in response to pathogen application. Higher LOX activity in AM-colonised plants correlated with four-fold higher MeJA in leaves of AM-colonised plants compared to controls. Treatment of plants with the JA biosynthesis inhibitor salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) led to 50% lower MeJA in both control and AM-colonised plants and correlated with increased susceptibility to A. alternata, suggesting a causal role for JA in expression of MIR against the pathogen. Genes involved in JA biosynthesis (OPR3) and response (COI1) showed six- and 42-fold higher expression, respectively, in leaves of AM-colonised plants compared to controls. AM-colonised plants also showed increased expression of the SA response gene PR1 and that of the wound-inducible polypeptide prosystemin. Our results suggest that the systemic increase in JA in response to AM colonisation plays a key role in expression of MIR against A. alternata. PMID:25327848

  9. Roles for SKN7 response regulator in stress resistance, conidiation and virulence in the citrus pathogen Alternaria alternata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Hung; Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2012-10-01

    "Two-component" histidine kinase (HSK1) is the primary regulator of resistance to sugar osmotic stress and sensitivity to dicarboximide or phenylpyrrole fungicides in the citrus fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata. On the other hand, the mitogen-activated protein kinase HOG1 confers resistance solely to salts and oxidative stress. We report here independent and shared functions of the SKN7-mediated signaling pathway with HSK1 and HOG1. SKN7, a putative transcription downstream regulator of HSK1, is primarily required for cellular resistance to oxidative and sugar-induced osmotic stress. SKN7, perhaps acting in parallel with HOG1, is required for resistance to H(2)O(2), tert-butyl hydroperoxide, and cumyl peroxide, but not to the superoxide-generating compounds - menadione, potassium superoxide, and diamide. Because of phenotypic commonalities, SKN7 is likely involved in resistance to sugar-induced osmotic stress via the HSK1 signaling pathway. However, mutants lacking SKN7 displayed wild-type sensitivity to NaCl and KCl salts. SKN7 is constitutively localized in the nucleus regardless of H(2)O(2) treatment. When compared to the wild type, skn7 mutants exhibited lower catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities and induced significantly fewer necrotic lesions on the susceptible citrus cultivar. The skn7 mutant exhibited fungicide resistance at levels between the hsk1 and the hog1 mutant strains. Skn7/hog1 double mutants exhibited fungicide resistance, similar to the strain with a single AaHSK1 gene mutation. Moreover, the A. alternata SKN7 plays a role in conidia formation. Conidia produced by the skn7 mutant are smaller and have fewer transverse septae than those produced by wild type. All altered phenotypes in the mutant were restored by introducing and expressing a wild-type copy of SKN7 under control of the endogenous promoter. PMID:22902811

  10. The involvement of jasmonates and ethylene in Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici toxin-induced tomato cell death.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Jia, Chengguo; Liu, Lihong; Zhang, Zhiming; Li, Chuanyou; Wang, Qiaomei

    2011-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that an ethylene (ET)-dependent pathway is involved in the cell death signalling triggered by Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici (AAL) toxin in detached tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves. In this study, the role of jasmonic acid (JA) signalling in programmed cell death (PCD) induced by AAL toxin was analysed using a 35S::prosystemin transgenic line (35S::prosys), a JA-deficient mutant spr2, and a JA-insensitive mutant jai1. The results indicated that JA biosynthesis and signalling play a positive role in the AAL toxin-induced PCD process. In addition, treatment with the exogenous ET action inhibitor silver thiosulphate (STS) greatly suppressed necrotic lesions in 35S::prosys leaves, although 35S::prosys leaflets co-treated with AAL toxin and STS still have a significant high relative conductivity. Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) markedly enhanced the sensitivity of spr2 and jai1 mutants to the toxin. However, compared with AAL toxin treatment alone, exogenous application of JA to the ET-insensitive mutant Never ripe (Nr) did not alter AAL toxin-induced cell death. In addition, the reduced ET-mediated gene expression in jai1 leaves was restored by co-treatment with ACC and AAL toxin. Furthermore, JA treatment restored the decreased expression of ET biosynthetic genes but not ET-responsive genes in the Nr mutant compared with the toxin treatment alone. Based on these results, it is proposed that both JA and ET promote the AAL toxin-induced cell death alone, and the JAI1 receptor-dependent JA pathway also acts upstream of ET biosynthesis in AAL toxin-triggered PCD. PMID:21865178

  11. Cellular responses required for oxidative stress tolerance, colonization, and lesion formation by the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria alternata in citrus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Hsuan; Yang, Siwy Ling; Chung, Kuang-Ren

    2011-03-01

    The pathogenic capability of the tangerine pathotype of Alternaria alternata relies on the production of host-selective ACT toxin. Inoculation of A. alternata in leaves of the citrus quickly induced rapid lipid peroxidation, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and cell death, indicative of host defensive response. We previously demonstrated an essential role of the A. alternata AaAP1 gene, encoding a redox-responsive YAP1-like transcription factor, to contribute to fungal pathogenicity. The AaAP1 null mutant fails to incite necrotic lesions. In this study, we show further that the fungal mutant defective at the AaAP1 locus displayed reduced activities for glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and ligninolytic peroxidase, yet retained normal production of ACT toxin. In contrast to the wild-type progenitor and the genetically reverted strain, the mutant strain was unable to detoxify H(2)O(2) effectively and was killed upon exposure to H(2)O(2). The mutant strain induced lower levels of H(2)O(2) accumulation in citrus leaves, compared to those induced by the wild-type or by the genetically reverted strain. Upon exposure to H(2)O(2), A. alternata apparently changed expression of a wide array of the genes regulated by AaAP1. Thus, the impairment of the AaAP1 null mutants to incite necrotic lesions is apparently a consequence of their inability to alleviate the toxicity of ROS, and circumvention of plant defenses is important for the disease process. PMID:20978890

  12. Alternaria toxin-induced resistance in rose plants against rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosivorum): effect of tenuazonic acid*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fa-zhong; Yang, Bin; Li, Bei-bei; Xiao, Chun

    2015-01-01

    Many different types of toxins are produced by the fungus, Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler. Little is known, however, regarding the influence of these toxins on insects. In this study, we investigated the toxin-induced inhibitory effects of the toxin produced by A. alternata on the rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosivorum, when the toxin was applied to leaves of the rose, Rosa chinensis. The results demonstrated that the purified crude toxin was non-harmful to rose plants and rose aphids, but had an intensive inhibitory effect on the multiplication of aphids. The inhibitory index against rose aphids reached 87.99% when rose plants were sprayed with the toxin solution at a low concentration. Further results from bioassays with aphids and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses demonstrated that tenuazonic acid (TeA) was one of the most important resistance-related active components in the crude toxin. The content of TeA was 0.1199% in the crude toxin under the HPLC method. Similar to the crude toxin, the inhibitory index of pure TeA reached 83.60% 15 d after the rose plants were sprayed with pure TeA solution at the lower concentration of 0.060 μg/ml, while the contents of residual TeA on the surface and in the inner portion of the rose plants were only 0.04 and 0.00 ng/g fresh weight of TeA-treated rose twigs, respectively, 7 d after the treatment. Our results show that TeA, an active component in the A. alternata toxin, can induce the indirect plant-mediated responses in rose plants to intensively enhance the plant’s resistances against rose aphids, and the results are very helpful to understand the plant-mediated interaction between fungi and insects on their shared host plants. PMID:25845360

  13. Composition of tobaccos from countries with high and low incidences of lung cancer. I. Selenium, polonium-210, Alternaria, tar, and nicotine

    SciTech Connect

    Bogden, J.D.; Kemp, F.W.; Buse, M.; Thind, I.S.; Louria, D.B.; Forgacs, J.; Llanos, G.; Terrones, I.M.

