Science.gov

Sample records for alternative cell source

  1. Placenta-an alternative source of stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Matikainen, Tiina; Laine, Jarmo . E-mail: jarmo.laine@bts.redcoss.fi

    2005-09-01

    The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst is destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications.

  2. Placenta--an alternative source of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Matikainen, Tiina; Laine, Jarmo

    2005-09-01

    The two most promising practical applications of human stem cells are cellular replacement therapies in human disease and toxicological screening of candidate drug molecules. Both require a source of human stem cells that can be isolated, purified, expanded in number and differentiated into the cell type of choice in a controlled manner. Currently, uses of both embryonic and adult stem cells are investigated. While embryonic stem cells are pluripotent and can differentiate into any specialised cell type, their use requires establishment of embryonic stem cell lines using the inner cell mass of an early pre-implantation embryo. As the blastocyst is destroyed during the process, ethical issues need to be carefully considered. The use of embryonic stem cells is also limited by the difficulties in growing large numbers of the cells without inducing spontaneous differentiation, and the problems in controlling directed differentiation of the cells. The use of adult stem cells, typically derived from bone marrow, but also from other tissues, is ethically non-controversial but their differentiation potential is more limited than that of the embryonic stem cells. Since human cord blood, umbilical cord, placenta and amnion are normally discarded at birth, they provide an easily accessible alternative source of stem cells. We review the potential and current status of the use of adult stem cells derived from the placenta or umbilical cord in therapeutic and toxicological applications. PMID:15990135

  3. Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolbank, Susanne; van Griensven, Martijn; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina; Peterbauer-Scherb, Anja

    Human amniotic membrane is a highly promising cell source for tissue engineering. The cells thereof, human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) and human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSC), may be immunoprivileged, they represent an early developmental status, and their application is ethically uncontroversial. Cell banking strategies may use freshly isolated cells or involve in vitro expansion to increase cell numbers. Therefore, we have thoroughly characterized the effect of in vitro cultivation on both phenotype and differentiation potential of hAEC. Moreover, we present different strategies to improve expansion including replacement of animal-derived supplements by human platelet products or the introduction of the catalytic subunit of human telomerase to extend the in vitro lifespan of amniotic cells. Characterization of the resulting cultures includes phenotype, growth characteristics, and differentiation potential, as well as immunogenic and immunomodulatory properties.

  4. Alternative sources of pluripotency: science, ethics, and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kastenberg, Zachary J; Odorico, Jon S

    2008-07-01

    Despite many advances in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) technology the ethical dilemma involving the destruction of a human embryo is one factor that has limited the development of hESC based clinical therapies. Two recent reports describing the production of pluripotent stem cells following the in vitro reprogramming of human somatic cells with certain defined factors illustrate one potential method of bypassing the ethical debate surrounding hESCs (Yu J, Vodyanik MA, Smuga-Otto K, et al. Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from human somatic cells. Science. 2007 Dec;318(5858):1917-1920; Takahashi K, Tanabe K, Ohnuki M, et al. Induction of pluripotent stem cells from adult human fibroblasts by defined factors. Cell. 2007 Nov;131(5): 861-872.). Other alternative methods include nuclear transfer, altered nuclear transfer, and parthenogenesis; each with its own set of advantages and disadvantages. This review discusses recent advances in these technologies with specific focus on the issues of embryo destruction, oocyte recovery, and the potential of each technology to produce large scale, patient specific cell transplantation therapies that would require little or no immunosuppression. PMID:18631882

  5. Alternative Sources of Energy - An Introduction to Fuel Cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merewether, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Fuel cells are important future sources of electrical power and could contribute to a reduction in the amount of petroleum imported by the United States. They are electrochemical devices similar to a battery and consist of a container, an anode, a cathode, catalysts, an intervening electrolyte, and an attached electrical circuit. In most fuel cell systems, hydrogen is supplied to the anode and oxygen to the cathode which results in the production of electricity, water, and heat. Fuel cells are comparatively efficient and reliable, have no moving parts, operate without combustion, and are modular and scale-able. Their size and shape are flexible and adaptable. In operation, they are nearly silent, are relatively safe, and generally do not pollute the environment. During recent years, scientists and engineers have developed and refined technologies relevant to a variety of fuel cells. Types of fuel cells are commonly identified by the composition of their electrolyte, which could be either phosphoric acid, an alkaline solution, a molten carbonate, a solid metal oxide, or a solid polymer membrane. The electrolyte in stationary power plants could be phosphoric acid, molten carbonates, or solid metal oxides. For vehicles and smaller devices, the electrolyte could be an alkaline solution or a solid polymer membrane. For most fuel cell systems, the fuel is hydrogen, which can be extracted by several procedures from many hydrogen-bearing substances, including alcohols, natural gas (mainly methane), gasoline, and water. There are important and perhaps unresolved technical problems associated with using fuel cells to power vehicles. The catalysts required in several systems are expensive metals of the platinum group. Moreover, fuel cells can freeze and not work in cold weather and can be damaged by impacts. Storage tanks for the fuels, particularly hydrogen, must be safe, inexpensive, of a reasonable size, and contain a supply sufficient for a trip of several hundred miles

  6. Dental stem cells as an alternative source for cardiac regeneration.

    PubMed

    Xin, Loo Zhang; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Musa, Sabri; Abu Kasim, Noor Hayaty

    2013-10-01

    Dental tissues contains stem cells or progenitors that have high proliferative capacity, are clonogenic in vitro and demonstrate the ability to differentiate to multiple type cells involving neurons, bone, cartilage, fat and smooth muscle. Numerous experiments have demonstrated that the multipotent stem cells are not rejected by immune system and therefore it may be possible to use these cells in allogeneic settings. In addition, these remarkable cells are easily abundantly available couple with less invasive procedure in isolating comparing to bone marrow aspiration. Here we proposed dental stem cells as candidate for cardiac regeneration based on its immature characteristic and propensity towards cardiac lineage via PI3-Kinase/Aktsignalling pathway. PMID:23932760

  7. A bioelectrolyte cell — an alternate source of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai Kumar, A.; Kolli, Naveen

    An electrochemical cell is fabricated using an extract of the leaves of Ipomoea aquatica from the family Convolvulaceae as the electrolyte. To obtain a close value to the available energy density, the cell is discharged at a current drain of 1 μA and is calculated to be 1.1 Wh/kg of electrolyte. A second cell is fabricated with a paste of the leave as the electrolyte. The initial open-circuit voltage is 1.16 V. An observation is made regarding the variation of current under short-circuit condition with respect to time, which is unlike the variation observed for any other electrochemical cell. The curve features are discussed and interpreted. This observation opens a new field of interest for electrochemists, molecular biologists, botanist, etc. It is expected to signify the electrical activity associated with the majority of processes in plant metabolism. The promising feature lies in supporting devices with high voltage and low current requirements. With proper design, the cell can be employed on a larger scale to meet energy requirements.

  8. Infrapatellar Fat Pad: An Alternative Source of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Tangchitphisut, P; Srikaew, N; Numhom, S; Tangprasittipap, A; Woratanarat, P; Wongsak, S; Kijkunasathian, C; Hongeng, S; Murray, I R; Tawonsawatruk, T

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The Infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) represents an emerging alternative source of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). We compared the characteristics and differentiation capacity of ASCs isolated from IPFP and SC. Materials and Methods. ASCs were harvested from either IPFP or SC. IPFPs were collected from patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA), whereas subcutaneous tissues were collected from patients undergoing lipoaspiration. Immunophenotypes of surface antigens were evaluated. Their ability to form colony-forming units (CFUs) and their differentiation potential were determined. The ASCs karyotype was evaluated. Results. There was no difference in the number of CFUs and size of CFUs between IPFP and SC sources. ASCs isolated from both sources had a normal karyotype. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) markers on flow cytometry was equivalent. IPFP-ASCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of SOX-9 and RUNX-2 over ASCs isolated from SC (6.19 ± 5.56-, 0.47 ± 0.62-fold; p value = 0.047, and 17.33 ± 10.80-, 1.56 ± 1.31-fold; p value = 0.030, resp.). Discussion and Conclusion. CFU assay of IPFP-ASCs and SC-ASCs harvested by lipoaspiration technique was equivalent. The expression of key chondrogenic and osteogenic genes was increased in cells isolated from IPFP. IPFP should be considered a high quality alternative source of ASCs. PMID:27239342

  9. Infrapatellar Fat Pad: An Alternative Source of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tangchitphisut, P.; Srikaew, N.; Numhom, S.; Tangprasittipap, A.; Woratanarat, P.; Wongsak, S.; Kijkunasathian, C.; Hongeng, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The Infrapatellar fat pad (IPFP) represents an emerging alternative source of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs). We compared the characteristics and differentiation capacity of ASCs isolated from IPFP and SC. Materials and Methods. ASCs were harvested from either IPFP or SC. IPFPs were collected from patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty (TKA), whereas subcutaneous tissues were collected from patients undergoing lipoaspiration. Immunophenotypes of surface antigens were evaluated. Their ability to form colony-forming units (CFUs) and their differentiation potential were determined. The ASCs karyotype was evaluated. Results. There was no difference in the number of CFUs and size of CFUs between IPFP and SC sources. ASCs isolated from both sources had a normal karyotype. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) markers on flow cytometry was equivalent. IPFP-ASCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of SOX-9 and RUNX-2 over ASCs isolated from SC (6.19 ± 5.56-, 0.47 ± 0.62-fold; p value = 0.047, and 17.33 ± 10.80-, 1.56 ± 1.31-fold; p value = 0.030, resp.). Discussion and Conclusion. CFU assay of IPFP-ASCs and SC-ASCs harvested by lipoaspiration technique was equivalent. The expression of key chondrogenic and osteogenic genes was increased in cells isolated from IPFP. IPFP should be considered a high quality alternative source of ASCs. PMID:27239342

  10. Cell Sources, Liver Support Systems and Liver Tissue Engineering: Alternatives to Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Han Joon; Choi, Dongho

    2015-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body; it has a complex architecture, wide range of functions and unique regenerative capacity. The growing incidence of liver diseases worldwide requires increased numbers of liver transplant and leads to an ongoing shortage of donor livers. To meet the huge demand, various alternative approaches are being investigated including, hepatic cell transplantation, artificial devices and bioprinting of the organ itself. Adult hepatocytes are the preferred cell sources, but they have limited availability, are difficult to isolate, propagate poor and undergo rapid functional deterioration in vitro. There have been efforts to overcome these drawbacks; by improving culture condition for hepatocytes, providing adequate extracellular matrix, co-culturing with extra-parenchymal cells and identifying other cell sources. Differentiation of human stem cells to hepatocytes has become a major interest in the field of stem cell research and has progressed greatly. At the same time, use of decellularized organ matrices and 3 D printing are emerging cutting-edge technologies for tissue engineering, opening up new paths for liver regenerative medicine. This review provides a compact summary of the issues, and the locations of liver support systems and tissue engineering, with an emphasis on reproducible and useful sources of hepatocytes including various candidates formed by differentiation from stem cells. PMID:26019753

  11. Cell sources, liver support systems and liver tissue engineering: alternatives to liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Han Joon; Choi, Dongho

    2015-05-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body; it has a complex architecture, wide range of functions and unique regenerative capacity. The growing incidence of liver diseases worldwide requires increased numbers of liver transplant and leads to an ongoing shortage of donor livers. To meet the huge demand, various alternative approaches are being investigated including, hepatic cell transplantation, artificial devices and bioprinting of the organ itself. Adult hepatocytes are the preferred cell sources, but they have limited availability, are difficult to isolate, propagate poor and undergo rapid functional deterioration in vitro. There have been efforts to overcome these drawbacks; by improving culture condition for hepatocytes, providing adequate extracellular matrix, co-culturing with extra-parenchymal cells and identifying other cell sources. Differentiation of human stem cells to hepatocytes has become a major interest in the field of stem cell research and has progressed greatly. At the same time, use of decellularized organ matrices and 3 D printing are emerging cutting-edge technologies for tissue engineering, opening up new paths for liver regenerative medicine. This review provides a compact summary of the issues, and the locations of liver support systems and tissue engineering, with an emphasis on reproducible and useful sources of hepatocytes including various candidates formed by differentiation from stem cells. PMID:26019753

  12. Alternative fuel information sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    This short document contains a list of more than 200 US sources of information (Name, address, phone number, and sometimes contact) related to the use of alternative fuels in automobiles and trucks. Electric-powered cars are also included.

  13. Potential Use of Lime as Nitric Acid Source for Alternative Electrolyte Fuel-Cell Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianto, V.; Smarandache, Florentin

    2011-04-01

    Despite growing popularity for the use of biofuel and other similar methods to generate renewable energy sources from natural plantation in recent years, there is also growing concern over its disadvantage, i.e. that the energy use of edible plants may cause unwanted effects, because the plantation price tends to increase following the oil price. Therefore an alternative solution to this problem is to find `natural plantation' which have no direct link to `food chain' (for basic foods, such as palm oil etc.).

  14. Sourcing of an Alternative Pericyte-Like Cell Type from Peripheral Blood in Clinically Relevant Numbers for Therapeutic Angiogenic Applications

    PubMed Central

    Blocki, Anna; Wang, Yingting; Koch, Maria; Goralczyk, Anna; Beyer, Sebastian; Agarwal, Nikita; Lee, Michelle; Moonshi, Shehzahdi; Dewavrin, Jean-Yves; Peh, Priscilla; Schwarz, Herbert; Bhakoo, Kishore; Raghunath, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Autologous cells hold great potential for personalized cell therapy, reducing immunological and risk of infections. However, low cell counts at harvest with subsequently long expansion times with associated cell function loss currently impede the advancement of autologous cell therapy approaches. Here, we aimed to source clinically relevant numbers of proangiogenic cells from an easy accessible cell source, namely peripheral blood. Using macromolecular crowding (MMC) as a biotechnological platform, we derived a novel cell type from peripheral blood that is generated within 5 days in large numbers (10–40 million cells per 100 ml of blood). This blood-derived angiogenic cell (BDAC) type is of monocytic origin, but exhibits pericyte markers PDGFR-β and NG2 and demonstrates strong angiogenic activity, hitherto ascribed only to MSC-like pericytes. Our findings suggest that BDACs represent an alternative pericyte-like cell population of hematopoietic origin that is involved in promoting early stages of microvasculature formation. As a proof of principle of BDAC efficacy in an ischemic disease model, BDAC injection rescued affected tissues in a murine hind limb ischemia model by accelerating and enhancing revascularization. Derived from a renewable tissue that is easy to collect, BDACs overcome current short-comings of autologous cell therapy, in particular for tissue repair strategies. PMID:25582709

  15. Endometrial stem cell transplantation in MPTP- exposed primates: an alternative cell source for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Erin F; Mutlu, Levent; Massasa, Efi E; Elsworth, John D; Eugene Redmond, D; Taylor, Hugh S

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Cell-replacement therapies have emerged as a promising strategy to slow down or replace neuronal loss. Compared to other stem cell types, endometrium-derived stem cells (EDSCs) are an attractive source of stem cells for cellular therapies because of their ease of collection and vast differentiation potential. Here we demonstrate that endometrium-derived stem cells may be transplanted into an MPTP exposed monkey model of PD. After injection into the striatum, endometrium-derived stem cells engrafted, exhibited neuron-like morphology, expressed tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and increased the numbers of TH positive cells on the transplanted side and dopamine metabolite concentrations in vivo. Our results suggest that endometrium-derived stem cells may provide a therapeutic benefit in the primate model of PD and may be used in stem cell based therapies. PMID:25283241

  16. Alternative energy sources for agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, D.

    1981-05-01

    The following energy systems are discussed as alternative sources of energy for agriculture and potential demonstration projects in vocational agriculture programs: solar water heating, solar greenhouse heating, solar crop drying, gasification of wood or crop residues, and methane generation from livestock wastes. 13 references.

  17. Alternative nitrogen sources for cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several alternative nitrogen (N) sources, rates of N, and amendments were evaluated at Prattville, Alabama, on cotton in 2008. Nitrogen rates reported are for sidedress application only. Dry urea produced the highest yield, averaging 1100 pounds lint per acre. Ammonia volatilization was measured fr...

  18. Genetically Engineered Islets and Alternative Sources of Insulin-Producing Cells for Treating Autoimmune Diabetes: Quo Vadis?

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Feng-Cheng; Huang, Shing-Hwa; Sytwu, Huey-Kang

    2012-01-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising therapy for patients with type 1 diabetes that can provide moment-to-moment metabolic control of glucose and allow them to achieve insulin independence. However, two major problems need to be overcome: (1) detrimental immune responses, including inflammation induced by the islet isolation/transplantation procedure, recurrence autoimmunity, and allorejection, can cause graft loss and (2) inadequate numbers of organ donors. Several gene therapy approaches and pharmaceutical treatments have been demonstrated to prolong the survival of pancreatic islet grafts in animal models; however, the clinical applications need to be investigated further. In addition, for an alternative source of pancreatic β-cell replacement therapy, the ex vivo generation of insulin-secreting cells from diverse origins of stem/progenitor cells has become an attractive option in regenerative medicine. This paper focuses on the genetic manipulation of islets during transplantation therapy and summarizes current strategies to obtain functional insulin-secreting cells from stem/progenitor cells. PMID:22690214

  19. Alternative sources of pluripotent stem cells: scientific solutions to an ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mahendra; Condic, Maureen L

    2008-02-01

    Stem cell researchers in the United States have faced a quagmire of uncertainty due to multiple factors: the ethical divide over the use of embryos for research, the lack of clarity in federal guidelines governing this research, the restrictive patent situation surrounding the generation of new human embryonic stem (HES) cell lines; and the limits on types of research eligible for federal funding. In this commentary, we describe how recent advances in derivation of hES cell-like lines may allow at least some of these uncertainties to be resolved. More importantly, we suggest that the derivation of hES cell-like lines by morally acceptable methods would not only avoid the corrosive effects of a protracted ethical debate over stem cell research, but would also allow U.S. researchers to access federal funds and compete on a more level international playing field. PMID:18271697

  20. [Pollution and alternative energy sources].

    PubMed

    Melino, C

    1989-01-01

    In order to reach higher standards of living, man has always been interested in searching new energy sources. Natural energy from sun, wind and water has been overcame by more sophisticated resources such as coal, vapour, hydroelectricity, natural gas, petroleum, and, at least, nuclear energy. However all these resources present unwanted effects, namely various hazards to man and environment. On this matter society is quering the risk-benefit balance of some energy choices and optimum performance with new safety means to limit dangerousness are being pursued and developed. It is necessary to evaluate carefully every aspect of safety without under-estimating or over-evaluating problems. For each energy source a "real price" has to be paired, even more in the future, since more energy will be required to guarantee the necessary technological progress linked to a better quality of life. In the present review all risks related to different energy sources are described and discussed aiming at defining: 1) specific risks for different sources 2) benefit from their utilization 3) means of defence guaranteeing security for man and environment. Italy is strictly dependent for energy production, which comes for 80% from abroad. An appropriate balance is required considering economical and social factors and real availability of energy. This balance needs therefore to be clearly evaluated hoping in a better future for an alternative energy, less dangerous and more clear, such as that from nuclear fusion. PMID:2483087

  1. Alternate policies for alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, F.F.

    1985-09-01

    Some ''alternates within alternates'' are studied and possible improvement of our energy policies are explored. The viability of a hydrogen fuel economy is reviewed. Methanol, ethanol or ammonia versus hydrogen is one area of interest. Others include liquid hydrogen versus jet fuels, the use of geothermal, solar, wind or water energy for production of hydrogen gas versus development of deep earth supplies of natural gas is another. Energy enhancement as opposed to energy conservation is investigated with regard to polar climate and what might be done to improve natural energy balances, particularly in the northern hemisphere. Pumping Arctic Ocean water out into the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait would be an energy debit as opposed to energy gains such as biomass conversion of future plant growth throughout the Siberian and Canadian tundra regions and presently very arid desert regions, improved access to northern region fuel, metal ore and mineral resources, year-round shipping and fishing fleet operations in the Arctic Ocean and development of the tremendous Greenland hydro-electric power potential.

  2. Bovine Posterior Limbus: An Evaluation of an Alternative Source for Corneal Endothelial and Trabecular Meshwork Stem/Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wing Yan; Grierson, Ian; Sheridan, Carl; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has revealed that stem-like cells in the posterior limbus of the eye between the corneal endothelium (CE) and trabecular meshwork (TM) may be able to rejuvenate these tissues in disease. However, these cells have not been clearly defined and we have named them PET cells (progenitor cells of the endothelium and trabeculum). A good and inexpensive animal model for PET cells is lacking, so we investigated bovine eyes as an effective large tissue source. We showed the presence of stem/progenitor cells in the bovine CE, transition zone, and TM in situ. Floating spheres cultured from the CE and TM showed similar stem cell marker expression patterns. Both the CE and TM spheres were bipotent and highly proliferative, but with limited secondary sphere-forming capability. They were highly prone to differentiate back into the cell type of their tissue of origin. It is speculated that the PET cells become more tissue-specific as they migrate away from their niche. Here, we showed that PET cells are present in the posterior limbus of bovine eyes and that they can be successfully cultured and expanded. PET cells represent an attractive target for developing new treatments to regenerate both the CE and TM, thereby reducing the requirement for donor tissue for corneal transplant and invasive treatments for glaucomatous patients. PMID:25323922

  3. Potential of renewable and alternative energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, V.; Pogharnitskaya, O.; Rostovshchikova, A.; Matveenko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with application potential of clean alternative renewable energy sources. By means of system analysis the forecast for consumption of electrical energy in Tomsk Oblast as well as main energy sources of existing energy system have been studied up to 2018. Engineering potential of renewable and alternative energy sources is evaluated. Besides, ranking in the order of their efficiency descending is performed. It is concluded that Tomsk Oblast has high potential of alternative and renewable energy sources, among which the most promising development perspective is implementation of gasification stations to save fuel consumed by diesel power stations as well as building wind-power plants.

  4. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technology assessment provides an introduction to the use of several alternative energy sources at wastewater treatment plants. The report contains fact sheets (technical descriptions) and data sheets (cost and design information) for the technologies. Cost figures and schema...

  5. High-level production of recombinant trypsin in transgenic rice cell culture through utilization of an alternative carbon source and recycling system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nan-Sun; Yu, Hwa-Young; Chung, Nguyen-Duc; Kwon, Tae-Ho; Yang, Moon-Sik

    2014-09-01

    Productivity of recombinant bovine trypsin using a rice amylase 3D promoter has been studied in transgenic rice suspension culture. Alternative carbon sources were added to rice cell suspension cultures in order to improve the production of recombinant bovine trypsin. It was demonstrated that addition of alternative carbon sources such as succinic acid, fumaric acid and malic acid in the culture medium could increase the productivity of recombinant bovine trypsin 3.8-4.3-fold compared to those in the control medium without carbon sources. The highest accumulated trypsin reached 68.2 mg/L on day 5 in the culture medium with 40 mM fumaric acid. The feasibility of repeated use of the cells for recombinant trypsin production was tested in transgenic rice cell suspension culture with the culture medium containing the combination of variable sucrose concentration and 40 mM fumaric acid. Among the used combinations, the combination of 1% sucrose and 40 mM fumaric acid resulted in a yield of up to 53 mg/L five days after incubation. It also increased 31% (W/W) of dry cell weight and improved 43% of cell viability compared to that in control medium without sucrose. Based on these data, recycling of the trypsin production process with repeated 1% sucrose and 40 mM fumaric acid supplying-harvesting cycles was developed in flask scale culture. Recombinant bovine trypsin could be stably produced with a yield of up to 53-39 mg/L per cycle during five recycling cycles. PMID:25039055

  6. An alternative animal protein source: cultured beef.

    PubMed

    Post, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    Alternative sources of animal proteins are needed that can be produced efficiently, thereby providing food security with diminished ecological burden. It is feasible to culture beef from bovine skeletal muscle stem cells, but the technology is still under development. The aim is to create a beef mimic with equivalent taste, texture, and appearance and with the same nutritional value as livestock-produced beef. More specifically, there is a need for optimization of protein content and fat content. In addition, scalability of production requires modification of current small-scale bioreactors to the largest possible scale. The necessary steps and current progress suggest that this aim is achievable, but formal evidence is still required. Similarly, we can be optimistic about consumer acceptance based on initial data, but detailed studies are needed to gain more insight into potential psychological obstacles that could lead to rejection. These challenges are formidable but likely surmountable. The severity of upcoming food-security threats warrants serious research and development efforts to address the challenges that come with bringing cultured beef to the market. PMID:25376889

  7. Alternative IT Sourcing Strategies: Six Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahon, Ed; McPherson, Michael R.; Vaughan, Joseph; Rowe, Theresa; Pickett, Michael P.; Bielec, John A.

    2011-01-01

    IT leaders today must not only provide but also decide: which tools and services should they continue to supply, which are better delivered by others, and perhaps most critically, which methods from among the bewildering array of alternative sourcing strategies will best serve their faculty, staff, and students. In 2009, the EDUCAUSE Center for…

  8. Supplementing Conservation Practices with Alternative Energy Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraetsch, Gayla A.

    1981-01-01

    Universities and colleges have two major roles: to reduce their own energy consumption and costs, and to develop and test new energy options. Alternative energy sources considered include solar energy, wind power, biomass, hydropower, ocean energy, geothermal heat, coal, and nuclear energy. (MLW)

  9. Conservation as an alternative energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

  10. Alternative Funding Sources for Migrant Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Eugene

    Despite 1983 Elementary and Secondary Education ACT (ESEA) Title I federal funding of over $255 million for more than 3,000 projects for some 600,000 migrant children and youth, there is still need for alternate funding sources to overcome spiraling inflation and increasing program costs and numbers of eligible children. Other federal, state,…

  11. Alternative Radioisotopes for Heat and Power Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, T.; Sarsfield, M.; Rice, T.

    Production of 238Pu requires considerable facilities including a nuclear reactor and reprocessing plants that are very expensive to build and operate. Thus, a more economical alternative is very attractive to the industry. There are many alternative radioisotopes that exist but few that satisfy the criteria of performance, availability and cost to produce. Any alternative to 238Pu must exist in a chemical form that is compatible with the materials required to safely encapsulate the heat source at the high temperatures of operation and potential launch failure scenarios. The chemical form must also have suitable thermal properties to ensure maximum energy conversion efficiencies when integrated into radioisotope thermoelectric generators over the required mission durations. In addition, the radiation dose must be low enough for operators during production and not so prohibitive that excessive shielding mass is required on the space craft. This paper will focus on the preferred European alternative of 241Am, and the issues that will need to be addressed.

  12. Outlook for alternative energy sources. [aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Predictions are made concerning the development of alternative energy sources in the light of the present national energy situation. Particular emphasis is given to the impact of alternative fuels development on aviation fuels. The future outlook for aircraft fuels is that for the near term, there possibly will be no major fuel changes, but minor specification changes may be possible if supplies decrease. In the midterm, a broad cut fuel may be used if current development efforts are successful. As synfuel production levels increase beyond the 1990's there may be some mixtures of petroleum-based and synfuel products with the possibility of some shale distillate and indirect coal liquefaction products near the year 2000.

  13. Alternative Energy Sources in Seismic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tün, Muammer; Pekkan, Emrah; Mutlu, Sunay; Ecevitoğlu, Berkan

    2015-04-01

    When the suitability of a settlement area is investigated, soil-amplification, liquefaction and fault-related hazards should be defined, and the associated risks should be clarified. For this reason, soil engineering parameters and subsurface geological structure of a new settlement area should be investigated. Especially, faults covered with quaternary alluvium; thicknesses, shear-wave velocities and geometry of subsurface sediments could lead to a soil amplification during an earthquake. Likewise, changes in shear-wave velocities along the basin are also very important. Geophysical methods can be used to determine the local soil properties. In this study, use of alternative seismic energy sources when implementing seismic reflection, seismic refraction and MASW methods in the residential areas of Eskisehir/Turkey, were discussed. Our home developed seismic energy source, EAPSG (Electrically-Fired-PS-Gun), capable to shoot 2x24 magnum shotgun cartridges at once to generate P and S waves; and our home developed WD-500 (500 kg Weight Drop) seismic energy source, mounted on a truck, were developed under a scientific research project of Anadolu University. We were able to reach up to penetration depths of 1200 m for EAPSG, and 800 m for WD-500 in our seismic reflection surveys. WD-500 seismic energy source was also used to perform MASW surveys, using 24-channel, 10 m apart, 4.5 Hz vertical geophone configuration. We were able to reach 100 m of penetration depth in MASW surveys.

  14. 49 CFR 193.2915 - Alternative power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative power sources. 193.2915 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2915 Alternative power sources. An alternative source of power that meets the requirements of § 193.2445 must be provided for security lighting...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2915 - Alternative power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative power sources. 193.2915 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2915 Alternative power sources. An alternative source of power that meets the requirements of § 193.2445 must be provided for security lighting...

  16. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 906.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (b)(1) Every proposed...

  17. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  18. New cell sources for T cell engineering and adoptive immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Themeli, Maria; Rivière, Isabelle; Sadelain, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The promising clinical results obtained with engineered T cells, including chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy, call for further advancements to facilitate and broaden their applicability. One potentially beneficial innovation is to exploit new T cell sources that reduce the need for autologous cell manufacturing and enable cell transfer across histocompatibility barriers. Here we review emerging T cell engineering approaches that utilize alternative T cell sources, which include virus-specific or T cell receptor-less allogeneic T cells, expanded lymphoid progenitors, and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived T lymphocytes. The latter offer the prospect for true off-the-shelf, genetically enhanced, histocompatible cell therapy products. PMID:25842976

  19. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  20. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  1. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  2. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  3. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2915 - Alternative power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative power sources. 193.2915 Section 193.2915 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2915 Alternative power sources. An...

  5. 48 CFR 715.370 - Alternative source selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternative source selection procedures. 715.370 Section 715.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR....370 Alternative source selection procedures. The following selection procedures may be used,...

  6. 48 CFR 715.370 - Alternative source selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternative source selection procedures. 715.370 Section 715.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR....370 Alternative source selection procedures. The following selection procedures may be used,...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2915 - Alternative power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative power sources. 193.2915 Section 193.2915 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Security § 193.2915 Alternative power sources. An...

  8. 48 CFR 715.370 - Alternative source selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative source selection procedures. 715.370 Section 715.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR....370 Alternative source selection procedures. The following selection procedures may be used,...

  9. 48 CFR 715.370 - Alternative source selection procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternative source selection procedures. 715.370 Section 715.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR....370 Alternative source selection procedures. The following selection procedures may be used,...

  10. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... facilities are set forth in 7 CFR part 1712. (h) At the request of a borrower, RUS, in its sole discretion... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alternative sources of power. 1710.254 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.254 Alternative sources of power. (a)...

  11. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... facilities are set forth in 7 CFR part 1712. (h) At the request of a borrower, RUS, in its sole discretion... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alternative sources of power. 1710.254 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.254 Alternative sources of power. (a)...

  12. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... facilities are set forth in 7 CFR part 1712. (h) At the request of a borrower, RUS, in its sole discretion... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alternative sources of power. 1710.254 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.254 Alternative sources of power. (a)...

  13. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... facilities are set forth in 7 CFR part 1712. (h) At the request of a borrower, RUS, in its sole discretion... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alternative sources of power. 1710.254 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.254 Alternative sources of power. (a)...

  14. 7 CFR 1710.254 - Alternative sources of power.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... facilities are set forth in 7 CFR part 1712. (h) At the request of a borrower, RUS, in its sole discretion... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alternative sources of power. 1710.254 Section 1710... GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.254 Alternative sources of power. (a)...

  15. 49 CFR 7.46 - Alternative sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternative sources of information. 7.46 Section 7.46 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Fees § 7.46 Alternative sources of information. In the interest of making documents of general...

  16. 49 CFR 7.46 - Alternative sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternative sources of information. 7.46 Section 7.46 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION Fees § 7.46 Alternative sources of information. In the interest of making documents of general...

  17. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  18. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  19. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  20. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... particular source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternative source or sources...) Increase or maintain competition and likely result in reduced overall costs for the acquisition, or for any anticipated acquisition; (2) Be in the interest of national defense in having a facility (or a...

  1. Alternate methods of applying diffusants to silicon solar cells. [screen printing of thick-film paste materials and vapor phase transport from solid sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. W.; Field, M. B.

    1979-01-01

    Low-melting phosphate and borate glasses were screen printed on silicon wafers and heated to form n and p junctions. Data on surface appearance, sheet resistance and junction depth are presented. Similar data are reported for vapor phase transport from sintered aluminum metaphosphate and boron-containing glass-ceramic solid sources. Simultaneous diffusion of an N(+) layer with screen-printed glass and a p(+) layer with screen-printed Al alloy paste was attempted. No p(+) back surface field formation was achieved. Some good cells were produced but the heating in an endless-belt furnace caused a large scatter in sheet resistance and junction depth for three separate lots of wafers.

  2. Solar cell system having alternating current output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A monolithic multijunction solar cell was modified by fabricating an integrated circuit inverter on the back of the cell to produce a device capable of generating an alternating current output. In another embodiment, integrated curcuit power conditioning electronics was incorporated in a module containing a solar cell power supply.

  3. Safety's impact on an alternative energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Our ability to make underground mines a safe place to work will be a major concern to those seeking to use coal as an energy source. Increased production will stimulate a heightened concern for making mining a more effective energy resource. This effectiveness means that unless safe performance is achieved, the cost of poor safety, such as loss of lives and costly delays due to breakdowns and other failures, will greatly reduce productivity of underground mining operations. As such, coal companies and miners must be prepared to safely manage their operation before underground mining makes a significant effect on energy independence.

  4. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H- source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H- ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD models

  5. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources.

    PubMed

    Veitzer, Seth A; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H; Beckwith, Kristian R C

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H(-) source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H(-) ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD

  6. Alternative biomass sources for thermal energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steensen, Torge; Müller, Sönke; Dresen, Boris; Büscher, Olaf

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, renewable biomass energy sources comprise forests, agriculture and other large vegetation units. With the increasing demand on those landscape elements, including conflicts of interest to nature conservation and food production, the research focus should also incorporate smaller vegetation entities. In this study, we highlight the availability of small-scale features like roadside vegetation or hedges, which are rarely featured in maps. Roadside vegetation, however, is well known and regularly trimmed to allow the passing of traffic but the cut material is rarely harvested. Here, we combine a remote-sensing-based approach to quantify the seasonal biomass harvests with a GIS-based method to outline optimal transportation routes to, and the location of, storage units and power plants. Our main data source will be ESA's upcoming Sentinel-2 optical satellite. Spatial resolution of 10 meters in the visible and near infrared requires the use of spectral unmixing to derive end member spectra of the targeted biomass objects. Additional stereo-matching and LIDAR measurements allow the accompanying height estimate to derive the biomass volume and its changes over time. GIS data bases from the target areas allow the discrimination between traditional, large features (e.g. forests and agriculture) as well as previously unaccounted for, smaller vegetation units. With the mapped biomass occurrence and additional, GIS-based infrastructure information, we can outline transport routes that take into account local restrictions like nature reserve areas, height or weight limitations as well as transport costs in relation to potential gains. This information can then be processed to outline optimal places for power plants. To simulate the upcoming Sentinel-2 data sets, we use airborne data from the AISA Eagle, spatially and spectrally down-sampled to match Sentinel 2's resolution. Our test scenario is an area in western Germany, the Kirchheller Heide, close to the city

  7. Alternative sources of gametes: reality or science fiction?

    PubMed

    Tsai, M C; Takeuchi, T; Bedford, J M; Reis, M M; Rosenwaks, Z; Palermo, G D

    2000-05-01

    Although great progress has been made in both the investigation and treatment of infertility, a considerable number of patients still fail to conceive. Spermatogenic failure and/or oocyte ageing appear to be responsible for a large proportion of cases. The use of donor gametes may bring legal, ethical and even social problems of acceptance that can discourage infertile couples from the donor route. Fortunately, emerging reproductive technologies and preliminary results from animal experiments provide some hope for alternative sources of gametes through which these infertile patients can finally conceive their own genetic child. In conjunction with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), fertilization of human oocytes with immature sperm precursors, e.g. spermatids and even secondary spermatocytes, has resulted in healthy babies. Pregnancies have also resulted from the use of spermatids derived from in-vitro spermatogenesis. In the mouse, even primary spermatocytes appear able to participate in normal embryogenesis. In view of the possibility for transplantation and even xenotransplantation of spermatogonia to a host testis in animals, a similar use of human male stem cells might provide an attractive source for the treatment of males with arrested spermatogenesis, as well as male cancer patients. Transplantation of somatic cell nuclei and their haploidization within oocytes may prove to be a practical way of eradicating age-related aneuploidy and so constitute an innovative source of healthy oocytes. Most importantly, however, the safety of the procedures described here needs to be proven before their application to the human arena. Finally, we discuss the implications of cytoplasmic quality and of genetic imprinting in the context of these manipulations. PMID:10783340

  8. 48 CFR 2406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 2406.202 Section 2406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources...

  9. 48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 306.202 Establishing...

  10. 48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 306.202 Establishing...

  11. Alternative Energy Sources. Experiments You Can Do...from Edison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benrey, Ronald M.; Schultz, Robert F.

    Eight experiments dealing with alternative energy sources are presented. Each experiment includes an introductory section which provides background information and discusses the promises and problems of the particular energy source, a list of materials needed to complete the experiment, and the procedures to be used. The experiments involve:…

  12. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 206.202 Section 206.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources...

  13. Combining sources in stable isotope mixing models: alternative methods.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Donald L; Newsome, Seth D; Gregg, Jillian W

    2005-08-01

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants; or water bodies, and many others. A common problem is having too many sources to allow a unique solution. We discuss two alternative procedures for addressing this problem. One option is a priori to combine sources with similar signatures so the number of sources is small enough to provide a unique solution. Aggregation should be considered only when isotopic signatures of clustered sources are not significantly different, and sources are related so the combined source group has some functional significance. For example, in a food web analysis, lumping several species within a trophic guild allows more interpretable results than lumping disparate food sources, even if they have similar isotopic signatures. One result of combining mixing model sources is increased uncertainty of the combined end-member isotopic signatures and consequently the source contribution estimates; this effect can be quantified using the IsoError model (http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/models/isotopes/isoerror1_04.htm). As an alternative to lumping sources before a mixing analysis, the IsoSource mixing model (http://www.epa.gov/wed/pages/models/isosource/isosource.htm) can be used to find all feasible solutions of source contributions consistent with isotopic mass balance. While ranges of feasible contributions for each individual source can often be quite broad, contributions from functionally related groups of sources can be summed a posteriori, producing a range of solutions for the aggregate source that may be considerably narrower. A paleo-human dietary analysis example illustrates this method, which involves a terrestrial meat food source, a combination of three terrestrial plant foods, and a combination of three marine foods. In this case, a posteriori aggregation of sources allowed

  14. Assessment of alternative power sources for mobile mining machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairelli, J. E.; Tomazic, W. A.; Evans, D. G.; Klann, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Alternative mobile power sources for mining applications were assessed. A wide variety of heat engines and energy systems was examined as potential alternatives to presently used power systems. The present mobile power systems are electrical trailing cable, electrical battery, and diesel - with diesel being largely limited in the United States to noncoal mines. Each candidate power source was evaluated for the following requirements: (1) ability to achieve the duty cycle; (2) ability to meet Government regulations; (3) availability (production readiness); (4) market availability; and (5) packaging capability. Screening reduced the list of candidates to the following power sources: diesel, stirling, gas turbine, rankine (steam), advanced electric (batteries), mechanical energy storage (flywheel), and use of hydrogen evolved from metal hydrides. This list of candidates is divided into two classes of alternative power sources for mining applications, heat engines and energy storage systems.

  15. Erythroleukemia cells acquire an alternative mitophagy capability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Fang, Yixuan; Yan, Lili; Yuan, Na; Zhang, Suping; Xu, Li; Nie, Meilan; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wang, Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia cells are superior to hematopoietic cells with a normal differentiation potential in buffering cellular stresses, but the underlying mechanisms for this leukemic advantage are not fully understood. Using CRISPR/Cas9 deletion of the canonical autophagy-essential gene Atg7, we found that erythroleukemia K562 cells are armed with two sets of autophagic machinery. Alternative mitophagy is functional regardless of whether the canonical autophagic mechanism is intact or disrupted. Although canonical autophagy defects attenuated cell cycling, proliferation and differentiation potential, the leukemia cells retained their abilities for mitochondrial clearance and for maintaining low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. Treatment with a specific inducer of mitophagy revealed that the canonical autophagy-defective erythroleukemia cells preserved a mitophagic response. Selective induction of mitophagy was associated with the upregulation and localization of RAB9A on the mitochondrial membrane in both wild-type and Atg7−/− leukemia cells. When the leukemia cells were treated with the alternative autophagy inhibitor brefeldin A or when the RAB9A was knocked down, this mitophagy was prohibited. This was accompanied by elevated ROS levels and apoptosis as well as reduced DNA damage repair. Therefore, the results suggest that erythroleukemia K562 cells possess an ATG7-independent alternative mitophagic mechanism that functions even when the canonical autophagic process is impaired, thereby maintaining the ability to respond to stresses such as excessive ROS and DNA damage. PMID:27091640

  16. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation: technical section

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Eighteen different alternative fuels were considered in the preliminary screening, from three basic resource bases. Coal can be used to provide 13 of the fuels; oil shale was the source for three of the fuels; and biomass provided the resource base for two fuels not provided from coal. In the case of biomass, six different fuels were considered. Nuclear power and direct solar radiation were also considered. The eight prime movers that were considered in the preliminary screening are boiler/steam turbine; open and closed cycle gas turbines; low and medium speed diesels; spark ignited and stratified charge Otto cycles; electric motor; Stirling engine; free piston; and fuel cell/electric motor. Modes of transport considered are pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft. Section 2 gives the overall summary and conclusions, the future outlook for each mode of transportation, and the R and D suggestions by mode of transportation. Section 3 covers the preliminary screening phase and includes a summary of the data base used. Section 4 presents the methodology used to select the fuels and prime movers for the detailed study. Sections 5 through 8 cover the detailed evaluation of the pipeline, marine, railroad, and aircraft modes of transportation. Section 9 covers the demand related issues.

  17. 48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  18. 48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  19. 48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  20. 48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  1. 48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  2. 48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  3. 48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  4. 48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  5. 48 CFR 406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 406.202 Section 406.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  6. 48 CFR 606.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternate sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternate sources. 606.202 Section 606.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  7. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... action under the authority of 48 CFR 6.202(a) shall be supported by a determination and finding (D&F... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  8. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... action under the authority of 48 CFR 6.202(a) shall be supported by a determination and finding (D&F... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  9. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... action under the authority of 48 CFR 6.202(a) shall be supported by a determination and finding (D&F... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  10. 48 CFR 906.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... action under the authority of 48 CFR 6.202(a) shall be supported by a determination and finding (D&F... maintaining alternative sources. 906.202 Section 906.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition...

  11. 48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open...

  12. 48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open...

  13. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 6.202 Section 6.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After...

  14. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 6.202 Section 6.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After...

  15. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 6.202 Section 6.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After...

  16. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 6.202 Section 6.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After...

  17. 48 CFR 306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. 306.202 Section 306.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open...

  18. Using Alternate Energy Sources. The Illinois Plan for Industrial Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Univ., Normal.

    This guide, which is one in the "Exploration" series of curriculum guides intended to assist junior high and middle school industrial educators in helping their students explore diverse industrial situations and technologies used in industry, deals with using alternate energy sources. The following topics are covered in the individual lessons:…

  19. Alternative Funding Sources. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 68.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzaro, James L., Ed.; Arnold, Allen D., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    In an effort to identify and tap new sources of funds for community colleges, this monograph presents a series of descriptive articles on the most successful alternative funding ventures. In addition, the sourcebook provides a sense of where and how new ventures have aided two-year colleges and how other institutions might follow in this pursuit.…

  20. AN ALTERNATIVE LATTICE FOR THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE ACCUMULATOR RING.

    SciTech Connect

    GARDNER,C.J.; LEE,Y.Y.; TSOUPAS,N.; WEI,J.

    1999-03-29

    As a key component of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Project, the Accumulator Ring will collect the proton beam from the SNS LINAC at an intensity of 2 x 10{sup 14} per pulse at 60 Hz for a total power of 2 MW, exceeding present performance value of existing facilities. Requirements of minimum beam loss for hands-on maintenance and flexibility for future upgrade are essential for the lattice design. In this paper, we study an alternative lattice emphasizing various injection schemes and flexibility for future upgrade. Working points, sextupole families for chromaticity control, and alternate extraction schemes are also considered.

  1. Alternative dietary fiber sources in companion animal nutrition.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Maria R C; Kerr, Katherine R; Fahey, George C

    2013-08-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  2. Alternative Dietary Fiber Sources in Companion Animal Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    de Godoy, Maria R. C.; Kerr, Katherine R.; Fahey, George C.

    2013-01-01

    The US has a pet population of approximately 70 million dogs and 74 million cats. Humans have developed a strong emotional bond with companion animals. As a consequence, pet owners seek ways to improve health, quality of life and longevity of their pets. Advances in canine and feline nutrition have contributed to improved longevity and well-being. Dietary fibers have gained renewed interest in the pet food industry, due to their important role in affecting laxation and stool quality. More recently, because of increased awareness of the beneficial effects of dietary fibers in health, as well as the popularity of functional foods and holistic and natural diets, alternative and novel carbohydrates have become widespread in human and pet nutrition. Fiber sources from cereal grains, whole grains and fruits have received increasing attention by the pet food industry and pet owners. While limited scientific information is available on the nutritional and nutraceutical properties of alternative fiber sources, studies indicate that corn fiber is an efficacious fiber source for pets, showing no detrimental effects on palatability or nutrient digestibility, while lowering the glycemic response in adult dogs. Fruit fiber and pomaces have good water-binding properties, which may be advantageous in wet pet food production, where a greater water content is required, along with low water activity and a firm texture of the final product. Rice bran is a palatable fiber source for dogs and may be an economical alternative to prebiotic supplementation of pet foods. However, it increases the dietary requirement of taurine in cats. Barley up to 40% in a dry extruded diet is well tolerated by adult dogs. In addition, consumption of complex carbohydrates has shown a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress. Alternative fiber sources are suitable ingredients for pet foods. They have been shown to be nutritionally adequate and to have potential nutraceutical

  3. Alternative nutrient sources for biotechnological use of Sporosarcina pasteurii.

    PubMed

    Cuzman, Oana Adriana; Richter, Katharina; Wittig, Linda; Tiano, Piero

    2015-06-01

    The potential use of Sporosarcina pasteurii in possible biotechnological applications on a large scale (ground improvement, consolidation of building structures and ornamental stone, or in developing bio-materials for the building industry), is based on its ability to produce high amounts of carbonate in a short period of time via urea hydrolysis. Industrial biomass production would have a low environmental impact and would be most economical if the standard growth media could be replaced with alternative nutrient sources, such as byproducts or wastes from other industries, or other low cost ingredients. The use of cost effective ingredients must guarantee ureolytic activities and growth conditions that are comparable to those resulting from the standard nutrient medium. In this work, three types of alternative media were tested for growing the ureolytic active bacteria S. pasteurii: (1) alternative nutrient sources such as industrial wastes resulting from the dairy and brewery industries, (2) fertilizer urea as an alternative urea substitute, and (3) different types of poultry manure based fertilizers as nutrient and urea substitutes. The comparison between the standard media, the nutrient alternatives and urea substitutes was possible by taking the protein concentration and nitrogen content into account. Bacterial activity was evaluated in terms of biomass changes over time (CFU, optical density, ATP measurements) and indirect estimation of the enzyme production (Nessler assay, conductivity measurement). The results revealed that some of the dairy wastes tested, such as whey and buttermilk, are potential alternative nutrients for bacterial development, while the urea fertilizer is perfectly suitable as an economical substitute for pure laboratory grade urea. PMID:25813200

  4. The use of hydrazine as an alternate source of energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carvalho, J. A., Jr.; Bressan, C.; Ferreira, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The potentials of using hydrazine as an alternative source of energy was studied. Three chemical reactions are considered: oxidation with air, oxidation with hydrogen peroxide, and thermocatalytic decomposition. Performance data of gasoline, ethylic alcohol, and propane are compared. An item about the NO(x) emissions by the various investigated reactions is included. Promising results are shown, mainly those regarding the available energy per unit volume of unburned gases (vaporized fuel and oxidizer).

  5. Central airport energy systems using alternate energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop the concept of a central airport energy system designed to supply energy for aircraft ground support and terminal complex utility systems using municipal waste as a fuel. The major task was to estimate the potential for reducing aircraft and terminal fuel consumption by the use of alternate renewable energy sources. Additional efforts included an assessment of indirect benefits of reducing airport atmospheric and noise pollution.

  6. Alternative power sources for remote sensors: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewan, Alim; Ay, Suat U.; Karim, M. Nazmul; Beyenal, Haluk

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this review is to assess renewable power sources as alternatives to the batteries traditionally used for remote environmental monitoring. In this review, we first discuss remote sensors and then we: 1) review the power requirements and traditionally used power sources for remote sensors, 2) describe the working principles of the renewable power sources used for powering remote sensors, 3) evaluate the challenges and potentials of the renewable power sources, and 4) review the power management systems developed for remote power generation and discuss how to use them to generate reliable power. In the description of each of the renewable power sources, we include the current status and future directions of the research. We believe that hybrid systems using more than a single renewable power source can provide more reliable renewable power. We conclude that renewable power sources have been demonstrated to be able to generate sufficient power for remote sensors. Because of the environmental risks and cost of operation associated with batteries, renewable energy sources will need to be used to power remote sensors in the near future.

  7. Stem cell sources to treat diabetes.

    PubMed

    Furth, Mark E; Atala, Anthony

    2009-03-01

    We review progress towards the goal of utilizing stem cells as a source of engineered pancreatic beta-cells for therapy of diabetes. Protocols for the in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells based on normal developmental cues have generated beta-like cells that produce high levels of insulin, albeit at low efficiency and without full responsiveness to extracellular levels of glucose. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells also can yield insulin-producing cells following similar approaches. An important recent report shows that when transplanted into mice, human ES-derived cells with a phenotype corresponding to pancreatic endoderm matured to yield cells capable of maintaining near-normal regulation of blood sugar [Kroon et al., 2008]. Major hurdles that must be overcome to enable the broad clinical translation of these advances include teratoma formation by ES and iPS cells, and the need for immunosuppressive drugs. Classes of stem cells that can be expanded extensively in culture but do not form teratomas, such as amniotic fluid-derived stem cells and hepatic stem cells, offer possible alternatives for the production of beta-like cells, but further evidence is required to document this potential. Generation of autologous iPS cells should prevent transplant rejection, but may prove prohibitively expensive. Banking strategies to identify small numbers of stem cell lines homozygous for major histocompatibility loci have been proposed to enable beneficial genetic matching that would decrease the need for immunosuppression. PMID:19130494

  8. Recent advances in 2D and 3D in vitro systems using primary hepatocytes, alternative hepatocyte sources and non-parenchymal liver cells and their use in investigating mechanisms of hepatotoxicity, cell signaling and ADME.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Patricio; Hewitt, Nicola J; Albrecht, Ute; Andersen, Melvin E; Ansari, Nariman; Bhattacharya, Sudin; Bode, Johannes Georg; Bolleyn, Jennifer; Borner, Christoph; Böttger, Jan; Braeuning, Albert; Budinsky, Robert A; Burkhardt, Britta; Cameron, Neil R; Camussi, Giovanni; Cho, Chong-Su; Choi, Yun-Jaie; Craig Rowlands, J; Dahmen, Uta; Damm, Georg; Dirsch, Olaf; Donato, María Teresa; Dong, Jian; Dooley, Steven; Drasdo, Dirk; Eakins, Rowena; Ferreira, Karine Sá; Fonsato, Valentina; Fraczek, Joanna; Gebhardt, Rolf; Gibson, Andrew; Glanemann, Matthias; Goldring, Chris E P; Gómez-Lechón, María José; Groothuis, Geny M M; Gustavsson, Lena; Guyot, Christelle; Hallifax, David; Hammad, Seddik; Hayward, Adam; Häussinger, Dieter; Hellerbrand, Claus; Hewitt, Philip; Hoehme, Stefan; Holzhütter, Hermann-Georg; Houston, J Brian; Hrach, Jens; Ito, Kiyomi; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Keitel, Verena; Kelm, Jens M; Kevin Park, B; Kordes, Claus; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; LeCluyse, Edward L; Lu, Peng; Luebke-Wheeler, Jennifer; Lutz, Anna; Maltman, Daniel J; Matz-Soja, Madlen; McMullen, Patrick; Merfort, Irmgard; Messner, Simon; Meyer, Christoph; Mwinyi, Jessica; Naisbitt, Dean J; Nussler, Andreas K; Olinga, Peter; Pampaloni, Francesco; Pi, Jingbo; Pluta, Linda; Przyborski, Stefan A; Ramachandran, Anup; Rogiers, Vera; Rowe, Cliff; Schelcher, Celine; Schmich, Kathrin; Schwarz, Michael; Singh, Bijay; Stelzer, Ernst H K; Stieger, Bruno; Stöber, Regina; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Tetta, Ciro; Thasler, Wolfgang E; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu; Weiss, Thomas S; Widera, Agata; Woods, Courtney G; Xu, Jinghai James; Yarborough, Kathy M; Hengstler, Jan G

    2013-08-01

    This review encompasses the most important advances in liver functions and hepatotoxicity and analyzes which mechanisms can be studied in vitro. In a complex architecture of nested, zonated lobules, the liver consists of approximately 80 % hepatocytes and 20 % non-parenchymal cells, the latter being involved in a secondary phase that may dramatically aggravate the initial damage. Hepatotoxicity, as well as hepatic metabolism, is controlled by a set of nuclear receptors (including PXR, CAR, HNF-4α, FXR, LXR, SHP, VDR and PPAR) and signaling pathways. When isolating liver cells, some pathways are activated, e.g., the RAS/MEK/ERK pathway, whereas others are silenced (e.g. HNF-4α), resulting in up- and downregulation of hundreds of genes. An understanding of these changes is crucial for a correct interpretation of in vitro data. The possibilities and limitations of the most useful liver in vitro systems are summarized, including three-dimensional culture techniques, co-cultures with non-parenchymal cells, hepatospheres, precision cut liver slices and the isolated perfused liver. Also discussed is how closely hepatoma, stem cell and iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like-cells resemble real hepatocytes. Finally, a summary is given of the state of the art of liver in vitro and mathematical modeling systems that are currently used in the pharmaceutical industry with an emphasis on drug metabolism, prediction of clearance, drug interaction, transporter studies and hepatotoxicity. One key message is that despite our enthusiasm for in vitro systems, we must never lose sight of the in vivo situation. Although hepatocytes have been isolated for decades, the hunt for relevant alternative systems has only just begun. PMID:23974980

  9. Sources of beta cells inside the pancreas.

    PubMed

    De Groef, Sofie; Staels, Willem; Van Gassen, Naomi; Lemper, Marie; Yuchi, Yixing; Sojoodi, Mozhdeh; Bussche, Leen; Heremans, Yves; Leuckx, Gunter; De Leu, Nico; Van de Casteele, Mark; Baeyens, Luc; Heimberg, Harry

    2016-09-01

    The generation of beta(-like) cells to compensate for their absolute or relative shortage in type 1 and type 2 diabetes is an obvious therapeutic strategy. Patients first received grafts of donor islet cells over 25 years ago, but this procedure has not become routine in clinical practice because of a donor cell shortage and (auto)immune problems. Transplantation of differentiated embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells may overcome some but not all the current limitations. Reprogramming exocrine cells towards functional beta(-like) cells would offer an alternative abundant and autologous source of beta(-like) cells. This review focuses on work by our research group towards achieving such a source of cells. It summarises a presentation given at the 'Can we make a better beta cell?' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Amin Ardestani and Kathrin Maedler, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3892-9 , and by Heiko Lickert and colleagues, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3949-9 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Shanta Persaud (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3870-2 ). PMID:27053238

  10. Denitrification of high nitrate concentration wastewater using alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Nava, Y; Marañón, E; Soons, J; Castrillón, L

    2010-01-15

    The use of different organic carbon sources in the denitrification of wastewater containing 2500 mg nitrates/L in a SBR was studied. Three alternative sources of carbon were tested: wastewater from a sweet factory, a residue from a soft drinks factory and a residue from a dairy plant. The first two are sugar-rich, whereas the third presents a high content in lactic acid. Maximum specific denitrification rates of between 42 and 48 mg NO(3)-N/g VSS h were obtained. The effluents were nitrate-free and very low COD concentrations were obtained in 4-6h reaction time, especially with the sugar-rich carbon sources. The values of the denitrifier net yield coefficient were higher than when using methanol (0.93-1.75 g VSS(formed)/g NO(x)-N(reduced)). The lowest value was obtained using the lactic acid-rich residue. The optimum COD/N ratios varied between 4.6 for the lactic acid-rich carbon source and 5.5-6.5 for the sugar-rich carbon sources. PMID:19782470

  11. Understanding and accepting fusion as an alternative energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Goerz, D.A.

