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Sample records for alternative assembly pushes

  1. Alternating current electrohydrodynamics in microsystems: Pushing biomolecules and cells around on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Dey, Shuvashis; Carrascosa, Laura G; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Trau, Matt

    2015-11-01

    Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) deals with the fluid motion induced by an electric field. This phenomenon originally developed in physical science, and engineering is currently experiencing a renaissance in microfluidics. Investigations by Taylor on Gilbert's theory proposed in 1600 have evolved to include multiple contributions including the promising effects arising from electric field interactions with cells and particles to influence their behaviour on electrode surfaces. Theoretical modelling of electric fields in microsystems and the ability to determine shear forces have certainly reached an advanced state. The ability to deftly manipulate microscopic fluid flow in bulk fluid and at solid/liquid interfaces has enabled the controlled assembly, coagulation, or removal of microstructures, nanostructures, cells, and molecules on surfaces. Furthermore, the ability of electrohydrodynamics to generate fluid flow using surface shear forces generated within nanometers from the surface and their application in bioassays has led to recent advancements in biomolecule, vesicle and cellular detection across different length scales. With the integration of Alternating Current Electrohydrodynamics (AC-EHD) in cellular and molecular assays proving to be highly fruitful, challenges still remain with respect to understanding the discrepancies between each of the associated ac-induced fluid flow phenomena, extending their utility towards clinical diagnostic development, and utilising them in tandem as a standard tool for disease monitoring. In this regard, this article will review the history of electrohydrodynamics, followed by some of the recent developments in the field including a new dimension of electrohydrodynamics that deals with the utilization of surface shear forces for the manipulation of biological cells or molecules on electrode surfaces. Recent advances and challenges in the use of electrohydrodynamic forces such as dielectrophoresis and ac electrosmosis for the

  2. Pulled in or pushed out? Understanding the complexities of motivation for alternative therapies use in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Gyasi, Razak Mohammed; Asante, Felix; Yeboah, Joseph Yaw; Abass, Kabila; Mensah, Charlotte Monica; Siaw, Lawrencia Pokuah

    2016-01-01

    The impact of strong cultural beliefs on specific reasons for traditional medicine (TRM) use among individuals and populations has long been advanced in health care and spatio-medical literature. Yet, little has been done in Ghana and the Ashanti Region in particular to bring out the precise “pull” and “push” relative influences on TRM utilization. With a qualitative research approach involving rural and urban character, the study explored health beliefs and motivations for TRM use in Kumasi Metropolis and Sekyere South District, Ghana. The study draws on data from 36 in-depth interviews with adults, selected through theoretical sampling. We used the a posteriori inductive reduction model to derive broad themes and subthemes. The “pull factors”—perceived benefits in TRM use vis-à-vis the “push factors”—perceived poor services of the biomedical treatments contributed to the growing trends in TRM use. The result however indicates that the “pull factors,” viz.—personal health beliefs, desire to take control of one's health, perceived efficacy, and safety of various modalities of TRM—were stronger in shaping TRM use. Poor access to conventional medicine accounted for the differences in TRM use between rural and urban areas. Understanding the treatment and health-seeking behaviour of a cultural-related group is critical for developing and sustaining traditional therapy in Ghana. PMID:27018431

  3. Cooking fuels and the push for cleaner alternatives: a case study from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Shelby; Sié, Ali; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Introduction More than 95% of the population in Burkina Faso uses some form of solid biomass fuel. When these fuels are burned in traditional, inefficient stoves, pollutant levels within and outside the home can be very high. This can have important consequences for both health and climate change. Thus, the push to switch to cleaner burning fuels is advantageous. However, there are several considerations that need to be taken into account when considering the use and promotion of different fuel types. Objective In the setting of the semi-urban area of Nouna, Burkina Faso, we examine the common fuel types used (wood, charcoal and liquid petroleum gas (LPG)) in terms of consumption, energy, availability, air pollution and climate change. Results and conclusion Although biomass solid fuel does offer some advantages over LPG, the disadvantages make this option much less desirable. Lower energy efficiencies, higher pollutant emission levels, the associated health consequences and climate change effects favour the choice of LPG over solid biomass fuel use. Further studies specific to Burkina Faso, which are lacking in this region, should also be undertaken in this area to better inform policy decisions. PMID:22778710

  4. Pushed Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Rhonda

    2010-01-01

    Significant numbers of students are being pushed out of school as a result of "zero tolerance" school discipline policies. While nobody questions the need to keep schools safe, teachers, students, and parents are questioning the methods being used in pursuit of that goal. Zero tolerance policies were initially aimed at making schools safe. The…

  5. Pushed Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Significant numbers of students are being pushed out of school as a result of "zero tolerance" school discipline policies. While nobody questions the need to keep schools safe, teachers, students, and parents are questioning the methods being used in pursuit of that goal. Initially enacted to counter violent behavior and drug use, zero tolerance…

  6. Pushing the Limits: 3D Layer-by-Layer-Assembled Composites for Cathodes with 160 C Discharge Rates.

    PubMed

    Mo, Runwei; Tung, Siu On; Lei, Zhengyu; Zhao, Guangyu; Sun, Kening; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2015-05-26

    Deficiencies of cathode materials severely limit cycling performance and discharge rates of Li batteries. The key problem is that cathode materials must combine multiple properties: high lithium ion intercalation capacity, electrical/ionic conductivity, porosity, and mechanical toughness. Some materials revealed promising characteristics in a subset of these properties, but attaining the entire set of often contrarian characteristics requires new methods of materials engineering. In this paper, we report high surface area 3D composite from reduced graphene oxide loaded with LiFePO4 (LFP) nanoparticles made by layer-by-layer assembly (LBL). High electrical conductivity of the LBL composite is combined with high ionic conductivity, toughness, and low impedance. As a result of such materials properties, reversible lithium storage capacity and Coulombic efficiency were as high as 148 mA h g(-1) and 99%, respectively, after 100 cycles at 1 C. Moreover, these composites enabled unusually high reversible charge-discharge rates up to 160 C with a storage capacity of 56 mA h g(-1), exceeding those of known LFP-based cathodes, some of them by several times while retaining high content of active cathode material. The study demonstrates that LBL-assembled composites enable resolution of difficult materials engineering tasks. PMID:25910177

  7. Assembly of telomeric chromatin to create ALTernative endings.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Roderick J; Almouzni, Genevieve

    2014-11-01

    Circumvention of the telomere length-dependent mechanisms that control the upper boundaries of cellular proliferation is necessary for the unlimited growth of cancer. Most cancer cells achieve cellular immortality by up-regulating the expression of telomerase to extend and maintain their telomere length. However, a small but significant number of cancers do so via the exchange of telomeric DNA between chromosomes in a pathway termed alternative lengthening of telomeres, or ALT. Although it remains to be clarified why a cell chooses the ALT pathway and how ALT is initiated, recently identified mutations in factors that shape the chromatin and epigenetic landscape of ALT telomeres are shedding light on these mechanisms. In this review, we examine these recent findings and integrate them into the current models of the ALT mechanism. PMID:25172551

  8. Alternative stable states and alternative endstates of community assembly through intra- and interspecific positive and negative interactions.

    PubMed

    Gerla, Daan J; Mooij, Wolf M

    2014-09-01

    Positive and negative interactions within and between species may occur simultaneously, with the net effect depending on population densities. For instance, at low densities plants may ameliorate stress, while competition for resources dominates at higher densities. Here, we propose a simple two-species model in which con- and heterospecifics have a positive effect on per capita growth rate at low densities, while negative interactions dominate at high densities. The model thus includes both Allee effects (intraspecific positive effects) and mutualism (interspecific positive effects), as well as intra- and interspecific competition. Using graphical methods we derive conditions for alternative stable states and species coexistence. We show that mutual non-invasibility (i.e. the inability of each species to invade a population of the other) is more likely when species have a strong positive effect on the own species or a strong negative effect on the other species. Mutual non-invasibility implies alternative stable states, however, there may also be alternative stable states at which species coexist. In the case of species symmetry (i.e. when species are indistinguishable), such alternative coexistence states require that if the positive effect exerted at low densities at the own species is stronger than on the other species, the negative effect at higher densities is also stronger on the own species than on the other species, or, vice versa, if the interspecific positive effects at low densities are stronger than the intraspecific effects, the negative effects at higher densities are also stronger between species than within species. However, the reachability of alternative stable states is restricted by the frequency and density at which species are introduced during community assembly, so that alternative stable states do not always represent alternative endstates of community assembly. PMID:25018053

  9. Enzyme-triggered hydrogelation via self-assembly of alternating peptides.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xu; Xie, Wenchun; Tian, Sai; Cai, Jiali; Yuan, Han; Yu, Zheng; Butterfoss, Glenn L; Khuong, Anne C; Gross, Richard A

    2013-05-25

    α-Chymotrypsin catalyzed oligomerization of the "dipeptide lego" KL-ethyl ester (OEt) in aqueous media triggers a rapid sol-gel transition due to formation of alternating (KL)x. Resulting mixed chain oligomers, at alkaline pH, self-assemble into β-sheets. Thereafter, intermolecular backbone hydrogen bonding between peptides causes formation of physically entangled nanofibrillar networks. PMID:23598349

  10. Assembly of an Evolutionarily Conserved Alternative Proteasome Isoform in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Achuth; Vuong, Simone Anh-Thu; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2016-03-29

    Targeted intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotes is largely mediated by the proteasome. Here, we report the formation of an alternative proteasome isoform in human cells, previously found only in budding yeast, that bears an altered subunit arrangement in the outer ring of the proteasome core particle. These proteasomes result from incorporation of an additional α4 (PSMA7) subunit in the position normally occupied by α3 (PSMA4). Assembly of "α4-α4" proteasomes depends on the relative cellular levels of α4 and α3 and on the proteasome assembly chaperone PAC3. The oncogenic tyrosine kinases ABL and ARG and the tumor suppressor BRCA1 regulate cellular α4 levels and formation of α4-α4 proteasomes. Cells primed to assemble α4-α4 proteasomes exhibit enhanced resistance to toxic metal ions. Taken together, our results establish the existence of an alternative mammalian proteasome isoform and suggest a potential role in enabling cells to adapt to environmental stresses. PMID:26997268

  11. Alternate assembly sequence databook for the Tier 2 Bus-1 option of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, L. M.; Cirillo, W. M.; Cruz, J. N.; Hall, J. B.; Troutman, P. A.; Monell, D. W.; Garn, M. A.; Heck, M. L.; Kumar, R. R.; Llewellyn, C. P.

    1995-01-01

    The JSC International Space Station program office requested that SSB prepare a databook to document the alternate space station assembly sequence known as Tier 2, which assumes that the Russian participation has been eliminated and that the functions that were supplied by the Russians (propulsion, resupply, initial attitude control, communications, etc.) are now supplied by the U.S. Tier 2 utilizes the Lockheed Bus-l to replace much of the missing Russian functionality. The space station at each stage of its buildup during the Tier 2 assembly sequence is characterized in terms of of properties, functionality, resource balances, operations, logistics, attitude control, microgravity environment and propellant usage. The assembly sequence as analyzed was defined by JSC as a first iteration, with subsequent iterations required to address some of the issues that the analysis in this databook identified. Several significant issues were identified, including: less than desirable orbit lifetimes, shortage of EVA, large flight attitudes, poor microgravity environments, and reboost propellant shortages. Many of these issues can be resolved but at the cost of possible baseline modifications and revisions in the proposed Tier 2 assembly sequence.

  12. Bioengineered Self-assembled Skin as an Alternative to Skin Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Climov, Mihail; Medeiros, Erika; Farkash, Evan A.; Qiao, Jizeng; Rousseau, Cecile F.; Dong, Shumin; Zawadzka, Agatha; Racki, Waldemar J.; Al-Musa, Ahmad; Sachs, David H.; Randolph, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    For patients with extensive burns or donor site scarring, the limited availability of autologous and the inevitable rejection of allogeneic skin drive the need for new alternatives. Existing engineered biologic and synthetic skin analogs serve as temporary coverage until sufficient autologous skin is available. Here we report successful engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered skin construct derived from autologous skin punch biopsies in a porcine model. Dermal fibroblasts were stimulated to produce an extracellular matrix and were then seeded with epidermal progenitor cells to generate an epidermis. Autologous constructs were grafted onto partial- and full-thickness wounds. By gross examination and histology, skin construct vascularization and healing were comparable to autologous skin grafts and were superior to an autologous bilayered living cellular construct fabricated with fibroblasts cast in bovine collagen. This is the first demonstration of spontaneous vascularization and permanent engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered bioengineered skin that could supplement existing methods of reconstruction. PMID:27482479

  13. Bioengineered Self-assembled Skin as an Alternative to Skin Grafts.

    PubMed

    Climov, Mihail; Medeiros, Erika; Farkash, Evan A; Qiao, Jizeng; Rousseau, Cecile F; Dong, Shumin; Zawadzka, Agatha; Racki, Waldemar J; Al-Musa, Ahmad; Sachs, David H; Randolph, Mark A; Huang, Christene A; Bollenbach, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    For patients with extensive burns or donor site scarring, the limited availability of autologous and the inevitable rejection of allogeneic skin drive the need for new alternatives. Existing engineered biologic and synthetic skin analogs serve as temporary coverage until sufficient autologous skin is available. Here we report successful engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered skin construct derived from autologous skin punch biopsies in a porcine model. Dermal fibroblasts were stimulated to produce an extracellular matrix and were then seeded with epidermal progenitor cells to generate an epidermis. Autologous constructs were grafted onto partial- and full-thickness wounds. By gross examination and histology, skin construct vascularization and healing were comparable to autologous skin grafts and were superior to an autologous bilayered living cellular construct fabricated with fibroblasts cast in bovine collagen. This is the first demonstration of spontaneous vascularization and permanent engraftment of a self-assembled bilayered bioengineered skin that could supplement existing methods of reconstruction. PMID:27482479

  14. Assembly of an Evolutionarily Conserved Alternative Proteasome Isoform in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Achuth; Vuong, Simone Anh-Thu; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Summary Targeted intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotes is largely mediated by the proteasome. Here we report formation of an alternative proteasome isoform in human cells, previously found only in budding yeast, which bears an altered subunit arrangement in the outer ring of the proteasome core particle. These proteasomes result from incorporation of an additional α4 (PSMA7) subunit in the position normally occupied by α3 (PSMA4). Assembly of ‘α4-α4’ proteasomes depends on the relative cellular levels of α4 and α3, and on the proteasome assembly chaperone PAC3. The oncogenic tyrosine kinases ABL and ARG and the tumor suppressor BRCA1 regulate cellular α4 levels and formation of α4-α4 proteasomes. Cells primed to assemble α4-α4 proteasomes exhibit enhanced resistance to toxic metal ions. Taken together, our results establish the existence of a novel mammalian proteasome isoform and suggest a potential role in enabling cells to adapt to environmental stresses. PMID:26997268

  15. Role of hydrophobic interactions in the self-assembly of alternating copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malardier-Jugroot, Cecile; Chan, Anita S. W.; Groves, Michael N.

    2010-03-01

    New nanomaterials already play a key role in several emerging technologies. Among the methods used to fabricate new nanomaterials, the most successful in producing precise structure is the bottom-up method. The materials obtained by self-assembly are ordered on different scales and respond and adapt to the presence of other molecules in their environment [1] and can therefore be used as probes, sensors or switches [2]. In this paper, we will describes the self-assembly of amphiphilic alternating copolymers into nanoarchitectures in aqueous solution. To investigate the role of the nature of the hydrophobic groups on the association, the self-assembly of two polymers are compared: poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride) (IMA) and poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride) (SMA) [3, 4]. The theoretical prediction is also compared to experiment and the characterization using Small Angle Neutron Scattering, Dynamic Light Scattering and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy will be presented in detail. [1] S. Zhang, Nature Biotechnology, 21, 10, 1171, 2003. [2] F. Patolsky, et al., Nanomedicine, 1, 51-65, 2006 [3] C. Malardier-Jugroot, et al., J. of Phys. Chem. B, 109(15), 7022-7032, 2005 [4] A.S.W. Chan, et al., Mol. Sim., accepted for publication, 2009.

  16. Push-off pistons

    SciTech Connect

    Purfurst, E.H.

    1986-06-10

    A method is described of retrieving a formation tester from a well comprising the steps of: (a) extending a snorkel means laterally from a tool body to conduct formation testing; (b) sealing adjacent to the snorkel means to isolate borehole pressure from the formation; (c) positioning upper and lower push-off means above and below the snorkel means on the tool body; (d) after completing the formation testing, then extending at least one of the push-off means toward the formation to push the tool body away from the formation; and (e) retrieving the tool body on a logging cable.

  17. Preliminary design study of an alternate heat source assembly for a Brayton isotope power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of the preliminary design of an alternate heat source assembly (HSA) intended for use in the Brayton isotope power system (BIPS). The BIPS converts thermal energy emitted by a radioactive heat source into electrical energy by means of a closed Brayton cycle. A heat source heat exchanger configuration was selected and optimized. The design consists of a 10 turn helically wound Hastelloy X tube. Thermal analyses were performed for various operating conditions to ensure that post impact containment shell (PICS) temperatures remain within specified limits. These limits are essentially satisfied for all modes of operation except for the emergency cooling system for which the PICS temperatures are too high. Neon was found to be the best choice for a fill gas for auxiliary cooling system operation. Low cycle fatigue life, natural frequency, and dynamic loading requirements can be met with minor modifications to the existing HSA.

  18. The exosome controls alternative splicing by mediating the gene expression and assembly of the spliceosome complex

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lin; Wan, Yufeng; Huang, Guobin; Wang, Dongni; Yu, Xinyang; Huang, Guocun; Guo, Jinhu

    2015-01-01

    The exosome is a complex with exoribonuclease activity that regulates RNA surveillance and turnover. The exosome also plays a role in regulating the degradation of precursor mRNAs to maintain the expression of splicing variants. In Neurospora, the silencing of rrp44, which encodes the catalytic subunit of the exosome, changed the expression of a set of spliceosomal snRNA, snRNP genes and SR protein related genes. The knockdown of rrp44 also affected the assembly of the spliceosome. RNA-seq analysis revealed a global change in bulk splicing events. Exosome-mediated splicing may regulate alternative splicing of NCU05290, NCU07421 and the circadian clock gene frequency (frq). The knockdown of rrp44 led to an increased ratio of splicing variants without intron 6 (I-6) and shorter protein isoform small FRQ (s-FRQ) as a consequence. These findings suggest that the exosome controls splicing events by regulating the degradation of precursor mRNAs and the gene expression, assembly and function of the spliceosome. PMID:26306464

  19. Push-Pull Locomotion for Vehicle Extrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creager, Colin M.; Johnson, Kyle A.; Plant, Mark; Moreland, Scott J.; Skonieczny, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    For applications in which unmanned vehicles must traverse unfamiliar terrain, there often exists the risk of vehicle entrapment. Typically, this risk can be reduced by using feedback from on-board sensors that assess the terrain. This work addressed the situations where a vehicle has already become immobilized or the desired route cannot be traversed using conventional rolling. Specifically, the focus was on using push-pull locomotion in high sinkage granular material. Push-pull locomotion is an alternative mode of travel that generates thrust through articulated motion, using vehicle components as anchors to push or pull against. It has been revealed through previous research that push-pull locomotion has the capacity for generating higher net traction forces than rolling, and a unique optical flow technique indicated that this is the result of a more efficient soil shearing method. It has now been found that pushpull locomotion results in less sinkage, lower travel reduction, and better power efficiency in high sinkage material as compared to rolling. Even when starting from an "entrapped" condition, push-pull locomotion was able to extricate the test vehicle. It is the authors' recommendation that push-pull locomotion be considered as a reliable back-up mode of travel for applications where terrain entrapment is a possibility.

  20. Tests of an alternate mobile transporter and extravehicular activity assembly procedure for the Space Station Freedom truss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Watson, Judith J.; Lake, Mark S.; Bush, Harold G.; Jensen, J. Kermit; Wallsom, Richard E.; Phelps, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from a ground test program of an alternate mobile transporter (MT) concept and extravehicular activity (EVA) assembly procedure for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) truss keel. A three-bay orthogonal tetrahedral truss beam consisting of 44 2-in-diameter struts and 16 nodes was assembled repeatedly in neutral buoyancy by pairs of pressure-suited test subjects working from astronaut positioning devices (APD's) on the MT. The truss bays were cubic with edges 15 ft long. All the truss joint hardware was found to be EVA compatible. The average unit assembly time for a single pair of experienced test subjects was 27.6 sec/strut, which is about half the time derived from other SSF truss assembly tests. A concept for integration of utility trays during truss assembly is introduced and demonstrated in the assembly tests. The concept, which requires minimal EVA handling of the trays, is shown to have little impact on overall assembly time. The results of these tests indicate that by using an MT equipped with APD's, rapid EVA assembly of a space station-size truss structure can be expected.

  1. Push-pull betatron pair

    DOEpatents

    Kerst, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    A push-pull betatron accelerator with two coaxial betatron tubes in which two electron beams are alternately accelerated in opposite directions of rotation. Both tubes are linked by the same alternating current accelerating flux produced by one or more accelerating flux coils. The betatron tubes are provided with guide fields having alternating current components which are in the same direction and having direct current biasing components which are in opposite directions. One electron beam is accelerated when the accelerating flux is changing between its negative maximum and its positive maximum, while the other beam is accelerated when the accelerating flux is changing between its positive maximum and its negative maximum. In another embodiment, there is only one betatron tube, in which two electron beams are alternately accelerated in opposite directions of rotation; and in still another embodiment, there are two tubes in which electrons are accelerated alternately, but the AC components for the guide fields are in opposite directions for the two tubes, while the DC biasing components are polarized the same for both tubes.

  2. Push Type Fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Steven A. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A push type fastener for fastening a movable structural part to a fixed structural part, wherein the coupling and decoupling actions are both a push type operation, the fastener consisting of a plunger having a shank with a plunger head at one end and a threaded end portion at the other end, an expandable grommet adapted to receive the plunger shank there through, and an attachable head which is securable to the threaded end of the plunger shank. The fastener requires each structural part to be provided with an aperture and the attachable head to be smaller than the aperture in the second structural part. The plunger is extensible through the grommet and is structurally configured with an external camming surface which is cooperatively engageable with internal surfaces of the grommet so that when the plunger is inserted in the grommet, the relative positioning of said cooperable camming surfaces determines the expansion of the grommet. Coupling of the parts is effected when the grommet is inserted in the aperture in the fixed structural part and expanded by pushing the plunger head and plunger at least a minimal distance through the grommet. Decoupling is effected by pushing the attachable head.

  3. Push-pull betatron pair

    DOEpatents

    Kerst, D.W.

    1984-02-22

    The disclosed push-pull betatron accelerator has first and second coaxial betatron tubes in which first and second electron beams are alternately accelerated in opposite directions of rotation. Both tubes are linked by the same alternating current accelerating flux, produced by one or more accelerating flux coils. The betatron tubes are provided with first and second guide fields having alternating current components which are in the same direction. The first and second guide fields have direct current biasing components which are in opposite directions for the two betatron tubes. In this way, the full advantages of guide field biasing are achieved. The first electron beam is accelerated in the first tube when the accelerating flux is changing between its negative maximum and its positive maximum values. The second electron beam is accelerated in the second tube when the accelerating flux is changing between its positive maximum value and its negative maximum value. In another embodiment, there is only one betatron tube, in which two electron beams are alternately accelerated in opposite directions of rotation.

  4. Wireline system for multiple direct push tool usage

    DOEpatents

    Bratton, Wesley L.; Farrington, Stephen P.; Shinn, II, James D.; Nolet, Darren C.

    2003-11-11

    A tool latching and retrieval system allows the deployment and retrieval of a variety of direct push subsurface characterization tools through an embedded rod string during a single penetration without requiring withdrawal of the string from the ground. This enables the in situ interchange of different tools, as well as the rapid retrieval of soil core samples from multiple depths during a single direct push penetration. The system includes specialized rods that make up the rod string, a tool housing which is integral to the rod string, a lock assembly, and several tools which mate to the lock assembly.

  5. Stochastic assembly leads to alternative communities with distinct functions in a bioreactor microbial community.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jizhong; Liu, Wenzong; Deng, Ye; Jiang, Yi-Huei; Xue, Kai; He, Zhili; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Wu, Liyou; Yang, Yunfeng; Wang, Aijie

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The processes and mechanisms of community assembly and its relationships to community functioning are central issues in ecology. Both deterministic and stochastic factors play important roles in shaping community composition and structure, but the connection between community assembly and ecosystem functioning remains elusive, especially in microbial communities. Here, we used microbial electrolysis cell reactors as a model system to examine the roles of stochastic assembly in determining microbial community structure and functions. Under identical environmental conditions with the same source community, ecological drift (i.e., initial stochastic colonization) and subsequent biotic interactions created dramatically different communities with little overlap among 14 identical reactors, indicating that stochastic assembly played dominant roles in determining microbial community structure. Neutral community modeling analysis revealed that deterministic factors also played significant roles in shaping microbial community structure in these reactors. Most importantly, the newly formed communities differed substantially in community functions (e.g., H2 production), which showed strong linkages to community structure. This study is the first to demonstrate that stochastic assembly plays a dominant role in determining not only community structure but also ecosystem functions. Elucidating the links among community assembly, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning is critical to understanding ecosystem functioning, biodiversity preservation, and ecosystem management. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms are the most diverse group of life known on earth. Although it is well documented that microbial natural biodiversity is extremely high, it is not clear why such high diversity is generated and maintained. Numerous studies have established the roles of niche-based deterministic factors (e.g., pH, temperature, and salt) in shaping microbial biodiversity, the importance of

  6. Experimental and Computational Studies Reveal An Alternative Supramolecular Structure for Fmocdipeptide Self-assembly

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Xiaojia; Eckes, Kevin M.; Nguyen, Mary M.; Suggs, Laura J.; Ren, Pengyu

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the self-assembly of fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-conjugated dialanine (Fmoc-AA) molecules using combined computational and experimental approaches. Fmoc-AA gels were characterized using TEM, circular dichroism, FTIR, and WAXS. Computationally, we simulated the assembly of Fmoc-AA using molecular dynamics techniques. All simulations converged to a condensed fibril structure in which the Fmoc groups stack mostly within in the center of the fibril. However, the Fmoc groups are partially exposed to water, creating an amphiphilic surface, which may be responsible for aggregation of fibrils into nano-scale fibers observed in TEM. From the fibril models, radial distribution calculations agree with d-spacings observed in WAXS for the fibril diameter and π-stacking interactions. Our analyses show that dialanine, despite its short length, adopts a mainly extended polyproline II conformation. In contrast to previous hypotheses, these results indicate that β-sheet-like hydrogen bonding is not prevalent. Rather, stacking of Fmoc groups, inter-residue hydrogen bonding and hydrogen bonding with water play the important roles in stabilizing the fibril structure of supramolecular assemblies of short conjugated peptides. PMID:23020140

  7. Size-selective recognition by a tubular assembly of phenylene-pyrimidinylene alternated macrocycle through hydrogen-bonding interactions.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Duoduo; Zhang, Dengqing; Chen, Beihua; Xie, Dahai; Xiang, Yunjie; Li, Xianying; Jin, Wusong

    2015-10-01

    Study of artificial tubular assemblies as a useful host scaffold for size-selective recognition and release of guest molecules is an important subject in host-guest chemistry. We describe well-defined self-assembled nanotubes (NT6mer) formed from π-conjugated m-phenylene-pyrimidinylene alternated macrocycle 16mer that exhibit size-selective recognition toward a specific aromatic acid. In a series of guest molecules, a size-matched trimesic acid (G3) gives inclusion complexes (NT6mer⊃G3) in dichloromethane resulting in an enhanced and red-shifted fluorescence. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) titration experiments indicated that the complex was formed in a 1:1 molar ratio. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations and the binding constant value (K = 1.499 × 10(5) M(-1)) of NT6mer with G3 suggested that the complex involved triple hydrogen-bonding interactions. The encapsulated guest G3 molecules can be readily released from the tubular channel through the dissociation of hydrogen bonding by the addition of a polar solvent such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). In contrast, 16mer could not form self-assembled nanotubes in CHCl3 or tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution, leading to weak or no size-selective recognizability, respectively. PMID:26375477

  8. On sulfur core level binding energies in thiol self-assembly and alternative adsorption sites: An experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Jia, Juanjuan; Kara, Abdelkader; Pasquali, Luca; Bendounan, Azzedine; Sirotti, Fausto; Esaulov, Vladimir A

    2015-09-14

    Characteristic core level binding energies (CLBEs) are regularly used to infer the modes of molecular adsorption: orientation, organization, and dissociation processes. Here, we focus on a largely debated situation regarding CLBEs in the case of chalcogen atom bearing molecules. For a thiol, this concerns the case when the CLBE of a thiolate sulfur at an adsorption site can be interpreted alternatively as due to atomic adsorption of a S atom, resulting from dissociation. Results of an investigation of the characteristics of thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) obtained by vacuum evaporative adsorption are presented along with core level binding energy calculations. Thiol ended SAMs of 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol (BDMT) obtained by evaporation on Au display an unconventional CLBE structure at about 161.25 eV, which is close to a known CLBE of a S atom on Au. Adsorption and CLBE calculations for sulfur atoms and BDMT molecules are reported and allow delineating trends as a function of chemisorption on hollow, bridge, and atop sites and including the presence of adatoms. These calculations suggest that the 161.25 eV peak is due to an alternative adsorption site, which could be associated to an atop configuration. Therefore, this may be an alternative interpretation, different from the one involving the adsorption of atomic sulfur resulting from the dissociation process of the S-C bond. Calculated differences in S(2p) CLBEs for free BDMT molecules, SH group sulfur on top of the SAM, and disulfide are also reported to clarify possible errors in assignments. PMID:26374051

  9. On sulfur core level binding energies in thiol self-assembly and alternative adsorption sites: An experimental and theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Juanjuan; Kara, Abdelkader E-mail: vladimir.esaulov@u-psud.fr; Pasquali, Luca; Bendounan, Azzedine; Sirotti, Fausto; Esaulov, Vladimir A. E-mail: vladimir.esaulov@u-psud.fr

    2015-09-14

    Characteristic core level binding energies (CLBEs) are regularly used to infer the modes of molecular adsorption: orientation, organization, and dissociation processes. Here, we focus on a largely debated situation regarding CLBEs in the case of chalcogen atom bearing molecules. For a thiol, this concerns the case when the CLBE of a thiolate sulfur at an adsorption site can be interpreted alternatively as due to atomic adsorption of a S atom, resulting from dissociation. Results of an investigation of the characteristics of thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) obtained by vacuum evaporative adsorption are presented along with core level binding energy calculations. Thiol ended SAMs of 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol (BDMT) obtained by evaporation on Au display an unconventional CLBE structure at about 161.25 eV, which is close to a known CLBE of a S atom on Au. Adsorption and CLBE calculations for sulfur atoms and BDMT molecules are reported and allow delineating trends as a function of chemisorption on hollow, bridge, and atop sites and including the presence of adatoms. These calculations suggest that the 161.25 eV peak is due to an alternative adsorption site, which could be associated to an atop configuration. Therefore, this may be an alternative interpretation, different from the one involving the adsorption of atomic sulfur resulting from the dissociation process of the S–C bond. Calculated differences in S(2p) CLBEs for free BDMT molecules, SH group sulfur on top of the SAM, and disulfide are also reported to clarify possible errors in assignments.

  10. On sulfur core level binding energies in thiol self-assembly and alternative adsorption sites: An experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Juanjuan; Kara, Abdelkader; Pasquali, Luca; Bendounan, Azzedine; Sirotti, Fausto; Esaulov, Vladimir A.

    2015-09-01

    Characteristic core level binding energies (CLBEs) are regularly used to infer the modes of molecular adsorption: orientation, organization, and dissociation processes. Here, we focus on a largely debated situation regarding CLBEs in the case of chalcogen atom bearing molecules. For a thiol, this concerns the case when the CLBE of a thiolate sulfur at an adsorption site can be interpreted alternatively as due to atomic adsorption of a S atom, resulting from dissociation. Results of an investigation of the characteristics of thiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) obtained by vacuum evaporative adsorption are presented along with core level binding energy calculations. Thiol ended SAMs of 1,4-benzenedimethanethiol (BDMT) obtained by evaporation on Au display an unconventional CLBE structure at about 161.25 eV, which is close to a known CLBE of a S atom on Au. Adsorption and CLBE calculations for sulfur atoms and BDMT molecules are reported and allow delineating trends as a function of chemisorption on hollow, bridge, and atop sites and including the presence of adatoms. These calculations suggest that the 161.25 eV peak is due to an alternative adsorption site, which could be associated to an atop configuration. Therefore, this may be an alternative interpretation, different from the one involving the adsorption of atomic sulfur resulting from the dissociation process of the S-C bond. Calculated differences in S(2p) CLBEs for free BDMT molecules, SH group sulfur on top of the SAM, and disulfide are also reported to clarify possible errors in assignments.

  11. Push-pull farming systems.

    PubMed

    Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M; Midega, Charles A O; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2014-04-01

    Farming systems for pest control, based on the stimulo-deterrent diversionary strategy or push-pull system, have become an important target for sustainable intensification of food production. A prominent example is push-pull developed in sub-Saharan Africa using a combination of companion plants delivering semiochemicals, as plant secondary metabolites, for smallholder farming cereal production, initially against lepidopterous stem borers. Opportunities are being developed for other regions and farming ecosystems. New semiochemical tools and delivery systems, including GM, are being incorporated to exploit further opportunities for mainstream arable farming systems. By delivering the push and pull effects as secondary metabolites, for example, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene repelling pests and attracting beneficial insects, problems of high volatility and instability are overcome and compounds are produced when and where required. PMID:24445079

  12. 'Mister Badger' Pushing Mars Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Viking's soil sampler collector arm successfully pushed a rock on the surface of Mars during the afternoon of Friday, October 8. The irregular-shaped rock was pushed several inches by the Lander's collector arm, which displaced the rock to the left of its original position, leaving it cocked slightly upward. Photographs and other information verified the successful rock push. Photo at left shows the soil sampler's collector head pushing against the rock, named 'Mister Badger' by flight controllers. Photo at right shows the displaced rock and the depression whence it came. Part of the soil displacement was caused by the collector s backhoe. A soil sample will be taken from the site Monday night, October 11. It will then be delivered to Viking s organic chemistry instrument for a series of analyses during the next few weeks. The sample is being sought from beneath a rock because scientists believe that, if there are life forms on Mars, they may seek rocks as shelter from the Sun s intense ultraviolet radiation.

  13. Push drill guidance indication apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Bockhorst, R.W.; Elenburg, J.H.

    1984-06-05

    The present invention relates to a program controlled apparatus for providing rapid calibration and update of sensor parameters in a push drill guidance apparatus which is remotely controllable from microprocessor circuitry. A special calibration program is set into nonvolatile memory for coaction with the control processor to compute sensor parameters for storage and recall during normal programmed guidance operation.

  14. Illuminated push-button switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwagiri, T.

    1983-01-01

    An illuminated push-button switch is described. It is characterized by the fact that is consists of a switch group, an operator button opening and closing the switch group, and a light-emitting element which illuminates the face of the operator button.

  15. Book Review: Sapphire. (1996). Push.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Elisabeth; Cuban, Sondra

    1998-01-01

    This review of "Push," a novel about a young single mother in a literacy education program, incorporates theoretical elements from Allan Quigley's "Rethinking Literacy Education." The review addresses issues of stereotypes, humanistic education, and advocacy and includes reflections on teaching philosophy in adult basic education. (SK)

  16. Push-Pull Optical Pumping of Pure Superposition States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jau, Y.-Y.; Miron, E.; Post, A. B.; Kuzma, N. N.; Happer, W.

    2004-10-01

    A new optical pumping method, “push-pull pumping,” can produce very nearly pure, coherent superposition states between the initial and the final sublevels of the important field-independent 0-0 clock resonance of alkali-metal atoms. The key requirement for push-pull pumping is the use of D1 resonant light which alternates between left and right circular polarization at the Bohr frequency of the state. The new pumping method works for a wide range of conditions, including atomic beams with almost no collisions, and atoms in buffer gases with pressures of many atmospheres.

  17. 14 mrad Extraction Line Optics for Push-Pull

    SciTech Connect

    Nosochkov, Y.; Moffeit, K.; Seryi, A.; Morse, W.; Parker, B.; /Brookhaven

    2007-10-15

    The ILC design is based on a single Interaction Region (IR) with 14 mrad crossing angle and two detectors in the 'push-pull' configuration, where the detectors can alternately occupy the Interaction Point (IP). Consequently, the IR optics must be compatible with different size detectors designed for different distance L* between the IP and the nearest quadrupole. This paper presents the push-pull optics for the ILC extraction line compatible with L*= 3.5 m to 4.5 m, and the simulation results of extraction beam loss at 500 GeV CM with detector solenoid.

  18. The spliceosome assembly factor GEMIN2 attenuates the effects of temperature on alternative splicing and circadian rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Schlaen, Rubén Gustavo; Mancini, Estefanía; Sanchez, Sabrina Elena; Perez-Santángelo, Soledad; Rugnone, Matías L.; Simpson, Craig G.; Brown, John W. S.; Zhang, Xu; Chernomoretz, Ariel; Yanovsky, Marcelo J.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms by which poikilothermic organisms ensure that biological processes are robust to temperature changes are largely unknown. Temperature compensation, the ability of circadian rhythms to maintain a relatively constant period over the broad range of temperatures resulting from seasonal fluctuations in environmental conditions, is a defining property of circadian networks. Temperature affects the alternative splicing (AS) of several clock genes in fungi, plants, and flies, but the splicing factors that modulate these effects to ensure clock accuracy throughout the year remain to be identified. Here we show that GEMIN2, a spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoprotein assembly factor conserved from yeast to humans, modulates low temperature effects on a large subset of pre-mRNA splicing events. In particular, GEMIN2 controls the AS of several clock genes and attenuates the effects of temperature on the circadian period in Arabidopsis thaliana. We conclude that GEMIN2 is a key component of a posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism that ensures the appropriate acclimation of plants to daily and seasonal changes in temperature conditions. PMID:26170331

  19. Interstratified nanohybrid assembled by alternating cationic layered double hydroxide nanosheets and anionic layered titanate nanosheets with superior photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bizhou; Sun, Ping; Zhou, Yi; Jiang, Shaofeng; Gao, Bifen; Chen, Yilin

    2014-09-15

    Oppositely charged 2D inorganic nanosheets of ZnAl-layered double hydroxide and layered titanate were successfully assembled into an interstratified nanohybrid through simply mixing the corresponding nanosheet suspensions. Powder X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscope clearly revealed that the component nanosheets in the as-obtained nanohybrid ZnAl-Ti3O7 retain the 2D sheet skeletons of the pristine materials and that the two kinds of nanosheets are well arranged in a layer-by-layer alternating fashion with a basal spacing of about 1.3 nm, coincident with the thickness summation of the two component nanosheets. The effective interfacial heterojunction between them and the high specific surface area resulted in that the nanohybrid exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity in the degradation of methylene blue with a reaction constant k of 2.81 × 10(-2)min(-1), which is about 9 and 4 times higher than its precursors H2Ti3O7 and ZnAl-LDH, respectively. Based on UV-vis, XPS and photoelectrochemical measurements, a proposed photoexcitation model was provided to understand its photocatalytic behavior. PMID:25151238

  20. Assembly of the archaeal box C/D sRNP can occur via alternative pathways and requires temperature-facilitated sRNA remodeling.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Keith T; Zhang, Xinxin; Agris, Paul F; Maxwell, E Stuart

    2006-10-01

    Archaeal dual-guide box C/D small nucleolar RNA-like RNAs (sRNAs) bind three core proteins in sequential order at both terminal box C/D and internal C'/D' motifs to assemble two ribonuclear protein (RNP) complexes active in guiding nucleotide methylation. Experiments have investigated the process of box C/D sRNP assembly and the resultant changes in sRNA structure or "remodeling" as a consequence of sRNP core protein binding. Hierarchical assembly of the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii sR8 box C/D sRNP is a temperature-dependent process with binding of L7 and Nop56/58 core proteins to the sRNA requiring elevated temperature to facilitate necessary RNA structural dynamics. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and RNA thermal denaturation revealed an increased order and stability of sRNA folded structure as a result of L7 binding. Subsequent binding of the Nop56/58 and fibrillarin core proteins to the L7-sRNA complex further remodeled sRNA structure. Assessment of sR8 guide region accessibility using complementary RNA oligonucleotide probes revealed significant changes in guide region structure during sRNP assembly. A second dual-guide box C/D sRNA from M. jannaschii, sR6, also exhibited RNA remodeling during temperature-dependent sRNP assembly, although core protein binding was affected by sR6's distinct folded structure. Interestingly, the sR6 sRNP followed an alternative assembly pathway, with both guide regions being continuously exposed during sRNP assembly. Further experiments using sR8 mutants possessing alternative guide regions demonstrated that sRNA folded structure induced by specific guide sequences impacted the sRNP assembly pathway. Nevertheless, assembled sRNPs were active for sRNA-guided methylation independent of the pathway followed. Thus, RNA remodeling appears to be a common and requisite feature of archaeal dual-guide box C/D sRNP assembly and formation of the mature sRNP can follow different assembly pathways in generating catalytically active

  1. Sample push-out fixture

    DOEpatents

    Biernat, John L.

    2002-11-05

    This invention generally relates to the remote removal of pelletized samples from cylindrical containment capsules. V-blocks are used to receive the samples and provide guidance to push out rods. Stainless steel liners fit into the v-channels on the v-blocks which permits them to be remotely removed and replaced or cleaned to prevent cross contamination between capsules and samples. A capsule holder securely holds the capsule while allowing manual up/down and in/out movement to align each sample hole with the v-blocks. Both end sections contain identical v-blocks; one that guides the drive out screw and rods or manual push out rods and the other to receive the samples as they are driven out of the capsule.

  2. Morphological Control of Anisotropic Self-Assemblies from Alternating Poly(p-dioxanone)-poly(ethylene glycol) Multiblock Copolymer Depending on the Combination Effect of Crystallization and Micellization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Jia; Wang, Hao; Chen, Si-Chong; Chen, Cheng; Liu, Ya

    2015-06-30

    A novel and facile method was developed for morphological controlling of self-assemblies prepared by crystallization induced self-assembly of crystalline-coil copolymer depending on the combination effect of crystallization and micellization. The morphological evolution of the self-assemblies of alternating poly(p-dioxanone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PPDO-PEG) multiblock copolymer prepared by different solvent mixing methods in aqueous solution were investigated. "Chrysanthemum"-like and "star anise"-like self-assemblies were obtained at different rates of solvent mixing. The results suggested gradually change in solvent quality (slowly dropping water into DMF solution) leaded to a hierarchical micellization-crystallization process of core-forming PPDO blocks, and flake-like particles were formed at the initial stage of crystallization. Meanwhile, crystallization induced micellization process occurred when solvent quality changed drastically. Shuttle-like particles, which have much smaller size than those of flake-like particles, were formed at the initial stage of crystallization when quickly injecting water into DMF solution of the copolymer. Therefore, owing to the different changing rate of solvent quality, which may result in different combination effect of crystallization and micellization during self-assembly of the copolymer, PPDO-PEG self-assemblies with different hierarchical morphology in nano scale could be obtained. PMID:26061590

  3. 33 CFR 82.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit. 82.3 Section 82.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES 72 COLREGS: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 82.3 Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit....

  4. 33 CFR 90.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit. 90.3 Section 90.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES INLAND RULES: INTERPRETATIVE RULES § 90.3 Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule...

  5. 33 CFR 82.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 82.3 Section 82.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the 72 COLREGS states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  6. 33 CFR 90.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 90.3 Section 90.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the Inland Rules states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  7. 33 CFR 82.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 82.3 Section 82.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the 72 COLREGS states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  8. 33 CFR 82.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 82.3 Section 82.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the 72 COLREGS states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  9. 33 CFR 90.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 90.3 Section 90.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the Inland Rules states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  10. 33 CFR 82.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 82.3 Section 82.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the 72 COLREGS states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  11. 33 CFR 90.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 90.3 Section 90.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the Inland Rules states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  12. 33 CFR 90.3 - Pushing vessel and vessel being pushed: Composite unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pushed: Composite unit. 90.3 Section 90.3 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... vessel being pushed: Composite unit. Rule 24(b) of the Inland Rules states that when a pushing vessel and a vessel being pushed ahead are rigidly connected in a composite unit, they are regarded as a...

  13. Assessment of the impacts of spent fuel disassembly alternatives on the Nuclear Waste Isolation System. [Preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this report was to evaluate four possible alternative methods of preparing and packaging spent fuel assemblies for geologic disposal against the Reference Process of unmodified spent fuel. The four alternative processes were: (1) End fitting removal, (2) Fission gas venting and resealing, (3) Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins, and (4) Fuel shearing and immobilization. Systems analysis was used to develop a basis of comparison of the alternatives. Conceptual processes and facility layouts were devised for each of the alternatives, based on technology deemed feasible for the purpose. Assessments were made of 15 principal attributes from the technical, operational, safety/risk, and economic considerations related to each of the alternatives, including both the surface packaging and underground repository operations. Specific attributes of the alternative processes were evaluated by assigning a number for each that expressed its merit relative to the corresponding attribute of the Reference Process. Each alternative process was then ranked by summing the numbers for attributes in each of the four assessment areas and collectively. Fuel bundle disassembly and close packing of fuel pins was ranked the preferred method of disposal of spent fuel. 63 references, 46 figures, 46 tables.

  14. Coke pushing emission control system

    SciTech Connect

    Kwasnoski, D.; Symons, C.

    1980-07-08

    A method is described for controlling coke oven emissions comprising the steps of: (A) aligning a one-spot, open-top coke quenching car with the coke oven, (B) providing a coke guide from the coke oven to the car, (C) positioning a fume hood over the car, with the fume hood having a length about equal to the length of the car, (D) pushing hot coke from the coke oven through the coke guide and into the car, (E) withdrawing gases from the fume hood during step (D) and passing said gases to gas cleaning equipment at a gas flowrate of between about 1000 and about 3500 scfmd per ton of coke pushed under step (D), and (F) substantially upon completion of step (E) moving the car from under the fume hood to a quenching station with the hot coke in the car exposed to the atmosphere and without further withdrawal of gases from the hot coke to the gas cleaning equipment.

  15. Objectivity, Reliability, and Validity of the Bent-Knee Push-Up for College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Heather M.; Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2004-01-01

    The revised push-up test has been found to have good validity but it produces many zero scores for women. Maybe there should be an alternative to the revised push-up test for college-age women. The purpose of this study was to determine the objectivity, reliability, and validity for the bent-knee push-up test (executed on hands and knees) for…

  16. Synthesizing a novel genetic sequential logic circuit: a push-on push-off switch.

    PubMed

    Lou, Chunbo; Liu, Xili; Ni, Ming; Huang, Yiqi; Huang, Qiushi; Huang, Longwen; Jiang, Lingli; Lu, Dan; Wang, Mingcong; Liu, Chang; Chen, Daizhuo; Chen, Chongyi; Chen, Xiaoyue; Yang, Le; Ma, Haisu; Chen, Jianguo; Ouyang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    Design and synthesis of basic functional circuits are the fundamental tasks of synthetic biologists. Before it is possible to engineer higher-order genetic networks that can perform complex functions, a toolkit of basic devices must be developed. Among those devices, sequential logic circuits are expected to be the foundation of the genetic information-processing systems. In this study, we report the design and construction of a genetic sequential logic circuit in Escherichia coli. It can generate different outputs in response to the same input signal on the basis of its internal state, and 'memorize' the output. The circuit is composed of two parts: (1) a bistable switch memory module and (2) a double-repressed promoter NOR gate module. The two modules were individually rationally designed, and they were coupled together by fine-tuning the interconnecting parts through directed evolution. After fine-tuning, the circuit could be repeatedly, alternatively triggered by the same input signal; it functions as a push-on push-off switch. PMID:20212522

  17. Polarization effects in push-pull Buckminsterfullerenes: A semiempirical study

    SciTech Connect

    Fanti, M.; Orlandi, G.; Zerbetto, F.

    1997-04-17

    We predict that push-pull Buckminsterfullerenes have a high nonlinear optical response that makes pursuing their synthesis worthwhile. Three different semiempirical quantum chemical models concur to show that some isomers of push-pull C{sub 60} have a static first-order hyperpolarizability, {beta}, comparable to or larger than that of all-trans 4-(dimethylamino)-4`-nitrodiphenyloctatetraene. Because of the geometrical structure of push-pull Buckminsterfullerenes, standard models that explain the high response in planar conjugated systems cannot be used. Rather, it is found that conjugation and inductive effects contribute at the same time to {beta} and the separation between the nitrogen-containing groups cannot fully simulate the results of the calculations. A simple perturbation approach based on icosahedral C{sub 60} further confirms the results obtained by the correlations and warrants the search of a topological model able to account for the response. In is found that a linear relation exists between {beta} and the shortest resonant paths between the grafting groups. Two types of resonant structures contribute. They are described in terms of single-double bond alternation. The first resonant structure starts and finishes with hexagon-hexagon alternation (i.e., double bonds) and contributes positively, the second starts and finishes with pentagon-hexagon (i.e., double bonds) and contributes negatively. The ratio of their contributions is roughly two to one. 19 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Locking Corners Speed Solar-Array Frame Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olah, S.; Sampson, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    Mitered corners of solar-array frames joined together by single angle brace and two springs. Locking corner braces and mating frame members pushed together by hand or assembled automatically. Fastening system used to assemble window screens and picture frames.