    1981-01-01

    Tobaccos from countries with high and low incidences of lung cancer were analyzed. Tobacco concentrations of polonium-210 were similar in cigarettes from high- and low-incidence countries, as were levels of cigarette smoke tar and nicotine. Tobaccos from low-incidence countries had significantly lower Alternaria spore counts. Mean selenium concentrations of tobaccos from the high-incidence countries (0.16 +- 0.05 ..mu..g/g) were significantly lower than those of tobaccos from the low-incidence countries (0.49 +- 0.22 ..mu..g/g).

  14. Embryonic stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Joydeep; Rao, Mahendra

    2007-10-01

    Stem cell therapies, particularly those using embryonic stem cells, offer a novel approach to treating disease. There is an ongoing effort to develop tools and reagents to assist in understanding stem cells at a research level. In addition to these research tools, making stem cell therapy a reality requires the development of tools that enable the translation of research into viable therapies. Three sets of tools are discussed in this article: tools enabling stem cell scale-up and manufacture to GMP standards, tools addressing the behavior of cells in animal models, and tools to assess transplanted cells in early clinical trials. The development of such tools will address many of the safety and efficacy questions that are likely to arise as stem cell therapies move from bench to bedside. PMID:17899490

  15. Stem cells and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the latest developments in reproductive tract stem cell biology. Recent findings In 2004, two studies indicated that ovaries contain stem cells which form oocytes in adults and that can be cultured in vitro into mature oocytes. A live birth after orthotopic transplantation of cyropreserved ovarian tissue in a woman whose ovaries were damaged by chemotherapy demonstrates the clinical potential of these cells. In the same year, another study provided novel evidence of endometrial regeneration by stem cells in women who received bone marrow transplants. This finding has potential for the use in treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the cause of endometriosis, which may have its origin in ectopic transdifferentiation of stem cells. Several recent studies have demonstrated that fetal cells enter the maternal circulation and generate microchimerism in the mother. The uterus is a dynamic organ permeable to fetal stem cells, capable of transdifferentiation and an end organ in which bone marrow stem cells may differentiate. Finally stem cell transformation can be an underlying cause of ovarian cancer. Summary Whereas we are just beginning to understand stem cells, the potential implications of stem cells to reproductive biology and medicine are apparent. PMID:20305558

  16. Stress and stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Tower, John

    2013-01-01

    The unique properties and functions of stem cells make them particularly susceptible to stresses and also lead to their regulation by stress. Stem cell division must respond to the demand to replenish cells during normal tissue turnover as well as in response to damage. Oxidative stress, mechanical stress, growth factors, and cytokines signal stem cell division and differentiation. Many of the conserved pathways regulating stem cell self-renewal and differentiation are also stress-response pathways. The long life span and division potential of stem cells create a propensity for transformation (cancer) and specific stress responses such as apoptosis and senescence act as antitumor mechanisms. Quiescence regulated by CDK inhibitors and a hypoxic niche regulated by FOXO transcription factor function to reduce stress for several types of stem cells to facilitate long-term maintenance. Aging is a particularly relevant stress for stem cells, because repeated demands on stem cell function over the life span can have cumulative cell-autonomous effects including epigenetic dysregulation, mutations, and telomere erosion. In addition, aging of the organism impairs function of the stem cell niche and systemic signals, including chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:23799624

  17. Origin of the Outbreak in France of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Biovar 3, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit, Revealed by a Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cunty, A; Cesbron, S; Poliakoff, F; Jacques, M-A; Manceau, C

    2015-10-01

    The first outbreaks of bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 were detected in France in 2010. P. syringae pv. actinidiae causes leaf spots, dieback, and canker that sometimes lead to the death of the vine. P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum, which is pathogenic on kiwi as well, causes only leaf spots. In order to conduct an epidemiological study to track the spread of the epidemics of these two pathogens in France, we developed a multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). MLVA was conducted on 340 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 isolated in Chile, China, France, Italy, and New Zealand and on 39 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum isolated in Australia, France, and New Zealand. Eleven polymorphic VNTR loci were identified in the genomes of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 ICMP 18744 and of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum ICMP 18807. MLVA enabled the structuring of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 and P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum strains in 55 and 16 haplotypes, respectively. MLVA and discriminant analysis of principal components revealed that strains isolated in Chile, China, and New Zealand are genetically distinct from P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains isolated in France and in Italy, which appear to be closely related at the genetic level. In contrast, no structuring was observed for P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum. We developed an MLVA scheme to explore the diversity within P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 and to trace the dispersal routes of epidemic P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 in Europe. We suggest using this MLVA scheme to trace the dispersal routes of P. syringae pv. actinidiae at a global level. PMID:26209667

  18. Origin of the Outbreak in France of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Biovar 3, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit, Revealed by a Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cunty, A.; Cesbron, S.; Poliakoff, F.; Jacques, M.-A.

    2015-01-01

    The first outbreaks of bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 were detected in France in 2010. P. syringae pv. actinidiae causes leaf spots, dieback, and canker that sometimes lead to the death of the vine. P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum, which is pathogenic on kiwi as well, causes only leaf spots. In order to conduct an epidemiological study to track the spread of the epidemics of these two pathogens in France, we developed a multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). MLVA was conducted on 340 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 isolated in Chile, China, France, Italy, and New Zealand and on 39 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum isolated in Australia, France, and New Zealand. Eleven polymorphic VNTR loci were identified in the genomes of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 ICMP 18744 and of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum ICMP 18807. MLVA enabled the structuring of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 and P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum strains in 55 and 16 haplotypes, respectively. MLVA and discriminant analysis of principal components revealed that strains isolated in Chile, China, and New Zealand are genetically distinct from P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains isolated in France and in Italy, which appear to be closely related at the genetic level. In contrast, no structuring was observed for P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum. We developed an MLVA scheme to explore the diversity within P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 and to trace the dispersal routes of epidemic P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 in Europe. We suggest using this MLVA scheme to trace the dispersal routes of P. syringae pv. actinidiae at a global level. PMID:26209667

  19. Development of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid and Specific Identification of ACT Producing Alternaria alternata, the Agent of Brown Spot Disease in Tangerine.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Hamid; Moradi, Amir; Hamedi, Javad; Basiri, Mina

    2016-03-01

    Rapid, accurate, and easy identification of pathogenic agents has always been important in medicine, veterinary, and agriculture. The brown spot infection is among the most common diseases in tangerine caused by Alternaria alternata. Due to the existence of seven various pathotypes of A. alternata species, it is challenging and time consuming to detect a pathotype responsible for citrus brown spot. In this study, we were seeking a rapid and specific approach to identify the tangerine pathotype within the A. alternata-pathogenic species, using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method and actts2 gene as a marker molecule. Nine pathogenic samples were obtained from the region of Ramsar, Iran, and certified as A. alternata-pathogenic isolates. Specific primers were designed for regions coding for Alternaria citri toxin (ACT), and the PCR and LAMP reactions were performed. Our data showed that the primers designed for the tangerine pathotype of A. alternata were specific, and in both reactions, positive results were only observed in desired pathotypes. In the other pathotypes of this species as well as other standard fungal samples as negative controls, no positive result was observed. Therefore, our results suggest the possibility to detect the tangerine-specific A. alternata pathotype from other related species with a high accuracy and in early stages of the disease. PMID:26638210

  20. Spatial pattern analysis of citrus canker-infected plantings in são paulo, Brazil, and augmentation of infection elicited by the asian leafminer.