    1987-12-10

    Fusion, the process that powers our sun, has long promised to be a virtually inexhaustible source of energy for mankind. No other alternative energy source holds such bright promise, and none has ever presentd such formidable scientific and engineering challenges. Serious research efforts have continued for over 30 years in an attempt to harness and control fusion here on earth. Scientists have made considerable progress in the last decade toward achieving the conditions required for fusion power, and recent experimental results and technological progress have made the scientific feasibility of fusion a virtual certainty. With this knowledge and confidence, the emphasis can now shift toward developing power plants that are practical and economical. Although the necessary technology is not in hand today, the extension to an energy producing system in 20 years is just as attainable as was putting a man on the moon. In the next few decades, the world's population will likely double while the demand for energy will nearly quadruple. Realistic projections show that within the next generation a significant fraction of our electric power must come from alternative energy sources. Increasing environmental concerns may further accelerate this timetable in which new energy sources must be introduced. The continued development of fusion systems to help meet the energy needs of the future will require greater public understanding and support of this technology. The fusion community must do more to make the public aware of the fact that energy is a critical international issue and that fusion is a viable and necessary energy technology that will be safe and economical. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Endolithic algae: an alternative source of photoassimilates during coral bleaching.

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Maoz; Loya, Yossi

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports of worldwide coral bleaching events leading to devastating coral mortality have caused alarm among scientists and resource managers. Differential survival of coral species through bleaching events has been widely documented. We suggest that among the possible factors contributing to survival of coral species during such events are endolithic algae harboured in their skeleton, providing an alternative source of energy. We studied the dynamics of photosynthetic pigment concentrations and biomass of endoliths in the skeleton of the encrusting coral Oculina patagonica throughout a bleaching event. During repeated summer bleaching events these endolithic algae receive increased photosynthetically active radiation, increase markedly in biomass, and produce increasing amounts of photoassimilates, which are translocated to the coral. Chlorophyll concentrations and biomass of endoliths were 4.6 +/- 1.57 and 1570 +/- 427 microg cm(-2) respectively, in skeletons of relatively healthy colonies (0-40% bleaching) but up to 14.8 +/- 2.5 and 4036 +/- 764 microg cm(-2) endolith chlorophyll and biomass respectively, in skeletons of bleached colonies (greater than 40% bleaching). The translocation dynamics of (14)C-labelled photoassimilates from the endoliths to bleached coral tissue showed significantly higher 14C activity of the endoliths harboured within the skeletons of bleached corals than that of the endoliths in non-bleached corals. This alternative source of energy may be vital for the survivorship of O. patagonica, allowing gradual recruitment of zooxanthellae and subsequent recovery during the following winter. PMID:12065035

  13. Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal, and electrochemical properties. A second objective is to develop synthesis and fabrication methods for these materials whereby they can be processed in air into SOFCs. The approach is to (1) develop modifications of the current, state-of-the-art materials used in SOFCs, (2) minimize the number of cations used in the SOFC materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabrication and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component composition and processing on those reactions. This paper summarizes a comprehensive study that assessed the effect of ambient oxygen partial pressure on the stability of air-sinterable chromites and the sintering behavior of doped lanthanum manganites.

  14. 77 FR 41873 - In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc., Arlington Hospitality, Inc., Consolidated Oil... current and accurate information concerning the securities of Alternative Energy Sources, Inc. because...

  15. Proceedings of the conference on alternative energy sources for Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rothman, I.N.

    1981-01-01

    Four primary areas of study for alternative energy sources for Texas are considered. These are: energy demand supply and economics; prospects for energy resources (oil, lignite, coal, nuclear, goethermal and solar) and conservation; financial and technical constraints; and future planning. The following papers are presented: US energy outlook to 1990; energy supply and demand projections; comparative economics of solar energy in the generation of big power; gas present and future prospects; prospects for enhanced recovery of oil in Texas; the outlook for coal in USA; implementation of nuclear power in Texas; future outlook - geopressured-geothermal energy for Texas; future prospects for conservation and solar energy; financing and money supply constraints; technical constraints to energy supply increase; planning for the future - the crisis that drones on. Two papers have been abstracted separately.

  16. local alternative sources for cogeneration combined heat and power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agll, Abdulhakim Amer

    Global demand for energy continues to grow while countries around the globe race to reduce their reliance on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions by implementing policy measures and advancing technology. Sustainability has become an important issue in transportation and infrastructure development projects. While several agencies are trying to incorporate a range of sustainability measures in their goals and missions, only a few planning agencies have been able to implement these policies and they are far from perfect. The low rate of success in implementing sustainable policies is primarily due to incomplete understanding of the system and the interaction between various elements of the system. The conventional planning efforts focuses mainly on performance measures pertaining to the system and its impact on the environment but seldom on the social and economic impacts. The objective of this study is to use clean and alternative energy can be produced from many sources, and even use existing materials for energy generation. One such pathway is using wastewater, animal and organic waste, or landfills to create biogas for energy production. There are three tasks for this study. In topic one evaluated the energy saving that produced from combined hydrogen, heat, and power and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using local sustainable energy at the Missouri S&T campus to reduce energy consumption and fossil fuel usage. Second topic aimed to estimate energy recovery and power generation from alternative energy source by using Rankin steam cycle from municipal solid waste at Benghazi-Libya. And the last task is in progress. The results for topics one and two have been presented.

  17. Alternative cathodes for molten carbonate fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, I.; Lanagan, M.; Roche, M.F.; Krumpelt, M.

    1996-02-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing advanced cathodes for pressurized operation of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC). The present cathode, lithiated nickel oxide, tends to transport to the anode of the MCFC, where it is deposited as metallic nickel. The rate of transport increases with increasing CO{sub 2} pressure. This increase is due to an increased solubility of nickel oxide (NiO) in the molten carbonate electrolyte. An alternative cathode is lithium cobaltate (LiCoO{sub 2})-Solid solutions of LiCoO{sub 2} in LiFeO{sub 2} show promise for long-lived cathode materials. We have found that small additions of LiCoO{sub 2} to LiFeO{sub 2} markedly decrease the resistivity of the cathode material. Cells containing the LiCoO{sub 2}-LiFeO{sub 2} cathodes have stable performance for more than 2100 h of operation and display lower cobalt migration.

  18. [Plants as an alternative source of therapeutic proteins].

    PubMed

    Łucka, Marta; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Szemraj, Janusz; Sakowicz, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest of researchers in developing efficient plant heterologous expression systems of proteins for a wide range of applications. It represents an alternative to the traditional strategy utilizing bacterial, yeast, insect or mammalian cells. New techniques of identification and characterization and effective methods of plant genetic transformation allow the range of recombinant protein products to be expanded. Great expectations are associated with the use of plants as bioreactors for the production of specific proteins of therapeutic interest. This strategy offers a number of advantages, the most important being: the possibility of a significant reduction in production costs, the safety of the products obtained and full eukaryotic post-translational modifications of proteins. A group of proteins of special interest is pharmaceuticals, and a number of successful experiments have confirmed the possibility of obtaining heterogeneous proteins with therapeutic potential: monoclonal antibodies, vaccine antigens, and a variety of cytokines. This work is focused on selected recombinant proteins belonging to those groups expression of which was achieved in plant cells. These proteins may be used in the future for therapy or prevention of viral, bacterial or cancer diseases. PMID:25811472

  19. Can alternative sugar sources buffer pollinators from nectar shortages?

    PubMed

    Gardner-Gee, Robin; Dhami, Manpreet K; Paulin, Katherine J; Beggs, Jacqueline R

    2014-12-01

    Honeydew is abundant in many ecosystems and may provide an alternative food source (a buffer) for pollinators during periods of food shortage, but the impact of honeydew on pollination systems has received little attention to date. In New Zealand, kānuka trees (Myrtaceae: Kunzea ericoides (A. Rich) Joy Thompson) are often heavily infested by the endemic honeydew-producing scale insect Coelostomidia wairoensis (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Coelostomidiidae) and the period of high honeydew production can overlap with kānuka flowering. In this study, we quantified the sugar resources (honeydew and nectar) available on kānuka and recorded nocturnal insect activity on infested and uninfested kānuka during the flowering period. Insects were abundant on infested trees, but flowers on infested trees received fewer insect visitors than flowers on uninfested trees. There was little evidence that insects had switched directly from nectar-feeding to honeydew-feeding, but it is possible that some omnivores (e.g., cockroaches) were distracted by the other honeydew-associated resources on infested branches (e.g., sooty molds, prey). Additional sampling was carried out after kānuka flowering had finished to determine honeydew usage in the absence of adjacent nectar resources. Moths, which had fed almost exclusively on nectar earlier, were recorded feeding extensively on honeydew after flowering had ceased; hence, honeydew may provide an additional food source for potential pollinators. Our results show that honeydew resources can impact floral visitation patterns and suggest that future pollinator studies should consider the full range of sugar resources present in the study environment. PMID:25368982

  20. Alternate Energy Sources for Thermalplastic Binding Agent Consolidation

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate microwave and electron beam technologies as alternate energy sources to consolidate fiber coated with a thermoplastic binding agent into preforms for composite molding applications. Bench experiments showed that both microwave and electron beam energy can produce heat sufficient to melt and consolidate a thermoplastic binding agent applied to fiberglass mat, and several two- and three-dimensional fiberglass preforms were produced with each method. In both cases, it is postulated that the heating was accomplished by the effective interaction of the microwave or electron beam energy with the combination of the mat preform and the tooling used to shape the preform. Both methods contrast with conventional thermal energy applied via infrared heaters or from a heated tool in which the heat to melt the thermoplastic binding agent must diffuse over time from the outer surface of the preform toward its center under a thermal gradient. For these reasons, the microwave and electron beam energy techniques have the potential to rapidly consolidate thick fiber preforms more efficiently than the thermal process. With further development, both technologies have the potential to make preform production more cost effective by decreasing cycle time in the preform tool, reducing energy costs, and by enabling the use of less expensive tooling materials. Descriptions of the microwave and electron beam consolidation experiments and a summary of the results are presented in this report.

  1. Don't forget alternate energy sources: biomass, geothermal, wind

    SciTech Connect

    Miskell, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The United States is probably the most fortunate country in the world in terms of potential energy resources, and that is part of the problem in developing alternate sources. Which ones should be given preference, and which ones will give the quickest, most economic return on investment. The exploration of converting potential plant life to energy is already underway. One such plant is the milkweed. The milky latex substance of the weed contains 30% hydrocarbon and 70% water. About 7% to 10% of the plant weight is extractable crude oil. The unused plant residue can be processed to produce alcohol. In Utah, a milkweed project yielded 2.5 pounds of oil from 35 lbs. of milkweed. The California Commission is looking into the possibility of using two million tons of rice straw, now left in the fields to be burned. The basic thrust of geothermal activity is still the dry steam plants in the Geyser field in California, but the movement to develop more prevalent hot water persists. Binary production and the use of moderate hot water are gaining in acceptance. The government's goal for wind for the year 2000 is 2% of total energy usage. Both utility and consumer participation will be required to meet that goal. Utilities will have to install 20,000 to 30,000 large-scale machines and nearly 1 million would have to be installed by consumers for homes and farms. Movement is already underway.

  2. Stem cells: sources and therapies.

    PubMed

    Monti, Manuela; Perotti, Cesare; Del Fante, Claudia; Cervio, Marila; Redi, Carlo Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The historical, lexical and conceptual issues embedded in stem cell biology are reviewed from technical, ethical, philosophical, judicial, clinical, economic and biopolitical perspectives. The mechanisms assigning the simultaneous capacity to self-renew and to differentiate to stem cells (immortal template DNA and asymmetric division) are evaluated in the light of the niche hypothesis for the stemness state. The induction of cell pluripotency and the different stem cells sources are presented (embryonic, adult and cord blood). We highlight the embryonic and adult stem cell properties and possible therapies while we emphasize the particular scientific and social values of cord blood donation to set up cord blood banks. The current scientific and legal frameworks of cord blood banks are reviewed at an international level as well as allogenic, dedicated and autologous donations. The expectations and the challenges in relation to present-day targeted diseases like diabetes mellitus type I, Parkinson's disease and myocardial infarction are evaluated in the light of the cellular therapies for regenerative medicine. PMID:23283430

  3. Alternative designs for nanocrystalline silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, Atul

    Nanocrystalline silicon is an attractive material for solar cells. It has very small grains, about 20 nm, and yet its electronic properties are very similar to those of crystalline silicon. The material exhibits smaller mobilities than crystalline Silicon, but the minority carrier lifetimes are reasonable. It is known that the properties of the material depend critically upon deposition parameters, in particular, the degree of grain boundary passivation achieved during growth and grain size. Previous work has shown that as the material grows, the grains tend to agglomerate into a cluster, and the development of this cluster leads to poorer electronic properties. The traditional method for overcoming such clustering has been to change the hydrogen to silane dilution ratio as the material grows, keeping the material near its crystalline to amorphous transition zone. However, this method is dependent upon the precise growth chemistry and is not suitable for mass production. In this project, we develop a new device design, a superlattice comprising alternating layers of amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon, which allows one to precisely control the agglomeration of grains without having to resort to hydrogen profiling techniques. We study structural properties such as grain size and the degree of crystallnity, and electronic properties such as carrier diffusion lengths and defect densities. We show that an appropriate design of the superlattice allows one to minimize defect densities and maximize carrier diffusion lengths. We also study how to reduce series resistance in solar cells, and show that an appropriate combination of superlattice and contacts can lead to devices with high fill factors and good solar cell efficiencies. We also report on a new discovery, namely that the optical absorption itself depends critically upon grain size. Larger grain sizes, up to 50 nm, lead to increased optical absorption, a totally unexpected and very useful discovery for devices

  4. 48 CFR 1406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open... authorized to approve the determinations and findings (D&Fs) to establish or maintain an alternative...

  5. 48 CFR 1406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open... authorized to approve the determinations and findings (D&Fs) to establish or maintain an alternative...

  6. 48 CFR 1406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open... authorized to approve the determinations and findings (D&Fs) to establish or maintain an alternative...

  7. 48 CFR 1406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open... authorized to approve the determinations and findings (D&Fs) to establish or maintain an alternative...

  8. 48 CFR 1406.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open... authorized to approve the determinations and findings (D&Fs) to establish or maintain an alternative...

  9. Bioengineered stem cells as an alternative for islet cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sarah J; Gala-Lopez, Boris L; Pepper, Andrew R; Pawlick, Rena L; Shapiro, AM James

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune and increasingly prevalent condition caused by immunological destruction of beta cells. Insulin remains the mainstay of therapy. Endeavours in islet transplantation have clearly demonstrated that type 1 diabetes is treatable by cellular replacement. Many challenges remain with this approach. The opportunity to use bioengineered embryonic or adult pluripotential stem cells, or islets derived from porcine xenograft sources could address future demands, but are still associated with considerable challenges. This detailed review outlines current progress in clinical islet transplantation, and places this in perspective for the remarkable scientific advances now occurring in stem cell and regenerative medicine approaches in the treatment of future curative treatment of diabetes. PMID:25815266

  10. Cell Culture as an Alternative in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nardone, Roland M.

    1990-01-01

    Programs that are intended to inform and provide "hands-on" experience for students and to facilitate the introduction of cell culture-based laboratory exercises into the high school and college laboratory are examined. The components of the CellServ Program and the Cell Culture Toxicology Training Programs are described. (KR)

  11. COMBINING SOURCES IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING MODELS: ALTERNATIVE METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants, or water bodies; and many others. A common problem is having too many s...

  12. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    SciTech Connect

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; G. K. Housley; M. S. Sohal; D. G. Milobar; Thomas Cable

    2009-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is called a bi

  13. Opportunities to enhance alternative sources of long-chain n-3 fatty acids within the diet.

    PubMed

    Delarue, Jacques; Guriec, Nathalie

    2014-08-01

    Health benefits or advocated health benefits of long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA are better known by medical doctors as well as by consumers, so that consumption increases. In addition, the development of aquaculture requires more fishmeal and fish oil. Humanisation of care of companion animals is also associated with addition of LC n-3 PUFA in pet foods. The risk of the increased demand for LC n-3 PUFA is the excess harvesting of natural sources, especially of marine origin (oily fishes, krill). In order to improve sustainability, alternative sources of LC n-3 PUFA have been developed. These alternative sources are: (a) terrestrial plants naturally or genetically enriched in stearidonic acid (SDA), which bypasses the first limiting step of (i.e. ∆6 desaturase) of the biosynthesis of LC n-3 PUFA; (b) single-cell oils rich in LC n-3 PUFA (microalgae, Escherichia coli) and krill. Currently, plants rich in SDA are expensive, metabolic engineering is unfavourably accepted by consumers in many countries, cultivation of microalgae is very expensive even though their ability (for some of them) to synthesise biofuels could induce a decrease in industrial costs, and Antarctic krill harvest must be restricted. Thus, it is difficult to predict their real development in the future. PMID:24886839

  14. An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Bobby; He, Bin

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist.

  15. An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Bobby; He, Bin

    2004-01-21

    In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist. PMID:15083674

  16. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as applicable, and any other information that may be pertinent, in the supporting documentation. ...) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract...

  17. Recruiting Source Effects: A Test of Two Alternative Explanations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breaugh, James A.; Mann, Rebecca B.

    The source of employee recruitment has been related to numerous important work outcomes (e.g., turnover, performance), but reasons for this relationship are not known. To test the viability of two possible explanations for recruiting source effects, i.e., employee level of realistic expectation, or individual differences, information was gathered…

  18. Alternative N sources for corn and cotton in Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of high fertilizer N prices, growers are interested in using less expensive sources of N and using fertilizer additives to reduce ammonia volatilization losses from urea sources. An experiment on a Lucedale fine sandy loam in Central Alabama (Prattville Research Unit) was conducted in 2007 ...

  19. Examining Alternatives to Wavelet Denoising for Astronomical Source Finding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurek, R.; Brown, S.

    2012-08-01

    The Square Kilometre Array and its pathfinders ASKAP and MeerKAT will produce prodigious amounts of data that necessitate automated source finding. The performance of automated source finders can be improved by pre-processing a dataset. In preparation for the WALLABY and DINGO surveys, we have used a test HI datacube constructed from actual Westerbork Telescope noise and WHISP HI galaxies to test the real world improvement of linear smoothing, the Duchamp source finder's wavelet denoising, iterative median smoothing and mathematical morphology subtraction, on intensity threshold source finding of spectral line datasets. To compare these pre-processing methods we have generated completeness-reliability performance curves for each method and a range of input parameters. We find that iterative median smoothing produces the best source finding results for ASKAP HI spectral line observations, but wavelet denoising is a safer pre-processing technique. In this paper we also present our implementations of iterative median smoothing and mathematical morphology subtraction.

  20. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation: executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A planning study was made for DOE on alternate fuels for non-highway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline). The study provides DOE with a recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to non-highway transportation users from now through 2025 and recommends R and D needed to allow non-petroleum derived fuels to be used in non-highway transportation. In the near term (present-1985), there is unlikely to be any major change in the fuels used in any of the four modes of transportation except that the average quality of the marine fuel is likely to get worse. In the mid-term period (1985-2000), there will be a transition to non-petroleum fuels, based primarily on shale oil derived liquids assuming a shale oil industry is started during this time.

  1. Alternative energy sources for non-highway transportation. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A planning study was made for DOE on alternate fuels for non-highway transportation (aircraft, rail, marine, and pipeline). The study provides DOE with a recommendation of what alternate fuels may be of interest to non-highway transportation users from now through 2025 and recommends R and D needed to allow non-petroleum derived fuels to be used in non-highway transportation. Volume III contains all of the references for the data used in the preliminary screening and is presented in 4 subvolumes. Volume IIIA covers the background information on the various prime movers used in the non-highway transportation area, the physical property data, the fuel-prime mover interaction and a review of some alternate energy forms. Volume IIIB covers the economics of producing, tranporting, and distributing the various fuels. Volume IIIC is concerned with the environment issues in production and use of the fuels, the energy efficiency in use and production, the fuel logistics considerations, and the overall ratings and selection of the fuels and prime movers for the detailed evaluation. Volume IIID covers the demand-related issues.

  2. Alternate energy source usage for in situ heat treatment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Jr., Francis Marion; Goodwin, Charles R.; Richard, Jr., James

    2011-03-22

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one system for providing power to one or more subsurface heaters is described herein. The system may include an intermittent power source; a transformer coupled to the intermittent power source, and a tap controller coupled to the transformer. The transformer may be configured to transform power from the intermittent power source to power with appropriate operating parameters for the heaters. The tap controller may be configured to monitor and control the transformer so that a constant voltage is provided to the heaters from the transformer regardless of the load of the heaters and the power output provided by the intermittent power source.

  3. Arrangement, Dopant Source, And Method For Making Solar Cells

    DOEpatents

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Krygowski, Thomas W.

    1999-10-26

    Disclosed is an arrangement, dopant source and method used in the fabrication of photocells that minimize handling of cell wafers and involve a single furnace step. First, dopant sources are created by depositing selected dopants onto both surfaces of source wafers. The concentration of dopant that is placed on the surface is relatively low so that the sources are starved sources. These sources are stacked with photocell wafers in alternating orientation in a furnace. Next, the temperature is raised and thermal diffusion takes place whereby the dopant leaves the source wafers and becomes diffused in a cell wafer creating the junctions necessary for photocells to operate. The concentration of dopant diffused into a single side of the cell wafer is proportional to the concentration placed on the respective dopant source facing the side of the cell wafer. Then, in the same thermal cycle, a layer of oxide is created by introducing oxygen into the furnace environment after sufficient diffusion has taken place. Finally, the cell wafers receive an anti-reflective coating and electrical contacts for the purpose of gathering electrical charge.

  4. 48 CFR 3006.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contract action award under the authority of (FAR) 48 CFR 6.202(a). Submit D&F in the format per (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001.704. ... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 3006.202 Establishing...

  5. 48 CFR 3006.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... contract action award under the authority of (FAR) 48 CFR 6.202(a). Submit D&F in the format per (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001.704. ... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 3006.202 Establishing...

  6. 48 CFR 3006.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contract action award under the authority of (FAR) 48 CFR 6.202(a). Submit D&F in the format per (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001.704. ... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 3006.202 Establishing...

  7. 48 CFR 3006.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... contract action award under the authority of (FAR) 48 CFR 6.202(a). Submit D&F in the format per (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001.704. ... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 3006.202 Establishing...

  8. ALTERNATIVE POLICIES FOR CONTROLLING NONPOINT AGRICULTURAL SOURCES OF WATER POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study of policies for controlling water pollution from nonpoint agricultural sources includes a survey of existing state and Federal programs, agencies, and laws directed to the control of soil erosion. Six policies representing a variety of approaches to this pollution prob...

  9. Alternative IT Sourcing: A Discussion of Privacy, Security, and Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    The sourcing of IT systems and services takes many shapes in higher education. Campus central IT organizations are increasingly responsible for the administration of enterprise systems and for the consolidation of operations into a single data center. Specialized academic and administrative systems may be run by local IT departments. In addition,…

  10. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    SciTech Connect

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

    2012-12-18

    The overall objective of this project was the development and evaluation of novel hydrocarbon fuel cell (FC) membranes that possess high temperature performance and long term chemical/mechanical durability in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FC). The major research theme was synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers of the poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) type containing sulfonic acid groups tethered to the backbone via perfluorinated alkylene linkages and in some cases also directly attached to the phenylene groups along the backbone. Other research themes were the use of nitrogen-based heterocyclics instead of acid groups for proton conduction, which provides high temperature, low relative humidity membranes with high mechanical/thermal/chemical stability and pendant moieties that exhibit high proton conductivities in the absence of water, and synthesis of block copolymers consisting of a proton conducting block coupled to poly(perfluorinated propylene oxide) (PFPO) blocks. Accomplishments of the project were as follows: 1) establishment of a vertically integrated program of synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of FC membranes, 2) establishment of benchmark membrane performance data based on Nafion for comparison to experimental membrane performance, 3) development of a new perfluoroalkyl sulfonate monomer, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl) pentafluoropropanesulfonate (HPPS), 4) synthesis of random and block copolymer membranes from HPPS, 5) synthesis of block copolymer membranes containing high-acid-concentration hydrophilic blocks consisting of HPPS and 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (sDCDPS), 6) development of synthetic routes to aromatic polymer backbones containing pendent 1H-1,2,3-triazole moieties, 7) development of coupling strategies to create phase-separated block copolymers between hydrophilic sulfonated prepolymers and commodity polymers such as PFPO, 8) establishment of basic performance

  11. Analysis of alternate hydrogen sources for lunar manufacture

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    A limitation to the exploration and use of space for scientific and industrial enterprise is the high cost of energy needed to overcome the earth's gravitational field in order to lift terrestrial materials into space. The reuseable space shuttle reduces the capital cost of ferrying such materials to near earth orbit but has little impact on the energy cost. The material requirements of servicing satellites in geosynchronous orbit and of exploring and colonizing the moon and nearby planets will be even more expensive in energy if all that material must be of terrestrial origin. One cost reducing alternative is to use materials already available in near earth space, that is on the moon and on asteroids with earth approaching orbits.

  12. Cell sources for in vitro human liver cell culture models.

    PubMed

    Zeilinger, Katrin; Freyer, Nora; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Knöspel, Fanny

    2016-09-01

    In vitro liver cell culture models are gaining increasing importance in pharmacological and toxicological research. The source of cells used is critical for the relevance and the predictive value of such models. Primary human hepatocytes (PHH) are currently considered to be the gold standard for hepatic in vitro culture models, since they directly reflect the specific metabolism and functionality of the human liver; however, the scarcity and difficult logistics of PHH have driven researchers to explore alternative cell sources, including liver cell lines and pluripotent stem cells. Liver cell lines generated from hepatomas or by genetic manipulation are widely used due to their good availability, but they are generally altered in certain metabolic functions. For the past few years, adult and pluripotent stem cells have been attracting increasing attention, due their ability to proliferate and to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro However, controlling the differentiation of these cells is still a challenge. This review gives an overview of the major human cell sources under investigation for in vitro liver cell culture models, including primary human liver cells, liver cell lines, and stem cells. The promises and challenges of different cell types are discussed with a focus on the complex 2D and 3D culture approaches under investigation for improving liver cell functionality in vitro Finally, the specific application options of individual cell sources in pharmacological research or disease modeling are described. PMID:27385595

  13. Alternative RF coupling configurations for H- ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briefi, S.; Gutmann, P.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-01

    RF heated sources for negative hydrogen ions both for fusion and accelerators require very high RF powers in order to achieve the required H- current what poses high demands on the RF generators and the RF circuit. Therefore it is highly desirable to improve the RF efficiency of the sources. This could be achieved by applying different RF coupling concepts than the currently used inductive coupling via a helical antenna, namely Helicon coupling or coupling via a planar ICP antenna enhanced with ferrites. In order to investigate the feasibility of these concepts, two small laboratory experiments have been set up. The PlanICE experiment, where the enhanced inductive coupling is going to be investigated, is currently under assembly. At the CHARLIE experiment systematic measurements concerning Helicon coupling in hydrogen and deuterium are carried out. The investigations show that a prominent feature of Helicon discharges occurs: the so-called low-field peak. This is a local improvement of the coupling efficiency at a magnetic field strength of a few mT which results in an increased electron density and dissociation degree. The full Helicon mode has not been achieved yet due to the limited available RF power and magnetic field strength but it might be sufficient for the application of the coupling concept to ion sources to operate the discharge in the low-field-peak region.

  14. Alternate sources of Nitrogen in the Kronian magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eviatar, A.; Goldstein, R.; Crary, F. J.; Young, D. T.

    2011-12-01

    The failure of Titan to live up to its anticipated role as main Nitrogen source for the magnetospheric plasma of Saturn was compensated by the output of the geysering satellite Enceladus located well inside the region of closed flux tubes. It was soon found by various researchers(Smith, Johnson inter alia) that the output of Enceladus was adequate to provide the N+ seen throughout the inner and outer magnetosphere. Recently, however, textit{Cassini/CAPS} data have shown that Rhea appears to be an independent source of Nitrogen plasma (vid. Reisenfeld et al. COSPAR 2011). In this study, we investigate the hypothesis that all the icy satellites in the inner magnetosphere are sources of N+. We find that for the case of Dione there is strong evidence for the existence of indigenous Nitrogen at the satellite with enhanced density around the orbit as well. The case of Tethys is ambiguous because of the dearth of Cassini/CAPSdata at the sole targeted encounter. Enhanced density and a significant N+ fraction are observed around the orbit but comparison to the immediate environment of the satellite is not possible.

  15. Inhibition of brain tumor cell proliferation by alternating electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyesun; Oh, Seung-ick; Hong, Sunghoi E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr; Sung, Jiwon; Jeong, Seonghoon; Yoon, Myonggeun E-mail: radioyoon@korea.ac.kr; Koh, Eui Kwan

    2014-11-17

    This study was designed to investigate the mechanism by which electric fields affect cell function, and to determine the optimal conditions for electric field inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Low-intensity (<2 V/cm) and intermediate-frequency (100–300 kHz) alternating electric fields were applied to glioblastoma cell lines. These electric fields inhibited cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and abnormal mitosis due to the malformation of microtubules. These effects were significantly dependent on the intensity and frequency of applied electric fields.

  16. Safety's impact on an alternative energy source: coal

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    Our ability to make underground mines a safe place to work will be a major concern to those seeking to use coal as an energy source. Increased production will stimulate a heightened concern for making mining a more effective energy resource. This effectiveness means that unless safe performance is achieved, the cost of poor safety, such as loss of lives and costly delays due to breakdowns and other failures, will greatly reduce productivity of underground mining operations. As such, coal companies and miners must be prepared to safely manage their operation before underground mining makes a significant effect on energy independence.

  17. Development of alternate methods of determining integrated SMR source terms

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, Kenneth

    2014-06-10

    The Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Licensing Task Force (TF) has been evaluating licensing issues unique and important to iPWRs, ranking these issues, and developing NEI position papers for submittal to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) during the past three years. Papers have been developed and submitted to the NRC in a range of areas including: Price-Anderson Act, NRC annual fees, security, modularity, and staffing. In December, 2012, NEI completed a draft position paper on SMR source terms and participated in an NRC public meeting presenting a summary of this paper, which was subsequently submitted to the NRC. One important conclusion of the source term paper was the evaluation and selection of high importance areas where additional research would have a significant impact on source terms. The highest ranked research area was iPWR containment aerosol natural deposition. The NRC accepts the use of existing aerosol deposition correlations in Regulatory Guide 1.183, but these were developed for large light water reactor (LWR) containments. Application of these correlations to an iPWR design has resulted in greater than a ten-fold reduction of containment airborne aerosol inventory as compared to large LWRs. Development and experimental justification of containment aerosol natural deposition correlations specifically for the unique iPWR containments is expected to result in a large reduction of design basis and beyond-design-basis accident source terms with concomitantly smaller dose to workers and the public. Therefore, NRC acceptance of iPWR containment aerosol natural deposition correlations will directly support the industry’s goal of reducing the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) for SMRs. Based on the results in this work, it is clear that thermophoresis is relatively unimportant for iPWRs. Gravitational settling is well understood, and may be the dominant process for a dry environment. Diffusiophoresis and enhanced

  18. The Wealth Tax as an Alternative Revenue Source for Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern

    1977-01-01

    Explores the ramifications of the wealth tax as an alternative funding source for elementary and secondary education in Florida by constructing and quantifying a wealth tax base for the state of Florida and each of its school districts. (JG)

  19. Alternate Tunings for the Linac Coherent Light Source Photoinjector

    SciTech Connect

    Limborg-Deprey, C.; Emma, P.; /SLAC

    2006-03-17

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is an x-ray free-electron laser (FEL) project based on the SLAC linac. The LCLS Photoinjector beamline has been designed to deliver 10-ps long electron bunches of 1 nC with a normalized projected transverse emittance smaller than 1.2 mm-mrad at 135 MeV. Tolerances and regulation requirements are tight for this tuning. Half of the total emittance at the end of the injector comes from the ''cathode emittance'' which is 0.7 mm-mrad for our nominal 1nC tuning. As the ''cathode emittance'' scales linearly with laser spot radius, the emittance will be dramatically reduced for smaller radius, but this is only possible at lower charge. In particular, for a 0.2 nC charge, we believe we can achieve an emittance closer to 0.4 mm-mrad. This working point will be easier to tune and the beam quality should be much easier to maintain than for the 1 nC case. In the second half of this paper, we discuss optimum laser pulse shapes. We demonstrate that the benefits of the ellipsoidal shapes seem to be important enough so that serious investigations should be carried out in the production of such pulses.

  20. Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. A theoretical expression for the rotating ring-disk electrode technique; the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA), considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures are covered.

  1. Substitution patterns across alternatives as a source of preference heterogeneity in recreation demand models.

    PubMed

    Bujosa Bestard, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Recent stated choice studies have shown that, in a context of inter-alternative correlation, individuals can assess alternatives differently. This asymmetry in perception between alternatives with different levels of substitutability becomes one additional, but usually overlooked, source of observed preference heterogeneity. In the context of beach recreation in Mallorca, Spain, this paper extends the investigation on this source of heterogeneity to a revealed preference setting. While the substitution pattern existent across sites is accounted for by means of a nested logit model, nest-specific coefficients are estimated to evaluate the utilities associated with different groups of sites. The results provide empirical evidence to suggest that substitution patterns across alternatives are a statistically significant source of influence on preference heterogeneity leading to different marginal sensitivities for a number of site attributes. PMID:24956466

  2. Alternate Funding Sources for the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Swarthout, Jordan M.

    2012-09-04

    its mission and capabilities. To resolve these resource constraints, we recommend the creation of an endowment, funded entirely through private contributions. Our initial estimates for the endowment are that a €2B principal. This level of capitalization could provide significant support to all aspects of the IAEA’s mission, including Capital Investment and Innovation; Technical Cooperation; as well as incentivizing the policy and technology entrepreneurship that will be necessary for the future health of the nonproliferation regime. Given this potential, our future efforts will focus on a more rigorous assessment of the financial requirements, while simultaneously creating the beginnings of a functional organization. These include: organizational structure, metrics for grant-making and performance evaluation, and outreach and fundraising strategies. At the end of this process, there should be sufficient information and engagement to begin to operationalize the endowment through external funding sources.

  3. Cell supermarket: Adipose tissue as a source of stem cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adipose tissue is derived from numerous sources, and in recent years has been shown to provide numerous cells from what seemingly was a population of homogeneous adipocytes. Considering the types of cells that adipose tissue-derived cells may form, these cells may be useful in a variety of clinical ...

  4. Alternative Sources of Funding Early Childhood Education for School Effectiveness in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olubor, Roseline O.; Inua, Ofe I.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the sources of funding early childhood education in existence in Nigeria with a view towards suggesting alternative sources to boost the revenue base for school effectiveness. The diminishing culture of the extended family system and the need for both parents to be in employment coupled with the need to provide access and…

  5. Alternative approach of cell encapsulation by Volvox spheres.

    PubMed

    Teong, Benjamin; Manousakas, Ioannis; Chang, Shwu Jen; Huang, Han Hsiang; Ju, Kuen-Cheng; Kuo, Shyh Ming

    2015-10-01

    Volvox sphere is a bio-mimicking concept of a biomaterial structure design able to encapsulate chemicals, drugs and/or cells. The aim of this study was to prepare Volvox spheres encapsulating AML12 liver cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) via a high voltage electrostatic field system. The results demonstrated that AML12 liver cells and MSCs could be successfully encapsulated into the inner spheres and the outer sphere of the Volvox spheres. The improved cell viability of MSCs was achieved by the addition of collagen and polyethylene glycol into the preparation components of the Volvox spheres. Collagen material potentially provides extracellular matrix-like structure for cell adhesion while polyethylene glycol provides a void/loose space for permeability of metabolites. The encapsulated MSCs were able to differentiate into hepatocytes or hepatocyte-like cells and express liver cell markers including albumin, alpha feto-protein and cytokeratin 18. The encapsulated cells secreted albumin to about 140 ng on day 14. Based on these observations, we conclude that Volvox spheres can be used as an alternative approach to encapsulate multiple types of cells, here AML12 hepatocyte cell line and MSCs. Nevertheless, efforts are still needed to improve the viability of the encapsulated cells and increase the differentiation of MSCs into functional liver cells. PMID:26117741

  6. Possibilities of utilizing alternative energy sources for combined heat supply systems in the Baltic

    SciTech Connect

    Shipkovs, P.; Grislis, V.; Zebergs, V. )

    1991-01-01

    The problem of alternative energy sources is an issue of major importance for the Baltic republics because of the limited supply of conventional energy resources. One of the ways to solve this problem could be the introduction of combined heat supply systems (CHSS). The combined heat supply systems are such systems where various energy sources in different regimes are made use of to ensure the optimum temperature on residential and industrial premises. The influence of climatic conditions on the selection of heat supply systems has been studied at large. In the present paper the use of alternative energy sources (AES) in combined heat supply systems (CHSS) is described.

  7. Hypoxia-Induced Alternative Splicing in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Weigand, Julia E.; Boeckel, Jes-Niels; Gellert, Pascal; Dimmeler, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Background Adaptation to low oxygen by changing gene expression is vitally important for cell survival and tissue development. The sprouting of new blood vessels, initiated from endothelial cells, restores the oxygen supply of ischemic tissues. In contrast to the transcriptional response induced by hypoxia, which is mainly mediated by members of the HIF family, there are only few studies investigating alternative splicing events. Therefore, we performed an exon array for the genome-wide analysis of hypoxia-related changes of alternative splicing in endothelial cells. Methodology/Principal findings Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated under hypoxic conditions (1% O2) for 48 h. Genome-wide transcript and exon expression levels were assessed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST Array. We found altered expression of 294 genes after hypoxia treatment. Upregulated genes are highly enriched in glucose metabolism and angiogenesis related processes, whereas downregulated genes are mainly connected to cell cycle and DNA repair. Thus, gene expression patterns recapitulate known adaptations to low oxygen supply. Alternative splicing events, until now not related to hypoxia, are shown for nine genes: six which are implicated in angiogenesis-mediated cytoskeleton remodeling (cask, itsn1, larp6, sptan1, tpm1 and robo1); one, which is involved in the synthesis of membrane-anchors (pign) and two universal regulators of gene expression (cugbp1 and max). Conclusions/Significance For the first time, this study investigates changes in splicing in the physiological response to hypoxia on a genome-wide scale. Nine alternative splicing events, until now not related to hypoxia, are reported, considerably expanding the information on splicing changes due to low oxygen supply. Therefore, this study provides further knowledge on hypoxia induced gene expression changes and presents new starting points to study the hypoxia adaptation of endothelial cells

  8. Alternative splicing: An important mechanism in stem cell biology

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kenian; Dai, Xiaojing; Wu, Jiaqian

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) is an essential mechanism in post-transcriptional regulation and leads to protein diversity. It has been shown that AS is prevalent in metazoan genomes, and the splicing pattern is dynamically regulated in different tissues and cell types, including embryonic stem cells. These observations suggest that AS may play critical roles in stem cell biology. Since embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have the ability to give rise to all types of cells and tissues, they hold the promise of future cell-based therapy. Many efforts have been devoted to understanding the mechanisms underlying stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. However, most of the studies focused on the expression of a core set of transcription factors and regulatory RNAs. The role of AS in stem cell differentiation was not clear. Recent advances in high-throughput technologies have allowed the profiling of dynamic splicing patterns and cis-motifs that are responsible for AS at a genome-wide scale, and provided novel insights in a number of studies. In this review, we discuss some recent findings involving AS and stem cells. An emerging picture from these findings is that AS is integrated in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional networks and together they control pluripotency maintenance and differentiation of stem cells. PMID:25621101

  9. Stem cell sources for cardiac regeneration.

    PubMed

    Roccio, M; Goumans, M J; Sluijter, J P G; Doevendans, P A

    2008-03-01

    Cell-based cardiac repair has the ambitious aim to replace the malfunctioning cardiac muscle developed after myocardial infarction, with new contractile cardiomyocytes and vessels. Different stem cell populations have been intensively studied in the last decade as a potential source of new cardiomyocytes to ameliorate the injured myocardium, compensate for the loss of ventricular mass and contractility and eventually restore cardiac function. An array of cell types has been explored in this respect, including skeletal muscle, bone marrow derived stem cells, embryonic stem cells (ESC) and more recently cardiac progenitor cells. The best-studied cell types are mouse and human ESC cells, which have undisputedly been demonstrated to differentiate into cardiomyocyte and vascular lineages and have been of great help to understand the differentiation process of pluripotent cells. However, due to their immunogenicity, risk of tumor development and the ethical challenge arising from their embryonic origin, they do not provide a suitable cell source for a regenerative therapy approach. A better option, overcoming ethical and allogenicity problems, seems to be provided by bone marrow derived cells and by the recently identified cardiac precursors. This report will overview current knowledge on these different cell types and their application in cardiac regeneration and address issues like implementation of delivery methods, including tissue engineering approaches that need to be developed alongside. PMID:18427385

  10. An evaluation of alternate production methods for Pu-238 general purpose heat source pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Borland; Steve Frank

    2009-06-01

    For the past half century, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to power deep space satellites. Fabricating heat sources for RTGs, specifically General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHSs), has remained essentially unchanged since their development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the applicable fields of chemistry, manufacturing and control systems. This paper evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu 238 fueled heat sources. Specifically, this paper discusses the production of the plutonium-oxide granules, which are the input stream to the ceramic pressing and sintering processes. Alternate chemical processes are compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product.

  11. ECAS Phase I fuel cell results. [Energy Conservation Alternatives Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses the fuel cell system results of Phase I of the Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS). Ten advanced electric powerplant systems for central-station baseload generation using coal were studied by NASA in ECAS. Three types of low-temperature fuel cells (solid polymer electrolyte, SPE, aqueous alkaline, and phosphoric acid) and two types of high-temperature fuel cells (molten carbonate, MC, and zirconia solid electrolyte, SE) were studied. The results indicate that (1) overall efficiency increases with fuel cell temperature, and (2) scale-up in powerplant size can produce a significant reduction in cost of electricity (COE) only when it is accompanied by utilization of waste fuel cell heat through a steam bottoming cycle and/or integration with a gasifier. For low-temperature fuel cell systems, the use of hydrogen results in the highest efficiency and lowest COE. In spite of higher efficiencies, because of higher fuel cell replacement costs integrated SE systems have higher projected COEs than do integrated MC systems. Present data indicate that life can be projected to over 30,000 hr for MC fuel cells, but data are not yet sufficient for similarly projecting SE fuel cell life expectancy.

  12. Cell Source for Tissue and Organ Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tao; Yuan, Yuyu; Yoo, James J.

    Organ printing, a novel approach in tissue engineering, applies computer-driven deposition of cells, growth factors, biomaterials layer-by-layer to create complex 3D tissue or organ constructs. This emerging technology shows great promise in regenerative medicine, because it may help to address current crisis of tissue and organ shortage for transplantation. Organ printing is developing fast, and there are exciting new possibilities in this area. Successful cell and organ printing requires many key elements. Among these, the choice of appropriate cells for printing is vital. This chapter surveys available cell sources for cell and organ printing application and discusses factors that affect cell choice. Special emphasis is put on several important factors, including the proposed printing system and bioprinters, the assembling method, and the target tissues or organs, which need to be considered to select proper cell sources and cell types. In this chapter, characterizations of the selected cells to justify and/or refine the cell selection will also be discussed. Finally, future prospects in this field will be envisioned.

  13. Electrocatalysis of fuel cell reactions: Investigation of alternate electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, D. T.; Hsueh, K. L.; Chang, H. H.

    1984-01-01

    Oxygen reduction and transport properties of the electrolyte in the phosphoric acid fuel cell are studied. The areas covered were: (1) development of a theoretical expression for the rotating ring disk electrode technique; (2) determination of the intermediate reaction rate constants for oxygen reduction on platinum in phosphoric acid electrolyte; (3) determination of oxygen reduction mechanism in trifluoreomethanesulfonic acid (TFMSA) which was considered as an alternate electrolyte for the acid fuel cells; and (4) the measurement of transport properties of the phosphoric acid electrolyte at high concentrations and temperatures.

  14. [Cell sources for cardiovascular tissue engineering].

    PubMed

    Klopsch, C; Donndorf, P; Kaminski, A; Ma, N; Steinhoff, G

    2011-04-01

    Numerous studies have confirmed that stem cell therapy has significant potential for the regeneration of congenital and acquired heart diseases. The utilization of embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells promises a possible generation and regeneration of all cardiovascular structures. On the one hand fetal and adult stem cells, e.g. endothelial progenitors, mesenchymal, hematopoietic, cardiac stem cells and myoblasts, possess limited potential for multilinear differentiation. On the other hand these cells have high paracrin activity and support with well-confirmed safety the reconstruction and formation of cardiovascular structures. On the visionary track towards an autonomously functioning autologous heart generated by tissue engineering, vascular, valvular and myocardial tissues have already been successfully created. This manuscript describes the possible stem cell sources for cardiovascular tissue engineering and evaluates their potency and safety from a medical and ethical point of view employing the data from systematic reviews (Medline database) and own investigations. PMID:21424292

  15. Odontogenic epithelial stem cells: hidden sources.

    PubMed

    Padma Priya, Sivan; Higuchi, Akon; Abu Fanas, Salem; Pooi Ling, Mok; Kumari Neela, Vasantha; Sunil, P M; Saraswathi, T R; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Kumar, Suresh

    2015-12-01

    The ultimate goal of dental stem cell research is to construct a bioengineered tooth. Tooth formation occurs based on the well-organized reciprocal interaction of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The dental mesenchymal stem cells are the best explored, but because the human odontogenic epithelium is lost after the completion of enamel formation, studies on these cells are scarce. The successful creation of a bioengineered tooth is achievable only when the odontogenic epithelium is reconstructed to produce a replica of natural enamel. This article discusses the untapped sources of odontogenic epithelial stem cells in humans, such as those present in the active dental lamina in postnatal life, in remnants of dental lamina (the gubernaculum cord), in the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, and in reduced enamel epithelium. The possible uses of these stem cells in regenerative medicine, not just for enamel formation, are discussed. PMID:26367485

  16. The landscape of alternative splicing in cervical squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Peng; Wang, Dan; Wu, Jun; Yang, Junjun; Ren, Tong; Zhu, Baoli; Xiang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Background Alternative splicing (AS) is a key regulatory mechanism in protein synthesis and proteome diversity. In this study, we identified alternative splicing events in four pairs of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) and adjacent nontumor tissues using RNA sequencing. Methods The transcripts of the four paired samples were thoroughly analyzed by RNA sequencing. SpliceMap software was used to detect the splicing junctions. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis was conducted to detect the alternative spliced genes-related signal pathways. The alternative spliced genes were validated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results There were 35 common alternative spliced genes in the four CSCC samples; they were novel and CSCC specific. Sixteen pathways were significantly enriched (P<0.05). One novel 5′AS site in the KLHDC7B gene, encoding kelch domain-containing 7B, and an exon-skipping site in the SYCP2 gene, encoding synaptonemal complex 2, were validated by RT-PCR. The KLHDC7B gene with 5′AS was found in 67.5% (27/40) of CSCC samples and was significantly related with cellular differentiation and tumor size. The exon-skipping site of the SYCP2 gene was found in 35.0% (14/40) of CSCC samples and was significantly related with depth of cervical invasion. Conclusion The KLHDC7B and the SYCP2 genes with alternative spliced events might be involved in the development and progression of CSCC and could be used as biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of CSCC. PMID:25565867

  17. Selection of optimal alternative graft source: mismatched unrelated donor, umbilical cord blood, or haploidentical transplant.

    PubMed

    Ballen, Karen K; Koreth, John; Chen, Yi-Bin; Dey, Bimalangshu R; Spitzer, Thomas R

    2012-03-01

    Only 30% of patients who require an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant will have an HLA-matched sibling donor. A search for an unrelated donor will be undertaken for patients without a matched family donor. However, many patients, particularly patients of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds, may not be able to rapidly identify a suitably matched unrelated donor. Three alternative graft sources, umbilical cord blood (UCB), haploidentical (haplo)-related donor, and mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) are available. UCB is associated with decreased GVHD, but hematologic recovery and immune reconstitution are slow. Haplo-HCT is characterized by donor availability for transplantation and after transplantation adoptive cellular immunotherapy but may be complicated by a high risk of graft failure and relapse. A MMUD transplant may also be an option, but GVHD may be of greater concern. Phase 2 studies have documented advances in HLA typing, GVHD prophylaxis, and infection prevention, which have improved survival. The same patient evaluated in different transplant centers may be offered MMUD, UCB, or haplo-HCT depending on center preference. In this review, we discuss the rationale for donor choice and the need of phase 3 studies to help answer this important question. PMID:22210876

  18. Reinvigorating Adolescent Sexuality Education through Alternate Reality Games: The Case of "The Source"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouris, Alida; Mancino, Jenny; Jagoda, Patrick; Hill, Brandon J.; Gilliam, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a focus group study conducted to evaluate "The Source," an alternate reality game (ARG). ARGs are a relatively new genre of interactive digital games that use a variety of media to engage game players. We developed modules on sexual health, sexual orientation, and homophobia in a game that was delivered…

  19. Biomass: An Alternative Source of Energy for Eighth or Ninth Grade Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyward, Lillie; Murff, Marye

    This teaching unit develops the possibility of using biomass as an alternative source of energy. The concept of biomass is explained and the processes associated with its conversion to energy are stated. Suggestions for development of biomass technology in different geographic areas are indicated. Lessons for 6 days are presented for use with…

  20. Distillers dried grains with solubles as alternative protein sources in diets of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research efforts by nutritionist to reduce feed costs have resulted in increased use of lower cost alternative plant proteins in fish feed formulations as replacements of fish meal and other more expensive protein sources. Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a dried residue that remains af...

  1. Distillers dried grains with solubles as alternative protein source in diets of tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research efforts by nutritionists to reduce feed costs have resulted in increased use of lower cost alternative plant proteins in fish feed formulations as replacements of fish meal and other expensive protein sources. Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a dried residue that remains after ...

  2. Accelerating the commercialization on new technologies. [free market operation of federal alternate energy sources programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, T. J.; Nawrocki, P. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that federal programs for hastening the adoption of alternative energy sources must operate within the free market structure. Five phases of the free market commercialization process are described. Federal role possibilities include information dissemination and funding to stimulate private sector activities within these five phases, and federally sponsored procedures for accelerating commercialization of solar thermal small power systems are considered.

  3. Alternative IT Sourcing Strategies: From the Campus to the Cloud. ECAR Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Philip J.

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the key findings from the 2009 ECAR (EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research) study, "Alternative IT Sourcing Strategies: From the Campus to the Cloud," by Philip J. Goldstein. The study explores a multitude of strategies used by colleges and university information technology organizations to deliver the breadth of technologies…

  4. Fallen fruit as a putative alternative food source of the Small Hive Beetle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) (SHB) is reputed to occasionally use fallen fruit as an alternative food source in the absence of honey bee hives. However, attraction to fruit has not been adequately documented, nor has the effect of fruit age or microbial infection on attraction been consid...

  5. 48 CFR 1806.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a) and (b))

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (NASA supplements paragraphs (a) and (b)) 1806.202 Section 1806.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and...

  6. Amino acids as possible alternative nitrogen source for growth of Euglena gracilis Z in life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, P. R.; Liu, Y.; An, Y.; Li, X.; Nasir, A.; Strauch, S. M.; Becker, I.; Krüger, J.; Schuster, M.; Ntefidou, M.; Daiker, V.; Haag, F. W. M.; Aiach, A.; Lebert, M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent times Euglena gracilis Z was employed as primary producer in closed environmental life-support system (CELSS), e.g. in space research. The photosynthetic unicellular flagellate is not capable of utilizing nitrate, nitrite, and urea as nitrogen source. Therefore, ammonium is supplied as an N-source in the lab (provided as diammonium-dihydrogenphosphate, (NH4)2HPO4) to E. gracilis cultures. While nitrate exerts low toxicity to organisms, ammonium is harmful for many aquatic organisms especially, at high pH-values, which causes the ionic NH+4 (low toxicity) to be partially transformed into the highly toxic ammonia, NH3. In earlier reports, Euglena gracilis was described to grow with various amino acids as sole N-source. Our aim was to investigate alternatives for (NH4)2HPO4 as N-source with lower toxicity for organisms co-cultivated with Euglena in a CELSS. The growth kinetics of Euglena gracilis cultures was determined in the presence of different amino acids (glycine, glutamine, glutamic acid, leucine, and threonine). In addition, uptake of those amino acids by the cells was measured. Cell growth in the presence of glycine and glutamine was quite comparable to the growth in (NH4)2HPO4 containing cultures while a delay in growth was observed in the presence of leucine and threonine. Unlike, aforementioned amino acids glutamate consumption was very poor. Cell density and glutamate concentration were almost unaltered throughout the experiment and the culture reached the stationary phase within 8 days. The data are compared with earlier studies in which utilization of amino acids in Euglena gracilis was investigated. All tested amino acids (glutamate with limitations) were found to have the potential of being an alternative N-source for Euglena gracilis. Hence, these amino acids can be used as a non-toxic surrogate for (NH4)2HPO4.

  7. Amino acids as possible alternative nitrogen source for growth of Euglena gracilis Z in life support systems.

    PubMed

    Richter, P R; Liu, Y; An, Y; Li, X; Nasir, A; Strauch, S M; Becker, I; Krüger, J; Schuster, M; Ntefidou, M; Daiker, V; Haag, F W M; Aiach, A; Lebert, M

    2015-01-01

    In recent times Euglena gracilis Z was employed as primary producer in closed environmental life-support system (CELSS), e.g. in space research. The photosynthetic unicellular flagellate is not capable of utilizing nitrate, nitrite, and urea as nitrogen source. Therefore, ammonium is supplied as an N-source in the lab (provided as diammonium-dihydrogenphosphate, (NH4)2HPO4) to E. gracilis cultures. While nitrate exerts low toxicity to organisms, ammonium is harmful for many aquatic organisms especially, at high pH-values, which causes the ionic NH4+ (low toxicity) to be partially transformed into the highly toxic ammonia, NH3. In earlier reports, Euglena gracilis was described to grow with various amino acids as sole N-source. Our aim was to investigate alternatives for (NH4)2HPO4 as N-source with lower toxicity for organisms co-cultivated with Euglena in a CELSS. The growth kinetics of Euglena gracilis cultures was determined in the presence of different amino acids (glycine, glutamine, glutamic acid, leucine, and threonine). In addition, uptake of those amino acids by the cells was measured. Cell growth in the presence of glycine and glutamine was quite comparable to the growth in (NH4)2HPO4 containing cultures while a delay in growth was observed in the presence of leucine and threonine. Unlike, aforementioned amino acids glutamate consumption was very poor. Cell density and glutamate concentration were almost unaltered throughout the experiment and the culture reached the stationary phase within 8 days. The data are compared with earlier studies in which utilization of amino acids in Euglena gracilis was investigated. All tested amino acids (glutamate with limitations) were found to have the potential of being an alternative N-source for Euglena gracilis. Hence, these amino acids can be used as a non-toxic surrogate for (NH4)2HPO4. PMID:26177616

  8. Static spin correlations in alternant quantum cell models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramasesha, S.; Soos, Z. G.

    1985-10-01

    Static-spin-correlation functions 4 are evaluated via diagrammatic valence-bond theory for exact states of finite Hubbard, Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP), and related quantum cell models. Several properties of that are independent of intersite potentials Vpp' in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation for half-filled alternant systems are shown to be sensitive to correlations in the ground state of N<=12 Hubbard and PPP chains. Accurate N-->∞ extrapolations are found for near neighbors. The correct ground-state charge density =1 is a property of half-filled alternant systems and thus not a test of HF or other one-electron approximations. Spin correlations in PPP models with standard molecular parameters and long-range Coulomb interactions are approximately given by on-site interactions of U~=2||t|| in Hubbard models, although the general semiempirical PPP approach to conjugated molecules is preferable for wide-band systems.

  9. Epithelial cells as alternative human biomatrices for comet assay

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Emilio; Lorenzo, Yolanda; Haug, Kristiane; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Valverde, Mahara

    2014-01-01

    The comet assay is a valuable experimental tool aimed at mapping DNA damage in human cells in vivo for environmental and occupational monitoring, as well as for therapeutic purposes, such as storage prior to transplant, during tissue engineering, and in experimental ex vivo assays. Furthermore, due to its great versatility, the comet assay allows to explore the use of alternative cell types to assess DNA damage, such as epithelial cells. Epithelial cells, as specialized components of many organs, have the potential to serve as biomatrices that can be used to evaluate genotoxicity and may also serve as early effect biomarkers. Furthermore, 80% of solid cancers are of epithelial origin, which points to the importance of studying DNA damage in these tissues. Indeed, studies including comet assay in epithelial cells have either clear clinical applications (lens and corneal epithelial cells) or examine genotoxicity within human biomonitoring and in vitro studies. We here review improvements in determining DNA damage using the comet assay by employing lens, corneal, tear duct, buccal, and nasal epithelial cells. For some of these tissues invasive sampling procedures are needed. Desquamated epithelial cells must be obtained and dissociated prior to examination using the comet assay, and such procedures may induce varying amounts of DNA damage. Buccal epithelial cells require lysis enriched with proteinase K to obtain free nucleosomes. Over a 30 year period, the comet assay in epithelial cells has been little employed, however its use indicates that it could be an extraordinary tool not only for risk assessment, but also for diagnosis, prognosis of treatments and diseases. PMID:25506353

  10. Advanced alternate planar geometry solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, S.; Prouse, D.; Khandkar, A.; Donelson, R.; Marianowski, L. )

    1992-11-01

    The potential of high temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells as high performance, high efficiency energy conversion device is well known. Investigation of several cell designs have been undertaken by various researchers to derive the maximum performance benefit from the device while maintaining a lower cost of production to meet the commercialization cost target. The present investigation focused on the planar SOFC design which allows for the use of mature low cost production processes to be employed. A novel design concept was investigated which allows for improvements in performance through increased interface stability, and lowering of cost through enhanced structural integrity and the use of low cost metal interconnects. The new cell design consisted of a co-sintered porous/dense/porous zirconia layer with the electrode material infiltrated into the porous layers. The two year program conducted by a team involving Ceramatec and the Institute of Gas Technology, culminated in a multi-cell stack test that exhibited high performance. Considerable progress was achieved in the selection of cell components, and establishing and optimizing the cell and stack fabrication parameters. It was shown that the stack components exhibited high conductivities and low creep at the operating temperature. The inter-cell resistive losses were shown to be small through out-of-cell characterization. The source of performance loss was identified to be the anode electrolyte interface. This loss however can be minimized by improving the anode infiltration technique. Manifolding and sealing of the planar devices posed considerable challenge. Even though the open circuit voltage was 250 mV/cell lower than theoretical, the two cell stack had a performance of 300 mA/cm[sup 2] at 0.4V/cell with an area specific resistance of 1 [Omega]-cm[sup 2]/cell. improvements in manifolding are expected to provide much higher performance.