  19. Temperature-sensitive intermediate filament assembly. Alternative structures of Xenopus laevis vimentin in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, H; Eckelt, A; Brettel, M; Grund, C; Franke, W W

    1993-11-01

    In assembly assays of intermediate filaments (IFs) from vimentin of the amphibian species Xenopus laevis we have observed the formation of so far unknown structures at temperatures above 28 degrees C. Upon assembly in vitro at temperatures above 34 degrees C massive aggregates, partly with a protofilamentous substructure, were found and their formation correlated with drastically reduced end-viscosity. Large spheroidal, dense aggregates with a complex suborganization were also seen to form at 37 degrees C in the cytoplasm of living mammalian cells devoid of endogenous vimentin upon transfection with cDNA encoding the amphibian vimentin, and this was also true for vimentin forced to accumulate in the nucleoplasm by the introduction of a "nuclear localization signal". Upon shift from the non-permissive (37 degrees C) to the permissive (28 degrees C) temperature, such aggregates of non-IF vimentin structures gradually disappeared and a normal-looking IF meshwork formed. The results, which are discussed in relation to other structures assembled by IF proteins, indicate a marked thermosensitivity in the amino acid sequence of the vimentin which seems to have been reduced during evolution of warm-blooded animals. They further show that members of the multigene gene family of IF proteins can occur in structures totally different from IFs. PMID:8230211

  20. LOFT. Reactor arrives at containment building (TAN650), now being pushed ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOFT. Reactor arrives at containment building (TAN-650), now being pushed by locomotive. Camera facing northerly. Note "Hello Dolly" and "PWR MTA No. 1" (pressurized water reactor mobile test assembly) signs. Date: 1973. INEEL negative no. 73-3710 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Distinct Adsorption Configurations and Self-Assembly Characteristics of Fibrinogen on Chemically Uniform and Alternating Surfaces including Block Copolymer Nanodomains

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Understanding protein–surface interactions is crucial to solid-state biomedical applications whose functionality is directly correlated with the precise control of the adsorption configuration, surface packing, loading density, and bioactivity of protein molecules. Because of the small dimensions and highly amphiphilic nature of proteins, investigation of protein adsorption performed on nanoscale topology can shed light on subprotein-level interaction preferences. In this study, we examine the adsorption and assembly behavior of a highly elongated protein, fibrinogen, on both chemically uniform (as-is and buffered HF-treated SiO2/Si, and homopolymers of polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate)) and varying (polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate)) surfaces. By focusing on high-resolution imaging of individual protein molecules whose configurations are influenced by protein–surface rather than protein–protein interactions, fibrinogen conformations characteristic to each surface are identified and statistically analyzed for structural similarities/differences in key protein domains. By exploiting block copolymer nanodomains whose repeat distance is commensurate with the length of the individual protein, we determine that fibrinogen exhibits a more neutral tendency for interaction with both polystyrene and poly(methyl methacrylate) blocks relative to the case of common globular proteins. Factors affecting fibrinogen–polymer interactions are discussed in terms of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. In addition, assembly and packing attributes of fibrinogen are determined at different loading conditions. Primary orientations of fibrinogen and its rearrangements with respect to the underlying diblock nanodomains associated with different surface coverage are explained by pertinent protein interaction mechanisms. On the basis of two-dimensional stacking behavior, a protein assembly model is proposed for the formation of an extended fibrinogen network

  2. Direct push technology: Concept comes of age

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    Sampling groundwater, soil and soil vapors, with little surface disruption, is possible with direct push technology. Direct push technology is rapidly gaining a following of consultants and regulators alike. The technology has been around for many years but with today`s greater emphasis on conserving assessment dollars, it is coming of age. The technology is not suitable for every site. Considerations for using this technology are described.

  3. Size-exclusion HPLC provides a simple, rapid, and versatile alternative method for quality control of vaccines by characterizing the assembly of antigens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanli; Li, Hao; Li, Zhengjun; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Songping; Chen, Yi; Yu, Mengran; Ma, Guanghui; Su, Zhiguo

    2015-02-25

    The assembly of antigen structure is often crucial to the potency of vaccines. Currently adopted methods like animal testing and ultracentrifugation take long time and are difficult to automate for multiple samples. Here we develop a size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) method to characterize the assembly of antigen structure during both manufacturing process and storage. Three important vaccine antigens including inactivated foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV), which is a virus vaccine; and two virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccines involving hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) VLPs, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) VLPs, were successfully analyzed using commercially available TSK gel columns with pore size above 45nm. Combined with other analytical methods including SDS-PAGE, dynamic light scattering, wavelength scan, and multi-angle laser light scattering, the SE-HPLC method was proven to be a simple, rapid, and reliable tool for antigen particles assembly analysis. Specifically, for FMDV whole virus particle, SE-HPLC was used to analyze 146S content in vaccine preparations and the thermal dissociation of the 146S. For HBcAg-VLPs that are expressed in recombinant Escherichia coli, its expression level during cell culture process was quantitatively monitored by SE-HPLC. The SE-HPLC also showed applicability for quality check of HBsAg vaccine preparations by monitoring the product consistency of different lot number and the product stability during storage. Results shown in this work clearly demonstrated that SE-HPLC method has potential as a versatile alternative technology for control of the final product by both manufacturers and the regulatory agencies. PMID:25604799

  4. Hydraulic tests with direct-push equipment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J., Jr.; Healey, J.M.; McCall, G.W.; Garnett, E.J.; Loheide, S.P., II

    2002-01-01

    The potential of direct-push technology for hydraulic characterization of saturated flow systems was investigated at a field site with a considerable degree of subsurface control. Direct-push installations were emplaced by attaching short lengths of screen (shielded and unshielded) to the bottom end of a tool string that was then advanced into the unconsolidated sediments. A series of constant-rate pumping tests were performed in a coarse sand and gravel aquifer using direct-push tool strings as observation wells. Very good agreement (within 4%) was found between hydraulic conductivity (K) estimates from direct-push installations and those from conventional wells. A program of slug tests was performed in direct-push installations using small-diameter adaptations of solid-slug and pneumatic methods. In a sandy silt interval of moderate hydraulic conductivity, K values from tests in a shielded screen tool were in excellent agreement (within 2%) with those from tests in a nearby well. In the coarse sand and gravel aquifer, K values were within 12% of those from multilevel slug tests at a nearby well. However, in the more permeable portions of the aquifer (K > 70 m/day), the smaller-diameter direct-push rods (0.016 m inner diameter [I.D.]) attenuated test responses, leading to an underprediction of K. In those conditions, use of larger-diameter rods (e.g., 0.038 m I.D.) is necessary to obtain K values representative of the formation. This investigation demonstrates that much valuable information can be obtained from hydraulic tests in direct-push installations. As with any type of hydraulic test, K estimates are critically dependent on use of appropriate emplacement and development procedures. In particular, driving an unshielded screen through a heterogeneous sequence will often lead to a buildup of low-K material that can be difficult to remove with standard development procedures.

  5. Additional Revised Push-Up Test Norms for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary; Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2010-01-01

    The push-up test is commonly used to assess arm and shoulder girdle strength and endurance. Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, and Hales (2002) developed a revised push-up test for college students with a standardized test protocol. The purpose of the present study was to develop percentile norms for the revised push-up test based on the push-up scores of…

  6. The Push Is On: What Push Technology Means to the Librarian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustitus, Cheryl

    1998-01-01

    "Push technology," or Webcasting, employs user defined criteria to search for specific information and deliver it when and where directed, enhancing the value special librarians add to the information dissemination process. This article examines push technology, its Internet and Intranet applications, and commercially available variations;…

  7. Selecting the optimum coke pushing sequence

    SciTech Connect

    V.T. Krivoshein; A.V. Makarov

    2007-01-15

    The sequence of pushing coke ovens is one of the most important aspects of battery operation. The sequence must satisfy a number of technical and process conditions: (1) achieve maximum heating-wall life by avoiding destructive expansion pressure in freshly charged ovens and during pushing of the finished coke; (2) ensure uniform brickwork temperature and prevent overheating by compensating for the high thermal flux in freshly charged ovens due to accumulated heat in adjacent ovens that are in the second half of the coking cycle; (3) ensure the most favorable working conditions and safety for operating personnel; (4) provide additional opportunities for repair personnel to perform various types of work, such as replacing coke-machine rails, without interrupting coal production; (5) perform the maximum number of coke-machine operations simultaneously: pushing, charging, and cleaning doors, frames, and standpipe elbows; and (6) reduce electricity consumption by minimizing idle travel of coke machines.

  8. PUSH-PULL POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Froman, D.K.

    1959-02-24

    Power generating nuclear reactors of the homogeneous liquid fuel type are discussed. The apparatus utilizes two identical reactors interconnected by conduits through heat exchanging apparatus. Each reactor contains a critical geometry region and a vapor region separated from the critical region by a baffle. When the liquid in the first critical region becomes critical, the vapor pressure above the fuel is increased due to the rise in the temperature until it forces the liquid fuel out of the first critical region through the heat exchanger and into the second critical region, which is at a lower temperature and consequently a lower vapor pressure. The above reaction is repeated in the second critical region and the liquid fuel is forced back into the first critical region. In this manner criticality is achieved alternately in each critical region and power is extracted by the heat exchanger from the liquid fuel passing therethrough. The vapor region and the heat exchanger have a non-critical geometry and reactivity control is effected by conventional control rods in the critical regions.

  9. Analytical solutions for efficient interpretation of single-well push-pull tracer tests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Single-well push-pull tracer tests have been used to characterize the extent, fate, and transport of subsurface contamination. Analytical solutions provide one alternative for interpreting test results. In this work, an exact analytical solution to two-dimensional equations descr...

  10. Hybrid self-assembled multilayer film formed by alternating layers of H{sub 4}SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40} and 1,10-diaminodecane (DAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Kezhi; Gao Lihua

    2002-12-01

    A hybrid self-assembled multilayer film was prepared by alternating adsorption of H{sub 4}SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40} and 1,10-diaminodecane. The film was uniformly deposited and was found to be photochromic, as monitored by the UV spectroscopy. The film was also studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  11. Octopus movement: push right, go left.

    PubMed

    Hooper, Scott L

    2015-05-01

    Octopus arms have essentially infinite degrees of freedom. New research shows that, despite this potentially great complexity, to locomote octopuses simply elongate one or more arms, thus pushing the body in the opposite direction, and do so without activating the arms in an ordered pattern. PMID:25942549

  12. Pushing the Limit: A Class Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odafe, Victor U.

    2012-01-01

    Instructors are constantly struggling to help students understand mathematical concepts as well as the relevance of mathematics to the real world. In calculus, students possess misconceptions of the limit concept. "Pushing the Limit" refers to a semester-long calculus class project that required students to read about, interview calculus…

  13. Formative Assessment Probes: Pushes and Pulls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2011-01-01

    When the concept of force is first taught in the elementary curriculum, it is usually introduced as a push or a pull. The recently released "A Framework for K-12 Science Education" describes grade band endpoints for the Core Idea: Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions (NRC 2011). It states that by the end of grade 2 students should know…

  14. "Universal Design" Concept Pushed for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on a "universal design" concept that is being pushed by a coalition of education groups for education. Called "universal design for learning," the philosophy advocates creating lessons and classroom materials that are flexible enough to accommodate different learning styles. The coalition has drafted language it wants to have…

  15. Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembled Graphene Multilayers as Pt-Free Alternative Counter Electrodes in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Rani, Adila; Chung, Kyungwha; Kwon, Jeong; Kim, Sung June; Jang, Yoon Hee; Jang, Yu Jin; Quan, Li Na; Yoon, Minji; Park, Jong Hyeok; Kim, Dong Ha

    2016-05-11

    Low cost, charged, and large scale graphene multilayers fabricated from nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide N-rGO(+), nitrogen and sulfur codoped reduced graphene oxide NS-rGO(+), and undoped reduced graphene oxide rGO(-) were applied as alternative counter electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The neat rGO-based counter electrodes were developed via two types of layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly (SA) methods: spin coating and spray coating methods. In the spin coating method, two sets of multilayer films were fabricated on poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using GO(-) combined with N-GO(+) followed by annealing and denoted as [rGO(-)/N-rGO(+)]n or with NS-GO(+) and denoted as [rGO(-)/NS-rGO(+)]n for counter electrodes in DSSCs. The DSSCs employing new types of counter electrodes exhibited ∼7.0% and ∼6.2% power conversion efficiency (PCE) based on ten bilayers of [rGO(-)/N-rGO(+)]10 and [rGO(-)/NS-rGO(+)]10, respectively. The DSSCs equipped with a blend of one bilayer of [rGO(-):N-rGO(+)] and [rGO(-):NS-rGO(+)] on PDDA-coated FTO substrates were prepared from a spray coating and showed ∼6.4% and ∼5.6% PCE, respectively. Thus, it was demonstrated that a combination of undoped, nitrogen-doped, and nitrogen and sulfur codoped reduced graphene oxides can be considered as potentially powerful Pt-free electrocatalysts and alternative electrodes in conventional photovoltaic devices. PMID:27136200

  16. Guided self-assembly of block-copolymer for CMOS technology: a comparative study between grapho-epitaxy and surface chemical modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oria, Lorea; Ruiz de Luzuriaga, Alaitz; Chevalier, Xavier; Alduncin, Juan A.; Mecerreyes, David; Tiron, Raluca; Gaugiran, Stephanie; Perez-Murano, Francesc

    2011-04-01

    Recent progress in Block Copolymer lithography has shown that guided self-assembly is a viable alternative for pushing forward the resolution limits of optical lithography. The main two self assembly methods considered so far have been the surface chemical modification, which is based on the chemical modification of a brush grafted to the silicon, and the grapho-epitaxy, which is based on creating topographic patterns on the surface. We have tested these two approaches for the 22 nm node and beyond CMOS technology, using PS-PMMA block copolymers synthesized by RAFT (Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer) polymerization.

  17. Pulse width modulated push-pull driven parallel resonant converter with active free-wheel

    DOEpatents

    Reass, William A.; Schrank, Louis

    2004-06-22

    An apparatus and method for high frequency alternating power generation to control kilowatts of supplied power in microseconds. The present invention includes a means for energy storage, push-pull switching means, control electronics, transformer means, resonant circuitry and means for excess energy recovery, all in electrical communication. A push-pull circuit works synchronously with a force commutated free-wheel transistor to provide current pulses to a transformer. A change in the conduction angle of the push-pull circuit changes the amount of energy coupled into the transformer's secondary oscillating circuit, thereby altering the induced secondary resonating voltage. At the end of each pulse, the force commutated free-wheel transistor causes residual excess energy in the primary circuit to be transmitted back to the storage capacitor for later use.

  18. Push technology at Argonne National Laboratory.

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, R. E.; Woell, Y. N.

    1999-04-06

    Selective dissemination of information (SDI) services, also referred to as current awareness searches, are usually provided by periodically running computer programs (personal profiles) against a cumulative database or databases. This concept of pushing relevant content to users has long been integral to librarianship. Librarians traditionally turned to information companies to implement these searches for their users in business, academia, and the science community. This paper describes how a push technology was implemented on a large scale for scientists and engineers at Argonne National Laboratory, explains some of the challenges to designers/maintainers, and identifies the positive effects that SDI seems to be having on users. Argonne purchases the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Current Contents data (all subject areas except Humanities), and scientists no longer need to turn to outside companies for reliable SDI service. Argonne's database and its customized services are known as ACCESS (Argonne-University of Chicago Current Contents Electronic Search Service).

  19. Elevated temperature fiber push-out testing

    SciTech Connect

    Eldridge, J.I.

    1995-10-01

    The potential use of fiber-reinforced composite materials for high temperature applications makes the development of interface test methodology at those high temperatures very desirable. A facility for performing high temperature fiber push-out tests will be described with emphasis on critical issues in experimental procedure. Examples from several composite systems illustrate the temperature dependence and environmental sensitivity of fiber debonding and sliding. Interpretation of the temperature dependence will be made primarily in terms of changes in residual stresses along with additional effects due to changes in matrix ductility and interfacial wear. Examples will show that high temperature fiber push-out testing can often distinguish between chemical and frictional fiber/matrix bonding in cases where room temperature only testing cannot.

  20. Push-pull switching power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuk, Slobodan M. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A true push-pull switching power amplifier is disclosed utilizing two dc-to-dc converters. Each converter is comprised of two inductances, one inductance in series with a DC source and the other inductor in series with the output load, and an electrical energy transferring device with storage capability, namely storage capacitance, with suitable switching means between the inductances to obtain DC level conversion, where the switching means allows bidirectional current (and power) flow, and the switching means of one dc-to-dc converter is driven by the complement of a square-wave switching signal for the other dc-to-dc converter for true push-pull operation. For reduction of current ripple, the inductances in each of the two converters may be coupled, and with proper design of the coupling, the ripple can be reduced to zero at either the input or the output, but preferably the output.

  1. Raindrops push and splash flying insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Andrew K.; Shankles, Peter G.; Hu, David L.

    2014-02-01

    In their daily lives, flying insects face a gauntlet of environmental challenges, from wind gusts to raindrop impacts. In this combined experimental and theoretical study, we use high-speed videography to film raindrop collisions upon both flying insects and dynamically scaled spherical mimics. We identify three outcomes of the collision based upon the insect's mass and characteristic size: drops push the insect while remaining intact, coat the insect, and splash. We present a mathematical model that predicts impact force and outcome consistent with those found in experiments. Small insects such as gnats and flies are pushed by raindrops that remain intact upon impact; conversely, large flyers such as locusts and micro-aerial vehicles cause drops to splash. We identify a critical mass of 0.3 g for which flyers achieve both peak acceleration (100 g) and applied force (104 dyn) from incoming raindrops; designs of similarly massed flying robots should be avoided.

  2. Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography (CUSE) with various ultrasound push beams.

    PubMed

    Song, Pengfei; Urban, Matthew W; Manduca, Armando; Zhao, Heng; Greenleaf, James F; Chen, Shigao

    2013-08-01

    Comb-push ultrasound shear elastography (CUSE) has recently been shown to be a fast and accurate 2-D elasticity imaging technique that can provide a full field-of-view (FOV) shear wave speed map with only one rapid data acquisition. The initial version of CUSE was termed U-CUSE because unfocused ultrasound push beams were used. In this paper, we present two new versions of CUSE-focused CUSE (F-CUSE) and marching CUSE (M-CUSE), which use focused ultrasound push beams to improve acoustic radiation force penetration and produce stronger shear waves in deep tissues (e.g., kidney and liver). F-CUSE divides transducer elements into several subgroups which transmit multiple focused ultrasound beams simultaneously. M-CUSE uses more elements for each focused push beam and laterally marches the push beams. Both F-CUSE and M-CUSE can generate comb-shaped shear wave fields that have shear wave motion at each imaging pixel location so that a full FOV 2-D shear wave speed map can be reconstructed with only one data acquisition. Homogeneous phantom experiments showed that U-CUSE, F-CUSE, and M-CUSE can all produce smooth shear wave speed maps with accurate shear wave speed estimates. An inclusion phantom experiment showed that all CUSE methods could provide good contrast between the inclusion and background with sharp boundaries while F-CUSE and M-CUSE require shorter push durations to achieve shear wave speed maps with comparable SNR to U-CUSE. A more challenging inclusion phantom experiment with a very stiff and deep inclusion shows that better shear wave penetration could be gained by using F-CUSE and M-CUSE. Finally, a shallow inclusion experiment showed that good preservations of inclusion shapes could be achieved by both U-CUSE and F-CUSE in the near field. Safety measurements showed that all safety parameters are below FDA regulatory limits for all CUSE methods. These promising results suggest that, using various push beams, CUSE is capable of reconstructing a 2-D full FOV

  3. Particle Engulfment and Pushing by Solidifying Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Juretzko, Frank R.; Dhindaw, Brij K.; Sen, Subhayu; Curren, Peter A.

    1999-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the work on Particle Engulfment and Pushing by Solidifying Interfaces (PEP) include: (1) to enhance the fundamental understanding of the physics of interaction between inert particles and the solidification interface, and (2) to investigate aspects of melt processing of particulate metal matrix composites in the unique microgravity environment that will yield some vital information for terrestrial applications. The proposal itself calls for a long-term effort on the Space Station. This paper reports on ground experiments performed to date, as well as on the results obtained from two flight opportunities, the LMS mission (1996) and the USMP-4 mission (1997).

  4. F-electron systems: Pushing band theory

    SciTech Connect

    Koelling, D.D.

    1990-08-01

    The f-electron orbitals have always been the incomplete atomic shell acting as a local moment weakly interacting with the remaining electronic structure'' in the minds of most people. So examining them using a band theory where one views them as itinerant once was -- and to some extent even today still is -- considered with some skepticism. Nonetheless, a very significant community has successfully utilized band theory as a probe of the electronic structure of the appropriate actinides and rare earths. Those people actually using the approach would be the first to declare that it is not the whole solution. Instead, one is pushing and even exceeding its limits of applicability. However, the appropriate procedure is to push the model consistently to its limits, patch where possible, and then look to see where discrepancies remain. I propose to offer a selected review of past developments (emphasizing the career to date of A. J. Freeman in this area), offer a list of interesting puzzles for the future, and then make some guesses as to the techniques one might want to use. 27 refs.

  5. High-capacity push-pickling lines and acid recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, E.; Groessl, C. )

    1993-07-01

    High-capacity, 1.2 million ton/year, pushing-pickling lines capable of processing strip up to 76 in. wide in gages between 0.060 and 0.500 in. are a viable alternative in replacing older continuous pickling lines: space requirements are less (up to 40%) and capital costs lower (up to 60%). Installation of an acid regeneration plant provides major reductions in acid purchases as well as minimizing waste acid and rinse water disposal costs.

  6. Pushing Back against Push-In: ESOL Teacher Resistance and the Complexities of Coteaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Greg; Cahnmann-Taylor, Melisa

    2010-01-01

    As U. S. school districts struggle to address persistent achievement gaps between increasing numbers of English language learners (ELLs) and their native-English-speaking counterparts, many districts are moving away from segregative models like pull-out to implement more collaborative approaches such as coteaching, or push-in. In contrast to…

  7. PUSH(ing) Limits: Using Fiction in the Classroom for Human Behavior and the Social Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Natasha S.; Bonta, Kimberly; Horn, Philip; Moore, Erin; Gibson, Allison; Simmons, David

    2012-01-01

    The use of fiction and autobiography in social science course work has been shown to enhance students' learning experience. Using the novel PUSH, by Sapphire, we designed a curriculum supplement for the social work course, human behavior and the social environment (HBSE) that encourages students to integrate course content in an innovative way and…

  8. Creation of hierarchical carbon nanotube assemblies through alternative packing of complementary semi-artificial beta-1,3-glucan/carbon nanotube composites.

    PubMed

    Numata, Munenori; Sugikawa, Kouta; Kaneko, Kenji; Shinkai, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    Much attention has been focused on exploiting novel strategies for the creation of hierarchical polymer assemblies by the control of the assembling number or the relative location among neighboring polymers. We here propose a novel strategy toward the creation of "hierarchical" single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) architectures by utilizing SWNT composites with cationic or anionic complementary semi-artificial beta-1,3-glucans as "building blocks". These beta-1,3-glucans are known to wrap SWNTs helically, to create one-dimensional superstructural composites. If the cationic composite is neutralized by an anionic composite, a well ordered SWNT-based sheet structure was created. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation revealed that this sheet structure is composed of highly-ordered fibrous assemblies of SWNTs. This suggests that the cationic and anionic composites are tightly packed through electrostatic interactions. Moreover, both of the final assembly structures are readily tunable by adjusting the cation/anion ratio. The self-assembling modulation of functional polymers is associated with the progress in ultimate nanotechnologies, thus enabling us to create numerous functional nanomaterials. We believe, therefore, that the present system will extend the frontier of SWNT research to assembly chemistry including "hierarchical" superstructures. PMID:18200640

  9. Characteristics of the force applied to a pedal during human pushing efforts: emergent linearity.

    PubMed

    Gruben, K G; López-Ortiz, C

    2000-06-01

    The force seated humans exert on a translationally fixed pedal (foot force) may be directed at any angle because the fixed distance between the seat and the pedal axis kinematically constrains the lower limb. The authors' objective in the present work was to characterize such force. Participants (N = 7) generated force with their lower limb by pushing against the pedal in the most comfortable manner. Pushing efforts were repeated randomly 3 times at each of 97 sagittal-plane pedal axis positions and 10 additional times in 9 of those positions (2,895 total pushes). In 87% of the pushes, the measured sagittal-plane force exerted on the pedal by the foot changed magnitude and direction through time, such that the path of the head of the force vector traced a straight line. The linearity of the foot force paths reflected directional invariance in the changes of the foot force vector as the magnitude of the vector increased. The orientation of those linear force paths varied with limb posture in a similar manner across participants. The authors conclude that the emergent linearity of the force path is consistent with minimization of path length in foot force space. Alternatively, the linearity of the force paths suggests a motor control strategy that simplifies the control to a monoparametric form. PMID:11697301

  10. Self-Assembly-Induced Alternately Stacked Single-Layer MoS2 and N-doped Graphene: A Novel van der Waals Heterostructure for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chenyang; Wang, Xu; Kong, Junhua; Ang, Jia Ming; Lee, Pooi See; Liu, Zhaolin; Lu, Xuehong

    2016-01-27

    In this article, a simple self-assembly strategy for fabricating van der Waals heterostructures from isolated two-dimensional atomic crystals is presented. Specifically, dopamine (DOPA), an excellent self-assembly agent and carbon precursor, was adsorbed on exfoliated MoS2 monolayers through electrostatic interaction, and the surface-modified monolayers self-assembled spontaneously into DOPA-intercalated MoS2. The subsequent in situ conversion of DOPA to highly conductive nitrogen-doped graphene (NDG) in the interlayer space of MoS2 led to the formation of a novel NDG/MoS2 nanocomposite with well-defined alternating structure. The NDG/MoS2 was then studied as an anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The results show that alternating arrangement of NDG and MoS2 triggers synergistic effect between the two components. The kinetics and cycle life of the anode are greatly improved due to the enhanced electron and Li(+) transport as well as the effective immobilization of soluble polysulfide by NDG. A reversible capacity of more than 460 mAh/g could be delivered even at 5 A/g. Moreover, the abundant voids created at the MoS2-NDG interface also accommodate the volume change during cycling and provide additional active sites for Li(+) storage. These endow the NDG/MoS2 heterostructure with low charge-transfer resistance, high sulfur reservation, and structural robustness, rendering it an advanced anode material for LIBs. PMID:26745784

  11. Revised Push-Up Test Norms for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ted A.; Hales, Derek; Chung, Hyuk; Oh, Suhak; Wood, Heather M.

    2004-01-01

    A revised push-up test for college students was presented in 2002. The purpose of this study was to develop percentile norms for the revised push-up test when it is used with college students. Revised push-up scores collected on 177 male and 274 female college students were used to develop percentile norms. The norms for the men have a different…

  12. Push-Pull Laser-Atomic Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jau, Y.-Y.; Happer, W.

    2007-11-01

    A vapor of alkali-metal atoms in the external cavity of a semiconductor laser, pumped with a time-independent injection current, can cause the laser to self-modulate at the “field-independent 0-0 frequency” of the atoms. Push-pull optical pumping by the modulated light drives most of the atoms into a coherent superposition of the two atomic sublevels with an azimuthal quantum number m=0. The atoms modulate the optical loss of the cavity at the sharply defined 0-0 hyperfine frequency. As in a maser, the system is not driven by an external source of microwaves, but a very stable microwave signal can be recovered from the modulated light or from the modulated voltage drop across the laser diode. Potential applications for this new phenomenon include atomic clocks, the production of long-lived coherent atomic states, and the generation of coherent optical combs.

  13. Push-Pull Laser-Atomic Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Jau, Y.-Y.; Happer, W.

    2007-11-30

    A vapor of alkali-metal atoms in the external cavity of a semiconductor laser, pumped with a time-independent injection current, can cause the laser to self-modulate at the 'field-independent 0-0 frequency' of the atoms. Push-pull optical pumping by the modulated light drives most of the atoms into a coherent superposition of the two atomic sublevels with an azimuthal quantum number m=0. The atoms modulate the optical loss of the cavity at the sharply defined 0-0 hyperfine frequency. As in a maser, the system is not driven by an external source of microwaves, but a very stable microwave signal can be recovered from the modulated light or from the modulated voltage drop across the laser diode. Potential applications for this new phenomenon include atomic clocks, the production of long-lived coherent atomic states, and the generation of coherent optical combs.

  14. Infrared SWAP detectors: pushing the limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibel, Yann; Taalat, R.; Brunner, A.; Rubaldo, L.; Augey, T.; Kerlain, A.; Péré-Laperne, N.; Manissadjian, A.; Gravrand, O.; Castelein, P.; Destéfanis, G.

    2015-06-01

    The growing demand for compact and low consumption infrared cooled detectors is driven by different products segments. Hand Held Thermal Imagers, UAV, small gimbals are some of them. End users are requiring devices easy to use with fast cool down time, excellent portability, low acoustic noise with no trade-offs in reliability and performance. These requirements are pushing the technology developments toward constant innovations on detectors, coolers, read out circuits and proximity electronic boards. In this paper we are discussing the different figures of merit and highlighting the challenges for the different components. An update on the developments of HOT technology for most advanced pixel pitch will be presented. Very compact products are driving the developments for innovative coolers and cryogenic solutions. A low power compact architecture is a must for electronic boards to optimize the overall system power consumption. Finally a look to the future requirements for further shrink will be addressed.

  15. Particle Engulfment and Pushing By Solidifying Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Mukherjee, Sundeep; Juretzko, Frank Robert; Catalina, A.drian V.; Sen, Subhayu; Curreri, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenon of interaction of particles with solid-liquid interfaces (SLI) has been studied since the mid 1960's. While the original interest stemmed from geology applications (frost heaving in soil), researchers soon realized that fundamental understanding of particles behavior at solidifying interfaces might yield practical benefits in other fields, including metallurgy. In materials engineering the main issue is the location of particles with respect to grain boundaries at the end of solidification. Considerable experimental and theoretical research was lately focused on applications to metal matrix composites produced by casting or spray forming techniques, and on inclusion management in steel. Another application of particle SLI interaction is in the growing of Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-delta) (123) superconductor crystals from an undercooled liquid. The oxide melt contains Y2Ba1Cu1O5 (211) precipitates, which act as flux pinning sites. The experimental evidence on transparent organic materials, as well as the recent in situ observations on steel demonstrates that there exist a critical velocity of the planar SLI below which particles are pushed ahead of the interface, and above which particles are engulfment. The engulfment of a SiC particle in succinonitrile is exemplified. However, in most commercial alloys dendritic interfaces must be considered. Indeed, most data available on metallic alloys are on dendritic structures. The term engulfment is used to describe incorporation of a particle by a planar or cellular interface as a result of local interface perturbation, as opposed to entrapment that implies particle incorporation at cells or dendrites boundaries. During entrapment the particles are pushed in the intercellular or interdendritic regions and then captured when local solidification occurs. The physics of these two phenomena is fundamentally different.

  16. Why People Choose to Teach in Urban Schools: The Case for a Push-Pull Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knell, Paul F.; Castro, Antonio J.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative research study traces the motivations for teaching of 13 teacher candidates enrolled in an urban-based alternative certification program. After using a push-pull factor analysis, the data suggest that most participants left their previous careers due to financial shortcomings or work instability. As a result, these participants…

  17. Delaware Pushes to Meet Race to Top Promises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on how Delaware pushes to meet Race to the Top promises. The Delcastle Technical High School teachers are on the front lines of the push to deliver on promises that last year won Delaware, 10 other states, and the District of Columbia shares of the Race to the Top pie, the $4 billion competition that is driving much of the…

  18. Particle Engulfment and Pushing By Solidifying Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The study of particle behavior at solid/liquid interfaces (SLI s) is at the center of the Particle Engulfment and Pushing (PEP) research program. Interactions of particles with SLI s have been of interest since the 1960 s, starting with geological observations, i.e., frost heaving. Ever since, this field of research has become significant to such diverse areas as metal matrix composite materials, fabrication of superconductors, and inclusion control in steels. The PEP research effort is geared towards understanding the fundamental physics of the interaction between particles and a planar SLI. Experimental work including 1-g and mu-g experiments accompany the development of analytical and numerical models. The experimental work comprised of substantial groundwork with aluminum (Al) and zinc (Zn) matrices containing spherical zirconia particles, mu-g experiments with metallic Al matrices and the use of transparent organic metal-analogue materials. The modeling efforts have grown from the initial steady-state analytical model to dynamic models, accounting for the initial acceleration of a particle at rest by an advancing SLI. To gain a more comprehensive understanding, numerical models were developed to account for the influence of the thermal and solutal field. Current efforts are geared towards coupling the diffusive 2-D front tracking model with a fluid flow model to account for differences in the physics of interaction between 1-g and -g environments. A significant amount of this theoretical investigation has been and is being performed by co-investigators at NASA MSFC.

  19. Pushing with actin: from cells to pathogens.

    PubMed

    Small, J Victor

    2015-02-01

    Actin polymerization is harnessed by cells to generate lamellipodia for movement and by a subclass of pathogens to facilitate invasion of their infected hosts. Using electron tomography (ET), we have shown that lamellipodia are formed via the generation of subsets of actin filaments joined by branch junctions. Image averaging produced a 2.9 nm resolution model of branch junctions in situ and revealed a close fit to the electron density map of the actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3)-actin complex in vitro. Correlated live-cell imaging and ET was also used to determine how actin networks are created and remodelled during the initiation and inhibition of protrusion in lamellipodia. Listeria, Rickettsia and viruses, such as vaccinia virus and baculovirus, exploit the actin machinery of host cells to generate propulsive actin comet tails to disseminate their infection. By applying ET, we have shown that baculovirus generates at its rear a fishbone-like array of subsets of branched actin filaments, with an average of only four filaments engaged in pushing at any one time. In both of these studies, the application of ET of negatively stained cytoskeletons for higher filament resolution and cryo-ET for preserving overall 3D morphology was crucial for obtaining a complete structure-function analysis of actin-driven propulsion. PMID:25619250

  20. Benefit of "Push-pull" Locomotion for Planetary Rover Mobility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creager, Colin M.; Moreland, Scott Jared; Skonieczny, K.; Johnson, K.; Asnani, V.; Gilligan, R.

    2011-01-01

    As NASAs exploration missions on planetary terrains become more aggressive, a focus on alternative modes of locomotion for rovers is necessary. In addition to climbing steep slopes, the terrain in these extreme environments is often unknown and can be extremely hard to traverse, increasing the likelihood of a vehicle or robot becoming damaged or immobilized. The conventional driving mode in which all wheels are either driven or free-rolling is very efficient on flat hard ground, but does not always provide enough traction to propel the vehicle through soft or steep terrain. This paper presents an alternative mode of travel and investigates the fundamental differences between these locomotion modes. The methods of push-pull locomotion discussed can be used with articulated wheeled vehicles and are identified as walking or inchinginch-worming. In both cases, the braked non-rolling wheels provide increased thrust. An in-depth study of how soil reacts under a rolling wheel vs. a braked wheel was performed by visually observing the motion of particles beneath the surface. This novel technique consists of driving or dragging a wheel in a soil bin against a transparent wall while high resolution, high-rate photographs are taken. Optical flow software was then used to determine shearing patterns in the soil. Different failure modes were observed for the rolling and braked wheel cases. A quantitative comparison of inching vs. conventional driving was also performed on a full-scale vehicle through a series of drawbar pull tests in the Lunar terrain strength simulant, GRC-1. The effect of tire stiffness was also compared; typically compliant tires provide better traction when driving in soft soil, however its been observed that rigid wheels may provide better thrust when non-rolling. Initial tests indicate up to a possible 40 increase in pull force capability at high slip when inching vs. rolling.

  1. Pushing technology to satisfy world applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hague, J. R.

    K-State has concluded the first quarter of the third year, demonstrating and evaluating electric vehicle technology. The G-Van has failed to operate during this period. Although plans are being made to install new batteries in the G-Van, the vehicle has little to prove or demonstrate in the way of advanced technologies. As such, there was an agreement by the Site Operator Users Task Force that no additional federal funding would be spent to maintain or operate the G-Vans. The DSEP van, received from DOE during the latter part of January remains idle. The DSEP vehicle may never be refurbished and used in the Site Operator Program as an operational vehicle. It may be used as a lab vehicle or in a special projects capacity. The cost of operating or maintaining this one-of-a-kind vehicle is high and the value of the vehicle to the program is questionable. Kansas State University is using and is pleased with its first Soleq's EVcort. The vehicle has been used on a routine basis around campus, at the Nebraska State Fair, the Kansas State Fair, and other specific functions. The vehicle continues to operate in an efficient manner, is well received by the public, and clearly demonstrates what is possible in EV technology. Professor Hague continued to serve as the Chairman of the Site Operator Users Task Force. As such, K-State is involved at all levels in promoting electric vehicle legislation and technology. The electric vehicle technology continues to be debated and discussed at all levels of government. The next year should bring incremental improvements for funding. The SOUTF has established an effort to 'push' the EV technology forward with the development of a common specification to be used in the purchase of electric vehicles during the next year.

  2. Archeological Finds Push First Known Cancer Back 2 Million Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Push First Known Cancer Back 2 Million Years Discoveries challenge belief that it is a modern-day ... cancers, dating back almost 2 million years. The discoveries challenge the belief that cancer is a disease ...

  3. "Push-Pull" Factors Influencing International Student Destination Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazzarol, Tim; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

    2002-01-01

    Examined factors motivating international student choice of host country. Found that economic and social factors within the home country serve to "push" students abroad, while a variety of "pull" factors influence selection of a host country. (EV)

  4. TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear

    NASA Video Gallery

    TRMM Satellite Shows Bertha's Heavy Rain Pushed From Wind Shear This 3-D flyby of Tropical Storm Bertha on Aug. 1 was created from TRMM satellite data. It shows (from the south) intense thunderstor...

  5. 33 CFR 83.24 - Towing and pushing (Rule 24).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Towing and pushing (Rule 24). 83.24 Section 83.24 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES RULES Lights and Shapes § 83.24 Towing and pushing (Rule 24). (a) A power-driven vessel when towing astern. A power-driven...

  6. Push and pull strategies: applications for health care marketing.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, B R

    1987-08-01

    As health care markets mature and expand, strategies available in other industries become useful. This article examines how traditional push-pull strategies apply to health care. Marketers using a push strategy recognize that the sale of their services or goods is dependent upon the endorsement of a middleman and promote their product through the middleman. Those using a pull strategy market directly to the consumer. In this article, the author outlines the advantages and disadvantages of using each strategy. PMID:10301947

  7. 33 CFR 83.24 - Towing and pushing (Rule 24).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Towing and pushing (Rule 24). 83.24 Section 83.24 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES RULES Lights and Shapes § 83.24 Towing and pushing (Rule 24). (a) A power-driven vessel when towing astern. A power-driven...

  8. Shoulder joint loading and posture during medicine cart pushing task.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Lin, Jia-Hua; Boyer, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Excessive physical loads and awkward shoulder postures during pushing and pulling are risk factors for shoulder pain. Pushing a medicine cart is a major component of a work shift for nurses and medical assistants in hospitals and other health care facilities. A laboratory experiment was conducted to examine the effects of common factors (e.g., lane congestion, cart load stability, floor surface friction) on shoulder joint moment and shoulder elevation angle of participants during cart pushing. Participants pushed a medicine cart on straight tracks and turning around right-angle corners. Peak shoulder joint moments reached 25.1 Nm, 20.3 Nm, and 26.8 Nm for initial, transition, and turning phases of the pushing tasks, indicating that shoulder joint loading while pushing a medical cart is comparable to levels previously reported from heavy manual activities encountered in industry (e.g., garbage collection). Also, except for user experience, all other main study factors, including congestion level, cart load stability, location of transition strip, shoulder tendency, surface friction, and handedness, significantly influenced shoulder joint moment and shoulder elevation angle. The findings provide a better understanding of shoulder exposures associated with medicine cart operations and may be helpful in designing and optimizing the physical environment where medicine carts are used. PMID:23767931

  9. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brown, S.B.; Milanovich, F.P.

    1995-11-14

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly is described which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor. 4 figs.

  10. High aspect ratio, remote controlled pumping assembly

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Steve B.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1995-01-01

    A miniature dual syringe-type pump assembly which has a high aspect ratio and which is remotely controlled, for use such as in a small diameter penetrometer cone or well packer used in water contamination applications. The pump assembly may be used to supply and remove a reagent to a water contamination sensor, for example, and includes a motor, gearhead and motor encoder assembly for turning a drive screw for an actuator which provides pushing on one syringe and pulling on the other syringe for injecting new reagent and withdrawing used reagent from an associated sensor.

  11. Analysis of large space structures assembly: Man/machine assembly analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Procedures for analyzing large space structures assembly via three primary modes: manual, remote and automated are outlined. Data bases on each of the assembly modes and a general data base on the shuttle capabilities to support structures assembly are presented. Task element times and structure assembly component costs are given to provide a basis for determining the comparative economics of assembly alternatives. The lessons learned from simulations of space structures assembly are detailed.

  12. Effects of Congruence in Title I Reading using PUSH-UPS, a Story Previewing Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golembesky, Brenda L.; Bean, Rita M.; Goldstein, Howard

    1997-01-01

    States PUSH-UPS was developed to align Title I lessons in a pullout setting with the developmental reading program. Analyzes effects of PUSH-UPS and no PUSH-UPS on decoding, vocabulary knowledge, and story recall with five grade 3 subjects. Finds that PUSH-UPS increased decoding ability in four of the five subjects; improved recall occurred for…

  13. Numerical investigation and recommendations for push-pull ventilation systems.

    PubMed

    Chern, Ming-Jyh; Ma, Chen-Hsuan

    2007-03-01

    This study presents numerical simulations of push-pull ventilation systems. A push-pull system is a device commonly used in capturing pollutants from large tanks used in industrial chemical processes. An air jet is blown from one side of a tank and collected by an exhaust hood on the opposite side of the tank. In this study, a finite volume model coupled with the standard k -epsilon turbulent model is employed to describe the flow structures and characteristics. Moreover, the turbulence mass transfer equation is adopted to show the concentration distribution above the open surface tank. All the flow fields can be classified according to four dominant modes, i.e., dispersion, transition, encapsulation, and strong suction. The push and pull flow velocities should be adjusted into encapsulation and strong suction modes to ensure all pollutants can be captured by the exhaust hood. Other geometric parameters such as the flange size, pull-channel size, offset distance, etc., also influence the flow characteristics. For a variety of lengths of tanks and pollutant evaporation velocities, the push and pull flow velocity must be matched to achieve optimal operation. Furthermore, the flange size and other parameters are determined to enhance the capture efficiency of the push-pull system. Recommendations for design guidelines are introduced in this study. PMID:17237024

  14. Redistribution of recent collision push and ridge push in Central Europe: insights from FEM modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosiński, M.; Beekman, F.; Bada, G.; Cloetingh, S.

    2006-11-01

    2-D elastic finite element models of the recent stress field of Central Europe are built to evaluate the loads exerted on the continental boundary and the magnitude of tectonic stresses within the continental part of the plate. The models comprise 24 tectonic blocks (their stiffness is either constant throughout the model or varies from block to block), 16 fault zones and 12 geologically significant boundary segments. We have obtained a relatively unique balance of external tectonic forces by (1) careful adjustment of calculated stress directions and regimes to complex pattern of stress from data and (2) by calibration with gravitational potential energy. A high level of compression (ca. 9 × 1012 N m-1) exerted to the short Ionian side of the Adriatic indenter is crucial for the stress-field pattern in Central Europe. The Adria microplate rotates due to eccentricity between the Africa push from the south and the Alpine buttress to the north. A free boundary of the Apennines does not contribute significantly to this motion. Kinematics of this indenter is controlled by friction on the Dinaric suture, which, in turn is decisive for strain-energy distribution between the Alpine and the Pannonian domains. The predicted pronounced extension in the Greece-Aegean segment (2.5 × 1012 N m-1) implies active pull transferred from the Hellenic subduction zone. This extension releases stress in the Balkan-Pannonian region and enables the eastward escape of tectonic blocks in front of advancing Adria. Significant changes of tectonic push trends are found along the Black Sea-Caucasus boundary segment and at the European passive margin from the North Sea to the Arctic Ocean. Differential stresses in Central Europe are estimated in the range of 10-60 MPa when averaged over the 30-80-km-thick mechanically heterogeneous lithosphere. The maximum stiffness contrast across the model is predicted to be of one order of magnitude. Apparent friction coefficients of fault zones differ

  15. Push pull partitioning tracer tests using radon-222 to quantify non-aqueous phase liquid contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, B. M.; Istok, J. D.; Semprini, L.

    2002-09-01

    Naturally occurring radon in groundwater can be used as an in situ partitioning tracer for locating and quantifying non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination in the subsurface. When combined with the single-well, push-pull test, this methodology has the potential to provide a low-cost alternative to inter-well partitioning tracer tests. During a push-pull test, a known volume of test solution (radon-free water containing a conservative tracer) is first injected ("pushed") into a well; flow is then reversed and the test solution/groundwater mixture is extracted ("pulled") from the same well. In the presence of NAPL radon transport is retarded relative to the conservative tracer. Assuming linear equilibrium partitioning, retardation factors for radon can be used to estimate NAPL saturations. The utility of this methodology was evaluated in laboratory and field settings. Laboratory push-pull tests were conducted in both non-contaminated and trichloroethene NAPL (TCE)-contaminated sediment. The methodology was then applied in wells located in non-contaminated and light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL)-contaminated portions of an aquifer at a former petroleum refinery. The method of temporal moments and an approximate analytical solution to the governing transport equations were used to interpret breakthrough curves and estimate radon retardation factors; estimated retardation factors were then used to calculate TCE saturations. Numerical simulations were used to further investigate the behavior of the breakthrough curves. The laboratory and field push-pull tests demonstrated that radon retardation does occur in the presence of TCE and LNAPL and that radon retardation can be used to calculate TCE saturations. Laboratory injection-phase test results in TCE-contaminated sediment yielded radon retardation factors ranging from 1.1 to 1.5, resulting in calculated TCE saturations ranging from 0.2 to 0.9%. Laboratory extraction-phase test results in the same sediment

  16. Genome Sequence Databases (Overview): Sequencing and Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidus, Alla L.

    2009-01-01

    From the date its role in heredity was discovered, DNA has been generating interest among scientists from different fields of knowledge: physicists have studied the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule, biologists tried to decode the secrets of life hidden within these long molecules, and technologists invent and improve methods of DNA analysis. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA occupies a special place among the methods developed. Thanks to the variety of sequencing technologies available, the process of decoding the sequence of genomic DNA (or whole genome sequencing) has become robust and inexpensive. Meanwhile the assembly of whole genome sequences remains a challenging task. In addition to the need to assemble millions of DNA fragments of different length (from 35 bp (Solexa) to 800 bp (Sanger)), great interest in analysis of microbial communities (metagenomes) of different complexities raises new problems and pushes some new requirements for sequence assembly tools to the forefront. The genome assembly process can be divided into two steps: draft assembly and assembly improvement (finishing). Despite the fact that automatically performed assembly (or draft assembly) is capable of covering up to 98% of the genome, in most cases, it still contains incorrectly assembled reads. The error rate of the consensus sequence produced at this stage is about 1/2000 bp. A finished genome represents the genome assembly of much higher accuracy (with no gaps or incorrectly assembled areas) and quality ({approx}1 error/10,000 bp), validated through a number of computer and laboratory experiments.