    PubMed

    Gottwald, T R; Bassanezi, R B; Amorim, L; Bergamin-Filho, A

    2007-06-01

    ABSTRACT Eradication of Asiatic citrus canker (ACC) has become increasingly difficult over the last decade, following the introduction of the Asian leafminer into Brazil and Florida, which has led to changes in the eradication protocols. The present study, undertaken in Brazil, was aimed at characterizing the spatial patterns of ACC in commercial citrus plantings to gain better understanding of the dynamics of the disease subsequent to introduction of the leafminer. The spatial patterns of ACC were mapped in 326 commercial citrus plantings and statistically assessed at various spatial dimensions. The presence of "within-group" aggregation in each plot was examined via beta-binomial analysis for groups of trees parsed into three-by-three-tree quadrats. The relative intensity of aggregation was expressed as a binomial index of dispersion (D) and heterogeneity among plots expressed as the intracluster correlation coefficient, rho. The population of data sets was found to fall into three D categories, D < 1.3, 1.3 3.5. These categories then were related to other spatial characteristics. The binary form of Taylor's power law was used to assess the overdispersion of disease across plots and was highly significant. When the overall population of plots was parsed into D categories, the Taylor's R (2) improved in all cases. Although these methods assessed aggregation well, they do not give information on the number of foci or aggregations within each plot. Therefore, the number of foci per 1,000 trees was quantified and found to relate directly to the D categories. The lowest D category could be explained by a linear relationship of number of foci versus disease incidence, whereas the higher two categories were most easily explained by a generalized beta function for the same relationship. Spatial autocorrelation then was used to examine the spatial relationships "among groups" composed of three-by-three-tree quadrats and determine common distances between these groups of ACC-infected trees. Aggregation was found in >84% of cases at this spatial level and there was a direct relationship between increasing D category and increasing core cluster size, and aggregation at the among-group spatial hierarchy was generally stronger for the within-row than for the across-row orientation. Clusters of disease were estimated to average between 18 and 33 tree spaces apart, and the presence of multiple foci of infection was commonplace. The effectiveness of the eradication protocol of removing all "exposed" trees within 30 m surrounding each "ACC-infected tree" was examined, and the distance of subsequent infected trees beyond this 30-m zone from the original focal infected tree was measured for each plot. A frequency distribution was compiled over all plots to describe the distance that would have been needed to circumscribe all of these outliers as a theoretical alternative protocol to the 30-m eradication protocol. The frequency distribution was well described by a monomolecular model (R(2) = 0.98) and used to determine that 90, 95, and 99% of all newly infected trees occurred within 296, 396, and 623 m of prior-infected trees in commercial citrus plantings, respectively. These distances are very similar to previously reported distances determined for ACC in residential settings in Florida. PMID:18943598

  1. Serine protease identification (in vitro) and molecular structure predictions (in silico) from a phytopathogenic fungus, Alternaria solani.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Murugesan; Chandrasekar, Raman; Sa, Tongmin; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2014-07-01

    Serine proteases are involved in an enormous number of biological processes. The present study aims at characterizing three-dimensional (3D) molecular architecture of serine proteases from early blight pathogen, Alternaria solani that are hypothesized to be markers of phytopathogenicity. A serine protease was purified to homogeneity and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS analysis revealed that protease produced by A. solani belongs to alkaline serine proteases (AsP). AsP is made up of 403 amino acid residues with molecular weight of 42.1 kDa (Isoelectric point - 6.51) and its molecular formula was C1859 H2930 N516 O595 S4 . AsP structure model was built based on its comparative homology with serine protease using the program, MODELER. AsP had 16 β-sheets and 10 α-helices, with Ser(350) (G347-G357), Asp(158) (D158-H169), and His(193) (H193-G203) in separate turn/coil structures. Biological metal binding region situated near 6th-helix and His(193) residue is responsible for metal binding site. Also, calcium ion (Ca(2+)) is coordinated by the carboxyl groups of Lys(84), Ile(85), Lys(86), Asp(87), Phe(88), Ala(89), Ala(90) (K84-A90) for first Ca(2+) binding site and carbonyl oxygen atom of Lys(244), Gly(245), Arg(246), Thr(247), Lys(248), Lys(249), and Ala(250) (K244-A250), for second Ca(2+) binding site. Moreover, Ramachandran plot analysis of protein residues falling into most favored secondary structures were determined (83.3%). The predicted molecular 3D structural model was further verified using PROCHECK, ERRAT, and VADAR servers to confirm the geometry and stereo-chemical parameters of the molecular structural design. The functional analysis of AsP 3D molecular structure predictions familiar in the current study may provide a new perspective in the understanding and identification of antifungal protease inhibitor designing. PMID:24122785

  2. Arabidopsis Elongator subunit 2 positively contributes to resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenggang; Ding, Yezhang; Yao, Jin; Zhang, Yanping; Sun, Yijun; Colee, James; Mou, Zhonglin

    2015-09-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Elongator complex functions in diverse biological processes including salicylic acid-mediated immune response. However, how Elongator functions in jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET)-mediated defense is unknown. Here, we show that Elongator is required for full induction of the JA/ET defense pathway marker gene PLANT DEFENSIN1.2 (PDF1.2) and for resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola. A loss-of-function mutation in the Arabidopsis Elongator subunit 2 (ELP2) alters B. cinerea-induced transcriptome reprogramming. Interestingly, in elp2, expression of WRKY33, OCTADECANOID-RESPONSIVE ARABIDOPSIS AP2/ERF59 (ORA59), and PDF1.2 is inhibited, whereas transcription of MYC2 and its target genes is enhanced. However, overexpression of WRKY33 or ORA59 and mutation of MYC2 fail to restore PDF1.2 expression and B. cinerea resistance in elp2, suggesting that ELP2 is required for induction of not only WRKY33 and ORA59 but also PDF1.2. Moreover, elp2 is as susceptible as coronatine-insensitive1 (coi1) and ethylene-insensitive2 (ein2) to B. cinerea, indicating that ELP2 is an important player in B. cinerea resistance. Further analysis of the lesion sizes on the double mutants elp2 coi1 and elp2 ein2 and the corresponding single mutants revealed that the function of ELP2 overlaps with COI1 and is additive to EIN2 for B. cinerea resistance. Finally, basal histone acetylation levels in the coding regions of WRKY33, ORA59, and PDF1.2 are reduced in elp2 and a functional ELP2-GFP fusion protein binds to the chromatin of these genes, suggesting that constitutive ELP2-mediated histone acetylation may be required for full activation of the WRKY33/ORA59/PDF1.2 transcriptional cascade. PMID:26216741

  3. Stem Cell Transplants (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Teens > Stem Cell Transplants Print ... Does it Take to Recover? Coping What Are Stem Cells? As you probably remember from biology class, every ...