  11. Advanced alternate planar geometry solid oxide fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, S.; Prouse, D.; Khandkar, A.; Donelson, R.; Marianowski, L.

    1992-11-01

    The potential of high temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells as high performance, high efficiency energy conversion device is well known. Investigation of several cell designs have been undertaken by various researchers to derive the maximum performance benefit from the device while maintaining a lower cost of production to meet the commercialization cost target. The present investigation focused on the planar SOFC design which allows for the use of mature low cost production processes to be employed. A novel design concept was investigated which allows for improvements in performance through increased interface stability, and lowering of cost through enhanced structural integrity and the use of low cost metal interconnects. The new cell design consisted of a co-sintered porous/dense/porous zirconia layer with the electrode material infiltrated into the porous layers. The two year program conducted by a team involving Ceramatec and the Institute of Gas Technology, culminated in a multi-cell stack test that exhibited high performance. Considerable progress was achieved in the selection of cell components, and establishing and optimizing the cell and stack fabrication parameters. It was shown that the stack components exhibited high conductivities and low creep at the operating temperature. The inter-cell resistive losses were shown to be small through out-of-cell characterization. The source of performance loss was identified to be the anode electrolyte interface. This loss however can be minimized by improving the anode infiltration technique. Manifolding and sealing of the planar devices posed considerable challenge. Even though the open circuit voltage was 250 mV/cell lower than theoretical, the two cell stack had a performance of 300 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0.4V/cell with an area specific resistance of 1 {Omega}-cm{sup 2}/cell. improvements in manifolding are expected to provide much higher performance.

  12. Dedifferentiated fat cells: A cell source for regenerative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Jumabay, Medet; Boström, Kristina I

    2015-01-01

    The identification of an ideal cell source for tissue regeneration remains a challenge in the stem cell field. The ability of progeny cells to differentiate into other cell types is important for the processes of tissue reconstruction and tissue engineering and has clinical, biochemical or molecular implications. The adaptation of stem cells from adipose tissue for use in regenerative medicine has created a new role for adipocytes. Mature adipocytes can easily be isolated from adipose cell suspensions and allowed to dedifferentiate into lipid-free multipotent cells, referred to as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. Compared to other adult stem cells, the DFAT cells have unique advantages in their abundance, ease of isolation and homogeneity. Under proper condition in vitro and in vivo, the DFAT cells have exhibited adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, cardiomyogenc, angiogenic, myogenic, and neurogenic potentials. In this review, we first discuss the phenomena of dedifferentiation and transdifferentiation of cells, and then dedifferentiation of adipocytes in particular. Understanding the dedifferentiation process itself may contribute to our knowledge of normal growth processes, as well as mechanisms of disease. Second, we highlight new developments in DFAT cell culture and summarize the current understanding of DFAT cell properties. The unique features of DFAT cells are promising for clinical applications such as tissue regeneration. PMID:26640620

  13. Alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for Fanconi anemia

    PubMed Central

    DeFor, Todd E.; Young, Jo-Anne H.; Dusenbery, Kathryn E.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Slungaard, Arne; Zierhut, Heather; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Wagner, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, alternative donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for Fanconi anemia (FA) patients resulted in excessive morbidity and mortality. To improve outcomes, we made sequential changes to the HCT conditioning regimen. A total of 130 FA patients (median age, 9.0 years; range, 1-48) underwent alternative donor HCT at the University of Minnesota between 1995 and 2012. All patients received cyclophosphamide (CY), single fraction total body irradiation (TBI), and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) with or without fludarabine (FLU), followed by T-cell–depleted bone marrow or unmanipulated umbilical cord blood transplantation. The addition of FLU enhanced engraftment 3-fold. The incidence of grades 2-4 acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease was 20% and 10%, respectively. Severe toxicity was highest in patients >10 years of age or those with a history of opportunistic infections or transfusions before HCT. Mortality was lowest in patients without a history of opportunistic infection or transfusions and who received conditioning with TBI 300 cGy, CY, FLU, and ATG. These patients had a probability of survival of 94% at 5 years. Alternative donor HCT is now associated with excellent survival for patients without prior opportunistic infections or transfusions and should be considered for all FA patients after the onset of marrow failure. These studies were registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005898, NCT00167206, and NCT00352976. PMID:25824692

  14. Phytomedicines and nutraceuticals: alternative therapeutics for sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Imaga, Ngozi Awa

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a genetically inherited disease in which the "SS" individual possesses an abnormal beta globin gene. A single base substitution in the gene encoding the human β -globin subunit results in replacement of β 6 glutamic acid by valine, leading to the devastating clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease. This substitution causes drastic reduction in the solubility of sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS) when deoxygenated. Under these conditions, the HbS molecules polymerize to form long crystalline intracellular mass of fibers which are responsible for the deformation of the biconcave disc shaped erythrocyte into a sickle shape. First-line clinical management of sickle cell anemia include, use of hydroxyurea, folic acid, amino acids supplementation, penicillinprophylaxis, and antimalarial prophylaxis to manage the condition and blood transfusions to stabilize the patient's hemoglobin level. These are quite expensive and have attendant risk factors. However, a bright ray of hope involving research into antisickling properties of medicinal plants has been rewarding. This alternative therapy using phytomedicines has proven to not only reduce crisis but also reverse sickling (in vitro). The immense benefits of phytomedicines and nutraceuticals used in the management of sickle cell anemia are discussed in this paper. PMID:23476125

  15. Phytomedicines and Nutraceuticals: Alternative Therapeutics for Sickle Cell Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Imaga, Ngozi Awa

    2013-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia is a genetically inherited disease in which the “SS” individual possesses an abnormal beta globin gene. A single base substitution in the gene encoding the human β-globin subunit results in replacement of β6 glutamic acid by valine, leading to the devastating clinical manifestations of sickle cell disease. This substitution causes drastic reduction in the solubility of sickle cell hemoglobin (HbS) when deoxygenated. Under these conditions, the HbS molecules polymerize to form long crystalline intracellular mass of fibers which are responsible for the deformation of the biconcave disc shaped erythrocyte into a sickle shape. First-line clinical management of sickle cell anemia include, use of hydroxyurea, folic acid, amino acids supplementation, penicillinprophylaxis, and antimalarial prophylaxis to manage the condition and blood transfusions to stabilize the patient's hemoglobin level. These are quite expensive and have attendant risk factors. However, a bright ray of hope involving research into antisickling properties of medicinal plants has been rewarding. This alternative therapy using phytomedicines has proven to not only reduce crisis but also reverse sickling (in vitro). The immense benefits of phytomedicines and nutraceuticals used in the management of sickle cell anemia are discussed in this paper. PMID:23476125

  16. Development of Towed Marine Seismic Vibrator as an Alternative Seismic Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozasa, H.; Mikada, H.; Murakami, F.; Jamali Hondori, E.; Takekawa, J.; Asakawa, E.; Sato, F.

    2015-12-01

    The principal issue with respect to marine impulsive sources to acquire seismic data is if the emission of acoustic energy inflicts harm on marine mammals or not, since the volume of the source signal being released into the marine environment could be so large compared to the sound range of the mammals. We propose a marine seismic vibrator as an alternative to the impulsive sources to mitigate a risk of the impact to the marine environment while satisfying the necessary conditions of seismic surveys. These conditions include the repeatability and the controllability of source signals both in amplitude and phase for high-quality measurements. We, therefore, designed a towed marine seismic vibrator (MSV) as a new type marine vibratory seismic source that employed the hydraulic servo system for the controllability condition in phase and in amplitude that assures the repeatability as well. After fabricating a downsized MSV that requires the power of 30 kVA at a depth of about 250 m in water, several sea trials were conducted to test the source characteristics of the downsized MSV in terms of amplitude, frequency, horizontal and vertical directivities of the generated field. The maximum sound level satisfied the designed specification in the frequencies ranging from 3 to 300 Hz almost omnidirectionally. After checking the source characteristics, we then conducted a trial seismic survey, using both the downsized MSV and an airgun of 480 cubic-inches for comparison, with a streamer cable of 2,000m long right above a cabled earthquake observatory in the Japan Sea. The result showed that the penetration of seismic signals generated by the downsized MSV was comparable to that by the airgun, although there was a slight difference in the signal-to-noise ratio. The MSV could become a versatile source that will not harm living marine mammals as an alternative to the existing impulsive seismic sources such as airgun.

  17. Biofuels as an Alternative Energy Source for Aviation-A Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowellBomani, Bilal M.; Bulzan, Dan L.; Centeno-Gomez, Diana I.; Hendricks, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biofuels has been gaining in popularity over the past few years because of their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. As a renewable energy source, biofuels can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. We investigate past, present, and possible future biofuel alternatives currently being researched and applied around the world. More specifically, we investigate the use of ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel (palm oil, algae, and halophytes), and synthetic fuel blends that can potentially be used as fuels for aviation and nonaerospace applications. We also investigate the processing of biomass via gasification, hydrolysis, and anaerobic digestion as a way to extract fuel oil from alternative biofuels sources.

  18. SEI power source alternatives for rovers and other multi-kWe distributed surface applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Kohout, L. L.; Mckissock, Barbara I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Withrow, C. A.; Colozza, A.; Hanlon, James C.; Schmitz, Paul C.

    1991-01-01

    To support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI), a study was performed to investigate power system alternatives for the rover vehicles and servicers that were subsequently generated for each of these rovers and servicers, candidate power sources incorporating various power generation and energy storage technologies were identified. The technologies were those believed most appropriate to the SEI missions, and included solar, electrochemical, and isotope systems. The candidates were characterized with respect to system mass, deployed area, and volume. For each of the missions a preliminary selection was made. Results of this study depict the available power sources in light of mission requirements as they are currently defined.

  19. Production, Characterization and Biocompatibility of Marine Collagen Matrices from an Alternative and Sustainable Source: The Sea Urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    PubMed Central

    Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Barbaglio, Alice; Martinello, Tiziana; Alongi, Valentina; Fassini, Dario; Cullorà, Emanuele; Patruno, Marco; Bonasoro, Francesco; Barbosa, Mario Adolfo; Candia Carnevali, Maria Daniela; Sugni, Michela

    2014-01-01

    Collagen has become a key-molecule in cell culture studies and in the tissue engineering field. Industrially, the principal sources of collagen are calf skin and bones which, however, could be associated to risks of serious disease transmission. In fact, collagen derived from alternative and riskless sources is required, and marine organisms are among the safest and recently exploited ones. Sea urchins possess a circular area of soft tissue surrounding the mouth, the peristomial membrane (PM), mainly composed by mammalian-like collagen. The PM of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus therefore represents a potential unexploited collagen source, easily obtainable as a food industry waste product. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to extract native collagen fibrils from the PM and produce suitable substrates for in vitro system. The obtained matrices appear as a homogeneous fibrillar network (mean fibril diameter 30–400 nm and mesh < 2 μm) and display remarkable mechanical properties in term of stiffness (146 ± 48 MPa) and viscosity (60.98 ± 52.07 GPa·s). In vitro tests with horse pbMSC show a good biocompatibility in terms of overall cell growth. The obtained results indicate that the sea urchin P. lividus can be a valuable low-cost collagen source for mechanically resistant biomedical devices. PMID:25255130

  20. Production, characterization and biocompatibility of marine collagen matrices from an alternative and sustainable source: the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    PubMed

    Benedetto, Cristiano Di; Barbaglio, Alice; Martinello, Tiziana; Alongi, Valentina; Fassini, Dario; Cullorà, Emanuele; Patruno, Marco; Bonasoro, Francesco; Barbosa, Mario Adolfo; Carnevali, Maria Daniela Candia; Sugni, Michela

    2014-09-01

    Collagen has become a key-molecule in cell culture studies and in the tissue engineering field. Industrially, the principal sources of collagen are calf skin and bones which, however, could be associated to risks of serious disease transmission. In fact, collagen derived from alternative and riskless sources is required, and marine organisms are among the safest and recently exploited ones. Sea urchins possess a circular area of soft tissue surrounding the mouth, the peristomial membrane (PM), mainly composed by mammalian-like collagen. The PM of the edible sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus therefore represents a potential unexploited collagen source, easily obtainable as a food industry waste product. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to extract native collagen fibrils from the PM and produce suitable substrates for in vitro system. The obtained matrices appear as a homogeneous fibrillar network (mean fibril diameter 30-400 nm and mesh < 2 μm) and display remarkable mechanical properties in term of stiffness (146 ± 48 MPa) and viscosity (60.98 ± 52.07 GPa·s). In vitro tests with horse pbMSC show a good biocompatibility in terms of overall cell growth. The obtained results indicate that the sea urchin P. lividus can be a valuable low-cost collagen source for mechanically resistant biomedical devices. PMID:25255130

  1. Final Technical Report for Alternative Fuel Source Study-An Energy Efficient and Environmentally Friendly Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Zee, Ralph; Schindler, Anton; Duke, Steve; Burch, Thom; Bransby, David; Stafford, Don

    2010-08-31

    The objective of this project is to conduct research to determine the feasibility of using alternate fuel sources for the production of cement. Successful completion of this project will also be beneficial to other commercial processes that are highly energy intensive. During this report period, we have completed all the subtasks in the preliminary survey. Literature searches focused on the types of alternative fuels currently used in the cement industry around the world. Information was obtained on the effects of particular alternative fuels on the clinker/cement product and on cement plant emissions. Federal regulations involving use of waste fuels were examined. Information was also obtained about the trace elements likely to be found in alternative fuels, coal, and raw feeds, as well as the effects of various trace elements introduced into system at the feed or fuel stage on the kiln process, the clinker/cement product, and concrete made from the cement. The experimental part of this project involves the feasibility of a variety of alternative materials mainly commercial wastes to substitute for coal in an industrial cement kiln in Lafarge NA and validation of the experimental results with energy conversion consideration.

  2. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operating on Alternative and Renewable Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoxing; Quan, Wenying; Xiao, Jing; Peduzzi, Emanuela; Fujii, Mamoru; Sun, Funxia; Shalaby, Cigdem; Li, Yan; Xie, Chao; Ma, Xiaoliang; Johnson, David; Lee, Jeong; Fedkin, Mark; LaBarbera, Mark; Das, Debanjan; Thompson, David; Lvov, Serguei; Song, Chunshan

    2014-09-30

    This DOE project at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) initially involved Siemens Energy, Inc. to (1) develop new fuel processing approaches for using selected alternative and renewable fuels – anaerobic digester gas (ADG) and commercial diesel fuel (with 15 ppm sulfur) – in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power generation systems; and (2) conduct integrated fuel processor – SOFC system tests to evaluate the performance of the fuel processors and overall systems. Siemens Energy Inc. was to provide SOFC system to Penn State for testing. The Siemens work was carried out at Siemens Energy Inc. in Pittsburgh, PA. The unexpected restructuring in Siemens organization, however, led to the elimination of the Siemens Stationary Fuel Cell Division within the company. Unfortunately, this led to the Siemens subcontract with Penn State ending on September 23rd, 2010. SOFC system was never delivered to Penn State. With the assistance of NETL project manager, the Penn State team has since developed a collaborative research with Delphi as the new subcontractor and this work involved the testing of a stack of planar solid oxide fuel cells from Delphi.

  3. Lepidopteran cells, an alternative for the production of recombinant antibodies?

    PubMed Central

    Cérutti, Martine; Golay, Josée

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are used with great success in many different therapeutic domains. In order to satisfy the growing demand and to lower the production cost of these molecules, many alternative systems have been explored. Among them, the baculovirus/insect cells system is a good candidate. This system is very safe, given that the baculoviruses have a highly restricted host range and they are not pathogenic to vertebrates or plants. But the major asset is the speed with which it is possible to obtain very stable recombinant viruses capable of producing fully active proteins whose glycosylation pattern can be modulated to make it similar to the human one. These features could ultimately make the difference by enabling the production of antibodies with very low costs. However, efforts are still needed, in particular to increase production rates and thus make this system commercially viable for the production of these therapeutic agents. PMID:22531440

  4. Preliminary design study of an alternate heat source assembly for a Brayton isotope power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strumpf, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of the preliminary design of an alternate heat source assembly (HSA) intended for use in the Brayton isotope power system (BIPS). The BIPS converts thermal energy emitted by a radioactive heat source into electrical energy by means of a closed Brayton cycle. A heat source heat exchanger configuration was selected and optimized. The design consists of a 10 turn helically wound Hastelloy X tube. Thermal analyses were performed for various operating conditions to ensure that post impact containment shell (PICS) temperatures remain within specified limits. These limits are essentially satisfied for all modes of operation except for the emergency cooling system for which the PICS temperatures are too high. Neon was found to be the best choice for a fill gas for auxiliary cooling system operation. Low cycle fatigue life, natural frequency, and dynamic loading requirements can be met with minor modifications to the existing HSA.

  5. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum aimed at alternative carbon sources and new products.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Ahmed; Lindner, Steffen N; Wendisch, Volker F

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as the amino acid-producing workhorse of fermentation industry, being used for multi-million-ton scale production of glutamate and lysine for more than 60 years. However, it is only recently that extensive research has focused on engineering it beyond the scope of amino acids. Meanwhile, a variety of corynebacterial strains allows access to alternative carbon sources and/or allows production of a wide range of industrially relevant compounds. Some of these efforts set new standards in terms of titers and productivities achieved whereas others represent a proof-of-principle. These achievements manifest the position of C. glutamicum as an important industrial microorganism with capabilities far beyond the traditional amino acid production. In this review we focus on the state of the art of metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for utilization of alternative carbon sources, (e.g. coming from wastes and unprocessed sources), and construction of C. glutamicum strains for production of new products such as diamines, organic acids and alcohols. PMID:24688664

  6. Metabolic engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum aimed at alternative carbon sources and new products

    PubMed Central

    Zahoor, Ahmed; Lindner, Steffen N.; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as the amino acid-producing workhorse of fermentation industry, being used for multi-million-ton scale production of glutamate and lysine for more than 60 years. However, it is only recently that extensive research has focused on engineering it beyond the scope of amino acids. Meanwhile, a variety of corynebacterial strains allows access to alternative carbon sources and/or allows production of a wide range of industrially relevant compounds. Some of these efforts set new standards in terms of titers and productivities achieved whereas others represent a proof-of-principle. These achievements manifest the position of C. glutamicum as an important industrial microorganism with capabilities far beyond the traditional amino acid production. In this review we focus on the state of the art of metabolic engineering of C. glutamicum for utilization of alternative carbon sources, (e.g. coming from wastes and unprocessed sources), and construction of C. glutamicum strains for production of new products such as diamines, organic acids and alcohols PMID:24688664

  7. Economy in energy through alternative sources of energy in mass-housing of developing countries

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, I.B.

    1980-12-01

    Energy is an integral part of the development process and a major determinant for the improvement of the quality of life in human settlements. Skyrocketing oil price increases in recent years has made development increasingly difficult for at least two-thirds of the developing countries. An increasing number of developing countries are searching for new sources of energy and more efficient use of what is available. So, there is a need for well thought-out comprehensive energy saving program. There is a need for radical thinking in devising new and innovative energy policies, which should be dynamic, technologically flexible, and responsive to the needs and aspirations of people. There is large percentage of energy used in buildings which can be economised in the planning of new settlements. The paper discusses and recommends the adoption of some of the straight-forward technology through which there is a full scope for minimizing the usage of energy in housing. Moving ahead, the paper also makes suggestions to developing countries how to develop and adopt alternative sources of energy in housing; especially solar energy, for cooling and heating purposes, because in solar energy most of the developing countries are very rich. Further, the paper strongly recommends that Universities, Colleges, and Schools should teach the latest concepts of energy conservation and use of alternative energy sources. However, the largest savings in energy consumption would arise from a real desire and economy consciousness on the part of the individual in the community to limit energy usage.

  8. Alternative Sources of n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Marine Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Dulce Alves; Custódio, Luísa; Barreira, Luísa; Pereira, Hugo; Ben-Hamadou, Radhouan; Varela, João; Abu-Salah, Khalid M.

    2013-01-01

    The main source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in human nutrition is currently seafood, especially oily fish. Nonetheless, due to cultural or individual preferences, convenience, geographic location, or awareness of risks associated to fatty fish consumption, the intake of fatty fish is far from supplying the recommended dietary levels. The end result observed in most western countries is not only a low supply of n-3 LC-PUFA, but also an unbalance towards the intake of n-6 fatty acids, resulting mostly from the consumption of vegetable oils. Awareness of the benefits of LC-PUFA in human health has led to the use of fish oils as food supplements. However, there is a need to explore alternatives sources of LC-PUFA, especially those of microbial origin. Microalgae species with potential to accumulate lipids in high amounts and to present elevated levels of n-3 LC-PUFA are known in marine phytoplankton. This review focuses on sources of n-3 LC-PUFA, namely eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, in marine microalgae, as alternatives to fish oils. Based on current literature, examples of marketed products and potentially new species for commercial exploitation are presented. PMID:23807546

  9. Quest for alternate personalized clinical source of MSCs: Advancing towards hiPSCs derived iMSCs.

    PubMed

    Sabapathy, Vikram; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    The Human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have been isolated from various tissue sources. Yet, the lack of a distinctive marker for identifying in vivo MSCs in their tissue niche has hampered the MSC's in vivo behavior tracking and compared that to the in vitro expanded cultures. In this review, we present a comprehensive report on MSCs history, isolation from assorted tissue sources, classification, long-term cultures for comprehensively characterized MSCs, immunomodulation, regenerative medical applications, iMSCs as a novel source of patient-specific iPSCs and scaleup strategies for translational applications. We have emphasized on prenatal tissue-derived MSCs and iMSCs derived from hiPSCs as an effective alternative to adult MSCs. We also highlight the urgent requirement to revisit the initial criteria laid down by International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) and propose more stringent criteria to define, identify and exclusively characterize the MSCs derived from various tissue sources using advanced molecular tools; also more international workshops are necessary for delineating unique features of MSCs. Unless the proposed goal is achieved, it is extremely difficult to realize the full potential of MSCs in translational applications. Although numerous patients have been tested with MSCs to date, no immediate adverse outcomes or infusion-related toxicity has been reported, suggesting MSCs infusion to be safe. However, rare adverse event and late complications of the treatment may be detected in large cohorts of patients with long-term follow-up. PMID:26521972

  10. Fuel cell power source for a cold region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, B. K.; Velayutham, G.; Goud, A. Prasad

    Electric power generation at Maitri—the Indian Antarctic station is based on a conventional diesel generator. In spite of the high reliability and simplicity of operation, the main disadvantages of this kind of power source are its pollution potential and fuel transportation costs. In a place like Antarctica environmental protection requirements are of prime importance. Apart from gas pollution, they also suffer from various other problems such as degradation of performance due to sub-zero temperature of operation, noise pollution, solidification of lubricants and mechanical wear and tear. Fuel cells find an ideal application for alternate energy solution, and can maintain the pristine nature of Antarctica. With this objective in mind, Research & Development Establishment (Engineers), Pune, Defence Research & Development Organisation, Ministry of Defence, Government of India joined hands with Centre for Electro-Chemical & Energy Research, SPIC Science Foundation, Chennai and developed three prototype 500 W, 12 V, PEMFC fuel cell power sources for this application. PEMFC has been chosen for study and experimentation at Antarctica because the solid electrolyte Nafion-117 is used in this cell and the electro-chemical reaction is exothermic so that the fuel cell can be activated at low temperature. PEMFC was first installed and successfully demonstrated during the XVII Indian Antarctic Expedition. Further studies continued during the XVIII Indian Antarctic Expedition and a series of scientific experiments were conducted in the areas of optimisation of humidification, temperature for reactants (hydrogen and oxygen), elimination of existing humidification system, feasibility of provision of air-cooling system in lieu of water cooling system, humidifcation of gases using membrane as a medium, charging/discharging characteristics of a metal hydride container for hydrogen storage, and performance of a dc-dc converter and static inverter under sub-zero temperature of

  11. The effect of information on public acceptance--the case of water from alternative sources.

    PubMed

    Dolnicar, Sara; Hurlimann, Anna; Nghiem, Long Duc

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to provide conclusive evidence that information about water from alternative sources increases public acceptance. We conducted an experiment with 1000 Australian respondents asking them about their acceptance of recycled and desalinated water for a range of purposes under two conditions: 1) no information provided and 2) information about the production process provided. Results indicate that - both for desalinated and recycled water - the stated likelihood of use increases significantly if people are provided with information about the production process. This has major implications for public policy makers indicating that providing factual information (as opposed to persuasive campaigns) will increase public support of water augmentation projects. PMID:20227166

  12. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?...

  13. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?...

  14. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must...

  15. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources? You must...

  16. Hematopoietic cells as sources for patient-specific iPSCs and disease modeling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Cyndi F

    2011-01-01

    In addition to being an attractive source for cell replacement therapy, human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) also have great potential for disease modeling and drug development. During the recent several years, cell reprogramming technologies have evolved to generate virus-free and integration-free human iPSCs from easily accessible sources such as patient skin fibroblasts and peripheral blood samples. Hematopoietic cells from umbilical cord blood banks and Epstein Barr virus (EBV) immortalized B lymphocyte repositories represent alternative sources for human genetic materials of diverse backgrounds. Ability to reprogram these banked blood cells to pluripotency and differentiate them into a variety of specialized and functional cell types provides valuable tools for studying underlying mechanisms of a broad range of diseases including rare inherited disorders. Here we describe the recent advances in generating disease specific human iPSCs from these different types of hematopoietic cells and their potential applications in disease modeling and regenerative medicine. PMID:21857158

  17. Alternate light sources in the detection of bone after an accelerated fire: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Amber S

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the ability of alternate light sources to detect bone that has been exposed to fire when identification of bone remains is difficult to ascertain. It is intended as a tool for fire investigators to quickly determine whether an area should be considered a forensic scene. After being subjected to a test burn, pig bones were viewed and photographed with the use of a laser, and later compared with a UV light source. A secondary study observing stages of a human cremation was conducted to assess how various levels of burnt flesh affect the ability of bone to fluoresce utilizing a laser. Both studies demonstrated success in detecting bone while fluorescing with a molten lava type of appearance that has the potential to distinguish bone from its surrounding environment. Limitations and recommendations are discussed by the author including the need for future studies to expand on this research. PMID:22994928

  18. A Review on Alternative Carbon Sources for Biological Treatment of Nitrate Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhamole, Pradip B.; D'Souza, S. F.; Lele, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Huge amount of wastewater containing nitrogen is produced by various chemical and biological industries. Nitrogen is present in the form of ammonia, nitrate and nitrite. This review deals with treatment of nitrate based effluent using biological denitrification. Because of its adverse effect on aquatic life and human health, treatment of nitrate bearing effluents has become mandatory before discharge. Treatment of such wastes is a liability for the industries and incurs cost. However, the economics of the process can be controlled by selection of proper method and reduction in the operating cost. This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of nitrate removal with emphasis on biological denitrification. The cost of biological denitrification is controlled by the carbon source. Hence, use of alternative carbon sources such as agricultural wastes, industrial effluent or by products is reviewed in this paper. Policies for reducing the cost of nitrate treatment and enhancing the efficiency have been recommended.

  19. SEI power source alternatives for rovers and other multi-kWe distributed surface applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Mckissock, B. I.; Rodriguez, C. D.; Withrow, C. A.; Colozza, A.; Hanlon, J. C.; Schmitz, P. C.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the study performed to support the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) which investigated power system alternatives for the rover vehicles and servicers that would be used for construction and operation of a lunar base is described. Using the mission requirements and power profiles that were subsequently generated for each of these rovers and servicers, candidate power sources incorporating various power generation and energy storage technologies were identified. The technologies were those believed most appropriate to the SEI missions, and included solar, electrochemical, and isotope systems. The candidates were characterized with respect to system mass, deployed area and volume. For each of the missions a preliminary selection was made. Results of this study depict the available power sources in light of the mission requirements as they are currently defined.

  20. Gaussian process models for reference ET estimation from alternative meteorological data sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Daniel; Sridharan, Mohan; Gowda, Prasanna; Porter, Dana; Marek, Thomas; Howell, Terry; Moorhead, Jerry

    2014-09-01

    Accurate estimates of daily crop evapotranspiration (ET) are needed for efficient irrigation management, especially in arid and semi-arid regions where crop water demand exceeds rainfall. Daily grass or alfalfa reference ET values and crop coefficients are widely used to estimate crop water demand. Inaccurate reference ET estimates can hence have a tremendous impact on irrigation costs and the demands on U.S. freshwater resources, particularly within the Ogallala aquifer region. ET networks calculate reference ET using local meteorological data. With gaps in spatial coverage of existing networks and the agriculture-based Texas High Plains ET (TXHPET) network in jeopardy due to lack of funding, there is an immediate need for alternative sources capable of filling data gaps without high maintenance and field-based support costs. Non-agricultural weather stations located throughout the Texas High Plains are providing publicly accessible meteorological data. However, there are concerns that the data may not be suitable for estimating reference ET due to factors such as weather station siting, fetch requirements, data formats, parameters recorded, and quality control issues. The goal of the research reported in this paper is to assess the use of alternative data sources for reference ET computation. Towards this objective, we trained Gaussian process models, an instance of kernel-based machine learning algorithms, on data collected from weather stations to estimate reference ET values and augment the TXHPET database. Results show that Gaussian process models provide much greater accuracy than baseline least square regression models.

  1. Investigation of alternate power source for Space Shuttle Orbiter hydraulic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, William E.; Young, Fred M.

    1993-05-01

    This investigation consists of a short-term feasibility study to determine whether or not an alternate electrical power source would trade favorably from a performance, reliability, safety, operation, and weight standpoint in replacing the current auxiliary power unit subsystems with its attendant components (water spray boiler, hydrazine fuel and tanks, feed and vent lines, controls, etc.), operating under current flight rules. Results of this feasibility study are used to develop recommendations for the next step (e.g., to determine if such an alternate electrical power source would show an advantage given that the current operational flight mode of the system could be modified in such a way as not to constrain the operational capability and safety of the vehicle). However, this next step is not within the scope of this investigation. This study does not include a cost analysis, nor does it include investigation of the integration aspects involved in such a trade, except in a qualitative sense for the determination of concept feasibility.

  2. New sources for alternative methods on the Internet: the objectives of databases and web sites.

    PubMed

    Grune, Barbara; Dörendahl, Antje; Köhler-Hahn, Dorothea; Feuerstein, Céline; Box, Rainer; Wohlgemuth, Heinz; Spielmann, Horst

    2004-06-01

    One of the main requirements of the current animal welfare legislation in Europe is to prove the necessity of performing a given experiment with animals. Thus, a study using animals should not proceed, if another scientifically reliable method is available to obtain the desired results that either avoids animal experiments altogether, minimises pain and suffering of animals or reduces the number of animals needed. Scientists are legally required to search the literature and other relevant sources for alternatives prior to any experimental study with animals. Access to information has become much easier since the introduction of the Internet as a standard tool. Today, a variety of online sources is available, e.g. web-based bibliographic databases and specialised web sites providing details about alternatives to animal studies. However, scientists still need to determine the most appropriate searching strategies, depending on the objectives of the relevant web sites and their own line of research. A critical discussion of this issue takes into account the objectives of both the information providers and the information retrieval systems. PMID:23581139

  3. A medium-chain fatty acid as an alternative energy source in mouse preimplantation development

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Takanashi, Kazumi; Hamatani, Toshio; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Fukunaga, Tomoko; Ogawa, Seiji; Sugawara, Kana; Shinoda, Kosaku; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kuji, Naoaki; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Tomita, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    To further optimize the culturing of preimplantation embryos, we undertook metabolomic analysis of relevant culture media using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). We detected 28 metabolites: 23 embryo-excreted metabolites including 16 amino acids and 5 media-derived metabolites (e.g., octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)). Due to the lack of information on MCFAs in mammalian preimplantation development, this study examined octanoate as a potential alternative energy source for preimplantation embryo cultures. No embryos survived in culture media lacking FAs, pyruvate, and glucose, but supplementation of octanoate rescued the embryonic development. Immunoblotting showed significant expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, important enzymes for ß-oxidation of MCFAs, in preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, CE-TOFMS traced [1-13C8] octanoate added to the culture media into intermediate metabolites of the TCA cycle via ß-oxidation in mitochondria. These results are the first demonstration that octanoate could provide an efficient alternative energy source throughout preimplantation development. PMID:23226596

  4. Reclaimed water as an alternative source of water for the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Ncube, Mthokozisi

    Perennial water problems, precipitated by increased water demand in Bulawayo, the second largest city in Zimbabwe, has prompted the consideration of a wide array of strategies from demand management and water conservation measures to exploitation of alternative water sources. One of such strategies in the latter category includes recycling of blue water for both potable and non-potable purposes. This paper examines the existing reclaimed water system with a view at revamping the existing infrastructure to maximise reclaimed water use for purposes that are amenable to water of lower quality. It is a generally accepted practice to avoid the use of water of high quality for purposes that can tolerate a lower grade, unless it is in excess in amount [ Okun, D.A., 1973. Planning for water reuse. Journal of AWWA 65(10)]. The reclaimed water is assessed in terms of its quality and quantity vis-à-vis possible uses. Perceptions and expectations of both current and identified prospective consumers are examined and discussed, in addition to the feasibility of accommodating these identified prospective consumers in an expanded network. Apart from enhancement of the existing infrastructure, the paper highlights the need for social marketing and education in order to realise the optimum benefits of this alternative water source. The cost implications of implementing the proposed project are evaluated, including suggestions on suitable tariff structure and an allocation distribution that achieves equity.

  5. Investigation of alternate power source for Space Shuttle Orbiter hydraulic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, William E.; Young, Fred M.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation consists of a short-term feasibility study to determine whether or not an alternate electrical power source would trade favorably from a performance, reliability, safety, operation, and weight standpoint in replacing the current auxiliary power unit subsystems with its attendant components (water spray boiler, hydrazine fuel and tanks, feed and vent lines, controls, etc.), operating under current flight rules. Results of this feasibility study are used to develop recommendations for the next step (e.g., to determine if such an alternate electrical power source would show an advantage given that the current operational flight mode of the system could be modified in such a way as not to constrain the operational capability and safety of the vehicle). However, this next step is not within the scope of this investigation. This study does not include a cost analysis, nor does it include investigation of the integration aspects involved in such a trade, except in a qualitative sense for the determination of concept feasibility.

  6. Integration and Optimization of Alternative Sources of Energy in a Remote Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberi, Pellumb; Inodnorjani, Spiro; Aleti, Riza

    2010-01-01

    In a remote coastal region supply of energy from national grid is insufficient for a sustainable development. Integration and optimization of local alternative renewable energy sources is an optional solution of the problem. In this paper we have studied the energetic potential of local sources of renewable energy (water, solar, wind and biomass). A bottom-up energy system optimization model is proposed in order to support planning policies for promoting the use of renewable energy sources. A software, based on multiple factors and constrains analysis for optimization energy flow is proposed, which provides detailed information for exploitation each source of energy, power and heat generation, GHG emissions and end-use sectors. Economical analysis shows that with existing technologies both stand alone and regional facilities may be feasible. Improving specific legislation will foster investments from Central or Local Governments and also from individuals, private companies or small families. The study is carried on the frame work of a FP6 project "Integrated Renewable Energy System."

  7. Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2011-08-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, mine pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), and with the

  8. Bifurcation dynamics and determination of alternate cell fates in bipotent progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanshan; Liu, Yanwei; Liu, Zengrong; Wang, Ruiqi

    2015-04-01

    The gene regulatory networks in which two lineage-affiliated transcription factors, such as GATA1 and PU.1, inhibit each other but activate themselves so as to regulate the choice between alternative cell fates have been extensively studied. These simple networks can generate bistability and explain the transitions between the alternative cell fates. The commitment of a progenitor cell to a new fate corresponds to the occurrence of different types of bifurcations, depending on if a system is symmetrical and how perturbations affect the system. Here we take a general modeling and analyzing approach and show that the lateral inhibition with symmetry and asymmetry can lead to different bifurcation dynamics. Especially, if cell fate decision-making is initiated with asymmetry or symmetry-breaking perturbations, a progenitor cell pre-patterns itself into a polarized cell, depending on the asymmetry or symmetry-breaking perturbations. This study may help us understand the fundamental features of binary cell fate decisions more clearly and further apply to a wider range of decision-making processes. PMID:25852780

  9. Alternative flow cytometry strategies to analyze stem cells and cell death in planarians

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, Tanuja Harshani; García‐Ojeda, Marcos E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Planarians possess remarkable stem cell populations that continuously support cellular turnover and are instrumental in the regeneration of tissues upon injury. Cellular turnover and tissue regeneration in planarians rely on the proper integration of local and systemic signals that regulate cell proliferation and cell death. Thus, understanding the signals controlling cellular proliferation and cell death in planarians could provide valuable insights for maintenance of adult body homeostasis and the biology of regeneration. Flow cytometry techniques have been utilized widely to identify, isolate, and characterize planarian stem cell populations. We developed alternative flow cytometry strategies that reduce the number of reagents and the time of sample preparation to analyze stem cells and cell death in planarians. The sensitivity of these methods is validated with functional studies using RNA interference and treatment with  γ irradiation or stressful conditions that are known to trigger cell death. Altogether, we provide a community resource intended to minimize adverse effects during ex vivo studies of stem cells and cell death in planarians. PMID:27307993

  10. Alternative flow cytometry strategies to analyze stem cells and cell death in planarians.

    PubMed

    Peiris, Tanuja Harshani; García-Ojeda, Marcos E; Oviedo, Néstor J

    2016-04-01

    Planarians possess remarkable stem cell populations that continuously support cellular turnover and are instrumental in the regeneration of tissues upon injury. Cellular turnover and tissue regeneration in planarians rely on the proper integration of local and systemic signals that regulate cell proliferation and cell death. Thus, understanding the signals controlling cellular proliferation and cell death in planarians could provide valuable insights for maintenance of adult body homeostasis and the biology of regeneration. Flow cytometry techniques have been utilized widely to identify, isolate, and characterize planarian stem cell populations. We developed alternative flow cytometry strategies that reduce the number of reagents and the time of sample preparation to analyze stem cells and cell death in planarians. The sensitivity of these methods is validated with functional studies using RNA interference and treatment with  γ irradiation or stressful conditions that are known to trigger cell death. Altogether, we provide a community resource intended to minimize adverse effects during ex vivo studies of stem cells and cell death in planarians. PMID:27307993

  11. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  12. Hawaii Integrated Energy Assessment. Volume V. Rules, regulations, permits and policies affecting the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive presentaton of the major permits, regulations, rules, and controls which are likely to affect the development of alternate energy sources in Hawaii is presented. An overview of the permit process, showing the major categories and types of permits and controls for energy alternatives is presented. This is followed by a brief resume of current and projected changes designed to streamline the permit process. The permits, laws, regulations, and controls that are applicable to the development of energy alternatives in Hawaii are described. The alternate energy technologies affected, a description of the permit or control, and the requirements for conformance are presented for each applicable permit. Federal, state, and county permits and controls are covered. The individual energy technologies being considered as alternatives to the State's present dependence on imported fossil fuels are emphasized. The alternate energy sources covered are bioconversion, geothermal, ocean thermal, wind, solar (direct), and solid waste. For each energy alternative, the significant permits are summarized with a brief explanation of why they may be necessary. The framework of policy development at each of the levels of government with respect to the alternate energy sources is covered.

  13. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with hematological malignancies across HLA barriers--reasonable alternative?

    PubMed

    Sedlácek, P; Starý, J; Vodváková, S; Poloucková, A; Gasová, Z; Marinov, I; Formánková, R

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency and risks of T-cell depletion in prevention of graft versus host disease (GVHD) using HLA haploidentical family donors as an alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in children with hematological malignancies without suitable matched donor. Ten children, median age 12 years (range, 3-17), were transplanted from haploidentical family donors for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 4), acute myelogenous leukemia (n=2), chronic myelogenous leukemia (n = 2), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 1) and myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 1). Parents were donors for nine, sibling for one patient. T-cell depletion of HSC was performed using CellPro followed by antiCD2/CD3 depletion in 7, and CliniMacs magnetic sorting in 3 grafts. Primary engraftment was achieved in nine patients. Patient with graft failure was successfully re-grafted. Primary acute GVHD was diagnosed in one patient who got higher amount of T-cells in the graft. Secondary GVHD was induced by add-backs of lymphocytes in four patients. Three patients developed chronic GVHD. Four patients died due to transplant related mortality (40%), one from veno-occlusive disease, two due to CMV pneumonia and one of aspergillosis with extensive chronic GVHD. Four patients relapsed with leukemia within 35-98 days post transplant, three without previous signs of GVHD, and all died. Two patients are alive and well 26 and 42 months after transplant. Haploidentical family donors appear to be a reasonable alternative option for patients with urgent indications for allogeneic transplant and/or without a matched donor. PMID:11712683

  14. Design of an Acoustic Array for Comparison with an Alternative Source Localization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coombs, Deshawn; Lewalle, Jacques; Glauser, Mark; Wang, Guannan

    2013-11-01

    We report on the design, testing and construction of a conventional acoustic array, and document an alternate method of signal processing. The purpose of the new algorithm is to improve the spatial localization of acoustic sources. The reference results are obtained using the beamforming algorithm. The array design includes 60 microphones with a maximum aperture diameter of 39 inches. The arrays target frequency range is 500-5000 Hz. The new algorithm uses fewer microphones. We will show results with simulated signals and with jet noise experimental data. Details of the array calibration and representative data from measurements will be presented along with data post-processing procedures. Support from Syracuse University MAE department and LSAMP.

  15. The use of an alternate light source for detecting bones underwater.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Horn, Kevin J; Smith, Victoria A

    2014-07-01

    When searching underwater crime scenes or disaster scenes for fragmentary human remains, it may be advantageous for forensic divers to be able to detect the presence of bones and teeth among other marine materials (such as shells and rocks). In terrestrial environments, this can typically be accomplished by visual and instrumental methods, but underwater conditions make it difficult to employ detection and sorting techniques in these environments. This study investigates fluorescence of bones and teeth and other marine materials using a submersible alternate light source (ALS) and concludes that an ALS can be a useful tool for detecting bones and teeth in underwater searches as well in terrestrial searches and laboratory environments. The results could impact the methods and equipment used by forensic divers and forensic anthropologists when searching for skeletal remains, potentially increasing the quantity and efficiency of forensic evidence recovered. PMID:24666117

  16. The vulnerabilities of the power-grid system: renewable microgrids as an alternative source of energy.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Victor; Myres, Charles; Bakshi, Nitin

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the vulnerabilities of current power-grid systems and to propose alternatives to using fossil fuel power generation and infrastructure solutions in the form of microgrids, particularly those from renewable energy sources. One of the key potential benefits of microgrids, apart from their inherent sustainability and ecological advantages, is increased resilience. The analysis is targeted towards the context of business process outsourcing in India. However, much of the research on vulnerabilities has been derived from the USA and as such many of the examples cite vulnerabilities in the USA and other developed economies. Nevertheless, the vulnerabilities noted are to a degree common to all grid systems, and so the analysis may be more broadly applicable. PMID:20494879

  17. Infection Rates among Acute Leukemia Patients Receiving Alternative Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ballen, Karen; Woo Ahn, Kwang; Chen, Min; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Ahmed, Ibrahim; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Antin, Joseph; Bhatt, Ami S; Boeckh, Michael; Chen, George; Dandoy, Christopher; George, Biju; Laughlin, Mary J; Lazarus, Hillard M; MacMillan, Margaret L; Margolis, David A; Marks, David I; Norkin, Maxim; Rosenthal, Joseph; Saad, Ayman; Savani, Bipin; Schouten, Harry C; Storek, Jan; Szabolcs, Paul; Ustun, Celalettin; Verneris, Michael R; Waller, Edmund K; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Williams, Kirsten M; Wingard, John R; Wirk, Baldeep; Wolfs, Tom; Young, Jo-Anne H; Auletta, Jeffrey; Komanduri, Krishna V; Lindemans, Caroline; Riches, Marcie L

    2016-09-01

    Alternative graft sources (umbilical cord blood [UCB], matched unrelated donors [MUD], or mismatched unrelated donors [MMUD]) enable patients without a matched sibling donor to receive potentially curative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Retrospective studies demonstrate comparable outcomes among different graft sources. However, the risk and types of infections have not been compared among graft sources. Such information may influence the choice of a particular graft source. We compared the incidence of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections in 1781 adults with acute leukemia who received alternative donor HCT (UCB, n= 568; MUD, n = 930; MMUD, n = 283) between 2008 and 2011. The incidences of bacterial infection at 1 year were 72%, 59%, and 65% (P < .0001) for UCB, MUD, and MMUD, respectively. Incidences of viral infection at 1 year were 68%, 45%, and 53% (P < .0001) for UCB, MUD, and MMUD, respectively. In multivariable analysis, bacterial, fungal, and viral infections were more common after either UCB or MMUD than after MUD (P < .0001). Bacterial and viral but not fungal infections were more common after UCB than MMUD (P = .0009 and <.0001, respectively). The presence of viral infection was not associated with an increased mortality. Overall survival (OS) was comparable among UCB and MMUD patients with Karnofsky performance status (KPS) ≥ 90% but was inferior for UCB for patients with KPS < 90%. Bacterial and fungal infections were associated with poorer OS. Future strategies focusing on infection prevention and treatment are indicated to improve HCT outcomes. PMID:27343716

  18. Comparison of the effects of conventional and alternative external carbon sources on enhancing the denitrification process.

    PubMed

    Swinarski, Marek; Makinia, Jacek; Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Chrzanowska, Marta; Drewnowski, Jakub

    2009-01-01

    Food industry effluents are considered a potential alternative for methanol when seeking external carbon sources to enhance denitrification in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The aim of this study was to determine the immediate effects of dosing different carbon sources on the denitrification capability of process biomass from the Wschod WWTP in Gdansk (northern Poland). Five carbon sources, including settled wastewater, methanol, and three industrial effluents (distillery, brewery, and fish-pickling process) were tested in two kinds of batch experiments. The acclimation period of biomass to methanol also was investigated in bench-scale systems. During the conventional batch experiments, with the industrial effluents, the observed nitrate utilization rates (NURs) ranged from 2.4 to 6.0 g N/(kg VSS x h), which were only slightly lower than the rates associated with the use of the readily biodegradable fraction in the municipal (settled) wastewater [4.6 to 7.8 g N/(kg VSS x h)]. The conventional NURs observed with methanol and non-acclimated process biomass were low [i.e., 0.4 to 1.5 g N/(kg VSS x h)], and a minimum 2-week acclimation period of biomass to methanol in the bench-scale systems was needed to reach the level of 4.0 g N/(kg VSS x h). In other experiments, dosing the distillery and fish-pickling effluents at the beginning of the anoxic phase (preceded by the anaerobic phase) resulted in considerably higher (over 20%) NURs compared with the same experiments with the other carbon sources. PMID:19860146

  19. Alternative disposal for Investigation Derived Wastes (IDW) containing low activity source material

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, H.T.; Majer, T.

    2007-07-01

    As part of a Remedial Investigation (RI) at a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Site, approximately 77,111 kg (85 tons) I would use the actual tons of investigation derived wastes (IDW) were generated from exploratory soil borings and as part of removal activities at a former drum burial area. Characterization of these materials indicated elevated concentrations of metals including uranium and thorium (source material). Concentrations of uranium and thorium were at levels less than 0.05% by mass, which is the threshold for exempt source material under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Disposal of this material was evaluated as low-level radioactive waste and as exempt radioactive waste. The NRC has established a process for evaluation and review of exempt source material transfer and direct disposal in a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) landfill. These requests are normally approved if the dose to a member of the general public is unlikely to exceed 0.25 mSv per year (25 milli-rem per year). The soil was evaluated for disposal as exempt radioactive waste at a RCRA landfill, which included dose modeling to workers during transportation and disposal as well as potential dose to members of the public after closure of the disposal facility. These evaluations determined that the potential dose was very small, and review by the agreement state regulatory agency indicated that this disposal process should not result in any undue hazard to public health and safety or property. The advantage of this approach is that disposal of 77,111 kg (85 tons) of IDW at a RCRA landfill is estimated to result in a savings of $80,000 as compared to disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Alternative waste disposal of exempt source material provides more disposal options and can lead to significant cost savings. (authors)

  20. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected...

  1. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected...

  2. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord...

  3. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord...

  4. 40 CFR 63.5985 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire production affected sources? 63.5985 Section 63.5985 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Production Affected Sources § 63.5985 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire production affected...

  5. 40 CFR 63.5987 - What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the emission limits for tire cord production affected sources? 63.5987 Section 63.5987 Protection of... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Rubber Tire Manufacturing Emission Limits for Tire Cord Production Affected Sources § 63.5987 What are my alternatives for meeting the emission limits for tire cord...

  6. Impact of alternative n fertilizer sources on cotton yield and greenhouse gas emissions in a coastal plain soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in the use of alternative fertilizer sources have increased in recent years. This is partially attributed to the belief that the new enhanced-efficiency N fertilizer sources can potentially increase crop yield, while at the same time decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, a field stud...

  7. ONCOGENE ALTERNATIONS IN IN VITRO TRANSFORMED RAT TRACHEAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ten derivations of rat tracheal epithelial (RTE) cells, including normal cells, normal primary cultures, 7 tumorigenic cell lines and 1 non-tumorigenic cell line transformed by treatment with 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), benzo(a)pyrene (BP) and/or 12-0-tetradecanoylphor...

  8. Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization of explosives using alternating current corona discharge ion source.

    PubMed

    Usmanov, D T; Chen, L C; Yu, Z; Yamabe, S; Sakaki, S; Hiraoka, K

    2015-04-01

    The high-sensitive detection of explosives is of great importance for social security and safety. In this work, the ion source for atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometry using alternating current corona discharge was newly designed for the analysis of explosives. An electromolded fine capillary with 115 µm inner diameter and 12 mm long was used for the inlet of the mass spectrometer. The flow rate of air through this capillary was 41 ml/min. Stable corona discharge could be maintained with the position of the discharge needle tip as close as 1 mm to the inlet capillary without causing the arc discharge. Explosives dissolved in 0.5 µl methanol were injected to the ion source. The limits of detection for five explosives with 50 pg or lower were achieved. In the ion/molecule reactions of trinitrotoluene (TNT), the discharge products of NOx (-) (x = 2,3), O3 and HNO3 originating from plasma-excited air were suggested to contribute to the formation of [TNT - H](-) (m/z 226), [TNT - NO](-) (m/z 197) and [TNT - NO + HNO3 ](-) (m/z 260), respectively. Formation processes of these ions were traced by density functional theory calculations. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26149109

  9. Alternatives to Outdoor Daylight Illumination for Photodynamic Therapy—Use of Greenhouses and Artificial Light Sources

    PubMed Central

    Lerche, Catharina M.; Heerfordt, Ida M.; Heydenreich, Jakob; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (daylight PDT) is a simple and pain free treatment of actinic keratoses. Weather conditions may not always allow daylight PDT outdoors. We compared the spectrum of five different lamp candidates for indoor “daylight PDT” and investigated their ability to photobleach protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Furthermore, we measured the amount of PpIX activating daylight available in a glass greenhouse, which can be an alternative when it is uncomfortable for patients to be outdoors. The lamps investigated were: halogen lamps (overhead and slide projector), white light-emitting diode (LED) lamp, red LED panel and lamps used for conventional PDT. Four of the five light sources were able to photobleach PpIX completely. For halogen light and the red LED lamp, 5000 lux could photobleach PpIX whereas 12,000 lux were needed for the white LED lamp. Furthermore, the greenhouse was suitable for daylight PDT since the effect of solar light is lowered only by 25%. In conclusion, we found four of the five light sources and the greenhouse usable for indoor daylight PDT. The greenhouse is beneficial when the weather outside is rainy or windy. Only insignificant ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) radiation passes through the greenhouse glass, so sun protection is not needed. PMID:26938525

  10. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value†

    PubMed Central

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N.

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as “superfoods” due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  11. Toenails as an alternative source material for the extraction of DNA from decomposed human remains.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Andrew; Grimble, Katelyn; Azim, Arani; Owen, Rebecca; Hartman, Dadna

    2016-01-01

    The DNA identification of decomposed human remains for coronial investigations at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine routinely requires the retrieval and processing of a bone sample obtained from the deceased. Bone is a difficult sample type to work with as it requires surgical removal from the deceased, refrigerated storage, and additional processing steps prior to DNA analysis in comparison to other samples types such as buccal swabs or blood stains. In an attempt to overcome the issues posed by bone, a DNA extraction method utilising toenails as an alternate source material was optimised and trialled. Two DNA extraction methods were optimised for digestion of toenail material, with the method utilising the QIAGEN DNA Investigator Kit selected for a casework trial. Single source DNA profiles, matching those of the conventional samples taken, were obtained for toenail samples collected from 28 of 30 coronial cases available for this study. Of these, 26 toenail samples produced full profiles. Although the overall DNA profile quality from the toenails was less than that of the conventional sample, the profiles from toenails met the reporting requirements for identification. Based on the results obtained, the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine will be implementing toenails as the primary sample type for collection from decomposed remains when blood is not a suitable sample type. PMID:26610200

  12. Survival and preference of cotton boll weevil adults for alternative food sources.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, M; Mata, R A; Venzon, M; Cunha, D N C; Fontes, E M G; Pires, C S S; Sujii, E R

    2016-06-01

    Plants that have potential as alternative food source (floral nectar, pollen and plant tissues) to the boll weevil during the intercropping season were evaluated considering the prevalent conditions of Cerrado in the Central Brazil. Initially, we tested the nutritional adequacy for the survival of the insect of flower resource (pollen and nectar) provided by eight plant species (fennel, mexican sunflower, castor bean, okra, hibiscus, sorghum, pigeonpea and sunn hemp). Subsequently, we tested if the resources provided by the selected plants continued to be exploited by the boll weevil in the presence of cotton plant, its main food source average longevity of boll weevil adults was significantly longer when they were fed on hibiscus' flowers (166.6 ± 74.4) and okra flowers (34.7 ± 28.9) than when they fed on flowers of other six species. Subsequently, the preference of the boll weevil in the use of resources was compared between okra or hibiscus and cotton plants, in dual choice experiments. Boll weevils preferred plants of the three species in the reproductive stages than those in vegetative stages. Although the cotton plant in the reproductive stage was the most preferred plant of all, boll weevils preferred flowering okra and hibiscus than cotton at the vegetative stage. PMID:26934148

  13. Alternatives to Outdoor Daylight Illumination for Photodynamic Therapy--Use of Greenhouses and Artificial Light Sources.

    PubMed

    Lerche, Catharina M; Heerfordt, Ida M; Heydenreich, Jakob; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (daylight PDT) is a simple and pain free treatment of actinic keratoses. Weather conditions may not always allow daylight PDT outdoors. We compared the spectrum of five different lamp candidates for indoor "daylight PDT" and investigated their ability to photobleach protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Furthermore, we measured the amount of PpIX activating daylight available in a glass greenhouse, which can be an alternative when it is uncomfortable for patients to be outdoors. The lamps investigated were: halogen lamps (overhead and slide projector), white light-emitting diode (LED) lamp, red LED panel and lamps used for conventional PDT. Four of the five light sources were able to photobleach PpIX completely. For halogen light and the red LED lamp, 5000 lux could photobleach PpIX whereas 12,000 lux were needed for the white LED lamp. Furthermore, the greenhouse was suitable for daylight PDT since the effect of solar light is lowered only by 25%. In conclusion, we found four of the five light sources and the greenhouse usable for indoor daylight PDT. The greenhouse is beneficial when the weather outside is rainy or windy. Only insignificant ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) radiation passes through the greenhouse glass, so sun protection is not needed. PMID:26938525

  14. Berry Leaves: An Alternative Source of Bioactive Natural Products of Nutritional and Medicinal Value.

    PubMed

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Lamari, Fotini N

    2016-01-01

    Berry fruits are recognized, worldwide, as "superfoods" due to the high content of bioactive natural products and the health benefits deriving from their consumption. Berry leaves are byproducts of berry cultivation; their traditional therapeutic use against several diseases, such as the common cold, inflammation, diabetes, and ocular dysfunction, has been almost forgotten nowadays. Nevertheless, the scientific interest regarding the leaf composition and beneficial properties grows, documenting that berry leaves may be considered an alternative source of bioactives. The main bioactive compounds in berry leaves are similar as in berry fruits, i.e., phenolic acids and esters, flavonols, anthocyanins, and procyanidins. The leaves are one of the richest sources of chlorogenic acid. In various studies, these secondary metabolites have demonstrated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. This review focuses on the phytochemical composition of the leaves of the commonest berry species, i.e., blackcurrant, blackberry, raspberry, bilberry, blueberry, cranberry, and lingonberry leaves, and presents their traditional medicinal uses and their biological activities in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27258314

  15. Solar-hydrogen energy as an alternative energy source for mobile robots and the new-age car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, A.; Inambao, F.; Bright, G.