  17. Lowering the Age of Consent: Pushing Back against the Anti-Vaccine Movement.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Allison M

    2016-09-01

    This article examines the rise of the anti-vaccination movement, the proliferation of laws allowing parental exemptions to mandatory school vaccines, and the impact of the movement on immunization rates for all vaccines. It uses the ongoing debate about the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine as an example to highlight the ripple effect and consequences of the anti-vaccine movement despite robust evidence of the vaccine's safety and efficacy. The article scrutinizes how state legislatures ironically promote vaccination while simultaneously deferring to the opposition by promulgating broad opt-outs from mandatory vaccine laws. This article concludes by offering an alternative legislative approach to specifically combat the anti-vaccine movement's impact on HPV vaccination rates. Lowering the age of consent has not been widely attempted or proposed and provides an alternative statutory mechanism to push back against vaccine resistance. PMID:27587450

  18. The push-pull strategy for citrus psyllid control.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huaxue; Zeng, Jiwu; Zhong, Guangyan

    2015-07-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is the only natural vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus that causes citrus huanglongbing (HLB), a most destructive disease of citrus. Currently, no remedial therapy exists for the disease, and so effective control of ACP is very important in curbing the transmission of the disease. The push-pull strategy should be thoroughly explored as an approach to ACP management. This mini-review summarises the current progress towards more effective repellent and attractant chemicals through investigating known repellent and attractive plants. Interactions between ACP and its host plants are also addressed, with emphasis on the possible involvement of the host biochemicals in attracting the insect. Potential ways to increase the effectiveness of the pull-push strategy are briefly discussed. It is expected that the pull-push strategy will be gradually developed following more extensive research. PMID:25256398

  19. Programming strategies in the game of push-over

    SciTech Connect

    Le-ngoc, T.; Vroomen, L.C.

    1982-08-01

    Some heuristic techniques used in programming games, and particularly techniques applied to the game of push-over, are discussed. Push-over is a simple, two-person, strictly competitive game. By a strictly competitive (or zero-sum) game is meant one in which one player always wins and his opponent always loses, making cooperation never worthwhile. In push-over, one can develop what is known as a strategic-value function, which serves as a heuristic to optimise a player's response to a given situation. The choice of the strategic-value function, the characteristics of three different strategies and the details of the game's data and program structures are examined. 4 references.

  20. The Alternative Low Noise Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Elliott, David M.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Moore, Royce D.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2000-01-01

    A 106 bladed fan with a design takeoff tip speed of 1100 ft/sec was hypothesized as reducing perceived noise because of the shift of the blade passing harmonics to frequencies beyond the perceived noise rating range. A 22 in. model of this Alternative Low Noise Fan, ALNF, was tested in the NASA Glenn 9x 15 Wind Tunnel. 'Me fan was tested with a 7 vane long chord stator assembly and a 70 vane conventional stator assembly in both hard and acoustically treated configurations. In addition a partially treated 7 vane configuration was tested wherein the acoustic material between the 7 long chord stators was made inactive. The noise data from the 106 bladed fan with 7 long chord stators in a hard configuration was shown to be around 4 EPNdB quieter than a low tip speed Allison fan at takeoff and around 5 EPNdB quieter at approach. Although the tone noise behaved as hypothesized, the majority of this noise reduction was from reduced broadband noise related to the large number of rotor blades. This 106 bladed ALNF is a research fan designed to push the technology limits and as such is probably not a practical device with present materials technology. However, a low tip speed fan with around 50 blades would be a practical device and calculations indicate that it could be 2 to 3 EPNdB quieter at takeoff and 3 to 4 EPNdB quieter at approach than the Allison fan. 7 vane data compared with 70 vane data indicated that the tone noise was controlled by rotor wake-stator interaction but that the broadband noise is probably controlled by the interaction of the rotor with incoming flows. A possible multiple pure tone noise reduction technique for a fan/acoustic treatment system was identified. The data from the fully treated configuration showed significant noise reductions over a large frequency range thereby providing a real tribute to this bulk absorber treatment design. The tone noise data with the partially treated 7 vane configuration indicated that acoustic material in the

  1. Biomechanical study of the final push-pull in archery.

    PubMed

    Leroyer, P; Van Hoecke, J; Helal, J N

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse archery performance among eight archers of different abilities by means of displacement pull-hand measurements during the final push-pull phase of the shoot. The archers showed an irregular displacement negatively related to their technical level. Displacement signal analysis showed high power levels in both the 0-5 Hz and 8-12 Hz ranges. The latter peak corresponds to electromyographic tremor observed during a prolonged push-pull effort. The results are discussed in relation to some potentially helpful training procedures such as biofeedback and strength conditioning. PMID:8450588

  2. IAHS General Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Helen J.

    The International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) General Assembly, held as part of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) Assembly, August 9-22, 1987, in Vancouver, Canada, had an estimated 500 attendees. At least 20 countries were represented by official delegates. Attendance from the United States is estimated at 120, with Helen J. Peters (California Department of Water Resources, Sacramento) as chief delegate and Marshall E. Moss (U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Reston, Va.) as alternate delegate and future chief delegate for the 1991 General Assembly.The Canadian Organizing Committee had done a masterful job of organizing the assembly, with excellent housing and meeting facilities on the University of British Columbia campus. In addition to five symposia and nine workshops, the IAHS Bureau and all commissions and the committees held several meetings. Some excellent social events and tours were included.

  3. The use of antibodies to the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) to analyze the protein components that assemble on alternatively spliced pre-mRNAs that use distant branch points.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, J S; Meyer, M I; Wang, Y C; Mulligan, G J; Kobayashi, R; Helfman, D M

    1998-01-01

    We are using the rat beta-tropomyosin (beta-TM) gene as a model system to study the mechanism of alternative splicing. Previous studies demonstrated that the use of the muscle-specific exon is associated with the use of distant branch points located 147-153 nt upstream of the 3' splice site. In addition, at least one protein, the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), specifically interacts with critical cis-acting sequences upstream of exon 7 that are involved in blocking the use of this alternative exon in nonmuscle cells. In order to further study the role of PTB, monoclonal antibodies to PTB were prepared. Anti-PTB antibodies did not inhibit the binding of PTB to RNA because they were able to supershift RNA-PTB complexes. To determine if additional proteins interact with sequences within the pre-mRNA, 35S-met-labeled nuclear extracts from HeLa cells were mixed with RNAs and the RNA-protein complexes were recovered by immunoprecipitation using antibodies to PTB. When RNAs containing intron 6 were added to an 35S-met-labeled nuclear extract, precipitation with PTB antibodies showed a novel set of proteins. By contrast, addition of RNAs containing introns 5 or 7 gave the same results as no RNA, indicating that these RNAs are unable to form stable complexes with PTB. These results are in agreement with our previous studies demonstrating that PTB interacts with sequences within intron 6, but not with sequences within introns 5 and 7. When 35S-met-labeled HeLa nuclear extracts were mixed with biotinylated RNA containing intron 6 and the RNA-protein complexes were recovered using streptavidin-agarose beads, an identical pattern of proteins was observed when compared with the immunoprecipitation assay. Analysis of the proteins that assembled on introns 5, 6, or 7 using biotinylated RNA revealed a unique set of proteins that interact with each of these sequences. The composition of proteins interacting with sequences associated with the use of the 3' splice site of

  4. Influence of push element geometry on the capture efficiency of push-pull ventilation systems in surface treatment tanks.

    PubMed

    Marzal, F; Gonzalez, E; Minana, A; Baeza, A

    2002-06-01

    A full-scale installation which simulates a surface treatment tank provided with a push-pull ventilation system has been designed. This study examines the influence of the geometry of the push element on the capture efficiency of the system. It is observed that: (i) capture efficiency increases with the number of holes because of the continuous curtain formed, the size of the holes having no significant effect within the range studied (5-20 mm diameter); (ii) the push element is best supported on the tank wall so that no air from outside penetrates below the emitting jets because in this way the impact of the curtain on the tank occurs earlier and losses are less; (iii) the best results are obtained when the holes are directed downwards towards the tank surface at an angle of between 22 and 45 degrees. PMID:12176707

  5. Pattern formation in the wake of triggered pushed fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goh, Ryan; Scheel, Arnd

    2016-08-01

    Pattern-forming fronts are often controlled by an external stimulus which progresses through a stable medium at a fixed speed, rendering it unstable in its wake. By controlling the speed of excitation, such stimuli, or ‘triggers’, can mediate pattern forming fronts which freely invade an unstable equilibrium and control which pattern is selected. In this work, we analytically and numerically study when the trigger perturbs an oscillatory pushed free front. In such a situation, the resulting patterned front, which we call a pushed trigger front, exhibits a variety of phenomenon, including snaking, non-monotonic wave-number selection, and hysteresis. Assuming the existence of a generic oscillatory pushed free front, we use heteroclinic bifurcation techniques to prove the existence of trigger fronts in an abstract setting motivated by the spatial dynamics approach. We then derive a leading order expansion for the selected wave-number in terms of the trigger speed. Furthermore, we show that such a bifurcation curve is governed by the difference of certain strong-stable and weakly-stable spatial eigenvalues associated with the decay of the free pushed front. We also study prototypical examples of these phenomena in the cubic-quintic complex Ginzburg Landau equation and a modified Cahn–Hilliard equation.

  6. States Slow Standards Work amid "Common Core" Push

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    As they wait to see how the latest push for common national standards plays out, some states are putting off or slowing the revision of their own academic standards to avoid wasted effort and spending. At least four states--Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, and Pennsylvania--have halted revision of their standards for mathematics or English/language…

  7. NASA Green Propulsion Technologies Pushing Aviation to New Heights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.; Jennings, Francis T.; Adanich, Emery; Del Rosario, Ruben; Felder, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Center Director Free is providing the Keynote at the Disruptive Propulsion Conference, sponsored by Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire, England in November. Director Free will be presenting a PowerPoint presentation titled, NASA Green Propulsion Technologies Pushing Aviation to New Heights at both the conference and a meeting at the Royal Aeronautical Society.

  8. 33 CFR 83.24 - Towing and pushing (Rule 24).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... line above the sternlight; and (5) When the length of the tow exceeds 200 meters, a diamond shape where... exceeds 200 meters, a diamond shape where it can best be seen. (f) Vessels being towed alongside or pushed... alongside each other shall be lighted as one vessel or object; (4) A diamond shape at or near the...

  9. 33 CFR 83.24 - Towing and pushing (Rule 24).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... line above the sternlight; and (5) When the length of the tow exceeds 200 meters, a diamond shape where... exceeds 200 meters, a diamond shape where it can best be seen. (f) Vessels being towed alongside or pushed... alongside each other shall be lighted as one vessel or object; (4) A diamond shape at or near the...

  10. 33 CFR 83.24 - Towing and pushing (Rule 24).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... line above the sternlight; and (5) When the length of the tow exceeds 200 meters, a diamond shape where... exceeds 200 meters, a diamond shape where it can best be seen. (f) Vessels being towed alongside or pushed... alongside each other shall be lighted as one vessel or object; (4) A diamond shape at or near the...

  11. PNNL pushing scientific discovery through data intensive computing breakthroughs

    ScienceCinema

    Deborah Gracio; David Koppenaal; Ruby Leung

    2012-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratorys approach to data intensive computing (DIC) is focused on three key research areas: hybrid hardware architectures, software architectures, and analytic algorithms. Advancements in these areas will help to address, and solve, DIC issues associated with capturing, managing, analyzing and understanding, in near real time, data at volumes and rates that push the frontiers of current technologies.

  12. Push-pull strategies against insect pests of vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conduct research on use of a combination of appropriate companion crops (i.e., “push-pull” intercropping) with natural enemy refuges to enhance the effectiveness of biological control agents in suppressing populations of the invasive whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. We continue to identify plants or p...

  13. NSF Anticipates Pushing Boundaries on Open-Access Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF), in carrying out the Obama administration's new push for greater public access to research published in scientific journals, will consider exclusivity periods shorter than the 12-month standard in the White House directive, as well as trade-offs involving data-sharing and considerations of publishers'…

  14. Preemptive queueing system with randomized push-out mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muliukha, Vladimir; Ilyashenko, Alexander; Zayats, Oleg; Zaborovsky, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    In this article considered a queueing theory model with limited buffer size, one service channel, and two incoming flows. In this model one of the flows has a power to preempt other tasks. We call it a high-priority flow. Another one is low-priority. This priority mechanism is realized in a two different ways. The first one is a preemptive priority, which allows high-priority packets to interrupt low-priority packets in service channel and push them out. The second one is a randomized push-out mechanism with probability α, which allows us to choose what type of packets should be pushed out of the system when it is full. In this article we provide an algorithm for computing statistical characteristics of the model for all values of push-out probability α. We have used generating functions method to simplify the system of linear equations. This method allows us to reduce the order of linear equations system from k(k + 1)/2 to (k + 1). As the result we have got two effects in this model. The first one is a linear behavior of loss probabilities in the model with low overload. The second one is a "closing" of a system for low-priority packets with high overload.

  15. Push-pull” strategies against vegetable insect pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies and aphids are important insect pests in vegetable crops. To mitigate the use of chemical insecticides, “push-pull “strategies can be used as components of sustainable or cultural pest management. Dr. Jesusa C. Legaspi (USDA-ARS) and collaborators conducted field studies using mustard pla...

  16. A first principles DFT study of UV-visible absorbing low band gap push-pull polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Kalpna; Kishor, Shyam; Singh, Kh. S.; Ramaniah, Lavanya M.

    2016-05-01

    Low band gap (below 2 eV) semiconducting π-conjugated polymers made up of alternate donor and acceptor moieties having push-pull feature are promising materials for organic solar cells due to strong absorption of the solar spectrum. In this work, the band gap of a polysilole based push-pull polymer has been estimated by the application of periodic boundary condition (PBC) using density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP functional and the 6-311G(d,p) basis set. The estimated band gap is found to be below 2 eV. The absorption spectra of the polymer obtained using time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) covers a wide range of wavelength.

  17. Fast Singlet Exciton Decay in Push-Pull Molecules Containing Oxidized Thiophenes.

    PubMed

    Busby, Erik; Xia, Jianlong; Low, Jonathan Z; Wu, Qin; Hoy, Jessica; Campos, Luis M; Sfeir, Matthew Y

    2015-06-18

    A common synthetic strategy used to design low-bandgap organic semiconductors employs the use of "push-pull" building blocks, where electron -rich and electron-deficient monomers are alternated along the π-conjugated backbone of a molecule or polymer. Incorporating strong "pull" units with high electron affinity is a means to further decrease the optical gap for infrared optoelectronics or to develop n-type semiconducting materials. Here we show that the use of thiophene-1,1-dioxide as a strong acceptor in "push-pull" oligomers affects the electronic structure and carrier dynamics in unexpected ways. Critically, the overall excited-state lifetime is reduced by several orders of magnitude relative to unoxidized analogs due to the introduction of low-energy optically dark states and low-energy triplet states that allow for fast internal conversion and intramolecular singlet fission. We found that the electronic structure and excited-state lifetime are strongly dependent on the number of sequential thiophene-1,1-dioxide units. These results suggest that both the static and dynamical optical properties are highly tunable via small changes in chemical structure that have drastic effects on the optoelectronic properties, which can impact the types of applications that involve these materials. PMID:25654490

  18. Eave Screening and Push-Pull Tactics to Reduce House Entry by Vectors of Malaria.

    PubMed

    Menger, David J; Omusula, Philemon; Wouters, Karlijn; Oketch, Charles; Carreira, Ana S; Durka, Maxime; Derycke, Jean-Luc; Loy, Dorothy E; Hahn, Beatrice H; Mukabana, Wolfgang R; Mweresa, Collins K; van Loon, Joop J A; Takken, Willem; Hiscox, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying have contributed to a decline in malaria over the last decade, but progress is threatened by the development of physiological and behavioral resistance of mosquitoes against insecticides. Acknowledging the need for alternative vector control tools, we quantified the effects of eave screening in combination with a push-pull system based on the simultaneous use of a repellent (push) and attractant-baited traps (pull). Field experiments in western Kenya showed that eave screening, whether used in combination with an attractant-baited trap or not, was highly effective in reducing house entry by malaria mosquitoes. The magnitude of the effect varied for different mosquito species and between two experiments, but the reduction in house entry was always considerable (between 61% and 99%). The use of outdoor, attractant-baited traps alone did not have a significant impact on mosquito house entry but the high number of mosquitoes trapped outdoors indicates that attractant-baited traps could be used for removal trapping, which would enhance outdoor as well as indoor protection against mosquito bites. As eave screening was effective by itself, addition of a repellent was of limited value. Nevertheless, repellents may play a role in reducing outdoor malaria transmission in the peridomestic area. PMID:26834195

  19. Multivalent Protein Assembly Using Monovalent Self-Assembling Building Blocks

    PubMed Central

    Petkau-Milroy, Katja; Sonntag, Michael H.; Colditz, Alexander; Brunsveld, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Discotic molecules, which self-assemble in water into columnar supramolecular polymers, emerged as an alternative platform for the organization of proteins. Here, a monovalent discotic decorated with one single biotin was synthesized to study the self-assembling multivalency of this system in regard to streptavidin. Next to tetravalent streptavidin, monovalent streptavidin was used to study the protein assembly along the supramolecular polymer in detail without the interference of cross-linking. Upon self-assembly of the monovalent biotinylated discotics, multivalent proteins can be assembled along the supramolecular polymer. The concentration of discotics, which influences the length of the final polymers at the same time dictates the amount of assembled proteins. PMID:24152447

  20. Joint assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Andrew (Inventor); Punnoose, Andrew (Inventor); Strausser, Katherine (Inventor); Parikh, Neil (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A joint assembly is provided which includes a drive assembly and a swivel mechanism. The drive assembly features a motor operatively associated with a plurality of drive shafts for driving auxiliary elements, and a plurality of swivel shafts for pivoting the drive assembly. The swivel mechanism engages the swivel shafts and has a fixable element that may be attached to a foundation. The swivel mechanism is adapted to cooperate with the swivel shafts to pivot the drive assembly with at least two degrees of freedom relative to the foundation. The joint assembly allows for all components to remain encased in a tight, compact, and sealed package, making it ideal for space, exploratory, and commercial applications.

  1. The role of the "chaser" in "push-pull" tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebig, Klaus; Zeilfelder, Sarah; Ito, Narimitsu; Machida, Isao; Scheytt, Traugott; Marui, Atsunao

    2013-04-01

    So-called "push-pull" tests are a suitable tracer test method to obtain information about chemical and hydraulic properties of an aquifer in a single-well setting. In literature, their application was frequently reported to investigate various research objectives. In a push-pull test a known amount of different solutes - including a conservative tracer - is injected into the aquifer ("push") and afterwards extracted ("pull"). The measured breakthrough curves during the pumping back phase can then be analysed. In most published papers a so-called "chaser" was injected directly after the injection of the test solution. Generally, the chaser is not spiked with any tracer or additional solute. Its aim is to push the test solution out of the borehole or groundwater monitoring well and into the aquifer to minimize the influence of the infrastructure (tubes, pipes, and gravel pack) on the shape of the tracer breakthrough curve. However, the role of the chaser on the shape of the acquired tracer breakthrough curves during the pull-phase is unknown. Also the determination of the right volume for the chaser is a difficult task. The volume should be enough to fill the whole well and gravel pack volume, but should not reach the aquifer. In most cases the exact effective porosity of the gravel pack and accordingly its volume is unknown and therefore has to be estimated. In our project, push-pull tests are investigated for their applicability as single-well tracer test method. One target is its method development and standardization. Therefore, also the role of the chaser was investigated by conducting six individual tests, each with different injection volume. By testing different chaser volumes, conclusions can be drawn about the optimal volume for the later field test campaigns. Furthermore, it seems to be possible to draw conclusions about the quality of the gravel pack and about potential dead volumes within the flow system. It was shown that a chaser test campaign prior to

  2. Revisiting the Ridge-Push Force Using the Lithospheric Geoid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, R. M.; Coblentz, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    The geoid anomaly and driving force associated with the cooling oceanic lithosphere ("ridge push") are both proportional to dipole moment of the density-depth distribution, and allow a reevaluation of the ridge push force using the geoid. The challenge with this approach is to isolate the "lithospheric geoid" from the full geoid signal. Our approach is to use a band-pass spherical harmonic filter on the full geoid (e.g., EGM2008-WGS84, complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 2159) between orders 6 and 80. However, even this "lithospheric geoid" is noisy, and thus we average over 100 profiles evenly spaced along the global ridge system to obtain an average geoid step associated with the mid-ocean ridges. Because the positive ridge geoid signal is largest near the ridge (and to capture fast-spreading ridges), we evaluate symmetrical profiles extending ±45 m.y. about the ridge. We find an average ridge geoid anomaly of 4.5m, which is equivalent to a 10m anomaly for 100 m.y. old oceanic lithosphere. This geoid step corresponds to a ridge push force of ~2.4 x1012N/m for old oceanic lithosphere of 100 m.y., very similar to earlier estimates of ~2.5 x1012N/m based on simple half-space models. This simple half-space model also predicts constant geoid slopes of about 0.15 m/m.y. for cooling oceanic lithosphere. Our observed geoid slopes are consistent with this value for ages up to 40-50 m.y., but drop off to lower values at greater ages. We model this using a plate cooling model (with a thickness of the order of 125km) to fit the observation that the geoid anomaly and ridge driving force only increase slowly for ages greater than 40 m.y. (in contrast to the half-space model where the linear dependence on age holds for all ages). This reduction of the geoid slope results in a 20% decrease in the predicted ridge push force. This decrease is due to the combined effects of treating the oceanic lithosphere as a cooling plate (vs. a half-space), and the loss of geoidal

  3. Factors affecting minimum push and pull forces of manual carts.

    PubMed

    Al-Eisawi, K W; Kerk, C J; Congleton, J J; Amendola, A A; Jenkins, O C; Gaines, W

    1999-06-01

    The minimum forces needed to manually push or pull a 4-wheel cart of differing weights with similar wheel sizes from a stationary state were measured on four floor materials under different conditions of wheel width, diameter, and orientation. Cart load was increased from 0 to 181.4 kg in increments of 36.3 kg. The floor materials were smooth concrete, tile, asphalt, and industrial carpet. Two wheel widths were tested: 25 and 38 mm. Wheel diameters were 51, 102, and 153 mm. Wheel orientation was tested at four levels: F0R0 (all four wheels aligned in the forward direction), F0R90 (the two front wheels, the wheels furthest from the cart handle, aligned in the forward direction and the two rear wheels, the wheels closest to the cart handle, aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction), F90R0 (the two front wheels aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction and the two rear wheels aligned in the forward direction), and F90R90 (all four wheels aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction). Wheel width did not have a significant effect on the minimum push/pull forces. The minimum push/pull forces were linearly proportional to cart weight, and inversely proportional to wheel diameter. The coefficients of rolling friction were estimated as 2.2, 2.4, 3.3, and 4.5 mm for hard rubber wheels rolling on smooth concrete, tile, asphalt, and industrial carpet floors, respectively. The effect of wheel orientation was not consistent over the tested conditions, but, in general, the smallest minimum push/pull forces were measured with all four wheels aligned in the forward direction, whereas the largest minimum push/pull forces were measured when all four wheels were aligned at 90 degrees to the forward direction. There was no significant difference between the push and pull forces when all four wheels were aligned in the forward direction. PMID:10327087

  4. A Two-Magnet System to Push Therapeutic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Benjamin; Dormer, Kenneth; Rutel, Isaac B.

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic fields can be used to direct magnetically susceptible nanoparticles to disease locations: to infections, blood clots, or tumors. Any single magnet always attracts (pulls) ferro- or para-magnetic particles towards it. External magnets have been used to pull therapeutics into tumors near the skin in animals and human clinical trials. Implanting magnetic materials into patients (a feasible approach in some cases) has been envisioned as a means of reaching deeper targets. Yet there are a number of clinical needs, ranging from treatments of the inner ear, to antibiotic-resistant skin infections and cardiac arrhythmias, which would benefit from an ability to magnetically "inject", or push in, nanomedicines. We develop, analyze, and experimentally demonstrate a novel, simple, and effective arrangement of just two permanent magnets that can magnetically push particles. Such a system might treat diseases of the inner ear; diseases which intravenously injected or orally administered treatments cannot reach due to the blood-brain barrier.

  5. A Two-Magnet System to Push Therapeutic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Benjamin; Dormer, Kenneth; Rutel, Isaac B.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic fields can be used to direct magnetically susceptible nanoparticles to disease locations: to infections, blood clots, or tumors. Any single magnet always attracts (pulls) ferro- or para-magnetic particles towards it. External magnets have been used to pull therapeutics into tumors near the skin in animals and human clinical trials. Implanting magnetic materials into patients (a feasible approach in some cases) has been envisioned as a means of reaching deeper targets. Yet there are a number of clinical needs, ranging from treatments of the inner ear, to antibiotic-resistant skin infections and cardiac arrhythmias, which would benefit from an ability to magnetically “inject”, or push in, nanomedicines. We develop, analyze, and experimentally demonstrate a novel, simple, and effective arrangement of just two permanent magnets that can magnetically push particles. Such a system might treat diseases of the inner ear; diseases which intravenously injected or orally administered treatments cannot reach due to the blood-brain barrier. PMID:21243119

  6. Phyllotaxis, Pushed Pattern-Forming Fronts, and Optimal Packing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennybacker, Matthew; Newell, Alan C.

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate that the pattern forming partial differential equation derived from the auxin distribution model proposed by Meyerowitz, Traas, and others gives rise to all spiral phyllotaxis properties observed on plants. We show how the advancing pushed pattern front chooses spiral families enumerated by Fibonacci sequences with all attendant self-similar properties, a new amplitude invariant curve, and connect the results with the optimal packing based algorithms previously used to explain phyllotaxis. Our results allow us to make experimentally testable predictions.

  7. Fiber-optic push-pull sensor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, David L.; Brown, David A.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1991-01-01

    Fiber-optic push-pull sensors are those which exploit the intrinsically differential nature of an interferometer with concommitant benefits in common-mode rejection of undesired effects. Several fiber-optic accelerometer and hydrophone designs are described. Additionally, the recent development at the Naval Postgraduate School of a passive low-cost interferometric signal demodulator permits the development of economical fiber-optic sensor systems.

  8. China's Push for Energy Raises Regional Security Concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-09-01

    China's increasing demand for energy is leading to a push to further exploit its own energy resources deposits, a leveraging of its growth market for favorable energy pricing, and conflicts with neighboring countries. Energy experts discussed China's efforts to bolster its energy resources, during a 17 September forum on energy and security issues in China and the Asia Pacific at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, D. C.

  9. Alternative security

    SciTech Connect

    Weston, B.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: The Military and Alternative Security: New Missions for Stable Conventional Security; Technology and Alternative Security: A Cherished Myth Expires; Law and Alternative Security: Toward a Just World Peace; Politics and Alternative Security: Toward a More Democratic, Therefore More Peaceful, World; Economics and Alternative Security: Toward a Peacekeeping International Economy; Psychology and Alternative Security: Needs, Perceptions, and Misperceptions; Religion and Alternative Security: A Prophetic Vision; and Toward Post-Nuclear Global Security: An Overview.

  10. An Extra Push from Entrance-Channel Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Grar, Nabila; Rowley, Neil

    2006-08-14

    The fusion probability for heavy symmetric systems is known to show certain very specific features. Apart from the large variance of the fusion barrier distribution, it is found that the energy at which the s-wave transmission is 0.5 is shifted to an energy significantly higher than the nominal (e.g. Bass) Coulomb barrier. This last feature is referred to in the literature as the 'extra push' effect. Many models have been devised to explain the origin of these findings. It is worth noting, however, that despite the extra push, the capture cross section is still greatly enhanced at the very lowest energies. This fact cannot be explained within the framework of macroscopic theories involving conditional saddle points or frictional forces. We have performed full coupled-channel calculations for heavy, symmetric systems treating correctly the long-range Coulomb excitations of the collective quadrupole- and octupole-phonon states in the target and projectile. The results obtained show that the extra push and the overall shape of the fusion probability are simply explained by these entrance-channel effects.

  11. Asymmetry between pushing and pulling for crawling cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recho, Pierre; Truskinovsky, Lev

    2013-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells possess motility mechanisms allowing them not only to self-propel but also to exert forces on obstacles (to push) and to carry cargoes (to pull). To study the inherent asymmetry between active pushing and pulling we model a crawling acto-myosin cell extract as a one-dimensional layer of active gel subjected to external forces. We show that pushing is controlled by protrusion and that the macroscopic signature of the protrusion dominated motility mechanism is concavity of the force-velocity relation. In contrast, pulling is driven by protrusion only at small values of the pulling force and it is replaced by contraction when the pulling force is sufficiently large. This leads to more complex convex-concave structure of the force-velocity relation; in particular, competition between protrusion and contraction can produce negative mobility in a biologically relevant range. The model illustrates active readjustment of the force generating machinery in response to changes in the dipole structure of external forces. The possibility of switching between complementary active mechanisms implies that if necessary “pushers” can replace “pullers” and vice versa.

  12. Large First Hyperpolarizabilities in Push-Pull Polyenes by Tuning Bond Length Alternation and Aromaticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marder, S. R.; Tiemann, B. G.; Friedli, A. C.; Cheng, L. -T.; Blanchard-Desce, M.

    1993-01-01

    Conjugated organic compounds with 3-phenyl-5-isoxazolone, or N, N'-diethylthiobarbituric acid acceptors have large first molecular hyperpolarizabilities in comparison to compounds with 4-nitrophenyl acceptors as measured by electric feld induced second harmonic generation, (EFISH), in chloroform, with 1.907 micron fundamental radiation.

  13. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  14. Psychophysical basis for maximum pushing and pulling forces: A review and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Arun; Waters, Thomas; Kapellusch, Jay; Karwowski, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to perform a comprehensive review of psychophysically determined maximum acceptable pushing and pulling forces. Factors affecting pushing and pulling forces are identified and discussed. Recent studies show a significant decrease (compared to previous studies) in maximum acceptable forces for males but not for females when pushing and pulling on a treadmill. A comparison of pushing and pulling forces measured using a high inertia cart with those measured on a treadmill shows that the pushing and pulling forces using high inertia cart are higher for males but are about the same for females. It is concluded that the recommendations of Snook and Ciriello (1991) for pushing and pulling forces are still valid and provide reasonable recommendations for ergonomics practitioners. Regression equations as a function of handle height, frequency of exertion and pushing/pulling distance are provided to estimate maximum initial and sustained forces for pushing and pulling acceptable to 75% male and female workers. At present it is not clear whether pushing or pulling should be favored. Similarly, it is not clear what handle heights would be optimal for pushing and pulling. Epidemiological studies are needed to determine relationships between psychophysically determined maximum acceptable pushing and pulling forces and risk of musculoskeletal injuries, in particular to low back and shoulders. PMID:26664045

  15. Dynamic push-pull characteristics at three hand-reach envelopes: applications for the workplace.

    PubMed

    Calé-Benzoor, Maya; Dickstein, Ruth; Arnon, Michal; Ayalon, Moshe

    2016-01-01

    Pushing and pulling are common tasks in the workplace. Overexertion injuries related to manual pushing and pulling are often observed, and therefore the understanding of work capacity is important for efficient and safe workstation design. The purpose of the present study was to describe workloads obtained during different reach envelopes during a seated push-pull task. Forty-five women performed an isokinetic push-pull sequence at two velocities. Strength, work and agonist/antagonist muscle ratio were calculated for the full range of motion (ROM). We then divided the ROM into three reach envelopes - neutral, medium, and maximum reach. The work capacity for each direction was determined and the reach envelope work data were compared. Push capability was best at medium reach envelope and pulling was best at maximum reach envelope. Push/pull strength ratio was approximately 1. A recommendation was made to avoid strenuous push-pull tasks at neutral reach envelopes. PMID:26360213

  16. Crew Assembly

    NASA Video Gallery

    Train to improve your dexterity and hand-eye coordination by assembling a puzzle.The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of exploration to challenge students to set goals, practice ...

  17. Seal assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Roger Neal; Longfritz, William David

    2001-01-01

    A seal assembly that seals a gap formed by a groove comprises a seal body, a biasing element, and a connection that connects the seal body to the biasing element to form the seal assembly. The seal assembly further comprises a concave-shaped center section and convex-shaped contact portions at each end of the seal body. The biasing element is formed from an elastic material and comprises a convex-shaped center section and concave-shaped biasing zones that are opposed to the convex-shaped contact portions. The biasing element is adapted to be compressed to change a width of the seal assembly from a first width to a second width that is smaller than the first width. In the compressed state, the seal assembly can be disposed in the groove. After release of the compressing force, the seal assembly expands. The contact portions will move toward a surface of the groove and the biasing zones will move into contact with another surface of the groove. The biasing zones will bias the contact portions of the seal body against the surface of the groove.

  18. Method and apparatus for assembling permanent magnet rotors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, John S.; Adams, Donald J.

    1999-01-01

    A permanent magnet assembly (22) for assembly in large permanent magnet (PM) motors and generators includes a two-piece carrier (23, 24) that can be slid into a slot (13) in the rotor (10) and then secured in place using a set screw (37). The invention also provides an auxiliary carrier device (50) with guide rails (51) that line up with the teeth (12) of the rotor, so that a permanent magnet assembly (22) can be pushed first into a slot (13), and then down the slot (13) to its proper location. An auxiliary tool (50) is provided to move the permanent magnet assembly (22) into position in the slot (13) before it is secured in place. Methods of assembling and disassembling the magnet assemblies (22) in the rotor (10) are also disclosed.

  19. Method and apparatus for assembling permanent magnet rotors

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, J.S.; Adams, D.J.

    1999-06-22

    A permanent magnet assembly for assembly in large permanent magnet motors and generators includes a two-piece carrier that can be slid into a slot in the rotor and then secured in place using a set screw. The invention also provides an auxiliary carrier device with guide rails that line up with the teeth of the rotor, so that a permanent magnet assembly can be pushed first into a slot, and then down the slot to its proper location. An auxiliary tool is provided to move the permanent magnet assembly into position in the slot before it is secured in place. Methods of assembling and disassembling the magnet assemblies in the rotor are also disclosed. 2 figs.

  20. Push-pull enamines in the synthesis of fused azaheterocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dar'in, D. V.; Lobanov, P. S.

    2015-06-01

    The review summarizes published data on the methods of the synthesis of fused nitrogen-containing heterocycles via push-pull enamines (mainly enaminones). Both intermolecular (cyclocondensations) and intramolecular (cyclizations) transformations of enamines, in which both nucleophilic centres of enamine (carbon and nitrogen) are incorporated into the resulting heterocycle, are considered. The data on the reactivity of enamines cover a broad range of facile methods for the preparation of diverse fused pyridines (quinolines, isoquinolines, pyridopyridines, etc.) and pyrroles (indoles, tetrahydrocarbazoles, pyrrolopyridines, etc.). The bibliography includes 191 references.

  1. Phyllotaxis, pushed pattern-forming fronts, and optimal packing.

    PubMed

    Pennybacker, Matthew; Newell, Alan C

    2013-06-14

    We demonstrate that the pattern forming partial differential equation derived from the auxin distribution model proposed by Meyerowitz, Traas, and others gives rise to all spiral phyllotaxis properties observed on plants. We show how the advancing pushed pattern front chooses spiral families enumerated by Fibonacci sequences with all attendant self-similar properties, a new amplitude invariant curve, and connect the results with the optimal packing based algorithms previously used to explain phyllotaxis. Our results allow us to make experimentally testable predictions. PMID:25165965

  2. A high-sensitivity push-pull magnetometer

    SciTech Connect

    Breschi, E.; Grujić, Z. D.; Knowles, P.; Weis, A.

    2014-01-13

    We describe our approach to atomic magnetometry based on the push-pull optical pumping technique. Cesium vapor is pumped and probed by a resonant laser beam whose circular polarization is modulated synchronously with the spin evolution dynamics induced by a static magnetic field. The magnetometer is operated in a phase-locked loop, and it has an intrinsic sensitivity below 20fT/√(Hz), using a room temperature paraffin-coated cell. We use the magnetometer to monitor magnetic field fluctuations with a sensitivity of 300fT/√(Hz)

  3. Stress fracture of ulna due to excessive push-ups

    PubMed Central

    Meena, Sanjay; Rastogi, Devarshi; Solanki, Bipin; Chowdhury, Buddhadev

    2014-01-01

    Stress fractures are most common in the weight-bearing bones of the lower extremities and spine, but are rarely found in non-weight-bearing bones of the body. Stress fracture of the ulna is extremely rare. We report a case of complete stress fracture of ulna caused due to excessive push ups in a young athlete. Conservative management was successful in healing of fracture and returning this patient back to his previous activity level. Physician should have high index of suspicion, whenever they encounter a young athlete complaining of forearm pain. PMID:24678236

  4. [Ergonomic evaluation of assembly line of tractors].

    PubMed

    Dellera, L; Buratti, G

    2012-01-01

    In the assembly lines in the engineering sector, ever more guided by the theories of lean production, is increasingly important ergonomic factor working conditions to preserve the health of workers and ensuring the performance. This analysis has focused on the study of biomechanical and postural stress of work tasks of an assembly line of the tractor, characterized by different weights and volumes from that of the car. Comparison with the technical standard of EN 1005-4 has allowed the identification as the machining assembly of small components result in conditions of acceptability, while most of the other processes aren't reliable. The emergence of these problems pushed to find several ergonomic solutions including the development of a special reclining seat to enable a proper posture during the working. PMID:23405593

  5. Directed self-assembly process integration: Fin patterning approaches and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayan, Safak; Chan, B. T.; Gronheid, Roel; Van Roey, Frieda; Kim, Min-Soo; Williamson, Lance; Nealey, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Resolution requirements for photolithography have reached beyond the wavelength of light. Consequently, it is becoming increasingly complicated and expensive to further minimize feature dimensions as required to push the limits of Moore's law. EUV lithography has been the much anticipated solution; however, its insertion timing for High Volume Manufacturing is still an uncertainty due to source power and EUV mask infrastructure limitations. Extending the limits of 193nm immersion lithography requires pitch division using either Double Patterning Pitch Division (DPPD), and/or Spacer Based Pitch Division (SBPD) schemes (e.g. Hard mask image transfer methods (Double, Triple, Quadruple)). While these approaches reduce pitch, there is an associated risk/compromise of process complexity, and overlay accuracy budget issues. Directed Self Assembly (DSA) processes offer the promise of providing alternative ways to extend optical lithography cost-effectively for sub-10nm nodes and present itself as an alternative pitch division approach. As a result, DSA has gained increased momentum in recent years, as a means for extending optical lithography past its current limits. The availability of a DSA processing line can enable to further push the limits of 193nm immersion lithography and overcome some of the critical concerns for EUV lithography. Robust etch transfer of DSA patterns into commonly used device integration materials such as silicon, silicon nitride, and silicon dioxide had been previously demonstrated [1,2]. However DSA integration to CMOS process flows, including cut/keep structures to form fin arrays, is yet to be demonstrated on relevant film stacks (front-end-of-line device integration such as hard mask stacks, and STI stacks). Such a demonstration will confirm and reinforce its viability as a candidate for sub-10nm technology nodes.

  6. Characterizing hydraulic conductivity with the direct-push permeameter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, J.J., Jr.; Dietrich, P.; Wittig, V.; Christy, T.

    2007-01-01

    The direct-push permeameter (DPP) is a promising approach for obtaining high-resolution information about vertical variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) in shallow unconsolidated settings. This small-diameter tool, which consists of a short screened section with a pair of transducers inset in the tool near the screen, is pushed into the subsurface to a depth at which a K estimate is desired. A short hydraulic test is then performed by injecting water through the screen at a constant rate (less than 4 L/min) while pressure changes are monitored at the transducer locations. Hydraulic conductivity is calculated using the injection rate and the pressure changes in simple expressions based on Darcy's Law. In units of moderate or higher hydraulic conductivity (more than 1 m/d), testing at a single level can be completed within 10 to 15 min. Two major advantages of the method are its speed and the insensitivity of the K estimates to the zone of compaction created by tool advancement. The potential of the approach has been assessed at two extensively studied sites in the United States and Germany over a K range commonly faced in practical field investigations (0.02 to 500 m/d). The results of this assessment demonstrate that the DPP can provide high-resolution K estimates that are in good agreement with estimates obtained through other means. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  7. Probe assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Avera, C.J.

    1981-01-06

    A hand-held probe assembly, suitable for monitoring a radioactive fibrinogen tracer, is disclosed comprising a substantially cylindrically shaped probe handle having an open end. The probe handle is adapted to be interconnected with electrical circuitry for monitoring radioactivity that is sensed or detected by the probe assembly. Mounted within the probe handle is a probe body assembly that includes a cylindrically shaped probe body inserted through the open end of the probe handle. The probe body includes a photomultiplier tube that is electrically connected with a male connector positioned at the rearward end of the probe body. Mounted at the opposite end of the probe body is a probe head which supports an optical coupler therewithin. The probe head is interconnected with a probe cap which supports a detecting crystal. The probe body assembly, which consists of the probe body, the probe head, and the probe cap is supported within the probe handle by means of a pair of compressible o-rings which permit the probe assembly to be freely rotatable, preferably through 360*, within the probe handle and removable therefrom without requiring any disassembly.

  8. Effect of light-curing units on push-out fiber post bond strength in root canal dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calixto, L. R.; Bandéca, M. C.; Silva, F. B.; Rastelli, A. N. S.; Porto-Neto, S. T.; Andrade, M. F.

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different light-curing units on the bond strength (push-out) of glass fiber posts in the different thirds of the root (cervical, middle and apical) with different adhesive luting resin systems (dual-cure total-etch; dual-cured and self-etch bonding system; and dual-cure self-adhesive cements), Disks of the samples ( n = 144) were used, with approximately 1 mm of thickness of 48 bovine roots restored with glass fiber posts, that were luted with resin cements photo-activated by halogen LCU (QTH, Optilux 501) and blue LED (Ultraled), with power densities of 600 and 550 mW/cm2, respectively. A universal testing machine (MTS 810 Material Test System) was used with a 1 mm diameter steel rod at cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min until post extrusion, with load cell of 50 kg, for evaluation of the push-out strength in the different thirds of each sample. The push-out strength values in kgf were converted to MPa and analyzed through Analysis of Variance and Tukey’s test, at significance level of 5%. The results showed that there were no statistical differences between the QTH and LED LCUs. The self-adhesive resin cement had lower values of retention. The total-etch and self-adhesive system resin cements seem to be a possible alternative for glass fiber posts cementation into the radicular canal and the LED LCU can be applied as an alternative to halogen light on photo-activation of dual-cured resin cements.

  9. Hinge assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vandergriff, D.H.

    1999-08-31

    A hinge assembly is disclosed having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf. 8 figs.

  10. Hinge assembly

    DOEpatents

    Vandergriff, David Houston

    1999-01-01

    A hinge assembly having a first leaf, a second leaf and linking member. The first leaf has a contact surface. The second leaf has a first contact surface and a second contact surface. The linking member pivotally connects to the first leaf and to the second leaf. The hinge assembly is capable of moving from a closed position to an open position. In the closed position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the first contact surface of the second leaf. In the open position, the contact surface of the first leaf merges with the second contact surface of the second leaf. The hinge assembly can include a seal on the contact surface of the first leaf.

  11. Alternate Alternates: A Medley of Alternate Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdette, Paula J.; Olsen, Ken

    This paper highlights eight states that have implemented alternate assessments for children with disabilities who cannot participate in their state and district-wide assessment programs. The alternate assessment systems in Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Minnesota, North Dakota, Utah, and West Virginia are briefly described, along with their…

  12. Latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Frederickson, J.R.; Harper, W.H.; Perez, R.

    1984-08-17

    A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing. 2 figs.

  13. Latch assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Frederickson, James R.; Harper, William H.; Perez, Raymond

    1986-01-01

    A latch assembly for releasably securing an article in the form of a canister within a container housing. The assembly includes a cam pivotally mounted on the housing wall and biased into the housing interior. The cam is urged into a disabled position by the canister as it enters the housing and a latch release plate maintains the cam disabled when the canister is properly seated in the housing. Upon displacement of the release plate, the cam snaps into latching engagement against the canister for securing the same within the housing.

  14. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2002-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transfering it to the mechanical diode.

  15. Mechanical seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    2001-01-01

    An improved mechanical seal assembly is provided for sealing rotating shafts with respect to their shaft housings, wherein the rotating shafts are subject to substantial axial vibrations. The mechanical seal assembly generally includes a rotating sealing ring fixed to the shaft, a non-rotating sealing ring adjacent to and in close contact with the rotating sealing ring for forming an annular seal about the shaft, and a mechanical diode element that applies a biasing force to the non-rotating sealing ring by means of hemispherical joint. The alignment of the mechanical diode with respect to the sealing rings is maintained by a series of linear bearings positioned axially along a desired length of the mechanical diode. Alternative embodiments include mechanical or hydraulic amplification components for amplifying axial displacement of the non-rotating sealing ring and transferring it to the mechanical diode.

  16. Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator

    DOEpatents

    Brandenburg, Larry Raymond; Miller, John Michael

    2000-06-13

    A crankshaft position sensing apparatus for use with an engine (16) having a combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring (38) with a sensor (36) and bandpass filter (46), having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor (48), and a gain limiter (54). The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor (30) of the combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller (58) and an inner loop controller (60). The starter/alternator assembly (18) in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

  17. Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.R.; Miller, J.M.

    2000-06-13

    A crankshaft position sensing apparatus is described for use with an engine having a combined starter/alternator assembly. The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring with a sensor and bandpass filter, having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor, and a gain limiter. The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor of the combined starter/alternator assembly. The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller and an inner loop controller. The starter/alternator assembly in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

  18. Alternative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Alternative Therapies Alternative therapies, also called complementary, can support ... of motion, pain, and fatigue are often reported. Energy work includes acupuncture and acupressure, traditional Chinese medicine ...

  19. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, Nicholas F.; Green, Donald R.; Price, Larry S.

    1985-01-01

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  20. Furnace assembly

    DOEpatents

    Panayotou, N.F.; Green, D.R.; Price, L.S.

    A method of and apparatus for heating test specimens to desired elevated temperatures for irradiation by a high energy neutron source. A furnace assembly is provided for heating two separate groups of specimens to substantially different, elevated, isothermal temperatures in a high vacuum environment while positioning the two specimen groups symmetrically at equivalent neutron irradiating positions.

  1. Simple push coating of polymer thin-film transistors.

    PubMed

    Ikawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Toshikazu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Minemawari, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Horii, Yoshinori; Chikamatsu, Masayuki; Azumi, Reiko; Kumai, Reiji; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    Solution processibility is a unique advantage of organic semiconductors, permitting the low-cost production of flexible electronics under ambient conditions. However, the solution affinity to substrate surfaces remains a serious dilemma; liquid manipulation is more difficult on highly hydrophobic surfaces, but the use of such surfaces is indispensable for improving device characteristics. Here we demonstrate a simple technique, which we call 'push coating', to produce uniform large-area semiconducting polymer films over a hydrophobic surface with eliminating material loss. We utilize a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based trilayer stamp whose conformal contact with the substrate enables capillarity-induced wetting of the surface. Films are formed through solvent sorption and retention in the stamp, allowing the stamp to be peeled perfectly from the film. The planar film formation on hydrophobic surfaces also enables subsequent fine film patterning. The technique improves the crystallinity and field-effect mobility of stamped semiconductor films, constituting a major step towards flexible electronics production. PMID:23132026

  2. Adult Literacy in Africa: The Push and Pull Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omolewa, Michael

    2008-11-01

    This paper examines the question of why Africa has made such slow progress towards the goal of eradicating illiteracy, and why it remains an exceptionally disadvantaged region in this respect. The article surveys the history of the development of literacy in Africa from colonial times to the present day, focusing on the role of adult education in pursuing the goal of universal literacy. The author seeks to identify both the "push" factors (those favouring the pursuit of this goal) and the "pull" factors (the obstacles and hindrances), examining these factors at the local, national and international levels. The author concludes that, while the literacy challenge in Africa remains a formidable one, there are examples of successful initiatives that give hope for the future.

