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Sample records for alternative bait products

  1. EFFECTS OF BAITS AND BAIT ALTERNATIVES ON SLUG MORTALITY, EGG PRODUCTION, AND SEEDLING SURVIVAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two non-bait slug control formulations that are not attractive to earthworms including Durham 3.5 and 7.5 (3.5 and 7.5%, metaldehyde, respectively) and SlugFest AWF (all-weather-formula, 25%, metaldehyde), a liquid spray product were investigated for their efficacy in reducing egg fecundity and slu...

  2. Pollen baiting facilitates the isolation of marine thraustochytrids with potential in omega-3 and biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Adarsha; Wilkens, Serena; Adcock, Jacqui L; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin J

    2013-11-01

    Marine heterotrophic microbes are capable of accumulating large amounts of lipids, omega-3 fatty acids, carotenoids, and have potential for biodiesel production. Pollen baiting using Pinus radiata pollen grain along with direct plating techniques were used in this study as techniques for the isolation of oil-producing marine thraustochytrid species from Queenscliff, Victoria, Australia. Thirteen isolates were obtained using either direct plating or using pine pollen, with pine pollen acting as a specific substrate for the surface attachment of thraustochytrids. The isolates obtained from the pollen baiting technique showed a wide range of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulation, from 11 to 41 % of total fatty acid content (TFA). Direct plating isolates showed a moderate range of DHA accumulation, from 19 to 25 % of TFA. Seven isolates were identified on the basis of 18S rRNA sequencing technique as Thraustochytrium species, Schizochytrium species, and Ulkenia species. Although both methods appear to result in the isolation of similar strains, pollen baiting proved to be a simpler method for the isolation of these relatively slow-growing organisms. PMID:23990167

  3. Application of irradiation in bait production to the control of crawling insects in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; Świ ȩtosławski, J.; Świ ȩtosławski, J.

    2000-03-01

    The efficiency and palatability of two baits were studied to the control of crawling insects in urban areas: "Cockroach Kill Gel" for control of cockroaches and Faratox B for control of ants. Ionizing energy was used in producing the baits. It was concluded, that after irradiation the palatability of Faratox B improved and palatability of Cockroach Kill Gel did not change.

  4. Hunger in red imported fire ants and their behavioral response to two liquid bait products.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kathryn S; Hooper-Bùi, Linda M

    2005-12-01

    To help manage red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, invasion, several types of pest management systems have been developed, including baits. To accurately test liquid bait effectiveness in the laboratory, we determined that starvation time of 96 h is required for laboratory fire ants to simulate foraging ants in the field. We measured density and viscosity of two commercial baits and 20% sugar water at 25 degrees C and then compared amount of material consumed per ant at these physical properties. Mean densities of 20% sugar water, Dr. Moss, and Terro were 1.051, 1.287, and 1.354 g/ml, respectively, and viscosity of each bait treatment varied in the same order but more drastically (1.7, 32, and 400 centipoises, respectively). Field and laboratory studies demonstrated that bait acceptability may be affected by toxicant and physical properties. Baits that are more dense have more mass per volume and may cause the ant to cease feeding with a lower crop load than when they feed on sugar water. Ants that feed on formulated baits exhibit feeding behaviors different from those that occur when feeding on sugar water. At first glance, one might conclude that the difference is because of the toxicant, but our findings suggest that physical properties of baits may be a factor in this change in feeding behavior. PMID:16539145

  5. 16 CFR 238.1 - Bait advertisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bait advertisement. 238.1 Section 238.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.1 Bait advertisement. No advertisement containing an offer to sell a product should be published when the offer is not a bona fide...

  6. Comparison of Hydrolyzed Protein Baits and Various Grape Juice Products as Attractants for Anastrepha Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Herrera, F; Miranda, E; Gómez, E; Presa-Parra, E; Lasa, R

    2016-02-01

    Mexican fruit flies, Anastrepha ludens (Loew; Diptera: Tephritidae), have traditionally been trapped in citrus orchards in Mexico using protein hydrolysates as bait. Recently, CeraTrap(®), an enzymatic hydrolyzed protein, has emerged as an effective lure for monitoring A. ludens at the orchard level and is currently being used by growers in the region of Veracruz. Several studies have revealed that grape juice is highly attractive to A. ludens, and recent work supports its potential use for regulation purposes. In our study, the attraction of A. ludens to different grape products was evaluated in citrus orchards and in comparison to other Anastrepha species in an area composed of mango and chicozapote orchards. Attraction to grape lures was compared with CeraTrap and the standard protein Captor +borax trap. In general, CeraTrap was more attractive than different commercial grape products in several experiments. Only Jumex, a commercial grape juice, did not differ significantly from CeraTrap in the capture of A. ludens males and females in a citrus crop. However, several drawbacks were detected when using Jumex grape juice: 1) higher tendency to capture males, 2) less selectivity against non-targeted insects, 3) higher capture of beneficial lacewings, and iv) the need to re-bait weekly owing to lower stability. In the area containing mango and chicozapote, CeraTrap was more attractive than Captor + borax for Anastrepha obliqua and Anastrepha serpentina, followed by grape juice products, which were the least attractive for these fruit fly species. PMID:26396199

  7. Implications for operational control of adult mosquito production in cisterns and wells in St. Augustine, Florida using attractive sugar baits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the use of attractive sugar baits as an effective, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly tool for integrated mosquito management programs. Mosquitoes were offered dyed sugar bait in wells and cisterns in an urban tourist area in St. Augustine, Flo...

  8. Implications for operational control of adult mosquito production in cisterns and wells in St. Augustine, FL using attractive sugar baits.

    PubMed

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rudy; Revay, Edita E; Allan, Sandra A; Müller, Günter C

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to further investigate the use of attractive sugar baits as an effective, inexpensive, and environmentally friendly tool for integrated mosquito management programs. Mosquitoes were offered dyed sugar bait in wells and cisterns in an urban tourist area in St. Augustine, FL. Exit traps were constructed to cover the well and cistern openings so the number of resting and emerging mosquitoes stained by feeding on the sugar bait could be monitored. Four mosquito species were collected from these structures: Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Anopheles crucians (Wiedemann), Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (Coquillett). Overall, 90% (1482/1644) of the mosquitoes trapped were stained. In general, the number of mosquitoes stained was significantly greater in wells (P<0.0001) and cisterns (P<0.0001) than the numbers that were not stained by the colored bait. Based on the number of mosquitoes stained, we would have expected considerable mosquito mortality had the sugar bait contained an oral toxin. The results of this study support the concept of using attractive toxic sugar baits as an effective tool for integrated mosquito management. PMID:22820024

  9. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...” includes any form of public notice however disseminated or utilized. Bait advertising is an alluring but insincere offer to sell a product or service which the advertiser in truth does not intend or want to sell... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0......

  10. The Human-Baited Double Net Trap: An Alternative to Human Landing Catches for Collecting Outdoor Biting Mosquitoes in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Tangena, Julie-Anne A; Thammavong, Phoutmany; Hiscox, Alexandra; Lindsay, Steve W; Brey, Paul T

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the exposure of individuals to mosquito-borne diseases is a key measure used to evaluate the success of vector control operations. The gold standard is to use human landing catches where mosquitoes are collected off the exposed limbs of human collectors. This is however an unsatisfactory method since it potentially exposes individuals to a range of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study several sampling methods were compared to find a method that is representative of the human-biting rate outdoors, but which does not expose collectors to mosquito-borne infections. The sampling efficiency of four odour-baited traps were compared outdoors in rural Lao PDR; the human-baited double net (HDN) trap, CDC light trap, BG sentinel trap and Suna trap. Subsequently the HDN, the best performing trap, was compared directly with human landing catches (HLC), the 'gold standard', for estimating human-biting rates. HDNs collected 11-44 times more mosquitoes than the other traps, with the exception of the HLC. The HDN collected similar numbers of Anopheles (Rate Ratio, RR = 1.16, 95% Confidence Intervals, 95% CI = 0.61-2.20) and Culex mosquitoes (RR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.74-2.17) as HLC, but under-estimated the numbers of Aedes albopictus (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.27-0.77). Simpson's index of diversity was 0.845 (95% CI 0.836-0.854) for the HDN trap and 0.778 (95% CI 0.769-0.787) for HLC, indicating that the HDN collected a greater diversity of mosquito species than HLC. Both HLC and HDN can distinguish between low and high biting rates and are crude ways to measure human-biting rate. The HDN is a simple and cheap method to estimate the human-biting rate outdoors without exposing collectors to mosquito bites. PMID:26381896

  11. The Human-Baited Double Net Trap: An Alternative to Human Landing Catches for Collecting Outdoor Biting Mosquitoes in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Tangena, Julie-Anne A.; Thammavong, Phoutmany; Hiscox, Alexandra; Lindsay, Steve W.; Brey, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the exposure of individuals to mosquito-borne diseases is a key measure used to evaluate the success of vector control operations. The gold standard is to use human landing catches where mosquitoes are collected off the exposed limbs of human collectors. This is however an unsatisfactory method since it potentially exposes individuals to a range of mosquito-borne diseases. In this study several sampling methods were compared to find a method that is representative of the human-biting rate outdoors, but which does not expose collectors to mosquito-borne infections. The sampling efficiency of four odour-baited traps were compared outdoors in rural Lao PDR; the human-baited double net (HDN) trap, CDC light trap, BG sentinel trap and Suna trap. Subsequently the HDN, the best performing trap, was compared directly with human landing catches (HLC), the ‘gold standard’, for estimating human-biting rates. HDNs collected 11–44 times more mosquitoes than the other traps, with the exception of the HLC. The HDN collected similar numbers of Anopheles (Rate Ratio, RR = 1.16, 95% Confidence Intervals, 95% CI = 0.61–2.20) and Culex mosquitoes (RR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.74–2.17) as HLC, but under-estimated the numbers of Aedes albopictus (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.27–0.77). Simpson’s index of diversity was 0.845 (95% CI 0.836–0.854) for the HDN trap and 0.778 (95% CI 0.769–0.787) for HLC, indicating that the HDN collected a greater diversity of mosquito species than HLC. Both HLC and HDN can distinguish between low and high biting rates and are crude ways to measure human-biting rate. The HDN is a simple and cheap method to estimate the human-biting rate outdoors without exposing collectors to mosquito bites. PMID:26381896

  12. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  13. EVALUATION OF ANTHELMINTIC FISHMEAL POLYMER BAITS FOR THE CONTROL OF BAYLISASCARIS PROCYONIS IN FREE-RANGING RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR).

    PubMed

    Smyser, Timothy J; Johnson, Shylo R; Stallard, Melissa D; McGrew, Ashley K; Page, L Kristen; Crider, Nikki; Ballweber, Lora R; Swihart, Robert K; VerCauteren, Kurt C

    2015-07-01

    Baylisascaris procyonis is a common gastrointestinal parasite of raccoons (Procyon lotor) and is a zoonotic helminth with the potential to cause severe or fatal infection. Raccoons thrive in human-dominated landscapes, and the fecal-oral transmission pathway and lack of effective treatment make B. procyonis a serious threat to public health. The distribution of medicinal baits has emerged as a socially acceptable and cost-effective method for managing disease in free-ranging wildlife. We assessed the suitability of a mass-producible anthelmintic bait for B. procyonis mitigation by evaluating the willingness of free-ranging raccoons to consume anthelmintic baits and determining whether bait consumption successfully cleared B. procyonis infections from raccoons. Anthelmintic baits were modified from standard fishmeal polymer baits, the food attractant commonly used in oral rabies vaccine baits, with the introduction of 220 mg of pyrantel pamoate into the fishmeal mixture. We captured 16 naturally infected raccoons, presented one anthelmintic bait, and monitored B. procyonis infection over 90 d by screening feces for eggs. Treatment cleared B. procyonis infections for nine of 12 raccoons that consumed >10 g of the 15 g bait. We used remote cameras to monitor in situ patterns of bait consumption for anthelmintic baits relative to standard baits. Both anthelmintic and standard baits were rapidly consumed, with no differences in the rate of consumption between bait types. However, after bait contact, raccoons demonstrated a greater willingness to consume standard baits while ignoring anthelmintic baits more frequently (P = 0.06). Initial trials of anthelmintic baits show promise, although refinement in both dose and palatability is needed. At mass production scales, the addition of pyrantel pamoate to fishmeal polymer baits would be inexpensive, potentially making anthelmintic baits a viable management option when coupled with an oral rabies vaccine or used independently

  14. Development of Baits for Insect Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article outlines the importance of baits. Baits are formulations that can be used to deliver a toxic chemical or a pathogen (active agent) via ingestion to an insect pest with the goal of killing it. A bait formulations consist of a bait matrix which is the carrier for an active agent. The bait...

  15. Relative attractiveness of baits to Paratrechina longicornis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Stanley, Margaret C; Robinson, Wayne A

    2007-04-01

    Exotic ant incursions are becoming more frequent around the globe, and management with toxic baits is a suitable strategy for most species. Crazy ants, (Latreille) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), however, are notoriously difficult to attract to commercial baits, which are generally tailored to the preferences of fire ants. We tested P. longicornis preferences for various food types and commercial ant baits. Baits trialed were commercially available products Amdro, Maxforce, Xstinguish (nontoxic monitoring version), Presto, and tuna (in spring water), sugar water (25%), boric acid (1% in 25% sugar water), and deionized water. Tuna and Xstinguish, along with sugar water and sugar water + boric acid, were the most attractive baits to P. longicornis foragers. The granular baits (Maxforce, Amdro, and Presto) were not as attractive to P. longicornis foragers. A decrease in temperature from summer (30 degrees C) to autumn (23 degrees C) trials did not seem to affect the food preferences of P. longicornis. Although P. longicornis recruitment was substantially lower during trials where there was concurrent high native ant abundance and diversity, P. longicornis still recruited to preferred baits in numbers higher than any other species. Given that tuna is impractical for management programs, the effectiveness of boric acid, sweet liquid baits in eliminating P. longicornis colonies should be compared with that of the toxic version of Xstinguish. If both are effective at eliminating colonies, we recommend sweet liquid baits containing boric acid be used for small-scale incursions (one or two nests), but a more practicable solid bait, such as Xstinguish, be used for larger scale incursions (numerous nests). PMID:17461077

  16. A Survey of Alternative Oxygen Production Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 are being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each.

  17. Available Alternative Fuel School Bus Products--2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet provides a list of the currently available (and soon to be available) model year 2004 alternative fuel school bus and school bus engine products. It includes information from Blue Bird Corporation, Collins Bus Corporation, Corbeil Bus, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, Thomas Built Buses, Inc., Clean Air Partners, Cummins Westport, and Deere & Company.

  18. Comparison of Rain-Fast Bait Stations Versus Foliar Bait Sprays for Control of Oriental Fruit Fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in Papaya Orchards in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Piñero, Jaime C.; Mau, Ronald F. L.; Vargas, Roger I.

    2010-01-01

    Bait stations represent an environmentally friendly attract-and-kill approach to fruit fly population suppression. Recently a novel, visually attractive, rain-fast bait station was developed in Hawaii for potential use against multiple species of pestiferous fruit flies. Here, we compared the efficacy of GF-120 NF Naturalyte Fruit Fly Bait applied either as foliar sprays or onto bait stations in reducing female oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), population density and level of fruit infestation in commercial papaya orchards in Hawaii. Trapping and infestation data were used as indicators of the effectiveness of the two bait application methods. For the first 10 weeks of the study, captures of female B. dorsalis in monitoring traps were significantly greater in control plots than in plots treated with foliar sprays or bait stations. Six weeks after the first bait spray, incidence of infestation (i.e. number of fruit with one or more B. dorsalis larvae) of quarter to half-ripe papaya fruit was reduced by 71.4% and 63.1% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. Twelve weeks after first spray, incidence of infestation was reduced by only 54.5% and 45.4% for plots with bait stations and foliar sprays, respectively, as compared to control plots. About 42% less GF-120 was used in orchard plots with bait stations compared to those subject to foliar sprays. The impact of field sanitation on the outcome is also discussed. The results indicate that bait stations can provide a simple, efficient, and economical method of applying insecticidal baits to control fruit flies and a safer alternative to foliar sprays. PMID:21067423

  19. Alternative indicators for measuring hospital productivity.

    PubMed

    Serway, G D; Strum, D W; Haug, W F

    1987-08-01

    This article explores the premise that the appropriateness and usefulness of typical hospital productivity measures have been affected by three changes in delivery: Organizational restructuring and other definition and data source changes that make full-time equivalent employee (FTE) measurements ambiguous. Transition to prospective payment (diagnosis-related groups). Increase in capitation (prepaid, at risk) programs. The effects of these changes on productivity management indicate the need for alternative productivity indicators. Several productivity measures that complement these changes in internal operations and the external hospital business environment are presented. These are based on an analysis of four hospitals within a multihospital system, and an illustration and interpretation of an array of measures, based on ten months of actual data, is provided. In conclusion, the recommendation is made for hospital management to collect an expanded set of productivity measures and review them in light of changing expense and revenue management schemes inherent in new payment modes. PMID:10312194

  20. A Survey of Alternative Oxygen Production Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Buttner, William J.; Surma, Jan M.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Utilization of the Martian atmosphere for the production of fuel and oxygen has been extensively studied. The baseline fuel production process is a Sabatier reactor, which produces methane and water from carbon dioxide and hydrogen. The oxygen produced from the electrolysis of the water is only half of that needed for methane-based rocket propellant, and additional oxygen is needed for breathing air, fuel cells and other energy sources. Zirconia electrolysis cells for the direct reduction of CO2 arc being developed as an alternative means of producing oxygen, but present many challenges for a large-scale oxygen production system. The very high operating temperatures and fragile nature of the cells coupled with fairly high operating voltages leave room for improvement. This paper will survey alternative oxygen production technologies, present data on operating characteristics, materials of construction, and some preliminary laboratory results on attempts to implement each. Our goal is to significantly improve upon the characteristics of proposed zirconia cells for oxygen production. To achieve that goal we are looking at electrolytic systems that operate at significantly lower temperatures, preferably below 31C to allow the incorporation of liquid CO2 in the electrolyte. Our preliminary results indicate that such a system will have much higher current densities and have simpler cathode construction than a porous gas feed electrode system. Such a system could be achieved based on nonaqueous electrolytes or ionic liquids. We are focusing our research on the anode reaction that will produce oxygen from a product generated at the cathode using CO2 as the feed. Operation at low temperatures also will open up the full range of polymer and metal materials, allowing a more robust system design to withstand the rigors of flight, landing, and long term unattended operation on the surface of Mars.

  1. New developments in bait stations for control of pest Tephritids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bait stations are being developed and tested as alternatives to broadcast pesticide application for control of a number of pest insects. This is an attract-and-kill pest management approach. With the development of female-targeted food-based synthetic attractants for tephritid fruit flies, a numbe...

  2. Effects of contaminants on bait acceptance by Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Benson, Eric P; Zungoli, Patricia A; Riley, Melissa B

    2003-02-01

    Three commonly used fire ant baits, Amdro (0.73% hydramethylnon [AI]), Ascend (0.011% abamectins [AI]), and Maxforce (1.0% hydramethylnon [AI]), were exposed to potential, volatile contaminants. The contaminants included the insecticides Orthene Fire Ant Killer (75.0% acephate [AI] ), Cyren (44.6% chlorpyrifos [AI]), and Tempo 2 (24.3% cyfluthrin [AI]); cigarette smoke; gasoline (unleaded, 89 octane); and fertilizer (10-10-10). Fire ant baits previously exposed for 48 h to these contaminants were analyzed using gas chromatography analysis. Orthene Fire Ant Killer, Cyren, Tempo 2, cigarette smoke, and gasoline had volatile components transferred to the baits. Baits exposed to these products were used in a field evaluation of bait acceptance by Solenopisis invicta Buren, the red imported fire ant. Uncontaminated Amdro was significantly preferred by S. invicta over Amdro contaminated by smoke, Cyren, Tempo 2, and gasoline. Uncontaminated Maxforce was significantly preferred over Maxforce contaminated by Tempo 2, Cyren, and gasoline, and uncontaminated Ascend was preferred over Tempo 2- and Cyren-contaminated Ascend. Orthene-exposed Amdro, Maxforce, and Ascend baits, and smoke-exposed Maxforce and Ascend baits were not significantly different from the control. These results indicate that volatile insecticides and products can contaminate fire ant baits. Some insecticides and products, such as gasoline, can significantly affect bait palatability and may adversely impact control. PMID:12650350

  3. Effects of trapping with bait on bait-station indices to black bear abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brongo, L.L.; Mitchell, M.S.; Grand, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Indices of relative abundance allow managers and researchers to examine changes in population size over time or compare relative population sizes in different areas. In the Pisgah Bear Sanctuary, bait-station surveys were conducted in most years from 1983 to 2000 to follow trends over time in the black bear (Ursus americanus) population. Baited bear trapping also took place in the sanctuary during those years, and some trap lines coincided with bait-station lines. Because the same baits were used for both trapping and bait station lines, we hypothesized that visitation rates of bears to bait stations established in proximity to baited trap lines would differ from rates at bait stations that were not associated with baited trap lines. We modeled probability of bait stations being visited by bears on trapped and untrapped lines to estimate the effect baited trapping had on visitation rates. We found that population trends inferred from bait-station visits in areas that also were trapped with bait were biased high and that bias increased over time. Bears may have become habituated to the bait on trap lines and incorporated it as a regular food source. Bait-station indices should not be conducted near research sites that employ similar bait when both produce a tangible reward for the animals.

  4. Alternative delivery of male accessory gland products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To increase fertilization success, males transfer accessory gland products (Acps). Several species have evolved unconventional Acps transfer modes, meaning that Acps are transferred separately from the sperm. By surveying the sperm-free Acps transfer cases, we show that these animals have evolved a common strategy to deliver Acps: they all inject Acps directly through the partner’s body wall into the hemolymph. Our review of this mode of Acps transfer reveals another striking similarity: they all transfer sperm in packages or via the skin, which may leave little room for Acps transfer via the conventional route in seminal fluid. We synthesise the knowledge about the function, and the effects in the recipients, of the Acps found in the widely diverse taxa (including earthworms, sea slugs, terrestrial snails, scorpions and salamanders) that inject these substances. Despite the clearly independent evolution of the injection devices, these animals have evolved a common alternative strategy to get their partners to accept and/or use their sperm. Most importantly, the evolution of the injection devices for the delivery of Acps highlights how the latter are pivotal for male reproductive success and, hence, strongly influence sexual selection. PMID:24708537

  5. Bait matrix for delivery of chitin synthesis inhibitors to the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Rojas, M G; Morales-Ramos, J A

    2001-04-01

    The efficacy of three chitin synthesis inhibitors, diflubenzuron, hexaflumuron, and chlorfluazuron, incorporated into a novel bait matrix to kill the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, was evaluated in the laboratory. The bait matrix was significantly preferred by C. formosanus over southern yellow pine wood in a two-choice feeding test. Bait formulations containing 250 ppm of the three chitin synthesis inhibitors were presented to termite nests with 2,500 individuals (80% workers and 20% soldiers) in the presence of alternative food sources consisting of cardboard and southern yellow pine, Pinus taeda L., wood. None of the bait formulations were significantly repellent or feeding deterrent to the termite workers evidenced by the lack of full consumption of alternative food sources. All nests presented with the bait formulations died within 9 wk, whereas the control nests (bait with no chitin synthesis inhibitors) remained alive 6 mo after the end of the study. No significant differences in consumption were observed among the chitin synthesis inhibitor treatments. Importance of this study for the improvement of current bait technology is discussed. PMID:11332846

  6. Effect of application rate and persistence of boric acid sugar baits applied to plants control of Aedes albopictus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of toxic baits to kill adult Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes is a safe and potentially effective alternative to the use of synthetic chemical insecticides. This study was made to identify effective application rates for boric acid-sugar solution baits sprayed onto plant surfaces and to ...

  7. Improving liquid bait programs for Argentine ant control: bait station density.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Erik H; Daane, Kent M

    2007-12-01

    Argentine ants, Linepithema humile (Mayr), have a positive effect on populations of mealybugs (Pseudococcus spp.) in California vineyards. Previous studies have shown reductions in both ant activity and mealybug numbers after liquid ant baits were deployed in vineyards at densities of 85-620 bait stations/ha. However, bait station densities may need to be <85 bait stations/ha before bait-based strategies for ant control are economically comparable to spray-based insecticide treatments-a condition that, if met, will encourage the commercial adoption of liquid baits for ant control. This research assessed the effectiveness of baits deployed at lower densities. Two field experiments were conducted in commercial vineyards. In experiment 1, baits were deployed at 54-225 bait stations/ha in 2005 and 2006. In experiment 2, baits were deployed at 34-205 bait stations/ha in 2006 only. In both experiments, ant activity and the density of mealybugs in grape fruit clusters at harvest time declined with increasing bait station density. In 2005 only, European fruit lecanium scale [Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché)] were also present in fruit clusters, and scale densities were negatively related to bait station density. The results indicate that the amount of ant and mealybug control achieved by an incremental increase in the number of bait stations per hectare is constant across a broad range of bait station densities. The results are discussed in the context of commercializing liquid ant baits to provide a more sustainable Argentine ant control strategy. PMID:18284776

  8. Variation in Baiting Intensity Among CO2-Baited Traps Used to Collect Hematophagous Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Yuri P.; Taylor, Jeffrey R.; Travers, Patrick D.