  4. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page Print this page Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  5. Optimizing stem cell culture

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Sanden, Boudewijn; Dhobb, Mehdi; Berger, François; Wion, Didier

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells always balance between self-renewal and differentiation. Hence, stem cell culture parameters are critical and need to be continuously refined according to progress in our stem cell biology understanding and the latest technological developments. This led to the progressive replacement of ill-defined additives such as serum or feeder cell layers by recombinant cytokines or growth factors. Another example is the control of the oxygen pressure. For many years cell cultures have been done under atmospheric oxygen pressure which is much higher than the one experienced by stem cells in vivo. A consequence of cell metabolism is that cell culture conditions are constantly changing. Therefore, the development of high sensitive monitoring processes and control algorithms is required for ensuring cell culture medium homeostasis. Stem cells also sense the physical constraints of their microenvironment. Rigidity, stiffness and geometry of the culture substrate influence stem cell fate. Hence, nanotopography is probably as important as medium formulation in the optimization of stem cell culture conditions. Recent advances include the development of synthetic bioinformative substrates designed at the micro- and nanoscale level. On going research in many different fields including stem cell biology, nanotechnology, and bioengineering suggest that our current way to culture cells in Petri dish or flasks will soon be outdated as flying across the Atlantic Ocean in the Lindbergh’s plane. PMID:20803548

  6. The leukemic stem cell

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Craig T.

    2007-01-01

    Malignant stem cells have recently been described as the source of several types of human cancer. These unique cell types are typically rare and possess properties that are distinct from most other tumor cells. The properties of leukemic stem cells indicate that current chemotherapy drugs will not be effective. The use of current cytotoxic agents is not effective in leukemia because the agents target both the leukemic and normal stem cell populations. Consequently, new strategies are required that specifically and preferentially target the malignant stem cell population, while sparing normal stem cells. Several well known agents are lethal for the leukemic stem cell in preclinical testing. They include parthenolide, commonly known as feverfew, and TDZD-8. They have undergone various levels of preclinical development, but have not been used in patients as yet in the cancer setting. These drugs and combinations of existing therapies that target the leukemic stem cell population may provide a cure in this disease. This article summarizes recent findings in the leukemic stem cell field and discusses new directions for therapy. PMID:17336250

  7. Lock For Valve Stem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Guirguis, Kamal S.

    1991-01-01

    Simple, cheap device locks valve stem so its setting cannot be changed by unauthorized people. Device covers valve stem; cover locked in place with standard padlock. Valve lock made of PVC pipe and packing band. Shears, drill or punch, and forming rod only tools needed.

  8. Designing for STEM Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berland, Leema K.

    2013-01-01

    We are increasingly seeing an emphasis on STEM integration in high school classrooms such that students will learn and apply relevant math and science content while simultaneously developing engineering habits of mind. However, research in both science education and engineering education suggests that this goal of truly integrating STEM is rife

  9. Bringing STEM to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeihiser, Mike; Ray, Dori

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary approach that science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) projects inspire in both teachers and students "brings to light a larger picture that promotes real-world scientific applications, which has in turn been shown to increase undergraduate persistence in STEM." The high school students have been warned…

  10. Designing for STEM Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berland, Leema K.

    2013-01-01

    We are increasingly seeing an emphasis on STEM integration in high school classrooms such that students will learn and apply relevant math and science content while simultaneously developing engineering habits of mind. However, research in both science education and engineering education suggests that this goal of truly integrating STEM is rife…

  11. STEM Careers Ambassadors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This article is designed to help teachers feel more confident in their work with STEM Ambassadors to further enhance enrichment activities. Skills shortages in Science, Technology, Engineering, Maths (STEM) and the Built Environment are well documented, and will continue to be an issue whether people are in a period of recession or recovery. The…

  12. Making STEM Connections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stump, Sheryl L.; Bryan, Joel A.; McConnell, Tom J.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated approaches to education in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), especially those set in the context of real-world situations, can motivate and deepen students' learning of the STEM subjects (National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council 2014). This article describes two integrated investigations used…

  13. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hatzimichael, Eleftheria; Tuthill, Mark

    2010-01-01

    More than 25,000 hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCTs) are performed each year for the treatment of lymphoma, leukemia, immune-deficiency illnesses, congenital metabolic defects, hemoglobinopathies, and myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative syndromes. Before transplantation, patients receive intensive myeloablative chemoradiotherapy followed by stem cell “rescue.” Autologous HSCT is performed using the patient’s own hematopoietic stem cells, which are harvested before transplantation and reinfused after myeloablation. Allogeneic HSCT uses human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched stem cells derived from a donor. Survival after allogeneic transplantation depends on donor–recipient matching, the graft-versus-host response, and the development of a graft versus leukemia effect. This article reviews the biology of stem cells, clinical efficacy of HSCT, transplantation procedures, and potential complications. PMID:24198516

  14. Preservation of stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Adult stem cells (hematopoietic and mesenchymal) have demonstrated tremendous human therapeutic potential. Currently, human embryonic stem cells are used principally for understanding development and disease progression but also hold tremendous therapeutic potential. The ability to preserve stem cells is critical for their use in clinical and research applications. Preservation of cells permits the transportation of cells between sites, as well as completion of safety and quality control testing. Preservation also permits the development of a ‘manufacturing paradigm’ for cell therapies, thereby maximizing the number of products that can be produced at a given facility. in this article, we will review modes of preservation and the current status of preservation of hematopoietic, mesenchymal and human embryonic stem cells. Current and emerging issues in the area of stem cell preservation will also be described. PMID:20046676

  15. Lung Stem cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Ardhanareeswaran, Karthikeyan; Mirotsou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years new insights have been added to the study of stem cells in the adult lung. The exploration of the endogenous lung progenitors as well as the study of exogenously delivered stem cell populations holds promise for advancing our understanding of the biology of lung repair mechanisms. Moreover, it opens new possibilities for the use of stem cell therapy for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for the treatment of lung disease. Here, we discuss the main types of lung epithelial progenitor populations; the potential of endothelial progenitors, mesenchymal stem cells and embryonic stem cells for lung therapy; as well as summarize the cellular mechanisms involved. The de it provides novel insights for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for the treatment of lung disease. PMID:23406722

  16. Intraoperative Stem Cell Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Mónica Beato; Cabral, Joaquim M.S.; Karp, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells hold significant promise for regeneration of tissue defects and disease-modifying therapies. Although numerous promising stem cell approaches are advancing in clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell therapies offer more immediate hope by integrating an autologous cell source with a well-established surgical intervention in a single procedure. Herein, the major developments in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical studies, are reviewed, and the potential regenerative mechanisms and the roles of different cell populations in the regeneration process are discussed. Although intraoperative stem cell therapies have been shown to be safe and effective for several indications, there are still critical challenges to be tackled prior to adoption into the standard surgical armamentarium. PMID:22809140

  17. Expanding STEM Education | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Editor’s note: This article is written as a reflection on experiential STEM education by a student who completed her Werner H. Kirsten internship in June 2015. Here, she advocates for incorporating hands-on experience into STEM curricula. If the only way for high school students to learn science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is through textbooks, then count me out. But how then do you get students to learn STEM outside of the classroom? The focus of this article is to advocate for high school STEM education through experiential learning. Tom Freston, one of the founders and the chief executive officer (CEO) of MTV Productions, said in an interview in Men’s Journal that “innovation is taking two things that already exist and...