  3. A lightweight push-pull acoustic transducer composed of a pair of dielectric elastomer films.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Takehiro; Ando, Akio; Ono, Kazuho; Morita, Yuichi; Hosoda, Kosuke; Ishii, Daisaku; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2013-11-01

    A lightweight push-pull acoustic transducer using dielectric elastomer films was proposed for use in advanced audio systems in homes. The push-pull structure consists of two dielectric elastomer films developed to serve as an electroactive polymer. The transducer utilizes the change in the surface area of the dielectric elastomer film, induced by an electric-field-induced change in the thickness, for sound generation. The resonance frequency of the transducer was derived from modeling the push-pull configuration to estimate the lower limit of the frequency range. Measurement results presented an advantage of push-pull driving in the suppression of harmonic distortion. PMID:24181987

  4. Range of Motion of the Ankle According to Pushing Force, Gender and Knee Position

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang Hee; Lee, Hyunkeun

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the difference of range of motion (ROM) of ankle according to pushing force, gender and knee position. Methods One hundred and twenty-eight healthy adults (55 men, 73 women) between the ages of 20 and 51, were included in the study. One examiner measured the passive range of motion (PROM) of ankle by Dualer IQ Inclinometers and Commander Muscle Testing. ROM of ankle dorsiflexion (DF) and plantarflexion (PF) according to change of pushing force and knee position were measured at prone position. Results There was significant correlation between ROM and pushing force, the more pushing force leads the more ROM at ankle DF and ankle PF. Knee flexion of 90° position showed low PF angle and high ankle DF angle, as compared to the at neutral position of knee joint. ROM of ankle DF for female was greater than for male, with no significant difference. ROM of ankle PF for female was greater than male regardless of the pushing force. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the relationship between pushing force and ROM of ankle joint. There was significant correlation between ROM of ankle and pushing force. ROM of ankle PF for female estimated greater than male regardless of the pushing force and the number of measurement. The ROM of the ankle is measured differently according to the knee joint position. Pushing force, gender and knee joint position are required to be considered when measuring the ROM of ankle joint. PMID:27152277

  5. Spaces of Difference: The Contradictions of Alternative Educational Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadeboncoeur, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing upon the concept of "thirdspace" (Soja 1996), this article extends sociocultural theorizations of space in relation to alternative educational programs: programs designed to re-engage youth who have been pushed out of mainstream schools. Snapshots of educational programs, provided by ethnographic research gathered in the United States,…

  6. Cartwheel assembly

    PubMed Central

    Hirono, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    The cartwheel is a subcentriolar structure consisting of a central hub and nine radially arranged spokes, located at the proximal end of the centriole. It appears at the initial stage of the centriole assembly process as the first ninefold symmetrical structure. The cartwheel was first described more than 50 years ago, but it is only recently that its pivotal role in establishing the ninefold symmetry of the centriole was demonstrated. Significant progress has since been made in understanding its fine structure and assembly mechanism. Most importantly, the central part of the cartwheel, from which the ninefold symmetry originates, is shown to form by self-association of nine dimers of the protein SAS-6. This finding, together with emerging data on other components of the cartwheel, has opened new avenues in centrosome biology. PMID:25047612

  7. A fully integrated W-band push-push CMOS VCO with low phase noise and wide tuning range.

    PubMed

    Wang, To-Po

    2011-07-01

    A circuit topology suitable for a low-phase-noise wide-tuning-range push-push voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) is proposed in this paper. By applying varactors connected between drain and source terminations of the cross-coupled pair, the tuning range is effectively increased and the phase noise is improved. Moreover, a small capacitor is inserted between the VCO core and testing buffer to reduce loading effects on the VCO core. Furthermore, the enhanced second-harmonic output signal is extracted at middle of the varactors, leading to the elimination of RF choke at VCO's second-harmonic output port and a reduced chip size. Based on the proposed architecture, this VCO fabricated in 0.18-μm CMOS exhibits a measured 6.35% tuning range. Operating at a supply voltage of 1.2 V, the VCO core consumes 7.5-mW dc power, and the measured phase noise is -75 dBc/Hz and -91.5 dBc/Hz at 100-kHz and 1-MHz offsets from the 77.8-GHz carrier, respectively. Compared with previously published silicon-based VCOs over 70 GHz, this work can simultaneously achieve low phase noise, wide tuning range, and low dc power consumption, leading to a superior figure of merit (FOM), and better figure of merit considering the tuning range (FOM(T)). In addition, this fully integrated VCO also demonstrates the highest operation frequency among previously published 0.18-μm CMOS VCOs. PMID:21768016

  8. Sensor assembly

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Thomas E.; Nelson, Drew V.

    2004-04-13

    A ribbon-like sensor assembly is described wherein a length of an optical fiber embedded within a similar lengths of a prepreg tow. The fiber is ""sandwiched"" by two layers of the prepreg tow which are merged to form a single consolidated ribbon. The consolidated ribbon achieving a generally uniform distribution of composite filaments near the embedded fiber such that excess resin does not ""pool"" around the periphery of the embedded fiber.

  9. Single-fiber push-in vs. single-fiber push-out: A comparison between two test methods to determine the interfacial properties of brittle matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Ferber, M.K.; Lara-Curzio, E.; Russ, S.E.; Chawla, K.K.

    1995-10-01

    Interfacial properties of Nicalon{trademark}-reinforced brittle matrix composites were determined from single-fiber load-controlled push-in tests using a Mechanical Properties Microprobe (Nanoindenter) and single-fiber displacement-controlled push-out tests using the Interfacial Test System (ITS). A comparison between the results from these two tests is presented along with a discussion of data analysis techniques.

  10. 33 CFR 164.76 - Towline and terminal gear for towing alongside and pushing ahead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Towline and terminal gear for towing alongside and pushing ahead. 164.76 Section 164.76 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Towline and terminal gear for towing alongside and pushing ahead. The owner, master, or operator of...

  11. Race, Class, and Gender: Reformulating the Push and Pull Factors Explanation of Hispanic Immigration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Stephanie Amedeo

    1997-01-01

    Examines the "push and pull factors" model in Hispanic immigration, and argues that women's immigration experiences, being widely different from those of men, are not readily reducible to a simple poverty/jobs equation. Further, the push/pull thesis of jobs and poverty only reinforces negative stereotypes of hordes of immigrants fleeing poverty…

  12. On Reducing Delay in Mesh-Based P2P Streaming: A Mesh-Push Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Xue, Kaiping; Hong, Peilin

    The peer-assisted streaming paradigm has been widely employed to distribute live video data on the internet recently. In general, the mesh-based pull approach is more robust and efficient than the tree-based push approach. However, pull protocol brings about longer streaming delay, which is caused by the handshaking process of advertising buffer map message, sending request message and scheduling of the data block. In this paper, we propose a new approach, mesh-push, to address this issue. Different from the traditional pull approach, mesh-push implements block scheduling algorithm at sender side, where the block transmission is initiated by the sender rather than by the receiver. We first formulate the optimal upload bandwidth utilization problem, then present the mesh-push approach, in which a token protocol is designed to avoid block redundancy; a min-cost flow model is employed to derive the optimal scheduling for the push peer; and a push peer selection algorithm is introduced to reduce control overhead. Finally, we evaluate mesh-push through simulation, the results of which show mesh-push outperforms the pull scheduling in streaming delay, and achieves comparable delivery ratio at the same time.

  13. National Evaluation of the PUSH for Excellence Project: Phase 1. Program Descriptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Washington, DC.

    Based on a field study conducted from March 1979 to June 1979, this document describes the PUSH for Excellence projects in three demonstration sites: Chicago, Kansas City, and Los Angeles. The PUSH for Excellence Program is intended to increase student motivation and responsibility, create an atmosphere of order and discipline in the public…

  14. DELINEATION OF SUBSURFACE HYDROCARBON CONTAMINANT DISTRIBUTION USING A DIRECT PUSH RESISTIVITY METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    A direct push resistivity method was evaluated as a complementary screening tool to provide rapid in-situ contaminant detection to aid in better defining locations for drilling, sampling, and monitoring well installation at hazardous waste sites. Nine continuous direct push resi...

  15. Direction of foot force for pushes against a fixed pedal: role of effort level.

    PubMed

    Gruben, Kreg G; Rogers, Lynn M; Schmidt, Matthew W

    2003-07-01

    Control of the force exerted by the foot on the ground is critical to human locomotion. During running on a treadmill and pushing against a fixed pedal, humans increased foot force in a linear manner in sagittal plane force space. However, for pushes against a moving pedal, force output was linear for some participants but slightly curved for others. A primary difference between the static and dynamic pedaling studies was that the dynamic study required participants to push with varying peak effort levels, whereas a constant peak effort level was used for the fixed pedal pushes. The present study evaluated the possibility that force direction varied with level of effort. Seated humans pushed against a fixed pedal to a series of force magnitude targets. The force direction varied systematically with effort level consistent with the force path curvature observed for dynamic pedaling. PMID:12893955

  16. Self-assembled biomimetic nanoreactors I: Polymeric template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McTaggart, Matt; Malardier-Jugroot, Cecile; Jugroot, Manish

    2015-09-01

    The variety of nanoarchitectures made feasible by the self-assembly of alternating copolymers opens new avenues for biomimicry. Indeed, self-assembled structures allow the development of nanoreactors which combine the efficiency of high surface area metal active centres to the effect of confinement due to the very small cavities generated by the self-assembly process. A novel self-assembly of high molecular weight alternating copolymers is characterized in the present study. The self-assembly is shown to organize into nanosheets, providing a 2 nm hydrophobic cavity with a 1D confinement.

  17. Dump assembly

    DOEpatents

    Goldmann, L.H.

    1984-12-06

    This is a claim for a dump assembly having a fixed conduit and a rotatable conduit provided with overlapping plates, respectively, at their adjacent ends. The plates are formed with openings, respectively, normally offset from each other to block flow. The other end of the rotatable conduit is provided with means for securing the open end of a filled container thereto. Rotation of the rotatable conduit raises and inverts the container to empty the contents while concurrently aligning the conduit openings to permit flow of material therethrough. 4 figs.

  18. Pushrod assembly

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Jerry D.

    1987-01-01

    A pushrod assembly including a carriage mounted on a shaft for movement therealong and carrying a pushrod engageable with a load to be moved. A magnet is mounted on a supporting bracket for movement along such shaft. Means are provided for adjustably spacing said magnet away from said carriage to obtain a selected magnetic attractive or coupling force therebetween. Movement of the supporting bracket and the magnet carried thereby pulls the carriage along with it until the selected magnetic force is exceeded by a resistance load acting on the carriage.

  19. Shingle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2007-02-20

    A barrier, such as a PV module, is secured to a base by a support to create a shingle assembly with a venting region defined between the barrier and base for temperature regulation. The first edge of one base may be interengageable with the second edge of an adjacent base to be capable of resisting first and second disengaging forces oriented perpendicular to the edges and along planes oriented parallel to and perpendicular to the base. A deflector may be used to help reduce wind uplift forces.

  20. On push-forward representations in the standard gyrokinetic model

    SciTech Connect

    Miyato, N. Yagi, M.; Scott, B. D.

    2015-01-15

    Two representations of fluid moments in terms of a gyro-center distribution function and gyro-center coordinates, which are called push-forward representations, are compared in the standard electrostatic gyrokinetic model. In the representation conventionally used to derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation, the pull-back transformation of the gyro-center distribution function contains effects of the gyro-center transformation and therefore electrostatic potential fluctuations, which is described by the Poisson brackets between the distribution function and scalar functions generating the gyro-center transformation. Usually, only the lowest order solution of the generating function at first order is considered to explicitly derive the gyrokinetic Poisson equation. This is true in explicitly deriving representations of scalar fluid moments with polarization terms. One also recovers the particle diamagnetic flux at this order because it is associated with the guiding-center transformation. However, higher-order solutions are needed to derive finite Larmor radius terms of particle flux including the polarization drift flux from the conventional representation. On the other hand, the lowest order solution is sufficient for the other representation, in which the gyro-center transformation part is combined with the guiding-center one and the pull-back transformation of the distribution function does not appear.

  1. Oxygen profiling of the unsaturated zone using direct push drilling.

    PubMed

    Sopilniak, A; Elkayam, R; Lev, O; Elad, T

    2015-09-01

    A methodology for oxygen profile measurements in the unsaturated zone is developed based on direct push drilling using sampling liners equipped with homemade silicone septa. The oxygen measurement is carried out by puncturing the septum with a commercial retractable optode needle fitted with a fluorescent tip. Metrological characteristics and method validation were carried out under laboratory conditions using different levels of oxygen and various water contents. The relative standard deviations under dry and water saturated soil conditions were less than 0.3% and 5% for 0.5 mg L(-1) of oxygen and less than 2% and 3% for 9 mg L(-1). Field demonstrations in a calcareous-sandstone soil aquifer treatment system with a layered clayey, marl and sandstone lithology of widely different water contents provided down to 30 m deep profiles of the dissolved oxygen level with less than 1.5 m spatial resolution. A single sensor was used for over 50 field measurements, though recalibration was required after approximately 30 measurements due to the deterioration of the fluorescent tip. PMID:26245519

  2. Tunable Push-Pull Interactions in 5-Nitrosopyrimidines.

    PubMed

    Procházková, Eliška; Čechová, Lucie; Tarábek, Ján; Janeba, Zlatko; Dračínský, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The effect of push-pull interactions in a series of variously substituted 5-nitrosopyrimidines on the strength of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, the height of rotational barriers around formally single bonds, UV-vis spectra and electrochemical behavior is explored. Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) leads to a shift of electron density from electron-donating substituents, which is readily observable by NMR spectroscopy. The 5-nitroso group is able to form strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds with neighboring amino substituents. As a result, two rotamers with reversed orientation of the 5-nitroso group are observed for compounds with two different hydrogen-bond donors in neighboring positions. The barriers of interconversion between the two rotamers are strongly influenced by ICT, whereas the ratio of such rotamers depends primarily on the character of the hydrogen-bond donors. The ICT also significantly affects the position of UV-vis absorption maxima, which can be tuned in a broad range of 100 nm by the selection of appropriate substituents. Finally, ICT influences oxidation potential of the 5-nitrosopyrimidines and the stability of the resulting nitroso radical cations, the structures of which are determined by EPR spectroscopy. PMID:27028616

  3. Theory and simulations of electron vortices generated by magnetic pushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, A. S.; Angus, J. R.; Swanekamp, S. B.; Ottinger, P. F.; Schumer, J. W.

    2013-08-01

    Vortex formation and propagation are observed in kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of magnetic pushing in the plasma opening switch. These vortices are studied here within the electron-magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) approximation using detailed analytical modeling. PIC simulations of these vortices have also been performed. Strong v ×B forces in the vortices give rise to significant charge separation, which necessitates the use of the EMHD approximation in which ions are fixed and the electrons are treated as a fluid. A semi-analytic model of the vortex structure is derived, and then used as an initial condition for PIC simulations. Density-gradient-dependent vortex propagation is then examined using a series of PIC simulations. It is found that the vortex propagation speed is proportional to the Hall speed vHall≡cB0/4πneeLn. When ions are allowed to move, PIC simulations show that the electric field in the vortex can accelerate plasma ions, which leads to dissipation of the vortex. This electric field contributes to the separation of ion species that has been observed to occur in pulsed-power experiments with a plasma-opening switch.

  4. Direct-push multilevel sampling system for unconsolidated aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducommun, Pascale; Boutsiadou, Xenia; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    An economical multilevel groundwater monitoring system has been developed that can be rapidly installed with a direct-push machine, yet is suitable for sampling across large permeability contrasts. This sealed multiport sampling (SMPS) system consists of up to five lengths of PVC tubing (12 mm OD), each with a screen at a specific depth created by drilling 2.5-mm holes. Above and below each screen, round elastomer pieces, with peripheral holes (to clip in the sampling tubes) and a central hole (to hold a discontinuous piece of central tubing at the height of the screen), are emplaced. Cement-bentonite grout is injected via a tremie tube inserted through the discontinuous centre tube into each interval between the sampling screens. The elastomer pieces and central tube prevent grout from reaching the screened interval. A textile wrapped around the system holds the arrangement in place and at the same time serves to filter the groundwater at the level of the sampling screens. The SMPS system was tested at a tetrachloroethene (PCE) contaminated site. The seals effectively separated the sampling intervals even in heterogeneous formations. Furthermore, concentration profiles agreed well with a reference system. The system should be suitable for a wide range of hydrogeological conditions.

  5. Simple push coating of polymer thin-film transistors

    PubMed Central

    Ikawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamada, Toshikazu; Matsui, Hiroyuki; Minemawari, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Horii, Yoshinori; Chikamatsu, Masayuki; Azumi, Reiko; Kumai, Reiji; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    Solution processibility is a unique advantage of organic semiconductors, permitting the low-cost production of flexible electronics under ambient conditions. However, the solution affinity to substrate surfaces remains a serious dilemma; liquid manipulation is more difficult on highly hydrophobic surfaces, but the use of such surfaces is indispensable for improving device characteristics. Here we demonstrate a simple technique, which we call ‘push coating’, to produce uniform large-area semiconducting polymer films over a hydrophobic surface with eliminating material loss. We utilize a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-based trilayer stamp whose conformal contact with the substrate enables capillarity-induced wetting of the surface. Films are formed through solvent sorption and retention in the stamp, allowing the stamp to be peeled perfectly from the film. The planar film formation on hydrophobic surfaces also enables subsequent fine film patterning. The technique improves the crystallinity and field-effect mobility of stamped semiconductor films, constituting a major step towards flexible electronics production. PMID:23132026

  6. Pull or Push? Octopuses Solve a Puzzle Problem.

    PubMed

    Richter, Jonas N; Hochner, Binyamin; Kuba, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Octopuses have large brains and exhibit complex behaviors, but relatively little is known about their cognitive abilities. Here we present data from a five-level learning and problem-solving experiment. Seven octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) were first trained to open an L shaped container to retrieve food (level 0). After learning the initial task all animals followed the same experimental protocol, first they had to retrieve this L shaped container, presented at the same orientation, through a tight fitting hole in a clear Perspex partition (level 1). This required the octopuses to perform both pull and release or push actions. After reaching criterion the animals advanced to the next stage of the test, which would be a different consistent orientation of the object (level 2) at the start of the trial, an opaque barrier (level 3) or a random orientation of the object (level 4). All octopuses were successful in reaching criterion in all levels of the task. At the onset of each new level the performance of the animals dropped, shown as an increase in working times. However, they adapted quickly so that overall working times were not significantly different between levels. Our findings indicate that octopuses show behavioral flexibility by quickly adapting to a change in a task. This can be compared to tests in other species where subjects had to conduct actions comprised of a set of motor actions that cannot be understood by a simple learning rule alone. PMID:27003439

  7. Latest MAGIC discoveries pushing redshift boundaries in VHE Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manganaro, M.; Becerra, J.; Nievas, M.; Sitarek, J.; Tavecchio, F.; Buson, S.; Dominis, D.; Domínguez, A.; Lindfors, E.; Mazin, D.; Moralejo, A.; Stamerra, A.; Vovk, Ie; ">MAGIC, push the boundaries for VHE detection to redshifts z ~ 1. The two sources detected and analyzed, the blazar QSO B0218+357 and the FSRQ PKS 1441+25 are located at redshift z = 0.944 and z = 0.939 respectively. QSO B0218+357 is also the first gravitational lensed blazar ever detected in VHE. The activity, triggered by Fermi-LAT in high energy γ-rays, was followed up by other instruments, such as the KVA telescope in the optical band and the Swift-XRT in X-rays. In the present work we show results on MAGIC analysis on QSO B0218+357 and PKS 1441+25 together with multiwavelength lightcurves. The collected dataset allowed us to test for the first time the present generation of EBL models at such distances.

  8. Pull or Push? Octopuses Solve a Puzzle Problem

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Jonas N.; Hochner, Binyamin; Kuba, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Octopuses have large brains and exhibit complex behaviors, but relatively little is known about their cognitive abilities. Here we present data from a five-level learning and problem-solving experiment. Seven octopuses (Octopus vulgaris) were first trained to open an L shaped container to retrieve food (level 0). After learning the initial task all animals followed the same experimental protocol, first they had to retrieve this L shaped container, presented at the same orientation, through a tight fitting hole in a clear Perspex partition (level 1). This required the octopuses to perform both pull and release or push actions. After reaching criterion the animals advanced to the next stage of the test, which would be a different consistent orientation of the object (level 2) at the start of the trial, an opaque barrier (level 3) or a random orientation of the object (level 4). All octopuses were successful in reaching criterion in all levels of the task. At the onset of each new level the performance of the animals dropped, shown as an increase in working times. However, they adapted quickly so that overall working times were not significantly different between levels. Our findings indicate that octopuses show behavioral flexibility by quickly adapting to a change in a task. This can be compared to tests in other species where subjects had to conduct actions comprised of a set of motor actions that cannot be understood by a simple learning rule alone. PMID:27003439

  9. Reversing one's fortune by pushing away bad luck.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Risen, Jane L; Hosey, Christine

    2014-06-01

    Across cultures, people try to "undo" bad luck with superstitious rituals such as knocking on wood, spitting, or throwing salt. We suggest that these rituals reduce the perceived likelihood of anticipated negative outcomes because they involve avoidant actions that exert force away from one's representation of self, which simulates the experience of pushing away bad luck. Five experiments test this hypothesis by having participants tempt fate and then engage in avoidant actions that are either superstitious (Experiment 1, knocking on wood) or nonsuperstitious (Experiments 2-5, throwing a ball). We find that participants who knock down (away from themselves) or throw a ball think that a jinxed negative outcome is less likely than participants who knock up (toward themselves) or hold a ball. Experiments 3 and 4 provide evidence that after tempting fate, engaging in an avoidant action leads to less clear mental representations for the jinxed event, which, in turn, leads to lower perceived likelihoods. Finally, we demonstrate that engaging in an avoidant action-rather than creating physical distance-is critical for reversing the perceived effect of the jinx. Although superstitions are often culturally defined, the underlying psychological processes that give rise to them may be shared across cultures. PMID:23937176

  10. Pushing the limits of nanolithography outside the box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocola, Leonidas

    The Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) at Argonne National Laboratory was constructed in 2006, and opened its doors to serve the user community in 2007 with the objective to provide research opportunities in Nanoscience for the scientific community worldwide. Currently, the CNM hosts over 400 user proposals a year. There are six research groups at the CNM that do work in nanophotonics, electronic and magnetic materials and devices, nanobio interfaces, nanofabrication and devices, x-ray nanoscale microscopy and theory and modeling. At the CNM Nanofabrication and Devices Group we have been able to push the limits of electron beam lithography to make plasmonic nanostructures obtain sharp corners with less than 6 nm radius of curvature and expand the use of ion beams to 3D large area nanofabrication in microfluidics by novel design methodologies, among other accomplishments. None of these accomplishments are possible without detailed understanding of the physics and chemistry mechanisms involved during fabrication. During my talk I will discuss a few clear cases where lithography and fabrication are used in ways not commonly found in current nanofabrication facilities and what make our facility unique. This work was supported by the Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357. Use of the Center for Nanoscale Materials was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  11. Do Pions Pull or Push the Nucleons Apart?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2004-10-01

    My derivation of the strong force coupling constant, a conventional calculation, my optical probing, direction of string theory, some observations, Einstein's view and more [1], [2] give compelling reasons for the existence of strong gravity, raising a question about the Nature's purpose of pions. Could pions be pushing the nucleons apart to stop gravitational collapse of the nucleus? Its observed range limited to the size of nuclei is logically consistent with this possibility. Since the spin-dependent nuclear force could be negative or positive, its tiny long-range effects can add an indistinguishable negative component to gravitation. Repulsive gravity in expanding universe implies negative gravity at cosmic scale too. Since graviton is based on positive gravity, a second question rises if photons, theorized to mediate both, positive and negative forces, could be the particles mediating gravity. These questions lie at the heart of our understanding of other important issues. References: [1] Gravity and Nuclear Forces: A Potential Link, arXiv.org/pdf/physics/0210040 by Shantilal G. Goradia [2] http://www.gravityresearchinstitute.org

  12. Global Model of the Integrated Strength of Oceanic Lithosphere and Ridge-push Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahatsente, R.

    2014-12-01

    Global models of the integrated lithospheric strength of oceanic plates and ridge-push force are presented. To assess the transmission of ridge-push related stress in oceanic plates, ridge-push force and lithospheric strength are compared. The integrated strength of oceanic plate has been estimated using plate cooling model and relevant rheology of the crust and upper mantle. The strength analysis includes Low-Temperature Plasticity (LTP) and assumes a range of possible tectonic conditions and rheology in the plates. The ridge-push force has been derived from thermal state of oceanic lithosphere, crustal age and seafloor depth data. The results of modelling show that both lithospheric strength and ridge-push force are age dependent. Old oceanic plates can be as strong as ~ 11 TN m-1. For plates of the same age, the magnitude of ridge-push force is in the order of ~ 3.5 TN m-1.The transmission of ridge-push is mainly controlled by the rheology and predominant tectonic condition in the plates. If the rheology of oceanic lithosphere is dry, the estimated lithospheric strength is larger than the ridge-push force at all ages for compressional tectonic regimes and at old ages for extension (> 75 Ma). Under such consideration, the ridge-push related stresses may not dissipate in a form of intraplate deformation. Instead, the stresses may be transmitted in the plate. If an oceanic lithosphere has wet rheology, the strength of young plates (< 75 Ma) is much less than the ridge-push force for extensional and compressional tectonic regimes. Consequently, the stress associated with ridge-push may result in intraplate deformation. This depends, however, on the balance of force resulting from far field forces, basal shear traction and Gravitational Potential Energy of elevated regions. In particular, strong basal shear traction can balance the ridge-push force, and as a result, the oceanic lithosphere may respond by deformation. The consideration of LTP in the upper mantle has

  13. Trajectory Planning for Pushing Motion Based on Extended Orbital Energy of Humanoid Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motoi, Naoki; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    This paper describes the trajectory planning for the pushing motion of a humanoid robot. In the design of a humanoid robot for pushing an object, it is necessary to take into account many parameters such as stride length, pushing force, and walking velocity. However, there are no standard methods for evaluating these parameters. Additionally, the robot may fall down if these parameters are not chosen correctly. In this paper, a method for determining these parameters for pushing motion is proposed. The extended orbital energy (EOE) is considered as the design index. Here, the EOE describes the relation between walking motion and pushing motion. By using the proposed method, the COG trajectory, pushing force and stride length can be modified on the basis of the EOE. In other words, the suitable values of theses parameters can be obtained by determining only the desired EOE. As a result, the humanoid robot walks stably during pushing motion. The effectiveness of the proposed method was confirmed by experimental results.

  14. Positioning of microtubule organizing centers by cortical pushing and pulling forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavin, Nenad; Laan, Liedewij; Ma, Rui; Dogterom, Marileen; Jülicher, Frank

    2012-10-01

    Positioning of microtubule (MT) organizing centers with respect to the confining geometry of cells depends on pushing and/or pulling forces generated by MTs that interact with the cell cortex (Dogterom et al 2005 Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 17 67-74). How, in living cells, these forces lead to proper positioning is still largely an open question. Recently, it was shown by in vitro experiments using artificial microchambers that in a square geometry, MT asters center more reliably by a combination of pulling and pushing forces than by pushing forces alone (Laan et al 2012a Cell 148 502-14). These findings were explained by a physical description of aster mechanics that includes slipping of pushing MT ends along chamber boundaries. In this paper, we extend that theoretical work by studying the influence of the shape of the confining geometry on the positioning process. We find that pushing and pulling forces can have centering or off-centering behavior in different geometries. Pushing forces center in a one-dimensional and a square geometry, but lead to off-centering in a circle if slipping is sufficiently pronounced. Pulling forces, however, do not center in a one-dimensional geometry, but improve centering in a circle and a square. In an elongated stadium geometry, positioning along the short axis depends mainly on pulling forces, while positioning along the long axis depends mainly on pushing forces. Our theoretical results suggest that different positioning strategies could be used by different cell types.

  15. Alternative Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Stanley; Kimsey, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Describes the design of the DeKalb Alternative School in Atlanta, Georgia, located in a renovated shopping center. Purchasing commercial land and renovating the existing building saved the school system time and money. (EV)

  16. Swivel assembly

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael; Bradford, Kline; Rawle, Michael; Bartholomew, David B.; McPherson, James

    2007-03-20

    A swivel assembly for a downhole tool string comprises a first and second coaxial housing cooperatively arranged. The first housing comprises a first transmission element in communication with surface equipment. The second housing comprises a second transmission element in communication with the first transmission element. The second housing further comprises a third transmission element adapted for communication with a network integrated into the downhole tool string. The second housing may be rotational and adapted to transmit a signal between the downhole network and the first housing. Electronic circuitry is in communication with at least one of the transmission elements. The electronic circuitry may be externally mounted to the first or second housing. Further, the electronic circuitry may be internally mounted in the second housing. The electronic circuitry may be disposed in a recess in either first or second housing of the swivel.

  17. RETORT ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Loomis, C.C.; Ash, W.J.

    1957-11-26

    An improved retort assembly useful in the thermal reduction of volatilizable metals such as magnesium and calcium is described. In this process a high vacuum is maintained in the retort, however the retort must be heated to very high temperatures while at the same time the unloading end must bo cooled to condense the metal vapors, therefore the retention of the vacuum is frequently difficult due to the thermal stresses involved. This apparatus provides an extended condenser sleeve enclosed by the retort cover which forms the vacuum seal. Therefore, the seal is cooled by the fluid in the condenser sleeve and the extreme thermal stresses found in previous designs together with the deterioration of the sealing gasket caused by the high temperatures are avoided.

  18. Thermocouple assembly

    DOEpatents

    Thermos, Anthony Constantine; Rahal, Fadi Elias

    2002-01-01

    A thermocouple assembly includes a thermocouple; a plurality of lead wires extending from the thermocouple; an insulating jacket extending along and enclosing the plurality of leads; and at least one internally sealed area within the insulating jacket to prevent fluid leakage along and within the insulating jacket. The invention also provides a method of preventing leakage of a fluid along and through an insulating jacket of a thermocouple including the steps of a) attaching a plurality of lead wires to a thermocouple; b) adding a heat sensitive pseudo-wire to extend along the plurality of lead wires; c) enclosing the lead wires and pseudo-wire inside an insulating jacket; d) locally heating axially spaced portions of the insulating jacket to a temperature which melts the pseudo-wire and fuses it with an interior surface of the jacket.

  19. Two way push videoenteroscopy in investigation of small bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Bouhnik, Y; Bitoun, A; Coffin, B; Moussaoui, R; Oudghiri, A; Rambaud, J

    1998-01-01

    Aims—To evaluate the diagnostic yield and safety of a new push type videoenteroscope (PVE) for diagnosis of small bowel disease. 
Methods—Three hundred and thirteen patients were referred for one or two way PVE from December 1993 to June 1996. Indications for PVE were: an unexplained iron deficiency anaemia with or without clinically evident gastrointestinal bleeding; or a complementary investigation for suspected small bowel disease, after a small bowel barium follow through (SBBFT) considered as normal or abnormal, but without a definite diagnosis. 
Results—A jejunoscopy and a retrograde ileoscopy were carried out in 306 and 234 patients, respectively. In patients with isolated anaemia (n=131) and those with clinically evident gastrointestinal bleeding associated anaemia (n=72), PVE provided a diagnosis in 26 (19.8%) and 22 (30.5%) cases, respectively. Lesions found were located in the jejunoileum in 30 (14.7%) patients and in the gastroduodenum or the colon in 18 (8.8%) patients—that is, within the reach of the conventional gastroscope/colonoscope. In patients with normal (n=54) or abnormal (n=56) SBBFT, PVE provided a diagnosis in 17(31%) and 27 (48%) cases, respectively. In 25% of cases, the abnormal appearance of SBBFT was not confirmed. The site of the radiological abnormality was not reached in 27% of cases. Lesions were located at the jejunum and the ileum in 59 (64%) and 33 (36%) cases, respectively. 
Conclusions—PVE is useful in around 30% of cases of unexplained anaemia or after an SBBFT which failed to provide an accurate aetiological diagnosis. Use of retrograde videoenteroscopy increases diagnostic yield by one third. 

 Keywords: enteroscopy; small intestine; gastrointestinal bleeding; anaemia; chronic diarrhoea; intestinal tumour PMID:10189858

  20. Geoelectrical and colour tracer monitoring with direct push observation wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, P.; Dietze, M.; Hoffmann, R.

    2003-04-01

    Borehole - borehole tracer tests are a hydrogeological method to characterize groundwater flow parameters. Breakthrough curves of colour tracers, injected in one borehole and measured in one or more observation wells downstream of the first, give exact but locally very limited information about groundwater flow direction and velocity. At heterogeneous subsurface conditions a large number of investigation wells and frequent sample drawing is necessary to assure recovery of the tracer, which makes the experiments very expensive. Yet, these experiments often fail or do not give sufficient information about the flow regime in the aquifer. Monitoring of salt tracers with geoelectrical methods gives an integral information about flow parameters which in most cases is a more useful information. Especially in deeper aquifers though, it is a problem to place a high number of electrodes close enough to the moving tracer to gain precise results. To assess the mentioned problems we carried out a combined geoelectrical salt and conventional colour tracer test. Our equipment for both tests was placed in direct push boreholes, which are a lot cheaper than groundwater wells, quickly installed and much less invasive. The boreholes were installed at 10 meters distance on a 120 m long profile, to form a control plane 25 meters downstream of the tracer injection. The injection took place in three different groundwater wells at a time, to provide for a good overview of the flow regime along the control plane. We show, how integral information from the geoelectrical tracer tests can be used to design a refined borehole placement for a successful colour tracer test. Our results, quite different from groundwater modelling results, strongly support the necessity to carry out precise field tracer tests for the investigation of groundwater flow parameters.

  1. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems

    PubMed Central

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C.; Martín, Fernando F; Rogers, Michael E.; Behm, David G.; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29) performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p < 0.001). Individually, the suspended push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation. Key Points Compared with standard push-ups on the floor, suspended push-ups increase core muscle activation. A one-anchor system with a pulley is the best option to increase TRICEP, TRAPS, LUMB and FEM muscle activity. More stable conditions such as the standard push-up or a parallel band system provide greater increases in DELT and PEC muscle activation. A suspended push-up is an effective method to achieve high muscle activity levels in the ABS. PMID:25177174

  2. Psychophysically determined forces of dynamic pushing for female industrial workers: Comparison of two apparatuses.

    PubMed

    Ciriello, Vincent M; Maikala, Rammohan V; Dempsey, Patrick G; O'Brien, Niall V

    2010-01-01

    Using psychophysics, the maximum acceptable forces for pushing have been previously developed using a magnetic particle brake (MPB) treadmill at the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety. The objective of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of maximum acceptable initial and sustained forces while performing a pushing task at a frequency of 1min(-1) both on a MPB treadmill and on a high-inertia pushcart. This is important because our pushing guidelines are used extensively as a ergonomic redesign strategy and we would like the information to be as applicable as possible to cart pushing. On two separate days, nineteen female industrial workers performed a 40-min MPB treadmill pushing task and a 2-hr pushcart task, in the context of a larger experiment. During pushing, the subjects were asked to select a workload they could sustain for 8h without "straining themselves or without becoming unusually tired, weakened, overheated or out of breath." The results demonstrated that maximum acceptable initial and sustained forces of pushing determined on the high inertia pushcart were 0.8% and 2.5% lower than the MPB treadmill. The results also show that the maximum acceptable sustained force of the MPB treadmill task was 0.5% higher than the maximum acceptable sustained force of Snook and Ciriello (1991). Overall, the findings confirm that the existing pushing data developed by the Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety still provides an accurate estimate of maximal acceptable forces for the selected combination of distance and frequency of push for female industrial workers. PMID:19628201

  3. Interfacial push-out measurements of fully-bonded SiC/SiC composites

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, L.L.; Steiner, D. ); Zinkle, S.J. )

    1990-01-01

    The direct measurement of interfacial bond strength and frictional resistance to sliding in a fully-bonded SiC/SiC composite is measured. It is shown that a fiber push-out technique can be utilized for small diameter fibers and very thin composite sections. Results are presented for a 22 micron thick section for which 37 out of 44 Nicalon fibers tested were pushed-out within the maximum nanoindentor load of 120 mN. Fiber interfacial yielding, push-out and sliding resistance were measured for each fiber. The distribution of interfacial strengths is treated as being Weibull in form. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  4. The National Evaluation of the PUSH for Excellence Project. Technical Report 1: The Evolution of a Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Saundra R.; And Others

    This report, the second in a series of six, describes the PUSH for Excellence (PUSH-EXCEL) Project--its origins, goals, approach, and extent of implementation. Each of the six reports tracks PUSH-EXCEL's progress in six sites: Chattanooga, Chicago, Denver, Kansas City, Los Angeles, and Memphis. Chapter 1 discusses the social movement that became…

  5. Edison Electric, Exxon Push Nuclear Power in Nation's Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Dede

    1978-01-01

    Pro-nuclear power "educational materials" designed or promoted by energy and utility companies lack objectivity about alternative energy resources. A free comic book distributed to public schools in New Mexico and a simulation game supplied to Maryland public schools at the expense of utility customers are described. (SW)

  6. Endohedral dynamics of push-pull rotor-functionalized cages.

    PubMed

    Krick, Marcel; Holstein, Julian; Würtele, Christian; Clever, Guido H

    2016-08-16

    A series of [Pd2L4] coordination cages featuring endohedral functionalities in central backbone positions was synthesized. Although attached via C[double bond, length as m-dash]C double bonds, the substituents behave as molecular rotors. This is explained by their pronounced donor-acceptor character which lowers rotational barriers and allows for electronic control over the spinning rates inside the cage. The dynamic behaviour of the free ligands, assembled cages and host-guest complexes is compared with the aid of NMR experiments, X-ray structure analysis and molecular modelling. PMID:27484435

  7. Real-time density matrix renormalization group dynamics of spin and charge transport in push-pull polyenes and related systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Tirthankar; Ramasesha, S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the effect of terminal substituents on the dynamics of spin and charge transport in donor-acceptor substituted polyenes [D-(CH)x-A] chains, also known as push-pull polyenes. We employ a long-range correlated model Hamiltonian for the D-(CH)x-A system, and time-dependent density matrix renormalization group technique for time propagating the wave packet obtained by injecting a hole at a terminal site, in the ground state of the system. Our studies reveal that the end groups do not affect spin and charge velocities in any significant way, but change the amount of charge transported. We have compared these push-pull systems with donor-acceptor substituted polymethine imine (PMI), D-(CHN)x-A, systems in which besides electron affinities, the nature of pz orbitals in conjugation also alternate from site to site. We note that spin and charge dynamics in the PMIs are very different from that observed in the case of push-pull polyenes, and within the time scale of our studies, transport of spin and charge leads to the formation of a “quasi-static” state.

  8. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, H.J.; Liebes, S., Jr.; Crouch, D.S.; Clark, L.V.

    1978-01-01

    from under a rock to the aqueous nutrient in the Gas Exchange instrument indicates that adsorbed water and hydrates play an important role in the oxidation potential of the soil. The rock surfaces are strong, because they did not scratch, chip or spall when the sampler pushed them. Fresh surfaces of soil and the undersides of rocks were exposed so that they could be imaged in color. A ledge of soil adhered to one rock that tilted, showing that a crust forms near the surface of Mars. The reason for low amounts of iron in the sampIes from under the rocks is not known at this time.

  9. Visualization of airflows in push-pull ventilation systems applied to surface treatment tanks.

    PubMed

    Marzal, F; González, E; Miñana, A; Baeza, A

    2003-01-01

    A pilot installation was designed that simulates a surface treatment tank fitted with a push-pull ventilation system. The installation contained elements for measuring and controlling the operational variables (flow rate and tank temperature) and smoke generating equipment for injecting smoke through the holes of the push unit and from the tank surface. Visual observation and video recording of the flows involved meant it was possible to follow the qualitative behavior of the push flow rate along the tank surface and to identify any emissions not captured by the exhaust system. It was possible to differentiate the initial semifree push curtain, its impact with the tank surface, the wall jet that moved toward the exhaust, and its entrance into the exhaust. The methodology proposed is complemented by a quantitative technique for measuring the efficiency, using sulfur hexafluoride as tracer, which permits the causes and location of losses in the ventilation system to be determined. PMID:12908859

  10. 31. CRANE RUNWAY FOR 5TON PUSH TYPE CRANE, SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. CRANE RUNWAY FOR 5-TON PUSH TYPE CRANE, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 3, SEPT. 4, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523856-2. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. 49 CFR 220.49 - Radio communication used in shoving, backing or pushing movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.49 Radio communication used in shoving, backing or pushing..., locomotive, car, or on-track equipment, the employee directing the movement shall specify the distance of...

  12. Cosmic alternatives?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory, Ruth

    2009-04-01

    "Cosmologists are often in error but never in doubt." This pithy characterization by the Soviet physicist Lev Landau sums up the raison d'être of Facts and Speculations in Cosmology. Authors Jayant Narlikar and Geoffrey Burbidge are proponents of a "steady state" theory of cosmology, and they argue that the cosmological community has become fixated on a "Big Bang" dogma, suppressing alternative viewpoints. This book very much does what it says on the tin: it sets out what is known in cosmology, and puts forward the authors' point of view on an alternative to the Big Bang.

  13. Is perception of vertical impaired in individuals with chronic stroke with a history of 'pushing'?

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Avril; Fraser, Lindsey; Rajachandrakumar, Roshanth; Danells, Cynthia J; Knorr, Svetlana; Campos, Jennifer

    2015-03-17

    Post-stroke 'pushing' behaviour appears to be caused by impaired perception of vertical in the roll plane. While pushing behaviour typically resolves with stroke recovery, it is not known if misperception of vertical persists. The purpose of this study was to determine if perception of vertical is impaired amongst stroke survivors with a history of pushing behaviour. Fourteen individuals with chronic stroke (7 with history of pushing) and 10 age-matched healthy controls participated. Participants sat upright on a chair surrounded by a curved projection screen in a laboratory mounted on a motion base. Subjective visual vertical (SVV) was assessed using a 30 trial, forced-choice protocol. For each trial participants viewed a line projected on the screen and indicated if the line was tilted to the right or the left. For the subjective postural vertical (SPV), participants wore a blindfold and the motion base was tilted to the left or right by 10-20°. Participants were asked to adjust the angular movements of the motion base until they felt upright. SPV was not different between groups. SVV was significantly more biased towards the contralesional side for participants with history of pushing (-3.6 ± 4.1°) than those without (-0.1 ± 1.4°). Two individuals with history of pushing had SVV or SPV outside the maximum for healthy controls. Impaired vertical perception may persist in some individuals with prior post-stroke pushing, despite resolution of pushing behaviours, which could have consequences for functional mobility and falls. PMID:25666890

  14. Push and release: TLR9 activation plus STAT3 blockade for systemic antitumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Kortylewski, Marcin; Kuo, Ya-Huei

    2014-01-01

    Proper immunostimulation ("push") and immune checkpoint blockade ("release") are both critical for the efficacy of anticancer immunotherapy. We have recently shown that activating Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) while specifically blocking signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in leukemic cells enhances their immunogenicity, allowing for CD8(+) T cell-mediated tumor eradication. These findings underscore the therapeutic potential of such a "Push & Release" strategy against hematological malignancies. PMID:24800162

  15. Pushing the threshold: How NMDAR antagonists induce homeostasis through protein synthesis to remedy depression.

    PubMed

    Raab-Graham, Kimberly F; Workman, Emily R; Namjoshi, Sanjeev; Niere, Farr

    2016-09-15

    Healthy neurons have an optimal operating range, coded globally by the frequency of action potentials or locally by calcium. The maintenance of this range is governed by homeostatic plasticity. Here, we discuss how new approaches to treat depression alter synaptic activity. These approaches induce the neuron to recruit homeostatic mechanisms to relieve depression. Homeostasis generally implies that the direction of activity necessary to restore the neuron's critical operating range is opposite in direction to its current activity pattern. Unconventional antidepressant therapies-deep brain stimulation and NMDAR antagonists-alter the neuron's "depressed" state by pushing the neuron's current activity in the same direction but to the extreme edge. These therapies rally the intrinsic drive of neurons in the opposite direction, thereby allowing the cell to return to baseline activity, form new synapses, and restore proper communication. In this review, we discuss seminal studies on protein synthesis dependent homeostatic plasticity and their contribution to our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of NMDAR antagonists as rapid antidepressants. Rapid antidepressant efficacy is likely to require a cascade of mRNA translational regulation. Emerging evidence suggests that changes in synaptic strength or intrinsic excitability converge on the same protein synthesis pathways, relieving depressive symptoms. Thus, we address the question: Are there multiple homeostatic mechanisms that induce the neuron and neuronal circuits to self-correct to regulate mood in vivo? Targeting alternative ways to induce homeostatic protein synthesis may provide, faster, safer, and longer lasting antidepressants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:RNA Metabolism in Disease. PMID:27125595

  16. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (16 or 20%) therapy in obese patients with primary immunodeficiency: a retrospective analysis of administration by infusion pump or subcutaneous rapid push.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, R

    2013-08-01

    A retrospective chart review was conducted at a single centre, capturing data on 173 primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD) patients, including 40 obese patients, using subcutaneous administration of immunoglobulin (Ig) (SCIG) (16 or 20%) delivered by infusion pump or subcutaneous (s.c.) rapid push. Patients previously using Ig administered as intravenous (i.v.) infusions (IVIG) were converted to SCIG dosing on a 1:1 basis. In both obese and non-obese patients, mean serum Ig levels were higher during SCIG administration (steady state) compared with IVIG administration (trough values). Similar SCIG dose : serum IgG level relationships were observed between obese and non-obese patients, suggesting the consistent bioavailability of SCIG regardless of body mass index (BMI). The mean SCIG volume per dosing site and the mean number of dosing days per week were greater with s.c. rapid push compared with infusion pump in this cohort, but the mean number of sites per infusion session was lower with s.c. rapid push. Both methods were well tolerated. The use of 20 versus 16% SCIG in obese patients improved dosing efficiency, resulting in smaller weekly volumes (54·7 versus 74·5 ml/week) and dosing on fewer days per week (2·3 versus 3·4 days). These data do not suggest a need for SCIG dosing adjustments in obese individuals relative to non-obese patients. The administration of SCIG using either infusion pump or s.c. rapid push is a practical and well-tolerated alternative to IVIG in obese patients. Offering various administration techniques provides a greater opportunity for treatment satisfaction and patient empowerment, which may support high levels of patient compliance. PMID:23607310

  17. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (16 or 20%) therapy in obese patients with primary immunodeficiency: a retrospective analysis of administration by infusion pump or subcutaneous rapid push

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, R

    2013-01-01

    A retrospective chart review was conducted at a single centre, capturing data on 173 primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD) patients, including 40 obese patients, using subcutaneous administration of immunoglobulin (Ig) (SCIG) (16 or 20%) delivered by infusion pump or subcutaneous (s.c.) rapid push. Patients previously using Ig administered as intravenous (i.v.) infusions (IVIG) were converted to SCIG dosing on a 1:1 basis. In both obese and non-obese patients, mean serum Ig levels were higher during SCIG administration (steady state) compared with IVIG administration (trough values). Similar SCIG dose : serum IgG level relationships were observed between obese and non-obese patients, suggesting the consistent bioavailability of SCIG regardless of body mass index (BMI). The mean SCIG volume per dosing site and the mean number of dosing days per week were greater with s.c. rapid push compared with infusion pump in this cohort, but the mean number of sites per infusion session was lower with s.c. rapid push. Both methods were well tolerated. The use of 20 versus 16% SCIG in obese patients improved dosing efficiency, resulting in smaller weekly volumes (54·7 versus 74·5 ml/week) and dosing on fewer days per week (2·3 versus 3·4 days). These data do not suggest a need for SCIG dosing adjustments in obese individuals relative to non-obese patients. The administration of SCIG using either infusion pump or s.c. rapid push is a practical and well-tolerated alternative to IVIG in obese patients. Offering various administration techniques provides a greater opportunity for treatment satisfaction and patient empowerment, which may support high levels of patient compliance. PMID:23607310

  18. Alternative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Dan

    1999-01-01

    Explains how advances in diesel and alternative fuels has caused schools to reconsider their use for their bus fleets. Reductions in air pollution emissions, cost-savings developments, and the economies experienced from less downtime and maintenance requirements are explored. (GR)

  19. Alternative Conceptualizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.; O'Reilly, Patricia, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains five articles devoted to the topic of "Alternative Conceptualizations" of the foundations of education. In "The Concept of Place in the New Sociology of Education," Paul Theobald examines the notion of place in educational theory and practice. Janice Jipson and Nicholas Paley, in…

  20. ALTERNATIVE OXIDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter reports on the efforts of the USEPA to study chloramines, chlorine dioxide and ozone as alternative oxidants/disinfectants to chlorine for the control of disinfection by-rpdocuts (DBPs) in drinking water. It examines the control of DBPs like trihalomethanes and haloa...

  1. A low-phase-noise Ka-band push-push voltage-controlled oscillator using CMOS/glass-integrated passive device technologies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sen

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a Ka-band CMOS push-push voltage- controlled oscillator (VCO) integrated into a glass-integrated passive device (GIPD) process is presented. The transformer, λ/4 transmission line, and inductors of the VCO are realized in the GIPD process, achieving superior performances, and therefore improve the phase noise of the VCO. Moreover, the transformer-based VCO is a differential Hartley topology to further reduce the phase noise and chip area. Operating at 1.8 V supply voltage, the VCO core consumes merely 3.8 mW of dc power. The measured phase noise is -109.18 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset from the 30.84 GHz oscillation frequency. The push-push VCO also demonstrates a 24.5 dB fundamental rejection, and exhibits an 8.4% tuning range. Compared with recently published CMOS-based VCOs, it is observed that the proposed VCO exhibits excellent performance under low power consumption. PMID:25167145

  2. Forwardly-placed firearm fire control assembly

    DOEpatents

    Frickey, Steven J.

    2001-12-22

    A firearm fire control assembly for disposition in a forwardly placed support-hand operative relationship within a firearm having a combination of a firing pin and a firearm hammer adapted to engage and fire a cartridge, a sear assembly to alternately engage and disengage the combination of the firearm hammer and firing pin, and a trigger assembly including a movable trigger mechanism that is operable to engage the sear assembly to cause the firearm hammer firing pin combination to fire the firearm, a fire control assembly including a fire control depression member and a fire control rod operably connected to the depression member, and being positioned in a forward disposition disposed within a forestock of the firearm, and the depression member adapted to be operably engaged and depressed by the user's conventional forwardly placed support hand to maneuver the fire control rod to provide firing control of the firing of the firearm.