    2015-01-01

    Hematophagous arthropods transmit the etiological agents of numerous diseases and as a result are frequently the targets of sampling to characterize vector and pathogen populations. Arguably, the most commonly used sampling approach involves traps baited with carbon dioxide. We report results of a laboratory study in which the performance of carbon dioxide-baited traps was evaluated using measures of baiting intensity, the amount of carbon dioxide released per unit time during trap deployment. We evaluated the effects of trap design, carbon dioxide source, and wind speed on baiting intensity and documented significant effects of these factors on the length of sampling (time to baiting intensity = 0), maximum baiting intensity, and variation in baiting intensity during experimental trials. Among the three dry ice-baited trap types evaluated, traps utilizing insulated beverage coolers as dry ice containers sampled for the longest period of time, had the lowest maximum but most consistent baiting intensity within trials and were least sensitive to effects of wind speed and dry ice form (block vs. pellet) on baiting intensity. Results of trials involving traps baited with carbon dioxide released from pressurized cylinders suggested that this trap type had performance comparable to dry ice-baited insulated cooler traps but at considerably higher cost. PMID:26160803

  9. Variation in Baiting Intensity Among CO2-Baited Traps Used to Collect Hematophagous Arthropods.

    PubMed

    Springer, Yuri P; Taylor, Jeffrey R; Travers, Patrick D

    2015-01-01

    Hematophagous arthropods transmit the etiological agents of numerous diseases and as a result are frequently the targets of sampling to characterize vector and pathogen populations. Arguably, the most commonly used sampling approach involves traps baited with carbon dioxide. We report results of a laboratory study in which the performance of carbon dioxide-baited traps was evaluated using measures of baiting intensity, the amount of carbon dioxide released per unit time during trap deployment. We evaluated the effects of trap design, carbon dioxide source, and wind speed on baiting intensity and documented significant effects of these factors on the length of sampling (time to baiting intensity = 0), maximum baiting intensity, and variation in baiting intensity during experimental trials. Among the three dry ice-baited trap types evaluated, traps utilizing insulated beverage coolers as dry ice containers sampled for the longest period of time, had the lowest maximum but most consistent baiting intensity within trials and were least sensitive to effects of wind speed and dry ice form (block vs. pellet) on baiting intensity. Results of trials involving traps baited with carbon dioxide released from pressurized cylinders suggested that this trap type had performance comparable to dry ice-baited insulated cooler traps but at considerably higher cost. PMID:26160803

  10. Alternative Agricultural Enterprises. Production, Management & Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Linda Kirk; And Others

    These nine cooperative extension bulletins provide basic information on various alternative agricultural enterprises. Discussed in the first eight bulletins are the following topics: business ownership (sole proprietorship, partnership, incorporation, cooperatives); business and the family (goals, qualifications, ways of ensuring family support,…

  11. Alternate feedstocks and technologies for biodiesel production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. biodiesel production is presently estimated at 800 million gallons annually, and this fuel is no longer a research curiosity - it is entering the nation’s fuel infrastructure. Some estimates are that production will reach nearly twice that value in the next 10 to 12 years. This would stress a...

  12. Effect of bait in live trapping Peromyscus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1948-01-01

    SUMMARY: Evidence from live trapping tests indicated that Peromyscus leucopus did not leave their home ranges because of the attraction of trap bait in nearby areas. A trap line down the center of a heavily live-trapped area caught as many mice before the area trapping as afterward. Thus, there was reason to believe that the area trapping did not serve to pre-bait the mice. Two unbaited lines of live traps caught an equal number of Peromyscus. When one line was baited with rolled oats and peanut butter the efficiency of the traps was improved to the extent that the baited line captured more than twice as many mice as the unbaited line. It is concluded that for the species and habitat tested it is safe to make population calculations based on the assumption that the animals remain within their home ranges and do not tend to move into the trapped area because of the attraction of the trap bait.

  13. Production of Bacterial Cellulose from Alternate Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David Neil; Hamilton, Melinda Ann

    2000-05-01

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS & HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  14. Production of bacterial cellulose from alternate feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    D. N. Thompson; M. A. Hamilton

    2000-05-07

    Production of bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 10821 and 23770 in static cultures was tested from unamended food process effluents. Effluents included low- and high-solids potato effluents (LS and HS), cheese whey permeate (CW), and sugar beet raffinate (CSB). Strain 23770 produced 10% less cellulose from glucose than did 10821, and diverted more glucose to gluconate. Unamended HS, CW, and CSB were unsuitable for cellulose production by either strain, while LS was unsuitable for production by 10821. However, 23770 produced 17% more cellulose from LS than from glucose, indicating unamended LS could serve as a feedstock for bacterial cellulose.

  15. New Alternatives in Seafood Restructured Products.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Helena M; Herranz, Beatriz; Pérez-Mateos, Miriam; Sánchez-Alonso, Isabel; Borderías, Javier A

    2016-01-01

    A general overview, focusing on new trends in the different techniques used in restructured seafood product processing has been described in this work. Heat-induced gelation has been more widely studied in scientific literature than cold gelation technology. This latter technology includes the use of hydrocolloids (alginates and glucomannan) or enzymes (microbial transglutaminase) for making both raw and cooked restructured products. In restructuration processes, fortification processing with some functional ingredients is studied, giving as a result extra value to the products as well as increasing the variety of new seafood products. The process of alleviating heavy metals and organic pollutants from the raw material used has also been reviewed in the present paper. PMID:25000341

  16. Alternative Bench Standards: Sample Production Report

    SciTech Connect

    N. R. Mann; T. P. Houghton; M. G. Watrous; J. G. Eisenmenger; R. K. Hague

    2012-09-01

    The INL has prepared four standards representing krypton concentrations of 1.1X, 1.54X, 10X and 100X the reported atmospheric value of 70 dpm 85Kr per cubic centimeter of Kr gas at 25 degrees C (ie. 1.1X is 1.1 x 70, or 77 dpm 85Kr per cubic centimeter of Kr gas at 25 degrees C). A t-zero date and time of January 1, 2012 at 1200 Zulu was used for all standards. The Alternative Bench Standards (ABS) of 1.1X, 1.54X, 10X and 100X, are designated by titles of ABS-A, ABS-B, ABS C and ABS-D, respectively. The concentration of Kr in air is 1.14 ppm.

  17. [Research progress of alternative production approaches of salidroside].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiu-Wen; Peng, Yu-Shuai; Wang, Ru-Feng

    2013-11-01

    Salidroside, one of the active components of Rhodiola plants, is a phenolic glycoside with significant biological activities. The investigation and development of alternative production approaches of salidroside is of high academic and application values due to the limited resource of Rhodiola plants, and from which the low yield of salidroside. This review summarized the research progress and perspective of the alternative production approaches of salidroside including both chemosynthetic and biosynthetic methods and pathways. PMID:24494549

  18. A case of accidental ingestion of ant bait containing fipronil.

    PubMed

    Fung, Hin Tat; Chan, Kar Ki; Ching, Wei Ming; Kam, Chak Wah

    2003-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman accidentally ingested a commercial ant bait containing fipronil without development of obvious toxicity, supporting the safety of this new insecticide as demonstrated in animal studies. However, concentrated agricultural products may be more toxic, and the potential for seizures should not be overlooked. The pharmacological action, mechanism of selective insect toxicity, and clinical effects of fipronil are discussed. PMID:12807306

  19. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges.

    PubMed

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Allan, S A; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-06-01

    The mixing of an insecticide with sugar solution creates an oral toxin or insecticidal sugar bait (ISB) useful for reducing adult insect populations. The ability of ISBs to kill the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses, was tested. The commercial insecticide formulations (percentage active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. Mortality rates were determined for various concentrations of commercial formulations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10 and 24 h post-exposure to the ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum and then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure mortality. The second assay assessed competitive feeding: midges were provided with a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial, and a sugar and insecticide solution in another. Pyrethroid treatments resulted in the greatest mortality in the first hour at the lowest concentrations and spinosad consumption resulted in the least mortality. Biting midges were not deterred from feeding on the 1% ISB solutions despite the presence of an insecticide-free alternative source of sugar. PMID:26789534

  20. Neem derivatives are not effective as toxic bait for tephritid fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A; Bezerra-Silva, G C D; Vendramim, J D; Mastrangelo, T; Forim, M R

    2013-08-01

    Neem derivatives have been widely touted as replacements for pesticides. A feasible replacement of synthetic insecticides in the management of fruit flies could be to use neem products in baits. This study evaluated the bioactivity of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) derivatives in bait for adults of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The estimated LCs50 values for A. fraterculus and C. capitata were 7,522 ppm (18.40 ppm of azadirachtin) and 1,368 ppm (3.35 ppm of azadirachtin), respectively, using an aqueous extract of neem seeds in bait after 10 d of experimentation. No significant differences in the mortality of A. fraterculus and C. capitata adults exposed to baits made from different extracts and neem oil were observed after 3 h or 2 or 6 d; differences among the treatments were observed only on the 10th day of the evaluation. We conclude that neem derivatives applied as a bait spray over citrus plants did not demonstrate a toxic effect on A. fraterculus and C. capitata. The reasons for the low efficacy of the neem bait on Tephritid fruit flies are discussed. PMID:24020292

  1. Validation of an alternative microbiological method for tissue products.

    PubMed

    Suessner, Susanne; Hennerbichler, Simone; Schreiberhuber, Stefanie; Stuebl, Doris; Gabriel, Christian

    2014-06-01

    According to the European Pharmacopoeia sterility testing of products includes an incubation time of 14 days in thioglycollate medium and soya-bean casein medium. In this case a large period of time is needed for product testing. So we designed a study to evaluate an alternative method for sterility testing. The aim of this study was to reduce the incubation time for the routinely produced products in our tissue bank (cornea and amnion grafts) by obtaining the same detection limit, accurateness and recovery rates as the reference method described in the European Pharmacopoeia. The study included two steps of validation. Primary validation compared the reference method with the alternative method. Therefore eight bacterial and two fungi test strains were tested at their preferred milieu. A geometric dilution series from 10 to 0.625 colony forming unit per 10 ml culture media was used. Subsequent to the evaluation the second part of the study started including the validation of the fertility of the culture media and the parallel testing of the two methods by investigating products. For this purpose two product batches were tested in three independent runs. Concerning the validation we could not find any aberration between the alternative and the reference method. In addition, the recovery rate of each microorganism was between 83.33 and 100 %. The alternative method showed non-inferiority regarding accuracy to the reference method. Due to this study we reduced the sterility testing for cornea and amniotic grafts to 9 days. PMID:24810914

  2. Wastes and by-products - alternatives for agricultural use

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.L.; Craft, D.J.; Parker, B.R.

    1994-10-01

    Top address a growing national problem with generation of wastes and by-products, TVA has been involved for several years with developing and commercializing environmentally responsible practices for eliminating, minimizing, or utilizing various wastes/by-products. In many cases, reducing waste generation is impractical, but the wastes/by-products can be converted into other environmentally sound products. In some instances, conversion of safe, value-added agricultural products in the best or only practical alternative. TVA is currently involved with a diversity of projects converting wastes/by-products into safe, economical, and agriculturally beneficial products. Environmental improvement projects have involved poultry litter, cellulosic wastes, used battery acid, ammonium sulfate fines, lead smelting effluents, deep-welled sulfuric acid/ammonium bisulfate solutions, wood ash, waste magnesium ammonium sulfate slurry from recording tape production, and ammunition plant waste sodium nitrate/ammonium nitrate streams.

  3. COATING ALTERNATIVES GUIDE (CAGE) FOR METAL PARTS AND PRODUCTS PAINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the initial development of a Coating Alternatives Guide (CAGE) for metal parts and products painting. t is an innovative technology transfer approach that provides a tool to improve technology diffusion and assistance. t will provide vital, user-accessible inf...

  4. Methyl Bromide Alternatives for Floriculture Production in a Problem Site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful methyl bromide alternatives must manage a variety of pest problems in floriculture and vegetable production systems including weeds, plant-parasitic nematodes, and soil-borne diseases. Methods that may be successful in some situations may be challenged in sites with unusually heavy pest p...

  5. STRAWBERRY PRODUCTION WITH ALTERNATIVE FUMIGANTS APPLIED THROUGH DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEMS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nearly all California strawberry fields are fumigated before planting. Most are fumigated with methyl bromide, which is being phased out because it has been shown to deplete stratospheric ozone. We are seeking alternative fumigants that can be used for strawberry production. This particular resea...

  6. REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF ALTERNATE DISINFECTANTS AND THEIR BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a review article of the reproductive effects of alternate disinfectants and their by-products. The available literature is surveyed concerning studies of chlorine, chloramine, chlorine dioxide, chlorite, and chlorate. A more detailed discussion is given of reproductive st...

  7. Effect of bait and gear type on channel catfish catch and turtle bycatch in a reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cartabiano, Evan C.; Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Hoop nets have become the preferred gear choice to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus but the degree of bycatch can be high, especially due to the incidental capture of aquatic turtles. While exclusion and escapement devices have been developed and evaluated, few have examined bait choice as a method to reduce turtle bycatch. The use of Zote™ soap has shown considerable promise to reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles when used with trotlines but its effectiveness in hoop nets has not been evaluated. We sought to determine the effectiveness of hoop nets baited with cheese bait or Zote™ soap and trotlines baited with shad or Zote™ soap as a way to sample channel catfish and prevent capture of aquatic turtles. We used a repeated-measures experimental design and treatment combinations were randomly assigned using a Latin-square arrangement. Eight sampling locations were systematically selected and then sampled with either hoop nets or trotlines using Zote™ soap (both gears), waste cheese (hoop nets), or cut shad (trotlines). Catch rates did not statistically differ among the gear–bait-type combinations. Size bias was evident with trotlines consistently capturing larger sized channel catfish compared to hoop nets. Results from a Monte Carlo bootstrapping procedure estimated the number of samples needed to reach predetermined levels of sampling precision to be lowest for trotlines baited with soap. Moreover, trotlines baited with soap caught no aquatic turtles, while hoop nets captured many turtles and had high mortality rates. We suggest that Zote™ soap used in combination with multiple hook sizes on trotlines may be a viable alternative to sample channel catfish and reduce bycatch of aquatic turtles.

  8. Botanical alternatives to antibiotics for use in organic poultry production.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; D'Souza, Doris; Biswas, Debrabrata; Hanning, Irene

    2015-06-01

    The development of antibiotic resistant pathogens has resulted from the use of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics delivered in poultry feed. Furthermore, there are a number of consumer concerns regarding the use of antibiotics in food animals including residue contamination of poultry products and antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. These issues have resulted in recommendations to reduce the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock in the United States. Unlike conventional production, organic systems are not permitted to use antibiotics. Thus, both conventional and organic poultry production need alternative methods to improve growth and performance of poultry. Herbs, spices, and various other plant extracts are being evaluated as alternatives to antibiotics and some do have growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health-related benefits. This review aims to provide an overview of herbs, spices, and plant extracts, currently defined as phytobiotics as potential feed additives. PMID:25743421

  9. Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1: an assessment of production alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-30

    Under existing legislation, every 3 years the President must decide whether to shut-in or continue production of the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) oil field at Elk Hills, California. The current authorization for production expires on April 5, 1985. GAO discusses the geologic, budgetary, local economic, and national security implications of three production alternatives for NPR-1: continued production, shut-in, and partial shut in. In addition, GAO discusses the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a Defense Petroleum Reserve, a crude oil reserve for the military, using part of the revenues from continued production at NPR-1 to fund it. During the course of its review, GAO found that production rates at Elk Hills may be too high, causing problems within the reserve that could decrease ultimate recovery of oil by about 139 million barrels. The Department of Energy plans to analyze this situation and, if need be, adjust the rate. 2 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Laboratory and Field Evaluations of Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Baits Against Argentine Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Rust, Michael K; Soeprono, Andrew; Wright, Sarajean; Greenberg, Les; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Boser, Christina L; Cory, Coleen; Hanna, Cause

    2015-06-01

    The development of effective baits to control the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), has been problematic because foragers prefer sweet liquids, while many toxicants are insoluble in water and liquid baits are generally difficult to deliver. The incorporation of thiamethoxam and sucrose solutions into a water-absorbing polyacrylamide hydrogel provides a unique and novel carrier and method of application for liquid baits. Formulations of thiamethoxam affected the size of the hydrogels, and sucrose solutions containing 0.0003% technical thiamethoxam provided hydrogels as large as those made with 25% sucrose solution or deionized water. Concentrations of thiamethoxam as low as 0.000075% in the hydrogels provided 50% kill of workers within 3 d in a laboratory setting. In small colony studies, baiting with 0.00015 and 0.000075% thiamethoxam hydrogels provided 100% mortality of workers and queens within 8 d. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay indicated that thiamethoxam was absorbed into the interior of the polyacrylamide matrix. The water loss rates of the hydrogels were dependent upon the relative humidity. Polyacrylamide hydrogels with >50% water loss were less attractive to ants. Field studies in highly infested areas indicated that concentrations of 0.0006 or 0.0018% thiamethoxam were more effective than 0.00015%. Hydrogels may provide a cost-effective alternative to providing aqueous baits to control Argentine ants. PMID:26470250

  11. Biotechnological processes for biodiesel production using alternative oils.

    PubMed

    Azócar, Laura; Ciudad, Gustavo; Heipieper, Hermann J; Navia, Rodrigo

    2010-10-01

    As biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester (FAME)) is mainly produced from edible vegetable oils, crop soils are used for its production, increasing deforestation and producing a fuel more expensive than diesel. The use of waste lipids such as waste frying oils, waste fats, and soapstock has been proposed as low-cost alternative feedstocks. Non-edible oils such as jatropha, pongamia, and rubber seed oil are also economically attractive. In addition, microalgae, bacteria, yeast, and fungi with 20% or higher lipid content are oleaginous microorganisms known as single cell oil and have been proposed as feedstocks for FAME production. Alternative feedstocks are characterized by their elevated acid value due to the high level of free fatty acid (FFA) content, causing undesirable saponification reactions when an alkaline catalyst is used in the transesterification reaction. The production of soap consumes the conventional catalyst, diminishing FAME production yield and simultaneously preventing the effective separation of the produced FAME from the glycerin phase. These problems could be solved using biological catalysts, such as lipases or whole-cell catalysts, avoiding soap production as the FFAs are esterified to FAME. In addition, by-product glycerol can be easily recovered, and the purification of FAME is simplified using biological catalysts. PMID:20697706

  12. Alternative Blood Products and Clinical Needs in Transfusion Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Carolyn; Vaglio, Stefania; Grazzini, Giuliano

    2012-01-01

    The primary focus of national blood programs is the provision of a safe and adequate blood supply. This goal is dependent on regular voluntary donations and a regulatory infrastructure that establishes and enforces standards for blood safety. Progress in ex vivo expansion of blood cells from cell sources including peripheral blood, cord blood, induced pluripotent stem cells, and human embryonic stem cell lines will likely make alternative transfusion products available for clinical use in the near future. Initially, alloimmunized patients and individuals with rare blood types are most likely to benefit from alternative products. However, in developed nations voluntary blood donations are projected to be inadequate in the future as blood usage by individuals 60 years and older increases. In developing nations economic and political challenges may impede progress in attaining self-sufficiency. Under these circumstances, ex vivo generated red cells may be needed to supplement the general blood supply. PMID:22567025

  13. 16 CFR 238.0 - Bait advertising defined. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bait advertising defined. 1 238.0 Section 238.0 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES AGAINST BAIT ADVERTISING § 238.0 Bait advertising defined. 1 1 For the purpose of this part...

  14. Native ant responses to Solenopsis invicta buren reduction using broadcast baits.

    PubMed

    Calixto, Alejandro A; Harris, Marvin K; Knutson, Allen; Barr, Charles L

    2007-10-01

    A pilot study was conducted to investigate the impact of Solenopsis invicta management with an insect growth regulator bait (s-methoprene) on native ant species and to determine the responses of these species to S. invicta reduction. This invasive species alters the diversity and structure of different trophic levels of arthropod assemblages. Despite advances in S. invicta management using biological control agents, poison baits remain as the primary tool for effective fire ant management. However, the effect of these products on native ants is relatively unknown. Understanding these effects is critical to the development of S. invicta management strategies that include conservation of native ants. Native ants compete with S. invicta to some degree and can bolster efforts to release and establish exotic biological control agents to more effectively manage S. invicta. The study was carried out in Mumford, TX. Two treatments were used: a bait treatment that reduced S. invicta densities and a control. The treatments were randomly assigned to 1.33-ha blocks, replicated four times, and periodically inspected using complementary sampling techniques (pitfall traps, baited vials, manual collections, and nest surveys). Sixteen ant species were found among the two treatments. After S. invicta reduction, significant increases in densities of several other ant species were observed. Species within the assemblage shifted from the dominance by S. invicta to the dominance of the native pyramid ant, Dorymyrmex flavus McCook, which showed the most significant increase in bait treated blocks and was found to persist at densities significantly higher than the control for >2 yr after the last bait treatment. A temporary change in diversity was observed, indicating that use of a poison bait for S. invicta management benefited numerous resident species in the ant assemblage. PMID:18284735

  15. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the latest trends in mosquito control is the use of insecticidal sugar baits (ISBs) to reduce adult mosquito populations. Tested here is the ability of ISB’s to knock-down the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, a disease vector of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and vesicular sto...

  16. Passive Baited Sequential Filth Fly Trap

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Filth fly control measures may be optimized with a better understanding of fly population dynamics measured throughout the day. We describe the modification of a commercial motorized sequential mosquito trap to accept liquid odorous bait and leverage a classic inverted cone design to passively confi...

  17. Lepidopteran cells, an alternative for the production of recombinant antibodies?

    PubMed Central

    Cérutti, Martine; Golay, Josée

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are used with great success in many different therapeutic domains. In order to satisfy the growing demand and to lower the production cost of these molecules, many alternative systems have been explored. Among them, the baculovirus/insect cells system is a good candidate. This system is very safe, given that the baculoviruses have a highly restricted host range and they are not pathogenic to vertebrates or plants. But the major asset is the speed with which it is possible to obtain very stable recombinant viruses capable of producing fully active proteins whose glycosylation pattern can be modulated to make it similar to the human one. These features could ultimately make the difference by enabling the production of antibodies with very low costs. However, efforts are still needed, in particular to increase production rates and thus make this system commercially viable for the production of these therapeutic agents. PMID:22531440

  18. Removal of Molluscicidal Bait Pellets by Earthworms and its Impact on Control of the Gray Field Slug, Derocerus reticulatum Mueller, in Western Oregon Grass Seed Fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Slugs are common pests of grass seed fields in western Oregon and are currently controlled using bait pellets that often fail to give adequate protection. Here we demonstrate the loss of bait pellet products to earthworms and its adverse effects on controlling slugs. Three years of field and greenho...

  19. Energy cane as a multiple-products alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    CANE SUGAR planting as it was formerly known is in serious and essentially irreversible trouble. Diversification of sugarcane to alternative farm crops is indicated in some instances. Yet, for the most part, the more logical alternative is an internal diversification to a multiple-products biomass commodity. Sometimes termed the energy cane approach, its keystones are the management of sugarcane as a quantitative rather than qualitative entity, and the inclusion of certain tropical-grass relatives to assist cane in its year-round supply of biomass to industrial consumers. Managed in this way, absolute tonnages of whole cane are increased materially beyond what is possible from sugar-crop management. Juice quality declines but sugar yields are significant as a function of high biomass tonnages per acre. Usage of the lignocellulose can range from low-quality humid boiler fuel in furnaces designed for refuse incineration, to higher-quality fuels in more efficient boilers, to proprietary fuels and chemical products, and to lignocellulose supply as the feedstock for primary chemicals production. The latter might include, for example, synthesis gas and petrochemicals in tropical regions lacking natural gas, naphtha, or coal as starting materials. Diversification of sugarcane to completely new farm commodities is opposed in favor of internal diversification to a high-growth, multiple-products commodity. Decisive issues here are as much educational as they are technical. The energy cane concept maintains that sugarcane is a future resource of enormous national and international value. It should develop accordingly where decision-taking is by persons who respect the cane plant and who have done their homework on its alternative-use potentials. 35 references, 5 figures, 6 tables.

  20. Chemical attractants in horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, eggs: the potential for an artificial bait.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Kirstin M; Targett, Nancy M

    2003-02-01

    Horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, are the preferred bait in the eel and conch fisheries along the east coast of the United States. However, recent management measures have restricted the availability of horseshoe crabs to commercial fisheries, creating the need for sustainable, alternative bait sources. In this study, we examined the chemistry underlying the predator-prey attraction to determine if specific, isolable attractant metabolites from the horseshoe crab could be identified and characterized for incorporation into an artifical bait. Initial assays with the mud snail, Hyanassa obsoleta, suggested that the chemoattractants were concentrated in L. polyphemus eggs. Chemical analyses and biological assays of the egg extract indicated the primary cue was a heat-stable, proteinaceous compound (>10 kDa). A carbohydrate-rich fraction of low molecular mass (< 10 kDa) also enhanced mud snail chemotaxis. Analysis of egg digests with SDS-PAGE confirmed the presence of glycoproteins or carbohydrate-binding proteins in the horseshoe crab egg extract. Because the attractant appears to be a complex protein or glycoprotein, conventional chemical synthesis is unlikely. However, the tools of modem biotechnology offer the potential to produce this attractant in a system independent of the horseshoe crab. Such an attractant could be incorporated into an artificial bait, providing an ecologically sound alternative for commercial eel and whelk fisheries. PMID:12737271

  1. Field Trials With 0.5% Novaluron Insecticide Applied as a Bait to Control Subterranean Termites (Reticulitermes sp. and Coptotermes formosanus [Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae]) on Structures.

    PubMed

    Keefer, T C; Puckett, Robert T; Brown, Ken S; Gold, Roger E

    2015-10-01

    A field study was initiated in 2009 with 0.5% novaluron the BASF Advance Termite Bait System, which was 100% effective in controlling Reticulitermes sp. Holmgren and Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki infestations on 11 structures in the Texas City, TX area. Stations with inspection cartridges (cellulose tablets) and monitoring bases (southern yellow pine) and independent monitoring devices were installed in an alternating pattern around each structure and were inspected every 30 d postinstallation. When subterranean termite activity was confirmed on the inspection cartridge or the monitoring base, the inspection cartridge was removed and replaced with a bait cartridge containing 0.5% novaluron insecticide on a proprietary matrix (124 g/cartridge) in a station. Once the novaluron-treated bait was inserted, inspections of that station were made on a 4-mo cycle until no termite activity was observed. The mean time to achieve control of the subterranean termites on the structures was 10.5 mo post initial installation of bait. Mean time to achieve control of the termites on the structures after the baits were installed was 5.4 mo. Control of the termites on the structures required consumption of a mean of 1.3 bait cartridges (166.2 g) of 0.5% novaluron bait matrix per structure. These results indicate that the baits with 0.5% novaluron were effective in controlling termites on the structures used in this study. PMID:26453729

  2. Oral vaccination against raccoon rabies: landscape heterogeneity and timing of distribution influence wildlife contact rates with the ONRAB vaccine bait.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Jean-Philippe; Canac-Marquis, Pierre; Guérin, Daniel; Mainguy, Julien; Pelletier, Fanie

    2011-07-01

    Aerial distribution of oral vaccine baits is one of the available strategies for controlling the spread of infectious wildlife diseases. This technique has commonly been used to control rabies in wild carnivores and, together with other techniques, was used to immunize wild populations of raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) after the detection of the first rabid raccoon in the province of Quebec, Canada, in 2006. Vaccine bait distribution was conducted over large areas where agricultural land is dominant but interspersed with residual forest patches. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of habitat (forest vs. agricultural crops) in space and time on the contact rate between wildlife and the ONRAB(®) vaccine bait, a recent alternative to the V-RG(®). Four transects of eight vaccine baits each were installed parallel to, and at different distances from, the forest's edge (under forest cover, at field-forest edge, and at 50 and 200 m from forest edge in agricultural crops) at three sites composed of various crop types interspersed with forest patches. This experiment was conducted during three periods (late spring, 1-7 June; summer, 27 July-2 August; and fall, 24-30 October) in 2009. Contact rates with vaccine baits were monitored for 7 days in each period to evaluate the potential temporal variations generated within the habitat types. Contact rates with ONRAB vaccine baits were highest under forest cover and in the fall. Of 13 species observed in proximity to the vaccine baits, raccoons were the most frequent (49.5%, n=55 visits). Our study underlines the importance of taking into account landscape heterogeneity and timing of distribution when planning the distribution of vaccine baits to control rabies in raccoons. PMID:21719823

  3. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives.