  18. Autophagy in stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jun-Lin; Simon, Anna Katharina; Prescott, Mark; Menendez, Javier A.; Liu, Fei; Wang, Fen; Wang, Chenran; Wolvetang, Ernst; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Zhang, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular process by which cytoplasmic components are sequestered in autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for degradation. As a major intracellular degradation and recycling pathway, autophagy is crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis as well as remodeling during normal development, and dysfunctions in autophagy have been associated with a variety of pathologies including cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and neurodegenerative disease. Stem cells are unique in their ability to self-renew and differentiate into various cells in the body, which are important in development, tissue renewal and a range of disease processes. Therefore, it is predicted that autophagy would be crucial for the quality control mechanisms and maintenance of cellular homeostasis in various stem cells given their relatively long life in the organisms. In contrast to the extensive body of knowledge available for somatic cells, the role of autophagy in the maintenance and function of stem cells is only beginning to be revealed as a result of recent studies. Here we provide a comprehensive review of the current understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of autophagy in embryonic stem cells, several tissue stem cells (particularly hematopoietic stem cells), as well as a number of cancer stem cells. We discuss how recent studies of different knockout mice models have defined the roles of various autophagy genes and related pathways in the regulation of the maintenance, expansion and differentiation of various stem cells. We also highlight the many unanswered questions that will help to drive further research at the intersection of autophagy and stem cell biology in the near future. PMID:23486312

  19. Cardiac Stem Cell Niches

    PubMed Central

    Leri, Annarosa; Rota, Marcello; Hosoda, Toru; Goichberg, Polina; Anversa, Piero

    2014-01-01

    The critical role that stem cell niches have in cardiac homeostasis and myocardial repair following injury is the focus of this review. Cardiac niches represent specialized microdomains where the quiescent and activated state of resident stem cells is regulated. Alterations in niche function with aging and cardiac diseases result in abnormal sites of cardiomyogenesis and inadequate myocyte formation. The relevance of Notch 1 signaling, gap-junction formation, HIF-1? and metabolic state in the regulation of stem cell growth and differentiation within the cardiac niches are discussed. PMID:25267073

  20. Stem subsidence of polished and rough double-taper stems

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kengo; Hirosaki, Kenichi; Takano, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Tadami

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose Many clinical reports have indicated that polished hip stems show better clinical results than rough stems of the same geometry. It is still unknown, however, what the mechanical effects are of different surface finishes on the cement at the cement-bone interface. We compared mechanical effects in an in vitro cemented hip arthroplasty model. Methods Two sizes of double-taper polished stems and matt-processed polished stems (rough stems) were fixed into composite femurs. A 1-Hz dynamic load was applied to the stems for 1 million cycles. An 8-h no-load period was set after every 16 h of load. Stem subsidence within the cement, and compressive force and horizontal cement creep at the cement-bone interface, were measured. Results Compared to rough stems, stem subsidence, compressive force and cement creep for polished stems were a maximum of 4, 12, and 7-fold greater, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between stem subsidence and compressive force for polished stems. In contrast, a strong negative correlation was found between stem subsidence and compressive force for rough stems. There was also a statistically significant relationship between compressive force on the cement and cement creep for the polished stems, but no significant relationship was found for rough stems. Interpretation This is the first evidence that different surface finishes of stems can have different mechanical effects on the cement at the cement-bone interface. Stem subsidence in polished stems resulted in compressive force on the cement and cement creep. The mechanical effects that polished taper stems impart on cement at the cement-bone interface probably contribute to their good long-term fixation and excellent clinical outcome. PMID:19421909

  1. Molecular characterization and detection of mutations associated with resistance to succinate dehydrogenase-inhibiting fungicides in Alternaria solani.

    PubMed

    Mallik, I; Arabiat, S; Pasche, J S; Bolton, M D; Patel, J S; Gudmestad, N C

    2014-01-01

    Early blight, caused by Alternaria solani, is an economically important foliar disease of potato in several production areas of the United States. Few potato cultivars possess resistance to early blight; therefore, the application of fungicides is the primary means of achieving disease control. Previous work in our laboratory reported resistance to the succinate dehydrogenase-inhibiting (SDHI) fungicide boscalid in this plant pathogen with a concomitant loss of disease control. Two phenotypes were detected, one in which A. solani isolates were moderately resistant to boscalid, the other in which isolates were highly resistant to the fungicide. Resistance in other fungal plant pathogens to SDHI fungicides is known to occur due to amino acid exchanges in the soluble subunit succinate dehydrogenase B (SdhB), C (SdhC), and D (SdhD) proteins. In this study, the AsSdhB, AsSdhC, and AsSdhD genes were analyzed and compared in sensitive (50% effective concentration [EC50] < 5 μg ml(-1)), moderately resistant (EC50 = 5.1 to 20 μg ml(-1)), highly resistant (EC50 = 20.1 to 100 μg ml(-1)), and very highly resistant (EC50 > 100 μg ml(-1)) A. solani isolates. In total, five mutations were detected, two in each of the AsSdhB and AsSdhD genes and one in the AsSdhC gene. The sequencing of AsSdhB elucidated point mutations cytosine (C) to thymine (T) at nucleotide 990 and adenine (A) to guanine (G) at nucleotide 991, leading to an exchange from histidine to tyrosine (H278Y) or arginine (H278R), respectively, at codon 278. The H278R exchange was detected in 4 of 10 A. solani isolates moderately resistant to boscalid, exhibiting EC50 values of 6 to 8 μg ml(-1). Further genetic analysis also confirmed this mutation in isolates with high and very high EC50 values for boscalid of 28 to 500 μg ml(-1). Subsequent sequencing of AsSdhC and AsSdhD genes confirmed the presence of additional mutations from A to G at nucleotide position 490 in AsSdhC and at nucleotide position 398 in the AsSdhD, conferring H134R and H133R exchanges in AsSdhC and AsSdhD, respectively. The H134R exchange in AsSdhC was observed in A. solani isolates with sensitive, moderate, highly resistant, and very highly resistant boscalid phenotypes, and the AsSdhD H133R exchange was observed in isolates with both moderate and very high EC50 value boscalid phenotypes. Detection and differentiation of point mutations in AsSdhB resulting in H278R and H278Y exchanges in the AsSdhB subunit were facilitated by the development of a mismatch amplification mutation assay. Detection of these two mutations in boscalid-resistant isolates, in addition to mutations in AsSdhC and AsSdhD resulting in an H134R and H133R exchange, respectively, was achieved by the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect and differentiate the sensitive and resistant isolates based on the single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in all three genes. A single A. solani isolate with resistance to boscalid did not contain any of the above-mentioned exchanges but did contain a substitution of aspartate to glutamic acid at amino acid position 123 (D123E) in the AsSdhD subunit. Among A. solani isolates possessing resistance to boscalid, point mutations in AsSdhB were more frequently detected than mutations in genes coding for any other subunit. PMID:23901829

  2. Multiple Epoxide Hydrolases in Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici and Their Relationship to Medium Composition and Host-Specific Toxin Production

    PubMed Central

    Morisseau, Christophe; Ward, Barney L.; Gilchrist, David G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    1999-01-01

    The production of Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici host-specific toxins (AAL toxins) and epoxide hydrolase (EH) activity were studied during the growth of this plant-pathogenic fungus in stationary liquid cultures. Media containing pectin as the primary carbon source displayed peaks of EH activity at day 4 and at day 12. When pectin was replaced by glucose, there was a single peak of EH activity at day 6. Partial characterization of the EH activities suggests the presence of three biochemically distinguishable EH activities. Two of them have a molecular mass of 25 kDa and a pI of 4.9, while the other has a molecular mass of 20 kDa and a pI of 4.7. Each of the EH activities can be distinguished by substrate preference and sensitivity to inhibitors. The EH activities present at day 6 (glucose) or day 12 (pectin) are concomitant with AAL toxin production. PMID:10347018