  3. Community Wind: Once Again Pushing the Envelope of Project Finance

    SciTech Connect

    bolinger, Mark A.

    2011-01-18

    In the United States, the 'community wind' sector - loosely defined here as consisting of relatively small utility-scale wind power projects that sell power on the wholesale market and that are developed and owned primarily by local investors - has historically served as a 'test bed' or 'proving grounds' for up-and-coming wind turbine manufacturers that are trying to break into the U.S. wind power market. For example, community wind projects - and primarily those located in the state of Minnesota - have deployed the first U.S. installations of wind turbines from Suzlon (in 2003), DeWind (2008), Americas Wind Energy (2008) and later Emergya Wind Technologies (2010), Goldwind (2009), AAER/Pioneer (2009), Nordic Windpower (2010), Unison (2010), and Alstom (2011). Thus far, one of these turbine manufacturers - Suzlon - has subsequently achieved some success in the broader U.S. wind market as well. Just as it has provided a proving grounds for new turbines, so too has the community wind sector served as a laboratory for experimentation with innovative new financing structures. For example, a variation of one of the most common financing arrangements in the U.S. wind market today - the special allocation partnership flip structure (see Figure 1 in Section 2.1) - was first developed by community wind projects in Minnesota more than a decade ago (and is therefore sometimes referred to as the 'Minnesota flip' model) before being adopted by the broader wind market. More recently, a handful of community wind projects built over the past year have been financed via new and creative structures that push the envelope of wind project finance in the U.S. - in many cases, moving beyond the now-standard partnership flip structures involving strategic tax equity investors. These include: (1) a 4.5 MW project in Maine that combines low-cost government debt with local tax equity, (2) a 25.3 MW project in Minnesota using a sale/leaseback structure, (3) a 10.5 MW project in South Dakota

  4. Alternate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.W.; Worthen, R.P.

    1981-02-01

    The escalating oil prices and shortages of petroleum based fuels for transportation have made research work on various fuel alternatives, especially for transportation engines, a priority of both the private and public sectors. This book contains 18 papers on this subject. The range of options from the development of completely non-petroleum-based fuels and engines to the use of various non-petroleum gasoline and diesel fuel extenders and improvers are discussed.

  5. Materials self-assembly and fabrication in confined spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Nathan Muruganathan; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Ji, Dr. Qingmin; Hill, Dr. Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Molecular assemblies have been mainly researched in open spaces for long time. However, recent researches have revealed that there are many interesting aspects remained in self-assemblies in confined spaces. Molecular association within nanospaces such as mesoporous materials provide unusual phenomena based on highly restricted molecular motions. Current research endeavors in materials science and technology are focused on developing either new class of materials or materials with novel/multiple functionalities which is often achived via molecular assembly in confined spaces. Template synthesis and guided assemblies are distinguishable examples for molecular assembly in confined spaces. So far, different aspects of molecular confinements are discussed separately. In this review, the focus is specifically to bring some potential developments in various aspects of confined spaces for molecular self-assembly under one roof. We arrange the sections in this review based on the nature of the confinements; accordingly the topological/geometrical confinements, chemical and biological confinements, and confinements within thin film, respectively. Following these sections, molecular confinements for practical applications are shortly described in order to show connections of these scientific aspects with possible practical uses. One of the most important facts is that the self-assembly in confined spaces stands at meeting points of top-down and bottom-up fabrications, which would be an ultimate key to push the limits of nanotechnology and nanoscience.

  6. Soft Pushing Operation with Dual Compliance Controllers Based on Estimated Torque and Visual Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muis, Abdul; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    Sensor fusion extends robot ability to perform more complex tasks. An interesting application in such an issue is pushing operation, in which through multi-sensor, the robot moves an object by pushing it. Generally, a pushing operation consists of “approaching, touching, and pushing"(1). However, most researches in this field are dealing with how the pushed object follows the predefined trajectory. In which, the implication as the robot body or the tool-tip hits an object is neglected. Obviously on collision, the robot momentum may crash sensor, robot's surface or even the object. For that reason, this paper proposes a soft pushing operation with dual compliance controllers. Mainly, a compliance control is a control system with trajectory compensation so that the external force may be followed. In this paper, the first compliance controller is driven by estimated external force based on reaction torque observer(2), which compensates contact sensation. The other one compensates non-contact sensation. Obviously, a contact sensation, acquired from force sensor either reaction torque observer of an object, is measurable once the robot touched the object. Therefore, a non-contact sensation is introduced before touching an object, which is realized with visual sensor in this paper. Here, instead of using visual information as command reference, the visual information such as depth, is treated as virtual force for the second compliance controller. Thus, having contact and non-contact sensation, the robot will be compliant with wider sensation. This paper considers a heavy mobile manipulator and a heavy object, which have significant momentum on touching stage. A chopstick is attached on the object side to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Here, both compliance controllers adjust the mobile manipulator command reference to provide soft pushing operation. Finally, the experimental result shows the validity of the proposed method.

  7. Numerical investigation of turbulent diffusion in push-pull and exhaust fume cupboards.

    PubMed

    Chern, Ming-Jyh; Cheng, Wei-Ying

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate airflow motions and associated pollutant distributions in fume hoods. Currently, most exhaust fume hoods are designed to use an airflow induced by a fan at the top to remove pollutants. Ambient fluids are drawn, flowing toward the opening and subsequently turning to the outlet at the roof. Pollutants are supposedly captured by the airflow and brought out from the cupboard. The present numerical study based on the finite-volume method and the standard k-epsilon turbulence model simulates flow patterns and pollutant distributions in an exhaust fume hood with and without a manikin present. Subsequently, a push-pull air curtain technique is applied to a fume cupboard. To investigate the capturing performance of a push-pull fume cupboard, numerical approaches are used to simulate flow and concentration variations. Numerical results reveal that four characteristic flow modes exist for a variety of speed ratios of push-pull flows and openings. A concave curtain mode which has a fast pull flow and a weak push flow is suggested for the operation of a push-pull fume cupboard. According to ANSI-ASHRAE Standard 110-1995, the local concentration at the specified point is <0.1 parts per million (p.p.m.). Meanwhile, we also examine concentration variations at 12 selected points in front of the sash, and all where the concentration is <0.1 p.p.m. A manikin is put in front of the sash to observe its effect. As a result, the flow and the concentration contours in a push-pull fume cupboard are not affected by a manikin. In terms of those predicted results, it turns out that a push-pull fume cupboard successfully captures pollutants and prevents an operator from breathing pollutants. PMID:17638713

  8. Latching relay switch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Duimstra, Frederick A.

    1991-01-01

    A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

  9. Sequential push-pull pumping mechanism for washing and evacuation of an immunoassay reaction chamber on a microfluidic CD platform.

    PubMed

    Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Soin, Norhayati; Kahar Bador, Maria; Madou, Marc

    2015-01-01

    A centrifugal compact disc (CD) microfluidic platform with reservoirs, micro-channels, and valves can be employed for implementing a complete immunoassay. Detection or biosensor chambers are either coated for immuno-interaction or a biosensor chip is inserted in them. On microfluidic CDs featuring such multi-step chemical/biological processes, the biosensor chamber must be repeatedly filled with fluids such as enzymes solutions, buffers, and washing solutions. After each filling step, the biosensor chamber needs to be evacuated by a passive siphoning process to prepare it for the next step in the assay. However, rotational speed dependency and limited space on a CD are two big obstacles to performing such repetitive filling and siphoning steps. In this work, a unique thermo-pneumatic (TP) Push-Pull pumping method is employed to provide a superior alternative biosensor chamber filling and evacuation technique. The proposed technique is demonstrated on two CD designs. The first design features a simple two-step microfluidic process to demonstrate the evacuation technique, while the second design shows the filling and evacuation technique with an example sequence for an actual immunoassay. In addition, the performance of the filling and evacuation technique as a washing step is also evaluated quantitatively and compared to the conventional manual bench top washing method. The two designs and the performance evaluation demonstrate that the technique is simple to implement, reliable, easy to control, and allows for repeated push-pulls and thus filling and emptying of the biosensor chamber. Furthermore, by addressing the issue of rotational speed dependency and limited space concerns in implementing repetitive filling and evacuation steps, this newly introduced technique increases the flexibility of the microfluidic CD platform to perform multi-step biological and chemical processes. PMID:25853411

  10. Sequential Push-Pull Pumping Mechanism for Washing and Evacuation of an Immunoassay Reaction Chamber on a Microfluidic CD Platform

    PubMed Central

    Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Soin, Norhayati; Kahar Bador, Maria; Madou, Marc

    2015-01-01

    A centrifugal compact disc (CD) microfluidic platform with reservoirs, micro-channels, and valves can be employed for implementing a complete immunoassay. Detection or biosensor chambers are either coated for immuno-interaction or a biosensor chip is inserted in them. On microfluidic CDs featuring such multi-step chemical/biological processes, the biosensor chamber must be repeatedly filled with fluids such as enzymes solutions, buffers, and washing solutions. After each filling step, the biosensor chamber needs to be evacuated by a passive siphoning process to prepare it for the next step in the assay. However, rotational speed dependency and limited space on a CD are two big obstacles to performing such repetitive filling and siphoning steps. In this work, a unique thermo-pneumatic (TP) Push-Pull pumping method is employed to provide a superior alternative biosensor chamber filling and evacuation technique. The proposed technique is demonstrated on two CD designs. The first design features a simple two-step microfluidic process to demonstrate the evacuation technique, while the second design shows the filling and evacuation technique with an example sequence for an actual immunoassay. In addition, the performance of the filling and evacuation technique as a washing step is also evaluated quantitatively and compared to the conventional manual bench top washing method. The two designs and the performance evaluation demonstrate that the technique is simple to implement, reliable, easy to control, and allows for repeated push-pulls and thus filling and emptying of the biosensor chamber. Furthermore, by addressing the issue of rotational speed dependency and limited space concerns in implementing repetitive filling and evacuation steps, this newly introduced technique increases the flexibility of the microfluidic CD platform to perform multi-step biological and chemical processes. PMID:25853411

  11. Inlet nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Precechtel, Donald R.; Smith, Bob G.; Knight, Ronald C.

    1987-01-01

    An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

  12. Inlet nozzle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Knight, R.C.; Precechtel, D.R.; Smith, B.G.

    1985-09-09

    An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

  13. Structural assembly in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, J. W.; Pruett, E. C.

    1980-01-01

    A cost algorithm for predicting assembly costs for large space structures is given. Assembly scenarios are summarized which describe the erection, deployment, and fabrication tasks for five large space structures. The major activities that impact total costs for structure assembly from launch through deployment and assembly to scientific instrument installation and checkout are described. Individual cost elements such as assembly fixtures, handrails, or remote minipulators are also presented.

  14. When push comes to shove: Exclusion processes with nonlocal consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almet, Axel A.; Pan, Michael; Hughes, Barry D.; Landman, Kerry A.

    2015-11-01

    Stochastic agent-based models are useful for modelling collective movement of biological cells. Lattice-based random walk models of interacting agents where each site can be occupied by at most one agent are called simple exclusion processes. An alternative motility mechanism to simple exclusion is formulated, in which agents are granted more freedom to move under the compromise that interactions are no longer necessarily local. This mechanism is termed shoving. A nonlinear diffusion equation is derived for a single population of shoving agents using mean-field continuum approximations. A continuum model is also derived for a multispecies problem with interacting subpopulations, which either obey the shoving rules or the simple exclusion rules. Numerical solutions of the derived partial differential equations compare well with averaged simulation results for both the single species and multispecies processes in two dimensions, while some issues arise in one dimension for the multispecies case.

  15. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    DOEpatents

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  16. Alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.; Butze, H. F.; Friedman, R.; Antoine, A. C.; Reynolds, T. W.

    1977-01-01

    Potential problems related to the use of alternative aviation turbine fuels are discussed and both ongoing and required research into these fuels is described. This discussion is limited to aviation turbine fuels composed of liquid hydrocarbons. The advantages and disadvantages of the various solutions to the problems are summarized. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source. The second solution is to minimize energy consumption at the refinery and keep fuel costs down by relaxing specifications.

  17. Encoding network states by striatal cell assemblies.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Tapia, Dagoberto; Hernández-Cruz, Arturo; Galarraga, Elvira; Drucker-Colin, René; Bargas, José

    2008-03-01

    Correlated activity in cortico-basal ganglia circuits plays a key role in the encoding of movement, associative learning and procedural memory. How correlated activity is assembled by striatal microcircuits is not understood. Calcium imaging of striatal neuronal populations, with single-cell resolution, reveals sporadic and asynchronous activity under control conditions. However, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) application induces bistability and correlated activity in striatal neurons. Widespread neurons within the field of observation present burst firing. Sets of neurons exhibit episodes of recurrent and synchronized bursting. Dimensionality reduction of network dynamics reveals functional states defined by cell assemblies that alternate their activity and display spatiotemporal pattern generation. Recurrent synchronous activity travels from one cell assembly to the other often returning to the original assembly; suggesting a robust structure. An initial search into the factors that sustain correlated activity of neuronal assemblies showed a critical dependence on both intrinsic and synaptic mechanisms: blockage of fast glutamatergic transmission annihilates all correlated firing, whereas blockage of GABAergic transmission locked the network into a single dominant state that eliminates assembly diversity. Reduction of L-type Ca(2+)-current restrains synchronization. Each cell assembly comprised different cells, but a small set of neurons was shared by different assemblies. A great proportion of the shared neurons was local interneurons with pacemaking properties. The network dynamics set into action by NMDA in the striatal network may reveal important properties of striatal microcircuits under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:18184883

  18. Evaluation of push-out bond strength of two fiber-reinforced composite posts systems using two luting cements in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Ajay; Pujar, Madhu; Patil, Chetan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The concept of using a “post” for the restoration of teeth has been practiced to restore the endodontically treated tooth. Metallic posts have been commonly used, but their delirious effects have led to the development of fiber-reinforced materials that have overcome the limitations of metallic posts. The use of glass and quartz fibers was proposed as an alternative to the dark color of carbon fiber posts as far as esthetics was concerned. “Debonding” is the most common failure in fiber-reinforced composite type of posts. This study was aimed to compare the push-out bond strength of a self-adhesive dual-cured luting agent (RelyX U100) with a total etch resin luting agent (Variolink II) used to cement two different FRC posts. Materials and Methods: Eighty human maxillary anterior single-rooted teeth were decoronated, endodontically treated, post space prepared and divided into four groups (n = 20); Group I: D.T. light post (RTD) and Variolink II (Ivoclare vivadent), Group II: D.T. light post (RTD) and RelyX U100 (3M ESPE), Group III: Glassix post (Nordin) and Variolink II (Ivoclare vivadent) and Group IV: Glassix post (Nordin) and RelyX U100 (3M ESPE). Each root was sectioned to get slices of 2 ± 0.05-mm thickness. Push-out tests were performed using a triaxial loading frame. To express bond strength in megapascals (Mpa), load value recorded in Newton (N) was divided by the area of the bonded interface. After testing the push-out strengths, the samples were analyzed under a stereomicroscope. Results: The mean values of the push-out bond strength show that Group I and Group III had significantly higher values than Group II and Group IV. The most common mode of failure observed was adhesive between dentin and luting material and between post and luting material. Conclusions: The mean push-out bond strengths were higher for Groups I and III where Variolink II resin cement was used for luting the fiber post, which is based on the total etch

  19. Structural assembly demonstration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The experiment is of an operational variety, designed to assess crew capability in Large Space System (LSS) assembly. The six Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment objectives include: (1) the establishment of a quantitative correlation between LSS neutral buoyancy simulation and on-orbit assembly operations in order to enhance the validity of those assembly simulations; (2) the quantitative study of the capabilities and mechanics of human assembly in an Extravehicular Activity environment; (3) the further corroboration of the LSS Assembly Analysis cost algorithm through the obtainment of hard data base information; (4) the verification of LSS assembly techniques and timeless, as well as the identification of crew imposed loads and assembly aid requirements and concepts; (5) verification of a Launch/Assembly Platform structure concept for other LSS missions; and (6) lastly, to advance thermal control concepts through a flexible heat pipe.

  20. Modeling the impact of pedestrian behavior diversity on traffic dynamics at a crosswalk with push button

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Dong-Fan; Zhao, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xin-Gang; Zhu, Tai-Lang

    2016-01-01

    Crosswalk with push button is prevalent in lots of cities for the purpose of promoting the efficiency of the crosswalk, and thus the delays of both vehicles and pedestrians can be reduced. This strategy has been confirmed to be effective in several developed countries. However, it is a pity that application of push button is aborted in some cities in China. In this work, diverse behaviors of vehicles and pedestrians are analyzed and discussed. Then, a microscopic model is developed by incorporating the interaction between vehicles and pedestrians. Numerical simulations are performed to reveal the characteristics of traffic flow and the efficiency of the signal control strategy. Also, the impacts of risker proportion and button reaction time, as well as the impacts of various behaviors as mass behavior, the patience of pedestrian and push button habit are investigated. It is expected that the results will be helpful to the strategy design of a signalized crosswalk in such developing countries as China.

  1. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    DOEpatents

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Asif, Syed Amanula Syed

    2013-05-07

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  2. Micro/nano-mechanical test system employing tensile test holder with push-to-pull transformer

    DOEpatents

    Oh, Yunje; Cyrankowski, Edward; Shan, Zhiwei; Syed Asif, Syed Amanula

    2014-07-29

    A micromachined or microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based push-to-pull mechanical transformer for tensile testing of micro-to-nanometer scale material samples including a first structure and a second structure. The second structure is coupled to the first structure by at least one flexible element that enables the second structure to be moveable relative to the first structure, wherein the second structure is disposed relative to the first structure so as to form a pulling gap between the first and second structures such that when an external pushing force is applied to and pushes the second structure in a tensile extension direction a width of the pulling gap increases so as to apply a tensile force to a test sample mounted across the pulling gap between a first sample mounting area on the first structure and a second sample mounting area on the second structure.

  3. Pushing the limits of radiofrequency (RF) neuronal telemetry.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Tara; Diaz, Rodolfo E

    2015-01-01

    In a previous report it was shown that the channel capacity of an in vivo communication link using microscopic antennas at radiofrequency is severely limited by the requirement not to damage the tissue surrounding the antennas. For dipole-like antennas the strong electric field dissipates too much power into body tissues. Loop-type antennas have a strong magnetic near field and so dissipate much less power into the surrounding tissues but they require such a large current that the antenna temperature is raised to the thermal damage threshold of the tissue. The only solution was increasing the antenna size into hundreds of microns, which makes reporting on an individual neuron impossible. However, recently demonstrated true magnetic antennas offer an alternative not covered in the previous report. The near field of these antennas is dominated by the magnetic field yet they don't require large currents. Thus they combine the best characteristics of dipoles and loops. By calculating the coupling between identical magnetic antennas inside a model of the body medium we show an increase in the power transfer of up to 8 orders of magnitude higher than could be realized with the loops and dipoles, making the microscopic RF in-vivo transmitting antenna possible. PMID:26035824

  4. Pushing the limits of radiofrequency (RF) neuronal telemetry

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Tara; Diaz, Rodolfo E.

    2015-01-01

    In a previous report it was shown that the channel capacity of an in vivo communication link using microscopic antennas at radiofrequency is severely limited by the requirement not to damage the tissue surrounding the antennas. For dipole-like antennas the strong electric field dissipates too much power into body tissues. Loop-type antennas have a strong magnetic near field and so dissipate much less power into the surrounding tissues but they require such a large current that the antenna temperature is raised to the thermal damage threshold of the tissue. The only solution was increasing the antenna size into hundreds of microns, which makes reporting on an individual neuron impossible. However, recently demonstrated true magnetic antennas offer an alternative not covered in the previous report. The near field of these antennas is dominated by the magnetic field yet they don’t require large currents. Thus they combine the best characteristics of dipoles and loops. By calculating the coupling between identical magnetic antennas inside a model of the body medium we show an increase in the power transfer of up to 8 orders of magnitude higher than could be realized with the loops and dipoles, making the microscopic RF in-vivo transmitting antenna possible. PMID:26035824

  5. Chemo-mechanical pushing of proteins along single-stranded DNA.

    PubMed

    Sokoloski, Joshua E; Kozlov, Alexander G; Galletto, Roberto; Lohman, Timothy M

    2016-05-31

    Single-stranded (ss)DNA binding (SSB) proteins bind with high affinity to ssDNA generated during DNA replication, recombination, and repair; however, these SSBs must eventually be displaced from or reorganized along the ssDNA. One potential mechanism for reorganization is for an ssDNA translocase (ATP-dependent motor) to push the SSB along ssDNA. Here we use single molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to detect such pushing events. When Cy5-labeled Escherichia coli (Ec) SSB is bound to surface-immobilized 3'-Cy3-labeled ssDNA, a fluctuating FRET signal is observed, consistent with random diffusion of SSB along the ssDNA. Addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pif1, a 5' to 3' ssDNA translocase, results in the appearance of isolated, irregularly spaced saw-tooth FRET spikes only in the presence of ATP. These FRET spikes result from translocase-induced directional (5' to 3') pushing of the SSB toward the 3' ssDNA end, followed by displacement of the SSB from the DNA end. Similar ATP-dependent pushing events, but in the opposite (3' to 5') direction, are observed with EcRep and EcUvrD (both 3' to 5' ssDNA translocases). Simulations indicate that these events reflect active pushing by the translocase. The ability of translocases to chemo-mechanically push heterologous SSB proteins along ssDNA provides a potential mechanism for reorganization and clearance of tightly bound SSBs from ssDNA. PMID:27185951

  6. Prototype pushing robot for emplacing vitrified waste canisters into horizontal disposal drifts

    SciTech Connect

    Londe, L.; Seidler, W.K.; Bosgiraud, J.M.; Guenin, J.J.; Devaux, P.

    2007-07-01

    Within the French Underground Disposal concept, as described in ANDRA's (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs) Dossier 2005, the Pushing Robot is an application envisaged for the emplacement (and the potential retrieval) of 'Vitrified waste packages', also called 'C type packages'. ANDRA has developed a Prototype Pushing Robot within the framework of the ESDRED Project (Engineering Studies and Demonstration of Repository Design) which is co-funded by the European Commission as part of the sixth EURATOM Research and Training Framework Programme (FP6) on nuclear energy (2002 - 2006). The Rationale of the Pushing Robot technology comes from various considerations, including the need for (1) a simple and robust system, capable of moving (and potentially retrieving) on up to 40 metres (m), a 2 tonne C type package (mounted on ceramic sliding runners) inside the carbon steel sleeve constituting the liner (and rock support) of a horizontal disposal cell, (2) small annular clearances between the package and the liner, (3) compactness of the device to be transferred from surface to underground, jointly with the package, inside a shielding cask, and (4) remote controlled operations for the sake of radioprotection. The initial design, based on gripping supports, has been replaced by a 'technical variant' based on inflatable toric jacks. It was then possible, using a test bench, to check that the Pushing Robot worked properly. Steps as high as 7 mm were successfully cleared by a dummy package pushed by the Prototype.. Based on the lessons learned by ANDRA's regarding the Prototype Pushing Robot, a new Scope of Work is being written for the Contract concerning an Industrial Scale Demonstrator. The Industrial Scale Demonstration should be completed by the end of the second Quarter of 2008. (authors)

  7. Alternative technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Corum, L.

    1988-11-01

    We want to get untreated waste out of our landfills, and to do this we want to entice technologies into our state, preferably in the source reduction mode. This is a thumbnail description of the purpose of the Alternative Technologies section (ATS) of the California Department of Health Services (DHS). This paper reports on the ATS program which was initially conceived in recognition that California's relatively strict environmental regulations might be scaring off businesses possessing technologies with the potential to reduce the state's toxic wastes. There are also a lot of great inventors out there and one thing they don't know how to do is move technology into the marketplace. It was hoped that ATS would help shape technologies and move them into appropriate market niches.

  8. Autonomous electrochromic assembly

    DOEpatents

    Berland, Brian Spencer; Lanning, Bruce Roy; Stowell, Jr., Michael Wayne

    2015-03-10

    This disclosure describes system and methods for creating an autonomous electrochromic assembly, and systems and methods for use of the autonomous electrochromic assembly in combination with a window. Embodiments described herein include an electrochromic assembly that has an electrochromic device, an energy storage device, an energy collection device, and an electrochromic controller device. These devices may be combined into a unitary electrochromic insert assembly. The electrochromic assembly may have the capability of generating power sufficient to operate and control an electrochromic device. This control may occur through the application of a voltage to an electrochromic device to change its opacity state. The electrochromic assembly may be used in combination with a window.

  9. Firearm trigger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  10. Automated Simultaneous Assembly for Multistage Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breithaupt, Krista; Ariel, Adelaide; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2005-01-01

    This article offers some solutions used in the assembly of the computerized Uniform Certified Public Accountancy (CPA) licensing examination as practical alternatives for operational programs producing large numbers of forms. The Uniform CPA examination was offered as an adaptive multistage test (MST) beginning in April of 2004. Examples of…

  11. Correcting errors in a quantum gate with pushed ions via optimal control

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, Uffe V.; Sklarz, Shlomo; Tannor, David; Calarco, Tommaso

    2010-07-15

    We analyze in detail the so-called pushing gate for trapped ions, introducing a time-dependent harmonic approximation for the external motion. We show how to extract the average fidelity for the gate from the resulting semiclassical simulations. We characterize and quantify precisely all types of errors coming from the quantum dynamics and reveal that slight nonlinearities in the ion-pushing force can have a dramatic effect on the adiabaticity of gate operation. By means of quantum optimal control techniques, we show how to suppress each of the resulting gate errors in order to reach a high fidelity compatible with scalable fault-tolerant quantum computing.

  12. Comparing the Push-Pull Versus Discard Blood Sample Method From Adult Central Vascular Access Devices.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Dia

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of replacing the discard blood sampling method for central vascular access devices with the push-pull method. A comparative, within-subject design was used to evaluate 61 unique, paired blood samples from 1 adult outpatient oncology clinic. A 21-measure laboratory panel was conducted on each of the paired samples. Interpretation showed a small mean bias and excellent agreement between the methods. Blood samples obtained using the push-pull method were within clinically acceptable ranges. No hemolysis was noted by laboratory evaluation of 59 samples. PMID:27074989

  13. Waste compatibility safety issues and final results for tank 241-T-110 push mode samples

    SciTech Connect

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-05-15

    This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-T-110. Push mode core segments were removed from risers 2 and 6 between January 29, 1997, and February 7, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-T-110 Push Mode Core Sampling and analysis Plan (TSAP) and Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses exceeded the notification limits stated in DQO.

  14. Magnetic self-assembly of small parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetye, Sheetal B.

    Modern society's propensity for miniaturized end-user products is compelling electronic manufacturers to assemble and package different micro-scale, multi-technology components in more efficient and cost-effective manners. As the size of the components gets smaller, issues such as part sticking and alignment precision create challenges that slow the throughput of conventional robotic pick-n-place systems. As an alternative, various self-assembly approaches have been proposed to manipulate micro to millimeter scale components in a parallel fashion without human or robotic intervention. In this dissertation, magnetic self-assembly (MSA) is demonstrated as a highly efficient, completely parallel process for assembly of millimeter scale components. MSA is achieved by integrating permanent micromagnets onto component bonding surfaces using wafer-level microfabrication processes. Embedded bonded powder methods are used for fabrication of the magnets. The magnets are then magnetized using pulse magnetization methods, and the wafers are then singulated to form individual components. When the components are randomly mixed together, self-assembly occurs when the intermagnetic forces overcome the mixing forces. Analytical and finite element methods (FEM) are used to study the force interactions between the micromagnets. The multifunctional aspects of MSA are presented through demonstration of part-to-part and part-to-substrate assembly of 1 mm x 1mm x 0.5 mm silicon components. Part-to-part assembly is demonstrated by batch assembly of free-floating parts in a liquid environment with the assembly yield of different magnetic patterns varying from 88% to 90% in 20 s. Part-to-substrate assembly is demonstrated by assembling an ordered array onto a fixed substrate in a dry environment with the assembly yield varying from 86% to 99%. In both cases, diverse magnetic shapes/patterns are used to control the alignment and angular orientation of the components. A mathematical model is

  15. Assembly-line Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, Robert G.; Zendejas, Silvino; Malhotra, Shan

    1987-01-01

    Costs and profits estimated for models based on user inputs. Standard Assembly-line Manufacturing Industry Simulation (SAMIS) program generalized so useful for production-line manufacturing companies. Provides accurate and reliable means of comparing alternative manufacturing processes. Used to assess impact of changes in financial parameters as cost of resources and services, inflation rates, interest rates, tax policies, and required rate of return of equity. Most important capability is ability to estimate prices manufacturer would have to receive for its products to recover all of costs of production and make specified profit. Written in TURBO PASCAL.

  16. Hugs and Behaviour Points: Alternative Education and the Regulation of "Excluded" Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat; Pennacchia, Jodie

    2016-01-01

    In England, alternative education (AE) is offered to young people formally excluded from school, close to formal exclusion or who have been informally pushed to the educational edges of their local school. Their behaviour is seen as needing to change. In this paper, we examine the behavioural regimes at work in 11 AE programmes. Contrary to…

  17. Space assembly methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, J. W.; Watters, H. H.

    1981-02-01

    Large space structure assembly analysis techniques are defined and simulation activities are described. The simulations included are: an extravehicular activity assembly simulation; a fabricated beam assembly series using a beam generating machine end caps, and cross beam brackets; deployment of a deployable truss, using the neutral buoyancy remote manipulator system with crewman assistance; and a series aboard the KC-135 zero g aircraft.

  18. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, Jurgen

    1994-01-01

    A membrane module assembly adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation.

  19. Membrane module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Kaschemekat, J.

    1994-03-15

    A membrane module assembly is described which is adapted to provide a flow path for the incoming feed stream that forces it into prolonged heat-exchanging contact with a heating or cooling mechanism. Membrane separation processes employing the module assembly are also disclosed. The assembly is particularly useful for gas separation or pervaporation. 2 figures.

  20. Relation between Nonlinear Optical Properties of Push-Pull Molecules and Metric of Charge Transfer Excitations.

    PubMed

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Zaleśny, Robert; Murugan, N Arul; Kongsted, Jacob; Bartkowiak, Wojciech; Ågren, Hans

    2015-09-01

    We establish the relationships between the metric of charge transfer excitation (Δr) for the bright ππ* state and the two-photon absorption probability as well as the first hyperpolarizability for two families of push-pull π-conjugated systems. As previously demonstrated by Guido et al. (J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2013, 9, 3118-3126), Δr is a measure for the average hole-electron distance upon excitation and can be used to discriminate between short- and long-range electronic excitations. We indicate two new benefits from using this metric for the analyses of nonlinear optical properties of push-pull systems. First, the two-photon absorption probability and the first hyperpolarizability are found to be interrelated through Δr; if β ∼ (Δr)(k), then roughly, δ(TPA) ∼ (Δr)(k+1). Second, a simple power relation between Δr and the molecular hyperpolarizabilities of push-pull systems offers the possibility of estimating properties for longer molecular chains without performing calculations of high-order response functions explicitly. We further demonstrate how to link the hyperpolarizabilities with the chain length of the push-pull π-conjugated systems through the metric of charge transfer. PMID:26575913

  1. Backers Say Chicago Project Not "Radical:" '90s Annenberg Reform Push an Issue in Presidential Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakara I.

    2008-01-01

    The Chicago Annenberg Challenge, chaired from 1995 to 1999 by Barack Obama, is being portrayed by John McCain's campaign as an attempt to push radicalism on schools. Founders of the project say it has been distorted in the presidential campaign. The project undertaken in Chicago as part of a high-profile national initiative reflected, however,…

  2. Making Sense of the Arrow-Pushing Formalism among Chemistry Majors Enrolled in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Robert; Bodner, George M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports results of a qualitative study of sixteen students enrolled in a second year organic chemistry course for chemistry and chemical engineering majors. The focus of the study was student use of the arrow-pushing formalism that plays a central role in both the teaching and practice of organic chemistry. The goal of the study was to…

  3. Six Impossible Mechanisms before Breakfast: Arrow Pushing as an Instructional Device in Inorganic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Steffen; Ghosh, Abhik

    2013-01-01

    In a recent article by the authors, the suggestion was made that arrow pushing, a widely used tool in organic chemistry, could also be profitably employed in the teaching of introductory inorganic chemistry. A number of relatively simple reactions were used to illustrate this thesis, raising the question whether the same approach might rationalize…

  4. DETECTION OF A GROUND-WATER/SURFACE-WATER INTERFACE WITH DIRECT-PUSH EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A ground-water/surface-water interface (GSI) was documented at the Thermo Chem CERCLA Site in Muskegon, MI via direct-push (DP) sampling. At that time, contaminated ground water flowed from the upland area of the site into the Black Creek floodplain. DP rods equipped with a 1.5...

  5. Itinerant Deaf Educator and General Educator Perceptions of the D/HH Push-in Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinsky, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    A qualitative case study using the deaf and hard of hearing (D/HH) push-in model was conducted on the perceptions of 3 itinerant deaf educators and 3 general educators working in 1 school district. Participants worked in pairs of 1 deaf educator and 1 general educator at 3 elementary schools. Open-ended research questions guided the study, which…

  6. Even the Snow Is White: Displacement and Literary Ecology in Diane Glancy's "Pushing the Bear"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hada, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Diane Glancy's historical fiction, "Pushing the Bear", reconstructs one episode in the Cherokee Trails of Tears (there were actually several relocations to the west, for the Cherokee and the other eastern tribes of the same period). The Removal of eastern peoples from their ancestral lands westward to eventual resettlement in Oklahoma is a…

  7. Pushed or Pulled? Exploring the Factors Underpinning Graduate Start-Ups and Non-Start-Ups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nabi, G.; Walmsley, A.; Holden, R.

    2015-01-01

    The study explores the nature and mixture of push--pull factors in the journey from higher education into graduate entrepreneurship. Using longitudinal data from 15 graduates of a British university, it compares graduates who started their own business with graduates that did not. Importantly, both groups had initially indicated a strong desire to…

  8. MEASURING VERTICAL PROFILES OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY WITH IN SITU DIRECT-PUSH METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) staff developed a field procedure to measure hydraulic conductivity using a direct-push system to obtain vertical profiles of hydraulic conductivity. Vertical profiles were obtained using an in situ field device-composed of a
    Geopr...

  9. EMISSION TESTING AND EVALUATION OF THE ENCLOSED COKE PUSHING AND QUENCHING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a coke battery, placed into operation in May 1973 by National Steel's Weirton Steel Division, Weirton, WV. Consisting of 87 ovens, each 6 m tall, the battery includes features to reduce environmental discharges from the coke pushing and quenching operations. ...

  10. "You Hafta Push": Using Sapphire's Novel to Teach Introduction to American Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappas, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Using fiction in the classroom can dramatize public policy issues and political science concepts, therefore, making them more real and relevant to students. Sapphire's 1996 novel "Push" puts a face on welfare, rape, incest, child abuse, educational inequalities, homophobia, and AIDS. I also use this novel to discuss the public policy process,…

  11. Voices from the "Working Lives" Project: The Push-Pull of Work and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehring, Heather; Herring, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    A recent policy direction in many OECD countries has been to increase workforce participation for women of childbearing age; a policy direction which seemingly runs counter to a need for improved work-life balance for women themselves. This article explores the impact of this somewhat contradictory "push-pull" of policy by examining some…

  12. Laboratory evaluation techniques to investigate the spatial potential of repellents for push & pull mosquito control systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A protocol has been developed for the indoor evaluation of candidate spatial repellents intended for use in push and pull systems. Single treatments (catnip oil, 1-methylpiperazine and homopiperazine) and a mixture of catnip oil and homopiperazine were tested with yellow-fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegy...

  13. On Parallel Push-Relabel based Algorithms for Bipartite Maximum Matching

    SciTech Connect

    Langguth, Johannes; Azad, Md Ariful; Halappanavar, Mahantesh; Manne, Fredrik

    2014-07-01

    We study multithreaded push-relabel based algorithms for computing maximum cardinality matching in bipartite graphs. Matching is a fundamental combinatorial (graph) problem with applications in a wide variety of problems in science and engineering. We are motivated by its use in the context of sparse linear solvers for computing maximum transversal of a matrix. We implement and test our algorithms on several multi-socket multicore systems and compare their performance to state-of-the-art augmenting path-based serial and parallel algorithms using a testset comprised of a wide range of real-world instances. Building on several heuristics for enhancing performance, we demonstrate good scaling for the parallel push-relabel algorithm. We show that it is comparable to the best augmenting path-based algorithms for bipartite matching. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first extensive study of multithreaded push-relabel based algorithms. In addition to a direct impact on the applications using matching, the proposed algorithmic techniques can be extended to preflow-push based algorithms for computing maximum flow in graphs.

  14. Animals pushed to their limits: what are the implications for welfare?

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    From working horses to dairy cows to dogs, animals are being pushed to their biological limits. But how far can we go before their health and welfare is compromised? This was one of the questions discussed at a recent meeting organised jointly by CABI and the Royal Veterinary College. Georgina Mills reports. PMID:27493044

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS COMPARING KRESS INDIRECT DRY COOLING WITH CONVENTIONAL COKE OVEN PUSHING AND QUENCHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process and gives results of an evaluation through baseline and demonstration emission testing. he KIDC process offers a technology that has the potential to reduce emissions from coke pushing and quenching at existing cok...

  16. The Complexity of Non-Completion: Being Pushed or Pulled to Drop out of High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Christen L.; Renzulli, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Using a model of student dropout with only two possible outcomes--"still in school" or "dropout"--hides the complex reasons that students leave high school. We offer a model with three outcomes: in school, pushed out or pulled out. Using data from the Educational Longitudinal Survey, we find that for black students, differences in SES explain…

  17. An Information Push-Delivery System Design for Personal Information Service on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chen-Tung; Tai, Wei-Shen

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of information overload from the Internet focuses on an information push-delivery system, which applies fuzzy information retrieval and fuzzy similarity measurement to avoid the information overload problem. Describes an empirical investigation conducted with students at Da-Yeh University (Taiwan) that investigated satisfaction with a…

  18. From Source to Sink: Mechanistic Reasoning Using the Electron-Pushing Formalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2013-01-01

    Since the introduction of Morrison and Boyd's textbook in organic chemistry over 50 years ago, reaction mechanisms and mechanistic reasoning using the electron-pushing formalism (EPF) have become a mainstay of organic chemistry courses. In recent years there have even been several papers in this Journal and others detailing research on how…

  19. Is There Empirical Evidence That Charter Schools "Push Out" Low-Performing Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Ron W.; Guarino, Cassandra M.

    2013-01-01

    A major concern among opponents to charter schools is whether these schools will serve all students. Some have raised concerns that charter schools will "push out" low-achieving students in hopes of improving the schools' academic profile while minimizing costs by educating fewer challenging students. In this article, we use data…

  20. EMISSION TESTING AND EVALUATION OF FORD/KOPPERS COKE PUSHING CONTROL SYSTEM. VOLUME II. APPENDICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents a field testing and engineering evaluation of the performance of a retrofitted, mobile-hood, high-energy-scrubber control system, abating coke-side pushing emissions from a 58-oven coke battery. It documents the venturi-scrubber inlet and outlet emission rate...

  1. EMISSION TESTING AND EVALUATION OF FORD/KOPPERS COKE PUSHING CONTROL SYSTEM. VOLUME I. FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents a field testing and engineering evaluation of the performance of a retrofitted, mobile-hood, high-energy-scrubber control system, abating coke-side pushing emissions from a 58-oven coke battery. It documents the venturi-scrubber inlet and outlet emission rate...

  2. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David H.

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  3. Field Comparison of Direct-Push Approaches for Determination of K-Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, P.; Butler, J. J.; Yaramanci, U.; Wittig, V.; Tiggelmann, L.; Schoofs, S.

    2003-12-01

    A large body of theoretical and experimental research has shown that spatial variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) are a significant factor in determining how groundwater and accompanying contaminants move in the subsurface. Therefore, a wide variety of direct and indirect techniques have been developed for the characterization of K variations at a site. Methods based on direct-push technology have much potential for use in shallow unconsolidated settings. However, the various direct-push methods differ in their expense, in terms of time, money, and effort, and the nature (qualitative vs. quantitative) of the information that they can provide. A field study was carried out at a test site near Nauen, Germany to evaluate and compare several direct-push methods for determination of spatial variations in K. The test site was established by the Department of Applied Geophysics of the Technical University of Berlin in collaboration with the German Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources. Extensive geophysical surface measurements (surface nuclear magnetic resonance, georadar, refraction seismic, and 2D dc geoelectrics), as well as data from a continuously cored borehole, are available. These data provide a controlled framework for the evaluation of different direct-push methods for the characterization of spatial variations in hydraulic conductivity. The following direct-push methods were investigated in this study: electrical conductivity (EC) and cone penetrometer (CPT) logging, slug tests, injection logging, and the direct-push permeameter (DPP). In addition, natural gamma (NG) logging was performed in pipe installed with direct-push technology. EC, CPT, and NG logging are very fast, but do not provide direct estimates of K. Their successful use for site characterization depends on the appropriateness of the applied empirical relationships. As shown by the results from Nauen, EC, CPT, and NG logging are often limited to the delineation of major

  4. Interconnect assembly for an electronic assembly and assembly method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Gerbsch, Erich William

    2003-06-10

    An interconnect assembly and method for a semiconductor device, in which the interconnect assembly can be used in lieu of wirebond connections to form an electronic assembly. The interconnect assembly includes first and second interconnect members. The first interconnect member has a first surface with a first contact and a second surface with a second contact electrically connected to the first contact, while the second interconnect member has a flexible finger contacting the second contact of the first interconnect member. The first interconnect member is adapted to be aligned and registered with a semiconductor device having a contact on a first surface thereof, so that the first contact of the first interconnect member electrically contacts the contact of the semiconductor device. Consequently, the assembly method does not require any wirebonds, but instead merely entails aligning and registering the first interconnect member with the semiconductor device so that the contacts of the first interconnect member and the semiconductor device make electrically contact, and then contacting the second contact of the first interconnect member with the flexible finger of the second interconnect member.

  5. In situ push-pull method to determine ground water denitrification in riparian zones.

    PubMed

    Addy, Kelly; Kellogg, D Q; Gold, Arthur J; Groffman, Peter M; Ferendo, Gina; Sawyer, Carl

    2002-01-01

    To quantify ground water denitrification in discrete locations of riparian aquifers, we modified and evaluated an in situ method based on conservative tracers and 15N-enriched nitrate. Ground water was "pushed" (i.e., injected) into a mini-piezometer and then "pulled" (i.e., extracted) from the same mini-piezometer after an incubation period. This push-pull method was applied in replicate mini-piezometers at two Rhode Island riparian sites, one fresh water and one brackish water. Conservative tracer pretests were conducted to determine incubation periods, ranging from 5 to 120 h, to optimize recovery of introduced plumes. For nitrate push-pull tests, we used two conservative tracers, sulfur hexafluoride and bromide, to provide insight into plume recovery. The two conservative tracers behaved similarly. The dosing solutions were amended with 15N-enriched nitrate that enabled us to quantify the mass of denitrification gases generated during the incubation period. The in situ push-pull method detected substantial denitrification rates at a site where we had previously observed high denitrification rates. At our brackish site, we found high rates of ground water denitrification in marsh locations and minimal denitrification in soils fringing the marsh. The push-pull method can provide useful insights into spatial and temporal patterns of denitrification in riparian zones. The method is robust and results are not seriously affected by dilution or degassing from ground water to soil air. In conjunction with measurements of ground water flow-paths, this method holds promise for evaluating the influence of site and management factors on the ground water nitrate removal capacity of riparian zones. PMID:12026069

  6. An investigation of rugby scrimmaging posture and individual maximum pushing force.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Lan; Chang, Jyh-Jong; Wu, Jia-Hroung; Guo, Lan-Yuen

    2007-02-01

    Although rugby is a popular contact sport and the isokinetic muscle torque assessment has recently found widespread application in the field of sports medicine, little research has examined the factors associated with the performance of game-specific skills directly by using the isokinetic-type rugby scrimmaging machine. This study is designed to (a) measure and observe the differences in the maximum individual pushing forward force produced by scrimmaging in different body postures (3 body heights x 2 foot positions) with a self-developed rugby scrimmaging machine and (b) observe the variations in hip, knee, and ankle angles at different body postures and explore the relationship between these angle values and the individual maximum pushing force. Ten national rugby players were invited to participate in the examination. The experimental equipment included a self-developed rugby scrimmaging machine and a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Our results showed that the foot positions (parallel and nonparallel foot positions) do not affect the maximum pushing force; however, the maximum pushing force was significantly lower in posture I (36% body height) than in posture II (38%) and posture III (40%). The maximum forward force in posture III (40% body height) was also slightly greater than for the scrum in posture II (38% body height). In addition, it was determined that hip, knee, and ankle angles under parallel feet positioning are factors that are closely negatively related in terms of affecting maximum pushing force in scrimmaging. In cross-feet postures, there was a positive correlation between individual forward force and hip angle of the rear leg. From our results, we can conclude that if the player stands in an appropriate starting position at the early stage of scrimmaging, it will benefit the forward force production. PMID:17313278

  7. Fast Regulation of Vertical Squat Jump during Push-Off in Skilled Jumpers

    PubMed Central

    Fargier, Patrick; Massarelli, Raphael; Rabahi, Tahar; Gemignani, Angelo; Fargier, Emile

    2016-01-01

    The height of a maximum Vertical Squat Jump (VSJ) reflects the useful power produced by a jumper during the push-off phase. In turn this partly depends on the coordination of the jumper's segmental rotations at each instant. The physical system constituted by the jumper has been shown to be very sensitive to perturbations and furthermore the movement is realized in a very short time (ca. 300 ms), compared to the timing of known feedback loops. However, the dynamics of the segmental coordination and its efficiency in relation to energetics at each instant of the push-off phase still remained to be clarified. Their study was the main purpose of the present research. Eight young adult volunteers (males) performed maximal VSJ. They were skilled in jumping according to their sport activities (track and field or volleyball). A video analysis on the kinematics of the jump determined the influence of the jumpers' segments rotation on the vertical velocity and acceleration of the body mass center (MC). The efficiency in the production of useful power at the jumpers' MC level, by the rotation of the segments, was measured in consequence. The results showed a great variability in the segmental movements of the eight jumpers, but homogeneity in the overall evolution of these movements with three consecutive types of coordination in the second part of the push-off (lasting roughly 0.16 s). Further analyses gave insights on the regulation of the push-off, suggesting that very fast regulation(s) of the VSJ may be supported by: (a) the adaptation of the motor cerebral programming to the jumper's physical characteristics; (b) the control of the initial posture; and (c) the jumper's perception of the position of his MC relative to the ground reaction force, during push-off, to reduce energetic losses. PMID:27486404

  8. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P; Clark, John M; Reynolds, Stuart E; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Feil, Edward J; Urrutia, Araxi O

    2015-10-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  9. Alternative Splice in Alternative Lice

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Corona, Jaime M.; Castillo-Morales, Atahualpa; Chen, Lu; Olds, Brett P.; Clark, John M.; Reynolds, Stuart E.; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Feil, Edward J.; Urrutia, Araxi O.

    2015-01-01

    Genomic and transcriptomics analyses have revealed human head and body lice to be almost genetically identical; although con-specific, they nevertheless occupy distinct ecological niches and have differing feeding patterns. Most importantly, while head lice are not known to be vector competent, body lice can transmit three serious bacterial diseases; epidemictyphus, trench fever, and relapsing fever. In order to gain insights into the molecular bases for these differences, we analyzed alternative splicing (AS) using next-generation sequencing data for one strain of head lice and one strain of body lice. We identified a total of 3,598 AS events which were head or body lice specific. Exon skipping AS events were overrepresented among both head and body lice, whereas intron retention events were underrepresented in both. However, both the enrichment of exon skipping and the underrepresentation of intron retention are significantly stronger in body lice compared with head lice. Genes containing body louse-specific AS events were found to be significantly enriched for functions associated with development of the nervous system, salivary gland, trachea, and ovarian follicle cells, as well as regulation of transcription. In contrast, no functional categories were overrepresented among genes with head louse-specific AS events. Together, our results constitute the first evidence for transcript pool differences in head and body lice, providing insights into molecular adaptations that enabled human lice to adapt to clothing, and representing a powerful illustration of the pivotal role AS can play in functional adaptation. PMID:26169943

  10. Evaluation of the KIDC (Kress Indirect Dry Cooling) system for coke oven pushing and quench tower emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Vajda, S.