    PubMed

    Diarra, Moussa S; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2600 regulated chicken producers who have access to several antibiotics approved as feed additives for poultry. Feed recipes and mixtures vary greatly geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While some reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens) have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno-stimulatory activities. PMID:24987390

  4. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Diarra, Moussa S.; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2600 regulated chicken producers who have access to several antibiotics approved as feed additives for poultry. Feed recipes and mixtures vary greatly geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While some reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens) have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno-stimulatory activities. PMID:24987390

  5. Successful transmission of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 to Solenopsis invicta fire ant colonies in oil, sugar, and cricket bait formulations.

    PubMed

    Valles, Steven M; Porter, Sanford D; Choi, Man-Yeon; Oi, David H

    2013-07-01

    Tests were conducted to evaluate whether Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3) could be delivered in various bait formulations to fire ant colonies and measure the corresponding colony health changes associated with virus infection in Solenopsis invicta. Three bait formulations (10% sugar solution, cricket paste, and soybean oil adsorbed to defatted corn grit) effectively transmitted SINV-3 infections to S. invicta colonies. Correspondingly, viral infection was shown to be detrimental to colony health and productivity. By day 32, all ant colonies exposed to a single 24h pulse treatment of SINV-3 became infected with the virus regardless of the bait formulation. However, the SINV-3 sugar and cricket bait-treated colonies became infected more rapidly than the oil-treated colonies. Sugar and cricket-treated colonies exhibited significant declines in their brood ratings compared with the untreated control and oil bait-treated colonies. Measures of colony health and productivity evaluated at the end of the study (day 47) showed a number of differences among the bait treatments and the control group. Statistically significant and similar patterns were exhibited among treatments for the quantity of live workers (lower), live brood (lower), total colony weight (lower), worker mortality (higher), proportion larvae (lower), and queen weight (lower). Significant changes were also observed in the number of eggs laid by queens (lower) and the corresponding ovary rating in SINV-3-treated colonies. The study provides the first successful demonstration of SINV-3 as a potential biopesticide against fire ants. PMID:23602901

  6. Functionality of alternative protein in gluten-free product development.

    PubMed

    Deora, Navneet Singh; Deswal, Aastha; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-07-01

    Celiac disease is an immune-mediated disease triggered in genetically susceptible individuals by ingested gluten from wheat, rye, barley, and other closely related cereal grains. The current treatment for celiac disease is life-long adherence to a strict gluten-exclusion diet. The replacement of gluten presents a significant technological challenge, as it is an essential structure-building protein, which is necessary for formulating high-quality baked goods. A major limitation in the production of gluten-free products is the lack of protein functionality in non-wheat cereals. Additionally, commercial gluten-free mixes usually contain only carbohydrates, which may significantly limit the amount of protein in the diet. In the recent past, various approaches are attempted to incorporate protein-based ingredients and to modify the functional properties for gluten-free product development. This review aims to the highlight functionality of the alternative protein-based ingredients, which can be utilized for gluten-free product development both functionally as well as nutritionally. PMID:26048849

  7. Implementing a spinosad-based local bait station to control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in high rainfall areas of Reunion Island.

    PubMed

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An 'umbrella trap' tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. PMID:25688089

  8. Implementing a Spinosad-Based Local Bait Station to Control Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in High Rainfall Areas of Reunion Island

    PubMed Central

    Delpoux, Camille; Deguine, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Three species of fruit flies cause serious damage to cucurbit crops on Reunion Island: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) (Coquillett 1899), Dacus ciliatus (Loew 1901), and Dacus demmerezi (Bezzi 1917). To control them, a program of agroecological management of cucurbit flies has been implemented based on the application of Synéis-appât, especially spot sprays on corn borders. However, the high rainfall on Reunion Island limits the long-term efficiency of the bait; in addition, this method cannot be used for large chayote trellises, because corn borders cannot be planted around them. The aim of this study was to design a bait station adapted to prevailing conditions on Reunion Island. An ‘umbrella trap’ tested in Taiwan was used as a reference to compare its efficacy with our local bait station. Experiments were conducted in field cages on B. cucurbitae to test different characteristics of bait stations and to construct one using local materials. Results were validated in the field. The attractiveness of the bait station was related mainly to the color of the external surface, yellow being the most attractive color. The efficacy of the bait station with respect to fly mortality was found to be linked to the accessibility of the bait, and direct application of Synéis-appât on the bait station was found to be the most efficient. In the field, B. cucurbitae were more attracted to the local bait station than to the umbrella trap, while the two other fly species displayed equal attraction to both trap types. Our local bait station is a useful alternative to spot sprays of Synéis-appât and is now included in a local pest management program and is well accepted by farmers. PMID:25688089

  9. Evaluation of three bait materials and their food transfer efficiency in Formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Cai; Henderson, Gregg

    2012-10-01

    The consumption and food transfer efficiency of two commercially used termite bait materials, southern yellow pine wood and cardboard, and one potential bait material, maize (Zea mays L.) cob, were evaluated for use against the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), in the laboratory. In the no-choice test, the consumption of wood and cob was similar and significantly more than cardboard. Tunneling under the food sources was similar. In the two-choice test, the consumption was cob > wood, wood > cardboard, cob = cardboard, and tunneling under these choices was cob = wood, wood = cardboard, cob > cardboard. In the three-choice test, no significant difference was detected in consumption, but tunnels made under the cob were significantly more than wood and cardboard. Nile blue A was used to study food transfer of bait material among termite cohorts. Dyed cardboard, cob, or wood (0.1% Nile blue A) was provided to termites as food. Termites feeding on wood turned blue in significantly greater number at 6 h compared with cardboard and cob, but there was no significant difference after 12 h. Blue termites feeding on different bait materials were then collected and combined with undyed termites. When undyed (white) termites were placed with blue termites and food (wood block), termites turned blue in the same percentage regardless of original bait material fed on. However, when no food was provided (starvation group), the rate of white termites turning blue was dramatic; in dyed wood treatment, significantly more termites turned blue than that of cardboard, although neither were significantly different from cob. Our study is the first to show that, cob, an otherwise waste product of the food and biofuel industry, is as efficient as wood and cardboard as a termite bait matrix. PMID:23156174

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait (ONRAB) in the first us field trial in raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    Slate, Dennis; Chipman, Richard B; Algeo, Timothy P; Mills, Samuel A; Nelson, Kathleen M; Croson, Christopher K; Dubovi, Edward J; Vercauteren, Kurt; Renshaw, Randall W; Atwood, Todd; Johnson, Shylo; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2014-07-01

    In 2011, we conducted a field trial in rural West Virginia, USA to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a live, recombinant human adenovirus (AdRG1.3) rabies virus glycoprotein vaccine (Ontario Rabies Vaccine Bait; ONRAB) in wild raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). We selected ONRAB for evaluation because of its effectiveness in raccoon rabies management in Ontario and Quebec, Canada, and significantly higher antibody prevalence rates in raccoons compared with a recombinant vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) vaccine, Raboral V-RG®, in US-Canada border studies. Raccoon rabies was enzootic and oral rabies vaccination (ORV) had never been used in the study area. We distributed 79,027 ONRAB baits at 75 baits/km(2) mostly by fixed-wing aircraft along parallel flight lines at 750-m intervals. Antibody prevalence was significantly higher at 49.2% (n=262) in raccoons after ONRAB was distributed than the 9.6% (n=395) before ORV. This was the highest antibody prevalence observed in raccoons by US Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services for areas with similar management histories evaluated before and after an initial ORV campaign at 75 baits/km(2) with Raboral V-RG. Tetracycline biomarker (TTCC) was significantly higher among antibody-positive raccoons after ONRAB baiting and was similar among raccoons before ORV had been conducted, an indication of vaccine-induced rabies virus-neutralizing antibody production following consumption of bait containing TTCC. Skunk sample size was inadequate to assess ONRAB effects. Safety and immunogenicity results supported replication of this field trial and led to a recommendation for expanded field trials in 2012 to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of ground-distributed ONRAB at 150 baits/km(2) in residential and commercial habitats in Ohio, USA and aerially distributed ONRAB at 75 baits/km(2) in rural habitats along US-Quebec border. PMID:24807178

  11. Alternative downstream processes for production of antibodies and antibody fragments.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Tsutomu; Tsumoto, Kouhei; Ejima, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    Protein-A or Protein-L affinity chromatography and virus inactivation are key processes for the manufacturing of therapeutic antibodies and antibody fragments. These two processes often involve exposure of therapeutic proteins to denaturing low pH conditions. Antibodies have been shown to undergo conformational changes at low pH, which can lead to irreversible damages on the final product. Here, we review alternative downstream approaches that can reduce the degree of low pH exposure and consequently damaged product. We and others have been developing technologies that minimize or eliminate such low pH processes. We here cover facilitated elution of antibodies using arginine in Protein-A and Protein-G affinity chromatography, a more positively charged amidated Protein-A, two Protein-A mimetics (MEP and Mabsorbent), mixed-mode and steric exclusion chromatography, and finally enhanced virus inactivation by solvents containing arginine. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Recent advances in molecular engineering of antibody. PMID:24859179

  12. Passive Baited Sequential Filth Fly Trap.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Robert L; Britch, Seth C; Snelling, Melissa; Gutierez, Arturo; White, Gregory; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2015-09-01

    Filth fly control measures may be optimized with a better understanding of fly population dynamics measured throughout the day. We describe the modification of a commercial motorized sequential mosquito trap to accept liquid odorous bait and leverage a classic inverted-cone design to passively confine flies in 8 modified collection bottles corresponding to 8 intervals. Efficacy trials in a hot-arid desert environment indicate no significant difference (P  =  0.896) between the modified sequential trap and a Rid-Max® fly trap. PMID:26375911

  13. Animal v. plant-based bait: does the bait type affect census of fish assemblages and trophic groups by baited remote underwater video (BRUV) systems?

    PubMed

    Ghazilou, A; Shokri, M R; Gladstone, W

    2016-05-01

    Coral reef fish communities were sampled at the Nayband Marine Park, Iran, using baited remote underwater video stations (BRUVSs) which incorporated animal (i.e. frigate tuna Auxis thazard and beef liver), or plant-based baits (i.e. raw dough and raw dough-turmeric powder mix). The A. thazard was found to record significantly (P < 0·05) higher species richness and number of carnivorous fishes than plant-based baits, while abundance of herbivores was maximum in raw dough-turmeric powder mix trials. There was also a significant difference in trophic composition of fish assemblages surveyed by animal- and plant-based baits which seemed to be due to variations in attraction patterns of carnivores and herbivores occurring at the earlier phases of each BRUV deployments. Meanwhile, the assemblage structure was comparable among fish assemblages sampled by different bait treatments, indicating that species-level responses to each bait type may be more complicated. In essence, the efficiency of mixed baits should also be examined in future studies. PMID:27170108

  14. Summary of Plutonium-238 Production Alternatives Analysis Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    James Werner; Wade E. Bickford; David B. Lord; Chadwick D. Barklay

    2013-03-01

    The Team implemented a two-phase evaluation process. During the first phase, a wide variety of past and new candidate facilities and processing methods were assessed against the criteria established by DOE for this assessment. Any system or system element selected for consideration as an alternative within the project to reestablish domestic production of Pu-238 must meet the following minimum criteria: Any required source material must be readily available in the United States, without requiring the development of reprocessing technologies or investments in systems to separate material from identified sources. It must be cost, schedule, and risk competitive with existing baseline technology. Any identified facilities required to support the concept must be available to the program for the entire project life cycle (notionally 35 years, unless the concept is so novel as to require a shorter duration). It must present a solution that can generate at least 1.5 Kg of Pu-238 oxide per year, for at least 35 years. It must present a low-risk, near-term solution to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s urgent mission need. DOE has implemented this requirement by eliminating from project consideration any alternative with key technologies at less than Technology Readiness Level 5. The Team evaluated the options meeting these criteria using a more detailed assessment of the reasonable facility variations and compared them to the preferred option, which consists of target irradiation at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), target fabrication and chemical separations processing at the ORNL Radiochemical Engineering Development Center, and neptunium 237 storage at the Materials and Fuels Complex at INL. This preferred option is consistent with the Records of Decision from the earlier National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation

  15. Paradoxical Exploitation of Protected Fishes As Bait for Anglers: Evaluating the Lamprey Bait Market in Europe and Developing Sustainable and Ethical Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Foulds, William L.; Lucas, Martyn C.

    2014-01-01

    A reoccurring conservation problem is the resolution of consumptive use of threatened wildlife and is especially difficult to defend when it occurs for recreational practices. We explored the commercial capture and supply of threatened European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) to anglers, to determine the extent of exploitation and seek opportunities for improved conservation. The trade began in 1995 from England, but by 2012 involved sale of lamprey from England, The Netherlands and Estonia, including from protected populations. Lamprey are sold frozen for the capture of predatory fish, mostly in freshwater. In the year 2011/2012 9 tonnes (>90,000 lampreys) of river lamprey were supplied, almost exclusively to British anglers. Although annual catches in the main English lamprey fishery (River Ouse) have varied widely since 1995, catch per unit effort did not decline between 2000 and 2012. Conservation actions since 2011 have included a cap on fishing licenses, catch quotas and restricted fishing seasons. Now, 86% of lamprey bait is imported to Britain. Most bait sellers interviewed would not stock lamprey if they knew they were from threatened populations; many felt their trade would not be impacted if lamprey were not stocked. This facilitates opportunities to enter into dialogue with anglers over alternative baits to threatened lamprey. The study emphasises the need to inform stakeholders about conservation species subjected to market-driven exploitation. PMID:24936643

  16. Paradoxical exploitation of protected fishes as bait for anglers: evaluating the Lamprey bait market in Europe and developing sustainable and ethical solutions.

    PubMed

    Foulds, William L; Lucas, Martyn C

    2014-01-01

    A reoccurring conservation problem is the resolution of consumptive use of threatened wildlife and is especially difficult to defend when it occurs for recreational practices. We explored the commercial capture and supply of threatened European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) to anglers, to determine the extent of exploitation and seek opportunities for improved conservation. The trade began in 1995 from England, but by 2012 involved sale of lamprey from England, The Netherlands and Estonia, including from protected populations. Lamprey are sold frozen for the capture of predatory fish, mostly in freshwater. In the year 2011/2012 9 tonnes (>90,000 lampreys) of river lamprey were supplied, almost exclusively to British anglers. Although annual catches in the main English lamprey fishery (River Ouse) have varied widely since 1995, catch per unit effort did not decline between 2000 and 2012. Conservation actions since 2011 have included a cap on fishing licenses, catch quotas and restricted fishing seasons. Now, 86% of lamprey bait is imported to Britain. Most bait sellers interviewed would not stock lamprey if they knew they were from threatened populations; many felt their trade would not be impacted if lamprey were not stocked. This facilitates opportunities to enter into dialogue with anglers over alternative baits to threatened lamprey. The study emphasises the need to inform stakeholders about conservation species subjected to market-driven exploitation. PMID:24936643

  17. Effects of honeydew-producing hemipteran denial on local argentine ant distribution and boric acid bait performance.

    PubMed

    Brightwell, R J; Silverman, J

    2009-06-01

    The Argentine ant is well known for its affinity for honeydew and is often associated with hemipteran outbreaks in agricultural and urban environments. It has been suggested that Argentine ants may be controlled by restricting access to honeydew, thereby forcing the ants to move or by encouraging increased liquid toxicant intake. We tested this possible control strategy by restricting Argentine ant access to the honeydew-producing terrapin scale within the canopy of red maple trees and monitoring ant numbers with pitfall traps and nest counts in the mulch around the tree base. Argentine ant nest numbers fell dramatically in the mulch around ant-excluded trees; however, there was no reduction in Argentine ant numbers caught in pitfalls around trees with or without canopy access. We added 0.5% boric acid bait stations at the base of the red maples and monitored bait consumption. Pitfall and nest counts were not affected by the addition of boric acid, although bait consumption was lower around ant-excluded trees, suggesting that restricting access to honeydew-producing Hemiptera did not enhance bait performance. We attribute this result to the increased distance Argentine ant workers had to trail from nest to bait station when not tending nearby terrapin scale. We suggest an alternative management strategy concentrating direct insecticidal control of Argentine ants around a few host plants infested with honeydew-producing Hemiptera by controlling Hemiptera in nearby host plants. PMID:19610434

  18. Impacts of wildlife baiting and supplemental feeding on infectious disease transmission risk: a synthesis of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Anja; van Beest, Floris M; Brook, Ryan K

    2014-03-01

    Baiting and supplemental feeding of wildlife are widespread, yet highly controversial management practices, with important implications for ecosystems, livestock production, and potentially human health. An often underappreciated threat of such feeding practices is the potential to facilitate intra- and inter-specific disease transmission. We provide a comprehensive review of the scientific evidence of baiting and supplemental feeding on disease transmission risk in wildlife, with an emphasis on large herbivores in North America. While the objectives of supplemental feeding and baiting typically differ, the effects on disease transmission of these practices are largely the same. Both feeding and baiting provide wildlife with natural or non-natural food at specific locations in the environment, which can result in large congregations of individuals and species in a small area and increased local densities. Feeding can lead to increased potential for disease transmission either directly (via direct animal contact) or indirectly (via feed functioning as a fomite, spreading disease into the adjacent environment and to other animals). We identified numerous diseases that currently pose a significant concern to the health of individuals and species of large wild mammals across North America, the spread of which are either clearly facilitated or most likely facilitated by the application of supplemental feeding or baiting. Wildlife diseases also have important threats to human and livestock health. Although the risk of intra- and inter-species disease transmission likely increases when animals concentrate at feeding stations, only in a few cases was disease prevalence and transmission measured and compared between populations. Mostly these were experimental situations under controlled conditions, limiting direct scientific evidence that feeding practices exacerbates disease occurrence, exposure, transmission, and spread in the environment. Vaccination programs utilizing

  19. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements – around 530 °C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and

  20. Use of MRF residue as alternative fuel in cement production.

    PubMed

    Fyffe, John R; Breckel, Alex C; Townsend, Aaron K; Webber, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    Single-stream recycling has helped divert millions of metric tons of waste from landfills in the U.S., where recycling rates for municipal solid waste are currently over 30%. However, material recovery facilities (MRFs) that sort the municipal recycled streams do not recover 100% of the incoming material. Consequently, they landfill between 5% and 15% of total processed material as residue. This residue is primarily composed of high-energy-content non-recycled plastics and fiber. One possible end-of-life solution for these energy-dense materials is to process the residue into Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF) that can be used as an alternative energy resource capable of replacing or supplementing fuel resources such as coal, natural gas, petroleum coke, or biomass in many industrial and power production processes. This report addresses the energetic and environmental benefits and trade-offs of converting non-recycled post-consumer plastics and fiber derived from MRF residue streams into SRF for use in a cement kiln. An experimental test burn of 118 Mg of SRF in the precalciner portion of the cement kiln was conducted. The SRF was a blend of 60% MRF residue and 40% post-industrial waste products producing an estimated 60% plastic and 40% fibrous material mixture. The SRF was fed into the kiln at 0.9 Mg/h for 24h and then 1.8 Mg/h for the following 48 h. The emissions data recorded in the experimental test burn were used to perform the life-cycle analysis portion of this study. The analysis included the following steps: transportation, landfill, processing and fuel combustion at the cement kiln. The energy use and emissions at each step is tracked for the two cases: (1) The Reference Case, where MRF residue is disposed of in a landfill and the cement kiln uses coal as its fuel source, and (2) The SRF Case, in which MRF residue is processed into SRF and used to offset some portion of coal use at the cement kiln. The experimental test burn and accompanying analysis indicate

  1. Effectiveness of bait tubes for brown treesnake control on Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lardner, B.; Savidge, J.A.; Rodda, G.H.; Reed, R.N.; Yackel Adams, A.A.; Clark, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    A bait tube is a device with which a toxicant inserted in a dead mouse (Mus musculus) can be delivered to invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) with low risk of non-target bait take. We tested two bait tube designs in a 5ha snake enclosure where the identity of virtually every snake is known. Instead of using toxicants, we implanted radio transmitters in small (6.6±1.4 g) and large (21.8±2.9 g) bait mice. Knowing all snakes present in the population allowed us to characterize not only covariates of snakes taking bait, but also those of snakes evading our mock control effort, and if snake covariates interacted with any design variable in determining targeting rate. Tube design had no effect on take rate. Snake snout-vent length was a strong predictor of success: none of the 29 snakes smaller than 843 mm took any bait, while the 126 snakes ≥843 mm were responsible for a total of 164 bait takes. The smallest of these snakes were able to ingest small and large mice, but tended to consume small bait at a higher rate than large bait. The main reason for our failure to target smallest snakes appears not to be gape limitation, but rather that small snakes prefer other prey (lizards). The time it takes a snake to grow from the size threshold observed to the size of maturation has implications for the interval between discrete efforts using toxic bait. Targeting all snakes before reproduction can occur is highly desirable; otherwise, a new cohort of refractory snakes may enter the population.

  2. Testing baits to control Argentine ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in vineyards.

    PubMed

    Daane, Kent M; Cooper, Monica L; Sime, Karen R; Nelson, Erik H; Battany, Mark C; Rust, Michael K

    2008-06-01

    Liquid baits were evaluated for control of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and associated mealybug and soft scale pests in California vineyards. In 2003, liquid baits with small doses ofimidacloprid, boric acid, or thiamethoxam dissolved in 25% sucrose water resulted in lower ant and mealybug densities and fruit damage, compared with an untreated control. Similar treatments in a soft scale-infested vineyard showed only a reduction of ant density and fruit infestation in only the boric acid and thiamethoxam treatments. In 2004, commercial and noncommercial formulations of liquid baits reduced ant densities in three separate trials, but they had inconsistent effects on mealybug densities and fruit infestation; granular protein bait had no effect. Using large plots and commercial application methodologies, liquid bait deployed in June resulted in lower ant density and fruit infestation, but it had no effect on mealybug density. Across all trials, liquid bait treatments resulted in lower ant density (12 of 14 trials) and fruit damage (11 of 14 sites), presenting the first report of liquid baits applied using commercial methodologies that resulted in a reduction of ants and their associated hemipteran crop damage. For commercialization of liquid baits, we showed that any of the tested insecticides can suppress Argentine ants when properly delivered in the crop system. For imidacloprid, bait dispensers must be protected from sunlight to reduce photodegradation. Results suggest that incomplete ant suppression can suppress mealybug densities. However, after ant populations are suppressed, there may be a longer period before hemipteran populations are effectively suppressed. Therefore, liquid baits should be considered part of a multiseason program rather than a direct, in-season control of hemipteran pest populations. PMID:18613568

  3. Bait distribution among multiple colonies of Pharaoh ants (hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Oi, D H; Vail, K M; Williams, D F

    2000-08-01

    Pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis (L.), infestations often consist of several colonies located at different nest sites. To achieve control, it is desirable to suppress or eliminate the populations of a majority of these colonies. We compared the trophallactic distribution and efficacy of two ant baits, with different modes of action, among groups of four colonies of Pharaoh ants. Baits contained either the metabolic-inhibiting active ingredient hydramethylnon or the insect growth regulator (IGR) pyriproxyfen. Within 3 wk, the hydramethylnon bait reduced worker and brood populations by at least 80%, and queen reductions ranged between 73 and 100%, when nests were in proximity (within 132 cm) to the bait source. However, these nest sites were reoccupied by ants from other colonies located further from the bait source. The pyriproxyfen bait was distributed more thoroughly to all nest locations with worker populations gradually declining by 73% at all nest sites after 8 wk. Average queen reductions ranged from 31 to 49% for all nest sites throughout the study. Even though some queens survived, brood reductions were rapid in the pyriproxyfen treatment, with reductions of 95% at all locations by week 3. Unlike the metabolic inhibitor, the IGR did not kill adult worker ants quickly, thus, more surviving worker ants were available to distribute the bait to all colonies located at different nest sites. Thus, from a single bait source, the slow-acting bait toxicant provided gradual, but long-term control, whereas the fast-acting bait toxicant provided rapid, localized control for a shorter duration. PMID:10985038

  4. Reduced interference by gray squirrels with 4-poster deer treatment bait stations by using timed-release bait

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann), feed on corn bait dispensed by ‘4-poster’ tick control devices, they rub against paint rollers impregnated with acaricide. Gray squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, also feed on the corn bait in the feeding troughs of ‘4-posters,’ but in ...