    2014-07-01

    The disastrous effects of climate change as witnessed in recent violent storms, and the stark reality that fossil fuels are not going to last forever, is certain to create renewed demands for alternative energy sources. One such alternative source, namely solar energy, although unreliable because of its dependence on available sunlight, can nevertheless be utilised to generate a secondary source of energy, namely hydrogen, which can be stored and thereby provide a constant and reliable source of energy. The only draw-back with hydrogen, though, is finding efficient means for its storage. This study demonstrates how this problem can be overcome by the use of metal hydrides which offers a very compact and safe way of storing hydrogen. It also provides a case study of how solar and hydrogen energy can be combined in an energy system to provide an efficient source of energy that can be applied for modern technologies such as a mobile robot. Hydrogen energy holds out the most promise amongst the various alternative energy sources, so much so that it is proving to be the energy source of choice for automobile manufacturers in their quest for alternative fuels to power their cars of the future.

  16. Cell-Type-Specific Alternative Splicing Governs Cell Fate in the Developing Cerebral Cortex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaochang; Chen, Ming Hui; Wu, Xuebing; Kodani, Andrew; Fan, Jean; Doan, Ryan; Ozawa, Manabu; Ma, Jacqueline; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Reiter, Jeremy F; Black, Douglas L; Kharchenko, Peter V; Sharp, Phillip A; Walsh, Christopher A

    2016-08-25

    Alternative splicing is prevalent in the mammalian brain. To interrogate the functional role of alternative splicing in neural development, we analyzed purified neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and neurons from developing cerebral cortices, revealing hundreds of differentially spliced exons that preferentially alter key protein domains-especially in cytoskeletal proteins-and can harbor disease-causing mutations. We show that Ptbp1 and Rbfox proteins antagonistically govern the NPC-to-neuron transition by regulating neuron-specific exons. Whereas Ptbp1 maintains apical progenitors partly through suppressing a poison exon of Flna in NPCs, Rbfox proteins promote neuronal differentiation by switching Ninein from a centrosomal splice form in NPCs to a non-centrosomal isoform in neurons. We further uncover an intronic human mutation within a PTBP1-binding site that disrupts normal skipping of the FLNA poison exon in NPCs and causes a brain-specific malformation. Our study indicates that dynamic control of alternative splicing governs cell fate in cerebral cortical development. PMID:27565344

  17. Samples of HDR Soultz Injection Microearthquakes: Mechanism Using Alternative Source Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jechumtalova, Z.; Sileny, J.

    2011-12-01

    offered by the seismicity induced during the massive fluid injection experiments at the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) site Soultz-sous-Forêts. The site is located in Alsace (France) within the hottest geothermal surface anomaly of the Upper Rhine Graben. From the bulk of the seismicity recorded, we have processed several microearthquakes with magnitudes between M = 1.4 and 1.5 which occurred during the first phase of 2003 fluid injection, when only the borehole GPK3 was stimulated. Mechanisms resulting from the alternative approaches offer the clue to estimate the reliability of the shear vs. non-shear source components, thus indicating the type of the fracturing.

  18. Stem cells sources for intervertebral disc regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vadalà, Gianluca; Russo, Fabrizio; Ambrosio, Luca; Loppini, Mattia; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc regeneration field is rapidly growing since disc disorders represent a major health problem in industrialized countries with very few possible treatments. Indeed, current available therapies are symptomatic, and surgical procedures consist in disc removal and spinal fusion, which is not immune to regardable concerns about possible comorbidities, cost-effectiveness, secondary risks and long-lasting outcomes. This review paper aims to share recent advances in stem cell therapy for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration. In literature the potential use of different adult stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration has already been reported. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, adipose tissue derived stem cells, synovial stem cells, muscle-derived stem cells, olfactory neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, disc stem cells, and embryonic stem cells have been studied for this purpose either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, several engineered carriers (e.g., hydrogels), characterized by full biocompatibility and prompt biodegradation, have been designed and combined with different stem cell types in order to optimize the local and controlled delivery of cellular substrates in situ. The paper overviews the literature discussing the current status of our knowledge of the different stem cells types used as a cell-based therapy for disc regeneration. PMID:27247704

  19. Stem cells sources for intervertebral disc regeneration.

    PubMed

    Vadalà, Gianluca; Russo, Fabrizio; Ambrosio, Luca; Loppini, Mattia; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2016-05-26

    Intervertebral disc regeneration field is rapidly growing since disc disorders represent a major health problem in industrialized countries with very few possible treatments. Indeed, current available therapies are symptomatic, and surgical procedures consist in disc removal and spinal fusion, which is not immune to regardable concerns about possible comorbidities, cost-effectiveness, secondary risks and long-lasting outcomes. This review paper aims to share recent advances in stem cell therapy for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration. In literature the potential use of different adult stem cells for intervertebral disc regeneration has already been reported. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells, adipose tissue derived stem cells, synovial stem cells, muscle-derived stem cells, olfactory neural stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, disc stem cells, and embryonic stem cells have been studied for this purpose either in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, several engineered carriers (e.g., hydrogels), characterized by full biocompatibility and prompt biodegradation, have been designed and combined with different stem cell types in order to optimize the local and controlled delivery of cellular substrates in situ. The paper overviews the literature discussing the current status of our knowledge of the different stem cells types used as a cell-based therapy for disc regeneration. PMID:27247704

  20. Cell therapy for full-thickness wounds: are fetal dermal cells a potential source?

    PubMed

    Akershoek, J J; Vlig, M; Talhout, W; Boekema, B K H L; Richters, C D; Beelen, R H J; Brouwer, K M; Middelkoop, E; Ulrich, M M W

    2016-04-01

    The application of autologous dermal fibroblasts has been shown to improve burn wound healing. However, a major hurdle is the availability of sufficient healthy skin as a cell source. We investigated fetal dermal cells as an alternative source for cell-based therapy for skin regeneration. Human (hFF), porcine fetal (pFF) or autologous dermal fibroblasts (AF) were seeded in a collagen-elastin substitute (Novomaix, NVM), which was applied in combination with an autologous split thickness skin graft (STSG) to evaluate the effects of these cells on wound healing in a porcine excisional wound model. Transplantation of wounds with NVM+hFF showed an increased influx of inflammatory cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages, CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes) compared to STSG, acellular NVM (Acell-NVM) and NVM+AF at post-surgery days 7 and/or 14. Wounds treated with NVM+pFF presented only an increase in CD8(+) lymphocyte influx. Furthermore, reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression in wound areas and reduced contraction of the wounds was observed with NVM+AF compared to Acell-NVM. Xenogeneic transplantation of NVM+hFF increased αSMA expression in wounds compared to NVM+AF. An improved scar quality was observed for wounds treated with NVM+AF compared to Acell-NVM, NVM+hFF and NVM+pFF at day 56. In conclusion, application of autologous fibroblasts improved the overall outcome of wound healing in comparison to fetal dermal cells and Acell-NVM, whereas application of fetal dermal fibroblasts in NVM did not improve wound healing of full-thickness wounds in a porcine model. Although human fetal dermal cells demonstrated an increased immune response, this did not seem to affect scar quality. PMID:26453400

  1. Artemisinin: an alternative treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamachika, Eiki; Habte, Temesgen; Oda, Dolphine

    2004-01-01

    Artemisinin (AR) is a widely used antimalarial drug. Recently, additional uses for AR as an anticancer drug were discovered. Using TUNEL, immunohistochemistry (IHS) markers and flow cytometry techniques, we evaluated the effect of AR and 5-FU on HPV 16 immortalized and transformed human gingival epithelial (IHGK) cells. The results of TUNEL showed that AR-treated IHGK cells consisted of 82% positive cells, while 5-FU-treated cells consisted of 18% positive cells. The IHS markers demonstrated positive staining with Bax p53, CD40 and CD40L in AR-treated cells and negative staining with Bcl-2. 5-FU-treated cells demonstrated a profile similar to AR but with less intensity. Cell cycle by flow cytometry results showed that only 5-FU-treated cells demonstrated a significant S-phase rate increase to 45%. In conclusion, our results indicate that AR is cytotoxic to transformed oral epithelial cells through apoptosis, while 5-FU is cytotoxic primarily through cell toxicity. PMID:15330155

  2. Investigations on caesium-free alternatives for H- formation at ion source relevant parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurutz, U.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-01

    Negative hydrogen ions are efficiently produced in ion sources by the application of caesium. Due to a thereby induced lowering of the work function of a converter surface a direct conversion of impinging hydrogen atoms and positive ions into negative ions is maintained. However, due to the complex caesium chemistry and dynamics a long-term behaviour is inherent for the application of caesium that affects the stability and reliability of negative ion sources. To overcome these drawbacks caesium-free alternatives for efficient negative ion formation are investigated at the flexible laboratory setup HOMER (HOMogenous Electron cyclotron Resonance plasma). By the usage of a meshed grid the tandem principle is applied allowing for investigations on material induced negative ion formation under plasma parameters relevant for ion source operation. The effect of different sample materials on the ratio of the negative ion density to the electron density nH- /ne is compared to the effect of a stainless steel reference sample and investigated by means of laser photodetachment in a pressure range from 0.3 to 3 Pa. For the stainless steel sample no surface induced effect on the negative ion density is present and the measured negative ion densities are resulting from pure volume formation and destruction processes. In a first step the dependency of nH- /ne on the sample distance has been investigated for a caesiated stainless steel sample. At a distance of 0.5 cm at 0.3 Pa the density ratio is 3 times enhanced compared to the reference sample confirming the surface production of negative ions. In contrast for the caesium-free material samples, tantalum and tungsten, the same dependency on pressure and distance nH- /ne like for the stainless steel reference sample were obtained within the error margins: A density ratio of around 14.5% is measured at 4.5 cm sample distance and 0.3 Pa, linearly decreasing with decreasing distance to 7% at 1.5 cm. Thus, tantalum and tungsten do not

  3. Efficient and cost-reduced glucoamylase fed-batch production with alternative carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongzhen; Liu, Han; He, Zhenni; Zhou, Cong; Shi, Zhongping

    2015-02-01

    Glucoamylase is an important industrial enzyme. Glucoamylase production by industrial Aspergillus niger strain featured with two major problems: (i) empirical substrate feeding methods deteriorating the fermentation performance; and (ii) the high raw materials cost limiting the economics of the glucoamylase product with delegated specification. In this study, we first proposed a novel three-stage varied-rate substrate feeding strategy for efficient glucoamylase production in a 5 L bioreactor using the standard feeding medium, by comparing the changing patterns of the important physiological parameters such as DO, OUR, RQ, etc., when using different substrate feeding strategies. With this strategy, the glucoamylase activity and productivity reached higher levels of 11,000 U/ml and 84.6 U/ml/h, respectively. The performance enhancement in this case was beneficial from the following results: DO and OUR could be controlled at the higher levels (30%, 43.83 mmol/l/h), while RQ was maintained at a stable/lower level of 0.60 simultaneously throughout the fed-batch phase. Based on this three-stage varied-rate substrate feeding strategy, we further evaluated the economics of using alternative carbon sources, attempting to reduce the raw materials cost. The results revealed that cornstarch hydrolysate could be considered as the best carbon source to replace the standard and expensive feeding medium. In this case, the production cost of the glucoamylase with delegated specification (5,000 U/ml) could be saved by more than 61% while the product quality be ensured simultaneously. The proposed strategy showed application potential in improving the economics of industrial glucoamylase production. PMID:25262682

  4. Alternative separation evaluations in model rechargeable silver-zinc cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Harlan L.; Danko, Thomas; Himy, Albert; Johnson, William

    Several varieties of standard and reinforced, cellulose-based, sausage casing films derived from wood pulp have been evaluated in model (nominal 28 A h) rechargeable silver-zinc cells. The cell performance data for both cycle life and wet stand life have been compared with cells equipped with conventional 1 mil (0.025 mm) cellophane. Although shorting was the most common failure mode in the cells with sausage casing separation, remarkably good cycle and wet life were obtained when the separation wrap also included PVA film. This paper reports the cycle and wet life comparison data for these substitute separators, with respect to conventional cellophane separation, as well as separation physical property data and silver migration rates in the cells as a function of cell life.

  5. Advanced alternate planar geometry solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Prouse, D.; Elangovan, S.; Khandkar, A. ); Donelson, R.; Marianowski, L. )

    1989-01-01

    During this quarter, progress was made at Ceramatec in seal development and conductivity measurements of YIG compositions. A creep test was completed on the porous/dense/porous triilayer. IGT provided a discussion on possible interconnect materials. The following tasks are reported on: cell design analysis, program liaison and test facility preparation, cell component fabrication/development, out-of-cell tests. 9 figs, 2 tabs.

  6. Bio-tarp alternative daily cover prototypes for methane oxidation atop open landfill cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, Bryn L; Besnard, Fabien; Bogner, Jean; Hilger, Helene

    2011-05-01

    Final landfill covers are highly engineered to prevent methane release into the atmosphere. However, methane production begins soon after waste placement and is an unaddressed source of emissions. The methane oxidation capacity of methanotrophs embedded in a "bio-tarp" was investigated as a means to mitigate methane release from open landfill cells. The bio-tarp would also serve as an alternative daily cover during routine landfill operation. Evaluations of nine synthetic geotextiles identified two that would likely be suitable bio-tarp components. Pilot tarp prototypes were tested in continuous flow systems simulating landfill gas conditions. Multilayered bio-tarp prototypes consisting of alternating layers of the two geotextiles were found to remove 16% of the methane flowing through the bio-tarp. The addition of landfill cover soil, compost, or shale amendments to the bio-tarp increased the methane removal up to 32%. With evidence of methane removal in a laboratory bioreactor, prototypes were evaluated at a local landfill using flux chambers installed atop intermediate cover at a landfill. The multilayered bio-tarp and amended bio-tarp configurations were all found to decrease landfill methane flux; however, the performance efficacy of bio-tarps was not significantly different from controls without methanotrophs. Because highly variable methane fluxes at the field site likely confounded the test results, repeat field testing is recommended under more controlled flux conditions. PMID:21354776

  7. Evaluation of alternative sources of collagen fractions from Loligo vulgaris squid mantle.

    PubMed

    Cozza, Natascia; Bonani, Walter; Motta, Antonella; Migliaresi, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    Acid-Solubilized Collagen (ASC) and Pepsin-Solubilized Collagen (PSC) were extracted from the mantle of the common European squid, and were comparatively characterized. ASC and PSC were isolated with an extraction yield of 5.1 and 24.2% (on dry weight basis), respectively. SDS-PAGE showed that the ASC was mostly comprised of α1- and α2-chains; while the PSC presented relevant β- and γ-components. GPC analysis confirmed that both the ASC and the PSC consisted of fractions characterized by different molecular weight. Thermal denaturation behavior of ASC and PSC were followed by calorimetric and rheological analyses; denaturation temperature was estimated to be 22°C for ASC and 21°C for PSC. Amino acid composition and solubility of collagen were also investigated. Finally, the cytotoxicity of the isolated collagen was evaluated in vitro and no cytotoxic activity caused by the collagen extracts was observed. This study demonstrated that squid mantle has potential as an alternative source of collagen-derived materials. PMID:26972602

  8. Decision analysis: a tool to guide the R and D selection of alternative energy sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kriz, T.

    1980-05-01

    The array of alternative energy sources which are vying for the federal government's R and D dollar is formidable when compared to the politically acceptable amount which can be used to fund the research. To guide how these funds should be dispersed, a rational, defensible procedure is needed which can repeatedly be applied as new technologies and new information become available. The procedure advanced in this paper is a decision analysis technique known as multi attribute decision analysis (MADA) and its use is illustrated in an evaluation and ranking of solar thermal electric power generating systems. Since the ultimate purchase decision is made in the market place, the preferences of potential users have been sampled and brought to bear on the ranking. The focus of this description is on the formulation of the problem structure and the decision model, the treatment of uncertainty, and how the results relate to the questions asked by and of the Department of Energy, which funded the study. A final note proposes how decision analysis can be used to address the broader questions of choice among competing technologies with cautions concerning misuse of the procedure.

  9. Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells. A promising epithelial-like cell source.

    PubMed

    Garzón, I; Martin-Piedra, M A; Alaminos, M

    2015-05-01

    Several models of tissue-engineered human skin based on three-dimensional (3D) co-culture techniques have been proposed to the date. However, normal skin biopsies are not always available, especially in patients with a high percentage of skin affected by deep burning, and the generation of large amounts of cultured keratinocytes may take very long time, with an associated risk for the patients' survival. For those reasons, the search of alternative cell sources for tissue reconstruction is a clinical need. In this context, Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (HDPSC) have the potential to differentiate into multiple cell lineages by the appropriate differentiation conditions, but skin epidermis differentiation has not been demonstrated so far. Here, we hypothesize that HDPSC may have pluripotent differentiation capability, and may be able to differentiate into skin epithelial keratinocytes in culture using organotypic 3D models based on the interaction with the subjacent dermal fibroblasts. By using HDPSC, the problems associated to the donor site availability and the proliferation capability of the epithelial cells could be solved. The rapid accessibility to these cells could be translated to a more immediate generation of a bioengineered human skin substitute for the future clinical treatment. PMID:25764965

  10. Evaluating alternative stem cell hypotheses for adult corneal epithelial maintenance

    PubMed Central

    West, John D; Dorà, Natalie J; Collinson, J Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this review we evaluate evidence for three different hypotheses that explain how the corneal epithelium is maintained. The limbal epithelial stem cell (LESC) hypothesis is most widely accepted. This proposes that stem cells in the basal layer of the limbal epithelium, at the periphery of the cornea, maintain themselves and also produce transient (or transit) amplifying cells (TACs). TACs then move centripetally to the centre of the cornea in the basal layer of the corneal epithelium and also replenish cells in the overlying suprabasal layers. The LESCs maintain the corneal epithelium during normal homeostasis and become more active to repair significant wounds. Second, the corneal epithelial stem cell (CESC) hypothesis postulates that, during normal homeostasis, stem cells distributed throughout the basal corneal epithelium, maintain the tissue. According to this hypothesis, LESCs are present in the limbus but are only active during wound healing. We also consider a third possibility, that the corneal epithelium is maintained during normal homeostasis by proliferation of basal corneal epithelial cells without any input from stem cells. After reviewing the published evidence, we conclude that the LESC and CESC hypotheses are consistent with more of the evidence than the third hypothesis, so we do not consider this further. The LESC and CESC hypotheses each have difficulty accounting for one main type of evidence so we evaluate the two key lines of evidence that discriminate between them. Finally, we discuss how lineage-tracing experiments have begun to resolve the debate in favour of the LESC hypothesis. Nevertheless, it also seems likely that some basal corneal epithelial cells can act as long-term progenitors if limbal stem cell function is compromised. Thus, this aspect of the CESC hypothesis may have a lasting impact on our understanding of corneal epithelial maintenance, even if it is eventually shown that stem cells are restricted to the limbus as proposed

  11. Human cell lines: A promising alternative for recombinant FIX production.

    PubMed

    de Sousa Bomfim, Aline; Cristina Corrêa de Freitas, Marcela; Picanço-Castro, Virgínia; de Abreu Soares Neto, Mário; Swiech, Kamilla; Tadeu Covas, Dimas; Maria de Sousa Russo, Elisa

    2016-05-01

    Factor IX (FIX) is a vitamin K-dependent protein, and it has become a valuable pharmaceutical in the Hemophilia B treatment. We evaluated the potential of recombinant human FIX (rhFIX) expression in 293T and SK-Hep-1 human cell lines. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells produced higher levels of biologically active protein. The growth profile of 293T-FIX cells was not influenced by lentiviral integration number into the cellular genome. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells showed a significantly lower growth rate than SK-Hep-1 cells. γ-carboxylation process is significant to FIX biological activity, thus we performed a expression analysis of genes involved in this process. The 293T gene expression suggests that this cell line could efficiently carboxylate FIX, however only 28% of the total secreted protein is active. SK-Hep-1 cells did not express high amounts of VKORC1 and carboxylase, but this cell line secreted large amounts of active protein. Enrichment of culture medium with Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) ions did not affect positively rhFIX expression in SK-Hep-1 cells. In 293T cells, the addition of 0.5 mM Ca(+2) and 1 mM Mg(+2) resulted in higher rhFIX concentration. SK-Hep-1 cell line proved to be very effective in rhFIX production, and it can be used as a novel biotechnological platform for the production of recombinant proteins. PMID:26802680

  12. Chemical Beam Epitaxial Growth of Indium Phosphide Using Alternative, Safer Phosphorus Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chungwoo

    1995-11-01

    Chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) is a relatively new III-V semiconductor growth technique that combines important advantages of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). Although CBE grown-InP using phosphine (PH_3) combined with trimethylindium (TMIn) or triethylindium (TEIn) has produced high quality material comparable to OMVPE-and gas source MBE-grown InP, the highly hazardous and toxic nature of PH_3 is becoming a main obstacle to mass production of semiconductor devices. In this dissertation, InP epilayers were grown using tertiarybutylphosphine (TBP) and bisphosphinoethane (BPE) as possible replacements for PH_3, together with ethyldimethylindium (EDMIn) as the indium source. For the first time, InP epilayers have been grown using TBP and EDMIn by CBE. The surface morphology and the electrical and optical properties improved with increasing substrate and cracker cell temperatures and input V/III ratio. High quality n-type InP epilayers with electron mobilities of up to 3830 cm^2/Vs and net carrier concentrations of approximately 6 times 10^{14} cm^{-3} at room temperature were achieved at a growth temperature of 500^ circC using a V/III ratio of 70 and a TBP cracker cell temperature of 900^circ C. Strong band-edge emission was observed at growth temperatures between 460 and 500^circ C. The bound exciton halfwidth of the sample grown at 500^circC was as narrow as 3.6 meV at 14 K with a barely observable acceptor related peak indicating a very low concentration of acceptors. For growth of InP using BPE and EDMIn, good surface morphologies were obtained at a substrate temperature of 485^circC using V/III ratios of >=q53. At fixed growth and cracker cell temperatures of 485 and 800^circ C, respectively, the net carrier concentration at a V/III ratio of 53 was 7.8 times 10 ^{15} at room temperature and 3.2 times 10^{15} cm^{-3} at 77 K with respective electron mobilities of 3,630 and 21,800 cm^2 /Vs. The 14 K PL spectra were

  13. Cost competitiveness of a solar cell array power source for ATS-6 educational TV terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masters, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    A cost comparison is made between a terrestrial solar cell array power system and a variety of other power sources for the ATS-6 Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) TV terminals in India. The solar array system was sized for a typical Indian location, Lahore. Based on present capital and fuel costs, the solar cell array power system is a close competitor to the least expensive alternate power system. A feasibility demonstration of a terrestrial solar cell array system powering an ATS-6 receiver terminal at Cleveland, Ohio is described.

  14. Gene, Stem Cell, and Alternative Therapies for SCA 1

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Jacob L.; O'Connor, Deirdre M.; Donsante, Anthony; Boulis, Nicholas M.

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia 1 is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by neurodegeneration and motor dysfunction. In disease pathogenesis, polyglutamine expansion within Ataxin-1, a gene involved in transcriptional repression, causes protein nuclear inclusions to form. Most notably, neuronal dysfunction presents in Purkinje cells. However, the effect of mutant Ataxin-1 is not entirely understood. Two mouse models are employed to represent spinocerebellar ataxia 1, a B05 transgenic model that specifically expresses mutant Ataxin-1 in Purkinje cells, and a Sca1 154Q/2Q model that inserts the polyglutamine expansion into the mouse Ataxin-1 locus so that the mutant Ataxin-1 is expressed in all cells that express Ataxin-1. This review aims to summarize and evaluate the wide variety of therapies proposed for spinocerebellar ataxia 1, specifically gene and stem cell therapies. PMID:27570504

  15. Gene, Stem Cell, and Alternative Therapies for SCA 1.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jacob L; O'Connor, Deirdre M; Donsante, Anthony; Boulis, Nicholas M

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia 1 is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by neurodegeneration and motor dysfunction. In disease pathogenesis, polyglutamine expansion within Ataxin-1, a gene involved in transcriptional repression, causes protein nuclear inclusions to form. Most notably, neuronal dysfunction presents in Purkinje cells. However, the effect of mutant Ataxin-1 is not entirely understood. Two mouse models are employed to represent spinocerebellar ataxia 1, a B05 transgenic model that specifically expresses mutant Ataxin-1 in Purkinje cells, and a Sca1 154Q/2Q model that inserts the polyglutamine expansion into the mouse Ataxin-1 locus so that the mutant Ataxin-1 is expressed in all cells that express Ataxin-1. This review aims to summarize and evaluate the wide variety of therapies proposed for spinocerebellar ataxia 1, specifically gene and stem cell therapies. PMID:27570504

  16. Biological properties of mesenchymal Stem Cells from different sources

    PubMed Central

    Giai Via, Alessio; Frizziero, Antonio; Oliva, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Summary Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult, nonhematopoietic, stem cells that were initially isolated from bone marrow. Now they can be isolated from almost every tissue of the body. They have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell lineage, including bone, chondrocytes, adipocytes, tenocytes and cardiomyocytes, and it makes them an attractive cell source for a new generation of cell-based regenerative therapies. In this review we try to summarize data on sources and the biological properties of MSCs. PMID:23738292

  17. Rituximab treatment for Epstein-Barr virus DNAemia after alternative-donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Coppoletta, Stefania; Tedone, Elisabetta; Galano, Barbara; Soracco, Monica; Raiola, Anna Maria; Lamparelli, Teresa; Gualandi, Francesca; Bregante, Stefania; Ibatici, Adalberto; di Grazia, Carmen; Dominietto, Alida; Varaldo, Riccardo; Bruno, Barbara; Frassoni, Francesco; Van Lint, Maria Teresa; Bacigalupo, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    We report 55 patients undergoing an alternative-donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) who developed Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNAemia, with >1000 EBV copies/10(5) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and were treated with rituximab (375 mg/m(2)). The median patient age was 47 years (range, 20-65 years), and graft sources were mismatched family members (n = 4), unrelated donors (n = 46), and unrelated cord blood (n = 5). The conditioning regimen included antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in all patients. The median time to development of EBV DNAemia was day 27 post-HSCT (range, day 5 to day 242), with a median of 60 EBV copies/10(5) PBMCs (range, 1-5770 copies/10(5) PBMCs). The number of EBV copies was reduced to <1000/10(5) PBMCs on day +7 after initiation of rituximab therapy in 51% of the patients, on day +14 in 73% of the patients, and on +21 in 92% of the patients. Overall, 50 of 55 patients (91%) cleared EBV after one dose (n = 25) or more than one dose (n = 25) of rituximab. Factors predicting transplantation-related mortality (TRM) in multivariate analysis were a reduction to <1000 EBV copies/10(5) PBMCs by day +7 of treatment (relative risk [RR], 0.2; P = .01) and disease phase in remission (RR, 0.3; P = .05). TRM was 23% in the 40 patients with none or one of the negative predictors and 60% in the 15 patients with both negative predictors (P = .001). Of these latter 15 patients, 3 developed clinical posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). All 3 of these patients had a high EBV load on day +7 of rituximab therapy. This study confirms the effectiveness of rituximab in controlling EBV DNAemia in patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Patients with increasing EBV copies despite rituximab therapy are at high risk for EBV PTLD and may be considered for alternative therapies. PMID:20950702

  18. Feasibility of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes as an Alternative Light Source for Photocatalysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Langanf H.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Soler, Robert; Maxik, Fred; Coutts, Janelle; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether ultraviolet light emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) could serve as an alternative photon source efficiently for heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation (PCO). An LED module consisting of 12 high-power UV-A LEDs was designed to be interchangeable with a UV-A fluorescent black light blue (BLB) lamp in a Silica-Titania Composite (STC) packed bed annular reactor. Lighting and thermal properties were characterized to assess the uniformity and total irradiant output. A forward current of (I(sub F)) 100 mA delivered an average irradiance of 4.0 m W cm(exp -2), which is equivalent to the maximum output of the BLB, but the irradiance of the LED module was less uniform than that of the BLB. The LED- and BLB-reactors were tested for the oxidization of 50 ppmv ethanol in a continuous flow-through mode with 0.94 sec space time. At the same irradiance, the UV-A LED reactor resulted in a lower PCO rate constant than the UV-A BLB reactor (19.8 vs. 28.6 nM CO2 sec-I), and consequently lower ethanol removal (80% vs. 91%) and mineralization efficiency (28% vs. 44%). Ethanol mineralization increased in direct proportion to the irradiance at the catalyst surface. This result suggests that reduced ethanol mineralization in the LED- reactor could be traced to uneven irradiance over the photocatalyst, leaving a portion of the catalyst was under-irradiated. The potential of UV-A LEDs may be fully realized by optimizing the light distribution over the catalyst and utilizing their instantaneous "on" and "off' feature for periodic irradiation. Nevertheless, the current UV-A LED module had the same wall plug efficiency (WPE) of 13% as that of the UV-A BLB. These results demonstrated that UV-A LEDs are a viable photon source both in terms of WPE and PCO efficiency.

  19. Expert stakeholder attitudes and support for alternative water sources in a groundwater depleted region.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Treavor H; Overdevest, Christine; Christiansen, Lisa; Ishii, Stephanie K L

    2012-10-15

    The main objectives of this research were to quantify the risks/benefits and impacts of alternative water sources (AWSs) as perceived by expert stakeholders and to evaluate the overall support for multiple AWSs by expert stakeholders. The St. Johns River (SJR) basin, FL, USA was chosen as a case study for AWSs because it is a fresh groundwater depleted region and there are ongoing activities related to water supply planning. Expert stakeholders included federal, state, and local governments, public utilities, consulting engineering and industry, and environmental and social non-governmental organizations. AWSs under consideration in the SJR basin include surface water, desalination, water reclamation, and water conservation. A two-phase research approach was followed that focused on expert stakeholders. First, an elicitation study was used to identify salient beliefs about AWSs. Open-ended questions were asked about the risks/benefits of AWSs in terms of the three pillars of sustainability: ecological, economic, and human health impacts. Second, an online survey was constructed using beliefs identified during the elicitation study. The online survey was used to quantify attitudes toward and overall support for AWSs. The salient beliefs of expert stakeholders were dominated by the ecological pillar of sustainability. The support of expert stakeholders for AWSs, from least favorable to most favorable, was surface water withdrawals

  20. Cell and Tissue Display: An Alternative Multipurpose Tool for Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Theodosakis, Nicholas; Micevic, Goran; Bosenberg, Marcus W; Rodić, Nemanja

    2016-07-01

    We developed a method, termed Cell and Tissue Display (CTD), for embedding 16 or more different tissue samples in multi-compartment agarose blocks. The CTD-generated blocks allow uniform multiplexing of cell lines and small tissue fragments within a single histologic block. The distribution of individual cells within the CTD blocks is improved, likely because the individual agarose compartments are small and uniform. The composition of each CTD block can be customized based on intended use. Some potential uses of CTD histologic blocks include improved sectioning of small tissue fragments, such as needle biopsy specimens or punch biopsies; multiplexing of tissue fragments within a single block; and the generation of control slides for laboratory proficiency testing. . PMID:27270967

  1. Effects of hydrogen sulfide on alternative pathway respiration and induction of alternative oxidase gene expression in rice suspension cells.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Man; Ma, Jun; Li, Hongyu; Jin, Han; Feng, Hanqing

    2010-01-01

    The toxic effects of H2S on plants are well documented. However, the molecular mechanisms reponsible for inhibition of plants by H2S are still not completely understood. We determined the effects of NaHS in the range of 0.5-10 mM on the growth of rice suspension culture cells, as well as on the expression of the alternative oxidase (AOX) gene. AOX is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway (AP) and exists in plant mitochondria. The results showed that H2S treatment enhanced the AP activity. During the process of H2S treatment for 4 h, the AP activity increased dramatically and achieved the peak value at a concentration of 2 mM NaHS. Then it declined at higher concentrations of NaHS (5-10 mM) and maintained a steady level. The AOX1 gene transcript level also showed a similar change as the AP activity. Interestingly, different NaHS concentrations seemed to have different effects on the expression of AOX1a, AOX1b, and AOX1c. The induction of AOX expression by low concentrations of NaHS was inferred through a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent pathway. At the same time, rice cells grown in culture were very sensitive to H2S, different H2S concentrations induced an increase in the cell viability. These results indicate that the H2S-induced AOX induction might play a role in inhibiting the ROS production and have an influence on cell viability. PMID:20737915

  2. Alternate splicing regulated by butyrate in the bovine epithelial cell

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a signaling molecule and a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HADCs), butyrate exerts its impacts on a broad range of biological processes, such as apoptosis and cell proliferation, in addition to its critical role in energy metabolism in ruminants. In this study, we examined the effect of...

  3. Regenerative Fuel Cell System As Alternative Energy Storage For Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, J.; Bockstahler, K.; Funke, H.; Jehle, W.; Markgraf, S.; Henn, N.; Schautz, M.

    2011-10-01

    Next generation telecommunication satellites will demand more power. Power levels of 20 to 30kW are foreseen for the next 10 years. Battery technology that can sustain 30kW for eclipse lengths of up to 72 minutes (equals amount of stored energy of 36kWh) will represent a major impact on the total mass of the satellite, even with Li-ion battery technologies, which are estimated to reach an energy density of 250Wh/kg (begin of life) on cell level i.e. 150Wh/kg on subsystem level in 10 years. For the high power level another technology is needed to reach the next goal of 300 - 350Wh/kg on subsystem level. One candidate is the Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) technology which proves to be superior to batteries with increasing power demand and increasing discharge time. Such an RFC system based on hydrogen and oxygen technology consists of storage for the reactants (H2, O2 and H2O), a fuel cell (FC) and an electrolyser (ELY). In charge mode, the electrolyser splits water in hydrogen and oxygen using electrical power from solar cells. The gases are stored in appropriate tanks. In discharge mode, during time intervals of power demand, O2 and H2 are converted in the fuel cell to generate electricity under formation of water as by-product. The water is stored in tanks and during charge mode rerouted to the electrolyser thus creating a closed-loop process. Today Astrium is developing an RFCS as energy storage and supply unit for some future ESA missions. A complete RFCS breadboard has been established and the operational behaviour of the system is being tested. First test results, dedicated experience gained from system testing and a comparison with the analytical prediction will be discussed and presented.

  4. Dimethoxymethane and trimethoxymethane as alternative fuels for fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetty, Raghuram; Scott, Keith

    The electrooxidation of dimethoxymethane (DMM) and trimethoxymethane (TMM) was studied at different platinum-based electrocatalysts deposited onto a titanium mesh substrate by thermal decomposition of chloride precursors. Half-cell tests showed an increase in oxidation current for the methoxy fuels at the platinum electrode with the alloying of ruthenium and tin. Increase in reaction temperature and reactant concentration showed an increase in current density for the mesh-based anodes similar to carbon-supported catalysts. Single fuel cell tests, employing the titanium mesh anode with PtRu and PtSn catalysts showed maximum power densities up to 31 mW cm -2 and 48 mW cm -2 for 1.0 mol dm -3 aqueous solutions of DMM and TMM, respectively at 60 °C using oxygen.

  5. Alternative experiments using the geophysical fluid flow cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    This study addresses the possibility of doing large scale dynamics experiments using the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell. In particular, cases where the forcing generates a statically stable stratification almost everywhere in the spherical shell are evaluated. This situation is typical of the Earth's atmosphere and oceans. By calculating the strongest meridional circulation expected in the spacelab experiments, and testing its stability using quasi-geostrophic stability theory, it is shown that strongly nonlinear baroclinic waves on a zonally symmetric modified thermal wind will not occur. The Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell does not have a deep enough fluid layer to permit useful studies of large scale planetary wave processes arising from instability. It is argued, however, that by introducing suitable meridional barriers, a significant contribution to the understanding of the oceanic thermocline problem could be made.

  6. Acellular Biomaterials: An Evolving Alternative to Cell-Based Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Burdick, Jason A.; Mauck, Robert L.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Acellular biomaterials can stimulate the local environment to repair tissues without the regulatory and scientific challenges of cell-based therapies. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of such endogenous tissue repair is furthering the design and application of these biomaterials. We discuss recent progress in acellular materials for tissue repair, using cartilage and cardiac tissues as examples of applications with substantial intrinsic hurdles, but where human translation is now occurring. PMID:23486777

  7. ALTERNATE ROUTES FOR DRUG DELIVERY TO THE CELL INTERIOR

    PubMed Central

    Tarragó-Trani, Maria Teresa; Storrie, Brian

    2007-01-01

    The targeted delivery of drugs to the cell interior can be accomplished by taking advantage of the various receptor-mediated endocytic pathways operating in a particular cell. Among these pathways, the retrograde trafficking pathway from endosomes to the Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum is of special importance since it provides a route to deliver drugs bypassing the acid pH, hydrolytic environment of the lysosome. The existence of pathways for drug or antigen delivery to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus has been to a large extent an outcome of research on the trafficking of A/B type-bacterial or plant toxins such as Shiga toxin within the cell. The targeting properties of these toxins reside in their B subunit. In this article we present an overview of the multiplicity of pathways to deliver drugs intracellularly. We highlight the retrograde trafficking pathway illustrated by Shiga toxin and Shiga-like toxin, and the potential role of the B subunit of these toxins as carriers of drugs, antigens and imaging agents. PMID:17669543

  8. Fibromodulin reprogrammed cells: A novel cell source for bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen-Shuang; Yang, Pu; Ting, Kang; Aghaloo, Tara; Lee, Soonchul; Zhang, Yulong; Khalilinejad, Kambiz; Murphy, Maxwell C; Pan, Hsin Chuan; Zhang, Xinli; Wu, Benjamin; Zhou, Yan-Heng; Zhao, Zhihe; Zheng, Zhong; Soo, Chia

    2016-03-01

    Pluripotent or multipotent cell-based therapeutics are vital for skeletal reconstruction in non-healing critical-sized defects since the local endogenous progenitor cells are not often adequate to restore tissue continuity or function. However, currently available cell-based regenerative strategies are hindered by numerous obstacles including inadequate cell availability, painful and invasive cell-harvesting procedures, and tumorigenesis. Previously, we established a novel platform technology for inducing a quiescent stem cell-like stage using only a single extracellular proteoglycan, fibromodulin (FMOD), circumventing gene transduction. In this study, we further purified and significantly increased the reprogramming rate of the yield multipotent FMOD reprogrammed (FReP) cells. We also exposed the 'molecular blueprint' of FReP cell osteogenic differentiation by gene profiling. Radiographic analysis showed that implantation of FReP cells into a critical-sized SCID mouse calvarial defect, contributed to the robust osteogenic capability of FReP cells in a challenging clinically relevant traumatic scenario in vivo. The persistence, engraftment, and osteogenesis of transplanted FReP cells without tumorigenesis in vivo were confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical staining. Taken together, we have provided an extended potency, safety, and molecular profile of FReP cell-based bone regeneration. Therefore, FReP cells present a high potential for cellular and gene therapy products for bone regeneration. PMID:26774565

  9. Anonymous sources: where do adult β cells come from?

    PubMed

    German, Michael S

    2013-05-01

    Evidence that the pool of insulin-producing β cells in the pancreas is reduced in both major forms of diabetes mellitus has led to efforts to understand β cell turnover in the adult pancreas. Unfortunately, previous studies have reached opposing conclusions regarding the source of new β cells during regeneration in the adult pancreas. In this issue of the JCI, Xiao et al. use a novel mouse model for detecting new β cells derived from non-β cells to demonstrate the absence of β cell neogenesis from non-β cells during normal postnatal growth and in models of β cell regeneration. This work adds to mounting evidence that in most physiological and pathological conditions, β cell neogenesis may not make large contributions to the postnatal β cell pool - at least not in rodents. PMID:23619356

  10. Oxya hyla hyla (Orthoptera: Acrididae) as an Alternative Protein Source for Japanese Quail

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mousumi; Mandal, Suman Kalyan

    2014-01-01

    .8%), higher feed intake (33.6 g/day/bird), and age at 1st laid egg than the grasshopper meal and fish meal based diets. So growth and laying performance of the birds were significantly better in grasshopper meal and fish meal added diet fed sets than the reference diet fed group; among all the dietary groups 100 g/kg grasshopper meal added diet mostly gave significantly better results followed by 150 g/kg fish meal added diets. It was ascertained that the O. hyla hyla meal had pronounced positive response on the birds. So, the quails could be easily fed 100 g/kg grasshopper meal added diet as it was the most suitable alternative feedstuff compared to the conventional protein source based diets. PMID:27355015

  11. Alternative splicing of MALT1 controls signalling and activation of CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Meininger, Isabel; Griesbach, Richard A.; Hu, Desheng; Gehring, Torben; Seeholzer, Thomas; Bertossi, Arianna; Kranich, Jan; Oeckinghaus, Andrea; Eitelhuber, Andrea C.; Greczmiel, Ute; Gewies, Andreas; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Ruland, Jürgen; Brocker, Thomas; Heissmeyer, Vigo; Heyd, Florian; Krappmann, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    MALT1 channels proximal T-cell receptor (TCR) signalling to downstream signalling pathways. With MALT1A and MALT1B two conserved splice variants exist and we demonstrate here that MALT1 alternative splicing supports optimal T-cell activation. Inclusion of exon7 in MALT1A facilitates the recruitment of TRAF6, which augments MALT1 scaffolding function, but not protease activity. Naive CD4+ T cells express almost exclusively MALT1B and MALT1A expression is induced by TCR stimulation. We identify hnRNP U as a suppressor of exon7 inclusion. Whereas selective depletion of MALT1A impairs T-cell signalling and activation, downregulation of hnRNP U enhances MALT1A expression and T-cell activation. Thus, TCR-induced alternative splicing augments MALT1 scaffolding to enhance downstream signalling and to promote optimal T-cell activation. PMID:27068814

  12. The Ski2-family helicase Obelus regulates Crumbs alternative splicing and cell polarity

    PubMed Central

    Vichas, Athea; Laurie, Matthew T.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing can have profound consequences for protein activity, but the functions of most alternative splicing regulators are not known. We show that Obelus, a conserved Ski2-family helicase, is required for cell polarity and adherens junction organization in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. In obelus mutants, epithelial cells display an expanded apical domain, aggregation of adherens junctions at the cell membrane, and microtubule-dependent defects in centrosome positioning. Through whole-genome transcriptome analysis, we found that Obelus is required for the alternative splicing of a small number of transcripts in the early embryo, including the pre-mRNA that encodes the apical polarity protein Crumbs. In obelus mutants, inclusion of an alternative exon results in increased expression of a Crumbs isoform that contains an additional epidermal growth factor–like repeat in the extracellular domain. Overexpression of this alternative Crumbs isoform recapitulates the junctional aggregation and centrosome positioning defects of obelus mutants. These results indicate that regulation of Crumbs alternative splicing by the Obelus helicase modulates epithelial polarity during development. PMID:26644515

  13. The Ski2-family helicase Obelus regulates Crumbs alternative splicing and cell polarity.

    PubMed

    Vichas, Athea; Laurie, Matthew T; Zallen, Jennifer A

    2015-12-01

    Alternative splicing can have profound consequences for protein activity, but the functions of most alternative splicing regulators are not known. We show that Obelus, a conserved Ski2-family helicase, is required for cell polarity and adherens junction organization in the Drosophila melanogaster embryo. In obelus mutants, epithelial cells display an expanded apical domain, aggregation of adherens junctions at the cell membrane, and microtubule-dependent defects in centrosome positioning. Through whole-genome transcriptome analysis, we found that Obelus is required for the alternative splicing of a small number of transcripts in the early embryo, including the pre-mRNA that encodes the apical polarity protein Crumbs. In obelus mutants, inclusion of an alternative exon results in increased expression of a Crumbs isoform that contains an additional epidermal growth factor-like repeat in the extracellular domain. Overexpression of this alternative Crumbs isoform recapitulates the junctional aggregation and centrosome positioning defects of obelus mutants. These results indicate that regulation of Crumbs alternative splicing by the Obelus helicase modulates epithelial polarity during development. PMID:26644515

  14. Sources of adult mesenchymal stem cells for ligament and tendon tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Dhinsa, Baljinder S; Mahapatra, Anant N; Khan, Wasim S

    2014-01-01

    Tendon and ligament injuries are common, and repair slowly with reduced biomechanical properties. With increasing financial demands on the health service and patients to recover from tendon and ligament injuries faster, and with less morbidity, health professionals are exploring new treatment options. Tissue engineering may provide the answer, with its unlimited source of natural cells that in the correct environment may improve repair and regeneration of tendon and ligament tissue. Mesenchymal stem cells have demonstrated the ability to self renew and have multilineage differentiation potential. The use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells has been reported, however significant in vitro culture expansion is required due to the low yield of cells, which has financial implications. Harvesting of bone marrow cells also has associated morbidity. Several studies have looked at alternative sources for mesenchymal stem cells. Reports in literature from animal studies have been encouraging, however further work is required. This review assesses the potential sources of mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering in tendons and ligaments. PMID:25012740

  15. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina; Redal, María Ana; Alghamdi, Mansour A; Khoder, Mamdouh I; Shamy, Magdy; Muñoz, Manuel J; Kornblihtt, Alberto R

    2015-07-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. PMID:25863591

  16. The Potential of Solar as Alternative Energy Source for Socio-Economic Wellbeing in Rural Areas, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Rashidah Zainal; Siwar, Chamhuri; Ludin, Norasikin Ahmad

    Malaysia's energy sector is highly dependent on fossil fuels as a primary energy source. Economic growth and socio-economic wellbeing also rely on the utilization of energy in daily life routine. Nevertheless, the increasing cost for electricity and declining fossil fuels resources causes various negative impacts to the people and environment especially in rural areas. This prompted Malaysia to shift towards alternative energy sources such as solar energy to ensure social, economic and environmental benefits. The solar energy is one of the potential renewable energy sources in tropical countries particularly in Malaysia. The paper attempts to analyze the benefits and advantages related to energy efficiency of solar for sustainable energy use and socio economic wellbeing in rural areas, Malaysia. The paper uses secondary sources of data such as policies, regulations and research reports from relevant ministries and agencies to attain the objectives. As a signatory country to the UN Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol, Malaysia has taken initiatives for decreasing energy dependence on oil to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) for sustainable development. The paper shows solar energy becomes one of the promising alternative energy sources to alleviate energy poverty in Malaysia for rural areas. Finally, solar energy has increased socio-economic wellbeing and develops green potential and toward achieving energy efficiency in energy sector of Malaysia by preserving environment as well as reducing carbon emission.

  17. Myc and SAGA rewire an alternative splicing network during early somatic cell reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Calley L; Coban Akdemir, Zeynep; Wang, Li; Jayakumaran, Gowtham; Trcka, Dan; Weiss, Alexander; Hernandez, J Javier; Pan, Qun; Han, Hong; Xu, Xueping; Xia, Zheng; Salinger, Andrew P; Wilson, Marenda; Vizeacoumar, Frederick; Datti, Alessandro; Li, Wei; Cooney, Austin J; Barton, Michelle C; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Wrana, Jeffrey L; Dent, Sharon Y R

    2015-04-15

    Embryonic stem cells are maintained in a self-renewing and pluripotent state by multiple regulatory pathways. Pluripotent-specific transcriptional networks are sequentially reactivated as somatic cells reprogram to achieve pluripotency. How epigenetic regulators modulate this process and contribute to somatic cell reprogramming is not clear. Here we performed a functional RNAi screen to identify the earliest epigenetic regulators required for reprogramming. We identified components of the SAGA histone acetyltransferase complex, in particular Gcn5, as critical regulators of reprogramming initiation. Furthermore, we showed in mouse pluripotent stem cells that Gcn5 strongly associates with Myc and that, upon initiation of somatic reprogramming, Gcn5 and Myc form a positive feed-forward loop that activates a distinct alternative splicing network and the early acquisition of pluripotency-associated splicing events. These studies expose a Myc-SAGA pathway that drives expression of an essential alternative splicing regulatory network during somatic cell reprogramming. PMID:25877919

  18. Alternative Igneous Source Term Model for Tephra Dispersal at the Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Codell, Richard Blake

    2004-11-15

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses the ASHPLUME model in its evaluation of the basaltic volcanism scenario at the possible Yucca Mountain repository. The mixing of magma with the spent-fuel waste form is tied to a reasonable but unverified model that predicts that no dense tephra/fuel particles would form. An alternative model uses a mixing rule that allows the formation of dense tephra/fuel particles that would be transported in the volcanic plume differently. The alternative model shows significant sensitivity to the spent-fuel particle size distribution. However, differences in results between the two models are on average less than a factor of 2.

  19. Projection of needs for gamma radiation sources and other radioisotopes and assessment of alternatives for providing radiation sources

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.A.; Jensen, G.A.; Clark, L.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Jarrett, J.H.; Katayama, Y.B.; McKee, R.W.; Morgan, L.G.; Nealey, S.M.; Platt, A.M.; Tingey, G.L.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the projected uses and demands for a variety of nuclear byproducts. Because the major large-scale near-term demand is for gamma irradiation sources, this report concentrates on the needs for gamma sources and evaluates the options for providing the needed material. Projections of possible growth in the irradiation treatment industry indicate that there will be a need for 180 to 320 MCi of /sup 60/Co (including /sup 137/Cs equivalent) in service in the year 2000. The largest current and projected use of gamma irradiation is for the sterilization of medical devices and disposable medical supplies. Currently, 40% of US disposable medical products are treated by irradiation, and within 10 years it is expected that 90% will be treated in this manner. Irradiation treatment of food for destruction of pathogens or parasites, disinfestation, or extension of allowable storage periods is estimated to require an active inventory of 75 MCi of /sup 60/Co-equivalent gamma source in about a decade. 90 refs., 7 figs., 25 tabs.

  20. Alternate energy source usage methods for in situ heat treatment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, Jr., Francis Marion; Goodwin, Charles R; Richard, Jr., James E

    2014-10-14

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for providing power to one or more subsurface heaters is described herein. The method may include monitoring one or more operating parameters of the heaters, the intermittent power source, and a transformer coupled to the intermittent power source that transforms power from the intermittent power source to power with appropriate operating parameters for the heaters; and controlling the power output of the transformer so that a constant voltage is provided to the heaters regardless of the load of the heaters and the power output provided by the intermittent power source.

  1. "The Source": An Alternate Reality Game to Spark STEM Interest and Learning among Underrepresented Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Melissa; Bouris, Alida; Hill, Brandon; Jagoda, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Alternate Reality Games (ARGs) are multiplayer role-playing games that use the real world as their primary platform and incorporate a range of media, including video, audio, email, mobile technologies, websites, live performance, and social networks. This paper describes the development, implementation, and player reception of "The…

  2. The Birth Primer: A Source Book of Traditional and Alternative Methods in Labor and Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parfitt, Rebecca Rowe

    This book was intended to serve as a comprehensive resource volume on birth alternatives. Specific topics covered include: (1) the process of labor; (2) ideas of natural childbirth; (3) drugs, devices, surgeries, and procedures; (4) midwives and other delivery room participants; (5) facilities for giving birth: hospital, home and maternity center;…

  3. Land-Rich Colleges Explore Opportunities to Create Alternative-Energy Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    In a time of expensive energy and concerns about climate change, land may be a major asset for colleges, providing a vastly different opportunity than it did in the past, when it was merely a place to set down new buildings, new campuses, or research parks. Since new alternative-energy technologies like wind and solar demand a lot of land--along…

  4. REDUCTION OF CO2 EMISSIONS FROM MOBILE SOURCES BY ALTERNATIVE FUELS DERIVED FROM BIOMASS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses process options for utilizing biomass to obtain greatest reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from motor vehicles at least cost. (NOTE: The Energy Policy Act of 1992 seeks to displace 30% of the U.S. petroleum requirement by the year 2010 with an altern...

  5. Alternative School Revenue Sources: There Are Many Fish in the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pijanowski, John C.; Monk, David H.

    1996-01-01

    To ease fiscal strain, many school districts employ alternative fund-raising initiatives. They are forming local foundations or booster clubs, soliciting businesses or volunteers for in-kind donations, selling and leasing services and facilities, generating investment income, collecting user fees, cooperating with social service providers,…

  6. A Half-Flipped Classroom or an Alternative Approach?: Primary Sources and Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermann, Edward B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines an alternate approach to the "flipped" classroom paradigm for an upper level history class using a blended on-line and in-class format. The concept of the flipped classroom has received increasing emphasis based on its potential to create a student-centered learning environment that incorporates practical instruction…

  7. ALTERNATIVE ENERGY SOURCES FROM PLANTS OF WESTERN GHATS (TAMIL NADU, INDIA)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-two taxa of Western Ghats plants were screened as potential alternative crops for renewable energy, oil, hydrocarbon and phytochemicals. The highest hydrocarbon yields were observed in Carissa carandas (1.7%), and Jatropha gossypifolia (1.7%). The highest polyphenol fraction was observed in D...

  8. Identification of a third region of cell-specific alternative splicing in human fibronectin mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gutman, A.; Kornblihtt, A.R.

    1987-10-01

    The authors describe here a third region of variability in human fibronectin (FN) due to alternative RNA splicing. Two other positions of alternative splicing have been reported previously (ED and IIICS). The third region involves a 273-nucleotide exon encoding exactly one 91-amino acid repeat of type III homology, located between the DNA- and the cell-binding domains of FN, which is either included in or excluded from FN mRNA. The two mRNA variants arising by an exon-skipping mechanism are present in cells known to synthesize the cellular form of FN. However, liver cells, which are the source of plasma FN, produce only messengers without the extra type III sequence. Therefore, the region described here resembles, both structurally and functionally, the previously described ED (for extra domain) region, located toward the C terminus of the molecule between the cell- and heparin- (hep 2) binding domains. The authors conclude that both the extra type III repeat (names EDII) and ED represent sequences restricted to cellular FN. Combination of all the possible patterns of splicing in the three regions described to date may generate up to 20 distinct FN polypeptides from a single gene.

  9. Stem cells: a promising source for vascular regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Rammal, Hassan; Harmouch, Chaza; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Laurent-Maquin, Dominique; Labrude, Pierre; Menu, Patrick; Kerdjoudj, Halima

    2014-12-15

    The rising and diversity of many human vascular diseases pose urgent needs for the development of novel therapeutics. Stem cell therapy represents a challenge in the medicine of the twenty-first century, an area where tissue engineering and regenerative medicine gather to provide promising treatments for a wide variety of diseases. Indeed, with their extensive regeneration potential and functional multilineage differentiation capacity, stem cells are now highlighted as promising cell sources for regenerative medicine. Their multilineage differentiation involves environmental factors such as biochemical, extracellular matrix coating, oxygen tension, and mechanical forces. In this review, we will focus on human stem cell sources and their applications in vascular regeneration. We will also discuss the different strategies used for their differentiation into both mature and functional smooth muscle and endothelial cells. PMID:25167472

  10. Current Research on Molasses as an Alternative Energy Source for Organic Dairy Herds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As organic grain prices have increased and organic milk prices have decreased, dairy farmers are seeking lower-cost supplementation strategies. Sugarcane molasses, a rich source of sucrose, seems to be a viable option as a source of energy. Molasses frequently costs less per pound of dry matter than...

  11. Presenting an Alternative Source Code Plagiarism Detection Framework for Improving the Teaching and Learning of Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattingh, Frederik; Buitendag, Albertus A. K.; van der Walt, Jacobus S.

    2013-01-01

    The transfer and teaching of programming and programming related skills has become, increasingly difficult on an undergraduate level over the past years. This is partially due to the number of programming languages available as well as access to readily available source code over the Web. Source code plagiarism is common practice amongst many…

  12. Taurine supplemented plant protein based diets with alternative lipid sources for juvenile sea bream, sparus aurata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two lipid sources were evaluated as fish oil replacements in fishmeal free, plant protein based diets for juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. A twelve week feeding study was undertaken to examine the performance of fish fed the diets with different sources of essential fatty acids (canola o...