  3. Cloning and characterization of a cyclic peptide synthetase gene from Alternaria alternata apple pathotype whose product is involved in AM-toxin synthesis and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Johnson, R D; Johnson, L; Itoh, Y; Kodama, M; Otani, H; Kohmoto, K

    2000-07-01

    Afternaria afternata apple pathotype causes Alternaria blotch of susceptible apple cultivars through the production of a cyclic peptide host-specific toxin, AM-toxin. PCR (polymerase chain reaction), with primers designed to conserved domains of peptide synthetase genes, amplified several products from A. alternata apple pathotype that showed high similarity to other fungal peptide synthetases and were specific to the apple pathotype. Screening of a Lambda Zap genomic library with these PCR-generated probes identified overlapping clones containing a complete cyclic peptide synthetase gene of 13.1 kb in length with no introns. Disruption of this gene, designated AM-toxin synthetase (AMT), by transformation of wild-type A. afternata apple pathotype with disruption vectors resulted in toxin-minus mutants, which were also unable to cause disease symptoms on susceptible apple cultivars. AM-toxin synthetase is therefore a primary determinant of virulence and specificity in the A. alternata apple pathotype/apple interaction. PMID:10875335

  4. Azole-synergistic anti-candidal activity of altenusin, a biphenyl metabolite of the endophytic fungus Alternaria alternata isolated from Terminalia chebula Retz.

    PubMed

    Phaopongthai, Jatuporn; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Meksuriyen, Duangdeun; Sriubolmas, Nongluksna; Suwanborirux, Khanit

    2013-12-01

    In this study, a tropical endophytic fungus, Alternaria alternata Tche-153 was isolated from a Thai medicinal plant Terminalia chebula Rezt. The ethyl acetate extract prepared from the fermentation broth exhibited significant ketoconazole-synergistic activity against Candida albicans. Bioassay-directed fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract led to the isolation of altenusin (1), isoochracinic acid (2), and altenuic acid (3) together with 2,5-dimethyl-7-hydroxychromone (4). Using the disc diffusion method and the microdilution chequerboard technique, only altenusin (1) in combination with each of three azole drugs, ketoconazole, fluconazole or itraconazole at their low sub-inhibitory concentrations exhibited potent synergistic activity against C. albicans with the fractional inhibitory concentration index range of 0.078 to 0.188. This first discovery of altenusin (1) as a new azole-synergistic prototype possessing a biphenyl structure is of significance for further development of new azole-synergists to treat invasive candidiasis. PMID:24385360

  5. Stem Cell Information: Glossary

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood stem cells Culture medium Differentiation Directed differentiation DNA Ectoderm Embryo Embryoid bodies Embryonic germ cells Embryonic ... mitosis and meiosis . Chromosome —A structure consisting of DNA and regulatory proteins found in the nucleus of ...

  6. Innovation and STEM Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Julia Link

    2015-01-01

    How do schools with a focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fit in with state goals to increase innovation and to boost the economy? This article briefly discusses how educators can encourage creativity and innovation.

  7. Exploring the STEM shortage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, S. James, Jr.; Bhulai, Alfred; IcePilot; JoeB

    2014-12-01

    In reply to Margaret Harris' article on "The STEM shortage paradox" (Graduate careers, October pp56-59, http://ow.ly/DXvIq) and a related post on the physicsworld.com blog ("The STEM employment paradox, revisited", http://ow.ly/DXvCl), both of which questioned reports that the UK is suffering from a severe shortage of graduates in science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

  8. Chemotherapy targeting cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiguang; Lv, Lin; Yang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Conventional chemotherapy is the main treatment for cancer and benefits patients in the form of decreased relapse and metastasis and longer overall survival. However, as the target therapy drugs and delivery systems are not wholly precise, it also results in quite a few side effects, and is less efficient in many cancers due to the spared cancer stem cells, which are considered the reason for chemotherapy resistance, relapse, and metastasis. Conventional chemotherapy limitations and the cancer stem cell hypothesis inspired our search for a novel chemotherapy targeting cancer stem cells. In this review, we summarize cancer stem cell enrichment methods, the search for new efficient drugs, and the delivery of drugs targeting cancer stem cells. We also discuss cancer stem cell hierarchy complexity and the corresponding combination therapy for both cancer stem and non-stem cells. Learning from cancer stem cells may reveal novel strategies for chemotherapy in the future. PMID:26045975

  9. Hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Trigg, Michael E

    2004-04-01

    The hematopoietic system of the young child acquires, through time, the ability to cope with exposure to a number of environmental toxins and infectious agents. Occasionally, severe aplastic anemia occurs secondary to exposure to some of these toxins or infectious agents. The occurrence of severe aplastic anemia provides an opportunity to study the maturation of the hematopoietic system because often the immune system is partially intact. Hematopoietic stem cell transplants permit the study of the complete reconstitution of the hematopoietic and immunologic system. Stem cell transplants are often used to treat severe aplastic anemia or, alternatively, may be part of the treatment for an underlying malignant disease or a genetic disease. Sources of stem cells and the age of the recipient and donor have an impact on the success of the stem cell transplant. A stem cell transplantation provides a window of opportunity to study and observe the normal maturation of the immune system and the sensitivity. Very clearly, children recover from severe aplastic anemia and stem cell transplantations more readily with fewer problems and complications than adults. The environmental risks that a child who received a stem cell transplantation faces are related primarily to the deficiencies of the hematopoietic system and immune system during the recovery phase. Therefore, diminished resistance to infectious agents, primarily viruses and other opportunistic organisms, are the primary risk that children who are recovering from these transplantations face. There are few data on the susceptibility of these children to the toxic effects of other environmental toxicants during the recovery period, which may take years before complete recovery. PMID:15060199

  10. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wordin, John J.

    1991-01-01

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents overtightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing.

  11. Valve stem and packing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wordin, J.J.

    1991-09-03

    A valve stem and packing assembly is provided in which a rotatable valve stem includes a first tractrix surface for sliding contact with a stem packing and also includes a second tractrix surface for sliding contact with a bonnet. Force is applied by means of a spring, gland flange, and gland on the stem packing so the stem packing seals to the valve stem and bonnet. This configuration serves to create and maintain a reliable seal between the stem packing and the valve stem. The bonnet includes a second complementary tractrix surface for contacting the second sliding tractrix surface, the combination serving as a journal bearing for the entire valve stem and packing assembly. The journal bearing so configured is known as a Schiele's pivot. The Schiele's pivot also serves to maintain proper alignment of the valve stem with respect to the bonnet. Vertical wear between the surfaces of the Schiele's pivot is uniform at all points of contact between the second sliding tractrix surface and the second complementary tractrix surface of a bonnet. The valve stem is connected to a valve plug by means of a slip joint. The valve is opened and closed by rotating the valve stem. The slip joint compensates for wear on the Schiele's pivot and on the valve plug. A ledge is provided on the valve bonnet for the retaining nut to bear against. The ledge prevents over tightening of the retaining nut and the resulting excessive friction between stem and stem packing. 2 figures.

  12. Horizontal gene transfer and gene dosage drives adaptation to wood colonization in a tree pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some of the most damaging tree pathogens can attack woody stems, causing lesions (cankers) that may be lethal. To identify the genomic determinants of wood colonization leading to canker formation, we sequenced the genomes of the poplar canker pathogen, Mycosphaerella populorum, and the closely rela...