    1988-09-23

    The KIDC system, as observed at Granite City Steel on June 21, 1988, eliminates both pushing and quenching emissions. The coke is pushed into a container that is slightly wider and longer than the oven. The container is sealed at the oven door jamb, a guillotine door on the container is opened at the oven for the push and is closed and sealed after the push. A slightly negative pressure is maintained in the container during the push to prevent any pollutants from exiting into the oven or escaping to the atmosphere. The pushing force is only slightly higher than the normal push. No volatile gas mixtures are in the container box since oxygen is effectively absent. Coke yield is improved. Coke quality is improved similarly to existing dry quench systems. Since the system is environmentally sealed, some coking can take place in the container, ovens could be pushed slightly earlier, improving the production of the battery. The production of the blast furnace could be expected to improve, when the improved quality KIDC coke is used. 13 refs.

  11. Telerobotic truss assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Philip L.

    1987-01-01

    The ACCESS truss was telerobotically assembled in order to gain experience with robotic assembly of hardware designed for astronaut extravehicular (EVA) assembly. Tight alignment constraints of the ACCESS hardware made telerobotic assembly difficult. A wider alignment envelope and a compliant end effector would have reduced the problem. The manipulator had no linear motion capability, but many of the assembly operations required straight line motion. The manipulator was attached to a motion table in order to provide the X, Y, and Z translations needed. A programmable robot with linear translation capability would have eliminated the need for the motion table and streamlined the assembly. Poor depth perception was a major problem. Shaded paint schemes and alignment lines were helpful in reducing this problem. The four cameras used worked well for only some operations. It was not possible to identify camera locations that worked well for all assembly steps. More cameras or movable cameras would have simplified some operations. The audio feedback system was useful.

  12. Effects of push-up exercise on shoulder stabilizer muscle activation according to the grip thickness of the push-up bar

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaemin; Cho, Woonik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of bar thickness on shoulder stabilizer muscle activation during push-up exercise. [Subjects] Twenty-six healthy male adults in their twenties. [Methods] The study had four experimental conditions (grip thicknesses of 0%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the subjects’ hand size). Measurements were conducted from the start to the end of push-up for deltoid anterior fiber, deltoid posterior fiber, infraspinatus, serratus anterior, and pectoralis major muscle activation. [Results] The deltoid anterior fiber muscle activity was 4,852.6 ± 975.2 in the 0%, 5,787.3 ± 1,514.1 in the 50%, 5,635.3 ± 1,220.1 in the 75%, and 5,032.9 ± 841.0 in the 100% condition. The infraspinatus muscle activity was 1,877.2 ± 451.3 in the 0%, 2,310.9 ± 765.4 in the 50%, 2,353.6 ± 761.9 in the 75%, and 2,016.8 ± 347.7 in the 100% condition. The pectoralis major muscle activity was 1,675.8 ± 355.1 in the 0%, 2,365.5 ± 1,287.3 in the 50%, 2,125.3 ± 382.5 in the 75%, and 1,878.8 ± 419.7 in the 100% condition, showing significant differences respectively. [Conclusion] The use of push-up bars with different thicknesses customized to personal characteristics, rather than the conventional standard, could be more effective for training and rehabilitation. PMID:26504343

  13. Effects of push-up exercise on shoulder stabilizer muscle activation according to the grip thickness of the push-up bar.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaemin; Cho, Woonik

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of bar thickness on shoulder stabilizer muscle activation during push-up exercise. [Subjects] Twenty-six healthy male adults in their twenties. [Methods] The study had four experimental conditions (grip thicknesses of 0%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the subjects' hand size). Measurements were conducted from the start to the end of push-up for deltoid anterior fiber, deltoid posterior fiber, infraspinatus, serratus anterior, and pectoralis major muscle activation. [Results] The deltoid anterior fiber muscle activity was 4,852.6 ± 975.2 in the 0%, 5,787.3 ± 1,514.1 in the 50%, 5,635.3 ± 1,220.1 in the 75%, and 5,032.9 ± 841.0 in the 100% condition. The infraspinatus muscle activity was 1,877.2 ± 451.3 in the 0%, 2,310.9 ± 765.4 in the 50%, 2,353.6 ± 761.9 in the 75%, and 2,016.8 ± 347.7 in the 100% condition. The pectoralis major muscle activity was 1,675.8 ± 355.1 in the 0%, 2,365.5 ± 1,287.3 in the 50%, 2,125.3 ± 382.5 in the 75%, and 1,878.8 ± 419.7 in the 100% condition, showing significant differences respectively. [Conclusion] The use of push-up bars with different thicknesses customized to personal characteristics, rather than the conventional standard, could be more effective for training and rehabilitation. PMID:26504343

  14. Alternative Pathways to Apprenticeships. Good Practice Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2015

    2015-01-01

    Apprenticeships are changing. The increasing proportions of people entering apprenticeships at various levels of ability and backgrounds are stimulating demand for alternative pathways to completions. This good practice guide assembles the key findings for education practitioners and workplace supervisors from three related research reports on…

  15. Multifunctional self-assembled monolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Zawodzinski, T.; Bar, G.; Rubin, S.; Uribe, F.; Ferrais, J.

    1996-06-01

    This is the final report of at three year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The specific goals of this research project were threefold: to develop multifunctional self-assembled monolayers, to understand the role of monolayer structure on the functioning of such systems, and to apply this knowledge to the development of electrochemical enzyme sensors. An array of molecules that can be used to attach electrochemically active biomolecules to gold surfaces has been synthesized. Several members of a class of electroactive compounds have been characterized and the factors controlling surface modification are beginning to be characterized. Enzymes have been attached to self-assembled molecules arranged on the gold surface, a critical step toward the ultimate goal of this project. Several alternative enzyme attachment strategies to achieve robust enzyme- modified surfaces have been explored. Several means of juxtaposing enzymes and mediators, electroactive compounds through which the enzyme can exchange electrons with the electrode surface, have also been investigated. Finally, the development of sensitive biosensors based on films loaded with nanoscale-supported gold particles that have surface modified with the self-assembled enzyme and mediator have been explored.

  16. Refinement of Bos taurus sequence assembly based on BAC-FISH experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The sequencing of the cow genome was recently published (Btau_4.0 assembly). A second, alternate cow genome assembly (UMD2), based on the same raw sequence data, was also published. The two assemblies have been subsequently updated to Btau_4.2 and UMD3.1 respectively. Results: We accura...

  17. Cleaning solvent substitution in electronic assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, G.J.

    1993-09-01

    Alternatives to chlorinated and fluorinated solvents have been identified, qualified, and implemented into production of complex electronic assemblies. Extensive compatibility studies were performed with components, piece-parts, and materials. Electrical testing and accelerated aging were used to screen for detrimental, long-term effects. A terpene, d-limonene, has been selected as the solvent of choice for cleaning complex electronic assemblies, and has been found to be compatible with the components and materials tested. A brief history of the overall project will be presented, along with representative cleaning efficiency results, compatibility results, and residual solvent data.

  18. The "push-to-low" approach for optimization of high-density perfusion cultures of animal cells.

    PubMed

    Konstantinov, Konstantin; Goudar, Chetan; Ng, Maria; Meneses, Renato; Thrift, John; Chuppa, Sandy; Matanguihan, Cary; Michaels, Jim; Naveh, David

    2006-01-01

    High product titer is considered a strategic advantage of fed-batch over perfusion cultivation mode. The titer difference has been experimentally demonstrated and reported in the literature. However, the related theoretical aspects and strategies for optimization of perfusion processes with respect to their fed-batch counterparts have not been thoroughly explored. The present paper introduces a unified framework for comparison of fed-batch and perfusion cultures, and proposes directions for improvement of the latter. The comparison is based on the concept of "equivalent specific perfusion rate", a variable that conveniently bridges various cultivation modes. The analysis shows that development of economically competitive perfusion processes for production of stable proteins depends on our ability to dramatically reduce the dilution rate while keeping high cell density, i.e., operating at low specific perfusion rates. Under these conditions, titer increases significantly, approaching the range of fed-batch titers. However, as dilution rate is decreased, a limit is reached below which performance declines due to poor growth and viability, specific productivity, or product instability. To overcome these limitations, a strategy referred to as "push-to-low" optimization has been developed. This approach involves an iterative stepwise decrease of the specific perfusion rate, and is most suitable for production of stable proteins where increased residence time does not compromise apparent specific productivity or product quality. The push-to-low approach was successfully applied to the production of monoclonal antibody against tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The experimental results followed closely the theoretical prediction, providing a multifold increase in titer. Despite the medium improvement, reduction of the specific growth rate along with increased apoptosis was observed at low specific perfusion rates. This phenomenon could not be explained with limitation or

  19. Development of micro push-pull tests to investigate rhizosphere processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knecht, K.; Nowack, B.; Schroth, M. H.; Schulin, R.

    2009-04-01

    The rhizosphere differs from the bulk soil due to the influence of the roots and the associated microbial and fungal activity. Most mechanistic rhizosphere research is undertaken in microcosms, often in the absence of soil. This has resulted in a fragmented understanding of many rhizospheric processes. The use of micro-techniques for the collection of soil solution enables non-destructive in situ observation of soil solution chemistry and aspects of soil solution biology. In conjunction with rhizoboxes that allow observing the development of root systems through a transparent front plate, micro-suction cups have been used successfully to collect soil solution adjacent to roots. This permits the determination of solute concentrations in the rhizosphere at high spatial and temporal resolution. Our goal now is to combine micro-suction cups with the technique of push-pull tests to create a miniaturized system that will be applicable to study reactions and exudation rates in the rhizosphere under conditions as undisturbed as possible. Push-pull tests have been used extensively on a larger scale for the investigation of chemical, physical and biological pollutant transport and degradation processes in aquifers. In a push-pull test, a solution containing reactive and non-reactive tracers is injected into an aquifer. After a defined time the test-solution/groundwater mixture is then extracted from the same location. As a first step we developed and tested a micro push-pull test procedure in sand-filled boxes under water-saturated conditions. We slowly injected about 250 μl solution and extracted 800 μl solution in increments of about 70 μl. As conservative tracers we used Acid Red 1 and bromide. The data were successfully modeled taking account of advection, dispersion and molecular diffusion. To study microbial degradation of exudates (e.g. citrate), push-pull tests were carried out in sand-filled boxes inoculated with denitrifying bacteria in the absence and presence

  20. Wind turbine rotor assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, H. W.

    1984-11-20

    A vertical axis wind turbine having a horizontal arm member which supports an upright blade assembly. Bearing structure coupling the blade assembly to the turbine arm permits blade movement about its longitudinal axis as well as flexing motion of the blade assembly about axes perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. A latching mechanism automatically locks the blade assembly to its supporting arm during normal turbine operation and automatically unlocks same when the turbine is at rest. For overspeed prevention, a centrifugally actuated arm functions to unlatch the blade assembly permitting same to slipstream or feather into the wind. Manually actuated means are also provided for unlatching the moving blade assembly. The turbine arm additionally carries a switching mechanism in circuit with a turbine generator with said mechanism functioning to open and hence protect the generator circuit in the event of an overspeed condition of the turbine.

  1. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    DOEpatents

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  2. An Optimal Pull-Push Scheduling Algorithm Based on Network Coding for Mesh Peer-to-Peer Live Streaming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Laizhong; Jiang, Yong; Wu, Jianping; Xia, Shutao

    Most large-scale Peer-to-Peer (P2P) live streaming systems are constructed as a mesh structure, which can provide robustness in the dynamic P2P environment. The pull scheduling algorithm is widely used in this mesh structure, which degrades the performance of the entire system. Recently, network coding was introduced in mesh P2P streaming systems to improve the performance, which makes the push strategy feasible. One of the most famous scheduling algorithms based on network coding is R2, with a random push strategy. Although R2 has achieved some success, the push scheduling strategy still lacks a theoretical model and optimal solution. In this paper, we propose a novel optimal pull-push scheduling algorithm based on network coding, which consists of two stages: the initial pull stage and the push stage. The main contributions of this paper are: 1) we put forward a theoretical analysis model that considers the scarcity and timeliness of segments; 2) we formulate the push scheduling problem to be a global optimization problem and decompose it into local optimization problems on individual peers; 3) we introduce some rules to transform the local optimization problem into a classical min-cost optimization problem for solving it; 4) We combine the pull strategy with the push strategy and systematically realize our scheduling algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that decode delay, decode ratio and redundant fraction of the P2P streaming system with our algorithm can be significantly improved, without losing throughput and increasing overhead.

  3. Dynamic pushing on three frictional surfaces: maximum acceptable forces, cardiopulmonary and calf muscle metabolic responses in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Maikala, Rammohan V; Dempsey, Patrick G; Ciriello, Vincent M; O'Brien, Niall V

    2009-06-01

    Pushing is an important materials handling activity in many occupations; however, pushing-related physiological investigations are still in infancy. The purpose was to evaluate maximum acceptable forces and physiological responses while pushing on: treadmill (TREAD); plywood floor (PLY); and Teflon floor (TEF). Acceptable forces, cardiopulmonary and calf muscle oxygenation and blood volume responses were collected simultaneously while 12 men (age 39 +/- 13 years; height 178 +/- 6 cm; and body mass 91.5 +/- 16 kg) pushed for 2 h on each surface at their psychophysical workload. Participants selected higher forces on the PLY, resulting in higher pulmonary oxygen uptake compared to that of TEF (by approximately 9%) and TREAD (by approximately 18%). Pushing on the TEF demonstrated 50-56% lower blood volume changes and 1.5-1.8 times more oxygenation-force ratio than that for other surfaces. It is concluded that, to avoid a potential slip, participants were conservative in selecting acceptable forces to push on the slippery TEF. Part of this compensatory strategy on the TEF resulted in less muscle activity and, therefore, less demand for oxygen delivery to the calf muscle than for other surfaces. The present findings of significant force- and physiological-related differences in treadmill vs. high inertia pushcart clearly demonstrate that pushing experiments are essential to evaluate functional abilities of the workers. PMID:19431004

  4. EVALUATION OF SHEAR RESISTANCE OF PERFOBOND STRIP BASED ON SIMPLE PUSH-OUT TEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Akinori; Koseki, Soichiro; Hashimoto, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Yasuo; Nguyen, Minh Hai

    A perfobond strip is generally used as the shear connector in the various steel-concrete hybrid structures and a few design formulas for evaluating the shear resistance of the perfobond strip are proposed. However, these design formulas are not always applicable to the one employed in the steel-concrete rigid frame bridge, since the formulas are established based on the standard push-out specimen for the stud shear connector in which some cracks may occur in the concrete block of the specimen during the test. In this paper, the shear resistance of the perfobond strip are examined experimentally by employing the simple push-out specimen different from the standard one for the stud shear connector. As a result, the design formula is proposed for evaluating the shear resistance of the perfobond strip taking into account the proportion of the concrete block as well as the perforation size and the concrete compressive strength.

  5. Push-pull flexibly-bridged bis(haloBODIPYs): solvent and spacer switchable red emission.

    PubMed

    Ray, César; Bañuelos, Jorge; Arbeloa, Teresa; Maroto, Beatriz L; Moreno, Florencio; Agarrabeitia, Antonia R; Ortiz, María J; López-Arbeloa, Iñigo; de la Moya, Santiago

    2016-08-01

    A series of uncommon bis(BODIPYs), involving a flexible bridge linking the BODIPY α-positions and key functionalities to efficiently give an electronic push-pull effect, has been synthesized, as well as photophysically and structurally studied. It is demonstrated that the designed push-pull effect efficiently enables intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) processes upon photoexcitation, with the generated low-lying ICT state being the main deactivation channel from the locally excited state and, hence, ruling the fluorescence response. Noticeably, this response is modulated by the solvent polarity, and also by the bridge structure. Regarding this, BINOL- and BINAM-based bridges are found to promote an interesting unprecedented solvent-switchable dual emission from the ICT state with high Stokes shifts, triggering a significant bright red emission in less polar media. PMID:27378499

  6. Particle Engulfment and Pushing By Solidifying Interfaces - Recent Theoretical and Experimental Developments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.; Catalina, A. V.; Juretzko, Frank R.; Sen, Subhayu; Curreri, P. A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the work on Particle Engulfment and Pushing by Solidifying Interfaces (PEP) include: 1) to obtain fundamental understanding of the physics of particle pushing and engulfment, 2) to develop mathematical models to describe the phenomenon, and 3) to perform critical experiments in the microgravity environment of space to provide benchmark data for model validation. Successful completion of this project will yield vital information relevant to a diverse area of terrestrial applications. With PEP being a long term research effort, this report will focus on advances in the theoretical treatment of the solid/liquid interface interaction with an approaching particle, experimental validation of some aspects of the developed models, and the experimental design aspects of future experiments to be performed on board the International Space Station.

  7. Debris removal by head-pushing in A. florea Fabr. honeybees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen Sarma, M.; Fuchs, S.; Tautz, J.

    The nest of the dwarf honeybee A. florea Fabr. consists of a single comb attached to a tree branch. Recruitment dances take place on the upper surface of the comb that must therefore be kept clear of debris. We report here, for the first time, a behaviour that serves for removing leaves and other foreign objects from the surface of the comb. Individual workers crawl under the object and lift it with their heads, pushing it towards the rim where it eventually slides off the comb. Objects that are heavier or fixed at one end such as leaves are nevertheless lifted and kept away from the surface for up to several minutes. This "head-pushing" is frequently performed without the aid of mandibles, and individuals performing it maintain a distinctive posture, holding the forelegs at an angle without touching the object. Repeated involvement of particular individuals indicate that head-pushers might form a distinct task group.

  8. Store operation with conditional push of a tag value to a queue

    SciTech Connect

    Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2015-07-28

    According to one embodiment, a method for a store operation with a conditional push of a tag value to a queue is provided. The method includes configuring a queue that is accessible by an application, setting a value at an address in a memory device including a memory and a controller, receiving a request for an operation using the value at the address and performing the operation. The method also includes the controller writing a result of the operation to the address, thus changing the value at the address, the controller determining if the result of the operation meets a condition and the controller pushing a tag value to the queue based on the condition being met, where the tag value in the queue indicates to the application that the condition is met.

  9. Are single-well "push-pull" tests suitable tracer methods for aquifer characterization?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebig, Klaus; Zeilfelder, Sarah; Ito, Narimitsu; Machida, Isao; Scheytt, Traugott; Marui, Atsunao

    2013-04-01

    Recently, investigations were conducted for geological and hydrogeological characterisation of the sedimentary coastal basin of Horonobe (Hokkaido, Japan). Coastal areas are typical geological settings in Japan, which are less tectonically active than the mountain ranges. In Asia, and especially in Japan, these areas are often densely populated. Therefore, it is important to investigate the behaviour of solutes in such unconsolidated aquifers. In such settings sometimes only single boreholes or groundwater monitoring wells are available for aquifer testing for various reasons, e.g. depths of more than 100 m below ground level and slow groundwater velocities due to density driven flow. A standard tracer test with several involved groundwater monitoring wells is generally very difficult or even not possible at these depths. One of the most important questions in our project was how we can obtain information about chemical and hydraulic properties in such aquifers. Is it possible to characterize solute transport behaviour parameters with only one available groundwater monitoring well or borehole? A so-called "push-pull" test may be one suitable method for aquifer testing with only one available access point. In a push-pull test a known amount of several solutes including a conservative tracer is injected into the aquifer ("push") and afterwards extracted ("pull"). The measured breakthrough curve during the pumping back phase can then be analysed. This method has already been used previously with various aims, also in the recent project (e.g. Hebig et al. 2011, Zeilfelder et al. 2012). However, different test setups produced different tracer breakthrough curves. As no systematic evaluation of this aquifer tracer test method was done so far, nothing is known about its repeatability. Does the injection and extraction rate influence the shape of the breakthrough curve? Which role plays the often applied "chaser", which is used to push the test solution out from the

  10. Pushing the boundaries of cultural congruence pedagogy in science education towards a third space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quigley, Cassie

    2011-09-01

    This review explores Meyers and Crawford's "Teaching science as a cultural way of knowing: Merging authentic inquiry, nature of science, and multicultural strategies" by examining how they combine the use of inquiry-based science instruction with multicultural strategies. In this conversation, I point to the need of specific discourse strategies to help teachers and students create hybrid spaces to push the boundaries of cultural congruence as described in this article. These strategies include a reflective component to the explicit instruction that encourages an integration of home and science discourses. My response to this work expands on their use of multicultural strategies to push toward a congruent Third space that asks not only what happens to the students who do not participate in science, but also what happens to science when a diverse group of people does not participate?

  11. Alphabet-Inspired Design of (Hetero)Aromatic Push-Pull Chromophores.

    PubMed

    Klikar, Milan; Solanke, Parmeshwar; Tydlitát, Jiří; Bureš, Filip

    2016-08-01

    Push-pull molecules represent a unique and fascinating class of organic π-conjugated materials. Herein, we provide a summary of their recent extraordinary design inspired by letters of the alphabet, especially focusing on H-, L-, T-, V-, X-, and Y-shaped molecules. Representative structures from each class were presented and their fundamental properties and prospective applications were discussed. In particular, emphasis is given to molecules recently prepared in our laboratory with T-, X-, and Y-shaped arrangements based on indan-1,3-dione, benzene, pyridine, pyrazine, imidazole, and triphenylamine. These push-pull molecules turned out to be very efficient charge-transfer chromophores with tunable properties suitable for second-order nonlinear optics, two-photon absorption, reversible pH-induced and photochromic switching, photocatalysis, and intercalation. PMID:27272649

  12. Line-plane-switching infrared bundle for push-broom sensing fiber imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Huan; Yan, Xingtao; Guo, Haitao; Xu, Yantao; He, Jianli; Li, Fu; Yang, Jianfeng; Si, Jinhai; Zhou, Zhiguang; Lin, Aoxiang

    2015-04-01

    We reported line-plane-switching infrared (IR) fiber bundle with high-resolution of 0.027 μm-1, small numerical aperture (NA) of 0.20 (±0.02), high filling-factor, and bending radius of around 5.0 mm, i.e. extremely good flexibility. This fiber bundle is made from chalcogenide glass fibers, possessing core (As40S58Se2) of 45 μm, cladding (As40S60) of 50 μm, and error of 1% in diameter. Based on the lens used to demonstrate IR push-broom imaging, the format of matching fiber bundle we chose is 64 × 9 in system to implement 192 × 3 format linear array imaging. By principle-demonstrating system incorporated this fiber bundle coupled with small scale Infrared Focal Plane Array (IRFPA), wide-field and long-array IR push-broom image was successfully demonstrated.

  13. Cellular automaton modeling of traffic flow at a crosswalk with push button

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Dong-Fan; Zhao, Xiao-Mei; Li, Xin-Gang

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a cellular automaton model is presented to depict the traffic flow at such a crosswalk with push button. The characteristics of vehicle flow with various arriving rate of pedestrians are investigated. Flux curves and spatiotemporal diagrams are plotted to show different traffic states and the phase transition features. A parameter, named as button reaction time, is introduced to represent the green time for vehicle flow after the button is pushed by a pedestrian. The effect of button reaction time on saturated flux is investigated. The results show that there is a critical value of button reaction time. The saturated flux increases rapidly when button reaction time is smaller than the critical value, while it increases slowly otherwise. Furthermore, theoretical analysis is performed and the results coincide with the simulation ones.

  14. Pushing Plastic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, John H.

    2007-01-01

    As they send their teenagers off to college, parents will counsel them on the dangers of accepting credit card offers and the risks inherent in credit card debt. Most assume that the university will be their ally in warning students about such dangers. But instead, most universities try to get their own students to take out a credit card. In this…

  15. Technology Push

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    When students, teachers, administrators and others employed in education arrive at work every day on thousands of campuses across the nation, it should come as no surprise that at every step along the way, technology is there to greet them. Technological advancements in education, as well as in facilities operation and management, are not a…

  16. Direct push driven in situ color logging tool (CLT): technique, analysis routines, and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werban, U.; Hausmann, J.; Dietrich, P.; Vienken, T.

    2014-12-01

    Direct push technologies have recently seen a broad development providing several tools for in situ parameterization of unconsolidated sediments. One of these techniques is the measurement of soil colors - a proxy information that reveals to soil/sediment properties. We introduce the direct push driven color logging tool (CLT) for real-time and depth-resolved investigation of soil colors within the visible spectrum. Until now, no routines exist on how to handle high-resolved (mm-scale) soil color data. To develop such a routine, we transform raw data (CIEXYZ) into soil color surrogates of selected color spaces (CIExyY, CIEL*a*b*, CIEL*c*h*, sRGB) and denoise small-scale natural variability by Haar and Daublet4 wavelet transformation, gathering interpretable color logs over depth. However, interpreting color log data as a single application remains challenging. Additional information, such as site-specific knowledge of the geological setting, is required to correlate soil color data to specific layers properties. Hence, we exemplary provide results from a joint interpretation of in situ-obtained soil color data and 'state-of-the-art' direct push based profiling tool data and discuss the benefit of additional data. The developed routine is capable of transferring the provided information obtained as colorimetric data into interpretable color surrogates. Soil color data proved to correlate with small-scale lithological/chemical changes (e.g., grain size, oxidative and reductive conditions), especially when combined with additional direct push vertical high resolution data (e.g., cone penetration testing and soil sampling). Thus, the technique allows enhanced profiling by means of providing another reproducible high-resolution parameter for analysis subsurface conditions. This opens potential new areas of application and new outputs for such data in site investigation. It is our intention to improve color measurements by means method of application and data

  17. Along-track calibration of SWIR push-broom hyperspectral imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemec, Jurij; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan; Bürmen, Miran

    2016-05-01

    Push-broom hyperspectral imaging systems are increasingly used for various medical, agricultural and military purposes. The acquired images contain spectral information in every pixel of the imaged scene collecting additional information about the imaged scene compared to the classical RGB color imaging. Due to the misalignment and imperfections in the optical components comprising the push-broom hyperspectral imaging system, variable spectral and spatial misalignments and blur are present in the acquired images. To capture these distortions, a spatially and spectrally variant response function must be identified at each spatial and spectral position. In this study, we propose a procedure to characterize the variant response function of Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) push-broom hyperspectral imaging systems in the across-track and along-track direction and remove its effect from the acquired images. A custom laser-machined spatial calibration targets are used for the characterization. The spatial and spectral variability of the response function in the across-track and along-track direction is modeled by a parametrized basis function. Finally, the characterization results are used to restore the distorted hyperspectral images in the across-track and along-track direction by a Richardson-Lucy deconvolution-based algorithm. The proposed calibration method in the across-track and along-track direction is thoroughly evaluated on images of targets with well-defined geometric properties. The results suggest that the proposed procedure is well suited for fast and accurate spatial calibration of push-broom hyperspectral imaging systems.

  18. Fast Regulation of Vertical Squat Jump during Push-Off in Skilled Jumpers.

    PubMed

    Fargier, Patrick; Massarelli, Raphael; Rabahi, Tahar; Gemignani, Angelo; Fargier, Emile

    2016-01-01

    The height of a maximum Vertical Squat Jump (VSJ) reflects the useful power produced by a jumper during the push-off phase. In turn this partly depends on the coordination of the jumper's segmental rotations at each instant. The physical system constituted by the jumper has been shown to be very sensitive to perturbations and furthermore the movement is realized in a very short time (ca. 300 ms), compared to the timing of known feedback loops. However, the dynamics of the segmental coordination and its efficiency in relation to energetics at each instant of the push-off phase still remained to be clarified. Their study was the main purpose of the present research. Eight young adult volunteers (males) performed maximal VSJ. They were skilled in jumping according to their sport activities (track and field or volleyball). A video analysis on the kinematics of the jump determined the influence of the jumpers' segments rotation on the vertical velocity and acceleration of the body mass center (MC). The efficiency in the production of useful power at the jumpers' MC level, by the rotation of the segments, was measured in consequence. The results showed a great variability in the segmental movements of the eight jumpers, but homogeneity in the overall evolution of these movements with three consecutive types of coordination in the second part of the push-off (lasting roughly 0.16 s). Further analyses gave insights on the regulation of the push-off, suggesting that very fast regulation(s) of the VSJ may be supported by: (a) the adaptation of the motor cerebral programming to the jumper's physical characteristics; (b) the control of the initial posture; and PMID:27486404

  19. On the transition from pulled to pushed monotonic fronts of the extended Fisher Kolmogorov equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benguria, R. D.; Depassier, M. C.

    2005-10-01

    The extended Fisher-Kolmogorov equation ut=uxx-γuxxxx+f(u) with arbitrary positive f(u), satisfying f(0)=f(1)=0, has monotonic traveling fronts for γ<{1}/{12}. We find a simple lower bound on the speed of the fronts which allows to determine, for a given reaction term, when will the front of minimal speed be pushed.

  20. Business and Education as Push-Pull Processes: An Alliance of Philosophy and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arif, Mohammed; Smiley, Frederick M.; Kulonda, Dennis J.

    2005-01-01

    In the 1960s, the U.S. business community utilized the term "push/pull" to indicate whether or not industry should use the "one-size-fits all" or whether it should listen to consumers' needs and feedback as a system of producing and marketing products. As well, U.S. public education has become much more accountability-laden since the 1970s, partly…

  1. Silicon dual-ring resonator-based push-pull modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaomeng; Zhou, Linjie; Jäger, Matthias; Petousi, Despoina; Zimmermann, Lars; Petermann, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    Two types of silicon dual-ring resonator-based high-speed optical modulators are proposed. With two microring resonators cascaded either in series or in parallel, the transmission spectrum evolves from a deep notch to a sharp peak with the resonators operating in a push-pull manner. The frequency chirp of the modulated signals can be highly suppressed by choosing a proper working wavelength.

  2. Long-living optical gain induced by solvent viscosity in a push-pull molecule.

    PubMed

    Mróz, M M; Benedini, S; Forni, A; Botta, C; Pasini, D; Cariati, E; Virgili, T

    2016-07-21

    The combination of continuum and ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy with DFT and TDDFT calculations, in viscous and non-viscous environments, is effective in unraveling important features of the twisted intramolecular charge transfer mechanism in a new push-pull molecule that possesses aggregation induced emission properties. Long-living optical gain is found when this mechanism is inhibited, highlighting the importance of the environment rigidity in the design of materials for photonic applications. PMID:27334668

  3. Ion Concentration- and Voltage-Dependent Push and Pull Mechanisms of Potassium Channel Ion Conduction

    PubMed Central

    Kasahara, Kota; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of ion conduction by potassium channels is one of the central issues in physiology. In particular, it is still unclear how the ion concentration and the membrane voltage drive ion conduction. We have investigated the dynamics of the ion conduction processes in the Kv1.2 pore domain, by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with several different voltages and ion concentrations. By focusing on the detailed ion movements through the pore including selectivity filter (SF) and cavity, we found two major conduction mechanisms, called the III-IV-III and III-II-III mechanisms, and the balance between the ion concentration and the voltage determines the mechanism preference. In the III-IV-III mechanism, the outermost ion in the pore is pushed out by a new ion coming from the intracellular fluid, and four-ion states were transiently observed. In the III-II-III mechanism, the outermost ion is pulled out first, without pushing by incoming ions. Increases in the ion concentration and voltage accelerated ion conductions, but their mechanisms were different. The increase in the ion concentrations facilitated the III-IV-III conductions, while the higher voltages increased the III-II-III conductions, indicating that the pore domain of potassium channels permeates ions by using two different driving forces: a push by intracellular ions and a pull by voltage. PMID:26950215

  4. Common-pull, multiple-push, vacuum-activated telescope mirror cell.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Elfego; Sohn, Erika; Salas, Luis; Luna, Esteban; Araiza-Durán, José A

    2014-11-20

    A new concept for push-pull active optics is presented, where the push-force is provided by means of individual airbag type actuators and a common force in the form of a vacuum is applied to the entire back of the mirror. The vacuum provides the pull-component of the system, in addition to gravity. Vacuum is controlled as a function of the zenithal angle, providing correction for the axial component of the mirror's weight. In this way, the push actuators are only responsible for correcting mirror deformations, as well as for supporting the axial mirror weight at the zenith, allowing for a uniform, full dynamic-range behavior of the system along the telescope's pointing range. This can result in the ability to perform corrections of up to a few microns for low-order aberrations. This mirror support concept was simulated using a finite element model and was tested experimentally at the 2.12 m San Pedro Mártir telescope. Advantages such as stress-free attachments, lighter weight, large actuator area, lower system complexity, and lower required mirror-cell stiffness could make this a method to consider for future large telescopes. PMID:25607876

  5. Applications of the PUSH satellite precipitation error scheme for flood monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcacchia, Leonardo; Maggioni, Viviana; Sapiano, Mathew; Adler, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The PUSH (Precipitation Uncertainties for Satellite Hydrology) error scheme, previously validated over Oklahoma, is now tested over a different study area at higher temporal resolution. A new product is being used for the reference precipitation: Stage IV Radar data available for the contiguous United States, at three hourly and 0.25° temporal/spatial resolution. We focus our study on Iowa during 2009-2013 and perform a comparison with the previous work over Oklahoma. This study is a first attempt to generalize the PUSH framework to other land regions of the world. This will be of particular use in regions of the world where gauges are sparse, and satellite retrievals represent the only available precipitation estimate on which hydrological applications (e.g., flood forecasting) and water resources management can rely. Results show the versatility of the PUSH code and its ability to reproduce the probability density function of the benchmark precipitation and its error spatial pattern. The precipitation product, corrected by using the estimated error, is given as input to the Global Flood Monitoring System (GFMS), developed by the University of Maryland, to produce streamflow and routed runoff estimations across the study area. The model results are thus compared with the data collected during the GPM field campaign IFloodS in the spring of 2013.

  6. Method for quantifying image quality in push-broom hyperspectral cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Høye, Gudrun; Løke, Trond; Fridman, Andrei

    2015-05-01

    We propose a method for measuring and quantifying image quality in push-broom hyperspectral cameras in terms of spatial misregistration caused by keystone and variations in the point spread function (PSF) across spectral channels, and image sharpness. The method is suitable for both traditional push-broom hyperspectral cameras where keystone is corrected in hardware and cameras where keystone is corrected in postprocessing, such as resampling and mixel cameras. We show how the measured camera performance can be presented graphically in an intuitive and easy to understand way, comprising both image sharpness and spatial misregistration in the same figure. For the misregistration, we suggest that both the mean standard deviation and the maximum value for each pixel are shown. We also suggest how the method could be expanded to quantify spectral misregistration caused by the smile effect and corresponding PSF variations. Finally, we have measured the performance of two HySpex SWIR 384 cameras using the suggested method. The method appears well suited for assessing camera quality and for comparing the performance of different hyperspectral imagers and could become the future standard for how to measure and quantify the image quality of push-broom hyperspectral cameras.

  7. Field Evaluation of a Push-Pull System to Reduce Malaria Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Menger, David J.; Omusula, Philemon; Holdinga, Maarten; Homan, Tobias; Carreira, Ana S.; Vandendaele, Patrice; Derycke, Jean-Luc; Mweresa, Collins K.; Mukabana, Wolfgang Richard; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Takken, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Malaria continues to place a disease burden on millions of people throughout the tropics, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Although efforts to control mosquito populations and reduce human-vector contact, such as long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying, have led to significant decreases in malaria incidence, further progress is now threatened by the widespread development of physiological and behavioural insecticide-resistance as well as changes in the composition of vector populations. A mosquito-directed push-pull system based on the simultaneous use of attractive and repellent volatiles offers a complementary tool to existing vector-control methods. In this study, the combination of a trap baited with a five-compound attractant and a strip of net-fabric impregnated with micro-encapsulated repellent and placed in the eaves of houses, was tested in a malaria-endemic village in western Kenya. Using the repellent delta-undecalactone, mosquito house entry was reduced by more than 50%, while the traps caught high numbers of outdoor flying mosquitoes. Model simulations predict that, assuming area-wide coverage, the addition of such a push-pull system to existing prevention efforts will result in up to 20-fold reductions in the entomological inoculation rate. Reductions of such magnitude are also predicted when mosquitoes exhibit a high resistance against insecticides. We conclude that a push-pull system based on non-toxic volatiles provides an important addition to existing strategies for malaria prevention. PMID:25923114

  8. The effects of chlorhexidine and ethanol on push-out bond strength of fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Victorino, Keli Regina; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Cavenago, Bruno Cavalini; Só, Marcus Vinicius Reis; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Context: Irrigation of root canals with chlorhexidine (CHX) and ethanol is common practice to prevent root canal infection during postplacement. However, pretreatment with these solvents may interfere with the bond strength of posts. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate if root dentin pretreatment using CHX and/or ethanol influences the push-out bond strength of fiber-reinforced composite resin (FRCR) posts. Materials and Methods: Fifty space posts prepared in endodontically treated extracted human canine roots were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10) according to the dentin pretreatment: Distilled water (W); 1% CHX diacetate solution (1C); CHX diacetate + 99% ethanol (1CE); 99% ethanol (E); and 2% CHX digluconate solution (2C). After pretreatment, the adhesive system (Peak Universal Bond; Ultradent, South Jordan, UT, USA) was applied in the root dentin and the FRCR was cemented with resin cement. Then, horizontal slices of 2 mm were obtained from each root third and the push-out bond strength was assessed. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's tests (P = 0.05). Results: At all thirds, 1CE and E groups presented similar push-out bond strength values (P > 0.05), which were higher than the other groups (P < 0.05). W, 1C, and 2C groups were similar (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The root dentin pretreatment with ethanol, alone or mixed with CHX diacetate increased the bond strength of FRCR luted with resin cement. PMID:26957803

  9. A digital architecture for striping noise compensation in push-broom hyperspectral cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzuela, Wladimir E.; Figueroa, Miguel; Pezoa, Jorge E.; Meza, Pablo

    2015-09-01

    We present a striping noise compensation architecture for hyperspectral push-broom cameras, implemented on a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The circuit is fast, compact, low power, and is capable of eliminating the striping noise in-line during the image acquisition process. The architecture implements a multi dimensional neural network (MDNN) algorithm for striping noise compensation previously reported by our group. The algorithm relies on the assumption that the amount of light impinging at the neighboring photo-detectors is approximately the same in the spatial and spectral dimensions. Under this assumption, two striping noise parameters are estimated using spatial and spectral information from the raw data. We implemented the circuit on a Xilinx ZYNQ XC7Z2010 FPGA and tested it with images obtained from a NIR N17E push-broom camera, with a frame rate of 25fps and a band-pixel rate of 1.888 MHz. The setup consists of a loop of 320 samples of 320 spatial lines and 236 spectral bands between 900 and 1700 nanometers, in laboratory condition, captured with a rigid push-broom controller. The noise compensation core can run at more than 100 MHZ and consumes less than 30mW of dynamic power, using less than 10% of the logic resources available on the chip. It also uses one of two ARM processors available on the FPGA for data acquisition and communication purposes.

  10. Ion Concentration- and Voltage-Dependent Push and Pull Mechanisms of Potassium Channel Ion Conduction.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Kota; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Kinoshita, Kengo

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of ion conduction by potassium channels is one of the central issues in physiology. In particular, it is still unclear how the ion concentration and the membrane voltage drive ion conduction. We have investigated the dynamics of the ion conduction processes in the Kv1.2 pore domain, by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with several different voltages and ion concentrations. By focusing on the detailed ion movements through the pore including selectivity filter (SF) and cavity, we found two major conduction mechanisms, called the III-IV-III and III-II-III mechanisms, and the balance between the ion concentration and the voltage determines the mechanism preference. In the III-IV-III mechanism, the outermost ion in the pore is pushed out by a new ion coming from the intracellular fluid, and four-ion states were transiently observed. In the III-II-III mechanism, the outermost ion is pulled out first, without pushing by incoming ions. Increases in the ion concentration and voltage accelerated ion conductions, but their mechanisms were different. The increase in the ion concentrations facilitated the III-IV-III conductions, while the higher voltages increased the III-II-III conductions, indicating that the pore domain of potassium channels permeates ions by using two different driving forces: a push by intracellular ions and a pull by voltage. PMID:26950215

  11. Individual Muscle Contributions to Push and Recovery Subtasks during Wheelchair Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Jeffery W.; Richter, W. Mark; Neptune, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    Manual wheelchair propulsion places considerable physical demand on the upper extremity and is one of the primary activities associated with the high prevalence of upper extremity overuse injuries and pain among wheelchair users. As a result, recent effort has focused on determining how various propulsion techniques influence upper extremity demand during wheelchair propulsion. However, an important prerequisite for identifying the relationships between propulsion techniques and upper extremity demand is to understand how individual muscles contribute to the mechanical energetics of wheelchair propulsion. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use a forward dynamics simulation of wheelchair propulsion to quantify how individual muscles deliver, absorb and/or transfer mechanical power during propulsion. The analysis showed that muscles contribute to either push (i.e. deliver mechanical power to the handrim) or recovery (i.e. reposition the arm) subtasks, with the shoulder flexors being the primary contributors to the push and the shoulder extensors being the primary contributors to the recovery. In addition, significant activity from the shoulder muscles was required during the transition between push and recovery, which resulted in increased co-contraction and upper extremity demand. Thus, strengthening the shoulder flexors and promoting propulsion techniques that improve transition mechanics have much potential to reduce upper extremity demand and improve rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:21397232

  12. Older adults utilize less efficient postural control when performing pushing task.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Chen, Bing; Aruin, Alexander S

    2015-12-01

    The ability to maintain balance deteriorates with increasing age. The aim was to investigate the role of age in generation of anticipatory (APA) and compensatory (CPA) postural adjustments during pushing an object. Older (68.8 ± 1.0 years) and young adults (30.1 ± 1.4 years) participated in the experiment involving pushing an object (a pendulum attached to the ceiling) using both hands. Electrical activity of six leg and trunk muscles and displacements of the center of pressure (COP) were recorded and analyzed during the APA and CPA phases. The onset time, integrals of muscle activity, and COP displacements were determined. In addition, the indexes of co-activation and reciprocal activation of muscles for the shank, thigh, and trunk segments were calculated. Older adults, compared to young adults, showed less efficient postural control seen as delayed anticipatory muscle onset times and delayed COP displacements. Moreover, older adults used co-activation of muscles during the CPA phase while younger subjects utilized reciprocal activation of muscles. The observed diminished efficiency of postural control during both anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments observed in older adults might predispose them to falls while performing tasks involving pushing. The outcome provides a background for future studies focused on the optimization of the daily activities of older adults. PMID:26403099

  13. 40 CFR 63.7293 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? 63.7293 Section 63.7293... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Emission... pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? (a) You must meet the requirements...

  14. 40 CFR 63.7293 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? 63.7293 Section 63.7293... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Emission... pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? (a) You must meet the requirements...

  15. 40 CFR 63.7292 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with horizontal flues? 63...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with horizontal flues?...

  16. 40 CFR 63.7292 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with horizontal flues? 63...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with horizontal flues?...

  17. 40 CFR 63.7292 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with horizontal flues? 63...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with horizontal flues?...

  18. 40 CFR 63.7291 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues? 63...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues?...

  19. 40 CFR 63.7292 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with horizontal flues? 63...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with horizontal flues?...

  20. 40 CFR 63.7291 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues? 63...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues?...

  1. 40 CFR 63.7293 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? 63.7293 Section 63.7293... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Emission... pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? (a) You must meet the requirements...

  2. 40 CFR 63.7291 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues? 63...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues?...

  3. 40 CFR 63.7292 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with horizontal flues? 63...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with horizontal flues?...

  4. 40 CFR 63.7291 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues? 63...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues?...

  5. 40 CFR 63.7293 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? 63.7293 Section 63.7293... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Emission... pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? (a) You must meet the requirements...

  6. 40 CFR 63.7293 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? 63.7293 Section 63.7293... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery Stacks Emission... pushing emissions if I have a non-recovery coke oven battery? (a) You must meet the requirements...

  7. 40 CFR 63.7291 - What work practice standards must I meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues? 63...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Coke Ovens: Pushing, Quenching, and Battery... meet for fugitive pushing emissions if I have a by-product coke oven battery with vertical flues?...

  8. Laser bottom hole assembly

    DOEpatents

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  9. Liquid rocket valve assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design and operating characteristics of valve assemblies used in liquid propellant rocket engines are discussed. The subjects considered are as follows: (1) valve selection parameters, (2) major design aspects, (3) design integration of valve subassemblies, and (4) assembly of components and functional tests. Information is provided on engine, stage, and spacecraft checkout procedures.

  10. Turbine disc sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Diakunchak, Ihor S.

    2013-03-05

    A disc seal assembly for use in a turbine engine. The disc seal assembly includes a plurality of outwardly extending sealing flange members that define a plurality of fluid pockets. The sealing flange members define a labyrinth flow path therebetween to limit leakage between a hot gas path and a disc cavity in the turbine engine.

  11. High speed door assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, Carolyn

    1993-01-01

    A high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  12. High speed door assembly

    DOEpatents

    Shapiro, C.

    1993-04-27

    A high speed door assembly is described, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  13. Permanent magnet assembly

    DOEpatents

    Chell, Jeremy; Zimm, Carl B.

    2006-12-12

    A permanent magnet assembly is disclosed that is adapted to provide a magnetic field across an arc-shaped gap. Such a permanent magnet assembly can be used, for example, to provide a time-varying magnetic field to an annular region for use in a magnetic refrigerator.

  14. Alternative bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Inzerillo, V Christopher; Garino, Jonathan P

    2003-01-01

    Polyethylene wear and extension of indications of total hip arthroplasty into younger and younger age groups have pushed manufacturers to develop more durable bearing surfaces. Standard polyethylene, the plastic used for the first 3 decades of hip replacement, virtually ceases to exist in its original form. Modifications of the processing, including sterlization in an inert environment and cross-linking, have demonstrated some improvements in wear. Hard-on-hard bearings such as ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-metal also have demonstrated extremely low wear. This article reviews the pros and cons of the alternative bearing options available to assist in the proper bearing selection for a particular patient. PMID:12882250

  15. Cyclic Fiber Push-In Test Monitors Evolution of Interfacial Behavior in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.

    1998-01-01

    SiC fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites are being developed for high-temperature advanced jet engine applications. Obtaining a strong, tough composite material depends critically on optimizing the mechanical coupling between the reinforcing fibers and the surrounding matrix material. This has usually been accomplished by applying a thin C or BN coating onto the surface of the reinforcing fibers. The performance of these fiber coatings, however, may degrade under cyclic loading conditions or exposure to different environments. Degradation of the coating-controlled interfacial behavior will strongly affect the useful service lifetime of the composite material. Cyclic fiber push-in testing was applied to monitor the evolution of fiber sliding behavior in both C- and BN-coated small-diameter (15-mm) SiC-fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites. The cyclic fiber push-in tests were performed using a desktop fiber push-out apparatus. At the beginning of each test, the fiber to be tested was aligned underneath a 10- mm-diameter diamond punch; then, the applied load was cycled between selected maximum and minimum loads. From the measured response, the fiber sliding distance and frictional sliding stresses were determined for each cycle. Tests were performed in both room air and nitrogen. Cyclic fiber push-in tests of C-coated, SiC-fiber-reinforced SiC showed progressive increases in fiber sliding distances along with decreases in frictional sliding stresses for continued cycling in room air. This rapid degradation in interfacial response was not observed for cycling in nitrogen, indicating that moisture exposure had a large effect in immediately lowering the frictional sliding stresses of C-coated fibers. These results indicate that matrix cracks bridged by C-coated fibers will not be stable, but will rapidly grow in moisture-containing environments. In contrast, cyclic fiber push-in tests of both BN-coated, SiC-fiber-reinforced SiC and BNcoated, Si

  16. Assembly: a resource for assembled genomes at NCBI.

    PubMed

    Kitts, Paul A; Church, Deanna M; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Choi, Jinna; Hem, Vichet; Sapojnikov, Victor; Smith, Robert G; Tatusova, Tatiana; Xiang, Charlie; Zherikov, Andrey; DiCuccio, Michael; Murphy, Terence D; Pruitt, Kim D; Kimchi, Avi

    2016-01-01

    The NCBI Assembly database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/) provides stable accessioning and data tracking for genome assembly data. The model underlying the database can accommodate a range of assembly structures, including sets of unordered contig or scaffold sequences, bacterial genomes consisting of a single complete chromosome, or complex structures such as a human genome with modeled allelic variation. The database provides an assembly accession and version to unambiguously identify the set of sequences that make up a particular version of an assembly, and tracks changes to updated genome assemblies. The Assembly database reports metadata such as assembly names, simple statistical reports of the assembly (number of contigs and scaffolds, contiguity metrics such as contig N50, total sequence length and total gap length) as well as the assembly update history. The Assembly database also tracks the relationship between an assembly submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Consortium (INSDC) and the assembly represented in the NCBI RefSeq project. Users can find assemblies of interest by querying the Assembly Resource directly or by browsing available assemblies for a particular organism. Links in the Assembly Resource allow users to easily download sequence and annotations for current versions of genome assemblies from the NCBI genomes FTP site. PMID:26578580

  17. Assembly: a resource for assembled genomes at NCBI

    PubMed Central

    Kitts, Paul A.; Church, Deanna M.; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Choi, Jinna; Hem, Vichet; Sapojnikov, Victor; Smith, Robert G.; Tatusova, Tatiana; Xiang, Charlie; Zherikov, Andrey; DiCuccio, Michael; Murphy, Terence D.; Pruitt, Kim D.; Kimchi, Avi

    2016-01-01

    The NCBI Assembly database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/assembly/) provides stable accessioning and data tracking for genome assembly data. The model underlying the database can accommodate a range of assembly structures, including sets of unordered contig or scaffold sequences, bacterial genomes consisting of a single complete chromosome, or complex structures such as a human genome with modeled allelic variation. The database provides an assembly accession and version to unambiguously identify the set of sequences that make up a particular version of an assembly, and tracks changes to updated genome assemblies. The Assembly database reports metadata such as assembly names, simple statistical reports of the assembly (number of contigs and scaffolds, contiguity metrics such as contig N50, total sequence length and total gap length) as well as the assembly update history. The Assembly database also tracks the relationship between an assembly submitted to the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Consortium (INSDC) and the assembly represented in the NCBI RefSeq project. Users can find assemblies of interest by querying the Assembly Resource directly or by browsing available assemblies for a particular organism. Links in the Assembly Resource allow users to easily download sequence and annotations for current versions of genome assemblies from the NCBI genomes FTP site. PMID:26578580

  18. Mechanisms of Virus Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Perlmutter, Jason D.; Hagan, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses are nanoscale entities containing a nucleic acid genome encased in a protein shell called a capsid, and in some cases surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. This review summarizes the physics that govern the processes by which capsids assembles within their host cells and in vitro. We describe the thermodynamics and kinetics for assembly of protein subunits into icosahedral capsid shells, and how these are modified in cases where the capsid assembles around a nucleic acid or on a lipid bilayer. We present experimental and theoretical techniques that have been used to characterize capsid assembly, and we highlight aspects of virus assembly which are likely to receive significant attention in the near future. PMID:25532951

  19. Modeling Viral Capsid Assembly

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    I present a review of the theoretical and computational methodologies that have been used to model the assembly of viral capsids. I discuss the capabilities and limitations of approaches ranging from equilibrium continuum theories to molecular dynamics simulations, and I give an overview of some of the important conclusions about virus assembly that have resulted from these modeling efforts. Topics include the assembly of empty viral shells, assembly around single-stranded nucleic acids to form viral particles, and assembly around synthetic polymers or charged nanoparticles for nanotechnology or biomedical applications. I present some examples in which modeling efforts have promoted experimental breakthroughs, as well as directions in which the connection between modeling and experiment can be strengthened. PMID:25663722

  20. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, Frank M.; Anderson, Erin K.; Robinson, Casandra W.; Haynes, Harriet B.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras.