  13. The amniotic membrane as a source of stem cells.

    PubMed

    Insausti, Carmen L; Blanquer, Miguel; Bleda, Patricia; Iniesta, Paqui; Majado, María J; Castellanos, Gregorio; Moraleda, José M

    2010-01-01

    Cellular therapy has emerged as a new potential tool for curing a wide range of degenerative diseases and tissue necrosis. Embryonic stem cells possess potential for differentiation into a wide range of cell lineages, but the ethical issues associated with establishment of this human cell line have to be resolved prior to any use. The bone marrow (BM) is the usual source of adult stem cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplants and cellular therapy, but the BM harvest is a surgical procedure that requires general anesthesia or sedation, and there seems to be a reduction of the proliferative potential and differentiation capacity of the marrow mesenchymal stem cells in older donors. For these reasons there is an increasing interest in other sources of stem cells from adult and fetal tissues. The amniotic membrane (AM) or amnion is a tissue of particular interest because its cells possess characteristics of stem cells with multipotent differentiation ability, and because of low immunogenicity and easy procurement from the placenta, which is a discarded tissue after parturition, thus avoiding the current controversies associated with the use of human embryonic stem cells. Therefore, amniotic membrane has been proposed as a good candidate to be used in cellular therapy and regenerative medicine. PMID:19924645

  14. Potential sources of stem cells as a regenerative therapy for Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    El-Sadik, Abir Oueida

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells are believed to hold enormous promise as potential replacement therapy in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Stem cells were investigated to be the alternative therapeutic source capable of differentiating into dopamine (DA) neurons. Multiple important signaling factors were recorded for the induction of DA neuronal traits from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) such as fibroblast growth factor 8, sonic hedgehog, and Wnt 1. Recent protocols were described for the differentiation of human ESCs into DA neurons, achieving high efficiency of DA neuronal derivation. Despite that, the use of human ESCs is still ethically controversial. The transcription factors necessary for DA neuron development from adult neural stem cells (NSCs), such as Pitx3, Nurr1, En-1, En-2, Lmx1a, Lmx1b, Msx1, and Ngn2, were investigated. In addition to replacement of lost DA neurons, adult NSCs were recorded to provide neuroprotective and neurogenic factors for the mesencephalon. In addition, induced pluripotent stem cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells represent reliable stem cell sources of DA neurons. Future studies are recommended to provide further insight into the regenerative capacity of stem cells needed for the treatment of PD. PMID:24198524

  15. Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells: A Novel Source for Modeling of Human Genetic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Ivana; Provenzano, Martina; Rodrigues, Melissa; Pantalone, Andrea; Salini, Vincenzo; Ballerini, Patrizia; Borlongan, Cesar V.; Stuppia, Liborio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, great interest has been devoted to the use of Induced Pluripotent Stem cells (iPS) for modeling of human genetic diseases, due to the possibility of reprogramming somatic cells of affected patients into pluripotent cells, enabling differentiation into several cell types, and allowing investigations into the molecular mechanisms of the disease. However, the protocol of iPS generation still suffers from technical limitations, showing low efficiency, being expensive and time consuming. Amniotic Fluid Stem cells (AFS) represent a potential alternative novel source of stem cells for modeling of human genetic diseases. In fact, by means of prenatal diagnosis, a number of fetuses affected by chromosomal or Mendelian diseases can be identified, and the amniotic fluid collected for genetic testing can be used, after diagnosis, for the isolation, culture and differentiation of AFS cells. This can provide a useful stem cell model for the investigation of the molecular basis of the diagnosed disease without the necessity of producing iPS, since AFS cells show some features of pluripotency and are able to differentiate in cells derived from all three germ layers “in vitro”. In this article, we describe the potential benefits provided by using AFS cells in the modeling of human genetic diseases. PMID:27110774

  16. Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells: A Novel Source for Modeling of Human Genetic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Ivana; Provenzano, Martina; Rodrigues, Melissa; Pantalone, Andrea; Salini, Vincenzo; Ballerini, Patrizia; Borlongan, Cesar V; Stuppia, Liborio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, great interest has been devoted to the use of Induced Pluripotent Stem cells (iPS) for modeling of human genetic diseases, due to the possibility of reprogramming somatic cells of affected patients into pluripotent cells, enabling differentiation into several cell types, and allowing investigations into the molecular mechanisms of the disease. However, the protocol of iPS generation still suffers from technical limitations, showing low efficiency, being expensive and time consuming. Amniotic Fluid Stem cells (AFS) represent a potential alternative novel source of stem cells for modeling of human genetic diseases. In fact, by means of prenatal diagnosis, a number of fetuses affected by chromosomal or Mendelian diseases can be identified, and the amniotic fluid collected for genetic testing can be used, after diagnosis, for the isolation, culture and differentiation of AFS cells. This can provide a useful stem cell model for the investigation of the molecular basis of the diagnosed disease without the necessity of producing iPS, since AFS cells show some features of pluripotency and are able to differentiate in cells derived from all three germ layers "in vitro". In this article, we describe the potential benefits provided by using AFS cells in the modeling of human genetic diseases. PMID:27110774

  17. Robust detection of alternative splicing in a population of single cells.

    PubMed

    Welch, Joshua D; Hu, Yin; Prins, Jan F

    2016-05-01

    Single cell RNA-seq experiments provide valuable insight into cellular heterogeneity but suffer from low coverage, 3' bias and technical noise. These unique properties of single cell RNA-seq data make study of alternative splicing difficult, and thus most single cell studies have restricted analysis of transcriptome variation to the gene level. To address these limitations, we developed SingleSplice, which uses a statistical model to detect genes whose isoform usage shows biological variation significantly exceeding technical noise in a population of single cells. Importantly, SingleSplice is tailored to the unique demands of single cell analysis, detecting isoform usage differences without attempting to infer expression levels for full-length transcripts. Using data from spike-in transcripts, we found that our approach detects variation in isoform usage among single cells with high sensitivity and specificity. We also applied SingleSplice to data from mouse embryonic stem cells and discovered a set of genes that show significant biological variation in isoform usage across the set of cells. A subset of these isoform differences are linked to cell cycle stage, suggesting a novel connection between alternative splicing and the cell cycle. PMID:26740580

  18. Characterization and profiling of immunomodulatory genes of equine mesenchymal stromal cells from non-invasive sources

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively studied for their promising capabilities in regenerative medicine. Although bone marrow is the best-known source for isolating equine MSCs, non-invasive alternative sources such as umbilical cord blood (UCB), umbilical cord matrix (UCM), and peripheral blood (PB) have also been reported. Methods Equine MSCs from three non-invasive alternative sources were isolated from six individual mares (PB) and their foals (UCB and UCM) at parturition. To minimize inter-horse variability, the samples from the three sources were matched within the same mare and for UCB and UCM even within the same foal from that specific mare. The following parameters were analyzed: (i) success rate of isolation, (ii) proliferation capacity, (iii) tri-lineage differentiation ability, (iv) immunophenotypical protein, and (v) immunomodulatory mRNA profiles. Linear regression models were fit to determine the association between the source of MSCs (UCB, UCM, PB) and (i) the moment of first observation, (ii) the moment of first passage, (iii) cell proliferation data, (iv) the expression of markers related to cell immunogenicity, and (v) the mRNA profile of immunomodulatory factors, except for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) as no normal distribution could be obtained for the latter variable. To evaluate the association between the source of MSCs and the mRNA expression of HGF, the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was performed instead. Results While equine MSCs could be isolated from all the UCB and PB samples, isolation from UCM was successful in only two samples because of contamination issues. Proliferation data showed that equine MSCs from all three sources could be easily expanded, although UCB-derived MSCs appeared significantly faster in culture than PB- or UCM-derived MSCs. Equine MSCs from both UCB and PB could be differentiated toward the osteo-, chondro-, and adipogenic lineage, in contrast to UCM-derived MSCs in which

  19. Metastatic Stem Cells: Sources, Niches, and Vital Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Oskarsson, Thordur; Batlle, Eduard; Massagué, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is powered by disseminated cancer cells that recreate a full-fledged tumor in unwelcoming tissues, away from the primary site. How cancer cells moving from a tumor into the circulation manage to infiltrate distant organs and initiate metastatic growth is of interest to cancer biologists and clinical oncologists alike. Recent findings have started to define the sources, phenotypic properties, hosting niches, and signaling pathways that support the survival, self-renewal, dormancy and reactivation of cancer cells that initiate metastasis–metastatic stem cells. By dissecting the biology of this process, vulnerabilities are being exposed that could be exploited to prevent metastasis. PMID:24607405

  20. Alternative method to trace sediment sources in a subtropical rural catchment of southern Brazil by using near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiecher, Tales; Caner, Laurent; Gomes Minella, Jean Paolo; Henrique Ciotti, Lucas; Antônio Bender, Marcos; dos Santos Rheinheimer, Danilo

    2014-05-01

    Conventional fingerprinting methods based on geochemical composition still require a time-consuming and critical preliminary sample preparation. Thus, fingerprinting characteristics that can be measured in a rapid and cheap way requiring a minimal sample preparation, such as spectroscopy methods, should be used. The present study aimed to evaluate the sediment sources contribution in a rural catchment by using conventional method based on geochemical composition and on an alternative method based on near-infrared spectroscopy. This study was carried out in a rural catchment with an area of 1,19 km2 located in southern Brazil. The sediment sources evaluated were crop fields (n=20), unpaved roads (n=10) and stream channels (n=10). Thirty suspended sediment samples were collected from eight significant storm runoff events between 2009 and 2011. Sources and sediment samples were dried at 50oC and sieved at 63 µm. The total concentration of Ag, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, Tl, V and Zn were estimated by ICP-OES after microwave assisted digestion with concentrated HNO3 and HCl. Total organic carbon (TOC) was estimated by wet oxidation with K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4. The near-infrared spectra scan range was 4000 to 10000 cm-1 at a resolution of 2 cm-1, with 100 co added scans per spectrum. The steps used in the conventional method were: i) tracer selection based on Kruskal-Wallis test, ii) selection of the best set of tracers using discriminant analyses and finally iii) the use of a mixed linear model to calculate the sediment sources contribution. The steps used in the alternative method were i) principal component analyses to reduce the number of variables, ii) discriminant analyses to determine the tracer potential of the near-infrared spectroscopy, and finally iii) the use of past least square based on 48 mixtures of the sediment sources in various weight proportions to calculate the sediment sources

  1. Cogeneration technology alternatives study. Volume 4: Heat Sources, balance of plant and auxiliary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Data and information established for heat sources balance of plant items, thermal energy storage, and heat pumps are presented. Design case descriptions are given along with projected performance values. Capital cost estimates for representative cogeneration plants are also presented.

  2. Improved Single-Source Precursors for Solar-Cell Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder K.; Harris, Jerry; Hepp, Aloysius

    2007-01-01

    Improved single-source precursor compounds have been invented for use in spray chemical vapor deposition (spray CVD) of chalcopyrite semiconductor absorber layers of thin-film cells. A "single-source precursor compound" is a single molecular compound that contains all the required elements, which when used under the spray CVD conditions, thermally decomposes to form CuIn(x)Ga(1-x)S(y)Se(2-y).

  3. Stem cells as a source of regenerative cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Keiichi; Yuasa, Shinsuke

    2006-04-28

    The realization of regenerative cardiac medicine depends on the availability of cardiomyocytes in sufficient numbers for transplantation of cardiac tissue and the accompanying blood vessels. Embryonic stem (ES) cells, bone marrow (BM) stem cells, and tissue-derived stem cells are all potential cell sources. Although ES cells are highly proliferative and suitable for mass production, an efficient protocol is yet to be established to ensure selective cardiomyocyte induction using these cells. Recent advances in developmental biology have clarified the involvement of critical factors in cardiomyocyte differentiation, including bone morphogenic protein and Wnt signaling proteins, and such factors have the potential to improve the efficiency of stem cell induction. Initial studies of the intracoronary administration of BM mononuclear cells after myocardial infarction has yielded promising results; however, intensive investigation of the underlying molecular mechanisms at play as well as double-blinded clinical trials will be necessary to establish the extent of both migration of the BM stem cells into the damaged cardiac tissue and their differentiation into cardiomyocytes. Several types of cardiac tissue stem cells have also been reported, but an accurate and extensive comparison of these cells with regard to their characteristics and multipotency remains to be done. An integrative study involving developmental biology, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering is required to achieve the full potential of cardiac regeneration. PMID:16645150

  4. Effects of airborne particulate matter on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Buggiano, Valeria; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Alló, Mariano; Lafaille, Celina; Redal, María Ana; Alghamdi, Mansour A.; Khoder, Mamdouh I.; Shamy, Magdy; Muñoz, Manuel J.; and others

    2015-07-15

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing plays key roles in determining tissue- and species-specific cell differentiation as well as in the onset of hereditary disease and cancer, being controlled by multiple post- and co-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. We report here that airborne particulate matter, resulting from industrial pollution, inhibits expression and specifically affects alternative splicing at the 5′ untranslated region of the mRNA encoding the bone morphogenetic protein BMP4 in human colon cells in culture. These effects are consistent with a previously reported role for BMP4 in preventing colon cancer development, suggesting that ingestion of particulate matter could contribute to the onset of colon cell proliferation. We also show that the underlying mechanism might involve changes in transcriptional elongation. This is the first study to demonstrate that particulate matter causes non-pleiotropic changes in alternative splicing. - Highlights: • Airborne particulate matter (PM10) affects alternative splicing in colon cells. • PM10 upregulates one of the two mRNA variants of the growth factor BMP-4. • This variant has a longer 5′ unstranslated region and introduces an upstream AUG. • By regulating BMP-4 mRNA splicing PM10 inhibits total expression of BMP-4 protein. • BMP-4 downregulation was previously reported to be associated to colon cancer.

  5. Ubiquitously expressed genes participate in cell-specific functions via alternative promoter usage.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guihai; Tong, Man; Xia, Baolong; Luo, Guan-Zheng; Wang, Meng; Xie, Dongfang; Wan, Haifeng; Zhang, Ying; Zhou, Qi; Wang, Xiu-Jie

    2016-09-01

    How do different cell types acquire their specific identities and functions is a fundamental question of biology. Previously significant efforts have been devoted to search for cell-type-specifically expressed genes, especially transcription factors, yet how do ubiquitously expressed genes participate in the formation or maintenance of cell-type-specific features remains largely unknown. Here, we have identified 110 mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) specifically expressed transcripts with cell-stage-specific alternative transcription start sites (SATS isoforms) from 104 ubiquitously expressed genes, majority of which have active epigenetic modification- or stem cell-related functions. These SATS isoforms are specifically expressed in mESCs, and tend to be transcriptionally regulated by key pluripotency factors through direct promoter binding. Knocking down the SATS isoforms of Nmnat2 or Usp7 leads to differentiation-related phenotype in mESCs. These results demonstrate that cell-type-specific transcription factors are capable to produce cell-type-specific transcripts with alternative transcription start sites from ubiquitously expressed genes, which confer ubiquitously expressed genes novel functions involved in the establishment or maintenance of cell-type-specific features. PMID:27466324

  6. Blimp-1/Prdm1 Alternative Promoter Usage during Mouse Development and Plasma Cell Differentiation▿

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Marc A. J.; Magnusdottir, Erna; Kuo, Tracy C.; Tunyaplin, Chai; Harper, James; Arnold, Sebastian J.; Calame, Kathryn; Robertson, Elizabeth J.; Bikoff, Elizabeth K.

    2009-01-01

    The zinc-finger PR domain transcriptional repressor Blimp-1/Prdm1 plays essential roles in primordial germ cell specification, placental, heart, and forelimb development, plasma cell differentiation, and T-cell homeostasis. The present experiments demonstrate that the mouse Prdm1 gene has three alternative promoter regions. All three alternative first exons splice directly to exon 3, containing the translational start codon. To examine possible cell-type-specific functional activities in vivo, we generated targeted deletions that selectively eliminate two of these transcriptional start sites. Remarkably, mice lacking the previously described first exon develop normally and are fertile. However, this region contains NF-κB binding sites, and as shown here, NF-κB signaling is required for Prdm1 induction. Thus, mutant B cells fail to express Prdm1 in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation and lack the ability to become antibody-secreting cells. An alternative distal promoter located ∼70 kb upstream, giving rise to transcripts strongly expressed in the yolk sac, is dispensable. Thus, the deletion of exon 1B has no noticeable effect on expression levels in the embryo or adult tissues. Collectively, these experiments provide insight into the organization of the Prdm1 gene and demonstrate that NF-κB is a key mediator of Prdm1 expression. PMID:19737919

  7. Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Suitor, J.W.; Clark, D.J.; Losey, R.W.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation. (VC)

  8. Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Suitor, J.W.; Clark, D.J.; Losey, R.W.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation. (VC)

  9. Development of alternative oxygen production source using a zirconia solid electrolyte membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suitor, J. W.; Clark, D. J.; Losey, R. W.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this multiyear effort was the development, fabrication and testing of a zirconia oxygen production module capable of delivering approximately 100 liters/minute (LPM) of oxygen. The work discussed in this report consists of development and improvement of the zirconia cell along with manufacture of cell components, preliminary design of the final plant, additional economic analysis and industrial participation.

  10. The convergent validity of three surveys as alternative sources of health information to the 2011 UK census.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Joanna; Twigg, Liz; Moon, Graham

    2014-09-01

    Censuses have traditionally been a key source of localised information on the state of a nation's health. Many countries are now adopting alternative approaches to the traditional census, placing such information at risk. The purpose of this paper is to inform debate about whether existing social surveys could provide an adequate 'base' for alternative model-based small area estimates of health data in a post traditional census era. Using a case study of 2011 UK Census questions on self-assessed health and limiting long term illness, we examine the extent to which the results from three large-scale surveys - the Health Survey for England, the Crime Survey for England and Wales and the Integrated Household Survey - conform to census output. Particularly in the case of limiting long term illness, the question wording renders comparisons difficult. However, with the exception of the general health question from the Health Survey for England all three surveys meet tests for convergent validity. PMID:25016326

  11. Ultrastructural maturation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells-derived cardiomyocytes under alternative induction of 5-azacytidine.

    PubMed

    Piryaei, Abbas; Soleimani, Masoud; Heidari, Mohammad Hassan; Saheli, Mona; Rohani, Razieh; Almasieh, Mohammadali

    2015-05-01

    Adult cardiomyocytes lack the ability to proliferate and are unable to repair damaged heart tissue, therefore differentiation of stem cells to cardiomyocytes represents an exceptional opportunity to study cardiomyocytes in vitro and potentially provides a valuable source for replacing damaged tissue. However, characteristic maturity of the in vitro differentiated cardiomyocytes and methods to achieve it are yet to be optimized. In this study, differentiation of human bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) into cardiomyocytes is accomplished and the process investigated ultrastructurally. The hBM-MSCs were alternatively treated with 5 μM of 5-azacytidine (5-aza) for 8 weeks resulting in differentiation to cardiomyocytes. Expressions of cardiomyocyte-specific genes [cardiac α-actinin, cardiac β-myosin heavy chain (MHC) and connexin-43] and proteins (cardiac α-actinin, cardiac troponin and connexin-43) were confirmed in a time-dependent manner from the first to the fifth weeks post-induction. Ultrastructural maturation of hBM-MSCs-derived cardiomyocyte (MSCs-CM) corresponded with increase in number and organization of myofilaments in cells over time. Starting from week five, organized myofibrils along with developing sarcomeres were detectable. Later on, MSCs-CM were characterized by the presence of sarcoplasmic reticulum, T-tubules and diads as cardiomyocytes connected to each other by intercalated disc-like structures. Here, we showed the potential of hBM-MSCs as a source for the production of cardiomyocytes and confirmed mature ultrastructural characteristics of these cells using our alternative incubation method. PMID:25573851

  12. Alternatively Spliced Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase Variants Lacking Telomerase Activity Stimulate Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Hrdličková, Radmila; Nehyba, Jiří

    2012-01-01

    Eight human and six chicken novel alternatively spliced (AS) variants of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) were identified, including a human variant (Δ4-13) containing an in-frame deletion which removed exons 4 through 13, encoding the catalytic domain of telomerase. This variant was expressed in telomerase-negative normal cells and tissues as well as in transformed telomerase-positive cell lines and cells which employ an alternative method to maintain telomere length. The overexpression of the Δ4-13 variant significantly elevated the proliferation rates of several cell types without enhancing telomerase activity, while decreasing the endogenous expression of this variant by use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) technology reduced cell proliferation. The expression of the Δ4-13 variant stimulated Wnt signaling. In chicken cells, AS TERT variants containing internal deletions or insertions that eliminated or reduced telomerase activity also enhanced cell proliferation. This is the first report that naturally occurring AS TERT variants which lack telomerase activity stimulate cell proliferation. PMID:22907755

  13. Cell and stack design alternatives. Final report, August 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, Jr., D. Q.; King, Robert B.

    1980-02-01

    The work described comprised the first phase of a planned six phase program to develop commercially viable phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) driven on-site integrated energy systems (OS/IES). The Phase I effort was organized as three major technical tasks; (1) study of system design alternatives; (2) fuel cell design alternatives; and (3) methane conditioner study. It was decided that comprehensive modeling of one application would most effectively utilize the resources available for the study of systems design alternatives. A 48 unit apartment complex located in Albany, New York and built to HUD minimum standards was selected as being typical of the applications that will be served by the systems. The time varying space conditioning (HVAC) and electrical requirements including the effects of varying weather conditions, living habits and occupancy patterns were modeled. These requirements formed the basis for comparing the performance and cost of the alternative configurations with each other and with a conventional system. Five basic alternative OS/IES configurations plus four variations were selected from a preliminary list of 13 basic configurations for detailed performance nd cost evaluations. Study procedures and results are presented in detail. (WHK)

  14. Water supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in low-income areas of Lilongwe City, Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidya, Russel C. G.; Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Banda, Sembeyawo C. T.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies in many developing countries have shown that Small Scale Independent Providers (SSIPs) in low-income areas (LIAs) are practical alternatives to water utilities. This study explored supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in four LIAs of Lilongwe City in Malawi using qualitative and quantitative methods. Household-level surveys (n = 120) and transect walks were employed to determine the socio-economic activities in the areas. One-on-one discussions were made with water source owners (SSIPs) (n = 24). Data on policy and institutional frameworks was collected through desktop study and Key Informant Interviews (n = 25). Quality of the water sources (shallow wells and boreholes) was determined by collecting grab samples (n = 24) in triplicate using 500 mL bottles. Selected physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured: pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, water temperature, salinity, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl-, F-, NO3-, alkalinity, water hardness, Fecal coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococci (FS) bacteria. Water quality data was compared with Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. Shallow wells were reported (65%, n = 120) to be the main source of water for household use in all areas. Some policies like prohibition of boreholes and shallow wells in City locations were in conflict with other provisions of water supply, sanitation and housing. High levels of FC (0-2100 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-1490 cfu/100 mL) at several sites (>90%, n = 24) suggest water contamination likely to impact on human health. This calls for upgrading and recognition of the water sources for improved water service delivery.

  15. Multiobjective optimization of cluster-scale urban water systems investigating alternative water sources and level of decentralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. P.; Dandy, G. C.; Maier, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    In many regions, conventional water supplies are unable to meet projected consumer demand. Consequently, interest has arisen in integrated urban water systems, which involve the reclamation or harvesting of alternative, localized water sources. However, this makes the planning and design of water infrastructure more difficult, as multiple objectives need to be considered, water sources need to be selected from a number of alternatives, and end uses of these sources need to be specified. In addition, the scale at which each treatment, collection, and distribution network should operate needs to be investigated. In order to deal with this complexity, a framework for planning and designing water infrastructure taking into account integrated urban water management principles is presented in this paper and applied to a rural greenfield development. Various options for water supply, and the scale at which they operate were investigated in order to determine the life-cycle trade-offs between water savings, cost, and GHG emissions as calculated from models calibrated using Australian data. The decision space includes the choice of water sources, storage tanks, treatment facilities, and pipes for water conveyance. For each water system analyzed, infrastructure components were sized using multiobjective genetic algorithms. The results indicate that local water sources are competitive in terms of cost and GHG emissions, and can reduce demand on the potable system by as much as 54%. Economies of scale in treatment dominated the diseconomies of scale in collection and distribution of water. Therefore, water systems that connect large clusters of households tend to be more cost efficient and have lower GHG emissions. In addition, water systems that recycle wastewater tended to perform better than systems that captured roof-runoff. Through these results, the framework was shown to be effective at identifying near optimal trade-offs between competing objectives, thereby enabling

  16. Modulation of PKM alternative splicing by PTBP1 promotes gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Calabretta, Sara; Bielli, Pamela; Passacantilli, Ilaria; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Fendrich, Volker; Capurso, Gabriele; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Sette, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive and incurable disease. Poor prognosis is due to multiple reasons, including acquisition of resistance to gemcitabine, the first line chemotherapeutic approach. Thus, there is a strong need for novel therapies, targeting more directly the molecular aberrations of this disease. We found that chronic exposure of PDAC cells to gemcitabine selected a subpopulation of cells that are drug-resistant (DR-PDAC cells). Importantly, alternative splicing of the pyruvate kinase gene (PKM) was differentially modulated in DR-PDAC cells, resulting in promotion of the cancer-related PKM2 isoform, whose high expression also correlated with shorter recurrence free survival in PDAC patients. Switching PKM splicing by antisense oligonucleotides to favour the alternative PKM1 variant rescued sensitivity of DR-PDAC cells to gemcitabine and cisplatin, suggesting that PKM2 expression is required to withstand drug-induced genotoxic stress. Mechanistically, up-regulation of the polypyrimidine-tract binding protein (PTBP1), a key modulator of PKM splicing, correlated with PKM2 expression in DR-PDAC cell lines. PTBP1 was recruited more efficiently to PKM pre-mRNA in DR- than in parental PDAC cells. Accordingly, knockdown of PTBP1 in DR-PDAC cells reduced its recruitment to the PKM pre-mRNA, promoted splicing of the PKM1 variant and abolished drug resistance. Thus, chronic exposure to gemcitabine leads to up-regulation of PTBP1 and modulation of PKM alternative splicing in PDAC cells, conferring resistance to the drug. These findings point to PKM2 and PTBP1 as new potential therapeutic targets to improve response of PDAC to chemotherapy. PMID:26234680

  17. Orientation of Schizosaccharomyces POMBE Nonliving Cells under Alternating Uniform and Nonuniform Electric Fields

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias, F. J.; López, M. C.; Santamaría, C.; Domínguez, A.

    1985-01-01

    When nonliving cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were subjected to the action of alternating uniform and nonuniform electric fields, two types of orientation were produced. The first one, with its longest axis parallel to the field lines, is similar to that obtained with living cells. The second, perpendicular to the direction of the field, is produced for relatively high frequencies and low conductivities; this probably takes place when the conductivities of the external and internal media (cell cytoplasm) become equal. A mixed cell population is produced in a discrete interval of the parameters used. Our results provide direct evidence that cell alignment does not depend on the physiological state of the cells. ImagesFIGURE 1FIGURE 3 PMID:19431597

  18. Bioelectrorheological model of the cell. 5. Electrodestruction of cellular membrane in alternating electric field.

    PubMed Central

    Pawłowski, P; Szutowicz, I; Marszałek, P; Fikus, M

    1993-01-01

    Recently proposed analysis of the extensil stress developed in a cellular membrane subjected to an alternating electric field (Pawłowski, P., and M. Fikus, 1993. Bioelectrorheological model of the cell. 4. Analysis of the extensil deformation of the membrane in an alternating field. Biophys. J. 65:535-540) was applied in calculations of extensil stress threshold values, sigma eo[d], producing experimentally observed electrodestruction of cells within the frequency range of 7 x 10(1) - 3 x 10(5) Hz. It was shown that the susceptibility (s[d] = 1/sigma eo[d]), of the membrane to this process varies with field frequency and depends on the type of cells. Electrodestruction is facilitated in the 10(5)-Hz field. A rheological hypothesis explaining the experimentally observed dependence of membrane stability on electric field frequency was proposed and successfully tested for two other phenomena: electroporation and electrofusion. PMID:8369458

  19. Bioelectrorheological model of the cell. 5. Electrodestruction of cellular membrane in alternating electric field.

    PubMed

    Pawłowski, P; Szutowicz, I; Marszałek, P; Fikus, M

    1993-07-01

    Recently proposed analysis of the extensil stress developed in a cellular membrane subjected to an alternating electric field (Pawłowski, P., and M. Fikus, 1993. Bioelectrorheological model of the cell. 4. Analysis of the extensil deformation of the membrane in an alternating field. Biophys. J. 65:535-540) was applied in calculations of extensil stress threshold values, sigma eo[d], producing experimentally observed electrodestruction of cells within the frequency range of 7 x 10(1) - 3 x 10(5) Hz. It was shown that the susceptibility (s[d] = 1/sigma eo[d]), of the membrane to this process varies with field frequency and depends on the type of cells. Electrodestruction is facilitated in the 10(5)-Hz field. A rheological hypothesis explaining the experimentally observed dependence of membrane stability on electric field frequency was proposed and successfully tested for two other phenomena: electroporation and electrofusion. PMID:8369458

  20. Assessment of Equine Fecal Contamination: The Search for Alternative Bacterial Source-tracking Targets

    EPA Science Inventory

    16S rDNA clone libraries were evaluated for detection of fecal source-identifying bacteria from a collapsed equine manure pile. Libraries were constructed using universal eubacterial primers and Bacteroides-Prevotella group-specific primers. Eubacterial sequences indicat...

  1. Solid oxide fuel cells for transportation: A clean, efficient alternative for propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K. M.

    Fuel cells show great promise for providing clean and efficient transportation power. Of the fuel cell propulsion systems under investigation, the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is particularly attractive for heavy duty transportation applications that have a relatively long duty cycle, such as locomotives, trucks, and barges. Advantages of the SOFC include a simple, compact system configuration; inherent fuel flexibility for hydrocarbon and alternative fuels; and minimal water management. The specific advantages of the SOFC for powering a railroad locomotive are examined. Feasibility, practicality, and safety concerns regarding SOFCs in transportation applications are discussed.

  2. GaP betavoltaic cells as a power source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, F. S.; Stella, Paul M.; Anspaugh, B.

    1991-01-01

    Maximum power output for the GaP cells of this study was found to be on the order of 1 microW. This resulted from exposure to 200 and 40 KeV electrons at a flux of 2 x 10(exp 9) electrons/sq cm/s, equivalent to a 54 mCurie source. The efficiencies of the cells ranged from 5 to 9 percent for 200 and 40 KeV electrons respectively. The lower efficiency at higher energy is due to a substantial fraction of energy deposition in the substrate, further than a diffusion length from the depletion region of the cell. Radiation damage was clearly observed in GaP after exposure to 200 KeV electrons at a fluence of 2 x 10(exp 12) electrons/sq cm. No discernable damage was observed after exposure to 40 KeV electrons at the same fluence. Analysis indicates that a GaP betavoltaic system would not be practical if limited to low energy beta sources. The power available would be too low even in the ideal case. By utilizing high activity beta sources, such as Sr-90/Y-90, it may be possible to achieve performance that could be suitable for some space power applications. However, to utilize such a source the problem of radiation damage in the beta cell material must be overcome.

  3. Genome-Wide Analysis of Alternative Splicing during Dendritic Cell Response to a Bacterial Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Raquel; Grosso, Ana Rita; Moita, Luís

    2013-01-01

    The immune system relies on the plasticity of its components to produce appropriate responses to frequent environmental challenges. Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical initiators of innate immunity and orchestrate the later and more specific adaptive immunity. The generation of diversity in transcriptional programs is central for effective immune responses. Alternative splicing is widely considered a key generator of transcriptional and proteomic complexity, but its role has been rarely addressed systematically in immune cells. Here we used splicing-sensitive arrays to assess genome-wide gene- and exon-level expression profiles in human DCs in response to a bacterial challenge. We find widespread alternative splicing events and splicing factor transcriptional signatures induced by an E. coli challenge to human DCs. Alternative splicing acts in concert with transcriptional modulation, but these two mechanisms of gene regulation affect primarily distinct functional gene groups. Alternative splicing is likely to have an important role in DC immunobiology because it affects genes known to be involved in DC development, endocytosis, antigen presentation and cell cycle arrest. PMID:23613991

  4. Third row metal complexes as an alternative dye in dye sensitized solar cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahyuningsih, S.; Ramelan, A. H.; Badriyah, I.; Kristy, I. O.; Dewi, N. S.; Rahardjo, S. B.

    2013-10-01

    Copper(II), Cobalt (II) and Iron (II) complexes as photosensitizer on Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC) had been investigated. The aim of this research is to find out the respond addition of those dyes on FTO/TiO2 (FTO = fluorine Tin Oxide) thin film to visible light and the effect of various third row complexes to DSSC performance. Slip casting method was used to fabricate FTO/TiO2 and FTO/carbon thin film. The result from FTO/TiO2 UV-Vis spectra show no absorption on visible light. Dye solution was synthesized from free metal ions of Cu(II), Co(II), and Fe(II) in methanol with diphenylamine (dpa), 2,2,bypiridine (bpy), 1,10, phenathroline (phen), 4,4'-dicarboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine (dcbq), and anthocyanin (ant) ligands, respectively. UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used to identify FTO/TiO2/dye with various sensitizer dyes. The performance of DSSC was determined by I (current) - V (voltage) curve using Keithley 2602 A System Source. In this research, DSSCs are able to convert photon energy become electrical energy. Dye used in DSSC is greatly effect in photon to current efficiency (IPCE). The greater absorption in visible region of alternative dye used gains higher IPCE spectra. TiO2 character can help spread the absorption in whole visible region. The nanosize mesoporous TiO2 of TiO2/SiPA/CoII-PAR (SiPA = silylpropilamine) have greater value than P25 TiO2/SiPA-CoII-PAR. The SiPA/FeII-PAR and SiPA/CoII-PAR dyes are better dye than tpa.

  5. Cord Blood as a Source of Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rohtesh S.; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Rezvani, Katayoun

    2016-01-01

    Cord blood (CB) offers several unique advantages as a graft source for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The risk of relapse and graft vs. host disease after cord blood transplantation (CBT) is lower than what is typically observed after other graft sources with a similar degree of human leukocyte antigen mismatch. Natural killer (NK) cells have a well-defined role in both innate and adaptive immunity and as the first lymphocytes to reconstitute after HSCT and CBT, and they play a significant role in protection against early relapse. In this article, we highlight the uses of CB NK cells in transplantation and adoptive immunotherapy. First, we will describe differences in the phenotype and functional characteristics of NK cells in CB as compared with peripheral blood. Then, we will review some of the obstacles we face in using resting CB NK cells for adoptive immunotherapy, and discuss methods to overcome them. We will review the current literature on killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors ligand mismatch and outcomes after CBT. Finally, we will touch on current strategies for the use of CB NK cells in cellular immunotherapy. PMID:26779484

  6. Cord Blood as a Source of Natural Killer Cells.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rohtesh S; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Rezvani, Katayoun

    2015-01-01

    Cord blood (CB) offers several unique advantages as a graft source for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The risk of relapse and graft vs. host disease after cord blood transplantation (CBT) is lower than what is typically observed after other graft sources with a similar degree of human leukocyte antigen mismatch. Natural killer (NK) cells have a well-defined role in both innate and adaptive immunity and as the first lymphocytes to reconstitute after HSCT and CBT, and they play a significant role in protection against early relapse. In this article, we highlight the uses of CB NK cells in transplantation and adoptive immunotherapy. First, we will describe differences in the phenotype and functional characteristics of NK cells in CB as compared with peripheral blood. Then, we will review some of the obstacles we face in using resting CB NK cells for adoptive immunotherapy, and discuss methods to overcome them. We will review the current literature on killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors ligand mismatch and outcomes after CBT. Finally, we will touch on current strategies for the use of CB NK cells in cellular immunotherapy. PMID:26779484

  7. Political constraints on development of alternative energy sources: lessons from the Reagan administration

    SciTech Connect

    Kraft, M.E.; Axelrod, R.S.

    1984-12-01

    A conservative ideology and a perceived mandate from the 1980 election for a policy reversal prompted President Reagan to make radical changes in US energy policy, particularly in the area of conservation and alternative energy programs. The authors examine selective changes made in these programs, the legitimacy of the strategy used to institute the changes, and the implications for future energy policy making. They find the Reagan policy violating two major standards in policy development: technical rationality and political legitimacy. They conclude that those who seek to reshape the nation's energy economy would do well to examine the Reagan record to devise more appropriate and effective strategies for the future. 23 references, 2 tables.

  8. Myeloid Angiogenic Cells Act as Alternative M2 Macrophages and Modulate Angiogenesis through Interleukin-8

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Reinhold J; O’Neill, Christina L; O’Doherty, T Michelle; Knott, Henry; Guduric-Fuchs, Jasenka; Gardiner, Tom A; Stitt, Alan W

    2011-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promote angiogenesis, and clinical trials have shown such cell therapy to be feasible for treating ischemic disease. However, clinical outcomes have been contradictory owing to the diverse range of EPC types used. We recently characterized two EPC subtypes, and identified outgrowth endothelial cells as the only EPC type with true progenitor and endothelial characteristics. By contrast, myeloid angiogenic cells (MACs) were shown to be monocytic cells without endothelial characteristics despite being widely described as “EPCs.” In the current study we demonstrated that although MACs do not become endothelial cells or directly incorporate into a microvascular network, they can significantly induce endothelial tube formation in vitro and vascular repair in vivo. MAC-derived interleukin-8 (IL-8) was identified as a key paracrine factor, and blockade of IL-8 but not vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) prevented MAC-induced angiogenesis. Extracellular IL-8 transactivates VEGFR2 and induces phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases. Further transcriptomic and immunophenotypic analysis indicates that MACs represent alternative activated M2 macrophages. Our findings demonstrate an unequivocal role for MACs in angiogenesis, which is linked to paracrine release of cytokines such as IL-8. We also show, for the first time, the true identity of these cells as alternative M2 macrophages with proangiogenic, antiinflammatory and pro–tissue-repair properties. PMID:21670847

  9. A practical PEM fuel cell model for simulating vehicle power sources

    SciTech Connect

    Amphlett, J.C.; Mann, R.F.; Peppley, B.A.; Roberge, P.R.; Rodrigues, A.

    1995-07-01

    The interest in fuel cell technology as an alternative to internal combustion engines is growing rapidly with the increased concern with environmental issues such s reducing vehicle emissions. Fuel cells offer a power source which produces electrical energy from fuel and oxidant which produce little or no emissions. Fuel cell power sources are being considered for both terrestrial and marine applications. The research and commercialization of such systems require system modeling to determine performance levels and fuel and oxidant requirements. A practical model will have to be flexible in its calculations depending on the information available. A model predicting the performance of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell has been developed for a Ballard Mark V 5 kW 35-cell stack. The parametric model combining both empirical and mechanistic qualities was developed to calculate the cell voltage output in terms of complex relationships between current, stack temperature, and inlet partial pressure of hydrogen and oxygen. The model utilizes an iterative computer solution to obtain a practical flexible model which could calculate any variable in terms of the others. This paper illustrates the use of a practical model to determine the fuel and oxidant requirements to achieve various levels of power required for different vehicle power supplies. Applications to automobiles, buses, locomotives, ships, submarines, and unmanned underwater vehicles with power supplies of 3--3,000 kW were investigated.

  10. Alternative RF coupling configurations for H{sup −} ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Briefi, S.; Fantz, U.; Gutmann, P.

    2015-04-08

    RF heated sources for negative hydrogen ions both for fusion and accelerators require very high RF powers in order to achieve the required H{sup −} current what poses high demands on the RF generators and the RF circuit. Therefore it is highly desirable to improve the RF efficiency of the sources. This could be achieved by applying different RF coupling concepts than the currently used inductive coupling via a helical antenna, namely Helicon coupling or coupling via a planar ICP antenna enhanced with ferrites. In order to investigate the feasibility of these concepts, two small laboratory experiments have been set up. The PlanICE experiment, where the enhanced inductive coupling is going to be investigated, is currently under assembly. At the CHARLIE experiment systematic measurements concerning Helicon coupling in hydrogen and deuterium are carried out. The investigations show that a prominent feature of Helicon discharges occurs: the so-called low-field peak. This is a local improvement of the coupling efficiency at a magnetic field strength of a few mT which results in an increased electron density and dissociation degree. The full Helicon mode has not been achieved yet due to the limited available RF power and magnetic field strength but it might be sufficient for the application of the coupling concept to ion sources to operate the discharge in the low-field-peak region.

  11. Assessment of equine fecal contamination: the search for alternative bacterial source-tracking targets.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Joyce M; Santo Domingo, Jorge W; Reasoner, Donald J

    2004-01-01

    16S rDNA clone libraries were evaluated for detection of fecal source-identifying bacteria from a collapsed equine manure pile. Libraries were constructed using universal eubacterial primers and Bacteroides-Prevotella group-specific primers. Eubacterial sequences indicated that upstream and downstream water samples were predominantly beta- and gamma-Proteobacteria (35 and 19%, respectively), while the manure library consisted predominantly of Firmicutes (31%) and previously unidentified sequences (60%). Manure-specific eubacterial sequences were not detectable beyond 5 m downstream of the pile, suggesting either poor survival or high dilution rates. In contrast, Bacteroides and Prevotella sp. sequences were detected both in manure and downstream using group-specific primers. Novel sequences from Bacteroides and Prevotella analysis produced an equine-specific phylogenetic cluster as compared to previous data sets obtained for human and bovine samples. While these results suggest that some anaerobic fecal bacteria might be potential identifiers for use in source-tracking applications, a comprehensive examination of environmental sequences within these species should be performed before methods targeting these bacterial groups are applied to watersheds for development of microbial source-tracking protocols. PMID:19712347

  12. Southern California Earthquake Center - SCEC1: Final Report Summary Alternative Earthquake Source Characterization for the Los Angeles Region

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, B

    2003-02-26

    The objective my research has been to synthesize current understanding of the tectonics and faults of the Los Angeles Basin and surrounding region to quantify uncertainty in the characterization of earthquake sources used for geologically- and geodetically-based regional earthquake likelihood models. This work has focused on capturing epistemic uncertainty; i.e. uncertainty stemming from ignorance of the true characteristics of the active faults in the region and of the tectonic forces that drive them. In the present context, epistemic uncertainty has two components: First, the uncertainty in source geometrical and occurrence rate parameters deduced from the limited geological, geophysical and geodetic observations available; and second. uncertainties that result from fundamentally different interpretations of regional tectonic deformation and faulting. Characterization of the large number of active and potentially active faults that need to be included in estimating earthquake occurrence likelihoods for the Los Angeles region requires synthesis and evaluation of large amounts of data and numerous interpretations. This was accomplished primarily through a series of carefully facilitated workshops, smaller meetings involving key researchers, and email groups. The workshops and meetings were made possible by the unique logistical and financial resources available through SCEC, and proved to be extremely effective forums for the exchange and critical debate of data and interpretations that are essential in constructing fully representative source models. The main products from this work are a complete source model that characterizes all know or potentially active faults in the greater Los Angeles region. which includes the continental borderland as far south as San Diego, the Ventura Basin, and the Santa Barbara Channel. The model constitutes a series of maps and representative cross-sections that define alternative fault geometries, a table containing rault

  13. The need for xenotransplantation as a source of organs and cells for clinical transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ekser, Burcin; Cooper, David K C; Tector, A Joseph

    2015-11-01

    The limited availability of deceased human organs and cells for the purposes of clinical transplantation remains critical worldwide. Despite the increasing utilization of 'high-risk', 'marginal', or 'extended criteria' deceased donors, in the U.S. each day 30 patients either die or are removed from the waiting list because they become too sick to undergo organ transplantation. In certain other countries, where there is cultural resistance to deceased donation, e.g., Japan, the increased utilization of living donors, e.g., of a single kidney or partial liver, only very partially addresses the organ shortage. For transplants of tissues and cells, e.g., pancreatic islet transplantation for patients with diabetes, and corneal transplantation for patients with corneal blindness (whose numbers worldwide are potentially in the millions), allotransplantation will never prove a sufficient source. There is an urgent need for an alternative source of organs and cells. The pig could prove to be a satisfactory source, and clinical xenotransplantation using pig organs or cells, particularly with the advantages provided by genetic engineering to provide resistance to the human immune response, may resolve the organ shortage. The physiologic compatibilities and incompatibilities of the pig and the human are briefly reviewed. PMID:26188183

  14. Alternative lengthening of telomeres renders cancer cells hypersensitive to ATR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Rachel Litman; Cox, Kelli E; Jeitany, Maya; Wakimoto, Hiroaki; Bryll, Alysia R; Ganem, Neil J; Bersani, Francesca; Pineda, Jose R; Suvà, Mario L; Benes, Cyril H; Haber, Daniel A; Boussin, Francois D; Zou, Lee

    2015-01-16

    Cancer cells rely on telomerase or the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to overcome replicative mortality. ALT is mediated by recombination and is prevalent in a subset of human cancers, yet whether it can be exploited therapeutically remains unknown. Loss of the chromatin-remodeling protein ATRX associates with ALT in cancers. Here, we show that ATRX loss compromises cell-cycle regulation of the telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA and leads to persistent association of replication protein A (RPA) with telomeres after DNA replication, creating a recombinogenic nucleoprotein structure. Inhibition of the protein kinase ATR, a critical regulator of recombination recruited by RPA, disrupts ALT and triggers chromosome fragmentation and apoptosis in ALT cells. The cell death induced by ATR inhibitors is highly selective for cancer cells that rely on ALT, suggesting that such inhibitors may be useful for treatment of ALT-positive cancers. PMID:25593184

  15. A novel stem cell source for vasculogenesis in ischemia: subfraction of side population cells from dental pulp.

    PubMed

    Iohara, Koichiro; Zheng, Li; Wake, Hiroaki; Ito, Masataka; Nabekura, Junichi; Wakita, Hideaki; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Into, Takeshi; Matsushita, Kenji; Nakashima, Misako

    2008-09-01

    Cell therapy with stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to stimulate vasculogenesis as a potential treatment for ischemic disease is an exciting area of research in regenerative medicine. EPCs are present in bone marrow, peripheral blood, and adipose tissue. Autologous EPCs, however, are obtained by invasive biopsy, a potentially painful procedure. An alternative approach is proposed in this investigation. Permanent and deciduous pulp tissue is easily available from teeth after extraction without ethical issues and has potential for clinical use. We isolated a highly vasculogenic subfraction of side population (SP) cells based on CD31 and CD146, from dental pulp. The CD31(-);CD146(-) SP cells, demonstrating CD34+ and vascular endothelial growth factor-2 (VEGFR2)/Flk1+, were similar to EPCs. These cells were distinct from the hematopoietic lineage as CD11b, CD14, and CD45 mRNA were not expressed. They showed high proliferation and migration activities and multilineage differentiation potential including vasculogenic potential. In models of mouse hind limb ischemia, local transplantation of this subfraction of SP cells resulted in successful engraftment and an increase in the blood flow including high density of capillary formation. The transplanted cells were in proximity of the newly formed vasculature and expressed several proangiogenic factors, such as VEGF-A, G-CSF, GM-CSF, and MMP3. Conditioned medium from this subfraction showed the mitogenic and antiapoptotic activity on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In conclusion, subfraction of SP cells from dental pulp is a new stem cell source for cell-based therapy to stimulate angiogenesis/vasculogenesis during tissue regeneration. PMID:18583536

  16. Stem cell sources for vascular tissue engineering and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Andreadis, Stelios T

    2012-10-01

    This review focuses on the stem cell sources with the potential to be used in vascular tissue engineering and to promote vascular regeneration. The first clinical studies using tissue-engineered vascular grafts are already under way, supporting the potential of this technology in the treatment of cardiovascular and other diseases. Despite progress in engineering biomaterials with the appropriate mechanical properties and biological cues as well as bioreactors for generating the correct tissue microenvironment, the source of cells that make up the vascular tissues remains a major challenge for tissue engineers and physicians. Mature cells from the tissue of origin may be difficult to obtain and suffer from limited proliferative capacity, which may further decline as a function of donor age. On the other hand, multipotent and pluripotent stem cells have great potential to provide large numbers of autologous cells with a great differentiation capacity. Here, we discuss the adult multipotent as well as embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, their differentiation potential toward vascular lineages, and their use in engineering functional and implantable vascular tissues. We also discuss the associated challenges that need to be addressed in order to facilitate the transition of this technology from the bench to the bedside. PMID:22571595

  17. Tumor cell lysates as immunogenic sources for cancer vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    González, Fermín E; Gleisner, Alejandra; Falcón-Beas, Felipe; Osorio, Fabiola; López, Mercedes N; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    Autologous dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) are a promising immunological tool for cancer therapy. These stimulate the antitumor response and immunological memory generation. Nevertheless, many patients remain refractory to DC approaches. Antigen (Ag) delivery to DCs is relevant to vaccine success, and antigen peptides, tumor-associated proteins, tumor cells, autologous tumor lysates, and tumor-derived mRNA have been tested as Ag sources. Recently, DCs loaded with allogeneic tumor cell lysates were used to induce a potent immunological response. This strategy provides a reproducible pool of almost all potential Ags suitable for patient use, independent of MHC haplotypes or autologous tumor tissue availability. However, optimizing autologous tumor cell lysate preparation is crucial to enhancing efficacy. This review considers the role of cancer cell-derived lysates as a relevant source of antigens and as an activating factor for ex vivo therapeutic DCs capable of responding to neoplastic cells. These promising therapies are associated with the prolonged survival of advanced cancer patients. PMID:25625929

  18. Stem Cell Sources for Vascular Tissue Engineering and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Vivek K.

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on the stem cell sources with the potential to be used in vascular tissue engineering and to promote vascular regeneration. The first clinical studies using tissue-engineered vascular grafts are already under way, supporting the potential of this technology in the treatment of cardiovascular and other diseases. Despite progress in engineering biomaterials with the appropriate mechanical properties and biological cues as well as bioreactors for generating the correct tissue microenvironment, the source of cells that make up the vascular tissues remains a major challenge for tissue engineers and physicians. Mature cells from the tissue of origin may be difficult to obtain and suffer from limited proliferative capacity, which may further decline as a function of donor age. On the other hand, multipotent and pluripotent stem cells have great potential to provide large numbers of autologous cells with a great differentiation capacity. Here, we discuss the adult multipotent as well as embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, their differentiation potential toward vascular lineages, and their use in engineering functional and implantable vascular tissues. We also discuss the associated challenges that need to be addressed in order to facilitate the transition of this technology from the bench to the bedside. PMID:22571595

  19. Tumor cell lysates as immunogenic sources for cancer vaccine design.

    PubMed

    González, Fermín E; Gleisner, Alejandra; Falcón-Beas, Felipe; Osorio, Fabiola; López, Mercedes N; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    Autologous dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) are a promising immunological tool for cancer therapy. These stimulate the antitumor response and immunological memory generation. Nevertheless, many patients remain refractory to DC approaches. Antigen (Ag) delivery to DCs is relevant to vaccine success, and antigen peptides, tumor-associated proteins, tumor cells, autologous tumor lysates, and tumor-derived mRNA have been tested as Ag sources. Recently, DCs loaded with allogeneic tumor cell lysates were used to induce a potent immunological response. This strategy provides a reproducible pool of almost all potential Ags suitable for patient use, independent of MHC haplotypes or autologous tumor tissue availability. However, optimizing autologous tumor cell lysate preparation is crucial to enhancing efficacy. This review considers the role of cancer cell-derived lysates as a relevant source of antigens and as an activating factor for ex vivo therapeutic DCs capable of responding to neoplastic cells. These promising therapies are associated with the prolonged survival of advanced cancer patients. PMID:25625929

  20. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  1. Spermatogonial stem cells as a therapeutic alternative for fertility preservation of prepubertal boys

    PubMed Central

    Galuppo, Andrea Giannotti

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spermatogonial stem cells, which exist in the testicles since birth, are progenitors cells of male gametes. These cells are critical for the process of spermatogenesis, and not able to produce mature sperm cells before puberty due to their dependency of hormonal stimuli. This characteristic of the reproductive system limits the preservation of fertility only to males who are able to produce an ejaculate. This fact puts some light on the increase in survival rates of childhood cancer over the past decades because of improvements in the diagnosis and effective treatment in pediatric cancer patients. Therefore, we highlight one of the most important challenges concerning male fertility preservation that is the toxic effect of cancer therapy on reproductive function, especially the spermatogenesis. Currently, the experimental alternative for fertility preservation of prepubertal boys is the testicular tissue cryopreservationfor, for future isolation and spermatogonial stem cells transplantation, in order to restore the spermatogenesis. We present a brief review on isolation, characterization and culture conditions for the in vitro proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells, as well as the future perspectives as an alternative for fertility preservation in prepubertal boys. The possibility of restoring male fertility constitutes a research tool with an huge potential in basic and applied science. The development of these techniques may be a hope for the future of fertility preservation in cases that no other options exist, e.g, pediatric cancer patients. PMID:26761559

  2. Spermatogonial stem cells as a therapeutic alternative for fertility preservation of prepubertal boys.

    PubMed

    Galuppo, Andrea Giannotti

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells, which exist in the testicles since birth, are progenitors cells of male gametes. These cells are critical for the process of spermatogenesis, and not able to produce mature sperm cells before puberty due to their dependency of hormonal stimuli. This characteristic of the reproductive system limits the preservation of fertility only to males who are able to produce an ejaculate. This fact puts some light on the increase in survival rates of childhood cancer over the past decades because of improvements in the diagnosis and effective treatment in pediatric cancer patients. Therefore, we highlight one of the most important challenges concerning male fertility preservation that is the toxic effect of cancer therapy on reproductive function, especially the spermatogenesis. Currently, the experimental alternative for fertility preservation of prepubertal boys is the testicular tissue cryopreservationfor, for future isolation and spermatogonial stem cells transplantation, in order to restore the spermatogenesis. We present a brief review on isolation, characterization and culture conditions for the in vitro proliferation of spermatogonial stem cells, as well as the future perspectives as an alternative for fertility preservation in prepubertal boys. The possibility of restoring male fertility constitutes a research tool with an huge potential in basic and applied science. The development of these techniques may be a hope for the future of fertility preservation in cases that no other options exist, e.g, pediatric cancer patients. PMID:26761559

  3. Exciton Dynamics in Alternative Solar Cell Materials: Polymers, Nanocrystals, and Small Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pundsack, Thomas J.

    To keep fossil fuel usage in 2040 even with 2010 usage, 50% of global energy will need to come from alternative sources such as solar cells. While the photovoltaic market is currently dominated by crystalline silicon, there are many low-cost solar cell materials such as conjugated polymers, semiconductor nanocrystals, and organic small molecules which could compete with fossil fuels. To create cost-competitive devices, understanding the excited state dynamics of these materials is necessary. The first section of this thesis looks at aggregation in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) which is commonly used in organic photovoltaics. The amount of aggregation in P3HT thin films was controlled by using a mixture of regioregular and regiorandom P3HT. Even with few aggregates present, excited states were found to transfer from amorphous to aggregate domains in <50 fs which could indicate efficient long-range energy transfer. To further study P3HT aggregation, a triblock consisting of two P3HT chains with a coil polymer between them was investigated. By changing solvents, aggregation was induced in a stable and reversible manner allowing for spectroscopic studies of P3HT aggregates in solution. The polarity of the solvent was adjusted, and no change in excited state dynamics was observed implying the excited state has little charge-transfer character. Next, the conduction band density of states for copper zinc tin sulfide nanocrystals (CZTS NCs) was measured using pump-probe spectroscopy and found to be in agreement with theoretical results. The density of states shifted and dilated for smaller NCs indicative of quantum confinement. The excited state lifetime was found to be short (<20 ps) and independent of NC size which could limit the efficiency of CZTS photovoltaic devices. Finally, triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA) was studied in platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP) thin films. By analyzing pump-probe spectra, the product of TTA in PtOEP thin films was assigned to a long

  4. Alternative donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide for nonmalignant disorders

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Orly R.; Chen, Allen R.; Gamper, Christopher; Loeb, David; Zambidis, Elias; Llosa, Nicolas; Huo, Jeffrey; Dezern, Amy E.; Steppan, Diana; Robey, Nancy; Holuba, Mary Jo; Cooke, Kenneth R.; Symons, Heather J.

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic (allo-) hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is curative for many nonmalignant pediatric disorders, including hemoglobinopathies, bone marrow failure syndromes, and immunodeficiencies. There is great success using HLA-matched related donors for these patients; however, the use of alternative donors has been associated with increased graft failure, graft versus host disease (GVHD), and transplant-related mortality (TRM). HSCT using alternative donors with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) for GVHD prophylaxis has been performed for hematologic malignancies with engraftment, GVHD, and TRM comparable to that seen with HLA-matched related donors. There are limited reports of HSCT in nonmalignant pediatric disorders other than hemoglobinopathies using alternative donors and PT/Cy. We transplanted eleven pediatric patients with life-threatening nonmalignant conditions using reduced intensity conditioning (RIC), alternative donors, and PT/Cy alone or in combination with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. We observed limited GVHD, no TRM, and successful engraftment sufficient to eliminate manifestations of disease in all patients. Allo-HSCT using alternative donors and PT/Cy shows promise for curing nonmalignant disorders; development of prospective clinical trials to confirm these observations is warranted. PMID:26860634

  5. Alternative-Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide for Nonmalignant Disorders.

    PubMed

    Klein, Orly R; Chen, Allen R; Gamper, Christopher; Loeb, David; Zambidis, Elias; Llosa, Nicolas; Huo, Jeffrey; Dezern, Amy E; Steppan, Diana; Robey, Nancy; Holuba, Mary Jo; Cooke, Kenneth R; Symons, Heather J

    2016-05-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for many nonmalignant pediatric disorders, including hemoglobinopathies, bone marrow failure syndromes, and immunodeficiencies. There is great success using HLA-matched related donors for these patients; however, the use of alternative donors has been associated with increased graft failure, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and transplant-related mortality (TRM). HSCT using alternative donors with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT/Cy) for GVHD prophylaxis has been performed for hematologic malignancies with engraftment, GVHD, and TRM comparable with that seen with HLA-matched related donors. There are limited reports of HSCT in nonmalignant pediatric disorders other than hemoglobinopathies using alternative donors and PT/Cy. We transplanted 11 pediatric patients with life-threatening nonmalignant conditions using reduced-intensity conditioning, alternative donors, and PT/Cy alone or in combination with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. We observed limited GVHD, no TRM, and successful engraftment sufficient to eliminate manifestations of disease in all patients. Allogeneic HSCT using alternative donors and PT/Cy shows promise for curing nonmalignant disorders; development of prospective clinical trials to confirm these observations is warranted. PMID:26860634

  6. Modulation of Cell-adhesive Activity of Fibronectin by the Alternatively Spliced EDA Segment

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Oh-e, Naoko; Maeda, Toshinaga; Fukuda, Tomohiko; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi

    1997-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN) has a complex pattern of alternative splicing at the mRNA level. One of the alternatively spliced segments, EDA, is prominently expressed during biological processes involving substantial cell migration and proliferation, such as embryonic development, malignant transformation, and wound healing. To examine the function of the EDA segment, we overexpressed recombinant FN isoforms with or without EDA in CHO cells and compared their cell-adhesive activities using purified proteins. EDA+ FN was significantly more potent than EDA− FN in promoting cell spreading and cell migration, irrespective of the presence or absence of a second alternatively spliced segment, EDB. The cell spreading activity of EDA+ FN was not affected by antibodies recognizing the EDA segment but was abolished by antibodies against integrin α5 and β1 subunits and by Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro peptide, indicating that the EDA segment enhanced the cell-adhesive activity of FN by potentiating the interaction of FN with integrin α5β1. In support of this conclusion, purified integrin α5β1 bound more avidly to EDA+ FN than to EDA− FN. Augmentation of integrin binding by the EDA segment was, however, observed only in the context of the intact FN molecule, since the difference in integrin-binding activity between EDA+ FN and EDA− FN was abolished after limited proteolysis with thermolysin. Consistent with this observation, binding of integrin α5β1 to a recombinant FN fragment, consisting of the central cell-binding domain and the adjacent heparin-binding domain Hep2, was not affected by insertion of the EDA segment. Since the insertion of an extra type III module such as EDA into an array of repeated type III modules is expected to rotate the polypeptide up to 180° at the position of the insertion, the conformation of the FN molecule may be globally altered upon insertion of the EDA segment, resulting in an increased exposure of the RGD motif in III10 module and/or local

  7. Development of Indonesia corncob and rice husk biobriquette as alternative energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyana, Cukup; Wulandari, Asry Peni; Hidayat, Darmawan; Wibawa, Bambang Mukti; Aditya Permana, P.