  5. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  6. Anthelmintic Baiting of Foxes against Urban Contamination with Echinococcus multilocularis

    PubMed Central

    Hegglin, Daniel; Ward, Paul I.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, increases in the urban fox population have been observed in many countries of the Northern Hemisphere. As a result, Echinococcus multilocularis has entered the urban environment. Because of a possible increased risk for alveolar echinococcosis, intervention strategies need to be evaluated. In Zürich, Switzerland, 50 praziquantel-containing baits per km2 were distributed monthly in six 1-km2 bait areas and one 6-km2 bait area from April 2000 through October 2001. The proportion of E. multilocularis coproantigen–positive fox fecal samples collected remained unchanged in six control areas but decreased significantly in the 1-km2 bait areas (from 38.6% to 5.5%) and in the 6-km2 bait area (from 66.7% to 1.8%). E. multilocularis prevalence in the intermediate host Arvicola terrestris also decreased significantly in baited areas. This controlled baiting study shows that a pronounced reduction of E. multilocularis egg contamination is feasible in urban areas where the organism is highly endemic. PMID:14609462

  7. Hermetically sealed baits for subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Su, Nan-Yao

    2007-04-01

    Cellulose baits containing 0.5% hexaflumuron were hermetically sealed in a closed cell polyethylene sheet envelope and placed in soil to test their durability and efficacy against field colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, or the eastern subterranean termite, Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar). The closed cell polyethylene sheet was readily tunneled through by termites, yet it was impervious to water and protected the cellulose baits and hexaflumuron from the environment. Only in a few incidents did the polyethylene envelope become infiltrated by plant roots, resulting in water intrusion and apparent degradation of cellulose baits. After consuming one to three sealed baits, three colonies each of both termite species were eliminated. The sealed baits may be placed in soil for months or years without the need of monitoring, and they are readily penetrated and fed upon by termites when they are present. Application of baits hermetically sealed in a protective sheet may save labor costs by bypassing the monitoring phase, circumvent the station avoidance by some termite species, and enable the use of baiting technologies in large areas such as agricultural fields in which the manual monitoring is impractical. PMID:17461073

  8. Use of 'natural' products as alternatives to antibiotic feed additives in ruminant production.

    PubMed

    Jouany, J-P; Morgavi, D P

    2007-11-01

    The banning in 2006 of the use of antibiotics as animal growth promoters in the European Union has increased demand from producers for alternative feed additives that can be used to improve animal production. This review gives an overview of the most common non-antibiotic feed additives already being used or that could potentially be used in ruminant nutrition. Probiotics, dicarboxylic acids, enzymes and plant-derived products including saponins, tannins and essential oils are presented. The known modes of action and effects of these additives on feed digestion and more especially on rumen fermentations are described. Their utility and limitations in field conditions for modern ruminant production systems and their compliance with the current legislation are also discussed. PMID:22444918

  9. The baiting crowd in episodes of threatened suicide.

    PubMed

    Mann, L

    1981-10-01

    This study examines 21 cases in which crowds were present when a disturbed person threatened to jump off a building, bridge, or tower. Baiting or jeering occurred in 10 of the cases. Analysis of newspaper accounts of the episodes suggests several deindividuation factors that might contribute to the baiting phenomenon: membership in a large crowd, the cover of nighttime, and physical distance between crowd and victim (all factors associated with anonymity). The baiting phenomenon was also associated with warm temperatures and long duration of episode. These factors suggest leads for more systematic investigation. PMID:7288565

  10. Bait stations, hard mast, and black bear population growth in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Joseph D.; van Manen, Frank T.; Pelton, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    Bait-station surveys are used by wildlife managers as an index to American black bear (Ursus americanus) population abundance, but the relationship is not well established. Hard mast surveys are similarly used to assess annual black bear food availability which may affect mortality and natality rates. We used data collected in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP) from 1989 to 2003 to determine whether changes in the bait-station index (ΔBSI) were associated with estimated rates of bear population growth (λ) and whether hard mast production was related to bear visitation to baits. We also evaluated whether hard mast production from previous years was related to λ. Estimates of λ were based on analysis of capture-recapture data with the Pradel temporal symmetry estimator. Using the Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), our analysis revealed no direct relationship between ΔBSI and λ. A simulation analysis indicated that our data were adequate to detect a relationship had one existed. Model fit was marginally improved when we added total oak mast production of the previous year as an interaction term suggesting that the BSI was confounded with environmental variables. Consequently the utility of the bait-station survey as a population monitoring technique is questionable at the spatial and temporal scales we studied. Mast survey data, however, were valuable covariates of λ. Population growth for a given year was negatively related to oak mast production 4 and 5 years prior. That finding supported our hypothesis that mast failures can trigger reproductive synchrony, which may not be evident from the trapped sample until years later.

  11. Use of a bait impact index to assess effects of bait application against populations of Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in a large area.

    PubMed

    Su, Nan-Yao; Ban, Paul; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H

    2004-12-01

    The effects of bait applications on the overall activity of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, in a town of 1.2 km2 were assessed between 2001 and 2003 by using a bait impact index. The index incorporated the amount of baits applied and the distance between bait application loci and the monitoring stations from which termite activity was measured. Even with the collaboration of only 35% of the residents and incomplete treatment records, the bait impact index demonstrated that more baits applied in proximity to monitoring loci significantly caused the decline of C. formosanus activity. PMID:15666761

  12. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    PubMed

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides. PMID:23055273

  13. Season and application rates affect vaccine bait consumption by prairie dogs in Colorado and Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tripp, Daniel W.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Streich, Sean P.; Brown, Nathanael L.; Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Miller, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes high rates of mortality in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). An oral vaccine against plague has been developed for prairie dogs along with a palatable bait to deliver vaccine and a biomarker to track bait consumption. We conducted field trials between September 2009 and September 2012 to develop recommendations for bait distribution to deliver plague vaccine to prairie dogs. The objectives were to evaluate the use of the biomarker, rhodamine B, in field settings to compare bait distribution strategies, to compare uptake of baits distributed at different densities, to assess seasonal effects on bait uptake, and to measure bait uptake by nontarget small mammal species. Rhodamine B effectively marked prairie dogs' whiskers during these field trials. To compare bait distribution strategies, we applied baits around active burrows or along transects at densities of 32, 65, and 130 baits/ha. Distributing baits at active burrows or by transect did not affect uptake by prairie dogs. Distributing baits at rates of ≥65/ha (or ≥1 bait/active burrow) produced optimal uptake, and bait uptake by prairie dogs in the autumn was superior to uptake in the spring. Six other species of small mammals consumed baits during these trials. All four species of tested prairie dogs readily consumed the baits, demonstrating that vaccine uptake will not be an obstacle to plague control via oral vaccination.

  14. Season and application rates affect vaccine bait consumption by prairie dogs in Colorado and Utah, USA.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Daniel W; Rocke, Tonie E; Streich, Sean P; Brown, Nathanael L; Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Miller, Michael W

    2014-04-01

    Plague, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, causes high rates of mortality in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.). An oral vaccine against plague has been developed for prairie dogs along with a palatable bait to deliver vaccine and a biomarker to track bait consumption. We conducted field trials between September 2009 and September 2012 to develop recommendations for bait distribution to deliver plague vaccine to prairie dogs. The objectives were to evaluate the use of the biomarker, rhodamine B, in field settings to compare bait distribution strategies, to compare uptake of baits distributed at different densities, to assess seasonal effects on bait uptake, and to measure bait uptake by nontarget small mammal species. Rhodamine B effectively marked prairie dogs' whiskers during these field trials. To compare bait distribution strategies, we applied baits around active burrows or along transects at densities of 32, 65, and 130 baits/ha. Distributing baits at active burrows or by transect did not affect uptake by prairie dogs. Distributing baits at rates of ≥ 65/ha (or ≥ 1 bait/active burrow) produced optimal uptake, and bait uptake by prairie dogs in the autumn was superior to uptake in the spring. Six other species of small mammals consumed baits during these trials. All four species of tested prairie dogs readily consumed the baits, demonstrating that vaccine uptake will not be an obstacle to plague control via oral vaccination. PMID:24484490

  15. Alternative substrates in production of trees in 25-gallon containers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pine bark supplies have wavered in availability over the past couple of years due to a shift in-field harvesting where bark is used as a biofuel material. Research in alternative potting substrates has continued across the country in an attempt to identify inexpensive, and logistically available, s...

  16. Optimizing Alternative Fumigant Applications for Ornamental Production in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Florida, cut flower and other ornamental crop producers have a very limited number of alternatives to methyl bromide for several reasons including the lack of registered herbicides available for these crops, and the need to control previously planted cultivars volunteering as weeds within the sam...

  17. Calla lily production with methyl bromide alternatives – Year 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cut flower and ornamental bulb industries rely heavily on a methyl bromide/chloropicrin (MB/Pic) mixture as a key pest management tool. The loss of MB will seriously affect the cut flower and bulb industry, and, in the future, will require growers to use alternative fumigants. Past experiments have...

  18. A NOVEL OLEAGINOUS YEAST STRAIN WITH HIGH LIPID PRODUCTIVITY AND ITS APPLICATION TO ALTERNATIVE BIODIESEL PRODUCTION.

    PubMed

    Areesirisuk, A; Chiu, C H; Yen, T B; Liu, C H; Guo, J H

    2015-01-01

    Five lipid-producing yeast strains, CHC08, CHC11, CHC28, CHC34, and CHC35, were revealed by Sudan Black B staining to contain lipid droplets within cells. Molecular analysis demonstrated that they were 2 strains of Candida parapsilosis, Pseudozyma parantarctica, Pichia manshurica, and Pichia occidentalis. Following batch fermentation, P. parantarctica CHC28 was found to have the highest biomass concentration, total lipids and lipid content levels. The major fatty acids in the lipids of this yeast strain were C16 and C18. Predictions of the properties of yeast biodiesel using linear equations resulted in values similar to biodiesel made from plant oils. Preliminary production of yeast biodiesel from P. parantarctica CHC28 was accomplished through esterification and transesterification reactions. It was found that yeast lipids with high acid value are easily converted to biodiesel at an approximately 90% yield. Therefore, it is possible to use crude lipids as alternative raw materials for biodiesel production. PMID:26353403

  19. [Control of the Pharaoh's ant with borax bait formulations].

    PubMed

    Klunker, R; Scheurer, S; Neumann, T

    1990-12-01

    Results are given for the experimental control of Pharaoh ants, Monomorium pharaonis L., with persistent borax baits in the laboratory and the field. DYBH-bait formulations with about 17 per cent borax are very attractive and have a good effectivity. In 5 different objects infested with this ant eradication was proved to be possible with this experimental formulations. The progress of eradication depends essentially on the good organisational preparation of control measures. PMID:2095049

  20. Evaluation of two oral baiting systems for wild rodents.

    PubMed

    Creekmore, T E; Fletcher, W O; Stallknecht, D E

    1998-04-01

    Tetracycline hydrochloride (TC)-treated peanut butter or rodent chow baits were distributed during March 1990, on separate 0.53 ha sites in Oglethorpe County, Georgia (USA). Rodents were trapped on a control site prior to bait distribution and on two baited sites 6 days post-distribution. Cleaned skulls from euthanized mammals were grossly examined for TC fluorescence using an ultraviolet (UV) light. Mandibles were sectioned and examined for TC fluorescence using an ultraviolet light microscope. All 21 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), four eastern harvest mice (Rithrodontomys humulis), and two golden mice (Ochrotomys nuttalli) captured on the control site were negative for TC fluorescence. On the peanut butter bait site, mandible sections from 29 of 32 (91%) cotton rats, three of three (100%) eastern harvest mice, two of three (66%) golden mice, zero of five (0%) white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), one of three (33%) short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda), and zero of two (0%) least shrews (Cryptotis parva) were positive for TC. Results from the rodent chow bait site indicated that 18 of 25 (72%) cotton rats, zero of three (0%) eastern harvest mice, two of seven (29%) golden mice, zero of four (0%) white-footed mice, and zero of four (0%) least shrews were positive for TC fluorescence in mandible sections. These results suggest that a large portion of a free-ranging small rodent population can be administered biological markers or vaccines using baits. PMID:9577787

  1. Field and laboratory trials of a novel metaflumizone house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) bait in California.

    PubMed

    Mullens, Bradley A; Gerry, Alec C; Diniz, Alesha N

    2010-04-01

    House fly responses to metaflumizone bait were studied in southern California. Field-strain, laboratory-reared flies in outdoor cages had access for 5 d to water and two containers of untreated sugar/dry milk (control), one container of untreated food and one container of metaflumizone bait, or one container of untreated food and one container of spinosad bait (positive control). Most fly mortality occurred between 0 and 48 h for spinosad and between 48 and 96 h for metaflumizone. On a commercial dairy, fly visitation and bait consumption were higher for metaflumizone bait than for sugar or imidacloprid bait. Flies seldom visited or consumed the imidacloprid bait. Approximately 32% of field flies collected directly from metaflumizone bait (single exposure) died when held in the laboratory with untreated food for 72 h versus < 5% mortality for flies from sugar or imidacloprid bait. Individual laboratory-reared females from a field strain and a susceptible laboratory strain were videotaped in the laboratory after exposure to untreated dry milk/sugar, metaflumizone bait, spinosad bait, and imidacloprid bait. Imidacloprid-induced mortality in field strain flies was low; when on the bait they spent proportionally less time feeding (38%) than did the laboratory strain flies (63%). Feeding by the field strain was more variable, and they fed less on all bait/food sources except metaflumizone. Metaflumizone has promise as a relatively slow-acting fly bait. PMID:20429473

  2. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-09-01

    This report describes the laboratory effort to identify and quantify organic exhaust species generated from alternative-fueled light-duty vehicles operating over the Federal Test Procedure on compressed natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, methanol, ethanol, and reformulated gasoline. The exhaust species from these vehicles were identified and quantified for fuel/air equivalence ratios of 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2, nominally, and were analyzed with and without a vehicle catalyst in place to determine the influence of a catalytic converter on species formation.

  3. Wild carnivore acceptance of baits for delivery of liquid rabies vaccine.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, P; Bramwell, R N; Fraser, S J; Gilmore, D A; Johnston, D H; Lawson, K F; MacInnes, C D; Matejka, F O; Miles, H E; Pedde, M A

    1990-10-01

    A series of experiments are described on the acceptance, by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and other species, of two types of vaccine-baits intended to deliver liquid rabies vaccine. The baits consisted of a cube of sponge coated in a mixture of tallow and wax, or a plastic blister-pack embedded in tallow. All baits contained tetracycline as a biological marking agent: examination of thin sections of carnivore canines under an ultraviolet microscope revealed a fluorescent line of tetracycline if an individual had eaten baits. Baits were dropped from fixed-wing aircraft flying about 100 m above ground at approximately 130 km/h. Flight lines followed the edges of woodlots midway between parallel roads. Baits were dropped at one/sec, resulting in one bait/36 m on the ground, or 17 to 25 baits per km2. Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) removed many baits, but did not appear to lower the percent of the fox population which took bait. Dropping baits only into corn and woodland to conceal baits, to reduce depredation by crows, reduced acceptance by foxes. Acceptance by foxes ranged between 37 and 68%. Meat added as an attractant did not raise acceptance. Presence, absence, color and perforations of plastic bags did not alter bait acceptance. Dispersal by juvenile foxes probably lowered the estimates of bait acceptance. It took 7 to 17 days for 80% (n = 330) of foxes to eat their first bait. The rapidity with which foxes picked up their first bait appeared more affected by unknown characteristics of years or study areas than by experimental variables. Skunks (Mephitis mephitis) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) also ate these baits, but acceptance was lower. Small mammals contacted baits, but rarely contacted the vaccine, which had the potential for vaccine-induced rabies in some species. Aerial distribution of baits was more cost-effective than ground distribution as practiced in Europe. This system has potential for field control of rabies, although higher acceptance will be desirable

  4. Effects of bait age and prior protein feeding on cumulative time dependent mortality of Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to GF-120 Spinosad baits.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fruit fly bait to attract and kill adult fruit flies (GF-120, Dow Agro-Science) was tested to determine effects of pre-treatment diet and ageing of GF-120 bait prior to use on cumulative mortality rates of the Mexican fruit fly (Anastrepha ludens (Leow), Tephritidae). Bait effectiveness depends o...

  5. Control of Rhagoletis indifferents using Thiamethoxam and Spinosad baits under external fly pressure and its relation to rapidity of kill and residual bait activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of western cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis indifferens Curran) using thiamethoxam in sucrose bait and spinosad bait in cherry orchards under external fly pressure and its relation to rapidity of kill and residual bait activity were studied in Washington and Utah in 2010 and 2011. Thiamethoxam ...

  6. PERFORMANCE DEMONSTRATIONS OF ALTERNATIVE SCREEN RECLAMATION PRODUCTS FOR SCREEN PRINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated environmentally-preferable products for the screen reclamation process In screen printing during month-long demonstrations at 23 printing facilities nationwide. hrough the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Design for the Environment Printing Project, pr...

  7. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES FOR SHALE OIL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report consolidates, evaluates, and presents available air pollution emission data and air pollution control technology relevant to oil shale production, for use by project developers in preparing environmental impact statements and permit applications under Clean Air Act and...

  8. Sociocultural attitudes surrounding menstruation and alternative menstrual products: the explanatory role of self-objectification.

    PubMed

    Grose, Rose Grace; Grabe, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    We extend objectification theory research to consider the relationship between self-objectification and attitudes toward an alternative menstrual product in a diverse sample of female undergraduates from the United States (N = 151). We use a survey design to investigate attitudes toward one's menstruation as a potential mechanism that may explain this relationship. Reactions to an alternative menstrual product were predominantly negative, supporting prior research on stigma and shame surrounding menstruation. Exploratory structural equation modeling revealed attitudes toward one's menstruation mediated the relationship between self-objectification and participants' reactions to an alternative menstrual product. Implications for women's health are discussed. PMID:24527840

  9. Fly pupae as attractant carriers for toxic baits for red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Williams, D F; Lofgren, C S; Vander Meer, R K

    1990-02-01

    Eight laboratory-reared ant species were fed baits of house fly, Musca domestica L., pupae treated with hydramethylnon. Two fire ant species, Solenopsis invicta Buren and Solenopsis geminata (F.), and Pheidole morrissi (Forel) were killed; average percentage of mortality of the five other species was less than 20%. In contrast, all species that were fed the commercial fire ant bait containing hydramethylnon (Amdro) died or were adversely affected. In the field, applications of house fly pupae and eye gnat, Hippelates pusio Loew, pupae dipped in acetone solutions of fenoxycarb significantly reduced population indices of the red imported fire ant, S. invicta, compared with commercial formulations of fenoxycarb (Logic) and hydramethylnon (Amdro). Field observations showed that the pupae of either species can be carried or moved by one or two worker ants. The smooth, hard cuticle of the pupae make them easy to handle and apply with application equipment. The current cost of house fly pupae is considerably more than the cost of a granular carrier, pregel defatted corn grits. However, if mass-production methods reduce this price differential, fly pupae could become an effective and more species-specific fire ant bait carrier. PMID:2324379

  10. Monitoring gene flow from transgenic sugar beet using cytoplasmic male-sterile bait plants.

    PubMed

    Saeglitz, C; Pohl, M; Bartsch, D

    2000-12-01

    One of the most discussed environmental effects associated with the use of transgenic plants is the flow of genes to plants in the environment. The flow of genes may occur through pollen since it is the reproductive system that is designed for gene movement. Pollen-mediated gene escape is hard to control in mating plants. Pollen from a wind pollinator can move over distances of more than 1000 m. To investigate the efficiency of transgenic pollen movement under realistic environmental conditions, the use of bait plants might be an effective tool. In this study, cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) sugar beets were tested with regard to their potential for monitoring transgene flow. As the pollen source, transgenic sugar beets were used that express recombinant DNA encoding viral (beet necrotic yellow vein virus) resistance, and antibiotic (kanamycin) and herbicide (glufosinate) tolerance genes. In a field trial, the effectiveness of a hemp (Cannabis sativa) stripe containment strategy was tested by measuring the frequency of pollinated CMS bait plants placed at different distances and directions from a transgenic pollen source. The results demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the containment strategy. Physiological and molecular tests confirmed the escape and production of transgenic offspring more than 200 m behind the hemp containment. Since absolute containment is unlikely to be effective, the CMS-bait plant detection system is a useful tool for other monitoring purposes. PMID:11123616

  11. The Nuclear Alternative: Energy Production within Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Liodakis, Emmanouel Georgiou

    2011-06-28

    Over ninety percent of Mongolia's energy load is run through the Central Energy System. This primary grid provides Mongolia's capital, Ulaanbaatar, with the power it uses to function. In the first half of 2010 the Central Energy System managed 1739.45 million kWhs, a 4.6 percent increase from 2009. If this growth rate continues, by 2015 Ulaanbaatar's three power plants will be unable to generate enough heat and electricity to meet the city's needs. Currently, plans have been proposed to rehabilitate the aging coal power plants. However, rising maintenance costs and growing emission levels make the long-term sustainability of this solution uncertain. The following paper analyzes the capital, maintenance, and decommissioning costs associated with the current rehabilitation plans and compares them with a nuclear alternative.

  12. The Nuclear Alternative: Energy Production within Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liodakis, Emmanouel Georgiou

    2011-06-01

    Over ninety percent of Mongolia's energy load is run through the Central Energy System. This primary grid provides Mongolia's capital, Ulaanbaatar, with the power it uses to function. In the first half of 2010 the Central Energy System managed 1739.45 million kWhs, a 4.6 percent increase from 2009. If this growth rate continues, by 2015 Ulaanbaatar's three power plants will be unable to generate enough heat and electricity to meet the city's needs. Currently, plans have been proposed to rehabilitate the aging coal power plants. However, rising maintenance costs and growing emission levels make the long-term sustainability of this solution uncertain. The following paper analyzes the capital, maintenance, and decommissioning costs associated with the current rehabilitation plans and compares them with a nuclear alternative.

  13. Komagataeibacter rhaeticus as an alternative bacteria for cellulose production.

    PubMed

    Machado, Rachel T A; Gutierrez, Junkal; Tercjak, Agnieszka; Trovatti, Eliane; Uahib, Fernanda G M; Moreno, Gabriela de Padua; Nascimento, Andresa P; Berreta, Andresa A; Ribeiro, Sidney J L; Barud, Hernane S

    2016-11-01

    A strain isolated from Kombucha tea was isolated and used as an alternative bacterium for the biosynthesis of bacterial cellulose (BC). In this study, BC generated by this novel bacterium was compared to Gluconacetobacter xylinus biosynthesized BC. Kinetic studies reveal that Komagataeibacter rhaeticus was a viable bacterium to produce BC according to yield, thickness and water holding capacity data. Physicochemical properties of BC membranes were investigated by UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies (FTIR), thermogravimetrical analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were also used for morphological characterization. Mechanical properties at nano and macroscale were studied employing PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical property mapping (QNM) and dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), respectively. Results confirmed that BC membrane biosynthesized by Komagataeibacter rhaeticus had similar physicochemical, morphological and mechanical properties than BC membrane produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus and can be widely used for the same applications. PMID:27516336

  14. The production of lipids alternately labelled with carbon-13.

    PubMed

    Boyle-Roden, Elizabeth; German, J B; Wood, B J B

    2003-07-01

    Chlorella cells were shown to have similar fatty acid profiles when grown photoautotrophically or if grown photoheterotrophically with ethanoate (acetate) as carbon source. When supplied with ethanoate labelled with carbon-13 in the methyl group, the alga incorporated it into fatty acids with retention of the sequence of labelling on alternate carbon atoms, thus providing a convenient method for synthesising lipids in a form useful for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of lipids in situ in membranes. Marine algae used in fish farming may have higher levels of very highly unsaturated fatty acids; proposals for producing these compounds labelled with carbon-13 are, therefore, presented, based on using centrally labelled glycerol. The scope for producing other substances labelled in a form suitable for NMR studies, such as carotenoids, is discussed. PMID:12919810

  15. High pressure as an alternative processing step for ham production.

    PubMed

    Pingen, Sylvia; Sudhaus, Nadine; Becker, André; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter

    2016-08-01

    As high pressure processing (HPP) is becoming more and more important in the food industry, this study examined the application of HPP (500 and 600MPa) as a manufacturing step during simulated ham production. By replacing conventional heating with HPP steps, ham-like texture or color attributes could not be achieved. HPP products showed a less pale, less red appearance, softer texture and higher yields. However, a combination of mild temperature (53°C) and 500MPa resulted in parameters more comparable to cooked ham. We conclude that HPP can be used for novel food development, providing novel textures and colors. However, when it comes to ham production, a heating step seems to be unavoidable to obtain characteristic ham properties. PMID:27019422

  16. Creating Shared Instructional Products: An Alternative Approach to Improving Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Anne K.; Hiebert, James

    2011-01-01

    To solve two enduring problems in education--unacceptably large variation in learning opportunities for students across classrooms and little continuing improvement in the quality of instruction--the authors propose a system that centers on the creation of shared instructional products that guide classroom teaching. By examining systems outside…

  17. An Alternative Framework to Evaluate Proof Productions: A Reply to Alcock and Inglis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Keith; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper, Alcock and Inglis (in press) noted a distinction between the way that Weber (in press) and they defined syntactic and semantic proof productions. Weber argued that "a syntactic proof production occurs when one works predominantly within the representation system of proof [...] Alternatively, a semantic proof production occurs…

  18. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection... for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  19. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection... for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  20. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection... for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  1. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection... for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  2. 7 CFR 58.149 - Alternate quality control programs for dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternate quality control programs for dairy products... FOR GRADES OF DAIRY PRODUCTS 1 General Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection... for dairy products. (a) When a plant has in operation an acceptable quality control program which...

  3. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT FORMATION BY ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS AND REMOVAL BY GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the use of the alternative disinfectants on the formation of halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPS) including total organic halide, trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacentonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate, and chloropicrin, were examined along with ...

  4. NEW DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT ISSUES: EMERGING DBP'S AND ALTERNATIVE ROUTES OF EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses current issues with drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs), which include emerging (unregulated) DBPs that can be formed at greater levels with alternative disinfectants (as compared to chlorine) and routes of human exposure (which include inhalation ...

  5. Analysis of Alternative Extensions of the Existing Production Tax Credit for Wind Generators

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    Requestor: Ms. Janice Mays, Chief Counsel, Committee on Ways & Means, U.S. House of Representatives This is a letter response requesting analysis of alternative extensions of the existing production tax credit (PTC) that would apply to wind generators only.

  6. DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT FORMATION BY ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS AND REMOVAL BY GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of the use of the alternative disinfectants on the formation of halogenated disinfection by–products (DBPs) including total organic halide, trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloral hydrate, and chloropicrin, were examined along ...

  7. Products identified at an alternative disinfection pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lykins, B.W. Jr.; Koffskey, W.