  1. Automated assembly in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Sandanand; Dwivedi, Suren N.; Soon, Toh Teck; Bandi, Reddy; Banerjee, Soumen; Hughes, Cecilia

    1989-01-01

    The installation of robots and their use of assembly in space will create an exciting and promising future for the U.S. Space Program. The concept of assembly in space is very complicated and error prone and it is not possible unless the various parts and modules are suitably designed for automation. Certain guidelines are developed for part designing and for an easy precision assembly. Major design problems associated with automated assembly are considered and solutions to resolve these problems are evaluated in the guidelines format. Methods for gripping and methods for part feeding are developed with regard to the absence of gravity in space. The guidelines for part orientation, adjustments, compliances and various assembly construction are discussed. Design modifications of various fasteners and fastening methods are also investigated.

  2. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1997-03-11

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  3. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, H.L.; Elliott, T.S.

    1998-05-19

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The SRF window assembly has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The SRF window assembly comprises a superconducting frame, a ceramic plate having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet for sealing plate into frame. The plate is brazed to eyelet which is then electron beam welded to frame. A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the SRF window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator. 11 figs.

  4. Alignment Pins for Assembling and Disassembling Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Oliver C.

    2008-01-01

    Simple, easy-to-use, highly effective tooling has been devised for maintaining alignment of bolt holes in mating structures during assembly and disassembly of the structures. The tooling was originally used during removal of a body flap from the space shuttle Atlantis, in which misalignments during removal of the last few bolts could cause the bolts to bind in their holes. By suitably modifying the dimensions of the tooling components, the basic design of the tooling can readily be adapted to other structures that must be maintained in alignment. The tooling includes tapered, internally threaded alignment pins designed to fit in the bolt holes in one of the mating structures, plus a draw bolt and a cup that are used to install or remove each alignment pin. In preparation for disassembly of two mating structures, external supports are provided to prevent unintended movement of the structures. During disassembly of the structures, as each bolt that joins the structures is removed, an alignment pin is installed in its place. Once all the bolts have been removed and replaced with pins, the pins maintain alignment as the structures are gently pushed or pulled apart on the supports. In assembling the two structures, one reverses the procedure described above: pins are installed in the bolt holes, the structures are pulled or pushed together on the supports, then the pins are removed and replaced with bolts. The figure depicts the tooling and its use. To install an alignment pin in a bolt hole in a structural panel, the tapered end of the pin is inserted from one side of the panel, the cup is placed over the pin on the opposite side of the panel, the draw bolt is inserted through the cup and threaded into the pin, the draw bolt is tightened to pull the pin until the pin is seated firmly in the hole, then the draw bolt and cup are removed, leaving the pin in place. To remove an alignment pin, the cup is placed over the pin on the first-mentioned side of the panel, the draw

  5. Sedimentary and tectonic architecture of a large push moraine: a case study from Hagafellsjökull-Eystri, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Matthew R.; Huddart, David; Waller, Richard I.; Cassidy, Nigel; Tomio, Alexandre; Zukowskyj, Paul; Midgley, Nicholas G.; Cook, Simon J.; Gonzalez, Silvia; Glasser, Neil F.

    2004-12-01

    Using a combination of geological and geophysical techniques (Ground Penetrating Radar), we explore the tectonic architecture of a push moraine formed just after the 1890 Neoglacial ice maximum of Hagafellsjökull-Eystri, in central Iceland. The push moraine formed by a re-advance, perhaps a surge, of the glacier against a moraine bank-delta sometime between 1890 and 1929. Different tectonic architectures exist in two adjacent parts of the same push moraine complex. In one location, the ice advance pushed the delta pro-glacially to form a prominent single-crested push moraine. Deformation occurred along a single listric décollement over which a large nappe moved, as a result of ice-marginal pushing. In an adjacent location, the ice-margin mounted and advanced over the ice-contact delta to create a push moraine at the limit of the advance by subglacial gravity-spreading. In this case, deformation occurred along a series of listric thrusts and by folding within the distal parts of the over-ridden delta. The geomechanical causes of these two contrasting styles of deformation, present in adjacent sectors of the same ice-marginal flow unit, are discussed and a range of possible controls identified. These include variation along the former ice-margin and foreland in: (1) glacier-foreland coupling; (2) foreland shear strength; and (3) the frictional characteristics of the décollement. Some combination of these variables provides the most likely cause. The case study presented in this paper provides an example of the potential for rapid variation in the tectonic architecture of a push moraine along strike.

  6. Dynamic Nanoparticles Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LIBING; XU, LIGUANG; KUANG, HUA; XU, CHUANLAI; KOTOV, NICHOLAS A.

    2012-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Importance Although nanoparticle (NP) assemblies are at the beginning of their development, their unique geometrical shapes and media-responsive optical, electronic and magnetic properties have attracted significant interest. Nanoscale assembly bridges multiple sizes of materials: individual nanoparticles, discrete molecule-like or virus-like nanoscale agglomerates, microscale devices, and macroscale materials. The capacity to self-assemble can greatly facilitate the integration of nanotechnology with other technologies and, in particular, with microscale fabrication. In this Account, we describe developments in the emerging field of dynamic NP assemblies, which are spontaneously formed superstructures containing more than two inorganic nanoscale particles that display ability to change their geometrical, physical, chemical, and other attributes. In many ways, dynamic assemblies can represent a bottleneck in the ‘bottom-up’ fabrication of NP-based devices because they can produce a much greater variety of assemblies, but they also provide a convenient tool for variation of geometries and dimensions of nanoparticle assemblies. Classification Superstructures of NPs (and those held together by similar intrinsic forces) are classified into two groups: Class 1 where media and external fields can alter shape, conformation, and order of stable superstructures with a nearly constant number same. The future development of successful dynamic assemblies requires understanding the equilibrium in dynamic NP systems. The dynamic nature of Class 1 assemblies is associated with the equilibrium between different conformations of a superstructure and is comparable to the isomerization in classical chemistry. Class 2 assemblies involve the formation and/or breakage of linkages between the NPs, which is analogous to the classical chemical equilibrium for the formation of a molecule from atoms. Finer classification of NP assemblies in accord with established conventions

  7. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2006-02-28

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the pre-formed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  8. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    1998-01-01

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  9. Lightweight, self-ballasting photovoltaic roofing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, T.L.

    1998-05-05

    A photovoltaic roofing assembly comprises a roofing membrane (102), a plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) disposed as a layer on top of the roofing membrane (102), and a plurality of pre-formed spacers, pedestals or supports (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) which are respectively disposed below the plurality of photovoltaic modules (104, 106, 108) and integral therewith, or fixed thereto. Spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122) are disposed on top of roofing membrane (102). Membrane (102) is supported on conventional roof framing, and attached thereto by conventional methods. In an alternative embodiment, the roofing assembly may have insulation block (322) below the spacers (314, 314', 315, 315'). The geometry of the preformed spacers (112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 314, 314', 315, 315') is such that wind tunnel testing has shown its maximum effectiveness in reducing net forces of wind uplift on the overall assembly. Such construction results in a simple, lightweight, self-ballasting, readily assembled roofing assembly which resists the forces of wind uplift using no roofing penetrations.

  10. An Analysis of the Effects of Smartphone Push Notifications on Task Performance with regard to Smartphone Overuse Using ERP

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul-Kee; Kim, So-Yeong; Kang, Hang-Bong

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are used ubiquitously worldwide and are essential tools in modern society. However, smartphone overuse is an emerging social issue, and limited studies have objectively assessed this matter. The majority of previous studies have included surveys or behavioral observation studies. Since a previous study demonstrated an association between increased push notifications and smartphone overuse, we investigated the effects of push notifications on task performance. We detected changes in brainwaves generated by smartphone push notifications using the N200 and P300 components of event-related potential (ERP) to investigate both concentration and cognitive ability. ERP assessment indicated that, in both risk and nonrisk groups, the lowest N200 amplitude and the longest latency during task performance were found when push notifications were delivered. Compared to the nonrisk group, the risk group demonstrated lower P300 amplitudes and longer latencies. In addition, the risk group featured a higher rate of error in the Go-Nogo task, due to the negative influence of smartphone push notifications on performance in both risk and nonrisk groups. Furthermore, push notifications affected subsequent performance in the risk group. PMID:27366147

  11. An Analysis of the Effects of Smartphone Push Notifications on Task Performance with regard to Smartphone Overuse Using ERP.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seul-Kee; Kim, So-Yeong; Kang, Hang-Bong

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are used ubiquitously worldwide and are essential tools in modern society. However, smartphone overuse is an emerging social issue, and limited studies have objectively assessed this matter. The majority of previous studies have included surveys or behavioral observation studies. Since a previous study demonstrated an association between increased push notifications and smartphone overuse, we investigated the effects of push notifications on task performance. We detected changes in brainwaves generated by smartphone push notifications using the N200 and P300 components of event-related potential (ERP) to investigate both concentration and cognitive ability. ERP assessment indicated that, in both risk and nonrisk groups, the lowest N200 amplitude and the longest latency during task performance were found when push notifications were delivered. Compared to the nonrisk group, the risk group demonstrated lower P300 amplitudes and longer latencies. In addition, the risk group featured a higher rate of error in the Go-Nogo task, due to the negative influence of smartphone push notifications on performance in both risk and nonrisk groups. Furthermore, push notifications affected subsequent performance in the risk group. PMID:27366147

  12. Protective helmet assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S. (Inventor); Weiss, Fred R. (Inventor); Eck, John D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention is a protective helmet assembly with improved safety and impact resistance, high resistance to ignition and combustion, and reduced offgassing. The assembly comprises a hard rigid ballistic outer shell with one or more impact absorbing pads fitted to the interior surface. The pads are made of open cell flexible polyimide foam material, each of which is attached to the inner surface of the ballistic outer shell by cooperative VELCRO fastener strips of hook-and-loop material affixed respectively to the rigid outer shell and the impact absorbing pads. The helmet assembly with shell and pads is sized to fit relatively close over a wearer's head.

  13. DC source assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  14. Relative Intensity Influences the Degree of Correspondence of Jump Squats and Push Jerks to Countermovement Jumps.

    PubMed

    Cushion, Emily J; Goodwin, Jon E; Cleather, Daniel J

    2016-05-01

    Cushion, EJ, Goodwin, JE, and Cleather, DJ. Relative intensity influences the degree of correspondence of jump squats and push jerks to countermovement jumps. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1255-1264, 2016-The aim of this study was to determine the mechanical similarity between push jerk (PJ) and jump squat (JS) to countermovement jump (CMJ) and further understand the effect increasing external load may have on this relationship. Eight physically trained men (age 22 ± 3; height 176 ± 7 kg; weight 83 ± 8 kg) performed an unloaded CMJ followed by JS under a range of loads (10, 25, 35, and 50% 1RM back squat) and PJ (30, 50, 65, and 75% 1RM push jerk). A portable force platform and high-speed camera both collecting at 250 Hz were used to establish joint moments and impulse during the propulsive phase of the movements. A standard inverse dynamics model was used to determine joint moment and impulse at the hip, knee, and ankle. Significant correlations (p ≤ 0.05) were shown between CMJ knee joint moment and JS knee joint moment at 25% load and PJ knee joint moment at 30 and 50% load. Significant correlations were also observed between CMJ knee joint impulse and JS knee joint impulse at 10% load and PJ knee joint moment at 30 and 65% load. Significant correlation was also observed between CMJ hip joint impulse and PJ hip joint impulse at 30% load. No significant joint × load interaction was shown as load increased for either PJ or JS. Results from the study suggest partial correspondence between PJ and JS to CMJ, where a greater mechanical similarity was observed between the PJ and CMJ. This interaction is load and joint dependent where lower relative loads showed greatest mechanical similarity. Therefore using lower relative loads when programming may provide a greater transfer of training effect. PMID:26439777

  15. Effect of different irrigant activation protocols on push-out bond strength.

    PubMed

    Akyuz Ekim, Sefika Nur; Erdemir, Ali

    2015-11-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the effect of various final irrigant activation protocols on push-out bond strength of fiber post. Thirty-two single-rooted human maxillar central teeth were sectioned below the cementoenamel junction, instrumented and obturated. Post-space preparation was performed, and roots were randomly divided into eight groups (n = 4) according to the final irrigant activation protocols; distilled water was used as an irrigant in group 1. The other groups were treated with 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. Conventional syringe irrigation (CSI, no activation) was used in group 2. Irrigation solutions were activated using passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI, group 3), EndoVac apical negative pressure (ANP, group 4), diode laser (group 5), neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (group 6), erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser (group 7), and Er:YAG laser using with photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS™) technique (group 8). In all groups, fiber posts (White Post DC, FGM) were luted using Panavia F 2.0 (Kuraray, Osaka, Japan). The specimens were transversally sectioned, and all slices from coronal and apical regions were subjected to push-out tests. The data were calculated as megapascals and analyzed by using two-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) tests. Removing the smear layer increased the bond strength to dentine when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The highest bond strength was obtained in the PIPS laser-activated irrigation group (p < 0.05). Coronal root region presented significantly higher bond strength than the apical region (p < 0.05). PIPS laser-activated irrigation showed higher efficiency as a final irrigant activation protocol on push-out bond strength of fiber post. PMID:26022731

  16. Push-Pull: Chemical Ecology-Based Integrated Pest Management Technology.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zeyaur; Midega, Charles A O; Hooper, Antony; Pickett, John

    2016-07-01

    Lepidopterous stemborers, and parasitic striga weeds belonging to the family Orobanchaceae, attack cereal crops in sub-Saharan Africa causing severe yield losses. The smallholder farmers are resource constrained and unable to afford expensive chemicals for crop protection. The push-pull technology, a chemical ecology- based cropping system, is developed for integrated pest and weed management in cereal-livestock farming systems. Appropriate plants were selected that naturally emit signaling chemicals (semiochemicals). Plants highly attractive for stemborer egg laying were selected and employed as trap crops (pull), to draw pests away from the main crop. Plants that repelled stemborer females were selected as intercrops (push). The stemborers are attracted to the trap plant, and are repelled from the main cereal crop using a repellent intercrop (push). Root exudates of leguminous repellent intercrops also effectively control the parasitic striga weed through an allelopathic mechanism. Their root exudates contain flavonoid compounds some of which stimulate germination of Striga hermonthica seeds, such as Uncinanone B, and others that dramatically inhibit their attachment to host roots, such as Uncinanone C and a number of di-C-glycosylflavones (di-CGFs), resulting in suicidal germination. The intercrop also improves soil fertility through nitrogen fixation, natural mulching, improved biomass, and control of erosion. Both companion plants provide high value animal fodder, facilitating milk production and diversifying farmers' income sources. The technology is appropriate to smallholder mixed cropping systems in Africa. Adopted by about 125,000 farmers to date in eastern Africa, it effectively addresses major production constraints, significantly increases maize yields, and is economical as it is based on locally available plants, not expensive external inputs. PMID:27392788

  17. A push-pull system to reduce house entry of malaria mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mosquitoes are the dominant vectors of pathogens that cause infectious diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and filariasis. Current vector control strategies often rely on the use of pyrethroids against which mosquitoes are increasingly developing resistance. Here, a push-pull system is presented, that operates by the simultaneous use of repellent and attractive volatile odorants. Method/Results Experiments were carried out in a semi-field set-up: a traditional house which was constructed inside a screenhouse. The release of different repellent compounds, para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD), catnip oil e.o. and delta-undecalactone, from the four corners of the house resulted in significant reductions of 45% to 81.5% in house entry of host-seeking malaria mosquitoes. The highest reductions in house entry (up to 95.5%), were achieved by simultaneously repelling mosquitoes from the house (push) and removing them from the experimental set-up using attractant-baited traps (pull). Conclusions The outcome of this study suggests that a push-pull system based on attractive and repellent volatiles may successfully be employed to target mosquito vectors of human disease. Reductions in house entry of malaria vectors, of the magnitude that was achieved in these experiments, would likely affect malaria transmission. The repellents used are non-toxic and can be used safely in a human environment. Delta-undecalactone is a novel repellent that showed higher effectiveness than the established repellent PMD. These results encourage further development of the system for practical implementation in the field. PMID:24674451

  18. Endoscopic "Push-Trough" Technique Cartilage Myringoplasty in Anterior Tympanic Membrane Perforations

    PubMed Central

    Samim, Erdal; Oztuna, Derya

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate endoscopic push-through technique cartilage myringoplasty results. Methods This prospective study was performed on patients with anterior tympanic membrane perforations and endoscopic push-through technique cartilage myringoplasty was performed between 2011 and 2013. The patients who did not have any cholesteatoma or otorrhea in the previous 3 months, and had an air bone gap ≤25 dB in their preoperative audiograms were included in the study. They were followed up with endoscopic examination and audiograms at 2nd, 6th, 12th, and 24th postoperative months. Pure tone averages were calculated at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz frequencies. Results Of 32 patients, 19 were females and 13 were males. The mean age was 40.3 years (range, 16 to 62 years), and the mean follow-up period was 12.4 months (range, 6 to 24 months). Graft success rate was 87.5% in this study. Preoperative mean air conduction hearing threshold was 25.9 dB, and the mean air-bone gap was 11.9 dB while these values improved to 19.5 dB and 5.3 dB respectively in the postoperative period. The mean hearing gain was 6.4 dB. The analysis of preoperative and postoperative mean air conduction thresholds and air bone gap values of the patients revealed statistically significant differences. Conclusion Underlay cartilage myringoplasty with endoscopic push-through technique in anterior quadrant tympanic membrane perforations is an effective, minimally invasive and feasible method. PMID:26330916

  19. Station Assembly Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the assembly of the International Space Station since Nov. 20, 1998, with the delivery of the Zarya module, through May 16, 2011, with the delivery of the EXPRESS Logistics C...

  20. Hypergolic Ignitor Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Eric S. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Martin, Michael A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An ignitor for use with the MC-I rocket engine has a cartridge bounded by two end caps with rupture disc assemblies connected thereto. A piston assembly within the cartridge moves from one end of the cartridge during the ignition process. The inlet of the ignitor communicates with a supply taken from the discharge of the fuel pump. When the pump is initially started, the pressure differential bursts the first rupture disc to begin the movement of the piston assembly toward the discharge end. The pressurization of the cartridge causes the second rupture to rupture and hypergolic fluid contained within the cartridge is discharged out the outlet. Once the piston assembly reaches the discharge end of the cartridge, purge grooves allow for fuel and remaining hypergolic fluid, to be discharged out the ignitor outlet into the combustion chamber to purge the ignitor of any remaining hypergolic fluid.

  1. Swipe transfer assembly

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, Robert M.; Mills, William C.

    1992-01-01

    The swipe transfer assembly is a mechanical assembly which is used in conjunction with glove boxes and other sealed containments. It is used to pass small samples into or out of glove boxes without an open breach of the containment, and includes a rotational cylinder inside a fixed cylinder, the inside cylinder being rotatable through an arc of approximately 240.degree. relative to the outer cylinder. An offset of 120.degree. from end to end allows only one port to be opened at a time. The assembly is made of stainless steel or aluminum and clear acrylic plastic to enable visual observation. The assembly allows transfer of swipes and smears from radiological and other specially controlled environments.

  2. Automated Assembly Center (AAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this project are as follows: to integrate advanced assembly and assembly support technology under a comprehensive architecture; to implement automated assembly technologies in the production of high-visibility DOD weapon systems; and to document the improved cost, quality, and lead time. This will enhance the production of DOD weapon systems by utilizing the latest commercially available technologies combined into a flexible system that will be able to readily incorporate new technologies as they emerge. Automated assembly encompasses the following areas: product data, process planning, information management policies and framework, three schema architecture, open systems communications, intelligent robots, flexible multi-ability end effectors, knowledge-based/expert systems, intelligent workstations, intelligent sensor systems, and PDES/PDDI data standards.

  3. Magnetostrictive valve assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A magnetostrictive valve assembly includes a housing that defines a passage with a seat being formed therein. A magnetically-biased and axially-compressed magnetostrictive assembly slidingly fitted in the passage is configured as a hollow and open-ended conduit adapted to support a flow of a fluid therethrough. Current-carrying coil(s) disposed about the passage in the region of the magnetostrictive assembly generate a magnetic field in the passage when current flows through the coil(s). A hollow valve body with side ports is coupled on one end thereof to an axial end of the magnetostrictive assembly. The other end of the valve body is designed to seal with the seat formed in the housing's passage when brought into contact therewith.

  4. Core assembly storage structure

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., Charles E.; Brunings, Jay E.

    1988-01-01

    A structure for the storage of core assemblies from a liquid metal-cooled nuclear reactor. The structure comprises an enclosed housing having a substantially flat horizontal top plate, a bottom plate and substantially vertical wall members extending therebetween. A plurality of thimble members extend downwardly through the top plate. Each thimble member is closed at its bottom end and has an open end adjacent said top plate. Each thimble member has a length and diameter greater than that of the core assembly to be stored therein. The housing is provided with an inlet duct for the admission of cooling air and an exhaust duct for the discharge of air therefrom, such that when hot core assemblies are placed in the thimbles, the heat generated will by convection cause air to flow from the inlet duct around the thimbles and out the exhaust duct maintaining the core assemblies at a safe temperature without the necessity of auxiliary powered cooling equipment.

  5. Rnnotator Assembly Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jeff

    2010-06-03

    Jeff Martin of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses a de novo transcriptome assembly pipeline from short RNA-Seq reads on June 3, 2010 at the "Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future" meeting in Santa Fe, NM

  6. Integrated thruster assembly program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The program is reported which has provided technology for a long life, high performing, integrated ACPS thruster assembly suitable for use in 100 typical flights of a space shuttle vehicle over a ten year period. The four integrated thruster assemblies (ITA) fabricated consisted of: propellant injector; a capacitive discharge, air gap torch type igniter assembly; fast response igniter and main propellant valves; and a combined regen-dump film cooled chamber. These flightweight 6672 N (1500 lb) thruster assemblies employed GH2/GO2 as propellants at a chamber pressure of 207 N/sq cm (300 psia). Test data were obtained on thrusted performance, thermal and hydraulic characteristics, dynamic response in pulsing, and cycle life. One thruster was fired in excess of 42,000 times.

  7. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.; Kobsa, I.R.

    1994-02-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof. 12 figures.

  8. Steam separator latch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.; Kobsa, Irvin R.

    1994-01-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  9. The proteasome assembly line

    PubMed Central

    Madura, Kiran

    2013-01-01

    The assembly of the proteasome — the cellular machine that eliminates unwanted proteins — is a carefully choreographed affair, involving a complex sequence of steps overseen by dedicated protein chaperones. PMID:19516331

  10. Push pull microfluidics on a multi-level 3D CD.

    PubMed

    Thio, Tzer Hwai Gilbert; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Al-Faqheri, Wisam; Moebius, Jacob; Khalid, Noor Sakinah; Soin, Norhayati; Kahar, Maria Kahar Bador Abdul; Madou, Marc

    2013-08-21

    A technique known as thermo-pneumatic (TP) pumping is used to pump fluids on a microfluidic compact disc (CD) back towards the CD center against the centrifugal force that pushes liquids from the center to the perimeter of the disc. Trapped air expands in a TP air chamber during heating, and this creates positive pressure on liquids located in chambers connected to that chamber. While the TP air chamber and connecting channels are easy to fabricate in a one-level CD manufacturing technique, this approach provides only one way pumping between two chambers, is real-estate hungry and leads to unnecessary heating of liquids in close proximity to the TP chamber. In this paper, we present a novel TP push and pull pumping method which allows for pumping of liquid in any direction between two connected liquid chambers. To ensure that implementation of TP push and pull pumping also addresses the issue of space and heating challenges, a multi-level 3D CD design is developed, and localized forced convection heating, rather than infra-red (IR) is applied. On a multi-level 3D CD, the TP features are placed on a top level separate from the rest of the microfluidic processes that are implemented on a lower separate level. This approach allows for heat shielding of the microfluidic process level, and efficient usage of space on the CD for centrifugal handling of liquids. The use of localized forced convection heating, rather than infra-red (IR) or laser heating in earlier implementations allows not only for TP pumping of liquids while the CD is spinning but also makes heat insulation for TP pumping and other fluidic functions easier. To aid in future implementations of TP push and pull pumping on a multi-level 3D CD, study on CD surface heating is also presented. In this contribution, we also demonstrate an advanced application of pull pumping through the implementation of valve-less switch pumping. PMID:23774994

  11. Cooled Dyson long-wave infrared push-broom imaging spectrometer by re-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiayin; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Yang; Li, Chun; Sun, Qiang; Hu, Xinrong

    2016-05-01

    A cooled long-wave infrared push-broom imaging spectrometer with an F-number of 2 was designed based on the Dyson configuration. A three-mirror off-axis aspherical optical system that provided excellent slit-shaped images was selected as the fore telescope objective. The re-imaging method was applied to obtain a cold stop efficiency of 100%, and the corrector lens in traditional Dyson imaging spectrometers was replaced with re-imaging lenses to correct spherical aberrations. The designed imaging spectrometer provided a spectral resolution of 25 nm at a range of 8-12 μm and possessed a relatively small volume.

  12. Development of a direct push based in-situ thermal conductivity measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirla, Marian Andrei; Vienken, Thomas; Dietrich, Peter; Bumberger, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Heat pump systems are commonly utilized in Europe, for the exploitation of the shallow geothermal potential. To guarantee a sustainable use of the geothermal heat pump systems by saving resources and minimizing potential negative impacts induced by temperature changes within soil and groundwater, new geothermal exploration methods and tools are required. The knowledge of the underground thermal properties is a necessity for a correct and optimum design of borehole heat exchangers. The most important parameter that indicates the performance of the systems is thermal conductivity of the ground. Mapping the spatial variability of thermal conductivity, with high resolution in the shallow subsurface for geothermal purposes, requires a high degree of technical effort to procure adequate samples for thermal analysis. A collection of such samples from the soil can disturb sample structure, so great care must be taken during collection to avoid this. Factors such as transportation and sample storage can also influence measurement results. The use of technologies like Thermal Response Test (TRT) require complex mechanical and electrical systems for convective heat transport in the subsurface and longer monitoring times, often three days. Finally, by using thermal response tests, often only one integral value is obtained for the entire coupled subsurface with the borehole heat exchanger. The common thermal conductivity measurement systems (thermal analyzers) can perform vertical thermal conductivity logs only with the aid of sample procurement, or by integration into a drilling system. However, thermal conductivity measurements using direct push with this type of probes are not possible, due to physical and mechanical limitations. Applying vertical forces using direct push technology, in order to penetrate the shallow subsurface, can damage the probe and the sensors systems. The aim of this study is to develop a new, robust thermal conductivity measurement probe, for direct

  13. Characterization of Direct Push Vadose Zone Sediments from the 241-U Single-Shell Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

    2007-12-20

    The overall goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., are 1) to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities, 2) to identify and evaluate the efficacy of interim measures, and 3) to aid, via collection of geochemical information and data, the future decisions that must be made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the near-term operations, future waste retrieval, and final closure activities for the single-shell tank Waste Management Areas (WMAs). For a more complete discussion of the goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, see the overall work plan, Phase 1 RCRA Facility Investigation/Corrective Measures Study Work Plan for the Single-Shell Tank Waste Management Areas (DOE 1999). Specific details on the rationale for activities performed at WMA U are found in Crumpler (2003). To meet these goals, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform detailed analyses of vadose zone sediment collected within the U Single-Shell Tank Farm. Specifically, this report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from ten direct push characterization holes emplaced to investigate vadose zone contamination associated with potential leaks within the 241-U Single-Shell Tank Farm. Specific tanks targeted during this characterization campaign included tanks 241-U-104/241-U-105, 241-U-110, and 241-U-112. Additionally, this report compiles data from direct push samples collected north of tank 241-U-201, as well as sediment collected from the background borehole (C3393). After evaluating all the characterization and analytical data, there is no question that the vadose zone in the vicinity of tanks 241-U-104 and 241-U-105 has been contaminated by tank-related waste. This observation is not new, as gamma logging of drywells in the area has identified uranium contamination at the

  14. Preliminary Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulation of EIIB Push Barge in Shallow Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beneš, Petr; Kollárik, Róbert

    2011-12-01

    This study presents preliminary CFD simulation of EIIb push barge in inland conditions using CFD software Ansys Fluent. The RANSE (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Equation) methods are used for the viscosity solution of turbulent flow around the ship hull. Different RANSE methods are used for the comparison of their results in ship resistance calculations, for selecting the appropriate and removing inappropriate methods. This study further familiarizes on the creation of geometrical model which considers exact water depth to vessel draft ratio in shallow water conditions, grid generation, setting mathematical model in Fluent and evaluation of the simulations results.

  15. L band push broom microwave radiometer: Soil moisture verification and time series experiment Delmarva Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Shiue, J.; Oneill, P.; Wang, J.; Fuchs, J.; Owe, M.

    1984-01-01

    The verification of a multi-sensor aircraft system developed to study soil moisture applications is discussed. This system consisted of a three beam push broom L band microwave radiometer, a thermal infrared scanner, a multispectral scanner, video and photographic cameras and an onboard navigational instrument. Ten flights were made of agricultural sites in Maryland and Delaware with little or no vegetation cover. Comparisons of aircraft and ground measurements showed that the system was reliable and consistent. Time series analysis of microwave and evaporation data showed a strong similarity that indicates a potential direction for future research.

  16. Recuperator assembly and procedures

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Yungmo; McKeirnan, Jr., Robert D.

    2008-08-26

    A construction of recuperator core segments is provided which insures proper assembly of the components of the recuperator core segment, and of a plurality of recuperator core segments. Each recuperator core segment must be constructed so as to prevent nesting of fin folds of the adjacent heat exchanger foils of the recuperator core segment. A plurality of recuperator core segments must be assembled together so as to prevent nesting of adjacent fin folds of adjacent recuperator core segments.

  17. High speed door assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  18. ASSEMBLY OF PARALLEL PLATES

    DOEpatents

    Groh, E.F.; Lennox, D.H.

    1963-04-23

    This invention is concerned with a rigid assembly of parallel plates in which keyways are stamped out along the edges of the plates and a self-retaining key is inserted into aligned keyways. Spacers having similar keyways are included between adjacent plates. The entire assembly is locked into a rigid structure by fastening only the outermost plates to the ends of the keys. (AEC)

  19. Recuperator assembly and procedures

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Yungmo; McKeirnan, Jr., Robert D.

    2006-06-27

    A construction of recuperator core segments is provided which insures proper assembly of the components of the recuperator core segment, and of a plurality of recuperator core segments. Each recuperator core segment must be constructed so as to prevent nesting of fin folds of the adjacent heat exchanger foils of the recuperator core segment. A plurality of recuperator core segments must be assembled together so as to prevent nesting of adjacent fin folds of adjacent recuperator core segments.

  20. Magnetic manipulation of self-assembled colloidal asters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S.

    2011-09-01

    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Here we show that a magnetic colloidal suspension confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters, which exhibit locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, we show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles. The ability to manipulate colloidal structures is crucial for the further development of self-assembled microrobots.

  1. Magnetic manipulation of self-assembled colloidal asters.

    SciTech Connect

    Snezhko, A.; Aranson, I. S.

    2011-09-01

    Self-assembled materials must actively consume energy and remain out of equilibrium to support structural complexity and functional diversity. Here we show that a magnetic colloidal suspension confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters, which exhibit locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, we show that asters can capture, transport, and position target microparticles. The ability to manipulate colloidal structures is crucial for the further development of self-assembled microrobots

  2. Some methods for achieving more efficient performance of fuel assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boltenko, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    More efficient operation of reactor plant fuel assemblies can be achieved through the use of new technical solutions aimed at obtaining more uniform distribution of coolant over the fuel assembly section, more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces, and higher values of departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR). Technical solutions using which it is possible to obtain more intense heat removal on convex heat-transfer surfaces and higher DNBR values in reactor plant fuel assemblies are considered. An alternative heat removal arrangement is described using which it is possible to obtain a significantly higher power density in a reactor plant and essentially lower maximal fuel rod temperature.

  3. The search for CFC alternatives is over?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Tim

    1995-01-01

    The Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility (EMPF) is a U.S. Navy Center of Excellence tasked to do research in electronics manufacturing. For the past seven years, the EMPF has performed extensive research in various cleaning materials and processes that have recently been made available to printed circuit board assemblers. This paper outlines our research and points out the positive and negative aspects that need to be considered when choosing an alternative process.

  4. Characterization of Direct Push Vadose Zone Sediments from the T and TY Waste Management Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Iovin, Cristian; Clayton, Ray E.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Clayton, Eric T.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Orr, Robert D.

    2007-06-08

    This report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from 5 direct push characterization holes emplaced to investigate vadose zone contamination associated with leaks from tanks 241-TY-105 (UPR-200-W-152) and 241-TY-106 (UPR-200-W-153). Tank 241-TY-105 is estimated to have leaked 35,000 gal of tributyl phosphate (TBP) waste from the uranium recovery process to the vadose zone in 1960. Tank 241-TY-106 is estimated to have leaked 20,000 gal of TBP-uranium recovery waste to the vadose zone in 1959. Although several drywells in the vicinity of tank 241-TY-106 contain measurable quantities of cesium-137 and/or cobalt-60, their relatively low concentrations indicate that the contaminant inventory in the vadose zone around tank 241-TY-106 is quite small. Additionally, this report contains all the geochemical and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from 7 direct push characterization holes emplaced to investigate vadose zone contamination associated with an overfill event and leak from tank 241-T-101.

  5. Particle Engulfment and Pushing by Solidifying Interfaces. Pt. 2; Micro-Gravity Experiments and Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, Doru M.; Juretzko, Frank R.; Dhindaw, Brij K.; Catalina, Adrian; Sen, Subhayu; Curreri, Peter A.

    1998-01-01

    Results of the directional solidification experiments on Particle Engulfment and Pushing by Solidifying Interfaces (PEP) conducted on the space shuttle Columbia during the Life and Microgravity Science Mission are reported. Two pure aluminum (99.999%) 9 mm cylindrical rods, loaded with about 2 vol.% 500 micrometers diameter zirconia particles were melted and resolidified in the microgravity (microg) environment of the shuttle. One sample was processed at step-wise increased solidification velocity, while the other at step-wise decreased velocity. It was found that a pushing-to-engulfment transition (PET) occurred in the velocity range of 0.5 to 1 micrometers. This is smaller than the ground PET velocity of 1.9 to 2.4 micrometers. This demonstrates that natural convection increases the critical velocity. A previously proposed analytical model for PEP was further developed. A major effort to identify and produce data for the surface energy of various interfaces required for calculation was undertaken. The predicted critical velocity for PET was of 0.775 micrometers/s.

  6. A push-pull test to measure root uptake of volatile chemicals from wetland soils.

    PubMed

    Reid, Matthew C; Jaffé, Peter R

    2013-04-01

    This paper introduces a novel modification of the single-well "push-pull" test that uses nonvolatile and multiple volatile tracers to investigate the transport and root uptake kinetics of volatile chemicals in saturated soils. This technique provides an estimate of potential volatilization fluxes without relying on enclosure-based measurements. The new push-pull methodology was validated with mesocosm experiments, and bench-scale hydroponic measurements were performed to develop an empirical relationship for scaling root uptake rates between chemicals. A new modeling approach to interpret data using sulfur hexafluoride and helium as dual volatile tracers was developed and shown to decrease errors relative to existing analytical techniques that utilize bromide as a conservative tracer. Root uptake of the volatile tracers was diffusion-limited, and uptake rate constants (kv) in vegetated experimental mesocosms ranged from 0.021 ± 9.0 × 10(-4) h(-1) for CFC-12 to 2.41 ± 0.98 h(-1) for helium. Hydroponic and mesocosm experiments demonstrate that the molecular diameter is a robust empirical predictor of kv. PMID:23461357

  7. Monitoring bioaugmenation with single-well push-pull tests in sediment systems contaminated with trichloroethene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Hyuk; Dolan, Mark; Field, Jennifer; Istok, Jonathan

    2010-02-01

    Bioaugmentation to enhance the rate and extent of reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethenes was investigated in intermediate ( approximately 1 m) scale physical aquifer models (PAMs) designed to simulate the groundwater flow field near an injection well. Push-pull tests were used to quantify the reductive dechlorination of injected trichloroethene (TCE) and trichlorofluoroethene (TCFE) in prepared sediment packs with and without an added dechlorinating culture containing Dehalococcoides spp. Distribution of the added culture throughout the sediment pack was confirmed by microscopic observation. Repeated additions of TCE (100-350 microM) were completely transformed to ethene in 14 days and a subsequent TCFE addition (114 microM) was completely transformed to fluoroethene (FE) in 24 days. Similar transformation rates, product distributions, and time courses for TCE and TCFE transformation were observed when these compounds were added together at similar initial concentrations. In the control PAM (nonbioaugmented), TCE and TCFE were transformed to only cis-DCE and cis-DCFE, respectively, and transformation rates were 6-12 times slower than those in the bioaugmented PAM. The use of TCFE for push-pull tests is shown to be an effective tool for detecting and quantifying the effects of bioaugmentation on TCE transformation. PMID:20030401

  8. Optimal Halbach permanent magnet designs for maximally pulling and pushing nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarwar, A.; Nemirovski, A.; Shapiro, B.

    2012-03-01

    Optimization methods are presented to design Halbach arrays to maximize the forces applied on magnetic nanoparticles at deep tissue locations. In magnetic drug targeting, where magnets are used to focus therapeutic nanoparticles to disease locations, the sharp fall off of magnetic fields and forces with distances from magnets has limited the depth of targeting. Creating stronger forces at a depth by optimally designed Halbach arrays would allow treatment of a wider class of patients, e.g. patients with deeper tumors. The presented optimization methods are based on semi-definite quadratic programming, yield provably globally optimal Halbach designs in 2 and 3-dimensions, for maximal pull or push magnetic forces (stronger pull forces can collect nanoparticles against blood forces in deeper vessels; push forces can be used to inject particles into precise locations, e.g. into the inner ear). These Halbach designs, here tested in simulations of Maxwell's equations, significantly outperform benchmark magnets of the same size and strength. For example, a 3-dimensional 36 element 2000 cm3 volume optimal Halbach design yields a 5× greater force at a 10 cm depth compared to a uniformly magnetized magnet of the same size and strength. The designed arrays should be feasible to construct, as they have a similar strength (≤1 T), size (≤2000 cm3), and number of elements (≤36) as previously demonstrated arrays, and retain good performance for reasonable manufacturing errors (element magnetization direction errors ≤5°), thus yielding practical designs to improve magnetic drug targeting treatment depths.

  9. Thermal modeling of core sampling in flammable gas waste tanks. Part 1: Push-mode sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, C.; Stroh, K.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.

    1997-08-01

    The radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford site is routinely being sampled for waste characterization purposes. The push- and rotary-mode core sampling is one of the sampling methods employed. The waste includes mixtures of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite with organic compounds that can produce violent exothermic reactions if heated above 160 C during core sampling. A self-propagating waste reaction would produce very high temperatures that eventually result in failure of the tank and radioactive material releases to environment. A two-dimensional thermal model based on a lumped finite volume analysis method is developed. The enthalpy of each node is calculated from the first law of thermodynamics. A flash temperature and effective contact area concept were introduced to account the interface temperature rise. No maximum temperature rise exceeding the critical value of 60 C was found in the cases studied for normal operating conditions. Several accident conditions are also examined. In these cases it was found that the maximum drill bit temperature remained below the critical reaction temperature as long as a 30 scfm purge flow is provided the push-mode drill bit during sampling in rotary mode. The failure to provide purge flow resulted in exceeding the limiting temperatures in a relatively short time.

  10. Comparative performance studies between tunable filter and push-broom chemical imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Jouko; Saari, Heikki; Kemeny, Gabor; Shi, Zhenqi; Anderson, Carl

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports instrument characterization measurements, which were recently arranged to provide comparative information on different hyperspectral chemical imaging systems. Three different instruments were studied covering both tunable filter and push-broom techniques: The first instrument MatrixNIRTM is based on a LCTF tunable filter and InGaAs camera and covers wavelengths from 1000 to 1700 nm. The second one SisuCHEMATM is based on push-broom technology and MCT camera operating from 1000 to 2500 nm. The third system is an instrument prototype from VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland exploiting high speed Fabry-Perot interferometer and MCT camera, currently calibrated from 1260 to 2500 nm. The characterization procedure was designed to study instrumental noise, signal-to-noise ratio, linearity and spectral as well as spatial resolution. Finally, a pharmaceutical tablet sample was measured with each instrument to demonstrate speed of measurement in a typical application. In spite of differences in wavelength ranges and camera technologies used, the results provide interesting information on relative instrumental advantages and disadvantages, which may be useful for selecting appropriate instrumentation for defined applications. Further, an additional aim of this study is to compare the high speed Fabry-Perot imaging technology under development against the established chemical imaging techniques available on the market today.

  11. Biomechanical loading of the shoulder complex and lumbosacral joints during dynamic cart pushing task.

    PubMed

    Nimbarte, Ashish D; Sun, Yun; Jaridi, Majid; Hsiao, Hongwei

    2013-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify the effect of dynamic cart pushing exertions on the biomechanical loading of shoulder and low back. Ten participants performed cart pushing tasks on flat (0°), 5°, and 10° ramped walkways at 20 kg, 30 kg, and 40 kg weight conditions. An optoelectronic motion capturing system configured with two force plates was used for the kinematic and ground reaction force data collection. The experimental data was modeled using AnyBody modeling system to compute three-dimensional peak reaction forces at the shoulder complex (sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular, and glenohumeral) and low back (lumbosacral) joints. The main effect of walkway gradient and cart weight, and gradient by weight interaction on the biomechanical loading of shoulder complex and low back joints was statistically significant (all p < 0.001). At the lumbosacral joint, negligible loading in the mediolateral direction was observed compared to the anterioposterior and compression directions. Among the shoulder complex joints, the peak reaction forces at the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints were comparable and much higher than the sternoclavicular joint. Increased shear loading of the lumbosacral joint, distraction loading of glenohumeral joint and inferosuperior loading of the acromioclavicular joint may contribute to the risk of work-related low back and shoulder musculoskeletal disorder with prolonged and repetitive use of carts. PMID:23566675

  12. 45-Day safety screening results for tank 241-U-102, push mode cores 143 and 144

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, F.H.

    1996-06-28

    This document is the 45-day report deliverable for tank 241-U-102 push mode core segments collected between April 16, 1996 and May 6, 1996 and received by the 222-S Laboratory between April 17, 1996 and May 8, 1996. The segments were subsampled and analyzed in accordance, with the Tank 241-U-102 Push Mode Core Sampling and analysis Plan (TSAP) (Hu, 1996) and the Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Dukelow, et al., 1995). The analytical results are included in Table 1. Attachment I is a cross reference to relate the tank farm identification numbers to the 222-S Laboratory LabCore sample numbers. The subsamples generated in the laboratory for analysis are identified in these diagrams with their sources shown. The diagram identifying the hydrostatic head fluid (HHF) blank is also included, Primary safety screening results and the raw data from Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analyses are included in this report. Two of the samples submitted for DSC analysis exceeded notification limits as stated in the Safety Screening DQO (Dukelow, et al., 1995). Cyanide analysis was requested on these samples and a Reactive System Screening Tool analysis was requested for the sample exhibiting the highest exothenn in accordance with the TSAP (Hu, 1996). The results for these analyses will be reported in a revision to this document.

  13. Push-through direct injection NMR: an optimized automation method applied to metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Teng, Quincy; Ekman, Drew R; Huang, Wenlin; Collette, Timothy W

    2012-05-01

    There is a pressing need to increase the throughput of NMR analysis in fields such as metabolomics and drug discovery. Direct injection (DI) NMR automation is recognized to have the potential to meet this need due to its suitability for integration with the 96-well plate format. However, DI NMR has not been widely used as a result of some insurmountable technical problems; namely: carryover contamination, sample diffusion (causing reduction of spectral sensitivity), and line broadening caused by entrapped air bubbles. Several variants of DI NMR, such as flow injection analysis (FIA) and microflow NMR, have been proposed to address one or more of these issues, but not all of them. The push-through direct injection technique reported here overcomes all of these problems. The method recovers samples after NMR analysis, uses a "brush-wash" routine to eliminate carryover, includes a procedure to push wash solvent out of the flow cell via the outlet to prevent sample diffusion, and employs an injection valve to avoid air bubbles. Herein, we demonstrate the robustness, efficiency, and lack of carryover characteristics of this new method, which is ideally suited for relatively high throughput analysis of the complex biological tissue extracts used in metabolomics, as well as many other sample types. While simple in concept and setup, this new method provides a substantial improvement over current approaches. PMID:22434060

  14. Range expansions transition from pulled to pushed waves with increasing cooperativity in an experimental microbial population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhi, Saurabh; Yurtsev, Eugene; Korolev, Kirill; Gore, Jeff

    Range expansions are becoming more frequent due to environmental changes and rare long distance dispersal, often facilitated by anthropogenic activities. Simple models in theoretical ecology explain many emergent properties of range expansions, such as a constant expansion velocity, in terms of organism-level properties such as growth and dispersal rates. Testing these quantitative predictions in natural populations is difficult because of large environmental variability. Here, we used a controlled microbial model system to study range expansions of populations with and without intra-specific cooperativity. For non-cooperative growth, the expansion dynamics were dominated by population growth at the low-density front, which pulled the expansion forward. We found these expansions to be in close quantitative agreement with the classical theory of pulled waves by Fisher and Skellam, suitably adapted to our experimental system. However, as cooperativity increased, the expansions transitioned to being pushed, i.e. controlled by growth in the bulk as well as in the front. Although both pulled and pushed waves expand at a constant velocity and appear otherwise similar, their distinct dynamics leads to very different evolutionary consequences. Given the prevalence of cooperative growth in nature, understanding the effects of cooperativity is essential to managing invading species and understanding their evolution.

  15. Particle Engulfment and Pushing by Solidifying Interfaces: USMP-4 One Year Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanescu, D. M.; Juretzko, F. R.; Catalina, A. V.; Sen, S.; Curreri, P.; Schmitt, C.

    1999-01-01

    The experiment Particle Pushing and Engulfment by Solidifying Interfaces (PEP) was conducted during the USMP-4 (United States Microgravity Payload-4) mission on board the shuttle Columbia in November 1997. This experiment has its place within the framework of a long-term scientific effort to understand the physics of particle pushing. The first flight experiment of this kind was performed with a metal matrix composite on board STS-78 in the summer of 1996. The use of opaque matrices limits the evaluation to pre-and post-flight comparison of particle locations within the sample. By using transparent matrices the interaction of one or multiple particles with an advancing solid/liquid (SL) interface can be studied in-situ. If this observation can then directly be transmitted from the orbiter to the scientists by video down-link, a real-time execution of the experiment is possible in a micro-gravity environment. Part of this experiment was an extensive training of the payload specialists to perform the experiment in orbit. This was further enhanced by the availability of video down-link and direct communication with the astronauts. Even though the PEP experiment is aimed at understanding the interaction of a liquid/solid interface with insoluble particles and thus is fundamental in scope, the prospective applications are not. Possible applications range from improved metal matrix composites to understanding and preventing frost heaving affecting roads.