    2016-02-01

    Facing the increasing of fuel price and lacking of world oil resource, research for biobriquette as alternative energy for fossil fuel is conducted. Indonesia has considerable amount of biomass and it is still remain unused that can be used as biobriquette. As the initial research, Garut, Ciamis, and Sumedang district, West Java are selected which have rice husk and corncob commodities. In these disrticts, rice husk and corncob potency are respectively 4,460.73 tons and 3,222.85 tons and potentially result 57,572.86 GJ from husk and 60,911.86 GJ from corncob. To optimize mechanical properties and calorie value of biobriquette, research for calorie content and combination of rice husk and corncob are being conducted with various adhesive content and mixture. The best result of shatter index, durability, and calorie test on the corncob biobriquette is from biobriquette with 6% adhesive with calorie content as 5,516.85 kkal/kg. While the best calorie content for husk biobriquette is 6% adhesive with calorie content as 2,650.20 kkal/kg. The best calorie content for mixed biobriquette is biobriquette with 75% corncob and 25% rice husk with calorie content as 5,331.95 kkal/kg. Economy analysis show for corncob and husk biobriquette production cost per kg are respectively Rp 2,585.00 and Rp 2.625.00 with price of Rp 5,000.00 and Rp 3,000.00 obtained nett profit respectively Rp 2,173.00 and Rp 338.00.

  8. Modulation of PKM alternative splicing by PTBP1 promotes gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Calabretta, S; Bielli, P; Passacantilli, I; Pilozzi, E; Fendrich, V; Capurso, G; Fave, G Delle; Sette, C

    2016-04-21

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive and incurable disease. Poor prognosis is due to multiple reasons, including acquisition of resistance to gemcitabine, the first-line chemotherapeutic approach. Thus, there is a strong need for novel therapies, targeting more directly the molecular aberrations of this disease. We found that chronic exposure of PDAC cells to gemcitabine selected a subpopulation of cells that are drug-resistant (DR-PDAC cells). Importantly, alternative splicing (AS) of the pyruvate kinase gene (PKM) was differentially modulated in DR-PDAC cells, resulting in promotion of the cancer-related PKM2 isoform, whose high expression also correlated with shorter recurrence-free survival in PDAC patients. Switching PKM splicing by antisense oligonucleotides to favor the alternative PKM1 variant rescued sensitivity of DR-PDAC cells to gemcitabine and cisplatin, suggesting that PKM2 expression is required to withstand drug-induced genotoxic stress. Mechanistically, upregulation of the polypyrimidine-tract binding protein (PTBP1), a key modulator of PKM splicing, correlated with PKM2 expression in DR-PDAC cell lines. PTBP1 was recruited more efficiently to PKM pre-mRNA in DR- than in parental PDAC cells. Accordingly, knockdown of PTBP1 in DR-PDAC cells reduced its recruitment to the PKM pre-mRNA, promoted splicing of the PKM1 variant and abolished drug resistance. Thus, chronic exposure to gemcitabine leads to upregulation of PTBP1 and modulation of PKM AS in PDAC cells, conferring resistance to the drug. These findings point to PKM2 and PTBP1 as new potential therapeutic targets to improve response of PDAC to chemotherapy. PMID:26234680

  9. Initialization of a mesoscale model for April 10, 1979, using alternative data sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalb, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    A 35 km grid limited area mesoscale model was initialized with high density SESAME radiosonde data and high density TIROS-N satellite temperature profiles for April 10, 1979. These data sources were used individually and with low level wind fields constructed from surface wind observations. The primary objective was to examine the use of satellite temperature data for initializing a mesoscale model by comparing the forecast results with similar experiments employing radiosonde data. The impact of observed low level winds on the model forecasts was also investigated with experiments varying the method of insertion. All forecasts were compared with each other and with mesoscale observations for precipitation, mass and wind structure. Several forecasts produced convective precipitation systems with characteristics satisfying criteria for a mesoscale convective complex. High density satellite temperature data and balanced winds can be used in a mesoscale model to produce forecasts which verify favorably with observations.

  10. Stem cells: a promising source of pancreatic islets for transplantation in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Street, Cale N; Rajotte, Ray V; Korbutt, Gregory S

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes is a disease that affects millions and causes a major burden on the health care system. Type 1 diabetes has traditionally been managed with exogenous insulin therapy, however factors such as cost, lifestyle restriction, and life threatening complications necessitate the development of a more efficient treatment alternative. Pancreas transplantation, and more recently transplant of purified pancreatic islets, has offered the potential for independence from insulin injections. Islet transplantation is gaining acceptance as it has been shown to be effective for certain patients with type 1 diabetes. One obstacle, however, is the fact that there is an inadequate supply of cadaveric human islets to implement this procedure on a widespread clinical basis. A promising source of transplantable islets in the future will come through the use of adult or embryonic stem cells. This chapter presents an overview of the advancements made in the development of a stem cell based application to islet transplantation. Advantages and limitations are discussed regarding the use of embryonic stem cells, adult pancreatic stem/progenitor cells, and the use of nonpancreatic tissues based on current experimental models in the literature. It is concluded that stem cells offer the greatest potential for the development of an abundant source of pancreatic islets, although specific obstacles must be overcome before this can become a reality. PMID:14711014

  11. Targeted alternative splicing of TAF4: a new strategy for cell reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Kazantseva, Jekaterina; Sadam, Helle; Neuman, Toomas; Palm, Kaia

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells has become a versatile tool for biomedical research and for regenerative medicine. In the current study, we show that manipulating alternative splicing (AS) is a highly potent strategy to produce cells for therapeutic applications. We demonstrate that silencing of hTAF4-TAFH activity of TAF4 converts human facial dermal fibroblasts to melanocyte-like (iMel) cells. iMel cells produce melanin and express microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and its target genes at levels comparable to normal melanocytes. Reprogramming of melanoma cells by manipulation with hTAF4-TAFH activity upon TAFH RNAi enforces cell differentiation towards chondrogenic pathway, whereas ectoptic expression of TAF4 results in enhanced multipotency and neural crest-like features in melanoma cells. In both cell states, iMels and cancer cells, hTAF4-TAFH activity controls migration by supporting E- to N-cadherin switches. From our data, we conclude that targeted splicing of hTAF4-TAFH coordinates AS of other TFIID subunits, underscoring the role of TAF4 in synchronised changes of Pol II complex composition essential for efficient cellular reprogramming. Taken together, targeted AS of TAF4 provides a unique strategy for generation of iMels and recapitulating stages of melanoma progression. PMID:27499390

  12. Targeted alternative splicing of TAF4: a new strategy for cell reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Kazantseva, Jekaterina; Sadam, Helle; Neuman, Toomas; Palm, Kaia

    2016-01-01

    Reprogramming of somatic cells has become a versatile tool for biomedical research and for regenerative medicine. In the current study, we show that manipulating alternative splicing (AS) is a highly potent strategy to produce cells for therapeutic applications. We demonstrate that silencing of hTAF4-TAFH activity of TAF4 converts human facial dermal fibroblasts to melanocyte-like (iMel) cells. iMel cells produce melanin and express microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and its target genes at levels comparable to normal melanocytes. Reprogramming of melanoma cells by manipulation with hTAF4-TAFH activity upon TAFH RNAi enforces cell differentiation towards chondrogenic pathway, whereas ectoptic expression of TAF4 results in enhanced multipotency and neural crest-like features in melanoma cells. In both cell states, iMels and cancer cells, hTAF4-TAFH activity controls migration by supporting E- to N-cadherin switches. From our data, we conclude that targeted splicing of hTAF4-TAFH coordinates AS of other TFIID subunits, underscoring the role of TAF4 in synchronised changes of Pol II complex composition essential for efficient cellular reprogramming. Taken together, targeted AS of TAF4 provides a unique strategy for generation of iMels and recapitulating stages of melanoma progression. PMID:27499390

  13. Photodynamic therapy of HeLa cell cultures by using LED or laser sources.

    PubMed

    Etcheverry, María E; Pasquale, Miguel A; Garavaglia, Mario

    2016-07-01

    The photodynamic therapy (PDT) on HeLa cell cultures was performed utilizing a 637nm LED lamp with 1.06W power and m-tetrahydroxyphenyl chlorin (m-THPC) as photosensitizer and compared to a laser source emitting at 654nm with the same power. Intracellular placement of the photosensitizer and the effect of its concentration (CP), its absorption time (TA) and the illumination time (TI) were evaluated. It was observed that for CP>40μg/ml and TA>24h, m-THPC had toxicity on cells in culture, even in the absence of illumination. For the other tested concentrations, the cells remained viable if not subjected to illumination doses. No effect on cells was observed for CP<0.05μg/ml, TA=48h and TI=10min and they continued proliferating. For drug concentrations higher than 0.05μgml(-1), further deterioration is observed with increasing TA and TI. We evaluated the viability of the cells, before and after the treatment, and by supravital dyes, and phase contrast and fluorescence microscopies, evidence of different types of cell death was obtained. Tetrazolium dye assays after PDT during different times yielded similar results for the 637nm LED lamp with an illuminance three times greater than that of the 654nm laser source. Results demonstrate the feasibility of using a LED lamp as alternative to laser source. Here the main characteristic is not the light coherence but achieving a certain light fluence of the appropriate wavelength on cell cultures. We conclude that the efficacy was achieved satisfactorily and is essential for convenience, accessibility and safety. PMID:27152675

  14. Comprehensive transcriptomic and proteomic characterization of human mesenchymal stem cells reveals source specific cellular markers.

    PubMed

    Billing, Anja M; Ben Hamidane, Hisham; Dib, Shaima S; Cotton, Richard J; Bhagwat, Aditya M; Kumar, Pankaj; Hayat, Shahina; Yousri, Noha A; Goswami, Neha; Suhre, Karsten; Rafii, Arash; Graumann, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent cells with great potential in therapy, reflected by more than 500 MSC-based clinical trials registered with the NIH. MSC are derived from multiple tissues but require invasive harvesting and imply donor-to-donor variability. Embryonic stem cell-derived MSC (ESC-MSC) may provide an alternative, but how similar they are to ex vivo MSC is unknown. Here we performed an in depth characterization of human ESC-MSC, comparing them to human bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC) as well as human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by transcriptomics (RNA-seq) and quantitative proteomics (nanoLC-MS/MS using SILAC). Data integration highlighted and validated a central role of vesicle-mediated transport and exosomes in MSC biology and also demonstrated, through enrichment analysis, their versatility and broad application potential. Particular emphasis was placed on comparing profiles between ESC-MSC and BM-MSC and assessing their equivalency. Data presented here shows that differences between ESC-MSC and BM-MSC are similar in magnitude to those reported for MSC of different origin and the former may thus represent an alternative source for therapeutic applications. Finally, we report an unprecedented coverage of MSC CD markers, as well as membrane associated proteins which may benefit immunofluorescence-based applications and contribute to a refined molecular description of MSC. PMID:26857143

  15. Comprehensive transcriptomic and proteomic characterization of human mesenchymal stem cells reveals source specific cellular markers

    PubMed Central

    Billing, Anja M.; Ben Hamidane, Hisham; Dib, Shaima S.; Cotton, Richard J.; Bhagwat, Aditya M.; Kumar, Pankaj; Hayat, Shahina; Yousri, Noha A.; Goswami, Neha; Suhre, Karsten; Rafii, Arash; Graumann, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent cells with great potential in therapy, reflected by more than 500 MSC-based clinical trials registered with the NIH. MSC are derived from multiple tissues but require invasive harvesting and imply donor-to-donor variability. Embryonic stem cell-derived MSC (ESC-MSC) may provide an alternative, but how similar they are to ex vivo MSC is unknown. Here we performed an in depth characterization of human ESC-MSC, comparing them to human bone marrow-derived MSC (BM-MSC) as well as human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by transcriptomics (RNA-seq) and quantitative proteomics (nanoLC-MS/MS using SILAC). Data integration highlighted and validated a central role of vesicle-mediated transport and exosomes in MSC biology and also demonstrated, through enrichment analysis, their versatility and broad application potential. Particular emphasis was placed on comparing profiles between ESC-MSC and BM-MSC and assessing their equivalency. Data presented here shows that differences between ESC-MSC and BM-MSC are similar in magnitude to those reported for MSC of different origin and the former may thus represent an alternative source for therapeutic applications. Finally, we report an unprecedented coverage of MSC CD markers, as well as membrane associated proteins which may benefit immunofluorescence-based applications and contribute to a refined molecular description of MSC. PMID:26857143

  16. Alternatively spliced variants of the cell adhesion molecule CD44 and tumour progression in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Gotley, D. C.; Fawcett, J.; Walsh, M. D.; Reeder, J. A.; Simmons, D. L.; Antalis, T. M.

    1996-01-01

    Increased expression of alternatively spliced variants of the CD44 family of cell adhesion molecules has been associated with tumour metastasis. In the present study, expression of alternatively spliced variants of CD44 and their cellular distribution have been investigated in human colonic tumours and in the corresponding normal mucosa, in addition to benign adenomatous polyps. The expression of CD44 alternatively spliced variants has been correlated with tumour progression according to Dukes' histological stage. CD44 variant expression was determined by immunohistochemisty using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific CD44 variant domains together with RT-PCR analysis of CD44 variant mRNA expression in the same tissue specimens. We demonstrate that as well as being expressed in colonic tumour cells, the full range of CD44 variants, CD44v2-v10, are widely expressed in normal colonic crypt epithelium, predominantly in the crypt base. CD44v6, the epitope which is most commonly associated with tumour progression and metastasis, was not only expressed by many benign colonic tumours, but was expressed as frequently in normal basal crypt epithelium as in malignant colonic tumour cells, and surprisingly, was even absent from some metastatic colorectal tumours. Expression of none of the CD44 variant epitopes was found to be positively correlated with tumour progression or with colorectal tumour metastasis to the liver, results which are inconsistent with a role for CD44 variants as indicators of colonic cancer progression. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8695347

  17. Modulation of Bcl-x Alternative Splicing Induces Apoptosis of Human Hepatic Stellate Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lin; Mao, Chengqiong

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to chronic viral hepatitis and, more recently, from fatty liver diseases. Activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) represent a key aspect of fibrogenesis and are associated with progressive reduction of HSC apoptosis. Bcl-x, an antiapoptotic member of Bcl-2 gene family, plays a role in apoptosis regulation in mammalian cells. Through alternative splicing, the Bcl-x gene yields two major protein isoforms with opposing functions, antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and proapoptotic Bcl-xS. This study aimed to investigate the role of Bcl-x and its alternate splicing in HSC apoptosis. The results indicated that the expression of Bcl-xL was dramatically higher than Bcl-2 in activated human HSCs. The relative expression of Bcl-xL over Bcl-xS increased gradually when HSCs were activated in cell culture, which was consistent with the increase in apoptosis resistance of activated HSCs. Redirection of Bcl-x splicing by an antisense oligonucleotide from the antiapoptotic isoform to the proapoptotic isoform induced death of HSCs without other apoptosis stimuli. We conclude that Bcl-x plays a role in regulation of HSC apoptosis and modulation of Bcl-x alternative splicing may become a novel molecular therapy for liver fibrosis. PMID:27579319

  18. Modulation of Bcl-x Alternative Splicing Induces Apoptosis of Human Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Mao, Chengqiong; Ming, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide due to chronic viral hepatitis and, more recently, from fatty liver diseases. Activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) represent a key aspect of fibrogenesis and are associated with progressive reduction of HSC apoptosis. Bcl-x, an antiapoptotic member of Bcl-2 gene family, plays a role in apoptosis regulation in mammalian cells. Through alternative splicing, the Bcl-x gene yields two major protein isoforms with opposing functions, antiapoptotic Bcl-xL and proapoptotic Bcl-xS. This study aimed to investigate the role of Bcl-x and its alternate splicing in HSC apoptosis. The results indicated that the expression of Bcl-xL was dramatically higher than Bcl-2 in activated human HSCs. The relative expression of Bcl-xL over Bcl-xS increased gradually when HSCs were activated in cell culture, which was consistent with the increase in apoptosis resistance of activated HSCs. Redirection of Bcl-x splicing by an antisense oligonucleotide from the antiapoptotic isoform to the proapoptotic isoform induced death of HSCs without other apoptosis stimuli. We conclude that Bcl-x plays a role in regulation of HSC apoptosis and modulation of Bcl-x alternative splicing may become a novel molecular therapy for liver fibrosis. PMID:27579319

  19. Reversion to an embryonic alternative splicing program enhances leukemia stem cell self-renewal.

    PubMed

    Holm, Frida; Hellqvist, Eva; Mason, Cayla N; Ali, Shawn A; Delos-Santos, Nathaniel; Barrett, Christian L; Chun, Hye-Jung; Minden, Mark D; Moore, Richard A; Marra, Marco A; Runza, Valeria; Frazer, Kelly A; Sadarangani, Anil; Jamieson, Catriona H M

    2015-12-15

    Formative research suggests that a human embryonic stem cell-specific alternative splicing gene regulatory network, which is repressed by Muscleblind-like (MBNL) RNA binding proteins, is involved in cell reprogramming. In this study, RNA sequencing, splice isoform-specific quantitative RT-PCR, lentiviral transduction, and in vivo humanized mouse model studies demonstrated that malignant reprogramming of progenitors into self-renewing blast crisis chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells (BC LSCs) was partially driven by decreased MBNL3. Lentiviral knockdown of MBNL3 resulted in reversion to an embryonic alternative splice isoform program typified by overexpression of CD44 transcript variant 3, containing variant exons 8-10, and BC LSC proliferation. Although isoform-specific lentiviral CD44v3 overexpression enhanced chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) progenitor replating capacity, lentiviral shRNA knockdown abrogated these effects. Combined treatment with a humanized pan-CD44 monoclonal antibody and a breakpoint cluster region - ABL proto-oncogene 1, nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (BCR-ABL1) antagonist inhibited LSC maintenance in a niche-dependent manner. In summary, MBNL3 down-regulation-related reversion to an embryonic alternative splicing program, typified by CD44v3 overexpression, represents a previously unidentified mechanism governing malignant progenitor reprogramming in malignant microenvironments and provides a pivotal opportunity for selective BC LSC detection and therapeutic elimination. PMID:26621726

  20. CD44 alternative splicing in gastric cancer cells is regulated by culture dimensionality and matrix stiffness.

    PubMed

    Branco da Cunha, Cristiana; Klumpers, Darinka D; Koshy, Sandeep T; Weaver, James C; Chaudhuri, Ovijit; Seruca, Raquel; Carneiro, Fátima; Granja, Pedro L; Mooney, David J

    2016-08-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) cultures often fail to mimic key architectural and physical features of the tumor microenvironment. Advances in biomaterial engineering allow the design of three-dimensional (3D) cultures within hydrogels that mimic important tumor-like features, unraveling cancer cell behaviors that would not have been observed in traditional 2D plastic surfaces. This study determined how 3D cultures impact CD44 alternative splicing in gastric cancer (GC) cells. In 3D cultures, GC cells lost expression of the standard CD44 isoform (CD44s), while gaining CD44 variant 6 (CD44v6) expression. This splicing switch was reversible, accelerated by nutrient shortage and delayed at lower initial cell densities, suggesting an environmental stress-induced response. It was further shown to be dependent on the hydrogel matrix mechanical properties and accompanied by the upregulation of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), metabolism and angiogenesis. The 3D cultures reported here revealed the same CD44 alternative splicing pattern previously observed in human premalignant and malignant gastric lesions. These findings indicate that fundamental features of 3D cultures - such as soluble factors diffusion and mechanical cues - influence CD44 expression in GC cells. Moreover, this study provides a new model system to study CD44 dysfunction, whose role in cancer has been in the spotlight for decades. PMID:27187279

  1. Expression of the alternative oxidase complements cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Dassa, Emmanuel P; Dufour, Eric; Gonçalves, Sérgio; Paupe, Vincent; Hakkaart, Gertjan A J; Jacobs, Howard T; Rustin, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is associated with a wide spectrum of clinical conditions, ranging from early onset devastating encephalomyopathy and cardiomyopathy, to neurological diseases in adulthood and in the elderly. No method of compensating successfully for COX deficiency has been reported so far. In vitro, COX-deficient human cells require additional glucose, pyruvate and uridine for normal growth and are specifically sensitive to oxidative stress. Here, we have tested whether the expression of a mitochondrially targeted, cyanide-resistant, alternative oxidase (AOX) from Ciona intestinalis could alleviate the metabolic abnormalities of COX-deficient human cells either from a patient harbouring a COX15 pathological mutation or rendered deficient by silencing the COX10 gene using shRNA. We demonstrate that the expression of the AOX, well-tolerated by the cells, compensates for both the growth defect and the pronounced oxidant-sensitivity of COX-deficient human cells. PMID:20049701

  2. Zinc air refuelable battery: alternative zinc fuel morphologies and cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.F.; Krueger, R.

    1997-01-01

    Multicell zinc/air batteries have been tested previously in the laboratory and as part of the propulsion system of an electric bus; cut zinc wire was used as the anode material. This battery is refueled by a hydraulic transport of 0.5-1 mm zinc particles into hoppers above each cell. We report an investigation concerning alternative zinc fuel morphologies, and energy losses associated with refueling and with overnight or prolonged standby. Three types of fuel pellets were fabricated, tested and compared with results for cut wire: spheres produced in a fluidized bed electrolysis cell; elongated particles produced by gas-atomization; and pellets produced by chopping 1 mm porous plates made of compacted zinc fines. Relative sizes of the particles and cell gap dimensions are critical. All three types transported within the cell 1553 and showed acceptable discharge characteristics, but a fluidized bed approach appears especially attractive for owner/user recovery operations.

  3. Microalgae harvesting and cell disruption: a preliminary evaluation of the technology electroflotation by alternating current.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Neto, Riamburgo Gomes; do Nascimento, José Gilmar da Silva; Costa, Mayara Carantino; Lopes, Alexandre Colzi; Abdala Neto, Eliezer Fares; Filho, César Rossas Mota; Dos Santos, André Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    Some species of microalgae have high productivity and lipid content, which makes them good candidates for biodiesel production. Biomass separation and cell disruption are important steps in biodiesel production from microalgae. In this work, we explored the fundamentals of electroflotation by alternating current (EFAC) with non-consumable electrodes to simultaneously harvest microalgae and disrupt cells from mixed microalgae obtained from waste stabilization ponds. The harvesting efficiency was evaluated using chlorophyll-a and turbidity, which reached removals of 99% and 95%, respectively, during a batch time of 140 min. Cell disruption was evaluated using lipid extraction, and the best results were achieved with a batch time of 140 min, which resulted in a 14% yield. Therefore, EFAC was shown to be an attractive potential technology for simultaneous microalgal harvesting and cell disruption. PMID:25051479

  4. Benefits and Costs of Aggressive Energy Efficiency Programs and the Impacts of Alternative Sources of Funding: Case Study of Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Satchwell, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Schlegel, Jeff

    2010-08-06

    Increased interest by state (and federal) policymakers and regulatory agencies in pursuing aggressive energy efficiency efforts could deliver significant utility bill savings for customers while having long-term implications for ratepayers (e.g. potential rate impacts). Equity and distributional concerns associated with the authorized recovery of energy efficiency program costs may necessitate the pursuit of alternative program funding approaches. In 2008, Massachusetts passed the Green Communities Act which directed its energy efficiency (EE) program administrators to obtain all cost-effective EE resources. This goal has translated into achieving annual electric energy savings equivalent to a 2.4% reduction in retail sales from energy efficiency programs in 2012. Representatives of electricity consumer groups supported the new portfolio of EE programs (and the projected bill savings) but raised concerns about the potential rate impacts associated with achieving such aggressive EE goals, leading policymakers to seek out alternative funding sources which can potentially mitigate these effects. Utility administrators have also raised concerns about under-recovery of fixed costs when aggressive energy efficiency programs are pursued and have proposed ratemaking policies (e.g. decoupling) and business models that better align the utility's financial interests with the state's energy efficiency public policy goals. Quantifying these concerns and identifying ways they can be addressed are crucial steps in gaining the support of major stakeholder groups - lessons that can apply to other states looking to significantly increase savings targets that can be achieved from their own ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs. We use a pro-forma utility financial model to quantify the bill and rate impacts on electricity customers when very aggressive annual energy efficiency savings goals ({approx}2.4%) are achieved over the long-term and also assess the impact of different

  5. Cuscuta reflexa and Carthamus Oxyacantha: potent sources of alternative and complimentary drug.

    PubMed

    Raza, Muhammad Asam; Mukhtar, Fareeha; Danish, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the biological potential of Cuscuta reflexa and Carthamus oxyacantha. The ethanolic crude extract (C. reflexa; 9.1% and C. oxyacantha; 10.4%) was partitioned with different solvents at pH 3.0, 9.0 and 7.0. Phytochemical study showed that n-hexane fractions were rich source of terpenoids and ethyl acetate fractions were phenolic in nature while chloroform fractions contained alkaloidal skeleton. Total phenols were calculated with FC method and ranged 3.5 to 71.4 mg GAE/100 g DW. Antioxidant (DPPH & FRAP), enzyme inhibition potential (Protease & AChE) and antimicrobial activities were examined by the standard protocols. It was observed that about all extracts exhibited significant DPPH activity range (IC50 09 ± 0.5 to 62 ± 1.2 μg/ml). The DPPH active extracts/fractions also showed remarkable reducing potential. A strong correlation has been found between phenolics and antioxidant activities. Antimicrobial assay that was performed against four microbes and results revealed that FMC-6 and FMP-8 were active against all the tested microbes, while FMP-2 was inactive. Eight extracts/fractions of these plants expressed more than 50% inhibition of the targeted enzymes. PMID:25741457

  6. Development of an alternative light source to lasers for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehurst, Colin; Moore, James V.

    1996-01-01

    Advances in short arc technology and improvements in optical filters have led to the construction and biomedical testing of a portable non-laser light source with the optobiological props of a laser. The low-cost device delivers 1.5 W directly or 1 W via a 4 mm flexible light guide within a rectangular 30 nm bandwidth. Its output can be rapidly centered on any wavelength from 300 nm to 1200 nm. Beam uniformity is plus or minus 2% for tested diameters of 50 mm. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of this prototype was very similar to a photodynamic therapy (PDT) laser system (87 plus or minus 3%, p less than 0.05 in vitro and with minor modifications no significant difference in vivo p equals 0.62) and dermatological trials show it to be an advance over current clinical treatment for Bowen's disease. The prototype is being further developed with monofilament fiber delivery for interstitial biomedical applications. Its portability and spectral versatility make the device more suitable than a laser for a range of phototherapy treatments. These include the IR for photocoagulation and hyperthermia, the visible region for PDT and fluorescence diagnostics, and UV for dermal photosensitivity tests.

  7. An Overview on Human Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cell-Based Alternative In Vitro Models for Developmental Neurotoxicity Assessment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Kashyap, Mahendra Pratap

    2016-07-01

    The developing brain is found highly vulnerable towards the exposure of different environmental chemicals/drugs, even at concentrations, those are generally considered safe in mature brain. The brain development is a very complex phenomenon which involves several processes running in parallel such as cell proliferation, migration, differentiation, maturation and synaptogenesis. If any step of these cellular processes hampered due to exposure of any xenobiotic/drug, there is almost no chance of recovery which could finally result in a life-long disability. Therefore, the developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) assessment of newly discovered drugs/molecules is a very serious concern among the neurologists. Animal-based DNT models have their own limitations such as ethical concerns and lower sensitivity with less predictive values in humans. Furthermore, non-availability of human foetal brain tissues/cells makes job more difficult to understand about mechanisms involve in DNT in human beings. Although, the use of cell culture have been proven as a powerful tool for DNT assessment, but many in vitro models are currently utilizing genetically unstable cell lines. The interpretation of data generated using such terminally differentiated cells is hard to extrapolate with in vivo situations. However, human umbilical cord blood stem cells (hUCBSCs) have been proposed as an excellent tool for alternative DNT testing because neuronal development from undifferentiated state could exactly mimic the original pattern of neuronal development in foetus when hUCBSCs differentiated into neuronal cells. Additionally, less ethical concern, easy availability and high plasticity make them an attractive source for establishing in vitro model of DNT assessment. In this review, we are focusing towards recent advancements on hUCBSCs-based in vitro model to understand DNTs. PMID:26041658

  8. Epigenetic regulation of alternative promoters and enhancers in progenitor, immature, and mature gonadotrope cell lines.

    PubMed

    Laverrière, Jean-Noël; L'Hôte, David; Tabouy, Laure; Schang, Anne-Laure; Quérat, Bruno; Cohen-Tannoudji, Joëlle

    2016-10-15

    Gonadotrope cell identity genes emerge in a stepwise process during mouse pituitary development. Cga, encoding for the α-subunit of TSH, LH, and FSH, is initially detected at E11.5 followed by Gnrhr and steroidogenic factor Sf1 at E13.5, specifying cells engaged in a gonadotrope cell fate. Lhb and Fshb appear at E16.5 and 17.5, respectively, typifying differentiated gonadotrope cells. Using the αT1-1, αT3-1 and LβT2 cell lines recapitulating these stages of gonadotrope differentiation, DNA methylation at Gnrhr and Sf1 was investigated. Regulatory regions were found hypermethylated in progenitor αT1-1 cells and hypomethylated in differentiated LβT2 cells. Abundance of RNA polymerase II together with active histone modifications including H3K4me1, H3K4me3, and H3K27ac were strictly correlated with DNA hypomethylation. Analyses of epigenomic modifications and chromatin accessibility were further extended to Isl1, Lhx3, Gata2, and Pitx2, highlighting alternative usages of specific regulatory gene domains in progenitor αT1-1, immature αT3-1, and mature LβT2 gonadotrope cells. PMID:27402603

  9. Cancer Cells with Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Do Not Display a General Hypersensitivity to ATR Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Deeg, Katharina I; Chung, Inn; Bauer, Caroline; Rippe, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Telomere maintenance is a hallmark of cancer as it provides cancer cells with cellular immortality. A significant fraction of tumors uses the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to elongate their telomeres and to gain an unlimited proliferation potential. Since the ALT pathway is unique to cancer cells, it represents a potentially valuable, currently unexploited target for anti-cancer therapies. Recently, it was proposed that ALT renders cells hypersensitive to ataxia telangiectasia- and RAD3-related (ATR) protein inhibitors (Flynn et al., Science 347, 273). Here, we measured the response of various ALT- or telomerase-positive cell lines to the ATR inhibitor VE-821. In addition, we compared the effect of the inhibitor on cell viability in isogenic cell lines, in which ALT was active or suppressed. In these experiments, a general ATR inhibitor sensitivity of cells with ALT could not be confirmed. We rather propose that the observed variations in sensitivity reflect differences between cell lines that are unrelated to ALT. PMID:27602331

  10. An extensive program of periodic alternative splicing linked to cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, Daniel; Tsai, Yi-Hsuan; Weatheritt, Robert; Wang, Yang; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Wang, Zefeng

    2016-01-01

    Progression through the mitotic cell cycle requires periodic regulation of gene function at the levels of transcription, translation, protein-protein interactions, post-translational modification and degradation. However, the role of alternative splicing (AS) in the temporal control of cell cycle is not well understood. By sequencing the human transcriptome through two continuous cell cycles, we identify ~1300 genes with cell cycle-dependent AS changes. These genes are significantly enriched in functions linked to cell cycle control, yet they do not significantly overlap genes subject to periodic changes in steady-state transcript levels. Many of the periodically spliced genes are controlled by the SR protein kinase CLK1, whose level undergoes cell cycle-dependent fluctuations via an auto-inhibitory circuit. Disruption of CLK1 causes pleiotropic cell cycle defects and loss of proliferation, whereas CLK1 over-expression is associated with various cancers. These results thus reveal a large program of CLK1-regulated periodic AS intimately associated with cell cycle control. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10288.001 PMID:27015110

  11. Cancer Cells with Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres Do Not Display a General Hypersensitivity to ATR Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Deeg, Katharina I.; Chung, Inn; Bauer, Caroline; Rippe, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Telomere maintenance is a hallmark of cancer as it provides cancer cells with cellular immortality. A significant fraction of tumors uses the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway to elongate their telomeres and to gain an unlimited proliferation potential. Since the ALT pathway is unique to cancer cells, it represents a potentially valuable, currently unexploited target for anti-cancer therapies. Recently, it was proposed that ALT renders cells hypersensitive to ataxia telangiectasia- and RAD3-related (ATR) protein inhibitors (Flynn et al., Science 347, 273). Here, we measured the response of various ALT- or telomerase-positive cell lines to the ATR inhibitor VE-821. In addition, we compared the effect of the inhibitor on cell viability in isogenic cell lines, in which ALT was active or suppressed. In these experiments, a general ATR inhibitor sensitivity of cells with ALT could not be confirmed. We rather propose that the observed variations in sensitivity reflect differences between cell lines that are unrelated to ALT. PMID:27602331

  12. Ultrastructural evidence for divergent and alternating differentiations in spindle cell sarcoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, U; Stüben, G; Stuschke, M; Donhuijsen, K

    1997-04-01

    Seven spindle cell sarcomas, 5 poorly differentiated ones and 2 moderately well differentiated ones, were established on nude mice and long term passaging was done. Sarcoma strains were analysed electron microscopically in an attempt to get further insight in spindle cell sarcoma differentiation pathways. Ultrastructurally, the tumours were classified as malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (3/7), leiomyosarcoma (2/7), rhabdomyosarcoma (1/7), and spindle cell sarcoma not otherwise classifiable (1/7). Undifferentiated tumour cells including fibroblastoid ones predominated in most xenografts, whereas cells harbouring cytoplasmic specificities tended to be few in number. Nevertheless, divergent differentiations exhibiting unusual double or triple patterns could be documented ultrastructurally in 12/30 xenografts with juxtaposed myomatous as well as nerve sheath-like cells and, in addition, histiocytoid (MFH-like) elements in 3 of the xenografts. Moreover, sarcoma strains alternated fine structural constellations in the course of passaging, whereby different phenotypes, myomatous, nerve sheath-like, unspecific, or mixed ones, succeeded one another. These findings pursue recent immunohistochemical data on multidirectional sarcoma differentiation by means of electron microscopy. They, furthermore, fit well into the concept of multipotential stem cells as progenitors in mesenchymal differentiation and suggest microenvironment to play a modifying role in the expression of cell differentiation. PMID:9165712

  13. Alternatives for the source of the exotic green clasts from Moldavian Nappes (East Carpathians, Romania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatu, M.

    2009-04-01

    to submarine landslide initiated by huge earthquake activity. In this way the velocity of landslide sedimentation was high and as result the spatial distribution of different rock types is inhomogeneous. On the other hand, high velocity of syn-sedimentary deformation generates synchronous shear zones. The stress field in this environment is influenced by the lithological amalgamation and local discontinuities. After sedimentary deposition and syn - deformation processes in all the area, suborizontal shear zones (SSZ) are formed along the borders of sandstone olistoliths embedded in fine-grained sand-argillaceous sediments; they are related to the Miocene tectogenesis. Taking into account that are not lithological differences in the Tarcau and the Marginal Folds units, the contact between them as all major SSZ represent the intra-formational thrusts (Sandulescu, 1984). An important characteristic of the Moldavian Nappes is the presence of the exotic rocks as clasts in conglomerates that are very different in nature (igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary), volume and size and generally green in colour. Many authors who studied this lithological aspect have suggested that a Cumanian ridge was their source. The ridge was active since Upper Creataceous till Miocene widespread from Central Dobrogea to Poland and mainly composed by "dobrogean green schist" rocks. This ridge was placed between Audia and Macla sedimentation areas, or between Audia and Tarcau sedimentation areas. According to our studies, the green clasts from various conglomerates with igneous (intrusive and extrusive aspects), metamorphic (medium to low grade) and sedimentary nature present a variable participation. The green clasts are apparently similar with the central dobrogean green schist rocks and are less than 10% in participation in all Moldavian units. For this reason we suggest that the Central Dobrogean domain wasn't the source area for the discussed clasts. After Oszczypko (2006), in the Polish

  14. Wastewater Filtration and Re-use: An Alternative Water Source for London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, J. D.; Blunt, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The rapid growth and climate of the Greater London region have contributed towards large deficits in water supply. Inexpensive, energy-efficient and sustainable water resource schemes are increasingly sought as a means to boost supply. We propose a small-scale recycling scheme whereby tertiary-treated wastewater is pumped to the Cretaceous chalk of the London Basin. By taking advantage of the natural filtration properties of the underlying chalk, contaminants can be effectively attenuated over relatively short length scales to result in a useful complementary pure water source for such a densely populated area. First, we define two localities where such a pumping scheme might operate; regions of thick unsaturated zone and high chalk transmissivity are essential to ensure maximum contaminant removal and minimum environmental impact. Secondly, the effects of pumping fluid into the Chalk at the two localities are quantified using a finite-difference groundwater flow model. Thirdly, we consider the effect of fractures on channelling rapid fluid flow within the rock mass. By digitising a fracture map based upon outcrop measurements from chalk exposed on the southern coast similar to that beneath London, we are able to quantify the transport patterns of wastewater after injection. Imbibition to the chalk matrix (and therefore filtration) will occur where fluid pressure gradients are highest, for instance around fracture tips. Finally we inject an analogue `effluent' through a chalk core in the laboratory and perform ICP-AES analysis on the recovered solution, showing contaminant (viz. a suite of heavy metals) retardation or removal over relatively short time- and length-scales. Numerical and analytical solutions fit the data poorly, shedding some light on the importance of hydrodynamic dispersion on aqueous contaminants within chalk. We have been encouraged by (i) the success of other similar schemes worldwide in places as far apart (both physically and economically) as

  15. Single Source Precursors for Thin Film Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder K.; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Harris, Jerry D.; Cowen, Jonathan; Buhro, William E.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2002-01-01

    The development of thin film solar cells on flexible, lightweight, space-qualified substrates provides an attractive cost solution to fabricating solar arrays with high specific power, (W/kg). The use of a polycrystalline chalcopyrite absorber layer for thin film solar cells is considered as the next generation photovoltaic devices. At NASA GRC we have focused on the development of new single source precursors (SSP) and their utility to deposit the chalcopyrite semi-conducting layer (CIS) onto flexible substrates for solar cell fabrication. The syntheses and thermal modulation of SSPs via molecular engineering is described. Thin-film fabrication studies demonstrate the SSPs can be used in a spray CVD (chemical vapor deposition) process, for depositing CIS at reduced temperatures, which display good electrical properties, suitable for PV (photovoltaic) devices.

  16. Alternate protein kinase A activity identifies a unique population of stromal cells in adult bone.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Kit Man; Starost, Matthew F; Nesterova, Maria; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Watkins, Tonya; Almeida, Madson Q; Harran, Michelle; Li, Andrew; Collins, Michael T; Cheadle, Christopher; Mertz, Edward L; Leikin, Sergey; Kirschner, Lawrence S; Robey, Pamela; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-05-11

    A population of stromal cells that retains osteogenic capacity in adult bone (adult bone stromal cells or aBSCs) exists and is under intense investigation. Mice heterozygous for a null allele of prkar1a (Prkar1a(+/-)), the primary receptor for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and regulator of protein kinase A (PKA) activity, developed bone lesions that were derived from cAMP-responsive osteogenic cells and resembled fibrous dysplasia (FD). Prkar1a(+/-) mice were crossed with mice that were heterozygous for catalytic subunit Calpha (Prkaca(+/-)), the main PKA activity-mediating molecule, to generate a mouse model with double heterozygosity for prkar1a and prkaca (Prkar1a(+/-)Prkaca(+/-)). Unexpectedly, Prkar1a(+/-)Prkaca(+/-) mice developed a greater number of osseous lesions starting at 3 months of age that varied from the rare chondromas in the long bones and the ubiquitous osteochondrodysplasia of vertebral bodies to the occasional sarcoma in older animals. Cells from these lesions originated from an area proximal to the growth plate, expressed osteogenic cell markers, and showed higher PKA activity that was mostly type II (PKA-II) mediated by an alternate pattern of catalytic subunit expression. Gene expression profiling confirmed a preosteoblastic nature for these cells but also showed a signature that was indicative of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and increased Wnt signaling. These studies show that a specific subpopulation of aBSCs can be stimulated in adult bone by alternate PKA and catalytic subunit activity; abnormal proliferation of these cells leads to skeletal lesions that have similarities to human FD and bone tumors. PMID:20421483

  17. Toxic emissions from mobile sources: a total fuel-cycle analysis for conventional and alternative fuel vehicles.

    PubMed

    Winebrake, J J; Wang, M Q; He, D

    2001-07-01

    Mobile sources are among the largest contributors of four hazardous air pollutants--benzene, 1,3-butadiene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde--in urban areas. At the same time, federal and state governments are promoting the use of alternative fuel vehicles as a means to curb local air pollution. As yet, the impact of this movement toward alternative fuels with respect to toxic emissions has not been well studied. The purpose of this paper is to compare toxic emissions from vehicles operating on a variety of fuels, including reformulated gasoline (RFG), natural gas, ethanol, methanol, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and electricity. This study uses a version of Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gas, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) model, appropriately modified to estimate toxic emissions. The GREET model conducts a total fuel-cycle analysis that calculates emissions from both downstream (e.g., operation of the vehicle) and upstream (e.g., fuel production and distribution) stages of the fuel cycle. We find that almost all of the fuels studied reduce 1,3-butadiene emissions compared with conventional gasoline (CG). However, the use of ethanol in E85 (fuel made with 85% ethanol) or RFG leads to increased acetaldehyde emissions, and the use of methanol, ethanol, and compressed natural gas (CNG) may result in increased formaldehyde emissions. When the modeling results for the four air toxics are considered together with their cancer risk factors, all the fuels and vehicle technologies show air toxic emission reduction benefits. PMID:15658225

  18. A cell-based in vitro alternative to identify skin sensitizers by gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Hooyberghs, Jef Schoeters, Elke; Lambrechts, Nathalie; Nelissen, Inge; Witters, Hilda; Schoeters, Greet; Heuvel, Rosette van den

    2008-08-15

    The ethical and economic burden associated with animal testing for assessment of skin sensitization has triggered intensive research effort towards development and validation of alternative methods. In addition, new legislation on the registration and use of cosmetics and chemicals promote the use of suitable alternatives for hazard assessment. Our previous studies demonstrated that human CD34{sup +} progenitor-derived dendritic cells from cord blood express specific gene profiles upon exposure to low molecular weight sensitizing chemicals. This paper presents a classification model based on this cell type which is successful in discriminating sensitizing chemicals from non-sensitizing chemicals based on transcriptome analysis of 13 genes. Expression profiles of a set of 10 sensitizers and 11 non-sensitizers were analyzed by RT-PCR using 9 different exposure conditions and a total of 73 donor samples. Based on these data a predictive dichotomous classifier for skin sensitizers has been constructed, which is referred to as . In a first step the dimensionality of the input data was reduced by selectively rejecting a number of exposure conditions and genes. Next, the generalization of a linear classifier was evaluated by a cross-validation which resulted in a prediction performance with a concordance of 89%, a specificity of 97% and a sensitivity of 82%. These results show that the present model may be a useful human in vitro alternative for further use in a test strategy towards the reduction of animal use for skin sensitization.

  19. β-Cell replacement as a treatment for type 1 diabetes: an overview of possible cell sources and current axes of research.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A; Courtney, M; Druelle, N; Avolio, F; Napolitano, T; Hadzic, B; Navarro-Sanz, S; Ben-Othman, N; Collombat, P

    2016-09-01

    To efficiently treat type 1 diabetes, exogenous insulin injections currently represent the main approach to counter chronic hyperglycaemia. Unfortunately, such a therapeutic approach does not allow for perfectly maintained glucose homeostasis and, in time, cardiovascular complications may arise. Therefore, seeking alternative/improved treatments has become a major health concern as an increasing proportion of type 2 diabetes patients also require insulin supplementation. Towards this goal, numerous laboratories have focused their research on β-cell replacement therapies. Herein, we will review the current state of this research area and describe the cell sources that could potentially be used to replenish the depleted β-cell mass in diabetic patients. PMID:27615143

  20. [Human amniotic epithelium (HAE) as a possible source of stem cells (SC)].

    PubMed

    García-López, Guadalupe; García-Castro, Irma Lydia; Avila-González, Daniela; Molina-Hernández, Anayansi; Flores-Herrera, Héctor; Merchant-Larios, Horacio; Díaz-Martínez, Fabián

    2015-01-01

    There have been major recent advances in the field of developmental biology due to the investigation on stem cells (SC). Stem cells are characterized by their capacity of auto-renewal and differentiation to different cellular phenotypes. Based on the developmental stage, they can be classified into two different types: embryonic SCs and adult SCs. It has been widely reported that several problems need to be resolved before their possible clinical applications. As a result, fetal membranes have been suggested as an alternative source of SCs. In the human amniotic epithelium, the presence of markers of pluripotent SC´s has been reported, and its capacity as a feeder layer for expansion of different SC types. Also, fetal membranes are a discarded product after delivery, and thus there are not any ethical issues related to its use. In conclusion, the human amniotic epithelium can be a strong candidate for regenerative medicine. PMID:25739486

  1. Spatially variant red blood cell crenation in alternating current non-uniform fieldsa

    PubMed Central

    An, Ran; Wipf, David O.; Minerick, Adrienne R.

    2014-01-01

    Alternating-current (AC) electrokinetics involve the movement and behaviors of particles or cells. Many applications, including dielectrophoretic manipulations, are dependent upon charge interactions between the cell or particle and the surrounding medium. Medium concentrations are traditionally treated as spatially uniform in both theoretical models and experiments. Human red blood cells (RBCs) are observed to crenate, or shrink due to changing osmotic pressure, over 10 min experiments in non-uniform AC electric fields. Cell crenation magnitude is examined as functions of frequency from 250 kHz to 1 MHz and potential from 10 Vpp to 17.5 Vpp over a 100 μm perpendicular electrode gap. Experimental results show higher peak to peak potential and lower frequency lead to greater cell volume crenation up to a maximum volume loss of 20%. A series of experiments are conducted to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the red blood cell crenation. Non-uniform and uniform electrode systems as well as high and low ion concentration experiments are compared and illustrate that AC electroporation, system temperature, rapid temperature changes, medium pH, electrode reactions, and convection do not account for the crenation behaviors observed. AC electroosmotic was found to be negligible at these conditions and AC electrothermal fluid flows were found to reduce RBC crenation behaviors. These cell deformations were attributed to medium hypertonicity induced by ion concentration gradients in the spatially nonuniform AC electric fields. PMID:24753734

  2. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    PubMed

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success. PMID:26667058

  3. Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells: Factors affecting air-sintering of chromite interconnections

    SciTech Connect

    Chick, L.A.; Bates, J.L.

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal and electrochemical properties. Another objective is to develop synthesis and fabrication processes for these materials whereby they can be consolidated in air into SOFCs. The approach is to (1) develop modifications of the current, state-of-the-art materials used in SOFCs, (2) minimize the number of cations used in the SOFC materials to reduce potential deleterious interactions, (3) improve thermal, electrical, and electrochemical properties, (4) develop methods to synthesize both state-of-the-art and alternative materials for the simultaneous fabrication and consolidation in air of the interconnections and electrodes with the solid electrolyte, and (5) understand electrochemical reactions at materials interfaces and the effects of component compositions and processing on those reactions.

  4. Pluripotent stem cells, a potential source of beta-cells for diabetes therapy.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Mattias; Madsen, Ole D

    2010-04-01

    Although the reconstitution of a functional beta-cell mass by transplantation of isolated islets can restore euglycemia in the absence of insulin treatment, a shortage of donor material is one of the factors preventing the general use of cell replacement therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Advances in the directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells toward beta-cells via the stepwise recapitulation of embryonic development have generated proof of concept demonstrating that stem cells may be an appropriate source of cells for the generation of therapeutic beta-cells. However, progress toward a clinical application of this technology is slow and challenging. This review highlights some of the critical issues impeding the translation of stem cell-based diabetes therapies to the clinic. PMID:20336589

  5. Single-Cell Analyses of ESCs Reveal Alternative Pluripotent Cell States and Molecular Mechanisms that Control Self-Renewal

    PubMed Central

    Papatsenko, Dmitri; Darr, Henia; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V.; Waghray, Avinash; Makeev, Vsevolod J.; MacArthur, Ben D.; Lemischka, Ihor R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Analyses of gene expression in single mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) cultured in serum and LIF revealed the presence of two distinct cell subpopulations with individual gene expression signatures. Comparisons with published data revealed that cells in the first subpopulation are phenotypically similar to cells isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM). In contrast, cells in the second subpopulation appear to be more mature. Pluripotency Gene Regulatory Network (PGRN) reconstruction based on single-cell data and published data suggested antagonistic roles for Oct4 and Nanog in the maintenance of pluripotency states. Integrated analyses of published genomic binding (ChIP) data strongly supported this observation. Certain target genes alternatively regulated by OCT4 and NANOG, such as Sall4 and Zscan10, feed back into the top hierarchical regulator Oct4. Analyses of such incoherent feedforward loops with feedback (iFFL-FB) suggest a dynamic model for the maintenance of mESC pluripotency and self-renewal. PMID:26267829

  6. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells Acquire Resistance to the ALK Inhibitor Alectinib by Activating Alternative Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.

    PubMed

    Isozaki, Hideko; Ichihara, Eiki; Takigawa, Nagio; Ohashi, Kadoaki; Ochi, Nobuaki; Yasugi, Masayuki; Ninomiya, Takashi; Yamane, Hiromichi; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Sakai, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Kunio; Hosokawa, Shinobu; Bessho, Akihiro; Sendo, Toshiaki; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Kiura, Katsuyuki

    2016-03-15

    Crizotinib is the standard of care for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion gene, but resistance invariably develops. Unlike crizotinib, alectinib is a selective ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with more potent antitumor effects and a favorable toxicity profile, even in crizotinib-resistant cases. However, acquired resistance to alectinib, as for other TKIs, remains a limitation of its efficacy. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms by which human NSCLC cells acquire resistance to alectinib. We established two alectinib-resistant cell lines that did not harbor the secondary ALK mutations frequently occurring in crizotinib-resistant cells. One cell line lost the EML4-ALK fusion gene, but exhibited increased activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3), and overexpressed the HER3 ligand neuregulin 1. Accordingly, pharmacologic inhibition of IGF1R and HER3 signaling overcame resistance to alectinib in this cell line. The second alectinib-resistant cell line displayed stimulated HGF autocrine signaling that promoted MET activation and remained sensitive to crizotinib treatment. Taken together, our findings reveal two novel mechanisms underlying alectinib resistance that are caused by the activation of alternative tyrosine kinase receptors rather than by secondary ALK mutations. These studies may guide the development of comprehensive treatment strategies that take into consideration the various approaches ALK-positive lung tumors use to withstand therapeutic insult. PMID:26719536

  7. Multi-stage ranking of emergency technology alternatives for water source pollution accidents using a fuzzy group decision making tool.

    PubMed

    Qu, Jianhua; Meng, Xianlin; You, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Due to the increasing number of unexpected water source pollution events, selection of the most appropriate disposal technology for a specific pollution scenario is of crucial importance to the security of urban water supplies. However, the formulation of the optimum option is considerably difficult owing to the substantial uncertainty of such accidents. In this research, a multi-stage technical screening and evaluation tool is proposed to determine the optimal technique scheme, considering the areas of pollutant elimination both in drinking water sources and water treatment plants. In stage 1, a CBR-based group decision tool was developed to screen available technologies for different scenarios. Then, the threat degree caused by the pollution was estimated in stage 2 using a threat evaluation system and was partitioned into four levels. For each threat level, a corresponding set of technique evaluation criteria weights was obtained using Group-G1. To identify the optimization alternatives corresponding to the different threat levels, an extension of TOPSIS, a multi-criteria interval-valued trapezoidal fuzzy decision making technique containing the four arrays of criteria weights, to a group decision environment was investigated in stage 3. The effectiveness of the developed tool was elaborated by two actual thallium-contaminated scenarios associated with different threat levels. PMID:26897576

  8. Complementary/alternative therapies use in older women with arthritis: Information sources and factors influencing dialog with health care providers.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Carol C; Cheung, Corjena K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the information sources older women with arthritis use to make decisions about complementary/alternative therapies (C/AT), and factors that influence C/AT dialog with their HCP. The purposive sample included 50 community-dwelling older women (mean age = 77.8, SD = 7.6, range 66-101) who were using C/AT for arthritis management. Eight focus groups were conducted. Qualitative data were analyzed using both manual and computer-based (Atlas.ti) methods. Participants used a variety of C/AT for arthritis management. Most did not seek C/AT information from their health care provider (HCP) but primarily relied on family and friends as resources. Common themes that influenced C/AT dialog included collaborative patient relationship with HCP, HCP unsupportive attitudes toward C/AT and lack of C/AT knowledge, and time-limited clinic visits. Clinical implications include fostering shared decision making clinical relationships, increasing HCP knowledge about C/AT, initiating C/AT dialog and offering credible C/AT information sources. PMID:25280945

  9. Cardiomyocyte H9c2 cells present a valuable alternative to fish lethal testing for azoxystrobin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elsa T; Pardal, Miguel Â; Laizé, Vincent; Cancela, M Leonor; Oliveira, Paulo J; Serafim, Teresa L

    2015-11-01

    The present study aims at identifying, among six mammalian and fish cell lines, a sensitive cell line whose in vitro median inhibitory concentration (IC50) better matches the in vivo short-term Sparus aurata median lethal concentration (LC50). IC50s and LC50 were assessed after exposure to the widely used fungicide azoxystrobin (AZX). Statistical results were relevant for most cell lines after 48 h of AZX exposure, being H9c2 the most sensitive cells, as well as the ones which provided the best prediction of fish toxicity, with a LC50,96h/IC50,48h = 0.581. H9c2 cell proliferation upon 72 h of AZX exposure revealed a LC50,96h/IC50,72h = 0.998. Therefore, identical absolute sensitivities were attained for both in vitro and in vivo assays. To conclude, the H9c2 cell-based assay is reliable and represents a suitable ethical alternative to conventional fish assays for AZX, and could be used to get valuable insights into the toxic effects of other pesticides. PMID:26319055

  10. Experimental Study of Entropy Production in Cells under Alternating Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Chang-Jiang; Luo, Liao-Fu

    2012-08-01

    We put forward a new method for measuring the entropy production in the living cell. It involves heating the sample by alternating the electric field and recording the outward heat flow. The entropy production in a normal cell MCF10A and a cancerous cell MDA-MB-231 were measured and compared. The results show that the method is effective for the entropy measurement of a living organism. The scaled electro-induced entropy production rate (SEEP) of MDA-MB-231 monotonically increases with the electric field strength at 5-40 V/cm. While that of MCF10A changes non-monotonically and there exists a peak at 5-30 V/cm. The electro-induced entropy production ratio (EEPR) is smaller than 1 in a large range of field strengths, from 5 to 25 V/cm, which reveals that under 5-25 V/cm electric field exposure, the direction of the entropy flow may be changed from normal tissue to cancerous cells. We present a facile and effective strategy for experimentally investigating the thermodynamic properties of the cell and give a deeper insight into the physical difference between normal and cancerous cells under electric field exposure.