    1986-11-01

    Many drinking water utilities have recently changed or are seriously considering changing their disinfection practice from chlorine to some alternative treatment process. However, most of these utilities are changing their disinfectants without evaluating chemical impacts. Therefore, a research cooperative agreement was developed with Jefferson Parish, LA, to evaluate four parallel streams treated with four different disinfectants (chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone.) These streams, along with a fifth parallel stream, which was not treated with a disinfectant (control), were passed through both sand and granular activated carbon (GAC). Ozonation reduced the total organic carbon (TOC) and total organic halide (TOX) concentration by 0.3 mg/L and 10 micrograms/L, respectively. The average concentration of TOC for the other disinfectants was comparable to that associated with the nondisinfected stream (3.3 mg/L). The average instantaneous TOX concentration for chlorine dioxide, chloramine, and chlorine disinfection after 30 min contact time increased by 60, 92, and 238 micrograms/L, respectively, from a nondisinfected concentration of 25 micrograms/L. The volatile organics most affected by disinfection (chlorination) were the trihalomethanes. No significant change in concentration was noted after disinfection for the other volatile organics evaluated, such as 1,2-dichlorethane, dichloromethane, trichloroethylene, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, and carbon tetrachloride. Ozonation produced an average concentration reduction of 11 to 84% for most of the nonvolatiles evaluated. Conversely, a concentration increase of 43 to 100% was noted, after chlorination, for some of the nonvolatile organics.

  8. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 3 report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to characterize particulate and gaseous exhaust emissions from a passenger vehicle operating on alternative fuels. Tests were conducted at room temperature (nominally 72 F) and 20 F utilizing the chassis dynamometer portion of the FTP for light-duty vehicles. Fuels evaluated include Federal RFG, LPG meeting HD-5 specifications, a national average blend of CNG, E85, and M85. Exhaust particulate generated at room temperature was further characterized to determine polynuclear aromatic content, trace element content, and trace organic constituents. For all fuels except M85, the room temperature particulate emission rate from this vehicle was about 2 to 3 mg/mile. On M85, the particulate emission rate was more than 6 mg/mile. In addition, elemental analysis of particulate revealed an order of magnitude more sulfur and calcium from M85 than any other fuel. The sulfur and calcium indicate that these higher emissions might be due to engine lubricating oil in the exhaust. For RFG, particulate emissions at 20 F were more than six times higher than at room temperature. For alcohol fuels, particulate emissions at 20 F were two to three times higher than at room temperature. For CNG and LPG, particulate emissions were virtually the same at 72 F and 20 F. However, PAH emissions from CNG and LPG were higher than expected. Both gaseous fuels had larger amounts of pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in their emissions than the other fuels.

  9. Alternate Tritium Production Methods Using A Liquid Lithium Target

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.

    2015-10-08

    For over 60 years, the Savannah River Site’s primary mission has been the production of tritium. From the beginning, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has provided the technical foundation to ensure the successful execution of this critical defense mission. SRNL has developed most of the processes used in the tritium mission and provides the research and development necessary to supply this critical component. This project was executed by first developing reactor models that could be used as a neutron source. In parallel to this development calculations were carried out testing the feasibility of accelerator technologies that could also be used for tritium production. Targets were designed with internal moderating material and optimized target was calculated to be capable of 3000 grams using a 1400 MWt sodium fast reactor, 850 grams using a 400 MWt sodium fast reactor, and 100 grams using a 62 MWt reactor, annually.

  10. Baited lines: An active nondestructive collection method for burrowing crayfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Foltz, David A., II; Welsh, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    A new method (baited lines) is described for the collection of burrowing crayfishes, where fishing hooks baited with earthworms and tied to monofilament leaders are used to lure crayfishes from their burrow entrances. We estimated capture rates using baited lines at four locations across West Virginia for a total of four crayfish taxa; the taxa studied were orange, blue, and blue/orange morphs of Cambarus dubius (Upland Burrowing Catfish), and C. thomai (Little Brown Mudbug). Baited-line capture rates were lowest for C. thomai (81%; n = 21 attempts) and highest for the orange morph ofC. dubius (99%; n = 13 attempts). The pooled capture rate across all taxa was 91.5% (n = 50 attempts). Baited lines represent an environmentally nondestructive method to capture burrowing crayfishes without harm to individuals, and without disturbing burrows or the surrounding area. This novel method allows for repeat captures and long-term studies, providing a useful sampling method for ecological studies of burrowing crayfishes.

  11. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 2 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, K.A.

    1997-06-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to accomplish four independent tasks: (1) speciation of hydrocarbon exhaust emissions from a light-duty vehicle operated over the chassis dynamometer portion of the light-duty FTP after modifications for operation on butane and butane blends; (2) evaluation of NREL`s Variable Conductance Vacuum Insulated Catalytic Converter Test Article 4 for the reduction of cold-start FTP exhaust emissions after extended soak periods for a Ford FFV Taurus operating on E85; (3) support of UDRI in an attempt to define correlations between engine-out combustion products identified by SwRI during chassis dynamometer testing, and those found during flow tube reactor experiments conducted by UDRI; and (4) characterization of small-diameter particulate matter from a Ford Taurus FFV operating in a simulated fuel-rich failure mode on CNG, LPG, M85, E85, and reformulated gasoline. 22 refs., 18 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Human cell lines: A promising alternative for recombinant FIX production.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Bomfim, Aline; Cristina Corrêa de Freitas, Marcela; Picanço-Castro, Virgínia; de Abreu Soares Neto, Mário; Swiech, Kamilla; Tadeu Covas, Dimas; Maria de Sousa Russo, Elisa

    2016-05-01

    Factor IX (FIX) is a vitamin K-dependent protein, and it has become a valuable pharmaceutical in the Hemophilia B treatment. We evaluated the potential of recombinant human FIX (rhFIX) expression in 293T and SK-Hep-1 human cell lines. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells produced higher levels of biologically active protein. The growth profile of 293T-FIX cells was not influenced by lentiviral integration number into the cellular genome. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells showed a significantly lower growth rate than SK-Hep-1 cells. γ-carboxylation process is significant to FIX biological activity, thus we performed a expression analysis of genes involved in this process. The 293T gene expression suggests that this cell line could efficiently carboxylate FIX, however only 28% of the total secreted protein is active. SK-Hep-1 cells did not express high amounts of VKORC1 and carboxylase, but this cell line secreted large amounts of active protein. Enrichment of culture medium with Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) ions did not affect positively rhFIX expression in SK-Hep-1 cells. In 293T cells, the addition of 0.5 mM Ca(+2) and 1 mM Mg(+2) resulted in higher rhFIX concentration. SK-Hep-1 cell line proved to be very effective in rhFIX production, and it can be used as a novel biotechnological platform for the production of recombinant proteins. PMID:26802680

  13. Response of Reticulitermes hesperus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) colonies to baiting with lufenuron in northern California.

    PubMed

    Haverty, Michael I; Tabuchi, Robin L; Vargo, Edward L; Cox, David L; Nelson, Lori J; Lewis, Vernard R

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate lufenuron termite bait (1,500 ppm) for the elimination of colonies of Reticulitermes hesperus Banks (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae). Dispersion of colonies in six baited and six unbaited sites near Placerville, CA, was determined by genetic (microsatellite) analyses. Twenty-one colonies of R. hesperus inhabited the six baited sites and eight colonies of R. hesperus occurred in the six unbaited sites. Five criteria provided a cause-and-effect link between the deployment of lufenuron termite bait and elimination of baited colonies: 1) association of foragers, as members of the same colony, in the independent monitoring stations and bait stations; 2) quantity of bait consumed; 3) abnormal physical appearance of foragers in bait stations; 4) disappearance of foragers from, and cessation of feeding in, independent monitoring stations visited by baited colonies; and 5) presence of foragers from, and continuation of feeding in, independent monitors visited by unbaited colonies. Baited colonies were devoid of foraging termites within a mean of 70.6 d (range, 37-93 d) of bait deployment. Colonies consumed a mean of 8.0 g of bait (range, 2.2-16.0 g). Wood consumption by baited and unbaited colonies was not significantly different during the 2 mo before baiting, 281.4 versus 590.5 mg/d per colony, respectively, nor during the 3 mo immediately after baiting, 112.5 versus 436.8 mg/d per colony, respectively. However, from 10 to 16 mo after baiting, wood consumption by baited colonies essentially ceased and was significantly less than the unbaited colonies, 7.9 versus 470.1 mg/d per colony, respectively. PMID:20568623

  14. A Fluid Bait for Remedial Control of Subterranean Termites.

    PubMed

    Su, Nan-Yao

    2015-02-01

    A fluid bait, comprising α-cellulose and fine-ground phagostimulants (Summon Preferred Food Source) impregnated with 0.5% hexaflumuron (AI wt/wt) and mixed with 1% methylcel solution to yield 10% dry weight, was injected into simulated foraging galleries of Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes virginicus (Banks) for a laboratory efficacy evaluation. Six weeks after the injection, mortalities for both species exceeded 90%, and all termites died by the eight wk. The fluid bait can be applied internally through a small drill hole in a tight spot with any surface contour and may bypass many problems associated with the AG system that has to be installed externally on the walls or wood surface. When injected into an active gallery of termites in a structure, a tree, or in soil, the fluid baits may be fed immediately by termites to achieve the colony elimination. PMID:26470130

  15. Nigeria`s oil production behavior: Tests of alternative hypotheses

    SciTech Connect

    Awokuse, T.O.; Jones, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    The sudden quadrupling of world oil prices in 1973-1974 marked the beginning of several formal inquiries by economists into the production behavior of members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Interest in the organization was further heightened in 1979 when nominal oil prices further doubled. However, oil market analysts have differed in their evaluation of OPEC`s role in the determination of world oil prices. Most energy economists have modeled OPEC as a cartel. Morris Adelman has suggested that OPEC`s true nature lies somewhere between two polar cases of a dominant-firm industry and an imperfect, market-sharing cartel. In the former case, one large, dominant firm (i.e., Saudi Arabia) serves as the {open_quotes}swing producer,{close_quotes} allowing other cartel members and non-OPEC oil producers to produce whatever they wished, controlling the market price by itself through its own output adjustments. The latter case of an imperfect market-sharing cartel is a loose collusive arrangement in which all members agree on an acceptable price level and individual output shares for each producer. Adelman believes that OPEC wobbles between these two cases, depending upon market conditions.

  16. Novel Bait Stations for Attract-and-Kill of Pestiferous Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel, visually attractive bait station was developed in Hawaii for application of insecticidal baits against oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), and Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). The bai...

  17. Evaluation of Cyantraniliprole and Other Commercial Fly Baits under Laboratory and Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Parker, Casey; Baldwin, Rebecca; Pereira, Roberto; Koehler, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory and field trials were performed to evaluate the attractiveness and efficacy of commercial baits (cyantraniliprole; methomyl + (Z)-9-tricosene; dinotefuran + (Z)-9-tricosene; imidacloprid granular + (Z)-9-tricosene; and imidacloprid liquid + (Z)-9-tricosene). In choice tests; flies were most attracted to cyantraniliprole bait > dinotefuran + (Z)-9 > methomyl + (Z)-9 bait > imidacloprid granular + (Z)-9 bait > imidacloprid liquid + (Z)-9 bait. Significant degradation in bait efficacy was observed after two weeks of aging excluding imidacloprid granular; which began to degrade in field conditions after one week. Cyantraniliprole; the new fly bait active ingredient in Zyrox(®); had the longest time to knockdown in the laboratory tests; but on susceptible flies; achieved 95%-100% knockdown within an hour of exposure. Zyrox(®) was resistant to weathering for a week; and was more attractive to flies in the field when compared to methomyl + (Z)-9 bait. PMID:26610575

  18. Evaluation of Cyantraniliprole and Other Commercial Fly Baits under Laboratory and Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Casey; Baldwin, Rebecca; Pereira, Roberto; Koehler, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory and field trials were performed to evaluate the attractiveness and efficacy of commercial baits (cyantraniliprole; methomyl + (Z)-9-tricosene; dinotefuran + (Z)-9-tricosene; imidacloprid granular + (Z)-9-tricosene; and imidacloprid liquid + (Z)-9-tricosene). In choice tests; flies were most attracted to cyantraniliprole bait > dinotefuran + (Z)-9 > methomyl + (Z)-9 bait > imidacloprid granular + (Z)-9 bait > imidacloprid liquid + (Z)-9 bait. Significant degradation in bait efficacy was observed after two weeks of aging excluding imidacloprid granular; which began to degrade in field conditions after one week. Cyantraniliprole; the new fly bait active ingredient in Zyrox®; had the longest time to knockdown in the laboratory tests; but on susceptible flies; achieved 95%–100% knockdown within an hour of exposure. Zyrox® was resistant to weathering for a week; and was more attractive to flies in the field when compared to methomyl + (Z)-9 bait. PMID:26610575

  19. ALTERNATIVE FORMULATIONS TO REDUCE CFC USE IN U.S. EXEMPTED AND EXCLUSED AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines products exempted and excluded from those affected by the 1978 ban on the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as aerosol propellants, the present consumption of CFCs still utilized for these products in the U.S., and alternative formulations which may be used to...

  20. ALTERNATIVE FORMULATIONS TO REDUCE CFC USE IN U.S. EXEMPTED AND EXCLUDED AEROSOL PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report examines products exempted and excluded from those affected by the 1978 ban on the use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as aerosol propellants, the present consumption of CFCs still utilized for these products in the U.S., and alternative formulations which may be used to...

  1. Control of Coptotermes havilandi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) with hexaflumuron baits and a sensor incorporated into a monitoring and baiting program.

    PubMed

    Su, N Y; Ban, P M; Scheffrahn, R H

    2000-04-01

    A sensor consisting of a wooden monitor painted with a conductive circuit of silver particle emulsion was placed in a monitoring station to detect feeding activity of the subterranean termite Coptotermes havilandi Holmgren. Sensor accuracy was 100% 1 mo after installation, but 9 mo after sensor placement, the rate declined to 73%. After the detection of C. havilandi in the stations, baits containing the chitin synthesis inhibitor hexaflumuron were applied in five colonies, and four colonies were eliminated within 3-5 mo. Baiting could not be completed for the remaining one colony because the site became inaccessible. PMID:10826194

  2. Food Preference and Foraging Activity of Ants: Recommendations for Field Applications of Low-Toxicity Baits

    PubMed Central

    Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Addison, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Control of ants using baits of low toxicity cannot be effective without knowledge of bait distribution patterns and bait station densities, which are determined by ants' foraging activities. Furthermore, the success of toxic baits also depends upon attractiveness of bait carriers. Here, we assessed ground and vine foraging activity and food preferences for the three ant species (Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Anoplolepis custodiens (F. Smith) and Crematogaster peringueyi Emery) under field conditions. We found that L. humile's vineyard foraging activity was high and that movement of ant bait by C. peringueyi and A. custodiens in the vineyard was relatively low. Consequently, more bait stations need to be dispensed for more effective control of C. peringueyi and A. custodiens than for L. humile. Different bait densities are discussed for the various ant species. Food preference trials indicated that vineyard foraging ants preferred wet bait attractants over dry ones, making liquids the most ideal carriers for baiting these ants. Linepithema humile was attracted to 25% sugar water, while C. peringueyi was attracted to both 25% sugar water and honey. Anoplolepis custodiens was attracted to tuna but was also attracted to 25% sugar water. Thus, future bait formulations should be tailor made to suit these specific food requirements if baits are to be successful in ant pest management. PMID:25373195

  3. Efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests were conducted that evaluated efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) adults in Guatemala. Bait stations were exposed to outdoor conditions to determine effect of weathering on longevity as indicated by bait station age. Results of laboratory tests found that ba...

  4. Honeybee Foraging Preferences, Effects of Sugars and Fruit Fly Toxic Bait Components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests were carried out to evaluate the repellence of the fruit fly toxic bait, GF-120, for domestic honeybees. This bait is an organically registered attractive bait for tephritid fruit flies and is composed of hydrolyzed protein (Solulys), invertose sugar, vegetable oils, adjuvants, and oth...

  5. Food preference and foraging activity of ants: recommendations for field applications of low-toxicity baits.

    PubMed

    Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Addison, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Control of ants using baits of low toxicity cannot be effective without knowledge of bait distribution patterns and bait station densities, which are determined by ants' foraging activities. Furthermore, the success of toxic baits also depends upon attractiveness of bait carriers. Here, we assessed ground and vine foraging activity and food preferences for the three ant species ( Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Anoplolepis custodiens (F. Smith) and Crematogaster peringueyi Emery) under field conditions. We found that L. humile's vineyard foraging activity was high and that movement of ant bait by C. peringueyi and A. custodiens in the vineyard was relatively low. Consequently, more bait stations need to be dispensed for more effective control of C. peringueyi and A. custodiens than for L. humile. Different bait densities are discussed for the various ant species. Food preference trials indicated that vineyard foraging ants preferred wet bait attractants over dry ones, making liquids the most ideal carriers for baiting these ants. Linepithema humile was attracted to 25% sugar water, while C. peringueyi was attracted to both 25% sugar water and honey. Anoplolepis custodiens was attracted to tuna but was also attracted to 25% sugar water. Thus, future bait formulations should be tailor made to suit these specific food requirements if baits are to be successful in ant pest management. PMID:25373195

  6. Detection of potato mop-top virus in soils and potato tubers using bait-plant bioassay, ELISA and RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Arif, Muhammad; Ali, Murad; Rehman, Anayatur; Fahim, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    The hilly region of Northwest of Pakistan is leading seed potato producing areas of the country. Soil and plant samples were collected from the region and tested for PMTV using both conventional and molecular techniques. The bait plants exhibited PMTV-characteristic v-shaped yellow leaf markings in Nicotiana debneyi plants grown in putative viruliferious soils from 20/26 locations. The results were confirmed by back inoculation of sap from both roots and leaves of bait plant on indicator hosts (N. debneyi, Nicotiana benthamiana). The root samples of bait plants grown in soils of 25 locations and leaves of 24 locations reproduced systemic infection on indicator hosts upon back inoculation. The virus was identified in bait plants grown in soils from 25/26 locations using double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS)-ELISA and reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods. The products of the 566bp were amplified from coat protein region of PMTV RNA 3 in both root and leaf samples of baited plants. The virus was detected in 10 potato cultivars commercially grown in the region using DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR. The virus was also detected in zoospores of Spongospora subterranea derived from the peels of selected scabby tubers using triple antibody sandwich (TAS)-ELISA. The results indicate that a bait plant bioassay, infectivity assay, ELISA and RT-PCR can detect PMTV in roots and leaves of baited plants, field samples, zoospores of S. subterranea and tubers of 10 potato cultivars commercially grown in the region. PMID:24161813

  7. Productive resources in students' ideas about energy: An alternative analysis of Watts' original interview transcripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrer, Benedikt W.; Flood, Virginia J.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2013-12-01

    For over 30 years, researchers have investigated students’ ideas about energy with the intent of reforming instructional practice. In this pursuit, Watts contributed an influential study with his 1983 paper “Some alternative views of energy” [Phys. Educ. 18, 213 (1983)]. Watts’ “alternative frameworks” continue to be used for categorizing students’ non-normative ideas about energy. Using a resources framework, we propose an alternate analysis of student responses from Watts’ interviews. In our analysis, we show how students’ activated resources about energy are disciplinarily productive. We suggest that fostering seeds of scientific understandings in students’ ideas about energy may play an important role in their development of scientific literacy.

  8. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  9. Pesticide-laced predator baits: considerations for prosecution and sentencing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Spann, J.W.; Albers, E.; Patterson, D.

    2003-01-01

    The illegal use of pesticide-laced baits for predator control is a wildlife crime that is underreported, inadequately documented, and insufficiently punished. The crime occurs when some ranchers, farmers, and hunting groups illegally lace baits with pesticides to control avian and mammalian predators. The activity has poisoned birds protected by the Endangered Species Act, Migratory Bird Treaty Act, and the Bald and Golden Eagle Protection Act. However, because of difficulties in discovering, reporting, and confirming the baitings and the wildlife kills, the crimes often appear inconsequential. The limited knowledge of these crimes in the public, regulatory, and judicial arenas distorts their importance .for some prosecutors and judges. The United States pesticide regulatory system has positioned federal and state prosecutors and judges in a critical role for protecting wildlife from the illegal practice of lacing baits with pesticides. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the crime and describe the ways in which the crime is investigated. They then present investigative and experimental evidence on the extent of the illegal practice and the magnitude of the kills in order to elucidate their importance with respect to prosecution and sentencing. The authors conclude by recommending that sufficient resources be made available, public awareness and education increased, and persistent prosecution occur in order to improve the effectiveness of all federal wildlife enforcement.

  10. Grape juice bait for Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile chemicals produced by actively fermenting aqueous grape juice bait have been found to be highly attractive to Zaprionus indianus in field tests conducted in south Florida. This is a highly dynamic system, and studies were conducted to determine the effect of factors including time period o...

  11. Excluding feral swine, javelina, and raccoons from deer bait stations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a design, list of materials, and construction procedure for a physical and electric barrier fence to prevent feral swine (Sus scrofa), javelina (Pecari tajacu), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and perhaps other non-target animals from accessing or damaging bait stations designed to adm...

  12. Excluding feral swine, javelina and raccoons from deer bait stations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we present a design and construction procedure for a physical and electric barrier fence to prevent feral swine (Sus scrofa), javelina (Pecari tajacu), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and perhaps other non-target animals from accessing or damaging bait stations designed to administer acaricide treatm...

  13. Bait formulations and longevity of navel orangeworm egg traps tested

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standardization of pest monitoring practices and materials to maximize sensitivity to pest populations in the field is a foundation of effective integrated pest management (IPM). Due to changes in the availability of commercial bait material for navel orangeworm (NOW) egg traps, we evaluated potenti...

  14. Part 2 of a 4-part series Hair Products: Trends and Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Bhinder, Manpreet

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on usage of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of hair products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain was copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives and sunblocks) were calculated. Results: The usage of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives and sunblocks) in hair products is reported. Conclusion: Data on allergens and alternatives for hair products is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in hair products, including shampoos, conditioners, and styling products. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21779419

  15. Subtask 2.6 - Assessment of Alternative Fuels on CO2 Production

    SciTech Connect

    Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Darren Naasz

    2009-06-16

    Many coal-based electric generating units use alternative fuels, and this effort assessed the impact of alternative fuels on CO{sub 2} production and other emissions and also assessed the potential impact of changes in emission regulations under the Clean Air Act (CAA) for facilities utilizing alternative fuels that may be categorized as wastes. Information was assembled from publicly available U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information Administration databases that included alternative fuel use for 2004 and 2005. Alternative fuel types were categorized along with information on usage by coal-based electric, number of facilities utilizing each fuel type, and the heating value of solid, liquid, and gaseous alternative fuels. The sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions associated with alternative fuels and primary fuels were also evaluated. Carbon dioxide emissions are also associated with the transport of all fuels. A calculation of carbon dioxide emissions associated with the transport of biomass-based fuels that are typically accessed on a regional basis was made. A review of CAA emission regulations for coal-based electric generating facilities from Section 112 (1) and Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators was performed with consideration for a potential regulatory change from Section 112 (1) regulation to Section 129 (2). Increased emission controls would be expected to be required if coal-based electric generating facilities using alternative fuels would be recategorized under CAA Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators, and if this change were made, it is anticipated that coal-fired electric generating facilities might reduce the use of alternative fuels. Conclusions included information on the use profile for alternative fuels and the impacts to emissions as well as the impact of potential application of emission regulations for solid waste incinerators to electric generating facilities using alternative fuels.

  16. An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Borland; Steve Frank

    2009-06-01

    For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

  17. Part 3 of a 4-part series Lip and Common Dental Care Products: Trends and Alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Sharon; Katta, Rajani; Nedorost, Susan; Warshaw, Erin; Zirwas, Matt; Kruk, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To provide updated data on the use of ingredients that are common potential contact allergens in several categories of lip and oral products. To identify useful alternative products with few or no common contact allergens. Design: In November 2009, the full ingredient lists of 5,416 skin, hair, and cosmetic products marketed by the CVS pharmacy chain was copied from CVS.com into Microsoft Word format for analysis. Computer searches were made in Microsoft Word using search/replace and sorting functions to accurately identify the presence of specific allergens in each website product. Measurements: Percentages of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other common preservatives) were calculated. Results: The use of American Contact Dermatitis Society core series allergens (and other preservatives) in various categories of lip and oral products are reported. Conclusion: Data on allergens and alternatives for lip and oral products is not widely published. This article reviews some of the common potential allergens in lip liners, lipsticks, lip moisturizers, mouthwashes, and toothpastes. Suitable available alternative products for patients with contact allergy are listed. PMID:21938270

  18. The use of alarm pheromones to enhance bait harvest by grass-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Hughes, W O H; Goulson, D

    2002-06-01

    The enhancement of bait for the control of grass-cutting ants was investigated using two species of grass-cutting ant, Atta bisphaerica (Forel) and Atta capiguara (Gonçalves) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Bait was applied in loose piles to obtain a direct relationship between ant attraction and bait harvest. Enhancement with alarm pheromone compounds significantly increased the attractiveness and harvest of bait under certain conditions. A large proportion of the ants attracted to the enhanced bait were minor workers. These ants rarely transport bait because of their small size, and so it may be possible to increase the effect of bait enhancement by using smaller bait granules. Foragers of A. capiguara were less inclined to transport citrus-pulp bait than were those of Atta laevigata (Fr. Smith), a species that also harvests dicotyledonous plants. This emphasizes the importance of developing a bait matrix that is more acceptable to grass-cutting species. Nevertheless, the results suggest that alarm pheromone compounds have significant potential to improve the efficacy of baits for the control of grass-cutting ants. PMID:12088538

  19. Viable Alternative Substrate Components for Use in Nursery and Greenhouse Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peat-based container substrates are widely used for greenhouse crop production. A variety of alternative materials have been evaluated due to uncertainty over the cost and availability of Canadian peat moss. Processed whole pine trees (WPT) have been identified as a replacement for peat due to the w...

  20. DEVELOPING ALTERNATIVE POWER TO DRIVE A PARTITIONED AQUACULTURE SYSTEM FOR INTENSIVE FOOD FISH PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collected, such as fish production rates and construction/operating costs, will allow us to evaluate the predictions generated by our modeling activities as well as provide real estimates of cost/benefit for the application of alternative PAS technology in temperate water...