  13. Characterization of rhizosphere bacteria for control of phytopathogenic fungi of tomato.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Nicolás; Carlier, Evelin; Andrés, Javier; Rosas, Susana B; Rovera, Marisa

    2012-03-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp., isolated from rhizosphere soil of tomato and pepper plants, were evaluated in vitro as potential antagonists of fungal pathogens. Strains were characterized using the API 20NE biochemical system, and tested against the causal agents of stem canker and leaf blight (Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici), southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.), and root rot (Fusarium solani). To this end, dual culture antagonism assays were carried out on 25% Tryptic Soy Agar, King B medium, and Potato Dextrose Agar to determine the effect of the strains on mycelial growth of the pathogens. The effect of two concentrations of FeCl(3) on antagonism against Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici was also tested. In addition, strains were screened for ability to produce exoenzymes and siderophores. Finally, the selected Pseudomonas strain, PCI2, was evaluated for effect on tomato seedling development and as a potential candidate for controlling tomato damping-off caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., under growth chamber conditions. All strains significantly inhibited Alternaria alternata f. sp. lycopersici, particularly in 25% TSA medium. Antagonistic effect on Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. and Fusarium solani was greater on King B medium. Protease was produced by 30% of the strains, but no strains produced cellulase or chitinase. Growth chamber studies resulted in significant increases in plant stand as well as in root dry weight. PCI2 was able to establish and survive in tomato plants rhizosphere after 40 days following planting of bacterized seeds. PMID:21507555

  14. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Upalco Unit, Drift Lake Dam, Ashley National Forest, 11.4 miles Northwest of Swift Creek Campground, Mountain Home, Duchesne County, UT

  15. 5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE, (12' DIAMETER HARDESTY MODEL 112 CIRCULAR GATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Island Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  16. 4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Pot Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  17. 7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (15' HARDESTY MODEL 115 GATE), LOOKING NORTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Marjorie Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  18. 6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (18' HARDESTY GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Long Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  19. 5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW SHOWING INCLINED OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (28' WIDE HARDESTY CAST IRON SLIDE HEADGATE), LOOKING NORTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Duck Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  20. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE WHEEL, STEM AND STEM GUIDE (HARDESTY CAST IRON RECTANGULAR SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHWEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Lost Lake Dam, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  1. 5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, STEM, STEM GUIDE AND WHEEL (10' HARDESTY CAST IRON VERTICAL LIFT GATE), LOOKING WEST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Weir Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  2. 7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF UPRIGHT OUTLET GATE, WHEEL STEM AND STEM GUIDE (14' DIAMETER CIRCULAR CALCO CAST IRON SLIDE GATE), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - High Mountain Dams in Bonneville Unit, Fire Lake Dam, Wasatch National Forest, Kamas, Summit County, UT

  3. Sequence and simple-sequence repeat analyses of the fungal pathogen Seiridium cardinale indicate California is the most likely source of the cypress canker epidemic for the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Della Rocca, G; Eyre, C A; Danti, R; Garbelotto, M

    2011-12-01

    Seiridium cardinale is the pathogenic fungus of unknown origin responsible for a world pandemic known as cypress canker affecting several species of Cupressaceae in both the Northern and Southern Hemisphere. In this study, a comparative genetic analysis of worldwide populations was performed using sequence analysis of a portion of the ?-tubulin locus and seven polymorphic simple-sequence repeat (SSR) loci on 96 isolates. Sequence analysis identified two distinct ?-tubulin alleles, both present in California. Only one of the two alleles was detected in the Mediterranean basin, while two isolates from the Southern Hemisphere were characterized by the presence of the allele absent from the Mediterranean. SSRs identified a total of 46 multilocus genotypes (MGs): genotypic diversity was always higher in the California population, and calculations of the index of association (I(A)) determined the presence of linkage disequilibrium associated with the absence of sexual reproduction only in the Mediterranean population but not in California. In 50 instances, the same MG was found at great geographic distances, implying a role played by humans in spreading the disease. Network analysis performed on SSR data identified three clusters of MGs: California, Morocco, and the rest of the Mediterranean. Both the Morocco and the Mediterranean clusters were linked to the California cluster. Coalescent analysis identified insignificant migration between California and Italy, as expected in the presence of a single introduction event, and very high migration from Italy into Greece, as expected of an outbreak still in exponential growth phase and starting from an Italian source. PMID:21879790

  4. Dental pulp stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashri, Nahid Y.; Ajlan, Sumaiah A.; Aldahmash, Abdullah M.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory periodontal disease is a major cause of loss of tooth-supporting structures. Novel approaches for regeneration of periodontal apparatus is an area of intensive research. Periodontal tissue engineering implies the use of appropriate regenerative cells, delivered through a suitable scaffold, and guided through signaling molecules. Dental pulp stem cells have been used in an increasing number of studies in dental tissue engineering. Those cells show mesenchymal (stromal) stem cell-like properties including self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potentials, aside from their relative accessibility and pleasant handling properties. The purpose of this article is to review the biological principles of periodontal tissue engineering, along with the challenges facing the development of a consistent and clinically relevant tissue regeneration platform. This article includes an updated review on dental pulp stem cells and their applications in periodontal regeneration, in combination with different scaffolds and growth factors. PMID:26620980

  5. Melanoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    The cancer stem cell concept significantly broadens our understanding of melanoma biology. However, this concept should be regarded as an integral part of a holistic cancer model that also includes the genetic evolution of tumor cells and the variability of cell phenotypes within a dynamic tumor microenvironment. The biologic complexity and methodological difficulties in identifying cancer stem cells and their biomarkers are currently impeding the direct translation of experimental findings into clinical practice. Nevertheless, it is these methodological shortcomings that provide a new perspective on the phenotypic heterogeneity and plasticity of melanoma with important consequences for future therapies. The development of new combination treatment strategies, particularly with regard to overcoming treatment resistance, could significantly benefit from targeted elimination of cell subpopulations with cancer stem cell properties. PMID:25631128

  6. Dynamic stem cell heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Teresa; Simons, Benjamin D

    2015-04-15

    Recent lineage-tracing studies based on inducible genetic labelling have emphasized a crucial role for stochasticity in the maintenance and regeneration of cycling adult tissues. These studies have revealed that stem cells are frequently lost through differentiation and that this is compensated for by the duplication of neighbours, leading to the consolidation of clonal diversity. Through the combination of long-term lineage-tracing assays with short-term in vivo live imaging, the cellular basis of this stochastic stem cell loss and replacement has begun to be resolved. With a focus on mammalian spermatogenesis, intestinal maintenance and the hair cycle, we review the role of dynamic heterogeneity in the regulation of adult stem cell populations. PMID:25852198

  7. STEM on the radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-10-01

    Looking for an Internet radio station focusing on programing about science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)? The U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) announced on 26 September the launch of Science360 Radio, which it says is the first Internet radio stream dedicated to STEM programing. Science360 includes more than 100 radio shows and podcasts that are available on the Web as well as on iPhone and Android devices. The shows originate from a variety of sources, including NSF, other U.S. government agencies, science organizations, universities, and media outlets. For more information, see http://science360.gov/files/.

  8. Interventional stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Prologo, J D; Hawkins, M; Gilliland, C; Chinnadurai, R; Harkey, P; Chadid, T; Lee, Z; Brewster, Luke

    2016-04-01

    The ability to deliver cells in appropriate doses to their targeted site of action is a well-known obstacle to optimising stem cell therapy. Systemic administration of cells results in pulmonary "trapping," which significantly decreases the number of available circulating cells to impact underlying disorders. Directed delivery of stem cells in interventional radiology may provide an additional option for bypassing the lungs, as well as introduce novel potential avenues for decreasing doses required to effect cellular therapy, efficiently obtain local paracrine effects, and/or to simplify targeting strategies. PMID:26874660

  9. Floating valve stem seal

    SciTech Connect

    Binford, J.D.