  11. Insulin receptor alternative splicing is regulated by insulin signaling and modulates beta cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Malakar, Pushkar; Chartarifsky, Lital; Hija, Ayat; Leibowitz, Gil; Glaser, Benjamin; Dor, Yuval; Karni, Rotem

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) affects more than 300 million people worldwide. One of the hallmarks of T2DM is peripheral insulin resistance, in part due to unproductive insulin signaling through the insulin receptor. The insulin receptor (INSR) exists as two isoforms, INSR-A and INSR-B, which results from skipping or inclusion of exon 11 respectively. What determines the relative abundance of the different insulin receptor splice variants is unknown. Moreover, it is not yet clear what the physiological roles of each of the isoforms are in normal and diseased beta cells. In this study, we show that insulin induces INSR exon 11 inclusion in pancreatic beta cells in both human and mouse. This occurs through activation of the Ras-MAPK/ERK signaling pathway and up-regulation of the splicing factor SRSF1. Induction of exon 11 skipping by a splice-site competitive antisense oligonucleotide inhibited the MAPK-ERK signaling pathway downstream of the insulin receptor, sensitizing the pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 to stress-induced apoptosis and lipotoxicity. These results assign to insulin a regulatory role in INSR alternative splicing through the Ras-MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. We suggest that in beta cells, INSR-B has a protective role, while INSR-A expression sensitizes beta cells to programmed cell death. PMID:27526875

  12. Novel alternative PBX3 isoforms in leukemia cells with distinct interaction specificities.

    PubMed

    Milech, N; Kees, U R; Watt, P M

    2001-11-01

    PBX3 is a member of the PBX family of TALE homeobox genes. The prototypic member, PBX1, was first identified in chromosomal translocations in B-lineage leukemia and is required for normal hematopoiesis. PBX2 and PBX3 were later identified as members of this highly conserved family by their strong homology to PBX1. While the expression pattern of PBX1 is restricted, PBX2 and PBX3 are ubiquitously expressed. Little is known about the functional role of PBX3. Our studies identified two PBX3 transcripts alternative to the canonical forms, PBX3A and PBX3B, resulting from a novel splice in PBX3. These new isoforms, named PBX3C and PBX3D, have been detected in all tissues and cell lines tested. Intriguingly, expression of PBX3D is favored in normal cells, whereas PBX3C expression is favored in leukemia cells. Functional studies showed that PBX3C and PBX3D proteins were unable to interact with the PBX-interacting factor PREP1 and weakly interacted with MEIS proteins. We propose that PBX3C and PBX3D may affect PBX3-mediated transcriptional regulation by acting in opposition to the known PBX proteins through alternative PBX3 complex formation. The identification and characterization of these novel PBX3 isoforms provide a foundation for a better understanding of the biological role of PBX3. PMID:11579467

  13. Alternative Splicing in the Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Cardiac Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Salomonis, Nathan; Nelson, Brandon; Vranizan, Karen; Pico, Alexander R.; Hanspers, Kristina; Kuchinsky, Allan; Ta, Linda; Mercola, Mark; Conklin, Bruce R.

    2009-01-01

    The role of alternative splicing in self-renewal, pluripotency and tissue lineage specification of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is largely unknown. To better define these regulatory cues, we modified the H9 hESC line to allow selection of pluripotent hESCs by neomycin resistance and cardiac progenitors by puromycin resistance. Exon-level microarray expression data from undifferentiated hESCs and cardiac and neural precursors were used to identify splice isoforms with cardiac-restricted or common cardiac/neural differentiation expression patterns. Splice events for these groups corresponded to the pathways of cytoskeletal remodeling, RNA splicing, muscle specification, and cell cycle checkpoint control as well as genes with serine/threonine kinase and helicase activity. Using a new program named AltAnalyze (http://www.AltAnalyze.org), we identified novel changes in protein domain and microRNA binding site architecture that were predicted to affect protein function and expression. These included an enrichment of splice isoforms that oppose cell-cycle arrest in hESCs and that promote calcium signaling and cardiac development in cardiac precursors. By combining genome-wide predictions of alternative splicing with new functional annotations, our data suggest potential mechanisms that may influence lineage commitment and hESC maintenance at the level of specific splice isoforms and microRNA regulation. PMID:19893621

  14. A secreted form of the human lymphocyte cell surface molecule CD8 arises from alternative splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Giblin, P.; Kavathas, P. ); Ledbetter, J.A. )

    1989-02-01

    The human lymphocyte differentiation antigen CD8 is encoded by a single gene that gives rise to a 33- to 34-kDa glycoprotein expressed on the cell surface as a dimer and in higher molecular mass forms. The authors demonstrate that the mRNA is alternatively spliced so that an exon encoding a transmembrane domain is deleted. This gives rise to a 30-kDa molecule that is secreted and exists primarily as a monomer. mRNA corresponding to both forms is present in peripheral blood lymphocytes, Con A-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes, and three CD8{sup +} T-cell lines, with the membrane form being the major species. However, differences in the ratio of mRNA for membrane CD8 and secreted CD8 exist. In addition, the splicing pattern observed differs from the pattern found for the mouse CD8 gene. This mRNA is also alternatively spliced, but an exon encoding a cytoplasmic region is deleted, giving rise to a cell surface molecule that differs in its cytoplasmic tail from the protein encoded by the longer mRNA. Neither protein is secreted. This is one of the first examples of a different splicing pattern between two homologous mouse and human genes giving rise to very different proteins. This represents one mechanism of generating diversity during speciation.

  15. Assembly of an Evolutionarily Conserved Alternative Proteasome Isoform in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Achuth; Vuong, Simone Anh-Thu; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2016-03-29

    Targeted intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotes is largely mediated by the proteasome. Here, we report the formation of an alternative proteasome isoform in human cells, previously found only in budding yeast, that bears an altered subunit arrangement in the outer ring of the proteasome core particle. These proteasomes result from incorporation of an additional α4 (PSMA7) subunit in the position normally occupied by α3 (PSMA4). Assembly of "α4-α4" proteasomes depends on the relative cellular levels of α4 and α3 and on the proteasome assembly chaperone PAC3. The oncogenic tyrosine kinases ABL and ARG and the tumor suppressor BRCA1 regulate cellular α4 levels and formation of α4-α4 proteasomes. Cells primed to assemble α4-α4 proteasomes exhibit enhanced resistance to toxic metal ions. Taken together, our results establish the existence of an alternative mammalian proteasome isoform and suggest a potential role in enabling cells to adapt to environmental stresses. PMID:26997268

  16. Stirling based fuel cell hybrid systems: An alternative for molten carbonate fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, D.; Chacartegui, R.; Torres, M.; Sánchez, T.

    This paper presents a new design for high temperature fuel cell and bottoming thermal engine hybrid systems. Now, instead of the commonly used gas turbine engine, an externally fired - Stirling - piston engine is used, showing outstanding performance when compared to previous designs. Firstly, a comparison between three thermal cycles potentially usable for recovering waste heat from the cell is presented, concluding the interest of the Stirling engine against other solutions used in the past. Secondly, the interest shown in the previous section is confirmed when the complete hybrid system is analyzed. Advantages are not only related to pure thermal and electrochemical parameters like specific power or overall efficiency. Additionally, further benefits can be obtained from the atmospheric operation of the fuel cell and the possibility to disconnect the bottoming engine from the cell to operate the latter on stand alone mode. This analysis includes on design and off design operation.

  17. Primary porcine proximal tubular cells as an alternative to human primary renal cells in vitro: an initial characterization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A good in vitro model should approximate an in vivo-like behavior as closely as possible in order to reflect most likely the in vivo situation. Regarding renal physiology of different species, humans are more closely related to pigs than to rodents, therefore primary porcine kidney cells (PKC) and their subsequent cell strain could be a valid alternative to primary human cells for renal in vitro toxicology. For this PKC must display inherent characteristics (e.g. structural organization) and functions (e.g. transepithelial transport) as observed under in vivo conditions within the respective part of the kidney. Results We carried out a comprehensive characterization of PKC and their subsequent cell strain, including morphology and growth as well as transporter expression and functionality. The data presented here demonstrate that PKC express various transporters including pMrp1 (abcc1), pMrp2 (abcc2), pOat1 (slc22a6) and pOat3 (slc22a8), whereas pMdr1 (abcb1) and pOatp1a2 (slco1a2) mRNA could not be detected in either the PKCs or in the porcine cortical tissue. Functionality of the transporters was demonstrated by determining the specific PAH transport kinetics. Conclusions On the basis of the presented results it can be concluded that PKC and to some extent their subsequent cell strain represent a valuable model for in vitro toxicology, which might be used as an alternative to human primary cells. PMID:24308307

  18. Artificial oxygen carriers as a possible alternative to red cells in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó; Jucá, Mário Jorge; Castro, Aldemar Araujo; Duarte, José Lira; Barbosa, Luciano Timbó

    2009-05-01

    Fluid resuscitation is intended to eliminate microcirculatory disorders and restore adequate tissue oxygenation. The safety limits for a restrictive transfusion policy are given by patients' individual tolerance of acute normovolemic anemia. Artificial oxygen carriers based on perfluorocarbon or hemoglobin are attractive alternatives to allogenic red blood cells. There are many risks involved in allogenic blood transfusions and they include transmission of infections, delayed postoperative wound healing, transfusion reactions, immunomodulation and cancer recurrence. Regardless of whether artificial oxygen carriers are available for routine clinical use, further studies are needed in order to show the safety and efficacy of these substances for clinical practice. PMID:19597685

  19. Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by marijuana components is related to cell number and cell source

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, T.; Pross, S.; Newton, C.; Friedman, H.

    1986-03-05

    Conflicting reports have appeared concerning the effect of marijuana components on immune responsiveness. The authors have observed that the effect of cannabinoids on lymphocyte proliferation varied with both the concentration of the drug and the mitogen used. They now report that at a constant concentration of drug, the cannabinoid effect varied from no effect to suppression depending upon the number of cells in culture and the organ source of the cells. Dispersed cell suspensions of mouse lymph node, spleen, and thymus were prepared and cultured at varying cell numbers with either delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol or 11-hydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and various mitogens. Lymphocyte proliferation was analyzed by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation. T-lymphocyte mitogen responses in cultures containing high cell numbers were unaffected by the cannabinoids but as cell numbers were reduced a suppression of the response was observed. Furthermore, thymus cells were considerably more susceptible to cannabinoid suppression than cells from either lymph node or spleen. These results suggest that certain lymphocyte subpopulations are more sensitive to cannabinoid suppression and that in addition to drug concentration other variables such as cell number and cell source must be considered when analyzing cannabinoid effects.

  20. [Hybrid embryos as a source of embryonic stem cells].

    PubMed

    Beca I, Juan Pablo

    2007-11-01

    The HFEA (Human Fertilisations & Embryology Authority) recently accepted to perform research in hybrid embryos generated by transferring human somatic cell nucleus to cow enucleated oocytes, named cytoplasmatic hybrids. The aim is to obtain a source of embryonic stem cells without the use of human oocytes. The arguments for the approval are to avoid the risk of obtaining human oocytes and that these embryos will not be transferred to a female's womb for its development. Those who oppose the technique argue that it is a manipulation of the beginning of life and a disrespect to the dignity of human life because of the destruction of embryos. Nevertheless, the real nature of this new entity has not been established. Biologically it is an embryo with 99% of human genome and animal's cytoplasm, not generated from human gametes, it is not a new genome and it will be used only to cultivate stem cells. It does not seem possible to define its nature beyond any doubts. If it were considered as a human embryo it should be respected and protected as every human being. Once more, scientific progress opens new ethical and legal questions that we cannot answer in a definitive way. Researchers are exploring new roads to obtain pluripotential stem cells which should favor the development of innovative therapies. The main objection is the unavoidable destruction of human embryos, although in this case its origin and nature are not clear. PMID:18259646

  1. Conditioned medium from alternatively activated macrophages induce mesangial cell apoptosis via the effect of Fas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yuan; Luo, Fangjun; Li, Hui; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Nong

    2013-11-15

    During inflammation in the glomerulus, the proliferation of myofiroblast-like mesangial cells is commonly associated with the pathological process. Macrophages play an important role in regulating the growth of resident mesangial cells in the glomeruli. Alternatively activated macrophage (M2 macrophage) is a subset of macrophages induced by IL-13/IL-4, which is shown to play a repair role in glomerulonephritis. Prompted by studies of development, we performed bone marrow derived macrophage and rat mesangial cell co-culture study. Conditioned medium from IL-4 primed M2 macrophages induced rat mesangial cell apoptosis. The pro-apoptotic effect of M2 macrophages was demonstrated by condensed nuclei stained with Hoechst 33258, increased apoptosis rates by flow cytometry analysis and enhanced caspase-3 activation by western blot. Fas protein was up-regulated in rat mesangial cells, and its neutralizing antibody ZB4 partly inhibited M2 macrophage-induced apoptosis. The up-regulated arginase-1 expression in M2 macrophage also contributed to this apoptotic effect. These results indicated that the process of apoptosis triggered by conditioned medium from M2 macrophages, at least is partly conducted through Fas in rat mesangial cells. Our findings provide compelling evidence that M2 macrophages control the growth of mesangial cells in renal inflammatory conditions. - Highlights: • Conditioned-medium from M2 macrophages induces rat mesangial cell (MsC) apoptosis. • M2 macrophage conditioned medium exerts its pro-apoptotic effects via Fas ligand. • Arginase-1 activity in M2 macrophages plays a role in inducing apoptosis in rat MsC.

  2. Use of Imploding Spheres: An Alternative to Explosives as Acoustic Sources at Mid-Latitude SOFAR Channel Depths

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Boro, C.; Dorman, L.; Pulli, J.

    2000-05-12

    The hydroacoustic nuclear explosion monitoring regime, like it's counterpart in seismic monitoring, requires ground truth calibration. Model predictions of traveltimes, blockages, reflections, diffractions, and waveform envelopes need to be verified with ground truth experiments, particularly in the high latitudes where models often fail. Although pressure detonated explosives are a simple, reliable, and flexible method to generate an impulsive hydroacoustic calibration source at a desired depth; safety procedures, specialized training, and local regulations often preclude their use. This leaves few alternatives since airgun and other seismic marine sources are designed for use only at shallow depths and hence do not effectively couple into the SOFAR channel, a necessary requirement for long range propagation. Imploding spheres could be an effective source at mid-ocean depths and below but development of a method to reliably break such spheres has been elusive. We designed and tested a prototype system to initiate catastrophic glass sphere failure at a prescribed depth. The system firmly holds a glass sphere in contact with a piston-ram assembly. The end cap on the cylinder confining the piston and opposing the ram has a rupture disk sealed to it. The rupture disk is calibrated to fail within 5% of the calibrated failure pressure, 1000 psi in our tests. Failure of the rupture disk results in a sudden inrush of high pressure water into the air-filled piston chamber, driving the piston--and attached ram--towards the glass sphere. The spherecracker was first tested on Benthos Corp. flotation spheres. The spherecracker mechanism successfully punched a hole in the Benthos sphere at the nominal pressure of 1000 psi or at about 700 meters depth in each of four tests. Despite the violent inrush of high pressure water the spheres did not otherwise fail. We concluded that the Benthos spheres were too thick-walled to be used as an imploding source at nominal SOFAR channel

  3. Alternative TLRs are stimulated by bacterial ligand to induce TLR2-unresponsive colon cell response.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Subhadeep; Biswas, Ratna; Biswas, Tapas

    2013-08-01

    Although pathogenic bacteria penetrate colonic cells causing infection, the role of its surface molecules serving as key Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands and triggering response remains unexplored. We show that TLR2-ligand porin up-regulated TLR4 on HT-29 cells, which the TLR4-ligand LPS could not. TLR1 that co-express with TLR2 got stimulated with TLR4. Besides the two TLRs, MD-2 was expressed revealing that the TLR4 co-receptor is not exclusive for LPS signaling. SARM-1 that mostly down-regulates TLR-signaling, demonstrated central role in signaling by engaging IRF-3 and NF-κB for cell activity. Porin induced type 1 chemokines particularly MCP-3, while porin-stimulated HT-29 culture supernatant displayed PBMC migration, collectively suggesting that the chemokines influence colon and immune cell cross-talk. In TLR2 down-regulated HT-29 cells, we found TLR1 and TLR4 as substitute TLRs to identify porin and orchestrate signaling. Thus, TLR replacement for PAMP recognition demonstrates specificity of ligand·TLR association can compromise and is a necessary alternative for successful execution of immune responses. PMID:23665374

  4. Alternative route for the biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in K562 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Naval, J; Martínez-Lorenzo, M J; Marzo, I; Desportes, P; Piñeiro, A

    1993-01-01

    K562 human leukaemia cells lack a significant delta 6-desaturase activity. However, they synthesize long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from linoleic (C18:2(9,12)) and linolenic (C18:3(9,12,15)) acids, by reactions involving a C2 chain elongation followed by a delta 5-desaturation step and, to some extent, a further elongation. The main products formed were separated by argentation t.l.c. and identified by g.l.c. as the uncommon fatty acids C20:3(5,11,14) and C20:4(5,11,14,17) respectively. These acids were also produced when cells were supplemented with C20:2(11,14) or C20:3(11,14,17) respectively. The presence of a delta 5-desaturase was further confirmed by using its corresponding normal substrates, C20:3(8,11,14) and C20:4(8,11,14,17), which led to C20:4(5,8,11,14) and C20:5(5,8,11,14,17) respectively. On the other hand, a high delta 9-desaturase activity, but no significant delta 4-desaturase activity, were detected in K562 cells. These results indicate the existence of an alternative pathway, involving delta 5-desaturase, which is the only route for PUFA biosynthesis in K562 cells. This pathway may be relevant for the biosynthesis of PUFA in cells lacking delta 6-desaturase activity. PMID:8489510

  5. Alternatively expressed genes identified in the CD4+ T cells of allograft rejection mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jia; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Chao; Song, Jing; Liang, Ting; Jin, Weirong; Kim, Yeong C; Wang, San Ming; Hou, Guihua

    2011-01-01

    Allograft rejection is a leading cause for the failure of allotransplantation. CD4(+) T cells play critical roles in this process. The identification of genes that alternatively expressed in CD4(+) T cells during allograft rejection will provide critical information for studying the mechanism of allograft rejection, finding specific gene markers for monitoring, predicting allograft rejection, and opening new ways to regulate and prevent allograft rejection. Here, we established allograft and isograft transplantation models by adoptively transferring wild-type BALB/c mouse CD4(+) T cells into severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with a C57BL/6 or BALB/c mouse skin graft. Using the whole transcriptome sequencing-based serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technology, we identified 97 increasingly and 88 decreasingly expressed genes that may play important roles in allograft rejection and tolerance. Functional classification of these genes shows that apoptosis, transcription regulation, cell growth and maintenance, and signal transduction are among the frequently changed functional groups. This study provides a genome-wide view for the candidate genes of CD4(+) T cells related to allotransplantation, and this report is a good resource for further microarray studies and for identifying the specific markers that are associated with clinical organ transplantations. PMID:21294963

  6. A novel alternative splicing isoform of NF2 identified in human Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Su, Fang; Zhou, Zhengguang; Su, Wen; Wang, Zishu; Wu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular schwannoma (VS) is a benign, slow-growing cranial tumor that originates from the hypertrophy of Schwann cells. The majority of sporadic VS are unilateral, and the mechanisms underlying VS tumorigenesis are not fully understood. The human neurofibromin 2 (NF2) gene encodes the tumor suppressor protein merlin and the NF2 transcript can be alternatively spliced to form numerous isoforms. The present study investigated human Schwann cells (HSCs) at the mRNA and protein level to understand the function of the alternative splicing (AS) isoform of NF2. The total RNA of HSCs was isolated and the full-length coding sequence of NF2 was amplified. The amplified products were excised from agarose gels, purified and sequenced. NF2 at a protein level was assayed by immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis. The full-length and spliced NF2 forms were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from the HSC complementary DNA and ligated into eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+). The plasmids were transfected into the HSC HEI-193 cell line and cell proliferation assays were performed using Cell Counting Kit-8. PCR analysis using HSC total RNA as a template revealed the presence of a shortened NF2 transcript, which was due to splicing at the 3′-end of the NF2 mRNA. Sequence analysis confirmed that this AS isoform omitted exons 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16. Immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis demonstrated that the AS isoform was highly expressed in the HSCs at 38 kDa, while the wild-type (WT) isoform, which was expected at 66 kDa, was undetectable. Transfection and cell proliferation assays revealed that the WT isoform exhibited significant growth inhibition, while the AS isoform did not suppress cell growth. In conclusion, the present study detected AS NF2 isoforms in HSC for the first time, and investigated the function of the principle AS isoform. The present study suggests that although HSCs have an undetectable level of WT isoform of the NF2 protein

  7. High surface area graphite as alternative support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira-Aparicio, P.; Folgado, M. A.; Daza, L.

    The suitability of a high surface area graphite (HSAG) as proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalyst support has been evaluated and compared with that of the most popular carbon black: the Vulcan XC72. It has been observed that Pt is arranged on the graphite surface resulting in different structures which depend on the catalysts synthesis conditions. The influence that the metal particle size and the metal-support interaction exert on the catalysts degradation rate is analyzed. Temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) under oxygen containing streams has been shown to be a useful method to assess the resistance of PEMFC catalysts to carbon corrosion. The synthesized Pt/HSAG catalysts have been evaluated in single cell tests in the cathode catalytic layer. The obtained results show that HSAG can be a promising alternative to the traditionally used Vulcan XC72 carbon black when suitable catalysts synthesis conditions are used.

  8. Cell source determines the immunological impact of biomimetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulos, Michael; Parodi, Alessandro; Martinez, Jonathan O; Yazdi, Iman K; Cevenini, Armando; van de Ven, Anne L; Quattrocchi, Nicoletta; Boada, Christian; Taghipour, Nima; Corbo, Claudia; Brown, Brandon S; Scaria, Shilpa; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2016-03-01

    Recently, engineering the surface of nanotherapeutics with biologics to provide them with superior biocompatibility and targeting towards pathological tissues has gained significant popularity. Although the functionalization of drug delivery vectors with cellular materials has been shown to provide synthetic particles with unique biological properties, these approaches may have undesirable immunological repercussions upon systemic administration. Herein, we comparatively analyzed unmodified multistage nanovectors and particles functionalized with murine and human leukocyte cellular membrane, dubbed Leukolike Vectors (LLV), and the immunological effects that may arise in vitro and in vivo. Previously, LLV demonstrated an avoidance of opsonization and phagocytosis, in addition to superior targeting of inflammation and prolonged circulation. In this work, we performed a comprehensive evaluation of the importance of the source of cellular membrane in increasing their systemic tolerance and minimizing an inflammatory response. Time-lapse microscopy revealed LLV developed using a cellular coating derived from a murine (i.e., syngeneic) source resulted in an active avoidance of uptake by macrophage cells. Additionally, LLV composed of a murine membrane were found to have decreased uptake in the liver with no significant effect on hepatic function. As biomimicry continues to develop, this work demonstrates the necessity to consider the source of biological material in the development of future drug delivery carriers. PMID:26761780

  9. Argonaute-1 binds transcriptional enhancers and controls constitutive and alternative splicing in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Alló, Mariano; Agirre, Eneritz; Bessonov, Sergey; Bertucci, Paola; Gómez Acuña, Luciana; Buggiano, Valeria; Bellora, Nicolás; Singh, Babita; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Blaustein, Matías; Miñana, Belén; Dujardin, Gwendal; Pozzi, Berta; Pelisch, Federico; Bechara, Elías; Agafonov, Dmitry E.; Srebrow, Anabella; Lührmann, Reinhard; Valcárcel, Juan; Eyras, Eduardo; Kornblihtt, Alberto R.

    2014-01-01

    The roles of Argonaute proteins in cytoplasmic microRNA and RNAi pathways are well established. However, their implication in small RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing in the mammalian cell nucleus is less understood. We have recently shown that intronic siRNAs cause chromatin modifications that inhibit RNA polymerase II elongation and modulate alternative splicing in an Argonaute-1 (AGO1)-dependent manner. Here we used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) to investigate the genome-wide distribution of AGO1 nuclear targets. Unexpectedly, we found that about 80% of AGO1 clusters are associated with cell-type-specific transcriptional enhancers, most of them (73%) overlapping active enhancers. This association seems to be mediated by long, rather than short, enhancer RNAs and to be more prominent in intragenic, rather than intergenic, enhancers. Paradoxically, crossing ChIP-seq with RNA-seq data upon AGO1 depletion revealed that enhancer-bound AGO1 is not linked to the global regulation of gene transcription but to the control of constitutive and alternative splicing, which was confirmed by an individual gene analysis explaining how AGO1 controls inclusion levels of the cassette exon 107 in the SYNE2 gene. PMID:25313066

  10. In vivo B-cell depletion with rituximab for alternative donor hemopoietic SCT.

    PubMed

    Dominietto, A; Tedone, E; Soracco, M; Bruno, B; Raiola, A M; Van Lint, M T; Geroldi, S; Lamparelli, T; Galano, B; Gualandi, F; Frassoni, F; Bacigalupo, A

    2012-01-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 55 patients given a fixed dose of rituximab (200 mg) on day+5 after an alternative donor transplant, to prevent EBV DNA-emia; 68 alternative transplants who did not receive prophylactic rituximab served as controls. The two groups were comparable for donor type, and all patients received anti-thymocyte globulin in the conditioning regimen. Rituximab patients had a significantly lower rate of EBV DNA-emia 56 vs 85% (P=0.0004), a lower number of maximum median EBV copies (91 vs 1321/10(5) cells, P=0.003) and a significantly lower risk of exceeding 1000 EBV copies per 10(5)cells (14 vs 49%, P=0.0001). Leukocyte and lymphocyte counts were lower on day +50 and+100 in rituximab patients, whereas Ig levels were comparable. The cumulative incidence of grade II-IV acute GvHD was significantly reduced in rituximab patients (20 vs 38%, P=0.02). Chronic GvHD was comparable. There was a trend for a survival advantage for patients receiving rituximab (46 vs 40%, P=0.1), mainly because of lower transplant mortality (25 vs 37%, P=0.1). Despite the drawback of a retrospective study, these data suggest that a fixed dose of rituximab on day +5 reduces the risk of a high EBV load, and also reduces acute GvHD. PMID:21460867

  11. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: problems & perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rajvi H

    2014-11-01

    The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC) lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF) opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been 'discarded' or 'spare' fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. in case a couple does not desire to 'cryopreserve' their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered 'spare' or if a couple is no longer in need of the 'cryopreserved' embryos then these also can be considered as 'spare'. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, "what about 'slightly' over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to 'discarded' embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of 'discarding' embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential 'use' of ESC derived from the 'abnormal appearing' embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material. PMID:25673530

  12. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: Problems & perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rajvi H.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC) lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF) opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ‘discarded’ or ‘spare’ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. In case a couple does not desire to ‘cryopreserve’ their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered ‘spare’ or if a couple is no longer in need of the ‘cryopreserved’ embryos then these also can be considered as ‘spare’. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, “what about ‘slightly’ over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to ‘discarded’ embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of ‘discarding’ embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential ‘use’ of ESC derived from the ‘abnormal appearing’ embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material. PMID:25673530

  13. Alternative approaches of SiC & related wide bandgap materials in light emitting & solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellmann, Peter; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Ou, Haiyan

    2014-03-01

    Materials for optoelectronics give a fascinating variety of issues to consider. Increasingly important are white light emitting diode (LED) and solar cell materials. Profound energy savings can be done by addressing new materials. White light emitting diodes are becoming common in our lighting scene. There is a great energy saving in the transition from the light bulb to white light emitting diodes via a transition of fluorescent light tubes. However, the white LEDs still suffer from a variety of challenges in order to be in our daily use. Therefore there is a great interest in alternative lighting solutions that could be part of our daily life. All materials create challenges in fabrication. Defects reduce the efficiency of optical transitions involved in the light emitting diode materials. The donor-acceptor co-doped SiC is a potential light converter for a novel monolithic all-semiconductor white LED. In spite of considerable research, the internal quantum efficiency is far less than theoretically predicted and is likely a fascinating scientific field for studying materials growth, defects and optical transitions. Still, efficient Si-based light source represents an ongoing research field in photonics that requires high efficiency at room temperature, wavelength tuning in a wide wavelength range, and easy integration in silicon photonic devices. In some of these devices, rare earth doped materials is considered as a potential way to provide luminescence spanning in a wide wavelength range. Divalent and trivalent oxidation states of Eu provide emitting centers in the visible region. In consideration, the use of Eu in photonics requires Eu doped thin films that are compatible with CMOS technology but for example faces material science issues like a low Eu solid solubility in silica. Therefore approaches aim to obtain efficient light emission from silicon oxycarbide which has a luminescence in the visible range and can be a host material for rare earth ions. The

  14. NFAT1 and NFAT3 Cooperate with HDAC4 during Regulation of Alternative Splicing of PMCA Isoforms in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kosiorek, Michalina; Podszywalow-Bartnicka, Paulina; Zylinska, Ludmila; Pikula, Slawomir

    2014-01-01

    Background The bulk of human genes undergo alternative splicing (AS) upon response to physiological stimuli. AS is a great source of protein diversity and biological processes and is associated with the development of many diseases. Pheochromocytoma is a neuroendocrine tumor, characterized by an excessive Ca2+-dependent secretion of catecholamines. This underlines the importance of balanced control of calcium transport via regulation of gene expression pattern, including different calcium transport systems, such as plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPases (PMCAs), abundantly expressed in pheochromocytoma chromaffin cells (PC12 cells). PMCAs are encoded by four genes (Atp2b1, Atp2b2, Atp2b3, Atp2b4), whose transcript products undergo alternative splicing giving almost 30 variants. Results In this scientific report, we propose a novel mechanism of regulation of PMCA alternative splicing in PC12 cells through cooperation of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). Luciferase assays showed increased activity of NFAT in PC12 cells, which was associated with altered expression of PMCA. RT-PCR experiments suggested that inhibition of the transcriptional activity of NFAT might result in the rearrangement of PMCA splicing variants in PC12 cells. NFAT inhibition led to dominant expression of 2x/c, 3x/a and 4x/a PMCA variants, while in untreated cells the 2w,z/b, 3z,x/b,c,e,f, and 4x/b variants were found as well. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments showed that NFAT1-HDAC4 or NFAT3-HDAC4 complexes might be involved in regulation of PMCA2x splicing variant generation. Conclusions We suggest that the influence of NFAT/HDAC on PMCA isoform composition might be important for altered dopamine secretion by PC12 cells. PMID:24905014

  15. Alternating current electrohydrodynamics induced nanoshearing and fluid micromixing for specific capture of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Rauf, Sakandar; Dray, Eloïse; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Trau, Matt

    2014-03-24

    We report a new tuneable alternating current (ac) electrohydrodynamics (ac-EHD) force referred to as “nanoshearing” which involves fluid flow generated within a few nanometers of an electrode surface. This force can be externally tuned via manipulating the applied ac-EHD field strength. The ability to manipulate ac-EHD induced forces and concomitant fluid micromixing can enhance fluid transport within the capture domain of the channel (e.g., transport of analytes and hence increase target–sensor interactions). This also provides a new capability to preferentially select strongly bound analytes over nonspecifically bound cells and molecules. To demonstrate the utility and versatility of nanoshearing phenomenon to specifically capture cancer cells, we present proof-of-concept data in lysed blood using two microfluidic devices containing a long array of asymmetric planar electrode pairs. Under the optimal experimental conditions, we achieved high capture efficiency (e.g., approximately 90%; %RSD=2, n=3) with a 10-fold reduction in nonspecific adsorption of non-target cells for the detection of whole cells expressing Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2). We believe that our ac-EHD devices and the use of tuneable nanoshearing phenomenon may find relevance in a wide variety of biological and medical applications. PMID:24677444

  16. Biofuel cell as a power source for electronic contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Falk, Magnus; Andoralov, Viktor; Blum, Zoltan; Sotres, Javier; Suyatin, Dmitry B; Ruzgas, Tautgirdas; Arnebrant, Thomas; Shleev, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Here we present unequivocal experimental proof that microscale cofactor- and membrane-less, direct electron transfer based enzymatic fuel cells do produce significant amounts of electrical energy in human lachrymal liquid (tears). 100 μm diameter gold wires, covered with 17 nm gold nanoparticles, were used to fashion three-dimensional nanostructured microelectrodes, which were biomodified with Corynascus thermophilus cellobiose dehydrogenase and Myrothecium verrucaria bilirubin oxidase as anodic and cathodic bioelements, respectively. The following characteristics of miniature glucose/oxygen biodevices operating in human tears were registered: 0.57 V open-circuit voltage, about 1 μW cm(-2) maximum power density at a cell voltage of 0.5 V, and more than 20 h operational half-life. Theoretical calculations regarding the maximum recoverable electrical energy can be extracted from the biofuel and the biooxidant, glucose and molecular oxygen, each readily available in human lachrymal liquid, fully support our belief that biofuel cells can be used as electrical power sources for so called smart contact lenses. PMID:22621980

  17. Biomethane Production as an Alternative Bioenergy Source from Codigesters Treating Municipal Sludge and Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ersahin, M. Evren; Yangin Gomec, Cigdem; Dereli, R. Kaan; Arikan, Osman; Ozturk, Izzet

    2011-01-01

    Energy recovery potential of a mesophilic co-digester treating OFMSW and primary sludge at an integrated biomethanization plant was investigated based on feasibility study results. Since landfilling is still the main solid waste disposal method in Turkey, land scarcity will become one of the most important obstacles. Restrictions for biodegradable waste disposal to sanitary landfills in EU Landfill Directive and uncontrolled long-term contamination with gas emissions and leachate necessitate alternative management strategies due to rapid increase in MSW production. Moreover, since energy contribution from renewable resources will be required more in the future with increasing oil prices and dwindling supplies of conventional energy sources, the significance of biogas as a renewable fuel has been increased in the last decade. Results indicated that almost 93% of annual total cost can be recovered if 100% renewable energy subsidy is implemented. Besides, considering the potential revenue when replacing transport fuels, about 26 heavy good vehicles or 549 cars may be powered per year by the biogas produced from the proposed biomethanization plant (PE = 100,000; XPS = 61 g TS/PE·day; XSS-OFMSW = 50 g TS/PE·day). PMID:21274432

  18. High sulfate reduction efficiency in a UASB using an alternative source of sulfidogenic sludge derived from hydrothermal vent sediments.

    PubMed

    García-Solares, Selene Montserrat; Ordaz, Alberto; Monroy-Hermosillo, Oscar; Jan-Roblero, Janet; Guerrero-Barajas, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    Sulfidogenesis in reactors is mostly achieved through adaptation of predominantly methanogenic granular sludge to sulfidogenesis. In this work, an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor operated under sulfate-reducing conditions was inoculated with hydrothermal vent sediments to carry out sulfate reduction using volatile fatty acids (VFAs) as substrate and chemical oxygen demand (COD)/SO4 (-2) ratios between 0.49 and 0.64. After a short period of adaptation, a robust non-granular sludge was capable of achieving high sulfate reduction efficiencies while avoiding competence with methanogens and toxicity to the microorganisms due to high sulfide concentration. The highest sulfide concentration (2,552 mg/L) was obtained with acetate/butyrate, and sulfate reduction efficiencies were up to 98 %. A mixture of acetate/butyrate, which produced a higher yielding of HS(-), was preferred over acetate/propionate/butyrate since the consumption of COD was minimized during the process. Sludge was analyzed, and some of the microorganisms identified in the sludge belong to the genera Desulfobacterium, Marinobacter, and Clostridium. The tolerance of the sludge to sulfide may be attributed to the syntrophy among these microorganisms, some of which have been reported to tolerate high concentrations of sulfide. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the analysis of the direct utilization of hydrothermal vent sediments as an alternate source of sludge for sulfate reduction under high sulfide concentrations. PMID:25234397

  19. The use of nucleosides and arginine as alternative energy sources by coagulase-negative staphylococci in view of meat fermentation.

    PubMed

    Janssens, M; Van der Mijnsbrugge, A; Sánchez Mainar, M; Balzarini, T; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2014-05-01

    The ability of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) to use alternative energy sources in meat may partially explain their occurrence in fermented meats. Of 61 CNS strains tested, all metabolized adenosine and inosine in a meat simulation medium (MSM). The ability to catabolize arginine via the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway varied between strains. All tested strains of Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus epidermidis possessed an arcA gene and showed ADI activity, whereas other species, such as Staphylococcus equorum and Staphylococcus succinus, did not. Arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACME), as in the positive control S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, were uncommon and only found in Staphylococcus xylosus 3PA6 (sausage isolate) and Staphylococcus chromogenes G222 (teat apex isolate). Monoculture experiments were performed in MSM with S. carnosus 833 and SS3-4, S. xylosus G211, and S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 and 2S7-4. At all pH values tested (5.3, 5.8, and 6.5), the strains of S. carnosus catabolized arginine faster than the strains of S. xylosus and S. epidermidis. Only at pH 6.5 could a low ADI activity be found for S. xylosus G211. Increased ADI activity occurred in the case of the ACME-positive S. epidermidis ATCC 12228, when compared to the ACME-negative S. epidermidis 2S7-4. PMID:24387852

  20. Alternative approaches of SiC & related wide bandgap materials in light emitting & solar cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellmann, Peter; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Ou, Haiyan

    2014-03-01

    Materials for optoelectronics give a fascinating variety of issues to consider. Increasingly important are white light emitting diode (LED) and solar cell materials. Profound energy savings can be done by addressing new materials. White light emitting diodes are becoming common in our lighting scene. There is a great energy saving in the transition from the light bulb to white light emitting diodes via a transition of fluorescent light tubes. However, the white LEDs still suffer from a variety of challenges in order to be in our daily use. Therefore there is a great interest in alternative lighting solutions that could be part of our daily life. All materials create challenges in fabrication. Defects reduce the efficiency of optical transitions involved in the light emitting diode materials. The donor-acceptor co-doped SiC is a potential light converter for a novel monolithic all-semiconductor white LED. In spite of considerable research, the internal quantum efficiency is far less than theoretically predicted and is likely a fascinating scientific field for studying materials growth, defects and optical transitions. Still, efficient Si-based light source represents an ongoing research field in photonics that requires high efficiency at room temperature, wavelength tuning in a wide wavelength range, and easy integration in silicon photonic devices. In some of these devices, rare earth doped materials is considered as a potential way to provide luminescence spanning in a wide wavelength range. Divalent and trivalent oxidation states of Eu provide emitting centers in the visible region. In consideration, the use of Eu in photonics requires Eu doped thin films that are compatible with CMOS technology but for example faces material science issues like a low Eu solid solubility in silica. Therefore approaches aim to obtain efficient light emission from silicon oxycarbide which has a luminescence in the visible range and can be a host material for rare earth ions. The

  1. Human alternatives to fetal bovine serum for the expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Bieback, Karen; Hecker, Andrea; Kocaömer, Asli; Lannert, Heinrich; Schallmoser, Katharina; Strunk, Dirk; Klüter, Harald

    2009-09-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for novel cell therapeutic applications. For clinical scale manufacturing, human factors from serum or platelets have been suggested as alternatives to fetal bovine serum (FBS). We have previously shown that pooled human serum (HS) and thrombin-activated platelet releasate in plasma (tPRP) support the expansion of adipose tissue-derived MSCs. Contradictory results with bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs have initiated a comprehensive comparison of HS, tPRP, and pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) and FBS in terms of their impact on MSC isolation, expansion, differentiation, and immunomodulatory activity. In addition to conventional Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, depletion of lineage marker expressing cells (RosetteSep) and CD271+ sorting were used for BM-MSC enrichment. Cells were cultured in medium containing either 10% FBS, HS, tPRP, or pHPL. Colony-forming units and cumulative population doublings were determined, and MSCs were maximally expanded. Although both HS and tPRP comparable to FBS supported isolation and expansion, pHPL significantly accelerated BM-MSC proliferation to yield clinically relevant numbers within the first two passages. MSC quality and functionality including cell surface marker expression, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, and immunosuppressive action were similar in MSCs from all culture conditions. Importantly, spontaneous cell transformation was not observed in any of the culture conditions. Telomerase activity was not detected in any of the cultures at any passage. In contrast to previous data from adipose tissue-derived MSCs, pHPL was found to be the most suitable FBS substitute in clinical scale BM-MSC expansion. PMID:19544413

  2. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R&D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  3. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  4. Rbm24 Regulates Alternative Splicing Switch in Embryonic Stem Cell Cardiac Lineage Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Lin, Yu; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zi Guan; Fu, Wei; Guo, Li Yan; Pan, Lei; Kong, Xu; Zhang, Meng Kai; Lu, Ying Hua; Huang, Zheng Rong; Xie, Qiang; Li, Wei Hua; Xu, Xiu Qin

    2016-07-01

    The transition of embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency to differentiation is accompanied by an expansion of mRNA and proteomic diversity. Post-transcriptional regulation of ESCs is critically governed by cell type-specific splicing. However, little is known about the splicing factors and the molecular mechanisms directing ESC early lineage differentiation. Our study identifies RNA binding motif protein 24 (Rbm24) as a key splicing regulator that plays an essential role in controlling post-transcriptional networks during ESC transition into cardiac differentiation. Using an inducible mouse ESC line in which gene expression could be temporally regulated, we demonstrated that forced expression of Rbm24 in ESCs dramatically induced a switch to cardiac specification. Genome-wide RNA sequencing analysis identified more than 200 Rbm24-regulated alternative splicing events (AS) which occurred in genes essential for the ESC pluripotency or differentiation. Remarkably, AS genes regulated by Rbm24 composed of transcriptional factors, cytoskeleton proteins, and ATPase gene family members which are critical components required for cardiac development and functionality. Furthermore, we show that Rbm24 regulates ESC differentiation by promoting alternative splicing of pluripotency genes. Among the Rbm24-regulated events, Tpm1, an actin filament family gene, was identified to possess ESC/tissue specific isoforms. We demonstrated that these isoforms were functionally distinct and that their exon AS switch was essential for ESC differentiation. Our results suggest that ESC's switching into the differentiation state can be initiated by a tissue-specific splicing regulator, Rbm24. This finding offers a global view on how an RNA binding protein influences ESC lineage differentiation by a splicing-mediated regulatory mechanism. Stem Cells 2016;34:1776-1789. PMID:26990106

  5. Alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cells: Processing and interactions of materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, J.L.; Armstrong, T.R.; Chick, L.A.

    1993-11-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop alternative materials for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) interconnections and electrodes with improved electrical, thermal, and electrochemical properties. The overall approach for this research and development is to: minimize the number of cations in the electrode, electrolyte, and interconnection by developing yttrium compounds, such as Y(Ca)CrO{sub 3} as the interconnection, and Y(M{prime})MnO{sub 3} as the air electrode; develop advanced synthesis and fabrication processes for air sintering, below 1,500 C, of chromite interconnections through (1) the use of sintering aids; and (2) the synthesis of submicrometer powders; establish methods for the simultaneous processing and consolidation of air-sinterable powders; electrochemically evaluate interface reactions (in reproducible and controlled laboratory tests) for both the alternate and state-of-the-art materials and cell components developed under this program; and evaluate the chemical reactivity and interdiffusion effects that take place between the various fuel cell components: electrolyte/cathode, interconnect/cathode, and interconnect/anode. This paper describes a comprehensive study that assessed the processing of air-sinterable chromites, the sintering mechanism of chromites, and the chemical reactivity and interdiffusional effects between the interconnect, air, and fuel electrodes. Materials evaluated were La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.31}CrO{sub 3}, La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.29}CrO{sub 3}, (Y{sub 0.6}Ca{sub 0.4}){sub 1.05}Cr{sub 0.95}O{sub 3}, La{sub 1{minus}x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, La{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, Y{sub 1{minus}x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3}, and Y{sub 1{minus}x}Sr{sub x}MnO{sub 3}.

  6. A study of alternative designs for a system to concentrate carbon dioxide in a hydrogen-depolarized cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on alternative designs for a hydrogen depolarized cell to concentrate CO2 in spacecraft atmospheric control systems. Data cover technical problems, methods for solving these problems, and the suitability of such a cell for CO2 removal and control of atmospheric humidity during the flight mode.

  7. Intrinsic borohydride fuel cell/battery hybrid power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jian; Fang, Bin; Wang, Chunsheng; Currie, Kenneth

    The electrochemical oxidation behaviors of NaBH 4 on Zn, Zn-MH, and MH (metal-hydride) electrodes were investigated, and an intrinsic direct borohydride fuel cell (DBFC)/battery hybrid power source using MH (or Zn-MH) as the anode and MnO 2 as the cathode was tested. Borohydride cannot be effectively oxidized on Zn electrodes at the Zn oxidation potential because of the poor electrocatalytic ability of Zn for borohydride oxidation and the high overpotential, even though borohydride has the same oxidation potential of Zn in an alkaline solution. The borohydride can be electrochemically oxidized on Ni and MH electrodes through a 4e reaction at a high overpotential. Simply adding borohydride into an alkaline electrolyte of a Zn/air or MH/air battery can greatly increase the capacity, while an intrinsic DBFC/MH(or Zn)-MnO 2 battery can deliver a higher peak power than regular DBFCs.

  8. Human epidermal neural crest stem cells as a source of Schwann cells

    PubMed Central

    Sakaue, Motoharu; Sieber-Blum, Maya

    2015-01-01

    We show that highly pure populations of human Schwann cells can be derived rapidly and in a straightforward way, without the need for genetic manipulation, from human epidermal neural crest stem cells [hEPI-NCSC(s)] present in the bulge of hair follicles. These human Schwann cells promise to be a useful tool for cell-based therapies, disease modelling and drug discovery. Schwann cells are glia that support axons of peripheral nerves and are direct descendants of the embryonic neural crest. Peripheral nerves are damaged in various conditions, including through trauma or tumour-related surgery, and Schwann cells are required for their repair and regeneration. Schwann cells also promise to be useful for treating spinal cord injuries. Ex vivo expansion of hEPI-NCSC isolated from hair bulge explants, manipulating the WNT, sonic hedgehog and TGFβ signalling pathways, and exposure of the cells to pertinent growth factors led to the expression of the Schwann cell markers SOX10, KROX20 (EGR2), p75NTR (NGFR), MBP and S100B by day 4 in virtually all cells, and maturation was completed by 2 weeks of differentiation. Gene expression profiling demonstrated expression of transcripts for neurotrophic and angiogenic factors, as well as JUN, all of which are essential for nerve regeneration. Co-culture of hEPI-NCSC-derived human Schwann cells with rodent dorsal root ganglia showed interaction of the Schwann cells with axons, providing evidence of Schwann cell functionality. We conclude that hEPI-NCSCs are a biologically relevant source for generating large and highly pure populations of human Schwann cells. PMID:26251357

  9. Pinpointing retrovirus entry sites in cells expressing alternatively spliced receptor isoforms by single virus imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of viruses enter host cells via endocytosis. Current knowledge of viral entry pathways is largely based upon infectivity measurements following genetic and/or pharmacological interventions that disrupt vesicular trafficking and maturation. Imaging of single virus entry in living cells provides a powerful means to delineate viral trafficking pathways and entry sites under physiological conditions. Results Here, we visualized single avian retrovirus co-trafficking with markers for early (Rab5) and late (Rab7) endosomes, acidification of endosomal lumen and the resulting viral fusion measured by the viral content release into the cytoplasm. Virus-carrying vesicles either merged with the existing Rab5-positive early endosomes or slowly accumulated Rab5. The Rab5 recruitment to virus-carrying endosomes correlated with acidification of their lumen. Viral fusion occurred either in early (Rab5-positive) or intermediate (Rab5- and Rab7-positive) compartments. Interestingly, different isoforms of the cognate receptor directed virus entry from distinct endosomes. In cells expressing the transmembrane receptor, viruses preferentially entered and fused with slowly maturing early endosomes prior to accumulation of Rab7. By comparison, in cells expressing the GPI-anchored receptor, viruses entered both slowly and quickly maturing endosomes and fused with early (Rab5-positive) and intermediate (Rab5- and Rab7-positive) compartments. Conclusions Since the rate of low pH-triggered fusion was independent of the receptor isoform, we concluded that the sites of virus entry are determined by the kinetic competition between endosome maturation and viral fusion. Our findings demonstrate the ability of this retrovirus to enter cells via alternative endocytic pathways and establish infection by releasing its content from distinct endosomal compartments. PMID:24935247

  10. Milk fat globule is an alternative to mammary epithelial cells for gene expression analysis in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiuming; Wu, Yanjun; Zhang, Mingyuan; Xu, Wenwen; Guo, Xiaoping; Yan, Xueyu; Deng, Haiying; Jiang, Qinyang; Yang, Xiurong; Lan, Ganqiu; Guo, Yafen; Qin, Guangsheng; Jiang, Hesheng

    2016-05-01

    Owing to the difficulty in obtaining mammary gland tissue from lactating animals, it is difficult to test the expression levels of genes in mammary gland. The aim of the current study was to identify if milk fat globule (MFG) in buffalo milk was an alternative to mammary gland (MG) and milk somatic cell (MSC) for gene expression analysis. Six buffalos in late lactation were selected to collect MFG and MSC, and then MG was obtained by surgery. MFG was stained with acridine orange to successfully visualise RNA and several cytoplasmic crescents in MFG. The total RNA in MFG was successfully isolated and the integrity was assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis. We analysed the cellular components in MFG, MG and MSC through testing the expression of cell-specific genes by qRT-PCR. The results showed that adipocyte-specific gene (AdipoQ) and leucocyte-specific genes (CD43, CSF1 and IL1α) in MFG were not detected, whereas epithelial cell marker genes (Keratin 8 and Keratin 18) in MFG were higher than in MSC and lower than in MG, fibroblast marker gene (vimentin) in MFG was significantly lower than in MG and MSC, milk protein genes (LALBA, BLG and CSN2) and milk fat synthesis-related genes (ACC, BTN1A1, FABP3 and FAS) in MFG were higher than in MG and MSC. In conclusion, the total RNA in MFG mainly derives from mammary epithelial cells and can be used to study the functional gene expression of mammary epithelial cells. PMID:27032540

  11. Assembly of an Evolutionarily Conserved Alternative Proteasome Isoform in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Achuth; Vuong, Simone Anh-Thu; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Summary Targeted intracellular protein degradation in eukaryotes is largely mediated by the proteasome. Here we report formation of an alternative proteasome isoform in human cells, previously found only in budding yeast, which bears an altered subunit arrangement in the outer ring of the proteasome core particle. These proteasomes result from incorporation of an additional α4 (PSMA7) subunit in the position normally occupied by α3 (PSMA4). Assembly of ‘α4-α4’ proteasomes depends on the relative cellular levels of α4 and α3, and on the proteasome assembly chaperone PAC3. The oncogenic tyrosine kinases ABL and ARG and the tumor suppressor BRCA1 regulate cellular α4 levels and formation of α4-α4 proteasomes. Cells primed to assemble α4-α4 proteasomes exhibit enhanced resistance to toxic metal ions. Taken together, our results establish the existence of a novel mammalian proteasome isoform and suggest a potential role in enabling cells to adapt to environmental stresses. PMID:26997268

  12. Late effects in patients with Fanconi anemia following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from alternative donors.

    PubMed

    Anur, P; Friedman, D N; Sklar, C; Oeffinger, K; Castiel, M; Kearney, J; Singh, B; Prockop, S E; Kernan, N A; Scaradavou, A; Kobos, R; Curran, K; Ruggiero, J; Zakak, N; O'Reilly, R J; Boulad, F

    2016-07-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for hematological manifestations of Fanconi anemia (FA). We performed a retrospective analysis of 22 patients with FA and aplastic anemia, myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia who underwent a HSCT at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and survived at least 1 year post HSCT. Patients underwent either a TBI- (N=18) or busulfan- (N=4) based cytoreduction followed by T-cell-depleted transplants from alternative donors. Twenty patients were alive at time of the study with a 5- and 10-year overall survival of 100 and 84% and no evidence of chronic GvHD. Among the 18 patients receiving a TBI-based regimen, 11 (61%) had persistent hemochromatosis, 4 (22%) developed hypothyroidism, 7 (39%) had insulin resistance and 5 (27%) developed hypertriglyceridemia after transplant. Eleven of 16 evaluable patients (68%), receiving TBI, developed gonadal dysfunction. Two patients who received a TBI-based regimen died of squamous cell carcinoma. One patient developed hemochromatosis, hypothyroidism and gonadal dysfunction after busulfan-based cytoreduction. TBI appears to be a risk factor for malignant and endocrine late effects in the FA host. Multidisciplinary follow-up of patients with FA (including cancer screening) is essential for early detection and management of late complications, and improving long-term outcomes. PMID:26999465

  13. Conserved functional antagonism of CELF and MBNL proteins controls stem cell-specific alternative splicing in planarians.

    PubMed

    Solana, Jordi; Irimia, Manuel; Ayoub, Salah; Orejuela, Marta Rodriguez; Zywitza, Vera; Jens, Marvin; Tapial, Javier; Ray, Debashish; Morris, Quaid; Hughes, Timothy R; Blencowe, Benjamin J; Rajewsky, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to transcriptional regulation, the function of alternative splicing (AS) in stem cells is poorly understood. In mammals, MBNL proteins negatively regulate an exon program specific of embryonic stem cells; however, little is known about the in vivo significance of this regulation. We studied AS in a powerful in vivo model for stem cell biology, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We discover a conserved AS program comprising hundreds of alternative exons, microexons and introns that is differentially regulated in planarian stem cells, and comprehensively identify its regulators. We show that functional antagonism between CELF and MBNL factors directly controls stem cell-specific AS in planarians, placing the origin of this regulatory mechanism at the base of Bilaterians. Knockdown of CELF or MBNL factors lead to abnormal regenerative capacities by affecting self-renewal and differentiation sets of genes, respectively. These results highlight the importance of AS interactions in stem cell regulation across metazoans. PMID:27502555

  14. CD146+ Human Umbilical Cord Perivascular Cells Maintain Stemness under Hypoxia and as a Cell Source for Skeletal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Wing Pui; Shu, Yinglan; Kwok, Po Lam; Zhang, Fengjie; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Tang, Mei Kuen; Li, Gang; Chan, Kai Ming; Chan, Wai-Yee; Wan, Chao

    2013-01-01

    The human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs) have been considered as an alternative source of mesenchymal progenitors for cell based regenerative medicine. However, the biological properties of these cells remain to be well characterized. In the present study, HUCPVCs were isolated and sorted by CD146+ pericyte marker. The purified CD146+ HUCPVCs were induced to differentiate efficiently into osteoblast, chondrocyte and adipocyte lineages in vitro. Six weeks following subcutaneous transplantation of CD146+ HUCPVCs-Gelfoam-alginate 3D complexes in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, newly formed bone matrix with embedded osteocytes of donor origin was observed. The functional engraftment of CD146+ HUCPVCs in the new bone regenerates was further confirmed in a critical-sized bone defect model in SCID mice. Hypoxic conditions suppressed osteogenic differentiation while increased cell proliferation and colony-forming efficiency of CD146+ HUCPVCs as compared to that under normoxic conditions. Re-oxygenation restored the multi-differentiation potential of the CD146+ HUCPVCs. Western blot analysis revealed an upregulation of HIF-1α, HIF-2α, and OCT-4 protein expression in CD146+ HUCPVCs under hypoxia, while there was no remarkable change in SOX2 and NANOG expression. The gene expression profiles of stem cell transcription factors between cells treated by normoxia and hypoxic conditions were compared by PCR array analysis. Intriguingly, PPAR-γ was dramatically downregulated (20-fold) in mRNA expression under hypoxia, and was revealed to possess a putative binding site in the Hif-2α gene promoter region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed the binding of PPAR-γ protein to the Hif-2α promoter and the binding was suppressed by hypoxia treatment. Luciferase reporter assay showed that the Hif-2α promoter activity was suppressed by PPAR expression. Thus, PPAR-γ may involve in the regulation of HIF-2α for stemness maintenance and promoting

  15. Investigations on caesium-free alternatives for H{sup −} formation at ion source relevant parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Kurutz, U.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-08

    Negative hydrogen ions are efficiently produced in ion sources by the application of caesium. Due to a thereby induced lowering of the work function of a converter surface a direct conversion of impinging hydrogen atoms and positive ions into negative ions is maintained. However, due to the complex caesium chemistry and dynamics a long-term behaviour is inherent for the application of caesium that affects the stability and reliability of negative ion sources. To overcome these drawbacks caesium-free alternatives for efficient negative ion formation are investigated at the flexible laboratory setup HOMER (HOMogenous Electron cyclotron Resonance plasma). By the usage of a meshed grid the tandem principle is applied allowing for investigations on material induced negative ion formation under plasma parameters relevant for ion source operation. The effect of different sample materials on the ratio of the negative ion density to the electron density n{sub H{sup −}} /n{sub e} is compared to the effect of a stainless steel reference sample and investigated by means of laser photodetachment in a pressure range from 0.3 to 3 Pa. For the stainless steel sample no surface induced effect on the negative ion density is present and the measured negative ion densities are resulting from pure volume formation and destruction processes. In a first step the dependency of n{sub H{sup −}} /n{sub e} on the sample distance has been investigated for a caesiated stainless steel sample. At a distance of 0.5 cm at 0.3 Pa the density ratio is 3 times enhanced compared to the reference sample confirming the surface production of negative ions. In contrast for the caesium-free material samples, tantalum and tungsten, the same dependency on pressure and distance n{sub H{sup −}} /n{sub e} like for the stainless steel reference sample were obtained within the error margins: A density ratio of around 14.5% is measured at 4.5 cm sample distance and 0.3 Pa, linearly decreasing with

  16. TiO2 nanotubes as alternative cathode in microbial fuel cells: Effect of annealing treatment on its performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahia, S. Ait Ali; Hamadou, L.; Salar-García, M. J.; Kadri, A.; Ortiz-Martínez, V. M.; Hernández-Fernández, F. J.; de los Rios, A. Pérez; Benbrahim, N.