  1. Separating nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation water application in an alternating furrow irrigation system for maize production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient use of water and nitrogen represents a primary concern to agricultural production in northwest of China. A two-year field experiment was conducted to assess and model the interactive effects between water and nitrogen (N) on maize (Zea mays L.) when grown with alternating furrow irriga...

  2. Effect of fertilization and irrigation on nursery production of hydrangea using alternative containers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Container production of nursery plants using biodegradable containers has been studied in recent years as a sustainable alternative to traditional plastic containers. Plant growth and photosynthetic performance of Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Merritt’s Supreme’ were investigated in this study when they we...

  3. Youth Attitudes and Beliefs toward Alternative Tobacco Products: Cigars, Bidis, and Kreteks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soldz, Stephen; Dorsey, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Youth use of cigars, bidis, and kreteks has spread as youth cigarette use has declined. This study investigates young people's attitudes toward and beliefs about these alternative tobacco products. The study used data from a convenience sample survey of 5,016 7th-through 12th-grade students in Massachusetts. The cigar attitudes receiving the…

  4. Bait Effects in Sampling Coral Reef Fish Assemblages with Stereo-BRUVs

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, Stacey R.; Harvey, Euan S.; Newman, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Baited underwater video techniques are increasingly being utilised for assessing and monitoring demersal fishes because they are: 1) non extractive, 2) can be used to sample across multiple habitats and depths, 3) are cost effective, 4) sample a broader range of species than many other techniques, 5) and with greater statistical power. However, an examination of the literature demonstrates that a range of different bait types are being used. The use of different types of bait can create an additional source of variability in sampling programs. Coral reef fish assemblages at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia, were sampled using baited remote underwater stereo-video systems. One-hour stereo-video recordings were collected for four different bait treatments (pilchards, cat food, falafel mix and no bait (control)) from sites inside and outside a targeted fishery closure (TFC). In total, 5209 individuals from 132 fish species belonging to 41 families were recorded. There were significant differences in the fish assemblage structure and composition between baited and non-baited treatments (P<0.001), while no difference was observed with species richness. Samples baited with cat food and pilchards contained similar ingredients and were found to record similar components of the fish assemblage. There were no significant differences in the fish assemblages in areas open or closed to fishing, regardless of the bait used. Investigation of five targeted species indicated that the response to different types of bait was species-specific. For example, the relative abundance of Pagrus auratus was found to increase in areas protected from fishing, but only in samples baited with pilchards and cat food. The results indicate that the use of bait in conjunction with stereo-BRUVs is advantageous. On balance, the use of pilchards as a standardised bait for stereo-BRUVs deployments is justified for use along the mid-west coast of Western Australia. PMID:22848522

  5. A baiting system for delivery of an oral plague vaccine to black-tailed prairie dogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creekmore, Terry E.; Rocke, T.E.; Hurley, J.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted between July and October 1999 to identify bait preference, biomarker efficacy, and bait acceptance rates for delivering an oral plague vaccine to black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). Twenty juvenile captive prairie dogs were offered alfalfa baits containing either alfalfa, alfalfa and 5% molasses, or alfalfa, 5% molasses and 4% salt. Based on the results of these trials we selected a bait containing alfalfa, 7% molasses, and 1% salt for field trials to determine bait acceptance rates by free-ranging animals. The biomarkers DuPont Blue dye, iophenoxic acid, and tetracycline hydrochloride were orally administered to captive prairie dogs to determine their efficacy. Only tetracycline proved effective as a biomarker. Two field trials were conducted at separate prairie dog colonies located at the Buffalo Gap National Grassland (Pennington County, South Dakota, USA). In Trial 1, three baits containing tetracycline were distributed around each active burrow entrance and an additional bait was placed inside the burrow (1,276 baits total). In Trial 2, baits were distributed at the same density per burrow as Trial 1, but along transects spaced 10 m apart (1,744 baits total). Trapping began 3 days after bait distribution, and 30 prairie dogs then were captured at each site to determine the percentage of animals marked. In Trial 1, 67% of the prairie dogs captured had tetracycline deposits indicative of bait consumption. In Trial 2, 83% of the prairie dogs had ingested a bait. Approximately 15% of the animals in both trials ate more than one bait. Fleas (Opisocrostis hirsutus) were found on 64 of 70 (91%) of the prairie dogs captured during this study.

  6. Broadcast application of a placebo rodenticide bait in a native Hawaiian forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunlevy, P.A.; Campbell, E. Wm., III; Lindsey, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    This study consisted of three replicates of controlled field trials using a pelletized placebo (Ramik?? Green formulated without diphacinone) bait treated with a biological marker and broadcast at three application rates - 11.25, 22.5 and 33.75 kg/ha. We determined that Polynesian (Rattus exulans) and roof rats (Rattus rattus) consumed this bait when broadcast on the ground and assessed the optimal sowage rate to result in maximum exposure of bait to the rats while minimizing bait usage. All Polynesian rats captured in all application rates had eaten the bait. The percentage of roof rats that had eaten the bait increased with application rate, however, 22.5 kg/ha was clearly the optimal application rate. Bait degradation and invertebrate activity was documented and assessed.This study consisted of three replicates of controlled field trials using a pelletized placebo (Ramik Green formulated without diphacinone) bait treated with a biological marker and broadcast at three application rates - 11.25, 22.5 and 33.75 kg/ha. We determined that Polynesian (Rattus exulans) and roof rats (Rattus rattus) consumed this bait when broadcast on the ground and assessed the optimal sewage rate to result in maximum exposure of bait to the rats while minimizing bait usage. All Polynesian rats captured in all application rates had eaten the bait. The percentage of roof rats that had eaten the bait increased with application rate, however, 22.5 kg/ha was clearly the optimal application rate. Bait degradation and invertebrate activity was documented and assessed.

  7. Bear-Baiting May Exacerbate Wolf-Hunting Dog Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Bump, Joseph K.; Murawski, Chelsea M.; Kartano, Linda M.; Beyer, Dean E.; Roell, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The influence of policy on the incidence of human-wildlife conflict can be complex and not entirely anticipated. Policies for managing bear hunter success and depredation on hunting dogs by wolves represent an important case because with increasing wolves, depredations are expected to increase. This case is challenging because compensation for wolf depredation on hunting dogs as compared to livestock is less common and more likely to be opposed. Therefore, actions that minimize the likelihood of such conflicts are a conservation need. Methodology/Principal Findings We used data from two US states with similar wolf populations but markedly different wolf/hunting dog depredation patterns to examine the influence of bear hunting regulations, bear hunter to wolf ratios, hunter method, and hunter effort on wolf depredation trends. Results indicated that the ratio of bear hunting permits sold per wolf, and hunter method are important factors affecting wolf depredation trends in the Upper Great Lakes region, but strong differences exist between Michigan and Wisconsin related in part to the timing and duration of bear-baiting (i.e., free feeding). The probability that a wolf depredated a bear-hunting dog increases with the duration of bear-baiting, resulting in a relative risk of depredation 2.12–7.22× greater in Wisconsin than Michigan. The net effect of compensation for hunting dog depredation in Wisconsin may also contribute to the difference between states. Conclusions/Significance These results identified a potential tradeoff between bear hunting success and wolf/bear-hunting dog conflict. These results indicate that management options to minimize conflict exist, such as adjusting baiting regulations. If reducing depredations is an important goal, this analysis indicates that actions aside from (or in addition to) reducing wolf abundance might achieve that goal. This study also stresses the need to better understand the relationship among baiting

  8. Ancient whole genome enrichment using baits built from modern DNA.

    PubMed

    Enk, Jacob M; Devault, Alison M; Kuch, Melanie; Murgha, Yusuf E; Rouillard, Jean-Marie; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2014-05-01

    We report metrics from complete genome capture of nuclear DNA from extinct mammoths using biotinylated RNAs transcribed from an Asian elephant DNA extract. Enrichment of the nuclear genome ranged from 1.06- to 18.65-fold, to an apparent maximum threshold of ∼80% on-target. This projects an order of magnitude less costly complete genome sequencing from long-dead organisms, even when a reference genome is unavailable for bait design. PMID:24531081

  9. Water consumption footprint and land requirements of large-scale alternative diesel and jet fuel production.

    PubMed

    Staples, Mark D; Olcay, Hakan; Malina, Robert; Trivedi, Parthsarathi; Pearlson, Matthew N; Strzepek, Kenneth; Paltsev, Sergey V; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R H

    2013-01-01

    Middle distillate (MD) transportation fuels, including diesel and jet fuel, make up almost 30% of liquid fuel consumption in the United States. Alternative drop-in MD and biodiesel could potentially reduce dependence on crude oil and the greenhouse gas intensity of transportation. However, the water and land resource requirements of these novel fuel production technologies must be better understood. This analysis quantifies the lifecycle green and blue water consumption footprints of producing: MD from conventional crude oil; Fischer-Tropsch MD from natural gas and coal; fermentation and advanced fermentation MD from biomass; and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids MD and biodiesel from oilseed crops, throughout the contiguous United States. We find that FT MD and alternative MD derived from rainfed biomass have lifecycle blue water consumption footprints of 1.6 to 20.1 Lwater/LMD, comparable to conventional MD, which ranges between 4.1 and 7.4 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from irrigated biomass has a lifecycle blue water consumption footprint potentially several orders of magnitude larger, between 2.7 and 22 600 Lwater/LMD. Alternative MD derived from biomass has a lifecycle green water consumption footprint between 1.1 and 19 200 Lwater/LMD. Results are disaggregated to characterize the relationship between geo-spatial location and lifecycle water consumption footprint. We also quantify the trade-offs between blue water consumption footprint and areal MD productivity, which ranges from 490 to 4200 LMD/ha, under assumptions of rainfed and irrigated biomass cultivation. Finally, we show that if biomass cultivation for alternative MD is irrigated, the ratio of the increase in areal MD productivity to the increase in blue water consumption footprint is a function of geo-spatial location and feedstock-to-fuel production pathway. PMID:24066845

  10. The efficacy of bait supplements for improving the rate of discovery of bait stations in the field by the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests of four different bait supplements were conducted in City Park, New Orleans, Louisiana. The four bait supplements tested included two different formulations of decayed material, a sports drink, and the combination of an application of an aqueous solution of Summon Preferred Food SourceTM...

  11. MULTI-COMPONENT EVALUATION TO MINIMIZE THE SPREAD OF AQUATIC INVASIVE SEAWEEDS AND HARMFUL ALGAL BLOOM MICROALGAE VIA LIVE BAIT VECTORS IN LONG ISLAND SOUND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this project is to quantify the importance of bait products and associated packing materials as vectors for the introduction of non-indigenous species and harmful algal bloom (HAB)-forming microalgae to Long Island Sound. Non-native, invasive seaweeds and HAB-forming...

  12. Simpler is better: fewer nontarget insects trapped with a 4-component chemical lure versus a chemically more complex food-type bait for Drosophila suzukii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As baits, fermented food products are generally attractive to many types of insects, making it difficult to sort through nontarget insects to monitor a pest species of interest. We test the hypothesis that a chemically simpler and more defined attractant developed for a target insect is more specifi...

  13. Development of an automated dispenser for the delivery of medicinal or vaccine-laden baits to raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    PubMed

    Smyser, Timothy J; Redding, James V; Bevis, Crystal M; Page, L Kristen; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-04-01

    Medicinal baits are distributed to manage zoonotic diseases, including raccoon (Procyon lotor) rabies, but efficient distribution strategies are needed for suburban environments. We developed an automated dispenser that transfers fishmeal polymer baits at user-specified intervals from a magazine to a receptacle fitted with a filter that exploits raccoon dexterity to limit consumption by nontarget species. We introduce the concept of automated dispensers and describe bait removal success rates for raccoons versus nontarget species. We monitored visitation with remote cameras after deploying a dispenser, programmed to present two baits per night, in three disjunct forest patches in northwest Indiana. Raccoons removed 72% of baits; nontarget, white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) removed 11%; Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) removed 9%. Bait removal success varied significantly between raccoons (76%) and opossums (21%), improving bait delivery specificity relative to hand baiting. Accumulation of baits in receptacles resulted in excess (more than one) bait consumption (39% of baits consumed by raccoons were excess), suggesting design improvements are needed to present additional baits only after previous baits have been consumed. Automated dispensers successfully sustained bait availability throughout the operational period. Subsequent research is needed to determine whether a sustained availability of baits achieved with automated dispensers is more effective for the treatment of raccoons in suburban environments than traditional distribution methods. PMID:25647587

  14. Unforeseen Effects of Supplementary Feeding: Ungulate Baiting Sites as Hotspots for Ground-Nest Predation

    PubMed Central

    Selva, Nuria; Berezowska-Cnota, Teresa; Elguero-Claramunt, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity and magnitude of food provision to wildlife, our understanding of its ecological effects and conservation implications is very limited. Supplementary feeding of ungulates, still one of the main paradigms of game management in Europe, occurs in natural areas on an enormous scale. We investigated the indirect effects of this practice on nest predation risk in the Polish Eastern Carpathians (Bieszczady Mountains). We hypothesized that the predators attracted to ungulate baiting sites would also forage for alternative prey nearby, increasing the nest predation risk for ground-nesting birds in the vicinity. We conducted a paired experiment by placing artificial nests (N = 120) in feeding and control sites (N = 12) at different distances from the ungulate feeding site. We also documented the use of three ungulate feeding sites by potential nest predators with automatic cameras. The proportion of depredated nests was 30% higher in the vicinity of feeding sites than at control sites (65%±31.5 vs 35%±32.1). The probability of a nest being depredated significantly increased with time and at shorter distances from the feeding site. We predicted that the area within 1-km distance from the feeding site would have a high risk (>0.5) of nest predation. We recorded 13 species of potential ground-nest predators at ungulate baiting sites. Most frequent were Eurasian jays Garrulus glandarius, mice and voles Muroidea, ravens Corvus corax, brown bears Ursus arctos, and wild boar Sus scrofa. Nest predators made most use of supplementary feeding sites (82% pictures with predators vs 8% with ungulates, the target group). Our study alerts of the impacts of ungulate feeding on alternative prey; this is of special concern when affecting protected species. We urge for a sensible management of ungulate feeding, which considers potential indirect effects on other species and the spatial and temporal components of food provision. PMID:24599216

  15. Green Alternatives to Nitrates and Nitrites in Meat-based Products-A Review.

    PubMed

    Gassara, Fatma; Kouassi, Anne Patricia; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Belkacemi, Khaled

    2016-10-01

    Several food additives are added in food for their preservation to maintain the freshness of food (antioxidants) or to slow down or stop the growth of microorganisms (preservative agents). Nitrites and nitrates are used as preservative agents in meat. Nitrites give a smoked taste, a pinkish color in the meat and protect the consumers against the risk of bacterial deterioration. Their addition is however very limited as, in high dose, it can have risks on human health and the environment. Nitrites may also combine with secondary or tertiary amines to form N-nitroso derivatives. Certain N-nitroso compounds have been shown to produce cancers in a wide range of laboratory animals. Thus, alternatives of nitrates and nitrites are the object of numerous research studies. Alternatives, such as the addition of vitamins, fruits, chemicals products, natural products containing nitrite or spices, which have similar properties of nitrites, are in evaluation. In fact, spices are considered to have several organoleptic and anti-microbial properties which would be interesting to study. Several spices and combinations of spices are being progressively evaluated. This review discusses the sources of nitrites and nitrates, their use as additives in food products, their physicochemical properties, their negatives effects and the use of alternatives of nitrites and nitrates in preserving meat products. PMID:25750989

  16. Cheese whey: A cost-effective alternative for hyaluronic acid production by Streptococcus zooepidemicus.

    PubMed

    Amado, Isabel R; Vázquez, José A; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Teixeira, José A

    2016-05-01

    This study focuses on the optimisation of cheese whey formulated media for the production of hyaluronic acid (HA) by Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Culture media containing whey (W; 2.1g/L) or whey hydrolysate (WH; 2.4 g/L) gave the highest HA productions. Both W and WH produced high yields on protein consumed, suggesting cheese whey is a good nitrogen source for S. zooepidemicus production of HA. Polysaccharide concentrations of 4.0 g/L and 3.2g/L were produced in W and WH in a further scale-up to 5L bioreactors, confirming the suitability of the low-cost nitrogen source. Cheese whey culture media provided high molecular weight (>3000 kDa) HA products. This study revealed replacing the commercial peptone by the low-cost alternative could reduce HA production costs by up to a 70% compared to synthetic media. PMID:26769504

  17. Using Distributional Statistics to Acquire Morphophonological Alternations: Evidence from Production and Perception

    PubMed Central

    Buckler, Helen; Fikkert, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Morphophonological alternations, such as the voicing alternation that arises in a morphological paradigm due to final-devoicing in Dutch, are notoriously difficult for children to acquire. This has previously been attributed to their unpredictability. In fact, the presence or absence of a voicing alternation is partly predictable if the phonological context of the word is taken into account, and adults have been shown to use this information (Ernestus and Baayen, 2003). This study investigates whether voicing alternations are predictable from the child’s input, and whether children can make use of this information. A corpus study of child-directed speech establishes that the likelihood of a stem-final obstruent alternating is somewhat predictable on the basis of the phonological properties of the stem. In Experiment 1 Dutch 3-year-olds’ production accuracy in a plural-elicitation task is shown to be sensitive to the distributional statistics. However, distributional properties do not play a role in children’s sensitivity to mispronunciations of voicing in a Preferential Looking Task in Experiment 2. PMID:27199792

  18. 75 FR 71155 - Market Test of Experimental Product: “Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office POSTAL SERVICE Market Test of Experimental Product: ``Alternative Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards'' AGENCY: Postal... Postage Payment Method for Greeting Cards'' experimental product on January 2, 2011. The Postal...

  19. Knowledge and acceptability of alternative HIV prevention bio-medical products among MSM who bareback.

    PubMed

    Nodin, N; Carballo-Diéguez, A; Ventuneac, A M; Balan, I C; Remien, R

    2008-01-01

    Condom use is the best available strategy to prevent HIV infection during sexual intercourse. However, since many people choose not to use condoms in circumstances in which HIV risk exists, alternatives to condom use for HIV prevention are needed. Currently there are several alternative bio-medical HIV-prevention products in different stages of development: microbicides, vaccines, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Seventy-two men who have sex with men (MSM) who took part in a study on Internet use and intentional condomless anal intercourse were asked about these four products during a semi-structured interview. The questions explored knowledge and acceptability of all the products and willingness to participate in microbicide and vaccine trials. Qualitative analysis of the data suggests that these men had virtually no knowledge of PrEP, very limited knowledge of microbicides, some information about PEP and considerably more knowledge about vaccines. Reactions towards the products were generally positive except for PrEP, for which reactions were polarized as either enthusiastic or negative. With the exception of PrEP, many men expressed willingness to use the products in the future. Most men would be willing to participate in trials for microbicides and vaccines if given basic reassurances. Concerns over negative side effects and preoccupation with possible infection were some of the motives given for non-willingness to participate in a vaccine trial. These results should inform the development of future trials of biomedical prevention products. PMID:18278621

  20. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum aimed at alternative carbon sources and new products.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Ahmed; Lindner, Steffen N; Wendisch, Volker F

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as the amino acid-producing workhorse of fermentation industry, being used for multi-million-ton scale production of glutamate and lysine for more than 60 years. However, it is only recently that extensive research has focused on engineering it beyond the scope of amino acids. Meanwhile, a variety of corynebacterial strains allows access to alternative carbon sources and/or allows production of a wide range of industrially relevant compounds. Some of these efforts set new standards in terms of titers and productivities achieved whereas others represent a proof-of-principle. These achievements manifest the position of C. glutamicum as an important industrial microorganism with capabilities far beyond the traditional amino acid production. In this review we focus on the state of the art of metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for utilization of alternative carbon sources, (e.g. coming from wastes and unprocessed sources), and construction of C. glutamicum strains for production of new products such as diamines, organic acids and alcohols. PMID:24688664

  1. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum aimed at alternative carbon sources and new products

    PubMed Central

    Zahoor, Ahmed; Lindner, Steffen N.; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as the amino acid-producing workhorse of fermentation industry, being used for multi-million-ton scale production of glutamate and lysine for more than 60 years. However, it is only recently that extensive research has focused on engineering it beyond the scope of amino acids. Meanwhile, a variety of corynebacterial strains allows access to alternative carbon sources and/or allows production of a wide range of industrially relevant compounds. Some of these efforts set new standards in terms of titers and productivities achieved whereas others represent a proof-of-principle. These achievements manifest the position of C. glutamicum as an important industrial microorganism with capabilities far beyond the traditional amino acid production. In this review we focus on the state of the art of metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for utilization of alternative carbon sources, (e.g. coming from wastes and unprocessed sources), and construction of C. glutamicum strains for production of new products such as diamines, organic acids and alcohols PMID:24688664

  2. A Behaviorally-Explicit Approach for Delivering Vaccine Baits to Mesopredators to Control Epizootics in Fragmented Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, James C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Byrne, Michael E.; Vercauteren, Kurt C.; Johnson, Shylo R.; Rhodes Jr., Olin E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations, particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF) on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodamine B (RB) across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14–24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99–240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level) rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations, but

  3. A behaviorally-explicit approach for delivering vaccine baits to mesopredators to control epizootics in fragmented landscapes.

    PubMed

    Beasley, James C; Atwood, Todd C; Byrne, Michael E; Vercauteren, Kurt C; Johnson, Shylo R; Rhodes, Olin E

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations, particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF) on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodamine B (RB) across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14-24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99-240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753 m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level) rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations, but repeated

  4. A behaviorally-explicit approach for delivering vaccine baits to mesopredators to control epizootics in fragmented landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, James C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Byrne, Michael E.; Vercauteren, Kurt C.; Johnson, Shylo R.; Olin E. Rhodes, Jr.; Schnell, Matthias Johannes

    2015-01-14

    Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations,particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF) on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodamine B (RB) across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14–24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99–240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level) rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations

  5. A behaviorally-explicit approach for delivering vaccine baits to mesopredators to control epizootics in fragmented landscapes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Beasley, James C.; Atwood, Todd C.; Byrne, Michael E.; Vercauteren, Kurt C.; Johnson, Shylo R.; Olin E. Rhodes, Jr.; Schnell, Matthias Johannes

    2015-01-14

    Despite the widespread use of aerial baiting to manage epizootics among free-ranging populations,particularly in rabies management, bait acceptance and seroconversion rates often are lower than required to eliminate spread of disease. Our objectives in this study, therefore, were to evaluate the performance of stratified bait distribution models derived from resource selection functions (RSF) on uptake of placebo rabies baits by raccoons (Procyon lotor) and Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), as well as the probability of bait uptake as a function of proximity to bait distribution areas in fragmented agricultural ecosystems. Among 478 raccoons and 108 opossums evaluated for presence of Rhodaminemore » B (RB) across 8 sites, only 26% of raccoons and 20% of opossums exhibited marking consistent with bait consumption 14–24 days post-baiting. The effective area treated, based on 90% kernel density estimators of marked individuals, ranged from 99–240 ha larger than bait distribution zones, with RB marked individuals captured up to 753m beyond the bait zone. Despite incorporation of RSF data into bait distribution models, no differences in uptake rates were observed between treatment and control sites. These data likely reflect the underlying constraints imposed by the loss and fragmentation of habitat on animal movement in heterogeneous landscapes, forcing individuals to optimize movements at coarse (i.e., patch-level) rather than fine spatial scales in highly fragmented environments. Our data also confirm that the probability of bait acceptance decreases with increasing distance from bait zone interiors, even within the zone itself. Thus, although bait acceptance was confirmed beyond bait zone boundaries, the proportion of vaccinated individuals may comprise a small minority of the population at increasing distances from baiting interiors. These data suggest focal baiting creates a buffered area of treated individuals around bait zones or bait stations, but

  6. Perspectives and strategies of alternative methods used in the risk assessment of personal care products.

    PubMed

    Quantin, P; Thélu, A; Catoire, S; Ficheux, H

    2015-11-01

    Risk assessment for personal care products requires the use of alternative methods since animal testing is now totally banned. Some of these methods are effective and have been validated by the "European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing"; but there is still a need for development and implementation of methods for specific endpoints. In this review, we have focused on dermal risk assessment because it is the prime route of absorption and main target organ for personal care products. Within this field, various areas must be assessed: irritation, sensitisation and toxicokinetic. Personal care product behaviour after use by the consumer and potential effects on the environment are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to show evolution and the prospects of alternative methods for safety dermal assessment. Assessment strategies must be adapted to the different chemical classes of substances studied but also to the way in which they are used. Finally, experimental and theoretical technical parameters that may impact on measured effects have been identified and discussed. PMID:26184446

  7. BaitFisher: A Software Package for Multispecies Target DNA Enrichment Probe Design.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Christoph; Sann, Manuela; Donath, Alexander; Meixner, Martin; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Peters, Ralph S; Petersen, Malte; Meusemann, Karen; Liere, Karsten; Wägele, Johann-Wolfgang; Misof, Bernhard; Bleidorn, Christoph; Ohl, Michael; Niehuis, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Target DNA enrichment combined with high-throughput sequencing technologies is a powerful approach to probing a large number of loci in genomes of interest. However, software algorithms that explicitly consider nucleotide sequence information of target loci in multiple reference species for optimizing design of target enrichment baits to be applicable across a wide range of species have not been developed. Here we present an algorithm that infers target DNA enrichment baits from multiple nucleotide sequence alignments. By applying clustering methods and the combinatorial 1-center sequence optimization to bait design, we are able to minimize the total number of baits required to efficiently probe target loci in multiple species. Consequently, more loci can be probed across species with a given number of baits. Using transcript sequences of 24 apoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae, Sphecidae) from the 1KITE project and the gene models of Nasonia vitripennis, we inferred 57,650, 120-bp-long baits for capturing 378 coding sequence sections of 282 genes in apoid wasps. Illumina reduced-representation library sequencing confirmed successful enrichment of the target DNA when applying these baits to DNA of various apoid wasps. The designed baits furthermore enriched a major fraction of the target DNA in distantly related Hymenoptera, such as Formicidae and Chalcidoidea, highlighting the baits' broad taxonomic applicability. The availability of baits with broad taxonomic applicability is of major interest in numerous disciplines, ranging from phylogenetics to biodiversity monitoring. We implemented our new approach in a software package, called BaitFisher, which is open source and freely available at https://github.com/cmayer/BaitFisher-package.git. PMID:27009209