  16. The effect and safety of short-term creatine supplementation on performance of push-ups.

    PubMed

    Armentano, Matthew J; Brenner, Alex K; Hedman, Travis L; Solomon, Zack T; Chavez, Juliann; Kemper, George B; Salzberg, Daniel; Battafarano, Daniel F; Christie, Douglas S

    2007-03-01

    The effects of short-term oral creatine (Cr) supplementation on exercise performance and on blood pressure and renal function were assessed. Thirty-five healthy, active duty, U.S. Army volunteers (20 men and 15 women; age, 22-36 years) at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, supplemented their diet for 7 days with 20 g/day of either Cr or taurine (as placebo). There was no significant difference in 2-minute push-up counts between the Cr and taurine groups from before to after supplementation (p = 0.437; power = 0.98). The Cr group demonstrated a significant increase in serum creatinine levels (p < 0.001), compared with the taurine group, and this increase could be misinterpreted as impairment of renal function. No adverse changes in blood pressure, body composition, weight, or serum Cr phosphokinase levels were observed. We conclude that short-term Cr supplementation appears to be safe but does not enhance push-up performance. PMID:17436778

  17. 45-day safety screen results for tank 241-U-204, push mode, cores 81 and 82

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, K.E.

    1995-05-17

    This is the 45-Day report for the fiscal year 1995 tank 241-U-204 (U-204) push-mode characterization effort. Included are a summary of analytical results and copies of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) scans. Core samples 81 and 82 from tank U-204, obtained by the push-mode core sampling method, were received by the 222-S Laboratories. Each core consisted of only one segment. Both core samples and the field blank were extruded, subsampled, and analyzed in accordance with Reference 1. Drainable liquids and the field blank were analyzed at the segment level for energetics by DSC, percent water by TGA, and total organic carbon (TOC) by furnace oxidation. In addition, the presence or absence of any separable, presumably organic, layer in drainable liquid samples was noted and none was observed. The solids were analyzed directly at the half segment level for energetics by DSC, percent water by TGA, and TOC by persulfate oxidation. Total alpha activity was determined on fusion digestions of the sludge subsamples. No immediate notifications were necessary on samples from cores 81 or 82.

  18. GPU-Accelerated Framework for Intracoronary Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging at the Push of a Button

    PubMed Central

    Han, Myounghee; Kim, Kyunghun; Jang, Sun-Joo; Cho, Han Saem; Bouma, Brett E.; Oh, Wang-Yuhl; Ryu, Sukyoung

    2015-01-01

    Frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) has become one of the important clinical tools for intracoronary imaging to diagnose and monitor coronary artery disease, which has been one of the leading causes of death. To help more accurate diagnosis and monitoring of the disease, many researchers have recently worked on visualization of various coronary microscopic features including stent struts by constructing three-dimensional (3D) volumetric rendering from series of cross-sectional intracoronary FD-OCT images. In this paper, we present the first, to our knowledge, "push-of-a-button" graphics processing unit (GPU)-accelerated framework for intracoronary OCT imaging. Our framework visualizes 3D microstructures of the vessel wall with stent struts from raw binary OCT data acquired by the system digitizer as one seamless process. The framework reports the state-of-the-art performance; from raw OCT data, it takes 4.7 seconds to provide 3D visualization of a 5-cm-long coronary artery (of size 1600 samples x 1024 A-lines x 260 frames) with stent struts and detection of malapposition automatically at the single push of a button. PMID:25880375

  19. Push-Out Bond Strength of Bioceramic Materials in a Synthetic Tissue Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Razmi, Hasan; Nekoofar, Mohammad Hossein; Sajadi, Sepideh; Dummer, Paul MH.; Khoshkhounejad, Mehrfam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the push-out bond strength of EndoSequence Root Repair Material (ERRM) and Bioaggregate (BA), new bioceramic materials, to that of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) after incubation in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), a synthetic tissue fluid, for either 1 week or 2 months. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and twenty root sections were filled with ProRoot MTA, BA, or ERRM. Each tested material was then randomly divided into two subgroups (n = 20): root sections were immersed in PBS for 1 week or 2 months. The bond strengths were measured using a universal testing machine. After that, the failure modes were examined with stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The push-out data and failure mode categories were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and chi-square tests, respectively. Results: The bond strength of ERRM was significantly higher than that of BA and MTA at both incubation periods. No significant difference was found between the bond strength of MTA and BA at either 1 week or 2 months. Increasing the incubation time to 2 months resulted in a significant increase in bond strength of all the materials. The failure mode was mainly mixed for MTA and BA, but cohesive for ERRM at both incubation periods. Conclusion: ERRM had significantly higher bond strength to root canal walls compared to MTA and BA. Increasing the incubation time significantly improved the bond strength and bioactive reaction products of all materials. PMID:24910665

  20. Assemblies of Conformal Tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Assemblies of tanks having shapes that conform to each other and/or conform to other proximate objects have been investigated for use in storing fuels and oxidizers in small available spaces in upper stages of spacecraft. Such assemblies might also prove useful in aircraft, automobiles, boats, and other terrestrial vehicles in which space available for tanks is limited. The basic concept of using conformal tanks to maximize the utilization of limited space is not new in itself: for example, conformal tanks are used in some automobiles to store windshield -washer liquid and coolant that overflows from radiators. The novelty of the present development lies in the concept of an assembly of smaller conformal tanks, as distinguished from a single larger conformal tank. In an assembly of smaller tanks, it would be possible to store different liquids in different tanks. Even if the same liquid were stored in all the tanks, the assembly would offer an advantage by reducing the mechanical disturbance caused by sloshing of fuel in a single larger tank: indeed, the requirement to reduce sloshing is critical in some applications. The figure shows a prototype assembly of conformal tanks. Each tank was fabricated by (1) copper plating a wax tank mandrel to form a liner and (2) wrapping and curing layers of graphite/epoxy composite to form a shell supporting the liner. In this case, the conformal tank surfaces are flat ones where they come in contact with the adjacent tanks. A band of fibers around the outside binds the tanks together tightly in the assembly, which has a quasi-toroidal shape. For proper functioning, it would be necessary to maintain equal pressure in all the tanks.

  1. WHO: World Health Assembly.

    PubMed

    McGregor, A

    1992-05-23

    1200 delegates from 175 member countries attended the 45th World Health Assembly in Geneva. Everyone at the Assembly ratified measures to prevent and control AIDS. 12 countries intended to do long term planning for community based care for AIDS patients. Further the Assembly denounced instances where countries and individuals denied the gravity of the AIDS pandemic. In fact, it expressed the importance for urgent and intensive action against HIV/AIDS. The assembly backed proposals to prevent and control sexually transmitted diseases that affect AIDS patients, especially hepatitis B. For example, in countries with hepatitis B prevalence 8% (many countries in Sub-Sahara Africa, Asia, the Pacific region, and South America), health officials should introduce hepatitis B vaccine into their existing immunization programs by 1995. By 1997, this vaccine should be part of all immunization programs. The Assembly was aware of the obstacles of establishing reliable cold chains for nationwide distribution, however. Delegates in Committee A objected to the fact that 50% of the populations of developing countries continued to have limited access to essential drugs. They also expressed disapproval in implementation of WHO's 1988 ethical criteria for promotion of drugs which WHO entrusted to the Council for International Organisations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS). CIOMS lacked WHO's status and thus could not effectively monitor drug advertising. In fact, the pharmaceutical industry as well as WHO provided the funds for a meeting of 25 experts to discuss principles included in the ethical criteria. At least 4 countries insisted that WHO have the ultimate authority in monitoring drug advertising. Delegates did adopt a compromise resolution on this topic which required that industry promotion methods be reported to the 1994 Assembly via the Executive Board. The Assembly requested WHO to establish an international advisory committee on nursing and midwifery and to improve the network of

  2. Filtered Push: Annotating Distributed Data for Quality Control and Fitness for Use Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, P. J.; Kelly, M. A.; Lowery, D. B.; Macklin, J. A.; Morris, R. A.; Tremonte, D.; Wang, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The single greatest problem with the federation of scientific data is the assessment of the quality and validity of the aggregated data in the context of particular research problems, that is, its fitness for use. There are three critical data quality issues in networks of distributed natural science collections data, as in all scientific data: identifying and correcting errors, maintaining currency, and assessing fitness for use. To this end, we have designed and implemented a prototype network in the domain of natural science collections. This prototype is built over the open source Map-Reduce platform Hadoop with a network client in the open source collections management system Specify 6. We call this network “Filtered Push” as, at its core, annotations are pushed from the network edges to relevant authoritative repositories, where humans and software filter the annotations before accepting them as changes to the authoritative data. The Filtered Push software is a domain-neutral framework for originating, distributing, and analyzing record-level annotations. Network participants can subscribe to notifications arising from ontology-based analyses of new annotations or of purpose-built queries against the network's global history of annotations. Quality and fitness for use of distributed natural science collections data can be addressed with Filtered Push software by implementing a network that allows data providers and consumers to define potential errors in data, develop metrics for those errors, specify workflows to analyze distributed data to detect potential errors, and to close the quality management cycle by providing a network architecture to pushing assertions about data quality such as corrections back to the curators of the participating data sets. Quality issues in distributed scientific data have several things in common: (1) Statements about data quality should be regarded as hypotheses about inconsistencies between perhaps several records, data

  3. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  4. Linear hanger assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Baugh, J.L.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a hanger assembly securable to a workstring for carrying a liner conduit in a subterranean well and settable within a casing string. It comprises: an elongated tubular housing; a series of circumferentially extending slip elements carried exteriorly around and by the housing and axially movable relative to a slip seat from a radially retracted position to a radially spaded position for gripping engagement with the casing string; and each of the slip elements having circumferentially subscribed exteriorly protruding non-buttress teeth defined thereon, the teeth being symmetrical to both pus and pull forces applied through the assembly by either the work-string or the liner conduit subsequent to setting within the casing string; wherein the assembly is moved to a set position relative to the casing string by application of hydraulic pressure in a first predeterminable amount to transmit and apply a setting load to the slip elements; and further comprising compressive biasing means movable to a compressed biasing means movable to a compressed condition by mechanical manipulation of the workstring subsequent to movement of the assembly to the set position to transmit a second load to the slip elements in excess of the setting load; and locking means for locking the setting and second loads into the slip assembly.

  5. Constrained space camera assembly

    DOEpatents

    Heckendorn, F.M.; Anderson, E.K.; Robinson, C.W.; Haynes, H.B.

    1999-05-11

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity is disclosed. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras. 17 figs.

  6. Assembly Test Article (ATA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Glen A.

    1988-01-01

    The assembly test article (ATA) consisted of two live loaded redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) segments which were assembled and disassembled to simulate the actual flight segment stacking process. The test assembly joint was flight RSRM design, which included the J-joint insulation design and metal capture feature. The ATA test was performed mid-November through 24 December 1987, at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The purpose of the test was: certification that vertical RSRM segment mating and separation could be accomplished without any damage; verification and modification of the procedures in the segment stacking/destacking documents; and certification of various GSE to be used for flight assembly and inspection. The RSRM vertical segment assembly/disassembly is possible without any damage to the insulation, metal parts, or seals. The insulation J-joint contact area was very close to the predicted values. Numerous deviations and changes to the planning documents were made to ensure the flight segments are effectively and correctly stacked. Various GSE were also certified for use on flight segments, and are discussed in detail.

  7. Superconductive radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry Lawrence; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  8. Superconducting radiofrequency window assembly

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Harry L.; Elliott, Thomas S.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a superconducting radiofrequency window assembly for use in an electron beam accelerator. The srf window assembly (20) has a superconducting metal-ceramic design. The srf window assembly (20) comprises a superconducting frame (30), a ceramic plate (40) having a superconducting metallized area, and a superconducting eyelet (50) for sealing plate (40) into frame (30). The plate (40) is brazed to eyelet (50) which is then electron beam welded to frame (30). A method for providing a ceramic object mounted in a metal member to withstand cryogenic temperatures is also provided. The method involves a new metallization process for coating a selected area of a ceramic object with a thin film of a superconducting material. Finally, a method for assembling an electron beam accelerator cavity utilizing the srf window assembly is provided. The procedure is carried out within an ultra clean room to minimize exposure to particulates which adversely affect the performance of the cavity within the electron beam accelerator.

  9. Surface EMG during the Push-up plus Exercise on a Stable Support or Swiss Ball: Scapular Stabilizer Muscle Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Sung-Hwa; Jeon, In-Ho; Cho, Yong-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Gi; Hwang, Yoon-Tae; Jang, Jee-Hun

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] Scapular stabilizer strengthening exercise is crucial for shoulder rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to compare two types of push-up plus exercises, on a stable and unstable bases of support, using surface electromyography (EMG), to suggest an effective shoulder rehabilitation program. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy men volunteered for this study. All volunteers performed two sets of push-up plus exercise (standard push up and knee push up) on stable and unstable bases of support. The muscle activities of five important scapular stabilizer muscles (upper trapezius, middle trapezius, lower trapezius, serratus anterior, latissimus dorsi) were recorded during the exercise. [Results] The upper trapezius showed greater mean electric activation amplitude in the scapular retraction posture than in the scapular protraction posture, and the serratus anterior showed greater mean electric activation amplitude in the scapular protraction posture than in the scapular retraction posture. The root-mean-square normalized EMG values of the muscles were greater during the exercise performed on the unstable support than those on the stable support. [Conclusion] The standard push-up plus exercise on an unstable base of support helps to increase muscle activity, especially those of the upper/middle trapezius and serratus anterior. PMID:24259864

  10. Push-out bond strength of MTA HP, a new high-plasticity calcium silicate-based cement.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emmanuel Jnl; Carvalho, Nancy Kudsi; Zanon, Mayara; Senna, Plínio Mendes; DE-Deus, Gustavo; Zuolo, Mário Luis; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto

    2016-06-14

    This study was designed to investigate the resistance to dislodgment provided by MTA HP, a new high-plasticity calcium silicate-based cement. Biodentine and White MTA Angelus were used as reference materials for comparison. Three discs 1 ± 0.1 mm thick were obtained from the middle third of the roots of 5 maxillary canines. Three 0.8-mm-wide holes were drilled on the axial surface of each root disc. Standardized irrigation was performed. Then the holes were dried with paper points and filled with one of the three tested cements. The filled dental slices were immersed in a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution (pH 7.2) for 7 days before the push-out assessment. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to assess the effect of each endodontic cement on the push-out bond strength. Mann-Whitney with Bonferroni correction was used to isolate the differences. The alpha-type error was set at 0.05. All specimens had measurable push-out values and no premature failure occurred. There were significant differences among the materials (p <0.05). The Biodentine specimens had the highest push-out bond strength values (p < 0.05). MTA HP had significantly higher bond strength than White MTA (p < 0.05). MTA HP showed better push-out bond strength than its predecessor, White MTA; however, Biodentine had higher dislodgment resistance than both MTA formulations. PMID:27305515

  11. Prosthetic ankle push-off work reduces metabolic rate but not collision work in non-amputee walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caputo, Joshua M.; Collins, Steven H.

    2014-12-01

    Individuals with unilateral below-knee amputation expend more energy than non-amputees during walking and exhibit reduced push-off work and increased hip work in the affected limb. Simple dynamic models of walking suggest a possible solution, predicting that increasing prosthetic ankle push-off should decrease leading limb collision, thereby reducing overall energy requirements. We conducted a rigorous experimental test of this idea wherein ankle-foot prosthesis push-off work was incrementally varied in isolation from one-half to two-times normal levels while subjects with simulated amputation walked on a treadmill at 1.25 m.s-1. Increased prosthesis push-off significantly reduced metabolic energy expenditure, with a 14% reduction at maximum prosthesis work. In contrast to model predictions, however, collision losses were unchanged, while hip work during swing initiation was decreased. This suggests that powered ankle push-off reduces walking effort primarily through other mechanisms, such as assisting leg swing, which would be better understood using more complete neuromuscular models.

  12. Prosthetic ankle push-off work reduces metabolic rate but not collision work in non-amputee walking

    PubMed Central

    Caputo, Joshua M.; Collins, Steven H.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with unilateral below-knee amputation expend more energy than non-amputees during walking and exhibit reduced push-off work and increased hip work in the affected limb. Simple dynamic models of walking suggest a possible solution, predicting that increasing prosthetic ankle push-off should decrease leading limb collision, thereby reducing overall energy requirements. We conducted a rigorous experimental test of this idea wherein ankle-foot prosthesis push-off work was incrementally varied in isolation from one-half to two-times normal levels while subjects with simulated amputation walked on a treadmill at 1.25 m·s−1. Increased prosthesis push-off significantly reduced metabolic energy expenditure, with a 14% reduction at maximum prosthesis work. In contrast to model predictions, however, collision losses were unchanged, while hip work during swing initiation was decreased. This suggests that powered ankle push-off reduces walking effort primarily through other mechanisms, such as assisting leg swing, which would be better understood using more complete neuromuscular models. PMID:25467389

  13. Complementary and alternative medicine. Considering the alternatives.

    PubMed

    Weber, D O

    1998-01-01

    Therapies variously described as alternative, complementary, or unconventional because they lie outside the realm of scientific medicine practiced by graduates of orthodox U.S. medical schools are gaining mainstream respectability despite many questions about their efficacy and safety. Depending on definitions, surveys indicate that fewer than 10 percent to nearly 40 percent of Americans supplement or substitute for conventional health care with alternative systems of medical practice. Spending for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) nationwide has been estimated at up to $14 billion a year. Establishment of an Office of Alternative Medicine in the National Institutes of Health in 1992 has heartened advocates of CAM, increased interest and government funding for research into unorthodox therapies, and lent credibility to CAM modalities. Embracing marginal therapies may represent an opportunity for physicians and health systems to reduce inappropriate consumption, offer a wider range of choices to patients, and profit from a lucrative market. PMID:10351720

  14. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth > For Teens > Complementary and Alternative Medicine Print ... replacement. continue How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  15. Alternative medicine - pain relief

    MedlinePlus

    Alternative medicine refers to treatments that are used instead of conventional (standard) ones. If you use an alternative ... considered complementary therapy. There are many forms of ... Acupuncture involves stimulating certain acupoints on the body ...

  16. Blade attachment assembly

    DOEpatents

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  17. Liaison based assembly design

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, A.; Kholwadwala, D.; Wilson, R.H.

    1996-12-01

    Liaison Based Assembly Design extends the current information infrastructure to support design in terms of kinematic relationships between parts, or liaisons. These liaisons capture information regarding contact, degrees-of-freedom constraints and containment relationships between parts in an assembly. The project involved defining a useful collection of liaison representations, investigating their properties, and providing for maximum use of the data in downstream applications. We tested our ideas by implementing a prototype system involving extensions to Pro/Engineer and the Archimedes assembly planner. With an expanded product model, the design system is more able to capture design intent. When a product update is attempted, increased knowledge availability improves our ability to understand the effect of design changes. Manufacturing and analysis disciplines benefit from having liaison information available, so less time is wasted arguing over incomplete design specifications and our enterprise can be more completely integrated.

  18. Optical interconnect assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, Daric; Abel, Philip

    2015-06-09

    An optical assembly includes a substrate with a first row of apertures and a second row of apertures. A first optical die includes a first plurality of optical transducer elements and is mounted on the substrate such that an optical signal interface of each transducer element is aligned with an aperture of the first row of optical apertures. A second optical die includes a second plurality of optical transducer elements and is mounted on the substrate such that an optical signal interface of each of the second plurality of optical transducer elements is aligned with an aperture of the second row of optical apertures. A connector configured to mate with the optical assembly supports a plurality of optical fibers. A terminal end of each optical fiber protrudes from the connector and extends into one of the apertures when the connector is coupled with the optical assembly.

  19. Supported PV module assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Mascolo, Gianluigi; Taggart, David F.; Botkin, Jonathan D.; Edgett, Christopher S.

    2013-10-15

    A supported PV assembly may include a PV module comprising a PV panel and PV module supports including module supports having a support surface supporting the module, a module registration member engaging the PV module to properly position the PV module on the module support, and a mounting element. In some embodiments the PV module registration members engage only the external surfaces of the PV modules at the corners. In some embodiments the assembly includes a wind deflector with ballast secured to a least one of the PV module supports and the wind deflector. An array of the assemblies can be secured to one another at their corners to prevent horizontal separation of the adjacent corners while permitting the PV modules to flex relative to one another so to permit the array of PV modules to follow a contour of the support surface.

  20. Power module assembly

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B.; Newson, Steve

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  1. Compositional Inheritance: Comparison of Self-assembly and Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Meng; Higgs, Paul G.

    2008-10-01

    Genetic inheritance in modern cells is due to template-directed replication of nucleic acids. However, the difficulty of prebiotic synthesis of long information-carrying polymers like RNA raises the question of whether some other form of heredity is possible without polymers. As an alternative, the lipid world theory has been proposed, which considers non-covalent assemblies of lipids, such as micelles and vesicles. Assemblies store information in the form of a non-random molecular composition, and this information is passed on when the assemblies divide, i.e . the assemblies show compositional inheritance. Here, we vary several important assumptions of previous lipid world models and show that compositional inheritance is relevant more generally than the context in which it was originally proposed. Our models assume that interaction occurs between nearest neighbour molecules only, and account for spatial segregation of molecules of different types within the assembly. We also draw a distinction between a self-assembly model, in which the composition is determined by mutually favourable interaction energies between the molecules, and a catalytic model, in which the composition is determined by mutually favourable catalysis. We show that compositional inheritance occurs in both models, although the self-assembly case seems more relevant if the molecules are simple lipids. In the case where the assemblies are composed of just two types of molecules, there is a strong analogy with the classic two-allele Moran model from population genetics. This highlights the parallel between compositional inheritance and genetic inheritance.

  2. Supramolecular cobaloxime assemblies for H{sub 2} photocatalysis: an initial solution state structure-function analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Mulfort, K. L.; Tiede, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this report, we have investigated the correlations between structure and light-induced electron transfer of one known and three new axially coordinated cobaloxime-based supramolecular photocatalysts for the reduction of protons to hydrogen. Solution-phase X-ray scattering and ultrafast transient optical spectroscopy analyses were used in tandem to correlate the self-assembled photocatalysts structural integrity in solution with electron transfer and charge separation between the photosensitizer and catalyst fragments. Biphasic excited state decay kinetics were observed for several of the assemblies, suggesting that configurational dispersion plays a role in limiting photoinduced electron transfer. Notably, an assembly featuring a 'push-pull' donor-photosensitizer-acceptor triad motif exhibits considerable ultrafast excited state quenching and, of the assemblies examined, presents the strongest opportunity for efficient solar energy conversion. These results will assist in the design and development of next-generation supramolecular photocatalyst architectures.

  3. Self assembling proteins

    DOEpatents

    Yeates, Todd O.; Padilla, Jennifer; Colovos, Chris

    2004-06-29

    Novel fusion proteins capable of self-assembling into regular structures, as well as nucleic acids encoding the same, are provided. The subject fusion proteins comprise at least two oligomerization domains rigidly linked together, e.g. through an alpha helical linking group. Also provided are regular structures comprising a plurality of self-assembled fusion proteins of the subject invention, and methods for producing the same. The subject fusion proteins find use in the preparation of a variety of nanostructures, where such structures include: cages, shells, double-layer rings, two-dimensional layers, three-dimensional crystals, filaments, and tubes.

  4. Lightweight reflector assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argoud, M. J.; Jolley, J.; Walker, W. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An inexpensive, lightweight reflective assembly member having good optical quality and particularly adaptable to accommodating temperature variations without providing destructive thermal stresses and reflective slope errors is described. The reflective assembly consists of a thin sheet of glass with appropriate reflective coating and a cellular glass block substrate bonded together. The method of fabrication includes abrading the cellular substrate with an abrasive master die to form an appropriate concave surface. An adhesive is applied to the abraded surface and a lamina reflective surface is placed under a uniform pressure to conform the reflective surface onto the desired abraded surface of the substrate.

  5. Low inductance connector assembly

    DOEpatents

    Holbrook, Meghan Ann; Carlson, Douglas S

    2013-07-09

    A busbar connector assembly for coupling first and second terminals on a two-terminal device to first and second contacts on a power module is provided. The first terminal resides proximate the first contact and the second terminal resides proximate the second contact. The assembly comprises a first bridge having a first end configured to be electrically coupled to the first terminal, and a second end configured to be electrically coupled to the second contact, and a second bridge substantially overlapping the first bridge and having a first end electrically coupled to the first contact, and a second end electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  6. Hand Controller Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandera, Pablo (Inventor); Buchele, Paul (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A user input device for a vehicular electrical system is provided. The user input device includes a handle sized and shaped to be gripped by a human hand and a gimbal assembly within the handle. The gimbal assembly includes a first gimbal component, a second gimbal component coupled to the first gimbal component such that the second gimbal component is rotatable relative to the first gimbal component about a first axis, and a third gimbal component coupled to the second gimbal component such that the third gimbal component is rotatable relative to the second gimbal component about a second axis.

  7. Assembling an aesthetic.

    PubMed

    Candela, Emily

    2012-12-01

    Recent research informing and related to the study of three-dimensional scientific models is assembled here in a way that explores an aesthetic, specifically, of touch. I concentrate on the materiality of models, drawing on insights from the history and philosophy of science, design and metaphysics. This article chronicles the ways in which touch, or material interactions, operate in the world of 3D models, and its role in what models mean and do. I end with a call for greater attention to scientific process, described as assembly of and within science, which is revealed by this focus on touch. PMID:23176974

  8. Phylogenetic Comparative Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husemann, Peter; Stoye, Jens

    Recent high throughput sequencing technologies are capable of generating a huge amount of data for bacterial genome sequencing projects. Although current sequence assemblers successfully merge the overlapping reads, often several contigs remain which cannot be assembled any further. It is still costly and time consuming to close all the gaps in order to acquire the whole genomic sequence. Here we propose an algorithm that takes several related genomes and their phylogenetic relationships into account to create a contig adjacency graph. From this a layout graph can be computed which indicates putative adjacencies of the contigs in order to aid biologists in finishing the complete genomic sequence.

  9. Chicano Alternative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galicia, H. Homero; Almaguer, Clementina

    Alternative schooling is challenging some basic notions of curriculum, operation, and structure of traditional schools; it is not challenging the basic concept of schooling. Chicano alternative education, an elusive concept, lacks a precise definition. Chicano alternative schools reflect a vast diversity in structure, focus, and goals. The Chicano…

  10. Alternative Teacher Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Carol; Thomas, Kay

    This paper examines issues related to alternative teacher certification, discussing teacher certification in Texas and noting that most researchers agree that both traditional and alternative routes to teacher preparation need improvement. For over a decade, alternative certification has become increasingly available in Texas. This paper…

  11. Assessment "Honest Alternatives".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Susan Glazer

    1995-01-01

    Addresses the challenge of finding or creating alternatives to tests and traditional grading systems. Reflects on and describes the experience of creating an assessment tool and cautions against choosing alternatives that merely camouflage the grades. Encourages educators to find authentic alternatives to describe children's growth. (BAC)

  12. The single well "push-pull" tracer method: A systematic approach for setup optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeilfelder, Sarah; Hebig, Klaus H.; Ito, Narimitsu; Machida, Isao; Scheytt, Traugott; Marui, Atsunao

    2015-04-01

    In deeper aquifers, only a limited number of boreholes or groundwater monitoring wells is available for aquifer tests. The limited access and the low groundwater flow velocity makes it difficult to conduct classical tracer tests for the hydrogeological characterization of deep aquifers. The single-well "push-pull" tracer test ("PP Test") may be a suitable method to investigate the hydrogeological properties and the flow behavior in single-well settings or deeper aquifers. During a PP Test, a test solution that contains a known amount of solutes and a conservative tracer is injected into the aquifer ("push") and extracted afterwards ("pull"). Optionally, the test solution is flushed out of the well and the casing with untreated test solution, a so called "chaser" before being extracted. Between the injection and the extraction phase a drifting or reaction time may be included. The breakthrough of the tracer and the solute compounds during the extraction phase is measured and used for analyses and interpretation of aquifer characteristics. Several PP Tests were performed in a sedimentary coastal basin in northern Hokkaido (Japan). The objective was to study the influence of the test design on the results and to enhance the setup of the single well "push-pull" tracer method by a systematic approach. During the campaign, six different PP Tests were performed, while only single aspects of the setup were varied from test to test. The tests differed in injection and extraction rate (5 L/min and 10 L/min), in the salinity of the injected test solution (brackish water and deionized water) and in the optional use of a chaser solution. The general shapes of the breakthrough curves are similar and a good applicability of this method is assumed for the test side. However, the Uranine mass balances of the different tests show a wide range of recoveries between 65 % and 126 %. The maximal normalized concentrations are in a range between c/c0 = 0.58 and c/c0 = 1.22. Even though

  13. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    DOEpatents

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  14. SOLID GAS SUSPENSION NUCLEAR FUEL ASSEMBLY

    DOEpatents

    Schluderberg, D.C.; Ryon, J.W.

    1962-05-01

    A fuel assembly is designed for use in a gas-suspension cooled nuclear fuel reactor. The coolant fluid is an inert gas such as nitrogen or helium with particles such as carbon suspended therein. The fuel assembly is contained within an elongated pressure vessel extending down into the reactor. The fuel portion is at the lower end of the vessel and is constructed of cylindrical segments through which the coolant passes. Turbulence promotors within the passageways maintain the particles in agitation to increase its ability to transfer heat away from the outer walls. Shielding sections and alternating passageways above the fueled portion limit the escape of radiation out of the top of the vessel. (AEC)

  15. Modular, security enclosure and method of assembly

    DOEpatents

    Linker, Kevin L.; Moyer, John W.

    1995-01-01

    A transportable, reusable rapidly assembled and disassembled, resizable modular, security enclosure utilizes a stepped panel construction. Each panel has an inner portion and an outer portion which form joints. A plurality of channels can be affixed to selected joints of the panels. Panels can be affixed to a base member and then affixed to one another by the use of elongated pins extending through the channel joints. Alternatively, the base member can be omitted and the panels themselves can be used as the floor of the enclosure. The pins will extend generally parallel to the joint in which they are located. These elongated pins are readily inserted into and removable from the channels in a predetermined sequence to allow assembly and disassembly of the enclosure. A door constructed from panels is used to close the opening to the enclosure.

  16. Surface-enhanced fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering of push-pull molecules: sulfur-functionalized 4-amino-7-nitrobenzofurazan adsorbed on Ag and Au nanostructured substrates.

    PubMed

    Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio; Del Rosso, Tommaso; Giorgetti, Emilia; Margheri, Giancarlo; Ghini, Giacomo; Cicchi, Stefano

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the chemisorption of self-assembled monolayers of sulfur-functionalized 4-amino-7-nitrobenzofurazan on gold and silver nanoisland films (NIFs) by means of surface-enhanced fluorescence (SEF) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The ligand is a push-pull molecule, where an intramolecular charge transfer occurs between an electron-donor and an electron-acceptor group, thus exhibiting nonlinear optical properties that are related to both SERS and SEF effects. The presence of different heteroatoms in the molecule ensures the possibility of chemical interaction with both silver and gold substrates. The SERS spectra suggest that furazan is bound to silver via lone pairs of the nitrogen atoms, whereas the ligand is linked to gold via a sulfur atom. Silver NIFs provide more efficient enhancement of both fluorescence and Raman scattering in comparison with gold NIFs. The present SEF and SERS investigation could provide useful information for foreseeing changes in the nonlinear responses of this push-pull molecule. PMID:21331491

  17. Push-Out Bond Strength Evaluation of Glass Fiber Posts With Different Resin Cements and Application Techniques.

    PubMed

    Durski, M T; Metz, M J; Thompson, J Y; Mascarenhas, A K; Crim, G A; Vieira, S; Mazur, R F

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the push-out strength of two different adhesive cements (total etch and self-adhesive) for glass fiber post (GFP) cementation using two different techniques (microbrush and elongation tip) of cement application. In addition, this study evaluated the effect of total-etch conditioning before the use of a self-adhesive cement. Sixty premolar specimens with a single root canal were selected, endodontically treated, and shaped for GFP cementation. The specimens were randomly placed into one of six groups according to the cement and technique used: RelyX ARC (ARC): ARC + microbrush, ARC + elongation tip; RelyX Unicem (RU): RU + microbrush, RU + elongation tip; or RelyX Unicem + 37% phosphoric acid (RUE): RUE + microbrush, RUE + elongation tip. Each specimen root was cut perpendicular to the vertical axis yielding six 1.0-mm-thick sections. Push-out strength test was performed, followed by statistical analysis using three-way analysis of variance and the Games-Howell test (p<0.05). Statistically significant differences between the groups were found (p< 0.05). The cervical third of the roots had the highest mean push-out strength values, while the apical third had the lowest mean values regardless of the technique used. The elongation technique produced higher mean push-out strength values compared to the microbrush technique. The self-etch adhesive cement had the highest mean push-out strength value in all thirds. The addition of a conditioning step before the self-etch adhesive cementation appears to be effective in enhancing push-out strength with GFPs. PMID:26332737

  18. Depleted uranium management alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Hertzler, T.J.; Nishimoto, D.D.

    1994-08-01

    This report evaluates two management alternatives for Department of Energy depleted uranium: continued storage as uranium hexafluoride, and conversion to uranium metal and fabrication to shielding for spent nuclear fuel containers. The results will be used to compare the costs with other alternatives, such as disposal. Cost estimates for the continued storage alternative are based on a life-cycle of 27 years through the year 2020. Cost estimates for the recycle alternative are based on existing conversion process costs and Capital costs for fabricating the containers. Additionally, the recycle alternative accounts for costs associated with intermediate product resale and secondary waste disposal for materials generated during the conversion process.

  19. Alternate nozzle ablative materials program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimmel, N. A.

    1984-01-01

    Four subscale solid rocket motor tests were conducted successfully to evaluate alternate nozzle liner, insulation, and exit cone structural overwrap components for possible application to the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) nozzle asasembly. The 10,000 lb propellant motor tests were simulated, as close as practical, the configuration and operational environment of the full scale SRM. Fifteen PAN based and three pitch based materials had no filler in the phenolic resin, four PAN based materials had carbon microballoons in the resin, and the rest of the materials had carbon powder in the resin. Three nozzle insulation materials were evaluated; an aluminum oxide silicon oxide ceramic fiber mat phenolic material with no resin filler and two E-glass fiber mat phenolic materials with no resin filler. It was concluded by MTI/WD (the fabricator and evaluator of the test nozzles) and NASA-MSFC that it was possible to design an alternate material full scale SRM nozzle assembly, which could provide an estimated 360 lb increased payload capability for Space Shuttle launches over that obtainable with the current qualified SRM design.

  20. Push-pull converter with energy saving circuit for protecting switching transistors from peak power stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    In a push-pull converter, switching transistors are protected from peak power stresses by a separate snubber circuit in parallel with each comprising a capacitor and an inductor in series, and a diode in parallel with the inductor. The diode is connected to conduct current of the same polarity as the base-emitter juction of the transistor so that energy stored in the capacitor while the transistor is switched off, to protect it against peak power stress, discharges through the inductor when the transistor is turned on, and after the capacitor is discharges through the diode. To return this energy to the power supply, or to utilize this energy in some external circuit, the inductor may be replaced by a transformer having its secondary winding connected to the power supply or to the external circuit.

  1. Push-pull integrated-optics Mach-Zehnder interferometer with domain inversion in one branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Nicolas A. F.; Huang, Lisheng

    1995-02-01

    We report on a push-pull integrated-optics Mach-Zehnder interferometer having one domain-inverted branch and one noninverted branch. It is fabricated in the c+ side of a LiNbO3 substrate. We achieve ferroelectric domain inversion in one branch of the waveguide by doping it more heavily with Ti than the other branch and by using a high-temperature treatment that raises the temperature above the doped Curie temperature of the one branch but not of the other. The cumulative electro-optic effect of the inverted branch is found to be opposite that in the noninverted branch when both are subjected to the same electric field.

  2. Tank 241-SY-101 push mode core sampling and analysis plan

    SciTech Connect

    CONNER, J.M.

    1998-10-09

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for push mode core samples from tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). It is written in accordance with Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue (Bauer 1998), Low Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (Wiemers and Miller 1997 and DOE 1998), Data Quality Objectives for TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (Certa 1998), and the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Dukelow et al. 1995). The Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis document (Brown et al. 1998) indicates that these issues apply to tank SY-101 for this sampling event. Brown et al. also identifies high-level waste, regulatory, pretreatment and disposal issues as applicable issues for this tank. However, these issues will not be addressed via this sampling event.

  3. Virtual Cortical Resection Reveals Push-Pull Network Control Preceding Seizure Evolution.

    PubMed

    Khambhati, Ankit N; Davis, Kathryn A; Lucas, Timothy H; Litt, Brian; Bassett, Danielle S

    2016-09-01

    In ∼20 million people with drug-resistant epilepsy, focal seizures originating in dysfunctional brain networks will often evolve and spread to surrounding tissue, disrupting function in otherwise normal brain regions. To identify network control mechanisms that regulate seizure spread, we developed a novel tool for pinpointing brain regions that facilitate synchronization in the epileptic network. Our method measures the impact of virtually resecting putative control regions on synchronization in a validated model of the human epileptic network. By applying our technique to time-varying functional networks, we identified brain regions whose topological role is to synchronize or desynchronize the epileptic network. Our results suggest that greater antagonistic push-pull interaction between synchronizing and desynchronizing brain regions better constrains seizure spread. These methods, while applied here to epilepsy, are generalizable to other brain networks and have wide applicability in isolating and mapping functional drivers of brain dynamics in health and disease. PMID:27568515

  4. Intramolecular charge transfer of push-pull pyridinium salts in the singlet manifold.

    PubMed

    Carlotti, Benedetta; Consiglio, Giuseppe; Elisei, Fausto; Fortuna, Cosimo G; Mazzucato, Ugo; Spalletti, Anna

    2014-05-22

    The solvent effect on the photophysical and photochemical properties of the iodides of three trans (E) isomers of 2-D-vinyl,1-methylpyridinium, where D is a donor group (4-dimethylaminophenyl, 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl and 1-pyrenyl), was studied by stationary and transient absorption techniques. The results obtained allowed the negative solvatochromism and relaxation pathways of the excited states in the singlet manifold to be reasonably interpreted. Resorting to ultrafast absorption techniques and DFT calculations allowed information on the excited state dynamics and the role of the solvent-controlled intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) processes to be obtained. The structure-dependent excited state dynamics in nonpolar solvents, where the ICT is slower than solvent rearrangement, and in polar solvents, where an opposite situation is operative, was thus explained. The push-pull character of the three compounds, particularly the anilino-derivative, suggests their potential application in optoelectronics. PMID:24779555

  5. Ultrafast Singlet Fission in a Push-Pull Low-Bandgap Polymer Film.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Yukitomo; Tamai, Yasunari; Ohkita, Hideo; Benten, Hiroaki; Ito, Shinzaburo

    2015-12-30

    Excited-state dynamics in poly[4,6-(dodecyl-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate)-alt-2,6-(4,8-dioctoxylbenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b]dithiophene)] (PTB1) was studied by transient absorption spectroscopy. Upon photoexcitation at 400 nm, an additional transient species is promptly generated along with singlet excitons and survives up to nanoseconds, while singlet excitons disappear completely. In order to assign the long-lived species, we measured transient absorption spectra over the wide spectral range from 900 to 2500 nm. As a result, we found that the long-lived species is ascribed not to polarons but to triplet excitons, which is formed through the ultrafast singlet fission (SF). We discuss the ultrafast SF mechanism in push-pull low-bandgap polymer PTB1 films on the basis of the excited-state dynamics under various excitation wavelengths and intensities. PMID:26654295

  6. Interfacial stress state present in a 'thin-slice' fibre push-out test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallas, M. N.; Koss, D. A.; Hahn, H. T.; Hellmann, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of the stress distributions along the fiber-matrix interface in a 'thin-slice' fiber push-out test is presented for selected test geometries. For the small specimen thicknesses often required to displace large-diameter fibers with high interfacial shear strengths, finite element analysis indicates that large bending stresses may be present. The magnitude of these stresses and their spatial distribution can be very sensitive to the test configuration. For certain test geometries, the specimen configuration itself may alter the interfacial failure process from one which initiates due to a maximum in shear stress near the top surface adjacent to the indentor, to one which involves mixed mode crack growth up from the bottom surface and/or yielding within the matrix near the interface.

  7. Co-aligning aerial hyperspectral push-broom strips for change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringaby, Erik; Ahlberg, Jörgen; Wadströmer, Niclas; Forssén, Per-Erik

    2010-10-01

    We have performed a field trial with an airborne push-broom hyperspectral sensor, making several flights over the same area and with known changes (e.g., moved vehicles) between the flights. Each flight results in a sequence of scan lines forming an image strip, and in order to detect changes between two flights, the two resulting image strips must be geometrically aligned and radiometrically corrected. The focus of this paper is the geometrical alignment, and we propose an image- and gyro-based method for geometric co-alignment (registration) of two image strips. The method is particularly useful when the sensor is not stabilized, thus reducing the need for expensive mechanical stabilization. The method works in several steps, including gyro-based rectification, global alignment using SIFT matching, and a local alignment using KLT tracking. Experimental results are shown but not quantified, as ground truth is, by the nature of the trial, lacking.

  8. MAGIC: a European program to push the insertion of maskless lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pain, L.; Icard, B.; Tedesco, S.; Kampherbeek, B.; Gross, G.; Klein, C.; Loeschner, H.; Platzgummer, E.; Morgan, R.; Manakli, S.; Kretz, J.; Holhe, C.; Choi, K.-H.; Thrum, F.; Kassel, E.; Pilz, W.; Keil, K.; Butschke, J.; Irmscher, M.; Letzkus, F.; Hudek, P.; Paraskevopoulos, A.; Ramm, P.; Weber, J.

    2008-03-01

    With the willingness of the semiconductor industry to push manufacturing costs down, the mask less lithography solution represents a promising option to deal with the cost and complexity concerns about the optical lithography solution. Though a real interest, the development of multi beam tools still remains in laboratory environment. In the frame of the seventh European Framework Program (FP7), a new project, MAGIC, started January 1st 2008 with the objective to strengthen the development of the mask less technology. The aim of the program is to develop multi beam systems from MAPPER and IMS nanofabrication technologies and the associated infrastructure for the future tool usage. This paper draws the present status of multi beam lithography and details the content and the objectives of the MAGIC project.

  9. Coumarin Push-Pull NLOphores with Red Emission: Solvatochromic and Theoretical Approach.

    PubMed

    Lanke, Sandip K; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2016-05-01

    A new class of red emitting extensively conjugated donor-π-acceptor type dyes bearing coumarin units are investigated for nonlinear optical properties. The photophysical behaviour and the relation between structure and properties of the coumarin "push-pull" derivatives were investigated based on solvatochromism and experimentally observed shifts in emission maxima. The electronic coupling for the electron transfer reaction for the coumarin dyes are calculated with the generalized Mulliken-Hush method. We evaluated non-linear optical (NLO) properties of coumarin dyes using both experimental solvent dependent shift method and computational method. All the investigated coumarin dyes are showing large value for first (β) and second hyperpolarizability (γ). Density functional theory [B3LYP/6-31G(d)] and time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) computations have been employed to have more understanding of structural, molecular, electronic and photophysical parameters of the coumarin dyes. PMID:26972110

  10. Pushing the Gradient Limitations of Superconducting Photonic Band Gap Structure Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Simakov, Evgenya I.; Haynes, William B.; Kurennoy, Sergey S.; Shchegolkov, Dmitry; O'Hara, James F.; Olivas, Eric R.

    2012-06-07

    Superconducting photonic band gap resonators present us with unique means to place higher order mode couples in an accelerating cavity and efficiently extract HOMs. An SRF PBG resonator with round rods was successfully tested at LANL demonstrating operation at 15 MV/m. Gradient in the SRF PBG resonator was limited by magnetic quench. To increase the quench threshold in PBG resonators one must design the new geometry with lower surface magnetic fields and preserve the resonator's effectiveness for HOM suppression. The main objective of this research is to push the limits for the high-gradient operation of SRF PBG cavities. A NCRF PBG cavity technology is established. The proof-of-principle operation of SRF PBG cavities is demonstrated. SRF PBG resonators are effective for outcoupling HOMs. PBG technology can significantly reduce the size of SRF accelerators and increase brightness for future FELs.

  11. Push-pull radio frequency circuit with integral transistion to waveguide output

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Wilfred P.

    1987-01-01

    A radio frequency circuit for ICRF heating includes a resonant push-pull circuit, a double ridged rectangular waveguide, and a coupling transition which joins the waveguide to the resonant circuit. The resonant circuit includes two cylindrical conductors mounted side by side and two power vacuum tubes attached to respective ends of a cylindrical conductor. A conductive yoke is located at the other end of the cylindrical conductors to short circuit the two cylindrical conductors. The coupling transition includes two relatively flat rectangular conductors extending perpendicular to the longitudinal axes of a respective cylindrical conductor to which the flat conductor is attached intermediate the ends thereof. Conductive side covers and end covers are also provided for forming pockets in the waveguide into which the flat conductors extend when the waveguide is attached to a shielding enclosure surrounding the resonant circuit.

  12. Real time monitoring of superparamagnetic nanoparticle self-assembly on surfaces of magnetic recording media

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, L.; Pearson, T.; Crawford, T. M.; Qi, B.; Cordeau, Y.; Mefford, O. T.

    2014-05-07

    Nanoparticle self-assembly dynamics are monitored in real-time by detecting optical diffraction from an all-nanoparticle grating as it self-assembles on a grating pattern recorded on a magnetic medium. The diffraction efficiency strongly depends on concentration, pH, and colloidal stability of nanoparticle suspensions, demonstrating the nanoparticle self-assembly process is highly tunable. This metrology could provide an alternative for detecting nanoparticle properties such as colloidal stability.

  13. TruSPAdes: barcode assembly of TruSeq synthetic long reads.

    PubMed

    Bankevich, Anton; Pevzner, Pavel A

    2016-03-01

    The recently introduced TruSeq synthetic long read (TSLR) technology generates long and accurate virtual reads from an assembly of barcoded pools of short reads. The TSLR method provides an attractive alternative to existing sequencing platforms that generate long but inaccurate reads. We describe the truSPAdes algorithm (http://bioinf.spbau.ru/spades) for TSLR assembly and show that it results in a dramatic improvement in the quality of metagenomics assemblies. PMID:26828418

  14. Lageos assembly operation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brueger, J.

    1975-01-01

    Guidelines and constraints procedures for LAGEOS assembly, operation, and design performance are given. Special attention was given to thermal, optical, and dynamic analysis and testing. The operation procedures illustrate the interrelation and sequence of tasks in a flow diagram. The diagram also includes quality assurance functions for verification of operation tasks.

  15. The synapse assembly model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Joo E; Hori, Yuko; Groves, Jay T; Dustin, Michael L; Chakraborty, Arup K

    2002-10-01

    A framework for quantitative analysis of the mechanisms underlying immunological synapse assembly has been recently developed. This model uses partial differential equations to describe the binding interactions of receptors and ligands, with the constraint that they are embedded in apposed deformable membranes linked to a cytoskeletal complex. PMID:12297422

  16. Assembling Multicolor Printing Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    Improved joining method uses wave-soldering techniques developed for integrated-circuit-board assemblies. Thermosetting plastic is replaced by wave soldering, which applies a thin even coat of solder to mating copper surfaces. This is done after ink holes and channels have been protected by water-soluble, high-temperature solder mask which prevents wetting and clogging.

  17. Dump valve assembly

    DOEpatents

    Owen, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    A dump valve assembly comprising a body having a bore defined by a tapered wall and a truncated spherical valve member adapted to seat along a spherical surface portion thereof against said tapered wall. Means are provided for pivoting said valve member between a closed position engagable with said tapered wall and an open position disengaged therefrom.

  18. Corium protection assembly

    DOEpatents

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A corium protection assembly includes a perforated base grid disposed below a pressure vessel containing a nuclear reactor core and spaced vertically above a containment vessel floor to define a sump therebetween. A plurality of layers of protective blocks are disposed on the grid for protecting the containment vessel floor from the corium.

  19. Solar collector assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.A.

    1980-09-09

    A solar collector assembly includes shingles which have integral tubes projecting therefrom, and which are mounted in overlapping parallel array. Mounting brackets for the shingles are engaged on roof rafters or the like, and interlocked light transmissive plates overlie the shingles. The plates are also engaged with shingle components. A special fitting for the tube ends is provided.

  20. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.