    2016-11-01

    In the present work, amorphous and crystalline TiO2 nanotubes (TiNT) were fabricated via anodization and characterized as an alternative cathode for Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs). The morphology of TiNT is characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The crystalline structure and chemical composition are examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The electrical conductivity characteristics were examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). MFCs based on the alternative cathodes were evaluated in terms of energy generation and wastewater treatment. The performances of the as-anodized nanotubes and TiNT annealed at 450 °C and at 550 °C were investigated in double-chamber MFCs with carbon rod and graphite granules as anode and polymer inclusion membrane based on ionic liquid as separator. Industrial wastewater was the source of carbon and inoculum for the experiments. The as grown amorphous nanotubes exhibited the best output power density of 15.16 mWm-2. The results reported here indicate that the specific surface area and the oxygen vacancies of the TiNT cathode can influence the MFCs performance together, because both factors play crucial role in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). As-anodized TiNT, due to its higher specific surface provide more active sites for electrode reactions. The final oxygen demand (COD) for all systems achieved a COD removal within the interval 54-71% after 10 days. This approved the suitability of MFCs for wastewater treatment.

  17. Power sources for portable electronics and hybrid cars: lithium batteries and fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Scrosati, Bruno

    2005-01-01

    The activities in progress in our laboratory for the development of batteries and fuel cells for portable electronics and hybrid car applications are reviewed and discussed. In the case of lithium batteries, the research has been mainly focused on the characterization of new electrode and electrolyte materials. Results related to disordered carbon anodes and improved, solvent-free, as well as gel-type, polymer electrolytes are particularly stressed. It is shown that the use of proper gel electrolytes, in combination with suitable electrode couples, allows the development of new types of safe, reliable, and low-cost lithium ion batteries which appear to be very promising power sources for hybrid vehicles. Some of the technologies proven to be successful in the lithium battery area are readapted for use in fuel cells. In particular, this approach has been followed for the preparation of low-cost and stable protonic membranes to be proposed as an alternative to the expensive, perfluorosulfonic membranes presently used in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). PMID:16211622

  18. Global Gene Expression Profiling and Alternative Splicing Events during the Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Cartilage Endplate-Derived Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jin; Fan, Xin; Shangguan, Lei; Liu, Huan; Zhou, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a very prevalent disease and degenerative disc diseases (DDDs) usually account for the LBP. However, the pathogenesis of DDDs is complicated and difficult to elucidate. Alternative splicing is a sophisticated regulatory process which greatly increases cellular complexity and phenotypic diversity of eukaryotic organisms. In addition, the cartilage endplate-derived stem cells have been discovered and identified by our research group. In this paper, we continue to investigate gene expression profiling and alternative splicing events during chondrogenic differentiation of cartilage endplate-derived stem cells. We adopted Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array 2.0 (HTA 2.0) to compare the transcriptional and splicing changes between the control and differentiated samples. RT-PCR and quantitative PCR are used to validate the microarray results. The GO and KEGG pathway analysis was also performed. After bioinformatics analysis of the data, we detected 1953 differentially expressed genes. In terms of alternative splicing, the Splicing Index algorithm was used to select alternatively spliced genes. We detected 4411 alternatively spliced genes. GO and KEGG pathway analysis also revealed several functionally involved biological processes and signaling pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the alternative splicing mechanisms in chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells on a genome-wide scale. PMID:26649308

  19. Selective, but Only if It Is Free: Children Trust Inaccurate Individuals More When Alternative Sources Are Costly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brosseau-Liard, Patricia E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research examines the effect of the costliness of an information source on children's selective learning. In three experiments (total N?=?112), 4-to 7-year-olds were given the opportunity to acquire and endorse information from one of two sources. One source, a computer, was described as always accurate; the other source, a…

  20. Energy management of fuel cell/solar cell/supercapacitor hybrid power source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thounthong, Phatiphat; Chunkag, Viboon; Sethakul, Panarit; Sikkabut, Suwat; Pierfederici, Serge; Davat, Bernard

    This study presents an original control algorithm for a hybrid energy system with a renewable energy source, namely, a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and a photovoltaic (PV) array. A single storage device, i.e., a supercapacitor (ultracapacitor) module, is in the proposed structure. The main weak point of fuel cells (FCs) is slow dynamics because the power slope is limited to prevent fuel starvation problems, improve performance and increase lifetime. The very fast power response and high specific power of a supercapacitor complements the slower power output of the main source to produce the compatibility and performance characteristics needed in a load. The energy in the system is balanced by d.c.-bus energy regulation (or indirect voltage regulation). A supercapacitor module functions by supplying energy to regulate the d.c.-bus energy. The fuel cell, as a slow dynamic source in this system, supplies energy to the supercapacitor module in order to keep it charged. The photovoltaic array assists the fuel cell during daytime. To verify the proposed principle, a hardware system is realized with analog circuits for the fuel cell, solar cell and supercapacitor current control loops, and with numerical calculation (dSPACE) for the energy control loops. Experimental results with small-scale devices, namely, a PEMFC (1200 W, 46 A) manufactured by the Ballard Power System Company, a photovoltaic array (800 W, 31 A) manufactured by the Ekarat Solar Company and a supercapacitor module (100 F, 32 V) manufactured by the Maxwell Technologies Company, illustrate the excellent energy-management scheme during load cycles.

  1. Equine tracheal epithelial membrane strips - An alternate method for examining epithelial cell arachidonic acid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.R.; Derksen, F.J.; Robinson, N.E.; Peter-Golden, M.L. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor )

    1990-02-26

    Arachidonic acid metabolism by tracheal epithelium can be studied using enzymatically dispersed cell suspensions or cell cultures. Both techniques require considerable tissue disruption and manipulation and may not accurately represent in vivo activity. The authors have developed an alternate method for obtaining strips of equine tracheal epithelium without enzymatic digestion. In the horse, a prominent elastic lamina supports the tracheal epithelium. By physical splitting this lamina, they obtained strips ({le}12 x 1.5 cm) of pseudostratified columnar epithelium attached to a layer of elastic tissue 30-100 {mu}m thick. Epithelial strips (1.2 x 0.5 cm) were attached to plexiglass rods and incubated with ({sup 3}H)arachidonic acid in M199 medium (0.5 {mu}Ci/ml) for 24 hours at 37C. The strips incorporated 36{+-}4% (mean {+-} SEM) of the total radioactivity and released 8.0{+-}1.2% of incorporated radioactivity when stimulated by 5.0 {mu}M calcium ionophore A23187. The extracted supernatant was processed using HPLC, resulting in peaks of radioactivity that co-eluted with authentic PGE{sub 2}, PGF{sub 2}{alpha}, and 12-HETE standards. The greatest activity corresponded to the PGE{sub 2} and PGF{sub 2}{alpha} standards, which is a similar pattern to that reported for cultured human tracheal epithelium.

  2. Usefulness of Photodynamic Therapy as a Possible Therapeutic Alternative in the Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Paola; Deboli, Tommaso; Previgliano, Alberto; Broganelli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in individuals with fair skin type (I–II) and steadily increasing in incidence (70% of skin malignancy). It is locally invasive but metastasis is usually very rare, with an estimated incidence of 0.0028%–0.55%. Conventional therapy is surgery, especially for the H region of the face and infiltrative lesions; in case of inoperable tumors, radiotherapy is a valid option. Recently, topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) has become an effective treatment in the management of superficial and small nodular BCC. PDT is a minimally invasive procedure that involves the administration of a photo-sensibilizing agent followed by irradiation at a pre-defined wavelength; this determines the creation of reactive oxygen species that specifically destroy target cells. The only major side effect is pain, reported by some patients during the irradiation. The high cure rate and excellent cosmetic outcome requires considering this possibility for the management of patients with both sporadic and hereditary BCC. In this article, an extensive review of the recent literature was made, in order to clarify the role of PDT as a possible alternative therapeutic option in the treatment of BCC. PMID:26426005

  3. Alternating current electrohydrodynamics in microsystems: Pushing biomolecules and cells around on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Ramanathan; Dey, Shuvashis; Carrascosa, Laura G; Shiddiky, Muhammad J A; Trau, Matt

    2015-11-01

    Electrohydrodynamics (EHD) deals with the fluid motion induced by an electric field. This phenomenon originally developed in physical science, and engineering is currently experiencing a renaissance in microfluidics. Investigations by Taylor on Gilbert's theory proposed in 1600 have evolved to include multiple contributions including the promising effects arising from electric field interactions with cells and particles to influence their behaviour on electrode surfaces. Theoretical modelling of electric fields in microsystems and the ability to determine shear forces have certainly reached an advanced state. The ability to deftly manipulate microscopic fluid flow in bulk fluid and at solid/liquid interfaces has enabled the controlled assembly, coagulation, or removal of microstructures, nanostructures, cells, and molecules on surfaces. Furthermore, the ability of electrohydrodynamics to generate fluid flow using surface shear forces generated within nanometers from the surface and their application in bioassays has led to recent advancements in biomolecule, vesicle and cellular detection across different length scales. With the integration of Alternating Current Electrohydrodynamics (AC-EHD) in cellular and molecular assays proving to be highly fruitful, challenges still remain with respect to understanding the discrepancies between each of the associated ac-induced fluid flow phenomena, extending their utility towards clinical diagnostic development, and utilising them in tandem as a standard tool for disease monitoring. In this regard, this article will review the history of electrohydrodynamics, followed by some of the recent developments in the field including a new dimension of electrohydrodynamics that deals with the utilization of surface shear forces for the manipulation of biological cells or molecules on electrode surfaces. Recent advances and challenges in the use of electrohydrodynamic forces such as dielectrophoresis and ac electrosmosis for the

  4. Severe hypoxia exerts parallel and cell-specific regulation of gene expression and alternative splicing in human mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The endosteum of the bone marrow provides a specialized hypoxic niche that may serve to preserve the integrity, pluripotency, longevity and stemness of resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). To explore the molecular genetic consequences of such a niche we subjected human (h) MSCs to a pO2 of 4 mmHg and analyzed global gene expression and alternative splicing (AS) by genome-exon microarray and RT-qPCR, and phenotype by western blot and immunostaining. Results Out of 446 genes differentially regulated by >2.5-fold, down-regulated genes outnumbered up-regulated genes by 243:203. Exon analyses revealed 60 hypoxia-regulated AS events with splice indices (SI) >1.0 from 53 genes and a correlation between high SI and degree of transcript regulation. Parallel analyses of a publicly available AS study on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) showed that there was a strong cell-specific component with only 11 genes commonly regulated in hMSCs and HUVECs and 17 common differentially spliced genes. Only 3 genes were differentially responsive to hypoxia at the gene (>2.0) and AS levels in both cell types. Functional assignments revealed unique profiles of gene expression with complex regulation of differentiation, extracellular matrix, intermediate filament and metabolic marker genes. Antioxidant genes, striated muscle genes and insulin/IGF-1 signaling intermediates were down-regulated. There was a coordinate induction of 9 out of 12 acidic keratins that along with other epithelial and cell adhesion markers implies a partial mesenchymal to epithelial transition. Conclusions We conclude that severe hypoxia confers a quiescent phenotype in hMSCs that is reflected by both the transcriptome profile and gene-specific changes of splicosome actions. The results reveal that severe hypoxia imposes markedly different patterns of gene regulation of MSCs compared with more moderate hypoxia. This is the first study to report hypoxia-regulation of AS in stem

  5. Reducing Open Cell Landfill Methane Emissions with a Bioactive Alternative Daily

    SciTech Connect

    Helene Hilger; James Oliver; Jean Bogner; David Jones

    2009-03-31

    Methane and carbon dioxide are formed in landfills as wastes degrade. Molecule-for-molecule, methane is about 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in the earth's atmosphere, and thus, it is the methane emissions from landfills that are scrutinized. For example, if emissions composed of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide were changed to a mix that was 40% methane and 60% carbon dioxide, a 30% reduction in the landfill's global warming potential would result. A 10% methane, 90% carbon dioxide ratio will result in a 75% reduction in global warming potential compared to the baseline. Gas collection from a closed landfill can reduce emissions, and it is sometimes combined with a biocover, an engineered system where methane oxidizing bacteria living in a medium such as compost, convert landfill methane to carbon dioxide and water. Although methane oxidizing bacteria merely convert one greenhouse gas (methane) to another (carbon dioxide), this conversion can offer significant reductions in the overall greenhouse gas contribution, or global warming potential, associated with the landfill. What has not been addressed to date is the fact that methane can also escape from a landfill when the active cell is being filled with waste. Federal regulations require that newly deposited solid waste to be covered daily with a 6 in layer of soil or an alternative daily cover (ADC), such as a canvas tarp. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of immobilizing methane oxidizing bacteria into a tarp-like matrix that could be used for alternative daily cover at open landfill cells to prevent methane emissions. A unique method of isolating methanotrophs from landfill cover soil was used to create a liquid culture of mixed methanotrophs. A variety of prospective immobilization techniques were used to affix the bacteria in a tarp-like matrix. Both gel encapsulation of methanotrophs and gels with liquid cores containing methanotrophs were readily made but

  6. New biofuel alternatives: integrating waste management and single cell oil production.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Elia Judith; Raghavan, Vijaya; González-Andrés, Fernando; Gómez, Xiomar

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased research efforts into alternatives in bio-based processes. With regard to transport fuel, bioethanol and biodiesel are still the main biofuels used. It is expected that future production of these biofuels will be based on processes using either non-food competing biomasses, or characterised by low CO₂ emissions. Many microorganisms, such as microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under special culture conditions. Microbial oils might become one of the potential feed-stocks for biodiesel production in the near future. The use of these oils is currently under extensive research in order to reduce production costs associated with the fermentation process, which is a crucial factor to increase economic feasibility. An important way to reduce processing costs is the use of wastes as carbon sources. The aim of the present review is to describe the main aspects related to the use of different oleaginous microorganisms for lipid production and their performance when using bio-wastes. The possibilities for combining hydrogen (H₂) and lipid production are also explored in an attempt for improving the economic feasibility of the process. PMID:25918941

  7. New Biofuel Alternatives: Integrating Waste Management and Single Cell Oil Production

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Elia Judith; Raghavan, Vijaya; González-Andrés, Fernando; Gómez, Xiomar

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased research efforts into alternatives in bio-based processes. With regard to transport fuel, bioethanol and biodiesel are still the main biofuels used. It is expected that future production of these biofuels will be based on processes using either non-food competing biomasses, or characterised by low CO2 emissions. Many microorganisms, such as microalgae, yeast, bacteria and fungi, have the ability to accumulate oils under special culture conditions. Microbial oils might become one of the potential feed-stocks for biodiesel production in the near future. The use of these oils is currently under extensive research in order to reduce production costs associated with the fermentation process, which is a crucial factor to increase economic feasibility. An important way to reduce processing costs is the use of wastes as carbon sources. The aim of the present review is to describe the main aspects related to the use of different oleaginous microorganisms for lipid production and their performance when using bio-wastes. The possibilities for combining hydrogen (H2) and lipid production are also explored in an attempt for improving the economic feasibility of the process. PMID:25918941

  8. Locust bean gum as an alternative polymeric coating for embryonic stem cell culture.

    PubMed

    Perestrelo, Ana Rubina; Grenha, Ana; Rosa da Costa, Ana M; Belo, José António

    2014-07-01

    Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have self-renewal capacity and the potential to differentiate into any cellular type depending on specific cues (pluripotency) and, therefore, have become a vibrant research area in the biomedical field. ESCs are usually cultured in gelatin or on top of a monolayer of feeder cells such as mitotically inactivated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFsi). The latter is the gold standard support to maintain the ESCs in the pluripotent state. Examples of versatile, non-animal derived and inexpensive materials that are able to support pluripotent ESCs are limited. Therefore, our aim was to find a biomaterial able to support ESC growth in a pluripotent state avoiding laborious and time consuming parallel culture of MEFsi and as simple to handle as gelatin. Many of the new biomaterials used to develop stem cell microenvironments are using natural polymers adsorbed or covalently attached to the surface to improve the biocompatibility of synthetic polymers. Locust beam gum (LBG) is a natural, edible polymer, which has a wide range of potential applications in different fields, such as food and pharmaceutical industry, due to its biocompatibility, adhesiveness and thickening properties. The present work brings a natural system based on the use of LBG as a coating for ESC culture. Undifferentiated mouse ESCs were cultured on commercially available LBG to evaluate its potential in maintaining pluripotent ESCs. In terms of morphology, ESC colonies in LBG presented the regular dome shape with bright borders, similar to the colonies obtained in co-cultures with MEFsi and characteristic of pluripotent ESC colonies. In short-term cultures, ESC proliferation in LBG coating was similar to ESC cultured in gelatin and the cells maintained their viability. The activity of alkaline phosphatase and Nanog, Sox2 and Oct4 expression of mouse ESCs cultured in LBG were comparable or in some cases higher than in ESCs cultured in gelatin. An in vitro

  9. Transcriptomic Analysis of PNN- and ESRP1-Regulated Alternative Pre-mRNA Splicing in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Jeong-Hoon; Correia, Greg P.; Li, Jian-Liang; Lopez, Maria-Cecilia; Baker, Henry V.; Sugrue, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. We investigated the impact of PININ (PNN) and epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 (ESRP1) on alternative pre-mRNA splicing in the corneal epithelial context. Methods. Isoform-specific RT-PCR assays were performed on wild-type and Pnn knockout mouse cornea. Protein interactions were examined by deconvolution microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation. For genome-wide alternative splicing study, immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (HCET) harboring doxycycline-inducible shRNA against PNN or ESRP1 were created. Total RNA was isolated from four biological replicates of control and knockdown HCET cells, and subjected to hGlue3_0 transcriptome array analysis. Results. Pnn depletion in developing mouse corneal epithelium led to disrupted alternative splicing of multiple ESRP-regulated epithelial-type exons. In HCET cells, ESRP1 and PNN displayed close localization in and around nuclear speckles, and their physical association in protein complexes was identified. Whole transcriptome array analysis on ESRP1 or PNN knockdown HCET cells revealed clear alterations in transcript profiles and splicing patterns of specific subsets of genes. Separate RT-PCR validation assays confirmed successfully specific changes in exon usage of several representative splice variants, including PAX6(5a), FOXJ3, ARHGEF11, and SLC37A2. Gene ontologic analyses on ESRP1- or PNN-regulated alternative exons suggested their roles in epithelial phenotypes, such as cell morphology and movement. Conclusions. Our data suggested that ESRP1 and PNN modulate alternative splicing of a specific subset of target genes, but not general splicing events, in HCET cells to maintain or enhance epithelial characteristics. PMID:23299472

  10. An Alternative Treatment of Trace Chemical Constituents in Calculated Chemical Source Terms for Hanford Tank Farms Safety Analsyes

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, James L.

    2006-09-26

    Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tank accident analyses require chemical waste toxicity source terms to assess potential accident consequences. Recent reviews of the current methodology used to generate source terms and the need to periodically update the sources terms has brought scrutiny to the manner in which trace waste constituents are included in the source terms. This report examines the importance of trace constituents to the chemical waste source terms, which are calculated as sums of fractions (SOFs), and recommends three changes to the manner in which trace constituents are included in the calculation SOFs.

  11. Alternative Pathway to a Glycopeptide-Resistant Cell Wall in the Balhimycin Producer Amycolatopsis balhimycina.

    PubMed

    Frasch, Hans-Joerg; Kalan, Lindsay; Kilian, Regina; Martin, Tobias; Wright, Gerard D; Stegmann, Evi

    2015-06-12

    Balhimycin, a vancomycin-type glycopeptide, is a lipid II targeting antibiotic produced by Amycolatopsis balhimycina. A. balhimycina has developed a self-resistance mechanism based on the synergistic action of different enzymes resulting in modified peptidoglycan. The canonical resistance mechanism against glycopeptides is the synthesis of peptidoglycan precursors ending with acyl-d-alanyl-d-lactate (d-Ala-d-Lac) rather than acyl-d-alanyl-d-alanine (d-Ala-d-Ala). This reprogramming is the result of the enzymes VanH, VanA, and VanX. VanH and VanA are required to produce d-Ala-d-Lac; VanX cleaves cytosolic pools of d-Ala-d-Ala, thereby ensuring that peptidoglycan is enriched in d-Ala-d-Lac. In A. balhimycina, the ΔvanHAXAb mutant showed a reduced glycopeptide resistance in comparison to the wild type. Nevertheless, ΔvanHAXAb was paradoxically still able to produce d-Ala-d-Lac containing resistant cell wall precursors suggesting the presence of a novel alternative glycopeptide resistance mechanism. In silico analysis, inactivation studies, and biochemical assays led to the characterization of an enzyme, Ddl1Ab, as a paraloguous chromosomal d-Ala-d-Lac ligase able to complement the function of VanAAb in the ΔvanHAXAb mutant. Furthermore, A. balhimycina harbors a vanYAb gene encoding a d,d-carboxypeptidase. Transcriptional analysis revealed an upregulated expression of vanYAb in the ΔvanHAXAb mutant. VanYAb cleaves the endstanding d-Ala from the pentapeptide precursors, reducing the quantity of sensitive cell wall precursors in the absence of VanXAb. These findings represent an unprecedented coordinated layer of resistance mechanisms in a glycopeptide antibiotic producing bacterium. PMID:27622740

  12. Gelatine methacrylamide-based hydrogels: an alternative three-dimensional cancer cell culture system.

    PubMed

    Kaemmerer, Elke; Melchels, Ferry P W; Holzapfel, Boris M; Meckel, Tobias; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Loessner, Daniela

    2014-06-01

    Modern cancer research requires physiological, three-dimensional (3-D) cell culture platforms, wherein the physical and chemical characteristics of the extracellular matrix (ECM) can be modified. In this study, gelatine methacrylamide (GelMA)-based hydrogels were characterized and established as in vitro and in vivo spheroid-based models for ovarian cancer, reflecting the advanced disease stage of patients, with accumulation of multicellular spheroids in the tumour fluid (ascites). Polymer concentration (2.5-7% w/v) strongly influenced hydrogel stiffness (0.5±0.2kPa to 9.0±1.8kPa) but had little effect on solute diffusion. The diffusion coefficient of 70kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled dextran in 7% GelMA-based hydrogels was only 2.3 times slower compared to water. Hydrogels of medium concentration (5% w/v GelMA) and stiffness (3.4kPa) allowed spheroid formation and high proliferation and metabolic rates. The inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases and consequently ECM degradability reduced spheroid formation and proliferation rates. The incorporation of the ECM components laminin-411 and hyaluronic acid further stimulated spheroid growth within GelMA-based hydrogels. The feasibility of pre-cultured GelMA-based hydrogels as spheroid carriers within an ovarian cancer animal model was proven and led to tumour development and metastasis. These tumours were sensitive to treatment with the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel, but not the integrin antagonist ATN-161. While paclitaxel and its combination with ATN-161 resulted in a treatment response of 33-37.8%, ATN-161 alone had no effect on tumour growth and peritoneal spread. The semi-synthetic biomaterial GelMA combines relevant natural cues with tunable properties, providing an alternative, bioengineered 3-D cancer cell culture in in vitro and in vivo model systems. PMID:24590158

  13. Superconducting Multi-Cell Deflecting Cavity for Short-Pulse X-Ray Generation at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    G.J. Waldschmidt, L.H. Morrison, R. Nassiri, R.A. Rimmer, K. Tian, H. Wang

    2009-05-01

    A superconducting multi-cell cavity for the production of short x-ray pulses at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) has been explored as an alternative to a single-cell cavity design in order to improve the packing factor and potentially reduce the number of high-power RF systems and low-level RF controls required. The cavity will operate at 2815 MHz in the APS storage ring and will require heavy damping of parasitic modes to maintain stable beam operation. Novel on-cell dampers, attached directly to the cavity body, have been utilized by taking advantage of the magnetic field null on the equatorial plane in order to enhance damping. Design issues and simulation results will be discussed.

  14. Retrieval of air temperatures from crowd-sourced battery temperatures of cell phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overeem, Aart; Robinson, James; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Steeneveld, Gert-Jan; Horn, Berthold K. P.

    2013-04-01

    Accurate air temperature observations are important for urban meteorology, for example to study the urban heat island and adverse effects of high temperatures on human health. The number of available temperature observations is often relatively limited. A new development is presented to derive temperature information for the urban canopy from an alternative source: cell phones. Battery temperature data were collected by users of an Android application for cell phones (opensignal.com). The application automatically sends battery temperature data to a server for storage. In this study, battery temperatures are averaged in space and time to obtain daily averaged battery temperatures for each city separately. A regression model, which can be related to a physical model, is employed to retrieve daily air temperatures from battery temperatures. The model is calibrated with observed air temperatures from a meteorological station of an airport located in or near the city. Time series of air temperatures are obtained for each city for a period of several months, where 50% of the data is for independent verification. Results are presented for Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Mexico City, Moscow, Rome, and Sao Paulo. The evolution of the retrieved air temperatures often correspond well with the observed ones. The mean absolute error of daily air temperatures is less than 2 degrees Celsius, and the bias is within 1 degree Celsius. This shows that monitoring air temperatures employing an Android application holds great promise. Since 75% of the world's population has a cell phone, 20% of the land surface of the earth has cellular telephone coverage, and 500 million devices use the Android operating system, there is a huge potential for measuring air temperatures employing cell phones. This could eventually lead to real-time world-wide temperature maps.

  15. Saline catholytes as alternatives to phosphate buffers in microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E

    2013-03-01

    Highly saline solutions were examined as alternatives to chemical buffers in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The performance of two-chamber MFCs with different concentrations of saline solutions in the cathode chamber was compared to those with a buffered catholyte (50mM PBS). The use of a NaCl catholyte improved the CE to 43-60% (28% with no membrane) due to a reduction in oxygen transfer into the anolyte. The saline catholyte also reduced the membrane and solution resistance to 23Ω (41Ω without a membrane). The maximum power density of 491mW/m(2) (240mM NaCl) was only 17% less than the MFC with 50mM PBS. The decrease in power output with highest salinity was due to reduced proton transfer due to the ion exchange membrane, and pH changes in the two solutions. These results show that MFC performance can be improved by using a saline catholyte without pH control. PMID:23433978

  16. L-Ascorbic acid as an alternative fuel for direct oxidation fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Naoko; Yamazaki, Shin-ichi; Siroma, Zyun; Ioroi, Tsutomu; Yasuda, Kazuaki

    L-Ascorbic acid (AA) was directly supplied to polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) as an alternative fuel. Only dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) was detected as a product released by the electrochemical oxidation of AA via a two-electron transfer process regardless of the anode catalyst used. The ionomer in the anode may inhibit the mass transfer of AA to the reaction sites by electrostatic repulsion. In addition, polymer resins without an ionic group such as poly(vinylidene fluoride) and poly(vinyl butyral) were also useful for reducing the contact resistance between Nafion membrane and carbon black used as an anode, although an ionomer like Nafion is needed for typical PEFCs. A reaction mechanism at the two-phase boundaries between AA and carbon black was proposed for the anode structure of DAAFCs, since lack of the proton conductivity was compensated by AA. There was too little crossover of AA through a Nafion membrane to cause a serious technical problem. The best performance (maximum power density of 16 mW cm -2) was attained with a Vulcan XC72 anode that included 5 wt.% Nafion at room temperature, which was about one-third of that for a DMFC with a PtRu anode.

  17. Multiple Effects of Mutation on Expression of Alternative Cell Surface Protein Genes in Tetrahymena Thermophila

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D. L.; Doerder, F. P.

    1992-01-01

    Genes at the SerH locus of the ciliated protist Tetrahymena thermophila specify the major (H) surface protein on cells grown at 20-36°. Alternative proteins L, T, S and I are expressed under different conditions of temperature and culture media. Mutants unable to express SerH genes were examined for expression of these proteins, also called immobilization or i-antigens, at both H and non-H conditions. In all instances, one or more i-antigens were expressed in the absence of H, and, in most instances, expression of i-antigens under non-H conditions was also affected. Examples of the latter include both the continued expression of H-replacement antigens and the inability to express certain other i-antigens. Such multiple effects were observed in mutants with trans-acting (rseA, rseB, rseC, RseD) and cis-acting (H1-1 and H1-2) mutations, but not in mutants in which SerH is affected developmentally (B2092, B2101, B2103, B2107). These interactions suggest that the wild-type genes identified by mutation exert both positive and negative effects in the regulation of i-antigen gene expression. PMID:1732170

  18. Cathodes for secondary electrochemical power-producing cells. [layers of porous substrates impregnated with S alternate with layers containing electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Cairns, E.J.; Kyle, M.; Shimotake, H.

    1973-02-13

    A secondary electrochemical power-producing cell includes an anode containing lithium, an electrolyte containing lithium ions, and a cathode containing sulfur. The cathode comprises plates of a porous substrate material impregnated with sulfur alternating with layers (which may also comprise porous substrate plates) containing electrolyte.

  19. Reprogrammed Stomach Tissue as a Renewable Source of Functional β Cells for Blood Glucose Regulation.

    PubMed

    Ariyachet, Chaiyaboot; Tovaglieri, Alessio; Xiang, Guanjue; Lu, Jiaqi; Shah, Manasvi S; Richmond, Camilla A; Verbeke, Catia; Melton, Douglas A; Stanger, Ben Z; Mooney, David; Shivdasani, Ramesh A; Mahony, Shaun; Xia, Qing; Breault, David T; Zhou, Qiao

    2016-03-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium is a highly regenerative tissue with the potential to provide a renewable source of insulin(+) cells after undergoing cellular reprogramming. Here, we show that cells of the antral stomach have a previously unappreciated propensity for conversion into functional insulin-secreting cells. Native antral endocrine cells share a surprising degree of transcriptional similarity with pancreatic β cells, and expression of β cell reprogramming factors in vivo converts antral cells efficiently into insulin(+) cells with close molecular and functional similarity to β cells. Induced GI insulin(+) cells can suppress hyperglycemia in a diabetic mouse model for at least 6 months and regenerate rapidly after ablation. Reprogramming of antral stomach cells assembled into bioengineered mini-organs in vitro yielded transplantable units that also suppressed hyperglycemia in diabetic mice, highlighting the potential for development of engineered stomach tissues as a renewable source of functional β cells for glycemic control. PMID:26908146

  20. Cell-Context Dependent TCF/LEF Expression and Function: Alternative Tales of Repression, De-Repression and Activation Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Catherine D; Byers, Stephen W.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt signaling controls cell specification and fate during development and adult tissue homeostasis by converging on a small family of DNA binding factors, the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) family. In response to Wnt signals, TCF/LEF members undergo a transcriptional switch from repression to activation mediated in part by nuclear β-catenin binding and recruitment of co-activator complexes. In mammals, the specificity and fine tuning of this transcriptional switch is also achieved by the cell-context-dependent expression of four members (TCF7, TCF7L1, TCF7L2, and LEF1) and numerous variants, which display differential DNA binding affinity and specificity, repression strength, activation potential, and regulators. TCF7/LEF1 variants are generated by alternative promoters, alternative exon cassettes, and alternative donor/acceptor splicing sites, allowing combinatorial insertion/exclusion of modular functional and regulatory domains. In this review we present mounting evidence for the interdependency of TCF7/LEF1 variant expression and functions with cell lineage and cell state. We also illustrate how the p53 and nuclear receptor family of transcription factors, known to control cell fate and to inhibit Wnt signaling, may participate in the fine tuning of TCF7/LEF1 repression/activation potentials. PMID:22111711

  1. NIK is involved in constitutive activation of the alternative NF-{kappa}B pathway and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nishina, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Gohda, Jin; Semba, Kentaro; Inoue, Jun-ichiro

    2009-10-09

    Pancreatic cancer has one of the poorest prognoses among human neoplasms. Constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B is frequently observed in pancreatic cancer cells and is involved in their malignancy. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of this constitutive NF-{kappa}B activation. Here, we show that the alternative pathway is constitutively activated and NF-{kappa}B-inducing kinase (NIK), a mediator of the alternative pathway, is significantly expressed in pancreatic cancer cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of NIK expression followed by subcellular fractionation revealed that NIK is constitutively involved in the processing of p100 and nuclear transport of p52 and RelB in pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, NIK silencing significantly suppressed proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. These results clearly indicate that NIK is involved in the constitutive activation of the alternative pathway and controls cell proliferation in pancreatic cancer cells. Therefore, NIK might be a novel target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  2. [Evaluation of visualization of biological stains with the use of alternative light source (ALS) for the purpose of genetic identification. Part II. Semen samples analysis].

    PubMed

    Sackiewicz, Adam; Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Pepiński, Witold; Skawrońska, Małgorzata; Szeremeta, Michał; Ptaszyńska-Sarosiek, Iwona; Okłota, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    Detection of seminal stains on items such as clothing and bedding is a significant element of investigation in sexual assault cases. The use of alternative light source may assist in their identification. The objective of the investigation was the evaluation of human semen visualization with the use of alternative light source for the purpose of genetic identification. The tests demonstrated that experimentally prepared semen stains on the bright base could be best seen in the natural light and white light when the semen was diluted at a ratio 1:10. The complete typeability of AmpFISTR SGM Plus kit loci was evaluated in semen which was diluted at a ratio 1:1750 and typeability of AmpFISTR SGM Plus kit loci was incomplete in semen diluted at a ratio 1:2000. After washing with laundry detergents, semen stains were still recognizable under ALS wavelength 455 nm, while wearing orange goggles. PMID:21863733

  3. Accumulation and Decay Characteristics of Exoelectron Sources at MgO Protective Layer Surface in Alternating-Current Plasma Display Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Kyohei; Nagatomi, Takaharu; Morita, Yukihiro; Oue, Toshiyasu; Kosugi, Naoki; Nishitani, Mikihiko; Kitagawa, Masatoshi; Takai, Yoshizo

    2010-08-01

    The accumulation and decay characteristics of exoelectron sources at a MgO protective layer surface in alternating-current plasma display panels (AC-PDPs) were investigated. The positively charged MgO surface provides a larger number of exoelectrons than the negatively charged surface, indicating that electrons trapped in shallow carrier traps coexist with trapped holes, and exoelectrons are emitted through Auger and/or photoionization processes after their recombination. The exoelectron sources are accumulated by sustain discharges and always decay. The half-life of the decay of the exoelectron sources is relatively long, of the order of a few tens of ms, confirming that the exoelectron emission property at the address discharge in a certain television (TV) field is strongly affected by sustain firings in the previous two TV fields or more. The effects of such a long-term decay of the exoelectron sources should be taken into consideration when designing the driving waveforms of AC-PDPs.

  4. Induced pluripotent stem cells as a source of hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Vanessa; Roy-Chowdhury, Namita; Guha, Chandan; Roy-Chowdhury, Jayanta

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, a series of discoveries has established the potential of the so called terminally differentiated cells to transition to more primitive progenitor cells. The dramatic demonstration of the ability to reprogram differentiated somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) that can then give rise to cells of all three germ layers has opened the possibility of generating virtually any cell type in culture, from any given individual. Taking advantage of these concepts, researchers have generated iPSCs by reprogramming a wide variety of somatic cells. In addition to their practical implications, these studies have provided crucial insights into the mechanism of cell plasticity that underlies the transition from one cell type to another. Using concepts derived from research on embryological development, investigators have differentiated iPSCs to cells resembling hepatocytes in many ways. Such hepatocyte-like cells could be of enormous value in disease modeling, drug discovery and regenerative medicine. However, the currently available methods do not yield cells that fully reproduce the characteristics of adult primary hepatocytes. Thus generating hepatocytes from iPSCs is very much a work in progress. In addition to chronicling these exciting developments, this review will discuss the emergent new approaches to generating iPSCs, improving their differentiation to hepatocyte-like cells and maintaining the hepatocyte-like cells in culture for longer survival and better function. PMID:25650171

  5. Human placenta and chorion: potential additional sources of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bárcena, Alicia; Muench, Marcus O.; Kapidzic, Mirhan; Gormley, Matthew; Goldfien, Gabriel A.; Fisher, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is an essential element of medical therapy, leading to cures of previously incurable disease for hematological and non-hematological pathologies. Many patients do not find matched donors in a timely manner, which has driven efforts to find alternative pools of transplantable HSCs. The use of umbilical cord blood (UCB) as a source of transplantable HSCs began more than two decades ago. However, the use of UCB as a reliable source of HSCs for transplantation still faces crucial challenges: the number of HSCs present in a unit of UCB is usually sufficient for younger children but not for adults and the persistent delayed engraftment often seen can result in high rates of infection and mortality. Study Design and Methods We propose a new approach to a solution of these problems: a potential increase of the limited number of UCB–HSCs available by harvesting HSCs contained in the placenta and the fetal chorionic membrane available at birth. Results We investigated the presence of hematopoietic progenitors/HSC in human placenta and chorion at different gestational ages. The characterization of these cells was performed by flow cytometry and immunolocalization and their functional status was investigated by transplanting them into immunodeficient mice. Conclusion HSCs are present in extraembryonic tissues and could be banked in conjunction to the UCB-HSCs. This novel approach could have a large impact on the field of HSC banking and more crucially, on the outcome of patients undergoing this treatment by greatly improving the use of life-saving hematopoietic transplants. PMID:22074633

  6. Tungsten carbides as potential alternative direct methanol fuel cell anode electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zellner, Michael

    The reduction of precious metal loading and the improvement of sluggish kinetics at the anode electrocatalyst are two primary concerns for economical development of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC). The purpose of this research is to examine the feasibility of using tungsten carbides as alternative fuel cell anode electrocatalysts. The anodic chemistry of the direct methanol fuel cell requires the oxidation of methanol and the decomposition of water to produce protons, electrons, and gas-phase CO2. Currently, the most effective anode electrocatalyst for DMFC is the Pt/Ru bimetallic catalyst, which efficiently oxidizes methanol, as well as decomposes water for the oxidation and removal of adsorbed CO species. Although the Pt/Ru bimetallic system exhibits desirable electrochemical activities, both Pt and Ru are expensive due to limited supplies. In addition, strong chemisorption of CO on Pt and Ru makes the electrocatalyst susceptible to CO poisoning, blocking the active sites for methanol oxidation. This work began by examining the reactions of methanol, water, and CO on carbide-modified tungsten (C/W) single crystal surfaces, with and without submonolayer coverages of Pt. These fundamental surface science results demonstrated the potential for tungsten carbides to be used as anode catalysts in DMFC, exhibiting decomposition of both methanol and water along with significantly lowered CO desorption temperatures. Additionally, submonolayer Pt-modification of the C/W surfaces resulted in a synergistic effect, eliminating the undesired reaction pathway on the C/W surface that produced gas-phase CH4. To bridge the materials gap between model single crystal surfaces and the more realistic thin film electrocatalysts, polycrystalline tungsten carbide thin films were created via physical vapor deposition (PVD) and carburization of polycrystalline tungsten foil. Fundamental surface science techniques were applied to the PVD films to examine the reaction pathways of DMFC

  7. Autocrine IL-10 induces hallmarks of alternative activation in macrophages and suppresses anti-tuberculosis effector mechanisms without compromising T cell immunity1

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Tanja; Ehlers, Stefan; Heitmann, Lisa; Rausch, Alexandra; Mages, Jörg; Murray, Peter J.; Lang, Roland; Hölscher, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Elevated IL-10 has been implicated in reactivation tuberculosis (TB). Since macrophages rather than T cells were reported to be the major source of IL-10 in TB, we analyzed the consequences of a macrophage-specific overexpression of IL-10 in transgenic mice (macIL-10-transgenic) after aerosol infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). MacIL-10-transgenic mice were more susceptible to chronic Mtb infection than non-transgenic littermates, exhibiting higher bacterial loads in the lung after 12 weeks of infection and dying significantly earlier than controls. The differentiation, recruitment and activation of TH1 cells as well as the induction of IFN-gamma-dependent effector genes against Mtb were not affected by macrophage-derived IL-10. However, microarray analysis of pulmonary gene expression revealed patterns characteristic of alternative macrophage activation that were overrepresented in Mtb-infected macIL-10-transgenic mice. Importantly, arginase-1 gene expression and activity were strikingly enhanced in transgenic mice accompanied by a reduced production of reactive nitrogen intermediates. Moreover, IL-10-dependent arginase-1 induction diminished anti-mycobacterial effector mechanisms in macrophages. Together, macrophage-derived IL-10 triggers aspects of alternative macrophage activation and promotes Mtb recrudescence independent of overt effects on anti-TB T cell immunity. PMID:19561100

  8. The Endometrium as a Source of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Regenerative Medicine1

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Levent; Hufnagel, Demetra; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapies have opened new frontiers in medicine with the possibility of regenerating lost or damaged cells. Embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, hematopoietic stem cells, and mesenchymal stem cells have been used to derive mature cell types for tissue regeneration and repair. However, the endometrium has emerged as an attractive, novel source of adult stem cells that are easily accessed and demonstrate remarkable differentiation capacity. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of endometrial stem cells and their therapeutic potential in regenerative medicine. PMID:25904012

  9. Physiologic responses and gene diversity indicate olive alternative oxidase as a potential source for markers involved in efficient adventitious root induction.

    PubMed

    Santos Macedo, Elisete; Cardoso, Hélia G; Hernández, Alejandro; Peixe, Augusto A; Polidoros, Alexios; Ferreira, Alexandre; Cordeiro, António; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2009-12-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) trees are mainly propagated by adventitious rooting of semi-hardwood cuttings. However, efficient commercial propagation of valuable olive tree cultivars or landraces by semi-hardwood cuttings can often be restricted by a low rooting capacity. We hypothesize that root induction is a plant cell reaction linked to oxidative stress and that activity of stress-induced alternative oxidase (AOX) is importantly involved in adventitious rooting. To identify AOX as a source for potential functional marker sequences that may assist tree breeding, genetic variability has to be demonstrated that can affect gene regulation. The paper presents an applied, multidisciplinary research approach demonstrating first indications of an important relationship between AOX activity and differential adventitious rooting in semi-hardwood cuttings. Root induction in the easy-to-root Portuguese cultivar 'Cobrançosa' could be significantly reduced by treatment with salicyl-hydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of AOX activity. On the contrary, treatment with H2O2 or pyruvate, both known to induce AOX activity, increased the degree of rooting. Recently, identification of several O. europaea (Oe) AOX gene sequences has been reported from our group. Here we present for the first time partial sequences of OeAOX2. To search for polymorphisms inside of OeAOX genes, partial OeAOX2 sequences from the cultivars 'Galega vulgar', 'Cobrançosa' and 'Picual' were cloned from genomic DNA and cDNA, including exon, intron and 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) sequences. The data revealed polymorphic sites in several regions of OeAOX2. The 3'-UTR was the most important source for polymorphisms showing 5.7% of variability. Variability in the exon region accounted 3.4 and 2% in the intron. Further, analysis performed at the cDNA from microshoots of 'Galega vulgar' revealed transcript length variation for the 3'-UTR of OeAOX2 ranging between 76 and 301 bp. The identified polymorphisms and 3'-UTR

  10. Characterization of an Sf-rhabdovirus-negative Spodoptera frugiperda cell line as an alternative host for recombinant protein production in the baculovirus-insect cell system.

    PubMed

    Maghodia, Ajay B; Geisler, Christoph; Jarvis, Donald L

    2016-06-01

    Cell lines derived from the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf), are widely used as hosts for recombinant protein production in the baculovirus-insect cell system (BICS). However, it was recently discovered that these cell lines are contaminated with a virus, now known as Sf-rhabdovirus [1]. The detection of this adventitious agent raised a potential safety issue that could adversely impact the BICS as a commercial recombinant protein production platform. Thus, we examined the properties of Sf-RVN, an Sf-rhabdovirus-negative Sf cell line, as a potential alternative host. Nested RT-PCR assays showed Sf-RVN cells had no detectable Sf-rhabdovirus over the course of 60 passages in continuous culture. The general properties of Sf-RVN cells, including their average growth rates, diameters, morphologies, and viabilities after baculovirus infection, were virtually identical to those of Sf9 cells. Baculovirus-infected Sf-RVN and Sf9 cells produced equivalent levels of three recombinant proteins, including an intracellular prokaryotic protein and two secreted eukaryotic glycoproteins, and provided similar N-glycosylation patterns. In fact, except for the absence of Sf-rhabdovirus, the only difference between Sf-RVN and Sf9 cells was SF-RVN produced higher levels of infectious baculovirus progeny. These results show Sf-RVN cells can be used as improved, alternative hosts to circumvent the potential safety hazard associated with the use of Sf-rhabdovirus-contaminated Sf cells for recombinant protein manufacturing with the BICS. PMID:26923062

  11. Cancer stem cells: targeting tumors at the source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P-Y; Yang, Y-J; Xue, Y; Fu, J; Zhang, C-X; Wang, Y; Yang, Y; Shi, H

    2015-05-01

    The cancer stem cell hypothesis states that tumors rely exclusively on the continued proliferation of a subset of cancer cells that originated from normal adult stem cells. These cells have two key traits: multipotency, and self-renewal. The prolonged lifespan of stem cells makes them perfect candidates for the accumulation of carcinogenic mutations that would convert them into cancer stem cells (CSCs) no longer responsive to the many regulatory pathways in place that are responsible for tight governance of proliferation and differentiation in normal stem cells. Comprehending what these regulatory pathways are, and how their derailment contributes to oncogenic transformation, can hold the key to finding new strategies to target CSCs in order to effectively treat cancer. Additionally, what environmental factors are involved in promoting or suppressing CSC tumorigenicity requires attention. The possibility that some cancers may have clonal origins in non-stem cell populations that were able to acquire stem cell-like properties, and the lack of complete cell autonomy in carcinogenesis, suggests that the CSC hypothesis is continually evolving. Continued research in this field can shed light on how effective selective elimination of CSCs as opposed to generalized targeting of cancer cells will be in the treatment of cancer. PMID:26044226

  12. Candidates Cell Sources to Regenerate Alveolar Bone from Oral Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Masahiro; Takase, Kazuma; Suehiro, Fumio; Murata, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Most of the cases of dental implant surgery, especially the bone defect extensively, are essential for alveolar ridge augmentation. As known as cell therapy exerts valuable effects on bone regeneration, numerous reports using various cells from body to regenerate bone have been published, including clinical reports. Mesenchymal cells that have osteogenic activity and have potential to be harvested from intra oral site might be a candidate cells to regenerate alveolar bone, even dentists have not been harvested the cells outside of mouth. This paper presents a summary of somatic cells in edentulous tissues which could subserve alveolar bone regeneration. The candidate tissues that might have differentiation potential as mesenchymal cells for bone regeneration are alveolar bone chip, bone marrow from alveolar bone, periosteal tissue, and gingival tissue. Understanding their phenotype consecutively will provide a rational approach for alveolar ridge augmentation. PMID:22505911

  13. Alternative Serotype Adenovirus Vaccine Vectors Elicit Memory T Cells with Enhanced Anamnestic Capacity Compared to Ad5 Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo; Provine, Nicholas M.; Ra, Joshua; Borducchi, Erica N.; McNally, Anna; Simmons, Nathaniel L.; Iampietro, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of the adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector-based human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine in the STEP study has led to the development of adenovirus vectors derived from alternative serotypes, such as Ad26, Ad35, and Ad48. We have recently demonstrated that vaccines using alternative-serotype Ad vectors confer partial protection against stringent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) challenges in rhesus monkeys. However, phenotypic differences between the T cell responses elicited by Ad5 and those of alternative-serotype Ad vectors remain unexplored. Here, we report the magnitude, phenotype, functionality, and recall capacity of memory T cell responses elicited in mice by Ad5, Ad26, Ad35, and Ad48 vectors expressing lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) glycoprotein (GP). Our data demonstrate that memory T cells elicited by Ad5 vectors were high in magnitude but exhibited functional exhaustion and decreased anamnestic potential following secondary antigen challenge compared to Ad26, Ad35, and Ad48 vectors. These data suggest that vaccination with alternative-serotype Ad vectors offers substantial immunological advantages over Ad5 vectors, in addition to circumventing high baseline Ad5-specific neutralizing antibody titers. PMID:23152535

  14. Tooth Engineering: Searching for Dental Mesenchymal Cells Sources

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Laetitia; Kuchler-Bopp, Sabine; Mendoza, Soledad Acuña; Poliard, Anne; Lesot, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    The implantation of cultured re-associations between embryonic dental mesenchymal cells and epithelial cells from mouse molars at embryonic day 14 (ED14) allowed making full teeth with crown, root, periodontal ligament fibers, and bone. Although representing valuable tools to set up methodologies embryonic cells are not easily available. This work thus aimed to replace the embryonic cells by dental mesenchymal cell lines or cultured expanded embryonic cells, and to test their ability to mediate tooth development in vitro when re-associated with a competent dental epithelium. Histology, immunostaining and RT-PCR allowed getting complementary sets of results. Two different immortalized cell lines from ED18 dental mesenchyme failed in mediating tooth formation. The potentialities of embryonic dental mesenchymal cells decreased from ED14 to ED16 and were lost at ED18. This is likely related to a change in the mesenchymal cell phenotype and/or populations during development. Attempts to cultivate ED14 or ED16 embryonic dental mesenchymal cells prior to re-association led to the loss of their ability to support tooth development. This was accompanied by a down-regulation of Fgf3 transcription. Supplementation of the culture medium with FGF2 allowed restoring Fgf3 expression, but not the ability of mesenchymal cells to engage in tooth formation. Altogether, these observations suggest that a competent cell population exists in the dental mesenchyme at ED14, progressively decreases during development, and cannot as such be maintained in vitro. This study evidenced the need for specific conditions to maintain the ability of dental mesenchymal cells to initiate whole tooth formation, when re-associated with an odontogenic epithelium. Efforts to improve the culture conditions will have to be combined with attempts to characterize the competent cells within the dental mesenchyme. PMID:21483728

  15. Quantitative phase imaging of biological cells using spatially low and temporally high coherent light source.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Azeem; Dubey, Vishesh; Singh, Gyanendra; Singh, Veena; Mehta, Dalip Singh

    2016-04-01

    In this Letter, we demonstrate quantitative phase imaging of biological samples, such as human red blood cells (RBCs) and onion cells using narrow temporal frequency and wide angular frequency spectrum light source. This type of light source was synthesized by the combined effect of spatial, angular, and temporal diversity of speckle reduction technique. The importance of using low spatial and high temporal coherence light source over the broad band and narrow band light source is that it does not require any dispersion compensation mechanism for biological samples. Further, it avoids the formation of speckle or spurious fringes which arises while using narrow band light source. PMID:27192285

  16. Stem cell survival is severely compromised by the thymidineanalog EdU (5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine), an alternative to BrdU for proliferation assays and stem cell tracing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Ditte C; Skovrind, Ida; Christensen, Marlene Louise; Jensen, Charlotte H; Sheikh, Søren P

    2013-11-01

    Stem cell therapy has opened up the possibility of treating numerous degenerating diseases. However, we are still merely at the stage of identifying appropriate sources of stem cells and exploring their full differentiation potential. Thus, tracking the stem cells upon in vivo engraftment and during in vitro co-culture is very important and is an area of research embracing many pitfalls. 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), a rather new thymidine analog incorporated into DNA, has recently been suggested to be a novel highly valid alternative to other dyes for labeling of stem cells and subsequent tracing of their proliferation and differentiation ability. However, our results herein do not at any stage support this recommendation, since EdU severely reduces the viability of stem cells. Accordingly, we found that transplanted EdU-labeled stem cells hardly survive upon in vivo transplantation into regenerating muscle, whereas stem cells labeled in parallel with another dye survived very well and also participated in myofiber formation. Similar data were obtained upon in vitro myogenic culture, and further analysis showed that EdU reduced cell numbers by up to 88 % and increased the cell volume of remaining cells by as much as 91 %. Even at low EdU concentrations, cell survival and phenotype were substantially compromised, and the myogenic differentiation potential was inhibited. Since we examined both primary derived cells and cell lines from several species with the same result, this appears to be a common trait of EdU. We therefore suggest that EdU labeling should be avoided (or used with precaution) for stem cell tracing purposes. PMID:24196123

  17. Heritability estimates associated with alternative definitions of mastitis and correlations with somatic cell score and yield.

    PubMed

    Vallimont, J E; Dechow, C D; Sattler, C G; Clay, J S

    2009-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare alternative mastitis definitions and to estimate genetic correlations of producer-recorded mastitis with somatic cell score (SCS) and yield. Cow health events and lactation records from June 2002 through October 2007 were provided by Dairy Records Management Systems (Raleigh, NC). First- through fifth-lactation records from cows calving between 20 and 120 mo of age and that calved in a herd-year with at least 1% of cows with a clinical mastitis event were retained. The edited data contained 118,516 lactation records and 1,072,741 test-day records of 64,893 cows. Mastitis occurrence (1 = at least one mastitis event during lactation or test-day interval, 0 = no mastitis events), number of mastitis events during lactation, SCS, and yield were analyzed with animal models (single trait) or sire-maternal grandsire models (multiple trait) in ASREML. Comparisons were made among models assuming a normal distribution, a binary distribution, or Poisson distribution (for total episodes). The overall incidence of clinical mastitis was 15.4%; and heritability estimates ranged from 0.73% (test-day interval mastitis with a linear model) to 11.07% (number of mastitis episodes with a Poisson model). Increased mastitis incidence was genetically correlated with higher SCS (range 0.66 to 0.88) and was generally correlated with higher yield (range -0.03 to 0.40), particularly during first lactation (0.04 to 0.40). Significant genetic variation exists for clinical mastitis; and health events recorded by producers could be used to generate genetic evaluations for cow health. Sires ranked similarly for daughter mastitis susceptibility regardless of how mastitis was defined; however, test-day interval mastitis and a total count of mastitis episodes per lactation allow a higher proportion of mastitis treatments to be included in the genetic analysis. PMID:19528618

  18. An Alternative Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Replication Program Triggered by Host Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Alka; Lu, Michael; Lukac, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is linked to several neoplastic diseases: Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). KSHV replicates actively, via a controlled gene expression program, but can also remain latent. It had been thought that the transition from latent to lytic replication was controlled exclusively by the replication and transcription activator protein RTA (open reading frame 50 [ORF50] gene product). A dominant-negative (DN) ORF50 mutant, ORF50ΔSTAD, blocks gene expression and replication. We produced a PEL cell line derivative containing both latent KSHV genomes and an inducible ORF50ΔSTAD. We unexpectedly found that induction of apoptosis triggered high-level viral replication, even when DN ORF50ΔSTAD was present, suggesting that apoptosis triggers KSHV replication through a distinct RTA-independent pathway. We verified that apoptosis triggers KSHV replication independent of RTA using ORF50 small interfering RNA (siRNA) and also showed that caspase activity is required to trigger KSHV replication. We showed that when apoptosis triggers KSHV replication, the kinetics of late gene expression is accelerated by 12 to 24 h and that virus produced following apoptosis has reduced infectivity. KSHV therefore appears to replicate via two distinct pathways, a conventional pathway requiring RTA, with slower replication kinetics, producing virus with higher infectivity, and an alternative apoptosis-triggered pathway that does not require RTA, has faster replication kinetics, and produces virus with lower infectivity. The existence of a distinct apoptosis-triggered, accelerated replication pathway may have evolutionary advantages for the virus and clinical significance for the treatment of KSHV-associated neoplasms. It also provides further evidence that KSHV can sense and react to its environment. PMID:22345480

  19. Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange (RMCE)-in Reporter Cell Lines as an Alternative to the Flp-in System.

    PubMed

    Callesen, Morten M; Berthelsen, Martin F; Lund, Sira; Füchtbauer, Annette C; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Jakobsen, Jannik E

    2016-01-01

    Recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) is a powerful tool for targeted insertion of transgenes. Here we describe non-proprietary 'RMCE-in' cell lines as an alternative to the 'Flp-in' system and cell lines. RMCE-in cell lines offer a number of advantages including increased efficiency of integration of the genetic element of interest (GEI) at a single docking site, lack of bacterial backbone at the docking site both before and after GEI integration, removal of selection and visual markers initially present at the docking site upon GEI integration and the possibility to validate GEI integration by loss of a red fluorescence reporter. Moreover, the RMCE-in cell lines are compatible with GEI donors used for the Flp-in system. We demonstrate a three-step procedure for generating RMCE-in cell lines, (I) RMCE-in transposon and SB10 transposase transfection, (II) clone isolation, and (III) selecting single integrated clones with highest RFP level, which could in principle be used to turn any cell line into an RMCE-in cell line. The RMCE-in system was used as a proof of concept to produce three new RMCE-in cell lines using HEK293, HeLa, and murine embryonic stem (mES) cells. The established RMCE-in cell lines and vector are freely available from the ATCC cell bank and Addgene respectively. PMID:27541869

  20. Recombinase-Mediated Cassette Exchange (RMCE)-in Reporter Cell Lines as an Alternative to the Flp-in System

    PubMed Central

    Füchtbauer, Annette C.; Füchtbauer, Ernst-Martin; Jakobsen, Jannik E.

    2016-01-01

    Recombinase mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) is a powerful tool for targeted insertion of transgenes. Here we describe non-proprietary 'RMCE-in' cell lines as an alternative to the 'Flp-in' system and cell lines. RMCE-in cell lines offer a number of advantages including increased efficiency of integration of the genetic element of interest (GEI) at a single docking site, lack of bacterial backbone at the docking site both before and after GEI integration, removal of selection and visual markers initially present at the docking site upon GEI integration and the possibility to validate GEI integration by loss of a red fluorescence reporter. Moreover, the RMCE-in cell lines are compatible with GEI donors used for the Flp-in system. We demonstrate a three-step procedure for generating RMCE-in cell lines, (I) RMCE-in transposon and SB10 transposase transfection, (II) clone isolation, and (III) selecting single integrated clones with highest RFP level, which could in principle be used to turn any cell line into an RMCE-in cell line. The RMCE-in system was used as a proof of concept to produce three new RMCE-in cell lines using HEK293, HeLa, and murine embryonic stem (mES) cells. The established RMCE-in cell lines and vector are freely available from the ATCC cell bank and Addgene respectively. PMID:27541869