  8. Longevity of rodenticide bait pellets in a tropical environment following a rat eradication program.

    PubMed

    Berentsen, Are R; Pitt, William C; Eisemann, John D; Engeman, Richard M

    2014-02-01

    Invasive rodents (primarily Rattus spp.) are responsible for loss of biodiversity in island ecosystems worldwide. Large-scale rodenticide applications are typically used to eradicate rats and restore ecological communities. In tropical ecosystems, environmental conditions rapidly degrade baits and competition for baits by non-target animals can result in eradication failure. Our objective was to evaluate persistence of rodenticide baits during a rat eradication program on Palmyra Atoll; a remote tropical atoll with intense competition for resources by land crabs. Following aerial application, bait condition was monitored in four terrestrial environments and in the canopy foliage of coconut palms. Ten circular PVC hoops were fixed in place in each of Palmyra's four primary terrestrial habitats and five rodenticide pellets were placed in each hoop. Five coconut palms were selected in three distinct regions of the atoll. One rodenticide pellet was placed on each of five palm fronds in each coconut palm. Fresh baits were placed in all monitoring locations after each broadcast bait application. Bait condition and survival was monitored for 7 days after the first bait application and 6 days after second application. Bait survival curves differed between applications at most monitoring sites, suggesting a decrease in overall rat activity as a result of rodenticide treatment. One terrestrial site showed near 100 % bait survival after both applications, likely due to low localized rat and crab densities. Median days to pellet disappearance were one and two days for the first and second application, respectively. Differences in survival curves were not detected in canopy sites between bait applications. Median days to pellet disappearance in canopy sites were 2 and 4 days for the first and second application, respectively. Frequent rainfall likely contributed to rapid degradation of bait pellets in coconut palm fronds. PMID:24057961

  9. Honey bee foraging preferences, effects of sugars, and fruit fly toxic bait components.

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Moreno, Aleena Tarshis

    2009-08-01

    Field tests were carried out to evaluate the repellency of the Dow AgroSciences fruit fly toxic bait GF-120 (NF Naturalyte) to domestic honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). GF-120 is an organically registered attractive bait for tephritid fruit flies composed of spinosad, hydrolyzed protein (Solulys), high-fructose corn syrup (ADM CornSweet 42 high-fructose corn syrup, referred to as invertose sugar or invertose here), vegetable oils, adjuvants, humectants, and attractants. Tests were carried out with non-Africanized honey bees in February and March 2005 and 2007 during periods of maximum hunger for these bees. In all tests, bees were first trained to forage from plates of 30% honey-water (2005) or 30% invertose (2007). In 2005 bees were offered choices between honey-water and various bait components, including the complete toxic bait. In 2007, similar tests were performed except bees were attracted with 30% invertose then offered the bait components or complete bait as no-choice tests. Initially, the 2005 tests used all the components of GF-120 except the spinosad as the test bait. After we were convinced that bees would not collect or be contaminated by the bait, we tested the complete GF-120. Behavior of the bees indicated that during initial attraction and after switching the baits, the bait components and the complete bait were repellent to honey bees, but the honey-water remained attractive. Invertose was shown to be less attractive to bees, addition of Solulys eliminated almost all bee activity, and addition of ammonium acetate completely eliminated feeding in both choice and no-choice tests. These results confirm previous tests showing that bees do not feed on GF-120 and also show that honey bees are repelled by the fruit fly attractant components of the bait in field tests. PMID:19736759

  10. An alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production: delignified corncob residue.

    PubMed

    Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Jian; Xiao, Lin; Bao, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Delignified corncob residue is an industrial solid waste from xylose production using corncob as feedstock. In this study, delignified corncob residue was used as the feedstock of ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and the optimal fermentation performance was investigated under various operation conditions. The ethanol titer and yield reached 75.07 g/L and 89.38%, respectively, using a regular industrial yeast strain at moderate cellulase dosage and high solids loading. A uniform SSF temperature of 37°C at both prehydrolysis and SSF stages was tested. The fermentation performance and cost of delignified corncob residue and corn meal was compared as feedstock of ethanol fermentation. The result shows that the delignified corncob residue is competitive to corn meal as ethanol production feedstock. The study gives a typical case to demonstrate the potential of intensively processed lignocellulose as the alternative feedstock of corn meal for industrial fuel ethanol production. PMID:25027810

  11. A comparison of pitfall traps with bait traps for studying leaf litter ant communities.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Strazanac, J; Butler, L

    2001-06-01

    A comparison of pitfall traps with bait traps for sampling leaf litter ants was studied in oak-dominated mixed forests during 1995-1997. A total of 31,732 ants were collected from pitfall traps and 54,694 ants were collected from bait traps. They belonged to four subfamilies, 17 genera, and 32 species. Bait traps caught 29 species, whereas pitfall traps caught 31 species. Bait traps attracted one species not found in pitfall traps, but missed three of the species collected with pitfall traps. Collections from the two sampling methods showed differences in species richness, relative abundance, diversity, and species accumulation curves. Pitfall traps caught significantly more ant species per plot than did bait traps. The ant species diversity obtained from pitfall traps was higher than that from bait traps. Bait traps took a much longer time to complete an estimate of species richness than did pitfall traps. Little information was added to pitfall trapping results by the bait trapping method. The results suggested that the pitfall trapping method is superior to the bait trapping method for leaf litter ant studies. Species accumulation curves showed that sampling of 2,192+/-532 ants from six plots by pitfall traps provided a good estimation of ant species richness under the conditions of this study. PMID:11425034

  12. Field evaluation of some bait additives against Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) (Rodentia: Hystricidae).

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Hussain, Iftikhar; Mian, Afsar; Munir, Shahid; Ahmed, Irfan; Khan, Abdul Aziz

    2013-09-01

    This research study evaluated the effect of different additives on the bait consumption by Indian crested porcupine, a serious forest and agricultural pest, under field conditions. Different additives (saccharin, common salt, bone meal, fish meal, peanut butter, egg yolk, egg shell powder, yeast powder, mineral oil and coconut oil) at 2 and 5% each were tested for their relative preference, using groundnut-maize (1:1) as basic bait. All the additives were tested under a no-choice test pattern. For control tests, no additive was mixed with the basic bait. Saccharin at 5% concentration significantly enhanced the consumption of bait over the basic bait, while 2% saccharin supplemented bait resulted in a non-significant bait consumption. All other additives did not enhance the consumption of the bait material; rather, these worked as repellents. However, the repellency was lowest with the common salt, followed by egg yolk, egg shell powder, bone meal, peanut butter, mineral oil, fish meal and yeast powder, while coconut remained the most repellent compound. The present study suggested that groundnut-maize (1:1) supplemented with 5% saccharin was the preferred bait combination, and can be used with different rodenticides for the management of Indian crested porcupine. PMID:24020467

  13. Poison-based commensal rodent control strategies in urban ecosystems: some evidence against sewer-baiting.

    PubMed

    Mughini Gras, Lapo; Patergnani, Matteo; Farina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Sewers are historically considered the main reservoir for commensal rodents, posing threats to urban ecosystem health. Aboveground rodent signs are often assumed to give clues to high sewer infestation, which can chronically restock surface areas. Thus, current sewer-baiting programmes are mostly reactive, responding to increased surface infestation. Conversely, proactive sewer-baiting (regardless of infestation levels) is often disregarded because cost-effectiveness is not always addressed. We explored the extent to which the surface infestation is related to rodent feeding activity on sewer and surface baits by analysing a set of proactive bait records in Bologna city, Italy. Sewer bait intakes were significantly lower than surface ones, suggesting that proactive sewer-baiting is generally less effective. As surface infestation increased, probability of recording surface bait intake increased significantly but this was not reflected by increased sewer bait intake, suggesting that surface infestation is not always a reliable indicator of sewer infestation. This should discourage the use of reactive sewer-baiting as a routine strategy. Poison-based control programmes by themselves are scarcely predictable and strategically limited, and ideally they should be handled within an ecologically based integrated pest management approach for achieving satisfactory results. PMID:22395957

  14. Use of Alternative Tobacco Products in Multiethnic Youth from Jujuy, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Alderete, Ethel; Kaplan, Celia Patricia; Gregorich, Steven E.; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines alternative tobacco use among Latin American youth. A self-administered survey in a random sample of 27 schools was administered in 2004 in Jujuy, Argentina (N = 3218). Prevalence of alternative tobacco product use was 24.1%; 15.3% of youth used hand-rolled cigarettes, 7.8% smoked cigars, 2.3% chewed tobacco leaf and 1.6% smoked pipe. Among youth who never smoked manufactured cigarettes, alternative product use was rare (2.9%), except for chewing tobacco (22%). In multivariate logistic regression boys were more likely than girls to smoke pipe (OR = 3.1; 95% CI 1.1–8.7); indigenous language was associated with smoking hand-rolled cigarettes (OR = 1.4; 95% CI-1.1–1.9) and pipe (OR = 2.2; 95% CI 1.5–3.4). Working in tobacco sales was a risk factor for chewing tobacco (OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.7–4.9) and smoking hand-rolled cigarettes (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.1–1.8). Having friends who smoked was associated with chewing tobacco (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.0–3.2) and with smoking cigars (OR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.5–2.9). Current drinking and thrill-seeking orientation were associated with cigars and pipe smoking. Findings highlight the importance of surveillance of alternative tobacco products use and availability among youth and for addressing identified risk factors. PMID:20300454

  15. A colour opponent model that explains tsetse fly attraction to visual baits and can be used to investigate more efficacious bait materials.

    PubMed

    Santer, Roger D

    2014-12-01

    Palpalis group tsetse flies are the major vectors of human African trypanosomiasis, and visually-attractive targets and traps are important tools for their control. Considerable efforts are underway to optimise these visual baits, and one factor that has been investigated is coloration. Analyses of the link between visual bait coloration and tsetse fly catches have used methods which poorly replicate sensory processing in the fly visual system, but doing so would allow the visual information driving tsetse attraction to these baits to be more fully understood, and the reflectance spectra of candidate visual baits to be more completely analysed. Following methods well established for other species, I reanalyse the numbers of tsetse flies caught at visual baits based upon the calculated photoreceptor excitations elicited by those baits. I do this for large sets of previously published data for Glossina fuscipes fuscipes (Lindh et al. (2012). PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6: e1661), G. palpalis palpalis (Green (1988). Bull Ent Res 78: 591), and G. pallidipes (Green and Flint (1986). Bull Ent Res 76: 409). Tsetse attraction to visual baits in these studies can be explained by a colour opponent mechanism to which the UV-blue photoreceptor R7y contributes positively, and both the green-yellow photoreceptor R8y, and the low-wavelength UV photoreceptor R7p, contribute negatively. A tool for calculating fly photoreceptor excitations is made available with this paper, and this will facilitate a complete and biologically authentic description of visual bait reflectance spectra that can be employed in the search for more efficacious visual baits, or the analysis of future studies of tsetse fly attraction. PMID:25473844

  16. Water productivity of stacked and alternate-year rotations under conventional and ecological management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Brett; Lenssen, Andrew; Jabro, Jay; Iversen, Bill; Sainju, Upendra

    2015-04-01

    Dryland cropping system productivity in the North America northern Great Plains (NGP) likely can benefit from diversification of the traditional wheat-summer fallow system through improvements in crop sequence and level of management. A long-term study initiated in 2004 near Culbertson, Montana, U.S.A. compared the impact of rotation type (Stacked vs. Alternate-year) and management level (Conventional vs. Ecological) on canola, flax, and pea grown in rotation with durum. Ecological management included no-till, N fertilizer banded at planting, greater seeding rate, and taller stubble height. Conventional management included single pass tillage with sweeps in spring, fertilizer N broadcast just before planting, standard seeding rate, and standard stubble height. For years 2008-2010, a 13% increase in durum grain and pea seed yield in Ecological than Conventional management was not related to water use or water productivity of grain. Similarly, an 18% increase in pea seed yield in alternate-year rotations (e.g. durum-pea-durum-flax) than stacked rotations (e.g. durum-durum-flax-pea) was not related to water use or water productivity of seed. Water use, water productivity for grain, and water productivity for above ground biomass were similar for management level and rotation type within a given crop. Averaged across management level and rotation type, water use was 326, 351, 372, and 292 mm for canola, durum, flax, and pea. Likewise, water productivity for grain averaged 4.2, 6.5, 2.5, and 7.7 kg/ha/mm for canola, durum, flax, and pea. Water use and water productivity varied significantly among years, underscoring the need to development stable cropping systems that are less susceptible to the highly variable growing environment of the semi-arid NGP. Overall, Ecological management increased durum and pea yield, while Stacked rotations either decreased crop yield (pea) or offered no measurable advantage to Alternate-year rotations. Any differences in yield were not

  17. Bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus by employing alternative culture media.

    PubMed

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; Pértile, Renata Aparecida Nedel; dos Santos, Carolina Alves; de Carvalho Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria; Seckler, Marcelo Martins; Gama, Francisco Miguel; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2015-02-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) is used in different fields as a biological material due to its unique properties. Despite there being many BC applications, there still remain many problems associated with bioprocess technology, such as increasing productivity and decreasing production cost. New technologies that use waste from the food industry as raw materials for culture media promote economic advantages because they reduce environmental pollution and stimulate new research for science sustainability. For this reason, BC production requires optimized conditions to increase its application. The main objective of this study was to evaluate BC production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus using industry waste, namely, rotten fruits and milk whey, as culture media. Furthermore, the structure of BC produced at different conditions was also determined. The culture media employed in this study were composed of rotten fruit collected from the disposal of free markets, milk whey from a local industrial disposal, and their combination, and Hestrin and Schramm media was used as standard culture media. Although all culture media studied produced BC, the highest BC yield-60 mg/mL-was achieved with the rotten fruit culture. Thus, the results showed that rotten fruit can be used for BC production. This culture media can be considered as a profitable alternative to generate high-value products. In addition, it combines environmental concern with sustainable processes that can promote also the reduction of production cost. PMID:25472434

  18. Listening to Puns Elicits the Co-Activation of Alternative Homophone Meanings during Language Production

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Sebastian Benjamin; Spalek, Katharina; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lexical-semantic activation spread during language production can be dynamically shaped by contextual factors. In this study we investigated whether semantic processing modes can also affect lexical-semantic activation during word production. Specifically, we tested whether the processing of linguistic ambiguities, presented in the form of puns, has an influence on the co-activation of unrelated meanings of homophones in a subsequent language production task. In a picture-word interference paradigm with word distractors that were semantically related or unrelated to the non-depicted meanings of homophones we found facilitation induced by related words only when participants listened to puns before object naming, but not when they heard jokes with unambiguous linguistic stimuli. This finding suggests that a semantic processing mode of ambiguity perception can induce the co-activation of alternative homophone meanings during speech planning. PMID:26114942

  19. Listening to Puns Elicits the Co-Activation of Alternative Homophone Meanings during Language Production.

    PubMed

    Rose, Sebastian Benjamin; Spalek, Katharina; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lexical-semantic activation spread during language production can be dynamically shaped by contextual factors. In this study we investigated whether semantic processing modes can also affect lexical-semantic activation during word production. Specifically, we tested whether the processing of linguistic ambiguities, presented in the form of puns, has an influence on the co-activation of unrelated meanings of homophones in a subsequent language production task. In a picture-word interference paradigm with word distractors that were semantically related or unrelated to the non-depicted meanings of homophones we found facilitation induced by related words only when participants listened to puns before object naming, but not when they heard jokes with unambiguous linguistic stimuli. This finding suggests that a semantic processing mode of ambiguity perception can induce the co-activation of alternative homophone meanings during speech planning. PMID:26114942

  20. Biohydrogen and biomethane production sustained by untreated matrices and alternative application of compost waste.

    PubMed

    Arizzi, Mariaconcetta; Morra, Simone; Pugliese, Massimo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Gilardi, Gianfranco; Valetti, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    Biohydrogen and biomethane production offers many advantages for environmental protection over the fossil fuels or the existing physical-chemical methods for hydrogen and methane synthesis. The aim of this study is focused on the exploitation of several samples from the composting process: (1) a mixture of waste vegetable materials ("Mix"); (2) an unmatured compost sample (ACV15); and (3) three types of green compost with different properties and soil improver quality (ACV1, ACV2 and ACV3). These samples were tested for biohydrogen and biomethane production, thus obtaining second generation biofuels and resulting in a novel possibility to manage renewable waste biomasses. The ability of these substrates as original feed during dark fermentation was assayed anaerobically in batch, in glass bottles, in order to determine the optimal operating conditions for hydrogen and/or methane production using "Mix" or ACV1, ACV2 or ACV3 green compost and a limited amount of water. Hydrogen could be produced with a fast kinetic in the range 0.02-2.45mLH2g(-1)VS, while methane was produced with a slower kinetic in the range 0.5-8mLCH4g(-1)VS. It was observed that the composition of each sample influenced significantly the gas production. It was also observed that the addition of different water amounts play a crucial role in the development of hydrogen or methane. This parameter can be used to push towards the alternative production of one or another gas. Hydrogen and methane production was detected spontaneously from these matrices, without additional sources of nutrients or any pre-treatment, suggesting that they can be used as an additional inoculum or feed into single or two-stage plants. This might allow the use of compost with low quality as soil improver for alternative and further applications. PMID:27422046

  1. Developing tools to eradicate ecologically destructive ants on Rose Atoll: effectiveness and attractiveness of formicidal baits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, Robert; Banko, Paul; Pendleton, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A key factor contributing to the decline in the population of Pisonia grandis on Rose Atoll is an infestation of the non-native scale, Pulvinaria urbicola (Homoptera: Coccidae). Ants, in facultative relationships with scale insects, may facilitate scale population growth and increase their effect on plant hosts. Three ant species found on Rose Atoll, Tetramorium bicarinatum, T. simillimum, and Pheidole oceanica, are capable of tending Pulvinaria on Pisonia and may have contributed to the demise of the trees on the atoll. Replicated trials conducted on Rose Atoll during 17–21 March 2013 tested the effectiveness and relative attractiveness of five formicidal baits potentially to be used to eradicate these ants on the atoll. Three baits contained toxins (hydramethylnon in Amdro® and Maxforce®, indoxacarb in Provaunt®) and two baits contained an insect growth regulator (IGR; pyriproxyfen in Distance® and s-methoprene in Tango®). Amdro, Distance, and Maxforce are granular baits while Provaunt and Tango were mixed with adjuvants to form a gel-like matrix. Results varied among ant species and baits, but Provaunt was highly effective against workers of both Tetramorium species while Amdro and Maxforce were highly effective against T. simillimum and P. oceanica. Limited time on the island prevented the evaluation of the effectiveness of the IGR baits. The relative attractiveness of the baits generally mirrored their ability to kill worker ants. Tetramorium simillimum was attracted to all five baits; T. bicarinatum was attracted to Provaunt, Distance, and Tango; and P. oceanica was attracted to the three granular baits. These results and the small area of Rose Atoll suggest that island-wide application of formicidal baits may result in eradication of these ants, but an application strategy targeting all three species would more likely succeed with the use of multiple baits.

  2. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    PubMed

    Buckmaster, Tony; Dickman, Christopher R; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV) that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access. PMID:25229348

  3. Assessing Risks to Non-Target Species during Poison Baiting Programs for Feral Cats

    PubMed Central

    Buckmaster, Tony; Dickman, Christopher R.; Johnston, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV) that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access. PMID:25229348

  4. Acceptability of local made baits for oral vaccination of dogs against rabies in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Estrada, Roland; Vos, Adriaan; De Leon, RC

    2001-01-01

    Background In the Philippines, traditional mass dog vaccination campaigns have only achieved limited and transient success in dog rabies control, mainly because a large segment of the dog population is not accessible for traditional parenteral vaccination. Oral vaccination of dogs has been suggested as a supplementary method to increase the overall vaccination coverage of the dog populations involved. For this purpose, it is necessary to identify a suitable bait that is readily accepted by local dogs and that can be prepared without high costs. Materials and Methods During a field study, dog bait-acceptance of several baits, made from inexpensive local available material, was examined in the Philippines. Results Of three baits tested, chickenneck, intestine, and boiled-intestine, the latter, made from boiled sections of the larger intestine of domestic pigs, had the highest acceptance-rate: none of the dogs that were offered a bait refused it, except for two dogs that ran away when approached. Other derivatives of the boiled-intestine bait were also accepted by almost all dogs. These baits, using the serosa of the smaller intestine as bait matrix were filled with fish, beef or pork scraps. However, preparation-time was longer and the costs of bait material were higher than those for the boiled-intestine bait (0.01 U$). Conclusion The boiled-intestine bait can be produced at very low costs using locally available material and is extremely well accepted by local dogs, hence, providing a realistic opportunity to incorporate oral vaccination of dogs in the national rabies programme of the Philippines. PMID:11696244

  5. Speed of efficacy and delayed toxicity characteristics of fast-acting fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) baits.

    PubMed

    Oi, David H; Oi, Faith M

    2006-10-01

    Efficacy and speed of action of fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) baits that claim fast control of colonies were compared with a standard bait. More than 85% of red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, laboratory colonies provided bait containing the active ingredient indoxacarb died within 3 d, and all colonies were dead in 6 d. Standard bait containing hydramethylnon resulted in death of 60% of the colonies in 9 d. Bait containing spinosad did not cause colony death. Under field conditions, one-half of the areas treated with the indoxacarb bait did not have any active fire ant nests within 3 d, whereas 11 d was needed to reach the same level of control with the hydramethylnon bait. Spinosad had a maximum of 17% of the treated areas without nests after 3 d. The delay in death of S. invicta adults treated in the laboratory with the indoxacarb and spinosad baits was shorter than the standard hydramethylnon bait, which had mortality similar to the traditional delayed toxicity criterion of < 15% mortality after 24 h and > 89% mortality over the test period. Indoxacarb caused mortality of 57% at 24 h and 100% at 48 h; however, visual symptoms of toxicity were not readily observed for at least 8 h before the abrupt increase in death. Spinosad caused 96% mortality by 24 h, and initial mortality became apparent at 4 h. Time required for death of 15% of a treated population (LT15) of spinosad, indoxacarb, and hydramethylnon was 3, 9, and 16 h, respectively. Delayed toxicity characteristics of the fast-acting indoxacarb bait may be useful for the development of other fast-acting ant baits. PMID:17066807

  6. Mirex incorporation in the environment: in situ decomposition of fire ant bait and its effects on two soil macroarthropods.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, A A; Lue, K Y

    1978-01-01

    The decomposition rate of fire ant baits and the consequent leaching of the pesticide mirex from the bait were investigated for one year in three types of environments (i.e., on the ground, in the soil, and in the pond) by means of the nylon litter bag method. There was no significant difference in the decomposition rates between toxic and non-toxic baits. The bait proved to be stable and slow to decay. After one year of exposure in the field, about 75% of bait material remained in the bags that were deployed on the ground, 60% in the soil, and 25% in the pond. The removal of mirex from the bait was due to leaching from, and natural decay of the bait. The loss of mirex from the bait to the environment varied significantly among the three habitats. At the end of 12 months, mirex disappearance from baits exposed on the ground was 41.1%, in the soil 56.3%, and in the pond 83.9%. The rate of mirex loss was slower during fall and winter. The toxicities of the bait decomposed in situ for different lengths of time (12, 9, 6, 3, and 0 months) to the land isopod Armadillidium vulgare and the soil millipede oxidus gracilis were higher than the undecomposed baits. This indicated that weathered mirex baits left in the field have greater biological impact than freshly applied baits, at least on the two soil animals tested. PMID:666366

  7. The Protein Kinase A Pathway Regulates Zearalenone Production by Modulating Alternative ZEB2 Transcription.

    PubMed

    Park, Ae Ran; Fu, Minmin; Shin, Ji Young; Son, Hokyoung; Lee, Yin-Won

    2016-05-28

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic mycotoxin that is produced by several Fusarium species, including Fusarium graminearum. One of the ZEA biosynthetic genes, ZEB2, encodes two isoforms of Zeb2 by alternative transcription, forming an activator (Zeb2L-Zeb2L homooligomer) and an inhibitor (Zeb2L-Zeb2S heterodimer) that directly regulate the ZEA biosynthetic genes in F. graminearum. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) signaling regulates secondary metabolic processes in several filamentous fungi. In this study, we investigated the effects of the PKA signaling pathway on ZEA biosynthesis. Through functional analyses of PKA catalytic and regulatory subunits (CPKs and PKR), we found that the PKA pathway negatively regulates ZEA production. Genetic and biochemical evidence further demonstrated that the PKA pathway specifically represses ZEB2L transcription and also takes part in posttranscriptional regulation of ZEB2L during ZEA production. Our findings reveal the intriguing mechanism that the PKA pathway regulates secondary metabolite production by reprograming alternative transcription. PMID:26907763

  8. Lambda Station: Alternate network path forwarding for production SciDAC applications

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; DeMar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Moibenko, Alexander; Petravick, Don; Newman, Harvey; Steenberg, Conrad; Thomas, Michael; /Caltech

    2007-09-01

    The LHC era will start very soon, creating immense data volumes capable of demanding allocation of an entire network circuit for task-driven applications. Circuit-based alternate network paths are one solution to meeting the LHC high bandwidth network requirements. The Lambda Station project is aimed at addressing growing requirements for dynamic allocation of alternate network paths. Lambda Station facilitates the rerouting of designated traffic through site LAN infrastructure onto so-called 'high-impact' wide-area networks. The prototype Lambda Station developed with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach in mind will be presented. Lambda Station has been successfully integrated into the production version of the Storage Resource Manager (SRM), and deployed at US CMS Tier1 center at Fermilab, as well as at US-CMS Tier-2 site at Caltech. This paper will discuss experiences using the prototype system with production SciDAC applications for data movement between Fermilab and Caltech. The architecture and design principles of the production version Lambda Station software, currently being implemented as Java based web services, will also be presented in this paper.

  9. Pharaoh ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) colony development after consumption of pyriproxyfen baits.