    1990-08-14

    This patent describes an improvement in a valve stem seal assembly adapted for securement to a valve guide of an internal combustion engine. The assembly including a rigid shell defining a longitudinal axis and having an endwall containing a first aperture, an annular resilient seal body disposed within the shell. The body has a second aperture defining an interior annular lip adapted to provide continuous sealing engagement with an axially reciprocating valve stem. The seal body has an exterior circumferential groove, the groove defining a pair of parallel, radially extending side walls, the groove further defining a bottom, wherein the seal body is supported in the first aperture by the circumferential groove.

  10. Stem cells and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Goodell, Margaret A; Rando, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Research into stem cells and aging aims to understand how stem cells maintain tissue health, what mechanisms ultimately lead to decline in stem cell function with age, and how the regenerative capacity of somatic stem cells can be enhanced to promote healthy aging. Here, we explore the effects of aging on stem cells in different tissues. Recent research has focused on the ways that genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and the extrinsic environmental milieu influence stem cell functionality over time. We describe each of these three factors, the ways in which they interact, and how these interactions decrease stem cell health over time. We are optimistic that a better understanding of these changes will uncover potential strategies to enhance stem cell function and increase tissue resiliency into old age. PMID:26785478

  11. Stem Cells and Female Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hongling; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent findings in stem cell biology have resulted in new opportunities for the treatment of reproductive disease. Endometrial regeneration can be driven by bone marrow derived stem cells. This finding has potential implications for the treatment of uterine disorders. It also supports a new theory for the etiology of endometriosis. The ovaries have been shown to contain stem cells that form oocytes in adults and can be cultured in vitro to develop mature oocytes. Stem cells from the fetus have been demonstrated to lead to microchimerism in the mother and implicated in several maternal diseases. Additionally the placenta may be another source of hematopoietic stem cell. Finally endometrial derived stem cells have been demonstrated to differentiate into non-reproductive tissues. While we are just beginning to understand stem cells and many key questions remain, the potential advantages of stem cells in reproductive biology and medicine are apparent. PMID:19208782

  12. Stem cell therapy for diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lee, K O; Gan, S U; Calne, R Y

    2012-12-01

    Stem cell therapy holds immense promise for the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus. Research on the ability of human embryonic stem cells to differentiate into islet cells has defined the developmental stages and transcription factors involved in this process. However, the clinical applications of human embryonic stem cells are limited by ethical concerns, as well as the potential for teratoma formation. As a consequence, alternative forms of stem cell therapies, such as induced pluripotent stem cells, umbilical cord stem cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, have become an area of intense study. Recent advances in stem cell therapy may turn this into a realistic treatment for diabetes in the near future. PMID:23565384

  13. Laser biomodulation on stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Timon C.; Duan, Rui; Li, Yan; Li, Xue-Feng; Tan, Li-Ling; Liu, Songhao

    2001-08-01

    Stem cells are views from the perspectives of their function, evolution, development, and cause. Counterintuitively, most stem cells may arise late in development, to act principally in tissue renewal, thus ensuring an organisms long-term survival. Surprisingly, recent reports suggest that tissue-specific adult stem cells have the potential to contribute to replenishment of multiple adult tissues. Stem cells are currently in the news for two reasons: the successful cultivation of human embryonic stem cell lines and reports that adult stem cells can differentiate into developmentally unrelated cell types, such as nerve cells into blood cells. The spotlight on stem cells has revealed gaps in our knowledge that must be filled if we are to take advantage of their full potential for treating devastating degenerative diseases such as Parkinsons's disease and muscular dystrophy. We need to know more about the intrinsic controls that keep stem cells as stem cells or direct them along particular differentiation pathways. Such intrinsic regulators are, in turn, sensitive to the influences of the microenvironment, or niche, where stem cells normally reside. Both intrinsic and extrinsic signals regular stem cell fate and some of these signals have now been identified. Vacek et al and Wang et al have studied the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro. There experiments show there is indeed the effect of low intensity laser on the haemopoietic stem cells in vitro, and the present effect is the promotion of haemopoietic stem cells proliferation. In other words, low intensity laser irradiation can act as an extrinsic signal regulating stem cell fate. In this paper, we study how low intensity laser can be used to regulate stem cell fate from the viewpoint of collective phototransduction.

  14. STEM--Beyond the Acronym

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Jo Anne

    2015-01-01

    When most educators think of STEM education, they think of fully integrated projects seamlessly combining all four disciplines--science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Although such transdisciplinary STEM units are ideal, writes Vasquez, they are not the only way to give students valuable STEM experiences. She gives examples of two…

  15. Stem Cell Transplants (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Stem Cell Transplants KidsHealth > For Parents > Stem Cell Transplants Print A A A Text Size What's ... Recovery Coping en español Trasplantes de células madre Stem cells are cells in the body that have the ...

  16. "Excellence" in STEM Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Aaron C.

    2012-01-01

    So what does it take to achieve excellence in STEM education? That is the title of the author's presentation delivered at International Technology and Engineering Educators Association's (ITEEA's) FTEE "Spirit of Excellence" Breakfast on March 16, 2012, in Long Beach, California. In preparation for this presentation, the author went back and read…

  17. Helping STEM Take Root

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    STEM--shorthand for "science, technology, engineering, and mathematics"--has been part of the school improvement discussion for more than a decade, as educational leaders and policy makers have underscored the importance of these areas in an internationally competitive, 21st-century economy. But building and implementing programs that emphasize…

  18. Helping STEM Take Root

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    STEM--the catchy shorthand for "science, technology, engineering and mathematics"--has been part of the school improvement discussion for more than a decade, as educational leaders and policy makers have underscored the importance of these areas in preparing students for an internationally competitive, 21st-century economy. But while the acronym…

  19. Stem cells: a minireview.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Kathyjo A; Majka, Susan M; Wulf, Gerald G; Goodell, Margaret A

    2002-01-01

    The identification of adult-derived stem cells which maintain plasticity throughout the course of a lifetime, has transformed the field of stem cell biology. Bone marrow derived hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are the most well-characterized population of these multipotential cells. First identified for their ability to reconstitute blood lineages and rescue lethally irradiated hosts, these cells have also been shown to differentiate and integrate into skeletal muscle, cardiac myocytes, vascular endothelium, liver, and brain tissue. Various populations of HSC are being studied, exploiting cell surface marker expression, such as Sca-1, c-kit, CD34, and lin; as well as the abilityto efflux the vital dye Hoecsht 33342. Detection of engrafted donor derived cells into various tissue types in vivo is a laborious process and may involve detection of beta-galactosidase via colorimetric reaction or antibody labeling or green fluorescent protein (GFP) via fluorescence microscopy, as well as in situ hybridization to detect the Y-chromosome. Using these techniques, the search has begun for tissue specific stem cells capable of host tissue regeneration, self renewal, and transdifferentiation. Caution is urged when interpreting these types of experiments because although they are stimulating, limitations of the technologies may provide misleading results. PMID:12046843

  20. Botryosphaeria Stem Blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem blight, commonly referred to as dieback, is a destructive disease of highbush and rabbiteye blueberry primarily in the southeastern United States extending north into New Jersey. Losses are most severe in young fields where plants often become infected and die in the first two years. In older...