    PubMed

    Vail, K M; Williams, D F

    1995-12-01

    Pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis (L.), colonies were effectively controlled following ingestion of pyriproxyfen formulated in peanut butter oil. Pyriproxyfen, a juvenile hormone analog, reduced egg production in the queens, decreased the amount of brood due to delayed death in the eggs and larvae, caused death of pupae about 3 wk after treatment, and decreased the number of workers due to attrition and toxic effects. Queens, which continued to produce a small amount of eggs, eventually died. Queen death may have been caused by lack of workers required to tend them, old age or toxic effects. At concentrations of 0.25, 0.5 and 1%, pyriproxyfen was more effective than the once commercially available bait, Pharorid (methoprene) for the control of the Pharaoh ant. PMID:8537545

  10. MAG4 Versus Alternative Techniques for Forecasting Active-Region Flare Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free-magnetic-energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region's major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the "Present MAG4" technique and each of three alternative techniques, called "McIntosh Active-Region Class," "Total Magnetic Flux," and "Next MAG4." We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major-flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique-performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4).

  11. Evaluation of the environmental performance of alternatives for polystyrene production in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Adriana Petrella; da Silva, Gil Anderi; Kulay, Luiz

    2015-11-01

    The global demand for polystyrene is supposed to reach an overall baseline of 23.5 million tons by 2020. The market has experienced the effects of such growth, especially regarding the environmental performance of the production processes. In Brazil, renewable assets have been used to overcome the adverse consequences of this expansion. This study evaluates this issue for the production of Brazilian polystyrene resins, general-purpose polystyrene (GPPS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS). The effects of replacing fossil ethylene with a biobased alternative are also investigated. Life Cycle Assessment is applied for ten scenarios, with different technological approaches for renewable ethylene production and an alternative for obtaining bioethanol, which considers the export of electricity. The fossil GPPS and HIPS show a better performance than the partially renewable sources in terms of Climate Change (CC), Terrestrial Acidification (TA), Photochemical Oxidant Formation (POF), and Water Depletion (WD). The exception is Fossil Depletion (FD), a somewhat predictable result. The main environmental loads associated with the renewable options are related to the sugarcane production. Polybutadiene fails to provide greater additional impact to HIPS when compared to GPPS. With regard to obtaining ethylene from ethanol, Adiabatic Dehydration (AD) technology consumes less sugarcane than Adiabatic Dehydration at High Pressure (ADHP), which leads to gains in TA and POF. In contrast, ADHP was more eco-friendly for WD because of its lower water losses and in terms of CC because of the advantageous balance of fossil CO2(eq) at the agricultural stage and the lower consumption of natural gas in ethylene production. The electricity export is an auspicious environmental opportunity because it can counterbalance some of the negative impacts associated with the renewable route. According to a "cradle-to-grave" perspective, the partially renewable resins show a more favorable balance of

  12. Effects of carbaryl-bran bait on trap-catch and seed predation by ground beetles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbaryl-bran bait is effective against grasshoppers without many impacts on non-target organisms, but ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) may be susceptible to these baits. Carabids are beneficial in agricultural settings as predators of insect pests and weed seeds. Carabid species composition a...

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF BAIT SPRAYS ON BORDER WINDBREAKS FOR POPULATION SUPPRESSION OF BACTROCERA SPP. IN PAPAYA ORCHARDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is standard practice to apply bait sprays to plants bordering a host crop area, and not to the host crop itself, for suppression of melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), populations. In contrast, bait spray applications for suppression of oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis (Hendel), popula...

  14. DYNAMICS ON PH OF PROTEINACEOUS BAIT SYSTEMS FOR USE IN ATTRACTING FRUIT FLIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with synthetic food-based lures that include blends of ammonia, either as ammonium acetate or ammonium bicarbonate, and putrescine capture a number of Anastrepha and Bactrocera species fruit flies. However, for many of these species, more flies are captured in traps baited with the pro...

  15. Development of an antimycin-impregnated bait for controlling common carp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Luoma, J.A.; Marking, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    The common carp Cyprinus carpio is a major problem for fisheries and wildlife managers because its feeding behavior causes degradation of valuable fish and waterfowl habitat. This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of an antimycin-impregnated bait for control of common carp. The toxic bait contained fish meal, a binder, antimycin, and water. The ingredients were mixed together and made into pellets. This bait was force-fed to common carp or administered in a pond environment, where fish voluntarily fed on the bait. The lowest lethal dose in the forcefeeding study was 0.346 mg antimycin/kg of fish and doses that exceeded 0.811 mg antimycin/kg were toxic to all fish. On three occasions, adult common carp held in 0.004-ha concrete ponds were offered 10 g of toxic bait containing 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg antimycin/g of bait and the mean mortalities 96 h later were 21, 35, and 51%, respectively. Three tests were conducted in 0.04-ha earthen ponds each containing 100 adult common carp; these fish were offered 50 g of the toxic bait that contained 10 mg antimycin/g, and the mean mortalities (96 h) were 19, 32, and 74%. Toxic baits should be used in conjunction with other management techniques, and only when common carp are congregated and actively feeding, and when few nontarget bottom- feeding species are present.

  16. Honeydew and insecticide-bait as competing food resources for a fruit fly and common parasitoids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honeydew from phloem-feeding insects and fruit fly insecticidal baits may both serve as adult food resources for some insect species. In California olive orchards the black scale, Saissetia oleae (Olivier), is a common honeydew-producer, while spinosad-based fruit fly bait (GF-120) is used to contro...

  17. IMPACT OF TEMPERATURE ON PLUM CURCULIO RESPONSES TO ODOR-BAITED TRAPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2005, captures of overwintered adult plum curculio, Conotrachelus nemuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in standard black masonite pyramid traps baited with known attractants did not result in significant captures compared with unbaited traps as they had in 2003 and 2004. These baits inc...

  18. Detrimental effects of highly efficient interference competition: invasive Argentine ants outcompete native ants at toxic baits.

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Bennett, Gary W

    2008-06-01

    The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) is an invasive species that disrupts the balance of natural ecosystems by displacing indigenous ant species throughout its introduced range. Previous studies that examined the mechanisms by which Argentine ants attain ecological dominance showed that superior interference and exploitation competition are key to the successful displacement of native ant species. The objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that effective interference competition by Argentine ants may also be detrimental to the survival of Argentine ant colonies where Argentine ants and native ants compete at toxic baits used to slow the spread of Argentine ants. To study this hypothesis, we examined the competitive interactions between Argentine ants and native odorous house ants, Tapinoma sessile, in the presence and absence of toxic baits. Results showed that Argentine ants aggressively outcompete T. sessile from toxic baits through efficient interference competition and monopolize bait resources. This has severe negative consequences for the survival of Argentine ants as colonies succumb to the toxic effects of the bait. In turn, T. sessile avoid areas occupied by Argentine ants, give up baits, and consequently suffer minimal mortality. Our results provide experimental evidence that highly efficient interference competition may have negative consequences for Argentine ants in areas where toxic baits are used and may provide a basis for designing innovative management programs for Argentine ants. Such programs would have the double benefit of selectively eliminating the invasive species while simultaneously protecting native ants from the toxic effects of baits. PMID:18559180

  19. Biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources by Neurospora crassa: an alternative to conventional yeast fermentations?

    PubMed

    Dogaris, Ioannis; Mamma, Diomi; Kekos, Dimitris

    2013-02-01

    Microbial production of ethanol might be a potential route to replace oil and chemical feedstocks. Bioethanol is by far the most common biofuel in use worldwide. Lignocellulosic biomass is the most promising renewable resource for fuel bioethanol production. Bioconversion of lignocellulosics to ethanol consists of four major unit operations: pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and product separation/distillation. Conventional bioethanol processes for lignocellulosics apply commercial fungal cellulase enzymes for biomass hydrolysis, followed by yeast fermentation of resulting glucose to ethanol. The fungus Neurospora crassa has been used extensively for genetic, biochemical, and molecular studies as a model organism. However, the strain's potential in biotechnological applications has not been widely investigated and discussed. The fungus N. crassa has the ability to synthesize and secrete all three enzyme types involved in cellulose hydrolysis as well as various enzymes for hemicellulose degradation. In addition, N. crassa has been reported to convert to ethanol hexose and pentose sugars, cellulose polymers, and agro-industrial residues. The combination of these characteristics makes N. crassa a promising alternative candidate for biotechnological production of ethanol from renewable resources. This review consists of an overview of the ethanol process from lignocellulosic biomass, followed by cellulases and hemicellulases production, ethanol fermentations of sugars and lignocellulosics, and industrial application potential of N. crassa. PMID:23318834

  20. New biofuel alternatives: integrating waste management and single cell oil production.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Elia Judith; Raghavan, Vijaya; González-Andrés, Fernando; Gómez, Xiomar

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased research efforts into alternatives in bio-based processes. With regard to transport fuel, bioethanol and biodiesel are still the main biofuels used. It is expected that future production of these biofuels will be based on processes using either non-food competing biomasses, or characterised by low CO₂ emissions. Many microorganisms, such as microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under special culture conditions. Microbial oils might become one of the potential feed-stocks for biodiesel production in the near future. The use of these oils is currently under extensive research in order to reduce production costs associated with the fermentation process, which is a crucial factor to increase economic feasibility. An important way to reduce processing costs is the use of wastes as carbon sources. The aim of the present review is to describe the main aspects related to the use of different oleaginous microorganisms for lipid production and their performance when using bio-wastes. The possibilities for combining hydrogen (H₂) and lipid production are also explored in an attempt for improving the economic feasibility of the process. PMID:25918941

  1. New Biofuel Alternatives: Integrating Waste Management and Single Cell Oil Production

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Elia Judith; Raghavan, Vijaya; González-Andrés, Fernando; Gómez, Xiomar

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased research efforts into alternatives in bio-based processes. With regard to transport fuel, bioethanol and biodiesel are still the main biofuels used. It is expected that future production of these biofuels will be based on processes using either non-food competing biomasses, or characterised by low CO2 emissions. Many microorganisms, such as microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under special culture conditions. Microbial oils might become one of the potential feed-stocks for biodiesel production in the near future. The use of these oils is currently under extensive research in order to reduce production costs associated with the fermentation process, which is a crucial factor to increase economic feasibility. An important way to reduce processing costs is the use of wastes as carbon sources. The aim of the present review is to describe the main aspects related to the use of different oleaginous microorganisms for lipid production and their performance when using bio-wastes. The possibilities for combining hydrogen (H2) and lipid production are also explored in an attempt for improving the economic feasibility of the process. PMID:25918941

  2. Alternative Eukaryotic Expression Systems for the Production of Proteins and Protein Complexes.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Sara; López-Estepa, Miguel; Fernández, Francisco J; Suárez, Teresa; Vega, M Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Besides the most established expression hosts, several eukaryotic microorganisms and filamentous fungi have also been successfully used as platforms for the production of foreign proteins. Filamentous fungi and Dictyostelium discoideum are two prominent examples. Filamentous fungi, typically Aspergillus and Trichoderma, are usually employed for the industrial production of enzymes and secondary metabolites for food processing, pharmaceutical drugs production, and textile and paper applications, with multiple products already accepted for their commercialization. The low cost of culture medium components, high secretion capability directly to the extracellular medium, and the intrinsic ability to produce post-translational modifications similar to the mammalian type, have promoted this group as successful hosts for the expression of proteins, including examples from phylogenetically distant groups: humans proteins such as IL-2, IL-6 or epithelial growth factor; α-galactosidase from plants; or endoglucanase from Cellulomonas fimi, among others. D. discoideum is a social amoeba that can be used as an expression platform for a variety of proteins, which has been extensively illustrated for cytoskeletal proteins. New vectors for heterologous expression in D. discoideum have been recently developed that might increase the usefulness of this system and expand the range of protein classes that can be tackled. Continuous developments are ongoing to improve strains, promoters, production and downstream processes for filamentous fungi, D. discoideum, and other alternative eukaryotic hosts. Either for the overexpression of individual genes, or in the coexpression of multiples genes, this chapter illustrates the enormous possibilities offered by these groups of eukaryotic organisms. PMID:27165325

  3. 21 CFR 610.68 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 610.68 Section 610.68 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.68 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. (a) The appropriate FDA...

  4. 21 CFR 610.68 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 610.68 Section 610.68 Food and Drugs... BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.68 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. (a) The appropriate FDA...

  5. 21 CFR 610.68 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 610.68 Section 610.68 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.68 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. (a) The appropriate FDA...

  6. 21 CFR 610.68 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 610.68 Section 610.68 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.68 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. (a) The appropriate FDA...

  7. 21 CFR 610.68 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 610.68 Section 610.68 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.68 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for biological products held by the Strategic National Stockpile. (a) The appropriate FDA...

  8. 21 CFR 809.11 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 809.11... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN USE Labeling § 809.11 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the...

  9. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected...

  10. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected...

  11. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?...

  12. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?...

  13. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must...

  14. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must...

  15. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected...

  16. 21 CFR 809.11 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 809.11... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN USE Labeling § 809.11 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the...

  17. 21 CFR 809.11 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 809.11... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN USE Labeling § 809.11 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the...

  18. 21 CFR 809.11 - Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the Strategic National Stockpile. 809.11... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IN VITRO DIAGNOSTIC PRODUCTS FOR HUMAN USE Labeling § 809.11 Exceptions or alternatives to labeling requirements for in vitro diagnostic products for human use held by the...

  19. Polyacrylamide hydrogels: an effective tool for delivering liquid baits to pest ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Buczkowski, Grzegorz; Roper, Elray; Chin, Darren

    2014-04-01

    Ant management in urban and natural areas often relies on toxic baits. Liquid baits are highly attractive to pest ants because they mimic natural food sources such as honeydew and nectar, the principal dietary components of many ants. However, liquid bait use has been limited owing to the lack of bait dispensers that are effective, inexpensive, and easy to service. The current study evaluated the potential of water-storing crystals (polyacrylamide spheres) to effectively deliver liquid thiamethoxam baits to laboratory colonies of Argentine ants, Linepithema humile Mayr. Results of laboratory trials show that bait crystals saturated in 25% sucrose solution containing 0.007% thiamethoxam are highly attractive to Argentine ants and highly effective against all castes and life stages, including workers, queens, and brood. Fresh bait crystals were highly effective and required approximately 2 d to kill all workers and approximately 6 d to achieve complete mortality in queens and brood. Results of bait aging tests show that the crystals lose approximately 70% of moisture in 8 h and the duration of outdoor exposure has a significant effect on moisture loss and subsequently bait acceptance and bait efficacy. A gradual decrease in mortality was observed for all castes and life stages as bait age increased. In general, fresh baits and those aged for < 8 h retained their efficacy and caused substantial mortality. Baits aged longer than 8 h were substantially less attractive and less effective. Horizontal transfer tests examined the transfer of thiamethoxam from live treated donors to live untreated recipients. The results show that donor ants that obtain thiamethoxam by feeding on bait crystals effectively transfer it to untreated recipient ants. The level of secondary mortality depended on the donor:recipient ratio, with approximately 40% recipient worker mortality with the 1:5 ratio and 15% recipient worker mortality with 1:10 or 1:20 ratios. However, no queens died in any

  20. Women's attitudes towards the use of complementary and alternative medicine products during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Frawley, J; Sibbritt, D; Broom, A; Gallois, C; Steel, A; Adams, J

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse women's attitudes towards the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) products during pregnancy. The study sample was obtained via the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health or ALSWH. A response rate of 79.2% (n = 1,835) was attained. Women who use herbal medicines (34.5%, n = 588) view CAM as a preventative measure, are looking for something holistic and are concerned about evidence of clinical efficacy when considering the use of these products during pregnancy. Women who use aromatherapy (17.4%, n = 319) and homoeopathy (13.3%, n = 244) want more personal control over their body and are concerned more about their own personal experience of the efficacy of CAM than clinical evidence of efficacy. As CAM use in pregnancy appears to be increasingly commonplace, insights into women's attitudes towards CAM are valuable for maternity healthcare providers. PMID:26472482

  1. Oral rabies vaccination of red foxes and golden jackals in Israel: preliminary bait evaluation.

    PubMed

    Linhart, S B; King, R; Zamir, S; Naveh, U; Davidson, M; Perl, S

    1997-12-01

    Field trials were conducted in late April to early May of 1995 and 1996 in central Israel to assess the potential for controlling rabies in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackals (Canis aureus) by using vaccine-laden baits. Of the bait types which were field tested, polymer fish meal baits were selected as the most suitable for both species. Fish meal baits containing tetracycline hydrochloride, an oral biomarker, were distributed by four-wheel-drive vehicle at a density of approximately 30 baits/km2 in two test areas of 35 km2. Of the animals which were trapped and euthanized seven to ten days after treatment, 65% of foxes and 56% of jackals gave positive results when tested for the biomarker. These results indicate the potential effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination of these species in Israel and possibly elsewhere in the Middle East, where rabies is a problem in wild canids. PMID:9567312

  2. MSWT-01, an alternative in combining Production Based Education (PBE) and student CSR program in Polman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananto, Gamawan; Setiawan, Albertus B.; Z, Darman M.

    2014-06-01

    MSWT-01, Mobile Surface Water Treatment, producing 1m3 per hour, is an alternative for providing clean water in flood disaster areas, and was developed at Bandung State Polytechnic for Manufacturing (Polman) as a part of institution research project. The combination of cartridge or membrane technology such as carbon block, MF, UF and filtration media is used for this machine, instead of coagulation-flocculation with chemical addition, due to emergency purposes related with its treatment processing time. The idea is that MSWT could be combined with Production Based Education (PBE) concept in Polman as a vocational education institution and students 'CSR', students social activities. With the number of implementation trials in real flood area condition, MSWT will be developed further based on the technical output result. The manufacturing process for improving or adding necessary features could be implemented as a student's project in PBE system. This might be an ideal combination alternative for such vocational institution that students get the product media for their PBE program and implement their work as a defined social activity. They will learn and experience related technical matters and more social interactions with the people and other disaster stakeholder as well.

  3. Biomarkers of Subclinical Atherosclerosis and Natural Products as Complementary Alternative Medicine.

    PubMed

    Klafke, Jonatas Zeni; Porto, Fernando Garcez; de Almeida, Amanda Spring; Parisi, Mariana Migliorini; Hirsch, Gabriela Elisa; Trevisan, Gabriela; Viecili, Paulo Ricardo Nazário

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are considered the leading cause of morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases in the world. In addition, about 20% of first and recurrent acute myocardial infarctions (MI) are silent. In this context, subclinical atherosclerosis culminates in evident CVD, through the evolution of early risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and others. The main problem in CVD is related to the long-time between the start of the subclinical atherosclerosis and the manifestation of the disease. The identification of subjects at risk of such events is obviously substantial, since identification leads to implementation and compliance with effective preventive measures that reduce such risk. In this sense, this review demonstrates biomarkers as an alternative to early detection of subclinical atherosclerosis. One of the proposed biomarkers is the Ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), being considered a promising biochemical biomarker for atherosclerotic conditions. Another marker that is gaining strength and is associated with the IMA are the advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), its measurement provides information on the level of exposure to potentially harmful changes to proteins and metabolic control. And last but not least we have nitric oxide as an early marker mainly related to endothelial dysfunction. In this review also is evidenced the use of the Campomanesia xanthocarpa, a plant native to southern region from Brazil extensively used as complementary and alternative medicine, and natural products to reduce protein oxidation and improve the availability of nitric oxide and consequently vascular function, reducing the risk for development of CVD. PMID:26561067

  4. Efficient and cost-reduced glucoamylase fed-batch production with alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongzhen; Liu, Han; He, Zhenni; Zhou, Cong; Shi, Zhongping

    2015-02-01

    Glucoamylase is an important industrial enzyme. Glucoamylase production by industrial Aspergillus niger strain featured with two major problems: (i) empirical substrate feeding methods deteriorating the fermentation performance; and (ii) the high raw materials cost limiting the economics of the glucoamylase product with delegated specification. In this study, we first proposed a novel three-stage varied-rate substrate feeding strategy for efficient glucoamylase production in a 5 L bioreactor using the standard feeding medium, by comparing the changing patterns of the important physiological parameters such as DO, OUR, RQ, etc., when using different substrate feeding strategies. With this strategy, the glucoamylase activity and productivity reached higher levels of 11,000 U/ml and 84.6 U/ml/h, respectively. The performance enhancement in this case was beneficial from the following results: DO and OUR could be controlled at the higher levels (30%, 43.83 mmol/l/h), while RQ was maintained at a stable/lower level of 0.60 simultaneously throughout the fed-batch phase. Based on this three-stage varied-rate substrate feeding strategy, we further evaluated the economics of using alternative carbon sources, attempting to reduce the raw materials cost. The results revealed that cornstarch hydrolysate could be considered as the best carbon source to replace the standard and expensive feeding medium. In this case, the production cost of the glucoamylase with delegated specification (5,000 U/ml) could be saved by more than 61% while the product quality be ensured simultaneously. The proposed strategy showed application potential in improving the economics of industrial glucoamylase production. PMID:25262682

  5. Experimental Study of Entropy Production in Cells under Alternating Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Chang-Jiang; Luo, Liao-Fu

    2012-08-01

    We put forward a new method for measuring the entropy production in the living cell. It involves heating the sample by alternating the electric field and recording the outward heat flow. The entropy production in a normal cell MCF10A and a cancerous cell MDA-MB-231 were measured and compared. The results show that the method is effective for the entropy measurement of a living organism. The scaled electro-induced entropy production rate (SEEP) of MDA-MB-231 monotonically increases with the electric field strength at 5-40 V/cm. While that of MCF10A changes non-monotonically and there exists a peak at 5-30 V/cm. The electro-induced entropy production ratio (EEPR) is smaller than 1 in a large range of field strengths, from 5 to 25 V/cm, which reveals that under 5-25 V/cm electric field exposure, the direction of the entropy flow may be changed from normal tissue to cancerous cells. We present a facile and effective strategy for experimentally investigating the thermodynamic properties of the cell and give a deeper insight into the physical difference between normal and cancerous cells under electric field exposure.

  6. Wheat straw degradation and production of alternative substrates for nitrogenase of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Dziga, Dariusz; Jagiełło-Flasińska, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose is a major component of plant biomass and could be applied in the production of biofuels, especially bioethanol. An alternative approach is production of a clean fuel - hydrogen from cellulosic biomass. In this paper an innovatory model of cellulosic waste degradation has been proposed to verify the possibility of utilization of cellulose derivatives by purple non-sulfur bacteria. The concept is based on a two-step process of wheat straw conversion by bacteria in order to obtain an organic acid mixture. In the next stage such products are consumed by Rhodobacter sphaeroides, the known producer of hydrogen. It has been documented that Cellulomonas uda expresses cellulolytic activity in the presence of wheat straw as an only source of carbon. R. sphaeroides applied in this research can effectively consume organic acids released from straw by C. uda and Lactobacillus rhamnosus and is able to grow in the presence of these substrates. Additionally, an increased nitrogenase activity of R. sphaeroides has been indicated when bacteria were cultivated in the presence of cellulose derivatives which suggests that hydrogen production occurs. PMID:26192769

  7. Expression of the alternative oxidase mitigates beta-amyloid production and toxicity in model systems.

    PubMed

    El-Khoury, Riyad; Kaulio, Eveliina; Lassila, Katariina A; Crowther, Damian C; Jacobs, Howard T; Rustin, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely associated with the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, but there is no consensus on whether it is a cause or consequence of disease, nor on the precise mechanism(s). We addressed these issues by testing the effects of expressing the alternative oxidase AOX from Ciona intestinalis, in different models of AD pathology. AOX can restore respiratory electron flow when the cytochrome segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is inhibited, supporting ATP synthesis, maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and mitigating excess superoxide production at respiratory complexes I and III. In human HEK293-derived cells, AOX expression decreased the production of beta-amyloid peptide resulting from antimycin inhibition of respiratory complex III. Because hydrogen peroxide was neither a direct product nor substrate of AOX, the ability of AOX to mimic antioxidants in this assay must be indirect. In addition, AOX expression was able to partially alleviate the short lifespan of Drosophila models neuronally expressing human beta-amyloid peptides, whilst abrogating the induction of markers of oxidative stress. Our findings support the idea of respiratory chain dysfunction and excess ROS production as both an early step and as a pathologically meaningful target in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, supporting the concept of a mitochondrial vicious cycle underlying the disease. PMID:27094492

  8. Alternative acetate production pathways in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during dark anoxia and the dominant role of chloroplasts in fermentative acetate production.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenqiang; Catalanotti, Claudia; D'Adamo, Sarah; Wittkopp, Tyler M; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl J; Mackinder, Luke; Miller, Tarryn E; Heuberger, Adam L; Peers, Graham; Smith, Kerry S; Jonikas, Martin C; Grossman, Arthur R; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2014-11-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii insertion mutants disrupted for genes encoding acetate kinases (EC 2.7.2.1) (ACK1 and ACK2) and a phosphate acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.8) (PAT2, but not PAT1) were isolated to characterize fermentative acetate production. ACK1 and PAT2 were localized to chloroplasts, while ACK2 and PAT1 were shown to be in mitochondria. Characterization of the mutants showed that PAT2 and ACK1 activity in chloroplasts plays a dominant role (relative to ACK2 and PAT1 in mitochondria) in producing acetate under dark, anoxic conditions and, surprisingly, also suggested that Chlamydomonas has other pathways that generate acetate in the absence of ACK activity. We identified a number of proteins associated with alternative pathways for acetate production that are encoded on the Chlamydomonas genome. Furthermore, we observed that only modest alterations in the accumulation of fermentative products occurred in the ack1, ack2, and ack1 ack2 mutants, which contrasts with the substantial metabolite alterations described in strains devoid of other key fermentation enzymes. PMID:25381350

  9. MAG4 versus Alternative Techniques for Forecasting Active-Region Flare Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, David; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-06-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free-magnetic-energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region’s major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the “Present MAG4” technique and each of three alternative techniques, called “McIntosh Active-Region Class,” “Total Magnetic Flux,” and “Next MAG4.” We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major-flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique-performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4). Funding for this research came from NASA’s Game Changing Development Program, Johnson Space Center’s Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), and AFOSR’s Multi-University Research Initiative. In particular, funding was facilitated by Dr. Dan Fry (NASA-JSC) and David Moore (NASA-LaRC).

  10. MAG4 versus alternative techniques for forecasting active region flare productivity

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, David A; Moore, Ronald L; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free magnetic energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region's major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the “Present MAG4” technique and each of three alternative techniques, called “McIntosh Active-Region Class,” “Total Magnetic Flux,” and “Next MAG4.” We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4). Key Points Quantitative comparison of performance of pairs of forecasting techniques Next MAG4 forecasts major flares more accurately than Present MAG4 Present MAG4 forecast outperforms McIntosh AR Class and total magnetic flux PMID:26213517